Model independent foreground power spectrum estimation using WMAP 5-year data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghosh, Tuhin; Souradeep, Tarun; Saha, Rajib; Jain, Pankaj
2009-01-01
In this paper, we propose and implement on WMAP 5 yr data a model independent approach of foreground power spectrum estimation for multifrequency observations of the CMB experiments. Recently, a model independent approach of CMB power spectrum estimation was proposed by Saha et al. 2006. This methodology demonstrates that the CMB power spectrum can be reliably estimated solely from WMAP data without assuming any template models for the foreground components. In the current paper, we extend this work to estimate the galactic foreground power spectrum using the WMAP 5 yr maps following a self-contained analysis. We apply the model independent method in harmonic basis to estimate the foreground power spectrum and frequency dependence of combined foregrounds. We also study the behavior of synchrotron spectral index variation over different regions of the sky. We use the full sky Haslam map as an external template to increase the degrees of freedom, while computing the synchrotron spectral index over the frequency range from 408 MHz to 94 GHz. We compare our results with those obtained from maximum entropy method foreground maps, which are formed in pixel space. We find that relative to our model independent estimates maximum entropy method maps overestimate the foreground power close to galactic plane and underestimates it at high latitudes.
On the Origins of the CMB: Insight from the COBE, WMAP, and Relikt-1 Satellites
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robitaille P.-M.
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The powerful “Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB” signal currently associated with the origins of the Universe is examined from a historical perspective and relative to the experimental context in which it was measured. Results from the COBE satellite are reviewed, with particular emphasis on the systematic error observed in determining the CMB temperature. The nature of the microwave signal emanating from the oceans is also discussed. From this analysis, it is demonstrated that it is improper for the COBE team to model the Earth as a 285 K blackbody source. The assignment of temperatures to objects that fail to meet the requirements set forth in Kirchhoff’s law constitutes a serious overextension of the laws of thermal emission. Using this evidence, and the general rule that powerful signals are associated with proximal sources, the CMB monopole signal is reassigned to the oceans. In turn, through the analysis of COBE, WMAP, and Relikt-1 data, the dipole signal is attributed to motion through a much weaker microwave field present both at the position of the Earth and at the second Lagrange point.
Large-scale alignments from WMAP and Planck
Copi, Craig J.; Schwarz, Dominik J.; Starkman, Glenn D.
2015-01-01
We revisit the alignments of the largest structures observed in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) using the seven and nine-year WMAP and first-year Planck data releases. The observed alignments -- the quadrupole with the octopole and their joint alignment with the direction of our motion with respect to the CMB (the dipole direction) and the geometry of the Solar System (defined by the Ecliptic plane) -- are generally in good agreement with results from the previous WMAP data releases. However, a closer look at full-sky data on the largest scales reveals discrepancies between the earlier WMAP data releases (three to seven-year) and the final nine-year release. There are also discrepancies between all the WMAP data releases and the first-year Planck release. Nevertheless, both the WMAP and Planck data confirm the alignments of the largest observable CMB modes in the Universe. In particular, the p-values for the mutual alignment between the quadrupole and octopole, and the alignment of the plane defined by ...
Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect in WMAP and its effect on cosmological parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huffenberger, Kevin M.; Seljak, Uros; Makarov, Alexey
2004-01-01
We use multifrequency information in first year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP) data to search for the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect. WMAP has sufficiently broad frequency coverage to constrain the SZ effect without the addition of higher frequency data: the SZ power spectrum amplitude is expected to increase 50% from W to Q frequency band. This, in combination with the low noise in WMAP, allows us to strongly constrain the SZ contribution. We derive an optimal frequency combination of WMAP cross-spectra to extract the SZ effect in the presence of noise, cosmic microwave background (CMB), and radio point sources, which are marginalized over. We find that the SZ contribution is less than 2% (95% C.L.) at the first acoustic peak in W band. Under the assumption that the removed radio point sources are not correlated with the SZ effect this limit implies σ 8 <1.07 at 95% C.L. We investigate the effect on the cosmological parameters of allowing an SZ component. We run Monte Carlo Markov chains with and without an SZ component and find that the addition of the SZ effect does not affect any of the cosmological conclusions. We conclude that the SZ effect does not contaminate the WMAP CMB or change cosmological parameters, refuting the recent claims that they may be corrupted
Searching for non-Gaussianity in the WMAP data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernui, A.; Reboucas, M. J.
2009-01-01
Some analyses of recent cosmic microwave background (CMB) data have provided hints that there are deviations from Gaussianity in the WMAP CMB temperature fluctuations. Given the far-reaching consequences of such a non-Gaussianity for our understanding of the physics of the early universe, it is important to employ alternative indicators in order to determine whether the reported non-Gaussianity is of cosmological origin, and/or extract further information that may be helpful for identifying its causes. We propose two new non-Gaussianity indicators, based on skewness and kurtosis of large-angle patches of CMB maps, which provide a measure of departure from Gaussianity on large angular scales. A distinctive feature of these indicators is that they provide sky maps of non-Gaussianity of the CMB temperature data, thus allowing a possible additional window into their origins. Using these indicators, we find no significant deviation from Gaussianity in the three and five-year WMAP Internal Linear Combination (ILC) map with KQ75 mask, while the ILC unmasked map exhibits deviation from Gaussianity, quantifying therefore the WMAP team recommendation to employ the new mask KQ75 for tests of Gaussianity. We also use our indicators to test for Gaussianity the single frequency foreground unremoved WMAP three and five-year maps, and show that the K and Ka maps exhibit a clear indication of deviation from Gaussianity even with the KQ75 mask. We show that our findings are robust with respect to the details of the method.
Optimized Large-scale CMB Likelihood and Quadratic Maximum Likelihood Power Spectrum Estimation
Gjerløw, E.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Eriksen, H. K.; Górski, K. M.; Gruppuso, A.; Jewell, J. B.; Plaszczynski, S.; Wehus, I. K.
2015-11-01
We revisit the problem of exact cosmic microwave background (CMB) likelihood and power spectrum estimation with the goal of minimizing computational costs through linear compression. This idea was originally proposed for CMB purposes by Tegmark et al., and here we develop it into a fully functioning computational framework for large-scale polarization analysis, adopting WMAP as a working example. We compare five different linear bases (pixel space, harmonic space, noise covariance eigenvectors, signal-to-noise covariance eigenvectors, and signal-plus-noise covariance eigenvectors) in terms of compression efficiency, and find that the computationally most efficient basis is the signal-to-noise eigenvector basis, which is closely related to the Karhunen-Loeve and Principal Component transforms, in agreement with previous suggestions. For this basis, the information in 6836 unmasked WMAP sky map pixels can be compressed into a smaller set of 3102 modes, with a maximum error increase of any single multipole of 3.8% at ℓ ≤ 32 and a maximum shift in the mean values of a joint distribution of an amplitude-tilt model of 0.006σ. This compression reduces the computational cost of a single likelihood evaluation by a factor of 5, from 38 to 7.5 CPU seconds, and it also results in a more robust likelihood by implicitly regularizing nearly degenerate modes. Finally, we use the same compression framework to formulate a numerically stable and computationally efficient variation of the Quadratic Maximum Likelihood implementation, which requires less than 3 GB of memory and 2 CPU minutes per iteration for ℓ ≤ 32, rendering low-ℓ QML CMB power spectrum analysis fully tractable on a standard laptop.
Does the small CMB quadrupole moment suggest new physics?
Cline, J M; Lesgourgues, Julien; Cline, James M.; Crotty, Patrick; Lesgourgues, Julien
2003-01-01
Motivated by WMAP's confirmation of an anomalously low value of the quadrupole moment of the CMB temperature fluctuations, we investigate the effects on the CMB of cutting off the primordial power spectrum P(k) at low wave numbers. This could arise, for example, from a break in the inflaton potential, a prior period of matter or radiation domination, or an oscillating scalar field which couples to the inflaton. We reanalyze the full WMAP parameter space supplemented by a low-k cutoff for P(k). The temperature correlations by themselves are better fit by a cutoff spectrum, but including the TE temperature-polarization spectrum reduces this preference to a 1.4 sigma effect. Inclusion of large scale structure data does not change the conclusion. If taken seriously, the low-k cutoff is correlated with optical depth so that reionization occurs even earlier than indicated by the WMAP analysis.
Asymmetric beams and CMB statistical anisotropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanson, Duncan; Lewis, Antony; Challinor, Anthony
2010-01-01
Beam asymmetries result in statistically anisotropic cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps. Typically, they are studied for their effects on the CMB power spectrum, however they more closely mimic anisotropic effects such as gravitational lensing and primordial power asymmetry. We discuss tools for studying the effects of beam asymmetry on general quadratic estimators of anisotropy, analytically for full-sky observations as well as in the analysis of realistic data. We demonstrate this methodology in application to a recently detected 9σ quadrupolar modulation effect in the WMAP data, showing that beams provide a complete and sufficient explanation for the anomaly.
NINE-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE (WMAP) OBSERVATIONS: FINAL MAPS AND RESULTS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bennett, C. L.; Larson, D.; Weiland, J. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Jarosik, N.; Page, L. [Department of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-0708 (United States); Hinshaw, G.; Halpern, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Odegard, N.; Hill, R. S. [ADNET Systems, Inc., 7515 Mission Drive, Suite A100, Lanham, MD 20706 (United States); Smith, K. M. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Gold, B. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Komatsu, E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Nolta, M. R. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Spergel, D. N. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States); Wollack, E.; Kogut, A. [Code 665, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Dunkley, J. [Oxford Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Limon, M. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, 550 West 120th Street, Mail Code 5247, New York, NY 10027-6902 (United States); Meyer, S. S. [Departments of Astrophysics and Physics, KICP and EFI, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Tucker, G. S., E-mail: cbennett@jhu.edu [Department of Physics, Brown University, 182 Hope Street, Providence, RI 02912-1843 (United States); and others
2013-10-01
We present the final nine-year maps and basic results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mission. The full nine-year analysis of the time-ordered data provides updated characterizations and calibrations of the experiment. We also provide new nine-year full sky temperature maps that were processed to reduce the asymmetry of the effective beams. Temperature and polarization sky maps are examined to separate cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy from foreground emission, and both types of signals are analyzed in detail. We provide new point source catalogs as well as new diffuse and point source foreground masks. An updated template-removal process is used for cosmological analysis; new foreground fits are performed, and new foreground-reduced CMB maps are presented. We now implement an optimal C {sup –1} weighting to compute the temperature angular power spectrum. The WMAP mission has resulted in a highly constrained ΛCDM cosmological model with precise and accurate parameters in agreement with a host of other cosmological measurements. When WMAP data are combined with finer scale CMB, baryon acoustic oscillation, and Hubble constant measurements, we find that big bang nucleosynthesis is well supported and there is no compelling evidence for a non-standard number of neutrino species (N {sub eff} = 3.84 ± 0.40). The model fit also implies that the age of the universe is t {sub 0} = 13.772 ± 0.059 Gyr, and the fit Hubble constant is H {sub 0} = 69.32 ± 0.80 km s{sup –1} Mpc{sup –1}. Inflation is also supported: the fluctuations are adiabatic, with Gaussian random phases; the detection of a deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity, reported earlier by the WMAP team, now has high statistical significance (n{sub s} = 0.9608 ± 0.0080); and the universe is close to flat/Euclidean (Ω{sub k} = -0.0027{sup +0.0039}{sub -0.0038}). Overall, the WMAP mission has resulted in a reduction of the cosmological parameter volume by a factor
NINE-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE (WMAP) OBSERVATIONS: FINAL MAPS AND RESULTS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bennett, C. L.; Larson, D.; Weiland, J. L.; Jarosik, N.; Page, L.; Hinshaw, G.; Halpern, M.; Odegard, N.; Hill, R. S.; Smith, K. M.; Gold, B.; Komatsu, E.; Nolta, M. R.; Spergel, D. N.; Wollack, E.; Kogut, A.; Dunkley, J.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.
2013-01-01
We present the final nine-year maps and basic results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mission. The full nine-year analysis of the time-ordered data provides updated characterizations and calibrations of the experiment. We also provide new nine-year full sky temperature maps that were processed to reduce the asymmetry of the effective beams. Temperature and polarization sky maps are examined to separate cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy from foreground emission, and both types of signals are analyzed in detail. We provide new point source catalogs as well as new diffuse and point source foreground masks. An updated template-removal process is used for cosmological analysis; new foreground fits are performed, and new foreground-reduced CMB maps are presented. We now implement an optimal C –1 weighting to compute the temperature angular power spectrum. The WMAP mission has resulted in a highly constrained ΛCDM cosmological model with precise and accurate parameters in agreement with a host of other cosmological measurements. When WMAP data are combined with finer scale CMB, baryon acoustic oscillation, and Hubble constant measurements, we find that big bang nucleosynthesis is well supported and there is no compelling evidence for a non-standard number of neutrino species (N eff = 3.84 ± 0.40). The model fit also implies that the age of the universe is t 0 = 13.772 ± 0.059 Gyr, and the fit Hubble constant is H 0 = 69.32 ± 0.80 km s –1 Mpc –1 . Inflation is also supported: the fluctuations are adiabatic, with Gaussian random phases; the detection of a deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity, reported earlier by the WMAP team, now has high statistical significance (n s = 0.9608 ± 0.0080); and the universe is close to flat/Euclidean (Ω k = -0.0027 +0.0039 -0.0038 ). Overall, the WMAP mission has resulted in a reduction of the cosmological parameter volume by a factor of 68,000 for the standard six-parameter ΛCDM model
Nine-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Final Maps and Results
Bennett, C. L.; Larson, D.; Weiland, J. L.; Jaorsik, N.; Hinshaw, G.; Odegard, N.; Smith, K. M.; Hill, R. S.; Gold, B.; Halpern, M;
2013-01-01
We present the final nine-year maps and basic results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mission. The full nine-year analysis of the time-ordered data provides updated characterizations and calibrations of the experiment. We also provide new nine-year full sky temperature maps that were processed to reduce the asymmetry of the effective beams. Temperature and polarization sky maps are examined to separate cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy from foreground emission, and both types of signals are analyzed in detail.We provide new point source catalogs as well as new diffuse and point source foreground masks. An updated template-removal process is used for cosmological analysis; new foreground fits are performed, and new foreground reduced are presented.We nowimplement an optimal C(exp -1)1 weighting to compute the temperature angular power spectrum. The WMAP mission has resulted in a highly constrained Lambda-CDM cosmological model with precise and accurate parameters in agreement with a host of other cosmological measurements. When WMAP data are combined with finer scale CMB, baryon acoustic oscillation, and Hubble constant measurements, we find that big bang nucleosynthesis is well supported and there is no compelling evidence for a non-standard number of neutrino species (N(sub eff) = 3.84 +/- 0.40). The model fit also implies that the age of the universe is (sub 0) = 13.772 +/- 0.059 Gyr, and the fit Hubble constant is H(sub 0) = 69.32 +/- 0.80 km/s/ Mpc. Inflation is also supported: the fluctuations are adiabatic, with Gaussian random phases; the detection of a deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity, reported earlier by the WMAP team, now has high statistical significance (n(sub s) = 0.9608+/-0.0080); and the universe is close to flat/Euclidean (Omega = -0.0027+0.0039/-0.0038). Overall, the WMAP mission has resulted in a reduction of the cosmological parameter volume by a factor of 68,000 for the standard six
CORRELATION ANALYSIS BETWEEN TIBET AS-γ TeV COSMIC RAY AND WMAP NINE-YEAR DATA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yin, Qian-Qing; Zhang, Shuang-Nan, E-mail: zhangsn@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing 100049 (China)
2015-08-01
The WMAP team subtracted template-based foreground models to produce foreground-reduced maps, and masked point sources and uncertain sky regions directly; however, whether foreground residuals exist in the WMAP foreground-reduced maps is still an open question. Here, we use Pearson correlation coefficient analysis with AS-γ TeV cosmic ray (CR) data to probe possible foreground residuals in the WMAP nine-year data. The correlation results between the CR and foreground-contained maps (WMAP foreground-unreduced maps, WMAP template-based, and Maximum Entropy Method foreground models) suggest that: (1) CRs can trace foregrounds in the WMAP data; (2) at least some TeV CRs originate from the Milky Way; (3) foregrounds may be related to the existence of CR anisotropy (loss-cone and tail-in structures); (4) there exist differences among different types of foregrounds in the decl. range of <15°. Then, we generate 10,000 mock cosmic microwave background (CMB) sky maps to describe the cosmic variance, which is used to measure the effect of the fluctuations of all possible CMB maps to the correlations between CR and CMB maps. Finally, we do correlation analysis between the CR and WMAP foreground-reduced maps, and find that: (1) there are significant anticorrelations; and (2) the WMAP foreground-reduced maps are credible. However, the significant anticorrelations may be accidental, and the higher signal-to-noise ratio Planck SMICA map cannot reject the hypothesis of accidental correlations. We therefore can only conclude that the foreground residuals exist with ∼95% probability.
Barnes, C.; Hill, R. S.; Hinshaw, G.; Page, L.; Bennett, C. L.; Halpern, M.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wollack, E.; Wright, E. L.
2003-09-01
Since the Galactic center is ~1000 times brighter than fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), CMB experiments must carefully account for stray Galactic pickup. We present the level of contamination due to sidelobes for the first-year CMB maps produced by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) observatory. For each radiometer, full 4π sr antenna gain patterns are determined from a combination of numerical prediction and ground-based and space-based measurements. These patterns are convolved with the WMAP first-year sky maps and observatory scan pattern to generate the expected sidelobe signal contamination, for both intensity and polarized microwave sky maps. When the main beams are outside of the Galactic plane, we find rms values for the expected sidelobe pickup of 15, 2.1, 2.0, 0.3, and 0.5 μK for the K, Ka, Q, V, and W bands, respectively. Except for at the K band, the rms polarized contamination is the Galactic pickup are presented. WMAP is the result of a partnership between Princeton University and the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Scientific guidance is provided by the WMAP Science Team.
Cosmic microwave background snapshots: pre-WMAP and post-WMAP.
Bond, J Richard; Contaldi, Carlo; Pogosyan, Dmitry
2003-11-15
We highlight the remarkable evolution in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectrum C(l) as a function of multipole l over the past few years, and in the cosmological parameters for minimal inflation models derived from it: from anisotropy results before 2000; in 2000 and 2001 from Boomerang, Maxima and the Degree Angular Scale Interferometer (DASI), extending l to approximately 1000; and in 2002 from the Cosmic Background Imager (CBI), Very Small Array (VSA), ARCHEOPS and Arcminute Cosmology Bolometer Array Receiver (ACBAR), extending l to approximately 3000, with more from Boomerang and DASI as well. Pre-WMAP (pre-Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe) optimal band powers are in good agreement with each other and with the exquisite one-year WMAP results, unveiled in February 2003, which now dominate the l less, similar 600 bands. These CMB experiments significantly increased the case for accelerated expansion in the early Universe (the inflationary paradigm) and at the current epoch (dark energy dominance) when they were combined with "prior" probabilities on the parameters. The minimal inflation parameter set, [omega(b), omega(cdm), Omega(tot), Omega(Lambda), n(s), tau(C), sigma(8)], is applied in the same way to the evolving data. C(l) database and Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) methods are shown to give similar values, which are highly stable over time and for different prior choices, with the increasing precision best characterized by decreasing errors on uncorrelated "parameter eigenmodes". Priors applied range from weak ones to stronger constraints from the expansion rate (HST-h), from cosmic acceleration from supernovae (SN1) and from galaxy clustering, gravitational lensing and local cluster abundance (LSS). After marginalizing over the other cosmic and experimental variables for the weak + LSS prior, the pre-WMAP data of January 2003 compared with the post-WMAP data of March 2003 give Omega(tot) = 1.03(-0.04)(+0.05) compared with 1
Recent development in CMB experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsumura, T.
2014-01-01
The rich data from the measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) have played a key role to establish the ΛCDM cosmology. The WMAP results combined with Type Ia Supernova and BAO constrain not only the standard cosmological parameters to a few percent level. The combination of the data such as WMAP, SPT and H 0 started constraining such as the cosmic inflation r ν <0.38, and the equation of the dark energy w=-1.087 ± 0.096. The current experimental efforts are focused to measure the CMB B-mode polarization to probe deeper to 'beyond standard model' parameters from the sky. The upcoming ground-base and balloon-borne experiments are designed for r∼0.01. This sensitivity with an arcmin scale angular resolution is also well within the detection of the lensing B-mode. I review the recent development and the prospect from the upcoming CMB experiments. (author)
WMAP - A Glimpse of the Early Universe
Wollack, Edward
2009-01-01
The early Universe was incredibly hot, dense, and homogeneous. A powerful probe of this time is provided by the relic radiation which we refer to today as the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Images produced from this light contain the earliest glimpse of the Universe after the "Big Bang" and the signature of the evolution of its contents. By exploiting these clues, precise constraints on the age, mass density, and geometry of the early Universe can be derived. The history of this intriguing cosmological detective story will be reviewed. Recent results from NASA's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) will be presented.
Foreground removal from WMAP 7 yr polarization maps using an MLP neural network
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik
2012-01-01
. As a concrete example, the WMAP 7-year polarization data, the most reliable determination of the polarization properties of the CMB, has been analyzed. The analysis has adopted the frequency maps, noise models, window functions and the foreground models as provided by the WMAP Team, and no auxiliary data...
Power filtration of CMB observational data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Novikov, D.I.; Naselsky, P.; Jørgensen, H.E.
2001-01-01
We propose a power filter Cp for linear reconstruction of the CMB signal from one-dimensional scans of observational maps. This Gp filter preserves the power spectrum of the CMB signal in contrast to the Wiener filter which diminishes the power spectrum of the reconstructed CMB signal. We demonst...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rathaus, Ben; Itzhaki, Nissan, E-mail: nitzhaki@post.tau.ac.il, E-mail: ben.rathaus@gmail.com [Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv, 69978 (Israel)
2012-05-01
We study the CMB lensing signature of a pre-inationary particle (PIP), assuming it is responsible for the giant rings anomaly that was found recently in the WMAP data. Simulating Planck-like data we find that generically the CMB lensing signal to noise ratio associated with such a PIP is quite small and it would be difficult to cross correlate the temperature giant rings with the CMB lensing signal. However, if the pre-inationary particle is also responsible for the bulk flow measured from the local large scale structure, which happens to point roughly at the same direction as the giant rings, then the CMB lensing signal to noise ratio is fairly significant.
Searching for CPT violation with cosmic microwave background data from WMAP and BOOMERANG.
Feng, Bo; Li, Mingzhe; Xia, Jun-Qing; Chen, Xuelei; Zhang, Xinmin
2006-06-09
We search for signatures of Lorentz and violations in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropies by using the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and the 2003 flight of BOOMERANG (B03) data. We note that if the Lorentz and symmetries are broken by a Chern-Simons term in the effective Lagrangian, which couples the dual electromagnetic field strength tensor to an external four-vector, the polarization vectors of propagating CMB photons will get rotated. Using the WMAP data alone, one could put an interesting constraint on the size of such a term. Combined with the B03 data, we found that a nonzero rotation angle of the photons is mildly favored: [Formula: See Text].
CMB constraints on running non-Gaussianity
Oppizzi, Filippo; Liguori, Michele; Renzi, Alessandro; Arroja, Frederico; Bartolo, Nicola
2017-01-01
We develop a complete set of tools for CMB forecasting, simulation and estimation of primordial running bispectra, arising from a variety of curvaton and single-field (DBI) models of Inflation. We validate our pipeline using mock CMB running non-Gaussianity realizations and test it on real data by obtaining experimental constraints on the $f_{\\rm NL}$ running spectral index, $n_{\\rm NG}$, using WMAP 9-year data. Our final bounds (68\\% C.L.) read $-0.3< n_{\\rm NG}
BAYESIAN ANALYSIS OF WHITE NOISE LEVELS IN THE FIVE-YEAR WMAP DATA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Groeneboom, N. E.; Eriksen, H. K.; Gorski, K.; Huey, G.; Jewell, J.; Wandelt, B.
2009-01-01
We develop a new Bayesian method for estimating white noise levels in CMB sky maps, and apply this algorithm to the five-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data. We assume that the amplitude of the noise rms is scaled by a constant value, α, relative to a pre-specified noise level. We then derive the corresponding conditional density, P(α | s, C l , d), which is subsequently integrated into a general CMB Gibbs sampler. We first verify our code by analyzing simulated data sets, and then apply the framework to the WMAP data. For the foreground-reduced five-year WMAP sky maps and the nominal noise levels initially provided in the five-year data release, we find that the posterior means typically range between α = 1.005 ± 0.001 and α = 1.010 ± 0.001 depending on differencing assembly, indicating that the noise level of these maps are biased low by 0.5%-1.0%. The same problem is not observed for the uncorrected WMAP sky maps. After the preprint version of this letter appeared on astro-ph., the WMAP team has corrected the values presented on their web page, noting that the initially provided values were in fact estimates from the three-year data release, not from the five-year estimates. However, internally in their five-year analysis the correct noise values were used, and no cosmological results are therefore compromised by this error. Thus, our method has already been demonstrated in practice to be both useful and accurate.
Signature of short distance physics on inflation power spectrum and CMB anisotropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, Suratna; Mohanty, Subhendra
2009-01-01
The inflaton field responsible for inflation may not be a canonical fundamental scalar. It is possible that the inflaton is a composite of fermions or it may have a decay width. In these cases the standard procedure for calculating the power spectrum is not applicable and a new formalism needs to be developed to determine the effect of short range interactions of the inflaton on the power spectrum and the CMB anisotropy. We develop a general formalism for computing the power spectrum of curvature perturbations for such non-canonical cases by using the flat space Källén-Lehmann spectral function in curved quasi-de Sitter space assuming implicitly that the Bunch-Davis boundary conditions enforces the inflaton mode functions to be plane wave in the short wavelength limit and a complete set of mode functions exists in quasi-de Sitter space. It is observed that the inflaton with a decay width suppresses the power at large scale while a composite inflaton's power spectrum oscillates at large scales. These observations may be vindicated in the WMAP data and confirmed by future observations with PLANCK
Large-Scale Corrections to the CMB Anisotropy from Asymptotic de Sitter Mode
Sojasi, A.
2018-01-01
In this study, large-scale effects from asymptotic de Sitter mode on the CMB anisotropy are investigated. Besides the slow variation of the Hubble parameter onset of the last stage of inflation, the recent observational constraints from Planck and WMAP on spectral index confirm that the geometry of the universe can not be pure de Sitter in this era. Motivated by these evidences, we use this mode to calculate the power spectrum of the CMB anisotropy on the large scale. It is found that the CMB spectrum is dependent on the index of Hankel function ν which in the de Sitter limit ν → 3/2, the power spectrum reduces to the scale invariant result. Also, the result shows that the spectrum of anisotropy is dependent on angular scale and slow-roll parameter and these additional corrections are swept away by a cutoff scale parameter H ≪ M ∗ < M P .
Planck-scale sensitivity of CMB polarization data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gubitosi, Giulia; Pagano, Luca [Physics Department, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , and Sezione Roma1 INFN P.le Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy)
2009-10-15
We show that the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization data gathered by the BOOMERanG 2003 flight and WMAP provide an opportunity to investigate in-vacuo birefringence, of a type expected in some quantum pictures of space-time, with a sensitivity that extends even beyond the desired Planck-scale energy. In order to render this constraint more transparent we rely on a well studied phenomenological model of quantum-gravity-induced birefringence, in which one easily establishes that effects introduced at the Planck scale would amount to values of a dimensionless parameter, denoted by xi, with respect to the Planck energy which are roughly of order 1. By combining BOOMERanG and WMAP data we estimate xiapprox =-0.097+-0.075 at the 68% c.l. Moreover, we forecast on the sensitivity to xi achievable by future CMB polarization experiments (PLANCK, Spider, EPIC), which, in the absence of systematics, will be at the 1-sigma confidence of 8.5x10{sup -4} (PLANCK), 6.1x10{sup -3} (Spider), and 1.0x10{sup -5} (EPIC) respectively. The cosmic variance-limited sensitivity from CMB is 6.1x10{sup -6}.
Planck-scale sensitivity of CMB polarization data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gubitosi, Giulia; Pagano, Luca
2009-01-01
We show that the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization data gathered by the BOOMERanG 2003 flight and WMAP provide an opportunity to investigate in-vacuo birefringence, of a type expected in some quantum pictures of space-time, with a sensitivity that extends even beyond the desired Planck-scale energy. In order to render this constraint more transparent we rely on a well studied phenomenological model of quantum-gravity-induced birefringence, in which one easily establishes that effects introduced at the Planck scale would amount to values of a dimensionless parameter, denoted by ξ, with respect to the Planck energy which are roughly of order 1. By combining BOOMERanG and WMAP data we estimate ξ≅-0.097±0.075 at the 68% c.l. Moreover, we forecast on the sensitivity to ξ achievable by future CMB polarization experiments (PLANCK, Spider, EPIC), which, in the absence of systematics, will be at the 1-σ confidence of 8.5x10 -4 (PLANCK), 6.1x10 -3 (Spider), and 1.0x10 -5 (EPIC) respectively. The cosmic variance-limited sensitivity from CMB is 6.1x10 -6 .
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khatri, Rishi; Sunyaev, Rashid A.
2013-01-01
Silk damping at redshifts 1.5 × 10 4 ∼ 6 erases CMB anisotropies on scales corresponding to the comoving wavenumbers 8∼ 4 Mpc −1 (10 5 ∼ 8 ). This dissipated energy is gained by the CMB monopole, creating distortions from a blackbody in the CMB spectrum of the μ-type and the i-type. We study, using Fisher matrices, the constraints we can get from measurements of these spectral distortions on the primordial power spectrum from future experiments such as Pixie, and how these constraints change as we change the frequency resolution and the sensitivity of the experiment. We show that the additional information in the shape of the i-type distortions, in combination with the μ-type distortions, allows us to break the degeneracy between the amplitude and the spectral index of the power spectrum on these scales and leads to much tighter constraints. We quantify the information contained in both the μ-type distortions and the i-type distortions taking into account the partial degeneracy with the y-type distortions and the temperature of the blackbody part of the CMB. We also calculate the constraints possible on the primordial power spectrum when the spectral distortion information is combined with the CMB anisotropies measured by the WMAP, SPT, ACT and Planck experiments
On the impact of large angle CMB polarization data on cosmological parameters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lattanzi, Massimiliano; Mandolesi, Nazzareno; Natoli, Paolo [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via Giuseppe Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Burigana, Carlo; Gruppuso, Alessandro; Trombetti, Tiziana [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Gerbino, Martina [The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Polenta, Gianluca [Agenzia Spaziale Italiana Science Data Center, Via del Politecnico snc, 00133, Roma (Italy); Salvati, Laura, E-mail: lattanzi@fe.infn.it, E-mail: burigana@iasfbo.inaf.it, E-mail: martina.gerbino@fysik.su.se, E-mail: gruppuso@iasfbo.inaf.it, E-mail: nazzareno.mandolesi@unife.it, E-mail: paolo.natoli@unife.it, E-mail: gianluca.polenta@asdc.asi.it, E-mail: laura.salvati@ias.u-psud.fr, E-mail: trombetti@iasfbo.inaf.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università La Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, I-00185 Roma (Italy)
2017-02-01
We study the impact of the large-angle CMB polarization datasets publicly released by the WMAP and Planck satellites on the estimation of cosmological parameters of the ΛCDM model. To complement large-angle polarization, we consider the high resolution (or 'high-ℓ') CMB datasets from either WMAP or Planck as well as CMB lensing as traced by Planck 's measured four point correlation function. In the case of WMAP, we compute the large-angle polarization likelihood starting over from low resolution frequency maps and their covariance matrices, and perform our own foreground mitigation technique, which includes as a possible alternative Planck 353 GHz data to trace polarized dust. We find that the latter choice induces a downward shift in the optical depth τ, roughly of order 2σ, robust to the choice of the complementary high resolution dataset. When the Planck 353 GHz is consistently used to minimize polarized dust emission, WMAP and Planck 70 GHz large-angle polarization data are in remarkable agreement: by combining them we find τ = 0.066 {sup +0.012}{sub −0.013}, again very stable against the particular choice for high-ℓ data. We find that the amplitude of primordial fluctuations A {sub s} , notoriously degenerate with τ, is the parameter second most affected by the assumptions on polarized dust removal, but the other parameters are also affected, typically between 0.5 and 1σ. In particular, cleaning dust with Planck 's 353 GHz data imposes a 1σ downward shift in the value of the Hubble constant H {sub 0}, significantly contributing to the tension reported between CMB based and direct measurements of the present expansion rate. On the other hand, we find that the appearance of the so-called low ℓ anomaly, a well-known tension between the high- and low-resolution CMB anisotropy amplitude, is not significantly affected by the details of large-angle polarization, or by the particular high-ℓ dataset employed.
The running-mass inflation model and WMAP
Covi, Laura; Lyth, David H.; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Odman, Carolina J.
2004-01-01
We consider the observational constraints on the running-mass inflationary model, and in particular on the scale-dependence of the spectral index, from the new Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropy measurements performed by WMAP and from new clustering data from the SLOAN survey. We find that the data strongly constraints a significant positive scale-dependence of $n$, and we translate the analysis into bounds on the physical parameters of the inflaton potential. Looking deeper into sp...
Punctuated inflation and the low CMB multipoles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jain, Rajeev Kumar; Sriramkumar, L.; Chingangbam, Pravabati; Gong, Jinn-Ouk; Souradeep, Tarun
2009-01-01
We investigate inflationary scenarios driven by a class of potentials which are similar in form to those that arise in certain minimal supersymmetric extensions of the standard model. We find that these potentials allow a brief period of departure from inflation sandwiched between two stages of slow roll inflation. We show that such a background behavior leads to a step like feature in the scalar power spectrum. We set the scales such that the drop in the power spectrum occurs at a length scale that corresponds to the Hubble radius today — a feature that seems necessary to explain the lower power observed in the quadrupole moment of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies. We perform a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis to determine the values of the model parameters that provide the best fit to the recent WMAP 5-year data for the CMB angular power spectrum. We find that an inflationary spectrum with a suppression of power at large scales that we obtain leads to a much better fit (with just one extra parameter, χ eff 2 improves by 6.62) of the observed data when compared to the best fit reference ΛCDM model with a featureless, power law, primordial spectrum
Low-ℓ power suppression in punctuated inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qureshi, Mussadiq H.; Iqbal, Asif; Malik, Manzoor A.; Souradeep, Tarun
2017-01-01
Motivated by Planck confirmation of an anomalously low value of the CMB temperature fluctuations up to multipole ℓ < 40, we in this paper try to explain such feature by investigating case of punctuated inflation scenario. This form of inflation potential is inspired by Minimal Super-symmetric Standard Model (MSSM) wherein suppression of curvature perturbation power at large scales is produced by introducing period of fast-roll phase of the inflation sandwiched between two stages of slow-roll phase. We apply Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis to determine posterior distribution and the best fit values of the model parameters using recent WMAP9 and Planck data. We show that WMAP9 and Planck results are consistent with each other and that with Planck data we obtain tighter constraints for punctuated inflation parameters. We find that punctuated inflation leads to better fit in CMB data compared to simple power law model. The improvement in the fit to the WMAP9 data is Δ χ 2 ∼ 3.6 and for Planck the improvement is Δ χ 2 ∼ 5.4. We find that AIC does not discriminate between punctuated inflation and simple power law model for WMAP9 data. However, for Planck data we find that punctuated inflation is moderately preferred over a simple power law model.
Page, L.; Barnes, C.; Hinshaw, G.; Spergel, D. N.; Weiland, J. L.; Wollack, E.; Bennett, C. L.; Halpern, M.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wright, E. L.
2003-09-01
Knowledge of the beam profiles is of critical importance for interpreting data from cosmic microwave background experiments. In this paper, we present the characterization of the in-flight optical response of the WMAP satellite. The main-beam intensities have been mapped to the satellite in the same observing mode as for CMB observations. The beam patterns closely follow the prelaunch expectations. The full width at half-maximum is a function of frequency and ranges from 0.82d at 23 GHz to 0.21d at 94 GHz; however, the beams are not Gaussian. We present (a) the beam patterns for all 10 differential radiometers, showing that the patterns are substantially independent of polarization in all but the 23 GHz channel; (b) the effective symmetrized beam patterns that result from WMAP's compound spin observing pattern; (c) the effective window functions for all radiometers and the formalism for propagating the window function uncertainty; and (d) the conversion factor from point-source flux to antenna temperature. A summary of the systematic uncertainties, which currently dominate our knowledge of the beams, is also presented. The constancy of Jupiter's temperature within a frequency band is an essential check of the optical system. The tests enable us to report a calibration of Jupiter to 1%-3% accuracy relative to the CMB dipole. WMAP is the result of a partnership between Princeton University and the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Scientific guidance is provided by the WMAP Science Team.
Cosmological CPT violation and CMB polarization measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xia, Jun-Qing, E-mail: xia@sissa.it [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy)
2012-01-01
In this paper we study the possibility of testing Charge-Parity-Time Reversal (CPT) symmetry with cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments. We consider two kinds of Chern-Simons (CS) term, electromagnetic CS term and gravitational CS term, and study their effects on the CMB polarization power spectra in detail. By combining current CMB polarization measurements, the seven-year WMAP, BOOMERanG 2003 and BICEP observations, we obtain a tight constraint on the rotation angle Δα = −2.28±1.02 deg (1 σ), indicating a 2.2 σ detection of the CPT violation. Here, we particularly take the systematic errors of CMB measurements into account. After adding the QUaD polarization data, the constraint becomes −1.34 < Δα < 0.82 deg at 95% confidence level. When comparing with the effect of electromagnetic CS term, the gravitational CS term could only generate TB and EB power spectra with much smaller amplitude. Therefore, the induced parameter ε can not be constrained from the current polarization data. Furthermore, we study the capabilities of future CMB measurements, Planck and CMBPol, on the constraints of Δα and ε. We find that the constraint of Δα can be significantly improved by a factor of 15. Therefore, if this rotation angle effect can not be taken into account properly, the constraints of cosmological parameters will be biased obviously. For the gravitational CS term, the future Planck data still can not constrain ε very well, if the primordial tensor perturbations are small, r < 0.1. We need the more accurate CMBPol experiment to give better constraint on ε.
PROBING THE DARK FLOW SIGNAL IN WMAP 9 -YEAR AND PLANCK COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND MAPS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Atrio-Barandela, F. [Física Teórica, Universidad de Salamanca, E-37008 Salamanca (Spain); Kashlinsky, A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and SSAI, Observational Cosmology Lab, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ebeling, H. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Fixsen, D. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and UMCP, Observational Cosmology Lab, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kocevski, D., E-mail: atrio@usal.es, E-mail: Alexander.Kashlinsky@nasa.gov, E-mail: ebeling@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: Dale.Fixsen@nasa.gov, E-mail: dale.kocevski@colby.edu [Physics and Astronomy, 5800 Mayflower Hill, Waterville, ME 04901 (United States)
2015-09-10
The “dark flow” dipole is a statistically significant dipole found at the position of galaxy clusters in filtered maps of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropies. The dipole measured in WMAP 3-, 5-, and 7- year data releases was (1) mutually consistent, (2) roughly aligned with the all-sky CMB dipole, and (3) correlated with clusters’ X-ray luminosities. We analyzed WMAP 9 -year and Planck 1st- year data releases using a catalog of 980 clusters outside of the Kp0 mask to test our earlier findings. The dipoles measured on these new data sets are fully compatible with our earlier estimates, are similar in amplitude and direction to our previous results, and are in disagreement with the results of an earlier study by the Planck Collaboration. Furthermore, in the Planck data sets dipoles are found to be independent of frequency, ruling out the thermal Sunyaev–Zeldovich as the source of the effect. In the data of both WMAP and Planck we find a clear correlation between the dipole measured at the cluster location in filtered maps and the average anisotropy on the original maps, further proving that the dipole is associated with clusters. The dipole signal is dominated by the most massive clusters, with a statistical significance that is better than 99%, slightly larger than in WMAP. Since both data sets differ in foreground contributions, instrumental noise, and other systematics, the agreement between the WMAP and Planck dipoles argues against them being due to systematic effects in either of the experiments.
WMAP five-year constraints on lepton asymmetry and radiation energy density: implications for Planck
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Popa, L A; Vasile, A
2008-01-01
In this paper we set bounds on the radiation content of the Universe and neutrino properties by using the WMAP (Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe) five-year CMB (cosmic microwave background) measurements complemented with most of the existing CMB and LSS (large scale structure) data (WMAP5+All), imposing also self-consistent BBN (big bang nucleosynthesis) constraints on the primordial helium abundance. We consider lepton asymmetric cosmological models parametrized by the neutrino degeneracy parameter ξ ν and the variation of the relativistic degrees of freedom, ΔN eff oth , due to possible other physical processes occurring between BBN and structure formation epochs. We get a mean value of the effective number of relativistic neutrino species of N eff = 2.98 2.27 3.60 1.65 4.37 , providing an important improvement over the similar result obtained from WMAP5+BAO+SN+HST (BAO: baryonic acoustic oscillations; SN: supernovae; HST: Hubble Space Telescope) data (Komatsu et al (WMAP Collaboration), 2008 Astrophys. J. Suppl. submitted [0803.0547]). We also find a strong correlation between Ω m h 2 and z eq , showing that we observe N eff mainly via the effect of z eq , rather than via neutrino anisotropic stress as claimed by the WMAP team (Komatsu et al (WMAP Collaboration), 2008 Astrophys. J. Suppl. submitted [0803.0547]). WMAP5+All data provide a strong bound on the helium mass fraction of Y p = 0.2486 ± 0.0085 (68% CL), that rivals the bound on Y p obtained from the conservative analysis of the present data on helium abundance. For the neutrino degeneracy parameter we find a bound of −0.216≤ξ ν ≤0.226 (68% CL), which represents an important improvement over the similar result obtained by using the WMAP three-year data. The inclusion in the analysis of LSS data reduces the upper limit of the neutrino mass to m ν ν and Y p down to σ(ξ ν )≅0.089 (68% CL) and σ(Y p ) = 0.013 (68% CL) respectively, values fully consistent with the BBN bounds on
Foreground removal from WMAP 5 yr temperature maps using an MLP neural network
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik
2010-01-01
CMB signal makes it essential to minimize the systematic errors in the CMB temperature determinations. Methods. The feasibility of using simple neural networks to extract the CMB signal from detailed simulated data has already been demonstrated. Here, simple neural networks are applied to the WMAP 5...... yr temperature data without using any auxiliary data. Results. A simple multilayer perceptron neural network with two hidden layers provides temperature estimates over more than 75 per cent of the sky with random errors significantly below those previously extracted from these data. Also......, the systematic errors, i.e. errors correlated with the Galactic foregrounds, are very small. Conclusions. With these results the neural network method is well prepared for dealing with the high-quality CMB data from the ESA Planck Surveyor satellite. © ESO, 2010....
Probing CPT violation with CMB polarization measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xia Junqing, E-mail: xia@sissa.i [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Via Beirut 2-4, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Li Hong; Zhang Xinmin [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 918-4, Beijing 100049 (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities (TPCSF), Chinese Academy of Science (China)
2010-04-12
The electrodynamics modified by the Chern-Simons term L{sub cs}approxp{sub m}uA{sub n}uF-tilde{sup m}u{sup n}u with a non-vanishing p{sub m}u violates the Charge-Parity-Time Reversal symmetry (CPT) and rotates the linear polarizations of the propagating Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons. In this Letter we measure the rotation angle DELTAalpha by performing a global analysis on the current CMB polarization measurements from the five-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP5), BOOMERanG 2003 (B03), BICEP and QUaD using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. Neglecting the systematic errors of these experiments, we find that the results from WMAP5, B03 and BICEP all are consistent and their combination gives DELTAalpha=-2.62+-0.87deg (68% C.L.), indicating a 3sigma detection of the CPT violation. The QUaD data alone gives DELTAalpha=0.59+-0.42deg (68% C.L.) which has an opposite sign for the central value and smaller error bar compared to that obtained from WMAP5, B03 and BICEP. When combining all the polarization data together, we find DELTAalpha=0.09+-0.36deg (68% C.L.) which significantly improves the previous constraint on DELTAalpha and test the validity of the fundamental CPT symmetry at a higher level.
Low-ℓ power suppression in punctuated inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qureshi, Mussadiq H.; Iqbal, Asif; Malik, Manzoor A. [Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, Hazratbal, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir 190006 (India); Souradeep, Tarun, E-mail: mussadiqqureshi111@gmail.com, E-mail: asifiqbal@kashmiruniversity.net, E-mail: mmalik@kashmiruniversity.ac.in, E-mail: tarun@iucaa.in [Inter-University Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)
2017-04-01
Motivated by Planck confirmation of an anomalously low value of the CMB temperature fluctuations up to multipole ℓ < 40, we in this paper try to explain such feature by investigating case of punctuated inflation scenario. This form of inflation potential is inspired by Minimal Super-symmetric Standard Model (MSSM) wherein suppression of curvature perturbation power at large scales is produced by introducing period of fast-roll phase of the inflation sandwiched between two stages of slow-roll phase. We apply Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis to determine posterior distribution and the best fit values of the model parameters using recent WMAP9 and Planck data. We show that WMAP9 and Planck results are consistent with each other and that with Planck data we obtain tighter constraints for punctuated inflation parameters. We find that punctuated inflation leads to better fit in CMB data compared to simple power law model. The improvement in the fit to the WMAP9 data is Δ χ{sup 2} ∼ 3.6 and for Planck the improvement is Δ χ{sup 2} ∼ 5.4. We find that AIC does not discriminate between punctuated inflation and simple power law model for WMAP9 data. However, for Planck data we find that punctuated inflation is moderately preferred over a simple power law model.
Running-mass inflation model and WMAP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Covi, Laura; Lyth, David H.; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Odman, Carolina J.
2004-01-01
We consider the observational constraints on the running-mass inflationary model, and, in particular, on the scale dependence of the spectral index, from the new cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy measurements performed by WMAP and from new clustering data from the SLOAN survey. We find that the data strongly constraints a significant positive scale dependence of n, and we translate the analysis into bounds on the physical parameters of the inflaton potential. Looking deeper into specific types of interaction (gauge and Yukawa) we find that the parameter space is significantly constrained by the new data, but that the running-mass model remains viable
How sensitive is the CMB to a single lens?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rathaus, Ben; Fialkov, Anastasia; Itzhaki, Nissan, E-mail: ben.rathaus@gmail.com, E-mail: nitzhaki@post.tau.ac.il, E-mail: anastasia.fialkov@gmail.com [Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv, 69978 (Israel)
2011-06-01
We study the imprints of a single lens, that breaks statistical isotropy, on the CMB and calculate the signal to noise ratio (S/N) for its detection. We emphasize the role of non-Gaussianities induced by ΛCDM weak lensing in this calculation and show that typically the S/N is much smaller than expected. In particular we find that the hypothesis that a void (texture) is responsible for the WMAP cold spot can barely (cannot) be tested via weak lensing of the CMB.
How sensitive is the CMB to a single lens?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rathaus, Ben; Fialkov, Anastasia; Itzhaki, Nissan
2011-01-01
We study the imprints of a single lens, that breaks statistical isotropy, on the CMB and calculate the signal to noise ratio (S/N) for its detection. We emphasize the role of non-Gaussianities induced by ΛCDM weak lensing in this calculation and show that typically the S/N is much smaller than expected. In particular we find that the hypothesis that a void (texture) is responsible for the WMAP cold spot can barely (cannot) be tested via weak lensing of the CMB
TESTING CPT SYMMETRY WITH CURRENT AND FUTURE CMB MEASUREMENTS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Si-Yu; Zhang, Xinmin [Theory Division, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 918-4, Beijing 100049 (China); Xia, Jun-Qing; Li, Hong [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 918-3, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Mingzhe, E-mail: xiajq@ihep.ac.cn [Interdisciplinary Center for Theoretical Study, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)
2015-02-01
In this paper, we use the current and future cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments to test the Charge-Parity-Time Reversal (CPT) symmetry. We consider a CPT-violating interaction in the photon sector L{sub cs}∼p{sub μ}A{sub ν} F-tilde {sup μν}, which gives rise to a rotation of the polarization vectors of the propagating CMB photons. By combining the 9 yr WMAP, BOOMERanG 2003, and BICEP1 observations, we obtain the current constraint on the isotropic rotation angle α-bar =−2.12±1.14 (1σ), indicating that the significance of the CPT violation is about 2σ. Here, we particularly take the systematic errors of CMB measurements into account. Then, we study the effects of the anisotropies of the rotation angle [Δα( n-hat )] on the CMB polarization power spectra in detail. Due to the small effects, the current CMB polarization data cannot constrain the related parameters very well. We obtain the 95% C.L. upper limit of the variance of the anisotropies of the rotation angle C {sup α}(0) < 0.035 from all of the CMB data sets. More interestingly, including the anisotropies of rotation angle could lower the best-fit value of r and relax the tension on the constraints of r between BICEP2 and Planck. Finally, we investigate the capabilities of future Planck polarization measurements on α-bar and Δα( n-hat ). Benefited from the high precision of Planck data, the constraints of the rotation angle can be significantly improved.
Foreground removal from WMAP 5 yr temperature maps using an MLP neural network
Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.
2010-09-01
Aims: One of the main obstacles for extracting the cosmic microwave background (CMB) signal from observations in the mm/sub-mm range is the foreground contamination by emission from Galactic component: mainly synchrotron, free-free, and thermal dust emission. The statistical nature of the intrinsic CMB signal makes it essential to minimize the systematic errors in the CMB temperature determinations. Methods: The feasibility of using simple neural networks to extract the CMB signal from detailed simulated data has already been demonstrated. Here, simple neural networks are applied to the WMAP 5 yr temperature data without using any auxiliary data. Results: A simple multilayer perceptron neural network with two hidden layers provides temperature estimates over more than 75 per cent of the sky with random errors significantly below those previously extracted from these data. Also, the systematic errors, i.e. errors correlated with the Galactic foregrounds, are very small. Conclusions: With these results the neural network method is well prepared for dealing with the high - quality CMB data from the ESA Planck Surveyor satellite. unknown author type, collab
The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Cosmological Parameters from the 2008 Power Spectrum
Dunkley, J.; Hlozek, R.; Sievers, J.; Acquaviva, V.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aguirre, P.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J. W.; Barrientos, L. F.; Battistelli, E. S.;
2011-01-01
We present cosmological parameters derived from the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation observed at 148 GHz and 218 GHz over 296 deg(exp 2) with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) during its 2008 season. ACT measures fluctuations at scales 500 cosmological parameters from the less contaminated 148 GHz spectrum, marginalizing over SZ and source power. The ACDM cosmological model is a good fit to the data (chi square/dof = 29/46), and ACDM parameters estimated from ACT+Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) are consistent with the seven-year WMAP limits, with scale invariant n(sub s) = 1 excluded at 99.7% confidence level (CL) (3 sigma). A model with no CMB lensing is disfavored at 2.8 sigma. By measuring the third to seventh acoustic peaks, and probing the Silk damping regime, the ACT data improve limits on cosmological parameters that affect the small-scale CMB power. The ACT data combined with WMAP give a 6 sigma detection of primordial helium, with Y(sub p) = 0.313 +/- 0.044, and a 4 sigma detection of relativistic species, assumed to be neutrinos, with N(sub eff) = 5.3 +/- 1.3 (4.6 +/- 0.8 with BAO+H(sub 0) data). From the CMB alone the running of the spectral index is constrained to be d(sub s) / d ln k = -0,034 +/- 0,018, the limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio is r < 0,25 (95% CL), and the possible contribution of Nambu cosmic strings to the power spectrum is constrained to string tension G(sub mu) < 1.6 x 10(exp -7) (95% CL),
Comparison of distance information given by SN Ia, BAO and CMB
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Hong
2011-01-01
The observations of Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia), Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) and Cosmic Microwave Background radiation (CMB) provide powerful tools for the measurement of cosmological parameters. One of the most useful information encodes in the distance measured by those probes. In this Letter, we test the coherence of the observational information provided by SN Ia, BAO and CMB experiments. We make two kinds of comparison: the first is the constraints on cosmological parameters of the equation of state parameter (EoS) of dark energy (DE) and matter budget parameter Ω m from the latest data by global fitting, and we find the large discrepancy from those different probes. The second comparison is performed among the derived distance information from these observations at certain appointed redshift, the results show that the distance provided by WMAP5 are larger than those from SN Ia and BAO on the whole.
Planck 2013 results. XXIII. Isotropy and Statistics of the CMB
Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fantaye, Y.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Frommert, M.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, M.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McEwen, J.D.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H.V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Pogosyan, D.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rath, C.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rotti, A.; Roudier, G.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutter, P.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; White, M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-01-01
The two fundamental assumptions of the standard cosmological model - that the initial fluctuations are statistically isotropic and Gaussian - are rigorously tested using maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy from the Planck satellite. Deviations from isotropy have been found and demonstrated to be robust against component separation algorithm, mask choice and frequency dependence. Many of these anomalies were previously observed in the WMAP data, and are now confirmed at similar levels of significance (about 3 sigma). However, we find little evidence for non-Gaussianity, with the exception of a few statistical signatures that seem to be associated with specific anomalies. In particular, we find that the quadrupole-octopole alignment is also connected to a low observed variance of the CMB signal. A power asymmetry is now found to persist to scales corresponding to about l=600, and can be described in the low-l regime by a phenomenological dipole modulation model. However, any primordial powe...
Estimation of inflation parameters for Perturbed Power Law model using recent CMB measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukherjee, Suvodip; Das, Santanu; Souradeep, Tarun; Joy, Minu
2015-01-01
Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is an important probe for understanding the inflationary era of the Universe. We consider the Perturbed Power Law (PPL) model of inflation which is a soft deviation from Power Law (PL) inflationary model. This model captures the effect of higher order derivative of Hubble parameter during inflation, which in turn leads to a non-zero effective mass m eff for the inflaton field. The higher order derivatives of Hubble parameter at leading order sources constant difference in the spectral index for scalar and tensor perturbation going beyond PL model of inflation. PPL model have two observable independent parameters, namely spectral index for tensor perturbation ν t and change in spectral index for scalar perturbation ν st to explain the observed features in the scalar and tensor power spectrum of perturbation. From the recent measurements of CMB power spectra by WMAP, Planck and BICEP-2 for temperature and polarization, we estimate the feasibility of PPL model with standard ΛCDM model. Although BICEP-2 claimed a detection of r=0.2, estimates of dust contamination provided by Planck have left open the possibility that only upper bound on r will be expected in a joint analysis. As a result we consider different upper bounds on the value of r and show that PPL model can explain a lower value of tensor to scalar ratio (r<0.1 or r<0.01) for a scalar spectral index of n s =0.96 by having a non-zero value of effective mass of the inflaton field m 2 eff /H 2 . The analysis with WP + Planck likelihood shows a non-zero detection of m 2 eff /H 2 with 5.7 σ and 8.1 σ respectively for r<0.1 and r<0.01. Whereas, with BICEP-2 likelihood m 2 eff /H 2 = −0.0237 ± 0.0135 which is consistent with zero
A constraint on Planck-scale modifications to electrodynamics with CMB polarization data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gubitosi, Giulia; Pagano, Luca; Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Cooray, Asantha
2009-01-01
We show that the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization data gathered by the BOOMERanG 2003 flight and WMAP provide an opportunity to investigate in-vacuo birefringence, of a type expected in some quantum pictures of space-time, with a sensitivity that extends even beyond the desired Planck-scale energy. In order to render this constraint more transparent we rely on a well studied phenomenological model of quantum-gravity-induced birefringence, in which one easily establishes that effects introduced at the Planck scale would amount to values of a dimensionless parameter, denoted by ξ, with respect to the Planck energy which are roughly of order 1. By combining BOOMERanG and WMAP data we estimate ξ ≅ −0.110±0.075 at the 68% c.l. Moreover, we forecast on the sensitivity to ξ achievable by future CMB polarization experiments (PLANCK, Spider, EPIC), which, in the absence of systematics, will be at the 1-σ confidence of 8.5 × 10 −4 (PLANCK), 6.1 × 10 −3 (Spider), and 1.0 × 10 −5 (EPIC) respectively. The cosmic variance-limited sensitivity from CMB is 6.1 × 10 −6
Planck CMB anomalies: astrophysical and cosmological secondary effects and the curse of masking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.; Paykari, P.; Sureau, F.; Bobin, J.
2014-01-01
Large-scale anomalies have been reported in CMB data with both WMAP and Planck data. These could be due to foreground residuals and or systematic effects, though their confirmation with Planck data suggests they are not due to a problem in the WMAP or Planck pipelines. If these anomalies are in fact primordial, then understanding their origin is fundamental to either validate the standard model of cosmology or to explore new physics. We investigate three other possible issues: 1) the trade-off between minimising systematics due to foreground contamination (with a conservative mask) and minimising systematics due to masking, 2) astrophysical secondary effects (the kinetic Doppler quadrupole and kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect), and 3) secondary cosmological signals (the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect). We address the masking issue by considering new procedures that use both WMAP and Planck to produce higher quality full-sky maps using the sparsity methodology (LGMCA maps). We show the impact of masking is dominant over that of residual foregrounds, and the LGMCA full-sky maps can be used without further processing to study anomalies. We consider four official Planck PR1 and two LGMCA CMB maps. Analysis of the observed CMB maps shows that only the low quadrupole and quadrupole-octopole alignment seem significant, but that the planar octopole, Axis of Evil, mirror parity and cold spot are not significant in nearly all maps considered. After subtraction of astrophysical and cosmological secondary effects, only the low quadrupole may still be considered anomalous, meaning the significance of only one anomaly is affected by secondary effect subtraction out of six anomalies considered. In the spirit of reproducible research all reconstructed maps and codes will be made available for download here http://www.cosmostat.org/anomaliesCMB.html
Planck CMB anomalies: astrophysical and cosmological secondary effects and the curse of masking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rassat, A. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique (LASTRO), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 51 Chemin des Maillettes, Observatoire de Sauverny, Versoix, CH-1290 (Switzerland); Starck, J.-L.; Paykari, P.; Sureau, F.; Bobin, J., E-mail: anais.rassat@epfl.ch, E-mail: jstarck@cea.fr, E-mail: paniez.paykari@cea.fr, E-mail: florent.sureau@cea.fr, E-mail: jbobin@cea.fr [Laboratoire AIM, UMR CEA-CNRS-Paris, Irfu, SAp, CEA Saclay, Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex, F-91191 France (France)
2014-08-01
Large-scale anomalies have been reported in CMB data with both WMAP and Planck data. These could be due to foreground residuals and or systematic effects, though their confirmation with Planck data suggests they are not due to a problem in the WMAP or Planck pipelines. If these anomalies are in fact primordial, then understanding their origin is fundamental to either validate the standard model of cosmology or to explore new physics. We investigate three other possible issues: 1) the trade-off between minimising systematics due to foreground contamination (with a conservative mask) and minimising systematics due to masking, 2) astrophysical secondary effects (the kinetic Doppler quadrupole and kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect), and 3) secondary cosmological signals (the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect). We address the masking issue by considering new procedures that use both WMAP and Planck to produce higher quality full-sky maps using the sparsity methodology (LGMCA maps). We show the impact of masking is dominant over that of residual foregrounds, and the LGMCA full-sky maps can be used without further processing to study anomalies. We consider four official Planck PR1 and two LGMCA CMB maps. Analysis of the observed CMB maps shows that only the low quadrupole and quadrupole-octopole alignment seem significant, but that the planar octopole, Axis of Evil, mirror parity and cold spot are not significant in nearly all maps considered. After subtraction of astrophysical and cosmological secondary effects, only the low quadrupole may still be considered anomalous, meaning the significance of only one anomaly is affected by secondary effect subtraction out of six anomalies considered. In the spirit of reproducible research all reconstructed maps and codes will be made available for download here http://www.cosmostat.org/anomaliesCMB.html.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galli, Silvia; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Smoot, George F.; Zahn, Oliver
2009-01-01
We present new constraints on cosmic variations of Newton's gravitational constant by making use of the latest CMB data from WMAP, BOOMERANG, CBI and ACBAR experiments and independent constraints coming from big bang nucleosynthesis. We found that current CMB data provide constraints at the ∼10% level, that can be improved to ∼3% by including big bang nucleosynthesis data. We show that future data expected from the Planck satellite could constrain G at the ∼1.5% level while an ultimate, cosmic variance limited, CMB experiment could reach a precision of about 0.4%, competitive with current laboratory measurements.
A constraint on Planck-scale modifications to electrodynamics with CMB polarization data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gubitosi, Giulia; Pagano, Luca; Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Melchiorri, Alessandro [Physics Department, University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' and Sezione Roma1 INFN, P.le Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); Cooray, Asantha, E-mail: giulia.gubitosi@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: luca.pagano@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: giovanni.amelino-camelia@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: alessandro.melchiorri@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: acooray@uci.edu [Center for Cosmology, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)
2009-08-01
We show that the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization data gathered by the BOOMERanG 2003 flight and WMAP provide an opportunity to investigate in-vacuo birefringence, of a type expected in some quantum pictures of space-time, with a sensitivity that extends even beyond the desired Planck-scale energy. In order to render this constraint more transparent we rely on a well studied phenomenological model of quantum-gravity-induced birefringence, in which one easily establishes that effects introduced at the Planck scale would amount to values of a dimensionless parameter, denoted by ξ, with respect to the Planck energy which are roughly of order 1. By combining BOOMERanG and WMAP data we estimate ξ ≅ −0.110±0.075 at the 68% c.l. Moreover, we forecast on the sensitivity to ξ achievable by future CMB polarization experiments (PLANCK, Spider, EPIC), which, in the absence of systematics, will be at the 1-σ confidence of 8.5 × 10{sup −4} (PLANCK), 6.1 × 10{sup −3} (Spider), and 1.0 × 10{sup −5} (EPIC) respectively. The cosmic variance-limited sensitivity from CMB is 6.1 × 10{sup −6}.
Planck CMB Anomalies: Astrophysical and Cosmological Secondary Effects and the Curse of Masking
Rassat, Anais
2016-07-01
Large-scale anomalies have been reported in CMB data with both WMAP and Planck data. These could be due to foreground residuals and or systematic effects, though their confirmation with Planck data suggests they are not due to a problem in the WMAP or Planck pipelines. If these anomalies are in fact primordial, then understanding their origin is fundamental to either validate the standard model of cosmology or to explore new physics. We investigate three other possible issues: 1) the trade-off between minimising systematics due to foreground contamination (with a conservative mask) and minimising systematics due to masking, 2) astrophysical secondary effects (the kinetic Doppler quadrupole and kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect), and 3) secondary cosmological signals (the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect). We address the masking issue by considering new procedures that use both WMAP and Planck to produce higher quality full-sky maps using the sparsity methodology (LGMCA maps). We show the impact of masking is dominant over that of residual foregrounds, and the LGMCA full-sky maps can be used without further processing to study anomalies. We consider four official Planck PR1 and two LGMCA CMB maps. Analysis of the observed CMB maps shows that only the low quadrupole and quadrupole-octopole alignment seem significant, but that the planar octopole, Axis of Evil, mirror parity and cold spot are not significant in nearly all maps considered. After subtraction of astrophysical and cosmological secondary effects, only the low quadrupole may still be considered anomalous, meaning the significance of only one anomaly is affected by secondary effect subtraction out of six anomalies considered. In the spirit of reproducible research all reconstructed maps and codes are available online.
Symmetry and Antisymmetry of the CMB Anisotropy Pattern
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaiseung Kim
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Given an arbitrary function, we may construct symmetric and antisymmetric functions under a certain operation. Since statistical isotropy and homogeneity of our Universe has been a fundamental assumption of modern cosmology, we do not expect any particular symmetry or antisymmetry in our Universe. Besides fundamental properties of our Universe, we may also figure our contamination and improve the quality of the CMB data products, by matching the unusual symmetries and antisymmetries of the CMB data with known contaminantions. If we let the operation to be a coordinate inversion, the symmetric and antisymmetric functions have even and odd-parity respectively. The investigation on the parity of the recent CMB data shows a large-scale odd-parity preference, which is very unlikely in the statistical isotropic and homogeneous Universe. We investigated the association of the WMAP systematics with the anomaly, but did not find a definite non-cosmological cause. Besides the parity anomaly, there is anomalous lack of large-scale correlation in CMB data. We show that the odd-parity preference at low multipoles is, in fact, phenomenologically identical with the lack of large-angle correlation.
Preferred axis of CMB parity asymmetry in the masked maps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, Cheng; Zhao, Wen; Huang, Qing-Guo; Santos, Larissa
2016-01-01
Both WMAP and Planck data show a significant odd-multipole preference in the large scales of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies. If this pattern originates from cosmological effects, then it can be considered a crucial clue for a violation in the cosmological principle. By defining various direction dependent statistics in the full-sky Planck 2015 maps (see, for instance, Naselsky et al. (2012); W. Zhao (2014)), we found that the CMB parity asymmetry has a preferred direction, which is independent of the choices of the statistics. In particular, this preferred axis is strongly aligned with those in the CMB quadrupole and octopole, as well as that in the CMB kinematic dipole, which hints to their non-cosmological origin. In realistic observations, the foreground residuals are inevitable, and should be properly masked out in order to avoid possible misinterpretation of the results. In this paper, we extend our previous analyses to the masked Planck 2015 data. By defining a similar direction dependent statistic in the masked map, we find a preferred direction of the CMB parity asymmetry, in which the axis also coincides with that found in the full-sky analysis. Therefore, our conclusions on the CMB parity violation and its directional properties are confirmed.
Preferred axis of CMB parity asymmetry in the masked maps
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cheng, Cheng [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhao, Wen, E-mail: wzhao7@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory for Researches in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Huang, Qing-Guo [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Santos, Larissa [CAS Key Laboratory for Researches in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)
2016-06-10
Both WMAP and Planck data show a significant odd-multipole preference in the large scales of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies. If this pattern originates from cosmological effects, then it can be considered a crucial clue for a violation in the cosmological principle. By defining various direction dependent statistics in the full-sky Planck 2015 maps (see, for instance, Naselsky et al. (2012); W. Zhao (2014)), we found that the CMB parity asymmetry has a preferred direction, which is independent of the choices of the statistics. In particular, this preferred axis is strongly aligned with those in the CMB quadrupole and octopole, as well as that in the CMB kinematic dipole, which hints to their non-cosmological origin. In realistic observations, the foreground residuals are inevitable, and should be properly masked out in order to avoid possible misinterpretation of the results. In this paper, we extend our previous analyses to the masked Planck 2015 data. By defining a similar direction dependent statistic in the masked map, we find a preferred direction of the CMB parity asymmetry, in which the axis also coincides with that found in the full-sky analysis. Therefore, our conclusions on the CMB parity violation and its directional properties are confirmed.
CMB polarization at large angular scales: Data analysis of the POLAR experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
O'Dell, Christopher W.; Keating, Brian G.; Oliveira-Costa, Angelica de; Tegmark, Max; Timbie, Peter T.
2003-01-01
The coming flood of cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiments, spurred by the recent detection of CMB polarization by the DASI and WMAP instruments, will be confronted by many new analysis tasks specific to polarization. For the analysis of CMB polarization data sets, the devil is truly in the details. With this in mind, we present details of the data analysis for the POLAR experiment, which recently led to the tightest upper limits on the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation at large angular scales. We discuss the data selection process, map-making algorithms, offset removal, and likelihood analysis which were used to find upper limits on the polarization. Stated using the modern convention for reporting CMB Stokes parameters, these limits are 5.0 μK on both E- and B-type polarization at 95% confidence. Finally, we discuss simulations used to test our analysis techniques and to probe the fundamental limitations of the experiment
Large-Angle CMB Suppression and Polarisation Predictions
Copi, C.J.; Schwarz, D.J.; Starkman, G.D.
2013-01-01
The anomalous lack of large angle temperature correlations has been a surprising feature of the CMB since first observed by COBE-DMR and subsequently confirmed and strengthened by WMAP. This anomaly may point to the need for modifications of the standard model of cosmology or may show that our Universe is a rare statistical fluctuation within that model. Further observations of the temperature auto-correlation function will not elucidate the issue; sufficiently high precision statistical observations already exist. Instead, alternative probes are required. In this work we explore the expectations for forthcoming polarisation observations. We define a prescription to test the hypothesis that the large-angle CMB temperature perturbations in our Universe represent a rare statistical fluctuation within the standard cosmological model. These tests are based on the temperature-Q Stokes parameter correlation. Unfortunately these tests cannot be expected to be definitive. However, we do show that if this TQ-correlati...
Nonlinear electrodynamics and CMB polarization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cuesta, Herman J. Mosquera [Departmento de Física Universidade Estadual Vale do Acaraú, Avenida da Universidade 850, Campus da Betânia, CEP 62.040-370, Sobral, Ceará (Brazil); Lambiase, G., E-mail: herman@icra.it, E-mail: lambiase@sa.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E.R. Caianiello' ' , Università di Salerno, 84081 Baronissi (Italy)
2011-03-01
Recently WMAP and BOOMERanG experiments have set stringent constraints on the polarization angle of photons propagating in an expanding universe: Δα = (−2.4±1.9)°. The polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation (CMB) is reviewed in the context of nonlinear electrodynamics (NLED). We compute the polarization angle of photons propagating in a cosmological background with planar symmetry. For this purpose, we use the Pagels-Tomboulis (PT) Lagrangian density describing NLED, which has the form L ∼ (X/Λ{sup 4}){sup δ−1} X, where X = ¼F{sub αβ}F{sup αβ}, and δ the parameter featuring the non-Maxwellian character of the PT nonlinear description of the electromagnetic interaction. After looking at the polarization components in the plane orthogonal to the (x)-direction of propagation of the CMB photons, the polarization angle is defined in terms of the eccentricity of the universe, a geometrical property whose evolution on cosmic time (from the last scattering surface to the present) is constrained by the strength of magnetic fields over extragalactic distances.
Detection of CMB lensing in Planck-HFI data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lavabre, Alexis
2011-01-01
The Planck satellite is the third generation experiment dedicated to the observation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The resolution and sensibility of its instruments allow for the first time the detection of the weak lensing effect on CMB. This thesis present a original detection method of this effect in the data of the HFI instrument of Planck.The first part give a general description of the standard model of cosmology et the physics of the CMB. The part then presents the details of the weak lensing effect, concentrating on its impact on the CMB observables. This part ends with a description of the Planck satellite and its instruments.The second part, describes the set of simulations and analysis tools that I have developed allowing me to make the first measurement of the weak lensing effect on CMB. It presents the original method that I used which is based on a patch analysis of the full sky data, that is able to only take into account the less contaminated regions. This part also present the characterisation of the lensing potential estimator for masked maps in the presence of inhomogeneous noise and introduce a method, based on Monte-Carlo simulations, that is used to correct for the bias produced by the analysis method.The last part, concentrates on the work on HFI data. The first chapter presents the application of the above method to the maps of the combined observations at 143 GHz and 217 GHz and the maps from component separation using GMCA algorithm. The results show a deflection power spectrum compatible with the one expect in a lambda CMB universe, calculated with the cosmological parameters estimated by WMAP including seven years of observations. Using the points, from the combined estimation from the 143 GHz and 217 GHz maps, for multipole smaller than 500, gives a 1.26 Chi2 by degree of freedom. Finally, the last chapter presents the compression algorithm used onboard to compression HFI data. It gives the details of the tuning and the
ANALYSIS OF WMAP 7 YEAR TEMPERATURE DATA: ASTROPHYSICS OF THE GALACTIC HAZE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pietrobon, Davide; Gorski, Krzysztof M.; Bartlett, James; Colombo, Loris P. L.; Jewell, Jeffrey B.; Pagano, Luca; Rocha, Graca; Lawrence, Charles R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 (United States); Banday, A. J. [Universie de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Dobler, Gregory [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara Kohn Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Hildebrandt, Sergi R. [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Eriksen, Hans Kristian [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway); Saha, Rajib, E-mail: davide.pietrobon@jpl.nasa.gov [Physics Department, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Bhopal, Bhopal, MP 462023 (India)
2012-08-10
We perform a joint analysis of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and Galactic emission from the WMAP 7 year temperature data. Using the Commander code, based on Gibbs sampling, we simultaneously derive the CMB and Galactic components on scales larger than 1 Degree-Sign with improved sensitivity over previous work. We conduct a detailed study of the low-frequency Galactic foreground, focusing on the 'microwave haze' emission around the Galactic center. We demonstrate improved performance in quantifying the diffuse Galactic emission when including Haslam 408 MHz data and when jointly modeling the spinning and thermal dust emission. We examine whether the hypothetical Galactic haze can be explained by a spatial variation of the synchrotron spectral index, and find that the excess of emission around the Galactic center is stable with respect to variations of the foreground model. Our results demonstrate that the new Galactic foreground component-the microwave haze-is indeed present.
A String-Inspired Model for the Low-$\\ell$ CMB
Kitazawa, N.
2015-07-09
We present a semi--analytic exploration of some low--$\\ell$ angular power spectra inspired by "Brane Supersymmetry Breaking". This mechanism splits Bose and Fermi excitations in String Theory, leaving behind an exponential potential that is just too steep for the inflaton to emerge from the initial singularity while descending it. As a result, the scalar generically bounces against the exponential wall, which typically introduces an infrared depression and a pre--inflationary peak in the power spectrum of scalar perturbations. We elaborate on a possible link between this phenomenon and the low--$\\ell$ CMB. For the first 32 multipoles, combining the hard exponential with a milder one leading to $n_s\\simeq 0.96$ and with a small gaussian bump we have attained a reduction of $\\chi^{\\,2}$ to about 46% of the standard $\\Lambda$CDM setting, with both WMAP9 and PLANCK 2013 data. This result corresponds to a $\\chi^{\\,2}/DOF$ of about 0.45, to be compared with a $\\Lambda$CDM value of about 0.85. The preferred choices ...
Planck 2013 results. XV. CMB power spectra and likelihood
Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T.C.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Lindholm, V.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I.J.; Orieux, F.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Paykari, P.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rahlin, A.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ringeval, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Sanselme, L.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-01-01
We present the Planck likelihood, a complete statistical description of the two-point correlation function of the CMB temperature fluctuations. We use this likelihood to derive the Planck CMB power spectrum over three decades in l, covering 2 = 50, we employ a correlated Gaussian likelihood approximation based on angular cross-spectra derived from the 100, 143 and 217 GHz channels. We validate our likelihood through an extensive suite of consistency tests, and assess the impact of residual foreground and instrumental uncertainties on cosmological parameters. We find good internal agreement among the high-l cross-spectra with residuals of a few uK^2 at l <= 1000. We compare our results with foreground-cleaned CMB maps, and with cross-spectra derived from the 70 GHz Planck map, and find broad agreement in terms of spectrum residuals and cosmological parameters. The best-fit LCDM cosmology is in excellent agreement with preliminary Planck polarisation spectra. The standard LCDM cosmology is well constrained b...
Fowler, J. W.; Acquaviva, V.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aguirre, P.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J. W.; Barrientos, L. F.; Bassistelli, E. S.; Bond, J. R.; Brown, B.;
2010-01-01
We present a measurement of the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation observed at 148 GHz. The measurement uses maps with 1.4' angular resolution made with data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). The observations cover 228 deg(sup 2) of the southern sky, in a 4 deg. 2-wide strip centered on declination 53 deg. South. The CMB at arc minute angular scales is particularly sensitive to the Silk damping scale, to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect from galaxy dusters, and to emission by radio sources and dusty galaxies. After masking the 108 brightest point sources in our maps, we estimate the power spectrum between 600 less than l less than 8000 using the adaptive multi-taper method to minimize spectral leakage and maximize use of the full data set. Our absolute calibration is based on observations of Uranus. To verify the calibration and test the fidelity of our map at large angular scales, we cross-correlate the ACT map to the WMAP map and recover the WMAP power spectrum from 250 less than l less than 1150. The power beyond the Silk damping tail of the CMB (l approximately 5000) is consistent with models of the emission from point sources. We quantify the contribution of SZ clusters to the power spectrum by fitting to a model normalized to sigma 8 = 0.8. We constrain the model's amplitude A(sub sz) less than 1.63 (95% CL). If interpreted as a measurement of as, this implies sigma (sup SZ) (sub 8) less than 0.86 (95% CL) given our SZ model. A fit of ACT and WMAP five-year data jointly to a 6-parameter ACDM model plus point sources and the SZ effect is consistent with these results.
Searching for planar signatures in WMAP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abramo, L. Raul; Bernui, Armando; Pereira, Thiago S.
2009-01-01
We search for planar deviations of statistical isotropy in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data by applying a recently introduced angular-planar statistics both to full-sky and to masked temperature maps, including in our analysis the effect of the residual foreground contamination and systematics in the foreground removing process as sources of error. We confirm earlier findings that full-sky maps exhibit anomalies at the planar (l) and angular (l) scales (l,l) = (2,5),(4,7), and (6,8), which seem to be due to unremoved foregrounds since this features are present in the full-sky map but not in the masked maps. On the other hand, our test detects slightly anomalous results at the scales (l,l) = (10,8) and (2,9) in the masked maps but not in the full-sky one, indicating that the foreground cleaning procedure (used to generate the full-sky map) could not only be creating false anomalies but also hiding existing ones. We also find a significant trace of an anomaly in the full-sky map at the scale (l,l) = (10,5), which is still present when we consider galactic cuts of 18.3% and 28.4%. As regards the quadrupole (l = 2), we find a coherent over-modulation over the whole celestial sphere, for all full-sky and cut-sky maps. Overall, our results seem to indicate that current CMB maps derived from WMAP data do not show significant signs of anisotropies, as measured by our angular-planar estimator. However, we have detected a curious coherence of planar modulations at angular scales of the order of the galaxy's plane, which may be an indication of residual contaminations in the full- and cut-sky maps
WMAP constraints on k-inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Devi, N. Chandrachani; Sen, Anjan A.; Nautiyal, Akhilesh
2011-01-01
We study the k-inflation models where the inflaton field has a noncanonical kinetic term. In particular, we consider the Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) form for the kinetic energy of the inflaton field. We consider quadratic and quartic potentials as well as the potential for the natural inflation. We use a modified version of MODECODE[M. J. Mortonson, H. V. Peiris, and R. Easther, Phys. Rev. D 83, 043505 (2011).] to calculate the power spectrum of the primordial perturbations generated by the inflaton field and subsequently use the WMAP7 results to constrain the models. Interestingly, with the DBI type kinetic term, less gravity waves are produced as one approaches scale invariance. This is true for all the potentials considered. Unlike the canonical case, this feature, in particular, helps the quartic (λφ 4 ) potential with the DBI type kinetic term to be consistent with the WMAP data.
Using Big Bang Nucleosynthesis to extend CMB probes of neutrino physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shimon, M.; Miller, N.J.; Fuller, G.M.; Keating, B.G. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 92093 (United States); Kishimoto, C.T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 90095 (United States); Smith, C.J., E-mail: meirs@mamacass.ucsd.edu, E-mail: nmiller@physics.ucsd.edu, E-mail: ckishimo@physics.ucsd.edu, E-mail: christel.smith@asu.edu, E-mail: gfuller@ucsd.edu, E-mail: bkeating@ucsd.edu [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, 85287 (United States)
2010-05-01
We present calculations showing that upcoming Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiments will have the power to improve on current constraints on neutrino masses and provide new limits on neutrino degeneracy parameters. The latter could surpass those derived from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the observationally-inferred primordial helium abundance. These conclusions derive from our Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) simulations which incorporate a full BBN nuclear reaction network. This provides a self-consistent treatment of the helium abundance, the baryon number, the three individual neutrino degeneracy parameters and other cosmological parameters. Our analysis focuses on the effects of gravitational lensing on CMB constraints on neutrino rest mass and degeneracy parameter. We find for the PLANCK experiment that total (summed) neutrino mass M{sub ν} > 0.29 eV could be ruled out at 2σ or better. Likewise neutrino degeneracy parameters ξ{sub ν{sub e}} > 0.11 and |ξ{sub ν{sub μ{sub /{sub τ}}}}| > 0.49 could be detected or ruled out at 2σ confidence, or better. For POLARBEAR we find that the corresponding detectable values are M{sub ν} > 0.75 eV, ξ{sub ν{sub e}} > 0.62, and |ξ{sub ν{sub μ{sub /{sub τ}}}}| > 1.1, while for EPIC we obtain M{sub ν} > 0.20 eV, ξ{sub ν{sub e}} > 0.045, and |ξ{sub ν{sub μ{sub /{sub τ}}}}| > 0.29. Our forcast for EPIC demonstrates that CMB observations have the potential to set constraints on neutrino degeneracy parameters which are better than BBN-derived limits and an order of magnitude better than current WMAP-derived limits.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Timmons, Nicholas; Cooray, Asantha; Feng, Chang [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Keating, Brian [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)
2017-11-01
We measure the cosmic microwave background (CMB) skewness power spectrum in Planck , using frequency maps of the HFI instrument and the Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (SZ) component map. The two-to-one skewness power spectrum measures the cross-correlation between CMB lensing and the thermal SZ effect. We also directly measure the same cross-correlation using the Planck CMB lensing map and the SZ map and compare it to the cross-correlation derived from the skewness power spectrum. We model fit the SZ power spectrum and CMB lensing–SZ cross-power spectrum via the skewness power spectrum to constrain the gas pressure profile of dark matter halos. The gas pressure profile is compared to existing measurements in the literature including a direct estimate based on the stacking of SZ clusters in Planck .
Primordial helium abundance from CMB: A constraint from recent observations and a forecast
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ichikawa, Kazuhide; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Takahashi, Tomo
2008-01-01
We studied a constraint on the primordial helium abundance Y p from current and future observations of CMB. Using the currently available data from WMAP, ACBAR, CBI, and BOOMERANG, we obtained the constraint as Y p =0.25 -0.07 +0.10 at 68% confidence level. We also provide a forecast for the Planck experiment using the Markov chain Monte Carlo approach. In addition to forecasting the constraint on Y p , we investigate how assumptions for Y p affect constraints on the other cosmological parameters.
Using the CMB angular power spectrum to study Dark Matter-photon interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilkinson, Ryan J.; Boehm, Céline; Lesgourgues, Julien
2014-01-01
In this paper, we explore the impact of Dark Matter-photon interactions on the CMB angular power spectrum. Using the one-year data release of the Planck satellite, we derive an upper bound on the Dark Matter-photon elastic scattering cross section of σ DM−γ ≤ 8 × 10 −31 (m DM /GeV) cm 2 (68% CL) if the cross section is constant and a present-day value of σ DM−γ ≤ 6 × 10 −40 (m DM /GeV) cm 2 (68% CL) if it scales as the temperature squared. For such a limiting cross section, both the B-modes and the TT angular power spectrum are suppressed with respect to ΛCDM predictions for ℓ∼>500 and ℓ∼>3000 respectively, indicating that forthcoming data from CMB polarisation experiments and Planck could help to constrain and characterise the physics of the dark sector. This essentially initiates a new type of dark matter search that is independent of whether dark matter is annihilating, decaying or asymmetric. Thus, any CMB experiment with the ability to measure the temperature and/or polarisation power spectra at high ℓ should be able to investigate the potential interactions of dark matter and contribute to our fundamental understanding of its nature
Reionization history and CMB parameter estimation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dizgah, Azadeh Moradinezhad; Kinney, William H.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.
2013-01-01
We study how uncertainty in the reionization history of the universe affects estimates of other cosmological parameters from the Cosmic Microwave Background. We analyze WMAP7 data and synthetic Planck-quality data generated using a realistic scenario for the reionization history of the universe obtained from high-resolution numerical simulation. We perform parameter estimation using a simple sudden reionization approximation, and using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique proposed by Mortonson and Hu. We reach two main conclusions: (1) Adopting a simple sudden reionization model does not introduce measurable bias into values for other parameters, indicating that detailed modeling of reionization is not necessary for the purpose of parameter estimation from future CMB data sets such as Planck. (2) PCA analysis does not allow accurate reconstruction of the actual reionization history of the universe in a realistic case
Reionization history and CMB parameter estimation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dizgah, Azadeh Moradinezhad; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Kinney, William H.
2013-05-01
We study how uncertainty in the reionization history of the universe affects estimates of other cosmological parameters from the Cosmic Microwave Background. We analyze WMAP7 data and synthetic Planck-quality data generated using a realistic scenario for the reionization history of the universe obtained from high-resolution numerical simulation. We perform parameter estimation using a simple sudden reionization approximation, and using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique proposed by Mortonson and Hu. We reach two main conclusions: (1) Adopting a simple sudden reionization model does not introduce measurable bias into values for other parameters, indicating that detailed modeling of reionization is not necessary for the purpose of parameter estimation from future CMB data sets such as Planck. (2) PCA analysis does not allow accurate reconstruction of the actual reionization history of the universe in a realistic case.
WMAP constraints on inflationary models with global defects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bevis, Neil; Hindmarsh, Mark; Kunz, Martin
2004-01-01
We use the cosmic microwave background angular power spectra to place upper limits on the degree to which global defects may have aided cosmic structure formation. We explore this under the inflationary paradigm, but with the addition of textures resulting from the breaking of a global O(4) symmetry during the early stages of the Universe. As a measure of their contribution, we use the fraction of the temperature power spectrum that is attributed to the defects at a multipole of 10. However, we find a parameter degeneracy enabling a fit to the first-year WMAP data to be made even with a significant defect fraction. This degeneracy involves the baryon fraction and the Hubble constant, plus the normalization and tilt of the primordial power spectrum. Hence, constraints on these cosmological parameters are weakened. Combining the WMAP data with a constraint on the physical baryon fraction from big bang nucleosynthesis calculations and high-redshift deuterium abundance limits the extent of the degeneracy and gives an upper bound on the defect fraction of 0.13 (95% confidence)
Confronting quasi-exponential inflation with WMAP seven
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pal, Barun Kumar; Pal, Supratik; Basu, B.
2012-01-01
We confront quasi-exponential models of inflation with WMAP seven years dataset using Hamilton Jacobi formalism. With a phenomenological Hubble parameter, representing quasi exponential inflation, we develop the formalism and subject the analysis to confrontation with WMAP seven using the publicly available code CAMB. The observable parameters are found to fair extremely well with WMAP seven. We also obtain a ratio of tensor to scalar amplitudes which may be detectable in PLANCK
Probing the cosmological initial conditions using the CMB
Yadav, Amit P. S.
In the last few decades, advances in observational cosmology have given us a standard model of cosmology. The basic cosmological parameters have been laid out to high precision. Cosmologists have started asking questions about the nature of the cosmological initial conditions. Many ambitious experiments such as Planck satellite, EBEX, ACT, CAPMAP, QUaD, BICEP, SPIDER, QUIET, and GEM are underway. Experiments like these will provide us with a wealth of information about CMB polarization, CMB lensing, and polarization foregrounds. These experiments will be complemented with great observational campaigns to map the 3D structure in the Universe and new particle physics constraints from the Large Hadron Collider. In my graduate work I have made explicit how observations of the CMB temperature and E-polarization anisotropies can be combined to provide optimal constraints on models of the early universe at the highest energies. I have developed new ways of constraining models of the early universe using CMB temperature and polarization data. Inflation is one of the most promising theories of the early universe. Different inflationary models predict different amounts of non-Gaussian perturbations. Although any non-Gaussianity predicted by the canonical inflation model is very small, there exist models which can generate significant amounts of non-Gaussianities. Hence any characterization of non-Gaussianity of the primordial perturbations constrains the models of inflation. The information in the bispectrum (or higher order moments) is completely independent of the power spectrum constraints on the amplitude of primordial power spectrum (A), the scalar spectral index of the primordial power spectrum ns, and the running of the primordial power spectrum. My work has made it possible to extract the bispectrum information from large, high resolution CMB temperature and polarization data. We have demonstrated that the primordial adiabatic perturbations can be reconstructed using
Low-l CMB power loss in string inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pedro, Francisco G.; Westphal, Alexander
2013-09-15
The lack of power on large scales (l
Planck 2013 results. XV. CMB power spectra and likelihood
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T. C.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Orieux, F.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Paykari, P.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rahlin, A.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ringeval, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Sanselme, L.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-11-01
This paper presents the Planck 2013 likelihood, a complete statistical description of the two-point correlation function of the CMB temperature fluctuations that accounts for all known relevant uncertainties, both instrumental and astrophysical in nature. We use this likelihood to derive our best estimate of the CMB angular power spectrum from Planck over three decades in multipole moment, ℓ, covering 2 ≤ ℓ ≤ 2500. The main source of uncertainty at ℓ ≲ 1500 is cosmic variance. Uncertainties in small-scale foreground modelling and instrumental noise dominate the error budget at higher ℓs. For ℓ impact of residual foreground and instrumental uncertainties on the final cosmological parameters. We find good internal agreement among the high-ℓ cross-spectra with residuals below a few μK2 at ℓ ≲ 1000, in agreement with estimated calibration uncertainties. We compare our results with foreground-cleaned CMB maps derived from all Planck frequencies, as well as with cross-spectra derived from the 70 GHz Planck map, and find broad agreement in terms of spectrum residuals and cosmological parameters. We further show that the best-fit ΛCDM cosmology is in excellent agreement with preliminary PlanckEE and TE polarisation spectra. We find that the standard ΛCDM cosmology is well constrained by Planck from the measurements at ℓ ≲ 1500. One specific example is the spectral index of scalar perturbations, for which we report a 5.4σ deviation from scale invariance, ns = 1. Increasing the multipole range beyond ℓ ≃ 1500 does not increase our accuracy for the ΛCDM parameters, but instead allows us to study extensions beyond the standard model. We find no indication of significant departures from the ΛCDM framework. Finally, we report a tension between the Planck best-fit ΛCDM model and the low-ℓ spectrum in the form of a power deficit of 5-10% at ℓ ≲ 40, with a statistical significance of 2.5-3σ. Without a theoretically motivated model for
Slow-roll inflation and BB-mode angular power spectrum of CMB
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Malsawmtluangi, N.; Suresh, P.K. [University of Hyderabad, School of Physics, Hyderabad (India)
2016-05-15
The BB-mode correlation angular power spectrum of CMB is obtained by considering the primordial gravitational waves in the squeezed vacuum state for various inflationary models and results are compared with the joint analysis of the BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck 353 GHz data. The present results may constrain several models of inflation. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scodeller, S.; Rudjord, Oe.; Hansen, F. K.; Marinucci, D.; Geller, D.; Mayeli, A.
2011-01-01
Over the last few years, needlets have emerged as a useful tool for the analysis of cosmic microwave background (CMB) data. Our aim in this paper is first to introduce into the CMB literature a different form of needlets, known as Mexican needlets, first discussed in the mathematical literature by Geller and Mayeli. We then proceed with an extensive study of the properties of both standard and Mexican needlets; these properties depend on some parameters which can be tuned in order to optimize the performance for a given application. Our second aim in this paper is then to give practical advice on how to adjust these parameters for WMAP and Planck data in order to achieve the best properties for a given problem in CMB data analysis. In particular, we investigate localization properties in real and harmonic space and propose a recipe for quantifying the influence of galactic and point-source masks on the needlet coefficients. We also show that for certain parameter values, the Mexican needlets provide a close approximation to the Spherical Mexican Hat Wavelets (whence their name), with some advantages concerning their numerical implementation and derivation of their statistical properties.
Self-Calibration of CMB Polarimeters
Keating, Brian
2013-01-01
Precision measurements of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, especially experiments seeking to detect the odd-parity "B-modes", have far-reaching implications for cosmology. To detect the B-modes generated during inflation the flux response and polarization angle of these experiments must be calibrated to exquisite precision. While suitable flux calibration sources abound, polarization angle calibrators are deficient in many respects. Man-made polarized sources are often not located in the antenna's far-field, have spectral properties that are radically different from the CMB's, are cumbersome to implement and may be inherently unstable over the (long) duration these searches require to detect the faint signature of the inflationary epoch. Astrophysical sources suffer from time, frequency and spatial variability, are not visible from all CMB observatories, and none are understood with sufficient accuracy to calibrate future CMB polarimeters seeking to probe inflationary energy scales of ~1000 TeV. CMB TB and EB modes, expected to identically vanish in the standard cosmological model, can be used to calibrate CMB polarimeters. By enforcing the observed EB and TB power spectra to be consistent with zero, CMB polarimeters can be calibrated to levels not possible with man-made or astrophysical sources. All of this can be accomplished without any loss of observing time using a calibration source which is spectrally identical to the CMB B-modes. The calibration procedure outlined here can be used for any CMB polarimeter.
Cosmological parameters from SDSS and WMAP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tegmark, Max; Strauss, Michael A.; Bahcall, Neta A.; Schlegel, David; Finkbeiner, Douglas; Gunn, James E.; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Seljak, Uros; Ivezic, Zeljko; Knapp, Gillian R.; Lupton, Robert H.; Blanton, Michael R.; Scoccimarro, Roman; Hogg, David W.; Abazajian, Kevork; Xu Yongzhong; Dodelson, Scott; Sandvik, Havard; Wang Xiaomin; Jain, Bhuvnesh
2004-01-01
We measure cosmological parameters using the three-dimensional power spectrum P(k) from over 200 000 galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) in combination with Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and other data. Our results are consistent with a 'vanilla' flat adiabatic cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant without tilt (n s =1), running tilt, tensor modes, or massive neutrinos. Adding SDSS information more than halves the WMAP-only error bars on some parameters, tightening 1σ constraints on the Hubble parameter from h≅0.74 -0.07 +0.18 to h≅0.70 -0.03 +0.04 , on the matter density from Ω m ≅0.25±0.10 to Ω m ≅0.30±0.04 (1σ) and on neutrino masses from 0 ≅16.3 -1.8 +2.3 Gyr to t 0 ≅14.1 -0.9 +1.0 Gyr by adding SDSS and SN Ia data. Including tensors, running tilt, neutrino mass and equation of state in the list of free parameters, many constraints are still quite weak, but future cosmological measurements from SDSS and other sources should allow these to be substantially tightened
Constraints on models with a break in the primordial power spectrum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li Hong, E-mail: hongli@mail.ihep.ac.c [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 918-4, Beijing 100049 (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities (TPCSF), Chinese Academy of Science (China); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Xia Junqing [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Brandenberger, Robert [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 918-4, Beijing 100049 (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities (TPCSF), Chinese Academy of Science (China); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhang Xinmin [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 918-4, Beijing 100049 (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities (TPCSF), Chinese Academy of Science (China)
2010-07-05
One of the characteristics of the 'Matter Bounce' scenario, an alternative to cosmological inflation for producing a scale-invariant spectrum of primordial adiabatic fluctuations on large scales, is a break in the power spectrum at a characteristic scale, below which the spectral index changes from n{sub s}=1 to n{sub s}=3. We study the constraints which current cosmological data place on the location of such a break, and more generally on the position of the break and the slope at length scales smaller than the break. The observational data we use include the WMAP five-year data set (WMAP5), other CMB data from BOOMERanG, CBI, VSA, and ACBAR, large-scale structure data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS, their luminous red galaxies sample), Type Ia Supernovae data (the 'Union' compilation), and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Lyman-{alpha} forest power spectrum (Ly{alpha}) data. We employ the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to constrain the features in the primordial power spectrum which are motivated by the matter bounce model. We give an upper limit on the length scale where the break in the spectrum occurs.
Constraints on models with a break in the primordial power spectrum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Hong; Xia Junqing; Brandenberger, Robert; Zhang Xinmin
2010-01-01
One of the characteristics of the 'Matter Bounce' scenario, an alternative to cosmological inflation for producing a scale-invariant spectrum of primordial adiabatic fluctuations on large scales, is a break in the power spectrum at a characteristic scale, below which the spectral index changes from n s =1 to n s =3. We study the constraints which current cosmological data place on the location of such a break, and more generally on the position of the break and the slope at length scales smaller than the break. The observational data we use include the WMAP five-year data set (WMAP5), other CMB data from BOOMERanG, CBI, VSA, and ACBAR, large-scale structure data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS, their luminous red galaxies sample), Type Ia Supernovae data (the 'Union' compilation), and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Lyman-α forest power spectrum (Lyα) data. We employ the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to constrain the features in the primordial power spectrum which are motivated by the matter bounce model. We give an upper limit on the length scale where the break in the spectrum occurs.
CMB scale dependent non-Gaussianity from massive gravity during inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Domènech, Guillem; Hiramatsu, Takashi; Lin, Chunshan; Sasaki, Misao [Center for Gravitational Physics, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Shiraishi, Maresuke [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo, Chiba, 277-8583 (Japan); Wang, Yi, E-mail: guillem.domenech@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: hiramatz@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: chunshan.lin@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: shiraishi-m@t.kagawa-nct.ac.jp, E-mail: phyw@ust.hk [Department of Physics, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)
2017-05-01
We consider a cosmological model in which the tensor mode becomes massive during inflation, and study the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature and polarization bispectra arising from the mixing between the scalar mode and the massive tensor mode during inflation. The model assumes the existence of a preferred spatial frame during inflation. The local Lorentz invariance is already broken in cosmology due to the existence of a preferred rest frame. The existence of a preferred spatial frame further breaks the remaining local SO(3) invariance and in particular gives rise to a mass in the tensor mode. At linear perturbation level, we minimize our model so that the vector mode remains non-dynamical, while the scalar mode is the same as the one in single-field slow-roll inflation. At non-linear perturbation level, this inflationary massive graviton phase leads to a sizeable scalar-scalar-tensor coupling, much greater than the scalar-scalar-scalar one, as opposed to the conventional case. This scalar-scalar-tensor interaction imprints a scale dependent feature in the CMB temperature and polarization bispectra. Very intriguingly, we find a surprizing similarity between the predicted scale dependence and the scale-dependent non-Gaussianities at low multipoles hinted in the WMAP and Planck results.
CMB anomalies and the effects of local features of the inflaton potential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cadavid, Alexander Gallego [Kyoto University, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto (Japan); ICRANet, Pescara (Italy); Universidad de Antioquia, Instituto de Fisica, Medellin (Colombia); Romano, Antonio Enea [Kyoto University, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto (Japan); University of Torino, Department of Physics, Turin (Italy); Universidad de Antioquia, Instituto de Fisica, Medellin (Colombia); Gariazzo, Stefano [University of Torino, Department of Physics, Turin (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino, Turin (Italy); Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de Valencia), Paterna, Valencia (Spain)
2017-04-15
Recent analysis of the WMAP and Planck data have shown the presence of a dip and a bump in the spectrum of primordial perturbations at the scales k = 0.002 Mpc{sup -1}, respectively. We analyze for the first time the effects of a local feature in the inflaton potential to explain the observed deviations from scale invariance in the primordial spectrum. We perform a best-fit analysis of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation temperature and polarization data. The effects of the features can improve the agreement with observational data respect to the featureless model. The best-fit local feature affects the primordial curvature spectrum mainly in the region of the bump, leaving the spectrum unaffected on other scales. (orig.)
Dynamical 3-Space Predicts Hotter Early Universe: Resolves CMB-BBN 7-Li and 4-He Abundance Anomalies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cahill R. T.
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The observed abundances of 7-Li and 4-He are significantly inconsistent with the predictions from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN when using the $Lambda$CDM cosmological model together with the value for $Omega_B h^2 = 0.0224pm0.0009$ from WMAP CMB fluctuations, with the value from BBN required to fit observed abundances being $0.009 < Omega_B h^2 < 0.013$. The dynamical 3-space theory is shown to predict a 20% hotter universe in the radiation-dominated epoch, which then results in a remarkable parameter-free agreement between the BBN and the WMAP value for $Omega_B h^2$. The dynamical 3-space also gives a parameter-free fit to the supernova redshift data, and predicts that the flawed $Lambda$CDM model would require $Omega_Lambda = 0.73$ and $Omega_M = 0.27$ to fit the 3-space dynamics Hubble expansion, and independently of the supernova data. These results amount to the discovery of new physics for the early universe that is matched by numerous other successful observational and experimental tests.
Dynamical 3-Space Predicts Hotter Early Universe: Resolves CMB-BBN 7-Li and 4-He Abundance Anomalies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cahill R. T.
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The observed abundances of 7 Li and 4 He are significantly inconsistent with the pre- dictions from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN when using the CDM cosmolog- ical model together with the value for B h 2 = 0 : 0224 0 : 0009 from WMAP CMB fluctuations, with the value from BBN required to fit observed abundances being 0 : 009 < B h 2 < 0 : 013. The dynamical 3-space theory is shown to predict a 20% hot- ter universe in the radiation-dominated epoch, which then results in a remarkable parameter-free agreement between the BBN and the WMAP value for B h 2 . The dy- namical 3-space also gives a parameter-free fit to the supernova redshift data, and pre- dicts that the flawed CDM model would require = 0 : 73 and M = 0 : 27 to fit the 3-space dynamics Hubble expansion, and independently of the supernova data. These results amount to the discovery of new physics for the early universe that is matched by numerous other successful observational and experimental tests.
Constraining monodromy inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peiris, Hiranya V.; Easther, Richard; Flauger, Raphael
2013-01-01
We use cosmic microwave background (CMB) data from the 9-year WMAP release to derive constraints on monodromy inflation, which is characterized by a linear inflaton potential with a periodic modulation. We identify two possible periodic modulations that significantly improve the fit, lowering χ 2 by approximately 10 and 20. However, standard Bayesian model selection criteria assign roughly equal odds to the modulated potential and the unmodulated case. A modulated inflationary potential can generate substantial primordial non-Gaussianity with a specific and characteristic form. For the best-fit parameters to the WMAP angular power spectrum, the corresponding non-Gaussianity might be detectable in upcoming CMB data, allowing nontrivial consistency checks on the predictions of a modulated inflationary potential
Cosmic string induced CMB maps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Landriau, M.; Shellard, E. P. S.
2011-01-01
We compute maps of CMB temperature fluctuations seeded by cosmic strings using high resolution simulations of cosmic strings in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe. We create full-sky, 18 deg. and 3 deg. CMB maps, including the relevant string contribution at each resolution from before recombination to today. We extract the angular power spectrum from these maps, demonstrating the importance of recombination effects. We briefly discuss the probability density function of the pixel temperatures, their skewness, and kurtosis.
Neutrino cosmology after WMAP 7-year data and LHC first Z' bounds.
Anchordoqui, Luis Alfredo; Goldberg, Haim
2012-02-24
The gauge-extended U(1)(C)×SU(2)(L)×U(1)(I(R))×U(1)(L) model elevates the global symmetries of the standard model (baryon number B and lepton number L) to local gauge symmetries. The U(1)(L) symmetry leads to three superweakly interacting right-handed neutrinos. This also renders a B-L symmetry nonanomalous. The superweak interactions of these Dirac states permit ν(R) decoupling just above the QCD phase transition: 175 is < or approximately equal to T(ν(R))(dec)/MeV is < or approximately equal to 250. In this transitional region, the residual temperature ratio between ν(L) and ν(R) generates extra relativistic degrees of freedom at BBN and at the CMB epochs. Consistency with both WMAP 7-year data and recent estimates of the primordial 4He mass fraction is achieved for 3
COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND LIKELIHOOD APPROXIMATION BY A GAUSSIANIZED BLACKWELL-RAO ESTIMATOR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rudjord, Oe.; Groeneboom, N. E.; Eriksen, H. K.; Huey, Greg; Gorski, K. M.; Jewell, J. B.
2009-01-01
We introduce a new cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature likelihood approximation called the Gaussianized Blackwell-Rao estimator. This estimator is derived by transforming the observed marginal power spectrum distributions obtained by the CMB Gibbs sampler into standard univariate Gaussians, and then approximating their joint transformed distribution by a multivariate Gaussian. The method is exact for full-sky coverage and uniform noise and an excellent approximation for sky cuts and scanning patterns relevant for modern satellite experiments such as the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and Planck. The result is a stable, accurate, and computationally very efficient CMB temperature likelihood representation that allows the user to exploit the unique error propagation capabilities of the Gibbs sampler to high ls. A single evaluation of this estimator between l = 2 and 200 takes ∼0.2 CPU milliseconds, while for comparison, a singe pixel space likelihood evaluation between l = 2 and 30 for a map with ∼2500 pixels requires ∼20 s. We apply this tool to the five-year WMAP temperature data, and re-estimate the angular temperature power spectrum, C l , and likelihood, L(C l ), for l ≤ 200, and derive new cosmological parameters for the standard six-parameter ΛCDM model. Our spectrum is in excellent agreement with the official WMAP spectrum, but we find slight differences in the derived cosmological parameters. Most importantly, the spectral index of scalar perturbations is n s = 0.973 ± 0.014, 1.9σ away from unity and 0.6σ higher than the official WMAP result, n s = 0.965 ± 0.014. This suggests that an exact likelihood treatment is required to higher ls than previously believed, reinforcing and extending our conclusions from the three-year WMAP analysis. In that case, we found that the suboptimal likelihood approximation adopted between l = 12 and 30 by the WMAP team biased n s low by 0.4σ, while here we find that the same approximation
The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: CMB polarization at 200 < ℓ < 9000
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Naess, Sigurd; Allison, Rupert; Calabrese, Erminia [Sub-Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Hasselfield, Matthew [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); McMahon, Jeff; Coughlin, Kevin; Datta, Rahul [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48103 (United States); Niemack, Michael D.; De Bernardis, Francesco [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Addison, Graeme E.; Amiri, Mandana [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Ade, Peter A. R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff, Wales CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Battaglia, Nick [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Physics, 5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh PA 15213 (United States); Beall, James A.; Britton, Joe; Cho, Hsiao-mei [NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Bond, J Richard [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Crichton, Devin [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Das, Sudeep [Department of High Energy Physics, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Ave, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Devlin, Mark J., E-mail: sigurd.naess@astro.ox.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); and others
2014-10-01
We report on measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and celestial polarization at 146 GHz made with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter (ACTPol) in its first three months of observing. Four regions of sky covering a total of 270 square degrees were mapped with an angular resolution of 1.3'. The map noise levels in the four regions are between 11 and 17 μK-arcmin. We present TT, TE, EE, TB, EB, and BB power spectra from three of these regions. The observed E-mode polarization power spectrum, displaying six acoustic peaks in the range 200 < ℓ < 3000, is an excellent fit to the prediction of the best-fit cosmological models from WMAP9+ACT and Planck data. The polarization power spectrum, which mainly reflects primordial plasma velocity perturbations, provides an independent determination of cosmological parameters consistent with those based on the temperature power spectrum, which results mostly from primordial density perturbations. We find that without masking any point sources in the EE data at ℓ < 9000, the Poisson tail of the EE power spectrum due to polarized point sources has an amplitude less than 2.4 μ {sup 2} at ℓ = 3000 at 95% confidence. Finally, we report that the Crab Nebula, an important polarization calibration source at microwave frequencies, has 8.7% polarization with an angle of 150.7{sup o} ± 0.6{sup o} when smoothed with a 5' Gaussian beam.
Foreground removal from CMB temperature maps using an MLP neural network
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Jørgensen, H.E.
2008-01-01
the CMB temperature signal from the combined signal CMB and the foregrounds has been investigated. As a specific example, we have analysed simulated data, as expected from the ESA Planck CMB mission. A simple multilayer perceptron neural network with 2 hidden layers can provide temperature estimates over...... CMB signal it is essential to minimize the systematic errors in the CMB temperature determinations. Following the available knowledge of the spectral behavior of the Galactic foregrounds simple power law-like spectra have been assumed. The feasibility of using a simple neural network for extracting...
Testing Cosmology with Cosmic Sound Waves
Corasaniti, Pier Stefano
2008-01-01
WMAP observations have accurately determined the position of the first two peaks and dips in the CMB temperature power spectrum. These encode information on the ratio of the distance to the last scattering surface to the sound horizon at decoupling. However pre-recombination processes can contaminate this distance information. In order to assess the amplitude of these effects we use the WMAP data and evaluate the relative differences of the CMB peaks and dips multipoles. We find that the position of the first peak is largely displaced with the respect to the expected position of the sound horizon scale at decoupling. In contrast the relative spacings of the higher extrema are statistically consistent with those expected from perfect harmonic oscillations. This provides evidence for a scale dependent phase shift of the CMB oscillations which is caused by gravitational driving forces affecting the propagation of sound waves before recombination. By accounting for these effects we have performed a MCMC likelihoo...
The effects of the small-scale behaviour of dark matter power spectrum on CMB spectral distortion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sarkar, Abir; Sethi, Shiv K. [Raman Research Institute, CV Raman Ave Sadashivnagar, Bengaluru, Karnataka 560080 (India); Das, Subinoy, E-mail: abir@rri.res.in, E-mail: sethi@rri.res.in, E-mail: subinoy@iiap.res.in [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, 100 Feet Rd, Madiwala, 2nd Block, Koramangala, Bengaluru, Karnataka 560034 (India)
2017-07-01
After numerous astronomical and experimental searches, the precise particle nature of dark matter is still unknown. The standard Weakly Interacting Massive Particle(WIMP) dark matter, despite successfully explaining the large-scale features of the universe, has long-standing small-scale issues. The spectral distortion in the Cosmic Microwave Background(CMB) caused by Silk damping in the pre-recombination era allows one to access information on a range of small scales 0.3 Mpc < k < 10{sup 4} Mpc{sup −1}, whose dynamics can be precisely described using linear theory. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of using the Silk damping induced CMB spectral distortion as a probe of the small-scale power. We consider four suggested alternative dark matter candidates—Warm Dark Matter (WDM), Late Forming Dark Matter (LFDM), Ultra Light Axion (ULA) dark matter and Charged Decaying Dark Matter (CHDM); the matter power in all these models deviate significantly from the ΛCDM model at small scales. We compute the spectral distortion of CMB for these alternative models and compare our results with the ΛCDM model. We show that the main impact of alternative models is to alter the sub-horizon evolution of the Newtonian potential which affects the late-time behaviour of spectral distortion of CMB. The y -parameter diminishes by a few percent as compared to the ΛCDM model for a range of parameters of these models: LFDM for formation redshift z {sub f} = 10{sup 5} (7%); WDM for mass m {sub wdm} = 1 keV (2%); CHDM for decay redshift z {sub decay} = 10{sup 5} (5%); ULA for mass m {sub a} = 10{sup −24} eV (3%). This effect from the pre-recombination era can be masked by orders of magnitude higher y -distortions generated by late-time sources, e.g. the Epoch of Reionization and tSZ from the cluster of galaxies. We also briefly discuss the detectability of this deviation in light of the upcoming CMB experiment PIXIE, which might have the sensitivity to detect this signal from
Contribution of domain wall networks to the CMB power spectrum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lazanu, A.; Martins, C.J.A.P.; Shellard, E.P.S.
2015-01-01
We use three domain wall simulations from the radiation era to the late-time dark energy domination era based on the PRS algorithm to calculate the energy–momentum tensor components of domain wall networks in an expanding universe. Unequal time correlators in the radiation, matter and cosmological constant epochs are calculated using the scaling regime of each of the simulations. The CMB power spectrum of a network of domain walls is determined. The first ever quantitative constraint for the domain wall surface tension is obtained using a Markov chain Monte Carlo method; an energy scale of domain walls of 0.93 MeV, which is close but below the Zel'dovich bound, is determined
Contribution of domain wall networks to the CMB power spectrum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lazanu, A., E-mail: A.Lazanu@damtp.cam.ac.uk [Centre for Theoretical Cosmology, Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Martins, C.J.A.P., E-mail: Carlos.Martins@astro.up.pt [Centro de Astrofísica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Shellard, E.P.S., E-mail: E.P.S.Shellard@damtp.cam.ac.uk [Centre for Theoretical Cosmology, Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)
2015-07-30
We use three domain wall simulations from the radiation era to the late-time dark energy domination era based on the PRS algorithm to calculate the energy–momentum tensor components of domain wall networks in an expanding universe. Unequal time correlators in the radiation, matter and cosmological constant epochs are calculated using the scaling regime of each of the simulations. The CMB power spectrum of a network of domain walls is determined. The first ever quantitative constraint for the domain wall surface tension is obtained using a Markov chain Monte Carlo method; an energy scale of domain walls of 0.93 MeV, which is close but below the Zel'dovich bound, is determined.
Contribution of domain wall networks to the CMB power spectrum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Lazanu
2015-07-01
Full Text Available We use three domain wall simulations from the radiation era to the late-time dark energy domination era based on the PRS algorithm to calculate the energy–momentum tensor components of domain wall networks in an expanding universe. Unequal time correlators in the radiation, matter and cosmological constant epochs are calculated using the scaling regime of each of the simulations. The CMB power spectrum of a network of domain walls is determined. The first ever quantitative constraint for the domain wall surface tension is obtained using a Markov chain Monte Carlo method; an energy scale of domain walls of 0.93 MeV, which is close but below the Zel'dovich bound, is determined.
Reconstruction of a direction-dependent primordial power spectrum from Planck CMB data
Durakovic, Amel; Hunt, Paul; Mukherjee, Suvodip; Sarkar, Subir; Souradeep, Tarun
2018-02-01
We consider the possibility that the primordial curvature perturbation is direction-dependent. To first order this is parameterised by a quadrupolar modulation of the power spectrum and results in statistical anisotropy of the CMB, which can be quantified using `bipolar spherical harmonics'. We compute these for the Planck DR2-2015 SMICA map and estimate the noise covariance from Planck Full Focal Plane 9 simulations. A constant quadrupolar modulation is detected with 2.2 σ significance, dropping to 2σ when the primordial power is assumed to scale with wave number k as a power law. Going beyond previous work we now allow the spectrum to have arbitrary scale-dependence. Our non-parametric reconstruction then suggests several spectral features, the most prominent at k ~ 0.006 Mpc‑1. When a constant quadrupolar modulation is fitted to data in the range 0.005 <= k/Mpc‑1 <= 0.008, its preferred directions are found to be related to the cosmic hemispherical asymmetry and the CMB dipole. To determine the significance we apply two test statistics to our reconstructions of the quadrupolar modulation from data, against reconstructions of realisations of noise only. With a test statistic sensitive only to the amplitude of the modulation, the reconstructions from the multipole range 30 <= l <= 1200 are unusual with 2.1σ significance. With the second test statistic, sensitive also to the direction, the significance rises to 6.9σ. Our approach is easily generalised to include other data sets such as polarisation, large-scale structure and forthcoming 21-cm line observations which will enable these anomalies to be investigated further.
Merkel, Philipp M.; Schäfer, Björn Malte
2017-10-01
Cross-correlating the lensing signals of galaxies and comic microwave background (CMB) fluctuations is expected to provide valuable cosmological information. In particular, it may help tighten constraints on parameters describing the properties of intrinsically aligned galaxies at high redshift. To access the information conveyed by the cross-correlation signal, its accurate theoretical description is required. We compute the bias to CMB lensing-galaxy shape cross-correlation measurements induced by non-linear structure growth. Using tree-level perturbation theory for the large-scale structure bispectrum, we find that the bias is negative on most angular scales, therefore mimicking the signal of intrinsic alignments. Combining Euclid-like galaxy lensing data with a CMB experiment comparable to the Planck satellite mission, the bias becomes significant only on smallest scales (ℓ ≳ 2500). For improved CMB observations, however, the corrections amount to 10-15 per cent of the CMB lensing-intrinsic alignment signal over a wide multipole range (10 ≲ ℓ ≲ 2000). Accordingly, the power spectrum bias, if uncorrected, translates into 2σ and 3σ errors in the determination of the intrinsic alignment amplitude in the case of CMB stage III and stage IV experiments, respectively.
Cosmology from CMB Polarization with POLARBEAR and the Simons Array
Barron, Darcy; POLARBEAR Collaboration
2018-01-01
POLARBEAR is a cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiment located in the Atacama desert in Chile. The science goals of the POLARBEAR project are to do a deep search for CMB B-mode polarization created by inflationary gravitational waves, as well as characterize the CMB B-mode signal from gravitational lensing. POLARBEAR-1 started observations in 2012, and the POLARBEAR team has published a series of results from its first season of observations, including the first measurement of a non-zero B-mode polarization angular power spectrum, measured at sub-degree scales where the dominant signal is gravitational lensing of the CMB. Recently, we released an improved measurement of the B-mode polarization power spectrum, improving our band-power uncertainties by a factor of two, by adding new data from our second observing season and re-analyzing the combined data set.To further improve on these measurements, POLARBEAR is expanding to include an additional two telescopes with multi-chroic receivers observing at 95, 150, 220, and 270 GHz, known as the Simons Array. With high sensitivity and large sky coverage, the Simons Array will create a detailed survey of B-mode polarization, and its spectral information will be used to extract the CMB signal from astrophysical foregrounds. We will present the latest POLARBEAR results, as well as the status of development of the Simons Array and its expected capabilities.
CMB probes on the correlated axion isocurvature perturbation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kadota, Kenji; Gong, Jinn-Ouk; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Matsubara, Takahiko
2015-01-01
We explore the possible cosmological consequence of the gravitational coupling between the inflaton and axion-like fields. In view of the forthcoming cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization and lensing data, we study the sensitivity of the CMB data on the cross-correlation between the curvature and axion isocurvature perturbations. Through a concrete example, we illustrate the explicit dependence of the scale dependent cross-correlation power spectrum on the axion parameters
Working Around Cosmic Variance: Remote Quadrupole Measurements of the CMB
Adil, Arsalan; Bunn, Emory
2018-01-01
Anisotropies in the CMB maps continue to revolutionize our understanding of the Cosmos. However, the statistical interpretation of these anisotropies is tainted with a posteriori statistics. The problem is particularly emphasized for lower order multipoles, i.e. in the cosmic variance regime of the power spectrum. Naturally, the solution lies in acquiring a new data set – a rather difficult task given the sample size of the Universe.The CMB temperature, in theory, depends on: the direction of photon propagation, the time at which the photons are observed, and the observer’s location in space. In existing CMB data, only the first parameter varies. However, as first pointed out by Kamionkowski and Loeb, a solution lies in making the so-called “Remote Quadrupole Measurements” by analyzing the secondary polarization produced by incoming CMB photons via the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich (SZ) effect. These observations allow us to measure the projected CMB quadrupole at the location and look-back time of a galaxy cluster.At low redshifts, the remote quadrupole is strongly correlated to the CMB anisotropy from our last scattering surface. We provide here a formalism for computing the covariance and relation matrices for both the two-point correlation function on the last scattering surface of a galaxy cluster and the cross correlation of the remote quadrupole with the local CMB. We then calculate these matrices based on a fiducial model and a non-standard model that suppresses power at large angles for ~104 clusters up to z=2. We anticipate to make a priori predictions of the differences between our expectations for the standard and non-standard models. Such an analysis is timely in the wake of the CMB S4 era which will provide us with an extensive SZ cluster catalogue.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamazaki, Dai G.; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Takahashi, Keitaro
2011-01-01
We study the effect of primordial magnetic fields (PMFs) on the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We assume the spectrum of PMFs is described by log-normal distribution which has a characteristic scale, rather than power-law spectrum. This scale is expected to reflect the generation mechanisms and our analysis is complementary to previous studies with power-law spectrum. We calculate power spectra of energy density and Lorentz force of the log-normal PMFs, and then calculate CMB temperature and polarization angular power spectra from scalar, vector, and tensor modes of perturbations generated from such PMFs. By comparing these spectra with WMAP7, QUaD, CBI, Boomerang, and ACBAR data sets, we find that the current CMB data set places the strongest constraint at k≅10 -2.5 Mpc -1 with the upper limit B < or approx. 3 nG.
Primordial gravitational waves measurements and anisotropies of CMB polarization rotation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Si-Yu Li
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Searching for the signal of primordial gravitational waves in the B-modes (BB power spectrum is one of the key scientific aims of the cosmic microwave background (CMB polarization experiments. However, this could be easily contaminated by several foreground issues, such as the interstellar dust grains and the galactic cyclotron electrons. In this paper we study another mechanism, the cosmic birefringence, which can be introduced by a CPT-violating interaction between CMB photons and an external scalar field. Such kind of interaction could give rise to the rotation of the linear polarization state of CMB photons, and consequently induce the CMB BB power spectrum, which could mimic the signal of primordial gravitational waves at large scales. With the recently released polarization data of BICEP2 and the joint analysis data of BICEP2/Keck Array and Planck, we perform a global fitting analysis on constraining the tensor-to-scalar ratio r by considering the polarization rotation angle [α(nˆ] which can be separated into a background isotropic part [α¯] and a small anisotropic part [Δα(nˆ]. Since the data of BICEP2 and Keck Array experiments have already been corrected by using the “self-calibration” method, here we mainly focus on the effects from the anisotropies of CMB polarization rotation angle. We find that including Δα(nˆ in the analysis could slightly weaken the constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r, when using current CMB polarization measurements. We also simulate the mock CMB data with the BICEP3-like sensitivity. Very interestingly, we find that if the effects of the anisotropic polarization rotation angle could not be taken into account properly in the analysis, the constraints on r will be dramatically biased. This implies that we need to break the degeneracy between the anisotropies of the CMB polarization rotation angle and the CMB primordial tensor perturbations, in order to measure the signal of primordial
Liu, Guo-Chin; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Sugiyama, Naoshi
2016-07-01
Scattering of cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation in galaxy clusters induces polarization signals determined by the quadrupole anisotropy in the photon distribution at the location of clusters. This `remote quadrupole' derived from the measurements of the induced polarization in galaxy clusters provides an opportunity to reconstruct local CMB temperature anisotropies. In this Letter, we develop an algorithm of the reconstruction through the estimation of the underlying primordial gravitational potential, which is the origin of the CMB temperature and polarization fluctuations and CMB induced polarization in galaxy clusters. We found a nice reconstruction for the quadrupole and octopole components of the CMB temperature anisotropies with the assistance of the CMB induced polarization signals. The reconstruction can be an important consistency test on the puzzles of CMB anomalies, especially for the low-quadrupole and axis-of-evil problems reported in Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and Planck data.
Pramana – Journal of Physics | Indian Academy of Sciences
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We present an overview of the implications of the WMAP data for particle physics. The standard parameter set and characterising the inflaton potential can be related to the power-law indices characterising deviation of the CMB spectrum from the scale invariant form. Different classes of inflation potentials are in turn ...
Weak lensing and CMB: Parameter forecasts including a running spectral index
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishak, Mustapha; Hirata, Christopher M.; McDonald, Patrick; Seljak, Uros
2004-01-01
We use statistical inference theory to explore the constraints from future galaxy weak lensing (cosmic shear) surveys combined with the current CMB constraints on cosmological parameters, focusing particularly on the running of the spectral index of the primordial scalar power spectrum, α s . Recent papers have drawn attention to the possibility of measuring α s by combining the CMB with galaxy clustering and/or the Lyman-α forest. Weak lensing combined with the CMB provides an alternative probe of the primordial power spectrum. We run a series of simulations with variable runnings and compare them to semianalytic nonlinear mappings to test their validity for our calculations. We find that a 'reference' cosmic shear survey with f sky =0.01 and 6.6x10 8 galaxies per steradian can reduce the uncertainty on n s and α s by roughly a factor of 2 relative to the CMB alone. We investigate the effect of shear calibration biases on lensing by including the calibration factor as a parameter, and show that for our reference survey, the precision of cosmological parameter determination is only slightly degraded even if the amplitude calibration is uncertain by as much as 5%. We conclude that in the near future weak lensing surveys can supplement the CMB observations to constrain the primordial power spectrum
Weiland, J. L.; Odegard, N.; Hill, R. S.; Wollack, E.; Hinshaw, G.; Greason, M. R.; Jarosik, N.; Page, L.; Bennett, C. L.; Dunkley, J.; Gold, B.; Halpern, M.; Kogut, A.; Komatsu, E.; Larson, D.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Nolta, M. R.; Smith, K. M.; Spergel, D. N.; Tucker, G. S.; Wright, E. L.
2011-02-01
We present WMAP seven-year observations of bright sources which are often used as calibrators at microwave frequencies. Ten objects are studied in five frequency bands (23-94 GHz): the outer planets (Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) and five fixed celestial sources (Cas A, Tau A, Cyg A, 3C274, and 3C58). The seven-year analysis of Jupiter provides temperatures which are within 1σ of the previously published WMAP five-year values, with slightly tighter constraints on variability with orbital phase (0.2% ± 0.4%), and limits (but no detections) on linear polarization. Observed temperatures for both Mars and Saturn vary significantly with viewing geometry. Scaling factors are provided which, when multiplied by the Wright Mars thermal model predictions at 350 μm, reproduce WMAP seasonally averaged observations of Mars within ~2%. An empirical model is described which fits brightness variations of Saturn due to geometrical effects and can be used to predict the WMAP observations to within 3%. Seven-year mean temperatures for Uranus and Neptune are also tabulated. Uncertainties in Uranus temperatures are 3%-4% in the 41, 61, and 94 GHz bands; the smallest uncertainty for Neptune is 8% for the 94 GHz band. Intriguingly, the spectrum of Uranus appears to show a dip at ~30 GHz of unidentified origin, although the feature is not of high statistical significance. Flux densities for the five selected fixed celestial sources are derived from the seven-year WMAP sky maps and are tabulated for Stokes I, Q, and U, along with polarization fraction and position angle. Fractional uncertainties for the Stokes I fluxes are typically 1% to 3%. Source variability over the seven-year baseline is also estimated. Significant secular decrease is seen for Cas A and Tau A: our results are consistent with a frequency-independent decrease of about 0.53% per year for Cas A and 0.22% per year for Tau A. We present WMAP polarization data with uncertainties of a few percent for Tau A
Mukherjee, Suvodip; Souradeep, Tarun
2016-06-03
Recent measurements of the temperature field of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) provide tantalizing evidence for violation of statistical isotropy (SI) that constitutes a fundamental tenet of contemporary cosmology. CMB space based missions, WMAP, and Planck have observed a 7% departure in the SI temperature field at large angular scales. However, due to higher cosmic variance at low multipoles, the significance of this measurement is not expected to improve from any future CMB temperature measurements. We demonstrate that weak lensing of the CMB due to scalar perturbations produces a corresponding SI violation in B modes of CMB polarization at smaller angular scales. The measurability of this phenomenon depends upon the scales (l range) over which power asymmetry is present. Power asymmetry, which is restricted only to l<64 in the temperature field, cannot lead to any significant observable effect from this new window. However, this effect can put an independent bound on the spatial range of scales of hemispherical asymmetry present in the scalar sector.
Dark matter CMB constraints and likelihoods for poor particle physicists
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cline, James M.; Scott, Pat, E-mail: jcline@physics.mcgill.ca, E-mail: patscott@physics.mcgill.ca [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montréal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada)
2013-03-01
The cosmic microwave background provides constraints on the annihilation and decay of light dark matter at redshifts between 100 and 1000, the strength of which depends upon the fraction of energy ending up in the form of electrons and photons. The resulting constraints are usually presented for a limited selection of annihilation and decay channels. Here we provide constraints on the annihilation cross section and decay rate, at discrete values of the dark matter mass m{sub χ}, for all the annihilation and decay channels whose secondary spectra have been computed using PYTHIA in arXiv:1012.4515 (''PPPC 4 DM ID: a poor particle physicist cookbook for dark matter indirect detection''), namely e, μ, τ, V → e, V → μ, V → τ, u, d s, c, b, t, γ, g, W, Z and h. By interpolating in mass, these can be used to find the CMB constraints and likelihood functions from WMAP7 and Planck for a wide range of dark matter models, including those with annihilation or decay into a linear combination of different channels.
Dark matter CMB constraints and likelihoods for poor particle physicists
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cline, James M.; Scott, Pat
2013-01-01
The cosmic microwave background provides constraints on the annihilation and decay of light dark matter at redshifts between 100 and 1000, the strength of which depends upon the fraction of energy ending up in the form of electrons and photons. The resulting constraints are usually presented for a limited selection of annihilation and decay channels. Here we provide constraints on the annihilation cross section and decay rate, at discrete values of the dark matter mass m χ , for all the annihilation and decay channels whose secondary spectra have been computed using PYTHIA in arXiv:1012.4515 (''PPPC 4 DM ID: a poor particle physicist cookbook for dark matter indirect detection''), namely e, μ, τ, V → e, V → μ, V → τ, u, d s, c, b, t, γ, g, W, Z and h. By interpolating in mass, these can be used to find the CMB constraints and likelihood functions from WMAP7 and Planck for a wide range of dark matter models, including those with annihilation or decay into a linear combination of different channels
Testing inflation and curvaton scenarios with CMB distortions
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Clesse, Sébastien; Garbrecht, Björn; Zhu, Yi
2014-01-01
Prior to recombination, Silk damping causes the dissipation of energy from acoustic waves into the monopole of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), resulting in spectral distortions. These can be used to probe the primordial scalar power spectrum on smaller scales than it is possible with CMB anisotropies. An enhancement of power on these scales is nevertheless required for the resulting distortions to be detectable by future experiments like PIXIE. In this paper, we examine all 49 single-field inflation models listed by Martin et al. in the Encyclopaedia Inflationaris [1] and find that only one of these may lead to a detectable level of distortions in a tuned region of its parameter space, namely the original hybrid model. Three effective multi-field scenarios are also studied: with softly and suddenly turning trajectories, and with a mild waterfall trajectory. Softly turning trajectories do not induce distortions at any detectable level, whereas a sudden turn in the field space or a mild waterfall trajectory predicts a peak (plus damped oscillations in the sudden turn case) in the scalar power spectrum, which can lead to an observable amount of CMB distortions. Finally, another scenario leading to potentially detectable distortions involves a curvaton whose blue spectrum is subdominant on CMB angular scales and overtakes the inflaton spectrum on smaller scales. In this case however, we show that the bounds from ultra compact minihaloes are not satisfied. Expectations for an ultimate PRISM-class experiment characterized by an improvement in sensitivity by a factor of ten are discussed for some models
Testing inflation and curvaton scenarios with CMB distortions
Clesse, Sébastien; Garbrecht, Björn; Zhu, Yi
2014-10-01
Prior to recombination, Silk damping causes the dissipation of energy from acoustic waves into the monopole of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), resulting in spectral distortions. These can be used to probe the primordial scalar power spectrum on smaller scales than it is possible with CMB anisotropies. An enhancement of power on these scales is nevertheless required for the resulting distortions to be detectable by future experiments like PIXIE. In this paper, we examine all 49 single-field inflation models listed by Martin et al. in the Encyclopaedia Inflationaris [1] and find that only one of these may lead to a detectable level of distortions in a tuned region of its parameter space, namely the original hybrid model. Three effective multi-field scenarios are also studied: with softly and suddenly turning trajectories, and with a mild waterfall trajectory. Softly turning trajectories do not induce distortions at any detectable level, whereas a sudden turn in the field space or a mild waterfall trajectory predicts a peak (plus damped oscillations in the sudden turn case) in the scalar power spectrum, which can lead to an observable amount of CMB distortions. Finally, another scenario leading to potentially detectable distortions involves a curvaton whose blue spectrum is subdominant on CMB angular scales and overtakes the inflaton spectrum on smaller scales. In this case however, we show that the bounds from ultra compact minihaloes are not satisfied. Expectations for an ultimate PRISM-class experiment characterized by an improvement in sensitivity by a factor of ten are discussed for some models.
Hill, J Colin; Ferraro, Simone; Battaglia, Nick; Liu, Jia; Spergel, David N
2016-07-29
The kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (KSZ) effect-the Doppler boosting of cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons due to Compton scattering off free electrons with nonzero bulk velocity-probes the abundance and the distribution of baryons in the Universe. All KSZ measurements to date have explicitly required spectroscopic redshifts. Here, we implement a novel estimator for the KSZ-large-scale structure cross-correlation based on projected fields: it does not require redshift estimates for individual objects, allowing KSZ measurements from large-scale imaging surveys. We apply this estimator to cleaned CMB temperature maps constructed from Planck and WMAP data and a galaxy sample from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We measure the KSZ effect at 3.8σ-4.5σ significance, depending on the use of additional WISE galaxy bias constraints. We verify that our measurements are robust to possible dust emission from the WISE galaxies. Assuming the standard Λ cold dark matter cosmology, we directly constrain (f_{b}/0.158)(f_{free}/1.0)=1.48±0.19 (statistical error only) at redshift z≈0.4, where f_{b} is the fraction of matter in baryonic form and f_{free} is the free electron fraction. This is the tightest KSZ-derived constraint reported to date on these parameters. Astronomers have long known that baryons do not trace dark matter on ∼ kiloparsec scales and there has been strong evidence that galaxies are baryon poor. The consistency between the f_{b} value found here and the values inferred from analyses of the primordial CMB and big bang nucleosynthesis verifies that baryons approximately trace the dark matter distribution down to ∼ megaparsec scales. While our projected-field estimator is already competitive with other KSZ approaches when applied to current data sets (because we are able to use the full-sky WISE photometric survey), it will yield enormous signal-to-noise ratios when applied to upcoming high-resolution, multifrequency CMB surveys.
The X-ray emission mechanism of large scale powerful quasar jets: Fermi rules out IC/CMB for 3C 273.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Georganopoulos Markos
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The process responsible for the Chandra-detected X-ray emission from the large-scale jets of powerful quasars is not clear yet. The two main models are inverse Compton scattering off the cosmic microwave background photons (IC/CMB and synchrotron emission from a population of electrons separate from those producing the radio-IR emission. These two models imply radically different conditions in the large scale jet in terms of jet speed, kinetic power, and maximum energy of the particle acceleration mechanism, with important implications for the impact of the jet on the larger-scale environment. Georganopoulos et al. (2006 proposed a diagnostic based on a fundamental difference between these two models: the production of synchrotron X-rays requires multi-TeV electrons, while the EC/CMB model requires a cutoff in the electron energy distribution below TeV energies. This has significant implications for the γ-ray emission predicted by these two models. Here we present new Fermi observations that put an upper limit on the gamma-ray flux from the large-scale jet of 3C 273 that clearly violates the flux expected from the IC/CMB X-ray interpretation found by extrapolation of the UV to X-ray spectrum of knot A, thus ruling out the IC/CMB interpretation entirely for this source. Further, the upper limit from Fermi puts a limit on the Doppler beaming factor of at least δ <9, assuming equipartition fields, and possibly as low as δ <5 assuming no major deceleration of the jet from knots A through D1.
[Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Anisotropies
Silk, Joseph
1998-01-01
One of the main areas of research is the theory of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and analysis of CMB data. Using the four year COBE data we were able to improve existing constraints on global shear and vorticity. We found that, in the flat case (which allows for greatest anisotropy), (omega/H)0 less than 10(exp -7), where omega is the vorticity and H is the Hubble constant. This is two orders of magnitude lower than the tightest, previous constraint. We have defined a new set of statistics which quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity in small field cosmic microwave background maps. By looking at the distribution of power around rings in Fourier space, and at the correlations between adjacent rings, one can identify non-Gaussian features which are masked by large scale Gaussian fluctuations. This may be particularly useful for identifying unresolved localized sources and line-like discontinuities. Levin and collaborators devised a method to determine the global geometry of the universe through observations of patterns in the hot and cold spots of the CMB. We have derived properties of the peaks (maxima) of the CMB anisotropies expected in flat and open CDM models. We represent results for angular resolutions ranging from 5 arcmin to 20 arcmin (antenna FWHM), scales that are relevant for the MAP and COBRA/SAMBA space missions and the ground-based interferometer. Results related to galaxy formation and evolution are also discussed.
The effects of the small-scale behaviour of dark matter power spectrum on CMB spectral distortion
Sarkar, Abir; Sethi, Shiv. K.; Das, Subinoy
2017-07-01
After numerous astronomical and experimental searches, the precise particle nature of dark matter is still unknown. The standard Weakly Interacting Massive Particle(WIMP) dark matter, despite successfully explaining the large-scale features of the universe, has long-standing small-scale issues. The spectral distortion in the Cosmic Microwave Background(CMB) caused by Silk damping in the pre-recombination era allows one to access information on a range of small scales 0.3 Mpc Light Axion (ULA) dark matter and Charged Decaying Dark Matter (CHDM); the matter power in all these models deviate significantly from the ΛCDM model at small scales. We compute the spectral distortion of CMB for these alternative models and compare our results with the ΛCDM model. We show that the main impact of alternative models is to alter the sub-horizon evolution of the Newtonian potential which affects the late-time behaviour of spectral distortion of CMB. The y-parameter diminishes by a few percent as compared to the ΛCDM model for a range of parameters of these models: LFDM for formation redshift zf = 105 (7%); WDM for mass mwdm = 1 keV (2%); CHDM for decay redshift zdecay = 105 (5%); ULA for mass ma = 10-24 eV (3%). This effect from the pre-recombination era can be masked by orders of magnitude higher y-distortions generated by late-time sources, e.g. the Epoch of Reionization and tSZ from the cluster of galaxies. We also briefly discuss the detectability of this deviation in light of the upcoming CMB experiment PIXIE, which might have the sensitivity to detect this signal from the pre-recombination phase.
A LAST LOOK AT THE MICROWAVE HAZE/BUBBLES WITH WMAP
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dobler, Gregory, E-mail: dobler@kitp.ucsb.edu [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara Kohn Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)
2012-05-01
The microwave 'haze' was first discovered with the initial release of the full sky data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). It is diffuse emission toward the center of our Galaxy with spectral behavior that makes it difficult to categorize as any of the previously known emission mechanisms at those wavelengths. With now seven years of WMAP data publicly available, we have learned much about the nature of the haze, and with the release of data from the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope and the discovery of the gamma-ray haze/bubbles, we have had a spectacular confirmation of its existence at other wavelengths. As the WMAP mission winds down and the Planck mission prepares to release data, I take a last look at what WMAP has to tell us about the origin of this unique Galactic feature. Much like the gamma rays, the microwave haze/bubbles is/are elongated in latitude with respect to longitude by a factor of roughly two, and at high latitudes, the microwave emission cuts off sharply above {approx}35 Degree-Sign (compared to {approx}50 Degree-Sign in the gammas). The hard spectrum of electrons required to generate the microwave synchrotron is consistent with that required to generate gamma-ray emission via inverse Compton scattering, though it is likely that these signals result from distinct regions of the spectrum ({approx}10 GeV for the microwaves and {approx}1 TeV for the gammas). While there is no evidence for significant haze polarization in the seven-year WMAP data, I demonstrate explicitly that it is unlikely such a signal would be detectable above the noise.
Natural inflation: Status after WMAP 3-year data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savage, Christopher; Freese, Katherine; Kinney, William H.
2006-01-01
The model of natural inflation is examined in light of recent 3-year data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and shown to provide a good fit. The inflaton potential is naturally flat due to shift symmetries, and in the simplest version takes the form V(φ)=Λ 4 [1±cos(Nφ/f)]. The model agrees with WMAP3 measurements as long as f>0.7m Pl (where m Pl =1.22x10 19 GeV) and Λ∼m GUT . The running of the scalar spectral index is shown to be small--an order of magnitude below the sensitivity of WMAP3. The location of the field in the potential when perturbations on observable scales are produced is examined; for f>5m Pl , the relevant part of the potential is indistinguishable from a quadratic, yet has the advantage that the required flatness is well-motivated. Depending on the value of f, the model falls into the large field (f≥1.5m Pl ) or small field (f Pl ) classification scheme that has been applied to inflation models. Natural inflation provides a good fit to WMAP3 data
Testing alternative theories of dark matter with the CMB
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Baojiu; Barrow, John D.; Mota, David F.; Zhao, HongSheng
2008-01-01
We propose a method to study and constrain modified gravity theories for dark matter using CMB temperature anisotropies and polarization. We assume that the theories considered here have already passed the matter power-spectrum test of large-scale structure. With this requirement met, we show that a modified gravity theory can be specified by parametrizing the time evolution of its dark-matter density contrast, which is completely controlled by the dark-matter stress history. We calculate how the stress history with a given parametrization affects the CMB observables, and a qualitative discussion of the physical effects involved is supplemented with numerical examples. It is found that, in general, alternative gravity theories can be efficiently constrained by the CMB temperature and polarization spectra. There exist, however, special cases where modified gravity cannot be distinguished from the CDM model even by using both CMB and matter power spectrum observations, nor can they be efficiently restricted by other observables in perturbed cosmologies. Our results show how the stress properties of dark matter, which determine the evolutions of both density perturbations and the gravitational potential, can be effectively investigated using just the general conservation equations and without assuming any specific theoretical gravitational theory within a wide class.
Planck 2013 results. XV. CMB power spectra and likelihood
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tauber, Jan; Bartlett, J.G.; Bucher, M.
2014-01-01
This paper presents the Planck 2013 likelihood, a complete statistical description of the two-point correlation function of the CMB temperature fluctuations that accounts for all known relevant uncertainties, both instrumental and astrophysical in nature. We use this likelihood to derive our best...
Foreground removal from CMB temperature maps using an MLP neural network
Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Jørgensen, H. E.
2008-12-01
One of the main obstacles for extracting the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) signal from observations in the mm-submm range is the foreground contamination by emission from Galactic components: mainly synchrotron, free-free and thermal dust emission. Due to the statistical nature of the intrinsic CMB signal it is essential to minimize the systematic errors in the CMB temperature determinations. Following the available knowledge of the spectral behavior of the Galactic foregrounds simple power law-like spectra have been assumed. The feasibility of using a simple neural network for extracting the CMB temperature signal from the combined signal CMB and the foregrounds has been investigated. As a specific example, we have analysed simulated data, as expected from the ESA Planck CMB mission. A simple multilayer perceptron neural network with 2 hidden layers can provide temperature estimates over more than 80 per cent of the sky that are to a high degree uncorrelated with the foreground signals. A single network will be able to cover the dynamic range of the Planck noise level over the entire sky.
NINE-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE (WMAP) OBSERVATIONS: COSMOLOGICAL PARAMETER RESULTS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hinshaw, G.; Halpern, M.; Larson, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Weiland, J. L.; Komatsu, E.; Spergel, D. N.; Dunkley, J.; Nolta, M. R.; Hill, R. S.; Odegard, N.; Page, L.; Jarosik, N.; Smith, K. M.; Gold, B.; Kogut, A.; Wollack, E.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.
2013-01-01
We present cosmological parameter constraints based on the final nine-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data, in conjunction with a number of additional cosmological data sets. The WMAP data alone, and in combination, continue to be remarkably well fit by a six-parameter ΛCDM model. When WMAP data are combined with measurements of the high-l cosmic microwave background anisotropy, the baryon acoustic oscillation scale, and the Hubble constant, the matter and energy densities, Ω b h 2 , Ω c h 2 , and Ω Λ , are each determined to a precision of ∼1.5%. The amplitude of the primordial spectrum is measured to within 3%, and there is now evidence for a tilt in the primordial spectrum at the 5σ level, confirming the first detection of tilt based on the five-year WMAP data. At the end of the WMAP mission, the nine-year data decrease the allowable volume of the six-dimensional ΛCDM parameter space by a factor of 68,000 relative to pre-WMAP measurements. We investigate a number of data combinations and show that their ΛCDM parameter fits are consistent. New limits on deviations from the six-parameter model are presented, for example: the fractional contribution of tensor modes is limited to r k = -0.0027 +0.0039 -0.0038 ; the summed mass of neutrinos is limited to Σm ν eff = 3.84 ± 0.40, when the full data are analyzed. The joint constraint on N eff and the primordial helium abundance, Y He , agrees with the prediction of standard big bang nucleosynthesis. We compare recent Planck measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect with our seven-year measurements, and show their mutual agreement. Our analysis of the polarization pattern around temperature extrema is updated. This confirms a fundamental prediction of the standard cosmological model and provides a striking illustration of acoustic oscillations and adiabatic initial conditions in the early universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weiland, J. L.; Odegard, N.; Hill, R. S.; Greason, M. R.; Wollack, E.; Hinshaw, G.; Kogut, A.; Jarosik, N.; Page, L.; Bennett, C. L.; Gold, B.; Larson, D.; Dunkley, J.; Halpern, M.; Komatsu, E.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Nolta, M. R.; Smith, K. M.; Spergel, D. N.
2011-01-01
We present WMAP seven-year observations of bright sources which are often used as calibrators at microwave frequencies. Ten objects are studied in five frequency bands (23-94 GHz): the outer planets (Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) and five fixed celestial sources (Cas A, Tau A, Cyg A, 3C274, and 3C58). The seven-year analysis of Jupiter provides temperatures which are within 1σ of the previously published WMAP five-year values, with slightly tighter constraints on variability with orbital phase (0.2% ± 0.4%), and limits (but no detections) on linear polarization. Observed temperatures for both Mars and Saturn vary significantly with viewing geometry. Scaling factors are provided which, when multiplied by the Wright Mars thermal model predictions at 350 μm, reproduce WMAP seasonally averaged observations of Mars within ∼2%. An empirical model is described which fits brightness variations of Saturn due to geometrical effects and can be used to predict the WMAP observations to within 3%. Seven-year mean temperatures for Uranus and Neptune are also tabulated. Uncertainties in Uranus temperatures are 3%-4% in the 41, 61, and 94 GHz bands; the smallest uncertainty for Neptune is 8% for the 94 GHz band. Intriguingly, the spectrum of Uranus appears to show a dip at ∼30 GHz of unidentified origin, although the feature is not of high statistical significance. Flux densities for the five selected fixed celestial sources are derived from the seven-year WMAP sky maps and are tabulated for Stokes I, Q, and U, along with polarization fraction and position angle. Fractional uncertainties for the Stokes I fluxes are typically 1% to 3%. Source variability over the seven-year baseline is also estimated. Significant secular decrease is seen for Cas A and Tau A: our results are consistent with a frequency-independent decrease of about 0.53% per year for Cas A and 0.22% per year for Tau A. We present WMAP polarization data with uncertainties of a few percent for Tau
CMB aberration and Doppler effects as a source of hemispherical asymmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Notari, Alessio; Quartin, Miguel; Catena, Riccardo
2014-01-01
Our peculiar motion with respect to the CMB rest frame represents a preferred direction in the observed CMB sky since it induces an apparent deflection of the observed CMB photons (aberration) and a shift in their frequency (Doppler). Both effects distort the multipoles a ℓm 's at all ℓ's. Such effects are real as it has been recently measured for the first time by Planck according to what was forecast in some recent papers. However, the common lore when estimating a power spectrum from CMB is to consider that Doppler affects only the ℓ = 1 multipole, neglecting any other corrections. In this work we use simulations of the CMB sky in a boosted frame with a peculiar velocity β≡v/c = 1.23 × 10 −3 in order to assess the impact of such effect on power spectrum estimations in different regions of the sky. We show that the boost induces a north-south asymmetry in the power spectrum which is highly significant and non-negligible, of about (0.58±0.10)% for half-sky cuts when going up to ℓ ≈ 2500. We suggest that these effects are relevant and may account for some of the north-south asymmetries seen in the Planck data, being especially important at small scales. Finally we analyze the particular case of the ACT experiment, which observed only a small fraction of the sky and show that it suffers a bias of about 1% on the power spectrum and of similar size on some cosmological parameters: for example the position of the peaks shifts by 0.5% and the overall amplitude of the spectrum is about 0.4% lower than a full-sky case
The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for the CMB
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frommert, Mona; Durrer, Ruth; Michaud, Jérôme
2012-01-01
We investigate the statistics of the cosmic microwave background using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. We show that, when we correctly de-correlate the data, the partition function of the Kolmogorov stochasticity parameter is compatible with the Kolmogorov distribution and, contrary to previous claims, the CMB data are compatible with Gaussian fluctuations with the correlation function given by standard ΛCDM. We then use the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to derive upper bounds on residual point source power in the CMB, and indicate the promise of this statistics for further datasets, especially Planck, to search for deviations from Gaussianity and for detecting point sources and Galactic foregrounds
A CMB/Dark Energy Cosmic Duality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Enqvist, Kari; Sloth, Martin Snoager
2004-01-01
We investigate a possible connection between the suppression of the power at low multipoles in the CMB spectrum and the late time acceleration. We show that, assuming a cosmic IR/UV duality between the UV cutoff and a global infrared cutoff given by the size of the future event horizon...
Detectability of the 21-cm CMB cross-correlation from the epoch of reionization
Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Aghanim, Nabila; Langer, Mathieu; Douspis, Marian; Zaroubi, Saleem; Jelic, Vibor
The 21-cm line fluctuations and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) are powerful probes of the epoch of reionization of the Universe. We study the potential of the cross-correlation between 21-cm line fluctuations and CMB anisotropy to obtain further constraints on the reionization history. We
WMAP haze: Directly observing dark matter?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forbes, Michael McNeil; Zhitnitsky, Ariel R.
2008-01-01
In this paper, we show that dark matter in the form of dense matter/antimatter nuggets could provide a natural and unified explanation for several distinct bands of diffuse radiation from the core of the Galaxy spanning over 13 orders of magnitude in frequency. We fix all of the phenomenological properties of this model by matching to x-ray observations in the keV band, and then calculate the unambiguously predicted thermal emission in the microwave band, at frequencies smaller by 11 orders of magnitude. Remarkably, the intensity and spectrum of the emitted thermal radiation are consistent with - and could entirely explain - the so-called 'WMAP haze': a diffuse microwave excess observed from the core of our Galaxy by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). This provides another strong constraint of our proposal, and a remarkable nontrivial validation. If correct, our proposal identifies the nature of the dark matter, explains baryogenesis, and provides a means to directly probe the matter distribution in our Galaxy by analyzing several different types of diffuse emissions.
THE LOCAL DUST FOREGROUNDS IN THE MICROWAVE SKY. I. THERMAL EMISSION SPECTRA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dikarev, Valeri; Preuss, Oliver; Solanki, Sami; Krueger, Harald; Krivov, Alexander
2009-01-01
Analyses of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation maps made by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) have revealed anomalies not predicted by the standard inflationary cosmology. In particular, the power of the quadrupole moment of the CMB fluctuations is remarkably low, and the quadrupole and octopole moments are aligned mutually and with the geometry of the solar system. It has been suggested in the literature that microwave sky pollution by an unidentified dust cloud in the vicinity of the solar system may be the cause for these anomalies. In this paper, we simulate the thermal emission by clouds of spherical homogeneous particles of several materials. Spectral constraints from the WMAP multi-wavelength data and earlier infrared observations on the hypothetical dust cloud are used to determine the dust cloud's physical characteristics. In order for its emissivity to demonstrate a flat, CMB-like wavelength dependence over the WMAP wavelengths (3 through 14 mm), and to be invisible in the infrared light, its particles must be macroscopic. Silicate spheres of several millimeters in size and carbonaceous particles an order of magnitude smaller will suffice. According to our estimates of the abundance of such particles in the zodiacal cloud and trans-Neptunian belt, yielding the optical depths of the order of 10 -7 for each cloud, the solar system dust can well contribute 10 μK (within an order of magnitude) in the microwaves. This is not only intriguingly close to the magnitude of the anomalies (about 30 μK), but also alarmingly above the presently believed magnitude of systematic biases of the WMAP results (below 5 μK) and, to an even greater degree, of the future missions with higher sensitivities, e.g., Planck.
CMB statistical anisotropy from noncommutative gravitational waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shiraishi, Maresuke; Ricciardone, Angelo [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ' ' G. Galilei' ' , Università degli Studi di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131, Padova (Italy); Mota, David F. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway); Arroja, Frederico, E-mail: maresuke.shiraishi@pd.infn.it, E-mail: d.f.mota@astro.uio.no, E-mail: angelo.ricciardone@pd.infn.it, E-mail: arroja@pd.infn.it [INFN, Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131, Padova (Italy)
2014-07-01
Primordial statistical anisotropy is a key indicator to investigate early Universe models and has been probed by the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. In this paper, we examine tensor-mode CMB fluctuations generated from anisotropic gravitational waves, parametrised by P{sub h}(k) = P{sub h}{sup (0)}(k) [ 1 + ∑{sub LM} f{sub L}(k) g{sub LM} Y{sub LM} ( k-circumflex )], where P{sub h}{sup (0)}(k) is the usual scale-invariant power spectrum. Such anisotropic tensor fluctuations may arise from an inflationary model with noncommutativity of fields. It is verified that in this model, an isotropic component and a quadrupole asymmetry with f{sub 0}(k) = f{sub 2}(k) ∝ k{sup -2} are created and hence highly red-tilted off-diagonal components arise in the CMB power spectra, namely ℓ{sub 2} = ℓ{sub 1} ± 2 in TT, TE, EE and BB, and ℓ{sub 2} = ℓ{sub 1} ± 1 in TB and EB. We find that B-mode polarisation is more sensitive to such signals than temperature and E-mode polarisation due to the smallness of large-scale cosmic variance and we can potentially measure g{sub 00} = 30 and g{sub 2M} = 58 at 68% CL in a cosmic-variance-limited experiment. Such a level of signal may be measured in a PRISM like experiment, while the instrumental noise contaminates it in the Planck experiment. These results imply that it is impossible to measure the noncommutative parameter if it is small enough for the perturbative treatment to be valid. Our formalism and methodology for dealing with the CMB tensor statistical anisotropy are general and straightforwardly applicable to other early Universe models.
Inflation in the closed FLRW model and the CMB
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bonga, Béatrice; Gupt, Brajesh; Yokomizo, Nelson, E-mail: bpb165@psu.edu, E-mail: bgupt@gravity.psu.edu, E-mail: yokomizo@gravity.psu.edu [Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos and Physics Department, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)
2016-10-01
Recent cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations put strong constraints on the spatial curvature via estimation of the parameter Ω{sub k} assuming an almost scale invariant primordial power spectrum. We study the evolution of the background geometry and gauge-invariant scalar perturbations in an inflationary closed FLRW model and calculate the primordial power spectrum. We find that the inflationary dynamics is modified due to the presence of spatial curvature, leading to corrections to the nearly scale invariant power spectrum at the end of inflation. When evolved to the surface of last scattering, the resulting temperature anisotropy spectrum ( C {sup TT}{sub ℓ}) shows deficit of power at low multipoles (ℓ < 20). By comparing our results with the recent Planck data we discuss the role of spatial curvature in accounting for CMB anomalies and in the estimation of the parameter Ω{sub k}. Since the curvature effects are limited to low multipoles, the Planck estimation of cosmological parameters remains robust under inclusion of positive spatial curvature.
The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Likelihood for Small-Scale CMB Data
Dunkley, J.; Calabrese, E.; Sievers, J.; Addison, G. E.; Battaglia, N.; Battistelli, E. S.; Bond, J. R.; Das, S.; Devlin, M. J.; Dunner, R.;
2013-01-01
The Atacama Cosmology Telescope has measured the angular power spectra of microwave fluctuations to arcminute scales at frequencies of 148 and 218 GHz, from three seasons of data. At small scales the fluctuations in the primordial Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) become increasingly obscured by extragalactic foregounds and secondary CMB signals. We present results from a nine-parameter model describing these secondary effects, including the thermal and kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ and kSZ) power; the clustered and Poisson-like power from Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) sources, and their frequency scaling; the tSZ-CIB correlation coefficient; the extragalactic radio source power; and thermal dust emission from Galactic cirrus in two different regions of the sky. In order to extract cosmological parameters, we describe a likelihood function for the ACT data, fitting this model to the multi-frequency spectra in the multipole range 500 cosmological parameter estimation
Exploring cosmic origins with CORE: Gravitational lensing of the CMB
Challinor, A.; Allison, R.; Carron, J.; Errard, J.; Feeney, S.; Kitching, T.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Zubeldía, Í.; Achucarro, A.; Ade, P.; Ashdown, M.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A. J.; Banerji, R.; Bartlett, J.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Baumann, D.; Bersanelli, M.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonato, M.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.; Boulanger, F.; Brinckmann, T.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Buzzelli, A.; Cai, Z.-Y.; Calvo, M.; Carvalho, C.-S.; Castellano, G.; Chluba, J.; Clesse, S.; Colantoni, I.; Coppolecchia, A.; Crook, M.; d'Alessandro, G.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; De Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Di Valentino, E.; Diego, J.-M.; Fernandez-Cobos, R.; Ferraro, S.; Finelli, F.; Forastieri, F.; Galli, S.; Genova-Santos, R.; Gerbino, M.; González-Nuevo, J.; Grandis, S.; Greenslade, J.; Hagstotz, S.; Hanany, S.; Handley, W.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Hervías-Caimapo, C.; Hills, M.; Hivon, E.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lamagna, L.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Liguori, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Luzzi, G.; Maffei, B.; Martinez-González, E.; Martins, C. J. A. P.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McCarthy, D.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Molinari, D.; Monfardini, A.; Natoli, P.; Negrello, M.; Notari, A.; Paiella, A.; Paoletti, D.; Patanchon, G.; Piat, M.; Pisano, G.; Polastri, L.; Polenta, G.; Pollo, A.; Poulin, V.; Quartin, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Roman, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.-A.; Salvati, L.; Tartari, A.; Tomasi, M.; Tramonte, D.; Trappe, N.; Trombetti, T.; Tucker, C.; Valiviita, J.; Van de Weijgaert, R.; van Tent, B.; Vennin, V.; Vielva, P.; Vittorio, N.; Young, K.; Zannoni, M.
2018-04-01
Lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is now a well-developed probe of the clustering of the large-scale mass distribution over a broad range of redshifts. By exploiting the non-Gaussian imprints of lensing in the polarization of the CMB, the CORE mission will allow production of a clean map of the lensing deflections over nearly the full-sky. The number of high-S/N modes in this map will exceed current CMB lensing maps by a factor of 40, and the measurement will be sample-variance limited on all scales where linear theory is valid. Here, we summarise this mission product and discuss the science that will follow from its power spectrum and the cross-correlation with other clustering data. For example, the summed mass of neutrinos will be determined to an accuracy of 17 meV combining CORE lensing and CMB two-point information with contemporaneous measurements of the baryon acoustic oscillation feature in the clustering of galaxies, three times smaller than the minimum total mass allowed by neutrino oscillation measurements. Lensing has applications across many other science goals of CORE, including the search for B-mode polarization from primordial gravitational waves. Here, lens-induced B-modes will dominate over instrument noise, limiting constraints on the power spectrum amplitude of primordial gravitational waves. With lensing reconstructed by CORE, one can "delens" the observed polarization internally, reducing the lensing B-mode power by 60 %. This can be improved to 70 % by combining lensing and measurements of the cosmic infrared background from CORE, leading to an improvement of a factor of 2.5 in the error on the amplitude of primordial gravitational waves compared to no delensing (in the null hypothesis of no primordial B-modes). Lensing measurements from CORE will allow calibration of the halo masses of the tens of thousands of galaxy clusters that it will find, with constraints dominated by the clean polarization-based estimators. The 19
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Guo-Chin; Ng, Kin-Wang; Pen, Ue-Li
2011-01-01
Integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect can be estimated by cross-correlating the cosmic microwave background (CMB) sky with tracers of the local matter distribution. At late cosmic time, the dark energy-induced decay of gravitation potential generates a cross correlation signal on large angular scales. The dominant noise is the intrinsic CMB anisotropies from the inflationary epoch. In this paper we use CMB polarization to reduce this intrinsic noise. We cross-correlate the microwave sky observed by Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) with the radio source catalog compiled by NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) to study the efficiency of the noise suppression. We find that the error bars are reduced by about 4 to 14% and the statistical power in the signal is improved.
BAYESIAN INFERENCE OF CMB GRAVITATIONAL LENSING
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anderes, Ethan [Department of Statistics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Wandelt, Benjamin D.; Lavaux, Guilhem [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06 and CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014, Paris (France)
2015-08-01
The Planck satellite, along with several ground-based telescopes, has mapped the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at sufficient resolution and signal-to-noise so as to allow a detection of the subtle distortions due to the gravitational influence of the intervening matter distribution. A natural modeling approach is to write a Bayesian hierarchical model for the lensed CMB in terms of the unlensed CMB and the lensing potential. So far there has been no feasible algorithm for inferring the posterior distribution of the lensing potential from the lensed CMB map. We propose a solution that allows efficient Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling from the joint posterior of the lensing potential and the unlensed CMB map using the Hamiltonian Monte Carlo technique. The main conceptual step in the solution is a re-parameterization of CMB lensing in terms of the lensed CMB and the “inverse lensing” potential. We demonstrate a fast implementation on simulated data, including noise and a sky cut, that uses a further acceleration based on a very mild approximation of the inverse lensing potential. We find that the resulting Markov Chain has short correlation lengths and excellent convergence properties, making it promising for applications to high-resolution CMB data sets in the future.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin Chiamin; McDonald, John
2006-01-01
Supergravity corrections due to the energy density of a right-handed sneutrino can generate a negative mass squared for the inflaton, flattening the inflaton potential and reducing the spectral index and inflaton energy density. For the case of D-term hybrid inflation, we show that the spectral index can be lowered from the conventional value n=0.98 to a value within the range favored by the latest WMAP analysis, n=0.951 -0.019 +0.015 . The modified energy density is consistent with nonobservation of cosmic strings in the CMB if n<0.946. The WMAP lower bound on the spectral index implies that the D-term cosmic string contribution may be very close present CMB limits, contributing at least 5% to the CMB multipoles
Mapping the CMB with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe
Hinshaw, Gary F.
2007-01-01
The data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropy and new full-sky maps of the polarization. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time. These and other aspects of the mission results will be discussed and commented on. WMAP, part of NASA's Explorers program, was launched on June 30,200 1. The WMAP satellite was produced in a partnership between the Goddard Space Flight Center and Princeton University. The WMAP team also includes researchers at the Johns Hopkins University; the Canadian Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics; University of Texas; University of Chicago; Brown University; University of British Columbia; and University of California, Los Angeles.
Planck 2015 results: XI. CMB power spectra, likelihoods, and robustness of parameters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.
2016-01-01
on the same hybrid approach used for the previous release, i.e., a pixel-based likelihood at low multipoles (ℓ data and of Planck polarization......This paper presents the Planck 2015 likelihoods, statistical descriptions of the 2-point correlationfunctions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization fluctuations that account for relevant uncertainties, both instrumental and astrophysical in nature. They are based...... information, along with more detailed models of foregrounds and instrumental uncertainties. The increased redundancy brought by more than doubling the amount of data analysed enables further consistency checks and enhanced immunity to systematic effects. It also improves the constraining power of Planck...
Inflation and WMAP three year data. Features have a feature.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Covi, L.; Hamann, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Melchiorri, A. [INFN, Roma (Italy)]|[Rome-3 Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Slosar, A. [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Faculty of Mathematics and Physics; Sorbera, I. [Rome-3 Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica
2006-06-15
The new three year WMAP data seem to confirm the presence of non-standard large scale features in the Cosmic Microwave Anisotropies power spectrum. While these features may hint at uncorrected experimental systematics, it is also possible to generate, in a cosmological way, oscillations on large angular scales by introducing a sharp step in the inflaton potential. Using current cosmological data, we derive constraints on the position, magnitude and gradient of a possible step in the inflaton potential. We show that a step in the potential, while strongly constrained by current data, is still allowed and may provide an interesting explanation to the currently measured deviations from the standard featureless spectrum. (Orig.)
Inflation and WMAP three year data. Features have a future
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Covi, L.; Hamann, J.; Melchiorri, A.; Rome-3 Univ.; Slosar, A.; Sorbera, I.
2006-06-01
The new three year WMAP data seem to confirm the presence of non-standard large scale features in the Cosmic Microwave Anisotropies power spectrum. While these features may hint at uncorrected experimental systematics, it is also possible to generate, in a cosmological way, oscillations on large angular scales by introducing a sharp step in the inflaton potential. Using current cosmological data, we derive constraints on the position, magnitude and gradient of a possible step in the inflaton potential. We show that a step in the potential, while strongly constrained by current data, is still allowed and may provide an interesting explanation to the currently measured deviations from the standard featureless spectrum. (Orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kasanda, Simon Muya; Moodley, Kavilan, E-mail: simon.muya.kasanda@gmail.com, E-mail: moodleyk41@ukzn.ac.za [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit and School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, University Road, Durban, 4041 (South Africa)
2014-12-01
We forecast how current (PLANCK) and future (PRISM) cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments constrain the adiabatic mode and its admixtures with primordial isocurvature modes. The forecasts are based on measurements of the reconstructed CMB lensing potential and lensing-induced CMB B-mode polarization anisotropies in combination with the CMB temperature and E-mode polarization anisotropies. We first study the characteristic features of the CMB temperature, polarization and lensing spectra for adiabatic and isocurvature modes. We then consider how information from the CMB lensing potential and B-mode polarization induced by lensing can improve constraints on an admixture of adiabatic and three correlated isocurvature modes. We find that the CMB lensing spectrum improves constraints on isocurvature modes by at most 10% for the PLANCK and PRISM experiments. The limited improvement is a result of the low amplitude of isocurvature lensing spectra and cancellations between these spectra that render them only slightly detectable. There is a larger gain from using the lensing-induced B-mode polarization spectrum measured by PRISM. In this case constraints on isocurvature mode amplitudes improve by as much as 40% relative to the CMB temperature and E-mode polarization constraints. The addition of both lensing and lensing-induced B-mode polarization information constrains isocurvature mode amplitudes at the few percent level or better. In the case of admixtures of the adiabatic mode with one or two correlated isocurvature modes we find that constraints at the percent level or better are possible. We investigate the dependence of our results to various assumptions in our analysis, such as the inclusion of dark energy parameters, the CMB temperature-lensing correlation, and the presence of primordial tensor modes, and find that these assumptions do not significantly change our main results.
Observational constraint on spherical inhomogeneity with CMB and local Hubble parameter
Tokutake, Masato; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Yoo, Chul-Moon
2018-03-01
We derive an observational constraint on a spherical inhomogeneity of the void centered at our position from the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and local measurements of the Hubble parameter. The late time behaviour of the void is assumed to be well described by the so-called Λ-Lemaȋtre-Tolman-Bondi (ΛLTB) solution. Then, we restrict the models to the asymptotically homogeneous models each of which is approximated by a flat Friedmann-Lemaȋtre-Robertson-Walker model. The late time ΛLTB models are parametrized by four parameters including the value of the cosmological constant and the local Hubble parameter. The other two parameters are used to parametrize the observed distance-redshift relation. Then, the ΛLTB models are constructed so that they are compatible with the given distance-redshift relation. Including conventional parameters for the CMB analysis, we characterize our models by seven parameters in total. The local Hubble measurements are reflected in the prior distribution of the local Hubble parameter. As a result of a Markov-Chains-Monte-Carlo analysis for the CMB temperature and polarization anisotropies, we found that the inhomogeneous universe models with vanishing cosmological constant are ruled out as is expected. However, a significant under-density around us is still compatible with the angular power spectrum of CMB and the local Hubble parameter.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ade, P. A. R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3XQ (United Kingdom); Akiba, Y.; Hasegawa, M. [The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Hayama, Miura District, Kanagawa 240-0115 (Japan); Anthony, A. E.; Halverson, N. W. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Arnold, K.; Atlas, M.; Barron, D.; Boettger, D.; Elleflot, T.; Feng, C. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093-0424 (United States); Borrill, J.; Errard, J. [Computational Cosmology Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2 (Canada); Chinone, Y.; Flanigan, D. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Dobbs, M.; Gilbert, A. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 0G4 (Canada); Fabbian, G. [AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité (France); Grainger, W. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, STFC, Swindon, SN2 1SZ (United Kingdom); Collaboration: Polarbear Collaboration; and others
2014-10-20
We report a measurement of the B-mode polarization power spectrum in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) using the POLARBEAR experiment in Chile. The faint B-mode polarization signature carries information about the universe's entire history of gravitational structure formation, and the cosmic inflation that may have occurred in the very early universe. Our measurement covers the angular multipole range 500 < ℓ < 2100 and is based on observations of an effective sky area of 25 deg{sup 2} with 3.'5 resolution at 150 GHz. On these angular scales, gravitational lensing of the CMB by intervening structure in the universe is expected to be the dominant source of B-mode polarization. Including both systematic and statistical uncertainties, the hypothesis of no B-mode polarization power from gravitational lensing is rejected at 97.2% confidence. The band powers are consistent with the standard cosmological model. Fitting a single lensing amplitude parameter A{sub BB} to the measured band powers, A{sub BB}=1.12±0.61(stat){sub −0.12}{sup +0.04}(sys)±0.07(multi), where A{sub BB} = 1 is the fiducial WMAP-9 ΛCDM value. In this expression, 'stat' refers to the statistical uncertainty, 'sys' to the systematic uncertainty associated with possible biases from the instrument and astrophysical foregrounds, and 'multi' to the calibration uncertainties that have a multiplicative effect on the measured amplitude A{sub BB}.
Cosmic microwave background trispectrum and primordial magnetic field limits.
Trivedi, Pranjal; Seshadri, T R; Subramanian, Kandaswamy
2012-06-08
Primordial magnetic fields will generate non-gaussian signals in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as magnetic stresses and the temperature anisotropy they induce depend quadratically on the magnetic field. We compute a new measure of magnetic non-gaussianity, the CMB trispectrum, on large angular scales, sourced via the Sachs-Wolfe effect. The trispectra induced by magnetic energy density and by magnetic scalar anisotropic stress are found to have typical magnitudes of approximately a few times 10(-29) and 10(-19), respectively. Observational limits on CMB non-gaussianity from WMAP data allow us to conservatively set upper limits of a nG, and plausibly sub-nG, on the present value of the primordial cosmic magnetic field. This represents the tightest limit so far on the strength of primordial magnetic fields, on Mpc scales, and is better than limits from the CMB bispectrum and all modes in the CMB power spectrum. Thus, the CMB trispectrum is a new and more sensitive probe of primordial magnetic fields on large scales.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Bernardis, Francesco; Pagano, Luca; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Serra, Paolo; Cooray, Asantha
2008-01-01
We search for the presence of cosmological neutrino background (CNB) anisotropies in recent Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) five-year data using their signature imprinted on modifications to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy power spectrum. By parameterizing the neutrino background anisotropies with the speed viscosity parameter c vis , we find that the WMAP five-year data alone provide only a weak indication for CNB anisotropies with c vis 2 >0.06 at the 95% confidence level. When we combine CMB anisotropy data with measurements of galaxy clustering, the SN-Ia Hubble diagram, and other cosmological information, the detection increases to c vis 2 >0.16 at the same 95% confidence level. Future data from Planck, combined with a weak lensing survey such as the one expected with DUNE from space, will be able to measure the CNB anisotropy parameter at about 10% accuracy. We discuss the degeneracy between neutrino background anisotropies and other cosmological parameters such as the number of effective neutrinos species and the dark energy equation of state
Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Aghanim, Nabila; Langer, Mathieu; Douspis, Marian; Zaroubi, Saleem
2008-01-01
The cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization and the 21-cm line fluctuations are powerful probes of cosmological reionization. We study how the cross-correlation between the CMB polarization (E modes) and the 21-cm line fluctuations can be used to gain further understanding of the reionization
Cosmology with clusters in the CMB
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Majumdar, Subhabrata
2008-01-01
Ever since the seminal work by Sunyaev and Zel'dovich describing the distortion of the CMB spectrum, due to photons passing through the hot inter cluster gas on its way to us from the surface of last scattering (the so called Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE)), small scale distortions of the CMB by clusters has been used to detect clusters as well as to do cosmology with clusters. Cosmology with clusters in the CMB can be divided into three distinct regimes: a) when the clusters are completely unresolved and contribute to the secondary CMB distortions power spectrum at small angular scales; b) when we can just about resolve the clusters so as to detect the clusters through its total SZE flux such that the clusters can be tagged and counted for doing cosmology and c) when we can completely resolve the clusters so as to measure their sizes and other cluster structural properties and their evolution with redshift. In this article, we take a look at these three aspects of SZE cluster studies and their implication for using clusters as cosmological probes. We show that clusters can be used as effective probes of cosmology, when in all of these three cases, one explores the synergy between cluster physics and cosmology as well take clues about cluster physics from the latest high precision cluster observations (for example, from Chandra and XMM - Newton). As a specific case, we show how an observationally motivated cluster SZ template can explain the CBI-excess without the need for a high σ 8 . We also briefly discuss 'self-calibration' in cluster surveys and the prospect of using clusters as an ensemble of cosmic rulers to break degeneracies arising in cluster cosmology.
Measuring the cosmological background of relativistic particles with WMAP
Crotty, P; Pastor, S; Crotty, Patrick; Lesgourgues, Julien; Pastor, Sergio
2003-01-01
We show that the first year results of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) constrain very efficiently the energy density in relativistic particles in the universe. We derive new bounds on additional relativistic degrees of freedom expressed in terms of an excess in the effective number of light neutrinos Delta N_eff. Within the flat LambdaCDM scenario, the allowed range is Delta N_eff < 6 (95% CL) using WMAP data only, or -2.6 < Delta N_eff < 4 with the prior H_0= 72 \\pm 8 km/s/Mpc. When other cosmic microwave background and large scale structure experiments are taken into account, the window shrinks to -1.5 < Delta N_eff < 4.2. These results are in perfect agreement with the bounds from primordial nucleosynthesis. Non-minimal cosmological models with extra relativistic degrees of freedom are now severely restricted.
Pre-Inflationary Relics in the CMB?
Gruppuso, A.; Mandolesi, N.; Natoli, P.; Sagnotti, A.
String Theory and Supergravity allow, in principle, to follow the transition of the inflaton from pre-inflationary fast roll to slow roll. This introduces an infrared depression in the primordial power spectrum that might have left an imprint in the CMB anisotropy, if it occurred at accessible wavelengths. We model the effect extending $\\Lambda$CDM with a scale $\\Delta$ related to the infrared depression and explore the constraints allowed by {\\sc Planck} data, employing also more conservative, wider Galactic masks in the low resolution CMB likelihood. In an extended mask with $f_{sky}=39\\%$, we thus find $\\Delta = (0.351 \\pm 0.114) \\times 10^{-3} \\, \\mbox{Mpc}^{-1}$, at $99.4\\%$ confidence level, to be compared with a nearby value at $88.5\\%$ with the standard $f_{sky}=94\\%$ mask. With about 64 $e$--folds of inflation, these values for $\\Delta$ would translate into primordial energy scales ${\\cal O}(10^{14})$ GeV.
Probing neutrino masses with CMB lensing extraction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lesgourgues, Julien; Perotto, Laurence; Pastor, Sergio; Piat, Michel
2006-01-01
We evaluate the ability of future cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments to measure the power spectrum of large scale structure using quadratic estimators of the weak lensing deflection field. We calculate the sensitivity of upcoming CMB experiments such as BICEP, QUaD, BRAIN, ClOVER and Planck to the nonzero total neutrino mass M ν indicated by current neutrino oscillation data. We find that these experiments greatly benefit from lensing extraction techniques, improving their one-sigma sensitivity to M ν by a factor of order four. The combination of data from Planck and the SAMPAN mini-satellite project would lead to σ(M ν )∼0.1 eV, while a value as small as σ(M ν )∼0.035 eV is within the reach of a space mission based on bolometers with a passively cooled 3-4 m aperture telescope, representative of the most ambitious projects currently under investigation. We show that our results are robust not only considering possible difficulties in subtracting astrophysical foregrounds from the primary CMB signal but also when the minimal cosmological model (Λ Mixed Dark Matter) is generalized in order to include a possible scalar tilt running, a constant equation-of-state parameter for the dark energy and/or extra relativistic degrees of freedom
Planck 2015 results. XI. CMB power spectra, likelihoods, and robustness of parameters
Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Clements, D.L.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Desert, F.X.; Di Valentino, E.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Gerbino, M.; Giard, M.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F.K.; Harrison, D.L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Lilley, M.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lindholm, V.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Millea, M.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Narimani, A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Pratt, G.W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; d'Orfeuil, B.Rouille; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Salvati, L.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Serra, P.; Spencer, L.D.; Spinelli, M.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2016-01-01
This paper presents the Planck 2015 likelihoods, statistical descriptions of the 2-point correlation functions of CMB temperature and polarization. They use the hybrid approach employed previously: pixel-based at low multipoles, $\\ell$, and a Gaussian approximation to the distribution of cross-power spectra at higher $\\ell$. The main improvements are the use of more and better processed data and of Planck polarization data, and more detailed foreground and instrumental models. More than doubling the data allows further checks and enhanced immunity to systematics. Progress in foreground modelling enables a larger sky fraction, contributing to enhanced precision. Improvements in processing and instrumental models further reduce uncertainties. Extensive tests establish robustness and accuracy, from temperature, from polarization, and from their combination, and show that the {\\Lambda}CDM model continues to offer a very good fit. We further validate the likelihood against specific extensions to this baseline, suc...
Constraining dark sector perturbations I: cosmic shear and CMB lensing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Battye, Richard A.; Moss, Adam; Pearson, Jonathan A.
2015-01-01
We present current and future constraints on equations of state for dark sector perturbations. The equations of state considered are those corresponding to a generalized scalar field model and time-diffeomorphism invariant L(g) theories that are equivalent to models of a relativistic elastic medium and also Lorentz violating massive gravity. We develop a theoretical understanding of the observable impact of these models. In order to constrain these models we use CMB temperature data from Planck, BAO measurements, CMB lensing data from Planck and the South Pole Telescope, and weak galaxy lensing data from CFHTLenS. We find non-trivial exclusions on the range of parameters, although the data remains compatible with w=−1. We gauge how future experiments will help to constrain the parameters. This is done via a likelihood analysis for CMB experiments such as CoRE and PRISM, and tomographic galaxy weak lensing surveys, focussing in on the potential discriminatory power of Euclid on mildly non-linear scales
Constraining dark sector perturbations I: cosmic shear and CMB lensing
Battye, Richard A.; Moss, Adam; Pearson, Jonathan A.
2015-04-01
We present current and future constraints on equations of state for dark sector perturbations. The equations of state considered are those corresponding to a generalized scalar field model and time-diffeomorphism invariant Script L(g) theories that are equivalent to models of a relativistic elastic medium and also Lorentz violating massive gravity. We develop a theoretical understanding of the observable impact of these models. In order to constrain these models we use CMB temperature data from Planck, BAO measurements, CMB lensing data from Planck and the South Pole Telescope, and weak galaxy lensing data from CFHTLenS. We find non-trivial exclusions on the range of parameters, although the data remains compatible with w=-1. We gauge how future experiments will help to constrain the parameters. This is done via a likelihood analysis for CMB experiments such as CoRE and PRISM, and tomographic galaxy weak lensing surveys, focussing in on the potential discriminatory power of Euclid on mildly non-linear scales.
Vavryčuk, Václav
2018-04-01
A cosmological model, in which the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is a thermal radiation of intergalactic dust instead of a relic radiation of the Big Bang, is revived and revisited. The model suggests that a virtually transparent local Universe becomes considerably opaque at redshifts z > 2 - 3. Such opacity is hardly to be detected in the Type Ia supernova data, but confirmed using quasar data. The opacity steeply increases with redshift because of a high proper density of intergalactic dust in the previous epochs. The temperature of intergalactic dust increases as (1 + z) and exactly compensates the change of wavelengths due to redshift, so that the dust radiation looks apparently like the radiation of the blackbody with a single temperature. The predicted dust temperature is TD = 2.776 K, which differs from the CMB temperature by 1.9% only, and the predicted ratio between the total CMB and EBL intensities is 13.4 which is close to 12.5 obtained from observations. The CMB temperature fluctuations are caused by EBL fluctuations produced by galaxy clusters and voids in the Universe. The polarization anomalies of the CMB correlated with temperature anisotropies are caused by the polarized thermal emission of needle-shaped conducting dust grains aligned by large-scale magnetic fields around clusters and voids. A strong decline of the luminosity density for z > 4 is interpreted as the result of high opacity of the Universe rather than of a decline of the global stellar mass density at high redshifts.
CMB-S4 and the hemispherical variance anomaly
O'Dwyer, Márcio; Copi, Craig J.; Knox, Lloyd; Starkman, Glenn D.
2017-09-01
Cosmic microwave background (CMB) full-sky temperature data show a hemispherical asymmetry in power nearly aligned with the Ecliptic. In real space, this anomaly can be quantified by the temperature variance in the Northern and Southern Ecliptic hemispheres, with the Northern hemisphere displaying an anomalously low variance while the Southern hemisphere appears unremarkable [consistent with expectations from the best-fitting theory, Lambda Cold Dark Matter (ΛCDM)]. While this is a well-established result in temperature, the low signal-to-noise ratio in current polarization data prevents a similar comparison. This will change with a proposed ground-based CMB experiment, CMB-S4. With that in mind, we generate realizations of polarization maps constrained by the temperature data and predict the distribution of the hemispherical variance in polarization considering two different sky coverage scenarios possible in CMB-S4: full Ecliptic north coverage and just the portion of the North that can be observed from a ground-based telescope at the high Chilean Atacama plateau. We find that even in the set of realizations constrained by the temperature data, the low Northern hemisphere variance observed in temperature is not expected in polarization. Therefore, observing an anomalously low variance in polarization would make the hypothesis that the temperature anomaly is simply a statistical fluke more unlikely and thus increase the motivation for physical explanations. We show, within ΛCDM, how variance measurements in both sky coverage scenarios are related. We find that the variance makes for a good statistic in cases where the sky coverage is limited, however, full northern coverage is still preferable.
Internal delensing of Planck CMB temperature and polarization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carron, Julien [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Lewis, Antony; Challinor, Anthony, E-mail: j.carron@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: Antony.Lewis@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: a.d.challinor@ast.cam.ac.uk [Institute of Astronomy and Kavli Institute for Cosmology, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)
2017-05-01
We present a first internal delensing of CMB maps, both in temperature and polarization, using the public foreground-cleaned (SMICA) Planck 2015 maps. After forming quadratic estimates of the lensing potential, we use the corresponding displacement field to undo the lensing on the same data. We build differences of the delensed spectra to the original data spectra specifically to look for delensing signatures. After taking into account reconstruction noise biases in the delensed spectra, we find an expected sharpening of the power spectrum acoustic peaks with a delensing efficiency of 29 % ( TT ) 25 % ( TE ) and 22 % ( EE ). The detection significance of the delensing effects is very high in all spectra: 12 σ in EE polarization; 18 σ in TE ; and 20 σ in TT . The null hypothesis of no lensing in the maps is rejected at 26 σ. While direct detection of the power in lensing B -modes themselves is not possible at high significance at Planck noise levels, we do detect (at 4.5 σ (under the null hypothesis)) delensing effects in the B -mode map, with 7 % reduction in lensing power. Our results provide a first demonstration of polarization delensing, and generally of internal CMB delensing, and stand in agreement with the baseline ΛCDM Planck 2015 cosmology expectations.
CMB-S4 Technology Book, First Edition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abitbol, Maximilian H. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); et al.
2017-06-08
CMB-S4 is a proposed experiment to map the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) to nearly the cosmic variance limit for the angular scales that are accessible from the ground. The science goals and capabilities of CMB-S4 in illuminating cosmic inflation, measuring the sum of neutrino masses, searching for relativistic relics in the early universe, characterizing dark energy and dark matter, and mapping the matter distribution in the universe have been described in the CMB-S4 Science Book. This Technology Book is a companion volume to the Science Book. The ambitious science goals of the proposed "Stage-IV" CMB-S4 will require a step forward in experimental capability from the current Stage-III experiments. To guide this process, the community summarized the current state of the technology and identify R&D efforts necessary to advance it for possible use in CMB-S4. The book focused on the technical challenges in four broad areas: Telescope Design; Receiver Optics; Focal-Plane Optical Coupling; and Focal-Plane Sensor and Readout.
Cross-correlation studies between CMB temperature anisotropies and 21 cm fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cooray, Asantha
2004-01-01
During the transition from a neutral to a fully reionized universe, scattering of cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons via free electrons leads to a new anisotropy contribution to the temperature distribution. If the reionization process is inhomogeneous and patchy, the era of reionization is also visible via brightness temperature fluctuations in the redshifted 21 cm line emission from neutral hydrogen. Since regions containing electrons and neutral hydrogen are expected to trace the same underlying density field, the two are (anti)correlated and this is expected to be reflected in the anisotropy maps via a correlation between arcminute-scale CMB temperature and the 21 cm background. In terms of the angular cross-power spectrum, unfortunately, this correlation is insignificant due to a geometric cancellation associated with second-order CMB anisotropies. The same cross correlation between ionized and neutral regions, however, can be studied using a bispectrum involving large-scale velocity field of ionized regions from the Doppler effect, arcminute-scale CMB anisotropies during reionization, and the 21 cm background. While the geometric cancellation is partly avoided, the signal-to-noise ratio related to this bispectrum is reduced due to the large cosmic variance related to velocity fluctuations traced by the Doppler effect. Unless the velocity field during reionization can be independently established, it is unlikely that the correlation information related to the relative distribution of ionized electrons and regions containing neutral hydrogen can be obtained with a combined study involving CMB and 21 cm fluctuations
Detection of gravitational lensing in the cosmic microwave background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, Kendrick M.; Zahn, Oliver; Dore, Olivier
2007-01-01
Gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), a long-standing prediction of the standard cosmological model, is ultimately expected to be an important source of cosmological information, but first detection has not been achieved to date. We report a 3.4σ detection, by applying quadratic estimator techniques to all sky maps from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP) satellite, and correlating the result with radio galaxy counts from the NRAO VLA sky survey (NVSS). We present our methodology including a detailed discussion of potential contaminants. Our error estimates include systematic uncertainties from density gradients in NVSS, beam effects in WMAP, galactic microwave foregrounds, resolved and unresolved CMB point sources, and the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect
Total CMB analysis of streaker aerosol samples by PIXE, PIGE, beta- and optical-absorption analyses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Annegarn, H.J.; Przybylowicz, W.J.
1993-01-01
Multielemental analyses of aerosol samples are widely used in air pollution receptor modelling. Specifically, the chemical mass balance (CMB) model has become a powerful tool in urban air quality studies. Input data required for the CMB includes not only the traditional X-ray fluorescence (and hence PIXE) detected elements, but also total mass, organic and inorganic carbon, and other light elements including Mg, Na and F. The circular streaker sampler, in combination with PIXE analysis, has developed into a powerful tool for obtaining time-resolved, multielemental aerosol data. However, application in CMB modelling has been limited by the absence of total mass and complementary light element data. This study reports on progress in using techniques complementary to PIXE to obtain additional data from circular streaker samples, maintaining the nondestructive, instrumental approach inherent in PIXE: Beta-gauging using a 147 Pm source for total mass; optical absorption for inorganic carbon; and PIGE to measure the lighter elements. (orig.)
Mildly mixed coupled models vs. WMAP7 data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
La Vacca, Giuseppe; Bonometto, Silvio A.
2011-01-01
Mildly mixed coupled models include massive ν's and CDM-DE coupling. We present new tests of their likelihood vs. recent data including WMAP7, confirming it to exceed ΛCDM, although at ∼2--σ's. We then show the impact on the physics of the dark components of ν-mass detection in 3 H β-decay or 0νββ-decay experiments.
Chen, Bin; Kantowski, R.; Dai, X.
2014-01-01
We have developed an accurate gravitational lens theory for an inhomogeneity embedded in an otherwise homogeneous universe, which to the lowest order is applicable to any mass distribution. We derive the Fermat potential for a spherically symmetric lens embedded in a FLRW cosmology and use it to investigate the late-time integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect (ISW) caused by individual large scale inhomogeneities, in particular, cosmic voids. We present a simple analytical expression for the CMB temperature fluctuation across such a lens as the derivative of the lens Fermat potential. Our formalism is applicable to both linear and nonlinear density evolution scenarios, to arbitrarily large density contrasts, and to all open and closed background cosmologies. Our results are particularly useful for modeling ISW effects extracted through stacking large numbers of cosmic voids and clusters (that is, the aperture photometry method). For structures co-expanding with the background cosmology, i.e., for time-independent density contrasts, we find that the gravitational lensing time delay alone can produce fluctuations of the order of seen in recent observations by WMAP and Planck. We revisit the possibility of explaining the non-Gaussian cold spot on the south hemisphere via the Rees-Sciama effect of a large cosmic void using constraints obtained from the most recent void catalogs and our new void-lensing formalism, and compare it with other explanations such as a collapsing cosmic texture. We also study the remapping of primordial CMB anisotropies, the weak-lensing shear, and magnification caused by void lensing.
Dark matter implications of the WMAP-Planck Haze
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Egorov, Andrey E.; Pierpaoli, Elena [University of Southern California, 3620 McClintock Ave., SGM 408, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States); Gaskins, Jennifer M. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Pietrobon, Davide, E-mail: egorov@usc.edu, E-mail: jgaskins@uva.nl, E-mail: pierpaol@usc.edu, E-mail: daddeptr@gmail.com [University of California, Berkeley, Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Rd, Berkeley CA 94720 (United States)
2016-03-01
Gamma rays and microwave observations of the Galactic Center and surrounding areas indicate the presence of anomalous emission, whose origin remains ambiguous. The possibility of dark matter annihilation explaining both signals through prompt emission at gamma rays and secondary emission at microwave frequencies from interactions of high-energy electrons produced in annihilation with the Galactic magnetic fields has attracted much interest in recent years. We investigate the dark matter interpretation of the Galactic Center gamma-ray excess by searching for the associated synchrotron emission in the WMAP and Planck microwave data. Considering various magnetic field and cosmic-ray propagation models, we predict the synchrotron emission due to dark matter annihilation in our Galaxy, and compare it with the WMAP and Planck data at 23–70 GHz. In addition to standard microwave foregrounds, we separately model the microwave counterpart to the Fermi Bubbles and the signal due to dark matter annihilation, and use component separation techniques to extract the signal associated with each template from the total emission. We confirm the presence of the Haze at the level of ≈7% of the total sky intensity at 23 GHz in our chosen region of interest, with a harder spectrum (I ∼ ν{sup −0.8}) than the synchrotron from regular cosmic-ray electrons. The data do not show a strong preference towards fitting the Haze by either the Bubbles or dark matter emission only. Inclusion of both components provides a better fit with a dark matter contribution to the Haze emission of ≈20% at 23 GHz, however, due to significant uncertainties in foreground modeling, we do not consider this a clear detection of a dark matter signal. We set robust upper limits on the annihilation cross section by ignoring foregrounds, and also report best-fit dark matter annihilation parameters obtained from a complete template analysis. We conclude that the WMAP and Planck data are consistent with a
Dark matter implications of the WMAP-Planck Haze
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Egorov, Andrey E.; Pierpaoli, Elena; Gaskins, Jennifer M.; Pietrobon, Davide
2016-01-01
Gamma rays and microwave observations of the Galactic Center and surrounding areas indicate the presence of anomalous emission, whose origin remains ambiguous. The possibility of dark matter annihilation explaining both signals through prompt emission at gamma rays and secondary emission at microwave frequencies from interactions of high-energy electrons produced in annihilation with the Galactic magnetic fields has attracted much interest in recent years. We investigate the dark matter interpretation of the Galactic Center gamma-ray excess by searching for the associated synchrotron emission in the WMAP and Planck microwave data. Considering various magnetic field and cosmic-ray propagation models, we predict the synchrotron emission due to dark matter annihilation in our Galaxy, and compare it with the WMAP and Planck data at 23–70 GHz. In addition to standard microwave foregrounds, we separately model the microwave counterpart to the Fermi Bubbles and the signal due to dark matter annihilation, and use component separation techniques to extract the signal associated with each template from the total emission. We confirm the presence of the Haze at the level of ≈7% of the total sky intensity at 23 GHz in our chosen region of interest, with a harder spectrum (I ∼ ν −0.8 ) than the synchrotron from regular cosmic-ray electrons. The data do not show a strong preference towards fitting the Haze by either the Bubbles or dark matter emission only. Inclusion of both components provides a better fit with a dark matter contribution to the Haze emission of ≈20% at 23 GHz, however, due to significant uncertainties in foreground modeling, we do not consider this a clear detection of a dark matter signal. We set robust upper limits on the annihilation cross section by ignoring foregrounds, and also report best-fit dark matter annihilation parameters obtained from a complete template analysis. We conclude that the WMAP and Planck data are consistent with a dark
WMAP constraints on the Cardassian model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sen, A.A.; Sen, S.
2003-01-01
We investigate the constraints on the Cardassian model using the recent results from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe for the locations of the peaks of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy spectrum. We find that the model is consistent with the recent observational data for a certain range of the model parameter n and the cosmological parameters. We find that the Cardassian model is favored compared to the ΛCDM model for a higher spectral index (n s ≅1) together with a lower value of the Hubble parameter h (h≤0.71). But for smaller values of n s , both ΛCDM and Cardassian models are equally favored. Also, irrespective of supernova constraints, CMB data alone predict the current acceleration of the Universe in this model. We have also studied the constraint on σ 8 , the rms density fluctuations at the 8h -1 Mpc scale
Revisiting the EC/CMB model for extragalactic large scale jets
Lucchini, M.; Tavecchio, F.; Ghisellini, G.
2017-04-01
One of the most outstanding results of the Chandra X-ray Observatory was the discovery that AGN jets are bright X-ray emitters on very large scales, up to hundreds of kpc. Of these, the powerful and beamed jets of flat-spectrum radio quasars are particularly interesting, as the X-ray emission cannot be explained by an extrapolation of the lower frequency synchrotron spectrum. Instead, the most common model invokes inverse Compton scattering of photons of the cosmic microwave background (EC/CMB) as the mechanism responsible for the high-energy emission. The EC/CMB model has recently come under criticism, particularly because it should predict a significant steady flux in the MeV-GeV band which has not been detected by the Fermi/LAT telescope for two of the best studied jets (PKS 0637-752 and 3C273). In this work, we revisit some aspects of the EC/CMB model and show that electron cooling plays an important part in shaping the spectrum. This can solve the overproduction of γ-rays by suppressing the high-energy end of the emitting particle population. Furthermore, we show that cooling in the EC/CMB model predicts a new class of extended jets that are bright in X-rays but silent in the radio and optical bands. These jets are more likely to lie at intermediate redshifts and would have been missed in all previous X-ray surveys due to selection effects.
A Measurement of the Angular Power Spectrum of the CMB from l = 100 to 400
Miller, A. D.; Caldwell, R.; Devlin, M. J.; Dorwart, W. B.; Herbig, T.; Nolta, M. R.; Page, L. A.; Puchalla, J.; Torbet, E.; Tran, H. T.
2000-05-01
We report on a measurement of the angular spectrum of the CMB between l 100 and l 400 made at 144 GHz from Cerro Toco in the Chilean altiplano. When the new data are combined with previous data at 30 and 40 GHz, taken with the same instrument observing the same section of sky, we find: 1) a rise in the angular spectrum to a maximum with δ Tl 85 μ K at l 200 and a fall at l>300, thereby localizing the peak near l 200; and 2) that the anisotropy at l 200 has the spectrum of the CMB. Cosmological implications are discussed.
Searching for primordial non-Gaussianity in Planck CMB maps using a combined estimator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Novaes, C.P.; Wuensche, C.A. [Divisão de Astrofísica, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Av. dos Astronautas 1758, São José dos Campos 12227-010, SP (Brazil); Bernui, A. [Observatório Nacional, Rua General José Cristino 77, São Cristóvão, 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ferreira, I.S., E-mail: camilapnovaes@gmail.com, E-mail: bernui@on.br, E-mail: ivan@fis.unb.br, E-mail: ca.wuensche@inpe.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, Campus Universitário Darcy Ribeiro, Asa Norte, 70919-970, Brasília, DF (Brazil)
2014-01-01
The extensive search for deviations from Gaussianity in cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) data is very important due to the information about the very early moments of the universe encoded there. Recent analyses from Planck CMB data do not exclude the presence of non-Gaussianity of small amplitude, although they are consistent with the Gaussian hypothesis. The use of different techniques is essential to provide information about types and amplitudes of non-Gaussianities in the CMB data. In particular, we find interesting to construct an estimator based upon the combination of two powerful statistical tools that appears to be sensitive enough to detect tiny deviations from Gaussianity in CMB maps. This estimator combines the Minkowski functionals with a Neural Network, maximizing a tool widely used to study non-Gaussian signals with a reinforcement of another tool designed to identify patterns in a data set. We test our estimator by analyzing simulated CMB maps contaminated with different amounts of local primordial non-Gaussianity quantified by the dimensionless parameter f{sub NL}. We apply it to these sets of CMB maps and find ∼> 98% of chance of positive detection, even for small intensity local non-Gaussianity like f{sub NL} = 38±18, the current limit from Planck data for large angular scales. Additionally, we test the suitability to distinguish between primary and secondary non-Gaussianities: first we train the Neural Network with two sets, one of nearly Gaussian CMB maps (|f{sub NL}| ≤ 10) but contaminated with realistic inhomogeneous Planck noise (i.e., secondary non-Gaussianity) and the other of non-Gaussian CMB maps, that is, maps endowed with weak primordial non-Gaussianity (28 ≤ f{sub NL} ≤ 48); after that we test an ensemble composed of CMB maps either with one of these non-Gaussian contaminations, and find out that our method successfully classifies ∼ 95% of the tested maps as being CMB maps containing primordial or
Physics Colloquium | 25 February
2013-01-01
Critical Tests of Theory of the Early Universe using the Cosmic Microwave Background, by Prof. Eiichiro Komatsu, Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Garching, (Germany). Monday 25 February 2013 at 17:00 École de Physique, Auditoire Stueckelberg 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet, 1211 Genève 4 Abstract: The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), the fossil light of the Big Bang, is the oldest light that one can ever hope to observe in our Universe. The CMB provides us with a direct image of the Universe when it was still an "infant" - 380,000 years old. The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) has mapped the microwave sky in five frequency bands for nine years since 2001, creating a full-sky CMB map with the unprecedented precision. The WMAP data have enabled us to obtain a wealth of cosmological information, such as the composition, age, geometry, and history of the Universe. Yet, can we go further and learn about the primordial universe, when it was much younge...
Isotherms clustering in cosmic microwave background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bershadskii, A.
2006-01-01
Isotherms clustering in cosmic microwave background (CMB) has been studied using the 3-year WMAP data on cosmic microwave background radiation. It is shown that the isotherms clustering could be produced by the baryon-photon fluid turbulence in the last scattering surface. The Taylor-microscale Reynolds number of the turbulence is estimated directly from the CMB data as Re λ ∼10 2
An estimator for statistical anisotropy from the CMB bispectrum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bartolo, N.; Dimastrogiovanni, E.; Matarrese, S.; Liguori, M.; Riotto, A.
2012-01-01
Various data analyses of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) provide observational hints of statistical isotropy breaking. Some of these features can be studied within the framework of primordial vector fields in inflationary theories which generally display some level of statistical anisotropy both in the power spectrum and in higher-order correlation functions. Motivated by these observations and the recent theoretical developments in the study of primordial vector fields, we develop the formalism necessary to extract statistical anisotropy information from the three-point function of the CMB temperature anisotropy. We employ a simplified vector field model and parametrize the bispectrum of curvature fluctuations in such a way that all the information about statistical anisotropy is encoded in some parameters λ LM (which measure the anisotropic to the isotropic bispectrum amplitudes). For such a template bispectrum, we compute an optimal estimator for λ LM and the expected signal-to-noise ratio. We estimate that, for f NL ≅ 30, an experiment like Planck can be sensitive to a ratio of the anisotropic to the isotropic amplitudes of the bispectrum as small as 10%. Our results are complementary to the information coming from a power spectrum analysis and particularly relevant for those models where statistical anisotropy turns out to be suppressed in the power spectrum but not negligible in the bispectrum
Planck 2015 results. V. LFI calibration
Ade, P.A.R.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaglia, P.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Christensen, P.R.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Krachmalnicoff, N.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Peel, M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renzi, A.; Rocha, G.; Romelli, E.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Turler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vassallo, T.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I.K.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2016-01-01
We present a description of the pipeline used to calibrate the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) timelines into thermodynamic temperatures for the Planck 2015 data release, covering 4 years of uninterrupted operations. As in the 2013 data release, our calibrator is provided by the spin-synchronous modulation of the CMB dipole, exploiting both the orbital and solar components. Our 2015 LFI analysis provides an independent Solar dipole estimate in excellent agreement with that of HFI and within $1\\sigma$ (0.3 % in amplitude) of the WMAP value. This 0.3 % shift in the peak-to-peak dipole temperature from WMAP and a global overhaul of the iterative calibration code increases the overall level of the LFI maps by 0.45 % (30 GHz), 0.64 % (44 GHz), and 0.82 % (70 GHz) in temperature with respect to the 2013 Planck data release, thus reducing the discrepancy with the power spectrum measured by WMAP. We estimate that the LFI calibration uncertainty is at the level of 0.20 % for the 70 GHz map, 0.26 % for the 44 GHz...
What do we learn from the CMB observations?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rubakov, V. A., E-mail: rubakov@ms2.inr.ac.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Vlasov, A. D., E-mail: vlasov.ad@gmail.com [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)
2012-09-15
We give an account, at nonexpert and quantitative level, of physics behind the CMB temperature anisotropy and polarization and their peculiar features. We discuss, in particular, how cosmological parameters are determined from the CMB measurements and their combinations with other observations. We emphasize that CMB is the major source of information on the primordial density perturbations and, possibly, gravitational waves, and discuss the implication for our understanding of the extremely early Universe.
Can CMB Surveys Help the AGN Community?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bruce Partridge
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Contemporary projects to measure anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB are now detecting hundreds to thousands of extragalactic radio sources, most of them blazars. As a member of a group of CMB scientists involved in the construction of catalogues of such sources and their analysis, I wish to point out the potential value of CMB surveys to studies of AGN jets and their polarization. Current CMB projects, for instance, reach mJy sensitivity, offer wide sky coverage, are “blind” and generally of uniform sensitivity across the sky (hence useful statistically, make essentially simultaneous multi-frequency observations at frequencies from 30 to 857 GHz, routinely offer repeated observations of sources with interesting cadences and now generally provide polarization measurements. The aim here is not to analyze in any depth the AGN science already derived from such projects, but rather to heighten awareness of their promise for the AGN community.
Observing patchy reionization with future CMB polarization experiments
Roy, A.; Lapi, A.; Spergel, D.; Baccigalupi, C.
2018-05-01
We study the signal from patchy reionization in view of the future high accuracy polarization measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). We implement an extraction procedure of the patchy reionization signal analogous to CMB lensing. We evaluate the signal to noise ratio (SNR) for the future Stage IV (S4) CMB experiment. The signal has a broad peak centered on the degree angular scales, with a long tail at higher multipoles. The CMB S4 experiment can effectively constrain the properties of reionization by measuring the signal on degree scales. The signal amplitude depends on the properties of the structure determining the reionization morphology. We describe bubbles having radii distributed log-normally. The expected S/N is sensitive to the mean bubble radius: bar R=5 Mpc implies S/N ≈ 4, bar R=10 Mpc implies S/N ≈ 20. The spread of the radii distribution strongly affects the integrated SNR, that changes by a factor of 102 when σlnr goes from ln 2 to ln 3. Future CMB experiments will thus place important constraints on the physics of reionization.
Fermi Non-detections of Four X-Ray Jet Sources and Implications for the IC/CMB Mechanism
Breiding, Peter; Meyer, Eileen T.; Georganopoulos, Markos; Keenan, M. E.; DeNigris, N. S.; Hewitt, Jennifer
2017-11-01
Since its launch in 1999, the Chandra X-ray observatory has discovered several dozen X-ray jets associated with powerful quasars. In many cases, the X-ray spectrum is hard and appears to come from a second spectral component. The most popular explanation for the kpc-scale X-ray emission in these cases has been inverse-Compton (IC) scattering of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons by relativistic electrons in the jet (the IC/CMB model). Requiring the IC/CMB emission to reproduce the observed X-ray flux density inevitably predicts a high level of gamma-ray emission, which should be detectable with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). In previous work, we found that gamma-ray upper limits from the large-scale jets of 3C 273 and PKS 0637-752 violate the predictions of the IC/CMB model. Here, we present Fermi/LAT flux density upper limits for the X-ray jets of four additional sources: PKS 1136-135, PKS 1229-021, PKS 1354+195, and PKS 2209+080. We show that these limits violate the IC/CMB predictions at a very high significance level. We also present new Hubble Space Telescope observations of the quasar PKS 2209+080 showing a newly detected optical jet, and Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array band 3 and 6 observations of all four sources, which provide key constraints on the spectral shape that enable us to rule out the IC/CMB model.
Constraining star formation through redshifted CO and CII emission in archival CMB data
Switzer, Eric
LCDM is a strikingly successful paradigm to explain the CMB anisotropy and its evolution into observed galaxy clustering statistics. The formation and evolution of galaxies within this context is more complex and only partly characterized. Measurements of the average star formation and its precursors over cosmic time are required to connect theories of galaxy evolution to LCDM evolution. The fine structure transition in CII at 158 um traces star formation rates and the ISM radiation environment. Cold, molecular gas fuels star formation and is traced well by a ladder of CO emission lines. Catalogs of emission lines in individual galaxies have provided the most information about CII and CO to-date but are subject to selection effects. Intensity mapping is an alternative approach to measuring line emission. It surveys the sum of all line radiation as a function of redshift, and requires angular resolution to reach cosmologically interesting scales, but not to resolve individual sources. It directly measures moments of the luminosity function from all emitting objects. Intensity mapping of CII and CO can perform an unbiased census of stars and cold gas across cosmic time. We will use archival COBE-FIRAS and Planck data to bound or measure cosmologically redshifted CII and CO line emission through 1) the monopole spectrum, 2) cross-power between FIRAS/Planck and public galaxy survey catalogs from BOSS and the 2MASS redshift surveys, 3) auto-power of the FIRAS/Planck data itself. FIRAS is unique in its spectral range and all-sky coverage, provided by the space-borne FTS architecture. In addition to sensitivity to a particular emission line, intensity mapping is sensitive to all other contributions to surface brightness. We will remove CMB and foreground spatial and spectral templates using models from WMAP and Planck data. Interlopers and residual foregrounds additively bias the auto-power and monopole, but both can still be used to provide rigorous upper bounds. The
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma Yinzhe; Efstathiou, George; Challinor, Anthony
2011-01-01
Statistical isotropy is often assumed in cosmology and should be tested rigorously against observational data. We construct simple quadratic estimators to reconstruct asymmetry in the primordial power spectrum from CMB temperature and polarization data and verify their accuracy using simulations with quadrupole power asymmetry. We show that the Planck mission, with its millions of signal-dominated modes of the temperature anisotropy, should be able to constrain the amplitude of any spherical multipole of a scale-invariant quadrupole asymmetry at the 0.01 level (2σ). Almost independent constraints can be obtained from polarization at the 0.03 level after four full-sky surveys, providing an important consistency test. If the amplitude of the asymmetry is large enough, constraining its scale dependence should become possible. In scale-free quadrupole models with 1% asymmetry, consistent with the current limits from WMAP temperature data (after correction for beam asymmetries), Planck should constrain the spectral index q of power-law departures from asymmetry to Δq=0.3. Finally, we show how to constrain models with axisymmetry in the same framework. For scale-free quadrupole models, Planck should constrain the direction of the asymmetry to a 1σ accuracy of about 2 degrees using one year of temperature data.
CMB anisotropies interpolation
Zinger, S.; Delabrouille, Jacques; Roux, Michel; Maitre, Henri
2010-01-01
We consider the problem of the interpolation of irregularly spaced spatial data, applied to observation of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies. The well-known interpolation methods and kriging are compared to the binning method which serves as a reference approach. We analyse kriging
Gravitational lensing of the CMB: A Feynman diagram approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elizabeth E. Jenkins
2014-09-01
Full Text Available We develop a Feynman diagram approach to calculating correlations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB in the presence of distortions. As one application, we focus on CMB distortions due to gravitational lensing by Large Scale Structure (LSS. We study the Hu–Okamoto quadratic estimator for extracting lensing from the CMB and derive the noise of the estimator up to O(ϕ4 in the lensing potential ϕ. By identifying the diagrams responsible for the previously noted large O(ϕ4 term, we conclude that the lensing expansion does not break down. The convergence can be significantly improved by a reorganization of the ϕ expansion. Our approach makes it simple to obtain expressions for quadratic estimators based on any CMB channel, including many previously unexplored cases. We briefly discuss other applications to cosmology of this diagrammatic approach, such as distortions of the CMB due to patchy reionization, or due to Faraday rotation from primordial axion fields.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Červinka, Ladislav
2011-01-01
Roč. 2, č. 11 (2011), s. 1331-1347 ISSN 2153-120X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : CMB radiation * analysis of CMB spectrum * radial distribution function of objects * early universe cluster structure * density of ordinary matter Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics
Pseudo-Cl estimators which do not mix E and B modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, Kendrick M.
2006-01-01
Pseudo-C l quadratic estimators for CMB temperature and polarization power spectra have been used in the analysis pipelines of many CMB experiments, such as WMAP and Boomerang. In the polarization case, these estimators mix E and B modes, in the sense that the estimated B-mode power is nonzero for a noiseless CMB realization which contains only E modes. Recently, Challinor, and Chon showed that for moderately sized surveys (f sky ∼0.01), this mixing limits the gravity wave B-mode signal which can be detected using pseudo-C l estimators to T/S∼0.05. We modify the pseudo-C l construction, defining pure pseudo-C l estimators, which do not mix E and B modes in this sense. We study these estimators in detail for a survey geometry similar to that which has been proposed for the QUIET experiment, for a variety of noise levels, and both homogeneous and inhomogeneous noise. For noise levels l estimators. In the homogeneous case, we compute optimal power spectrum errors using a Fisher matrix approach, and show that our pure pseudo-C l estimators are roughly 80% of optimal, across a wide range of noise levels. There is no limit, imposed by the estimators alone, to the value of T/S which can be detected
Inflation after False Vacuum Decay observational Prospects after Planck
Bousso, Raphael; Senatore, Leonardo
2015-01-01
We assess potential signals of the formation of our universe by the decay of a false vacuum. Negative spatial curvature is one possibility, but the window for its detection is now small. However, another possible signal is a suppression of the CMB power spectrum at large angles. This arises from the steepening of the effective potential as it interpolates between a flat inflationary plateau and the high barrier separating us from our parent vacuum. We demonstrate that these two effects can be parametrically separated in angular scale. Observationally, the steepening effect appears to be excluded at large l; but it remains consistent with the slight lack of power below l about 30 found by the WMAP and Planck collaborations. We give two simple models which improve the fit to the Planck data; one with observable curvature and one without. Despite cosmic variance, we argue that future CMB polarization and most importantly large-scale structure observations should be able to corroborate the Planck anomaly if it is...
CMB anisotropies from patchy reionisation and diffuse Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fidler, Christian; Ringeval, Christophe, E-mail: christophe.ringeval@uclouvain.be, E-mail: christian.fidler@uclouvain.be [Centre for Cosmology, Particle Physics and Phenomenology, Institute of Mathematics and Physics, Louvain University, 2 Chemin du Cyclotron, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)
2017-10-01
Anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) can be induced during the later stages of cosmic evolution, and in particular during and after the Epoch of Reionisation. Inhomogeneities in the ionised fraction, but also in the baryon density, in the velocity fields and in the gravitational potentials are expected to generate correlated CMB perturbations. We present a complete relativistic treatment of all these effects, up to second order in perturbation theory, that we solve using the numerical Boltzmann code (\\SONG). The physical origin and relevance of all second order terms are carefully discussed. In addition to collisional and gravitational contributions, we identify the diffuse analogue of the blurring and kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effects. Our approach naturally includes the correlations between the imprint from patchy reionisation and the diffuse SZ effects thereby allowing us to derive reliable estimates of the induced temperature and polarisation CMB angular power spectra. In particular, we show that the B -modes generated at intermediate length-scales (ℓ ≅ 100) have the same amplitude as the B -modes coming from primordial gravitational waves with a tensor-to-scalar ratio r =10{sup −4}.
Neutrino mass and the reionization history of the Universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Popa, L.A.; Burigana, C.; Mandolesi, N.
2005-01-01
We investigate the role of a HDM component in the form of the three massive neutrino flavors for the reionization history of the Universe. Assuming a flat background cosmology described by the best fit power low ΛCDM model with WMAP data (Ω b h 2 =0.024, Ω m h 2 =0.14, h=0.72), we analyze the role of the neutrino mass for the properties of the gas in the intergalactic medium (IGM), showing that the temporal evolution of the hydrogen and helium ionization fractions are sensitive to the neutrino mass, with important implications for the CMB anisotropy and polarization angular power spectra
Planck 2015 results. XVI. Isotropy and statistics of the CMB
Ade, P.A.R.; Akrami, Y.; Aluri, P.K.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Casaponsa, B.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Contreras, D.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Desert, F.X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fantaye, Y.; Fergusson, J.; Fernandez-Cobos, R.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Frolov, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T.S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Liu, H.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Pant, N.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Rotti, A.; Roudier, G.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zibin, J.P.; Zonca, A.
2016-01-01
We test the statistical isotropy and Gaussianity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies using observations made by the Planck satellite. Our results are based mainly on the full Planck mission for temperature, but also include some polarization measurements. In particular, we consider the CMB anisotropy maps derived from the multi-frequency Planck data by several component-separation methods. For the temperature anisotropies, we find excellent agreement between results based on these sky maps over both a very large fraction of the sky and a broad range of angular scales, establishing that potential foreground residuals do not affect our studies. Tests of skewness, kurtosis, multi-normality, N-point functions, and Minkowski functionals indicate consistency with Gaussianity, while a power deficit at large angular scales is manifested in several ways, for example low map variance. The results of a peak statistics analysis are consistent with the expectations of a Gaussian random field. The "Cold S...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Verschuur, G. L.; Schmelz, J. T., E-mail: gverschu@naic.edu [Arecibo Observatory, HC-3 Box 53995, Arecibo PR 00612 (Puerto Rico)
2016-12-01
Small-scale features observed by Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe ( WMAP ) and PLANCK in the frequency range of 22–90 GHz show a nearly flat spectrum, which meets with expectations that they originate in the early universe. However, free–free emission from electrons in small angular scale galactic sources that suffer beam dilution very closely mimic the observed spectrum in this frequency range. Fitting such a model to the PLANCK and WMAP data shows that the angular size required to fit the data is comparable to the angular width of associated H i filaments found in the Galactic Arecibo L-Band Feed Array-H isurvey data. Also, the temperature of the electrons is found to be in the range of 100–300 K. The phenomenon revealed by these data may contribute to a more precise characterization of the foreground masks required to interpret the cosmological aspect of PLANCK and WMAP data.
CROSS-CORRELATIONS AS A COSMOLOGICAL CARBON MONOXIDE DETECTOR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pullen, Anthony R.; Doré, Olivier; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Lidz, Adam
2013-01-01
We present a new procedure to measure the large-scale carbon monoxide (CO) emissions across cosmic history. As a tracer of large-scale structure (LSS), the CO gas content as a function of redshift can be quantified by its three-dimensional fluctuation power spectra. Furthermore, cross-correlating CO emission with other LSS tracers offers a way to measure the emission as a function of scale and redshift. Here we introduce the model relevant for such a cross-correlation measurement between CO and other LSS tracers, and between different CO rotational lines. We propose a novel use of cosmic microwave background (CMB) data and attempt to extract redshifted CO emissions embedded in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data set. We cross-correlate the all-sky WMAP7 data with LSS data sets, namely, the photometric quasar sample and the luminous red galaxy sample from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Releases 6 and 7, respectively. We are unable to detect a cross-correlation signal with either CO(1-0) or CO(2-1) lines, mainly due to the instrumental noise in the WMAP data. However, we are able to rule out models more than three times greater than our more optimistic model. We discuss the cross-correlation signal from the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect and dust as potential contaminants, and quantify their impact for our CO measurements. We discuss forecasts for current CMB experiments and a hypothetical future CO-focused experiment, and propose to cross-correlate CO temperature data with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment Lyα-emitter sample, for which a signal-to-noise ratio of 58 is possible.
Evidence for an inflationary phase transition from the LSS and CMB anisotropy data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barriga, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Santos, M.G.; Sarkar, S.
2001-01-01
In the light of the recent Boomerang and Maxima observations of the CMB which show an anomalously low second acoustic peak, we reexamine the prediction by Adams et al (1997) that this would be the consequence of a 'step' in the primordial spectrum induced by a spontaneous symmetry breaking phase transition during primordial inflation. We demonstrate that a deviation from scale-invariance around k ∼ 0.1h Mpc -1 can simultaneously explain both the feature identified earlier in the APM galaxy power spectrum as well the recent CMB anisotropy data, with a baryon density consistent with the BBN value. Such a break also allows a good fit to the data on cluster abundances even for a critical density matter-dominated universe with zero cosmological constant
Real Space Approach to CMB deboosting
Yoho, Amanda; Starkman, Glenn D.; Pereira, Thiago S.
2013-01-01
The effect of our Galaxy's motion through the Cosmic Microwave Background rest frame, which aberrates and Doppler shifts incoming photons measured by current CMB experiments, has been shown to produce mode-mixing in the multipole space temperature coefficients. However, multipole space determinations are subject to many difficulties, and a real-space analysis can provide a straightforward alternative. In this work we describe a numerical method for removing Lorentz- boost effects from real-space temperature maps. We show that to deboost a map so that one can accurately extract the temperature power spectrum requires calculating the boost kernel at a finer pixelization than one might naively expect. In idealized cases that allow for easy comparison to analytic results, we have confirmed that there is indeed mode mixing among the spherical harmonic coefficients of the temperature. We find that using a boost kernel calculated at Nside=8192 leads to a 1% bias in the binned boosted power spectrum at l~2000, while ...
Searching for a holographic connection between dark energy and the low-l CMB multipoles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Enqvist, Kari; Hannestad, Steen; Sloth, Martin Snoager
2004-01-01
We consider the angular power spectrum in a finite universe with different boundary conditions and perform a fit to the CMB, LSS and supernova data. A finite universe could be the consequence of a holographic constraint, giving rise to an effective IR cutoff at the future event horizon...
Evidence for an inflationary phase transition from the LSS and CMB anisotropy data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barriga, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Santos, M.G.; Sarkar, S
2001-04-01
In the light of the recent Boomerang and Maxima observations of the CMB which show an anomalously low second acoustic peak, we reexamine the prediction by Adams et al (1997) that this would be the consequence of a 'step' in the primordial spectrum induced by a spontaneous symmetry breaking phase transition during primordial inflation. We demonstrate that a deviation from scale-invariance around k {approx} 0.1h Mpc{sup -1} can simultaneously explain both the feature identified earlier in the APM galaxy power spectrum as well the recent CMB anisotropy data, with a baryon density consistent with the BBN value. Such a break also allows a good fit to the data on cluster abundances even for a critical density matter-dominated universe with zero cosmological constant.
Late time CMB anisotropies constrain mini-charged particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burrage, C.; Redondo, J.; Ringwald, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Jaeckel, J. [Univ. of Durham, Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology (United Kingdom)
2009-09-15
Observations of the temperature anisotropies induced as light from the CMB passes through large scale structures in the late universe are a sensitive probe of the interactions of photons in such environments. In extensions of the Standard Model which give rise to mini-charged particles, photons propagating through transverse magnetic fields can be lost to pair production of such particles. Such a decrement in the photon flux would occur as photons from the CMB traverse the magnetic fields of galaxy clusters. Therefore late time CMB anisotropies can be used to constrain the properties of mini- charged particles. We outline how this test is constructed, and present new constraints on mini-charged particles from observations of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in the Coma cluster. (orig.)
Primordial Magnetic Field Effects on the CMB and Large-Scale Structure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dai G. Yamazaki
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Magnetic fields are everywhere in nature, and they play an important role in every astronomical environment which involves the formation of plasma and currents. It is natural therefore to suppose that magnetic fields could be present in the turbulent high-temperature environment of the big bang. Such a primordial magnetic field (PMF would be expected to manifest itself in the cosmic microwave background (CMB temperature and polarization anisotropies, and also in the formation of large-scale structure. In this paper, we summarize the theoretical framework which we have developed to calculate the PMF power spectrum to high precision. Using this formulation, we summarize calculations of the effects of a PMF which take accurate quantitative account of the time evolution of the cutoff scale. We review the constructed numerical program, which is without approximation, and an improvement over the approach used in a number of previous works for studying the effect of the PMF on the cosmological perturbations. We demonstrate how the PMF is an important cosmological physical process on small scales. We also summarize the current constraints on the PMF amplitude Bλ and the power spectral index nB which have been deduced from the available CMB observational data by using our computational framework.
Challenges and prospects for better measurements of the CMB intensity spectrum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sironi, Giorgio, E-mail: giorgio.sironi@unimb.it [Physics Department, University of Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano (Italy)
2017-02-01
Spectral distortions of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) offer the possibility of probing processes which occurred during the evolution of our Universe going back up to Z≅ 10{sup 7}. Unfortunately all the attempts so far carried out for detecting distortions failed. All of them were based on comparisons among absolute measurements of the CMB temperature at different frequencies. We suggest a different approach: measurements of the frequency derivative of the CMB temperature over large frequency intervals instead of observations of the absolute temperature at few, well separated, frequencies as frequently done in the past, and, direct measurements of the foregrounds which hinder observations, at the same site and with the same radiometer prepared for the search of CMB distortions. We discuss therefore the perspectives of new observations in the next years from the ground, at very special sites, or in space as independent missions or part of other CMB projects.
Optimization study for the experimental configuration of CMB-S4
Barron, Darcy; Chinone, Yuji; Kusaka, Akito; Borril, Julian; Errard, Josquin; Feeney, Stephen; Ferraro, Simone; Keskitalo, Reijo; Lee, Adrian T.; Roe, Natalie A.; Sherwin, Blake D.; Suzuki, Aritoki
2018-02-01
. The configurations with large-aperture telescopes have a shallow optimum around 4–6 m in aperture diameter, assuming that large telescopes can achieve good performance for low-frequency noise. We explore some of the uncertainties of the instrumental model and cost parameters, and we find that the optimum has a weak dependence on these parameters. The hybrid configuration shows an even broader optimum, spanning a range of 4–10 m in aperture for the large telescopes. We also present two strawperson configurations as an outcome of this optimization study, and we discuss some ideas for improving our simple cost and instrumental models used here. There are several areas of this analysis that deserve further improvement. In our forecasting framework, we adopt a simple two-component foreground model with spatially varying power-law spectral indices. We estimate de-lensing performance statistically and ignore non-idealities such as anisotropic mode coverage, boundary effect, and possible foreground residual. Instrumental systematics, which is not accounted for in our analyses, may also influence the conceptual design. Further study of the instrumental and cost models will be one of the main areas of study by the entire CMB-S4 community. We hope that our framework will be useful for estimating the influence of these improvements in the future, and we will incorporate them in order to further improve the optimization.
Monte Carlo Algorithms for a Bayesian Analysis of the Cosmic Microwave Background
Jewell, Jeffrey B.; Eriksen, H. K.; ODwyer, I. J.; Wandelt, B. D.; Gorski, K.; Knox, L.; Chu, M.
2006-01-01
A viewgraph presentation on the review of Bayesian approach to Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) analysis, numerical implementation with Gibbs sampling, a summary of application to WMAP I and work in progress with generalizations to polarization, foregrounds, asymmetric beams, and 1/f noise is given.
To the problem of the secondary CMB anisotropy separation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Verkhodanov Oleg
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We study contribution to the secondary anisotropy maps of cosmic microwave background (CMB radiation which difficult to account for faint sources. Two effects are investigated. They are the Sunyaev–Zeldovich effect connected with the inverse Compton scattering of CMB photons on hot electrons of cluster of galaxies, and contamination of the background by weak extragalctic sources. First, we study fields of the Planck CMB maps around radio sources of the RATAN-600 catalog. We see weak microwave sources which make an additional contribution to the secondary anisotropy on angular small scales (< 7′. An algorithm for selecting candidate objects with the Sunyaev–Zeldovich effect was proposed, based on the use of data on the radio spectral indices and the signal in cosmic-microwave background maps. Second, applying the stacking method, we examine the areas of the CMB maps, constructed according to the Planck Space Observatory data in the neighborhood of different populations of radio sources and giant elliptical galaxies. The samples of objects include giant radio galaxies (GRG, radio sources, selected by the radio spectral index and redshift, as well as the gammaray bursts, used as a secondary comparative sample. The signal from this objects exists on CMB maps and its difference in the neighborhood of GRGs from the other types of objects was discovered.
Intermediate inflation in light of the three-year WMAP observations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrow, John D.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Pahud, Cedric
2006-01-01
The three-year observations from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe have been hailed as giving the first clear indication of a spectral index n s s =1 and allowing the tensor-to-scalar ratio r to be nonzero. The combination n s =1 and r>0 is given (within the slow-roll approximation) by a version of the intermediate inflation model with expansion rate H(t)∝t -1/3 . We assess the status of this model in light of the WMAP3 data
A New Limit on CMB Circular Polarization from SPIDER
Nagy, J. M.; Ade, P. A. R.; Amiri, M.; Benton, S. J.; Bergman, A. S.; Bihary, R.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Bryan, S. A.; Chiang, H. C.; Contaldi, C. R.; Doré, O.; Duivenvoorden, A. J.; Eriksen, H. K.; Farhang, M.; Filippini, J. P.; Fissel, L. M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Freese, K.; Galloway, M.; Gambrel, A. E.; Gandilo, N. N.; Ganga, K.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Halpern, M.; Hartley, J.; Hasselfield, M.; Hilton, G.; Holmes, W.; Hristov, V. V.; Huang, Z.; Irwin, K. D.; Jones, W. C.; Kuo, C. L.; Kermish, Z. D.; Li, S.; Mason, P. V.; Megerian, K.; Moncelsi, L.; Morford, T. A.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nolta, M.; Padilla, I. L.; Racine, B.; Rahlin, A. S.; Reintsema, C.; Ruhl, J. E.; Runyan, M. C.; Ruud, T. M.; Shariff, J. A.; Soler, J. D.; Song, X.; Trangsrud, A.; Tucker, C.; Tucker, R. S.; Turner, A. D.; Van Der List, J. F.; Weber, A. C.; Wehus, I. K.; Wiebe, D. V.; Young, E. Y.
2017-08-01
We present a new upper limit on cosmic microwave background (CMB) circular polarization from the 2015 flight of Spider, a balloon-borne telescope designed to search for B-mode linear polarization from cosmic inflation. Although the level of circular polarization in the CMB is predicted to be very small, experimental limits provide a valuable test of the underlying models. By exploiting the nonzero circular-to-linear polarization coupling of the half-wave plate polarization modulators, data from Spider's 2015 Antarctic flight provide a constraint on Stokes V at 95 and 150 GHz in the range 33< {\\ell }< 307. No other limits exist over this full range of angular scales, and Spider improves on the previous limit by several orders of magnitude, providing 95% C.L. constraints on {\\ell }({\\ell }+1){C}{\\ell }{VV}/(2π ) ranging from 141 to 255 μK2 at 150 GHz for a thermal CMB spectrum. As linear CMB polarization experiments become increasingly sensitive, the techniques described in this paper can be applied to obtain even stronger constraints on circular polarization.
FSD: Frequency Space Differential measurement of CMB spectral distortions
Mukherjee, Suvodip; Silk, Joseph; Wandelt, Benjamin D.
2018-04-01
Although the Cosmic Microwave Background agrees with a perfect blackbody spectrum within the current experimental limits, it is expected to exhibit certain spectral distortions with known spectral properties. We propose a new method, Frequency Space Differential (FSD) to measure the spectral distortions in the CMB spectrum by using the inter-frequency differences of the brightness temperature. The difference between the observed CMB temperature at different frequencies must agree with the frequency derivative of the blackbody spectrum, in the absence of any distortion. However, in the presence of spectral distortions, the measured inter-frequency differences would also exhibit deviations from blackbody which can be modeled for known sources of spectral distortions like y & μ. Our technique uses FSD information for the CMB blackbody, y, μ or any other sources of spectral distortions to model the observed signal. Successful application of this method in future CMB missions can provide an alternative method to extract spectral distortion signals and can potentially make it feasible to measure spectral distortions without an internal blackbody calibrator.
A New Limit on CMB Circular Polarization from SPIDER
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nagy, J. M.; Ade, P. A. R.; Amiri, M.; Benton, S. J.; Bergman, A. S.; Bihary, R.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Bryan, S. A.; Chiang, H. C.; Contaldi, C. R.; Doré, O.; Duivenvoorden, A. J.; Eriksen, H. K.; Farhang, M.; Filippini, J. P.; Fissel, L. M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Freese, K.; Galloway, M.; Gambrel, A. E.; Gandilo, N. N.; Ganga, K.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Halpern, M.; Hartley, J.; Hasselfield, M.; Hilton, G.; Holmes, W.; Hristov, V. V.; Huang, Z.; Irwin, K. D.; Jones, W. C.; Kuo, C. L.; Kermish, Z. D.; Li, S.; Mason, P. V.; Megerian, K.; Moncelsi, L.; Morford, T. A.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nolta, M.; Padilla, I. L.; Racine, B.; Rahlin, A. S.; Reintsema, C.; Ruhl, J. E.; Runyan, M. C.; Ruud, T. M.; Shariff, J. A.; Soler, J. D.; Song, X.; Trangsrud, A.; Tucker, C.; Tucker, R. S.; Turner, A. D.; List, J. F. Van Der; Weber, A. C.; Wehus, I. K.; Wiebe, D. V.; Young, E. Y.
2017-08-01
We present a new upper limit on CMB circular polarization from the 2015 flight of SPIDER, a balloon-borne telescope designed to search for $B$-mode linear polarization from cosmic inflation. Although the level of circular polarization in the CMB is predicted to be very small, experimental limits provide a valuable test of the underlying models. By exploiting the non-zero circular-to-linear polarization coupling of the HWP polarization modulators, data from SPIDER's 2015 Antarctic flight provides a constraint on Stokes $V$ at 95 and 150 GHz from $33<\\ell<307$. No other limits exist over this full range of angular scales, and SPIDER improves upon the previous limit by several orders of magnitude, providing 95% C.L. constraints on $\\ell (\\ell+1)C_{\\ell}^{VV}/(2\\pi)$ ranging from 141 $\\mu K ^2$ to 203 $\\mu K ^2$ at 150 GHz for a thermal CMB spectrum. As linear CMB polarization experiments become increasingly sensitive, the techniques described in this paper can be applied to obtain stronger constraints on circular polarization.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gerbino, Martina [The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Gruppuso, Alessandro [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Bologna, via P. Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Natoli, Paolo [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra and INFN, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy); Shiraishi, Maresuke [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo, Chiba, 277-8583 (Japan); Melchiorri, Alessandro, E-mail: martina.gerbino@fysik.su.se, E-mail: gruppuso@iasfbo.inaf.it, E-mail: paolo.natoli@gmail.com, E-mail: maresuke.shiraishi@ipmu.jp, E-mail: alessandro.melchiorri@roma1.infn.it [Physics Department and INFN, Università di Roma ' La Sapienza' , P.le Aldo Moro 2, 00185, Rome (Italy)
2016-07-01
We use the 2015 Planck likelihood in combination with the Bicep2/Keck likelihood (BKP and BK14) to constrain the chirality, χ, of primordial gravitational waves in a scale-invariant scenario. In this framework, the parameter χ enters theory always coupled to the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r , e.g. in combination of the form χ ⋅ r . Thus, the capability to detect χ critically depends on the value of r . We find that with present data sets χ is de facto unconstrained. We also provide forecasts for χ from future CMB experiments, including COrE+, exploring several fiducial values of r . We find that the current limit on r is tight enough to disfavor a neat detection of χ. For example, in the unlikely case in which r ∼0.1(0.05), the maximal chirality case, i.e. χ = ±1, could be detected with a significance of ∼2.5(1.5)σ at best. We conclude that the two-point statistics at the basis of CMB likelihood functions is currently unable to constrain chirality and may only provide weak limits on χ in the most optimistic scenarios. Hence, it is crucial to investigate the use of other observables, e.g. provided by higher order statistics, to constrain these kinds of parity violating theories with the CMB.
Anomalies of the Cosmic Microwave Background
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Martin Anders Kirstejn
CMB signal, or is indeed artifacts in the true CMB signal itself, a substantial work is needed, and is indeed ongoing. This thesis focuses on several tests of CMB anisotropies, and attempts of clarifying or detailing the contributions from new, hitherto uncounted foregrounds. The thesis focuses...... correlating each map with this difference map, one may ascertain the level of the contamination of each map. We find that the ILC9 product from the WMAP team is contaminated compared to the previous edition (the ILC7 map). Likewise a comparison between the ILC9 map and 3 maps from Planck show, that ILC9...... symmetries found upon the CMB anisotropy sky. We would not expect the Galactic plane nor the Galactic center to have any special symmetric representation in a CMB map. We test for these assumptions and for a further rotation in the -direction using the octupole of CMB data and compare to simulated data...
Constraints on early dark energy from CMB lensing and weak lensing tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hollenstein, Lukas; Crittenden, Robert; Sapone, Domenico; Schäfer, Björn Malte
2009-01-01
Dark energy can be studied by its influence on the expansion of the Universe as well as on the growth history of the large-scale structure. In this paper, we follow the growth of the cosmic density field in early dark energy cosmologies by combining observations of the primary CMB temperature and polarisation power spectra at high redshift, of the CMB lensing deflection field at intermediate redshift and of weak cosmic shear at low redshifts for constraining the allowed amount of early dark energy. We present these forecasts using the Fisher matrix formalism and consider the combination of Planck data with the weak lensing survey of Euclid. We find that combining these data sets gives powerful constraints on early dark energy and is able to break degeneracies in the parameter set inherent to the various observational channels. The derived statistical 1σ-bound on the early dark energy density parameter is σ(Ω e d ) = 0.0022 which suggests that early dark energy models can be well examined in our approach. In addition, we derive the dark energy figure of merit for the considered dark energy parameterisation and comment on the applicability of the growth index to early dark energy cosmologies
CMB in a box: Causal structure and the Fourier-Bessel expansion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abramo, L. Raul; Reimberg, Paulo H.; Xavier, Henrique S.
2010-01-01
This paper makes two points. First, we show that the line-of-sight solution to cosmic microwave anisotropies in Fourier space, even though formally defined for arbitrarily large wavelengths, leads to position-space solutions which only depend on the sources of anisotropies inside the past light cone of the observer. This foretold manifestation of causality in position (real) space happens order by order in a series expansion in powers of the visibility γ=e -μ , where μ is the optical depth to Thomson scattering. We show that the contributions of order γ N to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies are regulated by spacetime window functions which have support only inside the past light cone of the point of observation. Second, we show that the Fourier-Bessel expansion of the physical fields (including the temperature and polarization momenta) is an alternative to the usual Fourier basis as a framework to compute the anisotropies. The viability of the Fourier-Bessel series for treating the CMB is a consequence of the fact that the visibility function becomes exponentially small at redshifts z>>10 3 , effectively cutting off the past light cone and introducing a finite radius inside which initial conditions can affect physical observables measured at our position x-vector=0 and time t 0 . Hence, for each multipole l there is a discrete tower of momenta k il (not a continuum) which can affect physical observables, with the smallest momenta being k 1l ∼l. The Fourier-Bessel modes take into account precisely the information from the sources of anisotropies that propagates from the initial value surface to the point of observation - no more, no less. We also show that the physical observables (the temperature and polarization maps), and hence the angular power spectra, are unaffected by that choice of basis. This implies that the Fourier-Bessel expansion is the optimal scheme with which one can compute CMB anisotropies.
Needlet estimation of cross-correlation between CMB lensing maps and LSS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bianchini, Federico [Astrophysics Sector, SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Renzi, Alessandro; Marinucci, Domenico, E-mail: fbianchini@sissa.it, E-mail: renzi@mat.uniroma2.it, E-mail: marinucc@mat.uniroma2.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy)
2016-11-01
In this paper we develop a novel needlet-based estimator to investigate the cross-correlation between cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing maps and large-scale structure (LSS) data. We compare this estimator with its harmonic counterpart and, in particular, we analyze the bias effects of different forms of masking. In order to address this bias, we also implement a MASTER-like technique in the needlet case. The resulting estimator turns out to have an extremely good signal-to-noise performance. Our analysis aims at expanding and optimizing the operating domains in CMB-LSS cross-correlation studies, similarly to CMB needlet data analysis. It is motivated especially by next generation experiments (such as Euclid) which will allow us to derive much tighter constraints on cosmological and astrophysical parameters through cross-correlation measurements between CMB and LSS.
Signatures of graviton masses on the CMB
Brax, Philippe; Cespedes, Sebastian; Davis, Anne-Christine
2018-03-01
The impact of the existence of gravitons with non-vanishing masses on the B-modes of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is investigated. We also focus on putative modifications to the speed of the gravitational waves. We find that a change of the graviton speed shifts the acoustic peaks of the CMB and then could be easily constrained. For the case of massive gravity, we show analytically how the B-modes are sourced in a manner differing from the massless case leading to a plateau at low l in the CMB spectrum. We also study the case when there are more than one graviton, and when pressure instabilities are present. The latter would occur in doubly coupled bigravity in the radiation era. We focus on the case where a massless graviton becomes tachyonic in the radiation era whilst a massive one remains stable. As the unstable mode decouples from matter in the radiation era, we find that the effects of the instability is largely reduced on the spectrum of B-modes as long as the unstable graviton does not grow into the non-linear regime. In all cases when both massless and massive gravitons are present, we find that the B-mode CMB spectrum is characterised by a low l plateau together with a shifted position for the first few peaks compared to a purely massive graviton spectrum, a shift which depends on the mixing between the gravitons in their coupling to matter and could serve as a hint in favour of the existence of multiple gravitons.
Strongly scale-dependent CMB dipolar asymmetry from super-curvature fluctuations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Byrnes, Christian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Domènech, Guillem; Sasaki, Misao [Center for Gravitational Physics, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Takahashi, Tomo, E-mail: C.Byrnes@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: guillem.domenech@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Saga University, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)
2016-12-01
We reconsider the observed CMB dipolar asymmetry in the context of open inflation, where a supercurvature mode might survive the bubble nucleation. If such a supercurvature mode modulates the amplitude of the curvature power spectrum, it would easily produce an asymmetry in the power spectrum. We show that current observational data can be accommodated in a three-field model, with simple quadratic potentials and a non-trivial field-space metric. Despite the presence of three fields, we believe this model is so far the simplest that can match current observations. We are able to match the observed strong scale dependence of the dipolar asymmetry, without a fine tuning of initial conditions, breaking slow roll or adding a feature to the evolution of any field.
McCarthy, Ian G.; Bird, Simeon; Schaye, Joop; Harnois-Deraps, Joachim; Font, Andreea S.; van Waerbeke, Ludovic
2018-05-01
Recent studies have presented evidence for tension between the constraints on Ωm and σ8 from the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and measurements of large-scale structure (LSS). This tension can potentially be resolved by appealing to extensions of the standard model of cosmology and/or untreated systematic errors in the modelling of LSS, of which baryonic physics has been frequently suggested. We revisit this tension using, for the first time, carefully calibrated cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, which thus capture the backreaction of the baryons on the total matter distribution. We have extended the BAryons and HAloes of MAssive Sysmtes simulations to include a treatment of massive neutrinos, which currently represents the best-motivated extension to the standard model. We make synthetic thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, weak galaxy lensing, and CMB lensing maps and compare to observed auto- and cross-power spectra from a wide range of recent observational surveys. We conclude that: (i) in general, there is tension between the primary CMB and LSS when adopting the standard model with minimal neutrino mass; (ii) after calibrating feedback processes to match the gas fractions of clusters, the remaining uncertainties in the baryonic physics modelling are insufficient to reconcile this tension; and (iii) if one accounts for internal tensions in the Planck CMB data set (by allowing the lensing amplitude, ALens, to vary), invoking a non-minimal neutrino mass, typically of 0.2-0.4 eV, can resolve the tension. This solution is fully consistent with separate constraints from the primary CMB and baryon acoustic oscillations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benetti, Micol; Lattanzi, Massimiliano; Calabrese, Erminia; Melchiorri, Alessandro
2011-01-01
We update the constraints on possible features in the primordial inflationary density perturbation spectrum by using the latest data from the WMAP7 and ACT (Atacama Cosmology Telescope) cosmic microwave background experiments. The inclusion of new data significantly improves the constraints with respect to older work, especially to smaller angular scales. While we found no clear statistical evidence in the data for extensions to the simplest, featureless, inflationary model, models with a step provide a significantly better fit than standard featureless power-law spectra. We show that the possibility of a step in the inflationary potential like the one preferred by current data will soon be tested by the forthcoming temperature and polarization data from the Planck satellite mission.
Effect of the length of inflation on angular TT and TE power spectra in power-law inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirai, Shiro; Takami, Tomoyuki
2006-01-01
The effect of the length of inflation on the power spectra of scalar and tensor perturbations is estimated using the power-law inflation model with a scale factor of a(η) = (-η) p = t q . Considering various pre-inflation models with radiation-dominated or scalar matter-dominated periods before inflation in combination with two matching conditions, the temperature angular power spectrum (TT) and temperature-polarization cross-power spectrum (TE) are calculated and a likelihood analysis is performed. It is shown that the discrepancies between the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP) data and the ΛCDM model, such as suppression of the spectrum at l = 2, 3 and oscillatory behaviour, may be explained by the finite length of inflation model if the length of inflation is near 60 e-folds and q ≥ 300. The proposed models retain similar values of χ 2 to that achieved by the ΛCDM model with respect to fit to the WMAP data, but display different characteristics of the angular TE power spectra at l ≤ 20
CMB-S4 Science Book, First Edition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abazajian, Kevork N. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); et al.
2016-10-09
This book lays out the scientific goals to be addressed by the next-generation ground-based cosmic microwave background experiment, CMB-S4, envisioned to consist of dedicated telescopes at the South Pole, the high Chilean Atacama plateau and possibly a northern hemisphere site, all equipped with new superconducting cameras. CMB-S4 will dramatically advance cosmological studies by crossing critical thresholds in the search for the B-mode polarization signature of primordial gravitational waves, in the determination of the number and masses of the neutrinos, in the search for evidence of new light relics, in constraining the nature of dark energy, and in testing general relativity on large scales.
Observational constraints on dark energy and cosmic curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Yun; Mukherjee, Pia
2007-01-01
Current observational bounds on dark energy depend on our assumptions about the curvature of the universe. We present a simple and efficient method for incorporating constraints from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy data and use it to derive constraints on cosmic curvature and dark energy density as a free function of cosmic time using current CMB, Type Ia supernova (SN Ia), and baryon acoustic oscillation data. We show that there are two CMB shift parameters, R≡√(Ω m H 0 2 )r(z CMB ) (the scaled distance to recombination) and l a ≡πr(z CMB )/r s (z CMB ) (the angular scale of the sound horizon at recombination), with measured values that are nearly uncorrelated with each other. Allowing nonzero cosmic curvature, the three-year WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe) data give R=1.71±0.03, l a =302.5±1.2, and Ω b h 2 =0.02173±0.00082, independent of the dark energy model. The corresponding bounds for a flat universe are R=1.70±0.03, l a =302.2±1.2, and Ω b h 2 =0.022±0.00082. We give the covariance matrix of (R,l a ,Ω b h 2 ) from the three-year WMAP data. We find that (R,l a ,Ω b h 2 ) provide an efficient and intuitive summary of CMB data as far as dark energy constraints are concerned. Assuming the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) prior of H 0 =72±8 (km/s) Mpc -1 , using 182 SNe Ia (from the HST/GOODS program, the first year Supernova Legacy Survey, and nearby SN Ia surveys), (R,l a ,Ω b h 2 ) from WMAP three-year data, and SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey) measurement of the baryon acoustic oscillation scale, we find that dark energy density is consistent with a constant in cosmic time, with marginal deviations from a cosmological constant that may reflect current systematic uncertainties or true evolution in dark energy. A flat universe is allowed by current data: Ω k =-0.006 -0.012-0.025 +0.013+0.025 for assuming that the dark energy equation of state w X (z) is constant, and Ω k =-0.002 -0.018-0.032 +0.018+0.041 for w X (z
Precision epoch of reionization studies with next-generation CMB experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calabrese, Erminia; Louis, Thibaut [Sub-department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Hložek, Renée; Hil, J. Colin [Department of Astrophysical Science, Peyton Hall, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ, 08544 (United States); Battaglia, Nick [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213 (United States); Bond, J. Richard; Hajian, Amir [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H8 Canada (Canada); De Bernardis, Francesco; Henderson, Shawn; Niemack, Michael D. [Department of Physics, Cornell University, 109 Clark Hall, Ithaca, NY, 14853 (United States); Devlin, Mark J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA, 19104 (United States); Kosowsky, Arthur [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 315 Allen Hall, Pittsburgh, PA, 15260 (United States); McMahon, Jeff [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109 (United States); Moodley, Kavilan [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Private Bag X54001, Durban, 4041 South Africa (South Africa); Newburgh, Laura [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George St., Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 Canada (Canada); Page, Lyman A. [Joseph Henry Laboratories of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Washington Road, Princeton, NJ, 08544 (United States); Partridge, Bruce [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Haverford College, 370 Lancaster Avenue, Haverford, PA, 19041 (United States); Sehgal, Neelima, E-mail: erminia.calabrese@astro.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: rhlozek@astro.princeton.edu [Physics and Astronomy Department, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, 11794 (United States); and others
2014-08-01
Future arcminute resolution polarization data from ground-based Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) observations can be used to estimate the contribution to the temperature power spectrum from the primary anisotropies and to uncover the signature of reionization near ℓ=1500 in the small angular-scale temperature measurements. Our projections are based on combining expected small-scale E-mode polarization measurements from Advanced ACTPol in the range 300<ℓ<3000 with simulated temperature data from the full Planck mission in the low and intermediate ℓ region, 2<ℓ<2000. We show that the six basic cosmological parameters determined from this combination of data will predict the underlying primordial temperature spectrum at high multipoles to better than 1% accuracy. Assuming an efficient cleaning from multi-frequency channels of most foregrounds in the temperature data, we investigate the sensitivity to the only residual secondary component, the kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) term. The CMB polarization is used to break degeneracies between primordial and secondary terms present in temperature and, in effect, to remove from the temperature data all but the residual kSZ term. We estimate a 15σ detection of the diffuse homogeneous kSZ signal from expected AdvACT temperature data at ℓ>1500, leading to a measurement of the amplitude of matter density fluctuations, σ{sub 8}, at 1% precision. Alternatively, by exploring the reionization signal encoded in the patchy kSZ measurements, we bound the time and duration of the reionization with σ(z{sub re})=1.1 and σ(Δz{sub re})=0.2. We find that these constraints degrade rapidly with large beam sizes, which highlights the importance of arcminute-scale resolution for future CMB surveys.
A Measurement of CMB Cluster Lensing with SPT and DES Year 1 Data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baxter, E.J.; et al.
2017-08-03
Clusters of galaxies gravitationally lens the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, resulting in a distinct imprint in the CMB on arcminute scales. Measurement of this effect offers a promising way to constrain the masses of galaxy clusters, particularly those at high redshift. We use CMB maps from the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) survey to measure the CMB lensing signal around galaxy clusters identified in optical imaging from first year observations of the Dark Energy Survey. We detect lensing of the CMB by the galaxy clusters at 6.5$\\sigma$ significance. Using the measured lensing signal, we constrain the amplitude of the relation between cluster mass and optical richness to roughly $20\\%$ precision, finding good agreement with recent constraints obtained with galaxy lensing. The error budget is dominated by statistical noise but includes significant contributions from systematic biases due to the thermal SZ effect and cluster miscentering.
CMBPol Mission Concept Study: Probing Inflation with CMB Polarization
Baumann, Daniel; Adshead, Peter; Amblard, Alexandre; Ashoorioon, Amjad; Bartolo, Nicola; Bean, Rachel; Beltran, Maria; de Bernardis, Francesco; Bird, Simeon; Chen, Xingang; Chung, Daniel Jun Hun; Colombo, Loris; Cooray, Asantha R.; Creminelli, Paolo; Dodelson, Scott; Dunkley, Joanna; Dvorkin, Cora; Easther, Richard; Finelli, Fabio; Flauger, Raphael; Hertzberg, Mark P.; Jones-Smith, Katherine; Kachru, Shamit; Kadota, Kenji; Khoury, Justin; Kinney, William H.; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Krauss, Lawrence M.; Lesgourgues, Julien; Liddle, Andrew R.; Liguori, Michele; Lim, Eugene A.; Linde, Andrei D.; Matarrese, Sabino; Mathur, Harsh; McAllister, Liam; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Nicolis, Alberto; Pagano, Luca; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Peloso, Marco; Pogosian, Levon; Pierpaoli, Elena; Riotto, Antonio; Seljak, Uros; Senatore, Leonardo; Shandera, Sarah E.; Silverstein, Eva; Smith, Tristan; Vaudrevange, Pascal M.; Verde, Licia; Wandelt, Ben; Wands, David; Watson, Scott; Wyman, Mark; Yadav, Amit; Valkenburg, Wessel; Zaldarriaga, Matias
2009-01-01
We summarize the utility of precise cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization measurements as probes of the physics of inflation. We focus on the prospects for using CMB measurements to differentiate various inflationary mechanisms. In particular, a detection of primordial B-mode polarization would demonstrate that inflation occurred at a very high energy scale, and that the inflaton traversed a super-Planckian distance in field space. We explain how such a detection or constraint would illuminate aspects of physics at the Planck scale. Moreover, CMB measurements can constrain the scale-dependence and non-Gaussianity of the primordial fluctuations and limit the possibility of a significant isocurvature contribution. Each such limit provides crucial information on the underlying inflationary dynamics. Finally, we quantify these considerations by presenting forecasts for the sensitivities of a future satellite experiment to the inflationary parameters.
String Theory clues for the low-$\\ell$ CMB ?
Kitazawa, N.
2015-05-29
"Brane Supersymmetry Breaking" is a peculiar string-scale mechanism that can unpair Bose and Fermi excitations in orientifold models. It results from the simultaneous presence, in the vacuum, of collections of D-branes and orientifolds that are not mutually BPS, and is closely tied to the scale of string excitations. It also leaves behind, for a mixing of dilaton and internal breathing mode, an exponential potential that is just too steep for a scalar to emerge from the initial singularity while descending it. As a result, in this class of models the scalar can generically bounce off the exponential wall, and this dynamics brings along, in the power spectrum, an infrared depression typically followed by a pre-inflationary peak. We elaborate on a possible link between this type of bounce and the low-$\\ell$ end of the CMB angular power spectrum. For the first 32 multipoles, one can reach a 50 % reduction in $\\chi^{\\,2}$ with respect to the standard $\\Lambda$CDM setting.
Henning, J. W.; Sayre, J. T.; Reichardt, C. L.; Ade, P. A. R.; Anderson, A. J.; Austermann, J. E.; Beall, J. A.; Bender, A. N.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Chiang, H. C.; Cho, H.-M.; Citron, R.; Corbett Moran, C.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Everett, W.; Gallicchio, J.; George, E. M.; Gilbert, A.; Halverson, N. W.; Harrington, N.; Hilton, G. C.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hoover, S.; Hou, Z.; Hrubes, J. D.; Huang, N.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K. D.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Li, D.; Lowitz, A.; Manzotti, A.; McMahon, J. J.; Meyer, S. S.; Mocanu, L.; Montgomery, J.; Nadolski, A.; Natoli, T.; Nibarger, J. P.; Novosad, V.; Padin, S.; Pryke, C.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Schaffer, K. K.; Sievers, C.; Smecher, G.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K. T.; Tucker, C.; Vanderlinde, K.; Veach, T.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, G.; Whitehorn, N.; Wu, W. L. K.; Yefremenko, V.
2018-01-01
We present measurements of the E-mode polarization angular auto-power spectrum (EE) and temperature–E-mode cross-power spectrum (TE) of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) using 150 GHz data from three seasons of SPTpol observations. We report the power spectra over the spherical harmonic multipole range 50 1050 and {\\ell }> 1475, respectively. The observations cover 500 {\\deg }2, a fivefold increase in area compared to previous SPTpol analyses, which increases our sensitivity to the photon diffusion damping tail of the CMB power spectra enabling tighter constraints on ΛCDM model extensions. After masking all sources with unpolarized flux > 50 mJy, we place a 95% confidence upper limit on residual polarized point-source power of {D}{\\ell }={\\ell }({\\ell }+1){C}{\\ell }/2π masking. We find that the SPTpol data set is in mild tension with the ΛCDM model (2.1σ ), and different data splits prefer parameter values that differ at the ∼ 1 σ level. When fitting SPTpol data at {\\ell }data at {\\ell }> 1000 results in a preference for a higher value of the expansion rate ({H}0=71.3+/- 2.1 {km} {{{s}}}-1{{Mpc}}-1 ) and a lower value for present-day density fluctuations ({σ }8=0.77+/- 0.02).
Probing features in inflaton potential and reionization history with future CMB space observations
Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Paoletti, Daniela; Ballardini, Mario; Finelli, Fabio; Shafieloo, Arman; Smoot, George F.; Starobinsky, Alexei A.
2018-02-01
We consider the prospects of probing features in the primordial power spectrum with future Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization measurements. In the scope of the inflationary scenario, such features in the spectrum can be produced by local non-smooth pieces in an inflaton potential (smooth and quasi-flat in general) which in turn may originate from fast phase transitions during inflation in other quantum fields interacting with the inflaton. They can fit some outliers in the CMB temperature power spectrum which are unaddressed within the standard inflationary ΛCDM model. We consider Wiggly Whipped Inflation (WWI) as a theoretical framework leading to improvements in the fit to the Planck 2015 temperature and polarization data in comparison with the standard inflationary models, although not at a statistically significant level. We show that some type of features in the potential within the WWI models, leading to oscillations in the primordial power spectrum that extend to intermediate and small scales can be constrained with high confidence (at 3σ or higher confidence level) by an instrument as the Cosmic ORigins Explorer (CORE). In order to investigate the possible confusion between inflationary features and footprints from the reionization era, we consider an extended reionization history with monotonic increase of free electrons with decrease in redshift. We discuss the present constraints on this model of extended reionization and future predictions with CORE. We also project, to what extent, this extended reionization can create confusion in identifying inflationary features in the data.
The evens and odds of CMB anomalies
Gruppuso, A.; Kitazawa, N.; Lattanzi, M.; Mandolesi, N.; Natoli, P.; Sagnotti, A.
2018-06-01
The lack of power of large-angle CMB anisotropies is known to increase its statistical significance at higher Galactic latitudes, where a string-inspired pre-inflationary scale Δ can also be detected. Considering the Planck 2015 data, and relying largely on a Bayesian approach, we show that the effect is mostly driven by the even - ℓ harmonic multipoles with ℓ ≲ 20, which appear sizably suppressed in a way that is robust with respect to Galactic masking, along with the corresponding detections of Δ. On the other hand, the first odd - ℓ multipoles are only suppressed at high Galactic latitudes. We investigate this behavior in different sky masks, constraining Δ through even and odd multipoles, and we elaborate on possible implications. We include low- ℓ polarization data which, despite being noise-limited, help in attaining confidence levels of about 3 σ in the detection of Δ. We also show by direct forecasts that a future all-sky E-mode cosmic-variance-limited polarization survey may push the constraining power for Δ beyond 5 σ.
Excess B-modes extracted from the Planck polarization maps
Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.
2016-06-01
One of the main obstacles for extracting the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) from mm/submm observations is the pollution from the main Galactic components: synchrotron, free-free and thermal dust emission. The feasibility of using simple neural networks to extract CMB has been demonstrated on both temperature and polarization data obtained by the WMAP satellite. The main goal of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of neural networks for extracting the CMB signal from the Planck polarization data with high precision. Both auto-correlation and cross-correlation power spectra within a mask covering about 63 % of the sky have been used together with a ``high pass filter'' in order to minimize the influence of the remaining systematic errors in the Planck Q and U maps. Using the Planck 2015 released polarization maps, a BB power spectrum have been extracted by Multilayer Perceptron neural networks. This spectrum contains a bright feature with signal to noise ratios ≃ 4.5 within 200 ≤ l ≤ 250. The spectrum is significantly brighter than the BICEP2 2015 spectrum, with a spectral behaviour quite different from the ``canonical'' models (weak lensing plus B-modes spectra with different tensor to scalar ratios). The feasibility of the neural network to remove the residual systematics from the available Planck polarization data to a high level has been demonstrated.
Testing physical models for dipolar asymmetry with CMB polarization
Contreras, D.; Zibin, J. P.; Scott, D.; Banday, A. J.; Górski, K. M.
2017-12-01
The cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies exhibit a large-scale dipolar power asymmetry. To determine whether this is due to a real, physical modulation or is simply a large statistical fluctuation requires the measurement of new modes. Here we forecast how well CMB polarization data from Planck and future experiments will be able to confirm or constrain physical models for modulation. Fitting several such models to the Planck temperature data allows us to provide predictions for polarization asymmetry. While for some models and parameters Planck polarization will decrease error bars on the modulation amplitude by only a small percentage, we show, importantly, that cosmic-variance-limited (and in some cases even Planck) polarization data can decrease the errors by considerably better than the expectation of √{2 } based on simple ℓ-space arguments. We project that if the primordial fluctuations are truly modulated (with parameters as indicated by Planck temperature data) then Planck will be able to make a 2 σ detection of the modulation model with 20%-75% probability, increasing to 45%-99% when cosmic-variance-limited polarization is considered. We stress that these results are quite model dependent. Cosmic variance in temperature is important: combining statistically isotropic polarization with temperature data will spuriously increase the significance of the temperature signal with 30% probability for Planck.
CMB Polarization B-mode Delensing with SPTpol and Herschel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Manzotti, A.; et al.
2017-01-16
We present a demonstration of delensing the observed cosmic microwave background (CMB) B-mode polarization anisotropy. This process of reducing the gravitational-lensing generated B-mode component will become increasingly important for improving searches for the B modes produced by primordial gravitational waves. In this work, we delens B-mode maps constructed from multi-frequency SPTpol observations of a 90 deg$^2$ patch of sky by subtracting a B-mode template constructed from two inputs: SPTpol E-mode maps and a lensing potential map estimated from the $\\textit{Herschel}$ $500\\,\\mu m$ map of the CIB. We find that our delensing procedure reduces the measured B-mode power spectrum by 28% in the multipole range $300 < \\ell < 2300$; this is shown to be consistent with expectations from theory and simulations and to be robust against systematics. The null hypothesis of no delensing is rejected at $6.9 \\sigma$. Furthermore, we build and use a suite of realistic simulations to study the general properties of the delensing process and find that the delensing efficiency achieved in this work is limited primarily by the noise in the lensing potential map. We demonstrate the importance of including realistic experimental non-idealities in the delensing forecasts used to inform instrument and survey-strategy planning of upcoming lower-noise experiments, such as CMB-S4.
Constraining dark matter late-time energy injection: decays and p-wave annihilations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diamanti, Roberta; Mena, Olga; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio; Vincent, Aaron C. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC-Universitat de València, Apartado de Correos 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Lopez-Honorez, Laura, E-mail: R.Diamanti@uva.nl, E-mail: llopezho@vub.ac.be, E-mail: omena@ific.uv.es, E-mail: sergio.palomares.ruiz@ific.uv.es, E-mail: vincent@ific.uv.es [Theoretische Natuurkunde Vrije Universiteit Brussel and The International Solvay Institutes Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)
2014-02-01
We use the latest cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations to provide updated constraints on the dark matter lifetime as well as on p-wave suppressed annihilation cross sections in the 1 MeV to 1 TeV mass range. In contrast to scenarios with an s-wave dominated annihilation cross section, which mainly affect the CMB close to the last scattering surface, signatures associated with these scenarios essentially appear at low redshifts (z∼<50) when structure began to form, and thus manifest at lower multipoles in the CMB power spectrum. We use data from Planck, WMAP9, SPT and ACT, as well as Lyman–α measurements of the matter temperature at z ∼ 4 to set a 95% confidence level lower bound on the dark matter lifetime of ∼ 4 × 10{sup 25} s for m{sub χ} = 100 MeV. This bound becomes lower by an order of magnitude at m{sub χ} = 1 TeV due to inefficient energy deposition into the intergalactic medium. We also show that structure formation can enhance the effect of p-wave suppressed annihilation cross sections by many orders of magnitude with respect to the background cosmological rate, although even with this enhancement, CMB constraints are not yet strong enough to reach the thermal relic value of the cross section.
Advanced Antenna-Coupled Superconducting Detector Arrays for CMB Polarimetry
Bock, James
2014-01-01
We are developing high-sensitivity millimeter-wave detector arrays for measuring the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This development is directed to advance the technology readiness of the Inflation Probe mission in NASA's Physics of the Cosmos program. The Inflation Probe is a fourth-generation CMB satellite that will measure the polarization of the CMB to astrophysical limits, characterizing the inflationary polarization signal, mapping large-scale structure based on polarization induced by gravitational lensing, and mapping Galactic magnetic fields through measurements of polarized dust emission. The inflationary polarization signal is produced by a background of gravitational waves from the epoch of inflation, an exponential expansion of space-time in the early universe, with an amplitude that depends on the physical mechanism producing inflation. The inflationary polarization signal may be distinguished by its unique 'B-mode' vector properties from polarization from the density variations that predominantly source CMB temperature anisotropy. Mission concepts for the Inflation Probe are being developed in the US, Europe and Japan. The arrays are based on planar antennas that provide integral beam collimation, polarization analysis, and spectral band definition in a compact lithographed format that eliminates discrete fore-optics such as lenses and feedhorns. The antennas are coupled to transition-edge superconducting bolometers, read out with multiplexed SQUID current amplifiers. The superconducting sensors and readouts developed in this program share common technologies with NASA X-ray and FIR detector applications. Our program targets developments required for space observations, and we discuss our technical progress over the past two years and plans for future development. We are incorporating arrays into active sub-orbital and ground-based experiments, which advance technology readiness while producing state of the art CMB
Loop quantum gravity effects on inflation and the CMB
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsujikawa, Shinji; Singh, Parampreet; Maartens, Roy
2004-01-01
In loop quantum cosmology, the universe avoids a big bang singularity and undergoes an early and short super-inflation phase. During super-inflation, non-perturbative quantum corrections to the dynamics drive an inflaton field up its potential hill, thus setting the initial conditions for standard inflation. We show that this effect can raise the inflaton high enough to achieve sufficient e-foldings in the standard inflation era. We analyse the cosmological perturbations generated when slow-roll is violated after super-inflation and show that loop quantum effects can in principle leave an indirect signature on the largest scales in the CMB, with some loss of power and running of the spectral index
Planck 2013 results. V. LFI calibration
Aghanim, N; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cappellini, B; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chen, X; Chiang, L -Y; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Gaier, T C; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giardino, G; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jewell, J; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Kangaslahti, P; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leach, S; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Naselsky, P; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; O'Dwyer, I J; Osborne, S; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, D; Peel, M; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Varis, J; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Wilkinson, A; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A
2014-01-01
We discuss the methods employed to photometrically calibrate the data acquired by the Low Frequency Instrument on Planck. Our calibration is based on a combination of the Orbital Dipole plus the Solar Dipole, caused respectively by the motion of the Planck spacecraft with respect to the Sun and by motion of the Solar System with respect to the CMB rest frame. The latter provides a signal of a few mK with the same spectrum as the CMB anisotropies and is visible throughout the mission. In this data release we rely on the characterization of the Solar Dipole as measured by WMAP. We also present preliminary results (at 44GHz only) on the study of the Orbital Dipole, which agree with the WMAP value of the Solar System speed within our uncertainties. We compute the calibration constant for each radiometer roughly once per hour, in order to keep track of changes in the detectors' gain. Since non-idealities in the optical response of the beams proved to be important, we implemented a fast convolution algorithm which ...
A measurement of CMB cluster lensing with SPT and DES year 1 data
Baxter, E. J.; Raghunathan, S.; Crawford, T. M.; Fosalba, P.; Hou, Z.; Holder, G. P.; Omori, Y.; Patil, S.; Rozo, E.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Annis, J.; Aylor, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Benson, B. A.; Bertin, E.; Bleem, L.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Carlstrom, J.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Chang, C. L.; Cho, H.-M.; Crites, A. T.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; da Costa, L. N.; D'Andrea, C. B.; Davis, C.; de Haan, T.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Dobbs, M. A.; Dodelson, S.; Doel, P.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Estrada, J.; Everett, W. B.; Fausti Neto, A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; George, E. M.; Gaztanaga, E.; Giannantonio, T.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gschwend, J.; Gutierrez, G.; Halverson, N. W.; Harrington, N. L.; Hartley, W. G.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Honscheid, K.; Hrubes, J. D.; Jain, B.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Jeltema, T.; Knox, L.; Krause, E.; Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Luong-Van, D.; Manzotti, A.; March, M.; Marrone, D. P.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; McMahon, J. J.; Melchior, P.; Menanteau, F.; Meyer, S. S.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Mocanu, L. M.; Mohr, J. J.; Natoli, T.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R. L. C.; Padin, S.; Plazas, A. A.; Pryke, C.; Rapetti, D.; Reichardt, C. L.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Ruhl, J. E.; Rykoff, E.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Sayre, J. T.; Scarpine, V.; Schaffer, K. K.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Shirokoff, E.; Smith, M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A.; Story, K.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Troxel, M. A.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Walker, A. R.; Williamson, R.; Zhang, Y.; Zuntz, J.
2018-05-01
Clusters of galaxies gravitationally lens the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, resulting in a distinct imprint in the CMB on arcminute scales. Measurement of this effect offers a promising way to constrain the masses of galaxy clusters, particularly those at high redshift. We use CMB maps from the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) survey to measure the CMB lensing signal around galaxy clusters identified in optical imaging from first year observations of the Dark Energy Survey. The cluster catalogue used in this analysis contains 3697 members with mean redshift of \\bar{z} = 0.45. We detect lensing of the CMB by the galaxy clusters at 8.1σ significance. Using the measured lensing signal, we constrain the amplitude of the relation between cluster mass and optical richness to roughly 17 {per cent} precision, finding good agreement with recent constraints obtained with galaxy lensing. The error budget is dominated by statistical noise but includes significant contributions from systematic biases due to the thermal SZ effect and cluster miscentring.
Taking the Measure of the Universe: Cosmology from the WMAP Mission
Hinshaw, Gary F.
2007-01-01
The data from the first three years of operation of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropy and new full-sky maps of the polarization. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time. These and other aspects of the mission will be discussed.
CMB seen through random Swiss Cheese
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lavinto, Mikko; Räsänen, Syksy, E-mail: mikko.lavinto@helsinki.fi, E-mail: syksy.rasanen@iki.fi [Physics Department, University of Helsinki and Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland)
2015-10-01
We consider a Swiss Cheese model with a random arrangement of Lemaȋtre-Tolman-Bondi holes in ΛCDM cheese. We study two kinds of holes with radius r{sub b}=50 h{sup −1} Mpc, with either an underdense or an overdense centre, called the open and closed case, respectively. We calculate the effect of the holes on the temperature, angular diameter distance and, for the first time in Swiss Cheese models, shear of the CMB . We quantify the systematic shift of the mean and the statistical scatter, and calculate the power spectra. In the open case, the temperature power spectrum is three orders of magnitude below the linear ISW spectrum. It is sensitive to the details of the hole, in the closed case the amplitude is two orders of magnitude smaller. In contrast, the power spectra of the distance and shear are more robust, and agree with perturbation theory and previous Swiss Cheese results. We do not find a statistically significant mean shift in the sky average of the angular diameter distance, and obtain the 95% limit |Δ D{sub A}/ D-bar {sub A}|∼< 10{sup −4}. We consider the argument that areas of spherical surfaces are nearly unaffected by perturbations, which is often invoked in light propagation calculations. The closed case is consistent with this at 1σ, whereas in the open case the probability is only 1.4%.
Constraining quantum collapse inflationary models with CMB data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benetti, Micol; Alcaniz, Jailson S. [Departamento de Astronomia, Observatório Nacional, 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Landau, Susana J., E-mail: micolbenetti@on.br, E-mail: slandau@df.uba.ar, E-mail: alcaniz@on.br [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and IFIBA, CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, PabI, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina)
2016-12-01
The hypothesis of the self-induced collapse of the inflaton wave function was proposed as responsible for the emergence of inhomogeneity and anisotropy at all scales. This proposal was studied within an almost de Sitter space-time approximation for the background, which led to a perfect scale-invariant power spectrum, and also for a quasi-de Sitter background, which allows to distinguish departures from the standard approach due to the inclusion of the collapse hypothesis. In this work we perform a Bayesian model comparison for two different choices of the self-induced collapse in a full quasi-de Sitter expansion scenario. In particular, we analyze the possibility of detecting the imprint of these collapse schemes at low multipoles of the anisotropy temperature power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) using the most recent data provided by the Planck Collaboration. Our results show that one of the two collapse schemes analyzed provides the same Bayesian evidence of the minimal standard cosmological model ΛCDM, while the other scenario is weakly disfavoured with respect to the standard cosmology.
Oscillations in the CMB from Axion Monodromy Inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Flauger, Raphael; /Texas U.; McAllister, Liam; Pajer, Enrico; /Cornell U., Phys. Dept.; Westphal, Alexander; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Xu, Gang; /Cornell U., Phys. Dept.
2011-12-01
We study the CMB observables in axion monodromy inflation. These well-motivated scenarios for inflation in string theory have monomial potentials over super-Planckian field ranges, with superimposed sinusoidal modulations from instanton effects. Such periodic modulations of the potential can drive resonant enhancements of the correlation functions of cosmological perturbations, with characteristic modulations of the amplitude as a function of wavenumber. We give an analytical result for the scalar power spectrum in this class of models, and we determine the limits that present data places on the amplitude and frequency of modulations. Then, incorporating an improved understanding of the realization of axion monodromy inflation in string theory, we perform a careful study of microphysical constraints in this scenario. We find that detectable modulations of the scalar power spectrum are commonplace in well-controlled examples, while resonant contributions to the bispectrum are undetectable in some classes of examples and detectable in others. We conclude that resonant contributions to the spectrum and bispectrum are a characteristic signature of axion monodromy inflation that, in favorable cases, could be detected in near-future experiments.
Single-field inflation constraints from CMB and SDSS data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Finelli, Fabio; Hamann, Jan; Leach, Samuel M.; Lesgourgues, Julien
2010-01-01
We present constraints on canonical single-field inflation derived from WMAP five year, ACBAR, QUAD, BICEP data combined with the halo power spectrum from SDSS LRG7. Models with a non-scale-invariant spectrum and a red tilt n S S = 1, tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 0) at high significance. Assuming no running of the spectral indices, we derive constraints on the parameters (n S , r) and compare our results with the predictions of simple inflationary models. The marginalised credible intervals read n S = 0.962 +0.028 −0.026 and r 2 ≅ 5.8, allowing inflationary stages producing a sizable negative running −0.063 +0.061 −0.049 and larger tensor-scalar ratio r < 0.33 at the 95% c.l. This requires large values of the third derivative of the inflaton potential within the observable range. We derive bounds on this derivative under the assumption that the inflaton potential can be approximated as a third order polynomial within the observable range
Single-field inflation constraints from CMB and SDSS data
Finelli, Fabio; Leach, Samuel M; Lesgourgues, Julien
2010-01-01
We present constraints on canonical single-field inflation derived from WMAP five year, ACBAR, QUAD, BICEP data combined with the halo power spectrum from SDSS LRG7. Models with a non-scale-invariant spectrum and a red tilt n_s < 1 are now preferred over the Harrison-Zel'dovich model (n_s = 1, tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 0) at high significance. Assuming no running of the spectral indices, we derive constraints on the parameters (n_s, r) and compare our results with the predictions of simple inflationary models. The marginalised credible intervals read n_s = 0.962^{+0.028}_{-0.026} and r < 0.17 (at 95% confidence level). Interestingly, the 68% c.l. contours favour mainly models with a convex potential in the observable region, but the quadratic potential model remains inside the 95% c.l. contours. We demonstrate that these results are robust to changes in the datasets considered and in the theoretical assumptions made. We then consider a non-vanishing running of the spectral indices by employing differen...
Beyond CMB cosmic variance limits on reionization with the polarized Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect
Meyers, Joel; Meerburg, P. Daniel; van Engelen, Alexander; Battaglia, Nicholas
2018-05-01
Upcoming cosmic microwave background (CMB) surveys will soon make the first detection of the polarized Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, the linear polarization generated by the scattering of CMB photons on the free electrons present in collapsed objects. Measurement of this polarization along with knowledge of the electron density of the objects allows a determination of the quadrupolar temperature anisotropy of the CMB as viewed from the space-time location of the objects. Maps of these remote temperature quadrupoles have several cosmological applications. Here we propose a new application: the reconstruction of the cosmological reionization history. We show that with quadrupole measurements out to redshift 3, constraints on the mean optical depth can be improved by an order of magnitude beyond the CMB cosmic variance limit.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meyer, Eileen T.; Breiding, Peter; Georganopoulos, Markos [University of Maryland, Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Oteo, Iván; Ivison, R. J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Zwaan, Martin A.; Laing, Robert [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching-bei-München (Germany); Godfrey, Leith, E-mail: meyer@umbc.edu [ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands)
2017-02-01
The Chandra X-ray observatory has discovered several dozen anomalously X-ray-bright jets associated with powerful quasars. A popular explanation for the X-ray flux from the knots in these jets is that relativistic synchrotron-emitting electrons inverse-Compton scatter cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons to X-ray energies (the IC/CMB model). This model predicts a high gamma-ray flux that should be detectable by the Fermi /Large Area Telescope (LAT) for many sources. GeV-band upper limits from Fermi /LAT for the well-known anomalous X-ray jet in PKS 0637−752 were previously shown in Meyer et al. to violate the predictions of the IC/CMB model. Previously, measurements of the jet synchrotron spectrum, important for accurately predicting the gamma-ray flux level, were lacking between radio and infrared wavelengths. Here, we present new Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the large-scale jet at 100, 233, and 319 GHz, which further constrain the synchrotron spectrum, supporting the previously published empirical model. We also present updated limits from the Fermi /LAT using the new “Pass 8” calibration and approximately 30% more time on source. With these deeper limits, we rule out the IC/CMB model at the 8.7 σ level. Finally, we demonstrate that complete knowledge of the synchrotron SED is critical in evaluating the IC/CMB model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gjerloew, Eirik; Elgaroey, Oystein
2011-01-01
We submit recent claims of hints of primordial tensor perturbations and a scale-dependent spectral index in the WMAP data to a closer scrutiny. Our approach differs in that we use different best-fit values at which to fix the parameters not to be varied, and in that we use CosmoMC, thus incorporating the WMAP likelihood code and EE and BB mode data. We introduce a new parameter to test the claims of a scale-dependent spectral index. While we do find some hints of a scale-dependent spectral index over the multipole range l=2-220, the change in maximum likelihood is too small to justify introducing a new parameter. We conclude that there is no significant detection of primordial tensor perturbations, and that the assumption of a scale-independent spectral index in this multipole range has little effect on the amount of primordial gravitational waves found.
The cosmic microwave background how it changed our understanding of the universe
Evans, Rhodri
2015-01-01
Rhodri Evans tells the story of what we know about the universe, from Jacobus Kapteyn’s Island universe at the turn of the 20th Century, and the discovery by Hubble that the nebulae were external to our own galaxy, through Gamow’s early work on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and its subsequent discovery by Penzias and Wilson, to modern day satellite-lead CMB research. Research results from the ground-based experiments DASI, BOOMERANG, and satellite missions COBE, WMAP and Planck are explained and interpreted to show how our current picture of the universe was arrived at, and the author looks at the future of CMB research and what we still need to learn. This account is enlivened by Dr Rhodri Evans' personal connections to the characters and places in the story.
Echoes of inflationary first-order phase transitions in the CMB
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jiang, Hongliang, E-mail: hjiangag@connect.ust.hk [Department of Physics, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Liu, Tao, E-mail: taoliu@ust.hk [Department of Physics, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Sun, Sichun, E-mail: sichun@uw.edu [Jockey Club Institute for Advanced Study, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Wang, Yi, E-mail: phyw@ust.hk [Department of Physics, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong)
2017-02-10
Cosmological phase transitions (CPTs), such as the Grand Unified Theory (GUT) and the electroweak (EW) ones, play a significant role in both particle physics and cosmology. In this letter, we propose to probe the first-order CPTs, by detecting gravitational waves (GWs) which are generated during the phase transitions through the cosmic microwave background (CMB). If happened around the inflation era, the first-order CPTs may yield low-frequency GWs due to bubble dynamics, leaving imprints on the CMB. In contrast to the nearly scale-invariant primordial GWs caused by vacuum fluctuation, these bubble-generated GWs are scale dependent and have non-trivial B-mode spectra. If decoupled from inflaton, the EWPT during inflation may serve as a probe for the one after reheating where the baryon asymmetry could be generated via EW baryogenesis (EWBG). The CMB thus provides a potential way to test the feasibility of the EWBG, complementary to the collider measurements of Higgs potential and the direct detection of GWs generated during EWPT.
A Bayesian framework for cosmic string searches in CMB maps
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ciuca, Razvan; Hernández, Oscar F., E-mail: razvan.ciuca@mail.mcgill.ca, E-mail: oscarh@physics.mcgill.ca [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montréal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada)
2017-08-01
There exists various proposals to detect cosmic strings from Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) or 21 cm temperature maps. Current proposals do not aim to find the location of strings on sky maps, all of these approaches can be thought of as a statistic on a sky map. We propose a Bayesian interpretation of cosmic string detection and within that framework, we derive a connection between estimates of cosmic string locations and cosmic string tension G μ. We use this Bayesian framework to develop a machine learning framework for detecting strings from sky maps and outline how to implement this framework with neural networks. The neural network we trained was able to detect and locate cosmic strings on noiseless CMB temperature map down to a string tension of G μ=5 ×10{sup −9} and when analyzing a CMB temperature map that does not contain strings, the neural network gives a 0.95 probability that G μ≤2.3×10{sup −9}.
What can the CMB tell about the microphysics of cosmic reheating?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drewes, Marco
2016-01-01
In inflationary cosmology, cosmic reheating after inflation sets the initial conditions for the hot big bang. We investigate how CMB data can be used to study the effective potential and couplings of the inflaton during reheating to constrain the underlying microphysics. If there is a phase of preheating that is driven by a parametric resonance or other instability, then the thermal history and expansion history during the reheating era depend on a large number of microphysical parameters in a complicated way. In this case the connection between CMB observables and microphysical parameters can only established with intense numerical studies. Such studies can help to improve CMB constraints on the effective inflaton potential in specific models, but parameter degeneracies usually make it impossible to extract meaningful best-fit values for individual microphysical parameters. If, on the other hand, reheating is driven by perturbative processes, then it can be possible to constrain the inflaton couplings and the reheating temperature from CMB data. This provides an indirect probe of fundamental microphysical parameters that most likely can never be measured directly in the laboratory, but have an immense impact on the evolution of the cosmos by setting the stage for the hot big bang
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Migliaccio, M.; Natoli, P.; De Troia, G.; Hikage, C.; Komatsu, E.; Ade, P.A.R.; Bock, J.J.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Boscaleri, A.; Contaldi, C.R.; Crill, B.P.; Bernardis, P. de; Gasperis, G. de; Oliveira-Costa, A. de; Di Stefano, G.; Hivon, E.; Kisner, T.S.; Jones, W.C.; Lange, A.E.
2009-01-01
Minkowski functionals are a powerful tool to constrain the Gaussianity of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). In the limit of a weakly non Gaussian field, a perturbative approach can be derived [Hikage C., Komatsu E., and Matsubara T., 2006, ApJ, 653, 11] that is completely based on analytical formulae without requiring computationally intensive, dedicated Monte Carlo non Gaussian simulations of the CMB anisotropy. We apply this machinery to an intensity map derived from the 1998 and 2003 flights of BOOMERanG, analyzed here together for the first time. We set limits on the non-linear coupling parameter f NL as -1020 NL <390 at 95% CL, markedly improving the previous constraints set by [De Troia G. et al., 2007, ApJ, 670, L73] whose analysis was limited to the BOOMERanG 2003 dataset. These limits are the most stringent ever set among suborbital experiments.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Migliaccio, M.; Natoli, P.; De Troia, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1 I-00133 Roma (Italy); Hikage, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Komatsu, E. [Texas Cosmology Center, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Ade, P.A.R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Bock, J.J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Bond, J.R. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Borrill, J. [Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Boscaleri, A. [IFAC-CNR, Firenze (Italy); Contaldi, C.R. [Theoretical Physics Group, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Crill, B.P. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Bernardis, P. de [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita La Sapienza, Roma (Italy); Gasperis, G. de [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1 I-00133 Roma (Italy); Oliveira-Costa, A. de [Department of Physics, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Di Stefano, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, 00143 Rome (Italy); Hivon, E. [Institut d' Astrophysique, Paris (France); Kisner, T.S. [Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Jones, W.C. [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 0854 (United States); Lange, A.E. [Observational Cosmology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)
2009-10-15
Minkowski functionals are a powerful tool to constrain the Gaussianity of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). In the limit of a weakly non Gaussian field, a perturbative approach can be derived [Hikage C., Komatsu E., and Matsubara T., 2006, ApJ, 653, 11] that is completely based on analytical formulae without requiring computationally intensive, dedicated Monte Carlo non Gaussian simulations of the CMB anisotropy. We apply this machinery to an intensity map derived from the 1998 and 2003 flights of BOOMERanG, analyzed here together for the first time. We set limits on the non-linear coupling parameter f{sub NL} as -1020
Effects on the CMB from magnetic field dissipation before recombination
Kunze, Kerstin E.
2017-09-01
Magnetic fields present before decoupling are damped due to radiative viscosity. This energy injection affects the thermal and ionization history of the cosmic plasma. The implications for the CMB anisotropies and polarization are investigated for different parameter choices of a nonhelical stochastic magnetic field. Assuming a Gaussian smoothing scale determined by the magnetic damping wave number at recombination, it is found that magnetic fields with present-day strength less than 0.1 nG and negative magnetic spectral indices have a sizable effect on the CMB temperature anisotropies and polarization.
CMB constraints on β-exponential inflationary models
Santos, M. A.; Benetti, M.; Alcaniz, J. S.; Brito, F. A.; Silva, R.
2018-03-01
We analyze a class of generalized inflationary models proposed in ref. [1], known as β-exponential inflation. We show that this kind of potential can arise in the context of brane cosmology, where the field describing the size of the extra-dimension is interpreted as the inflaton. We discuss the observational viability of this class of model in light of the latest Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data from the Planck Collaboration through a Bayesian analysis, and impose tight constraints on the model parameters. We find that the CMB data alone prefer weakly the minimal standard model (ΛCDM) over the β-exponential inflation. However, when current local measurements of the Hubble parameter, H0, are considered, the β-inflation model is moderately preferred over the ΛCDM cosmology, making the study of this class of inflationary models interesting in the context of the current H0 tension.
Constraining the evolution of the CMB temperature with SZ measurements from Planck data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luzzi, G.; Petris, M. De; Lamagna, L. [Dept. of Physics, Sapienza, University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, Rome, I-00185 Italy (Italy); Génova-Santos, R.T. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, C/Vía Láctea s/n, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Martins, C.J.A.P., E-mail: gemma.luzzi@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: rgs@iac.es, E-mail: carlos.martins@astro.up.pt, E-mail: marco.depetris@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: luca.lamagna@roma1.infn.it [Centro de Astrofísica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, Porto, 4150-762 Portugal (Portugal)
2015-09-01
The CMB temperature-redshift relation, T{sub CMB}(z)=T{sub 0}(1+z), is a key prediction of the standard cosmology but is violated in many non-standard models. Constraining possible deviations from this law is an effective way to test the ΛCDM paradigm and to search for hints of new physics. We have determined T{sub CMB}(z), with a precision up to 3%, for a subsample (103 clusters) of the Planck SZ cluster catalog, at redshifts in the range 0.01–0.94, using measurements of the spectrum of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect obtained from Planck temperature maps at frequencies from 70 to 353 GHz. The method adopted to provide individual determinations of T{sub CMB}(z) at cluster redshift relies on the use of SZ intensity change, Δ I{sub SZ}(ν) at different frequencies and on a Monte Carlo Markov chain approach. By applying this method to the sample of 103 clusters, we limit possible deviations of the form T{sub CMB}(z)=T{sub 0}(1+z){sup 1−β} to be β= 0.012 ± 0.016, at 1σ uncertainty, consistent with the prediction of the standard model. Combining these measurements with previously published results, we get β=0.013±0.011.
CMB anisotropies at all orders: the non-linear Sachs-Wolfe formula
Roldan, Omar
2017-01-01
We obtain the non-linear generalization of the Sachs-Wolfe + integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) formula describing the CMB temperature anisotropies. Our formula is valid at all orders in perturbation theory, is also valid in all gauges and includes scalar, vector and tensor modes. A direct consequence of our results is that the maps of the logarithmic temperature anisotropies are much cleaner than the usual CMB maps, because they automatically remove many secondary anisotropies. This can for instan...
Thorne, Ben; Fujita, Tomohiro; Hazumi, Masashi; Katayama, Nobuhiko; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Shiraishi, Maresuke
2018-02-01
A detection of B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies would confirm the presence of a primordial gravitational wave background (GWB). In the inflation paradigm, this would be an unprecedented probe of the energy scale of inflation as it is directly proportional to the power spectrum of the GWB. However, similar tensor perturbations can be produced by the matter fields present during inflation, breaking the simple relationship between energy scale and the tensor-to-scalar ratio r . It is therefore important to find ways of distinguishing between the generation mechanisms of the GWB. Without doing a full model selection, we analyze the detectability of a new axion-S U (2 ) gauge field model by calculating the signal-to-noise ratio of future CMB and interferometer observations sensitive to the chirality of the tensor spectrum. We forecast the detectability of the resulting CMB temperature and B-mode (TB) or E-mode and B-mode (EB) cross-correlation by the LiteBIRD satellite, considering the effects of residual foregrounds, gravitational lensing, and assess the ability of such an experiment to jointly detect primordial TB and EB spectra and self-calibrate its polarimeter. We find that LiteBIRD will be able to detect the chiral signal for r*>0.03 , with r* denoting the tensor-to-scalar ratio at the peak scale, and that the maximum signal-to-noise ratio for r*advanced stage of a LISA-like mission, which is designed to be sensitive to the intensity and polarization of the GWB. We find that such experiments would complement CMB observations as they would be able to detect the chirality of the GWB with high significance on scales inaccessible to the CMB. We conclude that CMB two-point statistics are limited in their ability to distinguish this model from a conventional vacuum fluctuation model of GWB generation, due to the fundamental limits on their sensitivity to parity violation. In order to test the predictions of such a model as
Cosmic Microwave Background: cosmology from the Planck perspective
De Zotti, Gianfranco
2017-08-01
The Planck mission has measured the angular anisotropies in the temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) with an accuracy set by fundamental limits. These data have allowed the determination of the cosmological parameters with extraordinary precision. These lecture notes present an overview of the mission and of its cosmological results. After a short history of the project, the Planck instruments and their performances are introduced and compared with those of the WMAP satellite. Next the approach to data analysis adopted by the Planck collaboration is described. This includes the techniques for dealing with the contamination of the CMB signal by astrophysical foreground emissions and for determining cosmological parameters from the analysis of the CMB power spectrum. The power spectra measured by Planck were found to be very well described by the standard spatially flat six-parameter ΛCDM cosmology with a power-law spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations. This is a remarkable result, considering that the six parameters account for the about 2500 independent power spectrum values measured by Planck (the power was measured for about 2500 multipoles), not to mention the about one trillion science samples produced. A large grid of cosmological models was also explored, using a range of additional astrophysical data sets in addition to Planck and high-resolution CMB data from ground-based experiments. On the whole, the Planck analysis of the CMB power spectrum allowed to vary and determined 16 parameters. Many other interesting parameters were derived from them. Although Planck was not initially designed to carry out high accuracy measurements of the CMB polarization anisotropies, its capabilities in this respect were significantly enhanced during its development. The quality of its polarization measurements have exceeded all original expectations. Planck's polarisation data confirmed and improved the understanding of the details of the cosmological
Hunting for primordial non-Gaussianity in the cosmic microwave background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Komatsu, Eiichiro
2010-01-01
Since the first limit on the (local) primordial non-Gaussianity parameter, f NL , was obtained from the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) data in 2002, observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) have been playing a central role in constraining the amplitudes of various forms of non-Gaussianity in primordial fluctuations. The current 68% limit from the 7-year data of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) is f NL = 32 ± 21, and the Planck satellite is expected to reduce the uncertainty by a factor of 4 in a few years from now. If f NL >> 1 is found by Planck with high statistical significance, all single-field models of inflation would be ruled out. Moreover, if the Planck satellite finds f NL ∼ 30, then it would be able to test a broad class of multi-field models using the 4-point function (trispectrum) test of τ NL ≥ (6f NL /5) 2 . In this paper, we review the methods (optimal estimator), results (WMAP 7-year) and challenges (secondary anisotropy, second-order effect and foreground) of measuring primordial non-Gaussianity from the CMB data, present a science case for the trispectrum and conclude with future prospects.
Echoes of inflationary first-order phase transitions in the CMB
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongliang Jiang
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Cosmological phase transitions (CPTs, such as the Grand Unified Theory (GUT and the electroweak (EW ones, play a significant role in both particle physics and cosmology. In this letter, we propose to probe the first-order CPTs, by detecting gravitational waves (GWs which are generated during the phase transitions through the cosmic microwave background (CMB. If happened around the inflation era, the first-order CPTs may yield low-frequency GWs due to bubble dynamics, leaving imprints on the CMB. In contrast to the nearly scale-invariant primordial GWs caused by vacuum fluctuation, these bubble-generated GWs are scale dependent and have non-trivial B-mode spectra. If decoupled from inflaton, the EWPT during inflation may serve as a probe for the one after reheating where the baryon asymmetry could be generated via EW baryogenesis (EWBG. The CMB thus provides a potential way to test the feasibility of the EWBG, complementary to the collider measurements of Higgs potential and the direct detection of GWs generated during EWPT.
Effects on the CMB from compactification before inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kontou, Eleni-Alexandra [Physics Program, Bard College, 30 Campus Rd, Annandale-on-Hudson, NY 12504 (United States); Blanco-Pillado, Jose J. [IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011, Bilbao (Spain); Hertzberg, Mark P.; Masoumi, Ali, E-mail: elenikontou@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: josejuan.blanco@ehu.es, E-mail: mark.hertzberg@tufts.edu, E-mail: ali@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)
2017-04-01
Many theories beyond the Standard Model include extra dimensions, though these have yet to be directly observed. In this work we consider the possibility of a compactification mechanism which both allows extra dimensions and is compatible with current observations. This compactification is predicted to leave a signature on the CMB by altering the amplitude of the low l multipoles, dependent on the amount of inflation. Recently discovered CMB anomalies at low multipoles may be evidence for this. In our model we assume the spacetime is the product of a four-dimensional spacetime and flat extra dimensions. Before the compactification, both the four-dimensional spacetime and the extra dimensions can either be expanding or contracting independently. Taking into account physical constraints, we explore the observational consequences and the plausibility of these different models.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suresh Kumar
2014-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we study a cosmological model in general relativity within the framework of spatially flat Friedmann–Robertson–Walker space–time filled with ordinary matter (baryonic, radiation, dark matter and dark energy, where the latter two components are described by Chevallier–Polarski–Linder equation of state parameters. We utilize the observational data sets from SNLS3, BAO and Planck + WMAP9 + WiggleZ measurements of matter power spectrum to constrain the model parameters. We find that the current observational data offer tight constraints on the equation of state parameter of dark matter. We consider the perturbations and study the behavior of dark matter by observing its effects on CMB and matter power spectra. We find that the current observational data favor the cold dark matter scenario with the cosmological constant type dark energy at the present epoch.
Excess B‐modes extracted from the Planck polarization maps
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik
2016-01-01
on both temperature and polarization data obtained by the WMAP satellite. The main goal of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of neural networks for extracting the CMB signal from the Planck polarization data with high precision. Both auto‐correlation and cross‐correlation power spectra within...... a mask covering about 63 % of the sky have been used together with a “high pass filter” in order to minimize the influence of the remaining systematic errors in the Planck Q and U maps. Using the Planck 2015 released polarization maps, a BB power spectrum have been extracted by Multilayer Perceptron...... tensor to scalar ratios). The feasibility of the neural network to remove the residual systematics from the available Planck polarization data to a high level has been demonstrated. (© 2016 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, Suresh; Xu, Lixin
2014-01-01
In this paper, we study a cosmological model in general relativity within the framework of spatially flat Friedmann–Robertson–Walker space–time filled with ordinary matter (baryonic), radiation, dark matter and dark energy, where the latter two components are described by Chevallier–Polarski–Linder equation of state parameters. We utilize the observational data sets from SNLS3, BAO and Planck + WMAP9 + WiggleZ measurements of matter power spectrum to constrain the model parameters. We find that the current observational data offer tight constraints on the equation of state parameter of dark matter. We consider the perturbations and study the behavior of dark matter by observing its effects on CMB and matter power spectra. We find that the current observational data favor the cold dark matter scenario with the cosmological constant type dark energy at the present epoch
Measuring the cosmological lepton asymmetry through the CMB anisotropy
Kinney, W H; Kinney, William H.; Riotto, Antonio
1999-01-01
A large lepton asymmetry in the Universe is still a viable possibility and leads to many interesting phenomena such as gauge symmetry nonrestoration at high temperature. We show that a large lepton asymmetry changes the predicted cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy and that any degeneracy in the relic neutrino sea will be measured to a precision of 1% or better when the CMB anisotropy is measured at the accuracy expected to result from the planned satellite missions MAP and Planck. In fact, the current measurements already put an upper limit on the lepton asymmetry of the Universe which is stronger than the one coming from considerations of primordial nucleosynthesis and structure formation.
Big bang nucleosynthesis, the CMB, and the origin of matter and space-time
Mathews, Grant J.; Gangopadhyay, Mayukh; Sasankan, Nishanth; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Kajino, Toshitaka
2018-04-01
We summarize some applications of big bang nucleosythesis (BBN) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) to constrain the first moments of the creation of matter in the universe. We review the basic elements of BBN and how it constraints physics of the radiation-dominated epoch. In particular, how the existence of higher dimensions impacts the cosmic expansion through the projection of curvature from the higher dimension in the "dark radiation" term. We summarize current constraints from BBN and the CMB on this brane-world dark radiation term. At the same time, the existence of extra dimensions during the earlier inflation impacts the tensor to scalar ratio and the running spectral index as measured in the CMB. We summarize how the constraints on inflation shift when embedded in higher dimensions. Finally, one expects that the universe was born out of a complicated multiverse landscape near the Planck time. In these moments the energy scale of superstrings was obtainable during the early moments of chaotic inflation. We summarize the quest for cosmological evidence of the birth of space-time out of the string theory landscape. We will explore the possibility that a superstring excitations may have made itself known via a coupling to the field of inflation. This may have left an imprint of "dips" in the power spectrum of temperature fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background. The identification of this particle as a superstring is possible because there may be evidence for different oscillator states of the same superstring that appear on different scales on the sky. It will be shown that from this imprint one can deduce the mass, number of oscillations, and coupling constant for the superstring. Although the evidence is marginal, this may constitute the first observation of a superstring in Nature.
Running of featureful primordial power spectra
Gariazzo, Stefano; Mena, Olga; Miralles, Victor; Ramírez, Héctor; Boubekeur, Lotfi
2017-06-01
Current measurements of the temperature and polarization anisotropy power spectra of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) seem to indicate that the naive expectation for the slow-roll hierarchy within the most simple inflationary paradigm may not be respected in nature. We show that a primordial power spectrum with localized features could in principle give rise to the observed slow-roll anarchy when fitted to a featureless power spectrum. From a model comparison perspective, and assuming that nature has chosen a featureless primordial power spectrum, we find that, while with mock Planck data there is only weak evidence against a model with localized features, upcoming CMB missions may provide compelling evidence against such a nonstandard primordial power spectrum. This evidence could be reinforced if a featureless primordial power spectrum is independently confirmed from bispectrum and/or galaxy clustering measurements.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Behbahani, Siavosh R.; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Senatore, Leonardo; Smith, Kendrick M.
2014-01-01
Given the fantastic experimental effort, it is important to thoroughly explore the signature space of inflationary models. The fact that higher derivative operators do not renormalize lower derivative ones allows us to find a large class of technically natural single-clock inflationary models where, in the context of the Effective Field Theory of Inflation, the leading interactions have many derivatives. We systematically explore the 3-point function induced by these models and their overlap with the standard equilateral and orthogonal templates. We find that in order to satisfactorily cover the signature space of these models, two new additional templates need to be included. We then perform the optimal analysis of the WMAP 9-year data for the resulting four templates, finding that the overall significance of a non-zero signal is between 2–2.5σ, depending on the choice of parameter space, partially driven by the preference for nonzero f NL orth in WMAP9
Architectures and assessment of next-generation CMB polarization instruments
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cosmological inflation predicts a background of gravitational waves that imprint a characteristic polarized pattern on the CMB. This signal is degraded by...
Probing the BSM physics with CMB precision cosmology: an application to supersymmetry
Dalianis, Ioannis; Watanabe, Yuki
2018-02-01
The cosmic history before the BBN is highly determined by the physics that operates beyond the Standard Model (BSM) of particle physics and it is poorly constrained observationally. Ongoing and future precision measurements of the CMB observables can provide us with significant information about the pre-BBN era and hence possibly test the cosmological predictions of different BSM scenarios. Supersymmetry is a particularly motivated BSM theory and it is often the case that different superymmetry breaking schemes require different cosmic histories with specific reheating temperatures or low entropy production in order to be cosmologically viable. In this paper we quantify the effects of the possible alternative cosmic histories on the n s and r CMB observables assuming a generic non-thermal stage after cosmic inflation. We analyze TeV and especially multi-TeV super-symmetry breaking schemes assuming the neutralino and gravitino dark matter scenarios. We complement our analysis considering the Starobinsky R 2 inflation model to exemplify the improved CMB predictions that a unified description of the early universe cosmic evolution yields. Our analysis underlines the importance of the CMB precision measurements that can be viewed, to some extend, as complementary to the laboratory experimental searches for supersymmetry or other BSM theories.
Multitracer CMB delensing maps from Planck and WISE data
Yu, Byeonghee; Hill, J. Colin; Sherwin, Blake D.
2017-12-01
Delensing, the removal of the limiting lensing B -mode background, is crucial for the success of future cosmic microwave background (CMB) surveys in constraining inflationary gravitational waves (IGWs). In recent work, delensing with large-scale structure tracers has emerged as a promising method both for improving constraints on IGWs and for testing delensing methods for future use. However, the delensing fractions (i.e., the fraction of the lensing-B mode power removed) achieved by recent efforts have been only 20%-30%. In this work, we provide a detailed characterization of a full-sky, dust-cleaned cosmic infrared background (CIB) map for delensing and construct a further-improved delensing template by adding additional tracers to increase delensing performance. In particular, we build a multitracer delensing template by combining the dust-cleaned Planck CIB map with a reconstructed CMB lensing map from Planck and a galaxy number density map from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) satellite. For this combination, we calculate the relevant weightings by fitting smooth templates to measurements of all the cross-spectra and autospectra of these maps. On a large fraction of the sky (fsky=0.43 ), we demonstrate that our maps are capable of providing a delensing factor of 43 ±1 % ; using a more restrictive mask (fsky=0.11 ), the delensing factor reaches 48 ±1 % . For low-noise surveys, our delensing maps, which cover much of the sky, can thus improve constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio (r ) by nearly a factor of 2. The delensing tracer maps are made publicly available, and we encourage their use in ongoing and upcoming B -mode surveys.
SCoPE: an efficient method of Cosmological Parameter Estimation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, Santanu; Souradeep, Tarun
2014-01-01
Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampler is widely used for cosmological parameter estimation from CMB and other data. However, due to the intrinsic serial nature of the MCMC sampler, convergence is often very slow. Here we present a fast and independently written Monte Carlo method for cosmological parameter estimation named as Slick Cosmological Parameter Estimator (SCoPE), that employs delayed rejection to increase the acceptance rate of a chain, and pre-fetching that helps an individual chain to run on parallel CPUs. An inter-chain covariance update is also incorporated to prevent clustering of the chains allowing faster and better mixing of the chains. We use an adaptive method for covariance calculation to calculate and update the covariance automatically as the chains progress. Our analysis shows that the acceptance probability of each step in SCoPE is more than 95% and the convergence of the chains are faster. Using SCoPE, we carry out some cosmological parameter estimations with different cosmological models using WMAP-9 and Planck results. One of the current research interests in cosmology is quantifying the nature of dark energy. We analyze the cosmological parameters from two illustrative commonly used parameterisations of dark energy models. We also asses primordial helium fraction in the universe can be constrained by the present CMB data from WMAP-9 and Planck. The results from our MCMC analysis on the one hand helps us to understand the workability of the SCoPE better, on the other hand it provides a completely independent estimation of cosmological parameters from WMAP-9 and Planck data
Thermodynamics of SU(2 quantum Yang-Mills theory and CMB anomalies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hofmann Ralf
2014-04-01
Full Text Available A brief review of effective SU(2 Yang-Mills thermodynamics in the deconfining phase is given, including the construction of the thermal ground-state estimate in terms of an inert, adjoint scalar field φ, based on non-propagating (antiselfdual field configurations of topological charge unity. We also discuss kinematic constraints on interacting propagating gauge fields implied by the according spatial coarse-graining, and we explain why the screening physics of an SU(2 photon is subject to an electric-magnetically dual interpretation. This argument relies on the fact that only (anticalorons of scale parameter ρ ∼ |φ|−1 contribute to the coarse-graining required for thermal-ground-state emergence at temperature T. Thus, use of the effective gauge coupling e in the (anticaloron action is justified, yielding the value ħ for the latter at almost all temperatures. As a consequence, the indeterministic transition of initial to final plane waves caused by an effective, pointlike vertex is fundamentally mediated in Euclidean time by a single (anticaloron being part of the thermal ground state. Next, we elucidate how a low-frequency excess of line temperature in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB determines the value of the critical temperature of the deconfining-preconfining phase transition of an SU(2 Yang-Mills theory postulated to describe photon propagation, and we describe how, starting at a redshift of about unity, SU(2 photons collectively work 3D temperature depressions into the CMB. Upon projection along a line of sight, a given depression influences the present CMB sky in a cosmologically local way, possibly explaining the large-angle anomalies confirmed recently by the Planck collaboration. Finally, six relativistic polarisations residing in the SU(2 vector modes roughly match the number of degrees of freedom in cosmic neutrinos (Planck which would disqualify the latter as radiation. Indeed, if interpreted as single center
Thermodynamics of SU(2) quantum Yang-Mills theory and CMB anomalies
Hofmann, Ralf
2014-04-01
A brief review of effective SU(2) Yang-Mills thermodynamics in the deconfining phase is given, including the construction of the thermal ground-state estimate in terms of an inert, adjoint scalar field φ, based on non-propagating (anti)selfdual field configurations of topological charge unity. We also discuss kinematic constraints on interacting propagating gauge fields implied by the according spatial coarse-graining, and we explain why the screening physics of an SU(2) photon is subject to an electric-magnetically dual interpretation. This argument relies on the fact that only (anti)calorons of scale parameter ρ ˜ |φ|-1 contribute to the coarse-graining required for thermal-ground-state emergence at temperature T. Thus, use of the effective gauge coupling e in the (anti)caloron action is justified, yielding the value ħ for the latter at almost all temperatures. As a consequence, the indeterministic transition of initial to final plane waves caused by an effective, pointlike vertex is fundamentally mediated in Euclidean time by a single (anti)caloron being part of the thermal ground state. Next, we elucidate how a low-frequency excess of line temperature in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) determines the value of the critical temperature of the deconfining-preconfining phase transition of an SU(2) Yang-Mills theory postulated to describe photon propagation, and we describe how, starting at a redshift of about unity, SU(2) photons collectively work 3D temperature depressions into the CMB. Upon projection along a line of sight, a given depression influences the present CMB sky in a cosmologically local way, possibly explaining the large-angle anomalies confirmed recently by the Planck collaboration. Finally, six relativistic polarisations residing in the SU(2) vector modes roughly match the number of degrees of freedom in cosmic neutrinos (Planck) which would disqualify the latter as radiation. Indeed, if interpreted as single center-vortex loops in
Orbifold line topology and the cosmic microwave background
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rathaus, Ben; Ben-David, Assaf; Itzhaki, Nissan, E-mail: ben.rathaus@gmail.com, E-mail: bd.assaf@gmail.com, E-mail: nitzhaki@post.tau.ac.il [Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv, 69978 (Israel)
2013-10-01
We extend our study of a universe with a non-classical stringy topology, and consider an orbifold line topology, R × R{sup 2}/Z{sub p}. This topology has a fixed line and identifies each point in space with p−1 other points. An observable imprint of an orbifold line on the CMB is the appearance of up to (p−1)/2 pairs of matching circles. Searching the WMAP data for matching circles, we can rule out an orbifold line topology with p up to 10, except for p = 8. While the significance of the peak at p = 8 varies between data releases of WMAP, it does not appear in Planck data, enabling us to rule out p = 8 as well.
Hidden in the background: a local approach to CMB anomalies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sánchez, Juan C. Bueno, E-mail: juan.c.bueno@correounivalle.edu.co [Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias Básicas y Aplicadas, Universidad Antonio Nariño, Cra 3 Este # 47A-15, Bogotá D.C. 110231 (Colombia)
2016-09-01
We investigate a framework aiming to provide a common origin for the large-angle anomalies detected in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), which are hypothesized as the result of the statistical inhomogeneity developed by different isocurvature fields of mass m ∼ H present during inflation. The inhomogeneity arises as the combined effect of ( i ) the initial conditions for isocurvature fields (obtained after a fast-roll stage finishing many e -foldings before cosmological scales exit the horizon), ( ii ) their inflationary fluctuations and ( iii ) their coupling to other degrees of freedom. Our case of interest is when these fields (interpreted as the precursors of large-angle anomalies) leave an observable imprint only in isolated patches of the Universe. When the latter intersect the last scattering surface, such imprints arise in the CMB. Nevertheless, due to their statistically inhomogeneous nature, these imprints are difficult to detect, for they become hidden in the background similarly to the Cold Spot. We then compute the probability that a single isocurvature field becomes inhomogeneous at the end of inflation and find that, if the appropriate conditions are given (which depend exclusively on the preexisting fast-roll stage), this probability is at the percent level. Finally, we discuss several mechanisms (including the curvaton and the inhomogeneous reheating) to investigate whether an initial statistically inhomogeneous isocurvature field fluctuation might give rise to some of the observed anomalies. In particular, we focus on the Cold Spot, the power deficit at low multipoles and the breaking of statistical isotropy.
Novel calibration system with sparse wires for CMB polarization receivers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tajima, O.; Nguyen, H.; Bischoff, C.; Brizius, A.; Buder, I.; Kusaka, A.
2011-01-01
B-modes in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization is a smoking gun signature of the inflationary universe. To achieve better sensitivity to this faint signal, CMB polarization experiments aim to maximize the number of detector elements, resulting in a large focal plane receiver. Detector calibration of the polarization response becomes essential. It is extremely useful to be able to calibrate 'simultaneously' all detectors on the large focal plane. We developed a novel calibration system that rotates a large 'sparse' grid of metal wires, in front of and fully covering the field of view of the focal plane receiver. Polarized radiation is created via the reflection of ambient temperature from the wire surface. Since the detector has a finite beam size, the observed signal is smeared according to the beam property. The resulting smeared polarized radiation has a reasonable intensity (a few Kelvin or less) compared to the sky temperature (∼10 K observing condition). The system played a successful role for receiver calibration of QUIET, a CMB polarization experiment located in the Atacama desert in Chile. The successful performance revealed that this system is applicable to other experiments based on different technologies, e.g. TES bolometers.
Modeling CMB lensing cross correlations with CLEFT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Modi, Chirag; White, Martin [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Vlah, Zvonimir, E-mail: modichirag@berkeley.edu, E-mail: mwhite@berkeley.edu, E-mail: zvlah@stanford.edu [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94306 (United States)
2017-08-01
A new generation of surveys will soon map large fractions of sky to ever greater depths and their science goals can be enhanced by exploiting cross correlations between them. In this paper we study cross correlations between the lensing of the CMB and biased tracers of large-scale structure at high z . We motivate the need for more sophisticated bias models for modeling increasingly biased tracers at these redshifts and propose the use of perturbation theories, specifically Convolution Lagrangian Effective Field Theory (CLEFT). Since such signals reside at large scales and redshifts, they can be well described by perturbative approaches. We compare our model with the current approach of using scale independent bias coupled with fitting functions for non-linear matter power spectra, showing that the latter will not be sufficient for upcoming surveys. We illustrate our ideas by estimating σ{sub 8} from the auto- and cross-spectra of mock surveys, finding that CLEFT returns accurate and unbiased results at high z . We discuss uncertainties due to the redshift distribution of the tracers, and several avenues for future development.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Errard, Josquin [Sorbonne Universités, Institut Lagrange de Paris (ILP), 98 bis Boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Feeney, Stephen M.; Jaffe, Andrew H. [Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Peiris, Hiranya V., E-mail: josquin.errard@lpnhe.in2p3.fr, E-mail: s.feeney@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: h.peiris@ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: a.jaffe@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)
2016-03-01
Recent results from the BICEP, Keck Array and Planck Collaborations demonstrate that Galactic foregrounds are an unavoidable obstacle in the search for evidence of inflationary gravitational waves in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization. Beyond the foregrounds, the effect of lensing by intervening large-scale structure further obscures all but the strongest inflationary signals permitted by current data. With a plethora of ongoing and upcoming experiments aiming to measure these signatures, careful and self-consistent consideration of experiments' foreground- and lensing-removal capabilities is critical in obtaining credible forecasts of their performance. We investigate the capabilities of instruments such as Advanced ACTPol, BICEP3 and Keck Array, CLASS, EBEX10K, PIPER, Simons Array, SPT-3G and SPIDER, and projects as COrE+, LiteBIRD-ext, PIXIE and Stage IV, to clean contamination due to polarized synchrotron and dust from raw multi-frequency data, and remove lensing from the resulting co-added CMB maps (either using iterative CMB-only techniques or through cross-correlation with external data). Incorporating these effects, we present forecasts for the constraining power of these experiments in terms of inflationary physics, the neutrino sector, and dark energy parameters. Made publicly available through an online interface, this tool enables the next generation of CMB experiments to foreground-proof their designs, optimize their frequency coverage to maximize scientific output, and determine where cross-experimental collaboration would be most beneficial. We find that analyzing data from ground, balloon and space instruments in complementary combinations can significantly improve component separation performance, delensing, and cosmological constraints over individual datasets. In particular, we find that a combination of post-2020 ground- and space-based experiments could achieve constraints such as σ(r)∼1.3×10{sup −4}, σ(n{sub t})∼0
SPIDER: CMB Polarimetry from the Edge of Space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gualtieri, R.; et al.
2017-11-28
SPIDER is a balloon-borne instrument designed to map the polarization of the millimeter-wave sky at large angular scales. SPIDER targets the B-mode signature of primordial gravitational waves in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), with a focus on mapping a large sky area with high fidelity at multiple frequencies. SPIDER's first longduration balloon (LDB) flight in January 2015 deployed a total of 2400 antenna-coupled Transition Edge Sensors (TESs) at 90 GHz and 150 GHz. In this work we review the design and in-flight performance of the SPIDER instrument, with a particular focus on the measured performance of the detectors and instrument in a space-like loading and radiation environment. SPIDER's second flight in December 2018 will incorporate payload upgrades and new receivers to map the sky at 285 GHz, providing valuable information for cleaning polarized dust emission from CMB maps.
Searching for concentric low variance circles in the cosmic microwave background
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
DeAbreu, Adam [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6 Canada (Canada); Contreras, Dagoberto; Scott, Douglas, E-mail: adeabreu@sfu.ca, E-mail: dagocont@phas.ubc.ca, E-mail: dscott@phas.ubc.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 Canada (Canada)
2015-12-01
In a recent paper, Gurzadyan and Penrose claim to have found directions in the sky around which there are multiple concentric sets of annuli with anomalously low variance in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). These features are presented as evidence for a particular theory of the pre-Big Bang Universe. We are able to reproduce the analysis these authors presented for data from the WMAP satellite and we confirm the existence of these apparently special directions in the newer Planck data. However, we also find that these features are present at the same level of abundance in simulated Gaussian CMB skies, i.e., they are entirely consistent with the predictions of the standard cosmological model.
Taking the Measure of the Universe
Hinshaw, Gary
2009-01-01
The cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation is the oldest light in the universe - it is literally the remnant heat left over from the Big Bang. This fossil relic has survived largely intact and it provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any stars or galaxies had formed. NASA has now flown two satellites devoted to studying the CMB: 'COBE' and 'WMAP'. In this lecture I will describe what we have learned from these missions including: evidence for the Big Bang itself; new measurements of the age, shape, and content of the universe; and new evidence that all structure in the universe emerged from microscopic quantum fluctuations in the primordial soup.
Das, Sudeep; Marriage, Tobias A.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Aguirre, Paula; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John W.; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Battistelli, Elia A.; Bond, J. Richard; Brown, Ben;
2010-01-01
We present measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectrum made by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope at 148 GHz and 218 GHz, as well as the cross-frequency spectrum between the two channels. Our results dearly show the second through the seventh acoustic peaks in the CMB power spectrum. The measurements of these higher-order peaks provide an additional test of the ACDM cosmological model. At l > 3000, we detect power in excess of the primary anisotropy spectrum of the CMB. At lower multipoles 500 < l < 3000, we find evidence for gravitational lensing of the CMB in the power spectrum at the 2.8(sigma) level. We also detect a low level of Galactic dust in our maps, which demonstrates that we can recover known faint, diffuse signals.
Measurements of the Temperature and E-mode Polarization of the CMB from 500 Square Degrees of SPTpol Data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Henning, J. W.; Sayre, J. T.; Reichardt, C. L.; Ade, P. A. R.; Anderson, A. J.; Austermann, J. E.; Beall, J. A.; Bender, A. N.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Chiang, H. C.; Cho, H-M.; Citron, R.; Moran, C. Corbett; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Haan, T. de; Dobbs, M. A.; Everett, W.; Gallicchio, J.; George, E. M.; Gilbert, A.; Halverson, N. W.; Harrington, N.; Hilton, G. C.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hoover, S.; Hou, Z.; Hrubes, J. D.; Huang, N.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K. D.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Li, D.; Lowitz, A.; Manzotti, A.; McMahon, J. J.; Meyer, S. S.; Mocanu, L.; Montgomery, J.; Nadolski, A.; Natoli, T.; Nibarger, J. P.; Novosad, V.; Padin, S.; Pryke, C.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Schaffer, K. K.; Sievers, C.; Smecher, G.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K. T.; Tucker, C.; Vanderlinde, K.; Veach, T.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, G.; Whitehorn, N.; Wu, W. L. K.; Yefremenko, V.
2018-01-11
We present measurements of the E-mode polarization angular auto-power spectrum (EE) and temperature-E-mode cross-power spectrum (TE) of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) using 150 GHz data from three seasons of SPTpol observations. We report the power spectra over the spherical harmonic multipole range 50 < l <= 8000 and detect nine acoustic peaks in the EE spectrum with high signal-to-noise ratio. These measurements are the most sensitive to date of the EE and TE power spectra at l > 1050 and l > 1475, respectively. The observations cover 500 deg(2), a fivefold increase in area compared to previous SPTpol analyses, which increases our sensitivity to the photon diffusion damping tail of the CMB power spectra enabling tighter constraints on Lambda CDM model extensions. After masking all sources with unpolarized flux > 50 mJy, we place a 95% confidence upper limit on residual polarized point-source power of D-l= l(l + 1)C-l/2 pi < 0.107 mu K-2 at l = 3000, suggesting that the EE damping tail dominates foregrounds to at least l = 4050 with modest source masking. We find that the SPTpol data set is in mild tension with the Lambda CDM model (2.1 sigma), and different data splits prefer parameter values that differ at the similar to 1 sigma level. When fitting SPTpol data at l < 1000, we find cosmological parameter constraints consistent with those for Planck temperature. Including SPTpol data at l > 1000 results in a preference for a higher value of the expansion rate (H-0 = 71.3 +/- 2.1 km s(-1) Mpc(-1)) and a lower value for present-day density fluctuations (sigma(8) = 0.77 +/- 0.02).
Planck 2015 results IX. Diffuse component separation: CMB maps
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Adam, R.; Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.
2016-01-01
We present foreground-reduced cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps derived from the full Planck data set in both temperature and polarization. Compared to the corresponding Planck 2013 temperature sky maps, the total data volume is larger by a factor of 3.2 for frequencies between 30 and 70 GHz......, and between 4.5 and 6.1μK averaged over pixels. The cosmological parameters derived from the analysis of temperature power spectra are in agreement at the 1σ level with the Planck 2015 likelihood. Unresolved mismatches between the noise properties of the data and simulations prevent a satisfactory description...... of the higher-order statistical properties of the polarization maps. Thus, the primary applications of these polarization maps are those that do not require massive simulations for accurate estimation of uncertainties, for instance estimation of cross-spectra and cross-correlations, or stacking analyses...
PMF5.0 vs. CMB8.2: An inter-comparison study based on the new European SPECIEUROPE database
Bove, Maria Chiara; Massabò, Dario; Prati, Paolo
2018-03-01
Receptor Models are tools widely adopted in source apportionment studies. We describe here an experiment in which we integrated two different approaches, i.e. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) and Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) to apportion a set of PM10 (i.e. Particulate Matter with aerodynamic diameter lower than 10 μm) concentration values. The study was performed in the city of Genoa (Italy): a sampling campaign was carried out collecting daily PM10 samples for about two months in an urban background site. PM10 was collected on Quartz fiber filters by a low-volume sampler. A quite complete speciation of PM samples was obtained via Energy Dispersive-X Ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF, for elements), Ionic Chromatography (IC, for major ions and levoglucosan), thermo-optical Analysis (TOT, for organic and elemental carbon). The chemical analyses provided the input database for source apportionment by both PMF and CMB. Source profiles were directly calculated from the input data by PMF while in the CMB runs they were first calculated by averaging the profiles of similar sources collected in the European database SPECIEUROPE. Differences between the two receptor models emerged in particular with PM10 sources linked to very local processes. For this reason, PMF source profiles were adopted in refined CMB runs thus testing a new hybrid approach. Finally, PMF and the "tuned" CMB showed a better agreement even if some discrepancies could not completely been resolved. In this work, we compared the results coming from the last available PMF and CMB versions applied on a set of PM10 samples. Input profiles used in CMB analysis were obtained by averaging the profiles of the new European SPECIEUROPE database. The main differences between PMF and CMB results were linked to very local processes: we obtained the best solution by integrating the two different approaches with the implementation of some output PMF profiles to CMB runs.
Constraining the CMB optical depth through the dispersion measure of cosmological radio transients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fialkov, A.; Loeb, A.
2016-01-01
The dispersion measure of extragalactic radio transients can be used to measure the column density of free electrons in the intergalactic medium. The same electrons also scatter the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons, affecting precision measurements of cosmological parameters. We explore the connection between the dispersion measure of radio transients existing during the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) and the total optical depth for the CMB showing that the existence of such transients would provide a new sensitive probe of the CMB optical depth. As an example, we consider the population of FRBs. Assuming they exist during the EoR, we show that: (i) such sources can probe the reionization history by measuring the optical depth to sub-percent accuracy, and (ii) they can be detected with high significance by an instrument such as the Square Kilometer Array.
Constraining the CMB optical depth through the dispersion measure of cosmological radio transients
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fialkov, A.; Loeb, A., E-mail: anastasia.fialkov@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute for Teory and Computation, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, MS-51, Cambridge, MA, 02138 (United States)
2016-05-01
The dispersion measure of extragalactic radio transients can be used to measure the column density of free electrons in the intergalactic medium. The same electrons also scatter the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons, affecting precision measurements of cosmological parameters. We explore the connection between the dispersion measure of radio transients existing during the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) and the total optical depth for the CMB showing that the existence of such transients would provide a new sensitive probe of the CMB optical depth. As an example, we consider the population of FRBs. Assuming they exist during the EoR, we show that: (i) such sources can probe the reionization history by measuring the optical depth to sub-percent accuracy, and (ii) they can be detected with high significance by an instrument such as the Square Kilometer Array.
Development of Optics and Detectors for Advanced CMB Polarization Measurements
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) have been essential to the development of modern cosmology. Future observations will provide cosmological...
Novel calibration system with sparse wires for CMB polarization receivers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tajima, O.; /KEK, Tsukuba /Chicago U., KICP; Nguyen, H.; /Fermilab; Bischoff, C.; /Chicago U., KICP /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Brizius, A.; Buder, I.; Kusaka, A. /Chicago U., KICP
2011-07-01
B-modes in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization is a smoking gun signature of the inflationary universe. To achieve better sensitivity to this faint signal, CMB polarization experiments aim to maximize the number of detector elements, resulting in a large focal plane receiver. Detector calibration of the polarization response becomes essential. It is extremely useful to be able to calibrate 'simultaneously' all detectors on the large focal plane. We developed a novel calibration system that rotates a large 'sparse' grid of metal wires, in front of and fully covering the field of view of the focal plane receiver. Polarized radiation is created via the reflection of ambient temperature from the wire surface. Since the detector has a finite beam size, the observed signal is smeared according to the beam property. The resulting smeared polarized radiation has a reasonable intensity (a few Kelvin or less) compared to the sky temperature ({approx}10 K observing condition). The system played a successful role for receiver calibration of QUIET, a CMB polarization experiment located in the Atacama desert in Chile. The successful performance revealed that this system is applicable to other experiments based on different technologies, e.g. TES bolometers.
Conformal Invariance, Dark Energy, and CMB Non-Gaussianity
Antoniadis, Ignatios; Mottola, Emil
2012-01-01
We show that in addition to simple scale invariance, a universe dominated by dark energy naturally gives rise to correlation functions possessing full conformal invariance. This is due to the mathematical isomorphism between the conformal group of certain three dimensional slices of de Sitter space and the de Sitter isometry group SO(4,1). In the standard homogeneous, isotropic cosmological model in which primordial density perturbations are generated during a long vacuum energy dominated de Sitter phase, the embedding of flat spatial R^3 sections in de Sitter space induces a conformal invariant perturbation spectrum and definite prediction for the shape of the non-Gaussian CMB bispectrum. In the case in which the density fluctuations are generated instead on the de Sitter horizon, conformal invariance of the S^2 horizon embedding implies a different but also quite definite prediction for the angular correlations of CMB non-Gaussianity on the sky. Each of these forms for the bispectrum is intrinsic to the sym...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Langner, D.; Canada, T.; Ensslin, N.; Atwell, T.; Baxman, H.; Cowder, L.; Speir, L.; Lyssel, T.V.; Sampson, T.
1980-08-01
We describe the automated nondestructive assay (NDA) system installed at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) Group CMB-8 uranium recovery facility. A random driver (RD) is used to measure the 235 U content of various solids while a uranium solution assay system (USAS) measures the 235 U or total uranium content of solutions over a concentration range of a few ppM to 400 g/l. Both instruments are interfaced to and controlled by a single minicomputer. The measurement principles, mechanical specifications, system software description, and operational instructions are described
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Afzal
2016-12-01
Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the transcriptomic response of Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 to cysteine. Transcriptome comparison of the D39 wild-type strain grown at a restricted concentration of cysteine (0.03 mM to one grown at a high concentration of cysteine (50 mM in chemically-define medium (CDM revealed elevated expression of various genes/operons, i.e. spd-0150, metQ, spd-0431, metEF, gshT, spd-0618, fhs, tcyB, metB-csd, metA, spd-1898, yvdE, and cysK, likely to be involved in the transport and utilization of cysteine and/or methionine. Microarray-based data were further confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. Promoter lacZ-fusion studies and quantitative RT-PCR data showed that the transcriptional regulator CmbR acts as a transcriptional repressor of spd-0150, metEF, gshT, spd-0618, tcyB, metA, and yvdE, putatively involved in cysteine uptake and utilization. The operator site of CmbR in the promoter regions of CmbR-regulated genes is predicted and confirmed by mutating or deleting CmbR operator sites from the promoter regions of these genes.
Cosmological constraints on radion evolution in the universal extra dimension model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan, K. C.; Chu, M.-C.
2008-01-01
The constraints on the radion evolution in the universal extra dimension (UED) model from cosmic microwave background (CMB) and Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) data are studied. In the UED model, where both the gravity and standard model fields can propagate in the extra dimensions, the evolution of the extra-dimensional volume, the radion, induces variation of fundamental constants. We discuss the effects of variation of the relevant constants in the context of UED for the CMB power spectrum and SNe Ia data. We then use the three-year WMAP data to constrain the radion evolution at z∼1100, and the 2σ constraint on ρ/ρ 0 (ρ is a function of the radion, to be defined in the text) is [-8.8,6.6]x10 -13 yr -1 . The SNe Ia gold sample yields a constraint on ρ/ρ 0 , for redshift between 0 and 1, to be [-4.7,14]x10 -13 yr -1 . Furthermore, the constraints from SNe Ia can be interpreted as bounds on the evolution QCD scale parameter, Λ QCD /Λ QCD,0 , [-1.4,2.8]x10 -11 yr -1 , without reference to the UED model.
Compensation for large tensor modes with iso-curvature perturbations in CMB anisotropies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kawasaki, Masahiro; Yokoyama, Shuichiro, E-mail: kawasaki@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: shu@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8582 (Japan)
2014-05-01
Recently, BICEP2 has reported the large tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 0.2{sup +0.07}{sub −0.05} from the observation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) B-mode at degree-scales. Since tensor modes induce not only CMB B-mode but also the temperature fluctuations on large scales, to realize the consistent temperature fluctuations with the Planck result we should consider suppression of scalar perturbations on corresponding large scales. To realize such a suppression, we consider anti-correlated iso-curvature perturbations which could be realized in the simple curvaton model.
Probing modifications of general relativity using current cosmological observations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Gongbo; Bacon, David J.; Koyama, Kazuya; Nichol, Robert C.; Song, Yong-Seon; Giannantonio, Tommaso; Pogosian, Levon; Silvestri, Alessandra
2010-01-01
We test general relativity (GR) using current cosmological data: the CMB from WMAP5 [E. Komatsu et al. (WMAP Collaboration), Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 180, 330 (2009)], the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect from the cross correlation of the CMB with six galaxy catalogs [T. Giannantonio et al., Phys. Rev. D 77, 123520 (2008)], a compilation of supernovae (SNe) type Ia including the latest Sloan Digital Sky Survey SNe [R. Kessler et al., Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 185, 32 (2009).], and part of the weak lensing (WL) data from the Canada-Franco-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey [L. Fu et al., Astron. Astrophys. 479, 9 (2008); M. Kilbinger et al., Astron. Astrophys. 497, 677 (2009).] that probe linear and mildly nonlinear scales. We first test a model in which the effective Newtonian constant μ and the ratio of the two gravitational potentials, η, transit from the GR value to another constant at late times; in this case, we find that GR is fully consistent with the combined data. The strongest constraint comes from the ISW effect which would arise from this gravitational transition; the observed ISW signal imposes a tight constraint on a combination of μ and η that characterizes the lensing potential. Next, we consider four pixels in time and space for each function μ and η, and perform a principal component analysis, finding that seven of the resulting eight eigenmodes are consistent with GR within the errors. Only one eigenmode shows a 2σ deviation from the GR prediction, which is likely to be due to a systematic effect. However, the detection of such a deviation demonstrates the power of our time- and scale-dependent principal component analysis methodology when combining observations of structure formation and expansion history to test GR.
Constraints on the CMB temperature-redshift dependence from SZ and distance measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Avgoustidis, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Luzzi, G. [Laboratoire de l' Accélérateur Linéaire, Université de Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Bâtiment 200, BP 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Martins, C.J.A.P.; Monteiro, A.M.R.V.L., E-mail: A.Avgoustidis@damtp.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: gluzzi@lal.in2p3.fr, E-mail: Carlos.Martins@astro.up.pt, E-mail: up090322024@alunos.fc.up.pt [Centro de Astrofísica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal)
2012-02-01
The relation between redshift and the CMB temperature, T{sub CMB}(z) = T{sub 0}(1+z) is a key prediction of standard cosmology, but is violated in many non-standard models. Constraining possible deviations to this law is an effective way to test the ΛCDM paradigm and search for hints of new physics. We present state-of-the-art constraints, using both direct and indirect measurements. In particular, we point out that in models where photons can be created or destroyed, not only does the temperature-redshift relation change, but so does the distance duality relation, and these departures from the standard behaviour are related, providing us with an opportunity to improve constraints. We show that current datasets limit possible deviations of the form T{sub CMB}(z) = T{sub 0}(1+z){sup 1−β} to be β = 0.004±0.016 up to a redshift z ∼ 3. We also discuss how, with the next generation of space and ground-based experiments, these constraints can be improved by more than one order of magnitude.
Constraints on the CMB temperature-redshift dependence from SZ and distance measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avgoustidis, A.; Luzzi, G.; Martins, C.J.A.P.; Monteiro, A.M.R.V.L.
2012-01-01
The relation between redshift and the CMB temperature, T CMB (z) = T 0 (1+z) is a key prediction of standard cosmology, but is violated in many non-standard models. Constraining possible deviations to this law is an effective way to test the ΛCDM paradigm and search for hints of new physics. We present state-of-the-art constraints, using both direct and indirect measurements. In particular, we point out that in models where photons can be created or destroyed, not only does the temperature-redshift relation change, but so does the distance duality relation, and these departures from the standard behaviour are related, providing us with an opportunity to improve constraints. We show that current datasets limit possible deviations of the form T CMB (z) = T 0 (1+z) 1−β to be β = 0.004±0.016 up to a redshift z ∼ 3. We also discuss how, with the next generation of space and ground-based experiments, these constraints can be improved by more than one order of magnitude
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Henning, J. W.; Sayre, J. T.; Reichardt, C. L.; Ade, P. A. R.; Anderson, A. J.; Austermann, J. E.; Beall, J. A.; Bender, A. N.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Chiang, H. C.; Cho, H-M.; Citron, R.; Moran, C. Corbett; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Haan, T. de; Dobbs, M. A.; Everett, W.; Gallicchio, J.; George, E. M.; Gilbert, A.; Halverson, N. W.; Harrington, N.; Hilton, G. C.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hoover, S.; Hou, Z.; Hrubes, J. D.; Huang, N.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K. D.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Li, D.; Lowitz, A.; Manzotti, A.; McMahon, J. J.; Meyer, S. S.; Mocanu, L.; Montgomery, J.; Nadolski, A.; Natoli, T.; Nibarger, J. P.; Novosad, V.; Padin, S.; Pryke, C.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Schaffer, K. K.; Sievers, C.; Smecher, G.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K. T.; Tucker, C.; Vanderlinde, K.; Veach, T.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, G.; Whitehorn, N.; Wu, W. L. K.; Yefremenko, V.
2018-01-11
We present measurements of the $E$-mode polarization angular auto-power spectrum ($EE$) and temperature-$E$-mode cross-power spectrum ($TE$) of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) using 150 GHz data from three seasons of SPTpol observations. We now report the $EE$ and $TE$ power spectra over the spherical harmonic multipole range $50 < \\ell \\leq 8000$, and detect the first nine acoustic peaks in the $EE$ spectrum with high signal-to-noise. These measurements are the most sensitive to date of the $EE$ and $TE$ angular polarization power spectra at $\\ell > 1050$ and $\\ell > 1475$, respectively. The observations cover $500\\, \\rm{deg}^2$ of sky, a fivefold increase in area compared to previous SPTpol power spectrum releases, leading to more than a factor of two reduction in bandpower uncertainties. The additional sky coverage increases our sensitivity to the photon-diffusion damping tail of the CMB angular power spectra, which enables tighter constraints on $\\Lambda CDM$ model extensions such as primordial helium content $Y_\\rm{p}$ and effective number of relativistic species $N_\\rm{eff}$. Furthermore, after masking all sources with unpolarized flux $>50$ mJy we place a 95% confidence upper limit on residual polarized point-source power of $D_\\ell < 0.10 \\mu{\\rm K}^2$ at $\\ell=3000$. This limit is a factor of four lower than the previous best upper limit, and suggests that the $EE$ damping tail is brighter than foregrounds to at least $\\ell = 4100$ with modest source masking. Finally, we find cosmological parameter constraints consistent with those for $Planck$ temperature when fitting SPTpol data at $\\ell < 1000$. However, including SPTpol data at $\\ell > 1000$ results in a preference for a higher value of the expansion rate ($H_0 = 71.2 \\pm 2.1\\,\\mbox{km}\\,s^{-1}\\mbox{Mpc}^{-1}$) and a lower value for present-day density fluctuations ($\\sigma_8 = 0.77 \\pm 0.02$). (Abridged).
The Implications of Interstellar Dust for the Cosmic Microwave Background
Schmelz, Joan T.; Verschuur, Gerrit
2018-01-01
A detailed comparison of the full range of PLANCK and WMAP data for small (2 deg by 2 deg) areas of sky and the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) ILC maps reveals that the structure of foreground dust may be more complex than previously thought. If 857 and 353 GHz emission is dominated by galactic dust at a distance data also show that there is no single answer for the question, “To what extent does dust contaminate the cosmologically important 143 GHz data?” In some directions, the contamination appears to be quite strong, but in others, it is less of an issue. This complexity needs to be taken in account in order to derive an accurate foreground mask in the quest to understand the CMB small-scale structure. We hope that a continued investigation of these data will lead to a definitive answer to the question above and, possibly, to new scientific insights on interstellar matter, the CMB, or both.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wen Zhao
2014-10-01
Full Text Available The B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB radiation is an excellent information channel for the detection of relic gravitational waves. However, the detection is contaminated by the B-mode polarization generated by some other effects. In this paper, we discuss the contaminations caused by the cosmological birefringence, which converts the CMB E-mode to the B-mode, and forms the effective noise for the detection of gravitational waves. We find that this contamination is significant, if the rotation angle is large. However, this kind of B-mode can be properly de-rotated, and the effective noises can be greatly reduced. We find that, comparing with the contaminations caused by cosmic weak lensing, the residual polarization generated by the cosmological birefringence is negligible for the detection of relic gravitational waves in the CMB.
Adiabatic CMB perturbations in pre-big bang string cosmology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Enqvist, Kari; Sloth, Martin Snoager
2001-01-01
We consider the pre-big bang scenario with a massive axion field which starts to dominate energy density when oscillating in an instanton-induced potential and subsequently reheats the universe as it decays into photons, thus creating adiabatic CMB perturbations. We find that the fluctuations...
CMB anisotropies at all orders: the non-linear Sachs-Wolfe formula
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roldan, Omar
2017-01-01
We obtain the non-linear generalization of the Sachs-Wolfe + integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) formula describing the CMB temperature anisotropies. Our formula is valid at all orders in perturbation theory, is also valid in all gauges and includes scalar, vector and tensor modes. A direct consequence of our results is that the maps of the logarithmic temperature anisotropies are much cleaner than the usual CMB maps, because they automatically remove many secondary anisotropies. This can for instance, facilitate the search for primordial non-Gaussianity in future works. It also disentangles the non-linear ISW from other effects. Finally, we provide a method which can iteratively be used to obtain the lensing solution at the desired order.
CMB anisotropies at all orders: the non-linear Sachs-Wolfe formula
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roldan, Omar, E-mail: oaroldan@if.ufrj.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2017-08-01
We obtain the non-linear generalization of the Sachs-Wolfe + integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) formula describing the CMB temperature anisotropies. Our formula is valid at all orders in perturbation theory, is also valid in all gauges and includes scalar, vector and tensor modes. A direct consequence of our results is that the maps of the logarithmic temperature anisotropies are much cleaner than the usual CMB maps, because they automatically remove many secondary anisotropies. This can for instance, facilitate the search for primordial non-Gaussianity in future works. It also disentangles the non-linear ISW from other effects. Finally, we provide a method which can iteratively be used to obtain the lensing solution at the desired order.
Cosmological parameters from CMB and other data: A Monte Carlo approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lewis, Antony; Bridle, Sarah
2002-01-01
We present a fast Markov chain Monte Carlo exploration of cosmological parameter space. We perform a joint analysis of results from recent cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments and provide parameter constraints, including σ 8 , from the CMB independent of other data. We next combine data from the CMB, HST Key Project, 2dF galaxy redshift survey, supernovae type Ia and big-bang nucleosynthesis. The Monte Carlo method allows the rapid investigation of a large number of parameters, and we present results from 6 and 9 parameter analyses of flat models, and an 11 parameter analysis of non-flat models. Our results include constraints on the neutrino mass (m ν < or approx. 3 eV), equation of state of the dark energy, and the tensor amplitude, as well as demonstrating the effect of additional parameters on the base parameter constraints. In a series of appendixes we describe the many uses of importance sampling, including computing results from new data and accuracy correction of results generated from an approximate method. We also discuss the different ways of converting parameter samples to parameter constraints, the effect of the prior, assess the goodness of fit and consistency, and describe the use of analytic marginalization over normalization parameters
Planck 2015 results. IX. Diffuse component separation: CMB maps
Adam, R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Casaponsa, B.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Fantaye, Y.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Krachmalnicoff, N.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Racine, B.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2016-01-01
We present foreground-reduced CMB maps derived from the full Planck data set in both temperature and polarization. Compared to the corresponding Planck 2013 temperature sky maps, the total data volume is larger by a factor of 3.2 for frequencies between 30 and 70 GHz, and by 1.9 for frequencies between 100 and 857 GHz. In addition, systematic errors in the forms of temperature-to-polarization leakage, analogue-to-digital conversion uncertainties, and very long time constant errors have been dramatically reduced, to the extent that the cosmological polarization signal may now be robustly recovered on angular scales $\\ell\\gtrsim40$. On the very largest scales, instrumental systematic residuals are still non-negligible compared to the expected cosmological signal, and modes with $\\ell < 20$ are accordingly suppressed in the current polarization maps by high-pass filtering. As in 2013, four different CMB component separation algorithms are applied to these observations, providing a measure of stability with re...
Determination of neutrino mass hierarchy by 21 cm line and CMB B-mode polarization observations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oyama, Yoshihiko, E-mail: oyamayo@post.kek.jp [The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Shimizu, Akie [The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Kohri, Kazunori [The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)
2013-01-29
We focus on the ongoing and future observations for both the 21 cm line and the CMB B-mode polarization produced by a CMB lensing, and study their sensitivities to the effective number of neutrino species, the total neutrino mass, and the neutrino mass hierarchy. We find that combining the CMB observations with future square kilometer arrays optimized for 21 cm line such as Omniscope can determine the neutrino mass hierarchy at 2{sigma}. We also show that a more feasible combination of Planck + POLARBEAR and SKA can strongly improve errors of the bounds on the total neutrino mass and the effective number of neutrino species to be {Delta}{Sigma}m{sub {nu}}{approx}0.12 eV and {Delta}N{sub {nu}}{approx}0.38 at 2{sigma}, respectively.
Quantum inflaton, primordial metric perturbations and CMB fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cao, F J
2007-01-01
We compute the primordial scalar, vector and tensor metric perturbations arising from quantum field inflation. Quantum field inflation takes into account the nonperturbative quantum dynamics of the inflaton consistently coupled to the dynamics of the (classical) cosmological metric. For chaotic inflation, the quantum treatment avoids the unnatural requirements of an initial state with all the energy in the zero mode. For new inflation it allows a consistent treatment of the explosive particle production due to spinodal instabilities. Quantum field inflation (under conditions that are the quantum analog of slow roll) leads, upon evolution, to the formation of a condensate starting a regime of effective classical inflation. We compute the primordial perturbations taking the dominant quantum effects into account. The results for the scalar, vector and tensor primordial perturbations are expressed in terms of the classical inflation results. For a N-component field in a O(N) symmetric model, adiabatic fluctuations dominate while isocurvature or entropy fluctuations are negligible. The results agree with the current WMAP observations and predict corrections to the power spectrum in classical inflation. Such corrections are estimated to be of the order of m 2 /[NH 2 ] where m is the inflaton mass and H the Hubble constant at horizon crossing. This turns to be about 4% for the cosmologically relevant scales. This quantum field treatment of inflation provides the foundations to the classical inflation and permits to compute quantum corrections to it
5,120 Superconducting Bolometers for the PIPER Balloon-Borne CMB Polarization Experiment
Benford, Dominic J.; Chuss, David T.; Hilton, Gene C.; Irwin, Kent D.; Jethava, Nikhil S.; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Kogut, Alan J.; Miller, Timothy M.; Mirel, Paul; Moseley, S. Harvey;
2010-01-01
We are constructing the Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) to measure the polarization o[ the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and search for the imprint of gravity waves produced during an inflationary epoch in the early universe. The signal is faint and lies behind confusing foregrounds, both astrophysical and cosmological, and so many detectors are required to complete the measurement in a limited time. We will use four of our matured 1,280 pixel, high-filling-factor backshort-under-grid bolometer arrays for efficient operation at the PIPER CMB wavelengths. All four arrays observe at a common wavelength set by passband filters in the optical path. PIPER will fly four times to observe at wavelengths of 1500, 1100, 850, and 500 microns in order to separate CMB from foreground emission. The arrays employ leg-isolated superconducting transition edge sensor bolometers operated at 128mK; tuned resonant backshorts for efficient optical coupling; and a second-generation superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexer readout. We describe the design, development, and performance of PIPER bo|ometer array technology to achieve background-limited sensitivity for a cryogenic balloon-borne telescope.
Planck intermediate results LI. Features in the cosmic microwave background temperature power spectrum and shifts in cosmological parameters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aghanim, N.; Akrami, Y.; Ashdown, M.
2017-01-01
The six parameters of the standard ΛCDM model have best-fit values derived from the Planck temperature power spectrum that are shifted somewhat from the best-fit values derived from WMAP data. These shifts are driven by features in the Planck temperature power spectrum at angular scales that had ...
Extraction Of Cobalt From Spent CMB Catalyst Using Supercritical CO2
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joo S.-H.
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The metal extraction from spent CMB catalyst using supercritical CO2(scCO2 was investigated with single organic system, binary organic system and ternary organic system to extract metal ions. Leaching solution of spent CMB catalyst containing 389 mg L−1 Co2+, 187 mg L−1 Mn2+, 133 mg L−1 Na+, 14.97 mg L−1 Ca2+ and 13.2 mg L−1 Mg2+. The method consists of scCO2/ligands complexation process and metal extraction process at 60°C and 200bar. The result showed the Co and Mn was selectively extracted from Mg, Ca and Na in the ternary system of mixture of Cyanex272, DEA and Alamine304-I.
A note on the birefringence angle estimation in CMB data analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gruppuso, A. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Bologna, via P. Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Maggio, G. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G.B. Tiepolo 11, Trieste (Italy); Molinari, D.; Natoli, P., E-mail: gruppuso@iasbo.inaf.it, E-mail: maggio@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: molinari@iasfbo.inaf.it, E-mail: ntlpla@unife.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra and INFN, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy)
2016-05-01
Parity violating physics beyond the standard model of particle physics induces a rotation of the linear polarization of photons. This effect, also known as cosmological birefringence (CB), can be tested with the observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies which are linearly polarized at the level of 5–10%. In particular CB produces non-null CMB cross correlations between temperature and B mode-polarization, and between E- and B-mode polarization. Here we study the properties of the so called D-estimators, often used to constrain such an effect. After deriving the framework of both frequentist and Bayesian analysis, we discuss the interplay between birefringence and weak-lensing, which, albeit parity conserving, modifies pre-existing TB and EB cross correlation.
Analysing the Effect on CMB in a Parity and Charge Parity Violating Varying Alpha Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maity, Debaprasad; /NCTS, Taipei /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U.; Chen, Pisin; /NCTS, Taipei /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC
2012-09-14
In this paper we study in detail the effect of our recently proposed model of parity and charge-parity (PCP) violating varying alpha on the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photon passing through the intra galaxy-cluster medium (ICM). The ICM is well known to be composed of magnetized plasma. According to our model, the polarization and intensity of the CMB would be affected when traversing through the ICM due to non-trivial scalar photon interactions. We have calculated the evolution of such polarization and intensity collectively, known as the stokes parameters of the CMB photon during its journey through the ICM and tested our results against the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) measurement on Coma galaxy cluster. Our model contains a PCP violating parameter, {beta}, and a scale of alpha variation {omega}. Using the derived constrained on the photon-to-scalar conversion probability, {bar P}{sub {gamma}{yields}{phi}}, for Coma cluster in ref.[34] we found a contour plot in the ({omega},{beta}) parameter plane. The {beta} = 0 line in this parameter space corresponds to well-studied Maxwell-dilaton type models which has lower bound on {omega} {approx}> 6.4 x 10{sup 9} GeV. In general, as the absolute value of {beta} increases, lower bound on {omega} also increases. Our model in general predicts the modification of the CMB polarization with a non-trivial dependence on the parity violating coupling parameter {beta}. However, it is unconstrained in this particular study. We show that this effect can in principle be detected in the future measurements on CMB polarization such that {beta} can also be constrained.
Developing Advanced Broadband Microwave Detectors for Next-Generation CMB Polarization Studies
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The photons of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) stream toward us from the boundary of the observable universe and arrive with information about both their point...
Impact of calibration errors on CMB component separation using FastICA and ILC
Dick, Jason; Remazeilles, Mathieu; Delabrouille, Jacques
2010-01-01
The separation of emissions from different astrophysical processes is an important step towards the understanding of observational data. This topic of component separation is of particular importance in the observation of the relic cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, as performed by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe satellite and the more recent Planck mission, launched on 2009 May 14 from Kourou and currently taking data. When performing any sort of component separation, some assumptions about the components must be used. One assumption that many techniques typically use is knowledge of the frequency scaling of one or more components. This assumption may be broken in the presence of calibration errors. Here we compare, in the context of imperfect calibration, the recovery of a clean map of emission of the CMB from observational data with two methods: FastICA (which makes no assumption of the frequency scaling of the components) and an `Internal Linear Combination' (ILC), which explicitly extracts a component with a given frequency scaling. We find that even in the presence of small calibration errors (less than 1 per cent) with a Planck-style mission, the ILC method can lead to inaccurate CMB reconstruction in the high signal-to-noise ratio regime, because of partial cancellation of the CMB emission in the recovered map. While there is no indication that the failure of the ILC will translate to other foreground cleaning or component separation techniques, we propose that all methods which assume knowledge of the frequency scaling of one or more components be careful to estimate the effects of calibration errors.
MODELING ATMOSPHERIC EMISSION FOR CMB GROUND-BASED OBSERVATIONS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Errard, J.; Borrill, J. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ade, P. A. R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3XQ (United Kingdom); Akiba, Y.; Chinone, Y. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Arnold, K.; Atlas, M.; Barron, D.; Elleflot, T. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093-0424 (United States); Baccigalupi, C.; Fabbian, G. [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Trieste I-34014 (Italy); Boettger, D. [Department of Astronomy, Pontifica Universidad Catolica de Chile (Chile); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2 (Canada); Cukierman, A. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Delabrouille, J. [AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité (France); Dobbs, M.; Gilbert, A. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 0G4 (Canada); Ducout, A.; Feeney, S. [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Feng, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine (United States); and others
2015-08-10
Atmosphere is one of the most important noise sources for ground-based cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments. By increasing optical loading on the detectors, it amplifies their effective noise, while its fluctuations introduce spatial and temporal correlations between detected signals. We present a physically motivated 3D-model of the atmosphere total intensity emission in the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths. We derive a new analytical estimate for the correlation between detectors time-ordered data as a function of the instrument and survey design, as well as several atmospheric parameters such as wind, relative humidity, temperature and turbulence characteristics. Using an original numerical computation, we examine the effect of each physical parameter on the correlations in the time series of a given experiment. We then use a parametric-likelihood approach to validate the modeling and estimate atmosphere parameters from the polarbear-i project first season data set. We derive a new 1.0% upper limit on the linear polarization fraction of atmospheric emission. We also compare our results to previous studies and weather station measurements. The proposed model can be used for realistic simulations of future ground-based CMB observations.
Large scale CMB anomalies from thawing cosmic strings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ringeval, Christophe [Centre for Cosmology, Particle Physics and Phenomenology, Institute of Mathematics and Physics, Louvain University, 2 Chemin du Cyclotron, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Yamauchi, Daisuke; Yokoyama, Jun' ichi [Research Center for the Early Universe (RESCEU), Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Bouchet, François R., E-mail: christophe.ringeval@uclouvain.be, E-mail: yamauchi@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: yokoyama@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: bouchet@iap.fr [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095-CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98bis boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France)
2016-02-01
Cosmic strings formed during inflation are expected to be either diluted over super-Hubble distances, i.e., invisible today, or to have crossed our past light cone very recently. We discuss the latter situation in which a few strings imprint their signature in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Anisotropies after recombination. Being almost frozen in the Hubble flow, these strings are quasi static and evade almost all of the previously derived constraints on their tension while being able to source large scale anisotropies in the CMB sky. Using a local variance estimator on thousand of numerically simulated Nambu-Goto all sky maps, we compute the expected signal and show that it can mimic a dipole modulation at large angular scales while being negligible at small angles. Interestingly, such a scenario generically produces one cold spot from the thawing of a cosmic string loop. Mixed with anisotropies of inflationary origin, we find that a few strings of tension GU = O(1) × 10{sup −6} match the amplitude of the dipole modulation reported in the Planck satellite measurements and could be at the origin of other large scale anomalies.
Planck 2013 results. XXIII. Isotropy and Statistics of the CMB
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.
2013-01-01
The two fundamental assumptions of the standard cosmological model - that the initial fluctuations are statistically isotropic and Gaussian - are rigorously tested using maps of the CMB anisotropy from the \\Planck\\ satellite. The detailed results are based on studies of four independent estimates...
The Relativistic Effect of the Deviation between the CMB Temperatures Obtained by the COBE Satellite
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rabounski D.
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS on the COBE satellite, gives different temperatures of the Cosmic Microwave Background. This deviation has a theoretical explanation in the Doppler effect on the dipole (weak component of the radiation, the true microwave background of the Universe that moves at 365 km/sec, if the monopole (strong component of the radiation is due to the Earth. Owing to the Doppler effect, the dipole radiation temperature (determined by the 1st derivative of the monopole is lower than the monopole radiation temperature, with a value equal to the observed deviation. By this theory, the WMAP and PLANCK satellites, targeting the L2 point in the Sun-Earth-Moon system, should be insensitive to the monopole radiation. In contrast to the launched WMAP satellite, the PLANCK satellite will have on board absolute instruments which will not be able to detect the measured temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background. That the monopole (strong component of the observed Cosmic Microwave Background is generated by the Earth is given a complete theoretical proof herein.
Searching for stringy topologies in the cosmic microwave background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ben-David, Assaf; Rathaus, Ben; Itzhaki, Nissan
2012-01-01
We consider a universe with a non-classical stringy topology that has fixed points. We concentrate on the simplest example, an orbifold point, and study its observable imprints on the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We show that an orbifold preserves the Gaussian nature of the temperature fluctuations, yet modifies the angular correlation function. A direct signature of an orbifold is a single circle in the CMB that is invariant under rotation by 180°. Searching the 7-year ILC map of WMAP, we find one candidate circle with high statistical significance. However, a closer look reveals that the temperature profile does not fit an orbifold. We place a lower bound on the distance to an orbifold point at ∼ 85% of the distance to the surface of last scattering
Searching for stringy topologies in the cosmic microwave background
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ben-David, Assaf; Rathaus, Ben; Itzhaki, Nissan, E-mail: bd.assaf@gmail.com, E-mail: ben.rathaus@gmail.com, E-mail: nitzhaki@post.tau.ac.il [Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv, 69978 (Israel)
2012-11-01
We consider a universe with a non-classical stringy topology that has fixed points. We concentrate on the simplest example, an orbifold point, and study its observable imprints on the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We show that an orbifold preserves the Gaussian nature of the temperature fluctuations, yet modifies the angular correlation function. A direct signature of an orbifold is a single circle in the CMB that is invariant under rotation by 180°. Searching the 7-year ILC map of WMAP, we find one candidate circle with high statistical significance. However, a closer look reveals that the temperature profile does not fit an orbifold. We place a lower bound on the distance to an orbifold point at ∼ 85% of the distance to the surface of last scattering.
Cosmological constraints on neutrinos with Planck data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spinelli, M.
2015-01-01
Neutrinos take part in the dance of the evolving Universe influencing its history from leptogenesis, to Big Bang nucleosynthesis, until late time structure formation. This makes cosmology, and in particular one of its primary observables the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), an unusual but valuable tool for testing Neutrino Physics. The best measurement to date of full-sky CMB anisotropies comes from the Planck satellite launched in 2009 by the European Space Agency (ESA) and successful follower of COBE and WMAP. Testing Planck data against precise theoretical predictions allow us to shed light on various interesting open questions such as the value of the absolute scale of neutrino masses or their energy density. We revise here the results concerning neutrinos obtained by the Planck Collaboration in the 2013 data release
Cosmological constraints on neutrinos with Planck data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spinelli, M. [Laboratoire de l’Accélérateur Linéaire, Bat.200, 91400 Orsay (France)
2015-07-15
Neutrinos take part in the dance of the evolving Universe influencing its history from leptogenesis, to Big Bang nucleosynthesis, until late time structure formation. This makes cosmology, and in particular one of its primary observables the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), an unusual but valuable tool for testing Neutrino Physics. The best measurement to date of full-sky CMB anisotropies comes from the Planck satellite launched in 2009 by the European Space Agency (ESA) and successful follower of COBE and WMAP. Testing Planck data against precise theoretical predictions allow us to shed light on various interesting open questions such as the value of the absolute scale of neutrino masses or their energy density. We revise here the results concerning neutrinos obtained by the Planck Collaboration in the 2013 data release.
Cosmological constraints on neutrinos with Planck data
Spinelli, M.
2015-07-01
Neutrinos take part in the dance of the evolving Universe influencing its history from leptogenesis, to Big Bang nucleosynthesis, until late time structure formation. This makes cosmology, and in particular one of its primary observables the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), an unusual but valuable tool for testing Neutrino Physics. The best measurement to date of full-sky CMB anisotropies comes from the Planck satellite launched in 2009 by the European Space Agency (ESA) and successful follower of COBE and WMAP. Testing Planck data against precise theoretical predictions allow us to shed light on various interesting open questions such as the value of the absolute scale of neutrino masses or their energy density. We revise here the results concerning neutrinos obtained by the Planck Collaboration in the 2013 data release.
The interaction between dark energy and dark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Jianhua; Wang Bin
2010-01-01
In this review we first present a general formalism to study the growth of dark matter perturbations in the presence of interactions between dark matter(DM) and dark energy(DE). We also study the signature of such interaction on the temperature anisotropies of the large scale cosmic microwave background (CMB). We find that the effect of such interaction has significant signature on both the growth of dark matter structure and the late Integrated Sachs Wolfe effect(ISW). We further discuss the potential possibility to detect the coupling by cross-correlating CMB maps with tracers of the large scale structure. We finally confront this interacting model with WMAP 5-year data as well as other data sets. We find that in the 1σ range, the constrained coupling between dark sectors can solve the coincidence problem.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Das, Sudeep [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Louis, Thibaut; Calabrese, Erminia; Dunkley, Joanna [Sub-department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Nolta, Michael R.; Bond, J Richard; Hajian, Amir; Hincks, Adam D. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H8 Canada (Canada); Addison, Graeme E.; Halpern, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4 Canada (Canada); Battistelli, Elia S. [Department of Physics, University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Crichton, Devin; Gralla, Megan [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA, 19104 (United States); Dünner, Rolando [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificía Universidad Católica, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Fowler, Joseph W. [NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO, 80305 (United States); Hasselfield, Matthew; Hlozek, Renée [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Hilton, Matt, E-mail: sudeepphys@gmail.com [Centre for Astronomy and Particle Theory, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); and others
2014-04-01
We present the temperature power spectra of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) derived from the three seasons of data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 148 GHz and 218 GHz, as well as the cross-frequency spectrum between the two channels. We detect and correct for contamination due to the Galactic cirrus in our equatorial maps. We present the results of a number of tests for possible systematic error and conclude that any effects are not significant compared to the statistical errors we quote. Where they overlap, we cross-correlate the ACT and the South Pole Telescope (SPT) maps and show they are consistent. The measurements of higher-order peaks in the CMB power spectrum provide an additional test of the ΛCDM cosmological model, and help constrain extensions beyond the standard model. The small angular scale power spectrum also provides constraining power on the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects and extragalactic foregrounds. We also present a measurement of the CMB gravitational lensing convergence power spectrum at 4.6σ detection significance.
Das, Sudeep; Louis, Thibaut; Nolta, Michael R.; Addison, Graeme E.; Battisetti, Elia S.; Bond, J. Richard; Calabrese, Erminia; Crichton, Devin; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon;
2014-01-01
We present the temperature power spectra of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) derived from the three seasons of data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 148 GHz and 218 GHz, as well as the cross-frequency spectrum between the two channels. We detect and correct for contamination due to the Galactic cirrus in our equatorial maps. We present the results of a number of tests for possible systematic error and conclude that any effects are not significant compared to the statistical errors we quote. Where they overlap, we cross-correlate the ACT and the South Pole Telescope (SPT) maps and show they are consistent. The measurements of higher-order peaks in the CMB power spectrum provide an additional test of the ?CDM cosmological model, and help constrain extensions beyond the standard model. The small angular scale power spectrum also provides constraining power on the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects and extragalactic foregrounds. We also present a measurement of the CMB gravitational lensing convergence power spectrum at 4.6s detection significance.
The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: temperature and gravitational lensing power spectrum measurements from three seasons of data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, Sudeep; Louis, Thibaut; Calabrese, Erminia; Dunkley, Joanna; Nolta, Michael R.; Bond, J Richard; Hajian, Amir; Hincks, Adam D.; Addison, Graeme E.; Halpern, Mark; Battistelli, Elia S.; Crichton, Devin; Gralla, Megan; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon; Dünner, Rolando; Fowler, Joseph W.; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hlozek, Renée; Hilton, Matt
2014-01-01
We present the temperature power spectra of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) derived from the three seasons of data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 148 GHz and 218 GHz, as well as the cross-frequency spectrum between the two channels. We detect and correct for contamination due to the Galactic cirrus in our equatorial maps. We present the results of a number of tests for possible systematic error and conclude that any effects are not significant compared to the statistical errors we quote. Where they overlap, we cross-correlate the ACT and the South Pole Telescope (SPT) maps and show they are consistent. The measurements of higher-order peaks in the CMB power spectrum provide an additional test of the ΛCDM cosmological model, and help constrain extensions beyond the standard model. The small angular scale power spectrum also provides constraining power on the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects and extragalactic foregrounds. We also present a measurement of the CMB gravitational lensing convergence power spectrum at 4.6σ detection significance
Multiscale analysis of the CMB temperature derivatives
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marcos-Caballero, A.; Martínez-González, E.; Vielva, P., E-mail: marcos@ifca.unican.es, E-mail: martinez@ifca.unican.es, E-mail: vielva@ifca.unican.es [Instituto de Física de Cantabria, CSIC-Universidad de Cantabria, Avda. de los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander, Spain. (Spain)
2017-02-01
We study the Planck CMB temperature at different scales through its derivatives up to second order, which allows one to characterize the local shape and isotropy of the field. The problem of having an incomplete sky in the calculation and statistical characterization of the derivatives is addressed in the paper. The analysis confirms the existence of a low variance in the CMB at large scales, which is also noticeable in the derivatives. Moreover, deviations from the standard model in the gradient, curvature and the eccentricity tensor are studied in terms of extreme values on the data. As it is expected, the Cold Spot is detected as one of the most prominent peaks in terms of curvature, but additionally, when the information of the temperature and its Laplacian are combined, another feature with similar probability at the scale of 10{sup o} is also observed. However, the p -value of these two deviations increase above the 6% when they are referred to the variance calculated from the theoretical fiducial model, indicating that these deviations can be associated to the low variance anomaly. Finally, an estimator of the directional anisotropy for spinorial quantities is introduced, which is applied to the spinors derived from the field derivatives. An anisotropic direction whose probability is <1% is detected in the eccentricity tensor.
Working Group Report: Dark Energy and CMB
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Dodelson, S.; Honscheid, K.; Abazajian, K.; Carlstrom, J.; Huterer, D.; Jain, B.; Kim, A.; Kirkby, D.; Lee, A.; Padmanabhan, N.; Rhodes, J.; Weinberg, D.
2013-09-20
The American Physical Society's Division of Particles and Fields initiated a long-term planning exercise over 2012-13, with the goal of developing the community's long term aspirations. The sub-group "Dark Energy and CMB" prepared a series of papers explaining and highlighting the physics that will be studied with large galaxy surveys and cosmic microwave background experiments. This paper summarizes the findings of the other papers, all of which have been submitted jointly to the arXiv.
When can preheating affect the CMB?
Tsujikawa, Shinji; Bassett, Bruce A.
2002-05-01
We discuss the principles governing the selection of inflationary models for which preheating can affect the CMB. This is a (fairly small) subset of those models which have nonnegligible entropy/isocurvature perturbations on large scales during inflation. We study new models which belong to this class-two-field inflation with negative nonminimal coupling and hybrid/double/supernatural inflation models where the tachyonic growth of entropy perturbations can lead to the variation of the curvature perturbation, /R, on super-Hubble scales. Finally, we present evidence against recent claims for the variation of /R in the absence of substantial super-Hubble entropy perturbations.
Testing non-minimally coupled inflation with CMB data: a Bayesian analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Campista, Marcela; Benetti, Micol; Alcaniz, Jailson
2017-01-01
We use the most recent cosmic microwave background (CMB) data to perform a Bayesian statistical analysis and discuss the observational viability of inflationary models with a non-minimal coupling, ξ, between the inflaton field and the Ricci scalar. We particularize our analysis to two examples of small and large field inflationary models, namely, the Coleman-Weinberg and the chaotic quartic potentials. We find that ( i ) the ξ parameter is closely correlated with the primordial amplitude ; ( ii ) although improving the agreement with the CMB data in the r − n s plane, where r is the tensor-to-scalar ratio and n s the primordial spectral index, a non-null coupling is strongly disfavoured with respect to the minimally coupled standard ΛCDM model, since the upper bounds of the Bayes factor (odds) for ξ parameter are greater than 150:1.
Testing non-minimally coupled inflation with CMB data: a Bayesian analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Campista, Marcela; Benetti, Micol; Alcaniz, Jailson, E-mail: campista@on.br, E-mail: micolbenetti@on.br, E-mail: alcaniz@on.br [Observatório Nacional, Rua General José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 20921-400 Brazil (Brazil)
2017-09-01
We use the most recent cosmic microwave background (CMB) data to perform a Bayesian statistical analysis and discuss the observational viability of inflationary models with a non-minimal coupling, ξ, between the inflaton field and the Ricci scalar. We particularize our analysis to two examples of small and large field inflationary models, namely, the Coleman-Weinberg and the chaotic quartic potentials. We find that ( i ) the ξ parameter is closely correlated with the primordial amplitude ; ( ii ) although improving the agreement with the CMB data in the r − n {sub s} plane, where r is the tensor-to-scalar ratio and n {sub s} the primordial spectral index, a non-null coupling is strongly disfavoured with respect to the minimally coupled standard ΛCDM model, since the upper bounds of the Bayes factor (odds) for ξ parameter are greater than 150:1.
Chuss, David
2010-01-01
The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) has provided a wealth of information about the history and physics of the early Universe. Much progress has been made on uncovering the emerging Standard Model of Cosmology by such experiments as COBE and WMAP, and ESA's Planck Surveyor will likely increase our knowledge even more. Despite the success of this model, mysteries remain. Currently understood physics does not offer a compelling explanation for the homogeneity, flatness, and the origin of structure in the Universe. Cosmic Inflation, a brief epoch of exponential expansion, has been posted to explain these observations. If inflation is a reality, it is expected to produce a background spectrum of gravitational waves that will leave a small polarized imprint on the CMB. Discovery of this signal would give the first direct evidence for inflation and provide a window into physics at scales beyond those accessible to terrestrial particle accelerators. I will briefly review aspects of the Standard Model of Cosmology and discuss our current efforts to design and deploy experiments to measure the polarization of the CMB with the precision required to test inflation.
Constraining the shape of the CMB: A peak-by-peak analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oedman, Carolina J.; Hobson, Michael P.; Lasenby, Anthony N.; Melchiorri, Alessandro
2003-01-01
The recent measurements of the power spectrum of cosmic microwave background anisotropies are consistent with the simplest inflationary scenario and big bang nucleosynthesis constraints. However, these results rely on the assumption of a class of models based on primordial adiabatic perturbations, cold dark matter and a cosmological constant. In this paper we investigate the need for deviations from the Λ-CDM scenario by first characterizing the spectrum using a phenomenological function in a 15 dimensional parameter space. Using a Monte Carlo Markov chain approach to Bayesian inference and a low curvature model template we then check for the presence of new physics and/or systematics in the CMB data. We find an almost perfect consistency between the phenomenological fits and the standard Λ-CDM models. The curvature of the secondary peaks is weakly constrained by the present data, but they are well located. The improved spectral resolution expected from future satellite experiments is warranted for a definitive test of the scenario
Creation of the CMB spectrum: precise analytic solutions for the blackbody photosphere
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Khatri, Rishi; Sunyaev, Rashid A., E-mail: khatri@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: sunyaev@mpa-Garching.mpg.de [Max Planck Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85741 Garching (Germany)
2012-06-01
The blackbody spectrum of CMB was created in the blackbody photosphere at redshifts z∼>2 × 10{sup 6}. At these early times, the Universe was dense and hot enough that complete thermal equilibrium between baryonic matter (electrons and ions) and photons could be established on time scales much shorter than the age of the Universe. Any perturbation away from the blackbody spectrum was suppressed exponentially. New physics, for example annihilation and decay of dark matter, can add energy and photons to CMB at redshifts z∼>10{sup 5} and result in a Bose-Einstein spectrum with a non-zero chemical potential (μ). Precise evolution of the CMB spectrum around the critical redshift of z ≅ 2 × 10{sup 6} is required in order to calculate the μ-type spectral distortion and constrain the underlying new physics. Although numerical calculation of important processes involved (double Compton process, comptonization and bremsstrahlung) is not difficult with present day computers, analytic solutions are much faster and easier to calculate and provide valuable physical insights. We provide precise (better than 1%) analytic solutions for the decay of μ, created at an earlier epoch, including all three processes, double Compton, Compton scattering on thermal electrons and bremsstrahlung in the limit of small distortions. This is a significant improvement over the existing solutions with accuracy ∼ 10% or worse. We also give a census of important sources of energy injection into CMB in standard cosmology. In particular, calculations of distortions from electron-positron annihilation and primordial nucleosynthesis illustrate in a dramatic way the strength of the equilibrium restoring processes in the early Universe. Finally, we point out the triple degeneracy in standard cosmology, i.e., the μ and y distortions from adiabatic cooling of baryons and electrons, Silk damping and annihilation of thermally produced WIMP dark matter are of similar order of magnitude ( ∼ 10{sup
Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Observations: Beam Maps and Window Functions
Hill, R. S.; Weiland, J. L.; Odegard, N.; Wollack, E.; Hinshaw, G.; Larson, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Halpern, M.; Page, L.; Dunkley, J.; Gold, B.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Nolta, M. R.; Spergel, D. N.; Tucker, G. S.; Wright, E. L.
2009-02-01
Cosmology and other scientific results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mission require an accurate knowledge of the beam patterns in flight. While the degree of beam knowledge for the WMAP one-year and three-year results was unprecedented for a CMB experiment, we have significantly improved the beam determination as part of the five-year data release. Physical optics fits are done on both the A and the B sides for the first time. The cutoff scale of the fitted distortions on the primary mirror is reduced by a factor of ~2 from previous analyses. These changes enable an improvement in the hybridization of Jupiter data with beam models, which is optimized with respect to error in the main beam solid angle. An increase in main-beam solid angle of ~1% is found for the V2 and W1-W4 differencing assemblies. Although the five-year results are statistically consistent with previous ones, the errors in the five-year beam transfer functions are reduced by a factor of ~2 as compared to the three-year analysis. We present radiometry of the planet Jupiter as a test of the beam consistency and as a calibration standard; for an individual differencing assembly, errors in the measured disk temperature are ~0.5%. WMAP is the result of a partnership between Princeton University and NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Scientific guidance is provided by the WMAP Science Team.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ichikawa, Kazuhide; Takahashi, Tomo
2008-01-01
We discuss the possibilities of the simultaneous determination of the neutrino masses and the evolution of dark energy from future cosmological observations such as cosmic microwave background (CMB), large scale structure (LSS) and the cross-correlation between them. Recently it has been discussed that there is a degeneracy between the neutrino masses and the equation of state for dark energy. It is also known that there are some degeneracies among the parameters describing the dark energy evolution. We discuss the implications of these for the cross-correlation of CMB with LSS in some detail. Then we consider to what extent we can determine the neutrino masses and the dark energy evolution using the expected data from CMB, LSS and their cross-correlation
Planck 2015 results: XVI. Isotropy and statistics of the CMB
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Akrami, Y.
2016-01-01
We test the statistical isotropy and Gaussianity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies using observations made by the Planck satellite. Our results are based mainly on the full Planck mission for temperature, but also include some polarization measurements. In particular, we consi...
Multiverse effects on the CMB angular correlation function in the framework of NCG
Arabzadeh, Sahar; Kaviani, Kamran
Following many theories that predict the existence of the multiverse and by conjecture that our space-time may have a generalized geometrical structure at the fundamental level, we are interested in using a non-commutative geometry (NCG) formalism to study a suggested two-layer space that contains our 4-dimensional (4D) universe and a re-derived photon propagator. It can be shown that the photon propagator and a cosmic microwave background (CMB) angular correlation function are comparable, and if there exists such a multiverse system, the distance between the two layers can be estimated to be within the observable universe’s radius. Furthermore, this study revealed that our results are not limited to CMB but can be applied to many other types of radiation, such as X-rays.
Measuring the anisotropy in the CMB
Page, L. A.
The CMB is perhaps the cleanest cosmological observable. Its angular spectrum may be both computed and measured to percent accuracy. The current data clearly show a rise in the angular spectrum to a peak of roughly Tl = (l(l + 1)Cl/2)1/2 80 K at l 200, and a fall at higher l. In particular, δTl at l = 400 is significantly less than at l = 200. This is shown through a combined analysis of data sets and by the TOCO data alone. For spatially flat models, a peak in the angular spectrum near l = 200 is indicated, whereas for Ω0 = 0.35 models one expects a peak near l = 400. The data clearly prefer the spatially flat models.
Just enough inflation. Power spectrum modifications at large scales
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cicoli, Michele; Downes, Sean
2014-07-01
We show that models of 'just enough' inflation, where the slow-roll evolution lasted only 50-60 e-foldings, feature modifications of the CMB power spectrum at large angular scales. We perform a systematic and model-independent analysis of any possible non-slow-roll background evolution prior to the final stage of slow-roll inflation. We find a high degree of universality since most common backgrounds like fast-roll evolution, matter or radiation-dominance give rise to a power loss at large angular scales and a peak together with an oscillatory behaviour at scales around the value of the Hubble parameter at the beginning of slow-roll inflation. Depending on the value of the equation of state parameter, different pre-inflationary epochs lead instead to an enhancement of power at low-l, and so seem disfavoured by recent observational hints for a lack of CMB power at l< or similar 40. We also comment on the importance of initial conditions and the possibility to have multiple pre-inflationary stages.
Adapted Method for Separating Kinetic SZ Signal from Primary CMB Fluctuations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Forni Olivier
2005-01-01
Full Text Available In this first attempt to extract a map of the kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (KSZ temperature fluctuations from the cosmic microwave background (CMB anisotropies, we use a method which is based on simple and minimal assumptions. We first focus on the intrinsic limitations of the method due to the cosmological signal itself. We demonstrate using simulated maps that the KSZ reconstructed maps are in quite good agreement with the original input signal with a correlation coefficient between original and reconstructed maps of on average, and an error on the standard deviation of the reconstructed KSZ map of only % on average. To achieve these results, our method is based on the fact that some first-step component separation provides us with (i a map of Compton parameters for the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (TSZ effect of galaxy clusters, and (ii a map of temperature fluctuations which is the sum of primary CMB and KSZ signals. Our method takes benefit from the spatial correlation between KSZ and TSZ effects which are both due to the same galaxy clusters. This correlation allows us to use the TSZ map as a spatial template in order to mask, in the map, the pixels where the clusters must have imprinted an SZ fluctuation. In practice, a series of TSZ thresholds is defined and for each threshold, we estimate the corresponding KSZ signal by interpolating the CMB fluctuations on the masked pixels. The series of estimated KSZ maps is finally used to reconstruct the KSZ map through the minimisation of a criterion taking into account two statistical properties of the KSZ signal (KSZ dominates over primary anisotropies at small scales, KSZ fluctuations are non-Gaussian distributed. We show that the results are quite sensitive to the effect of beam convolution, especially for large beams, and to the corruption by instrumental noise.
MAPCUMBA: A fast iterative multi-grid map-making algorithm for CMB experiments
Doré, O.; Teyssier, R.; Bouchet, F. R.; Vibert, D.; Prunet, S.
2001-07-01
The data analysis of current Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiments like BOOMERanG or MAXIMA poses severe challenges which already stretch the limits of current (super-) computer capabilities, if brute force methods are used. In this paper we present a practical solution for the optimal map making problem which can be used directly for next generation CMB experiments like ARCHEOPS and TopHat, and can probably be extended relatively easily to the full PLANCK case. This solution is based on an iterative multi-grid Jacobi algorithm which is both fast and memory sparing. Indeed, if there are Ntod data points along the one dimensional timeline to analyse, the number of operations is of O (Ntod \\ln Ntod) and the memory requirement is O (Ntod). Timing and accuracy issues have been analysed on simulated ARCHEOPS and TopHat data, and we discuss as well the issue of the joint evaluation of the signal and noise statistical properties.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dossett, Jason N.; Moldenhauer, Jacob; Ishak, Mustapha
2011-01-01
We use cosmological constraints from current data sets and a figure of merit approach in order to probe any deviations from general relativity at cosmological scales. The figure of merit approach is used to study and compare the constraining power of various combinations of data sets on the modified gravity (MG) parameters. We use the recently refined HST-COSMOS weak-lensing tomography data, the ISW-galaxy cross correlations from 2MASS and SDSS luminous red galaxy surveys, the matter power spectrum from SDSS-DR7 (MPK), the WMAP7 temperature and polarization spectra, the baryon acoustic oscillations from Two-Degree Field and SDSS-DR7, and the Union2 compilation of type Ia supernovae, in addition to other bounds from Hubble parameter measurements and big bang nucleosynthesis. We use three parametrizations of MG parameters that enter the perturbed field equations. In order to allow for variations of the parameters with the redshift and scale, the first two parametrizations use recently suggested functional forms while the third is based on binning methods. Using the first parametrization, we find that the CMB+ISW+WL combination provides the strongest constraints on the MG parameters followed by CMB+WL or CMB+MPK+ISW. Using the second parametrization or the binning methods, we find that the combination CMB+MPK+ISW consistently provides some of the strongest constraints. This shows that the constraints are parametrization dependent. We find that adding up current data sets does not improve consistently the uncertainties on MG parameters due to tensions between the best-fit MG parameters preferred by different data sets. Furthermore, some functional forms imposed by the parametrizations can lead to an exacerbation of these tensions. Next, unlike some studies that used the CFHTLS lensing data, we do not find any deviation from general relativity using the refined HST-COSMOS data, confirming previous claims in those studies that their result may have been due to some
Hemispherical power asymmetry from scale-dependent modulated reheating
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McDonald, John
2013-01-01
We propose a new model for the hemispherical power asymmetry of the CMB based on modulated reheating. Non-Gaussianity from modulated reheating can be small enough to satisfy the bound from Planck if the dominant modulation of the inflaton decay rate is linear in the modulating field σ. σ must then acquire a spatially-modulated power spectrum with a red scale-dependence. This can be achieved if the primordial perturbation of σ is generated via tachyonic growth of a complex scalar field. Modulated reheating due to σ then produces a spatially modulated and scale-dependent sub-dominant contribution to the adiabatic density perturbation. We show that it is possible to account for the observed asymmetry while remaining consistent with bounds from quasar number counts, non-Gaussianity and the CMB temperature quadupole. The model predicts that the adiabatic perturbation spectral index and its running will be modified by the modulated reheating component
Bias of damped Lyman-α systems from their cross-correlation with CMB lensing
Alonso, D.; Colosimo, J.; Font-Ribera, A.; Slosar, A.
2018-04-01
We cross-correlate the positions of damped Lyman-α systems (DLAs) and their parent quasar catalog with a convergence map derived from the Planck cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature data. We make consistent measurements of the lensing signal of both samples in both Fourier and configuration space. By interpreting the excess signal present in the DLA catalog with respect to the parent quasar catalog as caused by the large scale structure traced by DLAs, we are able to infer the bias of these objects: bDLA=2.6±0.9. These results are consistent with previous measurements made in cross-correlation with the Lyman-α forest, although the current noise in the lensing data and the low number density of DLAs limits the constraining power of this measurement. We discuss the robustness of the analysis with respect to a number different systematic effects and forecast prospects of carrying out this measurement with data from future experiments.
Dark Energy Constraints from the Thermal Sunyaev Zeldovich Power Spectrum
Bolliet, Boris; Comis, Barbara; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Macías-Pérez, Juan Francisco
2018-03-01
We constrain the dark energy equation of state parameter, w, using the power spectrum of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) effect. We improve upon previous analyses by taking into account the trispectrum in the covariance matrix and marginalising over the foreground parameters, the correlated noise, the mass bias B in the Planck universal pressure profile, and all the relevant cosmological parameters (i.e., not just Ωm and σ8). We find that the amplitude of the tSZ power spectrum at ℓ ≲ 103 depends primarily on F ≡ σ8(Ωm/B)0.40h-0.21, where B is related to more commonly used variable b by B = (1 - b)-1. We measure this parameter with 2.6% precision, F = 0.460 ± 0.012 (68% CL). By fixing the bias to B = 1.25 and adding the local determination of the Hubble constant H0 and the amplitude of the primordial power spectrum constrained by the Planck Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data, we find w = -1.10 ± 0.12, σ8 = 0.802 ± 0.037, and Ωm = 0.265 ± 0.022 (68% CL). Our limit on w is consistent with and is as tight as that from the distance-alone constraint from the CMB and H0. Finally, by combining the tSZ power spectrum and the CMB data we find, in the Λ Cold Dark Matter (CDM) model, the mass bias of B = 1.71 ± 0.17, i.e., 1 - b = 0.58 ± 0.06 (68% CL).
Cosmological birefringence constraints from CMB and astrophysical polarization data
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Galaverni, M. [Studio Teologico Interdiocesano, V.le Timavo 93, Reggio Emilia, 42121 Italy (Italy); Gubitosi, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica and sez. Roma1 INFN, Università di Roma ' La Sapienza' , P.le A. Moro 2, Rome, 00185 Italy (Italy); Paci, F. [SISSA, Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Via Bonomea 265, Trieste, 34136 Italy (Italy); Finelli, F., E-mail: matteo.galaverni@gmail.com, E-mail: giulia.gubitosi@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: fpaci@sissa.it, E-mail: finelli@iasfbo.inaf.it [INAF-IASF Bologna, via Gobetti 101, Bologna, I-40129 Italy (Italy)
2015-08-01
Cosmological birefringence is a rotation of the polarization plane of photons coming from sources of astrophysical and cosmological origin. The rotation can also depend on the energy of the photons and not only on the distance of the source and on the cosmological evolution of the underlying theoretical model. In this work, we constrain few selected models for cosmological birefringence, combining CMB and astrophysical data at radio, optical, X and γ wavelengths, taking into account the specific energy and distance dependences.
Weak lensing of the cosmic microwave background: Power spectrum covariance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cooray, Asantha
2002-01-01
We discuss the non-Gaussian contribution to the power spectrum covariance of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies resulting through weak gravitational lensing angular deflections and the correlation of deflections with secondary sources of temperature fluctuations generated by the large scale structure, such as the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. This additional contribution to the covariance of binned angular power spectrum, beyond the well known cosmic variance and any associated instrumental noise, results from a trispectrum, or a four point correlation function, in temperature anisotropy data. With substantially wide bins in multipole space, the resulting non-Gaussian contribution from lensing to the binned power spectrum variance is insignificant out to multipoles of a few thousand and is not likely to affect the cosmological parameter estimation with acoustic peaks and the damping tail. The non-Gaussian contribution to covariance, however, should be considered when interpreting binned CMB power spectrum measurements at multipoles of a few thousand corresponding to angular scales of few arcminutes and less
Using the full power of the cosmic microwave background to probe axion dark matter
Hložek, Renée; Marsh, David J. E.; Grin, Daniel
2018-05-01
The cosmic microwave background (CMB) places stringent constraints on models of dark matter (DM), and on the initial conditions of the Universe. The full Planck data set is used to test the possibility that some fraction of the DM is composed of ultralight axions (ULAs). This represents the first use of CMB lensing to test the ULA model. We find no evidence for a ULA component in the mass range 10-33 ≤ ma ≤ 10-24 eV. We put percent-level constraints on the ULA contribution to the DM, improving by up to a factor of two compared using temperature anisotropies alone. Axion DM also provides a low-energy window on to the physics of inflation through isocurvature perturbations. We perform the first systematic investigation into the parameter space of ULA isocurvature, using an accurate isocurvature transfer function at all ma values. We precisely identify a `window of co-existence' for 10-25 eV ≤ ma ≤ 10-24 eV where the data allow, simultaneously, a {˜ }10 {per cent} contribution of ULAs to the DM, and {˜ } 1 {per cent} contributions of isocurvature and tensor modes to the CMB power. ULAs in this window (and all lighter ULAs) are shown to be consistent with a large inflationary Hubble parameter, HI ˜ 1014 GeV. The window of co-existence will be fully probed by proposed CMB Stage-IV observations with increased accuracy in the high-ℓ lensing power and low-ℓ E- and B-mode polarizations. If ULAs in the window exist, this could allow for two independent measurements of HI in the CMB using isocurvature, and the tensor contribution to B modes.
An analytical approach to the CMB polarization in a spatially closed background
Niazy, Pedram; Abbassi, Amir H.
2018-03-01
The scalar mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background is derived in a spatially closed universe from the Boltzmann equation using the line of sight integral method. The EE and TE multipole coefficients have been extracted analytically by considering some tolerable approximations such as considering the evolution of perturbation hydrodynamically and sudden transition from opacity to transparency at the time of last scattering. As the major advantage of analytic expressions, CEE,ℓS and CTE,ℓ explicitly show the dependencies on baryon density ΩB, matter density ΩM, curvature ΩK, primordial spectral index ns, primordial power spectrum amplitude As, Optical depth τreion, recombination width σt and recombination time tL. Using a realistic set of cosmological parameters taken from a fit to data from Planck, the closed universe EE and TE power spectrums in the scalar mode are compared with numerical results from the CAMB code and also latest observational data. The analytic results agree with the numerical ones on the big and moderate scales. The peak positions are in good agreement with the numerical result on these scales while the peak heights agree with that to within 20% due to the approximations have been considered for these derivations. Also, several interesting properties of CMB polarization are revealed by the analytic spectra.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Raghunathan, Srinivasan; Patil, Sanjaykumar; Bianchini, Federico; Reichardt, Christian L. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, 313 David Caro building, Swanston St and Tin Alley, Parkville VIC 3010 (Australia); Baxter, Eric J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 S. 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Bleem, Lindsey E. [Argonne National Laboratory, High-Energy Physics Division, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Crawford, Thomas M. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Holder, Gilbert P. [Department of Astronomy and Department of Physics, University of Illinois, 1002 West Green St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Manzotti, Alessandro, E-mail: srinivasan.raghunathan@unimelb.edu.au, E-mail: s.patil2@student.unimelb.edu.au, E-mail: ebax@sas.upenn.edu, E-mail: federico.bianchini@unimelb.edu.au, E-mail: bleeml@uchicago.edu, E-mail: tcrawfor@kicp.uchicago.edu, E-mail: gholder@illinois.edu, E-mail: manzotti@uchicago.edu, E-mail: christian.reichardt@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)
2017-08-01
We develop a Maximum Likelihood estimator (MLE) to measure the masses of galaxy clusters through the impact of gravitational lensing on the temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We show that, at low noise levels in temperature, this optimal estimator outperforms the standard quadratic estimator by a factor of two. For polarization, we show that the Stokes Q/U maps can be used instead of the traditional E- and B-mode maps without losing information. We test and quantify the bias in the recovered lensing mass for a comprehensive list of potential systematic errors. Using realistic simulations, we examine the cluster mass uncertainties from CMB-cluster lensing as a function of an experiment's beam size and noise level. We predict the cluster mass uncertainties will be 3 - 6% for SPT-3G, AdvACT, and Simons Array experiments with 10,000 clusters and less than 1% for the CMB-S4 experiment with a sample containing 100,000 clusters. The mass constraints from CMB polarization are very sensitive to the experimental beam size and map noise level: for a factor of three reduction in either the beam size or noise level, the lensing signal-to-noise improves by roughly a factor of two.
SU(2)CMB at high redshifts and the value of H0
Hahn, Steffen; Hofmann, Ralf
2017-07-01
We investigate a high-z cosmological model to compute the comoving sound horizon rs at baryon-velocity freeze-out towards the end of hydrogen recombination. This model assumes a replacement of the conventional cosmic microwave background (CMB) photon gas by deconfining SU(2) Yang-Mills thermodynamics, three flavours of massless neutrinos (Nν = 3) and a purely baryonic matter sector [no cold dark-matter (CDM)]. The according SU(2) temperature-redshift relation of the CMB is contrasted with recent measurements appealing to the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect and CMB-photon absorption by molecular rotation bands or atomic hyperfine levels. Relying on a realistic simulation of the ionization history throughout recombination, we obtain z* = 1693.55 ± 6.98 and zdrag = 1812.66 ± 7.01. Due to considerable widths of the visibility functions in the solutions to the associated Boltzmann hierarchy and Euler equation, we conclude that z* and zdrag overestimate the redshifts for the respective photon and baryon-velocity freeze-out. Realistic decoupling values turn out to be zlf,* = 1554.89 ± 5.18 and zlf, drag = 1659.30 ± 5.48. With rs(zlf, drag) = (137.19 ± 0.45) Mpc and the essentially model independent extraction of rsH0 = constant from low-z data in Bernal, Verde & Riess, we obtain a good match with the value H0 = (73.24 ± 1.74) km s-1 Mpc-1 extracted in Riess et al. by appealing to Cepheid-calibrated Type Ia supernovae, new parallax measurements, stronger constraints on the Hubble flow and a refined computation of distance to NGC 4258 from maser data. We briefly comment on a possible interpolation of our high-z model, invoking percolated and unpercolated U(1) topological solitons of a Planck-scale axion field, to the phenomenologically successful low-z ΛCDM cosmology.
Origin of ΔNeff as a result of an interaction between dark radiation and dark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bjaelde, Ole Eggers; Das, Subinoy; Moss, Adam
2012-01-01
Results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) and recently from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) have indicated the possible existence of an extra radiation component in addition to the well known three neutrino species predicted by the Standard Model of particle physics. In this paper, we explore the possibility of the apparent extra dark radiation being linked directly to the physics of cold dark matter (CDM). In particular, we consider a generic scenario where dark radiation, as a result of an interaction, is produced directly by a fraction of the dark matter density effectively decaying into dark radiation. At an early epoch when the dark matter density is negligible, as an obvious consequence, the density of dark radiation is also very small. As the Universe approaches matter radiation equality, the dark matter density starts to dominate thereby increasing the content of dark radiation and changing the expansion rate of the Universe. As this increase in dark radiation content happens naturally after Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN), it can relax the possible tension with lower values of radiation degrees of freedom measured from light element abundances compared to that of the CMB. We numerically confront this scenario with WMAP+ACT and WMAP+SPT data and derive an upper limit on the allowed fraction of dark matter decaying into dark radiation
Planck 2013 results. XXVII. Doppler boosting of the CMB: Eppur si muove
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Planck Collaboration,; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.
2013-01-01
Our velocity relative to the rest frame of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) generates a dipole temperature anisotropy on the sky whichhas been well measured for more than 30 years, and has an accepted amplitude of v/c = 1.23 x 10-3, or v = 369 km-1. In addition to thissignal generated by Dop...
Planck 2015 results: VIII. High Frequency Instrument data processing: Calibration and maps
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Adam, R.; Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.
2016-01-01
This paper describes the processing applied to the cleaned, time-ordered information obtained from the Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) with the aim of producing photometrically calibrated maps in temperature and (for the first time) in polarization. The data from the entire 2.5-year HFI....... Using a CMB temperature of TCMB = 2.7255 ± 0.0006 K, it permits an independent measurement of the amplitude of the CMB solar dipole (3364.3 ± 1.5 μK), which is approximatively 1σ higher than the WMAP measurement with a direction that is consistent between the two experiments. We describe the pipeline...... used to produce the maps ofintensity and linear polarization from the HFI timelines, and the scheme used to set the zero level of the maps a posteriori. We also summarize the noise characteristics of the HFI maps in the 2015 Planck data release and present some null tests to assess their quality...
Planck 2015 results. X. Diffuse component separation: Foreground maps
Adam, R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M.I.R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Orlando, E.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G.W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Strong, A.W.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.
2016-01-01
Planck has mapped the microwave sky in nine frequency bands between 30 and 857 GHz in temperature and seven bands between 30 and 353 GHz in polarization. In this paper we consider the problem of diffuse astrophysical component separation, and process these maps within a Bayesian framework to derive a consistent set of full-sky astrophysical component maps. For the temperature analysis, we combine the Planck observations with the 9-year WMAP sky maps and the Haslam et al. 408 MHz map to derive a joint model of CMB, synchrotron, free-free, spinning dust, CO, line emission in the 94 and 100 GHz channels, and thermal dust emission. Full-sky maps are provided with angular resolutions varying between 7.5 arcmin and 1 deg. Global parameters (monopoles, dipoles, relative calibration, and bandpass errors) are fitted jointly with the sky model, and best-fit values are tabulated. For polarization, the model includes CMB, synchrotron, and thermal dust emission. These models provide excellent fits to the observed data, wi...
The Status of Cosmic Topology after Planck Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jean-Pierre Luminet
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In the last decade, the study of the overall shape of the universe, called Cosmic Topology, has become testable by astronomical observations, especially the data from the Cosmic Microwave Background (hereafter CMB obtained by WMAP and Planck telescopes. Cosmic Topology involves both global topological features and more local geometrical properties such as curvature. It deals with questions such as whether space is finite or infinite, simply-connected or multi-connected, and smaller or greater than its observable counterpart. A striking feature of some relativistic, multi-connected small universe models is to create multiples images of faraway cosmic sources. While the last CMB (Planck data fit well the simplest model of a zero-curvature, infinite space model, they remain consistent with more complex shapes such as the spherical Poincaré Dodecahedral Space, the flat hypertorus or the hyperbolic Picard horn. We review the theoretical and observational status of the field.
II José Plínio Baptista School of Cosmology
Piattella, Oliver; Rodrigues, Davi; Velten, Hermano; Zimdahl, Winfried
2016-01-01
The series of texts composing this book is based on the lectures presented during the II José Plínio Baptista School of Cosmology, held in Pedra Azul (Espírito Santo, Brazil) between 9 and 14 March 2014. This II JBPCosmo has been entirely devoted to the problem of understanding theoretical and observational aspects of Cosmic Background Radiation (CMB). The CMB is one of the most important phenomena in Physics and a fundamental probe of our Universe when it was only 400,000 years old. It is an extraordinary laboratory where we can learn from particle physics to cosmology; its discovery in 1965 has been a landmark event in the history of physics. The observations of the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation through the satellites COBE, WMAP and Planck provided a huge amount of data which are being analyzed in order to discover important information regarding the composition of our universe and the process of structure formation.
Higgs boson, renormalization group, and naturalness in cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barvinsky, A.O.; Kamenshchik, A.Yu.; Kiefer, C.; Starobinsky, A.A.; Steinwachs, C.F.
2012-01-01
We consider the renormalization group improvement in the theory of the Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson playing the role of an inflaton with a strong non-minimal coupling to gravity. At the one-loop level with the running of constants taken into account, it leads to a range of the Higgs mass that is entirely determined by the lower WMAP bound on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) spectral index. We find that the SM phenomenology is sensitive to current cosmological data, which suggests to perform more precise CMB measurements as a SM test complementary to the LHC program. By using the concept of a field-dependent cutoff, we show the naturalness of the gradient and curvature expansion in this model within the conventional perturbation theory range of the SM. We also discuss the relation of these results to two-loop calculations and the limitations of the latter caused by parametrization and gauge dependence problems. (orig.)
Black-body anomaly: analysis of temperature offsets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Szopa, M.; Hofmann, R.; Schwarz, M.; Giacosa, F.
2008-01-01
Based on the postulate that photon propagation is governed by a dynamically broken SU(2) gauge symmetry (scale ∝10 -4 eV) we make predictions for temperature offsets due to a low-temperature (a few times the present CMB temperature) spectral anomaly at low frequencies. Temperature offsets are extracted from least-square fits of the anomalous black-body spectra to their conventional counterparts. We discuss statistical errors, compare our results with those obtained from calibration data of the FIRAS instrument, and point out that our predicted offsets are screened by experimental errors given the frequency range used by FIRAS to perform their spectral fits. We also make contact with the WMAP observation by blueshifting their frequency bands. Although our results hint towards a strong dynamical component in the CMB dipole and an explanation of low-l suppression, it is important in view of its particle-physics implications that the above postulate be verified/falsified by an independent low-temperature black-body precision experiment. (orig.)
Lee, Jeffrey S; Cleaver, Gerald B
2017-10-01
In this note, the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Radiation is shown to be capable of functioning as a Random Bit Generator, and constitutes an effectively infinite supply of truly random one-time pad values of arbitrary length. It is further argued that the CMB power spectrum potentially conforms to the FIPS 140-2 standard. Additionally, its applicability to the generation of a (n × n) random key matrix for a Vernam cipher is established.
New constraints on variations of the fine structure constant from CMB anisotropies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menegoni, Eloisa; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Galli, Silvia; Bartlett, James G.; Martins, C. J. A. P.
2009-01-01
We demonstrate that recent measurements of cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization anisotropy made by the ACBAR, QUAD, and BICEP experiments substantially improve the cosmological constraints on possible variations of the fine structure constant in the early universe. This data, combined with the five year observations from the WMAP mission, yield the constraint α/α 0 =0.987±0.012 at 68% C.L. The inclusion of the new Hubble Space Telescope constraints on the Hubble constant further increases the accuracy to α/α 0 =1.001±0.007 at 68% C.L., bringing possible deviations from the current value below the 1% level and improving previous constraints by a factor of ∼3.
What will we learn from the CMB?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dodelson, S.
1997-10-01
Within the next decade, experiments measuring the anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) will add greatly to our knowledge of the universe. There are dozens of experiments scheduled to take data over the next several years, capped by the satellite missions of NASA (MAP) and ESA (PLANCK). What will we learn from these experiments? I argue that the potential pay-off is immense: We are quite likely to determine cosmological parameters to unprecedented accuracy. This will provide key information about the theory of structure formation and even about the physics behind inflation. If the experiments succeed, can anything spoil this pay-off? I focus on three possible spoilers - foregrounds, reionization, and defect models - and argue that we have every reason to be optimistic
Confronting hybrid inflation in supergravity with CMB data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeannerot, Rachel; Postma, Marieke
2005-01-01
F-term GUT inflation coupled to N = 1 supergravity is confronted with CMB data. Corrections to the string mass-per-unit-length away from the Bogomolny limit are taken into account. We find that a superpotential coupling 10 -7 /N∼ -2 /N, with N the dimension of the Higgs-representation, is still compatible with the data. The parameter space is enlarged in warm inflation, as well as in the curvaton and inhomogeneous reheat scenario. F-strings formed at the end of P-term inflation are also considered. Because these strings satisfy the Bogomolny bound the bounds are stronger: the gauge coupling is constrained to the range 10 -7 -4
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Simard, G.; et al.
2017-12-20
We report constraints on cosmological parameters from the angular power spectrum of a cosmic microwave background (CMB) gravitational lensing potential map created using temperature data from 2500 deg$^2$ of South Pole Telescope (SPT) data supplemented with data from Planck in the same sky region, with the statistical power in the combined map primarily from the SPT data. We fit the corresponding lensing angular power spectrum to a model including cold dark matter and a cosmological constant ($\\Lambda$CDM), and to models with single-parameter extensions to $\\Lambda$CDM. We find constraints that are comparable to and consistent with constraints found using the full-sky Planck CMB lensing data. Specifically, we find $\\sigma_8 \\Omega_{\\rm m}^{0.25}=0.598 \\pm 0.024$ from the lensing data alone with relatively weak priors placed on the other $\\Lambda$CDM parameters. In combination with primary CMB data from Planck, we explore single-parameter extensions to the $\\Lambda$CDM model. We find $\\Omega_k = -0.012^{+0.021}_{-0.023}$ or $M_{\
Cosmic Topology: Studying The Shape And Size Of Our Universe
Yzaguirre, Amelia; Hajian, A.
2010-01-01
The question of the size and the shape of our universe is a very old problem that has received considerable attention over the past few years. The simplest cosmological model predicts that the mean density of the universe is very close to the critical density, admitting a local geometry of the universe that is flat. Current results from different cosmological observations confirm this to the percent level accuracy. General Relativity (being a local theory) only determines local geometry, which allows for the possibility of a multiply connected universe with a zero (or small) curvature. To study the global shape, or topology, of the universe, one can use cosmological observations on large scales. In this project we investigate the possibility of a ``small universe'', that is, a compact finite space, by searching for planar symmetries in the CMB anisotropy maps provided by the five-year WMAP observations in two foreground cleaned maps (WMAP ILC map and the Tegmark, et al. (TOH) map ). Our results strongly suggest that the small universe model is not a viable topology for the universe.
The Role of the CMB in Redshift Related Departures from the Gao–Solomon Relation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tunnard, R.; Greve, T. R., E-mail: richard.tunnard.13@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)
2017-11-01
A strong correlation between the far-IR and HCN(1−0) line luminosities, known as the Gao–Solomon relation, has been observed to hold over more than 10 orders of magnitude in the local universe. Departures from this relation at redshifts ≳1.5 have been interpreted as evidence for increased dense gas star formation efficiency in luminous galaxies during the period of peak of star formation in the history of the universe. We examine whether the offsets from the relation can be explained by the hotter Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at high redshift, which, due to a loss of contrast against the hotter background, reduces the observable molecular-line flux far more significantly than the far-IR continuum bands. Simple line-of-sight modeling argues for highly significant departures from the Gao–Solomon relation at high redshift for kinetic temperatures ∼15 K, while more complex toy-galaxy models based on NGC 1068 suggest a much weaker effect with the galaxy integrated HCN line flux falling by only 10% at z = 3, within the intrinsic scatter of the relation. We conclude that, while the CMB is unlikely to explain the deviations reported in the literature, it may introduce a second-order effect on the relation by raising the low-luminosity end of the Gao–Solomon relation in cooler galaxies. A similar examination of the CO-IR relation finds tantalizing signs of the CMB having a measurable effect on the integrated CO emission in high-redshift galaxies, but these signs cannot be confirmed with the current data.
The Role of the CMB in Redshift Related Departures from the Gao–Solomon Relation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tunnard, R.; Greve, T. R.
2017-01-01
A strong correlation between the far-IR and HCN(1−0) line luminosities, known as the Gao–Solomon relation, has been observed to hold over more than 10 orders of magnitude in the local universe. Departures from this relation at redshifts ≳1.5 have been interpreted as evidence for increased dense gas star formation efficiency in luminous galaxies during the period of peak of star formation in the history of the universe. We examine whether the offsets from the relation can be explained by the hotter Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at high redshift, which, due to a loss of contrast against the hotter background, reduces the observable molecular-line flux far more significantly than the far-IR continuum bands. Simple line-of-sight modeling argues for highly significant departures from the Gao–Solomon relation at high redshift for kinetic temperatures ∼15 K, while more complex toy-galaxy models based on NGC 1068 suggest a much weaker effect with the galaxy integrated HCN line flux falling by only 10% at z = 3, within the intrinsic scatter of the relation. We conclude that, while the CMB is unlikely to explain the deviations reported in the literature, it may introduce a second-order effect on the relation by raising the low-luminosity end of the Gao–Solomon relation in cooler galaxies. A similar examination of the CO-IR relation finds tantalizing signs of the CMB having a measurable effect on the integrated CO emission in high-redshift galaxies, but these signs cannot be confirmed with the current data.
Spider: Probing the Early Universe with a Large-Scale CMB Polarization Survey
Jones, William
The standard dark-matter and dark-energy dominated cosmological model (LCDM) has proven to be remarkably successful in describing the current state and past evolution of the Universe. However, there remain significant uncertainties regarding the physical mechanisms that established the initial conditions upon which the LCDM predictions rely. Theories of cosmic genesis - the extremely high energy mechanisms that established these conditions - should be expected to provide a natural description of the nearly flat geometry of the Universe, the existence of super-horizon density correlations, and the adiabatic, Gaussian and nearly scale-invariant nature of the observed primordial density perturbations. The primary objective of Spider is to subject models of the early Universe to observational test, probing fundamental physics at energy scales far beyond the reach of terrestrial particle accelerators. The main scientific result will be to characterize, or place stringent upper limits on the level of the odd-parity polarization of the CMB. In the context of the inflationary paradigm, Spider will confirm or exclude the predictions of the simplest single-field inflationary models near the Lyth bound, characterized by tensor to scalar ratios r 0.03. While viable alternatives to the inflationary paradigm are an active and important area of investigation, including string cosmologies and cyclic models, early Universe models described by inflationary periods are now widely accepted as the underlying cause behind much of what we observe in cosmology today. Nevertheless, we know very little about the mechanism that would drive inflation or the energy scale at which it occurred, and the paradigm faces significant questions about the viability of the framework as a scientific theory. Fortunately, inflationary paradigms and alternative theories offer distinct predictions regarding the statistical properties of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation. Spider will use measurements
Correlated mixture between adiabatic and isocurvature fluctuations and recent CMB observations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrade, Ana Paula A.; Wuensche, Carlos Alexandre; Ribeiro, Andre Luis Batista
2005-01-01
This work presents a reduced χ ν 2 test to search for non-Gaussian signals in the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) TT power spectrum of recent CMBR data, Wilkinson Anisotropy Microwave Probe, Arcminute Cosmology Bolometer Array Receiver, and Cosmic Background Imager data sets, assuming a mixed density field including adiabatic and isocurvature fluctuations. We assume a skew positive mixed model with adiabatic inflation perturbations plus additional isocurvature perturbations possibly produced by topological defects. The joint probability distribution used in this context is a weighted combination of Gaussian and non-Gaussian random fields. Results from simulations of CMBR temperature for the mixed field show a distinct signature in CMB power spectrum for very small deviations (∼0.1%) from a pure Gaussian field, and can be used as a direct test for the nature of primordial fluctuations. A reduced χ ν 2 test applied on the most recent CMBR observations reveals that an isocurvature fluctuations field is not ruled out and indeed permits a very good description for a flat geometry Λ-CDM Universe, χ 930 2 ∼1.5, rather than the simple inflationary standard model with χ 930 2 ∼2.3. This result may looks is particular discrepant with the reduced χ 2 of 1.07 obtained with the same model in Spergel et al. [Astrophys. J. 148, 175 (2003)] for temperature only, however, our work is restricted to a region of the parameter space that does not include the best fit model for TT only of Spergel et al.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Le; Chen Xuelei; Lei Yian; Si Zongguo
2006-01-01
The recombination history of the Universe provides a useful tool for constraining the annihilation of dark matter particles. Even a small fraction of dark matter particles annihilated during the cosmic dark age can provide sufficient energy to affect the ionization state of the baryonic gas. Although this effect is too small for neutralinos, lighter dark matter particle candidates, e.g. with mass of 1-100 MeV, which was proposed recently to explain the observed excess of positrons in the galactic center, may generate observable differences in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropies. The annihilations at the era of recombination affects mainly the CMB anisotropy at small angular scales (large l), and is distinctively different from the effect of early reionization. We perform a multiparameter analysis of the CMB data, including both the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) first year and three year data, and the ACBAR, Boomerang, CBI, and VSA data. Assuming that the observed excess of e + e - pairs in the galactic center region is produced by dark matter annihilation, and that a sizable fraction of the energy produced in the annihilation is deposited in the baryonic gas during recombination, we obtain a 95% dark matter mass limit of M<8 MeV with the current data set
Iida, T.; Sakurai, Y.; Matsumura, T.; Sugai, H.; Imada, H.; Kataza, H.; Ohsaki, H.; Hazumi, M.; Katayama, N.; Yamamoto, R.; Utsunomiya, S.; Terao, Y.
2017-12-01
We report a thermal analysis of a polarization modulator unit (PMU) for use in a space-borne cosmic microwave background (CMB) project. A measurement of the CMB polarization allows us to probe the physics of early universe, and that is the best method to test the cosmic inflation experimentally. One of the key instruments for this science is to use a halfwave plate (HWP) based polarization modulator. The HWP is required to rotate continuously at about 1 Hz below 10 K to minimize its own thermal emission to a detector system. The rotating HWP system at the cryogenic environment can be realized by using a superconducting magnetic bearing (SMB) without significant heat dissipation by mechanical friction. While the SMB achieves the smooth rotation due to the contactless bearing, an estimation of a levitating HWP temperature becomes a challenge. We manufactured a one-eighth scale prototype model of PMU and built a thermal model. We verified our thermal model with the experimental data. We forecasted the projected thermal performance of PMU for a full-scale model based on the thermal model. From this analysis, we discuss the design requirement toward constructing the full-scale model for use in a space environment such as a future CMB satellite mission, LiteBIRD.
Cosmological constraint on the light gravitino mass from CMB lensing and cosmic shear
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Osato, Ken; Yoshida, Naoki [Department of Physics, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Sekiguchi, Toyokazu [University of Helsinki and Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014, Helsinki (Finland); Shirasaki, Masato [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Kamada, Ayuki, E-mail: ken.osato@utap.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: toyokazu.sekiguchi@gmail.com, E-mail: masato.shirasaki@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: ayuki.kamada@ucr.edu, E-mail: naoki.yoshida@phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)
2016-06-01
Light gravitinos of mass ∼< O (10) eV are of particular interest in cosmology, offering various baryogenesis scenarios without suffering from the cosmological gravitino problem. The gravitino may contribute considerably to the total matter content of the Universe and affect structure formation from early to present epochs. After the gravitinos decouple from other particles in the early Universe, they free-stream and consequently suppress density fluctuations of (sub-)galactic length scales. Observations of structure at the relevant length-scales can be used to infer or constrain the mass and the abundance of light gravitinos. We derive constraints on the light gravitino mass using the data of cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing from Planck and of cosmic shear from the Canada France Hawaii Lensing Survey survey, combined with analyses of the primary CMB anisotropies and the signature of baryon acoustic oscillations in galaxy distributions. The obtained constraint on the gravitino mass is m {sub 3/2} < 4.7 eV (95 % C.L.), which is substantially tighter than the previous constraint from clustering analysis of Ly-α forests.
Constraints on reconstructed dark energy model from SN Ia and BAO/CMB observations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mamon, Abdulla Al [Manipal University, Manipal Centre for Natural Sciences, Manipal (India); Visva-Bharati, Department of Physics, Santiniketan (India); Bamba, Kazuharu [Fukushima University, Division of Human Support System, Faculty of Symbiotic Systems Science, Fukushima (Japan); Das, Sudipta [Visva-Bharati, Department of Physics, Santiniketan (India)
2017-01-15
The motivation of the present work is to reconstruct a dark energy model through the dimensionless dark energy function X(z), which is the dark energy density in units of its present value. In this paper, we have shown that a scalar field φ having a phenomenologically chosen X(z) can give rise to a transition from a decelerated to an accelerated phase of expansion for the universe. We have examined the possibility of constraining various cosmological parameters (such as the deceleration parameter and the effective equation of state parameter) by comparing our theoretical model with the latest Type Ia Supernova (SN Ia), Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) and Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation observations. Using the joint analysis of the SN Ia+BAO/CMB dataset, we have also reconstructed the scalar potential from the parametrized X(z). The relevant potential is found, a polynomial in φ. From our analysis, it has been found that the present model favors the standard ΛCDM model within 1σ confidence level. (orig.)
Hasselfield, Matthew; Moodley, Kavilan; Bond, J. Richard; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; Dunkley, Joanna; Dunner, Rolando; Fowler, Joseph W.; Gallardo, Patricio; Gralla, Megan B.;
2013-01-01
We describe the measurement of the beam profiles and window functions for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), which operated from 2007 to 2010 with kilopixel bolometer arrays centered at 148, 218, and 277 GHz. Maps of Saturn are used to measure the beam shape in each array and for each season of observations. Radial profiles are transformed to Fourier space in a way that preserves the spatial correlations in the beam uncertainty to derive window functions relevant for angular power spectrum analysis. Several corrections are applied to the resulting beam transforms, including an empirical correction measured from the final cosmic microwave background (CMB) survey maps to account for the effects of mild pointing variation and alignment errors. Observations of Uranus made regularly throughout each observing season are used to measure the effects of atmospheric opacity and to monitor deviations in telescope focus over the season. Using the WMAP-based calibration of the ACT maps to the CMB blackbody, we obtain precise measurements of the brightness temperatures of the Uranus and Saturn disks at effective frequencies of 149 and 219 GHz. For Uranus we obtain thermodynamic brightness temperatures T(149/U) = 106.7 +/- 2.2 K and T(219/U) = 100.1 +/- 3.1 K. For Saturn, we model the effects of the ring opacity and emission using a simple model and obtain resulting (unobscured) disk temperatures of T(149/S) = 137.3 +/- 3.2 K and T(219/S) = 137.3 +/- 4.7 K.
Beyond y and μ: the shape of the CMB spectral distortions in the intermediate epoch, 1.5 × 104∼5
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khatri, Rishi; Sunyaev, Rashid A.
2012-01-01
We calculate numerical solutions and analytic approximations for the intermediate-type spectral distortions. Detection of a μ-type distortion (saturated comptonization) in the CMB will constrain the time of energy injection to be at a redshift 2 × 10 6 ∼>z∼>2 × 10 5 , while a detection of a y-type distortion (minimal comptonization) will mean that there was heating of CMB at redshift z∼ 4 . We point out that the partially comptonized spectral distortions, generated in the redshift range 1.5 × 10 4 ∼ 5 , are much richer in information than the pure y and μ-type distortions. The spectrum created during this period is intermediate between y and μ-type distortions and depends sensitively on the redshift of energy injection. These intermediate-type distortions cannot be mimicked by a mixture of y and μ-type distortions at all frequencies and vice versa. The measurement of these intermediate-type CMB spectral distortions has the possibility to constrain precisely not only the amount of energy release in the early Universe but also the mechanism, for example, particle annihilation and Silk damping can be distinguished from particle decay. The intermediate-type distortion templates and software code using these templates to calculate the CMB spectral distortions for user-defined energy injection rate is made publicly available
Mauskopf, P D; De Bernardis, P; Bock, J J; Borrill, J; Boscaleri, A; Crill, B P; De Gasperis, G; De Troia, G; Farese, P; Ferreira, P G; Ganga, K; Giacometti, M; Hanany, S; Hristov, V V; Iacoangeli, A; Jaffe, A H; Lange, A E; Lee, A T; Masi, S; Melchiorri, A; Melchiorri, F; Miglio, L; Montroy, T; Netterfield, C B; Pascale, E; Piacentini, F; Richards, P L; Romeo, G; Ruhl, J E; Scannapieco, E S; Scaramuzzi, F; Stompor, R; Vittorio, N
2000-01-01
We describe a measurement of the angular power spectrum of anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) from 0.3 degrees to ~10 degrees from the North American test flight of the BOOMERANG experiment. BOOMERANG is a balloon-borne telescope with a bolometric receiver designed to map CMB anisotropies on a Long Duration Balloon flight. During a 6-hour test flight of a prototype system in 1997, we mapped > 200 square degrees at high galactic latitudes in two bands centered at 90 and 150 GHz with a resolution of 26 and 16.6 arcmin FWHM respectively. Analysis of the maps gives a power spectrum with a peak at angular scales of ~1 degree with an amplitude ~70 uK.
Hartle-Hawking wave function and large-scale power suppression of CMB*
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yeom Dong-han
2018-01-01
Full Text Available In this presentation, we first describe the Hartle-Hawking wave function in the Euclidean path integral approach. After we introduce perturbations to the background instanton solution, following the formalism developed by Halliwell-Hawking and Laflamme, one can obtain the scale-invariant power spectrum for small-scales. We further emphasize that the Hartle-Hawking wave function can explain the large-scale power suppression by choosing suitable potential parameters, where this will be a possible window to confirm or falsify models of quantum cosmology. Finally, we further comment on possible future applications, e.g., Euclidean wormholes, which can result in distinct signatures to the power spectrum.
arXiv Neutrino masses and cosmology with Lyman-alpha forest power spectrum
Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Baur, Julien; Magneville, Christophe; Rossi, Graziano; Lesgourgues, Julien; Borde, Arnaud; Burtin, Etienne; LeGoff, Jean-Marc; Rich, James; Viel, Matteo; Weinberg, David
2015-11-06
We present constraints on neutrino masses, the primordial fluctuation spectrum from inflation, and other parameters of the $\\Lambda$CDM model, using the one-dimensional Ly$\\alpha$-forest power spectrum measured by Palanque-Delabrouille et al. (2013) from SDSS-III/BOSS, complemented by Planck 2015 cosmic microwave background (CMB) data and other cosmological probes. This paper improves on the previous analysis by Palanque-Delabrouille et al. (2015) by using a more powerful set of calibrating hydrodynamical simulations that reduces uncertainties associated with resolution and box size, by adopting a more flexible set of nuisance parameters for describing the evolution of the intergalactic medium, by including additional freedom to account for systematic uncertainties, and by using Planck 2015 constraints in place of Planck 2013. Fitting Ly$\\alpha$ data alone leads to cosmological parameters in excellent agreement with the values derived independently from CMB data, except for a weak tension on the scalar index ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeffrey S. Lee
2017-10-01
Full Text Available In this note, the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB Radiation is shown to be capable of functioning as a Random Bit Generator, and constitutes an effectively infinite supply of truly random one-time pad values of arbitrary length. It is further argued that the CMB power spectrum potentially conforms to the FIPS 140-2 standard. Additionally, its applicability to the generation of a (n × n random key matrix for a Vernam cipher is established. Keywords: Particle physics, Computer science, Mathematics, Astrophysics
Gedik, Kadir; Imamoglu, Ipek
2011-07-01
The most significant application of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is in transformers and capacitors. Therefore, power plants are important suspected sources for entry of PCBs into the environment. In this context, the levels and distribution of PCBs in sediment, soil, ash, and sludge samples were investigated around Seyitömer thermal power plant, Kütahya, Turkey. Moreover, identity and contribution of PCB mixtures were predicted using the chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model. United States Environmental Protection Agency methods were applied during sample preparation, extraction (3540C), cleanup (3660B, 3665A, 3630C), and analysis (8082A). ΣPCB concentrations in the region ranged from not detected to 385 ng/g dry weight, with relatively higher contamination in sediments in comparison to soil, sludge, and ash samples collected from around the power plant. Congener profiles of the sediment and soil samples show penta-, hexa-, and hepta-chlorobiphenyls as the major homolog groups. The results from the CMB model indicate that PCB contamination is largely due to Clophen A60/A40 and Aroclor 1254/1254(late)/1260 release into the sediment and sludge samples around the thermal power plant. Since there are no other sources of PCBs in the region and the identity of PCB sources estimated by the CMB model mirrors PCB mixtures contained in transformers formerly used in the plant, the environmental contamination observed especially in sediments is attributed to the power plant. Release of PCBs over time, as indicated by the significant concentrations observed even in surface samples, emphasizes the importance of the need for better environmental management.
Anisotropic cosmological constant and the CMB quadrupole anomaly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodrigues, Davi C.
2008-01-01
There are evidences that the cosmic microwave background (CMB) large-angle anomalies imply a departure from statistical isotropy and hence from the standard cosmological model. We propose a ΛCDM model extension whose dark energy component preserves its nondynamical character but wields anisotropic vacuum pressure. Exact solutions for the cosmological scale factors are presented, upper bounds for the deformation parameter are evaluated and its value is estimated considering the elliptical universe proposal to solve the quadrupole anomaly. This model can be constructed from a Bianchi I cosmology with a cosmological constant from two different ways: (i) a straightforward anisotropic modification of the vacuum pressure consistently with energy-momentum conservation; (ii) a Poisson structure deformation between canonical momenta such that the dynamics remain invariant under scale factors rescalings
Searching for cosmic strings in CMB anisotropy maps using wavelets and curvelets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hergt, Lukas; Amara, Adam; Kacprzak, Tomasz; Réfrégier, Alexandre [ETH Zurich, Department of Physics, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Brandenberger, Robert, E-mail: hergtl@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: adam.amara@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: rhb@physics.mcgill.ca, E-mail: tomasz.kacprzak@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: alexandre.refregier@phys.ethz.ch [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada)
2017-06-01
We use wavelet and curvelet transforms to extract signals of cosmic strings from simulated cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropy maps, and to study the limits on the cosmic string tension which various ongoing CMB temperature anisotropy experiments will be able to achieve. We construct sky maps with size and angular resolution corresponding to various experiments. These maps contain the signals of a scaling solution of long string segments with a given string tension G μ, the contribution of the dominant Gaussian primordial cosmological fluctuations, and pixel by pixel white noise with an amplitude corresponding to the instrumental noise of the various experiments. In the case that we include white noise, we find that using curvelets we obtain lower bounds on the string tension than with wavelets. For maps with Planck specification, we obtain bounds comparable to what was obtained by the Planck collaboration [1]. Experiments with better angular resolution such as the South Pole Telescope third generation (SPT-3G) survey will be able to yield stronger limits. For maps with a specification of SPT-3G we find that string signals will be visible down to a string tension of G μ = 1.4 × 10{sup −7}.
Searching for cosmic strings in CMB anisotropy maps using wavelets and curvelets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hergt, Lukas; Amara, Adam; Kacprzak, Tomasz; Réfrégier, Alexandre; Brandenberger, Robert
2017-01-01
We use wavelet and curvelet transforms to extract signals of cosmic strings from simulated cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropy maps, and to study the limits on the cosmic string tension which various ongoing CMB temperature anisotropy experiments will be able to achieve. We construct sky maps with size and angular resolution corresponding to various experiments. These maps contain the signals of a scaling solution of long string segments with a given string tension G μ, the contribution of the dominant Gaussian primordial cosmological fluctuations, and pixel by pixel white noise with an amplitude corresponding to the instrumental noise of the various experiments. In the case that we include white noise, we find that using curvelets we obtain lower bounds on the string tension than with wavelets. For maps with Planck specification, we obtain bounds comparable to what was obtained by the Planck collaboration [1]. Experiments with better angular resolution such as the South Pole Telescope third generation (SPT-3G) survey will be able to yield stronger limits. For maps with a specification of SPT-3G we find that string signals will be visible down to a string tension of G μ = 1.4 × 10 −7 .
Optical modeling and polarization calibration for CMB measurements with ACTPol and Advanced ACTPol
Koopman, Brian; Austermann, Jason; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Coughlin, Kevin P.; Duff, Shannon M.; Gallardo, Patricio A.; Hasselfield, Matthew; Henderson, Shawn W.; Ho, Shuay-Pwu Patty; Hubmayr, Johannes; Irwin, Kent D.; Li, Dale; McMahon, Jeff; Nati, Federico; Niemack, Michael D.; Newburgh, Laura; Page, Lyman A.; Salatino, Maria; Schillaci, Alessandro; Schmitt, Benjamin L.; Simon, Sara M.; Vavagiakis, Eve M.; Ward, Jonathan T.; Wollack, Edward J.
2016-07-01
The Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter (ACTPol) is a polarization sensitive upgrade to the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, located at an elevation of 5190 m on Cerro Toco in Chile. ACTPol uses transition edge sensor bolometers coupled to orthomode transducers to measure both the temperature and polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Calibration of the detector angles is a critical step in producing polarization maps of the CMB. Polarization angle offsets in the detector calibration can cause leakage in polarization from E to B modes and induce a spurious signal in the EB and TB cross correlations, which eliminates our ability to measure potential cosmological sources of EB and TB signals, such as cosmic birefringence. We calibrate the ACTPol detector angles by ray tracing the designed detector angle through the entire optical chain to determine the projection of each detector angle on the sky. The distribution of calibrated detector polarization angles are consistent with a global offset angle from zero when compared to the EB-nulling offset angle, the angle required to null the EB cross-correlation power spectrum. We present the optical modeling process. The detector angles can be cross checked through observations of known polarized sources, whether this be a galactic source or a laboratory reference standard. To cross check the ACTPol detector angles, we use a thin film polarization grid placed in front of the receiver of the telescope, between the receiver and the secondary reflector. Making use of a rapidly rotating half-wave plate (HWP) mount we spin the polarizing grid at a constant speed, polarizing and rotating the incoming atmospheric signal. The resulting sinusoidal signal is used to determine the detector angles. The optical modeling calibration was shown to be consistent with a global offset angle of zero when compared to EB nulling in the first ACTPol results and will continue to be a part of our calibration implementation. The first
Full-sky formulae for weak lensing power spectra from total angular momentum method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamauchi, Daisuke; Taruya, Atsushi; Namikawa, Toshiya
2013-01-01
We systematically derive full-sky formulae for the weak lensing power spectra generated by scalar, vector and tensor perturbations from the total angular momentum (TAM) method. Based on both the geodesic and geodesic deviation equations, we first give the gauge-invariant expressions for the deflection angle and Jacobi map as observables of the CMB lensing and cosmic shear experiments. We then apply the TAM method, originally developed in the theoretical studies of CMB, to a systematic derivation of the angular power spectra. The TAM representation, which characterizes the total angular dependence of the spatial modes projected along a line-of-sight, can carry all the information of the lensing modes generated by scalar, vector, and tensor metric perturbations. This greatly simplifies the calculation, and we present a complete set of the full-sky formulae for angular power spectra in both the E-/B-mode cosmic shear and gradient-/curl-mode lensing potential of deflection angle. Based on the formulae, we give illustrative examples of non-vanishing B-mode cosmic shear and curl-mode of deflection angle in the presence of the vector and tensor perturbations, and explicitly compute the power spectra
A 2500 deg2 CMB Lensing Map from Combined South Pole Telescope and Planck Data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Omori, Y.; Chown, R.; Simard, G.; Story, K. T.; University of Chicago, IL
2017-01-01
Here, we present a cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing map produced from a linear combination of South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Planck temperature data. The 150 GHz temperature data from the 2500 deg 2 SPT-SZ survey is combined with the Planck 143 GHz data in harmonic space to obtain a temperature map that has a broader ℓ coverage and less noise than either individual map. Using a quadratic estimator technique on this combined temperature map, we produce a map of the gravitational lensing potential projected along the line of sight. We measure the auto-spectrum of the lensing potential C L ϕϕ , and compare it to the theoretical prediction for a ΛCDM cosmology consistent with the Planck 2015 data set, finding a best-fit amplitude of 0.95 −0.06 +0.06 (stat.) −0.01 +0.01 (sys.). The null hypothesis of no lensing is rejected at a significance of 24σ. One important use of such a lensing potential map is in cross-correlations with other dark matter tracers. We demonstrate this cross-correlation in practice by calculating the cross-spectrum, C L ϕG , between the SPT+Planck lensing map and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) galaxies. We fit C L ϕG to a power law of the form p L =a(L/L 0 ) −b with a, L 0, and b fixed, and find η ϕG =C L ϕG /p L =0.94 −0.04 +0.04 , which is marginally lower, but in good agreement with η ϕG =1.00 −0.01 +0.02 , the best-fit amplitude for the cross-correlation of Planck-2015 CMB lensing and WISE galaxies over ~67% of the sky. Finally, the lensing potential map presented here will be used for cross-correlation studies with the Dark Energy Survey, whose footprint nearly completely covers the SPT 2500 deg 2 field.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mauskopf, P.D.; Ade, P.A.R.; Bock, J.J.; Borrill, J.; Boscaleri, A.; Crill, B.P.; Bernardis, P. de; DeGasperis, G.; De Troia, G.; Farese, P.; Ferreira, P.G.; Ganga, K.; Giacometti, M.; Hanany, S.; Hristov, V.V.; Iacoangeli, A.; Jaffe, A.H.; Lange, A.E.; Lee, A.T.; Masi, S.; Melchiorri, A.; Melchiorri, F.; Miglio, L.; Montroy, T.; Netterfield, C.B.; Pascale, E.; Piacentini, F.; Richards, P.L.; Romeo, G.; Ruhl, J.E.; Scannapieco, E.; Scaramuzzi, F.; Stompor, R.; Vittorio, N.
1999-01-01
We describe a measurement of the angular power spectrum of anisotrophies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) from 0.2 deg to approx. 10 deg. from the test flight of the BOOMERANG experiment. BOOMERANG is a balloon-borne telescope with a bolometric receiver designed to map CMB anisotrophies on a Long Duration Balloon flight. During a 6-hour test flight of a prototype system in 1997, we mapped > 200 square degrees at high galactic latitudes in two bands centered at 90 and 150 GHz with a resolution of 26 and 16.6 arcmin FWHM respectively. Analysis of the maps gives a power spectrum with a peak at angular scales of approx. 1 deg. with an amplitude of approx. 70-muKcmb
A BAYESIAN ESTIMATE OF THE CMB–LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURE CROSS-CORRELATION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moura-Santos, E. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão trav. R 187, 05508-090, São Paulo—SP (Brazil); Carvalho, F. C. [Departamento de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, 59610-210, Mossoró-RN (Brazil); Penna-Lima, M. [APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10, rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Novaes, C. P.; Wuensche, C. A., E-mail: emoura@if.usp.br, E-mail: fabiocabral@uern.br, E-mail: pennal@apc.in2p3.fr, E-mail: cawuenschel@das.inpe.br, E-mail: camilanovaes@on.br [Observatório Nacional, Rua General José Cristino 77, São Cristóvão, 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2016-08-01
Evidences for late-time acceleration of the universe are provided by multiple probes, such as Type Ia supernovae, the cosmic microwave background (CMB), and large-scale structure (LSS). In this work, we focus on the integrated Sachs–Wolfe (ISW) effect, i.e., secondary CMB fluctuations generated by evolving gravitational potentials due to the transition between, e.g., the matter and dark energy (DE) dominated phases. Therefore, assuming a flat universe, DE properties can be inferred from ISW detections. We present a Bayesian approach to compute the CMB–LSS cross-correlation signal. The method is based on the estimate of the likelihood for measuring a combined set consisting of a CMB temperature and galaxy contrast maps, provided that we have some information on the statistical properties of the fluctuations affecting these maps. The likelihood is estimated by a sampling algorithm, therefore avoiding the computationally demanding techniques of direct evaluation in either pixel or harmonic space. As local tracers of the matter distribution at large scales, we used the Two Micron All Sky Survey galaxy catalog and, for the CMB temperature fluctuations, the ninth-year data release of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe ( WMAP 9). The results show a dominance of cosmic variance over the weak recovered signal, due mainly to the shallowness of the catalog used, with systematics associated with the sampling algorithm playing a secondary role as sources of uncertainty. When combined with other complementary probes, the method presented in this paper is expected to be a useful tool to late-time acceleration studies in cosmology.
How CMB and large-scale structure constrain chameleon interacting dark energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boriero, Daniel; Das, Subinoy; Wong, Yvonne Y.Y.
2015-01-01
We explore a chameleon type of interacting dark matter-dark energy scenario in which a scalar field adiabatically traces the minimum of an effective potential sourced by the dark matter density. We discuss extensively the effect of this coupling on cosmological observables, especially the parameter degeneracies expected to arise between the model parameters and other cosmological parameters, and then test the model against observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and other cosmological probes. We find that the chameleon parameters α and β, which determine respectively the slope of the scalar field potential and the dark matter-dark energy coupling strength, can be constrained to α < 0.17 and β < 0.19 using CMB data and measurements of baryon acoustic oscillations. The latter parameter in particular is constrained only by the late Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. Adding measurements of the local Hubble expansion rate H 0 tightens the bound on α by a factor of two, although this apparent improvement is arguably an artefact of the tension between the local measurement and the H 0 value inferred from Planck data in the minimal ΛCDM model. The same argument also precludes chameleon models from mimicking a dark radiation component, despite a passing similarity between the two scenarios in that they both delay the epoch of matter-radiation equality. Based on the derived parameter constraints, we discuss possible signatures of the model for ongoing and future large-scale structure surveys
Local properties of the large-scale peaks of the CMB temperature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marcos-Caballero, A.; Martínez-González, E.; Vielva, P., E-mail: marcos@ifca.unican.es, E-mail: martinez@ifca.unican.es, E-mail: vielva@ifca.unican.es [Instituto de Física de Cantabria, CSIC-Universidad de Cantabria, Avda. de los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain)
2017-05-01
In the present work, we study the largest structures of the CMB temperature measured by Planck in terms of the most prominent peaks on the sky, which, in particular, are located in the southern galactic hemisphere. Besides these large-scale features, the well-known Cold Spot anomaly is included in the analysis. All these peaks would contribute significantly to some of the CMB large-scale anomalies, as the parity and hemispherical asymmetries, the dipole modulation, the alignment between the quadrupole and the octopole, or in the case of the Cold Spot, to the non-Gaussianity of the field. The analysis of the peaks is performed by using their multipolar profiles, which characterize the local shape of the peaks in terms of the discrete Fourier transform of the azimuthal angle. In order to quantify the local anisotropy of the peaks, the distribution of the phases of the multipolar profiles is studied by using the Rayleigh random walk methodology. Finally, a direct analysis of the 2-dimensional field around the peaks is performed in order to take into account the effect of the galactic mask. The results of the analysis conclude that, once the peak amplitude and its first and second order derivatives at the centre are conditioned, the rest of the field is compatible with the standard model. In particular, it is observed that the Cold Spot anomaly is caused by the large value of curvature at the centre.
How CMB and large-scale structure constrain chameleon interacting dark energy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boriero, Daniel [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, Universitätstr. 25, Bielefeld (Germany); Das, Subinoy [Indian Institute of Astrophisics, Bangalore, 560034 (India); Wong, Yvonne Y.Y., E-mail: boriero@physik.uni-bielefeld.de, E-mail: subinoy@iiap.res.in, E-mail: yvonne.y.wong@unsw.edu.au [School of Physics, The University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia)
2015-07-01
We explore a chameleon type of interacting dark matter-dark energy scenario in which a scalar field adiabatically traces the minimum of an effective potential sourced by the dark matter density. We discuss extensively the effect of this coupling on cosmological observables, especially the parameter degeneracies expected to arise between the model parameters and other cosmological parameters, and then test the model against observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and other cosmological probes. We find that the chameleon parameters α and β, which determine respectively the slope of the scalar field potential and the dark matter-dark energy coupling strength, can be constrained to α < 0.17 and β < 0.19 using CMB data and measurements of baryon acoustic oscillations. The latter parameter in particular is constrained only by the late Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. Adding measurements of the local Hubble expansion rate H{sub 0} tightens the bound on α by a factor of two, although this apparent improvement is arguably an artefact of the tension between the local measurement and the H{sub 0} value inferred from Planck data in the minimal ΛCDM model. The same argument also precludes chameleon models from mimicking a dark radiation component, despite a passing similarity between the two scenarios in that they both delay the epoch of matter-radiation equality. Based on the derived parameter constraints, we discuss possible signatures of the model for ongoing and future large-scale structure surveys.
Quantum Gravity, Information Theory and the CMB
Kempf, Achim
2018-04-01
We review connections between the metric of spacetime and the quantum fluctuations of fields. We start with the finding that the spacetime metric can be expressed entirely in terms of the 2-point correlator of the fluctuations of quantum fields. We then discuss the open question whether the knowledge of only the spectra of the quantum fluctuations of fields also suffices to determine the spacetime metric. This question is of interest because spectra are geometric invariants and their quantization would, therefore, have the benefit of not requiring the modding out of diffeomorphisms. Further, we discuss the fact that spacetime at the Planck scale need not necessarily be either discrete or continuous. Instead, results from information theory show that spacetime may be simultaneously discrete and continuous in the same way that information can. Finally, we review the recent finding that a covariant natural ultraviolet cutoff at the Planck scale implies a signature in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) that may become observable.
Sensitivity of molecular marker-based CMB models to biomass burning source profiles
Sheesley, Rebecca J.; Schauer, James J.; Zheng, Mei; Wang, Bo
To assess the contribution of sources to fine particulate organic carbon (OC) at four sites in North Carolina, USA, a molecular marker chemical mass balance model (MM-CMB) was used to quantify seasonal contributions for 2 years. The biomass burning contribution at these sites was found to be 30-50% of the annual OC concentration. In order to provide a better understanding of the uncertainty in MM-CMB model results, a biomass burning profile sensitivity test was performed on the 18 seasonal composites. The results using reconstructed emission profiles based on published profiles compared well, while model results using a single source test profile resulted in biomass burning contributions that were more variable. The biomass burning contribution calculated using an average regional profile of fireplace emissions from five southeastern tree species also compared well with an average profile of open burning of pine-dominated forest from Georgia. The standard deviation of the results using different source profiles was a little over 30% of the annual average biomass contributions. Because the biomass burning contribution accounted for 30-50% of the OC at these sites, the choice of profile also impacted the motor vehicle source attribution due to the common emission of elemental carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The total mobile organic carbon contribution was less effected by the biomass burning profile than the relative contributions from gasoline and diesel engines.
Multichroic Antenna-Coupled Bolometers for CMB Polarization and Sub-mm Observations
Lee, Adrian
We propose to develop planar antenna-coupled superconducting bolometer arrays for observations at sub-millimeter to millimeter wavelengths. Our pixel architecture features a dual-polarization log-periodic antenna with a 4:1-bandwidth ratio, followed by a filter bank that divides the total bandwidth into several broad photometric bands. The advantages of this approach, compared with those using conventional single-color pixels, include a combination of greatly reduced focal-plane mass, higher array sensitivity, and a larger number of spectral bands. These advantages have the potential to greatly reduce the cost and/or increase the performance of NASA missions in the sub-millimeter to millimeter bands. For CMB polarization measurements, a wide frequency range of roughly 30 to 300 GHz is required to subtract galactic foregrounds. The multichroic architecture we propose enables a relatively low-cost 30-cm aperture space mission to have sufficient sensitivity to probe below the tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 0.01. For a larger aperture mission, such as the EPIC-IM concept, the proposed technology could reduce the focal-plane mass by a factor of 2-3, with great savings in required cryocooler performance and therefore cost. We have demonstrated the lens-coupled antenna concept in the POLARBEAR ground-based CMB polarization experiment now operating in Chile. That experiment uses a single-band planar antenna and produces excellent beam properties and optical efficiency. In the laboratory, we have measured two octaves of total bandwidth in the log-periodic sinuous antenna. We have built filter banks of 2, 3, and 7 bands with 4, 6, and 14 bolometers per pixel for two linear polarizations. Building on these accomplishments, the deliverables for the proposed work include: *Two pixel types that together cover the range from 30 to 300 GHz. The low-frequency pixel will have bands centered at 35, 50, and 80 GHz and the high frequency pixel will have bands centered at 120, 180, and 270
Emission-angle and polarization-rotation effects in the lensed CMB
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lewis, Antony [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Hall, Alex [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Challinor, Anthony, E-mail: antony@cosmologist.info, E-mail: ahall@roe.ac.uk, E-mail: a.d.challinor@ast.cam.ac.uk [Institute of Astronomy and Kavli Institute for Cosmology, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)
2017-08-01
Lensing of the CMB is an important effect, and is usually modelled by remapping the unlensed CMB fields by a lensing deflection. However the lensing deflections also change the photon path so that the emission angle is no longer orthogonal to the background last-scattering surface. We give the first calculation of the emission-angle corrections to the standard lensing approximation from dipole (Doppler) sources for temperature and quadrupole sources for temperature and polarization. We show that while the corrections are negligible for the temperature and E-mode polarization, additional large-scale B-modes are produced with a white spectrum that dominates those from post-Born field rotation (curl lensing). On large scales about one percent of the total lensing-induced B-mode amplitude is expected to be due to this effect. However, the photon emission angle does remain orthogonal to the perturbed last-scattering surface due to time delay, and half of the large-scale emission-angle B modes cancel with B modes from time delay to give a total contribution of about half a percent. While not important for planned observations, the signal could ultimately limit the ability of delensing to reveal low amplitudes of primordial gravitational waves. We also derive the rotation of polarization due to multiple deflections between emission and observation. The rotation angle is of quadratic order in the deflection angle, and hence negligibly small: polarization typically rotates by less than an arcsecond, orders of magnitude less than a small-scale image rotates due to post-Born field rotation (which is quadratic in the shear). The field-rotation B modes dominate the other effects on small scales.
Neutrino mass from cosmology: impact of high-accuracy measurement of the Hubble constant
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sekiguchi, Toyokazu [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8582 (Japan); Ichikawa, Kazuhide [Department of Micro Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Takahashi, Tomo [Department of Physics, Saga University, Saga 840-8502 (Japan); Greenhill, Lincoln, E-mail: sekiguti@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: kazuhide@me.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp, E-mail: greenhill@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
2010-03-01
Non-zero neutrino mass would affect the evolution of the Universe in observable ways, and a strong constraint on the mass can be achieved using combinations of cosmological data sets. We focus on the power spectrum of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies, the Hubble constant H{sub 0}, and the length scale for baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) to investigate the constraint on the neutrino mass, m{sub ν}. We analyze data from multiple existing CMB studies (WMAP5, ACBAR, CBI, BOOMERANG, and QUAD), recent measurement of H{sub 0} (SHOES), with about two times lower uncertainty (5 %) than previous estimates, and recent treatments of BAO from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We obtained an upper limit of m{sub ν} < 0.2eV (95 % C.L.), for a flat ΛCDM model. This is a 40 % reduction in the limit derived from previous H{sub 0} estimates and one-third lower than can be achieved with extant CMB and BAO data. We also analyze the impact of smaller uncertainty on measurements of H{sub 0} as may be anticipated in the near term, in combination with CMB data from the Planck mission, and BAO data from the SDSS/BOSS program. We demonstrate the possibility of a 5σ detection for a fiducial neutrino mass of 0.1 eV or a 95 % upper limit of 0.04 eV for a fiducial of m{sub ν} = 0 eV. These constraints are about 50 % better than those achieved without external constraint. We further investigate the impact on modeling where the dark-energy equation of state is constant but not necessarily -1, or where a non-flat universe is allowed. In these cases, the next-generation accuracies of Planck, BOSS, and 1 % measurement of H{sub 0} would all be required to obtain the limit m{sub ν} < 0.05−0.06 eV (95 % C.L.) for the fiducial of m{sub ν} = 0 eV. The independence of systematics argues for pursuit of both BAO and H{sub 0} measurements.
CMB B-mode auto-bispectrum produced by primordial gravitational waves
Tahara, Hiroaki W. H.; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi
2018-01-01
Gravitational waves from inflation induce polarization patterns in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). It is known that there are only two types of non-Gaussianities of the gravitational waves in the most general covariant scalar field theory having second-order field equations, namely, generalized G-inflation. One originates from the inherent non-Gaussianity in general relativity, and the other from a derivative coupling between the Einstein tensor and the scalar field. We calculate polarization bispectra induced by these non-Gaussianities by transforming them into separable forms by virtue of the Laplace transformation. It is shown that future experiments can constrain the new one but cannot detect the general relativistic one.
Ade, P A R; Ahmed, Z; Aikin, R W; Alexander, K D; Barkats, D; Benton, S J; Bischoff, C A; Bock, J J; Bowens-Rubin, R; Brevik, J A; Buder, I; Bullock, E; Buza, V; Connors, J; Crill, B P; Duband, L; Dvorkin, C; Filippini, J P; Fliescher, S; Grayson, J; Halpern, M; Harrison, S; Hilton, G C; Hui, H; Irwin, K D; Karkare, K S; Karpel, E; Kaufman, J P; Keating, B G; Kefeli, S; Kernasovskiy, S A; Kovac, J M; Kuo, C L; Leitch, E M; Lueker, M; Megerian, K G; Netterfield, C B; Nguyen, H T; O'Brient, R; Ogburn, R W; Orlando, A; Pryke, C; Richter, S; Schwarz, R; Sheehy, C D; Staniszewski, Z K; Steinbach, B; Sudiwala, R V; Teply, G P; Thompson, K L; Tolan, J E; Tucker, C; Turner, A D; Vieregg, A G; Weber, A C; Wiebe, D V; Willmert, J; Wong, C L; Wu, W L K; Yoon, K W
2016-01-22
We present results from an analysis of all data taken by the BICEP2 and Keck Array cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiments up to and including the 2014 observing season. This includes the first Keck Array observations at 95 GHz. The maps reach a depth of 50 nK deg in Stokes Q and U in the 150 GHz band and 127 nK deg in the 95 GHz band. We take auto- and cross-spectra between these maps and publicly available maps from WMAP and Planck at frequencies from 23 to 353 GHz. An excess over lensed ΛCDM is detected at modest significance in the 95×150 BB spectrum, and is consistent with the dust contribution expected from our previous work. No significant evidence for synchrotron emission is found in spectra such as 23×95, or for correlation between the dust and synchrotron sky patterns in spectra such as 23×353. We take the likelihood of all the spectra for a multicomponent model including lensed ΛCDM, dust, synchrotron, and a possible contribution from inflationary gravitational waves (as parametrized by the tensor-to-scalar ratio r) using priors on the frequency spectral behaviors of dust and synchrotron emission from previous analyses of WMAP and Planck data in other regions of the sky. This analysis yields an upper limit r_{0.05}<0.09 at 95% confidence, which is robust to variations explored in analysis and priors. Combining these B-mode results with the (more model-dependent) constraints from Planck analysis of CMB temperature plus baryon acoustic oscillations and other data yields a combined limit r_{0.05}<0.07 at 95% confidence. These are the strongest constraints to date on inflationary gravitational waves.
What's Next for Big Bang Nucleosynthesis?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cyburt, R.H.
2005-01-01
Big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) plays an important role in the standard hot big bang cosmology. BBN theory is used to predict the primordial abundances of the lightest elements, hydrogen, helium and lithium. Comparison between the predicted and observationally determined light element abundances provides a general test of concordance and can be used to fix the baryon content in the universe. Measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies now supplant BBN as the premier baryometer, especially with the latest results from the WMAP satellite. With the WMAP baryon density, the test of concordance can be made even more precise. Any disagreement between theory predictions and observations requires careful discussion. Several possibilities exist to explain discrepancies; (1) observational systematics (either physical or technical) may not be properly treated in determining primordial light element abundances (2) nuclear inputs that determine the BBN predictions may have unknown systematics or may be incomplete, and (3) physics beyond that included in the standard BBN scenario may need to be included in the theory calculation. Before we can be absolutely sure new physics is warranted, points (1) and (2) must be addressed and ruled out. All of these scenarios rely on experimental or observational data to make definitive statements of their applicability and range of validity, which currently is not at the level necessary to discern between these possibilities with high confidence. Thus, new light element abundance observations and nuclear experiments are needed to probe these further. Assuming concordance is established, one can use the light element observations to explore the evolution from their primordial values. This can provide useful information on stellar evolution, cosmic rays and other nuclear astrophysics. When combined with detailed models, BBN, the CMB anisotropy and nuclear astrophysics can provide us with information about the populations
The CMB neutrino mass/vacuum energy degeneracy: a simple derivation of the degeneracy slopes
Sutherland, Will
2018-06-01
It is well known that estimating cosmological parameters from cosmic microwave background (CMB) data alone results in a significant degeneracy between the total neutrino mass and several other cosmological parameters, especially the Hubble constant H0 and the matter density parameter Ωm. Adding low-redshift measurements such as baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs) breaks this degeneracy and greatly improves the constraints on neutrino mass. The sensitivity is surprisingly high, for example, adding the ˜1 percent measurement of the BAO ratio rs/DV from the BOSS survey leads to a limit Σ mν matter ratio (xν ≡ ων/ωcb) and the shifts in other cosmological parameters. The resulting multipliers are substantially larger than 1: conserving the CMB sound horizon angle requires parameter shifts δln H0 ≈ -2 δxν, δln Ωm ≈ +5 δxν, δln ωΛ ≈ -6.2 δxν, and most notably δωΛ ≈ -14 δων. These multipliers give an intuitive derivation of the degeneracy direction, which agrees well with the numerical likelihood results from the Planck team.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hasselfield, Matthew [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Moodley, Kavilan [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics, and Computer Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Bond, J. Richard; Hajian, Amir; Hincks, Adam D.; Nolta, Michael R. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Das, Sudeep [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Devlin, Mark J.; Marsden, Danica; Schmitt, Benjamin L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Dunkley, Joanna [Department of Astrophysics, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Dünner, Rolando; Gallardo, Patricio [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificía Universidad Católica, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Fowler, Joseph W.; Niemack, Michael D. [NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Gralla, Megan B.; Marriage, Tobias A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Halpern, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Page, Lyman A. [Joseph Henry Laboratories of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Partridge, Bruce [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Haverford College, Haverford, PA 19041 (United States); and others
2013-11-01
We describe the measurement of the beam profiles and window functions for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), which operated from 2007 to 2010 with kilopixel bolometer arrays centered at 148, 218, and 277 GHz. Maps of Saturn are used to measure the beam shape in each array and for each season of observations. Radial profiles are transformed to Fourier space in a way that preserves the spatial correlations in the beam uncertainty to derive window functions relevant for angular power spectrum analysis. Several corrections are applied to the resulting beam transforms, including an empirical correction measured from the final cosmic microwave background (CMB) survey maps to account for the effects of mild pointing variation and alignment errors. Observations of Uranus made regularly throughout each observing season are used to measure the effects of atmospheric opacity and to monitor deviations in telescope focus over the season. Using the WMAP-based calibration of the ACT maps to the CMB blackbody, we obtain precise measurements of the brightness temperatures of the Uranus and Saturn disks at effective frequencies of 149 and 219 GHz. For Uranus we obtain thermodynamic brightness temperatures T{sub U}{sup 149}= 106.7 ± 2.2 K and T{sub U}{sup 219}= 100.1 ± 3.1 K. For Saturn, we model the effects of the ring opacity and emission using a simple model and obtain resulting (unobscured) disk temperatures of T{sub S}{sup 149}= 137.3 ± 3.2 K and T{sub S}{sup 219}= 137.3 ± 4.7 K.
Constraints on Inflation from Polarization and CMB Spectral Distortions
Kamionkowski, Marc
2014-01-01
This talk will summarize some things we can do with future CMB experiments to study the early Universe. An obvious first is to map the polarization from density perturbations to the cosmic-variance limit to improve upon the types of things (cosmological-parameter determination, lensing, etc.) that have been done so far with the temperature. Another direction, which already has considerable momentum, is the pursuit of the characteristic polarization signature of inflationary gravitational waves. But there is also a strong case, which I will review, now being assembled for a space mission to seek the tiny but nonzero departures from a blackbody spectrum that are expected in the standard cosmological model and that may arise from several interesting exotic mechanisms.
Future CMB cosmological constraints in a dark coupled universe
Martinelli, Matteo; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Mena, Olga
2010-01-01
Cosmic Microwave Background satellite missions as the on-going Planck experiment are expected to provide the strongest constraints on a wide set of cosmological parameters. Those constraints, however, could be weakened when the assumption of a cosmological constant as the dark energy component is removed. Here we show that it will indeed be the case when there exists a coupling among the dark energy and the dark matter fluids. In particular, the expected errors on key parameters as the cold dark matter density and the angular diameter distance at decoupling are significantly larger when a dark coupling is introduced. We show that it will be the case also for future satellite missions as EPIC, unless CMB lensing extraction is performed.
Sherwin, Blake D.; Dunkley, Joanna; Das, Sudeep; Appel, John W.; Bond, J. Richard; Carvalho, C. Sofia; Devlin, Mark J.; Duenner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joesph J.;
2011-01-01
For the first time, measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) alone favor cosmologies with w = -1 dark energy over models without dark energy at a 3.2-sigma level. We demonstrate this by combining the CMB lensing deflection power spectrum from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope with temperature and polarization power spectra from the "Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. The lensing data break the geometric degeneracy of different cosmological models with similar CMB temperature power spectra. Our CMB-only measurement of the dark energy density Omega(delta) confirms other measurements from supernovae, galaxy clusters and baryon acoustic oscillations, and demonstrates the power of CMB lensing as a new cosmological tool.
Evidence for dark energy from the cosmic microwave background alone using the Atacama Cosmology Telescope lensing measurements.
Sherwin, Blake D; Dunkley, Joanna; Das, Sudeep; Appel, John W; Bond, J Richard; Carvalho, C Sofia; Devlin, Mark J; Dünner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joseph W; Hajian, Amir; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hincks, Adam D; Hlozek, Renée; Hughes, John P; Irwin, Kent D; Klein, Jeff; Kosowsky, Arthur; Marriage, Tobias A; Marsden, Danica; Moodley, Kavilan; Menanteau, Felipe; Niemack, Michael D; Nolta, Michael R; Page, Lyman A; Parker, Lucas; Reese, Erik D; Schmitt, Benjamin L; Sehgal, Neelima; Sievers, Jon; Spergel, David N; Staggs, Suzanne T; Swetz, Daniel S; Switzer, Eric R; Thornton, Robert; Visnjic, Katerina; Wollack, Ed
2011-07-08
For the first time, measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) alone favor cosmologies with w = -1 dark energy over models without dark energy at a 3.2-sigma level. We demonstrate this by combining the CMB lensing deflection power spectrum from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope with temperature and polarization power spectra from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. The lensing data break the geometric degeneracy of different cosmological models with similar CMB temperature power spectra. Our CMB-only measurement of the dark energy density Ω(Λ) confirms other measurements from supernovae, galaxy clusters, and baryon acoustic oscillations, and demonstrates the power of CMB lensing as a new cosmological tool.
Observational constraints on the primordial curvature power spectrum
Emami, Razieh; Smoot, George F.
2018-01-01
CMB temperature fluctuation observations provide a precise measurement of the primordial power spectrum on large scales, corresponding to wavenumbers 10‑3 Mpc‑1 lesssim k lesssim 0.1 Mpc‑1, [1-7, 11]. Luminous red galaxies and galaxy clusters probe the matter power spectrum on overlapping scales (0.02 Mpc‑1 lesssim k lesssim 0.7 Mpc‑1 [10, 12-20]), while the Lyman-alpha forest reaches slightly smaller scales (0.3 Mpc‑1 lesssim k lesssim 3 Mpc‑1 [22]). These observations indicate that the primordial power spectrum is nearly scale-invariant with an amplitude close to 2 × 10‑9, [5, 23-28]. These observations strongly support Inflation and motivate us to obtain observations and constraints reaching to smaller scales on the primordial curvature power spectrum and by implication on Inflation. We are able to obtain limits to much higher values of k lesssim 105 Mpc‑1 and with less sensitivity even higher k lesssim 1019‑ 1023 Mpc‑1 using limits from CMB spectral distortions and other limits on ultracompact minihalo objects (UCMHs) and Primordial Black Holes (PBHs). PBHs are one of the known candidates for the Dark Matter (DM). Due to their very early formation, they could give us valuable information about the primordial curvature perturbations. These are complementary to other cosmological bounds on the amplitude of the primordial fluctuations. In this paper, we revisit and collect all the published constraints on both PBHs and UCMHs. We show that unless one uses the CMB spectral distortion, PBHs give us a very relaxed bounds on the primordial curvature perturbations. UCMHs, on the other hand, are very informative over a reasonable k range (3 lesssim k lesssim 106 Mpc‑1) and lead to significant upper-bounds on the curvature spectrum. We review the conditions under which the tighter constraints on the UCMHs could imply extremely strong bounds on the fraction of DM that could be PBHs in reasonable models. Failure to satisfy these conditions would
The Intergalactic Medium as a Cosmological Tool
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Viel, Matteo, E-mail: viel@oats.inaf.i [INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste (Italy); INFN/National Institute for Nuclear Physics, Via Valerio 2, I-34127 Trieste (Italy)
2009-10-15
In this talk I will review the capabilities of high-resolution (UVES and Keck) and low resolution (Sloan Digital Sky Survey - SDSS) quasar (QSO) Lyman-alpha absorption spectra as cosmological tools to probe the dark matter distribution in the high redshift universe. I will first summarize the results in terms of cosmological parameters and then discuss consistency with the parameters derived from other large scale structure observable such as the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and weak lensing surveys. When the Lyman-alpha forest data are combined with CMB data and the weak lensing results of the z-COSMOS survey the constraints are: sigma{sub 8}=0.800+-0.023, n{sub s}=0.971+-0.011OMEGA{sub m}=0.247+-0.016 (1-sigma error bars), in perfect agreement with the CMB results of WMAP year five alone. I will briefly address the importance of Lyman-alpha for constraining the neutrino mass fraction. Furthermore, I will present constraints on the mass of warm dark matter (WDM) particles derived from the Lyman-alpha flux power spectrum of 55 high-resolution HIRES Lyman-alpha forest spectra at 2.0
Constraining dark photon model with dark matter from CMB spectral distortions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ki-Young Choi
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Many extensions of Standard Model (SM include a dark sector which can interact with the SM sector via a light mediator. We explore the possibilities to probe such a dark sector by studying the distortion of the CMB spectrum from the blackbody shape due to the elastic scatterings between the dark matter and baryons through a hidden light mediator. We in particular focus on the model where the dark sector gauge boson kinetically mixes with the SM and present the future experimental prospect for a PIXIE-like experiment along with its comparison to the existing bounds from complementary terrestrial experiments.
CMB power spectrum at l=30-200 from QMASK
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Yongzhong; Tegmark, Max; de Oliveira-Costa, Angelica
2002-01-01
We measure the cosmic microwave background power spectrum on angular scales l∼30-200 (1 deg. -6 deg.) from the QMASK map, which combines the data from the QMAP and Saskatoon experiments. Since the accuracy of recent measurements leftward of the first acoustic peak is limited by sample variance, the large area of the QMASK map (648 square degrees) allows us to place among the sharpest constraints to date in this range, in good agreement with BOOMERanG and (on the largest scales) COBE-DMR. By band-pass filtering the QMAP and Saskatoon maps, we are able to spatially compare them scale by scale to check for beam- and pointing-related systematic errors
Red, Straight, no bends: primordial power spectrum reconstruction from CMB and large-scale structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ravenni, Andrea [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ' ' G. Galilei' ' , Università degli Studi di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131, Padova (Italy); Verde, Licia; Cuesta, Antonio J., E-mail: andrea.ravenni@pd.infn.it, E-mail: liciaverde@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: ajcuesta@icc.ub.edu [Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain)
2016-08-01
We present a minimally parametric, model independent reconstruction of the shape of the primordial power spectrum. Our smoothing spline technique is well-suited to search for smooth features such as deviations from scale invariance, and deviations from a power law such as running of the spectral index or small-scale power suppression. We use a comprehensive set of the state-of the art cosmological data: Planck observations of the temperature and polarisation anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background, WiggleZ and Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 galaxy power spectra and the Canada-France-Hawaii Lensing Survey correlation function. This reconstruction strongly supports the evidence for a power law primordial power spectrum with a red tilt and disfavours deviations from a power law power spectrum including small-scale power suppression such as that induced by significantly massive neutrinos. This offers a powerful confirmation of the inflationary paradigm, justifying the adoption of the inflationary prior in cosmological analyses.
Cross-correlating CMB temperature fluctuations with high-energy γ-ray from Dark-Matter annihilation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pieri, L.
2013-01-01
In this paper we compute the Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect due to the presence of dark-matter structures on cosmological scale. We cross-correlate the CMB temperature fluctuations with the extragalactic high-energy γ-ray flux map obtained with FERMI-LAT. We find a null signal consistent with the theory and conclude that the presence of halos and subhalos at galactic and extragalactic scale, if not excluded, will be hardly discoverable.
Constraints on cosmological birefringence energy dependence from CMB polarization data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gubitosi, G.; Paci, F.
2013-01-01
We study the possibility of constraining the energy dependence of cosmological birefringence by using CMB polarization data. We consider four possible behaviors, characteristic of different theoretical scenarios: energy-independent birefringence motivated by Chern-Simons interactions of the electromagnetic field, linear energy dependence motivated by a 'Weyl' interaction of the electromagnetic field, quadratic energy dependence, motivated by quantum gravity modifications of low-energy electrodynamics, and inverse quadratic dependence, motivated by Faraday rotation generated by primordial magnetic fields. We constrain the parameters associated to each kind of dependence and use our results to give constraints on the models mentioned. We forecast the sensitivity that Planck data will be able to achieve in this respect
Obituary: Andrew Lange (1957-2010)
Kamionkowski, Marc
2011-12-01
new techniques that paid off later in a number of ways in CMB science and in infrared/sub-mm astronomy. At a meeting of Packard Fellows (he was awarded the Fellowship in 1989), Lange met Frances Arnold, another Fellow from Caltech, fell in love, and thus wound up moving to Caltech in 1994. Upon arriving, Lange led a team that proposed a space CMB mission (FIRE), one of several proposals spawned by the exciting results flowing from COBE. While FIRE lost out to the WMAP team, this disappointment freed Lange and his collaborators to focus on Boomerang, a balloon-borne experiment which, although of more limited scope than the satellite mission, could be flown far more quickly for far less money. Their efforts paid off with a long-duration Antarctic balloon flight in 1998 and the dramatic announcement, in May 2000, of the remarkable science results from this flight. Boomerang provided the first high-resolution high-signal-to-noise map of the CMB from which was obtained a crystal-clear measurement of the first acoustic peak in the CMB power spectrum, and thus a robust determination of the geometry of the Universe. This experiment, widely recognized in cosmology as a watershed event, helped usher in the era of precision cosmology, with precise constraints to several cosmological parameters and strong evidence in support of inflation. These results were confirmed a few days later by MAXIMA, a balloon experiment that Lange helped get started, as well as a string of subsequent suborbital experiments and then WMAP. Over the next years, Andrew continued to improve the precision of CMB cosmological-parameter measurements, leading or participating in a string of subsequent CMB experiments, including the Planck satellite (a partial outgrowth of the FIRE proposal). But he also focused increasingly on the search for the CMB-polarization signature of inflationary gravitational waves, initiating a string of projects in this direction. Andrew Lange loved to work in the laboratory, and
Unal, Caner; Peloso, Marco; Sorbo, Lorenzo; Garcia-Bellido, Juan
2017-01-01
A strong experimental effort is ongoing to detect the primordial gravitational waves (GW) generated during inflation from their impact on the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). This effort is motivated by the direct relation between the amplitude of GW signal and the energy scale of inflation, in the standard case of GW production from vacuum. I will discuss the robustness of this relation and the conditions under which particle production mechanisms during inflation can generate a stronger GW signal than the vacuum one. I will present a concrete model employing a coupling between a rolling axion and a gauge field, that can produce a detectable GW signal for an arbitrarily small inflation scale, respecting bounds from back-reaction, perturbativity, and the gaussianity of the measured density perturbations. I will show how the GW produced by this mechanism can be distinguished from the vacuum ones by their spectral dependence and statistical properties. I will finally discuss the possibility of detecting an inflationary GW signal at terrestrial (AdvLIGO) and space (LISA) interferometers. Such experiments are sensitive to the modes much smaller than the ones corresponding to CMB and Large Scale Structure, presenting a unique observational window on the final stages of inflation. The work of C.U. is s supported by a Doctoral Dissertation Fellowship from the Graduate School of the University of Minnesota.
CMB constraints on principal components of the inflaton potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dvorkin, Cora; Hu, Wayne
2010-01-01
We place functional constraints on the shape of the inflaton potential from the cosmic microwave background through a variant of the generalized slow-roll approximation that allows large amplitude, rapidly changing deviations from scale-free conditions. Employing a principal component decomposition of the source function G ' ≅3(V ' /V) 2 -2V '' /V and keeping only those measured to better than 10% results in 5 nearly independent Gaussian constraints that may be used to test any single-field inflationary model where such deviations are expected. The first component implies <3% variations at the 100 Mpc scale. One component shows a 95% CL preference for deviations around the 300 Mpc scale at the ∼10% level but the global significance is reduced considering the 5 components examined. This deviation also requires a change in the cold dark matter density which in a flat ΛCDM model is disfavored by current supernova and Hubble constant data and can be tested with future polarization or high multipole temperature data. Its impact resembles a local running of the tilt from multipoles 30-800 but is only marginally consistent with a constant running beyond this range. For this analysis, we have implemented a ∼40x faster WMAP7 likelihood method which we have made publicly available.
Smale, Alan P.
2018-06-01
The High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC) is NASA's primary archive for high energy astrophysics and cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, supporting the broad science goals of NASA's Physics of the Cosmos theme. It provides vital scientific infrastructure to the community by standardizing science data formats and analysis programs, providing open access to NASA resources, and implementing powerful archive interfaces. These enable multimission studies of key astronomical targets, and deliver a major cost savings to NASA and proposing mission teams in terms of a reusable science infrastructure, as well as a time savings to the astronomical community through not having to learn a new analysis system for each new mission. The HEASARC archive holdings are currently in excess of 100 TB, supporting seven active missions (Chandra, Fermi, INTEGRAL, NICER, NuSTAR, Swift, and XMM-Newton), and providing continuing access to data from over 40 missions that are no longer in operation. HEASARC scientists are also engaged with the upcoming IXPE and XARM missions, and with many other Probe, Explorer, SmallSat, and CubeSat proposing teams. Within the HEASARC, the LAMBDA CMB thematic archive provides a permanent archive for NASA mission data from WMAP, COBE, IRAS, SWAS, and a wide selection of suborbital missions and experiments, and hosts many other CMB-related datasets, tools, and resources. In this talk I will summarize the current activities of the HEASARC and our plans for the coming decade. In addition to mission support, we will expand our software and user interfaces to provide astronomers with new capabilities to access and analyze HEASARC data, and continue to work with our Virtual Observatory partners to develop and implement standards to enable improved interrogation and analysis of data regardless of wavelength regime, mission, or archive boundaries. The future looks bright for high energy astrophysics, and the HEASARC looks forward to
Robust Neutrino Constraints by Combining Low Redshift Observations with the CMB
Reid, Beth A; Jimenez, Raul; Mena, Olga
2010-01-01
We illustrate how recently improved low-redshift cosmological measurements can tighten constraints on neutrino properties. In particular we examine the impact of the assumed cosmological model on the constraints. We first consider the new HST H0 = 74.2 +/- 3.6 measurement by Riess et al. (2009) and the sigma8*(Omegam/0.25)^0.41 = 0.832 +/- 0.033 constraint from Rozo et al. (2009) derived from the SDSS maxBCG Cluster Catalog. In a Lambda CDM model and when combined with WMAP5 constraints, these low-redshift measurements constrain sum mnu<0.4 eV at the 95% confidence level. This bound does not relax when allowing for the running of the spectral index or for primordial tensor perturbations. When adding also Supernovae and BAO constraints, we obtain a 95% upper limit of sum mnu<0.3 eV. We test the sensitivity of the neutrino mass constraint to the assumed expansion history by both allowing a dark energy equation of state parameter w to vary, and by studying a model with coupling between dark energy and dark...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aghanim, N.; Akrami, Y.; Ashdown, M.
2017-01-01
never before been measured to cosmic-variance level precision. We have investigated these shifts to determine whether they are within the range of expectation and to understand their origin in the data. Taking our parameter set to be the optical depth of the reionized intergalactic medium τ, the baryon...... density ωb, the matter density ωm, the angular size of the sound horizon θ∗, the spectral index of the primordial power spectrum, ns, and Ase- 2τ (where As is the amplitude of the primordial power spectrum), we have examined the change in best-fit values between a WMAP-like large angular-scale data set...
Minkowski Functionals and Cluster Analysis for CMB Maps
Novikov, D.; Feldman, Hume A.; Shandarin, Sergei F.
We suggest novel statistics for the CMB maps that are sensitive to non-Gaussian features. These statistics are natural generalizations of the geometrical and topological methods that have been already used in cosmology such as the cumulative distribution function and genus. We compute the distribution functions of the Partial Minkowski Functionals for the excursion set above or bellow a constant temperature threshold. Minkowski Functionals are additive and are translationally and rotationally invariant. Thus, they can be used for patchy and/or incomplete coverage. The technique is highly efficient computationally (it requires only O(N) operations, where N is the number of pixels per one threshold level). Further, the procedure makes it possible to split large data sets into smaller subsets. The full advantage of these statistics can be obtained only on very large data sets. We apply it to the 4-year DMR COBE data corrected for the Galaxy contamination as an illustration of the technique.
Fermi LAT and WMAP observations of the supernova remnant HB 21
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pivato, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia " G. Galilei," Università di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Hewitt, J. W. [CRESST, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Tibaldo, L. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Acero, F.; Brandt, T. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); De Palma, F.; Giordano, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica " M. Merlin" dell' Università e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Janssen, G. H. [University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Jóhannesson, G. [Science Institute, University of Iceland, IS-107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Smith, D. A., E-mail: giovanna.pivato@pd.infn.it, E-mail: john.w.hewitt@nasa.gov, E-mail: ltibaldo@slac.stanford.edu [Centre d' Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, IN2P3/CNRS, Université Bordeaux 1, BP120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France)
2013-12-20
We present the analysis of Fermi Large Area Telescope γ-ray observations of HB 21 (G89.0+4.7). We detect significant γ-ray emission associated with the remnant: the flux >100 MeV is 9.4 ± 0.8 (stat) ± 1.6 (syst) × 10{sup –11} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}. HB 21 is well modeled by a uniform disk centered at l = 88.°75 ± 0.°04, b = +4.°65 ± 0.°06 with a radius of 1.°19 ± 0.°06. The γ-ray spectrum shows clear evidence of curvature, suggesting a cutoff or break in the underlying particle population at an energy of a few GeV. We complement γ-ray observations with the analysis of the WMAP 7 yr data from 23 to 93 GHz, achieving the first detection of HB 21 at these frequencies. In combination with archival radio data, the radio spectrum shows a spectral break, which helps to constrain the relativistic electron spectrum, and, in turn, parameters of simple non-thermal radiation models. In one-zone models multiwavelength data favor the origin of γ rays from nucleon-nucleon collisions. A single population of electrons cannot produce both γ rays through bremsstrahlung and radio emission through synchrotron radiation. A predominantly inverse-Compton origin of the γ-ray emission is disfavored because it requires lower interstellar densities than are inferred for HB 21. In the hadronic-dominated scenarios, accelerated nuclei contribute a total energy of ∼3 × 10{sup 49} erg, while, in a two-zone bremsstrahlung-dominated scenario, the total energy in accelerated particles is ∼1 × 10{sup 49} erg.
Trappe, N.; Bucher, M.; De Bernardis, P.; Delabrouille, J.; Deo, P.; DePetris, M.; Doherty, S.; Ghribi, A.; Gradziel, M.; Kuzmin, L.; Maffei, B.; Mahashabde, S.; Masi, S.; Murphy, J. A.; Noviello, F.; O'Sullivan, C.; Pagano, L.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pisano, G.; Robinson, M.; Stompor, R.; Tartari, A.; van der Vorst, M.; Verhoeve, P.
2016-07-01
The main objective of this activity is to develop new focal plane coupling array concepts and technologies that optimise the coupling from reflector optics to the large number of detectors for next generation sub millimetre wave telescopes particularly targeting measurement of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). In this 18 month TRP programme the consortium are tasked with developing, manufacturing and experimentally verifying a prototype multichroic pixel which would be suitable for the large focal plane arrays which will be demanded to reach the required sensitivity of future CMB polarization missions. One major development was to have multichroic operation to potentially reduce the required focal plane size of a CMB mission. After research in the optimum telescope design and definition of requirements based on a stringent science case review, a number of compact focal plane architecture concepts were investigated before a pixel demonstrator consisting of a planar mesh lens feeding a backend Resonant Cold Electron Bolometer RCEB for filtering and detection of the dual frequency signal was planned for manufacture and test. In this demonstrator the frequencies of the channels was chosen to be 75 and 105 GHz in the w band close to the peak CMB signal. In the next year the prototype breadboards will be developed to test the beams produced by the manufactured flat lenses fed by a variety of antenna configurations and the spectral response of the RCEBs will also be verified.
Spectrum of the Anomalous Microwave Emission in the North Celestial Pole with WMAP 7-Year Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anna Bonaldi
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We estimate the frequency spectrum of the diffuse anomalous microwave emission (AME on the North Celestial Pole (NCP region of the sky with the Correlated Component Analysis (CCA component separation method applied to WMAP 7-yr data. The NCP is a suitable region for this analysis because the AME is weakly contaminated by synchrotron and free-free emission. By modeling the AME component as a peaked spectrum we estimate the peak frequency to be 21.7±0.8 GHz, in agreement with previous analyses which favored νp < 23 GHz. The ability of our method to correctly recover the position of the peak is verified through simulations. We compare the estimated AME spectrum with theoretical spinning dust models to constrain the hydrogen density nH. The best results are obtained with densities around 0.2–0.3 cm−3, typical of warm ionised medium (WIM to warm neutral medium (WNM conditions. The degeneracy with the gas temperature prevents an accurate determination of nH, especially for low hydrogen ionization fractions, where densities of a few cm−3 are also allowed.
Measuring CMB polarization from ISS: the SPOrt experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colombo, L.P.L.
2004-01-01
The SPOrt (Sky Polarization Observatory) experiment aims to measure CMBP (cosmic microwave background polarization) on about 80% of the sky from space. Selected by ESA to fly on board the ISS in 2006, it is funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI). As shown also by the recent WMAP release, CMBP data, besides of removing various degeneracies among cosmological parameters, provided new and important information on the cosmic opacity τ and, therefore, on very early cosmic objects which reionized the world at z ∼ 15. Most such information is obtained from low-l spectral components, that SPOrt, with its HPBW resolution of 7 degrees will explore with a high level of sensitivity. The 4 polarimeters of SPOrt work at 22, 32 and (2x) 90 GHz. At lower frequencies they will provide a (nearly) all-sky survey of Galactic synchrotron polarized emission, while data at the higher frequency will measure the CMBP signal. Correlating SPOrt with anisotropy data, by other experiments, shall therefore provide significant cosmological information. We performed a number of simulations of SPOrt performance, aimed to determine how far τ and/or other parameter(s) concerning reionization are constrained by the expected data. We also considered a possible interplay between reionization histories and Dark Energy nature. Besides of information on technological developments for systematics reduction, long term stability and observing time efficiency, we report here recent outputs on the expected SPOrt performance in constraining cosmological models
Constraints on dark radiation from cosmological probes
Rossi, Graziano; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Lesgourgues, Julien
2015-01-01
We present joint constraints on the number of effective neutrino species N_eff and the sum of neutrino masses M_nu, based on a technique which exploits the full information contained in the one-dimensional Lyman-Alpha forest flux power spectrum, complemented by additional cosmological probes. In particular, we obtain N_eff=2.91(+0.21)(-0.22) (95% CL) and M_nu<0.15 eV (95% CL) when we combine BOSS Lyman-Alpha forest data with CMB (Planck+ACT+SPT+WMAP polarization) measurements, and N_eff=2.88(+0.20)(-0.20) (95% CL) and M_nu<0.14 eV (95% CL) when we further add baryon acoustic oscillations. Our results provide evidence for the Cosmic Neutrino Background from N_eff~3 (N_eff=0 is rejected at more than 14 sigma), and rule out the possibility of a sterile neutrino thermalized with active neutrinos (i.e., N_eff=4) - or more generally any decoupled relativistic relic with Delta N_eff ~ 1 - at a significance of over 5 sigma, the strongest bound to date, implying that there is no need for exotic neutrino physics ...
Hajian, Amir; Acquaviva, Viviana; Ade, Peter A. R.; Aguirre, Paula; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John William; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Battistelli, Elia S.; Bond, John R.; Brown, Ben;
2011-01-01
We present a new calibration method based on cross-correlations with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and apply it to data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). ACT's observing strategy and mapmaking procedure allows an unbiased reconstruction of the modes in the maps over a wide range of multipoles. By directly matching the ACT maps to WMAP observations in the multipole range of 400 cosmological parameters estimated from the ACT power spectra. We also present a combined map based on ACT and WMAP data that has a high signal-to-noise ratio over a wide range of multipoles.
Efficient evaluation of angular power spectra and bispectra
Assassi, Valentin; Simonović, Marko; Zaldarriaga, Matias
2017-11-01
Angular statistics of cosmological observables are hard to compute. The main difficulty is due to the presence of highly-oscillatory Bessel functions which need to be integrated over. In this paper, we provide a simple and fast method to compute the angular power spectrum and bispectrum of any observable. The method is based on using an FFTlog algorithm to decompose the momentum-space statistics onto a basis of power-law functions. For each power law, the integrals over Bessel functions have a simple analytical solution. This allows us to efficiently evaluate these integrals, independently of the value of the multipole l. In particular, this method significantly speeds up the evaluation of the angular bispectrum compared to existing methods. To illustrate our algorithm, we compute the galaxy, lensing and CMB temperature angular power spectrum and bispectrum.
HEASARC - The High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center
Smale, Alan P.
2011-01-01
The High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC) is NASA's archive for high-energy astrophysics and cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, supporting the broad science goals of NASA's Physics of the Cosmos theme. It provides vital scientific infrastructure to the community by standardizing science data formats and analysis programs, providing open access to NASA resources, and implementing powerful archive interfaces. Over the next five years the HEASARC will ingest observations from up to 12 operating missions, while serving data from these and over 30 archival missions to the community. The HEASARC archive presently contains over 37 TB of data, and will contain over 60 TB by the end of 2014. The HEASARC continues to secure major cost savings for NASA missions, providing a reusable mission-independent framework for reducing, analyzing, and archiving data. This approach was recognized in the NRC Portals to the Universe report (2007) as one of the HEASARC's great strengths. This poster describes the past and current activities of the HEASARC and our anticipated developments in coming years. These include preparations to support upcoming high energy missions (NuSTAR, Astro-H, GEMS) and ground-based and sub-orbital CMB experiments, as well as continued support of missions currently operating (Chandra, Fermi, RXTE, Suzaku, Swift, XMM-Newton and INTEGRAL). In 2012 the HEASARC (which now includes LAMBDA) will support the final nine-year WMAP data release. The HEASARC is also upgrading its archive querying and retrieval software with the new Xamin system in early release - and building on opportunities afforded by the growth of the Virtual Observatory and recent developments in virtual environments and cloud computing.
The effective gravitational decoupling between dark matter and the CMB
Voruz, Luc; Tram, Thomas
2014-01-01
We present a detailed and self-contained analytical derivation of the evolution of sub-horizon cosmological perturbations before decoupling, based on previous work by S. Weinberg. These solutions are valid in the minimal LCDM scenario, to first order in perturbation theory, in the tight-coupling limit and neglecting neutrino shear stress. We compare them to exact numerical solutions computed by a Boltzmann code, and we find the two to be in very good agreement. The analytic solutions show explicitly that CDM and the baryon-photon fluid effectively behave as separate self-gravitating fluids until the epoch of baryon drag. This in turn leads to the surprising conclusion that the CMB is much less sensitive to the clustering properties of minimally coupled Dark Matter models than what would be naively expected.
Constraints on dark matter annihilation from CMB observations before Planck
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopez-Honorez, Laura [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and The International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Mena, Olga; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio; Vincent, Aaron C., E-mail: llopezho@vub.ac.be, E-mail: omena@ific.uv.es, E-mail: sergio.palomares.ruiz@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: vincent@ific.uv.es [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC-Universitat de València, Apartado de Correos 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)
2013-07-01
We compute the bounds on the dark matter (DM) annihilation cross section using the most recent Cosmic Microwave Background measurements from WMAP9, SPT'11 and ACT'10. We consider DM with mass in the MeV–TeV range annihilating 100% into either an e{sup +}e{sup −} or a μ{sup +}μ{sup −} pair. We consider a realistic energy deposition model, which includes the dependence on the redshift, DM mass and annihilation channel. We exclude the canonical thermal relic abundance cross section ((σv) = 3 × 10{sup −26}cm{sup 3}s{sup −1}) for DM masses below 30 GeV and 15 GeV for the e{sup +}e{sup −} and μ{sup +}μ{sup −} channels, respectively. A priori, DM annihilating in halos could also modify the reionization history of the Universe at late times. We implement a realistic halo model taken from results of state-of-the-art N-body simulations and consider a mixed reionization mechanism, consisting on reionization from DM as well as from first stars. We find that the constraints on DM annihilation remain unchanged, even when large uncertainties on the halo model parameters are considered.
Is a step in the primordial spectral index favoured by CMB data?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joy, Minu; Shafieloo, Arman; Sahni, Varun; Starobinsky, Alexei A.
2009-01-01
A sudden small change in the second derivative of the inflaton potential can result in a universal local feature in the spectrum of primordial perturbations generated during inflation. The exact solution describing this feature \\cite(minu) is characterized by a step in the spectral index modulated by characteristic oscillations and results in a large running of the spectral index localized over a few e-folds of scale. In this paper we confront this step-like feature with the 5 year WMAP results and demonstrate that it provides a better fit to this data than a featureless initial spectrum. If such a feature exists at all, then it should lie at sufficiently large scales k 0 ∼ −1 corresponding to l ∼ s localized near this scale. This feature could arise as a result of a 'mini-waterfall'-type fast second order phase transition experienced by an auxiliary heavy field during inflation, in a model similar to hybrid inflation (though for a different choice of parameters). If this is the case, then the auxiliary field should be positively coupled to the inflaton
A 2500 deg ^{2} CMB Lensing Map from Combined South Pole Telescope and Planck Data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Omori, Y.; Chown, R.; Simard, G.; Story, K. T.; Aylor, K.; Baxter, E. J.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Cho, H-M.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Haan, T. de; Dobbs, M. A.; Everett, W. B.; George, E. M.; Halverson, N. W.; Harrington, N. L.; Holder, G. P.; Hou, Z.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hrubes, J. D.; Knox, L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Luong-Van, D.; Manzotti, A.; Marrone, D. P.; McMahon, J. J.; Meyer, S. S.; Mocanu, L. M.; Mohr, J. J.; Natoli, T.; Padin, S.; Pryke, C.; Reichardt, C. L.; Ruhl, J. E.; Sayre, J. T.; Schaffer, K. K.; Shirokoff, E.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A. A.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Williamson, R.; Zahn, O.
2017-11-07
We present a cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing map produced from a linear combination of South Pole Telescope (SPT) and \\emph{Planck} temperature data. The 150 GHz temperature data from the $2500\\ {\\rm deg}^{2}$ SPT-SZ survey is combined with the \\emph{Planck} 143 GHz data in harmonic space, to obtain a temperature map that has a broader $\\ell$ coverage and less noise than either individual map. Using a quadratic estimator technique on this combined temperature map, we produce a map of the gravitational lensing potential projected along the line of sight. We measure the auto-spectrum of the lensing potential $C_{L}^{\\phi\\phi}$, and compare it to the theoretical prediction for a $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology consistent with the \\emph{Planck} 2015 data set, finding a best-fit amplitude of $0.95_{-0.06}^{+0.06}({\\rm Stat.})\\! _{-0.01}^{+0.01}({\\rm Sys.})$. The null hypothesis of no lensing is rejected at a significance of $24\\,\\sigma$. One important use of such a lensing potential map is in cross-correlations with other dark matter tracers. We demonstrate this cross-correlation in practice by calculating the cross-spectrum, $C_{L}^{\\phi G}$, between the SPT+\\emph{Planck} lensing map and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (\\emph{WISE}) galaxies. We fit $C_{L}^{\\phi G}$ to a power law of the form $p_{L}=a(L/L_{0})^{-b}$ with $a=2.15 \\times 10^{-8}$, $b=1.35$, $L_{0}=490$, and find $\\eta^{\\phi G}=0.94^{+0.04}_{-0.04}$, which is marginally lower, but in good agreement with $\\eta^{\\phi G}=1.00^{+0.02}_{-0.01}$, the best-fit amplitude for the cross-correlation of \\emph{Planck}-2015 CMB lensing and \\emph{WISE} galaxies over $\\sim67\\%$ of the sky. The lensing potential map presented here will be used for cross-correlation studies with the Dark Energy Survey (DES), whose footprint nearly completely covers the SPT $2500\\ {\\rm deg}^2$ field.
Fast and accurate CMB computations in non-flat FLRW universes
Lesgourgues, Julien
2014-01-01
We present a new method for calculating CMB anisotropies in a non-flat Friedmann universe, relying on a very stable algorithm for the calculation of hyperspherical Bessel functions, that can be pushed to arbitrary precision levels. We also introduce a new approximation scheme which gradually takes over in the flat space limit, and significant speeds-up calculations. Our method is implemented in the Boltzmann code CLASS. It can be used to benchmark the accuracy of the CAMB code in curved space, which is found to match expectations. For default precision settings, corresponding to 0.1% for scalar temperature spectra and 0.2% for scalar polarisation spectra, our code is two to three times faster, depending on curvature. We also simplify the temperature and polarisation source terms significantly, so the different contributions to the $C_\\ell$'s are easy to identify inside the code.
Capparelli, Ludovico; Di Valentino, Eleonora; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Chluba, Jens
2018-03-01
One of the major goals of future cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements is the accurate determination of the effective number of neutrinos Neff. Reaching an experimental sensitivity of Δ Neff=0.013 could indeed falsify the presence of any nonstandard relativistic particles at 95% C.L. In this paper, we test how this future constraint can be affected by the removal of two common assumptions: a negligible running of the inflationary spectral index nrun and a precise determination of the neutron lifetime τn. We first show that the constraints on Neff could be significantly biased by the unaccounted presence of a running of the spectral index. Considering the Stage-IV experiment, a negative running of d n /d ln k =-0.002 could mimic a positive variation of Δ Neff=0.03 . Moreover, given the current discrepancies between experimental measurements of the neutron lifetime τn, we show that the assumption of a conservative error of Δ τn˜10 s could cause a systematic error of Δ Neff=0.02 . Complementary cosmological constraints on the running of the spectral index and a solution to the neutron lifetime discrepancy are therefore needed for an accurate and reliable future CMB bound of Neff at the percent level.
Observational constraints on phantom power-law cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaeonikhom, Chakkrit; Gumjudpai, Burin; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.
2011-01-01
We investigate phantom cosmology in which the scale factor is a power law, and we use cosmological observations from Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) and observational Hubble data, in order to impose complete constraints on the model parameters. We find that the power-law exponent is β∼-6.51 -0.25 +0.24 , while the Big Rip is realized at t s ∼104.5 -2.0 +1.9 Gyr, in 1σ confidence level. Providing late-time asymptotic expressions, we find that the dark-energy equation-of-state parameter at the Big Rip remains finite and equal to w DE ∼-1.153, with the dark-energy density and pressure diverging. Finally, we reconstruct the phantom potential.
Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis
2015-05-01
The field of Cosmology is currently undergoing a positive and constructive crisis. Controversies concerning inflation are not really new. But after the 2013-2014 Planck and BICEP2 announcements, and the more recent joint analysis by Planck, BICEP2 and the Keck Array (PBKA), the basic issues can involve more direct links between the Mathematical Physics aspects of cosmological patterns and the interpretation of experimental results. Open questions and new ideas on the foundations of Cosmology can emerge, while future experimental and observational programs look very promising. The BICEP2 result reporting an excess of B-mode polarization signal of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation was initially presented as a signature of primordial gravitational waves from cosmic inflation. But polarized dust emission can be at the origin of such a signal, and the evidence claimed by BICEP2 is no longer secure after the PBKA analysis. Furthermore, even assuming that significant CMB B-mode polarization has indeed been generated by the early Universe, its theoretical and cosmological interpretation would be far from obvious. Inflationary gravitational waves are not the only possible source of primordial CMB B-modes. Alternative cosmologies such as pre-Big Bang patterns and the spinorial space-time (SST) we introduced in 1996-97 can naturally produce this polarization. Furthermore, the SST automatically generates for each comoving observer a local privileged space direction (PSD) whose existence may have been confirmed by Planck data. If such a PSD exists, vector perturbations have most likely been strong in the early Universe and may have produced CMB B-modes. Pre-Big Bang cosmologies can also generate gravitational waves in the early Universe without inflation. After briefly describing detectors devoted to the study of the CMB polarization, we discuss the situation emerging from BICEP2 results, Planck results and the PBKA analysis. In particular, we further analyze
Do joint CMB and HST data support a scale invariant spectrum?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benetti, Micol; Graef, Leila L.; Alcaniz, Jailson S., E-mail: micolbenetti@on.br, E-mail: leilagraef@on.br, E-mail: alcaniz@on.br [Departamento de Astronomia, Observatório Nacional, 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2017-04-01
We combine current measurements of the local expansion rate, H {sub 0}, and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) estimates of helium abundance with the latest cosmic microwave background (CMB) data from the Planck Collaboration to discuss the observational viability of the scale invariant Harrison-Zeldovch-Peebles (HZP) spectrum. We also analyze some of its extensions, namely, HZP + Y {sub P} and HZP + N {sub eff}, where Y {sub P} is the primordial helium mass fraction and N {sub eff} is the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom. We perform a Bayesian analysis and show that the latter model is favored with respect to the standard cosmology for values of N {sub eff} lying in the interval 3.70 ± 0.13 (1σ), which is currently allowed by some independent analyses.
Fast and accurate CMB computations in non-flat FLRW universes
Lesgourgues, Julien; Tram, Thomas
2014-09-01
We present a new method for calculating CMB anisotropies in a non-flat Friedmann universe, relying on a very stable algorithm for the calculation of hyperspherical Bessel functions, that can be pushed to arbitrary precision levels. We also introduce a new approximation scheme which gradually takes over in the flat space limit and leads to significant reductions of the computation time. Our method is implemented in the Boltzmann code class. It can be used to benchmark the accuracy of the camb code in curved space, which is found to match expectations. For default precision settings, corresponding to 0.1% for scalar temperature spectra and 0.2% for scalar polarisation spectra, our code is two to three times faster, depending on curvature. We also simplify the temperature and polarisation source terms significantly, so the different contributions to the Cl 's are easy to identify inside the code.
Fast and accurate CMB computations in non-flat FLRW universes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lesgourgues, Julien; Tram, Thomas
2014-01-01
We present a new method for calculating CMB anisotropies in a non-flat Friedmann universe, relying on a very stable algorithm for the calculation of hyperspherical Bessel functions, that can be pushed to arbitrary precision levels. We also introduce a new approximation scheme which gradually takes over in the flat space limit and leads to significant reductions of the computation time. Our method is implemented in the Boltzmann code class. It can be used to benchmark the accuracy of the camb code in curved space, which is found to match expectations. For default precision settings, corresponding to 0.1% for scalar temperature spectra and 0.2% for scalar polarisation spectra, our code is two to three times faster, depending on curvature. We also simplify the temperature and polarisation source terms significantly, so the different contributions to the C ℓ 's are easy to identify inside the code
The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: A Measurement of the Primordial Power Spectrum
Hlozek, Renee; Dunkley, Joanna; Addison, Graeme; Appel, John William; Bond, J. Richard; Carvalho, C. Sofia; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; Duenner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas;
2011-01-01
We present constraints on the primordial power spectrum of adiabatic fluctuations using data from the 2008 Southern Survey of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). The angular resolution of ACT provides sensitivity to scales beyond l = 1000 for resolution of multiple peaks in the primordial temperature power spectrum, which enables us to probe the primordial power spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations with wavenumbers up to k approx. = 0.2 Mp/c. We find no evidence for deviation from power-law fluctuations over two decades in scale. Matter fluctuations inferred from the primordial temperature power spectrum evolve over cosmic time and can be used to predict the matter power spectrum at late times; we illustrate the overlap of the matter power inferred from CMB measurements (which probe the power spectrum in thc linear regime) with existing probes of galaxy clustering, cluster abundances and weak lensing constraints on the primordial power. This highlights the range of scales probed by current measurement.s of the matter power spectrum.
Motion induced second order temperature and y-type anisotropies after the subtraction of linear dipole in the CMB maps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sunyaev, Rashid A.; Khatri, Rishi
2013-01-01
y-type spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background allow us to detect clusters and groups of galaxies, filaments of hot gas and the non-uniformities in the warm hot intergalactic medium. Several CMB experiments (on small areas of sky) and theoretical groups (for full sky) have recently published y-type distortion maps. We propose to search for two artificial hot spots in such y-type maps resulting from the incomplete subtraction of the effect of the motion induced dipole on the cosmic microwave background sky. This dipole introduces, at second order, additional temperature and y-distortion anisotropy on the sky of amplitude few μK which could potentially be measured by Planck HFI and Pixie experiments and can be used as a source of cross channel calibration by CMB experiments. This y-type distortion is present in every pixel and is not the result of averaging the whole sky. This distortion, calculated exactly from the known linear dipole, can be subtracted from the final y-type maps, if desired
CMB constraints on the inflaton couplings and reheating temperature in α-attractor inflation
Drewes, Marco; Kang, Jin U.; Mun, Ui Ri
2017-11-01
We study reheating in α-attractor models of inflation in which the inflaton couples to other scalars or fermions. We show that the parameter space contains viable regions in which the inflaton couplings to radiation can be determined from the properties of CMB temperature fluctuations, in particular the spectral index. This may be the only way to measure these fundamental microphysical parameters, which shaped the universe by setting the initial temperature of the hot big bang and contain important information about the embedding of a given model of inflation into a more fundamental theory of physics. The method can be applied to other models of single field inflation.
Adam, R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bracco, A.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.R.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gjerlow, E.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Guillet, V.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hivon, E.; Holmes, W.A.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Krachmalnicoff, N.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T.J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; d'Orfeuil, B.Rouille; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Soler, J.D.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vibert, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I.K.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2016-02-09
The polarized thermal emission from Galactic dust is the main foreground present in measurements of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at frequencies above 100GHz. We exploit the Planck HFI polarization data from 100 to 353GHz to measure the dust angular power spectra $C_\\ell^{EE,BB}$ over the range $40<\\ell<600$. These will bring new insights into interstellar dust physics and a precise determination of the level of contamination for CMB polarization experiments. We show that statistical properties of the emission can be characterized over large fractions of the sky using $C_\\ell$. For the dust, they are well described by power laws in $\\ell$ with exponents $\\alpha^{EE,BB}=-2.42\\pm0.02$. The amplitudes of the polarization $C_\\ell$ vary with the average brightness in a way similar to the intensity ones. The dust polarization frequency dependence is consistent with modified blackbody emission with $\\beta_d=1.59$ and $T_d=19.6$K. We find a systematic ratio between the amplitudes of ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henrot-Versillé, Sophie; Robinet, Florent; Leroy, Nicolas; Plaszczynski, Stéphane; Arnaud, Nicolas; Bizouard, Marie-Anne; Cavalier, Fabien; Christensen, Nelson; Couchot, François; Franco, Samuel; Hello, Patrice; Huet, Dominique; Kasprzack, Marie; Perdereau, Olivier; Spinelli, Marta; Tristram, Matthieu
2015-01-01
The production of a primordial stochastic gravitational-wave (GW) background by processes occuring in the early Universe is expected in a broad range of models. Observing this background would open a unique window onto the Universe's evolutionary history. Probes like the cosmic microwave background (CMB) or the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) can be used to set upper limits on the stochastic GW background energy density Ω GW for frequencies above 10 −15 Hz. We perform a profile likelihood analysis of the Planck CMB temperature anisotropies and gravitational lensing data combined with WMAP low-ℓ polarization, BAO, South Pole Telescope and Atacama Cosmology Telescope data. We find that Ω GW h 0 2 <3.8×10 −6 at a 95% confidence level for adiabatic initial conditions, which improves over the previous limit by a factor 2.3. Assuming that the primordial GW has been produced by a network of cosmic strings, we have derived exclusion limits in the cosmic string parameter space. If the size of the loops is determined by gravitational back-reaction, string tension values greater than ∼4 × 10 −9 are excluded for a reconnection probability of 10 −3 . (paper)
Integrated cosmological probes: concordance quantified
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Nicola, Andrina; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre, E-mail: andrina.nicola@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: adam.amara@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: alexandre.refregier@phys.ethz.ch [Department of Physics, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)
2017-10-01
Assessing the consistency of parameter constraints derived from different cosmological probes is an important way to test the validity of the underlying cosmological model. In an earlier work [1], we computed constraints on cosmological parameters for ΛCDM from an integrated analysis of CMB temperature anisotropies and CMB lensing from Planck, galaxy clustering and weak lensing from SDSS, weak lensing from DES SV as well as Type Ia supernovae and Hubble parameter measurements. In this work, we extend this analysis and quantify the concordance between the derived constraints and those derived by the Planck Collaboration as well as WMAP9, SPT and ACT. As a measure for consistency, we use the Surprise statistic [2], which is based on the relative entropy. In the framework of a flat ΛCDM cosmological model, we find all data sets to be consistent with one another at a level of less than 1σ. We highlight that the relative entropy is sensitive to inconsistencies in the models that are used in different parts of the analysis. In particular, inconsistent assumptions for the neutrino mass break its invariance on the parameter choice. When consistent model assumptions are used, the data sets considered in this work all agree with each other and ΛCDM, without evidence for tensions.
A Bayesian analysis of inflationary primordial spectrum models using Planck data
Santos da Costa, Simony; Benetti, Micol; Alcaniz, Jailson
2018-03-01
The current available Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data show an anomalously low value of the CMB temperature fluctuations at large angular scales (l power is not explained by the minimal ΛCDM model, and one of the possible mechanisms explored in the literature to address this problem is the presence of features in the primordial power spectrum (PPS) motivated by the early universe physics. In this paper, we analyse a set of cutoff inflationary PPS models using a Bayesian model comparison approach in light of the latest CMB data from the Planck Collaboration. Our results show that the standard power-law parameterisation is preferred over all models considered in the analysis, which motivates the search for alternative explanations for the observed lack of power in the CMB anisotropy spectrum.
Interacting scalar tensor cosmology in light of SNeIa, CMB, BAO and OHD observational data sets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rabiei, Sayed Wrya; Saaidi, Khaled; Sheikhahmadi, Haidar; Aghamohammadi, Ali
2016-01-01
In this work, an interacting chameleon-like scalar field scenario, by considering SNeIa, CMB, BAO, and OHD data sets, is investigated. In fact, the investigation is realized by introducing an ansatz for the effective dark energy equation of state, which mimics the behavior of chameleon-like models. Based on this assumption, some cosmological parameters, including the Hubble, deceleration, and coincidence parameters, in such a mechanism are analyzed. It is realized that, to estimate the free parameters of a theoretical model, by regarding the systematic errors it is better that the whole of the above observational data sets would be considered. In fact, if one considers SNeIa, CMB, and BAO, but disregards OHD, it maybe leads to different results. Also, to get a better overlap between the contours with the constraint χ m 2 ≤ 1, the χ T 2 function could be re-weighted. The relative probability functions are plotted for marginalized likelihood L(Ω m0 , ω 1 , β) according to the two dimensional confidence levels 68.3, 90, and 95.4%. Meanwhile, the value of the free parameters which maximize the marginalized likelihoods using the above confidence levels are obtained. In addition, based on these calculations the minimum value of χ 2 based on the free parameters of the ansatz for the effective dark energy equation of state is achieved. (orig.)
Studying Heavy Ion Collisions Using Methods From Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gaardhøje J. J.
2014-04-01
Full Text Available We present and discuss a framework for studying the morphology of high-multiplicity events from relativistic heavy ion collisions using methods commonly employed in the analysis of the photons from the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB. The analysis is based on the decomposition of the distribution of the number density of (charged particles expressed in polar and azimuthal coordinates into a sum of spherical harmonic functions. We present an application of the method exploting relevant symmetries to the study of azimuthal correlations arizing from collective flow among charged particles produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions. We discuss perspectives for event-by- event analyses, which with increasing collision energy will eventually open entirely new dimensions in the study of ultrarelaticistic heavy ion reactions.
Tensor Minkowski Functionals: first application to the CMB
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Ganesan, Vidhya [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala II Block, Bangalore 560 034 (India); Chingangbam, Pravabati, E-mail: vidhya@iiap.res.in, E-mail: prava@iiap.res.in [Indian Institute of Science, C.V. Raman Ave, Bangalore 560 012 (India)
2017-06-01
Tensor Minkowski Functionals (TMFs) are tensor generalizations of the usual Minkowski Functionals which are scalar quantities. We introduce them here for use in cosmological analysis, in particular to analyze the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation. They encapsulate information about the shapes of structures and the orientation of distributions of structures. We focus on one of the TMFs, namely W {sub 2}{sup 1,1}, which is the (1,1) rank tensor generalization of the genus. The ratio of the eigenvalues of the average of W {sub 2}{sup 1,1} over all structures, α, encodes the net orientation of the structures; and the average of the ratios of the eigenvalues of W {sub 2}{sup 1,1} for each structure, β, encodes the net intrinsic anisotropy of the structures. We have developed a code that computes W {sub 2}{sup 1,1}, and from it α and β, for a set of structures on the 2-dimensional Euclidean plane. We use it to compute α and β as functions of chosen threshold levels for simulated Gaussian and isotropic CMB temperature and E mode fields. We obtain the value of α to be one for both temperature and E mode, which means that we recover the statistical isotropy of density fluctuations that we input in the simulations. We find that the standard ΛCDM model predicts a charateristic shape of β for temperature and E mode as a function of the threshold, and the average over thresholds is β∼ 0.62 for temperature and β∼ 0.63 for E mode. Accurate measurements of α and β can be used to test the standard model of cosmology and to search for deviations from it. For this purpose we compute α and β for temperature and E mode data of various data sets from PLANCK mission. We compare the values measured from observed data with those obtained from simulations to which instrument beam and noise characteristics of the 44GHz frequency channel have been added (which are provided as part of the PLANCK data release). We find very good agreement of β and α between all
Impact of reionization on CMB polarization tests of slow-roll inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mortonson, Michael J.; Hu, Wayne
2008-01-01
Estimates of inflationary parameters from the CMB B-mode polarization spectrum on the largest scales depend on knowledge of the reionization history, especially at low tensor-to-scalar ratio. Assuming an incorrect reionization history in the analysis of such polarization data can strongly bias the inflationary parameters. One consequence is that the single-field slow-roll consistency relation between the tensor-to-scalar ratio and tensor tilt might be excluded with high significance even if this relation holds in reality. We explain the origin of the bias and present case studies with various tensor amplitudes and noise characteristics. A more model-independent approach can account for uncertainties about reionization, and we show that parametrizing the reionization history by a set of its principal components with respect to E-mode polarization removes the bias in inflationary parameter measurement with little degradation in precision
Can cosmic shear shed light on low cosmic microwave background multipoles?
Kesden, Michael; Kamionkowski, Marc; Cooray, Asantha
2003-11-28
The lowest multipole moments of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) are smaller than expected for a scale-invariant power spectrum. One possible explanation is a cutoff in the primordial power spectrum below a comoving scale of k(c) approximately equal to 5.0 x 10(-4) Mpc(-1). Such a cutoff would increase significantly the cross correlation between the large-angle CMB and cosmic-shear patterns. The cross correlation may be detectable at >2sigma which, combined with the low CMB moments, may tilt the balance between a 2sigma result and a firm detection of a large-scale power-spectrum cutoff. The cutoff also increases the large-angle cross correlation between the CMB and the low-redshift tracers of the mass distribution.
ACTPol: Status and preliminary CMB polarization results from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope
Koopman, Brian
2014-03-01
The Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter (ACTPol) is a polarization sensitive upgrade for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, located at an elevation of 5190 m on Cerro Toco in Chile. In summer 2013, ACTPol achieved first light with one third of the final detector configuration. The remaining two thirds of the detector array will be installed during spring 2014, enabling full sensitivity, high resolution, observations at both 90 GHz and 150 GHz. Using approximately 3,000 transition-edge sensor bolometers, ACTPol will enable measurements of small angular scale polarization anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). I will present a status update for the ACTPol receiver and some preliminary results. ACTPol measurements will allow us to probe the spectral index of inflation as well as to constrain early dark energy and the sum of neutrino masses.
Interacting scalar tensor cosmology in light of SNeIa, CMB, BAO and OHD observational data sets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rabiei, Sayed Wrya; Saaidi, Khaled [Faculty of Science University of Kurdistan, Department of Physics, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sheikhahmadi, Haidar [Faculty of Science University of Kurdistan, Department of Physics, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Advance Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS) Gava Zang, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghamohammadi, Ali [Sanandaj Branch Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-02-15
In this work, an interacting chameleon-like scalar field scenario, by considering SNeIa, CMB, BAO, and OHD data sets, is investigated. In fact, the investigation is realized by introducing an ansatz for the effective dark energy equation of state, which mimics the behavior of chameleon-like models. Based on this assumption, some cosmological parameters, including the Hubble, deceleration, and coincidence parameters, in such a mechanism are analyzed. It is realized that, to estimate the free parameters of a theoretical model, by regarding the systematic errors it is better that the whole of the above observational data sets would be considered. In fact, if one considers SNeIa, CMB, and BAO, but disregards OHD, it maybe leads to different results. Also, to get a better overlap between the contours with the constraint χ{sub m}{sup 2} ≤ 1, the χ{sub T}{sup 2} function could be re-weighted. The relative probability functions are plotted for marginalized likelihood L(Ω{sub m0}, ω{sub 1}, β) according to the two dimensional confidence levels 68.3, 90, and 95.4%. Meanwhile, the value of the free parameters which maximize the marginalized likelihoods using the above confidence levels are obtained. In addition, based on these calculations the minimum value of χ{sup 2} based on the free parameters of the ansatz for the effective dark energy equation of state is achieved. (orig.)
Relic gravitational waves in the accelerating Universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Yang; Yuan Yefei; Zhao Wen; Chen Yingtian
2005-01-01
Recent observations have indicated that the Universe at the present stage is in an accelerating expansion, a process that has great implications. We evaluate the spectrum of relic gravitational waves in the current accelerating Universe and find that there are new features appearing in the resulting spectrum as compared to the decelerating models. In the low-frequency range the peak of the spectrum is now located at a frequency ν E ∼ (OMEGA m /OMEGA Λ ) 1/3 ν H , where ν H is the Hubble frequency, and there appears a new segment of spectrum between ν E and ν H . In all other intervals of frequencies ≥ν H , the spectral amplitude acquires an extra factor (OMEGA m /OMEGA Λ ), due to the current acceleration; otherwise the shape of the spectrum is similar to that in the decelerating models. The recent WMAP result of CMB anisotropies is used to normalize the amplitude for gravitational waves. The slope of the power spectrum depends sensitively on the scale factor a(τ) ∝ vertical bar τ vertical bar 1+β during the inflationary stage with β = -2 for the exact de Sitter space. With increasing β, the resulting spectrum is tilted to be flatter with more power at high frequencies, and the sensitivity of the second science run of the LIGO detectors puts a restriction on the parameter β ≤ -1.8. We also give a numerical solution which confirms these features
Is a step in the primordial spectral index favoured by CMB data?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Joy, Minu; Shafieloo, Arman; Sahni, Varun [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune 411 007 (India); Starobinsky, Alexei A., E-mail: minujoy@alphonsacollege.ac.in, E-mail: a.shafieloo1@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: varun@iucaa.ernet.in, E-mail: alstar@landau.ac.ru [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, 119334 Moscow (Russian Federation)
2009-06-01
A sudden small change in the second derivative of the inflaton potential can result in a universal local feature in the spectrum of primordial perturbations generated during inflation. The exact solution describing this feature \\cite(minu) is characterized by a step in the spectral index modulated by characteristic oscillations and results in a large running of the spectral index localized over a few e-folds of scale. In this paper we confront this step-like feature with the 5 year WMAP results and demonstrate that it provides a better fit to this data than a featureless initial spectrum. If such a feature exists at all, then it should lie at sufficiently large scales k{sub 0} ∼< 0.003 Mpc{sup −1} corresponding to l ∼< 40. The sign of the effect is shown to correspond to the negative running of n{sub s} localized near this scale. This feature could arise as a result of a 'mini-waterfall'-type fast second order phase transition experienced by an auxiliary heavy field during inflation, in a model similar to hybrid inflation (though for a different choice of parameters). If this is the case, then the auxiliary field should be positively coupled to the inflaton.
On minimally parametric primordial power spectrum reconstruction and the evidence for a red tilt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verde, Licia; Peiris, Hiranya
2008-01-01
The latest cosmological data seem to indicate a significant deviation from scale invariance of the primordial power spectrum when parameterized either by a power law or by a spectral index with non-zero 'running'. This deviation, by itself, serves as a powerful tool for discriminating among theories for the origin of cosmological structures such as inflationary models. Here, we use a minimally parametric smoothing spline technique to reconstruct the shape of the primordial power spectrum. This technique is well suited to searching for smooth features in the primordial power spectrum such as deviations from scale invariance or a running spectral index, although it would recover sharp features of high statistical significance. We use the WMAP three-year results in combination with data from a suite of higher resolution cosmic microwave background experiments (including the latest ACBAR 2008 release), as well as large-scale structure data from SDSS and 2dFGRS. We employ cross-validation to assess, using the data themselves, the optimal amount of smoothness in the primordial power spectrum consistent with the data. This minimally parametric reconstruction supports the evidence for a power law primordial power spectrum with a red tilt, but not for deviations from a power law power spectrum. Smooth variations in the primordial power spectrum are not significantly degenerate with the other cosmological parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chluba, Jens; Erickcek, Adrienne L.; Ben-Dayan, Ido
2012-01-01
In the early universe, energy stored in small-scale density perturbations is quickly dissipated by Silk damping, a process that inevitably generates μ- and y-type spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). These spectral distortions depend on the shape and amplitude of the primordial power spectrum at wavenumbers k ∼ 4 Mpc –1 . Here, we study constraints on the primordial power spectrum derived from COBE/FIRAS and forecasted for PIXIE. We show that measurements of μ and y impose strong bounds on the integrated small-scale power, and we demonstrate how to compute these constraints using k-space window functions that account for the effects of thermalization and dissipation physics. We show that COBE/FIRAS places a robust upper limit on the amplitude of the small-scale power spectrum. This limit is about three orders of magnitude stronger than the one derived from primordial black holes in the same scale range. Furthermore, this limit could be improved by another three orders of magnitude with PIXIE, potentially opening up a new window to early universe physics. To illustrate the power of these constraints, we consider several generic models for the small-scale power spectrum predicted by different inflation scenarios, including running-mass inflation models and inflation scenarios with episodes of particle production. PIXIE could place very tight constraints on these scenarios, potentially even ruling out running-mass inflation models if no distortion is detected. We also show that inflation models with sub-Planckian field excursion that generate detectable tensor perturbations should simultaneously produce a large CMB spectral distortion, a link that could potentially be established with PIXIE.
The Physics of the Cosmic Microwave Background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peacock, John
2007-01-01
The award of the 2006 Nobel Prize for Physics is a reminder to non-specialists that the cosmic microwave background (CMB) has yielded astonishing advances in our understanding of cosmology. Mather and Smoot received their prize for work done with NASA's COBE satellite in the early 1990s, but the subject has if anything accelerated since then. The results from NASA's WMAP satellite, reported in 2003 and 2006, have proved COBE's equal in importance and have generated huge worldwide interest. There could therefore hardly be a better time to be writing a detailed textbook to explain what the fuss is all about to a new generation of research students. A comprehensive treatment of the physics of the CMB is not easy to achieve, because it is connected to so much else in cosmology. A student must have a background knowledge of the geometry and dynamics of an expanding universe, plus a deep exposure to the physics of quantum fields, in order to understand the modern 'inflationary' view in which the universe was set expanding by the tension of the vacuum, and was seeded with small inhomogeneities as a result of quantum fluctuations. Although the theory of inflation is not yet verified, the CMB has the potential to accomplish this; testing inflation is undoubtedly one of the principal aims of cosmology over the next decade. Even with this preparation, understanding the properties of the CMB is quite hard at the professional level, requiring the perturbation expansion of the relativistic Boltzmann equation. These technical difficulties are particularly strong in the frontier area of CMB polarization. Naselsky and his collaborators have allocated themselves a relatively brief 255 pages in which to meet these challenges, so some compromise is inevitable. Although the preface is not explicit about the assumed prior knowledge, no systematic material on background cosmology or on inflation is to be found. The former is reasonable in a graduate-level text (which this certainly is
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sathyanarayana Rao, Mayuri; Subrahmanyan, Ravi; Shankar, N Udaya [Raman Research Institute, C V Raman Avenue, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India); Chluba, Jens, E-mail: mayuris@rri.res.in [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, M13 9PL (United Kingdom)
2017-05-01
Cosmic baryon evolution during the Cosmic Dawn and Reionization results in redshifted 21-cm spectral distortions in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). These encode information about the nature and timing of first sources over redshifts 30–6 and appear at meter wavelengths as a tiny CMB distortion along with the Galactic and extragalactic radio sky, which is orders of magnitude brighter. Therefore, detection requires precise methods to model foregrounds. We present a method of foreground fitting using maximally smooth (MS) functions. We demonstrate the usefulness of MS functions over traditionally used polynomials to separate foregrounds from the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) signal. We also examine the level of spectral complexity in plausible foregrounds using GMOSS, a physically motivated model of the radio sky, and find that they are indeed smooth and can be modeled by MS functions to levels sufficient to discern the vanilla model of the EoR signal. We show that MS functions are loss resistant and robustly preserve EoR signal strength and turning points in the residuals. Finally, we demonstrate that in using a well-calibrated spectral radiometer and modeling foregrounds with MS functions, the global EoR signal can be detected with a Bayesian approach with 90% confidence in 10 minutes’ integration.
Measuring the Largest Angular Scale CMB B-mode Polarization with Galactic Foregrounds on a Cut Sky
Watts, Duncan J.; Larson, David; Marriage, Tobias A.; Abitbol, Maximilian H.; Appel, John W.; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Eimer, Joseph R.; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Miller, Nathan J.; Rostem, Karwan; Wollack, Edward J.
2015-12-01
We consider the effectiveness of foreground cleaning in the recovery of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization sourced by gravitational waves for tensor-to-scalar ratios in the range 0\\lt r\\lt 0.1. Using the planned survey area, frequency bands, and sensitivity of the Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS), we simulate maps of Stokes Q and U parameters at 40, 90, 150, and 220 GHz, including realistic models of the CMB, diffuse Galactic thermal dust and synchrotron foregrounds, and Gaussian white noise. We use linear combinations (LCs) of the simulated multifrequency data to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of r, the relative scalar amplitude s, and LC coefficients. We find that for 10,000 simulations of a CLASS-like experiment using only measurements of the reionization peak ({\\ell }≤slant 23), there is a 95% C.L. upper limit of r\\lt 0.017 in the case of no primordial gravitational waves. For simulations with r=0.01, we recover at 68% C.L. r={0.012}-0.006+0.011. The reionization peak corresponds to a fraction of the multipole moments probed by CLASS, and simulations including 30≤slant {\\ell }≤slant 100 further improve our upper limits to r\\lt 0.008 at 95% C.L. (r={0.010}-0.004+0.004 for primordial gravitational waves with r = 0.01). In addition to decreasing the current upper bound on r by an order of magnitude, these foreground-cleaned low multipole data will achieve a cosmic variance limited measurement of the E-mode polarization’s reionization peak.
Galileon gravity in light of ISW, CMB, BAO and H {sub 0} data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Renk, Janina [The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Zumalacárregui, Miguel [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Montanari, Francesco [Physics Department, University of Helsinki and Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, 00014, University of Helsinki (Finland); Barreira, Alexandre, E-mail: janina.renk@fysik.su.se, E-mail: miguelzuma@berkeley.edu, E-mail: francesco.montanari@helsinki.fi, E-mail: barreira@mpa-garching.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85741 Garching (Germany)
2017-10-01
Cosmological models with Galileon gravity are an alternative to the standard ΛCDM paradigm with testable predictions at the level of its self-accelerating solutions for the expansion history, as well as large-scale structure formation. Here, we place constraints on the full parameter space of these models using data from the cosmic microwave background (CMB) (including lensing), baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the Integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect. We pay special attention to the ISW effect for which we use the cross-spectra, C {sub ℓ}{sup Tg}, of CMB temperature maps and foreground galaxies from the WISE survey. The sign of C {sub ℓ}{sup Tg} is set by the time evolution of the lensing potential in the redshift range of the galaxy sample: it is positive if the potential decays (like in ΛCDM), negative if it deepens. We constrain three subsets of Galileon gravity separately known as the Cubic, Quartic and Quintic Galileons. The cubic Galileon model predicts a negative C {sub ℓ}{sup Tg} and exhibits a 7.8σ tension with the data, which effectively rules it out. For the quartic and quintic models the ISW data also rule out a significant portion of the parameter space but permit regions where the goodness-of-fit is comparable to ΛCDM. The data prefers a non zero sum of the neutrino masses (∑ m {sub ν} ≈ 0.5eV) with ∼ 5σ significance in these models. The best-fitting models have values of H {sub 0} consistent with local determinations, thereby avoiding the tension that exists in ΛCDM. We also identify and discuss a ∼ 2σ tension that Galileon gravity exhibits with recent BAO measurements. Our analysis shows overall that Galileon cosmologies cannot be ruled out by current data but future lensing, BAO and ISW data hold strong potential to do so.
Constraints on hidden photons from current and future observations of CMB spectral distortions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kunze, Kerstin E.; Vázquez-Mozo, Miguel Á.
2015-01-01
A variety of beyond the standard model scenarios contain very light hidden sector U(1) gauge bosons undergoing kinetic mixing with the photon. The resulting oscillation between ordinary and hidden photons leads to spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background. We update the bounds on the mixing parameter χ 0 and the mass of the hidden photon m γ' for future experiments measuring CMB spectral distortions, such as PIXIE and PRISM/COrE. For 10 −14 eV∼< m γ' ∼< 10 −13 eV, we find the kinetic mixing angle χ 0 has to be less than 10 −8 at 95% CL. These bounds are more than an order of magnitude stronger than those derived from the COBE/FIRAS data
Planck Collaboration; Adam, R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bracco, A.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Guillet, V.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Krachmalnicoff, N.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rouillé d'Orfeuil, B.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Soler, J. D.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vibert, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I. K.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2016-02-01
The polarized thermal emission from diffuse Galactic dust is the main foreground present in measurements of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at frequencies above 100 GHz. In this paper we exploit the uniqueness of the Planck HFI polarization data from 100 to 353 GHz to measure the polarized dust angular power spectra CℓEE and CℓBB over the multipole range 40 <ℓ< 600 well away from the Galactic plane. These measurements will bring new insights into interstellar dust physics and allow a precise determination of the level of contamination for CMB polarization experiments. Despite the non-Gaussian and anisotropic nature of Galactic dust, we show that general statistical properties of the emission can be characterized accurately over large fractions of the sky using angular power spectra. The polarization power spectra of the dust are well described by power laws in multipole, Cℓ ∝ ℓα, with exponents αEE,BB = -2.42 ± 0.02. The amplitudes of the polarization power spectra vary with the average brightness in a way similar to the intensity power spectra. The frequency dependence of the dust polarization spectra is consistent with modified blackbody emission with βd = 1.59 and Td = 19.6 K down to the lowest Planck HFI frequencies. We find a systematic difference between the amplitudes of the Galactic B- and E-modes, CℓBB/CℓEE = 0.5. We verify that these general properties are preserved towards high Galactic latitudes with low dust column densities. We show that even in the faintest dust-emitting regions there are no "clean" windows in the sky where primordial CMB B-mode polarization measurements could be made without subtraction of foreground emission. Finally, we investigate the level of dust polarization in the specific field recently targeted by the BICEP2 experiment. Extrapolation of the Planck 353 GHz data to 150 GHz gives a dust power 𝒟ℓBB ≡ ℓ(ℓ+1)CℓBB/(2π) of 1.32 × 10-2 μKCMB2 over the multipole range
A Guide to Designing Future Ground-based CMB Experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, W. L.K.; Errard, J.; Dvorkin, C.; Kuo, C. L.; Lee, A. T.; McDonald, P.; Slosar, A.; Zahn, O.
2014-01-01
In this follow-up work to the High Energy Physics Community Summer Study 2013 (HEP CSS 2013, a.k.a. Snowmass), we explore the scientific capabilities of a future Stage-IV Cosmic Microwave Background polarization experiment (CMB-S4) under various assumptions on detector count, resolution, and sky coverage. We use the Fisher matrix technique to calculate the expected uncertainties in cosmological parameters in vΛCDM that are especially relevant to the physics of fundamental interactions, including neutrino masses, effective number of relativistic species, dark-energy equation of state, dark-matter annihilation, and inflationary parameters. To further chart the landscape of future cosmology probes, we include forecasted results from the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) signal as measured by DESI to constrain parameters that would benefit from low redshift information. We find the following best 1-δ constraints: δ(M_v ) = 15 meV, δ(N_e_f_f ) = 0.0156, Dark energy Figure of Merit = 303, δ(p_a_n_n) = 0.00588 x 3 x 10"-"2"6 cm"3/s/GeV, δ(Ω_K) = 0.00074, δ(n_s) = 0.00110, δ(α_s) = 0.00145, and δ(r) = 0.00009. We also detail the dependences of the parameter constraints on detector count, resolution, and sky coverage.
Koopman, Brian; ACTPol Collaboration
2015-04-01
The Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter (ACTPol) is a polarization sensitive upgrade for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, located at an elevation of 5190 m on Cerro Toco in Chile. Achieving first light in 2013, ACTPol is entering its third observation season. Advanced ACTPol is a next generation upgrade for ACTPol, with additional frequencies, polarization modulation, and new detector arrays, that will begin in 2016. I will first present an overview of the two projects and then focus on describing the methods used for polarization angle calibration of the ACTPol detectors. These methods utilize polarization ray tracing in the optical design software CODEV together with detector positions determined from planet observations and represent a critical input for mapping the polarization of the CMB.
ACOUSTIC SCALE FROM THE ANGULAR POWER SPECTRA OF SDSS-III DR8 PHOTOMETRIC LUMINOUS GALAXIES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seo, Hee-Jong; Ho, Shirley; White, Martin; Reid, Beth; Schlegel, David J.; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Ross, Ashley J.; Percival, Will J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Saito, Shun; De Putter, Roland; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Xu Xiaoying; Skibba, Ramin; Schneider, Donald P.; Verde, Licia; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Brinkmann, J.
2012-01-01
We measure the acoustic scale from the angular power spectra of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III) Data Release 8 imaging catalog that includes 872, 921 galaxies over ∼10,000 deg 2 between 0.45 A (z)/r s = 9.212 +0.416 – 0 .404 at z = 0.54, and therefore D A (z) = 1411 ± 65 Mpc at z = 0.54; the result is fairly independent of assumptions on the underlying cosmology. Our measurement of angular diameter distance D A (z) is 1.4σ higher than what is expected for the concordance ΛCDM, in accordance to the trend of other spectroscopic BAO measurements for z ∼> 0.35. We report constraints on cosmological parameters from our measurement in combination with the WMAP7 data and the previous spectroscopic BAO measurements of SDSS and WiggleZ. We refer to our companion papers (Ho et al.; de Putter et al.) for investigations on information of the full power spectrum.
Sneutrino hybrid inflation and nonthermal leptogenesis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antusch, Stefan; Baumann, Jochen P.; Domcke, Valerie F.; Kostka, Philipp M.
2010-01-01
In sneutrino hybrid inflation the superpartner of one of the right-handed neutrinos involved in the seesaw mechanism plays the role of the inflaton field. It obtains its large mass after the ''waterfall'' phase transition which ends hybrid inflation. After this phase transition the oscillations of the sneutrino inflaton field may dominate the universe and efficiently produce the baryon asymmetry of the universe via nonthermal leptogenesis. We investigate the conditions under which inflation, with primordial perturbations in accordance with the latest WMAP results, as well as successful nonthermal leptogenesis can be realized simultaneously within the sneutrino hybrid inflation scenario. We point out which requirements successful inflation and leptogenesis impose on the seesaw parameters, i.e. on the Yukawa couplings and the mass of the right-handed (s)neutrino, and derive the predictions for the CMB observables in terms of the right-handed (s)neutrino mass and the other relevant model parameters
Strongest model-independent bound on the lifetime of Dark Matter
Audren, Benjamin; Mangano, Gianpiero; Serpico, Pasquale Dario; Tram, Thomas
2014-01-01
Dark Matter is essential for structure formation in the late Universe so it must be stable on cosmological time scales. But how stable exactly? Only assuming decays into relativistic particles, we report an otherwise model independent bound on the lifetime of Dark Matter using current cosmological data. Since these decays affect only the low-$\\ell$ multipoles of the CMB, the Dark Matter lifetime is expected to correlate with the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$ as well as curvature $\\Omega_k$. We consider two models, including $r$ and $r+\\Omega_k$ respectively, versus data from Planck, WMAP, WiggleZ and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations, with or without the BICEP2 data (if interpreted in terms of primordial gravitational waves). This results in a lower bound on the lifetime of CDM given by 160Gyr (without BICEP2) or 200Gyr (with BICEP2) at 95% confidence level.
New 21 cm Power Spectrum Upper Limits From PAPER II: Constraints on IGM Properties at z = 7.7
Pober, Jonathan; Ali, Zaki; Parsons, Aaron; Paper Team
2015-01-01
Using a simulation-based framework, we interpret the power spectrum measurements from PAPER of Ali et al. in the context of IGM physics at z = 7.7. A cold IGM will result in strong 21 cm absorption relative to the CMB and leads to a 21 cm fluctuation power spectrum that can exceed 3000 mK^2. The new PAPER measurements allow us to rule out extreme cold IGM models, placing a lower limit on the physical temperature of the IGM. We also compare this limit with a calculation for the predicted heating from the currently observed galaxy population at z = 8.
How does pressure gravitate? Cosmological constant problem confronts observational cosmology
Narimani, Ali; Afshordi, Niayesh; Scott, Douglas
2014-08-01
An important and long-standing puzzle in the history of modern physics is the gross inconsistency between theoretical expectations and cosmological observations of the vacuum energy density, by at least 60 orders of magnitude, otherwise known as the cosmological constant problem. A characteristic feature of vacuum energy is that it has a pressure with the same amplitude, but opposite sign to its energy density, while all the precision tests of General Relativity are either in vacuum, or for media with negligible pressure. Therefore, one may wonder whether an anomalous coupling to pressure might be responsible for decoupling vacuum from gravity. We test this possibility in the context of the Gravitational Aether proposal, using current cosmological observations, which probe the gravity of relativistic pressure in the radiation era. Interestingly, we find that the best fit for anomalous pressure coupling is about half-way between General Relativity (GR), and Gravitational Aether (GA), if we include Planck together with WMAP and BICEP2 polarization cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations. Taken at face value, this data combination excludes both GR and GA at around the 3 σ level. However, including higher resolution CMB observations (``highL'') or baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO) pushes the best fit closer to GR, excluding the Gravitational Aether solution to the cosmological constant problem at the 4- 5 σ level. This constraint effectively places a limit on the anomalous coupling to pressure in the parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) expansion, ζ4 = 0.105 ± 0.049 (+highL CMB), or ζ4 = 0.066 ± 0.039 (+BAO). These represent the most precise measurement of this parameter to date, indicating a mild tension with GR (for ΛCDM including tensors, with 0ζ4=), and also among different data sets.
How does pressure gravitate? Cosmological constant problem confronts observational cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Narimani, Ali; Scott, Douglas; Afshordi, Niayesh
2014-01-01
An important and long-standing puzzle in the history of modern physics is the gross inconsistency between theoretical expectations and cosmological observations of the vacuum energy density, by at least 60 orders of magnitude, otherwise known as the cosmological constant problem. A characteristic feature of vacuum energy is that it has a pressure with the same amplitude, but opposite sign to its energy density, while all the precision tests of General Relativity are either in vacuum, or for media with negligible pressure. Therefore, one may wonder whether an anomalous coupling to pressure might be responsible for decoupling vacuum from gravity. We test this possibility in the context of the Gravitational Aether proposal, using current cosmological observations, which probe the gravity of relativistic pressure in the radiation era. Interestingly, we find that the best fit for anomalous pressure coupling is about half-way between General Relativity (GR), and Gravitational Aether (GA), if we include Planck together with WMAP and BICEP2 polarization cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations. Taken at face value, this data combination excludes both GR and GA at around the 3 σ level. However, including higher resolution CMB observations (''highL'') or baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO) pushes the best fit closer to GR, excluding the Gravitational Aether solution to the cosmological constant problem at the 4- 5 σ level. This constraint effectively places a limit on the anomalous coupling to pressure in the parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) expansion, ζ 4 = 0.105 ± 0.049 (+highL CMB), or ζ 4 = 0.066 ± 0.039 (+BAO). These represent the most precise measurement of this parameter to date, indicating a mild tension with GR (for ΛCDM including tensors, with 0ζ 4 =), and also among different data sets
Getting leverage on inflation with a large photometric redshift survey
Basse, Tobias; Hannestad, Steen; Wong, Yvonne Y Y
2015-01-01
We assess the potential of a future large-volume photometric redshift survey to constrain observational inflationary parameters using three large-scale structure observables: the angular shear and galaxy power spectra, and the cluster mass function measured through weak lensing. When used in combination with Planck-like CMB measure