Sample records for wln t6n dotj

  1. Secular variations in zonal harmonics of Earth's geopotential and their implications for mantle viscosity and Antarctic melting history due to the last deglaciation (United States)

    Nakada, Masao; Okuno, Jun'ichi


    Secular variations in zonal harmonics of Earth's geopotential based on the satellite laser ranging observations, {\\dot{J}_n}, contain important information about the Earth's deformation due to the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) and recent melting of glaciers and the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Here, we examine the GIA-induced {\\dot{J}_n}, \\dot{J}_n^{GIA} (2 ≤ n ≤ 6), derived from the available geopotential zonal secular rate and recent melting taken from the IPCC 2013 Report (AR5) to explore the possibility of additional information on the depth-dependent lower-mantle viscosity and GIA ice model inferred from the analyses of the \\dot{J}_2^{GIA} and relative sea level changes. The sensitivities of the \\dot{J}_n^{GIA} to lower-mantle viscosity and GIA ice model with a global averaged eustatic sea level (ESL) of ∼130 m indicate that the secular rates for n = 3 and 4 are mainly caused by the viscous response of the lower mantle to the melting of the Antarctic ice sheet regardless of GIA ice models adopted in this study. Also, the analyses of the \\dot{J}_n^{GIA} based on the available geopotential zonal secular rates indicate that permissible lower-mantle viscosity structure satisfying even zonal secular rates of n = 2, 4 and 6 is obtained for the GIA ice model with an Antarctic ESL component of ∼20 or ∼30 m, but there is no viscosity solution satisfying \\dot{J}_3^{GIA} and \\dot{J}_5^{GIA} values. Moreover, the inference model for the lower-mantle viscosity and GIA ice model from each odd zonal secular rate is distinctly different from that satisfying GIA-induced even zonal secular rate. The discrepancy between the inference models for the even and odd zonal secular rates may partly be attributed to uncertainties of the geopotential zonal secular rates for n > 2 and particularly those for odd zonal secular rates due to weakness in the orbital geometry. If this problem is overcome at least for the secular rates of n < 5, then the analyses of

  2. Dynamic study of yeast species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during the spontaneous fermentations of Muscat blanc in Jingyang, China. (United States)

    Wang, Chunxiao; Liu, Yanlin


    The evolution of yeast species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae genotypes during spontaneous fermentations of Muscat blanc planted in 1957 in Jingyang region of China was followed in this study. Using a combination of colony morphology on Wallerstein Nutrient (WLN) medium, sequence analysis of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain and 5.8S-ITS-RFLP analysis, a total of 686 isolates were identified at the species level. The six species identified were S. cerevisiae, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Issatchenkia terricola, Pichia kudriavzevii (Issatchenkia orientalis) and Trichosporon coremiiforme. This is the first report of T. coremiiforme as an inhabitant of grape must. Three new colony morphologies on WLN medium and one new 5.8S-ITS-RFLP profile are described. Species of non-Saccharomyces, predominantly H. opuntiae, were found in early stages of fermentation. Subsequently, S. cerevisiae prevailed followed by large numbers of P. kudriavzevii that dominated at the end of fermentations. Six native genotypes of S. cerevisiae were determined by interdelta sequence analysis. Genotypes III and IV were predominant. As a first step in exploring untapped yeast resources of the region, this study is important for monitoring the yeast ecology in native fermentations and screening indigenous yeasts that will produce wines with regional characteristics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bilgi Ağları ve Kütüphanelerarası İşbirliği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar Tonta


    Full Text Available This paper is on library and Information networks and inter- library co-operation. Different types of networks, their features and struc- tures are briefly reviewed. Also mentioned are the local area netvvorks (LANs, whereby libraries can easily access national and intemational net- works such as JANET, EARN and BITNET. Among other things the func- tions of «intelligent gatevvays», online public access catalogues (OPAÇs and electrbnic mail facilities are explained. A few examples of interlibrary co- operation which have been originated from networks are given in the sec- ond part of the paper; the activities of the Centre for Bibliographic Infor­mation in Japan; the services of library co-operatives such as BLCMP and SWALCAP in the UK, and the way they work; and, the Linked Systems Project, which is the most advanced project of four networks (LC, WLN, RLIN and OCLC in this respect in the US.

  4. Identification and characterization of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts of PDO Tuscan bread sourdough by culture dependent and independent methods. (United States)

    Palla, Michela; Cristani, Caterina; Giovannetti, Manuela; Agnolucci, Monica


    Sourdough fermentation has been increasingly used worldwide, in accordance with the demand of consumers for tasty, natural and healthy food. The high diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast species, detected in sourdoughs all over the world, may affect nutritional, organoleptic and technological traits of leavened baked goods. A wide regional variety of traditional sourdough breads, over 200 types, has been recorded in Italy, including special types selected as worthy of either Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) or Protected Designation of Origin (PDO), whose sourdough microbiota has been functionally and molecularly characterized. As, due to the very recent designation, the microbiota of Tuscan bread sourdough has not been investigated so far, the aim of the present work was to isolate and characterize the species composition of LAB and yeasts of PDO Tuscan bread sourdough by culture-independent and dependent methods. A total of 130 yeasts from WLN medium and 193 LAB from both mMRS and SDB media were isolated and maintained to constitute the germplasm bank of PDO Tuscan bread. Ninety six LAB from mMRS medium and 68 yeasts from WLN medium were randomly selected and molecularly identified by ARDRA (Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis) and PCR-RFLP analysis of the ITS region, respectively, and sequencing. The yeast identity was confirmed by 26S D1/D2 sequencing. All bacterial isolates showed 99% identity with Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, 65 yeast isolates were identified as Candida milleri, and 3 as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Molecular characterization of PDO Tuscan bread sourdough by PCR-DGGE confirmed such data. The distinctive tripartite species association, detected as the microbiota characterizing the sourdough used to produce PDO Tuscan bread, encompassed a large number of L. sanfranciscensis and C. milleri strains, along with a few of S. cerevisiae. The relative composition and specific physiological characteristics of such microbiota

  5. 75 FR 3917 - Notice of Partial Cancellation of Proposed Withdrawal; California (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR..., inclusive, and secs. 23 to 26, inclusive. T. 6 N., R. 11 E., Sec. 35, that portion lying south of the Historic Route 66 Corridor. T. 5 N., R. 12 E., Sec. 2, that portion lying south of the Historic Route 66...

  6. Evaluation of yeast diversity during wine fermentations with direct inoculation and pied de cuve method at an industrial scale. (United States)

    Li, Erhu; Liu, Chuanhe; Liu, Yanlin


    The diversity and composition of yeast populations may greatly impact wine quality. This study investigated the yeast microbiota in two different types of wine fermentations: direct inoculation of a commercial starter versus pied de cuve method at an industrial scale. The pied de cuve fermentation entailed growth of the commercial inoculum used in the direct inoculation fermentation for further inoculation of additional fermentations. Yeast isolates were collected from different stages of wine fermentation and identified to the species level using Wallersterin Laboratory nutrient (WLN) agar followed by analysis of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain. Genetic characteristics of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were assessed by a rapid PCR-based method, relying on the amplification of interdelta sequences. A total of 412 yeast colonies were obtained from all fermentations and eight different WL morphotypes were observed. Non-Saccharomyces yeast mainly appeared in the grape must and at the early stages of wine fermentation. S. cerevisiae was the dominant yeast species using both fermentation techniques. Seven distinguishing interdelta sequence patterns were found among S. cerevisiae strains, and the inoculated commercial starter, AWRI 796, dominated all stages in both direct inoculation and pied de cuve fermentations. This study revealed that S. cerevisiae was the dominant species and an inoculated starter could dominate fermentations with the pied de cuve method under controlled conditions.

  7. Investigating of yeast species in wine fermentation using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism method. (United States)

    Sun, Yue; Liu, Yanlin


    The objective of this study was to examine the potential of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) in monitoring yeast communities during wine fermentation and to reveal new information on yeast community of Chinese enology. Firstly, terminal restriction fragment (TRF) lengths database was constructed using 32 pure yeast species. Ten of these species were firstly documented. The species except for Candida vini, Issatchenkia orientalis/Candida krusei, Saccharomyces bayanus, Saccharomyces pastorianus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces kudriarzevii and Zygosaccharomyces bisporus could be distinguished by the T-RFLP targeting 5.8S-ITS rDNA. Moreover, the yeast communities in spontaneous fermentation of Chardonnay and Riesling were identified by T-RFLP and traditional methods, including colony morphology on Wallerstein Nutrient (WLN) medium and 5.8S-ITS-RFLP analysis. The result showed that T-RFLP profiles of the yeast community correlated well with that of the results identified by the traditional methods. The TRFs with the highest intensity and present in all the samples corresponded to Saccharomyces sp. Other species detected by both approaches were Hanseniaspora uvarum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia minuta var. minuta, Saccharomycodes ludwigii/Torulaspora delbrueckii and Candida zemplinina. This study revealed that T-RFLP technique is a rapid and useful tool for monitoring the composition of yeast species during wine fermentation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Distribution of Dekkera bruxellensis in a sugarcane-based fuel ethanol fermentation plant. (United States)

    da Silva, T C D; Leite, F C B; De Morais, M A


    We investigated the presence of the yeast Dekkera bruxellensis in samples collected at three points surrounding the industrial alcoholic fermentation plants of two distilleries where there are often cases of contamination caused by this yeast: this involved sugar cane wash water, feeding sugar cane juice and vinasse from the treatment pond. Total yeast was isolated in WLN medium with bromocresol green and cycloheximide and further selected on the basis of its ability to grow in synthetic medium containing nitrate. Following this, colonies were selected from the distribution on nitrate plates and identified by amplification with species-specific primers and DNA sequencing of the 26S-D1/D2 locus. The results showed that D. bruxellensis is introduced through the feeding substrate, which suggests that its cells originated with the harvested cane. Subsequently, its population circulates as a result of the reuse of water for washing the cane, in a continuous re-inoculation of the plant with yeasts. Furthermore, the yeast population is formed in the vinasse by the addition of wash water into the treatment ponds and then reintroduced to the culture fields by fertigation, so that the process can be renewed in the following season. It is now possible to adopt sanitation procedures that can prevent the entry of the contamination to the fermentation process. The presence of the yeast Dekkera bruxellensis is sometimes attributed to a decline in the industrial productivity of ethanol since it has a more limited fermentation capacity than Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although its adaptability to the industrial environment has been noted, so far, there has been no evidence to determine the source of this contamination. In this study, we provide evidence to show that D. bruxellensis comes from the fields together with the harvested cane and is then accumulated and recirculated. It might be possible to prevent the accumulation of this yeast by carrying out sanitation controls during

  9. Commercial scale demonstration enhanced oil recovery by miceller-polymer flooding. M-1 project: facilities report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, B.L. (ed.)


    ERDA and Marathon Oil Company contracted together for a commercial scale demonstration of enhanced oil recovery by the Maraflood (TM) oil recovery process. This M-1 Project is located within Sections 15, 16, 21 and 22, T6N, R13W, Crawford County, Illinois, encompassing approximately 407 acres of Robinson Sand reservoir developed in the first decade of the century. The area covers portions of several waterfloods developed on 10-acre spacing in the 1950's that were approaching their economic limit. This report describes all M-1 Project facilities, how they were prepared or constructed, their purpose and how they operate: (1) wells (drilling and completion); (2) production facility; (3) injection facility; and (4) various service systems required during project development and/or operation. (48 fig, 7 tables) (DLC).

  10. Lower extremity robotic exoskeleton training: Case studies for complete spinal cord injury walking. (United States)

    Lemaire, Edward D; Smith, Andrew J; Herbert-Copley, Andrew; Sreenivasan, Vidya


    Recent advances in exoskeleton technology has made lower extremity powered exoskeletons (LEPE) a viable treatment tool to restore upright walking mobility to persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Evaluate ARKE exoskeleton training within a rehabilitation centre environment. Case studies are presented for two male participants, age 41 and 30, motor complete SCI at T6 (N01) and T12 (N02), respectively, as they progress from new LEPE users to independent walking. The ARKE 2.0 LEPE (Bionik Laboratories Inc., Toronto, Canada) was used for all training (hip and knee powered, forearm crutches, control tablet). Data were collected on session times, activity metrics from ARKE system logs, and qualitative questionnaire feedback. N01 required 18, 30-minute training sessions to achieve independent walking. N01 walked independently within the 12 session target. Foot strikes were frequently before the end of the programmed swing phase, which were handled by the ARKE control system. Subjective ratings of LEPE learning, comfort, pain, fatigue, and overall experience were high for sitting-standing and moderate to high for walking. This reflected the complexity of learning to safely walk. Qualitative feedback supported the continuation of LEPE use in rehabilitation settings based on end-user desire for upright mobility.

  11. Autonomic dysreflexia in response to pudendal nerve stimulation. (United States)

    Reitz, A; Schmid, D M; Curt, A; Knapp, P A; Schurch, B


    Pudendal nerve stimulation in complete spinal cord injury (SCI). To evaluate the influence of pudendal nerve stimulation on the cardiovascular system in SCI patients in order to assess the underlying neuronal mechanism and the potential risk during stimulation. Swiss Paraplegic Center, and University Hospital, Zurich. A total of 22 male patients with a complete SCI were divided into two groups according to the level of lesion: group A (C6-T6, n=15) and group B (T7-L2, n=7). A total of 66 stimulations using biphasic rectangular impulses (0.2 ms, 10 Hz) with intensities up to 100 mA were applied to the dorsal penile nerve. Of these, 15 stimulations in five patients were repeated after intravenous application of 7 mg of phentolamine. Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were recorded by a Finapres cuff applied to the right index finger. Significant increased diastolic and systolic BP accompanied by significant decreased HR suggested the occurrence of autonomic dysreflexia (AD) during pudendal nerve stimulation. These cardiovascular changes corresponded with the subjective sensation of AD symptoms in patients of group A. Intravenous phentolamine lowered the resting BP and prevented severe hypertension during stimulation. Patients in group B presented with mild HR and BP changes in response to pudendal nerve stimulation and reported no AD symptoms. Our results show a considerable effect of electrical pudendal nerve stimulation on HR and BP in patients with high SCI. This may indicate that sacral somatic afferent fibers of the pudendal nerve are involved in the neuronal mechanism of AD in SCI patients with high neurological level. Intravenous phentolamine enables pudendal nerve stimulation without the risk of severe hypertension.

  12. Agreement of repeated motor and sensory scores at individual myotomes and dermatomes in young persons with complete spinal cord injury. (United States)

    Mulcahey, M J; Gaughan, J; Betz, R R


    Prospective repeated measures. Evaluate intra-rater agreement of repeated motor and sensory scores at individual spinal levels. Non-profit pediatric rehabilitation center. Fifty-eight youth with complete spinal cord injury undergoing two neurological exams. Agreement between exams for each myotome and dermatome was evaluated for four neurological groups: C1-C4 (N=9); C5-C8 (N=8); T1-T6 (N=22); T7-T12 (N=19). Kappa (k) and weighted k (k(w)) coefficients were calculated. Agreement between strength scores was 99 and 100% in subjects with tetraplegia and paraplegia, respectively. C1-C4: pin prick (PP)=absolute agreement (AA) in 57% dermatomes (D) (k range=0.10-0.83; k(w) range=0.36-0.93). Light touch (LT)=AA in 59% D (k range=0.35-0.77; k(w) range=0.34-0.84). C5-C8: PP=AA in 86% D (k range=0.28-0.78; k(w) range=0.43-0.93). LT=AA in 80% D (k range=0.10-0.80; k(w) range=0.12-0.91). T1-T6: PP=AA in 82% D (k range=0.36-0.83; k(w)=0.20-0.96). LT=AA in 77% D (k range=0.23-0.89; k(w) range=0.23-0.89). T7-T12: PP=AA in 82% D (k range=0.46-0.90; k(w) range=0.54-0.90). LT=AA in 84% D (k range=0.41-0.87; k(w) range=0.52-0.94). Overall, agreement was excellent for myotome comparisons. For the C5-C8, T1-T6 and T7-T12 groups, there are variations in sensory scores within three levels of the neurological level (NL). For the C1-C4 group, variation in sensation extended well caudal to the NL. The International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury is a good outcome measure for a single-site, one-rater study but differences in repeated sensory scores at individual D were found, which should be considered in the interpretation of results of outcome studies.

  13. Prospective study of hypothalamo-hypophyseal dysfunction in children and adolescents following traumatic brain injury. (United States)

    Krahulik, David; Aleksijevic, Darina; Smolka, Vratislav; Klaskova, Eva; Venhacova, Petra; Vaverka, Miroslav; Mihal, Vladimir; Zapletalova, Jirina


    Retrospective studies of TBI have found a neuroendocrine dysfunction following traumatic brain injury in 23 to 60% of adults and 15 to 21% of children. Our aims were to determine the prevalence of hypothalamo-hypophyseal dysfunction in children following brain injury, assess its relationship to the type of injury and the course of the acute post-traumatic phase. Body development (growth, pubertal development, and skeletal maturity) were evaluated in 58 patients (21 girls) after a brain injury rated 3 to 12 on the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). The patients underwent standard endocrine tests - TSH, fT4, IGF-1, PRL, morning cortisol, FSH, LH, and testosterone in boys and estradiol in girls - in the early post-traumatic period (2 to 14 days; T0) and at 3, 6, and 12 months after the injury (T3, T6, and T12). Dynamic tests were carried out in patients with abnormalities in their clinical examination and/or laboratory results. An MRI was performed on all patients at T12. The median age at the time of injury was 11.3 (0.5 to 18.7) years. Of the 58 patients, 23 had GCS brain injury. At T0, diabetes insipidus (DI) was diagnosed in 12 patients, and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) was found in 4 patients. Frequent hormonal changes simulated central hypothyroidism (in 45% of patients) and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (in 25% of adolescents who were already pubertal at the time of injury > Tanner II). Examination at T3 (n = 58) confirmed a combined pituitary hormone deficiency in two boys and DI in another one. At T6 (n = 49), hormonal dysfunctions were diagnosed in two boys (precocious puberty and growth hormone deficiency). At T12 (n = 39), a new endocrine dysfunction was diagnosed in five patients (growth hormone deficiency in two, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in two, and in one patient, already diagnosed with a growth hormone deficiency, central hypothyroidism, as well). Brain MRI revealed an empty sella in two patients with growth hormone

  14. Tai Chi pedicle screw placement for severe scoliosis. (United States)

    Chang, Kao-Wha; Wang, Yu-Fei; Zhang, Guo-Zhi; Cheng, Ching-Wei; Chen, Hung-Yi; Leng, Xiangyang; Chen, Yin-Yu


    =34), T3 (n=46), T4 (n=53), T5 (n=61), T6 (n=69), T7 (n=75), T8 (n=76), T9 (n=76), T10 (n=77), T11 (n=76), T12 (n=78), L1 (n=77), L2 (n=68), L3 (n=56), L4 (n=38), and L5 (n=22). There were 923 (93%) "in" screws and 69 (7%) "out" screws. The overall accuracy of screw placement was 93%. There were no neurological, vascular, or visceral complications. No screws required postoperative repositioning. The average time for pedicle screw placement was 73 seconds. Our findings suggest that the Tai Chi pedicle screw placement technique, which does not require intraoperative radiographic imaging, is an accurate, reliable, safe, and time-saving method of placing pedicle screws in severe scoliotic spines.

  15. Vinhaça como fonte de potássio: resposta da sucessão aveia-preta/milho silagem/milho safrinha e alterações químicas do solo na Região Noroeste do Rio Grande do Sul Vinasse as a source of potassium: black oat/corn silage/short-season corn succession response and soil chemical alterations in the Northwest region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudir José Basso


    Full Text Available A vinhaça, resíduo do processo de destilação do álcool é rica em potássio (K e sua aplicação ao solo pode aumentar a disponibilidade do nutriente, mas também provocar alterações nas propriedades químicas do solo. O trabalho objetivou avaliar a viabilidade técnica da utilização da vinhaça como fonte alternativa de K na sucessão aveia preta/milho silagem/milho safrinha, além de possíveis alterações em atributos químicos do solo na camada de 0-10cm. O experimento foi conduzido no Município de Ajuricaba (RS, no período 04/2010 a 06/2011. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: T1 adubação mineral NPK; T2 N + P sem vinhaça; T3 N+P+50m³ ha-1 de vinhaça; T4 N+P+100m³ ha-1 de vinhaça; T5 N+P+150m³ ha-1 de vinhaça; e T6 N+P+200m³ ha-1 de vinhaça. Na aveia preta, foram avaliados os teores totais foliares de P, K e o acúmulo de matéria seca. No milho silagem, a altura de plantas, altura de inserção da espiga e a produtividade de forragem e, no milho safrinha, o peso de mil sementes e a produtividade de grãos. Quanto aos atributos químicos do solo, foi avaliado o pH, os teores de P, K, Ca, Mg e a capacidade de troca catiônica. Na aveia-preta, as maiores doses de vinhaça proporcionaram os menores acúmulos de matéria seca, sendo 100m³ ha-1 a melhor dose observada. Para a cultura do milho, a dose de 100m³ ha-1 de vinhaça proporcionou produtividade de silagem semelhante à adubação mineral e foi capaz de suprir a necessidade de potássio também para o cultivo do milho safrinha. Em relação aos atributos químicos do solo, não se observaram alterações significativas na camada avaliada (0-10cm. A utilização da vinhaça como fonte de potássio mostrou-se uma alternativa tecnicamente viável e a sua utilização em nível de lavoura uma forma de descarte desse resíduo.Vinasse is a residue from the distillation process of alcohol and it is rich in potassium (K. Its application in soil can increase the availability

  16. Força de mordida em crianças com mantenedor de espaço funcional na fase da dentadura mista inicial Bite force in children with functional space maintainer in early mixed dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzane Rodrigues Jacinto-Gonçalves


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a influência do mantenedor de espaço funcional (MEF na força muscular em crianças com perda prematura de molares decíduos na fase inicial da dentadura mista (5,5 a 6,5 anos de idade com oclusão normal, considerando-se o padrão facial. MÉTODOS: a amostra foi constituída por dois grupos: Grupo MEF (n = 15, com perda precoce de pelo menos um molar decíduo; e Grupo Controle (n = 16. Determinou-se a força de mordida máxima (FM com um tubo transmissor pressurizado, conectado a um circuito eletrônico analógico/digital antes (t0, um mês (t1 e 6 meses (t6 após a instalação do mantenedor. O padrão facial foi determinado pelo índice de Jarabak (FHR. Os dados foram analisados pela estatística descritiva, análise de variância para medidas repetidas, teste t e correlação de Pearson. RESULTADOS:a FM foi significativamente menor em t0 e t1 para o Grupo MEF em relação ao Controle. Em t6 não houve diferença. Os dois grupos apresentaram a FM significativamente maior em t6, em relação a t0, mas o percentual de variação para o Grupo MEF foi significativamente maior. Os valores de FHR não se correlacionaram com a FM, não ocorrendo diferença entre os tipos faciais intragrupos. Os dolicofaciais do Grupo MEF apresentaram a FM significativamente menor que os do Grupo Controle, em t0 e t1, mas não em t6. CONCLUSÃO: o maior aumento na FM para o Grupo MEF após 6 meses foi favorecido pelo maior número de contatos oclusais, devido aos dentes artificiais, melhorando a função e recuperando a força muscular.AIM: To verify the influence of a functional space maintainer (FSM in muscle strength in children with premature loss of primary molars in early mixed dentition (5.5-6.5 years old with normal occlusion, considering the facial pattern. METHODS: The sample was distributed in: FSM Group (n = 15, with premature loss of at least one primary molar and a Control Group (n = 16. It was determined the maximal bite force (BF

  17. Transporte de oócitos bovinos em meio de maturação sem controle de atmosfera gasosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leivas Fábio Gallas


    Full Text Available Oócitos (n=1177 bovinos obtidos da aspiração de folículos com diâmetro entre 2 e 8mm, de ovários de matadouro foram divididos aleatoriamente em quatro tratamentos com 11 repetições. Os oócitos foram maturados por 24h em TCM-199 Sais de Earle, acrescido de 25mM de bicarbonato de sódio, 25mM de HEPES, rFHS-h, Soro de Vaca em Estro (SVE e piruvato, em estufa a 39ºC, com 5% de CO2 em ar e umidade saturada (Grupo Controle, n=296 ou, submetidos ao transporte simulado por 6 (T6, n=286, 12 (T12, n=294 ou 18h (T18, n=301 em meio de maturação TCM+HEPES, em banho-maria a 39ºC, com os mesmos componentes utilizados para o Grupo Controle, porém com apenas 1mM de bicarbonato. Decorrido cada período de transporte, os mesmos foram transferidos para placas com meio de maturação, completando o período de 24h em estufa, nas mesmas condições do Grupo Controle. O período de fecundação foi de 18h em condições semelhantes de temperatura e atmosfera gasosa, em FERT-TALP acrescido de heparina, sendo a dose inseminante de 1x106 espermatozóides/mL, selecionados por migração ascendente. Os prováveis zigotos foram cultivados em meio SOF + 5% SVE por 8 dias, em estufa a 39ºC, em bolsas gaseificadas com 5% CO2, 5% O2 e 90% N2. Na avaliação da clivagem, não houve diferença entre os tratamentos. As taxas de desenvolvimento embrionário no dia 7 foram semelhantes para os grupos Controle (20,9%, T6 (19,2% e T12 (21,4%, com uma redução (P0,05 na taxa de eclosão. O número médio de células dos blastocistos eclodidos não diferiu (P>0,05 entre os grupos Controle (136, T6 (125,5 e T12 (126,8. Esses resultados indicam a possibilidade do transporte de oócitos bovinos em meio de maturação TCM+HEPES, sem controle da atmosfera gasosa, a 39ºC, pelo período de até 12h. Esta técnica oferece uma alternativa prática e eficiente para o transporte dos oócitos bovinos destinados à produção in vitro de embriões bovinos (PIV.