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  1. Blood transfusion and the pregnant Jehovah's witness patient: avoiding a dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonholz, D H

    1999-09-01

    The pregnant Jehovah's Witness patient's refusal of lifesaving transfusion creates a conflict for the physician. While legal steps may be initiated to address the problem, a medical approach stressing prophylaxis which anticipates and avoids the ethical dilemma of managing a hemorrhaging pregnant Jehovah's Witness is preferable.

  2. Oncological management of pediatric cancer patients belonging to Jehovah's Witnesses: a two-institutional experience report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, T; Hasan, C; Kramm, C M; Janssen, G; Laws, H-J; Wessalowski, R; Bode, U; Göbel, U

    2004-04-01

    Aim of this study was to analyze the feasibility of oncological treatment in pediatric patients belonging to Jehovah's Witnesses and to describe the changing policy in performing transfusions and supportive care measures at two German pediatric cancer institutions. Over a period of 16 years 21 treatments according to the current cooperative protocols were performed in 14 children of Jehovah's Witnesses. Various hematological supportive care measures such as supplementation with iron, human erythropoietin, interleukin 11, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and autologous or allogeneic stem cell rescue had been applied. For comparison matched pairs treated in our hospitals not belonging to Jehovah's Witnesses and 50 pediatric and adult oncological patients belonging to Jehovah's Witnesses reviewed from the international literature were analyzed with respect to transfusions and outcome. So far, 9 of 14 children are surviving 16-195 months (median 26 months). During the primary therapy they received markedly less transfusions than the control cohort (-39,1% red blood cell transfusions and -37,5% platelet transfusions). The review of 50 reported cases showed that oncological therapy can also be successfully performed with a restricted transfusion regimen in children and particularly in adults. Pediatric cancer patients belonging to Jehovah's Witnesses can be treated similarly to other patients. A restrictive transfusion policy and the broad application of hematopoietic supportive care measures may reduce transfusions. This treatment policy and a continuous collaboration with the Hospital Liaison Committee for Jehovah's Witnesses appears to create an oncological treatment situation with a high compliance of patients and parents where court orders may not be necessary. Copyright 2004 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg

  3. When a patient refuses life-saving care: issues raised when treating a Jehovah's Witness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panico, Megan L; Jenq, Grace Y; Brewster, Ursula C

    2011-10-01

    Patients who are Jehovah's Witnesses frequently cross the path of nephrologists when they are acutely ill in the intensive care unit and stable in the long-term setting. It is important that we as a group have a rudimentary understanding of their philosophy about blood transfusion so that we can be proactive in their management. We use a case as a launching point to discuss the origins of the faith and the decision to refuse blood, as well as potential therapeutic strategies that can be used to improve the care of these patients. Improvement in our understanding as physicians will facilitate a more productive conversation with our patients about a complex and emotional issue. Copyright © 2011 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. LIVER TRANSPLANTATION IN JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES PATIENTS IN A CENTER OF NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

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    José Huygens Parente GARCIA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Context Liver transplantation has been accepted as a therapeutic option for patients with end-stage liver disease and acute liver failure. Currently, Brazil has a well-established public organ transplant program, performing 7,425 solid organs transplants in 2012 alone, among which 1,595 were liver transplants. Jehovah's Witnesses report 7,6 million members worldwide. For religious reasons they refuse transfusion of whole blood or its primary components (red cells, fresh frozen plasma, platelets. Objective This study aims to present the results obtained with Jehovah's Witnesses patients by a liver transplantation service. Method We conducted a retrospective review of medical records from Jehovah's Witnesses patients (n = 4 who underwent orthotopic liver transplantation from September 2009 to September 2011 at the Walter Cantídio University Hospital of the Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil. Coagulation parameters such as Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, Platelets, INR were evaluated during the preoperative, immediate postoperative, postoperative day (POD 7 and POD 30. Results Coagulation parameters were expressed as means: hematocrit, 35.07% ± 6.65%, 24.6% ± 4.74%, 19.85% ± 2.10%, 31.85% ± 5.99%; hemoglobin, 12.57 g/dL ± 2.22, 8.92 g/dL ± 1.75, 6.92 g/dL ± 0.58, 11.17 g/dL ± 0.9; platelets, 160,975 mm 3 ± 148000, 128,000 mm 3 ± 34836, 65,000 mm 3 ± 33496, 234,250 mm 3 ± 287003 and INR, 143 ± 0.10, 2.4 ± 0.34, 1.24 ± 0.10, 1.14 ± 0.09. Conclusion Liver transplantation can successfully be performed in Jehovah's Witnesses patient population provided that: 1 the medical team has extensive expertise in that field, 2 the patient has an adequate level of hematologic factors preoperatively, and 3 there is availability of specialized equipment such as cell saver to minimize blood loss and thus avoid transfusion requirements.

  5. Postpartum hemorrhage in a Jehovah's Witness patient controlled with Tisseel, tranexamic acid, and recombinant factor VIIa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Tarek Samir; Al-Wazzan, Ahmad Bakr; Maslow, Ken

    2010-10-01

    The management of a patient refusing blood transfusion who subsequently experiences a severe postpartum hemorrhage is a particular clinical challenge. A 30-year-old nulliparous patient (who was a Jehovah's Witness) had labour induced for post-dates at 41+4 weeks' gestational age after an uncomplicated pregnancy. She delivered by Caesarean section for dystocia and suspected chorioamnionitis, and subsequently developed postpartum hemorrhage that required management with oxytocin, ergometrine, carboprost, uterine artery ligation, and Hayman compression sutures. The patient ultimately required two additional visits to the operating room, culminating in hysterectomy. Use of tranexamic acid, recombinant factor VIIa, and Tisseel was instrumental in halting the ongoing hemorrhage. Optimal management of a patient refusing administration of blood products requires a multidisciplinary approach as well as a combination of traditional and novel therapies.

  6. Administration of four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate for a life-threatening bleed in a Jehovah's Witness patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jennifer L; McLeod, Nathanael D

    2017-09-21

    : Life-threatening bleeds are medical emergencies that require time-sensitive decision making. Patients of the Jehovah's Witness faith can present a challenging conundrum when their beliefs conflict with modern treatment options for haemorrhage. Providers may not be aware of the grades of acceptance of the newer products outside of packed red blood cells. Researchers present a case of using four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate in a Jehovah's Witness patient in a life-threatening gastrointestinal haemorrhage along with a brief review of the literature.

  7. Cardiac Surgery in Jehovah's Witness Patients: Experience of a Brazilian Tertiary Hospital

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    Felipe Homem Valle

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The outcomes of Jehovah's Witness (JW patients submitted to open heart surgery may vary across countries and communities. The aim of this study was to describe the morbidity and mortality of JW patients undergoing cardiac surgery in a tertiary hospital center in Southern Brazil. Methods: A case-control study was conducted including all JW patients submitted to cardiac surgery from 2008 to 2016. Three consecutive surgical non-JW controls were matched to each selected JW patient. The preoperative risk of death was estimated through the mean EuroSCORE II. Results: We studied 16 JW patients with a mean age of 60.6±12.1 years. The non-JW group included 48 patients with a mean age of 63.3±11.1 years (P=0.416. Isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery was the most frequent surgery performed in both groups. Median EuroSCORE II was 1.29 (IQR: 0.66-3.08 and 1.43 (IQR: 0.72-2.63, respectively (P=0.988. The mortality tended to be higher in JW patients (18.8% vs. 4.2%, P=0.095, and there was a higher difference between the predicted and observed mortality in JW patients compared with controls (4.1 and 18.8% vs. 2.1 and 4.2%. More JW patients needed hemodialysis in the postoperative period (20.0 vs. 2.1%, P=0.039. Conclusion: We showed a high rate of in-hospital mortality in JW patients submitted to cardiac surgery. The EuroSCORE II may underestimate the surgical risk in these patients.

  8. Management of Adult Jehovah's Witness Patients with Acute Bleeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berend, Kenrick; Levi, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    Because of the firm refusal of transfusion of blood and blood components by Jehovah's Witnesses, the management of Jehovah's Witness patients with severe bleeding is often complicated by medical, ethical, and legal concerns. Because of a rapidly growing and worldwide membership, physicians working

  9. Redo Triple Coronary Artery Bypass Graft on a Jehovah’s Witness Patient: A “Tailored” Approach

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    J Teodori

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Jehovah’s Witnesses are considered unusual patients because of their refusal to receive blood transfusions. Some practitioners do not consider the increased risk of death associated with refusal of blood transfusions as a sufficient deterrent. This religious conviction raises problems in the field of ethics and legal and medical management of patients for major surgical procedures in which the use of blood transfusions is an important element.

  10. The use of barbiturate coma as salvage therapy in a postoperative Jehovah's Witness patient with life-threatening anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Steve W; Badami, Chirag D; Deitch, Edwin A

    2009-12-01

    Management of the patient who refuses blood products based on religious grounds poses ethical and clinical challenges, especially when the degree of anemia becomes life-threatening. In this report, we present the case of a 52-year-old Jehovah's Witness with sickle cell disease in whom he and his family refused blood products for the treatment of severe anemia associated with profound and progressive acidosis, acute oliguric renal failure, and hemodynamic instability. Attempts carried out during the first 3 hospital days to stabilize the patient using standard therapies to support oxygen delivery as well as the use of sedation, pain control, temperature control, neuromuscular blockade, and mechanical ventilation to reduce oxygen demand were not successful. Thus, because oxygen consumption by the brain represents approximately 20 per cent of the body's oxygen needs, and pentobarbital's primary action is as a central nervous system depressant, the induction of pentobarbital coma was instituted to reduce cerebral oxygen consumption. The institution of pentobarbital on hospital Day 3 was sufficient to acutely stabilize the patient's deteriorating metabolic state and ultimately was associated with survival. Thus, we conclude that there is a potential role for barbiturate coma in Jehovah's Witness patients who refuse blood transfusions and dying of anemia when other modalities of support are not sufficient.

  11. The Griffiths Question Map: A Forensic Tool For Expert Witnesses' Assessments of Witnesses and Victims' Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodier, Olivier; Denault, Vincent

    2017-02-27

    Expert witnesses are sometimes asked to assess the reliability of young witnesses and victims' statements because of their high susceptibility to memory biases. This technical note aims to highlight the relevance of the Griffiths Question Map (GQM) as a professional forensic tool to improve expert witnesses' assessments of young witnesses and victims' testimonies. To do so, this innovative question type assessment grid was used to proceed to an in-depth analysis of the interview of an alleged 13-year-old victim of a sexual assault and two rapes. Overall, the GQM stressed how the interview was mainly conducted in an inappropriate manner. The results are examined with regard to scientific knowledge on young witnesses and victims' memory. Finally, it is argued that expert witnesses in inquisitorial systems might use the GQM while encountering difficulties to fulfill the legal standards for expert evidence in adversarial systems because of the lack of studies regarding its reliability. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. Interviewing Child Witnesses: A Developmental Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saywitz, Karen; Camparo, Lorinda

    1998-01-01

    Reviews suggestions derived from the clinical and experimental literatures for interviewing child witnesses to abuse. Guidelines for questioning children are provided and phases of a forensic interview are outlined in a step-by-step fashion. The suggestions presented highlight a developmental perspective designed to facilitate children's memory…

  13. Why WITS? Why not a way beyond?

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    Shipra Nagar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: WITS appraisal is a common parameter in cephalometrics to assess maxillo-mandibular skeletal relationship as an adjunct to angle ANB. The high variability of the WITS appraisal is attributable to difficulties or inaccuracies in identifying the occlusal plane or variations due to tooth eruption, dental development or treatment changes by vertical movement of incisors, molars, or both. Aim: An extracranial reference line common to both denture bases, instead of the occlusal plane is proposed to assess antero-posterior jaw relationships. Materials and Methods: A true vertical obtained by plumb line was recorded, while taking the cephalogram for 40 subjects. A line drawn perpendicular to this true vertical gave a stable and reproducible extracranial true horizontal (HOR reference line. The linear distance between perpendiculars from points A and B was measured as an adjunct to angle ANB. Result: The Pearson′s product moment correlation coefficient calculated for the entire sample indicated higher correlation coefficient (r = 0.8712 for the linear measurements on HOR (AH-BH with respect to the angle ANB when compared with the WITS readings (AO-BO (r = 0.549. Conclusion: The horizontal appraisal method proposed eliminates the demerits of the occlusal plane and has the merits of simplicity and accuracy in comparison to WITS appraisal.

  14. Managing acute promyelocytic leukemia in patients belonging to the Jehovah’s Witness congregation

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    Anand P. Jillella

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL is a hyper-acute leukemia and presents with cytopenias and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Jehovah’s Witnesses with APL offer a unique challenge during induction by refusing transfusion and pose a difficult challenge in this curable disease. Our focus over the last 8 years has been decreasing early deaths in APL in both academic and community centers. As a result we have extensive experience in APL induction with a proven improvement in early deaths. Three patients with APL belonging to the Jehovah’s Witness congregation were treated in our practice and published literature in treating Witnesses with APL was reviewed. It is highly imperative to prevent induction mortality in this patient population. The goal of treatment among the Witnesses is to prevent death during induction and subsequently cure them. We discuss the management and proactive measures to prevent induction mortality in this most curable blood cancer.

  15. Development of a Portable Muon Witness System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Orrell, John L.

    2011-01-01

    Since understanding and quantifying cosmic ray induced radioactive backgrounds in copper and germanium are important to the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, methods are needed for monitoring the levels of such backgrounds produced in materials being transported and processed for the experiment. This report focuses on work conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to develop a muon witness system as a one way of monitoring induced activities. The operational goal of this apparatus is to characterize cosmic ray exposure of materials. The cosmic ray flux at the Earth’s surface is composed of several types of particles, including neutrons, muons, gamma rays and protons. These particles induce nuclear reactions, generating isotopes that contribute to the radiological background. Underground, the main mechanism of activation is by muon produced spallation neutrons since the hadron component of cosmic rays is removed at depths greater than a few tens of meters. This is a sub-dominant contributor above ground, but muons become predominant in underground experiments. For low-background experiments cosmogenic production of certain isotopes, such as 68Ge and 60Co, must be accounted for in the background budgets. Muons act as minimum ionizing particles, depositing a fixed amount of energy per unit length in a material, and have a very high penetrating power. Using muon flux measurements as a “witness” for the hadron flux, the cosmogenic induced activity can be quantified by correlating the measured muon flux and known hadronic production rates. A publicly available coincident muon cosmic ray detector design, the Berkeley Lab Cosmic Ray Detector (BLCRD), assembled by Juniata College, is evaluated in this work. The performance of the prototype is characterized by assessing its muon flux measurements. This evaluation is done by comparing data taken in identical scenarios with other cosmic ray telescopes. The prototype is made of two plastic scintillator paddles with

  16. Terminally ill patients and Jehovah's Witnesses: teaching acceptance of patients' refusals of vital treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elger, B S; Harding, T W

    2002-05-01

    To find out whether and how the teaching of medical ethics can influence attitudes on accepting treatment refusals. Anonymous questionnaires were distributed to 4 groups of students at the University of Geneva who had participated (P) or not (nP) in teaching modules on medical law and ethics. One vignette described a terminally ill patient refusing mechanical ventilation, another a Jehovah's Witness refusing a life-saving blood transfusion. 127 medical and 168 law students. 5-point Likert scale of responses to the vignettes reaching from certain acceptance to certain non-acceptance of the treatment refusal. More than 80% of law students (nP) said that a good physician should accept the terminally ill patient's refusal. 84% (P) compared to 68% (nP) of medical students (P=0.03) would accept this refusal. The acceptance of the Jehovah's Witness refusal of a life-saving transfusion was less among all students. Students from the groups (P) reported significantly more often (P accept (76% of medical students) or that a good physician should accept (63% of law students) the treatment refusal of the Jehovah's Witness than medical students (48%) and law students (27%) from the two other groups (nP). (P) students showed significantly more acceptance of treatment refusals in the hypothetical case scenarios than (nP) students from the same faculty. Religion, cultural origin and school education of the parents had less influence on attitudes than participation in ethical teaching and type of student (medicine vs. law).

  17. [Ethical and legal duty of anesthesiologists regarding Jehovah's Witness patient: care protocol].

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    Takaschima, Augusto Key Karazawa; Sakae, Thiago Mamôru; Takaschima, Alexandre Karazawa; Takaschima, Renata Dos Santos Teodoro; de Lima, Breno José Santiago Bezerra; Benedetti, Roberto Henrique

    Jehovah's Witnesses patients refuse blood transfusions for religious reasons. Anesthesiologists must master specific legal knowledge to provide care to these patients. Understanding how the Law and the Federal Council of Medicine treat this issue is critical to know how to act in this context. The aim of this paper was to establish a treatment protocol for the Jehovah's Witness patient with emphasis on ethical and legal duty of the anesthesiologist. The article analyzes the Constitution, Criminal Code, resolutions of the Federal Council of Medicine (FCM), opinions, and jurisprudence to understand the limits of the conflict between the autonomy of will of Jehovah's Witnesses to refuse transfusion and the physician's duty to provide the transfusion. Based on this evidence, a care protocol is suggested. The FCM resolution 1021/1980, the penal code Article 135, which classifies denial of care as a crime and the Supreme Court decision on the HC 268,459/SP process imposes on the physician the obligation of blood transfusion when life is threatened. The patient's or guardian's consent is not necessary, as the autonomy of will manifestation of the Jehovah's Witness patient refusing blood transfusion for himself and relatives, even in emergencies, is no not forbidden. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Ethical and legal duty of anesthesiologists regarding Jehovah's Witness patient: care protocol.

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    Takaschima, Augusto Key Karazawa; Sakae, Thiago Mamôru; Takaschima, Alexandre Karazawa; Takaschima, Renata Dos Santos Teodoro; Lima, Breno José Santiago Bezerra de; Benedetti, Roberto Henrique

    Jehovah's Witnesses patients refuse blood transfusions for religious reasons. Anesthesiologists must master specific legal knowledge to provide care to these patients. Understanding how the Law and the Federal Council of Medicine treat this issue is critical to know how to act in this context. The aim of this paper was to establish a treatment protocol for the Jehovah's Witness patient with emphasis on ethical and legal duty of the anesthesiologist. The article analyzes the Constitution, Criminal Code, resolutions of the Federal Council of Medicine, opinions, and jurisprudence to understand the limits of the conflict between the autonomy of will of Jehovah's Witnesses to refuse transfusion and the physician's duty to provide the transfusion. Based on this evidence, a care protocol is suggested. The Federal Council of Medicine resolution 1021/1980, the penal code Article 135, which classifies denial of care as a crime and the Supreme Court decision on the HC 268,459/SP process imposes on the physician the obligation of blood transfusion when life is threatened. The patient's or guardian's consent is not necessary, as the autonomy of will manifestation of the Jehovah's Witness patient refusing blood transfusion for himself and relatives, even in emergencies, is no not forbidden. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Witness response at acute onset of stroke: a qualitative theory-guided study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Stephan U; Sniehotta, Falko F; Mackintosh, Joan; White, Martin; Rodgers, Helen; Thomson, Richard G; Murtagh, Madeleine J; Ford, Gary A; Eccles, Martin P; Araujo-Soares, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Delay in calling emergency medical services following stroke limits access to early treatment that can reduce disability. Emergency medical services contact is mostly initiated by stroke witnesses (often relatives), rather than stroke patients. This study explored appraisal and behavioural factors that are potentially important in influencing witness behaviour in response to stroke. Semi-structured interviews with 26 stroke witnesses were transcribed and theory-guided content analysed was undertaken based on the Common Sense Self-Regulation Model (appraisal processes) and Theory Domains Framework (behavioural determinants). Response behaviours were often influenced by heuristics-guided appraisal (i.e. mental rules of thumb). Some witnesses described their responses to the situation as 'automatic' and 'instinctive', rather than products of deliberation. Potential behavioural influences included: environmental context and resources (e.g. time of day), social influence (e.g. prompts from patients) and beliefs about consequences (e.g. 999 accesses rapid help). Findings are based on retrospective accounts and need further verification in prospective studies. Witnesses play a key role in patient access to emergency medical services. Factors that potentially influence witnesses' responses to stroke were identified and could inform behavioural interventions and future research. Interventions might benefit from linking automatic/instinctive threat perceptions with deliberate appraisal of stroke symptoms, prompting action to call emergency medical services.

  20. Witness response at acute onset of stroke: a qualitative theory-guided study.

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    Stephan U Dombrowski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Delay in calling emergency medical services following stroke limits access to early treatment that can reduce disability. Emergency medical services contact is mostly initiated by stroke witnesses (often relatives, rather than stroke patients. This study explored appraisal and behavioural factors that are potentially important in influencing witness behaviour in response to stroke. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Semi-structured interviews with 26 stroke witnesses were transcribed and theory-guided content analysed was undertaken based on the Common Sense Self-Regulation Model (appraisal processes and Theory Domains Framework (behavioural determinants. Response behaviours were often influenced by heuristics-guided appraisal (i.e. mental rules of thumb. Some witnesses described their responses to the situation as 'automatic' and 'instinctive', rather than products of deliberation. Potential behavioural influences included: environmental context and resources (e.g. time of day, social influence (e.g. prompts from patients and beliefs about consequences (e.g. 999 accesses rapid help. Findings are based on retrospective accounts and need further verification in prospective studies. CONCLUSIONS: Witnesses play a key role in patient access to emergency medical services. Factors that potentially influence witnesses' responses to stroke were identified and could inform behavioural interventions and future research. Interventions might benefit from linking automatic/instinctive threat perceptions with deliberate appraisal of stroke symptoms, prompting action to call emergency medical services.

  1. Family support liaison in the witnessed resuscitation: A phenomenology study.

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    Hassankhani, Hadi; Zamanzade, Vahid; Rahmani, Azad; Haririan, Hamidreza; Porter, Joanne E

    2017-09-01

    Family-witnessed resuscitation remains controversial among clinicians from implementation to practice and there are a number of countries, such as Iran, where that is considered a low priority. To explore the lived experience of resuscitation team members with the presence of the patient's family during resuscitation. The hermeneutic phenomenology. The emergency departments and critical care units of 6 tertiary hospitals in Tabriz, Iran. There were potentially 380 nurses and physicians working in the emergency departments and acute care settings of 6 tertiary hospitals in Tabriz. A purposive sample of these nurses and physicians was used to recruit participants who had at least 2 years of experience, had experienced an actual family witnessed resuscitation event, and wanted to participate. The sample size was determined according to data saturation. Data collection ended when the data were considered rich and varied enough to illuminate the phenomenon, and no new themes emerged following the interview of 12 nurses and 8 physicians. Semi-structured, face- to- face interviews were held with the participants over a period of 6 months (April 2015 to September 2015), and Van Manen's method of data analysis was adopted. Three main themes emerged from the data analysis, including 'Futile resuscitation', 'Family support liaison', and 'Influence on team's performance'. A further 9 sub-themes emerged under the 3 main themes, which included 'futile resuscitation in end-stage cancer patients', 'when a patient dies', 'young patients', 'care of the elderly', 'accountable person', 'family supporter', 'no influence', 'positive influence', and 'negative influence'. Participants noted both positive and negative experiences of having family members present during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Welltrained and expert resuscitation team members are less likely to be stressed in the presence of family. A family support liaison would act to decrease family anxiety levels and to de

  2. Ethical and medicolegal considerations in the obstetric care of a Jehovah's Witness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyamfi, Cynthia; Gyamfi, Mavis M; Berkowitz, Richard L

    2003-07-01

    Jehovah's Witnesses comprise a unique obstetric population. Their refusal of blood stems from an interpretation of a literal translation of the Bible, and it is this belief that puts them at an increased risk of morbidity and mortality if hemorrhage occurs. Many Jehovah's Witnesses feel that accepting a blood transfusion will lead them to eternal damnation. A patient's self-determination, or autonomy, allows her to make decisions regarding her care. The decision to refuse blood or blood products has been upheld in court. This brings a new twist to the physician's obligation to "do no harm." When one undertakes the care of one of these patients, it is important to understand the ethical and medicolegal ramifications. The decision to be the primary caregivers can only be made once the physicians have decided they can let the patient die when all other options have been exhausted. This commentary discusses the ethical concerns and reviews the alternatives available to a Jehovah's Witness.

  3. Children Who Witness Domestic Violence: A Review of Empirical Literature.

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    Kolbo, Jerome R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents a review of the empirical literature examining the initial effects of witnessing domestic violence on children's functioning. Although results are somewhat inconclusive regarding children's social, cognitive, and physical development, findings of recently conducted investigations, when combined and compared with the previously reviewed…

  4. China witnesses a changing concept on marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, W

    1998-08-01

    This article discusses changing marriage, divorce, and remarriage patterns in China. The State Statistical Bureau reports that changing life style patterns will impact on the education of children and difficulties of housing and employment of single women, with or without children. Economic development has resulted in the elimination of poverty among over 20 million persons. Early marriage among males aged 15-21 years and females aged 15-19 years declined during 1990-96. The average age at first marriage increased by 2.0 years for males and 0.7 years for females during 1990-96. Average age at first marriage varies with level of economic development and location. Chinese families for centuries maintained arranged marriages. Marriage patterns have been influenced by customs from outside China. Couples use divorce as a means of settling disputes and focus on the quality of married life. Western culture has contributed to more frequent extramarital love affairs and the disintegration of many families. The basic foundation of marriage has weakened. The divorce rate rose during 1990-96. The highest rate of divorce by age was among persons aged 30-39 years in 1996, and among persons aged 50-59 years in 1990. The highest divorce rates by educational status were among illiterates and semiliterates in 1990, and among high school educated in 1996. Urban population had a higher divorce rate than rural population. Remarriage is gaining in popularity. Remarriages rose from 500,000 to 862,000 during 1985-95. The percentage of remarriages rose, especially among persons aged over 50 years.

  5. Transfusion Requirements in Microsurgical Reconstruction in Maxillofacial Surgery: Ethical and Legal Problems of Patients Who Are Jehovah's Witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lorena Pingarron; Arias-Gallo, Javier; Perez-Chrzanowska, Hanna; Seco, Pilar Ruiz; Moro, Javier Gonzalez M; Burgueño-Garcia, Miguel

    2013-03-01

    Objective To study transfusion requirements in patients with cancer undergoing head and neck reconstructive surgery and to discuss surgical and anesthetic strategies to reduce blood loss when the patient is a Jehovah's Witness. Material and Methods A descriptive study to expose the percentage of blood transfusions performed in patients with cancer undergoing microsurgical reconstructions in the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery of the referred hospital in the past 9 years. Results Two hundred thirty-seven microsurgical reconstructions were performed in head and neck tumors between January 2001 and December 2009. Statistical analysis shows a significant decrease (p = 0.035) in the number of patients needing transfusions patients in recent years. Conclusions The treatment of patients who are Jehovah's Witnesses is an ethical and moral dilemma for the clinician and in particular for surgeons.

  6. 25 CFR 115.611 - Will you be allowed to question opposing witnesses during a hearing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Will you be allowed to question opposing witnesses during... Restricting an IIM Account § 115.611 Will you be allowed to question opposing witnesses during a hearing? Yes, you or your guardian, as applicable, may question all opposing witnesses testifying during your...

  7. Blood transfusion in jehovah's witnesses, a dilemma in medicine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Gutierrez-Vega

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The provision of health services should be carried attached to the scientific and ethical principles of medicine. The negative to accept blood transfusion by Jehovah's Witnesses, when indicated, determines a conflict and a challenge for physicians. We discuss concepts related to this complex situation, including: Freedom of religion and belief, patients’ rights, regulatory framework that applies to providers of health services and medical rights. Which should be taken into account in these situations to make an informed decision from the legal and ethical point of view.

  8. Celebrity witnessing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lene Bull; Frello, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    This article deals with emotional address in the narrative modality of celebrity witnessing in the marketing of development aid. We analyse Danish celebrity narratives of global caring, drawing on Luc Boltanski’s work on a ‘politics of pity’, Lilie Chouliaraki’s notion of the ‘aspirational...... the spectator in alternative ways, thus creating space for alternative types of emotional engagement. The analysis demonstrates that the narrative modality of celebrity witnessing is more flexible than what is usually presumed, since it enables different completions and can be pried open for articulations...

  9. Expert Witness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    discipline that permits them to testify to an opinion that will aid a judge or jury in resolving a question that is beyond the understanding or competence of laypersons. An expert witness is an expert who makes his or her knowledge available to a court (a tribunal or any other forum where formal rules of evidence apply) to help ...

  10. Transfusion-free treatment of Jehovah's Witnesses: respecting the autonomous patient's motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyon, D

    1998-01-01

    What makes Jehovah's Witnesses tick? What motivates practitioners of medicine? How is benevolent human behaviour to be interpreted? The explanation that fear of censure, mind-control techniques or enlightened self-interest are the real motivators of human conduct is questioned. Those who believe that man was created in "God's image", hold that humanity has the potential to rise above selfishly driven attitudes and actions, and reflect the qualities of love, kindness and justice that separate us from the beasts. A comparison of general medical ethics and disciplines, and those of the Jehovah's Witness community, is made in this context. The easy charge that frequent deaths result from refusal of blood transfusions is examined. The central source of antipathy towards Jehovah's Witnesses, namely the alleged imposition of extreme and even harmful refusal of blood therapy on our children is addressed. Of course, "...few dilemmas are likely to be resolved wisely or satisfactorily by a blinkered adherence to abstract principles alone. Solutions to most cases will be dictated by a combination of factors. The support of medical ethics by Jehovah's Witnesses, and their willingness to share in reasoned and ethical debate, while at the same time holding firm to their religious and conscientious principles are emphasised. PMID:9873976

  11. Responses of advanced directives by Jehovah's Witnesses on a gynecologic oncology service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarsheth NP

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nimesh P Nagarsheth,1,2 Nikhil Gupta,3 Arpeta Gupta,4 Erin Moshier,5 Herbert Gretz,1 Aryeh Shander6 1Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Science, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY, USA; 2Englewood Hospital and Medical Center, Englewood, NJ, USA; 3Department of Urology, North Shore – Long Island Jewish Health Service, New Hyde Park, NY, USA; 4Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, St Luke's Hospital of Kansas City, Kansas City, MO, 5Department of Preventive Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY, USA; 6Department of Anesthesiology, Englewood Hospital and Medical Center, Englewood, NJ, USA Objectives: To review the responses of advance directives signed by Jehovah's Witness patients prior to undergoing surgery at a gynecologic oncology service. Study design: A retrospective chart review of gynecologic oncology patients undergoing surgery at a bloodless surgery center from 1998–2007 was conducted. Demographic, pathologic, and clinical data were recorded. The proportion of patients who accepted and refused various blood-derived products was determined and was compared to previously published results from a similar study of labor and delivery unit patients. Results: No gynecologic oncology patients agreed to accept transfusions of whole blood, red cells, white cells, platelets, or plasma under any circumstance, whereas 9.8% of pregnant patients accepted transfusion (P=0.0385. However, 98% of gynecologic oncology patients agreed to accept some blood products, including fractions such as albumin, immunoglobulins, and clotting factors, while only 39% of pregnant patients agreed (P<0.0001. In addition, all gynecologic oncology patients (100% accepted intraoperative hemodilution, compared to 55% of pregnant patients (P<0.0001. Conclusion: Our results confirm the commonly held belief

  12. The Web Interface Template System (WITS), a software developer`s tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauer, L.J.; Lynam, M.; Muniz, T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Financial Systems Dept.

    1995-11-01

    The Web Interface Template System (WITS) is a tool for software developers. WITS is a three-tiered, object-oriented system operating in a Client/Server environment. This tool can be used to create software applications that have a Web browser as the user interface and access a Sybase database. Development, modification, and implementation are greatly simplified because the developer can change and test definitions immediately, without writing or compiling any code. This document explains WITS functionality, the system structure and components of WITS, and how to obtain, install, and use the software system.

  13. Children's memory distortions following social contact with a co-witness: disentangling social and cognitive mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright-Paul, Alexandra; Jarrold, Christopher; Wright, Daniel B; Guillaume, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether recalling an event with a co-witness influences children's recall. Individual 3-5-year-olds (n = 48) watched a film with a co-witness. Unbeknown to participants, the co-witness was watching an alternative version of the film. Afterwards both the co-witness and the participant answered questions about the film together (public recall), and the degree to which children conformed to the co-witness's alternative version of events was measured. Subsequently participants were questioned again individually (private recall). Children also completed false belief and inhibitory control tasks. By separating errors made in public and private, the results indicated that both social conformity (32% of errors) and memory distortion (68% of errors) played a role in co-witness influence. Inhibitory control predicted the likelihood of retracting errors in private, but only for children who failed (r = .66) rather than passed false belief tasks (r = -.10). The results suggest that children with a theory of mind conform in the company of the co-witness to avoid social embarrassment, while those a poor theory of mind conform on the basis of an inability to inhibit the co-witness's response. The findings contribute to our understanding of the motivations responsible for co-witness conformity across early childhood.

  14. Thrombolytic therapy for critical limb ischemia in a Jehovah's Witness with severe anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy D. Kauffman, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A patient's refusal to receive blood products can pose both clinical and ethical challenges to the surgeon. In this report, we review the case of a Jehovah's Witness presenting with critical lower limb ischemia and severe anemia for whom the decision of whether to perform thrombolytic therapy was complicated by his refusal to accept blood products. The case demonstrates that thrombolytic therapy can produce favorable results in severely anemic patients even when transfusion is not an option. We conclude that offering thrombolytic therapy in this context is a reasonable therapeutic option from both a clinical and ethical perspective.

  15. Thrombolytic therapy for critical limb ischemia in a Jehovah's Witness with severe anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Jeremy D; Watson, T Joseph; Campbell, Joseph J

    2017-09-01

    A patient's refusal to receive blood products can pose both clinical and ethical challenges to the surgeon. In this report, we review the case of a Jehovah's Witness presenting with critical lower limb ischemia and severe anemia for whom the decision of whether to perform thrombolytic therapy was complicated by his refusal to accept blood products. The case demonstrates that thrombolytic therapy can produce favorable results in severely anemic patients even when transfusion is not an option. We conclude that offering thrombolytic therapy in this context is a reasonable therapeutic option from both a clinical and ethical perspective.

  16. Management of severe anemia secondary to menorrhagia in a Jehovah's Witness: a case report and treatment algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Griselda; Brotherton, Joy

    2011-08-01

    We report a 44 year old nulligravida Jehovah's Witness with a known fibroid uterus who presented with menorrhagia and life-threatening anemia. Adamant in her refusal of blood products and deemed too unstable for surgical management, the patient was managed conservatively by a multidisciplinary team. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Child-Witnesses of Domestic Violence: The Evolution of a Counseling Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Elizabeth Heather

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative research design was used to explore the processes by which four child-witnesses of domestic violence made meaning of their experiences in a counseling group. A specific aim of this study was to determine if there were stages of group development that occurred in the counseling group with four young child-witnesses of domestic…

  18. Studies of hosing of a witness beam in plasma based acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Lance; An, Weiming; Xu, Xinlu; Mori, Warren

    2017-10-01

    A major challenge for the next generation of plasma wakefield acceleration is the preservation of emittance of the witness beam. The hosing instability is one source of emittance of the witness beam that occurs when the witness beam has a transverse offset. A general theory has been developed to describe hosing in the blow-out regime and has shown smaller growth than standard theories. However, these theories have not been rigorously tested with witness beams in the relativistic, non-adiabatic regime of interest to plasma wakefield acceleration. A modified theory using an expansion in azimuthal modes is discussed. This theory alongside 3D QuickPIC simulations are used to study perturbations to the wake structure from point charges with transverse displacements as well as witness beams optimized for beam loading. Work supported by NSF and DOE.

  19. Listening to the patient's self-reported testimony: the authentic hermeneutical witness to the compassionate nurse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Ann

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers whether the patient's self-reported testimony of nursing care provides an authentic basis for nursing knowledge. An international nursing and philosophical literature gives international relevance. United Kingdom reports detail patients' complaints about nursing care. Many are personal self-reported testimonies published in the media, but discounted by the nursing profession. Discussion paper. Data sources 1873-2012 include policy documents, nursing studies involving grounded theory, phenomenology and narrative inquiry, nursing textbooks 1882-1971 and the interpretive paradigms of Glaser and Strauss, Heidegger, Ricoeur and Gadamer. Nursing researchers use qualitative methodologies to understand the patient's experience of nursing. Three exemplars reveal epistemological and ontological problems. Epistemologically, researchers are controlling data, their selection and interpretation. Ontologically, the researcher's present horizon dominates because no consideration is given to the historical horizon and context where the tradition of nursing developed and defined the nurse. Arguably, patients' expectations of compassionate nurses bear witness to this past horizon. Patients' self-reported testimonies should be taken seriously as an evidence base for understanding and improving nursing care. Nursing researchers using qualitative methods should be transparent about their pre-judgements. Connections with the past horizon of nursing history should be made to cast light on the present horizon. Patients' self-reported testimonies are more congruent with methods of narrative inquiry than data solicited and filtered by the interviewer's undeclared pre-judgement. They bear witness to the horizon of the past and the meaning and purpose of nursing, its values and ethos. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The effects of direct versus witnessed threat on emergency department healthcare workers: implications for PTSD criterion A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alden, Lynn E; Regambal, Marci J; Laposa, Judith M

    2008-12-01

    We compared post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity and symptom cluster profiles in hospital emergency department (ED) medical staff (N=100) who experienced an emotionally distressing work event that presented either a direct threat to themselves or a witnessed threat to patients. The two groups displayed similar levels of PTSD symptoms, however, they differed on symptom profiles and work consequences. The direct threat group experienced significantly greater fear during the event, more ongoing arousal symptoms, and more job dissatisfaction than the witnessed threat group. The witnessed threat group was more likely to appraise their PTSD symptoms as reflecting personal weakness. Overall, the results point to the need for further research to identify distinctive features of responses to different types of traumatic stressors.

  1. [Refusal of allogeneic blood transfusion by Jehovah's Witnesses. Perioperative management from a legal viewpoint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulsenheimer, K

    2010-04-01

    The perioperative management of patients belonging to the faith of Jehovah's Witnesses poses two equally difficult problems for physicians due their strict refusal of allogeneic blood transfusions: From a medical point of view everything must be done to avoid fatal anemia and coagulopathy. On the other hand, the physician is confronted with the legal problem even in extreme cases, whether the wishes of the patient, i.e. the religiously motivated right to self-determination, should or even must be followed when despite all preventative measures as described in this case, the risk of fatality is only avoidable by a blood transfusion and therefore represents the only life-saving option. In order to be able to answer this question this article supplies information on the unanimously recognized conditions in the jurisdiction and prevailing legal opinion and derives the consequences for the physician that this does not necessarily signify an unconditional legal obligation in association with a patient directive.

  2. Transfusion free radical antegrade modular pancreaticosplenectomy of metastatic neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas in Jehovah's Witness patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Young Bae; Yun, Sangchul; Choi, Dongho

    2015-02-01

    In a popular sense, Jehovah's Witnesses (JW) have their creeds, one of which is refusal of blood transfusion. Such refusal may impinge on their proper management, especially in critical situations. We present a case of successful bloodless multimodality therapy, which was performed for a JW. The patient was a 49-year-old woman and JW who had general weakness 7 days before admission. She was diagnosed with a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) with hepatic metastases. Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and Sandostatin LAR injection were performed, and then she was given a transfusion-free Radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy sequentially. We gave recombinant human erythropoietin and iron hydroxide sucrose complex daily for five days after surgery. She was discharged at postoperative day 12 without any surgical complications. Multimodality therapy is very important for optimal treatment of PNET. Along with intimate interdepartmental cooperation, careful patient selection and appropriate perioperative management could possibly enhance the surgical outcome.

  3. Citizen Camera-Witnessing: A Case Study of the Umbrella Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Han Lo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Citizen camera-witness is a new concept by which to describe using mobile camera phone to engage in civic expression. I argue that the meaning of this concept should not be limited to painful testimony; instead, it is a mode of civic camera-mediated mass self-testimony to brutality. The use of mobile phone recordings in Hong Kong’s Umbrella Movement is examined to understand how mobile cameras are employed as personal witnessing devices to provide recordings to indict unjust events and engage others in the civic movement. This study has examined the Facebook posts and You Tube videos of the Umbrella Movement between September 22, 2014 and December 22, 2014. The results suggest that the camera phone not only contributes to witnessing the brutal repression of the state, but also witnesses the beauty of the movement, and provides a testimony that allows for rituals to develop and semi-codes to be transformed.

  4. Renal sympathetic denervation in patients with treatment-resistant hypertension after witnessed intake of medication before qualifying ambulatory blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadl Elmula, Fadl Elmula Mohamed; Hoffmann, Pavel; Fossum, Eigil; Brekke, Magne; Gjønnæss, Eyvind; Hjørnholm, Ulla; Kjær, Vibeke N; Rostrup, Morten; Kjeldsen, Sverre E; Os, Ingrid; Stenehjem, Aud-E; Høieggen, Aud

    2013-09-01

    It is unknown whether the decline in blood pressure (BP) after renal denervation (RDN) is caused by denervation itself or concomitantly improved drug adherence. We aimed to investigate the BP lowering effect of RDN in true treatment-resistant hypertension by excluding patients with poor drug adherence. Patients with resistant hypertension (n=18) were referred for a thorough clinical and laboratory work-up. Treatment-resistant hypertension was defined as office systolic BP>140 mm Hg, despite maximally tolerated doses of ≥ 3 antihypertensive drugs, including a diuretic. In addition, ambulatory daytime systolic BP>135 mm Hg was required after witnessed intake of antihypertensive drugs to qualify. RDN (n=6) was performed with Symplicity Catheter System. The mean office and ambulatory BPs remained unchanged at 1, 3, and 6 months in the 6 patients, whereas there was no known change in antihypertensive medication. Two patients, however, had a fall in both office and ambulatory BPs. Our findings question whether BP falls in response to RDN in patients with true treatment-resistant hypertension. Additional research must aim to verify potential BP lowering effect and identify a priori responders to RDN before this invasive method can routinely be applied to patients with drug-resistant hypertension. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01673516.

  5. A field evaluation of the Eye-Closure Interview with witnesses of serious crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vredeveldt, Annelies; Tredoux, Colin G; Nortje, Alicia; Kempen, Kate; Puljević, Cheneal; Labuschagne, Gérard N

    2015-04-01

    Laboratory research shows that eye-closure during memory retrieval improves both the amount and the factual accuracy of memory reports about witnessed events. Based on these findings, we developed the Eye-Closure Interview, and examined its feasibility (in terms of compliance with the instructions) and effectiveness (in terms of the quantity and quality of reported information) in eyewitness interviews conducted by the South African Police Service. Police interviewers from the Facial Identification Unit were randomly assigned to receive Eye-Closure Interview training or no training. We analyzed 95 interviews with witnesses of serious crimes (including robbery, rape, and murder), some of whom were instructed to close their eyes during salient parts of the interview. Witnesses in the control condition rarely spontaneously closed their eyes, but witnesses in the Eye-Closure Interview condition kept their eyes closed during 97% of their descriptions, suggesting that the Eye-Closure Interview would be easy to implement in a field setting. Although witnesses who closed their eyes did not remember more information overall, the information they provided was considered to be of significantly greater forensic relevance (as reflected in 2 independent blind assessments, 1 by a senior police expert and 1 by a senior researcher). Thus, based on the findings from this field study and from previous laboratory research, we conclude that implementation of the Eye-Closure Interview in witness interviews would help police interviewers to elicit more valuable information from witnesses, which could be relevant to the police investigation and/or in court. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Witnessing intimate partner violence and child maltreatment in Ugandan children: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, Karen M; Knight, Louise; Child, Jennifer C; Kyegombe, Nambusi; Hossain, Mazeda; Lees, Shelley; Watts, Charlotte; Naker, Dipak

    2017-02-28

    Existing evidence, mainly from high-income countries, shows children who witness intimate partner violence (IPV) at home are more likely to experience other forms of violence, but very little evidence is available from lower income countries. In this paper we aim to explore whether Ugandan children who witness IPV at home are also more likely to experience other forms of maltreatment, factors associated with witnessing and experiencing violence, and whether any increased risk comes from parents, or others outside the home. A representative cross-sectional survey of primary schools. 3427 non-boarding primary school students, aged about 11-14 years. Luwero District, Uganda, 2012. Exposure to child maltreatment was measured using the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect Child Abuse Screening Tool-Child Institutional, and 2 questions measured witnessing IPV. 26% of children reported witnessing IPV, but nearly all of these children had also experienced violence themselves. Only 0.6% of boys and 1.6% of girls had witnessed partner violence and not experienced violence. Increased risk of violence was from parents and also from other perpetrators besides parents. Both girls and boys who witnessed and experienced violence had between 1.66 (95% CI 0.96 to 2.87) and 4.50 (95% CI 1.78 to 11.33) times the odds of reporting mental health difficulties, and 3.23 (95% CI 1.99 to 5.24) and 8.12 (95% CI 5.15 to 12.80) times the odds of using physical or sexual violence themselves. In this sample, witnessing IPV almost never occurred in isolation-almost all children who witnessed partner violence also experienced violence themselves. Our results imply that children in Uganda who are exposed to multiple forms of violence may benefit from intervention to mitigate mental health consequences and reduce use of violence. IPV prevention interventions should be considered to reduce child maltreatment. Large numbers of children also experience maltreatment in

  7. Citizen Camera-Witnessing: A Case Study of the Umbrella Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Wai Han Lo

    2016-01-01

    Citizen camera-witness is a new concept by which to describe using mobile camera phone to engage in civic expression. I argue that the meaning of this concept should not be limited to painful testimony; instead, it is a mode of civic camera-mediated mass self-testimony to brutality. The use of mobile phone recordings in Hong Kong’s Umbrella Movement is examined to understand how mobile cameras are employed as personal witnessing devices to provide recordings to indict unjust events and engage...

  8. Witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabayo, Roman; Molnar, Beth E; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-04-01

    Witnessing violence has been linked to maladaptive coping behaviors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use. However, more research is required to identify mechanisms in which witnessing violence leads to these behaviors. The objectives of this investigation were to examine the association between witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use among adolescents, to identify whether exhibiting depressive symptoms was a mediator within this relationship, and to determine if those who had adult support in school were less likely to engage in risky health behaviors. Data were collected from a sample of 1,878 urban students, from 18 public high schools participating in the 2008 Boston Youth Survey. In 2012, we used multilevel log-binomial regression models and propensity score matching to estimate the association between witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use. Analyses indicated that girls who witnessed a violent death were more likely to use marijuana (relative risk (RR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02, 1.17), and tended towards a higher likelihood to smoke (RR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.13) and consume alcohol (RR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.97, 1.18). Among boys, those who witnessed a violent death were significantly more likely to smoke (RR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.29), consume alcohol (RR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.17, 1.45) and use marijuana (RR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.21, 1.46). When exhibiting depressive symptoms was included, estimates were not attenuated. However, among girls who witnessed a violent death, having an adult at school for support was protective against alcohol consumption. When we used propensity score matching, findings were consistent with the main analyses among boys only. This study adds insight into how witnessing violence can lead to adoption of adverse health behaviors.

  9. Does Reactivating a Witnessed Memory Increase Its Susceptibility to Impairment by Subsequent Misinformation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindal, Eric J.; DeFranco, Rachel M.; Rich, Patrick R.; Zaragoza, Maria S.

    2016-01-01

    In a recent PNAS article, Chan and LaPaglia (2013) provided arguments and evidence to support the claim that reactivating a witnessed memory (by taking a test) renders the memory labile and susceptible to impairment by subsequent misinformation. In the current article, we argue that Chan and LaPaglia's (2013) findings are open to alternative…

  10. Witnessing the Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgaard Jensen, Torben

    2007-01-01

    the journalists into witnesses. It compares the manager's strategy to other cases of effective witnessing in courtrooms and in science. It concludes that the manager's persuasiveness is derived from his ability to articulate a series of pointed contrasts between the attractive working life within the firm......Abstract: The paper explores the phenomenon of witnessing the future through a case study of how a Scandinavian new economy firm managed to persuade a number of business journalists that it was "the future". It describes the procedures and rhetorical strategies that the manager deployed to turn...... and the problematic work life elsewhere. Finally, it notes that the manager's strategy enacts a timeworld characterised by dramatic epochal changes, which is radically different from the more stable and knowable time-world that is enacted in ordinary scientific discourses. Key words: actor-network theory, witnessing...

  11. Nahuatl among Jehovah's Witnesses of Hueyapan, Morelos: A case of Spontaneous revitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pharao Hansen, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    . Here the Nahuatl language has experienced a revival within the last five years, to a degree where congregational meetings are now held mostly in Nahuatl, and where young Witnesses are probably the only group of youths in Hueyapan to communicate daily in Nahuatl. It is argued that this situation arose...

  12. The 'School of de Wit' crop growth simulation models: a pedigree and historical overview.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, B.A.M.; Keulen, van H.; Laar, van H.H.; Rabbinge, R.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, a pedigree of the crop growth simulation models by the ‘School of de Wit’ is presented. The origins and philosophy of this school are traced from de Wit's classical publication on modelling photosynthesis of leaf canopies in 1965. It is shown how changing research goals and priorities

  13. Selenium and Human Health: Witnessing a Copernican Revolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonska, Ewa; Vinceti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In humans, selenium was hypothesized to lower the risk of several chronic diseases, mainly due to the antioxidant activity of selenium-containing proteins. Recent epidemiologic and laboratory studies, however, are changing our perception of the biological effects of this nutritionally essential trace element. We reviewed the most recent epidemiologic and biochemical literature on selenium, synthesizing the findings from these studies into a unifying view. Randomized trials have shown that selenium did not protect against cancer and other chronic diseases, but even increased the risk of specific neoplasms such as advanced prostate cancer and skin cancer, in addition to type 2 diabetes. Biochemical studies indicate that selenium may exert a broad pattern of toxic effects at unexpectedly low concentrations. Furthermore, its upregulation of antioxidant proteins (selenium-dependent and selenium-independent) may be a manifestation of self-induced oxidative stress. In conclusion, toxic effects of selenium species occur at lower concentrations than previously believed. Those effects may include a large range of proteomic changes and adverse health effects in humans. Since the effects of environmental exposure to this element on human health still remain partially unknown, but are potentially serious, the toxicity of selenium exposure should be further investigated and considered as a public health priority.

  14. A Pedagogy of Unknowing: Witnessing Unknowability in Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2005-01-01

    Using insights from the tradition of "via negativa" and the work of Emmanuel Levinas, this paper proposes that unknowability can occupy an important place in teaching and learning, a place that embraces the "unknowable" in general, as well as the "unknowable Other," in particular. It is argued that turning toward both "via negativa" and Levinas…

  15. Interviewing a Silent (Radioactive) Witness through Nuclear Forensic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Klaus; Wallenius, Maria; Varga, Zsolt

    2015-12-01

    Nuclear forensics is a relatively young discipline in science which aims at providing information on nuclear material of unknown origin. The determination of characteristic parameters through tailored analytical techniques enables establishing linkages to the material's processing history and hence provides hints on its place and date of production and on the intended use.

  16. Hardy's nonlocality argument as a witness for postquantum correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subhadipa; Banik, Manik; Rai, Ashutosh; Gazi, MD Rajjak; Kunkri, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Recently, Gallego [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.107.210403 107, 210403 (2011)] proved that any future information principle aiming at distinguishing between quantum and postquantum correlation must be intrinsically multipartite in nature. We establish similar results by using the device-independent success probability of Hardy's nonlocality argument for tripartite quantum systems. We construct an example of a tripartite Hardy correlation which is postquantum but satisfies not only the all-bipartite information principle but also the guess-your-neighbor's-input (GYNI) inequality.

  17. Witnesses of causal nonseparability: an introduction and a few case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branciard, Cyril

    2016-05-18

    It was recently realised that quantum theory allows for so-called causally nonseparable processes, which are incompatible with any definite causal order. This was first suggested on a rather abstract level by the formalism of process matrices, an extension of the quantum formalism which only assumes that quantum theory holds locally in some observers' laboratories, but does not impose a global causal structure; it was then shown, on a more practical level, that the quantum switch-a new, already implementable resource for quantum computation that goes beyond causally ordered circuits-provided precisely a physical example of a causally nonseparable process. To demonstrate that a given process is causally nonseparable, the concept of witnesses of causal nonseparability was introduced. Here we present a shorter introduction to this concept, and concentrate on some explicit examples-by considering in particular different noise models for the quantum switch-to show how to construct and use such witnesses in practice.

  18. Prophetic witness and public discourse in European societies – a German perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Bedford-Strohm

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of prophetic witness of the churches in the public discourse of modern civil societies is analysed on the basis of three public memorandums of the German Protestant churches on economic questions and their impact on the public. Among the ten systematic conclusions which are drawn from this case study is the importance of the specific context for the role of prophetic statements. The article tries to show how prophetic witness is a necessary element of a public theology, which is not based on fundamental criticism, but develops both critical and constructive perspectives for politics and society. If such public theology is liberation theology for a democratic society it is the task of the church to get involved in the public debate in a ‘bilingual’ way, that is, on the basis of its biblical-theological sources but at the same time with the ability to engage in the secular language of pluralistic societies.

  19. Witnessing arbitrary bipartite entanglement in a measurement-device-independent way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Arindam; Ghosh, Sibasish

    2017-11-01

    Experimental detection of entanglement of an arbitrary state of a given bipartite system is crucial for exploring many areas of quantum information processing. But such a detection should be made in a device-independent way if the preparation process of the state is considered to be faithful, in order to avoid detection of a separable state as an entangled one. The recently developed scheme of detecting bipartite entanglement in a measurement-device-independent way [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 060405 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.060405] does require information about the state. Here, by using Auguisiak et al.'s universal entanglement witness scheme for two-qubit states [Phys. Rev. A 77, 030301 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevA.77.030301], we provide a universal entanglement detection scheme for two-qubit states in a measurement-device-independent way. We also provide a set of universal witness operators for detecting NPT-ness (negative under partial transpose) of two-qudit states in a measurement-device-independent way. We conjecture that no such universal entanglement witness scheme exists for PPT (positive under partial transpose) entangled states. We also analyze the robustness of some of the experimental schemes—for detecting entanglement in a measurement-device-independent way—under the influence of noise in the inputs (from the referee) as well as in the measurement operator.

  20. Prehospital behaviour of patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome or witnessed cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Michael Mundt; Dixen, Ulrik; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2003-01-01

    -four per cent of the patients admitted with cardiac arrest expressed no prior symptoms. Two-thirds of patients with typical symptoms interpreted it as cardiac-still only half took action within 20 min. Fifty per cent of patients who called a physician were delayed by wrong advice or misinterpretation. One...... for medical assistance. Perceiving jeopardy had positive influence on the behaviour. Awareness of therapeutic options influences the decision-making process....

  1. Witnessing Irreducible Dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Wan; Cai, Yu; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Scarani, Valerio

    2017-08-25

    The Hilbert space dimension of a quantum system is the most basic quantifier of its information content. Lower bounds on the dimension can be certified in a device-independent way, based only on observed statistics. We highlight that some such "dimension witnesses" capture only the presence of systems of some dimension, which in a sense is trivial, not the capacity of performing information processing on them, which is the point of experimental efforts to control high-dimensional systems. In order to capture this aspect, we introduce the notion of irreducible dimension of a quantum behavior. This dimension can be certified, and we provide a witness for irreducible dimension four.

  2. Experiences and guidelines for footcare practices of patients witli diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Matwa

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The former Transkei is a predominantly rural region of the Eastern Cape Province. The poor infrastructure in this area results in inaccessibility of the available health services. The majority is ill equipped to deliver optimum diabetes care. There is an increase of lower limb amputations and lack of knowledge among patients with diabetes mellitus in the former Transkei. These complications can be prevented by patient education on self-management and appropriate footcare procedures. This qualitative study was conducted to explore and describe the experiences and footcare practices of diabetic patients who live in the rural areas of Transkei.

  3. "At wits' end!": perspectives of Hispanic caregivers of a family member with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Jana

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this qualitative exploratory study was to explore the perspectives of Hispanic caregivers as they provide the day-to-day care for their family member with schizophrenia. Interviews were conducted by a promotora (a Spanish speaking trained community health worker) with ten Hispanic caregivers at a large community center in a southwest border city over a six month period. Sixty interviews were audio recorded, translated into English, transcribed, and then interpreted using content analysis. One main overarching perspective emerged: "at wits' end." The following four supportive themes emerged: feeling marginalized, seeking answers, relying on God, and lacking support.

  4. Benchmarking a quantum teleportation protocol in superconducting circuits using tomography and an entanglement witness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, M; Fedorov, A; Steffen, L; Filipp, S; da Silva, M P; Wallraff, A

    2012-01-27

    Teleportation of a quantum state may be used for distributing entanglement between distant qubits in quantum communication and for quantum computation. Here we demonstrate the implementation of a teleportation protocol, up to the single-shot measurement step, with superconducting qubits coupled to a microwave resonator. Using full quantum state tomography and evaluating an entanglement witness, we show that the protocol generates a genuine tripartite entangled state of all three qubits. Calculating the projection of the measured density matrix onto the basis states of two qubits allows us to reconstruct the teleported state. Repeating this procedure for a complete set of input states we find an average output state fidelity of 86%.

  5. Splenic embolization in a Jehovah's Witness: role of recombinant human factor VIIa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindikoglu, Ayse L; Anantharaju, Abhinandana; George, Magdalene; Leone, Nancy; Bejna, Judy; Van Thiel, David H

    2003-01-01

    A case of a 50-year-old Jehovah's Witness with cryptogenic cirrhosis, severe portal hypertension and a coagulopathy, who underwent splenic embolization to improve the platelet count after receiving recombinant human Factor VIIa, is reported. Following the infusion of recombinant human Factor VIIa, the coagulopathy was rapidly corrected and it became possible to safely embolize her spleen. The changes in prothrombin time, international normalized ratio and activated partial thromboplastin time as well as thrombomodulin, tissue factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor after the infusion are presented. As a result of the splenic embolization, her platelet count normalized and she has been listed for liver transplantation.

  6. Violence witnessing, perpetrating and victimization in medellin, Colombia: a random population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restrepo Alexandra

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of injury from violence and the costs attributable to violence are extremely high in Colombia. Despite a dramatic decline in homicides over the last ten years, homicide rate in Medellin, Colombia second largest city continues to rank among the highest of cities in Latin America. This study aims to estimate the prevalence and distribution of witnesses, victims and perpetrators of different forms of interpersonal violence in a representative sample of the general population in Medellin in 2007. Methods A face-to-face survey was carried out on a random selected, non-institutionalized population aged 12 to 60 years, with a response rate of 91% yielding 2,095 interview responses. Results We present the rates of prevalence for having been a witness, victim, or perpetrator for different forms of violence standardized using the WHO truncated population pyramid to allow for cross-national comparison. We also present data on verbal aggression, fraud and deception, yelling and heavy pranks, unarmed aggression during last year, and armed threat, other severe threats, robbery, armed physical aggression, and sexual aggression during the lifetime, by age, sex, marital and socioeconomic status, and education. Men reported the highest prevalence of being victims, perpetrators and witnesses in all forms of violence, except for robbery and sexual violence. The number of victims per perpetrator was positively correlated with the severity of the type of violence. The highest victimization proportions over the previous twelve months occurred among minors. Perpetrators are typically young unmarried males from lower socio-economic strata. Conclusions Due to very low proportion of victimization report to authorities, periodic surveys should be included in systems for epidemiological monitoring of violence, not only of victimization but also for perpetrators. Victimization information allows quantifying the magnitude of different forms of

  7. PREPOROD Newspaper: An Agent of and a Witness to Islamic Revival in Bosnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikret Karčić

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Bosnian biweekly paper Preporod (Renaissance has been, since its first appearance in September 1970, an agent of, and a witness to Islamic revival in this Balkan country. This paper has significantly contributed to the creation of a new self-conscious and dynamic Islamic identity of the Bosniaks. It has also recorded main issues debated within Bosniak Muslim community, internal intellectual and ideological developments as well as obstacles to Islamic renaissance there.

  8. A Bermuda Triangle?
    Balancing Protection, Participation and Proof in Criminal Proceedings affecting Child Victims and Witnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarieke Beijer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the adoption of the UN Convention of the Rights of the Child in 1989, the right to participation has been recognised internationally as one of the general principles of children's legal status. It adds a new dimension to the existing and already problematic balance between the protection of the child victim and witness on the one hand and the fairness of the criminal proceedings on the other. In this article, we focus on the position of the child victim and witness in criminal proceedings and the complexity of the different roles he or she plays in this specific legal context, especially in child abuse cases: the child victim and witness that needs to be protected, the child as a vital source of information to the judicial authorities and the child as a person under the age of eighteen who has the right to participate. After having explored the meaning of the right to participate and its consequences for the way criminal proceedings should be conducted, we will address the position of the child witness in Europe and the United States of America. The rules and regulations regarding child witnesses in these two regions are based on different premises as do their assumptions on how to acquire the most reliable testimony. This article aims to clarify these premises in order to define the biggest challenges regarding the implementation of the right to participation of child victims and witnesses in criminal proceedings.

  9. Reliability of the witness descriptions of epileptic seizures and psychogenic non-epileptic attacks: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić, Aleksandar J; Drašković, Maja; Bukumirić, Zoran; Sokić, Dragoslav

    2015-06-01

    The diagnosis of epilepsy primarily depends on description of the observed seizure. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of witness' description among groups with different medical education. A group of 44 respondents (15 laymen, 15 medical students, and 14 doctors at neurology residency program) were shown video footages of focal epileptic seizure (ES) with secondary generalization and psychogenic non-epileptic seizure (PNES) of the same patient. The ability to describe ES and PNES characteristics, to estimate duration of seizures, and to detect of accurate seizure type was evaluated using a questionnaire. For the analysis of primary data obtained from questionnaires, we used descriptive statistical methods and methods for testing statistical hypotheses. The sensitivity (Sn) and specificity (Sp) for accurate recognition of ES are different in the examined groups (laymen Sn  =  53.3%, Sp  =  33.3%; medical students Sn  =  100%, Sp  =  13.3%; neurology residents Sn  =  100%, Sp  =  71.4%). Evaluated duration of PNES and ES do not differ between examined groups. The impression that ES and PNES are distinct events is reciprocal for medical students and neurology residents, but not in laymen group. Neurology residents notice the essential characteristics of ES in high percentage. Accurate classification of the attacks is associated with the observers' level of medical knowledge. Witnesses with specific, neurological knowledge with higher probability, compared to the laity and medical students, differentiate ES from PNES.

  10. Qualification of a multi-diagnostic detonator-output characterization procedure utilizing PMMA witness blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biss, Matthew; Murphy, Michael; Lieber, Mark

    2017-06-01

    Experiments were conducted in an effort to qualify a multi-diagnostic characterization procedure for the performance output of a detonator when fired into a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) witness block. A suite of optical diagnostics were utilized in combination to both bound the shock wave interaction state at the detonator/PMMA interface and characterize the nature of the shock wave decay in PMMA. The diagnostics included the Shock Wave Image Framing Technique (SWIFT), a photocathode tube streak camera, and photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV). High-precision, optically clear witness blocks permitted dynamic flow visualization of the shock wave in PMMA via focused shadowgraphy. SWIFT- and streak-imaging diagnostics captured the spatiotemporally evolving shock wave, providing a two-dimensional temporally discrete image set and a one-dimensional temporally continuous image, respectively. PDV provided the temporal velocity history of the detonator output along the detonator axis. Through combination of the results obtained, a bound was able to be placed on the interface condition and a more-physical profile representing the shock wave decay in PMMA for an exploding-bridgewire detonator was achieved.

  11. Memory and the operational witness: Police officer recall of firearms encounters as a function of active response role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Lorraine; Blocksidge, David; Gabbert, Fiona; Sauer, James D; Lewinski, William; Mirashi, Arta; Atuk, Emel

    2016-02-01

    Investigations after critical events often depend on accurate and detailed recall accounts from operational witnesses (e.g., law enforcement officers, military personnel, and emergency responders). However, the challenging, and often stressful, nature of such events, together with the cognitive demands imposed on operational witnesses as a function of their active role, may impair subsequent recall. We compared the recall performance of operational active witnesses with that of nonoperational observer witnesses for a challenging simulated scenario involving an armed perpetrator. Seventy-six police officers participated in pairs. In each pair, 1 officer (active witness) was armed and instructed to respond to the scenario as they would in an operational setting, while the other (observer witness) was instructed to simply observe the scenario. All officers then completed free reports and responded to closed questions. Active witnesses showed a pattern of heart rate activity consistent with an increased stress response during the event, and subsequently reported significantly fewer correct details about the critical phase of the scenario. The level of stress experienced during the scenario mediated the effect of officer role on memory performance. Across the sample, almost one-fifth of officers reported that the perpetrator had pointed a weapon at them although the weapon had remained in the waistband of the perpetrator's trousers throughout the critical phase of the encounter. These findings highlight the need for investigator awareness of both the impact of operational involvement and stress-related effects on memory for ostensibly salient details, and reflect the importance of careful and ethical information elicitation techniques. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Expert Witness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    acrimony between physicians and attorneys is commonplace. An editorial in JAMA as far back as 1892 addressed ... creating a hypothetic opening statement from an attorney to a jury: "Gentlemen of the jury, there are three .... illness, for example, will have a causation defence if it can be demonstrated that, on the balance of ...

  13. Ear witness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, L; van der Lugt, C

    2000-07-01

    A description is given of some aspects of the normal human auricle. The physiognomy of the auricle is different for every individual which leads to the possibility of identifying people based on their auricles. Indeed this has even led to the reading of earprints similar to fingerprints, a fact not generally known amongst ENT-specialists. This highly specialized knowledge has been developed within a special branch of forensic medicine and criminology, called 'earology' or 'otomorphology'. Two illustrative case histories are presented.

  14. Forgotten Witnesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez Porto, Rosa María

    2017-01-01

    the lines of art history and philology has turned them into fragmentary realities devoid of any coherent meaning, further isolating these works from the complex visual culture they belonged to. Besides, both art historians and philologists alike seem to have been more concerned with a search for origins...... historia sagrada?...

  15. Neural responses to witnessing peer rejection after being socially excluded: fMRI as a window into adolescents' emotional processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, Carrie L; Eisenberger, Naomi I; Pfeifer, Jennifer H; Dapretto, Mirella

    2013-09-01

    During adolescence, concerns about peer rejection and acceptance become increasingly common. Adolescents regularly experience peer rejection firsthand and witness these behaviors among their peers. In the current study, neuroimaging techniques were employed to conduct a preliminary investigation of the affective and cognitive processes involved in witnessing peer acceptance and rejection - specifically when these witnessed events occur in the immediate aftermath of a firsthand experience with rejection. During an fMRI scan, 23 adolescents underwent a simulated experience of firsthand peer rejection. Then, immediately following this experience they watched as another adolescent was ostensibly first accepted and then rejected. Findings indicated that in the immediate aftermath of being rejected by peers, adolescents displayed neural activity consistent with distress when they saw another peer being accepted, and neural activity consistent with emotion regulation and mentalizing (e.g. perspective-taking) processes when they saw another peer being rejected. Furthermore, individuals displaying a heightened sensitivity to firsthand rejection were more likely to show neural activity consistent with distress when observing a peer being accepted. Findings are discussed in terms of how witnessing others being accepted or rejected relates to adolescents' interpretations of both firsthand and observed experiences with peers. In addition, the potential impact that witnessed events might have on the broader perpetuation of bullying at this age is also considered. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Neural responses to witnessing peer rejection after being socially excluded: fMRI as a window into adolescents’ emotional processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, Carrie L.; Eisenberger, Naomi I.; Pfeifer, Jennifer H.; Dapretto, Mirella

    2013-01-01

    During adolescence, concerns about peer rejection and acceptance become increasingly common. Adolescents regularly experience peer rejection firsthand and witness these behaviors among their peers. In the current study, neuroimaging techniques were employed to conduct a preliminary investigation of the affective and cognitive processes involved in witnessing peer acceptance and rejection—specifically when these witnessed events occur in the immediate aftermath of a firsthand experience with rejection. During an fMRI scan, twenty-three adolescents underwent a simulated experience of firsthand peer rejection. Then, immediately following this experience they watched as another adolescent was ostensibly first accepted and then rejected. Findings indicated that in the immediate aftermath of being rejected by peers, adolescents displayed neural activity consistent with distress when they saw another peer being accepted, and neural activity consistent with emotion regulation and mentalizing (e.g., perspective-taking) processes when they saw another peer being rejected. Furthermore, individuals displaying a heightened sensitivity to firsthand rejection were more likely to show neural activity consistent with distress when observing a peer being accepted. Findings are discussed in terms of how witnessing others being accepted or rejected relates to adolescents’ interpretations of both firsthand and observed experiences with peers. Additionally, the potential impact that witnessed events might have on the broader perpetuation of bullying at this age is also considered. PMID:24033579

  17. Indigenous Space and the Landscape of Settlement: A Historian as Expert Witness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Susan E

    2015-02-01

    This essay examines my work as expert witness in the case of U.S. v. Michigan, a Indigenous use-rights case. I was charged with parsing the intention of a specific article of the 1836 Treaty of Washington compelling land cession by Anishinaabe peoples and with writing a history of land use in the area from that date to the present for the Chippewa Ottawa Resource Authority (my employer). The challenges were not only methodological (how do you estimate use from ownership?) and epistemological (what constitutes proof that will satisfy both historians and lawyers?), but also sociological and psychological: what happens when an associate professor puts her progress toward full professor on hold for the sake of a court case?

  18. "Cattle car complexes": a correspondence with historical captivity and post-Holocaust witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Simone

    2006-01-01

    This article explores critical complexes relating to the construction of historical captivity in deportation train journeys by examining fictional and testimonial accounts of that experience. Using Thane Rosenbaum’s short story "Cattle Car Complex," the author shows that fiction is a prism through which to view victims’ experiences of deportation-experiences that tend to be overlooked in interpretive literature about the Holocaust. Historians have examined deportations above all as a perpetrator narrative, utilizing contemporaneous documents and sources. Their treatment neglects the numerous testimonies about the debilitating effects of deportation travel, as well as the evocation of that traumatic transit in post-Holocaust texts and contexts such as fiction, film, art, and museological and commemorative practice. The author argues that sensory witness is a compelling paradigm that can reveal the silences and elisions in representations of historical captivity.

  19. Simulation as a designed tool for material flow analysis by means of Witness Horizon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vysocký Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this post, the simulation is analysed, which positively influences the production process. Through simulation, it is possible to identify deficiencies found in different workplaces. Initially, the most familiar simulation software is used, which is used to create different types of simulations. The Witness system is described in more detail by simulation and subsequent results. The basic step before the simulation is to determine the data that enters the simulation. The workplace is composed of three basic workplaces that are contained in a number of machines. There is a conveyor between these workplaces, which ensures the transport of parts throughout the entire production hall. The result of this analysis is to evaluate the efficiency of each workplace and possible suggestions to increase the productivity of the entire process that are displayed using graphs.

  20. Reseña del libro: "The advent of the fatimids. A Contemporary Shi‘i Witness"

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Enamorado, Virgilio

    2001-01-01

    Reseña del libro de Ibn al-Haytam, The advent of the fatimids. A Contemporary Shi‘i Witness. An edition and English Traslation of Ibn al-Haytham’s Kitab al-Munazarat por por W. Madelung y P. E. Walker. London, New York, I.B. Tauris, 2000.

  1. Adverse post-operative outcomes in Jehovah's witnesses with gynecologic cancer within 30 days of surgery: A single institution review of 36 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J. Moulton

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Rates of blood transfusion are reported as high as 32% in women undergoing major gynecologic cancer surgery. Therefore, care of the gynecologic oncology patient who refuses blood products, such as Jehovah's witnesses, can pose a unique challenge. The objective of this study was to determine rate of adverse post-operative outcomes within 30 days of surgery in Jehovah's witnesses with gynecologic cancer. This was a retrospective cohort study of Jehovah's witnesses undergoing laparotomy or minimally invasive surgery (MIS for gynecologic cancer at a single institution. Data for post-adverse complications within 30 days of surgery were recorded. In total, 36 patients were included with a median age of 58.5 years (32–85 years. The majority had endometrial adenocarcinoma (n = 23; 63.9% or epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube or peritoneal cancer (EOC (n = 8; 22.2%. 61.1% (n = 22 of patients underwent laparotomy and 38.9% (n = 14 had MIS procedures. 31.8% of laparotomies (n = 7 were terminated prematurely due to surgeon concern for ongoing blood loss. In patients with advanced stage EOC, the rate of suboptimal cytoreduction (>1 cm was 50%. In the laparotomy cohort, there were four (18.2% ICU admissions and two (9.1% mortalities. The time to adjuvant chemotherapy or radiation was 45.5 days (31–64 for laparotomy compared to 35.0 days (12–64 for MIS. While the majority of patients (97.2% were unwilling to accept packed red blood cells, over one third (38.9% were agreeable to autologous blood transfusion. Additionally, five (13.9% patients were accepting of fresh frozen plasma, six (16.7% patients were agreeable to cryoprecipitate and seven (19.4% patients were willing to accept platelet transfusions. There is a high rate of postoperative adverse outcomes among Jehovah's witnesses undergoing laparotomy for gynecologic malignancy compared. Acceptance of blood products is low among Jehovah's witnesses, even in the setting of major

  2. Reconciliation as narrative: Witnessing against a too easy and a too difficult reconciliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Botha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Reconciliation as narrative: Witnessing against a too easy and a too difficult reconciliationAfter the dawn of democracy in South Africa in 1994 diverse paradigms on reconciliation have appeared on the scene. In this article these paradigms are not discredited so much for being downright unproductive, but they are found to be either too prescriptive as is the case with the TRC or too limited as is the case with the three paradigms of which mere sketches are offered.The main thrust of the article is a proposal on developing reconciliation as narrative in contradistinction to a dogmatic, technical approach to reconciliation as something to be organised, to be prescribed and engineered. The basic thesis of the article is that narrative can potentially create vast space for story-telling and for many more voices to be heard on the issue of reconciliation. The notion of narrative is advanced as a serious academic category and not an intellectual fad. A further issue is illustrating how issues like remembering, forgiveness and justice need to be brought into discourse with reconciliation.

  3. Optimal decomposable witnesses without the spanning property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augusiak, Remigiusz [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Sarbicki, Gniewomir [Insitute of Physics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudzicdzka 5, PL-87-100 Torun (Poland); Lewenstein, Maciej [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); ICREA-Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, Lluis Companys 23, E-08010 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    One of the unsolved problems in the characterization of the optimal entanglement witnesses is the existence of optimal witnesses acting on bipartite Hilbert spaces H{sub m,n}=C{sup m} x C{sup n} such that the product vectors obeying =0 do not span H{sub m,n}. So far, the only known examples of such witnesses were found among indecomposable witnesses, one of them being the witness corresponding to the Choi map. However, it remains an open question whether decomposable witnesses exist without the property of spanning. Here we answer this question affirmatively, providing systematic examples of such witnesses. Then, we generalize some of the recently obtained results on the characterization of 2 x n optimal decomposable witnesses [R. Augusiak et al., J. Phys. A 44, 212001 (2011)] to finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces H{sub m,n} with m,n{>=}3.

  4. 15 CFR 904.252 - Witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the witness, or any other action deemed appropriate by the Judge. (f) Testimony in a foreign language. If a witness is expected to testify in a language other than the English language, the party... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Witnesses. 904.252 Section 904.252...

  5. The psychological reactions after witnessing a killing in public in a Danish high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ask Elklit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: School killings attract immense media and public attention but psychological studies surrounding these events are rare. Objective: To examine the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and possible risk factors of PTSD in 320 Danish high school students (mean age 18 years 7 months after witnessing a young man killing his former girlfriend in front of a large audience. Method: The students answered the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ, the Crisis Support Scale (CSS, and the Trauma Symptom Checklist (TSC. Results: Prevalence of PTSD 7 months after the incident was 9.5%. Furthermore, 25% had PTSD at a subclinical level. Intimacy with the deceased girl; feeling fear, helplessness, or horror during the killing; lack of expressive ability; feeling let down by others; negative affectivity; and dissociation predicted 78% of the variance of the HTQ total scores. Conclusion: It is possible to identify students who are most likely to suffer from PTSD. This knowledge could be used to intervene early on to reduce adversities.

  6. The psychological reactions after witnessing a killing in public in a Danish high school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Kurdahl, Sessel

    2013-01-01

    Background School killings attract immense media and public attention but psychological studies surrounding these events are rare. Objective To examine the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and possible risk factors of PTSD in 320 Danish high school students (mean age 18 years) 7 months after witnessing a young man killing his former girlfriend in front of a large audience. Method The students answered the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ), the Crisis Support Scale (CSS), and the Trauma Symptom Checklist (TSC). Results Prevalence of PTSD 7 months after the incident was 9.5%. Furthermore, 25% had PTSD at a subclinical level. Intimacy with the deceased girl; feeling fear, helplessness, or horror during the killing; lack of expressive ability; feeling let down by others; negative affectivity; and dissociation predicted 78% of the variance of the HTQ total scores. Conclusion It is possible to identify students who are most likely to suffer from PTSD. This knowledge could be used to intervene early on to reduce adversities. PMID:23316270

  7. A Comparison of Arch Width with Angle Classification and Wits Appraisal in Class 2 Division 1 and Class 1 Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    Orthod . 32:167-179, 1962. Green, L.J., Associations: Occlusion and Osseous Face, Angle Ortho. 38:40-50, 1968. Jacobson, A., The "Wits" Appraisal of Jaw... Angle Orthod . 42:387-394, 1972. Moorrees, C.F.A., The Dentition of the Growing Child, Cambridge, 1959, Harvard University Press. Moorrees, C.F.A...AD-A132 509 A COMPARISON OF ARCH WIDTH WITH ANGLE CLASSIFICATION tI AND WITS APPRAISAL I..IU, AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH W R

  8. The Child Witness in the Courtroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantell, Robert H

    2017-03-01

    Beginning in the 1980s, children have increasingly served as witnesses in the criminal, civil, and family courts; currently, >100 000 children appear in court each year. This statement updates the 1992 American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) policy statement "The Child as a Witness" and the subsequent 1999 "The Child in Court: A Subject Review." It also builds on existing AAP policy on adverse life events affecting children and resources developed to understand and address childhood trauma. The purpose of this policy statement is to provide background information on some of the legal issues involving children testifying in court, including the accuracy and psychological impact of child testimony; to provide suggestions for how pediatricians can support patients who will testify in court; and to make recommendations for policy improvements to minimize the adverse psychological consequences for child witnesses. These recommendations are, for the most part, based on studies on the psychological and physiologic consequences of children witnessing and experiencing violence, as well as appearing in court, that have emerged since the previous AAP publications on the subject. The goal is to reduce the secondary traumatization of and long-term consequences for children providing testimony about violence they have experienced or witnessed. This statement primarily addresses children appearing in court as victims of physical or sexual abuse or as witnesses of violent acts; most of the scientific literature addresses these specific situations. It may apply, in certain situations, to children required to provide testimony in custody disputes, child welfare proceedings, or immigration court. It does not address children appearing in court as offenders or as part of juvenile justice proceedings. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. [Internalized and externalized disorders in children witness to conjugal violence and their associated variables: a literature review.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, I; Fortin, L; Royer, E; Potvin, P

    2000-01-01

    This article presents a literature review on externalized and internalized disorders in children who are witness to conjugal violence as well as the major variables associated with the development of these disorders. Among these variables, there are age and gender of the child, the type of violence they witness, maternal stress, educational skills of parents as well as physical and sexual abuse. The limits of major studies published over the last two decades are also exposed. Finally, new avenues of research that might shed new light on a more recent knowledge of the issue, are proposed.

  10. The Experience of Witnessing Patients' Trauma and Suffering among Acute Care Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Mary E.; Buchanan, Marla J.

    2011-01-01

    A large body of research provides evidence of workplace injuries to those in the nursing profession. Research on workplace stress and burnout among medical professionals is also well known; however, the profession of acute care nursing has not been examined with regards to work-related stress. This qualitative study focused on acute care nurses'…

  11. Use of Imaging in Children With Witnessed Physical Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, John D; Hertz, Stephanie K; Steiner, R Daryl; Lindberg, Daniel M

    2017-03-13

    Physicians are occasionally asked to evaluate children who are reported to have been victims of witnessed abuse, but who have no injuries noted on examination. The rate of injury in these patients is presently unknown. This is important because abuse allegations are brought for both altruistic and other reasons. This study compares the use of skeletal survey and neuroimaging in well-appearing and clearly injured children reported to be victims of witnessed child abuse. Retrospectively planned secondary analysis of the Examination of Siblings to Recognize Abuse cohort of children referred to a child abuse pediatrician with concerns for physical abuse. Children were selected who presented to a medical provider with a history of witnessed child abuse including shaking. Rates of radiographically evident injuries are noted among children with and without injuries noted on physical examination. Among 2890 children evaluated by a child abuse pediatrician, 90 children (3.1%) presented with a history of witnessed abuse. Among these, 51 children (57%) had injuries noted on physical examination; 9 (29%) of 31 skeletal surveys and 9 (35%) of 26 neuroimaging studies revealed injuries. Of 39 children (43%) with witnessed abuse and normal examination, 3 (10%) of 30 skeletal surveys and 2 (8%) of 25 neuroimaging studies revealed an injury. A significant minority of children evaluated for allegations of witnessed abuse will have occult injuries identified radiographically. Absence of injury on examination should not deter physicians from obtaining otherwise indicated skeletal surveys and neuroimaging in children reported to have experienced witnessed abuse.

  12. A Comparison of the Effects of Witnessing Community Violence and Direct Victimization among Children in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Nancy; Nadasen, Kathy; Pierce, Lois

    2009-01-01

    This study is based on a sample of children from the Cape Town area in South Africa. The study compares the effects of witnessing school or neighborhood violence compared with being victimized in each context on psychological distress. The findings suggest that in the context of the school, victimization has a somewhat stronger effect on distress…

  13. 8 CFR 212.14 - Parole determinations for alien witnesses and informants for whom a law enforcement authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parole determinations for alien witnesses and informants for whom a law enforcement authority (âLEAâ) will request S classification. 212.14 Section 212.14 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DOCUMENTARY REQUIREMENTS: NONIMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS; ADMISSIO...

  14. 8 CFR 1212.14 - Parole determinations for alien witnesses and informants for whom a law enforcement authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parole determinations for alien witnesses and informants for whom a law enforcement authority (âLEAâ) will request S classification. 1212.14 Section 1212.14 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DOCUMENTARY REQUIREMENTS:...

  15. AHP 37: WITNESS TO CHANGE: A TIBETAN WOMAN RECALLS HER LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nangchukja སྙིང་ལྕགས་རྒྱལ།

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Women play a critical role in rural Tibetan households. As youths and adults, they engage in labor-intensive chores, including farming, herding, fetching water, cooking, tailoring, cleaning, collecting fuel, and child care. In their old age, most Tibetan women dedicate themselves to chanting, prostrating, going on pilgrimage, and meditating. Prior to the early twenty-first century, in such areas as Mang ra County in A mdo, 1 women seldom traveled away from their family and community for work, though nomadic women seasonally traveled long distances between summer and winter camps with their family's livestock. Farming and herding have sustained life on the Tibetan Plateau for millennia. These traditional lifestyles have been changing in most Tibetan communities today in China's rapidly urbanizing society. Despite the massive transformations that have taken place in A mdo over the last sixty years, much continuity remains in how Tibetan women in A mdo spend their time. In 2015, average women in their forties and above are still actively engaged in such religious practices as chanting, prostrating, going on pilgrimage, and meditating. This paper presents the life-story of an elder Tibetan woman, Lha mtsho (b. 1946. Similar to many other Tibetan women born in the late 1940s, she was witness to the chaos of 1958, the Great Leap Forward (1958-1961, the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976, and also saw China's economic reform and development from the late 1970s up until today. ...

  16. On Standby? A Comparison of Online and Offline Witnesses to Bullying and Their Bystander Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Roslynn; Campbell, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    Given their ubiquitous presence as witnesses to school-yard bullying, the role of the "bystander" has been studied extensively. The prevalence and behaviour of bystanders to "cyberbullying," however, is less understood. In an anonymous, school-based questionnaire, 716 secondary school students from South-East Queensland…

  17. A field evaluation of the Eye-Closure Interview with witnesses of serious crimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vredeveldt, A.; Tredoux, C.G.; Nortje, A.; Kempen, K.; Puljevic, C.; Labuschagne, G.N.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory research shows that eye-closure during memory retrieval improves both the amount and the factual accuracy of memory reports about witnessed events. Based on these findings, we developed the Eye-Closure Interview, and examined its feasibility (in terms of compliance with the instructions)

  18. Bearing witness: midwives experiences of witnessing traumatic birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Hannah; Warland, Jane

    2013-09-01

    Traumatic birth is a phenomenon that has been identified in women's birthing experiences, yet there has been no primary research conducted into midwives experiences of witnessing traumatic birth. Traumatic stress from witnessing and working with traumatised clients has been identified in other caring professionals such as nurses, social workers and emergency department personnel. This includes evidence of posttraumatic stress disorder, secondary traumatic stress, vicarious traumatisation and compassion fatigue. A distinct gap in the literature about midwives experiences of witnessing traumatic birth and the effects of working with potentially traumatised women formed the basis for this research. A descriptive qualitative study was used to explore midwives experiences of witnessing traumatic birth. The aim of this research was to enable midwives to describe their experiences and to determine if they are at risk of negative psychological sequalae similar to those in other caring professions. Ten currently or previously Registered Midwives with varying amounts of experience were interviewed, and transcripts of those interviews formed the raw data for the study. The data were independently thematically analysed by the two authors to identify common themes used to describe the experience of witnessing traumatic birth. 'Stuck between two philosophies', 'What could I have done differently', and 'Feeling for the woman', emerged as the main themes from the research. The participants described their emotional distress from feeling 'stuck' between wishing they could practice according to their midwifery philosophy, and the reality of working within a medical model of care. Feelings of responsibility for women and babies' outcomes, and repeatedly questioning what they could have done differently to prevent a traumatic birth was also reported. Feeling for the woman emerged as a major factor in midwives' experiences of witnessing traumatic birth. As far as we can determine this

  19. A case study of haemoglobinopathy screening in the Netherlands: witnessing the past, lessons for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Suze M P J; van El, Carla G; Houwaart, Eddy S; Westerman, Marjan J; Janssens, Rien J P A; Lagro-Janssen, Antoinette L M; Plass, Anne Marie C; Cornel, Martina C

    2012-01-01

    In 2007 neonatal screening (NNS) was expanded to include screening for sickle cell disease (SCD) and beta-thalassaemia. Up until that year no formal recommendations for haemoglobinopathy (carrier) screening existed in the Netherlands. Although it has been subject to debate in the past, preconceptional and prenatal haemoglobinopathy carrier screening are not part of routine healthcare in the Netherlands. This study aimed to explore the decision-making process of the past: why was the introduction of a screening programme for haemoglobinopathy considered to be untimely, and did ethnicity play a role given the history in other countries surrounding the introduction of haemoglobinopathy screening? A witness seminar was organised, inviting key figures to discuss the decision-making process concerning haemoglobinopathy screening in the Netherlands, thereby adding new perspectives on past events. The transcript was content-analysed. The subject of haemoglobinopathy screening first appeared in the 1970s. As opposed to a long history of neglect of African-American health in the United States, the heritage of the Second World War influenced the decision-making process in the Netherlands. As a consequence, registration of ethnicity surfaced as an impeding factor. However, overall, official Dutch screening policy was restrained regarding reproductive issues caused by fear of eugenics. In the 1990s haemoglobinopathy screening was found to be 'not opportune' due to low prevalence, lack of knowledge and fear of stigmatisation. Currently the registration of ethnicity remains on the political agenda, but still proves to be a sensitive subject. Carrier screening in general never appeared high on the policy agenda. Registration of ethnicity remains sensitive caused by the current political climate. Complexities related to carrier screening are a challenge in Dutch healthcare. Whether carrier screening will be considered a valuable complementary strategy in the Netherlands, depends

  20. [Neurosciences and the ravings of the Soviet era. Spanish Republican physicians, a set of privileged witnesses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Igual, Miguel

    2011-08-16

    This study analyses the links between the Russian and Soviet neurosciences and their Spanish counterpart, especially with regard to the experiences of the Spanish Republican physicians exiled in the USSR. The Russian neurosciences, which date back to the second half of the 19th century, followed a path that ran parallel to the discipline throughout the rest of Europe and finally displayed signs of being influenced by the German and French schools. Important figures include Alexei Kojevnikov and Vladimir Bekhterev in neurology, Sergei Korsakov in psychiatry, Ivan Pavlov and his disciple Piotr Anojin in neurophysiology, Lev Vygotsky and Alexander Luria in neuropsychology, and Nikolai Burdenko in neurosurgery. When the Bolsheviks came to power, they brought with them a progressive conception of health care, which was modified during the Stalinist era to serve political interests, above all in the case of psychiatry. During the first third of the 20th century, Spanish scientists became interested in Pavlov's reflexology and the Soviets took a similar interest in Spanish histology. Among the 4500 Spanish Republicans who emigrated to the USSR because of the Spanish Civil War, there were several dozen physicians who were privileged witnesses of the madness that shook the science and the health care of that period. Relevant names worth citing here from the field of the neurosciences include Juan Planelles and Ramon Alvarez-Buylla in neurophysiology, Federico Pascual and Florencio Villa Landa in psychiatry, Angel Escobio and Maria Perez in neurology, Julian Fuster in neurosurgery and Manuel Arce in neuroimaging. © 2011 Revista de Neurología

  1. VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN WITH DOCUMENTS AS A WITNESS OF THE PAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma ŞENSOY

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important agenda item is violence against women nowadays. Individuals of the modern society have been experiencing the violence since the early ages of mankind and still didn’t get the lesson from the past. Free from time and space, subject of the violence is generally the women. The intensive pain can be read from archive records which were the witnesses of past. It is possible to perceive the violence from the court order. The aim of this paper is to examine domestic violence from the book of “Mühimme”,“Şikayet”,“Ahkam”and“CourtRecords”,“.Andwhileexaminingthis,pastsolutionswillalsobe indicated. Women demanded justice to protect their justice and notify the violance and maltreatment. The unresolved cases of the domestic court are escalated to “Divan-ı Hümayun” a superior court. Women were coming to İstanbul, from every part of the empire, for the superior court (“Divan-ı Hümayun” or rep- resented by an attorney send by them to put out of their misery. Alternative solution is getting a divorce. In this kind of cases “hul‘” or “muhâla‘a” represents the divorcement triggered by the demand of women. There is a significant amount of documents representing urbanized women in Sharia Court. But for the countrywomen, the case of an application to the superior court is referred as an extreme case. Despite the fact of distance, countrywomen were reaching the superior court from all over the empire. The history of harassment and the experience of the resistance may give us the power of a solution.

  2. Quantitative coherence witness for finite dimensional states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Huizhong; Lin, Anni; He, Siying; Hu, Xueyuan

    2017-12-01

    We define the stringent coherence witness as an observable whose mean value vanishes for all incoherent states but nonzero for some coherent states. Such witnesses are proved to exist for any finite-dimension states. Not only is the witness efficient in testing whether a state is coherent, but also its mean value can quantitatively reveal the amount of coherence. For an unknown state, the modulus of the mean value of a normalized witness provides a tight lower bound to the l1-norm of coherence. When we have some previous knowledge of a state, the optimal witness which has the maximal mean value is derived. It is proved that for any finite dimension state, the mean value of the optimal witness, which we call the witnessed coherence, equals the l1-norm of coherence. In the case that the witness is fixed and the incoherent operations are allowed, the maximal mean value can reach the witnessed coherence if and only if certain relations between the fixed witness and the initial state are satisfied. Our results provide a way to directly measure the coherence in arbitrary finite dimension states and an operational interpretation of the l1-norm of coherence.

  3. Witnessing images of extreme violence: a psychological study of journalists in the newsroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Anthony; Audet, Blair; Waknine, Elizabeth

    2014-08-01

    User Generated Content - photos and videos submitted to newsrooms by the public - has become a prominent source of information for news organisations. Journalists working with uncensored material can frequently witness disturbing images for prolonged periods. How this might affect their psychological health is not known and it is the focus of this study. Descriptive, exploratory. The newsrooms of three international news organisations. One hundred and sixteen journalists working with User Generated Content material. Psychometric data included the re-experiencing, avoidance and autonomic arousal indices of posttraumatic stress disorder (Impact of Event Scale-revised), depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II; BDI-II), a measure of psychological distress (GHQ-28), the latter comprising four subscales measuring somatisation, anxiety, social dysfunction and depression, and mean weekly alcohol consumption divided according to gender. Regression analyses revealed that frequent (i.e. daily) exposure to violent images independently predicted higher scores on all indices of the Impact of Event Scale-revised, the BDI-II and the somatic and anxiety subscales of the GHQ-28. Exposure per shift only predicted scores on the intrusion subscale of the Impact of Event Scale-revised. The present study, the first of its kind, suggests that frequency rather than duration of exposure to images of graphic violence is more emotionally distressing to journalists working with User Generated Content material. Given that good journalism depends on healthy journalists, news organisations will need to look anew at what can be done to offset the risks inherent in viewing User Generated Content material. Our findings, in need of replication, suggest that reducing the frequency of exposure may be one way to go.

  4. Fibonacci - Protagonist or Witness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Leonardo Fibonacci (ca. 1170 - after 1240) during his boyhood went to Bejaïa, learned about the Hindu-Arabic numerals there, and continued to collect information about their use during travels to the Arabic world. He then wrote the Liber abbaci, which with half a century’s delay inspired......, of course, that Fibonacci learned about Arabic (and Byzantine) commercial arithmetic, and that he presented it in his book. He is thus a witness (with a degree of reliability which has to be determined) of the commercial mathematics thriving in the commercially developed parts of the Mediterranean world...... with Arabic non-scholarly traditions, at least until ca. 1350 within an open space, apparently concentrated around the Iberian region....

  5. Semiconductor physics at WIT and Trinity College

    OpenAIRE

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac

    2006-01-01

    A WIT research group that studies the physics of semiconductors is coordinated by Dr. Cormac O’Raifeartaigh of the School of Science. Experimental research is carried out at the electron spin resonance (ESR) laboratory at Trinity College Dublin (TCD) in collaboration with Dr. Robert Barklie of TCD. Research data are analysed at WIT with theoretical support provided by Dr. Mohammad Alhourani and Mr. Frank Leonard. The group has participated in research projects funded by WIT (BEHEST Programme)...

  6. ROC surface assessment of the ANB angle and Wits appraisal's diagnostic performance with a statistically derived 'gold standard': does normalizing measurements have any merit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellens, Hans L L; BeGole, Ellen A; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Annemarie M

    2017-08-01

    To assess the ANB angle's and Wits appraisal's diagnostic performance using an extended version of Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) analysis, which renders ROC surfaces. These were calculated for both the conventional and normalized cephalometric tests (calculated by exchanging the patient's reference landmarks with those of the Procrustes superimposed sample mean shape).The required 'gold standard' was derived statistically, by applying generalized Procrustes superimposition (GPS) and principal component analysis (PCA) to the digitized landmarks, and ordering patients based upon their PC2 scores. Digitized landmarks of 200 lateral cephalograms (107 males, mean age: 12.8 years, SD: 2.2, 93 females, mean age: 13.2 years, SD: 1.7) were subjected to GPS and PCA. Upon calculating the conventional and normalized ANB and Wits values, ROC surfaces were constructed by varying not just the cephalometric test's cut-off value within each ROC curve, but also the gold standard cut-off value over different ROC curves in 220 steps between -2 and 2 standard deviations along PC2. The volume under the resulting ROC surfaces (VUS) served as a measure of overall diagnostic performance. The statistical significance of the volume differences was determined using permutation tests (1000 rounds, with replacement). The diagnostic performance of the conventional ANB and Wits was remarkably similar for both Class I/II (81.1 and 80.75% VUS, respectively, P > 0.05). Normalizing the measurements improved all VUS highly significantly (91 and 87.2 per cent, respectively, P Normalizing the measurements does seem to have some merit.

  7. Health professionals' perceptions regarding family witnessed resuscitation in adult critical care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashayreh, Ibrahim; Saifan, Ahmad; Batiha, Abdul-Monim; Timmons, Stephen; Nairn, Stuart

    2015-09-01

    To deepen our understanding of the perceptions of health professionals regarding family witnessed resuscitation in Jordanian adult critical care settings. The issue of family witnessed resuscitation has developed dramatically in the last three decades. The traditional practice of excluding family members during cardiopulmonary resuscitation had been questioned. Family witnessed resuscitation has been described as good practice by many researchers and health organisations. However, family witnessed resuscitation has been perceived by some practitioners to be unhealthy and harmful to the life-saving process. The literature showed that there are no policies or guidelines to allow or to prevent family witnessed resuscitation in Jordan. An exploratory qualitative design was adopted. A purposive sample of 31 health professionals from several disciplines was recruited over a period of six months. Individual semi-structured interviews were used. These interviews were transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. It was found that most healthcare professionals were against family witnessed resuscitation. They raised several concerns related to being verbally and physically attacked if they allowed family witnessed resuscitation. Almost all of the respondents expressed their fears of patients' family members' interfering in their work. Most of the participants in this study stated that family witnessed resuscitation is traumatic for family members. This was viewed as a barrier to allowing family witnessed resuscitation in Jordanian critical care settings. The study provides a unique understanding of Jordanian health professionals' perceptions regarding family witnessed resuscitation. They raised some views that contest some arguments in the broader literature. Further research with patients, family members, health professionals and policy makers is still required. This is the first study about family witnessed resuscitation in Jordan. Considering multi

  8. Minimally-Myelosuppressive Asparaginase-Containing Induction Regimen for Treatment of a Jehovah’s Witness with mutant IDH1/NPM1/NRAS Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashkan Emadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML who do not wish to accept blood product transfusion, including Jehovah’s Witnesses, is extremely challenging. The use of conventional chemotherapy for induction of complete remission (CR results in profound anemia and thrombocytopenia requiring frequent transfusions of blood products, without which such treatment will be life-threatening. Finding a well tolerable, minimally myelosuppressive induction regimen for such patients with AML is a clear example of area of unmet medical need. Here, we report a successful treatment of a 52-year-old Jehovah’s Witness with newly diagnosed AML with peg-asparaginase, vincristine and methylprednisolone. The AML was characterized with normal karyotype, and mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1-Arg132Ser, nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1-Trp289Cysfs*12 and neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog (NRAS-G1y12Va1. After one 28-day cycle of treatment, the patient achieved complete remission with incomplete count recovery (CRi and after the second cycle, he achieved CR with full blood count recovery. The patient has never received any blood products. Notwithstanding that myeloperoxidase-induced oxidative degradation of vincristine results in its lack of activity as monotherapy in AML, its combination with corticosteroid and asparaginase has resulted in a robust remission in this patient. Diminished steroid clearance by asparaginase activity as well as reduction in serum glutamine level induced by glutaminase enzymatic activity of asparaginase may have contributed to effective killing of the myeloblasts that carry IDH1/NPM1/NRAS mutations. In conclusion, asparaginase-containing regimens, which are approved for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL but not AML, can be used to treat patients with AML who do not accept blood transfusion.

  9. Ethiopian witness protection system: comparative analysis with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Witnesses are the eyes and the ears of justice.” They assist the court in deciding the guilt or otherwise of the accused person. They are crucial in a criminal proceeding; from reporting of crime to its trial. The evidence by a witness is crucial for the ...

  10. Waste inspection tomography (WIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardi, R.T. [Bio-Imaging Research, Inc., Lincolnshire, IL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT) provides mobile semi-trailer mounted nondestructive examination (NDE) and assay (NDA) for nuclear waste drum characterization. WIT uses various computed tomography (CT) methods for both NDE and NDA of nuclear waste drums. Low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive waste can be inspected and characterized without opening the drums. With externally transmitted x-ray NDE techniques, WIT has the ability to identify high density waste materials like heavy metals, define drum contents in two- and three-dimensional space, quantify free liquid volumes through density and x-ray attenuation coefficient discrimination, and measure drum wall thickness. With waste emitting gamma-ray NDA techniques, WIT can locate gamma emitting radioactive sources in two- and three-dimensional space, identify gamma emitting, isotopic species, identify the external activity levels of emitting gamma-ray sources, correct for waste matrix attenuation, provide internal activity approximations, and provide the data needed for waste classification as LLW or TRU.

  11. Manuseio de grave diminuição de hemoglobina em paciente jovem, testemunha de Jeová, submetido à proctocolectomia total: relato de caso Manoseo de grave disminución de hemoglobina en paciente joven, testigo de Jehová, sometido a la proctocolectomia total: relato de caso Extreme intraoperative hemodilution in Jehovah’s witness patient submitted total proctocolectomy: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Imbelloni

    2005-10-01

    un caso de proctocolectomia total en un paciente Testigo de Jehová donde el nivel de hemoglobina fue de 4 g/dL. RELATO DEL CASO: Paciente masculino, 17 años, historia de poliposis intestinal familiar. Iniciada a los ocho años, caracterizada por sangramiento. A los 13 años colectomia total. A los 17 años proctocolectomia total. Preparado con eritropoietina, ácido fólico, infusión de hierro y vitamina B12. El hemograma reveló: hematíes 4.200.000/mm3, hemoglobina 10,5 g/dL y hematócrito del 37%. Plaquetas 273.000/mm3, tiempo de protrombina normal. Monitorización con PANI, oximetría de muñeca (pulso capnografia y ECG continuamente. Anestesia con propofol, sufentanil, pancuronio y enflurano en circuito cerrado. Infusión de 7.000 mL de solución de Ringer con lactato y 150 mL de albúmina humana a 20%. Diuresis de 2.900 mL. Duración de 10 horas y 30 minutos. En la UTI Ht del 20%, hematíes 2.300.000/mm3, Hb de 4,2 g/dL y mantenido con propofol y atracúrio. En examen al día siguiente reveló: Ht del 18%, hematíes de 2.050.000/mm3, Hb de 4 g/dL. Extubado 18 horas después del término de la cirugía. Al segundo día fue encaminado para el cuarto. Al cuarto día iniciada con alimentación por vía oral. Alta hospitalario al décimo día de PO. En el 30º PO Ht del 35%, hematíes de 4.000.000/mm3 y Hb de 9,5 g/dL. Seis meses después, encerramiento de la ileostomia. Sometido a 12 cirugías sin transfusión sanguínea. CONCLUSIONES: Una planificación de todo el equipo (clínico, cirujano, anestesista y médicos de terapia intensiva permite realizar procedimientos quirúrgicos asociados con importantes pierdas sanguíneas, sin administración de sangre.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Homologous blood transfusion risks are well known and some patients may refuse blood transfusions on religious grounds. This report aimed at describing a case of total proctocolectomy in Jehovah’s Witness patient with 4 g/dL hemoglobin. CASE REPORT: Male patient, 17 years old, with

  12. Expert Witness Participation in Civil and Criminal Proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Sandeep K; Paul, Stephan R

    2017-03-01

    The interests of the public and both the medical and legal professions are best served when scientifically sound and unbiased expert witness testimony is readily available in civil and criminal proceedings. As members of the medical community, patient advocates, and private citizens, pediatricians have ethical and professional obligations to assist in the civil and criminal judicial processes. This technical report explains how the role of the expert witness differs in civil and criminal proceedings, legal and ethical standards for expert witnesses, and strategies that have been employed to deter unscientific and irresponsible testimony. A companion policy statement offers recommendations on advocacy, education, research, qualifications, standards, and ethical business practices all aimed at improving expert testimony. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Witnessing a body in decline: Men's and women's perceptions of an altered physical appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilário, Ana Patrícia

    2016-01-01

    There has been a tendency within the literature to ignore how men and women who are very ill and at the end of life perceive and experience their visibly altered bodies. This article aims to provide new insights about this matter. A qualitative research approach was adopted. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 hospice patients, 20 family members, and 20 members of hospice staff. Findings reveal that because of masculine and feminine norms, physical appearance is more a matter of concern to women than to men who are close to death. This contradicts theories that suggest that patients experience a disinvestment on their sense of masculinity and femininity alongside the process of bodily deterioration and decay prior impending potential death.

  14. Perioperative Management of a Child with Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome of the Jehovah's Witness Faith Presenting for Hybrid Comprehensive Stage II Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppiah, Sathappan; Mckee, Christopher; Hodge, Ashley; Galantowicz, Mark; Tobias, Joseph; Naguib, Aymen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Over the years, there has been a growing recognition of the potential negative sequelae of allogeneic blood products on postoperative outcomes following cardiac surgery. In addition, followers of the Jehovah's Witness (JW) faith have a religious restriction against receiving blood or blood components. Advances in perioperative care, cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), and surgical technique have minimized the need for allogeneic blood products. Specific blood conservation strategies include maximizing the preoperative hematocrit and coagulation function as well as intraoperative strategies, such as acute normovolemic hemodilution and adjustments of the technique of CPB. We report a 7-month-old patient whose parents were of the JW faith who underwent a comprehensive stage II procedure for hypoplastic left heart syndrome without exposure to blood or blood products during his hospital stay. Perioperative techniques for blood avoidance are discussed with emphasis on their application to infants undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease. PMID:27729708

  15. High density lipoprotein – a hero, a mirage or a witness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri eSviridov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Negative relationship between plasma High Density Lipoprotein (HDL levels and risk of cardiovascular disease is a firmly established medical fact, but attempts to reproduce protective properties of HDL by pharmacologically elevating HDL levels were mostly unsuccessful. This conundrum presents a fundamental question: were the approaches used to raise HDL flawed or the protective effects of HDL are an epiphenomenon. Recent attempts to elevate plasma HDL were universally based on reducing HDL catabolism by blocking reverse cholesterol transport. Here we argue that this mode of HDL elevation may be mechanistically different to natural mechanisms and thus be counterproductive. We further argue that independently of whether HDL is a driving force or a surrogate measure of the rate of reverse cholesterol transport, approaches aimed at increasing HDL supply, rather than reducing its catabolism, would be most beneficial for speeding up reverse cholesterol transport and improving protection against cardiovascular disease.

  16. Expert witness and Jungian archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallave, Juan Antonio; Gutheil, Thomas Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Jung's theories of archetype, shadow, and the personal and collective unconscious provide a postmodern framework in which to consider the role of the expert witness in judicial proceedings. Archetypal themes, motifs, and influences help to illuminate the shadow of the judicial system and projections and behaviors among the cast of the court in pursuing justice. This article speaks to archetypal influences and dialectical tensions encountered by the expert witness in this judicial drama. The archetype of Justice is born from the human need for order and relational fairness in a world of chaos. The persona of justice is the promise of truth in the drama. The shadow of justice is untruth, the need to win by any means. The dynamics of the trickster archetype serve and promote injustice. These influences are examined by means of a case example. This approach will deepen understanding of court proceedings and the role of the expert witness in the heroic quest for justice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Semiology: witness to a seizure--what to note and how to report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, James W

    2007-12-01

    This article reviews the Cleveland Epilepsy Classification (CEC) of seizure semiology. It defines the concept of semiology, and reviews its importance in epilepsy in defining the Symptomatogenic Zone, one of the five zones that make up the Epileptogenic Zone. It details the four broader spheres that contain all of the possible patient signs and symptoms (cognitive, autonomic, consciousness, and motor spheres), and reviews the specific seizure types that are classified within those spheres. Evidence-based information on usefulness of semiology for localization and lateralization is reviewed. A "user-friendly" reference table is provided.

  18. A 45-year-old man with excessive daytime somnolence, and witnessed apnea at altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welsh CH

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A sleepy man without sleep apnea at 1609m (5280 feet had disturbed sleep at his home altitude of 3200m (10500 feet. In addition to common disruptors of sleep such as psychophysiologic insomnia, restless leg syndrome, alcohol and excessive caffeine use, central sleep apnea with periodic breathing can be a significant cause of disturbed sleep at altitude. In symptomatic patients living at altitude, a sleep study at their home altitude should be considered to accurately diagnose the presence and magnitude of sleep disordered breathing as sleep studies performed at lower altitudes may miss this diagnosis. Treatments options differ from those to treat obstructive apnea. Supplemental oxygen is considered by many to be first-line therapy.

  19. Machine medical ethics when a human is delusive but the android has its wits about him

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, J.F.; van Rysewyk, S.P.; Pontier, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    When androids take care of delusive patients, ethic-epistemic concerns crop up about an agency’s good intent and why we would follow its advice. Robots are not human but may deliver correct medical information, whereas Alzheimer patients are human but may be mistaken. If humanness is not the

  20. Europe and ESTRO moving East. A story of betrayal and redemption-Candid observations by a privileged witness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeren, Germaine

    2014-01-01

    After briefly looking into the dramatic twist of history that caused Central- and Eastern Europe to be separated from the West, the author observes the impact of 40 years of cold war and isolation on the state of radiotherapy (RT) in Central Europe. From her privileged position as a staff member in charge of public relations and society development at the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO), she witnesses and helps drive the "rapprochement" between radiation oncology professionals from both sides of the former iron curtain. Thanks to substantial support from target tailored EU projects, ESTRO was in a position to give a powerful impulse to the re-integration of Central European RT in the mainstream of European health care. The author describes from her own and privileged perspective the excitement of discovering the rich heritage of a shared common past and expresses her concern that in the dynamic repositioning of Europe's point of gravity towards the East, the multiple but still fragile links between Central- and West European radiotherapy, tied within ESTRO, should not get dissolved in transition.

  1. Major thoracic surgery in Jehovah's witness: A multidisciplinary approach case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Rispoli

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Bloodless surgery is likely to gain popularity, and become standard practice for all patients. The need for transfusion should be targeted on individual case, avoiding strictly fixed limit often leading to unnecessary transfusion.

  2. A short synthesis-stuttgart of (S)-pyrrolam A via domino oxidation-witting reaction

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Majik, M.S.; Shet, J.; Tilve, S.G.; Parameswaran, P.S.

    OH Ph O N O H Ph O COOEt N H O N H O 2 1 a b c 3 4 5 Scheme 1 a) PCC, NaOAc, Ph 3 P=CHCOOC 2 H 5 , CH 2 Cl 2 ; b) H 2 ,10% Pd-C/ EtOH, 10hr. then EtONa (Cat.)/EtOH/∆/6hr.; c) LDA, THF(-78 0 C), PhSeCl, then H 2 O 2 , THF, 0 0 C. Thus, (L...

  3. An ounce of discretion is worth a pound of wit--ergonomics is a healthy choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Rehana; Khan, Rakhshaan; Surti, Ambreen; Khan, Hira

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the occurrence and outcome of low back ache amongst computer users and their relation to age, gender, occupation and duration of computer use. A self reported questionnaire tailored from Occupational Health and Safety Act of the Ministry of Labor, Ontario, Canada was used. 416 participants 55.5% males and 45% females using computers for a minimum of five years with age range 22 to 59 years belonged to different occupational groups. Consecutive hours of computer work was found to be associated with work related backache or discomfort in 27.4% (n = 114) participants (16.1% male, 11.3% female). Frequent short breaks improved backache (p value relation was observed with the duration of computer usage or usage per day; between the two genders or occupational groups. Backache had no significance within age groups. Our study identifies the occurrence of low back pain among those who are using computer for consecutive hours without breaks and the results suggest the need to create health awareness especially use of short breaks to minimize the risk and occurrence of low back pain. The result of this study can also be used to improve ergonomic design and standards.

  4. An Ounce of Discretion Is Worth a Pound of Wit — Ergonomics Is a Healthy Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Rehana; Khan, Rakhshaan; Surti, Ambreen; Khan, Hira

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of the study was to identify the occurrence and outcome of low back ache amongst computer users and their relation to age, gender, occupation and duration of computer use. Materials and Methods A self reported questionnaire tailored from Occupational Health and Safety Act of the Ministry of Labor, Ontario, Canada was used. Results 416 participants 55.5% males and 45% females using computers for a minimum of five years with age range 22 to 59 years belonged to different occupational groups. Consecutive hours of computer work was found to be associated with work related backache or discomfort in 27.4% (n = 114) participants (16.1% male, 11.3% female). Frequent short breaks improved backache (p value relation was observed with the duration of computer usage or usage per day; between the two genders or occupational groups. Backache had no significance within age groups. Conclusion Our study identifies the occurrence of low back pain among those who are using computer for consecutive hours without breaks and the results suggest the need to create health awareness especially use of short breaks to minimize the risk and occurrence of low back pain. The result of this study can also be used to improve ergonomic design and standards. PMID:24204559

  5. Neural Responses to Witnessing Peer Rejection after Being Socially Excluded: fMRI as a Window into Adolescents' Emotional Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, Carrie L.; Eisenberger, Naomi I.; Pfeifer, Jennifer H.; Dapretto, Mirella

    2013-01-01

    During adolescence, concerns about peer rejection and acceptance become increasingly common. Adolescents regularly experience peer rejection firsthand and witness these behaviors among their peers. In the current study, neuroimaging techniques were employed to conduct a preliminary investigation of the affective and cognitive processes involved in…

  6. Accidental podophyllin poisoning in a 3-year-old child | de Wit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accidental poisoning in children remains a common presentation in healthcare centres worldwide, with the highest rates of fatal poisonings occurring in Africa. Podophyllin, commonly used for genital warts, is a rare agent in poisoning cases. A few cases have been reported in the international literature, with serious ...

  7. DANS witness statement: the challenge of a business model with diverse income streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillo, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Data Archiving and Networked Services (DANS) is a national service provider based in the Netherlands. DANS has a mission to promote sustained access to digital research data [www.dans.knaw.nl]. DANS encourages scientific researchers to archive and reuse data in a sustained form, for instance via the

  8. Witnessing Evolution First Hand: A K-12 Laboratory Exercise in Genetics & Evolution Using "Drosophila"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Caiti S. S.; Manzano-Winkler, Brenda; Hunter, Mika J.; Noor, Juliet K. F.; Noor, Mohamed A. F.

    2013-01-01

    We present a laboratory exercise that leverages student interest in genetics to observe and understand evolution by natural selection. Students begin with white-eyed fruit fly populations, to which they introduce a single advantageous variant (one male with red eyes). The superior health and vision associated with having the red-eye-color allele…

  9. Vinken and Bruyn's Handbook of Clinical Neurology - A witness of late-twentieth century neurological progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koehler, P. J.; Jennekens, F. G. I.

    2008-01-01

    Vinken and Bruyn's Handbook of Clinical Neurology (HCN) is best characterized as an encyclopedia. In this paper we describe the origin, production, and reception of HCN. Data were gathered from a literature search, by screening of HCN-volumes, interviewing key-role persons and a study of an

  10. Mining industry enters a new era of AIDS prevention. Eye witness: South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, M

    1996-06-01

    Miners in South Africa are now more at risk of contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) than of being in a mining accident. Some epidemiologists predict that the mines could be experiencing 12,000-40,000 deaths related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) by 2010. In 1986, HIV infection among mineworkers was 1/3500. Gencor medical personnel now estimate that 20% of the company's employees are HIV-positive and that 30 workers are dying of AIDS each month. In August 1995, the Chamber of Mines, the World Bank, and the World Health Organization (WHO) held a seminar to discuss the potential impact of the epidemic; it was followed by a workshop, "Research Needs and Priorities for the Management of HIV/AIDS Transmission in the Mining Industry," which was organized by the Epidemiology Unit in Johannesburg. Although the seminar invited no people with HIV, mineworkers, or government representatives, the workshop did; however, no representatives of the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM), or the Chamber of Mines, came. In spite of this, a new, holistic approach to HIV-prevention is emerging in the mining sector. A decade of education has not changed risk behaviors, so more emphasis will be placed on outreach programs to the communities, including the prostitutes, with which the miners interact, and on treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The mining sector is in a unique position to fight HIV because it already has an extensive medical infrastructure with the capacity to treat STDs effectively, a unionized workforce to provide a pool of peer educators, and recruitment agencies to extend HIV-prevention into rural areas. Obstacles to effective HIV/AIDS education include discrimination (Workers are tested for HIV without consent, and dismissed, if found to be positive, regardless of union agreements.); a psychological factor that is related to underground work and produces recklessness; poor living conditions; and illiteracy. Many myths remain about

  11. Witness recall across repeated interviews in a case of repeated abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubacher, Sonja P; La Rooy, David

    2014-02-01

    In this illustrative case study we examine the three forensic interviews of a girl who experienced repeated sexual abuse from ages 7 to 11. She disclosed the abuse after watching a serialized television show that contained a storyline similar to her own experience. This triggered an investigation that ended in successful prosecution of the offender. Because this case involved abuse that was repeated on a weekly basis for 4 years we thus investigated the degree to which the child's narrative reflected specific episodes or generic accounts, and both the interviewer's and child's attempts to elicit and provide, respectively, specific details across the 3 interviews collected in a 1 month period. Across the 3 interviews, the child's account was largely generic, yet on a number of occasions she provided details specific to individual incidents (episodic leads) that could have been probed further. As predicted: earlier interviews were characterized more by episodic than generic prompts and the reverse was true for the third interview; the child often responded using the same style of language (episodic or generic) as the interviewer; and open questions yielded narrative information. We discuss the importance of adopting children's words to specify occurrences, and the potential benefits of permitting generic recall in investigative interviews on children's ability to provide episodic leads. Despite the fact that the testimony was characterized by generic information about what usually happened, rather than specific episodic details about individual occurrences, this case resulted in successful prosecution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Feelings of children when witnessing parents' illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Wakiuchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to learn the experiences of children who witness their parents' illness due to cancer. This is a descriptive, qualitative study, with six children between 10 and 12 years of age, children of cancer patients assisted by a support institution. The data were collected from July to August 2015, based on the guiding question:    "How do you feel about your father/mother's illness?" From the analysis, two categories emerged: Recognizing the disease and the possibility of the parents 'death and, Growing as a child and living as an adult: the repercussions of parents with cancer in their children's lives, which reveal that children understand cancer and the possibility of death of their parents, being also affected by the disease. By experiencing the fears and repercussions of cancer, children need assistance by the family and health team during their parents' illness.

  13. "I am witness to": a profile of Sakshi Violence Intervention Centre in New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, A

    1998-11-01

    Sakshi, a group formed in New Delhi, India, in 1992, seeks to create awareness of violence against women and promote justice for its victims. Its creation was spurred by the gang rape by police officers of a girl in custody and the subsequent minimization on the part of the Supreme Court of India of the seriousness of the crime. Program activities have included informational workshops for governmental and nongovernmental organizations, feminist legal research into violations of women's human rights, counseling for victims of violence, and sensitization programs for police and the judiciary. As a result of Sakshi's lobbying, the Supreme Court passed a set of Guidelines on Sexual Harassment at the Workplace in 1997. An ongoing problem has been Sakshi's dependence on donor funding and the related requirement of adopting development agencies' agendas rather than allowing development to be a demand-driven, needs-based process. Sakshi's experience has led to the awareness that violence cannot be countered by intervention measures alone; rather, program activities must be linked with other forms of gender development. The group has adopted use of the term "substantive equality" to form links between different systems in society and to empower women.

  14. Utilizing the PREPaRE Model When Multiple Classrooms Witness a Traumatic Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Lisa J.; Rittle, Carrie; Roberts, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an account of how the Charleston County School District responded to an event by utilizing the PREPaRE model (Brock, et al., 2009). The acronym, PREPaRE, refers to a range of crisis response activities: P (prevent and prepare for psychological trauma), R (reaffirm physical health and perceptions of security and safety), E…

  15. Not just a victim : the child as catalyst and witness of contemporary Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, S.; Notermans, C.; Ommering, van E.

    2011-01-01

    Social scientists examining contemporary Africa take considerable pains to resist portraying Africa as nothing more than a land of victims unable to escape historical cycles of war, exploitation and tyranny. However, children are still frequently conceptualised as passive actors, mere extensions of

  16. Social Dialogue and Vocational Training in Europe: Are We Witnessing the Emergence of a European Model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterton, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To explore social dialogue over vocational education and training in Europe, comparing the role of the social partners in different national training systems and different industrial relations contexts. Design/methodology/approach: A survey of European member states (EU15 before enlargement) and two EFTA countries addressed to the…

  17. Prevalence and Mental Health Correlates of Witnessed Parental and Community Violence in a National Sample of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinzow, Heidi M.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Resnick, Heidi; Hanson, Rochelle; Smith, Daniel; Saunders, Benjamin; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although research suggests that witnessed violence is linked to adverse mental health outcomes among adolescents, little is known about its prevalence or its significance in predicting psychiatric symptoms beyond the contribution of co-occurring risk factors. The purpose of this study was to identify the national prevalence of…

  18. Early Adolescents' Responses upon Witnessing Peer Victimization: A Cross-Culture Comparison between Students in Taiwan and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ting-Lan; Bellmore, Amy

    2016-01-01

    To examine cross-cultural differences in behavior upon witnessing peer victimization and the reasons behind the behavior, this study evaluated the responses of early adolescents from both the United States and Taiwan. Two questions were addressed: (1) Do adolescents in Taiwan and in the United States differ in their willingness to help peer…

  19. Multicomponent Programs for Reducing Peer Victimization in Early Elementary School: A Longitudinal Evaluation of the WITS Primary Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbeater, Bonnie; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena

    2011-01-01

    Past research demonstrates the promise of multicomponent programs in reducing peer victimization and bullying in older elementary and middle school children, however little research focuses on young children. The current study examines the effectiveness of the WITS Primary program on trajectories of victimization and social responsibility in…

  20. Quantum Coherence as a Witness of Vibronically Hot Energy Transfer in Bacterial Reaction Centre

    CERN Document Server

    Paleček, David; Westenhoff, Sebastian; Zigmantas, Donatas

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthetic proteins have evolved over billions of years so as to undergo optimal energy transfer to the sites of charge separation. Based on spectroscopically detected quantum coherences, it has been suggested that this energy transfer is partially wavelike. This conclusion critically depends on assignment of the coherences to the evolution of excitonic superpositions. Here we demonstrate for a bacterial reaction centre protein that long-lived coherent spectroscopic oscillations, which bear canonical signatures of excitonic superpositions, are essentially vibrational excited state coherences shifted to the ground state of the chromophores . We show that appearance of these coherences is brought about by release of electronic energy during the energy transfer. Our results establish how energy migrates on vibrationally hot chromophores in the reaction centre and they call for a re-examination of claims of quantum energy transfer in photosynthesis.

  1. Maio de 1968 em Paris: testemunho de um estudante Paris, May 1968: witness of a student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Thiollent

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar informações sobre os acontecimentos de maio de 1968 na França e seus desdobramentos na vida universitária e intelectual. Os temas abordados são o contexto da crise universitária, as formas de contestação estudantil do ensino de ciências sociais e economia e as fontes intelectuais do movimento. Com base em documentos inéditos, são descritas diversas experiências de comunicação alternativa, de relacionamento entre estudantes e trabalhadores no decorrer dos acontecimentos, assim como uma tentativa de Universidade Popular no 13° distrito de Paris, de julho a outubro de 1968. São analisados alguns aspectos dos debates e da evolução das ciências sociais e da filosofia pós-68, período marcado pela crise do ideário socialista e pelo crescimento do individualismo.This article aims to present the happenigs occured in France in May 1968 and its consequences in the intelectual and university world. The topics are the context of the university crises, the forms of studants complaint against the teaching of Social Sciences and Economy and the intelectual sources of the movement. Based on unpublished documents, many experiences of alternative communication are described and the relationship between students and employees during the happenning and even an attempt to make a Popular University in the 13rd district of Paris, from July to October 1968, as well. Some aspects of the debates and the evolution of the Social Sciences and the Philosophy post 68 are analised. This period was remarked by the crises of the socialist set of ideas and the growth of the individualism.

  2. Witnessing change with aspiring nurses: a human becoming teaching-learning process in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Deborah C; Yancey, Nan Russell

    2004-01-01

    Nurse educators have the opportunity to encourage meaningful reflections of nursing students. Dr. Rosemarie Rizzo Parse's teaching-learning processes provide a framework for such experiences. Student reflection through journaling and student participation in dialogue using these processes brings about an opportunity for students to discover new meaning for themselves and others. The process of how two nurse educators incorporated the human becoming teaching-learning model into students' experiences is discussed. Excerpts of student journals, themes of student work, and considerations for future development of the teaching-learning model with students are discussed.

  3. ETHIOPIAN WITNESS PROTECTION SYSTEM: COMPARATIVE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    law enforcement or judicial authorities in the maintenance of justice.12. 2.1. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND. Witness protection first came to prominence in the United State of America to dismantle Mafia style criminal organizations.13 Before its formal establishment by act, witness protection system started to protect people.

  4. World witnesses a tumultuous year while India reports an eventful decade in the long story of polio eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Chaturvedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With recent outbreaks in Syria and Horn of Africa, silent circulation of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1 in Israel, West Bank, and Gaza, and fresh spate of violence against vaccinators and their security personnel in Pakistan, the world is facing a turbulent final ascent to the summit of polio eradication. On the positive side, we may also be witnessing the end of wild poliovirus type 3 (WPV3 and defused programmatic crisis caused by funding gaps, while India registers third consecutive polio-free year. Having a cogent endgame plan 2013-2018, informed by some cardinal lessons learned from an eventful decade in India, is also a very significant development. Now, there is a parallel pursuit against WPV and vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV. Endgame would also involve integration of at least one dose of affordable inactivated polio vaccine (IPV to up-scaled routine immunization (RI, switch from trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV to bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV in 144 countries before 2018, stockpiling of mOPV, and simultaneous global cessation of bOPV before 2020. Role of antivirals in post-eradication era is still unclear. Some specific threats emerging at this stage are as follows: Global buildup of new birth cohorts in non-endemic countries with weak RI and downscaled supplementary immunization activities (SIAs, tremendous pressure on peripheral health workers, and fatigued systems. Cultural resistance to transnational programs is taking a violent shape in some areas. Differential interpretations of ′right to say no′, on both sides of the divide, are damaging a global cause. Amidst all these concerns, let us not forget to underline the sacrifice made by frontline vaccinators working in some of the most challenging circumstances.

  5. World Witnesses a Tumultuous Year while India Reports an Eventful Decade in the Long Story of Polio Eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Sanjay

    2014-04-01

    With recent outbreaks in Syria and Horn of Africa, silent circulation of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) in Israel, West Bank, and Gaza, and fresh spate of violence against vaccinators and their security personnel in Pakistan, the world is facing a turbulent final ascent to the summit of polio eradication. On the positive side, we may also be witnessing the end of wild poliovirus type 3 (WPV3) and defused programmatic crisis caused by funding gaps, while India registers third consecutive polio-free year. Having a cogent endgame plan 2013-2018, informed by some cardinal lessons learned from an eventful decade in India, is also a very significant development. Now, there is a parallel pursuit against WPV and vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV). Endgame would also involve integration of at least one dose of affordable inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) to up-scaled routine immunization (RI), switch from trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV) to bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV) in 144 countries before 2018, stockpiling of mOPV, and simultaneous global cessation of bOPV before 2020. Role of antivirals in post-eradication era is still unclear. Some specific threats emerging at this stage are as follows: Global buildup of new birth cohorts in non-endemic countries with weak RI and downscaled supplementary immunization activities (SIAs), tremendous pressure on peripheral health workers, and fatigued systems. Cultural resistance to transnational programs is taking a violent shape in some areas. Differential interpretations of 'right to say no', on both sides of the divide, are damaging a global cause. Amidst all these concerns, let us not forget to underline the sacrifice made by frontline vaccinators working in some of the most challenging circumstances.

  6. Snow cover volumes dynamic monitoring during melting season using high topographic accuracy approach for a Lebanese high plateau witness sinkhole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Chakra, Charbel; Somma, Janine; Elali, Taha; Drapeau, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    Climate change and its negative impact on water resource is well described. For countries like Lebanon, undergoing major population's rise and already decreasing precipitations issues, effective water resources management is crucial. Their continuous and systematic monitoring overs long period of time is therefore an important activity to investigate drought risk scenarios for the Lebanese territory. Snow cover on Lebanese mountains is the most important water resources reserve. Consequently, systematic observation of snow cover dynamic plays a major role in order to support hydrologic research with accurate data on snow cover volumes over the melting season. For the last 20 years few studies have been conducted for Lebanese snow cover. They were focusing on estimating the snow cover surface using remote sensing and terrestrial measurement without obtaining accurate maps for the sampled locations. Indeed, estimations of both snow cover area and volumes are difficult due to snow accumulation very high variability and Lebanese mountains chains slopes topographic heterogeneity. Therefore, the snow cover relief measurement in its three-dimensional aspect and its Digital Elevation Model computation is essential to estimate snow cover volume. Despite the need to cover the all lebanese territory, we favored experimental terrestrial topographic site approaches due to high resolution satellite imagery cost, its limited accessibility and its acquisition restrictions. It is also most challenging to modelise snow cover at national scale. We therefore, selected a representative witness sinkhole located at Ouyoun el Siman to undertake systematic and continuous observations based on topographic approach using a total station. After four years of continuous observations, we acknowledged the relation between snow melt rate, date of total melting and neighboring springs discharges. Consequently, we are able to forecast, early in the season, dates of total snowmelt and springs low

  7. Child-witnessed domestic violence and its adverse effects on brain development: a call for societal self-examination and awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areti eTsavoussis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There is substantial evidence indicating that children who witness domestic violence have psychosocial maladaptation that is associated with demonstrable changes in the anatomic and physiological make up of their central nervous system. Individuals with these changes do not function well in society and present communities with serious medical, sociological, and economic dilemmas. In this focused perspective we discuss the psychosocially induced biological alterations (midbrain, cerebral cortex, limbic system, corpus callosum, cerebellum, and the hypothalamic, pituitary, and adrenal axis that are related to maladaptation (especially post-traumatic stress disorder in the context of child-witnessed domestic violence, and provide evidence for these physical alterations to the brain. Herein we hope to stimulate the necessary political discourse to encourage legal systems around the world to make the act of domestic violence in the presence of a child, including a first time act, a stand-alone felony.

  8. Expert witness testimony in urology malpractice litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunaryo, Peter L; Svider, Peter F; Jackson-Rosario, Imani; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the credentials of urologists choosing to testify as expert witnesses. As health care reform has become an increasingly important topic in national debate, medical malpractice and related issues have come to the forefront of topics for discussion by the medical community. Physicians are often recruited to testify as expert witnesses in malpractice cases. Defining what constitutes an expert in this setting has been an area of controversy. The Westlaw legal database was searched for medical malpractice litigation. Data regarding number of years of experience and practice setting were obtained for urologists using private practice and hospital listings, academic faculty profiles, and state medical licensing databases. Scholarly impact, as measured by the h-index, was calculated by the Scopus database. Plaintiff expert witnesses were found to have slightly more years of experience vs defendant expert witnesses (35.7 vs 32.2 years, P = .01), but had a lower h-index (6.8 vs 10.2, P = .03), were less likely to practice in the academic setting (39% vs 60%, P = .001), and were more likely to testify multiple times. Urologists testifying for plaintiffs and defendants both had over 30 years of experience on average, with those in the latter having slightly less experience. Defendant witnesses, however, had greater scholarly impact and were more likely to practice in an academic setting. Organizations such as the American Urological Association may wish to re-evaluate guidelines on expert witness testimony, particularly regarding those who testify frequently. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cardiopulmonary bypass in Jehovah's Witnesses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    galement les transfusions ... Jehovah's witnesses for religious reasons do not allow heterologous or some forms of autologous blood ... tolerance and frequent respiratory tract infections since birth. Investigations including 2-D colour doppler echo< ...

  10. A Hybrid Artificial Reputation Model Involving Interaction Trust, Witness Information and the Trust Model to Calculate the Trust Value of Service Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurdeep Singh Ransi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Agent interaction in a community, such as the online buyer-seller scenario, is often uncertain, as when an agent comes in contact with other agents they initially know nothing about each other. Currently, many reputation models are developed that help service consumers select better service providers. Reputation models also help agents to make a decision on who they should trust and transact with in the future. These reputation models are either built on interaction trust that involves direct experience as a source of information or they are built upon witness information also known as word-of-mouth that involves the reports provided by others. Neither the interaction trust nor the witness information models alone succeed in such uncertain interactions. In this paper we propose a hybrid reputation model involving both interaction trust and witness information to address the shortcomings of existing reputation models when taken separately. A sample simulation is built to setup buyer-seller services and uncertain interactions. Experiments reveal that the hybrid approach leads to better selection of trustworthy agents where consumers select more reputable service providers, eventually helping consumers obtain more gains. Furthermore, the trust model developed is used in calculating trust values of service providers.

  11. Test Characteristics of Neck Fullness and Witnessed Neck Pulsations in the Diagnosis of Typical AV Nodal Reentrant Tachycardia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhuja, Rahul; Smith, Lisa M; Tseng, Zian H; Badhwar, Nitish; Lee, Byron K; Lee, Randall J; Scheinman, Melvin M; Olgin, Jeffrey E; Marcus, Gregory M

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Claims in the medical literature suggest that neck fullness and witnessed neck pulsations are useful in the diagnosis of typical AV nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT). Hypothesis Neck fullness and witnessed neck pulsations have a high positive predictive value in the diagnosis of typical AVNRT. Methods We performed a cross sectional study of consecutive patients with palpitations presenting to a single electrophysiology (EP) laboratory over a 1 year period. Each patient underwent a standard questionnaire regarding neck fullness and/or witnessed neck pulsations during their palpitations. The reference standard for diagnosis was determined by electrocardiogram and invasive EP studies. Results Comparing typical AVNRT to atrial fibrillation (AF) or atrial flutter (AFL) patients, the proportions with neck fullness and witnessed neck pulsations did not significantly differ: in the best case scenario (using the upper end of the 95% confidence interval [CI]), none of the positive or negative predictive values exceeded 79%. After restricting the population to those with supraventricular tachycardia other than AF or AFL (SVT), neck fullness again exhibited poor test characteristics; however, witnessed neck pulsations exhibited a specificity of 97% (95% CI 90–100%) and a positive predictive value of 83% (95% CI 52–98%). After adjustment for potential confounders, SVT patients with witnessed neck pulsations had a 7 fold greater odds of having typical AVNRT, p=0.029. Conclusions Although neither neck fullness nor witnessed neck pulsations are useful in distinguishing typical AVNRT from AF or AFL, witnessed neck pulsations are specific for the presence of typical AVNRT among those with SVT. PMID:19479968

  12. On Witness-Discernibility of Elementary Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnebo, Ø; Muller, F.A.

    2012-01-01

    In the context of discussions about the nature of ‘identical particles’ and the status of Leibniz’s Principle of the Identity of Indiscernibles in Quantum Mechanics, a novel kind of physical discernibility has recently been proposed, which we call witness-discernibility. We inquire into how

  13. Determination of the laser intensity applied to a Ta witness plate from the measured x-ray signal using a pulsed micro-channel plate detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickworth, L. A.; Rosen, M. D.; Schneider, M. B.; Hinkel, D. E.; Benedetti, L. R.; Kauffman, R. L.; Wu, S. S.

    2017-06-01

    The laser intensity distribution at the surface of a high-Z material, such as Ta, can be deduced from imaging the self-emission of the produced x-ray spot using suitable calibration data. This paper presents a calibration method which uses the measured x-ray emissions from laser spots of different intensities hitting a Ta witness plate. The x-ray emission is measured with a micro-channel plate (MCP) based x-ray framing camera plus filters. Data from different positions on one MCP strip or from different MCP assemblies are normalized to each other using a standard candle laser beam spot at ∼1 × 1014 W/cm2 intensity. The distribution of the resulting dataset agrees with results from a pseudo spectroscopic model for laser intensities between 4 and 15 × 1013 W/cm2 . The model is then used to determine the absolute scaling factor between the experimental results from assemblies using two different x-ray filters. The data and model method also allows unique calibration factors for each MCP system and each MCP gain to be compared. We also present simulation results investigating alternate witness plate materials (Ag, Eu and Au).

  14. 41 CFR 60-30.17 - Appearance of witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Appearance of witnesses... EXECUTIVE ORDER 11246 Hearings and Related Matters § 60-30.17 Appearance of witnesses. (a) A party wishing to procure the appearance at the hearing of any person having personal or expert knowledge of the...

  15. 45 CFR 681.20 - Can witnesses be subpoenaed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Can witnesses be subpoenaed? 681.20 Section 681.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Hearing Procedures § 681.20 Can witnesses be subpoenaed? (a) A...

  16. The Influence of Witnessing Inter-parental Violence and Bullying Victimization in Involvement in Fighting among Adolescents: Evidence from a School-based Cross-sectional Survey in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Bimala; Nam, Eun Woo; Kim, Ha Yun; Kim, Jong Koo

    2016-01-01

    Background Witnessing inter-parental violence and bullying victimization is common for many children and adolescents. This study examines the role of witnessing inter-parental violence and bullying victimization in involvement in physical fighting among Peruvian adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,368 randomly selected adolescents in 2015. We conducted logistic regression analyses to obtain crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for involve...

  17. Liver transplantation in Jehovah's Witnesses: two cases report

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Ju-Young; Jee, Hyeon Sook; Koo, Bon-Sung; Cho, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Gaabsoo

    2016-01-01

    Liver transplantation is especially challenging in patients who are Jehovah's Witnesses because their religious beliefs prohibit the receipt of blood products. We present two cases of living donor liver transplantation performed in adult Jehovah's Witnesses in South Korea without the use of blood products. In the first case, preoperative erythropoiesisstimulation therapy increased hemoglobin levels from 8.1 to 13.1 g/dl after 9 weeks. In the second case, hemoglobin levels increased from 7.4 t...

  18. Appeal for witnesses

    CERN Multimedia

    Claude Lamboley

    2010-01-01

      On Monday, 11 January 2010 between 7.30 a.m. and 8 a.m., in front of the Reception Building 33, my car was damaged by a large vehicle (see photographs) but the driver failed to leave any indication of his or her identity. If you have any information about this incident, please contact me on 74421.

  19. CHILD WITNESSES AND THE CONFRONTATION CLAUSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Thomas D; Dente, Julia A

    2012-01-01

    After the Supreme Court's ruling in Crawford v. Washington that a criminal defendant's right to confront the witnesses against him is violated by the admission of testimonial hearsay that has not been cross-examined, lower courts have overturned convictions in which hearsay from children was admitted after child witnesses were either unwilling or unable to testify. A review of social scientific evidence regarding the dynamics of child sexual abuse suggests a means for facilitating the fair receipt of children's evidence. Courts should hold that defendants have forfeited their confrontation rights if they exploited a child's vulnerabilities such that they could reasonably anticipate that the child would be unavailable to testify. Exploitation includes choosing victims on the basis of their filial dependency, their vulnerability, or their immaturity, as well as taking actions that create or accentuate those vulnerabilities.

  20. P300 amplitude at Pz and N200/N300 latency at F3 differ between participants simulating suspect versus witness roles in a mock crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, J Peter; Ozsan, Ilayda; Ward, Anne C

    2017-04-01

    Based on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) study by klein Selle, Verschuere, Kindt, Meijer, & Ben Shakhar (2016), 15 participants pretended to perform a crime shown on a video, which 16 other participants pretended to witness. Both groups then experienced a P300-based Concealed Information Test (CIT) protocol called the complex trial protocol. Both groups showed CIT effects, with a larger probe than irrelevant P300s at Pz. However, this effect was significantly larger in the suspect group. In contrast, only the suspect group showed delayed N200/N300 responses at F3-putative inhibitory signs. This supports the klein Selle et al. (2016) ANS study in that the suspect versus witness role-playing manipulation differentially affected inhibitory (vs. orienting) aspects of the CIT situation. Our results are also consistent with Ambach, Stark, Peper, & Vaitl (2008), who saw the same autonomic response fractionation as klein Selle et al., but using Furedy's differentiation of deception method (Furedy, Davis, & Gurevich, 1988). These similarities are discussed. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  1. SUPPORTING CHILDREN IN U.S. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS: Descriptive and Attitudinal Data From a National Survey of Victim/Witness Assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliff, Bradley D; Nicholson, Elizabeth; Amarilio, Diana; Ravanshenas, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a national survey of 786 victim/witness assistants (VWAs) to provide descriptive and attitudinal information about support person use in U.S. legal proceedings involving children. VWAs (N = 414) from 46 states returned completed surveys (response rate = 53%). Prosecutor-based VWAs or parents/guardians most frequently served as support persons. One support person was almost always or often used with child victims and/or witnesses of all ages. Support persons were extremely common in cases involving child sexual abuse, physical abuse, neglect, and adult domestic violence. Overall, support persons provided more informational than emotional support. The most common informational support was to provide referrals to community resources, conduct courtroom visit/orientation, and disseminate relevant procedural information. The most common emotional support was to accompany the child to trial. Support persons rarely or never questioned children directly during investigative interviews or in court. Respondents believed support persons decrease children's stress and increase accuracy and credibility; however, this effect varied as a function of who provided support, child age, case type, and type of emotional or informational support. Respondents believed that support person presence at trial probably does not prejudice jurors against defendants. These survey data provide a benchmark for legal professionals and a foundation for future social scientific research examining the effects of support person use on children.

  2. Former astronaut Armstrong witnesses STS-83 launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Apollo l1 Commander Neil A. Armstrong and his wife, Carol, were among the many special NASA STS-83 launch guests who witnessed the liftoff of the Space Shuttle Columbia April 4 at the Banana Creek VIP Viewing Site at KSC. Columbia took off from Launch Pad 39A at 2:20:32 p.m. EST to begin the 16-day Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 (MSL-1) mission.

  3. Anger Feelings and Anger Expression as a Mediator of the Effects of Witnessing Family Violence on Anxiety and Depression in Japanese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Toshinori; Hasui, Chieko

    2006-01-01

    The effects of anger feelings (rated by the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory) and witnessing family violence on anxiety and depression (rated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) were examined in 457 junior high school students. Anxiety and depression scores were correlated with frequencies of witnessing family violence. In a…

  4. Traumatic symptomatology in children who witness marital violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, J; Yates, J K

    2001-01-01

    For many years, research has demonstrated the devastating effects of violence upon children, particularly in the form of direct physical and sexual abuse. What has only recently come to into focus are the potential effects of witnessing violence upon children. This area of vicarious victimization seems of particular import given the fact that so many youngsters are known to witness violent acts within their own households. This paper shall review the psychological effects which may be effected upon children as a result of witnessing marital violence. Relevant research issues concerning the potential roles of moderating and mediating variables will also be discussed.

  5. A survey of attitudes and factors associated with successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR knowledge transfer in an older population most likely to witness cardiac arrest: design and methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brehaut Jamie C

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overall survival rates for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest rarely exceed 5%. While bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR can increase survival for cardiac arrest victims by up to four times, bystander CPR rates remain low in Canada (15%. Most cardiac arrest victims are men in their sixties, they usually collapse in their own home (85% and the event is witnessed 50% of the time. These statistics would appear to support a strategy of targeted CPR training for an older population that is most likely to witness a cardiac arrest event. However, interest in CPR training appears to decrease with advancing age. Behaviour surrounding CPR training and performance has never been studied using well validated behavioural theories. Methods/Design The overall goal of this study is to conduct a survey to better understand the behavioural factors influencing CPR training and performance in men and women 55 years of age and older. The study will proceed in three phases. In phase one, semi-structured qualitative interviews will be conducted and recorded to identify common categories and themes regarding seeking CPR training and providing CPR to a cardiac arrest victim. The themes identified in the first phase will be used in phase two to develop, pilot-test, and refine a survey instrument based upon the Theory of Planned Behaviour. In the third phase of the project, the final survey will be administered to a sample of the study population over the telephone. Analyses will include measures of sampling bias, reliability of the measures, construct validity, as well as multiple regression analyses to identify constructs and beliefs most salient to seniors' decisions about whether to attend CPR classes or perform CPR on a cardiac arrest victim. Discussion The results of this survey will provide valuable insight into factors influencing the interest in CPR training and performance among a targeted group of individuals most susceptible to

  6. Geophysical evidence for a transform margin offshore Western Algeria: a witness of a subduction-transform edge propagator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badji, Rabia; Charvis, Philippe; Bracene, Rabah; Galve, Audrey; Badsi, Madjid; Ribodetti, Alessandra; Benaissa, Zahia; Klingelhoefer, Frauke; Medaouri, Mourad; Beslier, Marie-Odile

    2015-02-01

    For the first time, a deep seismic data set acquired in the frame of the Algerian-French SPIRAL program provides new insights regarding the origin of the westernmost Algerian margin and basin. We performed a tomographic inversion of traveltimes along a 100-km-long wide-angle seismic profile shot over 40 ocean bottom seismometers offshore Mostaganem (Northwestern Algeria). The resulting velocity model and multichannel seismic reflection profiles show a thin (3-4 km thick) oceanic crust. The narrow ocean-continent transition (less than 10 km wide) is bounded by vertical faults and surmounted by a narrow almost continuous basin filled with Miocene to Quaternary sediments. This fault system, as well as the faults organized in a negative-flower structure on the continent side, marks a major strike-slip fault system. The extremely sharp variation of the Moho depth (up to 45 ± 3°) beneath the continental border underscores the absence of continental extension in this area. All these features support the hypothesis that this part of the margin from Oran to Tenes, trending N65-N70°E, is a fossil subduction-transform edge propagator fault, vestige of the propagation of the edge of the Gibraltar subduction zone during the westward migration of the Alborán domain.

  7. The Influence of Witnessing Inter-parental Violence and Bullying Victimization in Involvement in Fighting among Adolescents: Evidence from a School-based Cross-sectional Survey in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bimala; Nam, Eun Woo; Kim, Ha Yun; Kim, Jong Koo

    2016-03-01

    Witnessing inter-parental violence and bullying victimization is common for many children and adolescents. This study examines the role of witnessing inter-parental violence and bullying victimization in involvement in physical fighting among Peruvian adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,368 randomly selected adolescents in 2015. We conducted logistic regression analyses to obtain crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for involvement in fighting among male and female adolescents. Among all adolescents, 35.8% had been involved in fighting in the last 12 months, 32.9% had been victim of verbal bullying and 37.9% had been the victim of physical bullying. Additionally, 39.2% and 27.8% of adolescents witnessed violence against their mother and father, respectively, at least once in their lives. Multivariate logistic regression analyses found that late adolescence, participation in economic activities, being the victim of verbal bullying, stress, and witnessing violence against the father among male adolescents, and self-rated academic performance and being the victim of physical or verbal bullying among female adolescents were associated with higher odds of being involved in fighting. Verbal bullying victimization and witnessing violence against the father in males and bullying victimization in females were associated with greater odds of adolescents being involved in fighting. Creating a non-violent environment at both home and school would be an effective strategy for reducing fighting among the adolescent population.

  8. Feed back of the parents and / or relatives witnessing a squint surgery of their ward in the operation theater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Kothari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to know the response of the relatives attending the squint surgery of their ward. A trained secretary administered an eight item questionnaire by live / telephonic interview. Of the 44 attendees, two left the Operation Theater before completion of the surgery. Mean age of the patients was 7.2 years ± 7.8 and that of the attendees was 36.1 years ± 8.5. Forty patients had a surgery under general anesthesia and four under local anesthesia. Eleven (25% attendees experienced an increase in anxiety. Thirty-six (82% attendees reported increased transparency, 38 (86% reported increased confidence, and 43 (98% reported increased awareness. None found any disadvantage. Twenty-seven (61% recommended this practice for all and 16 (36% recommended the practice selectively. The internal validity of the questionnaire was fair (Cronbach′s Alpha = 0.6. It was concluded that the presence of relatives in the Operation Theater during the surgery could bring in more transparency, accountability, confidence, awareness, and trust.

  9. 33 CFR 403.10 - Hearings; witnesses; affidavits. [Rule 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; affidavits. (a) The witnesses at the hearings shall be examined viva voce, but the Board may, at any time... subject matter in question, and any objection to the admission of evidence shall be noted by the member...

  10. Identifying Witness Accounts from Social Media Using Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Truelove

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the use of image category classification to distinguish images posted to social media that are Witness Accounts of an event. Only images depicting observations of the event, captured by micro-bloggers at the event, are considered Witness Accounts. Identifying Witness Accounts from social media is important for services such as news, marketing and emergency response. Automated image category classification is essential due to the large number of images on social media and interest in identifying witnesses in near real time. This paper begins research of this emerging problem with an established procedure, using a bag-of-words method to create a vocabulary of visual words and classifier trained to categorize the encoded images. In order to test the procedure, a set of images were collected for case study events, Australian Football League matches, from Twitter. Evaluation shows an overall accuracy of 90% and precision and recall for both classes exceeding 83%.

  11. Witnessing traumatic events causes severe behavioral impairments in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Patki, Gaurav; Solanki, Naimesh; Salim, Samina

    2014-01-01

    Witnessing a traumatic event but not directly experiencing it can be psychologically quite damaging. In North America alone, ~30% of individuals who witness a traumatic event develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While effects of direct trauma are evident, consequences of indirect or secondary trauma are often ignored. Also unclear is the role of social support in the consequences of these experiences. The social defeat paradigm, which involves aggressive encounters by a large Long–E...

  12. Mechanical Circulatory Support for Advanced Heart Failure: Are We about to Witness a New “Gold Standard”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Capoccia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs for the treatment of advanced heart failure has played a significant role as a bridge to transplant and more recently as a long-term solution for non-eligible candidates. Continuous flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs, based on axial and centrifugal design, are currently the most popular devices in view of their smaller size, increased reliability and higher durability compared to pulsatile flow left ventricular assist devices (PF-LVADs. The trend towards their use is increasing. Therefore, it has become mandatory to understand the physics and the mathematics behind their mode of operation for appropriate device selection and simulation set up. For this purpose, this review covers some of these aspects. Although very successful and technologically advanced, they have been associated with complications such as pump thrombosis, haemolysis, aortic regurgitation, gastro-intestinal bleeding and arterio-venous malformations. There is perception that the reduced arterial pulsatility may be responsible for these complications. A flow modulation control approach is currently being investigated in order to generate pulsatility in rotary blood pumps. Thrombus formation remains the most feared complication that can affect clinical outcome. The development of a preoperative strategy aimed at the reduction of complications and patient-device suitability may be appropriate. Patient-specific modelling based on 3D reconstruction from CT-scan combined with computational fluid dynamic studies is an attractive solution in order to identify potential areas of stagnation or challenging anatomy that could be addressed to achieve the desired outcome. The HeartMate II (axial and the HeartWare HVAD (centrifugal rotary blood pumps have been now used worldwide with proven outcome. The HeartMate III (centrifugal is now emerging as the new promising device with encouraging preliminary results. There are now

  13. Die gebruik van Wit oemfaan (F.A. Venter in ’n imagologiese raamwerk vir die onderrig van Afrikaans as addisionele taal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kruger

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of Wit oemfaan (F.A. Venter in an imagological framework for the teaching of Afrikaans as additional language The multicultural additional-language classroom has its own characteristics and requirements. An important element to keep in mind is that learners come from different cultures and all of them have their own perceptions of themselves, their own and other cultures. These perceptions can lead to conflict – something the educator has to deal with. Opportunities can be provided to work through the conflict and thereby facilitate intercultural understanding. Learners can be encouraged to become aware of their own stereotypes of the Other, which are influenced by historical and social realities and based on misperceptions. In order to grow in intercultural understanding, learners have to let go of their stereotypes and become willing to integrate the Other into their own identity. This article attempts to indicate why and how learners can be made aware of national and ethnic stereotypes in a youth text such as Wit oemfaan (1965 by F.A. Venter. The main aim is to train teacher educators at tertiary level to facilitate the learning process in an integration model for literature teaching by using imagology as theoretical framework. The teaching strategies aim to make the learner aware of the narrative voice and focalisation in the representation of stereotypes. The learner is guided to be confronted with the Self in the story, who is in unusual contact with the Other. This intercultural encounter in the secondary world of the literary text leads eventually to the maturation of the main character and can facilitate the maturation process of the additional-language learner of Afrikaans in the Further Education and Training phase at school.

  14. ROC surface assessment of the ANB angle and Wits appraisal's diagnostic performance with a statistically derived 'gold standard': does normalizing measurements have any merit?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellens, H.L.L.; BeGole, E.A.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess the ANB angle's and Wits appraisal's diagnostic performance using an extended version of Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) analysis, which renders ROC surfaces. These were calculated for both the conventional and normalized cephalometric tests (calculated by exchanging the

  15. Witnessing Multipartite Entanglement by Detecting Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Girolami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of quantum coherence in the context of quantum information theory and its interplay with quantum correlations is currently subject of intense study. Coherence in a Hamiltonian eigenbasis yields asymmetry, the ability of a quantum system to break a dynamical symmetry generated by the Hamiltonian. We here propose an experimental strategy to witness multipartite entanglement in many-body systems by evaluating the asymmetry with respect to an additive Hamiltonian. We test our scheme by simulating asymmetry and entanglement detection in a three-qubit Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ diagonal state.

  16. Speaking to the yet unknowing world: Hamlet, Horatio and the problem of imperfect witness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Christine

    2010-12-01

    Every day doctors bear witness to others about the experiences, needs and feelings of their patients, drawing on what they have learnt from clinical consultations. This paper considers the medical task of bearing honourable and truthful witness through an examination of the role and actions of Horatio in Hamlet. Horatio is simultaneously located among the background machinery of the play, separate from the lives of the protagonists, and in the foreground, where his authoritative witness is repeatedly called upon by the play's characters. Horatio is invited to watch an unfolding disaster, his warnings are not heard, and at its conclusion he stands apart from the drama to give its account. The tensions between engagement and observation, and between partial and impartial accounting echo those faced by doctors in everyday clinical practice. The act of bearing witness, Shakespeare suggests, even for those who are tasked with being objective, is necessarily imperfect, and not dispassionate. Those people, including doctors, who are expected to construct authoritative accounts of the motives and actions of others may find in Hamlet a small lesson on the need to approach their summary narratives about others more humbly, aware of the narrowness and partiality of their perspective.

  17. Being an expert witness in geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Edward A.

    2015-02-01

    Gathering your own data and coming to your own conclusion through scientific research and discovery is the most important principle to remember when being an expert witness in geomorphology. You can only be questioned in deposition and trial in your area of expertise. You are qualified as an expert by education, knowledge, and experience. You will have absolutely nothing to fear from cross-examination if you are prepared and confident about your work. Being an expert witness requires good communication skills. When you make a presentation, speak clearly and avoid jargon, especially when addressing a jury. Keep in mind that when you take on a case that may eventually go to court as a lawsuit, the entire process, with appeals and so forth, can take several years. Therefore, being an expert may become a long-term commitment of your time and energy. You may be hired by either side in a dispute, but your job is the same - determine the scientific basis of the case and explain your scientific reasoning to the lawyers, the judge, and the jury. Your work, including pre-trial investigations, often determines what the case will be based on. The use of science in the discovery part of an investigation is demonstrated from a California case involving the Ventura River, where building of a flood control levee restricted flow to a narrower channel, increasing unit stream power as well as potential for bank erosion and landsliding.

  18. Witnessing traumatic events causes severe behavioral impairments in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patki, Gaurav; Solanki, Naimesh; Salim, Samina

    2014-12-01

    Witnessing a traumatic event but not directly experiencing it can be psychologically quite damaging. In North America alone, ∼30% of individuals who witness a traumatic event develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While effects of direct trauma are evident, consequences of indirect or secondary trauma are often ignored. Also unclear is the role of social support in the consequences of these experiences. The social defeat paradigm, which involves aggressive encounters by a large Long-Evans male rat (resident) towards a smaller Sprague-Dawley male rat (intruder), is considered a rodent model of PTSD. We have modified this model to create a trauma witness model (TWM) and have used our TWM model to also evaluate social support effects. Basically, when an intruder rat is placed into the home cage of a resident rat, it encounters an agonistic behavior resulting in intruder subordination. The socially defeated intruder is designated the SD rat. A second rat, the cage mate of the SD, is positioned to witness the event and is the trauma witnessing (TW) rat. Experiments were performed in two different experimental conditions. In one, the SD and TW rats were cagemates and acclimatized together. Then, one SD rat was subjected to three sessions of social defeat for 7 d. TW rat witnessed these events. After each social defeat exposure, the TW and SD rats were housed together. In the second, the TW and SD rats were housed separately starting after the first defeat. At the end of each protocol, depression-anxiety-like behavior and memory tests were conducted on the SD and TW rats, blood withdrawn and specific organs collected. Witnessing traumatic events led to depression- and anxiety-like behavior and produced memory deficits in TW rats associated with elevated corticosterone levels.

  19. A Witness Account of the Rise and Fall of the NHS Longmore Donald A Witness Account of the Rise and Fall of the NHS 409pp £29 ShieldCrest 9781907629228 190762922X [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-28

    AS QUALITY and standards in the National Health Service appear to be under ever increasing scrutiny and criticism, this personal account and reflection on a 50-year career by eminent physician Donald Longmore, fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons Edinburgh and Royal College of Radiologists, offers far more than a factual autobiography.

  20. How sure are you that this is the man you saw? Child witnesses can use confidence judgments to identify a target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruer, Kaila C; Fitzgerald, Ryan J; Price, Heather L; Sauer, James D

    2017-12-01

    We tested whether an alternative lineup procedure designed to minimize problematic influences (e.g., metacognitive development) on decision criteria could be effectively used by children and improve child eyewitness identification performance relative to a standard identification task. Five hundred sixteen children (6- to 13-year-olds) watched a video of a target reading word lists and, the next day, made confidence ratings for each lineup member or standard categorical decisions for 8 lineup members presented sequentially. Two algorithms were applied to classify confidence ratings into categorical decisions and facilitate comparisons across conditions. The classification algorithms produced accuracy rates for the confidence rating procedure that were comparable to the categorical procedure. These findings demonstrate that children can use a ratings-based procedure to discriminate between previously seen and unseen faces. In turn, this invites more nuanced and empirical consideration of ratings-based identification evidence as a probabilistic index of guilt that may attenuate problematic social influences on child witnesses' decision criteria. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Witnesses in the consultation room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Galina; Davidsen, Annette Sofie

    2017-01-01

    recorded digitally and transcribed verbatim. The data were analysed using systematic text condensation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Participation seemed to improve communication skills and the ability to take a more patient-centred approach. It increased job satisfaction and prevented burnout. A non...

  2. "Can We Talk about Intimacy?": "The Wire" and a Pedagogy of Testimony and Witness in Urban Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutro, Elizabeth; Kantor, Julia

    2011-01-01

    "The Wire," a critically acclaimed television series on HBO, is one of the latest narratives of urban schools to appear on screen. The series--which unfolded across five seasons and aired its series finale in late 2007--is set in Baltimore and interweaves the stories of inner city residents, particularly a network of characters involved…

  3. Effectiveness of specific factors in community-based intervention for child witnesses of interparental violence: A randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, M.M.; de Schipper, J.C.; Lamers-Winkelman, F.; Schuengel, C.

    2013-01-01

    A community-based intervention with specific factors for children and parents exposed to interparental violence (IPV) was compared with a control intervention based on non-specific factors. We hypothesized that participation in an intervention with specific factors, focused on IPV, parenting and

  4. Bearing Witness to the ‘Pain of Others’: Researching Power, Violence and Resistance in a Women’s Prison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Scraton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the dynamics of interpersonal violence, institutionalised abuses and prisoner isolation, this article consolidates critical analyses as challenges to the essentially liberal constructions and interpretations of prisoner agency and penal reformism. Grounded in long-term research with women in prison in the North of Ireland, it connects embedded, punitive responses that undermine women prisoners’ self-esteem and mental health to the brutalising manifestations of formal and informal punishments, including lockdowns and isolation. It argues that critical social research into penal policy and prison regimes has a moral duty, an ethical obligation and a political responsibility to investigate abuses of power, seek out the ‘view from below’. Challenging the revisionism implicit within the ‘healthy prison’ discourse, it argues for alternatives to prison as the foundation of decarceration and abolition.

  5. "Morphology is a witness which doesn't lie": diagnosis by similarity relation and analogical inference in clinical forensic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Gethin

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, I utilise semi-structured interviews with Forensic Medical Examiners (FMEs) in Scotland in order to investigate their diagnostic work. Drawing upon classic medical sociological work on diagnosis (for instance, the work of Paul Atkinson and Michael Bloor), my understanding of diagnosis is as a subjective, but socially-constructed activity whereby medical practitioners are taught to identify (in this case) injury types, initially by ostension, then also by examination. I then extend the analysis postulated within the classic studies by outlining a mechanistic method for the actual cognitive process of diagnosis, drawn from a sociologically informed reading of the historian of science, Thomas Kuhn. It is argued that diagnosis is achieved by similarity relation (comparing new cases to those previously observed), and analogical reasoning (drawing inferences based on the analogy with previous cases). Given that new cases subtly alter the individual FME's classificatory schema, resulting in potential differences in diagnoses, the FME community are required to conduct much reparative work in order to construct their evidence as consensual and factual, as is required by law. The paper will conclude with some brief comments on the future of forensic medical examinations, particularly concerning the fact/opinion distinction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ithome lassula Hodges (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae, una nueva especie para Cuba asociada a Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Alonso

    Full Text Available El nuevo informe para Cuba de Ithome lassula Hodges (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae, especie asociada a la planta forrajera Leucaena leucocephala, se confirmó con la identificación de los adultos, mediante la utilización de una clave basada en la maculación de las escamas en la zona de la cabeza del insecto. Los adultos emergieron en el laboratorio, de las larvas colectadas en las inflorescencias; estas procedían de los diferentes sistemas ganaderos que se muestrearon en las provincias Matanzas y Mayabeque, los cuales estaban compuestos indistintamente por las cuatro variedades comerciales de la leguminosa y por gramíneas pratenses. Por otra parte, la detección de las lesiones que causaron las larvas de este cosmopterígido en las inflorescencias, y su repercusión en la producción de semillas de leucaena, constituyó el elemento más importante que se debía considerar para valorar su potencialidad como plaga y al estimar las posibles pérdidas en los sistemas ganaderos evaluados.

  7. Spin Entanglement Witness for Quantum Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sougato; Mazumdar, Anupam; Morley, Gavin W.; Ulbricht, Hendrik; Toroš, Marko; Paternostro, Mauro; Geraci, Andrew A.; Barker, Peter F.; Kim, M. S.; Milburn, Gerard

    2017-12-01

    Understanding gravity in the framework of quantum mechanics is one of the great challenges in modern physics. However, the lack of empirical evidence has lead to a debate on whether gravity is a quantum entity. Despite varied proposed probes for quantum gravity, it is fair to say that there are no feasible ideas yet to test its quantum coherent behavior directly in a laboratory experiment. Here, we introduce an idea for such a test based on the principle that two objects cannot be entangled without a quantum mediator. We show that despite the weakness of gravity, the phase evolution induced by the gravitational interaction of two micron size test masses in adjacent matter-wave interferometers can detectably entangle them even when they are placed far apart enough to keep Casimir-Polder forces at bay. We provide a prescription for witnessing this entanglement, which certifies gravity as a quantum coherent mediator, through simple spin correlation measurements.

  8. Refusal of blood transfusion by Jehovah's Witness women: a survey of current management in obstetric and gynaecological practice in the U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sahana; Onwude, Joseph; Stasi, Roberto; Manyonda, Isaac

    2012-10-01

    Refusal of blood transfusion by Jehovah's Witness (JW) women poses potential problems for obstetrics worldwide as haemorrhage remains a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. There is a general consensus that morbidity and mortality rates in association with childbirth and gynaecological interventions are higher in these women than in the general population. We conducted a postal questionnaire survey of current practice among U.K. consultant obstetricians and gynaecologists to establish the practices that could contribute to poor outcomes in these women. The main variables of interest were: use of a multi-disciplinary approach; the acceptable minimum haemoglobin (Hb) concentration before vaginal delivery and abdominal hysterectomy as low to medium risk scenarios and open myomectomy as a high risk scenario for haemorrhage; Hb concentration thresholds for iron supplementation; and the use of oral iron, intravenous iron, erythropoietin and cell salvage as potential management tools. The response rate was 28%. Sixty percent of gynaecologists and 85% of obstetricians reported having a protocol for the management of JW women. Forty-six percent of consultants adopt a multi-disciplinary approach which include anaesthetists and haematologists. A Hb concentration of >11-12 g/dL is considered the minimum acceptable level by a majority (47%) prior to normal delivery and by 42% of gynaecologists prior to abdominal hysterectomy. For open myomectomy 28% of gynaecologists prefer a minimum level of 11-12 g/dL but a further 31% of gynaecologists prefer a minimum level of 12-13 g/dL. A small but substantial proportion of consultants do not have protocols, operate on JW women with low Hb concentrations, do not use a lower Hb concentration threshold for supplementation, and do not adopt a multi-disciplinary approach, all of which could contribute to the reported poor outcomes in these women.

  9. The family physician in the witness box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emson, H E

    1983-08-01

    The doctor appearing in court must learn a new language and be prepared to deal with the legal profession, which is quite different from his own. Adequate preparation for a court case can make it less confusing; this article gives guidelines for doctors occasionally called to give evidence, or who are accused of malpractice. Doctors called as witnesses must consult with lawyers early, to determine exactly what information the court wants and the form a report should take. Physicians should carefully study and summarize all their evidence in non-technical language before a court appearance. By learning some legal language, they can also understand and adequately answer lawyers' questions. A physician accused of negligence must make no admissions before the case and have no contact with the plaintiff other than to formally acknowledge the charge. The Canadian Medical Protective Association should be contacted as soon as possible.

  10. The making of expert witness: the valuers' perspective | Babawale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the role of the expert witness in the process of justice administration. As the saying goes, not all 'experts' make good 'expert witness' as there is more to being an 'expert witness' than there is to being an 'expert'. That is, being an 'expert witness' does not necessarily connote that the witness is an expert ...

  11. Expert witness testimony in ophthalmology malpractice litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Grace; Fang, Christina H; Friedman, Remy; Bhagat, Neelakshi; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Langer, Paul D

    2015-03-01

    To examine the relative qualifications of expert witnesses testifying on behalf of plaintiffs vs defendants in ophthalmology malpractice litigation. Correlational and descriptive study; analysis of expert witness and physician demographic data available on several databases. The Westlaw legal database was searched for ophthalmologist expert witness testimony from January 2006 to June 2014. Physician demographic data were used as the main outcome measures, including length of experience, scholarly impact (as measured by the h-index), practice setting, and fellowship training status and were obtained from state medical licensing board sites and online medical facility and practice sites. H-indices were obtained from the Scopus database. Defendant and plaintiff expert witnesses had comparable mean years of experience (32.9 and 35.7, respectively) (P = .12) and scholarly impact (h-index = 8.6 and 8.3, respectively) (P = .42). Cases tended to resolve on the side of the expert witness with the higher h-index (P = .04). Significantly higher proportions of defendant witnesses were in academic practice (P < .05) and underwent fellowship training (P < .001). Ophthalmologist expert witnesses testifying for both plaintiffs and defendants had over 30 years of experience and high scholarly impact. Practitioners testifying on behalf of plaintiffs were statistically less likely to work in an academic setting and have subspecialty training. Scholarly impact of expert witnesses appeared to affect trial outcomes. Surgical societies should stringently police for appropriate expert witness testimony given by both plaintiff and defense experts in malpractice litigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Jehovah's Witnesses in the emergency department: what are their rights?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, S

    2005-12-01

    The Jehovah's Witnesses Society is best known to outsiders for its refusal of blood products, even when such a refusal may result in death. Since the introduction of the blood ban in 1945, Jehovah's Witness (JW) parents have fought for their rights to refuse blood on behalf of their children, based on religious beliefs and their right to raise children as they see fit. Adolescent JWs have also sought to refuse blood products based on their beliefs, regardless of the views of their parents. Adult JWs have fought to protect their autonomy when making both contemporaneous and advance treatment refusal. The refusal of blood products by JWs raises ethical and legal dilemmas that are not easily answered. Do an individual's rights (namely bodily control, right to privacy, right to decide about life/death issues, right to religious freedom) outweigh society's rights (namely the preservation of life, the prevention of suicide, the protection of innocent third parties, and the maintenance of the ethical integrity of the medical profession)? Does the right to choose outweigh the value of human life? For doctors, conflict occurs between the desire to respect patient autonomy and the need to provide good medical care. The Watchtower Society (the JW governing body) imposes a strict code of moral standards among its members, and it is unlikely that individual JWs are making truly autonomous decisions about blood transfusions. While young children and adolescents are protected by the courts and conscious adults are afforded autonomy, dilemmas still arise in the emergency situation. This article examines the rights of young children, adolescents, and adults, focusing in the latter half on adults in the emergency situation.

  13. Witnessing traumatic events and post-traumatic stress disorder: insights from an animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Patki, Gaurav; Salvi, Ankita; Liu, Hesong; Salim, Samina

    2015-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly recognized that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be acquired vicariously from witnessing traumatic events. Recently, we published an animal model called the “Trauma witness model” (TWM) which mimics PTSD-like symptoms in rats from witnessing daily traumatic events (social defeat of cage mate) [15]. Our TWM does not result in any physical injury. This is a major procedural advantage over the typical intruder paradigm in which it is difficult to delineate th...

  14. 29 CFR 1603.212 - Witness fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEE COMPLAINTS OF EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION UNDER SECTION 304 OF THE... be paid or offered to the witness by the party requesting the subpoena at the time the subpoena is...

  15. Witness memory and alcohol: The effects of state-dependent recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber Compo, Nadja; Carol, Rolando N; Evans, Jacqueline R; Pimentel, Pamela; Holness, Howard; Nichols-Lopez, Kristin; Rose, Stefan; Furton, Kenneth G

    2017-04-01

    Many real-world eyewitnesses are under the influence of alcohol either at the time of the crime, the interview, or both. Only recently has empirical research begun to examine the effects of alcohol on witness memory, yielding mixed results. The present study tested the importance of state-dependent memory in the context of alcohol's effects on encoding versus retrieval of a witnessed event, while simultaneously informing real-world investigative practices: Should witnesses sober up before an interview? Participants (N = 249) were randomized to a control, placebo, or alcohol condition at encoding and to either an immediate retrieval condition (in the same state) or a 1-week delay control, placebo, or alcohol retrieval condition. They recalled a witnessed mock crime using open ended and cued recall formats. After a delay, witnesses intoxicated at both encoding and retrieval provided less accurate information than witnesses in sober or placebo groups at both times. There was no advantage of state-dependent memory but intoxicated witnesses were best when recalling immediately compared to 1 week later (sober, placebo, or reintoxicated). Findings have direct implications for the timing of intoxicated witnesses' interviews such that moderately intoxicated witnesses may not benefit from a sobering delay but rather, should be interviewed immediately. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Mapping pyrophilic percentages across the northeastern United States using witness trees, with focus on four national forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissa A. Thomas-Van Gundy; Gregory J. Nowacki; Charles V. Cogbill

    2015-01-01

    Witness trees provide information fundamental for restoration ecology, often serving as baselines for forest composition and structure. Furthermore, when categorized by fire relations, witness trees can shed light on past disturbance regimes. Kriging was applied to witness-tree point data to form a contiguous surface of pyrophilic percentage for four national forests...

  17. Comparison of plaintiff and defendant expert witness qualification in malpractice litigation in otolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloy, Jean Anderson; Svider, Peter F; Patel, Dharti; Setzen, Michael; Baredes, Soly

    2013-05-01

    Malpractice litigation contributes to rising health care costs in the United States. The role of expert witness testimony has been controversial in the past, with medical professional societies issuing statements regarding ethical obligations of physicians. Our objectives were to examine the relative qualifications of expert witnesses testifying on behalf of plaintiffs vs defendants. Analysis of expert witness and physician demographic data available on several databases. The Westlaw legal database (Thomson Reuters, New York, New York) was searched for otolaryngologist expert witness testimony. Length of experience, practice setting, and subspecialty training information were obtained from hospital, practice, departmental, and state licensing board sites. Scholarly impact was assessed using calculation of the h-index from the Scopus database. Plaintiff expert witnesses had significantly less experience than those testifying for defendants (31.8 vs 35.4 years, P = .047) and lower scholarly impact (h = 6.3 vs 10, P = .045). A significantly higher proportion of defendant witnesses were in academic practice (49.3% vs 31.7%, P = .042). No differences were detected in postresidency fellowship training patterns. Upon comparison of otolaryngologist expert witnesses, practitioners testifying on behalf of plaintiffs had statistically fewer years of experience, had a lower scholarly impact, and were less likely to work in an academic setting. Otolaryngologists who repeatedly served as expert witnesses were more likely to be testifying on behalf of plaintiffs than defendants. Professional societies need to frequently update guidelines on expert witness testimony and address the ethical obligations of practitioners.

  18. Witness for the Innocent: Children's Literature and the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, E. Wendy

    1985-01-01

    Presents findings from a study of treatment of the Vietnam war in children's literature. Found that there have not been a large number of books published on subject. Those dealing with subject witness the horrors of the war while treating the conflict as an isolated incident, without a past, and having only a tenuous relationship to our national…

  19. Wits University's response to HIV/AIDS: flagship programme or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV/AIDS is a threat to the creation of human capital and development prospects in southern Africa and South Africa. The University of the Witwatersrand (Wits) is a well-regarded institution of higher education in Johannesburg. This paper outlines the university's qualified failure to implement its HIV/AIDS Policy through a ...

  20. Atraumatic Bilateral Neglected Anterior Shoulder Dislocation: Case Report of a Jehovah’s Witness 28-Year-Old Male Affected by Iron-Deficiency Anemia and Treated with Bilateral Latarjet Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggetti, Andrea; Castellini, Iacopo; Neri, Elisabetta; Marchettil, Stefano; Lisanti, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Neglected bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation is a very rare condition, often related to seizures or major trauma. Open reduction is recommended whenever Hill-Sachs lesion is >25% of the joint and the dislocation is elder than 3 weeks. Case Report: We describe a case report of a 28-year-old man left handed Jehovah’s Witness laborer assessed 12 weeks after bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation. The patient was evaluated with clinical examination, and it was observed an asymptomatic intrarotation of both shoulders with a mild left circumflex nerve deficit. He was able to perform flexion and abduction of both arms up to 60° and 10° of extrarotation. Pre-operative constant scores were 49 in left and 55 in right shoulder, pre-operative disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) scores were 57 in left and 53 in right shoulder, and visual analogue scales (VAS) was 2. Radiological examination were bilateral anteroposterior shoulder X-rays and computer tomography scan. The surgeon treated both shoulder (not simultaneously) by open reduction and Bristow-Latarjet coracoids transfer procedure. A 1 year after operations, left flexion was 180° while right was 160, bilateral abduction was 180. He was able to return to his pre-injury activities, the constant score was 89 left and 83 right, DASH score was 17 left and 13 right and VAS was 0. Conclusion: Atraumatic bilateral neglected anterior shoulder dislocation can be treated with open Bristow-Latarjet procedure to provide a stable glenohumeral joint in laborer patient and permit a return to the pre-injury activities, to create a greater extension of the glenoid arc and to avoid future dislocation. PMID:27299079

  1. Atraumatic Bilateral Neglected Anterior Shoulder Dislocation: Case Report of a Jehovah's Witness 28-Year-Old Male Affected by Iron-Deficiency Anemia and Treated with Bilateral Latarjet Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggetti, Andrea; Castellini, Iacopo; Neri, Elisabetta; Marchettil, Stefano; Lisanti, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Neglected bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation is a very rare condition, often related to seizures or major trauma. Open reduction is recommended whenever Hill-Sachs lesion is >25% of the joint and the dislocation is elder than 3 weeks. We describe a case report of a 28-year-old man left handed Jehovah's Witness laborer assessed 12 weeks after bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation. The patient was evaluated with clinical examination, and it was observed an asymptomatic intrarotation of both shoulders with a mild left circumflex nerve deficit. He was able to perform flexion and abduction of both arms up to 60° and 10° of extrarotation. Pre-operative constant scores were 49 in left and 55 in right shoulder, pre-operative disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) scores were 57 in left and 53 in right shoulder, and visual analogue scales (VAS) was 2. Radiological examination were bilateral anteroposterior shoulder X-rays and computer tomography scan. The surgeon treated both shoulder (not simultaneously) by open reduction and Bristow-Latarjet coracoids transfer procedure. A 1 year after operations, left flexion was 180° while right was 160, bilateral abduction was 180. He was able to return to his pre-injury activities, the constant score was 89 left and 83 right, DASH score was 17 left and 13 right and VAS was 0. Atraumatic bilateral neglected anterior shoulder dislocation can be treated with open Bristow-Latarjet procedure to provide a stable glenohumeral joint in laborer patient and permit a return to the pre-injury activities, to create a greater extension of the glenoid arc and to avoid future dislocation.

  2. Targets and Witnesses: Middle School Students' Sexual Harassment Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichty, Lauren F.; Campbell, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    School-based peer-to-peer sexual harassment (SH) emerged as an issue of concern in the early 1990s. As a developing field, this literature has several notable gaps. The current study extends previous research by, (a) exploring the understudied experiences of middle school students, (b) assessing students' experiences witnessing SH, and (c)…

  3. Exploring the relationship between victims and witnesses of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Young people who are victims of, or witnesses to, aggression are at increased risk of developing a psychological disorder and behaving aggressively themselves. The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of exposure to aggression in a sample of 1 770 students, aged 15–26 years recruited from technical ...

  4. Witnesses to Political Violence in Guatemala. Facts for Action #5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Fred; Wunder, Haleh

    The sources of political violence against Guatemala's rural poor are traced in this document for high school global education classes. The paper summarizes "Witness to Political Violence in Guatemala: The Suppression of a Rural Development Movement" (Oxfam America's Impact Audit No. 2). The study was based on 115 respondents, both…

  5. Violations of human rights: health practitioners as witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbinski, James; Beyrer, Chris; Singh, Sonal

    2007-08-25

    For humanitarian health-care practitioners bearing witness to violations of human dignity has become synonymous with denunciations, human rights advocacy, or lobbying for political change. A strict reliance on legal interpretations of humanitarianism and human rights is inadequate for fully understanding the problems inherent in political change. With examples from the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the USA, the Rwandan genocide, and physician-led political activism in Nepal, we describe three cases in which health practitioners bearing witness to humanitarian and human-rights issues have had imperfect outcomes. However these acts of bearing witness have been central to the promotion of humanitarianism and human rights, to the pursuit of justice that they have inevitably and implicitly endorsed, and thus to the politics that have or might yet address these issues. Despite the imperfections, bearing witness, having first-hand knowledge of humanitarian and human-rights principles and their limitations, and systematically collecting evidence of abuse, can be instrumental in tackling the forces that constrain the realisation of human health and dignity.

  6. Women, Wit, and Witchcraft: The Burden of Stereotypes. Working Paper No. 193.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Barbara

    This paper examines the negative stereotypes so long foisted on witty women and the move of contemporary witty women writers into a comic vision beyond the imposed connection of female wit to sly cleverness and witchcraft. To illustrate how the woman writer had to cope with a prejudice against and a fear of her wit, the paper considers three…

  7. Modest Witness(ing) and Lively Stories: Paying Attention to Matters of Concern in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaise, Mindy; Hamm, Catherine; Iorio, Jeanne Marie

    2017-01-01

    This article considers the role of early childhood education within these uncertain times of human induced climate change. It draws from feminism and environmental humanities to experiment with different ways of becoming-with the world. By bringing together Donna Haraway's figure of the Modest Witness and Deborah Bird Rose's notion of witnessing,…

  8. Psychological expert witness testimony and judicial decision making trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, David L; Mixon, LeKisha; Jackson, Melissa; Shook, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Despite the establishment of the Daubert standard in 1993, the evidentiary criteria are rarely used as a basis for admissibility of expert witness testimony in the behavioral sciences. Ever since the promulgation of Frye and the Federal Rules of Evidence, controversy has surrounded the admissibility of expert testimony in courtrooms. There appears to be no existing uniform application of standards governing the admissibility of psychological expert witness testimony. Therefore, it is essential for the psycho-legal communities to explore judicial decision-making trends regarding psychological expert witness evidence. In this current research, psychological expert witness testimony and judicial decision-making will be explored. In preliminary examination, 97 criminal and civil case summaries from the LexisNexis Academic Database involved issues of admissibility. Analyses conducted by eight trained and paired coders revealed that reliability and assistance to the trier of fact were the most often cited reasons for admissibility in courts. Consistent with prior studies, it was also found that the most applied standards for admissibility of psychological evidence were the Federal Rules of Evidence. Interestingly, while the Daubert scientific criteria for admission of scientific testimony were mentioned, they were rarely utilized. A secondary analysis of 167 civil and criminal appellate cases indicated that the reliability of testimony (18% of all cases), ability to assist the trier of fact (17%), the expert witness' qualifications (17%), and the relevance of the testimony (16%) were the most commonly cited reasons for determining admissibility. A tertiary qualitative analysis focusing on these four categories then revealed eight major trends in admissibility of psychological expert evidence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Consequences of Witnessing Family Violence on Children and Implications for Family Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Christopher M.

    2006-01-01

    Although a large number of children are directly abused, an even larger number may indirectly experience the effects of abuse as witnesses of family violence. However, the effects on children who witness such violence have long been unaddressed, although a growing body of research indicates that these children are affected in various domains,…

  10. Witnesses stumbling down memory lane: The effects of alcohol intoxication, retention interval, and repeated interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagsand, Angelica V; Roos Af Hjelmsäter, Emma; Granhag, Pär Anders; Fahlke, Claudia; Söderpalm Gordh, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Intoxicated eyewitnesses are often discredited by investigators and in court, but few studies have examined how alcohol affects witnesses' memory. The primary aim of the present study was to examine how intoxication (alcohol vs. control), retention interval (immediate vs. one week delay), and number of interviews (one vs. two interviews) affect witnesses' memory. The participants (N = 99) were randomly assigned to consume either orange juice or alcohol mixed with orange juice, and they all witnessed a filmed mock crime afterwards. The recall took place either (a) immediately and after a one week delay or (b) after a one week delay only. No main effect of alcohol was found on the quantity or quality of the witnesses' statements. Both intoxicated and sober witnesses recalled more details, and were more accurate, during immediate compared to delayed recall. For witnesses interviewed twice, an average of 30% new details were provided in the second compared to the first interview, and these were highly accurate. In sum, contrary to what one can expect, intoxicated witnesses with a low to moderate blood alcohol concentration (below 0.10%) were reliable witnesses.

  11. 22 CFR 92.69 - Charges payable to foreign officials, witnesses, foreign counsel, and interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Charges payable to foreign officials, witnesses, foreign counsel, and interpreters. 92.69 Section 92.69 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND... foreign officials, witnesses, foreign counsel, and interpreters. (a) Execution of letters rogatory by...

  12. 26 CFR 301.7602-1 - Examination of books and witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examination of books and witnesses. 301.7602-1... Examination and Inspection § 301.7602-1 Examination of books and witnesses. (a) In general. For the purpose of... officer or employee of the Internal Revenue Service may examine any books, papers, records or other data...

  13. Rhetorical Witnessing: Recognizing Genocide in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Elizabeth A.; Wolf, Rudiger Escobar

    2008-01-01

    The article explores the rhetorical dimensions of witnessing. We concentrate, in particular, on two groups: 1) university students at the University of San Carlos, Quetzaltenango, whose murals are dramatic reminders of the massacres that resulted in the deaths of over 200,000 indigenous people in the 1980s and early 90s and of the corrupt…

  14. Cardiopulmonary bypass in Jehovah's Witnesses | Frimpong ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jehovah's Witnesses do not accept heterologous blood transfusion for religious reasons. Autologous transfusions are also rejected if there is no continuous contact between the circulation and the autologous blood. There is, therefore , the need to adopt methods which will avoid transfusion of heterologous blood in elective ...

  15. Narcissistic dimensions of expert witness practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutheil, Thomas G; Simon, Robert I

    2005-01-01

    The authors review narcissism as it relates to expert witness practice. The review addresses stable versus unstable narcissism, normal confidence, perspective taking, the effect of flattery, the will to win, mirror transference, narcissistic excitement, narcissistic rage, narcissistic injury, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The article closes with recommendations for resisting narcissistic pitfalls and achieving the egoless state.

  16. 14 CFR 13.121 - Witness fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Witness fees. 13.121 Section 13.121 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Formal Fact-Finding Investigation Under an Order of Investigation § 13...

  17. Repeated Witnessing of Conspecifics in Pain: Effects on Emotional Contagion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carrillo

    Full Text Available Witnessing of conspecifics in pain has been shown to elicit socially triggered freezing in rodents. It is unknown how robust this response is to repeated exposure to a cage-mate experiencing painful stimulation. To address this question, shock-experienced Observer rats repeatedly witnessed familiar Demonstrators receive painful footshocks (six sessions. Results confirm that Observers freeze during the first testing session. The occurrence of this behaviour however gradually diminished as the experimental sessions progressed, reaching minimal freezing levels by the end of the experiments. In contrast, the appearance and continuous increase in the frequency of yawning, a behavior that was inhibited by metyrapone (i.e,. a glucocorticoid synthesis blocker, might represent an alternative coping strategy, suggesting that the observer's reduced freezing does not necessarily indicate a disappearance in the affective response to the Demonstrator's distress.

  18. Repeated Witnessing of Conspecifics in Pain: Effects on Emotional Contagion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Maria; Migliorati, Filippo; Bruls, Rune; Han, Yingying; Heinemans, Mirjam; Pruis, Ilanah; Gazzola, Valeria; Keysers, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Witnessing of conspecifics in pain has been shown to elicit socially triggered freezing in rodents. It is unknown how robust this response is to repeated exposure to a cage-mate experiencing painful stimulation. To address this question, shock-experienced Observer rats repeatedly witnessed familiar Demonstrators receive painful footshocks (six sessions). Results confirm that Observers freeze during the first testing session. The occurrence of this behaviour however gradually diminished as the experimental sessions progressed, reaching minimal freezing levels by the end of the experiments. In contrast, the appearance and continuous increase in the frequency of yawning, a behavior that was inhibited by metyrapone (i.e,. a glucocorticoid synthesis blocker), might represent an alternative coping strategy, suggesting that the observer's reduced freezing does not necessarily indicate a disappearance in the affective response to the Demonstrator's distress.

  19. CRIMINAL LEGAL PROTECTION OF CHILD VICTIMS AND WITNESSES OF CRIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Mushevska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The term victim indicates a natural person that underwent some kind of crime, including psychological and mental disorder, and emotional suffering or monetary loss, that were caused by accomplishing or not accomplishing a certain kind of activity that violates the law in one state. The term Victim also includes the close members of the victim’s family that depend on the victim. “Kids, victims and witnesses of crimes” indicates kids and adolescents under 18 years of age, which are victims of different kinds of crime or witnesses of different kinds of crime, in spite of the role that they have in the crime act. In all proceedings that directly or indirectly child victims involved it is important to act in a way that is the best and most appropriate for the child.

  20. The Advocate's Devil: The Maritime Public Historian as Expert Witness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jay C

    2015-02-01

    The maritime historian working as litigation support and expert witness faces many challenges, including identifying and analyzing case law associated with admiralty subjects, cultural resource management law, and general historical topics. The importance of the unique knowledge of the historian in the maritime context is demonstrated by a case study of attempts to salvage the shipwreck Atlantic, the remains of a merchant vessel built and enrolled in the United States and lost in the Canadian waters of Lake Erie in 1852.

  1. Alelopathic effect of aqueous extracts of leucena (Leucaena leucocephala Wit leave and fruit on germination and root growth of canafistula (Peltophorum dubium Spreng/ Efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso de folha e de fruto de leucena (Leucaena leucocephala Wit sobre a germinação e crescimento de raiz da canafístula (Peltophorum dubium Spreng.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Maria Teixeira Fortes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays exotic plants represent a big threat to biodiversity because when they are present in favorable environments, they can influence the development of native plants, as well as they can change the natural functions of the environment. Wrong management practices are some of the main factors that support the environment invasions by exotic species. Leucena (Leucaena leucocephala Wit. is an exotic species that takes part in Itaipu Dam recuperation riparian areas. Exotic species may have allelopathic effects. The objective of this study has been to verify allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of leucena leaves and fruits upon germination and root growth of canafistula (Peltophorum dubium Spreng., a native species. Twelve treatments with four replications have been used, divided in two stages, six treatments each. The utilized treatments were: water, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% extract. All the seeds were scared mechanically. The germinated seeds have been counted daily. The length of the roots has been evaluated at the third and seventh day of experiment. The fruit extract presented more allelopathic effects than the leaves extract. The roots were sensitive both to the fruits and leaves extract.Atualmente as plantas exóticas representam uma grande ameaça à biodiversidade pois, quando presente em ambientes que lhe são favoráveis, influenciam no desenvolvimento das plantas nativas, além de alterar o funcionamento natural daquele ambiente. Práticas de manejo erradas são um dos principais fatores que favorecem a invasão do ambiente pelas espécies exóticas. A leucena (Leucaena leucocephala Wit. é uma espécie exótica que foi introduzida na recuperação da mata ciliar da Hidrelétrica de Itaipu, e pode possuir efeitos alelopáticos. Objetivou-se neste trabalho verificar a presença de efeitos alelopáticos do extrato aquoso de folha e fruto da leucena sobre a germinação e crescimento de raiz da canafístula (Peltophorum dubium

  2. Let's not, and say we would: imagined and actual responses to witnessing homophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Jennifer Randall; Wilson, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    We compared imagined versus actual affective and behavioral responses to witnessing a homophobic slur. Participants (N = 72) witnessed a confederate using a homophobic slur, imagined the same scenario, or were not exposed to the slur. Those who imagined hearing the slur reported significantly higher levels of negative affect than those who actually witnessed the slur, and nearly one half of them reported that they would confront the slur, whereas no participants who actually heard the slur confronted it. These findings reveal a discrepancy between imagined and real responses to homophobic remarks, and they have implications for the likelihood that heterosexuals will actually confront homophobic remarks.

  3. [Reliability of iWitness photogrammetry in maxillofacial application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chengcheng; Song, Qinggao; He, Wei; Chen, Shang; Hong, Tao

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to test the accuracy and precision of iWitness photogrammetry for measuring the facial tissues of mannequin head. Under ideal circumstances, the 3D landmark coordinates were repeatedly obtained from a mannequin head using iWitness photogrammetric system with different parameters, to examine the precision of this system. The differences between the 3D data and their true distance values of mannequin head were computed. Operator error of 3D system in non-zoom and zoom status were 0.20 mm and 0.09 mm, and the difference was significant (P 0.05). Image captured error of 3D system was 0.283 mm, and there was no significant difference compared with the same group of images (P>0.05). Error of 3D systen with recalibration was 0.251 mm, and the difference was not statistically significant compared with image captured error (P>0.05). Good congruence was observed between means derived from the 3D photos and direct anthropometry, with difference ranging from -0.4 mm to +0.4 mm. This study provides further evidence of the high reliability of iWitness photogrammetry for several craniofacial measurements, including landmarks and inter-landmark distances. The evaluated system can be recommended for the evaluation and documentation of the facial surface.

  4. On the importance of considering heterogeneity in witnesses' competence levels when reconstructing crimes from multiple witness testimonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waubert de Puiseau, Berenike; Greving, Sven; Aßfalg, André; Musch, Jochen

    2017-09-01

    Aggregating information across multiple testimonies may improve crime reconstructions. However, different aggregation methods are available, and research on which method is best suited for aggregating multiple observations is lacking. Furthermore, little is known about how variance in the accuracy of individual testimonies impacts the performance of competing aggregation procedures. We investigated the superiority of aggregation-based crime reconstructions involving multiple individual testimonies and whether this superiority varied as a function of the number of witnesses and the degree of heterogeneity in witnesses' ability to accurately report their observations. Moreover, we examined whether heterogeneity in competence levels differentially affected the relative accuracy of two aggregation procedures: a simple majority rule, which ignores individual differences, and the more complex general Condorcet model (Romney et al., Am Anthropol 88(2):313-338, 1986; Batchelder and Romney, Psychometrika 53(1):71-92, 1988), which takes into account differences in competence between individuals. 121 participants viewed a simulated crime and subsequently answered 128 true/false questions about the crime. We experimentally generated groups of witnesses with homogeneous or heterogeneous competences. Both the majority rule and the general Condorcet model provided more accurate reconstructions of the observed crime than individual testimonies. The superiority of aggregated crime reconstructions involving multiple individual testimonies increased with an increasing number of witnesses. Crime reconstructions were most accurate when competences were heterogeneous and aggregation was based on the general Condorcet model. We argue that a formal aggregation should be considered more often when eyewitness testimonies have to be assessed and that the general Condorcet model provides a good framework for such aggregations.

  5. To wait or not to wait? Improving results when interviewing intoxicated witnesses to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand Karlén, Malin; Roos Af Hjelmsäter, Emma; Fahlke, Claudia; Granhag, Pär Anders; Söderpalm-Gordh, Anna

    2017-02-01

    Witnesses to violent crimes are often alcohol intoxicated, but few studies have investigated the impact of alcohol on witness reports. This study investigated how alcohol intoxication and time of interview affected reports of intimate partner violence (IPV). One hundred thirty six healthy men (N = 66) and women (N = 70) were randomized to an alcohol group (0.8g/kg for men, 0.75g/kg for women) (N = 70) or control group (N = 66), given juice. Participants consumed drinks in a laboratory setting before they witnessed an IPV scenario. Fifty percent of the intoxicated and sober participants were interviewed ten minutes after viewing the film and all participants were interviewed one week later. For the analyses, participants in the alcohol group were divided into two groups (moderately/highly intoxicated) based on their BAC-level. Ten minutes after viewing the event, highly (BAC = 0.08-0.15) intoxicated witnesses gave shorter, but as accurate, reports as moderately intoxicated/sober witnesses. All witnesses gave shorter and less accurate reports one week later compared to immediately after. However, an immediate interview increased completeness one week later. In general, time and high intoxication made witnesses give less detailed accounts of actions and verbal information, but not of objects. Highly intoxicated witnesses reported less actions and verbal information in all interviews, while information regarding objects was reported to a similar extent. At the present BAC-level, it is beneficial to conduct an immediate free recall interview with intoxicated witnesses to obtain a maximum amount of correct information and minimize the negative effect of time. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. 5 CFR 1201.32 - Witnesses; right to representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Witnesses; right to representation. 1201.32 Section 1201.32 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND... § 1201.32 Witnesses; right to representation. Witnesses have the right to be represented when testifying...

  7. Jehovah's Witness parents' refusal of blood transfusions: Ethical considerations for psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Anna

    2016-08-01

    Psychologists in medical settings may be confronted with Jehovah's Witness parents refusing blood transfusions for their children as an ethical dilemma. The purpose of this discussion is to help psychologists provide informed, ethical consultations and support by investigating the values of the Jehovah's Witness community and the origin of the blood transfusion taboo, how medical and legal professionals have approached this dilemma, exploring relevant ethical principles and standards for psychologists, and suggestions for how to move toward a better understanding of harm with Jehovah's Witness families. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Methodological issues in assessing psychological adjustment in child witnesses of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Caroline M; Oxtoby, Claire; Ogle, Richard L

    2008-04-01

    This review summarizes a growing number of methodological concerns emerging from research on child witnesses of intimate partner violence (IPV). A brief summary of various psychological, biological, and cognitive impairments associated with witnessing IPV is presented. Directions for future research in this area are explored with particular attention paid to experimental design. Advantages and disadvantages of retrospective, cross-sectional, and longitudinal designs are evaluated. Suggested improvements include the use of multiple informants, behavioral observations, and prospective, longitudinal assessment.

  9. Witnessing Interparental Violence and Acceptance of Dating Violence as Predictors for Teen Dating Violence Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Marie E; Temple, Jeff R; Weston, Rebecca; Le, Vi Donna

    2016-04-01

    We examined the association between witnessing interparental violence, attitudes about dating violence, and physical and psychological teen dating violence (TDV) victimization. Participants were 918 teens with dating experience. Witnessing interparental violence and acceptance of dating violence were significant predictors of TDV victimization. Acceptance of dating violence was also a partial mediator between witnessing interparental violence and TDV victimization. Witnessing mother-to-father violence and acceptance of female-perpetrated violence were the most consistent predictors. TDV programs aiming to prevent victimization could benefit from targeting youth exposed to father-to-mother and mother-to-father violence, targeting attitudes about violence, and tailoring interventions to gender-specific risk factors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Determinants of witnessed parental physical violence among university students in transitional Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burazeri, Genc; Qirjako, Gentiana; Roshi, Enver; Brand, Helmut

    2011-03-01

    We aimed to assess the extent and the socioeconomic correlates of witnessed parental physical violence among university students in Albania, a country in transition from rigidly structured socialism to a market-oriented system. 2797 students (93% of all students) at the Medical Faculty, Tirana, filled out an anonymous structured questionnaire in April-June 2009. Information on witnessed father-to-mother physical violence during childhood and/or adolescence and sociodemographic and socioeconomic data were collected. The association of witnessed parental violence with socioeconomic factors was assessed with multivariable-adjusted logistic regression. 736 (26.7%) of students witnessed father-to-mother physical violence, and 36 (1.3%) reported 'very often' witnessing episodes. In multivariable-adjusted models, independent predictors of witnessed violence were: low family income [odds ratio (OR) = 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.7-3.2], rural origin (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.5-2.5), father's lower education and unemployment (OR = 5.4, 95% CI = 4.1-7.1 and OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.9-3.2, respectively) and mother's educational and employment advantage compared with the spouse (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.9-3.8 and OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.6-2.8, respectively). Father's socioeconomic disadvantage and mother's socioeconomic empowerment were each independently related to increased risk for witnessed father-to-mother physical violence among university students in this transitional patriarchal society. Health professionals in post-communist Albania should be aware of the ways in which witnessed domestic violence influences physical and psychological health of young adults.

  11. Willingness to Perform Chest Compression Only in Witnessed Cardiac Arrest Victims versus Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesreen Yaghmour

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Performing immediate bystander Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR is the most important factor that determines survival from cardiac arrest. Recommended mouth to mouth ventilation maneuver during CPR has led to lower rate of CPR performance in the population. Objectives: The present survey aimed to evaluate the willingness of nurses at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences for performing CPR versus chest-compression-only CPR. Patients and Methods: During a CPR course, we performed a survey on 25 nurses from Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. This survey included age and gender of the participants. In the first question, they were asked about their willingness to perform CPR with mouth to mouth breathing for witnessed cardiac arrest victims. In the second question, they were asked about their willingness to perform chest compression only for cardiac arrest victims. Results: Among the participating nurses, 96% were female with a mean age of 31 years. Only 40% were willing to perform CPR that requires mouth to mouth ventilation. On the other hand, 92% were willing to perform chest compression only without mouth to mouth ventilation. The mean age of the nurses who would do CPR was lower compared to those who would not. Conclusions: In this survey, we demonstrated that eliminating mouth to mouth ventilation maneuver could lead to markedly higher willingness to perform CPR for witnessed cardiac arrest victims in CPR trained nursing personnel. Our study is in agreement with other studies advocating that chest-compression-only CPR could lead to higher bystander resuscitation efforts.

  12. I see so I feel: Coping with workplace violence among victims and witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Biru; Marchand, Alain; Guay, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Workplace violence is a serious concern for workers' mental health and well-being in high risk work sectors. This study examined victims' and witnesses' experiences after exposure to workplace violence, and the types of help they used to cope with the violent event. Workers (n = 211) from five different work sectors participated in our study. Multiple mediation analysis was used to investigate the indirect effects through psychological and work consequences on victims' versus witnesses' differential likelihood of using formal, paraformal and informal helping. Results showed that workplace violence has detrimental effects on both victims and witnesses. Direct victims were more negatively affected psychologically and at work than witnesses. The indirect effect through psychological difficulty after experiencing workplace violence was significant in predicting formal helping. The indirect effect through reduced work functioning in predicting paraformal helping was also significant. No significant indirect effect was found in predicting informal helping. Both victims and witnesses used multiple types of helping to cope with the violent event. This study has practical implications on management and clinical practices for better organizations of resources in helping victims and witnesses to cope with workplace violence.

  13. Impedance Threshold Device Combined With High-Quality Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Improves Survival With Favorable Neurological Function After Witnessed Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Atsushi; Duval, Sue; Nakamura, Yuji; Yoshihara, Katsunori; Yannopoulos, Demetris

    2016-09-23

    The quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has been recently shown to affect clinical outcome. The Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (ROC) Prehospital Resuscitation Impedance Valve and Early Versus Delayed Analysis (PRIMED) trial showed no differences in outcomes with an active vs. sham impedance threshold device (ITD), a CPR adjunct that enhances circulation. It was hypothesized the active ITD would improve survival with favorable neurological outcomes in witnessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients when used with high-quality CPR. Using the publicly accessible ROC PRIMED database, a post-hoc analysis was performed on all witnessed subjects with both compression rate and depth data (n=1,808) who received CPR within the study protocol definition of adequate CPR quality (compression rate 80-120/min and depth 4-6 cm; n=929). Demographics were similar between sham and active ITD groups. In witnessed subjects who received quality CPR, survival with favorable neurological function was 11.9% for the active ITD subjects (56/470) vs. 7.4% for the sham (34/459) (odds ratio 1.69 [95% confidence interval 1.08, 2.64]). There were no statistically significant differences for this primary outcome when CPR was performed outside the boundaries of the definition of adequate CPR quality. Multivariable models did not change these associations. An active ITD combined with adequate-quality conventional CPR has the potential to significantly improve survival after witnessed cardiac arrest. (Circ J 2016; 80: 2124-2132).

  14. 78 FR 5477 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Inter-Agency Alien Witness and Informant Record, Form I...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... Alien Witness and Informant Record, Form I-854, Extension Without Change, of a Currently Approved... Alien Witness and Informant Record. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component of the...: Primary: Individuals or Households. Form I- 854 is used by law enforcement agencies to bring alien...

  15. 78 FR 24429 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Inter-Agency Alien Witness and Informant Record, Form I...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... Alien Witness and Informant Record, Form I-854; Extension, Without Change, of a Currently Approved... Collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Inter-Agency Alien Witness and Informant Record. (3) Agency...: State, local or Tribal Government. Form I-854 is used by law enforcement agencies to bring alien...

  16. The Experience of Nurses with Hospitalised Jehovah's Witness Clients.

    OpenAIRE

    RAZÍMOVÁ, Pavlína

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with experience of nurses with hospitalized clients of Jehovah's Witnesses, subjective feelings of nurses, their opinions and peculiarities in the treatment of Jehovah's Witnesses. It is very likely that most nurses will meet with them when practicing their job. Jehova's Witnesses do not accept blood products in their treatment because of their beliefs. Given the trend in modern nursing is to apply multicultural approach, it is useful to know the specifics of care for these ...

  17. The voices of victims and witnesses of school bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. de Wet

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available There has never been a stronger demand from the South African public to reduce school violence than at present. The demand for safe schools cannot be achieved unless the issue of bullying is adequately addressed. However, it appears from newspaper reports that some of the role players are not willing to listen to the victims of bullying. The aim of this article is to give a voice to some of the victims, as well as those witnessing school bullying. This article reports on findings from an investigation of the experiences of a group of Free State learners who were witnesses and victims of bullying. The research instrument was the Delaware Bullying Questionnaire. The first important conclusion from this study was that bullying was a serious problem in some Free State schools. Secondly, it was found that the respondents were more often the victims of male than of female bullies. Thirdly, the quantitative data indicated that the majority of victims were bullied by learners who were in the same grade as they were. The qualitative data, however, revealed that the bullying of Grade 8 learners by Grade 12 learners seems to be a fairly common occurrence. Finally, some comments and recommendations are made.

  18. CONOCIMIENTO DE LA LEY GENERAL DE SALUD RESPECTO DE LAS TRANSFUSIONES SANGUÍNEAS EN MÉDICOS Y PACIENTES TESTIGOS DE JEHOVÁ DEL HOSPITAL DR. DARÍO CONTRERAS DE REPÚBLICA DOMINICANA CONHECIMENTO DA LEI GERAL DE SAÚDE - RESPEITO ÀS TRANSFUSÕES SANGUÍNEAS EM MÉDICOS E PACIENTES TESTEMUNHAS DE JEOVÁ DO HOSPITAL DR. DARÍO CONTRERAS DA REPÚBLICA DOMINICANA KNOWLEDGE OF GENERAL HEALTH LAW WITH RESPECT TO BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS BY PHYSICIANS AND PATIENTS JEHOVAH WITNESSES IN HOSPITAL DR. DARIO CONTRERAS OF DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Díaz Santana

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio evalúa hasta qué grado el cuerpo médico del Hospital Dr. Darío Contreras de República Dominicana conoce, respeta, informa y aplica la Ley General de Salud, con relación al derecho del paciente Testigo de Jehová de negarse a ser transfundido (respeto a su autonomía. También si los Testigos de Jehová conocen la Ley General de Salud y hasta qué grado se han beneficiado con la puesta en marcha de la misma. El estudio reveló que ni médicos ni Testigos de Jehová conocen suficientemente dicha ley.Este estudo avalia quanto o corpo médico do Hospital Dr. Darío Contreras de República Dominicana conhece, respeita, informa e aplica a Lei Geral de Saúde em relação aos direitos do paciente Testemunha de Jeová de negar-se a ser transfundido (respeito a sua autonomia; também se os Testemunhas de Jeová conhecem a Lei Geral de Saúde e até que ponto têm se beneficiado diante dessa proposição. O estudo revelou que nem médicos, nem Testemunhas de Jeová conhecem de fato essa lei.This study evaluates up to which degree physicians of Hospital Dr. Dario Contreras of Dominican Republic know, respect, inform and apply the General Health Law in relation to the right of Jehovah witness patients to refuse being blood transfused (respect to their autonomy. It also evaluates whether Jehovah witnesses know General Health Law and in which degree they have been benefited by putting it into practice. The study reveals that Jehovah Witnesses do not know the law.

  19. 14 CFR 305.6 - Appearance of witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appearance of witnesses. 305.6 Section 305.6 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS RULES OF PRACTICE IN INFORMAL NONPUBLIC INVESTIGATIONS § 305.6 Appearance of witnesses...

  20. 45 CFR 681.28 - How is witness testimony presented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How is witness testimony presented? 681.28 Section 681.28 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Hearing Procedures § 681.28 How is witness testimony...

  1. 22 CFR 903.10 - Access to witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... given access to witnesses employed by the foreign affairs agencies. In the event that the agency of the... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Access to witnesses. 903.10 Section 903.10 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE BOARD INITIATION AND DOCUMENTATION OF CASES § 903.10 Access to...

  2. Equal Access to Health Care: Patient Dumping. Hearing before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (July 22, 1987).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Operations.

    This document presents witnesses' testimonies and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing called to examine the issue of equal access to health care and the practice of patient dumping which may take the form of transferring a patient to another hospital, refusing to treat a patient, or subjecting a patient to long delays, and which may…

  3. 17th September 2010 - Signature of a joint declaration by CERN represented by Director-General R. Heuer and the Brazilian Centre for Physics Research (CBPF) represented by R. Shellard, witnessed by the Ambassador to the United Nations Office M. N. Farani Azevêdo, signing the guest book.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    17th September 2010 - Signature of a joint declaration by CERN represented by Director-General R. Heuer and the Brazilian Centre for Physics Research (CBPF) represented by R. Shellard, witnessed by the Ambassador to the United Nations Office M. N. Farani Azevêdo, signing the guest book.

  4. [Moral autonomy and conscientious objection in the surgical management of Jehova's witnesses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda Rivero, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    According to current Spanish law, patients are guaranteed the right to make decisions on the medical treatment they receive. However, this exercise of autonomy in health care causes ethical conflicts which are hard to resolve. Health workers' duty to assist patients and the concept of personal rights may lead health professionals to prescribe actions which are contrary to the patient's wishes. For example, in the case of Jehovah's Witnesses, the conscience of health professionals may prevent them from accepting the restrictions on treatments demanded by the patient's religious principles. The same right to moral autonomy which is guaranteed to the patient would also seem to guarantee the health professional's right to exercise conscientious objection. On the other hand, the right to medical assistance and to religious freedom will be observed only if both medical institutions and health professionals treat patients in a way which respects their beliefs. This text offers an ethical and legal analysis of the issue based on Spanish law, as well as a proposal on how these problems should be dealt with in everyday practice.

  5. Factors influencing intention to help and helping behaviour in witnesses of bullying in nursing settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báez-León, Carmen; Moreno-Jiménez, Bernardo; Aguirre-Camacho, Aldo; Olmos, Ricardo

    2016-12-01

    The role played by witnesses of bullying in nursing settings remains little studied, despite their potential relevance in explaining the onset and development of bullying. The objective of this study was to develop a model to account for witnesses' intention to help and helping behaviour in response to bullying in a nursing setting. Three hundred and thirty-seven witnesses completed self-report measures of variables predicting intention to help and helping behaviour. A full structural model was constructed using structural equation modelling. The intention to help victims was elicited by tension, group identity, support to peers' initiative to intervene and absence of fear of retaliation. However, engagement in helping behaviour was only predicted by the absence of fear of retaliation. This study shows that witnesses of bullying in nursing settings do not remain impassive, but their experienced discomfort and intention to help victims is not sufficient to predict helping behaviour. Fear of possible retaliation if intervening in favour of victims constitutes a crucial factor explaining witnesses' hesitation to help victims. Several implications for the implementation of policies directed at eradicating bullying in nursing settings are discussed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Witnessing traumatic events and post-traumatic stress disorder: Insights from an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patki, Gaurav; Salvi, Ankita; Liu, Hesong; Salim, Samina

    2015-07-23

    It is becoming increasingly recognized that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be acquired vicariously from witnessing traumatic events. Recently, we published an animal model called the "Trauma witness model" (TWM) which mimics PTSD-like symptoms in rats from witnessing daily traumatic events (social defeat of cage mate) [14]. Our TWM does not result in any physical injury. This is a major procedural advantage over the typical intruder paradigm in which it is difficult to delineate the inflammatory response of tissue injury and the response elicited from emotional distress. Using TWM paradigm, we examined behavioral and cognitive effects in rats [14] however, the long-term persistence of PTSD-like symptoms or a time-course of these events (anxiety and depression-like behaviors and cognitive deficits) and the contribution of olfactory and auditory stress vs visual reinforcement were not examined. This study demonstrates that some of the features of PTSD-like symptoms in rats are reversible after a significant time lapse of the witnessing of traumatic events. We also have established that witnessing is critical to the PTSD-like phenotype and cannot be acquired solely due to auditory or olfactory stresses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Altruistic Lying in an Alibi Corroboration Context: The Effects of Liking, Compliance, and Relationship between Suspects and Witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Stéphanie B; Burke, Tara M

    2017-01-01

    Police investigators, judges, and jurors are often very skeptical of alibi witness testimony. To investigate when and why individuals lie for one another, we conducted two studies in which witnesses' support of a false alibi was observed. We varied the level of social pressure exerted on witnesses and the level of affinity between suspect-witness pairs. During a study session purportedly intended to investigate dyadic problem-solving ability, a mock theft was staged. When questioned, participants were provided the opportunity to either corroborate or refute a confederate's false alibi that the latter was with them when the theft occurred. Participants were more likely to lie for the confederate when the latter explicitly asked participants to conceal his/her whereabouts during the time of the theft (Study 1). How much participants liked the suspect did not impact lying; however, participants lied for a confederate more often when the latter was a friend rather than a stranger (Study 2). Results show that alibi witnesses often lie and that investigators and jurors may not accurately estimate the likelihood that such witnesses will lie for one another. Witnesses who lied also reported doing so more often because they believed that the suspect was innocent rather than guilty. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Simultaneous generation of drive and witness beam for collinear wakefield acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, G.; Power, J. G.; Conde, M.; Doran, D. S.; Gai, W.

    2017-07-01

    Generating the drive and witness bunch for collinear wakefield acceleration (CWFA) requires precise control of the longitudinal bunch shape for each bunch as well as the controlling their separation. The emittance exchange (EEX) beamline and a transverse mask can be used to achieve all of these requirements. First, this EEX-based method can independently control the longitudinal bunch shape of each bunches so that the drive bunch is shaped to generate a high transformer ratio while witness bunch is shaped to suppress its energy spread. Second, the timing jitter between the drive and witness bunch poses a serious limitation to the CWFA scheme but the EEX-based method eliminates this since both bunches are generated at the same time and share the exactly same beamline so there are no relative errors. In this paper, we confirm the feasibility of this EEX-based method for simultaneous generation with simulation for CWFA in a dielectric structure.

  9. successFuL resuscItatIon oF a tHree MontH oLd cHILd WItH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-08-08

    Aug 8, 2010 ... bupivacaine is seven times more potent in blocking sodium channels than the S (-) enantiomer (2). ... 2mg, hydrocortisone 20mg and sodium thiopentone. 5mg. The child was then transferred to ICU. On .... a consensus on the efficacy and aptness of this unique treatment. reFerences. 1. Meg, A. Rosenblatt ...

  10. Witnessing Each Other: An Intersubjective Stance for Exhibitions Relating to Substance Use and Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennes, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Most exhibitions are conceived to convey information the experts making the exhibition believe other people need or want. But the notion that the intended exhibition public will cooperate with the exhibition organizers. intent disregards the reasons people come to exhibitions and the way they use them. While the author contends that an exhibition cannot use facts to convince someone to abstain from substances they crave, exhibitions can nonetheless make a difference in lives complicated by substance use by providing representation for voices that are rarely heard and building empathy between witness and witnessed. The purpose of such an endeavor is not to change attitudes or behaviors toward a pre-determined outcome, but to facilitate a witnessing of others. The uniquely intersubjective medium of exhibition can thus succeed in this field by opening the potential of mutual, humanizing recognition among people with varied life experience of substance use and abuse.

  11. "A Little Seasoning Would Aid in the Digestion of Our Factums": Wit, Evidence, and the Evolving Form of Medical Debate in New Orleans, 1853-1868.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Amy

    2017-01-01

    This history of the categorization of yellow fever explores the interchange between rhetoric and evidence in understanding the disease. Eighteenth-century models of medicine relied on rhetorical manipulation to convince readers of accuracy, unlike modern medicine, which claims objective evidence as the professional standard. But how did the physician as intellectual give way to the physician as scientist? This article analyzes the transition through a case study: J.-C. Faget, who famously discovered the definitive sign of yellow fever, and Charles Deléry disputed how doctors should attempt to understand the disease in New Orleans, a vital yet understudied medical center dominated by Francophone creole interests. It addresses the use of ideas about immunity to define racial, ethnic, and class differences; the rhetoric of health and medicine; and developing ontological theories of disease. It shows the struggle to employ intellectual realizations to understand this disease that cost the region dearly in lives and income.

  12. Directed flow of charm quarks as a witness of the initial strong magnetic field in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Santosh K.; Plumari, S.; Chatterjee, S.; Alam, J.; Scardina, F.; Greco, V.

    2017-05-01

    Ultra-relativistic Heavy-Ion Collision (HIC) generates very strong initial magnetic field (B →) inducing a vorticity in the reaction plane. The high B → influences the evolution dynamics that is opposed by the large Faraday current due to electric field generated by the time varying B → . We show that the resultant effects entail a significantly large directed flow (v1) of charm quarks (CQs) compared to light quarks due to a combination of several favorable conditions for CQs, mainly: (i) unlike light quarks formation time scale of CQs, τf ≃ 0.1 fm /c is comparable to the time scale when B → attains its maximum value and (ii) the kinetic relaxation time of CQs is similar to the QGP lifetime, this helps the CQ to retain the initial kick picked up from the electromagnetic field in the transverse direction. The effect is also odd under charge exchange allowing to distinguish it from the vorticity of the bulk matter due to the initial angular momentum conservation; conjointly thanks to its mass, Mc > >ΛQCD, there should be no mixing with the chiral magnetic dynamics. Hence CQs provide very crucial and independent information on the strength of the magnetic field produced in HIC.

  13. The witness indiscreet window: Primo Levi and surrealism after Auschwitz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Basevi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Primo Levi, renowned for his testimony of Nazi camp (If This Is a Man, 1947, published a collection of short stories entitled “Natural Tales”. He uses the surrealistic elements and plots to imagine the paradoxical consequences of human rationality. “Angelic Butterfly” relates to the theme of genetic experiments during Nazism and stands out for horror elements and drama. This tale’s re­lation to the post-Auschwitz reflection lies firstly in its structure which raises the question of the wit­ness; secondly, in the uncertain effect of the “imaginable” as it questions the fragile boundary be­tween real, possible and fantastic; thirdly in the narrative organization based on the connection of the ideas of trace, fragment and testimony. In my analysis I will expose how this text is marked by one of the most traumatic events of the twentieth century.

  14. Molecules as Drives and Witnesses of Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shustov, B. M.

    2017-07-01

    The progress in understanding the role of molecules in star formation is discussed. After very brief introduction which we note in that no star formation would be possible without molecules at the dawn of the Universe and that molecules are important drivers and witnesses of star formation in the current epoch, we consider observational technologies and emphasize the prospective role of UV observations. Special attention is paid to possibilities of UV spectroscopy with coming space observatory Spektr-UF (World Space Observatory - Ultraviolet; WSO-UV). Only one example (observations of CO-dark clouds) from vast scientific program of the WSO-UV is mentioned. Also very briefly disclosed is a model approach to study complex evolution of very young (prestellar) object focusing on chemical (molecular) evolution.

  15. Photography as a Witness of Theatre

    OpenAIRE

    Dondero, Maria Giulia

    2008-01-01

    My paper investigates the meeting of theatre and photography in ‘theatre photography’. Recognizing that both art forms can determine theoretical and philosophical views on representation and self-representation, I aim to compare their visual strategies and the way they construct point of view. In the process several questions are raised: do qualities of photographs belong to objects photographed or to photographs themselves? How important is the object that ‘triggers’ the view? Should the the...

  16. Knowledge of the 911 Good Samaritan Law and 911-calling behavior of overdose witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Andrea; Kunins, Hillary V; Huxley-Reicher, Zina; Siegler, Anne

    2017-10-03

    Overdose deaths tripled between 1999 and 2014. Most fatal overdoses are witnessed, offering an opportunity for bystanders to call 911. However, fear of arrest may prevent them from calling authorities. Many states have passed 911 Good Samaritan laws that protects the 911 caller and overdose victim from prosecution for drug possession. Little is known, however, about whether the law affects 911-calling behavior of overdose witnesses. We investigated the relationship between knowledge of a 911 Good Samaritan Law (GSL) and 911-calling behavior of study participants trained in opioid overdose rescue. We enrolled 351 individuals (n = 351) trained in overdose rescue and educated about the New York State GSL in a prospective longitudinal study. Trained researchers conducted baseline, three, six and 12-month follow-up surveys with study participants to assess participant knowledge of the GSL and responses to witnessed overdoses. At the twelve-month follow-up, participants had witnessed 326 overdoses. In the overdose events where the participant had correct knowledge of the GSL at the time of the event, the odds of a bystander calling 911 were over three times greater than when the witness had incorrect knowledge of the GSL (OR = 3.3, 95% CI, 1.4-7.5). This association remained significant after adjusting for age, gender, race of the witness and overdose setting (AOR = 3.6, 95% CI, 1.4-9.4). To our knowledge, this is the first study to show an association between knowledge of the GSL and 911-calling behavior. Legislation that protects overdose responders along with public awareness of the law may be an effective strategy to increase rates of 911-calling in response to overdose events and decrease overdose-related mortality.

  17. Witnesses to hunger: participation through photovoice to ensure the right to food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, Mariana; Rabinowich, Jenny; Council, Christina; Breaux, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Currently 30.2% of female-headed households with children in the United States experience food insecurity, defined as the lack of access to enough food for an active and healthy life. In 2007, approximately 12.4 million children were at risk for hunger. When female-headed households and households with children have the highest prevalence of food insecurity and hunger in the US, the participation of low-income mothers in the development and administration of policies and programs related to nutrition and poverty are fundamental to the process of ending hunger and improving child well-being. In this article, we describe the Witnesses to Hunger program, a participatory advocacy project that uses the "photovoice" technique to engage mothers to take photos and record their stories about poverty and hunger with the intent to inform social welfare policy in the US. Witnesses to Hunger is grounded in the human rights framework that is supported by international conventions on the rights of women, the rights of the child, and economic, social, and cultural rights. The Witnesses to Hunger program works to increase civic participation of low-income women and to maintain a strategic public awareness campaign. After introducing the Witnesses to Hunger program, this article describes the past decade of unchanging food insecurity disparities, demonstrates the lack of participatory dialogue in health and welfare programs, and provides examples of how Witnesses to Hunger counters the conventional dialogue about welfare. Throughout, this paper demonstrates how the participatory approach of the Witnesses to Hunger program improves our understanding of basic human needs and the social determinants of health, and informs legislators on how to improve health and welfare policy.

  18. The impossibility of bearing witness: wartime rape and the promise of justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Nicola

    2010-10-01

    Testimonies of wartime sexual violence contribute to the recognition of rape as a serious human rights violation. Although acknowledgement and justice are imperative to ending silence and impunity, this article critiques some commonly held therapeutic assumptions about disclosure through examining the way so-called "unspeakable" events are communicated through legal discourse. In this article, the author explores the inherent limitations of language for bearing witness to wartime rape, specifically focusing on international war crimes tribunals. The author argues that trials contribute to the impossibility of bearing witness through both the appropriation of trauma and the failure of law to accommodate traumatic experiences.

  19. Attorneys' requests for complete tax records from opposing expert witnesses: some approaches to the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutheil, Thomas G; Simon, Robert I; Simpson, Skip

    2006-01-01

    As part of an impeachment attempt on cross-examination of opposing expert witnesses in trial or deposition, the cross-examining attorney may request the complete tax records of the expert. It is widely believed that expert witnesses may be expected to express opinions that favor the parties who engage them and who pay their fees. Theoretically, the purpose of this request is an attempt to paint the expert as a "hired gun" whose major source of income is forensic work. The different issues, statutes, and case law citations that bear on requests for tax records are reviewed, and the strategies for coping with this tactic are suggested.

  20. A 30-month prospective follow-up study of psychological symptoms, psychiatric diagnoses, and their effects on quality of life in children witnessing a single incident of death at school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sook-Hyung; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Choi, Nam-Hee; Ryu, Jeong; McDermott, Brett; Cobham, Vanessa; Park, Subin; Kim, Jae-Won; Hong, Soon-Beom; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Cho, Soo-Churl

    2012-05-01

    We explored the course of trauma-related psychological symptoms and psychiatric diagnoses in 167 children who, as fourth graders, witnessed death at school and assessed the long-term effects of their symptoms on quality of life and their parents' rearing stress. 167 children were evaluated using diverse self-rating symptom scales at 2 days (T1: May 19, 2007), 2 months (T2: July 16, 2007), 6 months (T3: November 12-17, 2007), and 30 months (T4: November 16-21, 2009) after the accident. All children were interviewed with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Version IV (DISC-IV) at T1. High-risk children were assessed with the DISC-IV at T3 and T4. Children's quality of life and parental stress were assessed in all children and parents using the Parenting Stress Index and the Child Health and Illness Profile at T4. The mean scores and prevalence of severe posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anxiety symptoms decreased significantly over time (P depressive symptoms did not. Although the prevalence of DISC-IV-based diverse anxiety disorders decreased significantly over time, 45% of high-risk subjects evaluated with the DISC-IV met criteria for an anxiety or depressive disorder at T4. Linear and logistic regression analyses showed that depressive symptoms at 6 months predicted more severe parental stress (β = 0.51; odds ratio [OR] = 2.88), less satisfaction (β = -0.25; OR = 2.66), and lower achievement (β = -0.41; OR = 1.50) at 30 months. PTSD symptoms were not associated with parental stress or quality of life at T4. This study provides new evidence regarding the long-term course of trauma-related symptoms and diagnostic changes in children exposed to a single trauma. Children's depressive symptoms predicted lower children's quality of life and higher parental rearing stress after 2 years. Careful assessment and management of depressive symptoms can potentially reduce parental stress and improve quality of life of children. © Copyright 2012 Physicians

  1. Populism, School Prayer, and the Courts: Confessions of an Expert Witness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Gary B.

    1986-01-01

    Summarizes author's expert witness testimony in West Virginia court case (1985) involving prayer in public schools. Covers the constitutional issue of separation of church and state, the specific issue of school prayer, the particular law under legal challenge, and the perceptions of a Catholic boy and a Jewish girl directly affected. (NH)

  2. 24 CFR 3800.50 - Rights of witnesses in investigational proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT INVESTIGATIONS IN CONSUMER REGULATORY PROGRAMS § 3800... investigational proceeding shall be entitled, on payment of costs, to purchase a copy of a transcript of the..., equivocation, or incompleteness in the witness's testimony. The decision to grant or deny this request is...

  3. Alcohol Intoxicated Witnesses: Perception of Aggression and Guilt in Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand Karlén, Malin; Roos Af Hjelmsäter, Emma; Fahlke, Claudia; Granhag, Pär Anders; Söderpalm Gordh, Anna

    2015-09-03

    Many witnesses to violent crimes are alcohol intoxicated, but research is lacking regarding how alcohol affects their perception of aggression and guilt. This study investigated to what extent alcohol intoxicated eyewitnesses differed from sober witnesses regarding how aggressive and guilty they perceived the involved parts in an intimate partner violence (IPV) situation. Eighty-seven healthy men (n = 44) and women (n = 43) were randomized to an alcohol group (0.7 g/kg) or a non-alcohol group. In a laboratory setting, alcoholic/non-alcoholic drinks were consumed before viewing a film depicting IPV between a man and a woman. Ten min after viewing, in an interview, the participants rated how aggressive and guilty they perceived the involved parts to be. Alcohol intoxicated participants perceived both parts' physically aggressive behavior as comparatively less severe, but their neutral behavior as more hostile. Sober witnesses perceived the man to be the most guilty part, whereas intoxicated witnesses distributed guilt more evenly. Alcohol had a strong but complex impact on the perception of aggression in IPV (i.e., heightened during the neutral interaction and lowered during physical aggression). These results may be explained by the cognitive consequences of alcohol's anxiety-dampening effects. Regarding the asymmetric difference in perceived guilt, stereotypical expectations of gender-appropriate behavior in an IPV situation may need to be considered. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Field test results for radioactive waste drum characterization with Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardi, R.T. [Bio-Imaging Research, Inc., Lincolnshire, IL (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This paper summarizes the design, fabrication, factory testing, evaluation and demonstration of waste inspection tomography (WIT). WIT consists of a self-sufficient, mobile semi-trailer for Non-Destructive Evaluation and Non-Destructive Assay (NDE/NDA) characterization of nuclear waste drums using X-ray and gamma-ray tomographic techniques. The 23-month WIT Phase I initial test results include 2 MeV Digital Radiography (DR), Computed Tomography (CT), Anger camera imaging, Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy, Collimated Gamma Scanning (CGS), and Active and Passive Computed Tomography (A&PCT) using a 1.4 mCi source of {sup 166}Ho. These techniques were initially demonstrated on a 55-gallon phantom drum with three simulated waste matrices of combustibles, heterogeneous metals, and cement using check sources of gamma active isotopes. Waste matrix identification, isotopic identification, and attenuation-corrected gamma activity determination were all demonstrated nondestructively and noninvasively. Preliminary field tests results with nuclear waste drums are summarized. WIT has inspected drums with 0 to 20 grams plutonium 239. The minimum measured was 0.131 gram plutonium 239 in cement. 8 figs.

  5. From Reader to Mediated Witness: The Engaging Effects of Journalistic Crime Narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Krieken, K; Hoeken, J.A.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/111050359; Sanders, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study tests the claim that news narratives about shocking criminal acts enable readers to become mediated witnesses, which implies that readers identify with actual eyewitnesses to a crime and vicariously experience the crime from up close. In an experiment (n = 128), participants read an

  6. 10 CFR 1003.8 - Subpoenas, special report orders, oaths, witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... best of his knowledge, information, and belief each document responsive to the subpoena is being... of a claim of attorney-client or other privilege, the person submitting the certification required by... follows: (1) Upon the initiative of the attorney or witness, the attorney may advise his client, in...

  7. 10 CFR 205.8 - Subpoenas, special report orders, oaths, witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the subpoena, and (ii) to the best of his knowledge, information, and belief each document responsive... because of a claim of attorney-client or other privilege, the person submitting the certification required... advise his client, in confidence, with respect to the question asked his client, and if the witness...

  8. Re-Presenting Trauma: The Witness Function in the Art of the Holocaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Josee

    2011-01-01

    An estimated 30,000 drawings remain of the concentration camp artworks generated over the course of the Holocaust. Fabricated in a reality conceived to eradicate not just life but the very will to live, concentration camp art raises the question of the persistence of creativity in traumatic situations. This article explores the witness function of…

  9. Prearrest signs of shock and respiratory insufficiency in out-of-hospital cardiac arrests witnessed by crew of the emergency medical service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrifvars, Markus B; Boyd, James; Kuisma, Markku

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether prearrest shock and respiratory insufficiency influence outcome in patients with emergency medical service-witnessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Analysis of data from a cardiac arrest database and data from the ambulance charts was performed. For the purpose of the study, shock was defined as prearrest heart rate below 40 or above 140/min, systolic blood pressure as below 90 mm Hg, and respiratory insufficiency as respiratory rate above 36 or oxygen saturation below 90%. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Of a total of 303 patients, 81% had prearrest shock or respiratory insufficiency. Mortality was higher in these patients indicated by fewer with return of spontaneous circulation (43% vs 75%, P respiratory insufficiency (OR, 4.2; CI, 1.4-12.5). Shock and respiratory depression are common among patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest witnessed by the emergency medical service, and these patients have a high mortality when compared with patients without shock or respiratory failure.

  10. Predictors of activity level and retention among African American lay health advisors (LHAs) from The National Witness Project: Implications for the implementation and sustainability of community-based LHA programs from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Rachel C; Dunston, Sheba King; Leoce, Nicole; Jandorf, Lina; Thompson, Hayley S; Crookes, Danielle M; Erwin, Deborah O

    2016-03-22

    Lay health advisor (LHA) programs are increasingly being implemented in the USA and globally in the context of health promotion and disease prevention. LHAs are effective in addressing health disparities when used to reach medically underserved populations, with strong evidence among African American and Hispanic women. Despite their success and the evidence supporting implementation of LHA programs in community settings, there are tremendous barriers to sustaining LHA programs and little is understood about their implementation and sustainability in "real-world" settings. The purpose of this study was to (1) propose a conceptual framework to investigate factors at individual, social, and organizational levels that impact LHA activity and retention; and (2) use prospective data to investigate the individual, social, and organizational factors that predict activity level and retention among a community-based sample of African American LHAs participating in an effective, evidence-based LHA program (National Witness Project; NWP). Seventy-six LHAs were recruited from eight NWP sites across the USA. Baseline predictor data was collected from LHAs during a telephone questionnaire administered between 2010 and 2011. Outcome data on LHA participation and program activity levels were collected in the fall of 2012 from NWP program directors. Chi-square and ANOVA tests were used to identify differences between retained and completely inactive LHAs, and LHAs with high/moderate vs. low/no activity levels. Multivariable logistic regression models were conducted to identify variables that predicted LHA retention and activity levels. In multivariable models, LHAs based at sites with academic partnerships had increased odds of retention and high/moderate activity levels, even after adjusting for baseline LHA activity level. Higher religiosity among LHAs was associated with decreased odds of being highly/moderately active. LHA role clarity and self-efficacy were associated with

  11. An Analysis of Malpractice Litigation and Expert Witnesses in Plastic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therattil, Paul J; Chung, Stella; Sood, Aditya; Granick, Mark S; Lee, Edward S

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Expert witness testimony is crucial for juror decision making. The goals of this study were to examine the trends in malpractice litigation in plastic surgery and to examine the characteristics of expert witnesses in litigation. Methods: The Westlaw legal database was queried for jury verdict and settlement reports related to plastic surgery cases from 2009 to 2015. Cases were examined for expert witness testimony, procedure performed, alleged injury, cause of action, verdict, and indemnity payments. Results: Ninety-three relevant cases were examined. Mean plaintiff award was $1,036,469, whereas mean settlement was $633,960. The most commonly litigated procedures involved breast surgery (34.4%), liposuction (18.3%), and body contouring (14.0%). Cases involving body contouring (risk ratio [RR] = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.04-2.10) were more likely to result in favor of the defendant, whereas cases involving breast surgery (RR = 0.27; 95% CI, 0.13-0.57) were more likely to result in favor of the plaintiff (P < .05). Cases in which there was claimed pain (RR = 1.22; 95% CI, 1.01-1.48) or emotional distress (RR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.11-1.70) were more likely to result in favor of the plaintiff (P < .05). The party of a lawsuit was more likely to win the case if its expert witness was a plastic surgeon (P < .05). Conclusion: Plastic surgery litigation tends to favor defendants. Most litigation involves breast surgery, liposuction, and body contouring. The type of procedure and alleged claim affect case success. Parties with a plastic surgeon as an expert witness tend to be more successful in litigation.

  12. LRN, ERN:, & BERN @ Wireless Integrating the Sciences (WITS) Theatre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, L.; Campbell, B.; Foody, M.; Klitsner, D.

    2010-01-01

    In order to develop a call to action for a learning tool that would work to best teach Science Technology Engineering and Math (STEM), the NASA Goddard team will partner with the inventor of Bop It!, an interactive game of verbs and following instructions; and Global Imagination, the developers of Magic Planet. In this paper Decision-making Orbital Health! (DOH!) will be described as a game derived from the basic functions necessary for Bop lt!, a familiar game. that will ask the educational audience to respond to changing commands to Bop It!, Twist It!, and Squeeze It! The success of the new version of the game, will be that the Earth will be making these commands from Dynamic Planet, and the crowd assembled can play wirelessly. Wireless Integrating The Sciences (WITS) Theatre : A balanced approach will describe how the communities local to Goddard and perhaps San Francisco will develop curriculum that helps kids teach kids with an engaging game and a STEM message. The performing arts will be employed to make it entertaining and appropriate to the size of the gathering, and the students educational level.

  13. Educating Jurors about Forensic Evidence: Using an Expert Witness and Judicial Instructions to Mitigate the Impact of Invalid Forensic Science Testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Joseph; Caldwell, Jiana

    2015-11-01

    Invalid expert witness testimony that overstated the precision and accuracy of forensic science procedures has been highlighted as a common factor in many wrongful conviction cases. This study assessed the ability of an opposing expert witness and judicial instructions to mitigate the impact of invalid forensic science testimony. Participants (N = 155) acted as mock jurors in a sexual assault trial that contained both invalid forensic testimony regarding hair comparison evidence, and countering testimony from either a defense expert witness or judicial instructions. Results showed that the defense expert witness was successful in educating jurors regarding limitations in the initial expert's conclusions, leading to a greater number of not-guilty verdicts. The judicial instructions were shown to have no impact on verdict decisions. These findings suggest that providing opposing expert witnesses may be an effective safeguard against invalid forensic testimony in criminal trials. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Trauma and the state with Sigmund Freud as witness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danto, Elizabeth Ann

    Just before and after the end of World War I, Sigmund Freud took on an activist role and in his writings and speeches, redirected the concept of war trauma from individual failure to a larger issue of community responsibility. Testifying in Vienna as an expert witness for the state, Freud said that the military psychiatrists-not the soldiers-had "acted like machine guns behind the front" and were the "immediate cause of all war neurosis." Freud was called on by the legal community when Julius Wagner-Jauregg, a future Nobel Prize winner (and also future Nazi Party adherent), head of the municipal Clinic for Psychiatry and Nervous Diseases, was accused of the lethal use of electrotherapy on shell-shocked soldiers. As sociological as psychoanalytic in his responses, Freud's withering critique came just 2years after he avowed that "it is possible to foresee that the conscience of society will awake." That speech on the human right to mental health care affirmed Freud's alliance to the social democratic position and inspired the second generation of psychoanalysts to develop community-based clinics throughout Europe where treatment was free of cost, for war neurosis and beyond. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. My byli na etikh voinakh : Svidetel’stva Uchastnikov Sobytii 1989-2000 [We were in those wars : Witnesses of survivors of military conflicts of 1989-2000], Sankt-Petersburg, Zvezda (with the support of Soros Foundation « Open Society ». Comp. by Ia. A. Gordin, V.A. Grigor’ev, 2003, 319 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Regamey

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This book includes diaries and reports of eight participants (mostly Russian officers of different "post-Soviet wars", beginning with Nagorny Karabakh and ending with the war still going on in Chechnya. The contributions have been collected on the web site www.ArtOfWar.ru, where there can be found literary texts as well.In charge of the defense of the USSR which will soon not exist, Soviet soldiers in Nagorny Karabakh appear as helpless witnesses of a war fuelled by Moscow decisions. They ar...

  16. 4 CFR 28.26 - Witness fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... request by the administrative judge to GAO, be made available to participate in the hearing and shall be... agencies called to testify at a Board hearing shall, at the request of the administrative judge and with... per diem expenses shall be governed by applicable laws and regulations. A party planning to call an...

  17. Nonlocality, Entanglement Witnesses and Supra-correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    O]=1 and probabilities are given by the trace formulas ( , | , ) [ ]x ya bP a b x y Tr OM M= ⊗ , ( | ) [ ]xaP a x Tr O M I= ⊗ and ( | )P b y...its applications,” Academic Press, N.Y (1976). [18] Z. Hong-Hao, Y. Wen-Bin and L. Xue-Song, “Trace formulas of characteristic polynomial and...032317 (2004). [23] W. Dur, G. Vidal and J.I. Cirac, “Three qubits can be entangled in two equivalent ways,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 062314 (2000); C. Sabin

  18. Smartphones as distributed witnesses for digital forensics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pieterse, H

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available databases and therefore can be easily transformed. To perform event reconstruction, the various SQLite databases need to be integrated and this is accomplished by using existing knowledge of distributed databases. This paper proposes a new process, called...

  19. Great wits and madness: more near allied?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jamison, Kay Redfield

    2011-01-01

    .... Biographical research, studies of living artists and writers, and investigations into the cognitive and temperamental factors linked to both creativity and mood disorders suggest a more specific link to bipolar illness...

  20. WIT Diversity Talk with John Ellis

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Ellis, Jonathan R.

    2017-01-01

    Sudeshna Datta Cockerill, CERN Ombudsperson, will interview John Ellis, a renown British theoretical physicist with a long career both at CERN and externally. John Ellis has also been awarded several prizes for his work in physics. Among many other outstanding roles and positions, he was Division Leader of the Theory Division at CERN from 1988-1994. John Ellis is currently Clerk Maxwell Professor of Theoretical Physics at King's College London.

  1. Witnessing the elimination of magic wands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Stefan; Huisman, Marieke

    This paper discusses static verification of programs that have been specified using separation logic with magic wands. Magic wands are used to specify incomplete resources in separation logic, i.e., if missing resources are provided, a magic wand allows one to exchange these for the completed

  2. Bearing Witness: Teaching about the Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Beth Aviv

    The literature of the Holocaust casts light into one of the darkest shadows in history--it is a literature worth teaching not only because of the lessons it teaches, but because of its reach into the depths of human experience. The teacher's job in teaching about the Holocaust is to explore and expose--to help students find their way through the…

  3. From unwitnessed fatality to witnessed rescue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugg-Gunn, Fergus; Duncan, John; Hjalgrim, Helle

    2016-01-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) risk reduction remains a critical aim in epilepsy care. To date, only aggressive medical and surgical efforts to control seizures have been demonstrated to be of benefit. Incomplete understanding of SUDEP mechanisms limits the development of more specif...

  4. Wit of geel licht? Deel II.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    A number of physical aspects that have to do with the question whether yellow light or white light is to be preferred for vehicle headlamps is dealt with. It is concluded that the physical phenomena do not give raise to arguments in favour of white or yellow light.

  5. Wit of geel licht. IV (slot)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    The psychology of perception more strictly speaking, does not give any useful indication for a preference for any colour for the type of visual perception as prevailing in road traffic. Some side-effects present some preference for yellow light. There is, however, little ground to expect this small

  6. [The blindness in the literature-Jose Saramago: blindness and Albert Bang: the blind witness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permin, H; Norn, M

    2001-01-01

    Two novels with different aspects of blindness seen through the doctors eyes. The Portuguese Nobel-prize winner José Saramago's story of a city struck by an epidemic of "white blindness", where the truth is what we cannot bear to see. The Danish author and unskilled labourer Albert Bang's (synonym with Karl E. Rasmussen) crime novel describes a blind or pretend to be blind butcher, who is a witness to a murder. Both novels are lyric, thought-provoking and insightful.

  7. Ontronding in wit en bruin Afrikaans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wissing

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this presentation is firstly to describe the phenomenon of delabialization of abnormal front vowels in Afrikaans, concentrating on the language of a few white and brown native speakers, and secondly to shed some light on the theoretical implications of the findings. The temporal characteristics of the vowels in three separate reading tasks and the extent to which the language users are able to distinguish the intended rounded vs. unrounded vowels and diphthongs correctly in a perception experiment are central considerations. With the results of the experiments in mind, the focus will fall on whether there can be consideration of absolute neutralization of the opposition rounded : unrounded for these vowels and diphthongs. Finally, the results will be evaluated in the light of the lively debate that currently exists on the question of the possibility of absolute neutralization.

  8. Expert witness perceptions of bias in experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commons, Michael Lamport; Miller, Patrice Marie; Gutheil, Thomas G

    2004-01-01

    A pilot study of perceptions of different sources of expert bias, as well as of personal investment in case outcomes, was performed among attendees at a workshop at an annual meeting of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law. Participants were asked to rate hypothetical responses by experts to various case outcomes and the biasing potential of different kinds of situations for opposing or other experts. A factor analysis produced two factors. Factor 1 included questions about situations that were obviously biasing (such as working only for the defense). Factor 2 included questions assessing the potential of certain situations to cause bias in experts, or how likely experts thought other experts were to be biased. In general, experts identified only four areas to be overtly biasing. All occurred within situations in which experts worked only for one or the other side of civil or criminal cases. Experts otherwise thought other experts were reasonably bias free and well able to compensate for any bias when it occurred. The data suggest that experts may deal with bias by turning down cases that may cause them personal discomfort.

  9. Questioning History, Nationality and Identity in Timberlake Wertenbaker’s Credible Witness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursen Gömceli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the Anglo-American playwright Timberlake Wertenbaker’s approach to the issues of history, nationality and identity in her play Credible Witness (2001, and to discuss the significance of these concepts in our modern world through a close analysis of the play. In Credible Witness, the playwright brings together people from diverse countries, such as Sri Lanka, Algeria, Eritrea, Somalia and Macedonia in a detention centre in London, and via the stories of these asylum seekers, and particularly through the dramatic encounter between Petra, a Macedonian woman with strong nationalistic pride, and her son Alexander, a history teacher forced to seek refuge in Britain for political reasons, Wertenbaker tries to demonstrate “what happens to people when they step outside, or are forced outside, their history, their identity” (Aston 2003, 13.

  10. Frequency of behavior witnessed and conformity in an everyday social context

    OpenAIRE

    Claidière, N.; Bowler, M.; Brookes, S.; Brown, R.; Whiten, A.

    2014-01-01

    Conformity is thought to be an important force in human evolution because it has the potential to stabilize cultural homogeneity within groups and cultural diversity between groups. However, the effects of such conformity on cultural and biological evolution will depend much on the particular way in which individuals are influenced by the frequency of alternative behavioral options they witness. In a previous study we found that in a natural situation people displayed a tendency to be 'linear...

  11. Experiences of going to court: Witnesses with intellectual disabilities and their carers speak up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckene, Tessy; Forrester-Jones, Rachel; Murphy, Glynis H

    2017-03-31

    People with intellectual disabilities are more vulnerable to sexual abuse and are more disadvantaged in the criminal justice system than the general population. However, little is known about the experiences of people with intellectual disabilities who have allegedly been victims of sexual abuse and also been witnesses in court. This study used semi-structured interviews and a Grounded Theory approach to examine the experiences of four people with intellectual disabilities and four carers/supporters who had all attended trials. Findings showed that after the traumatic incident of abuse, a court experience could become a secondary source of trauma. Experience of this trauma was dependent on the quality and quantity of support people received and the understanding of intellectual disabilities amongst the legal participants. The findings argue for better training for legal participants who are in contact with vulnerable witnesses and better support structures for alleged victims. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Forensic accounting and the law: The forensic accountant in the capacity of an expert witness

    OpenAIRE

    Ojo, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on what constitutes “an attitude that includes a questioning mind and a critical assessment of audit evidence”, namely professional scepticism. This paper also focuses on factors and reasons contributory to the ever increasing use of (and the need for) forensic accountants – particularly in courts. It also addresses various standards which must be taken into consideration before testimonies provided by expert witnesses are considered to be admissible.

  13. Intravenous iron administration together with parenteral nutrition to very preterm Jehovah's Witness twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poorisrisak, Porntiva; Schroeder, Allan Mikael; Greisen, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    Preterm twin sisters (monozygotic) were born at gestational age 27 weeks and 5 days with birth weights of 935 and 735 g. They were admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit for a period of 1 month. Their parents were Jehovah's Witnesses and refused blood transfusion for their preterm daughters....... Subcutaneous erythropoietin and intravenous iron were given as a prophylactic to avoid anaemia....

  14. Relations Among Victimization, Witnessing, and Perpetration of Aggression: Impact of Gender Among Youth Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisak, Marie S.; Tisak, John; Baker, Erin R.; Graupensperger, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The participants included 251 (158 males; 93 females) youth offenders who were arrested and incarcerated in a juvenile facility in the Midwest United States. The aims were to assess (a) how often they were a victim, a witness, and/or a perpetrator of social aggression, simple assault, and aggravated assault during the past year; (b) to examine whether exposure (either witness or victim or both) predicted committing three types of aggressive behaviors; and (c) to assess the impact of gender among the youth offenders. Differential predictability models were utilized to assess gender differences. The findings revealed that gender was an important predictor. For example, females reported higher rates of being a witness, a victim, and a perpetrator of social aggression than did males. Moreover, female offenders committed simple assault more often than males and males committed aggravated assault more often than females. The general results suggest that it is important to examine the various forms of aggression, and exposure, as well as how gender affects these relationships. PMID:27462063

  15. Ready-to-wear sexual politics: The semiotics of visibility on Wits Pride T-shirts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso M. Milani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to investigate T-shirts as semiotic tools of the politics of visibility, showing which role these sartorial artefacts may play in competing struggles for recognition in which gender and sexuality intersect with other axes of social categorisations. Drawing on a queer multimodal approach, the article offers an analysis of the four promotional T-shirts that were distributed each year between 2011 and 2014 by the Transformation and Employment Equity Office at the University of the Witwatersrand (Wits, Johannesburg, in the context of the annual Pride parade on campus. Our main argument is that changes over time in the design of Wits Pride T-shirts represent a shift both in what is claimed to be the main goal of campus sexual politics and in the proposed means to achieve such a goal. If one were to imagine that each T-shirt is a corporeal embodiment of Wits Pride, then this body has changed considerably in four years: from a gay man who is (supposedly ashamed of voicing his sexual identity; into a camp though masculine figure that loudly urges to counter racial division within same-sex desire; into a more multifaceted individual who proudly carries their gender and sexual uniqueness; and finally, into an activist who, in tension with the complex intersections that underpin discrimination, is perhaps a little reluctant to foreground gender and sexuality at all.

  16. The riverbank, the seashore and the wilderness: Miriam, liberation and prophetic witness against empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan A. Boesak

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the manner and method of resistance against patriarchal power and privilege. Two types of power are contrasted. One is the violent, war-like and hierarchical power of an empire, and the other is the faithful resistance of Israel’s prophets. A further distinction is made between violent male power and non-violent female power. It is argued that Miriam was a prophet of the people and her prophetic witness is an example of the power and outcome of non-violent resistance. Her theology explicitly and specifically praises God not as a warrior. Hers is not a muscular, masculine God whose power seeks to match the power of empire. Her God has a power that through radical love for a slave people and taking sides with the enslaved overcomes the power of the slaveholder. In her theology, Miriam recalls the God of the exodus, who begins the acts of liberation with the women, to whose faithfulness, courage and defiant obedience, the freedom of the people is entrusted. From a feminist perspective it is argued that this style of non-violent, faithful prophetic witness has a greater impact than violent resistance associated with an empire-like power. It is suggested that black liberation theology should adopt this paradigm in its witness of and resistance against oppression.

  17. Simulation and optimization of agricultural product supply chain system based on Witness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiandong Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Researches on agricultural product supply chain have important implications for improving the efficiency of agricultural products circulation, strengthening the construction of agricultural market system, promoting agricultural modernization and solving the three rural issues. Agricultural product supply chain system has begun to be optimized through simulation technique. In this paper, agricultural product supply chain system is reasonably simplified and assumed. A simulation model was developed by using the simulation software Wit-ness to study agricultural product supply chain. Through the analysis of the simulation output data, improvement suggestions were also proposed as follows: improving the organization degree of agricultural products, improving the agricultural products processing, establishing strategic partnership and scientifically developing agricultural products logistics.

  18. Misconceptions about childhood sexual abuse and child witnesses: Implications for psychological experts in the courtroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, Rachel; Garry, Maryanne; London, Kamala; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Hayne, Harlene

    2013-03-18

    Recent changes to the law in New Zealand have led to a marked increase in experts being called to give evidence in cases of alleged child sexual abuse. Here we outline some of the common misconceptions that are held by expert witnesses in these cases and we review research on patterns of abuse disclosure and retraction, symptoms of abuse, external influences on children's reports, and experts' ability to distinguish true from false reports. We also consider what experts can say about memory that has relevance for these cases. We conclude that many long-held notions of child sexual abuse and children's testimony that make their way into our courtrooms are not supported by empirical research, raising questions about who is-and who is not-qualified to act as an expert witness.

  19. Alcohol-induced retrograde facilitation renders witnesses of crime less suggestible to misinformation

    OpenAIRE

    Albery, IP; Gawrylowicz, J; Ridley, AM; Barnoth, E; Young, J.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Research has shown that alcohol can have both detrimental and facilitating effects on memory: intoxication can lead to poor memory for information encoded after alcohol consumption (anterograde amnesia) and may improve memory for information encoded before consumption (retrograde facilitation). This study examined whether alcohol consumed after witnessing a crime can render individuals less vulnerable to misleading post-event information (misinformation). Method: Participants watch...

  20. Witnessing versus Experiencing Direct Violence in Childhood as Correlates of Adulthood PTSD

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, Madhur; Graham-Bermann, Sandra; Rauch, Sheila A.M.; Seng, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Research has established that childhood violence exposure plays a considerable role in the development of deleterious outcomes in childhood and adulthood. However, important gaps remain in understanding the complex relationships among early violence exposure, adulthood trauma exposure, and PTSD. This study investigates whether two specific types of childhood violence exposure (witnessing domestic violence and experiencing child abuse) are uniquely associated with PTSD while controlling for ad...

  1. Witnessing hateful people in pain modulates brain activity in regions associated with physical pain and reward.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Ryan Fox

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available How does witnessing a hateful person in pain compare to witnessing a likable person in pain? The current study compared the brain bases for how we perceive likable people in pain with those of viewing hateful people in pain. While social bonds are built through sharing the plight and pain of others in the name of empathy, viewing a hateful person in pain also has many potential ramifications. In this functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI study, Caucasian Jewish male participants viewed videos of (1 disliked, hateful, anti-Semitic individuals, and (2 liked, non-hateful, tolerant individuals in pain. The results showed that, compared with viewing liked people, viewing hateful people in pain elicited increased responses in regions associated with observation of physical pain (the insular cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the somatosensory cortex, reward processing (the striatum, and frontal regions associated with emotion regulation. Functional connectivity analyses revealed connections between seed regions in the left anterior cingulate cortex and right insular cortex with reward regions, the amygdala, and frontal regions associated with emotion regulation. These data indicate that regions of the brain active while viewing someone in pain may be more active in response to the danger or threat posed by witnessing the pain of a hateful individual more so than the desire to empathize with a likable person’s pain.

  2. Witnesses in action: the effect of physical exertion on recall and recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Lorraine; Lewinski, William; Dixon, Justin; Blocksidge, David; Gabbert, Fiona

    2012-04-01

    Understanding memory performance under different operational conditions is critical in many occupational settings. To examine the effect of physical exertion on memory for a witnessed event, we placed two groups of law-enforcement officers in a live, occupationally relevant scenario. One group had previously completed a high-intensity physical-assault exercise, and the other had not. Participants who completed the assault exercise showed impaired recall and recognition performance compared with the control group. Specifically, they provided significantly less accurate information concerning critical and incidental target individuals encountered during the scenario, recalled less briefing information, and provided fewer briefing updates than control participants did. Exertion was also associated with reduced accuracy in identifying the critical target from a lineup. These results support arousal-based competition accounts proposing differential allocation of resources under physiological arousal. These novel findings relating to eyewitness memory performance have important implications for victims, ordinary citizens who become witnesses, and witnesses in policing, military, and related operational contexts.

  3. Transnational Criminal Proceedings, Witness Evidence and Confrontation: Lessons from the ECtHR’s Case Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Bachmaier Winter

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A single European area of freedom, security and justice requires new models of judicial cooperation in criminal matters to be put in place in order to efficiently combat transnational organized crime. However, this should not be done while disregarding the protection of the individual rights of the suspect and the accused: a transnational criminal procedure should not entail a lowering of the procedural safeguards identified by the European Court of Human Rights. The tension between the efficiency in the cooperation and the need to protect the fundamental rights of the defendant is particularly visible in matters of the transnational gathering of evidence, its transfer and its admissibility as evidence against the accused. This paper intends to identify general principles and rules that should be applied in European transnational criminal proceedings with regard to witness evidence. Departing from the ECHR’s case law, this paper will try to identify the principles regarding the hearing of witnesses who reside in another Member State, the admissibility of pre-trial statements as evidence and the need to foster the use of the live video link for witness questioning.

  4. Descomposición de la hojarasca en un sistema silvopastoril de Panicum maximum y Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit cv. Cunningham: III. Influencia de la densidad y diversidad de la macrofauna asociada Litter decomposition in a silvopastoral system of Panicum maximum and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit cv. Cunningham: III. Influence of density and diversity of the associated macrofauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saray Sánchez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la descomposición de la hojarasca en un sistema silvopastoril de Panicum maximum y Leucaena leucocephala y su relación con la densidad y la diversidad de la macrofauna asociada, se realizó este experimento en la EEPF «Indio Hatuey». Esta se determinó como la pérdida de biomasa a través del tiempo, con relación al peso inicial. Para el estudio de la dinámica de la descomposición se utilizó el método de bolsas de hojarasca (litter bags. Se escogieron al azar cuatro bolsas a los 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 y 210 días de situadas en el pastizal. En cada fecha de recolección, a la hojarasca remanente de cada bolsa se le determinó la población de macrofauna (organismos con diámetro mayor que 2 mm mediante la separación manual, y se calculó el valor promedio de la densidad (individuos/m², así como la abundancia proporcional (% para cada taxón. Se utilizó el análisis de correlación y regresión para conocer la interrelación entre las variables y los modelos de mejor ajuste. De acuerdo con los resultados se concluye que las condiciones de humedad y temperatura que genera el árbol en este sistema, así como la calidad de su hojarasca, posibilitan la presencia de una diversa y estable fauna asociada a las bolsas, la cual influyó en el proceso de descomposición.The trial was conducted at the EEPF «Indio Hatuey» in order to determine the litter decomposition in a silvopastoral system of Panicum maximum and Leucaena leucocephala and its relation to the density and diversity of the associated macrofauna. It was determined as biomass loss through time, with regards to initial weight. For the study of the decomposition dynamics the litter bag method was used. Four bags were randomly chosen 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 days after being placed in the pastureland. In each collection date, to the remnant litter of each bag, the macrofauna (organisms with diameter higher than 2 mm population was

  5. Descomposición de la hojarasca en un sistema silvopastoril de Panicum maximum y Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit cv. Cunningham: I. Influencia de su composición química Litter decomposition in a silvopastoral system of Panicum maximum and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit cv. Cunningham: I. Influence of their chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saray Sánchez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la descomposición de la hojarasca y su relación con la composición química de Panicum maximum y Leucaena leucocephala en un sistema silvopastoril, se realizó este experimento en la EEPF "Indio Hatuey". La descomposición de la hojarasca se determinó como la pérdida de biomasa a través del tiempo, con relación al peso inicial. Para el estudio de la dinámica de la descomposición se utilizó el método de bolsas de hojarasca (litter bags. En cada especie se presentó un patrón diferente de descomposición de la hojarasca; la tasa promedio de descomposición de la hojarasca en leucaena fue mayor que en la guinea. En ambas especies se encontró una rápida pérdida de peso durante los primeros 30 días y después el proceso fue más lento. Este comportamiento puede estar relacionado con la composición química de los pastos, pues el porcentaje de biomasa perdida de la hojarasca de L. leucocephala presentó una mayor correlación con las concentraciones del contenido celular, la relación lignina/nitrógeno, la celulosa y el Nt. Se observó una dependencia significativa y negativa de la hojarasca de P. maximum con las concentraciones de la FND y la hemicelulosa; mientras que se relacionó de forma positiva con las de N-FND y la relación lignina/nitrógenoWith the objective of determining the litter decomposition and its relationship to the chemical composition of Panicum maximum and Leucaena leucocephala in a silvopastoral system, this trial was conducted at the EEPF «Indio Hatuey». Litter decomposition was determined as biomass loss through time, with regards to initial weight. For studying the decomposition dynamics, the method of litter bags was used. In each species a different litter decomposition pattern appeared; the average litter decomposition rate was higher in leucaena than in Guinea grass. Rapid weight loss was found in both species during the first 30 days and afterwards the process was slower

  6. Descomposición de la hojarasca en un sistema silvopastoril de Panicum maximum y Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit cv. Cunningham: II. Influencia de los factores climáticos Litter decomposition in a silvopastoral system of Panicum maximum and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit cv. Cunningham: II. Influence of climatic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saray Sánchez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la descomposición de la hojarasca en un sistema silvopastoril de Panicum maximum y Leucaena leucocephala y su relación con algunos factores del clima, se realizó este experimento en la EEPF «Indio Hatuey». La descomposición de la hojarasca se determinó como la pérdida de biomasa a través del tiempo, con relación al peso inicial. Para el estudio de la dinámica de la descomposición se utilizó el método de bolsas de hojarasca (litter bags; se registró diariamente el comportamiento de la temperatura media, la humedad relativa, la precipitación y los días con lluvias, en la estación metereológica situada a 1 km del área experimental. Se utilizó el análisis de correlación y regresión para conocer la interrelación entre las variables y los modelos de mejor ajuste. Se consideró, como variables independientes, los factores climáticos estudiados, y como variable dependiente el porcentaje de biomasa perdida. De forma general, los resultados demostraron que el comportamiento de la descomposición de la hojarasca, tanto en la guinea como en la leucaena, estuvo relacionado con los factores climáticos que prevalecieron durante el período experimental y, por tanto, es posible explicar este proceso en ambos pastizales a partir de la acción conjunta de la temperatura, la humedad relativa y la precipitación.With the objective of determining the litter decomposition in a silvopastoral system of Panicum maximum and Leucaena leucocephala and its relationship to some climate factors, this trial was conducted at the EEPF «Indio Hatuey». Litter decomposition was determined as the loss of biomass through time, with regards to initial weight. For studying the decomposition dynamics the method of litter bags was used; the performance of mean temperature, relative humidity, rainfall and days with rain, was daily recorded at the meteorological station located 1 km away from the experimental area. . The

  7. Opinions of legal professionals: Comparing child and adult witnesses' memory report capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Knutsson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The opinions of legal professionals about child and adult witnesses might influence the likelihood that a case is allowed to proceed through the different stages of the legal process. With the aim of knowing the opinions of legal practitioners about child and adult witnesses, 84 legal professionals (Swedish police, prosecutors, and attorneys were surveyed about their beliefs about child and adult eyewitness memory (and metamemory abilities. The respondents answered 27 questions relating to nine forensically relevant belief areas in which they compared the memory ability of children (ages 7 to 11 years and adults. The results showed no differences in assessment among members of different professions and a general trend suggesting that, across the professions, children were believed to be poorer witnesses than adults regarding their memory abilities. Moreover, the professionals' within-group consensus was very low. These results are discussed in the context of eyewitness research findings and with respect to the implications for both legal and research practice.

  8. Ask versus tell: Potential confusion when child witnesses are questioned about conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenberg, Stacia N; McWilliams, Kelly; Lyon, Thomas D

    2017-12-01

    Children's potential confusion between "ask" and "tell" can lead to misunderstandings when child witnesses are asked to report prior conversations. The verbs distinguish both between interrogating and informing, and between requesting and commanding. Children's understanding was examined using both field (Study 1) and laboratory methods (Studies 2-4). Study 1 examined 100 5- to 12-year-olds' trial testimony in child sexual abuse cases, and found that potentially ambiguous use of ask and tell was common, typically found in yes-no questions that elicited unelaborated answers, and virtually never clarified by attorneys or child witnesses. Studies 2 to 4 examined 345 maltreated 6- to 11-year-olds' understanding of ask and tell. The results suggest that children initially comprehend telling as saying, and thus believed that asking is a form of telling. As such, they often endorsed asking as telling when asked yes-no questions, but distinguished between asking and telling when explicitly asked to choose. Their performance was impaired by movement between different use of the words. Child witnesses' characterization of their conversations can easily be misconstrued by the way in which they are questioned, leading questioners to misinterpret whether they were coached by disclosure recipients or coerced by abuse suspects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Reduced visual cortex gray matter volume and thickness in young adults who witnessed domestic violence during childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akemi Tomoda

    Full Text Available Exposure to interparental violence is associated with negative outcomes, such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and reduced cognitive abilities. However, little is known about the potential effects of witnessing domestic violence during childhood on gray matter volume (GMV or cortical thickness. High-resolution 3.0 T volumetric scans (Siemens Trio Scanner were obtained on 52 subjects (18-25 years including 22 (6 males/16 females with a history of visually witnessing episodes of domestic violence, and 30 (8 males/22 females unexposed control subjects, with neither a current nor past DSM-IV Axis I or II disorder. Potential confounding effects of age, gender, level of parental verbal aggression, parental education, financial stress, full scale IQ, and total GMV, or average thickness were modeled using voxel based morphometry and FreeSurfer. Witnessing domestic violence subjects had a 6.1% GMV reduction in the right lingual gyrus (BA18 (P = 0.029, False Discovery Rate corrected peak level. Thickness in this region was also reduced, as was thickness in V2 bilaterally and left occipital pole. Theses regions were maximally sensitive to exposure to witnessing domestic violence between 11-13 years of age. Regional reductions in GMV and thickness were observed in both susceptible and resilient witnessing domestic violence subjects. Results in subjects witnessing domestic violence were similar to previously reported results in subjects with childhood sexual abuse, as the primary region affected was visual cortex. Brain regions that process and convey the adverse sensory input of the abuse may be specifically modified by this experience, particularly in subjects exposed to a single type of maltreatment. Exposure to multiple types of maltreatment is more commonly associated with morphological alterations in corticolimbic regions. These findings fit with preclinical studies showing that visual cortex is a highly plastic structure.

  10. Incidence and Characteristics of Ventricular Fibrillation in Bystander-witnessed Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest with Cardiac Etiology in the City of Sendai, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Watanabe, MD

    2005-01-01

    Methods and results: We analyzed Utstein-style data in Sendai City (population 1,020,000, Japan from January 2002 to March 2004. The incidence of OHCA overall was 62.3/100,000/year. The incidence of the bystander-witnessed VF was 2.5/100,000/year. In younger patients (20–65 years of age, the percentage of VF was 52% when cardiac origin was presumed by bystander witness, and ECG was recorded within 10 minutes from the collapse. In older patients (over 65 years of age, however, the percentage of VF was 21% when they were bystander-witnessed, and ECG was recorded within 10 minutes from the collapse. No VF was reported when the ECG was recorded more than 15 minutes after the collapse. The thirty-day survival rate was 21% in the bystander-witnessed VF cases with cardiac etiology, but 0% in the non-VF cases. The bystander CPR was significantly associated with improved 30-day survival rate. Conclusion: Younger age, male gender, and shorter collapse-to-ECG time are significantly associated with the appearance of VF in bystander-witnessed OHCA with cardiac etiology. Bystander CPR was significantly associated with the improvement in prognosis of those VF patients.

  11. 49 CFR 511.39 - Orders requiring witnesses to testify or provide other information and granting immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... other information and granting immunity. 511.39 Section 511.39 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... testify or provide other information and granting immunity. (a) A party who desires the issuance of an order requiring a witness to testify or provide other information upon being granted immunity from...

  12. 16 CFR 2.15 - Orders requiring witnesses to testify or provide other information and granting immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... provide other information and granting immunity. 2.15 Section 2.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE... and granting immunity. (a) The Bureau Director, Deputy Directors, and Assistant Directors in the... issuance of an order requiring a witness to testify or provide other information granting immunity under...

  13. 16 CFR 3.39 - Orders requiring witnesses to testify or provide other information and granting immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... provide other information and granting immunity. 3.39 Section 3.39 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE... granting immunity. (a) Where Commission complaint counsel desire the issuance of an order requiring a witness or deponent to testify or provide other information and granting immunity under 18 U.S.C. 6002...

  14. Sketching to Remember: Episodic Free Recall Task Support for Child Witnesses and Victims with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattison, Michelle L. A.; Dando, Coral J.; Ormerod, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in episodic free-recall memory performance have been reported in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet best practice dictates that child witness/victim interviews commence with a free-recall account. No "tools" exist to support children with ASD to freely recall episodic information. Here, the efficacy of a novel…

  15. Bearing Witness to the Ethics and Politics of Suffering: J. M. Coetzee's "Disgrace," Inconsolable Mourning, and the Task of Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2009-01-01

    How can educators and their students interrogate the ethics and politics of suffering in ways that do not create fixed and totalized narratives from the past? In responding to this question, this essay draws on J. M. Coeetze's "Disgrace," and discusses how this novel constitutes a crucial site for bearing witness to the suffering…

  16. Does Witnessing Animal Cruelty and Being Abused During Childhood Predict the Initial Age and Recurrence of Committing Childhood Animal Cruelty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, John A; Hensley, Christopher; McGuffee, Karen M

    2017-12-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine the association between demographic characteristics and childhood experiences on the respondents' age of committing childhood animal cruelty and its recurrency. Using data collected from 257 male inmates at a Southern medium-security state prison, the current study seeks to replicate a study by Hensley, Tallichet, and Dutkiewicz. Results revealed that those respondents who were physically abused as children reported engaging in recurrent animal cruelty. The younger the age of respondent for first witnessing animal cruelty, the sooner his initiation to hurting and killing animals occurred. In addition, those who reported witnessing a parent commit acts of animal abuse reported that they committed animal abuse themselves at an older age, while those who witnessed a brother/sister commit animal abuse reported engaging in it at an earlier age. Therefore, physical abuse and witnessing primary socializers engage in animal abuse seem to be important in understanding the respondents' age of onset and repeated childhood animal cruelty.

  17. Adolescent witnesses in cases of teen dating violence: An analysis of peer responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Bonache

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gender violence is a serious problem that also affects the adolescent population (González & Santana, 2001. The victims of such violence in adolescence, should they seek help, rely primarily on their peers and rarely report it to adults (Weisz et al., 2007. The responses or reactions of avoidance, minimization or protection that their peers may have contribute to the victim maintaining or breaking the "unhealthy" relationship. An experimental study was designed to examine the reactions of adolescents in the event that they are witness to an episode of violence (verbal and physical aggression towards a friend. The main objective was to analyze the differences in their reactions according to sex of the witness, familiarity with the perpetrator (stranger vs. a friend and the relationship between aggressor and victim (a date, romantic partner. An exploratory analysis of the influence of the witnesses’ sexist beliefs (hostile and benevolent on these reactions was also performed. Thus, more negative reactions were found (greater passivity and less empathy among men in the case where the victim maintained a relationship with the offender than in the case of a date, especially if the perpetrator was a stranger. Also, in the girls more avoidance responses were found when the violent episode occurred between members of a couple on a date. Finally, the practical implications of the findings are discussed, highlighting the need to include guidelines in programs against gender violence among adolescents on how to behave if in relation to the victim when they are witnesses of gender violence.

  18. "Where art thou Sesotho?": Exploring the linguistic landscape of Wits University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadenge, Maxwell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to examine if the University of the Witwatersrand (Wits’s language policy on paper is visually reflected on the linguistic landscape of the institution. The objective of this policy is to promote multilingualism, especially the status elevation of Sesotho to become a medium of instruction alongside English and a field of academic study and research. Masoke-Kadenge and Kadenge (2013 note that conceptual flaws within the policy, financial constraints and lack of political will were some of the challenges that militated against the successful implementation of this policy. Today, twelve years after the adoption of this policy, Wits is largely monolingual. This article adopts an expanded view of language policy and explores the linguistic landscape of Wits with the goal of providing invaluable insights into the sociolinguistic situation at the institution. The main focus is on language visibility on public signage in the form of names of buildings like libraries, lecture venues and laboratories, warning notices and directions, among others, and important documentation like employment contracts, e-mails and newsletters at the Braamfontein East campus. The analysis also extends to the university’s website. The findings from this study show that the linguistic landscape of Wits is largely a reflection of the failed institutional language policy. It symbolically reproduces an old language ideology of a monolingual – English-based –university, which goes against the spirit of the National Language Policy Framework (Department of Arts and Culture, 2002 which compels South African universities to transform and develop language policies that accommodate linguistic, cultural and racial diversity.

  19. Bridging Troubled Waters: Historians, Natural Resource Litigation, and the Expert Witness Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brescia, Michael M

    2015-02-01

    This special issue of The Public Historian examines the nature and scope of the historian's role as a consultant and expert witness in natural resource litigation. The introductory essay identifies the major issues and challenges that historians face when they bring their knowledge, skills, and professional best standards into law offices and courtrooms, while also positing a conceptual framework for public history practitioners to better understand and appreciate the larger stakes in conducting research for environmental litigation. The author delineates his own experience as an expert in certain water rights cases in the American Southwest where knowledge of the Spanish and Mexican civil law of property is essential.

  20. "The whole truth" versus "the admissible truth": an ethics dilemma for expert witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutheil, Thomas G; Hauser, Mark; White, Myra S; Spruiell, Graham; Strasburger, Larry H

    2003-01-01

    The expert witness testifies under oath to tell "the whole truth," yet certain aspects of the legal system itself make this ideal difficult or impossible. The authors present both a philosophical and a practical discussion of the challenges for the expert in attaining this goal. After review of oaths in general and truth-telling in particular, real-life examples are provided to examine the vicissitudes of the whole truth in court. Recommendations are provided for experts, to preserve the truth in the adversary system.

  1. Graphic Evolution Witness the Development of Lung Cancer Translational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao ZHANG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer treatment has altered from conventional chemotherapy to targeted treatment, which now has been turned to the immunotherapy. Translational research has played an irreplaceable role during this progression which graphic evolution has witnessed. The evolution has gone through forest plot, KM-curve, waterfall plot, spider plot and timeline-area, showing us the refining concept and gradual process of lung cancer treatment undergoing from community towards individual. Even though the latest immunotherapy is getting increasingly hot, the result isn’t quite expected. Meanwhile, the limitations of conventional treatment still exist which require further research. This article will primarily illustrate the development of translational research of lung cancer via the aspect of curve evolution and analysis some abortive clinical trials in lung cancer surgery for inspiring the next graphic style and lung cancer treatment.

  2. Measuring the Discharge of River Flood Using Witnesses Movies Found on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauet, A.; Le Coz, J.; Le Boursicaud, R.; Pénard, L.

    2014-12-01

    The knowledge of the discharge of river during extreme flood is of prime importance for the scientific and the research community. Unfortunately, measuring discharge using conventional methods is impossible because the high velocities and the floating debris endanger the operators and the equipment. The typical time-scale for gauging does not match up to the time scale of the dynamic of extreme flood. Finally, floods are mesoscale events that affect generally several watersheds at the same time, and gauging teams do not have the capabilities for covering the whole region of interest. Recently, non intrusive method for measuring discharge have been developed and tested in flood conditions. Doppler surface velocity radar and Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry (LSPIV) showed their efficiency for measuring discharge during extreme events, but those methods need to be deployed by operators and the problems of time-scale and space-scale covering aforementioned are not solved. In this study, authors present how flood discharge measurement can benefits from the huge development, the last 10 years, of internet and of the on-line sharing of files. Floods are impressive phenomena, and hundreds of witnesses movies can be found on the internet after every important event. The different steps in order to apply LSPIV analysis to witness movie are detailed: (i) selection of the video of interest; (ii) contact with the author of the video; (iii) preparing the video for the LSPIV analysis : stabilization of the images, field campaigns; (iv) LSPIV analysis, providing surface velocity field; and (v)discharge computation. A case study on the major flash flood of 18 June 2013 of the Gave River at Cauterets, French Pyrennees, is presented. Results show that witnesses movies can bring useful information and allow estimating discharges values. Capabilities and limitations of LSPIV applied to witnesses movies are detailed. Finally, the paper presents an approach conducted within the

  3. Wide-Field Imaging Telescope-0 (WIT0) with automatic observing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Tae-Geun; Byeon, Seoyeon; Lee, Hye-In; Park, Woojin; Lee, Sang-Yun; Hwang, Sungyong; Choi, Changsu; Gibson, Coyne Andrew; Kuehne, John W.; Prochaska, Travis; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Im, Myungshin; Pak, Soojong

    2018-01-01

    We introduce Wide-Field Imaging Telescope-0 (WIT0), with an automatic observing system. It is developed for monitoring the variabilities of many sources at a time, e.g. young stellar objects and active galactic nuclei. It can also find the locations of transient sources such as a supernova or gamma-ray bursts. In 2017 February, we installed the wide-field 10-inch telescope (Takahashi CCA-250) as a piggyback system on the 30-inch telescope at the McDonald Observatory in Texas, US. The 10-inch telescope has a 2.35 × 2.35 deg field-of-view with a 4k × 4k CCD Camera (FLI ML16803). To improve the observational efficiency of the system, we developed a new automatic observing software, KAOS30 (KHU Automatic Observing Software for McDonald 30-inch telescope), which was developed by Visual C++ on the basis of a windows operating system. The software consists of four control packages: the Telescope Control Package (TCP), the Data Acquisition Package (DAP), the Auto Focus Package (AFP), and the Script Mode Package (SMP). Since it also supports the instruments that are using the ASCOM driver, the additional hardware installations become quite simplified. We commissioned KAOS30 in 2017 August and are in the process of testing. Based on the WIT0 experiences, we will extend KAOS30 to control multiple telescopes in future projects.

  4. Prehospital predictors of neurological outcomes in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients aged 95 years and older: A nationwide population-based observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funada, Akira; Goto, Yoshikazu; Maeda, Tetsuo; Tada, Hayato; Teramoto, Ryota; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Hayashi, Kenshi; Yamagishi, Masakazu

    2017-01-01

    Population aging has rapidly progressed in Japan. However, few data exist regarding the characteristics of extremely elderly patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We aimed to determine the prehospital predictors of one-month survival with favorable neurological outcomes (Cerebral Performance Category scale, category 1 or 2; CPC 1-2) in this population. We investigated 23,520 OHCA patients aged ≥95 years from a prospectively recorded, nationwide, Utstein-style Japanese database between 2008 and 2012. The primary study endpoint was one-month CPC 1-2 after OHCA. The one-month CPC 1-2 rate was 0.27% (63/23,520). Only two variables were significantly associated with one-month CPC 1-2 in a multivariate logistic regression model: prehospital return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) [adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 94.4; 95% confidential interval (CI), 50.1-191.7] and emergency medical service (EMS)-witnessed arrest (aOR, 5.1; 95% CI, 2.6-10.2). When stratified by these two predictors, the one-month CPC 1-2 rates were 20.2% (18/89) for patients who had both prehospital ROSC and EMS-witnessed arrest, 4.2% (33/783) for those who had prehospital ROSC without EMS-witnessed arrest, 0.28% (3/1065) for those who had EMS-witnessed arrest without prehospital ROSC, and 0.04% (9/21,583) for those who had neither predictor, respectively. The crucial prehospital predictors for one-month CPC 1-2 in elderly OHCA patients aged ≥95 years in Japan were prehospital ROSC and EMS-witnessed arrest and the former was the predominant predictor. Copyright © 2016 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Injection drug users trained by overdose prevention programs: responses to witnessed overdoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankenau, Stephen E; Wagner, Karla D; Silva, Karol; Kecojevic, Aleksandar; Iverson, Ellen; McNeely, Miles; Kral, Alex H

    2013-02-01

    In response to the growing public health problem of drug overdose, community-based organizations have initiated overdose prevention programs (OPPs), which distribute naloxone, an opioid antagonist, and teach overdose response techniques. Injection drug users (IDUs) have been targeted for this intervention due to their high risk for drug overdose. Limited research attention has focused on factors that may inhibit or prevent IDUs who have been trained by OPPs to undertake recommended response techniques when responding to a drug overdose. IDUs (n = 30) trained by two OPPs in Los Angeles were interviewed in 2010-2011 about responses to their most recently witnessed drug overdose using an instrument containing both open and closed-ended questions. Among the 30 witnessed overdose events, the victim recovered in 29 cases while the outcome was unknown in one case. Participants responded to overdoses using a variety of techniques taught by OPPs. Injecting the victim with naloxone was the most commonly recommended response while other recommended responses included stimulating the victim with knuckles, calling 911, and giving rescue breathing. Barriers preventing participants from employing recommended response techniques in certain circumstances included prior successes using folk remedies to revive a victim, concerns over attracting police to the scene, and issues surrounding access to or use of naloxone. Practical solutions, such as developing booster sessions to augment OPPs, are encouraged to increase the likelihood that trained participants respond to a drug overdose with the full range of recommended techniques.

  6. Expert testimony regarding child witnesses: does it sensitize jurors to forensic interview quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Julie A; London, Kamala; Wright, Daniel B

    2011-04-01

    Does expert testimony on forensic interviews with children help adults distinguish between poorly conducted and well-conducted interviews? This study evaluates the effects of social framework expert testimony regarding child witnesses in a case involving allegations of child sexual abuse. A 2 (Expert Testimony: present or absent) × 3 (Child Forensic Interview Quality: poor, typical, or good) × 2 (Child's Age: 4- or 10-year-old) factorial design was used to examine whether expert testimony is prejudicial or beneficial to jurors (N = 463). The results revealed that, without expert testimony, mock jurors did not consider the forensic interview quality when reaching a verdict. However, with expert testimony, mock jurors were more likely to render guilty verdicts if the interview quality was good versus poor. Further expert testimony increased mock jurors' knowledge about child witnesses. These findings suggest that expert testimony related to the impact of interview techniques on the reliability of children's reports may assist fact-finders in evaluating child abuse cases.

  7. Beyond "Witnessing": Children's Experiences of Coercive Control in Domestic Violence and Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Jane E M; Alexander, Joanne H; Sixsmith, Judith; Fellin, Lisa Chiara

    2015-12-10

    Children's experiences and voices are underrepresented in academic literature and professional practice around domestic violence and abuse. The project "Understanding Agency and Resistance Strategies" (UNARS) addresses this absence, through direct engagement with children. We present an analysis from interviews with 21 children in the United Kingdom (12 girls and 9 boys, aged 8-18 years), about their experiences of domestic violence and abuse, and their responses to this violence. These interviews were analyzed using interpretive interactionism. Three themes from this analysis are presented: (a) "Children's experiences of abusive control," which explores children's awareness of controlling behavior by the adult perpetrator, their experience of that control, and its impact on them; (b) "Constraint," which explores how children experience the constraint associated with coercive control in situations of domestic violence; and (c) "Children as agents," which explores children's strategies for managing controlling behavior in their home and in family relationships. The article argues that, in situations where violence and abuse occur between adult intimate partners, children are significantly affected, and can be reasonably described as victims of abusive control. Recognizing children as direct victims of domestic violence and abuse would produce significant changes in the way professionals respond to them, by (a) recognizing children's experience of the impact of domestic violence and abuse; (b) recognizing children's agency, undermining the perception of them as passive "witnesses" or "collateral damage" in adult abusive encounters; and (c) strengthening professional responses to them as direct victims, not as passive witnesses to violence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Witnessing Interparental Violence, Parenting Practices, and Children´s Long-Term Psychological Distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Gámez-Guadix

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The first objective of this study was to examine the relationship between witnessing interparental violence and children´s long-term psychological distress, and the extent to which this relation is mediated by deteriorating parenting practices (i.e., harsh discipline, affection/support, interparental and intraparental consistency. The second objective was to analyze the possible gender differences in the relationships specified. The sample comprised 680 Spanish university students (62.4% females selected by random, stratified, and proportional sampling (by faculty and sex. Participants retrospectively reported the physical and psychological violence perpetrated by one of his or her parents against the other, the parenting practices when they were preadolescents, and the psychological distress during the past two weeks. Results revealed that harsh discipline and the level of affection and affection/support partially mediated the association between children´s witnessing interparental violence and their long-term psychological distress. These relationships were not significantly different as a function of participants´ sex. Lastly, we discuss the implications of these findings for the planning and development of intervention programs.

  9. Industrial/organizational psychology and the federal judiciary: expert witness testimony and the Daubert standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingate, Peter H; Thornton, George C

    2004-02-01

    This research examined judicial perceptions of the field of industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology, explored how judges evaluate and weigh I/O psychology expert witness testimony, and scrutinized the use of the Daubert factors in judicial assessments (of social scientific evidentiary reliability. In a mail survey, federal judges were randomly presented with one of four prototypical descriptions of I/O psychology expert witness testimony in civil age discrimination in employment litigation. Judges were found to be relatively unfamiliar with the field of I/O psychology, and few had previously heard or read the testimony of an I/O psychologist. Sixty-six percent of the federal judges rated themselves at least moderately likely to admit the expert's testimony at trial, regardless of the testimony scenario presented. Judges rated the evidence overall as relevant, moderately reliable, moderately probative, and prejudicial. Both judicial familiarity with the field of I/O psychology and prior experience with I/O testimony were found to be positively related to likelihood of admitting the evidence. Manipulations of the scientific foundation for the expert testimony did not substantially affect admission decision. Judges ascribed the most importance to the general acceptance Daubert factor in their evaluation of evidentiary reliability. Implications for the science and practice of I/O psychology in the legal system are presented and discussed.

  10. Witnessing peer rejection during early adolescence: neural correlates of empathy for experiences of social exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, Carrie L; Eisenberger, Naomi I; Pfeifer, Jennifer H; Dapretto, Mirella

    2010-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies with adults have begun to reveal the neural bases of empathy; however, this research has focused on empathy for physical pain, rather than empathy for negative social experiences. Moreover, this work has not examined adolescents who may frequently witness and empathize with others that experience negative social experiences such as peer rejection. Here, we examined neural activity among early adolescents observing social exclusion compared to observing inclusion, and how this activity related to both trait empathy and subsequent prosocial behavior. Participants were scanned while they observed an individual whom they believed was being socially excluded. At least one day prior to the scan they reported their trait empathy, and following the scan they wrote emails to the excluded victim that were rated for prosocial behavior (e.g., helping, comforting). Observing exclusion compared to inclusion activated regions involved in mentalizing (i.e., dorsomedial prefrontal cortex), particularly among highly empathic individuals. Additionally, individuals who displayed more activity in affective, pain-related regions during observed exclusion compared to inclusion subsequently wrote more prosocial emails to excluded victims. Overall findings suggest that when early adolescents witness social exclusion in their daily lives, some may actually 'feel the pain' of the victims and act more prosocially toward them as a result. © 2010 Psychology Press

  11. Survival rate and factors associated with 1-month survival of witnessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of cardiac origin with ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia: the Utstein Osaka project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiuchi, Tatsuya; Hayashino, Yasuaki; Fukuhara, Shunichi; Iwami, Taku; Hayashi, Yasuyuki; Hiraide, Atsushi; Ikeuchi, Hisashi; Yukioka, Hidekazu; Matsuoka, Tetsuya

    2008-09-01

    We reassessed 1-month survival of patients with witnessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) of cardiac origin with ventricular fibrillation (VF) or pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VT) in Osaka, Japan, and identified factors associated with 1-month survival using updated data from 1998 to 2004 collected based on the Utstein Style. Using the Utstein Osaka Project database, we analyzed 1028 cases which met the following criteria: (1) patient age 18 years or older; (2) presumed cardiac origin based on the definition of the Utstein Style; (3) witnessed by citizens; (4) VF or pulseless VT at the time of arrival of the ambulance. The main outcome measure was survival at 1 month after collapse. Variables to develop a predictive model for 1-month survival were selected by stepwise logistic regression. Survival at 1 month was 19.6%. Factors retained in the final logistic regression were age, sex, type of witness, and time interval from (a) ambulance call receipt to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by the ambulance crew; (b) ambulance call to defibrillation; (c) CPR by the ambulance crew to hospital arrival. Area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for the model developed with the six variables was 0.738 and Hosmer-Lemshow goodness-of-fit p-value was 0.94. We successfully developed a model to estimate the probability of 1-month survival using variables easy to collect in the early phase of resuscitation, and this model would help physicians and family members predict the likelihood of 1-month survival of OHCA patients on admission.

  12. Witnessing Domestic Abuse in Childhood as an Independent Risk Factor for Depressive Symptoms in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, David; Springer, Kristen W.; Greenfield, Emily A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study addresses the relationship between retrospective reports of witnessing domestic abuse in childhood and levels of depressive symptoms in young adulthood. We examine whether the association between having witnessed violence in childhood and depression is independent of having been the direct target of sexual and/or physical…

  13. 45 CFR 681.19 - Are witness lists exchanged before the hearing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are witness lists exchanged before the hearing? 681.19 Section 681.19 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Hearing Procedures § 681.19 Are witness...

  14. Cost-benefit study of consumer product take-back programs using IBM's WIT reverse logistics optimization tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerakamolmal, Pitipong; Lee, Yung-Joon; Fasano, J. P.; Hale, Rhea; Jacques, Mary

    2002-02-01

    In recent years, there has been increased focus by regulators, manufacturers, and consumers on the issue of product end of life management for electronics. This paper presents an overview of a conceptual study designed to examine the costs and benefits of several different Product Take Back (PTB) scenarios for used electronics equipment. The study utilized a reverse logistics supply chain model to examine the effects of several different factors in PTB programs. The model was done using the IBM supply chain optimization tool known as WIT (Watson Implosion Technology). Using the WIT tool, we were able to determine a theoretical optimal cost scenario for PTB programs. The study was designed to assist IBM internally in determining theoretical optimal Product Take Back program models and determining potential incentives for increasing participation rates.

  15. Quantum bounds on multiplayer linear games and device-independent witness of genuine tripartite entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murta, Gláucia; Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Móller, Natália; Terra Cunha, Marcelo

    2016-02-01

    Here we study multiplayer linear games, a natural generalization of xor games to multiple outcomes. We generalize a recently proposed efficiently computable bound, in terms of the norm of a game matrix, on the quantum value of two-player games to linear games with n players. As an example, we bound the quantum value of a generalization of the well-known CHSH game to n players and d outcomes. We also apply the bound to show in a simple manner that any nontrivial functional box, that could lead to trivialization of communication complexity in a multiparty scenario, cannot be realized in quantum mechanics. We then present a systematic method to derive device-independent witnesses of genuine tripartite entanglement.

  16. [The war of the gasses: observations at witness of Dr. Voivenel during the conflict, 1914-1918].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestrade, C

    2000-01-01

    Dr Voivenel was an exceptional witness of the First World War in fact of his regular attendance on the battle front close to soldiers. Through his duty, he brought great contributions to psychiatry and fighting gas pathology. We are proposing to pick that second subject out of his book: La Guerre des Gaz", published in 1919, a true and present-day chemical war study.

  17. Exploring the age of onset and recurrence of childhood animal cruelty: can animal cruelty be learned from witnessing others commit it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Christopher; Tallichet, Suzanne E; Dutkiewicz, Erik L

    2012-06-01

    Despite recent research, few studies have examined the specific social contexts in which animal cruelty may be learned. Using data collected from 180 inmates at a medium- and maximum-security prison in a southern state, the authors seek to replicate findings from the Hensley and Tallichet study that examined the potential for the onset and recurrence of childhood animal cruelty to become a learned behavior, specifically in terms of demographic characteristics and childhood experiences with witnessing animal abuse. In the current study, those who were younger when they first witnessed animal cruelty initially hurt or killed animals themselves at a younger age. Respondents who had witnessed a family member hurt or kill animals reported engaging in recurrent animal cruelty and were older when they committed their first act of animal cruelty.

  18. Abuse Characteristics and Individual Differences Related to Disclosing Childhood Sexual, Physical, and Emotional Abuse and Witnessed Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, Bette L; Peter-Hagene, Liana C; Epstein, Michelle A; Wiley, Tisha R A; Reynolds, Carrie E; Rudnicki, Aaron G

    2016-04-01

    Many adult survivors of childhood abuse hide their victimization, avoiding disclosure that could identify perpetrators, end the abuse, and bring help to the victim. We surveyed 1,679 women undergraduates to understand disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, and, for the first time, witnessed domestic violence, which many consider to be emotionally abusive. A substantial minority of victims failed to ever disclose their sexual abuse (23%), physical abuse (34%), emotional abuse (20%), and witnessed domestic violence (29%). Overall, abuse-specific factors were better predictors of disclosure than individual-level characteristics. Disclosure of sexual abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and by multiple perpetrators), being more worried about injury and more upset at the time of the abuse, and self-labeling as a victim of abuse. Disclosure of physical abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and multiple perpetrators), being less emotionally close to the perpetrator, being older when the abuse ended, being more worried and upset, and self-labeling as a victim. Disclosure of emotional abuse was associated with being older when the abuse ended, and being more worried and upset. Disclosure was unrelated to victim demographic characteristics or defensive reactions (dissociative proneness, fantasy proneness, repressive coping style, and temporary forgetting), except that among physical and emotional abuse victims, repressors were less likely to disclose than non-repressors. Disclosure of witnessing domestic violence was not significantly related to any factors measured. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Witnessing power: John Elder and the making of the marine compound engine, 1850-1858.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Crosbie

    2014-01-01

    Shipowners' seemingly slow adoption of marine compound engines is often attributed to not appreciating the new technology's superior economy. This article argues that this slow adoption needs to be understood alongside the challenges faced by engine builders in persuading skeptical shipowners and practical engineers that their designs were trustworthy. It explores the rich cultural contexts within which Glasgow master engineer John Elder and his associates rendered their marine compound engines credible for Liverpool's Pacific Steam Navigation Company, the first line to deploy the new engine. Elder operated within a culture whose hallmarks were useful work, economy, and the power of direct witnessing. The article also explores the role of William McNaught, an independent consultant with a strong track record as both a practical engineer and the inventor of a steam-engine indicator. His indicator, deployed to evaluate the performance of Elder's compound engines, stood at the center of the controversy over their economy.

  20. Testing the event witnessing status of micro-bloggers from evidence in their micro-blogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Truelove

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates a framework of processes for identifying potential witnesses of events from evidence they post to social media. The research defines original evidence models for micro-blog content sources, the relative uncertainty of different evidence types, and models for testing evidence by combination. Methods to filter and extract evidence using automated and semi-automated means are demonstrated using a Twitter case study event. Further, an implementation to test extracted evidence using Dempster Shafer Theory of Evidence are presented. The results indicate that the inclusion of evidence from micro-blog text and linked image content can increase the number of micro-bloggers identified at events, in comparison to the number of micro-bloggers identified from geotags alone. Additionally, the number of micro-bloggers that can be tested for evidence corroboration or conflict, is increased by incorporating evidence identified in their posting history.

  1. Factors influencing student nurse decisions to report poor practice witnessed while on placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, R; Smith, K; Nimmo, S; Rice, A M; McMillan, L

    2015-07-01

    While it is commonly accepted that nursing care is generally of a good standard, it would be naïve to think that this is always the case. Over recent years, concern about aspects of the quality of some nursing care has grown. In tandem with this, there is recognition that nurses do not always report poor practice. As future registrants, student nurses have a role to play in changing this culture. We know, however, relatively little about the factors that influence student decisions on whether or not to report. In the absence of a more nuanced understanding of this issue, we run the risk of assuming students will speak out simply because we say they should. To explore influences on student decisions about whether or not to report poor clinical practice, which is a result of deliberate action and which is witnessed while on placement. Qualitative interviews were conducted with thirteen pre-registration nursing students from the UK. Participants included both adult and mental health nurses with an age range from 20 to 47. Data were analysed to identify key themes. Category integrity and fit with data were confirmed by a team member following initial analysis. Four themes. The first of these, 'I had no choice' described the personal and ethical drivers which influenced students to report. 'Consequences for self' and 'Living with ambiguity' provide an account of why some students struggle to report, while 'Being prepared' summarised arguments both for and against reporting concerns. While there is a drive to promote openness in health care settings and an expectation that staff will raise concerns the reality is that the decision to do this can be very difficult. This is the case for some student nurses. Our results suggest ways in which educationalists might intervene to support students who witness poor practice to report. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. When the third is dead: memory, mourning, and witnessing in the aftermath of the holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Samuel

    2009-12-01

    The origins of psychoanalysis, as well as the concerns of our daily endeavors, center on engagement with the fate of the unbearable - be it wish, affect, or experience. In this paper, I explore psychological states and dynamics faced by survivors of genocide and their children in their struggle to sustain life in the midst of unremitting deadliness. Toward this continuous effort, I re-examine Freud's theoretical formulations concerning memory and mourning, elaborate André Green's concept of the 'Dead Mother', and introduce more recent work on the concepts of the 'third' and 'thirdness'. Throughout, my thoughts are informed by our clinical experience with the essential role of witnessing in sustaining life after massive trauma. I bring aspects of all these forms of knowing to reflections about a poem by Primo Levi entitled Unfinished business and to our own never finished business of avoiding denial while living in an age of genocide and under the aura of uncontained destructiveness.

  3. Witnesses in the consultation room - Experiences of peer group supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Helena Galina; Davidsen, Annette Sofie

    2017-09-01

    In Denmark group supervision for general practitioners is an established part of continuing professional development. Several different approaches are used, including Balint Groups and Bendix Groups. The aim of this paper is to describe the benefits and challenges of a peer group supervision model with the role of supervisor taken by group members in turn. The setting was a group of general practitioners using a patient-centred consultation model and video-recordings of consultations. As part of a larger study the first author studied this long-established group by observing three group sessions over a period of six months. She conducted two individual, semi-structured interviews with each general practitioner who presented consultations at the observed sessions, and held a group interview with the entire group at the end of the observation period. The interviews were recorded digitally and transcribed verbatim. The data were analysed using systematic text condensation. Participation seemed to improve communication skills and the ability to take a more patient-centred approach. It increased job satisfaction and prevented burnout. A non-judgemental environment, respect and acknowledgement of all participants were important for developing confidence and for supporting personal and professional development.

  4. A good patient?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Catherine; Scott, Kerry; Skovdal, Morten

    2015-01-01

    staff, 48 ART users, and 31 carers of HIV positive children, as well as field notes from over 100 h ofethnographic observation at health centres in rural Zimbabwe. Results: Characteristics of a good patient include obedience, patience, politeness, listening, enthusiasm fortreatment, intelligence......’ to accessgood care and ensure continued access to ART. Discussion: The notion of a ‘good ART patient’ can have positive effects on patient health outcomes. It is one ofthe only arenas of the clinic experience that ART patients can influence in their favour. However, for people notconforming to the norms...... of the ‘good patient persona’, the productive and health-enabling patient-nurserelationship may break down and be detrimental to the patient. Conclusion: We conclude that policy makers need to take heed of the social representations that governpatient-nurse relationships and their role in facilitating...

  5. Comparing alternative factor models of PTSD symptoms across earthquake victims and violent riot witnesses in China: evidence for a five-factor model proposed by Elhai et al. (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Jianxin; Shi, Zhanbiao; Zhou, Mingjie; Li, Zhongquan; Zhang, Kan; Liu, Zhengkui; Elhai, Jon D

    2011-08-01

    The present study investigated the factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms measured by the PTSD Checklist (PCL) in two large samples exposed to different traumatic events (an earthquake and a violent riot) from China. Despite the samples' difference in type of trauma, demographics, symptom severity, and elapsed time since trauma exposure, the results of a series of confirmatory factor analyses indicate that a five-factor intercorrelated model (intrusion, avoidance, numbing, dysphoric arousal, and anxious arousal) fit the data significantly better than the other alternative models including: the three-factor DSM-IV model, the four-factor numbing model (King et al., 1998), and the four-factor dysphoria model (Simms et al., 2002) in both samples. Implications and limitations regarding the results are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The South as a witness: the decline of the corbusian-carioca hegemony and the rise of the dissidence from São Paulo in Brazilian architecture in the 1950s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Haas Luccas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates a variant of brazilian architecture that has mistakenly been called "international style." International style was first adopted in São Paulo as the result of converging influences, including Mies van der Rohe, Marcel Breuer, the Case Study House Program, and Concretism. It defined an alternative to the then prevailing corbusian-carioca model. Its constructive tone sought features like synthesis, rationalism, atemporality, and, consequently, universality, moving away from both the corbusian matrix and the autochthonous features, which together had been responsible for the corbusian model's wide success. The influence of this alternative trend in modern architecture spread to other brazilian regions, including the city of Porto Alegre, where it was part of the winning bid for the Legislative Palace of the Rio Grande do Sul State (1958, designed by two architects from São Paulo. This project marked an important change in that state's architectural production, and helped create a turning point for Brazil, after which the overwhelming carioca school had to make room for dissident architectural style.

  7. Narrative Medicine as Witness for the Self-Telling Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charon, Rita

    2009-01-01

    By talking with patients in specialized ways and by touching their bodies in specialized ways, doctors may come to some provisional conclusions about the patients' medical conditions and then make some preliminary decisions about what diagnostic tests to have them endure and what medical treatments to initiate. In this article, the author…

  8. [Assessing a patient's pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Laurent

    2016-10-01

    Pain assessment has taken a predominant role in nursing practice. In day-to-day care, the way a patient in pain is approached and the assessment of their pain are sometimes subject to extensive questioning. The subjective part of pain is still often emphasised when the quantified assessment and the nurse's clinical observation are contradictory. The exhaustive gathering of information is key to an effective assessment of a patient's pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Family-witnessed resuscitation in emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients in their 2000 and 2005 Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary. Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiac Care.12 The AHA encourages family presence at the resuscitation, and recommends this in all AHA adult and paediatric life support courses. Methods. We studied the attitudes of emergency doctors working in Gauteng.

  10. Frequency of Behavior Witnessed and Conformity in an Everyday Social Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claidière, Nicolas; Bowler, Mark; Brookes, Sarah; Brown, Rebecca; Whiten, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Conformity is thought to be an important force in human evolution because it has the potential to stabilize cultural homogeneity within groups and cultural diversity between groups. However, the effects of such conformity on cultural and biological evolution will depend much on the particular way in which individuals are influenced by the frequency of alternative behavioral options they witness. In a previous study we found that in a natural situation people displayed a tendency to be ‘linear-conformist’. When visitors to a Zoo exhibit were invited to write or draw answers to questions on cards to win a small prize and we manipulated the proportion of text versus drawings on display, we found a strong and significant effect of the proportion of text displayed on the proportion of text in the answers, a conformist effect that was largely linear with a small non-linear component. However, although this overall effect is important to understand cultural evolution, it might mask a greater diversity of behavioral responses shaped by variables such as age, sex, social environment and attention of the participants. Accordingly we performed a further study explicitly to analyze the effects of these variables, together with the quality of the information participants' responses made available to further visitors. Results again showed a largely linear conformity effect that varied little with the variables analyzed. PMID:24950212

  11. Frequency of behavior witnessed and conformity in an everyday social context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claidière, Nicolas; Bowler, Mark; Brookes, Sarah; Brown, Rebecca; Whiten, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Conformity is thought to be an important force in human evolution because it has the potential to stabilize cultural homogeneity within groups and cultural diversity between groups. However, the effects of such conformity on cultural and biological evolution will depend much on the particular way in which individuals are influenced by the frequency of alternative behavioral options they witness. In a previous study we found that in a natural situation people displayed a tendency to be 'linear-conformist'. When visitors to a Zoo exhibit were invited to write or draw answers to questions on cards to win a small prize and we manipulated the proportion of text versus drawings on display, we found a strong and significant effect of the proportion of text displayed on the proportion of text in the answers, a conformist effect that was largely linear with a small non-linear component. However, although this overall effect is important to understand cultural evolution, it might mask a greater diversity of behavioral responses shaped by variables such as age, sex, social environment and attention of the participants. Accordingly we performed a further study explicitly to analyze the effects of these variables, together with the quality of the information participants' responses made available to further visitors. Results again showed a largely linear conformity effect that varied little with the variables analyzed.

  12. Frequency of behavior witnessed and conformity in an everyday social context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Claidière

    Full Text Available Conformity is thought to be an important force in human evolution because it has the potential to stabilize cultural homogeneity within groups and cultural diversity between groups. However, the effects of such conformity on cultural and biological evolution will depend much on the particular way in which individuals are influenced by the frequency of alternative behavioral options they witness. In a previous study we found that in a natural situation people displayed a tendency to be 'linear-conformist'. When visitors to a Zoo exhibit were invited to write or draw answers to questions on cards to win a small prize and we manipulated the proportion of text versus drawings on display, we found a strong and significant effect of the proportion of text displayed on the proportion of text in the answers, a conformist effect that was largely linear with a small non-linear component. However, although this overall effect is important to understand cultural evolution, it might mask a greater diversity of behavioral responses shaped by variables such as age, sex, social environment and attention of the participants. Accordingly we performed a further study explicitly to analyze the effects of these variables, together with the quality of the information participants' responses made available to further visitors. Results again showed a largely linear conformity effect that varied little with the variables analyzed.

  13. Silent witness, articulate collective: DNA evidence and the inference of visible traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'charek, Amade

    2008-11-01

    DNA profiling is a well-established technology for use in the criminal justice system, both in courtrooms and elsewhere. The fact that DNA profiles are based on non-coding DNA and do not reveal details about the physical appearance of an individual has contributed to the acceptability of this type of evidence. Its success in criminal investigation, combined with major innovations in the field of genetics, have contributed to a change of role for this type of evidence. Nowadays DNA evidence is not merely about identification, where trace evidence is compared to a sample taken from a suspect. An ever-growing role is anticipated for DNA profiling as an investigative tool, a technique aimed at generating a suspect where there is none. One of these applications is the inference of visible traits. As this article will show, racial classifications are at the heart of this application. The Netherlands and its legal regulation of 'externally visible traits' will serve as an example. It will be shown that, to make this technology work, a large number of actors has to be enrolled and their articulations invited. This indicates that instead of a 'silent witness', a DNA profile should rather be seen as an 'articulate collective'. Based on two cases, I argue that the normativity of visible traits is context-dependent. Taking into account the practices in which technology is put to use alerts us to novel ethical questions raised by their application.

  14. Alcohol and drug use among sexual minority college students and their heterosexual counterparts: the effects of experiencing and witnessing incivility and hostility on campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodford, Michael R; Krentzman, Amy R; Gattis, Maurice N

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that discrimination contributes to increased substance use among sexual minorities. Subtle discrimination and witnessing mistreatment, however, have received little attention. Using minority stress theory as a conceptual framework the authors examined the intersection of sexual orientation, experiencing and witnessing incivility and hostility, and students' alcohol and drug use. The authors hypothesized that experiencing/witnessing incivility/hostility would mediate the relationship between sexual minority status and drinking and drug use, as well as problematic use of these substances. Data were taken from a campus climate survey (n = 2497; age mean [M] = 23.19 years; 61% female; 17% sexual minorities). Controlling for demographics, logistic regressions depicted specifications for each path of the mediation analysis and bootstrapping was used to assess the significance of each sexual minority-mistreatment-drinking/drug use path. Experiencing incivility mediated the relationship between sexual minority status and problematic drinking. Sexual minority college students were more likely to personally experience incivility (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.51-2.33), which was associated with greater odds of problematic drinking (AOR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.35-2.00). The mediation path was significant at P sexual minority status and problematic drinking. Sexual minority college students were more likely to witness hostility (AOR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.48-2.36), which was associated with greater odds of problematic drinking (AOR = 1.53; 95% CI = 1.24-1.90). The mediation path was significant at P sexual minorities need to assess personal incivilities and witnessing interpersonal mistreatment, especially hostility. Campus climate interventions that address subtle discrimination as well as harassment and violence may help reduce problematic drinking.

  15. Efficient linear criterion for witnessing Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen nonlocality under many-setting local measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu-Lin; Zhen, Yi-Zheng; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Liu, Nai-Le; Chen, Kai; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-01-01

    The striking and distinctive nonlocal features of quantum mechanics were discovered by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) beyond classical physics. At the core of the EPR argument, it was "steering" that Schrödinger proposed in 1935. Besides its fundamental significance, quantum steering opens up a novel application for quantum communication. Recent work has precisely characterized its properties; however, witnessing the EPR nonlocality remains a big challenge under arbitrary local measurements. Here we present an alternative linear criterion and complement existing results to efficiently testify steering for high-dimensional system in practice. By developing a novel and analytical method to tackle the maximization problem in deriving the bound of a steering criterion, we show how observed correlations can reveal powerfully the EPR nonlocality in an easily accessed manner. Although the criteria is not necessary and sufficient, it can recover some of the known results under a few settings of local measurements and is applicable even if the size of the system or the number of measurement settings are high. Remarkably, a deep connection is explicitly established between the steering and amount of entanglement. The results promise viable paths for secure communication with an untrusted source, providing optional loophole-free tests of the EPR nonlocality for high-dimensional states, as well as motivating solutions for other related problems in quantum information theory.

  16. Naive Juveniles Are More Likely to Become Breeders after Witnessing Predator Mobbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesser, Michael; Suzuki, Toshitaka N

    2017-01-01

    Responding appropriately during the first predatory attack in life is often critical for survival. In many social species, naive juveniles acquire this skill from conspecifics, but its fitness consequences remain virtually unknown. Here we experimentally demonstrate how naive juvenile Siberian jays (Perisoreus infaustus) derive a long-term fitness benefit from witnessing knowledgeable adults mobbing their principal predator, the goshawk (Accipiter gentilis). Siberian jays live in family groups of two to six individuals that also can include unrelated nonbreeders. Field observations showed that Siberian jays encounter predators only rarely, and, indeed, naive juveniles do not respond to predator models when on their own but do when observing other individuals mobbing them. Predator exposure experiments demonstrated that naive juveniles had a substantially higher first-winter survival after observing knowledgeable group members mobbing a goshawk model, increasing their likelihood of acquiring a breeding position later in life. Previous research showed that naive individuals may learn from others how to respond to predators, care for offspring, or choose mates, generally assuming that social learning has long-term fitness consequences without empirical evidence. Our results demonstrate a long-term fitness benefit of vertical social learning for naive individuals in the wild, emphasizing its evolutionary importance in animals, including humans.

  17. Deposition dos and don'ts: strategies for the expert witness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutheil, Thomas G

    2012-12-01

    The deposition is an important stage in the legal process, which poses special challenges for the deponent. This article reviews those challenges from the standpoint of the expert witness, addressing the stages of the deposition, the deposing attorney's strategies, the role and goals of the expert witness serving as the deponent, the approach to answering the attorney's questions, strategies for clarifying or reframing those questions, and the approaches to reviewing the deposition after the transcript has been printed. The article emphasizes tricks and traps used by the deposing attorney and how to avoid them. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Alcohol-induced retrograde facilitation renders witnesses of crime less suggestible to misinformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawrylowicz, Julie; Ridley, Anne M; Albery, Ian P; Barnoth, Edit; Young, Jack

    2017-04-01

    Research has shown that alcohol can have both detrimental and facilitating effects on memory: intoxication can lead to poor memory for information encoded after alcohol consumption (anterograde amnesia) and may improve memory for information encoded before consumption (retrograde facilitation). This study examined whether alcohol consumed after witnessing a crime can render individuals less vulnerable to misleading post-event information (misinformation). Participants watched a simulated crime video. Thereafter, one third of participants expected and received alcohol (alcohol group), one third did not expect but received alcohol (reverse placebo), and one third did not expect nor receive alcohol (control). After alcohol consumption, participants were exposed to misinformation embedded in a written narrative about the crime. The following day, participants completed a cued-recall questionnaire about the event. Control participants were more likely to report misinformation compared to the alcohol and reverse placebo group. The findings suggest that we may oversimplify the effect alcohol has on suggestibility and that sometimes alcohol can have beneficial effects on eyewitness memory by protecting against misleading post-event information.

  19. Improvement of productivity in low volume production industry layout by using witness simulation software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffrey, V.; Mohamed, N. M. Z. N.; Rose, A. N. M.

    2017-10-01

    In almost all manufacturing industry, increased productivity and better efficiency of the production line are the most important goals. Most factories especially small scale factory has less awareness of manufacturing system optimization and lack of knowledge about it and uses the traditional way of management. Problems that are commonly identified in the factory are a high idle time of labour and also small production. This study is done in a Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) low volume production company. Data collection and problems affecting productivity and efficiency are identified. In this study, Witness simulation software is being used to simulate the layout and the output is focusing on the improvement of layout in terms of productivity and efficiency. In this study, the layout is rearranged by reducing the travel time from a workstation to another workstation. Then, the improved layout is modelled and the machine and labour statistic of both, original and improved layout is taken. Productivity and efficiency are calculated for both layout and then being compared.

  20. Case study: an ethical dilemma involving a dying patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacsi, Alsacia L

    2008-01-01

    Nursing often deals with ethical dilemmas in the clinical arena. A case study demonstrates an ethical dilemma faced by healthcare providers who care for and treat Jehovah's Witnesses who are placed in a critical situation due to medical life-threatening situations. A 20-year-old, pregnant, Black Hispanic female presented to the Emergency Department (ED) in critical condition following a single-vehicle car accident. She exhibited signs and symptoms of internal bleeding and was advised to have a blood transfusion and emergency surgery in an attempt to save her and the fetus. She refused to accept blood or blood products and rejected the surgery as well. Her refusal was based on a fear of blood transfusion due to her belief in Bible scripture. The ethical dilemma presented is whether to respect the patient's autonomy and compromise standards of care or ignore the patient's wishes in an attempt to save her life. This paper presents the clinical case, identifies the ethical dilemma, and discusses virtue ethical theory and principles that apply to this situation.

  1. Transitional Justice: History-Telling, Collective Memory, and the Victim-Witness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrisje Brants

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the complex, inherently political, and often contradictory processes of truth-finding, history-telling, and formation of collective memory through transitional justice. It explores tensions between history-telling and the normative goals of truth commissions and international criminal courts, taking into account the increasing importance attributed to victims as witnesses of history. The legal space these instruments of transitional justice offer is determined by both their historical and political roots, and specific goals and procedures. Because the legal space that truth commissions offer for history-telling ismore flexible and their report open to public debate, they may open up alternative public spaces and enable civil society to contest the master narrative. The legal truth laid down in the rulings of an international criminal court is by definition closed. The verdict of a court is definite and authoritative; closure, not continued debate about what it has established as the truth, is its one and only purpose. In conclusion, the article calls for a critical appraisal of transitional justice as acclaimed mediator of collective memories in post-conflict societies.

  2. Personal characteristics and contextual factors that determine "helping," "joining in," and "doing nothing" when witnessing cyberbullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cleemput, Katrien; Vandebosch, Heidi; Pabian, Sara

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we investigated several determinants of bystanders' reactive behaviors when confronted with cyberbullying using self-reported data from 2,333 Flemish 9-16 year olds. Structural equation modeling showed that adolescents that had joined in on the cyberbullying were older, had lower levels of empathy and were more likely to have been involved in cyberbullying or traditional bullying as perpetrators. Adolescents who had helped the victim were younger, had higher levels of empathy and were more likely to have been a victim of cyberbullying or traditional bullying in the past months. Adolescents that did nothing when they witnessed cyberbullying, were also older, showed lower levels of empathy and were less likely to have been a victim of traditional bullying. Social anxiety was not related to joining in, helping and remaining passive. In the second part of the analysis, we found that bystanders' passive behavior could be explained in more detail by moral disengagement theory and other contextual factors. In the discussion, the implications of the findings for research on cyberbullying are addressed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Maxillofacial Surgeon as Fact Witness for Medico-Legal Cases: Indian Scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedarnath, N S; Shruthi, R

    2015-12-01

    An Oral and Maxillofacial surgeon at any time during the practice will encounter medicolegal cases (MLC). There are lacunae in the knowledge and understanding of the correct method of dealing with such cases. Many of the practitioners are apprehensive and anxious as they have to interact with individuals and systems outside the normal realm of practice. In today's arena, it is of utmost importance to be aware of legal system and law of the land. An OMF surgeon needs to have thorough understanding in recording and maintenance of the details of all MLCs and presenting the same in the court. Professional guidelines for expert witness are often not well recognised as those relating to the clinical practice. Surgeon has an obligation to conduct him/herself to highest ethical standards. This article provides insight into the details of registration of MLC, examination and recording of injuries, collecting medico-legal evidences and writing a medico legal report. Also discusses the court proceedings and possible questions that may be faced by the surgeon in the court.

  4. From De Facto Fact-finder to Expert Witness? Transition of Forensic Examination in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Y Man

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Forensic examination plays an important role in China's judicial system, especially in the fact-finding process of both civil and criminal proceedings. Since 2005, this system has experienced gradual, yet significant changes. This paper seeks to examine the major themes of these changes in the context of the continued conceptual reformulation and structural realignment of civil and criminal procedures and the ongoing effort to codify evidence law with transforming impact on China's judicial system and culture. Emphasis is given to the transition of the forensic examination system from an officially (both administrative and judicial administered fact-finding mechanism with powerful impact on the courts' truth-seeking activities to, at least partially, an expert witness system with significant participation and control by the parties' to judicial proceedings. A convergence of influence from both the continental inquisitorial tradition and the common law adversarial structure appears to have strongly informed the process and direction of the Chinese forensic examination reform. This paper attempts to explain the reasons for this convergence of influence, identify the trend and direction of this development, and provide observations and suggestions for further improvement of the forensic examination system in several key aspects with particular reference to the legal principles and judicial practices under the Federal Rules of Evidence of the United States.

  5. A survey of the impact of disruptive behaviors and communication defects on patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, Alan H; O'Daniel, Michelle

    2008-08-01

    A recent survey was conducted to assess the significance of disruptive behaviors and their effect on communication and collaboration and impact on patient care. VHA West Coast administered a 22-question survey instrument--Nurse-Physician: Impact of Disruptive Behavior on Patient Care--to a convenience sample. Of the 388 member hospitals (in four VHA regions) invited, 102 hospitals participated in the survey (26% response rate). Results from surveys received from January 2004 though March 2007 are represented. Of the 4,530 participants, 2,846 listed their titles as nurses, 944 as physicians, 40 as administrative executives, and 700 as "other." A total of 77% of the respondents reported that they had witnessed disruptive behavior in physicians--88% of the nurses and 51% of the physicians. Sixty-five percent of the respondents reported witnessing disruptive behavior in nurses at their hospitals--73% of the nurses and 48% of the physicians. Sixty-seven percent of the respondents agreed that disruptive behaviors were linked with adverse events; the result for medical errors was 71%, and patient mortality, 27%. The results from the survey show that disruptive behaviors lead to potentially preventable adverse events, errors, compromises in safety and quality, and patient mortality. Strategies to address disruptive behaviors should (1) prevent disruptive events from occurring, (2) deal with events in real time to prevent staff or patient harm, and (3) initiate postevent review, actions, and follow-up. Twelve recommendations--including recognition and awareness, policies and procedures, incident reporting, education and training, communication tools, discussion forums, and intervention strategies--address what hospitals and other organizations can do now to address disruptive behaviors.

  6. Gospel in the air : 50 years of christian witness through radio in the Arab world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strengholt, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Gospel in the Air is the first study of Christian Arab radio since Protestants began broadcasting Christian programs to the Arab World in the 1950s. It describes 50 years of history of this particular form of ecumenical and evangelical Christian witness in the Arab World. This study is the result of

  7. 12 CFR 19.184 - Service of subpoena and payment of witness expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Service of subpoena and payment of witness expenses. 19.184 Section 19.184 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Formal Investigations § 19.184 Service of subpoena and payment of...

  8. Witnessing and re-enacting in Cambodia: reflection on shifting testimonies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.D.F. Benzaquen-Gautier (Stéphanie)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThirty years after the collapse of the Khmer Rouge regime (1975-1979) how do Cambodians cope with the traumatic legacy of Pol Pot's reign of terror? What forms does witnessing take on in post-socialist and transitional Cambodia as senior Khmer Rouge leaders await prosecution at the

  9. Associations among Pubertal Development, Empathic Ability, and Neural Responses While Witnessing Peer Rejection in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, Carrie L.; Eisenberger, Naomi I.; Pfeifer, Jennifer H.; Colich, Natalie L.; Dapretto, Mirella

    2013-01-01

    Links among concurrent and longitudinal changes in pubertal development and empathic ability from ages 10 to 13 and neural responses while witnessing peer rejection at age 13 were examined in 16 participants. More advanced pubertal development at age 13, and greater longitudinal increases in pubertal development, related to increased activity in…

  10. Proofing the ban on ‘witness proofing': did the ICC get it right?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasiliev, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the reasons for disaccord between the ICC and the more seasoned international criminal tribunals on the issue of allowing substantive preparation of witnesses for testifying in court. The rationales behind the opposing decisions and the ensuing debate on the legitimacy and

  11. Children's Physiological and Emotional Reactions to Witnessing Bullying Predict Bystander Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhight, Lydia R.; Hubbard, Julie A.; Hyde, Christopher T.

    2013-01-01

    Study goals were to explore whether children clustered into groups based on reactions to witnessing bullying and to examine whether these reactions predicted bullying intervention. Seventy-nine children ("M" = 10.80 years) watched bullying videos in the laboratory while their heart rate (HR) was measured, and they self-reported on…

  12. Transgressing the Witness at Three Sites of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This article examines a performance event, "Life is Perfect," by Paul+a (Paul Jeff and Sarah Dowling), which took place on 2 October 2004 over a period of 24 hours at The Peterstone Court Hotel in mid-Wales. The site of this work was then revisited by TRAWS (The Inter-University research group for Performance in Wales) as part of an…

  13. 16 CFR 1025.39 - Orders requiring witnesses to testify or provide other information and granting immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... provide other information and granting immunity. 1025.39 Section 1025.39 Commercial Practices CONSUMER... Process § 1025.39 Orders requiring witnesses to testify or provide other information and granting immunity... witness or deponent to testify or provide other information upon being granted immunity from prosecution...

  14. Intoxicated witnesses: Testing the validity of the Alcohol Myopia Theory.

    OpenAIRE

    Crossland, Deborah; Kneller, Wendy; Wilcock, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    In an assessment of the Alcohol Myopia Theory, the effects of alcohol on an eyewitness’s recall of high and low salience details were investigated. In laboratory study 1, participants watched a staged videoed theft whilst either sober (control or placebo), above (MBAC=0.09%) or below (MBAC=0.06%) the UK drink-drive limit. A week later a free-recall and recognition test were completed. Intoxication was not found to reduce recall accuracy using either recall task. In Study 2, while on a night o...

  15. Alcohol and drug use among sexual minority college students and their heterosexual counterparts: the effects of experiencing and witnessing incivility and hostility on campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodford MR

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Michael R Woodford1, Amy R Krentzman2, Maurice N Gattis31School of Social Work, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 3School of Social Work, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USAPurpose: Research suggests that discrimination contributes to increased substance use among sexual minorities. Subtle discrimination and witnessing mistreatment, however, have received little attention. Using minority stress theory as a conceptual framework the authors examined the intersection of sexual orientation, experiencing and witnessing incivility and hostility, and students' alcohol and drug use. The authors hypothesized that experiencing/witnessing incivility/hostility would mediate the relationship between sexual minority status and drinking and drug use, as well as problematic use of these substances.Methods: Data were taken from a campus climate survey (n = 2497; age mean [M] = 23.19 years; 61% female; 17% sexual minorities. Controlling for demographics, logistic regressions depicted specifications for each path of the mediation analysis and bootstrapping was used to assess the significance of each sexual minority-mistreatment-drinking/drug use path.Results: Experiencing incivility mediated the relationship between sexual minority status and problematic drinking. Sexual minority college students were more likely to personally experience incivility (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.51–2.33, which was associated with greater odds of problematic drinking (AOR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.35–2.00. The mediation path was significant at P < 0.001. Further, witnessing hostility mediated the relationship between sexual minority status and problematic drinking. Sexual minority college students were more likely to witness hostility (AOR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.48–2.36, which was associated with greater odds of problematic drinking (AOR = 1.53; 95% CI = 1

  16. 32 CFR 719.138 - Fees of civilian witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... board to redress injuries to property, or (5) Military or civil officer before whom a deposition is taken. The public voucher must be accompanied by a subpoena or invitational orders (Joint Travel... authorized by Joint Travel Regulations. (j) Supplemental construction of section. Nothing in this paragraph...

  17. Students as Expert Witnesses of Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busher, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    Student voice is a key component in constructing discourses of respect, empowerment and citizenship in schools. It can help schools to become learning communities, rather than knowledge factories, that serve the needs of the majority of their members, the students, as successfully as possible and prepare them for future lives in a wide variety of…

  18. From naturalism to neorealism: Bernardo Kordon, witness of his time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Lourdes Gasillón

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the narrative text of the Argentinian writer Bernard Kordon, whose common feature is the presence of marginalized people and places, typical of Buenos Aires in the 50's and 60's of the last century. The writer narrates and describes (through the narrator and through the other characters in a realistic way, which is not accusing or criticizing, but wants to show a variety of everyday situations, even with the use of a simple and sometimes coarse language. The heroes are mostly members of low-or middle-class and represent a way of life of a large part of the population of the Buenos Aires in that historical period.

  19. Witnessing eigenstates for quantum simulation of Hamiltonian spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santagati, Raffaele; Wang, Jianwei; Gentile, Antonio A.; Paesani, Stefano; Wiebe, Nathan; McClean, Jarrod R.; Morley-Short, Sam; Shadbolt, Peter J.; Bonneau, Damien; Silverstone, Joshua W.; Tew, David P.; Zhou, Xiaoqi; O’Brien, Jeremy L.; Thompson, Mark G.

    2018-01-01

    The efficient calculation of Hamiltonian spectra, a problem often intractable on classical machines, can find application in many fields, from physics to chemistry. We introduce the concept of an “eigenstate witness” and, through it, provide a new quantum approach that combines variational methods and phase estimation to approximate eigenvalues for both ground and excited states. This protocol is experimentally verified on a programmable silicon quantum photonic chip, a mass-manufacturable platform, which embeds entangled state generation, arbitrary controlled unitary operations, and projective measurements. Both ground and excited states are experimentally found with fidelities >99%, and their eigenvalues are estimated with 32 bits of precision. We also investigate and discuss the scalability of the approach and study its performance through numerical simulations of more complex Hamiltonians. This result shows promising progress toward quantum chemistry on quantum computers. PMID:29387796

  20. Recusant Witnesses and the McCarthyite Congressional Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbett Ross J.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper charts the Warren Court’s handling of those convicted for contempt of Congress at the urging of the House Un-American Activities Committee and the Senate Subcommittee on Internal Security. An examination of the arguments made in the Court’s various opinions—and by whom—reveals that the outcomes in these cases cannot be explained solely by the changing membership of the Court. Even when there were the votes to support the vigorous denunciations of the McCarthyite congressional investigations that found expression in dissents inspired by Watkins v. United States, the Warren Court took a more measured tone. That more measured tone was an attempt to avoid a repeat of the fractured Court amidst a public backlash that Warren had provoked with Watkins and marked a return to the Court’s pre-Watkins use of formalism to bring about the just result.

  1. Wits Post Graduate Symposium Poster - iGEM

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Millroy, L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This document is a poster providing details of the 2010 International Genetically Engineered Machines (iGEM) competition. The origins of the competition, as well as criteria, judging, sponsors, topic and team, are briefly described....

  2. United States Federal Guidance on Witness Protection in Human Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    November 2014, http://www.ilo.org/global/topics/forced- labour/lang--en/index.htm; Walk of Freedom Foundation, Global Slavery Index 2014 ( Australia : Hope...for Children Organization Australia , 2014), 1, accessed 28 November 2014, http://d3mj66ag90b5fy.cloudfront.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Global_... homeless youth lack a strong support network and run to unfamiliar environments where trafficking flourishes.85 A study in Chicago found that seventy-two

  3. Exposure to violence: psychological and academic correlates in child witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, H; Malmud, E; Brodsky, N L; Giannetta, J

    2001-12-01

    Inner-city children are frequently exposed to violence; however, there are few data regarding the psychological and academic correlates of such exposure in young children at school entry. To document exposure to violence in inner-city children aged 7 years; assess their feelings of distress; and evaluate the relationships of exposure to violence with school performance, behavior, and self-esteem. A study center in an inner-city hospital. One hundred nineteen inner-city children evaluated at age 7 years; 119 caregivers (biological and foster). As part of a longitudinal study, children were administered the following by a masked examiner: Things I Have Seen and Heard (TISH) to assess exposure to violence; Levonn, a cartoon-based interview for assessing children's distress symptoms; and the Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventory, Second Edition. School performance was assessed by school reports and child behavior by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Parent Report Form, and the Teacher Report Form. Caregivers for children were administered the parent report version of the Checklist of Children's Distress Symptoms (CCDS-PRV) as well as the CBCL Parent Report Form. Exposure to violence (TISH); feelings of distress (Levonn); school performance; behavior (CBCL Parent Report Form and CBCL Teacher Report Form); and self-esteem (Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventory). We found that these children were frequently exposed to violence. For example, 75% had heard gun shots, 60% had seen drug deals, 18% had seen a dead body outside, and 10% had seen a shooting or stabbing in the home (TISH). Many showed signs of depression and anxiety; eg, 61% worried some or a lot of the time that they might get killed or die and 19% sometimes wished they were dead (Levonn). Higher exposure to violence (TISH Total Violence score) was correlated with higher Levonn composite scores for depression and anxiety and with lower self-esteem (Pperformance in school, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and

  4. Discerning truth from deception: The sincere witness profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorella Giusberti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last twenty years, we have assisted to a growing interest in the detection of verbal cues under deception. In this context, we focused our attention on the truth vs. deception topic in adults. In particular, we were interested in discrepant findings concerning some verbal indicators. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether different experimental designs may yield different results regarding the presence or absence of CBCA criteria. Forty participants were shown a video of a robbery and were asked to give a truthful and a deceitful statement of the criminal event. The participants’ performances were recorded in order to analyze content of the reports. Results showed more changes in verbal behaviour under within-subjects design compared to between-subjects one, though the presence/absence of some criteria was the same across the two statistical procedures. The different results yielded by between- and within-subjects analyses can provide some hints as regards the discrepancy in deception literature on verbal cues. Implications for applied settings are discussed.

  5. The Instability of Astrophysics Witnessed in the Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwit, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Scientific progress entails instabilities that advance a field; but excessive instability, often arising from misunderstandings, thwarts planning and adds cost. The history of 20th century astronomy provides insight on several factors that make astronomy and astrophysics exceptionally unstable. A fundamental source of instability is astronomy’s inability, sometimes for decades at a time, to pursue discoveries of rare events systematically. Such delays inject levels of uncertainty in an observational science that are more readily avoided in the experimental sciences. Beneficial instabilities can arise through the import of novel theories and tools from sister sciences, industry or the military. Such imports, however, can also destabilize the field. Astronomy comprises many distinct disciplines, which need to interact coherently for a broader understanding of the Cosmos to emerge. As the complexity of these disciplines’ undertakings increases, and their respective uses of tools and vocabularies diverge, misunderstandings arise to threaten coherence. Misinformation can then cascade back and forth, with consequences similar to those of failures in electrical power grinds and financial meltdowns. A balance needs to be sought, which protects astrophysics against such failures, while permitting ready discourse so the whole field can benefit from genuine advances in its respective disciplines. I will discuss means by which the benefits of instabilities advancing the field may be retained while avoiding more damaging instabilities.

  6. The OSIRIS-REx Contamination Control and Witness Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, J. P.; Adelman, L.; Ajluni, T. M.; Andronikov, A. V.; Ballou, D. M.; Bartels, A. E.; Beshore, E.; Bierhaus, E. B.; Boynton, W. V.; Brucato, J. R.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The OSIRIS-REx mission (Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security Regolith Explorer) is the third NASA New Frontiers mission. It is scheduled for launch in 2016. The primary objective of the mission is to return at least 60 g of "pristine" material from the B-type near- Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu, which is spectrally similar to organic-rich CI or CM meteorites [1]. The study of these samples will advance our understanding of materials available for the origin of life on Earth or elsewhere. The spacecraft will rendezvous with Bennu in 2018 and spend at least a year characterizing the asteroid before executing a maneuver to recover a sample of regolith in the touch-and-go sample acquisition mechanism (TAGSAM). The TAGSAM and sample is stowed in the sample return capsule (SRC) and returned to Earth in 2023.

  7. METALS IN THE ICM: WITNESSES OF CLUSTER FORMATION AND EVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Lovisari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The baryonic composition of galaxy clusters and groups is dominated by a hot, X-ray emitting Intra-Cluster Medium (ICM. The mean metallicity of the ICM has been found to be roughly 0.3 ÷ 0.5 times the solar value, therefore a large fraction of this gas cannot be of purely primordial origin. Indeed, the distribution and amount of metals in the ICM is a direct consequence of the past history of star formation in the cluster galaxies and of the processes responsible for the injection of enriched material into the ICM. We here shortly summarize the current views on the chemical enrichment, focusing on the observational evidence in terms of metallicity measurements in clusters, spatial metallicity distribution and evolution, and expectations from future missions.

  8. Witnesses to the truth: Mark’s point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deven K. MacDonald

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a narratological reading of the Gospel of Mark with special attention given to the role, function and rhetorical impact of point of view. It is argued that through the use of ‘witnesses’ ranging from the omniscient narrator, to the character God, to the Old Testament Scriptures, the author of Mark presents a point of view that his implied reader would find difficult to counter. In addition to this, the article demonstrates that the motifs of allegiance, misunderstanding and opposition in the Second Gospel are almost entirely confined to the adoption or rejection of the point of view being advocated for by the author of Mark. In the end, it is shown that only in the death of Jesus on the cross and the subsequent ‘centurion’s confession’ are the motifs resolved and is the point of view of Mark accepted by a human character.

  9. [Eye witnesses and the flagellants in the year 1349].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen-Sieben, R

    1999-01-01

    Deeply affected and often desperately afraid, many contemporaries recorded their observations and emotions. These reports--no matter how obviously subjective they sometimes were--provide valuable information about what happened during the plague pandemic of 1348-1350. Thus many of our fellow countrymen left behind a direct testimony: Bartholomew of Bruges, a canon in Andenne; Gilles li Muisis, the abbot of Saint Martin in Tournai; Ludovicus Sanctus of Beringen; Simon de Couvin, a canon in Liège; Jan van Boendale, an alderman's clerk in Antwerp; John of Burgundy (also known as John of Mandeville), professor of medicine in Liège; but also texts in Middle Dutch that were not known up to now, and therefore not published, such as the important thesis by Arent Schryver, licentiate in medicine (see next article); an account in verse in the Brabant Chronicle, as well as contemporary testimonies in a different language that have been translated into our language, such as that by John of Eschinden, Johannes de Rupescissa or Guy de Chauliac (who had had the plague himself). They describe the precautions, the causes (God, a comet, an eclipse of the sun, the polluted water, the planets, the air), the symptoms, the social groups most likely to be affected (the youth, the lower classes, the clergy), the high mortality, the problems of hygiene,the social and administrative chaos, the general panic, the flight of countless people. One of the most virulent reactions led to the emergence of the flagellant sect. They originated from Hungary and advanced in an unstoppable advance with a growing number of followers as far as our country, singing, praying, dancing and flaying themselves until they drew blood. We only recently discovered what they sang in Dutch: very recently, a unique roll of parchment was discovered that they carried in their processions, and that contains the text of their songs and a flagellant sermon. The existence of this valuable document and its contents are

  10. 26 Analyzing Counsel/Witness Discourse in Nnewi, Anambra State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    To them, one cannot approach meaning from the discourse analysis perspective without recourse to pragmatics; these two are inter-related. A cursory look at these two disciplines would suffice to establish their inter- relatedness and how they form the bases for this study. Discourse analysis is concerned with understanding ...

  11. Bearing Witness to Differends: Virginia Woolf and Postmodern Composition Pedagogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Lisa L.

    Borrowing from Heidegger and following Pamela Caughie and Victor Vitanza, the work of Virginia Woolf can be linked to composition pedagogies to ask: "What are composition instructors still not thinking in relation to the postmodern?" An answer may be found through postmodern rereadings of Woolf's "A Room of One's Own" and…

  12. Witnessing "Brown": Pursuit of an Equity Agenda in American Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anne; Kozleski, Elizabeth B.

    2005-01-01

    The 50th anniversary of the "Brown v. Board of Education" decision provides a critical opportunity to reflect on "Brown's" importance, impact, and the lessons it provides on achieving racial desegregation and its relationship to the progressive inclusion of students with disabilities into public schools across the United…

  13. [Family law, witness of the analysis of prenatal paternity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez López, Raquel; Marfil, Jorge A; González Poveda, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    The authors analyse from a scientific and legal perspective, how paternity analysis in the prenatal period can be reliably performed exactly the same as with newborns, and therefore, establish kinship in accordance with established regulations. In other words, there is an option for those who might not want to wait until birth to establish kinship.

  14. Family-witnessed resuscitation in emergency departments: Doctors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion. Short-course training such as postgraduate advanced life support and other continued professional development activities should have a positive effect on this practice. The more experienced doctors are and the longer they work in emergency medicine, the more comfortable they appear to be with the concept ...

  15. Calcidius, witness to Greek medical theories: eye anatomy and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhouche, Béatrice

    2014-01-01

    Calcidius is the only exegete of Plato's Timaeus whose commentary on this Greek dialogue concerned with eyesight has not been lost. This document is all the more valuable since the Latin version is the only testimony regarding theories of and treatments for eye diseases--two domains in which, as can be deduced from the terms used, the commentator is dependent on Greek. The part of the commentary about eyesight is also worthy of interest because it is the only one that openly attacks the iuniores with an overtly hostile tone. We propose to study Calcidius' exegesis of Plato's Timaeus, focusing on Calcidius' portrayal of Greek ophthalmological theories and practices and his representation of a group of people he openly attacks.

  16. Loving God… unto death: The witness of the early Christians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rosell

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the social and theological dynamics that drove early Christ-followers to understand martyrdom as being a legitimate and honourable way by means of which to demonstrate love for God to the uttermost limits. Martyrdom is rooted much earlier in the Jewish tradition, though it received new impetus from the second century AD onwards. The study seeks to trace its raison d’être within the pages of the New Testament, both in the sayings of Jesus and the letters of Paul. It is argued that the apostle’s theology of suffering provided sufficient grounds for such an understanding, which finds in Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch, one of its major representatives. Finally, the study seeks to reflect on the plausible actualisation of non-bloody martyrdom for today’s Christian discipleship, if it has any relevance at all.

  17. Loving God… unto death: The witness of the early Christians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rosell

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the social and theological dynamics that drove early Christ-followers to understand martyrdom as being a legitimate and honourable way by means of which to demonstrate love for God to the uttermost limits. Martyrdom is rooted much earlier in the Jewish tradition, though it received new impetus from the second century AD onwards. The study seeks to trace its raison d’être within the pages of the New Testament, both in the sayings of Jesus and the letters of Paul. It is argued that the apostle’s theology of suffering provided sufficient grounds for such an understanding, which finds in Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch, one of its major representatives. Finally, the study seeks to reflect on the plausible actualisation of non-bloody martyrdom for today’s Christian discipleship, if it has any relevance at all.

  18. Lives rendered invisible: Bearing witness to human suffering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladjo Ivanovic

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the ethical challenges involved in the ways public representation structures our experiences of atrocities and facilitates an adequate awareness of and response towards the suffering of others. It points out that such an analysis should not exhaust itself in answering what makes public representations of human suffering ethically suspicious and intolerable, but should rather extend this task by clarifying how the public forms sentiments about their social and political reality by elucidating under which conditions public representation promotes broader political agendas. One of the central tenets of human rights advocacy is the widespread conviction that exposure to images and stories of human rights abuse has a mobilizing effect on western audience(s whose exposure to such knowledge can motivate them to intervene and prevent future atrocities. In order to assess the basic implications of such a conviction we must answer at least three principal clusters of questions. First, how do public representations of atrocities affect individuals and their capacities to conceive and respond to social injustices and the suffering of others? Under what circumstances may agents respond effectively to shocking content? Second, how do social powers operate within the field of perception in order to control how the viewing public is affected? And how do these effects inform and galvanize political support or opposition regarding concrete historical events? Finally, what can be said about the responsibilities of visual representation? Whose agency is it that images inform, and what reforms are necessary to make representations of suffering ethically effective means to encourage better acknowledgment of individual and collective responsibilities that would motivate the public to meet its moral and political obligations? This paper ultimately suggests that in order for politically implicated images to have an immediate critical effect on

  19. The Evidence of What Cannot Be Heard: Reading Trauma into and Testimony against the Witness Stand at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Viebach

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the silences and the gaps that cut through witness testimonies at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR by applying a trauma lens to the narratives that emerge on the witness stand and by contrasting those with a survivor testimony. It compares the recollection of a traumatic experience with the production of legal meaning. To do so, it focuses specifically on a survivor testimony shared with the author at the Rwandan Nyange memorial in 2014 where the crimes in question happened, and the ICTR The Prosecutor vs Athanase Seromba trial that relates to the events at that particular site. This paper shows that the experience of trauma not only challenges the language of law but also blurs the legal narratives and functions of tribunals like the ICTR.

  20. Agents of Change: Interpreters as Witnesses of Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Mullamaa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article we would like to share the preliminary results of our on-going research on the memories of interpreters. From 2011-2012 we have carried out in-depth interviews with representatives of two different samples: experienced dialogue interpreters a in Estonia and  b in Sweden, most of whom have worked from the 1960s till today. This article sums up the preliminary results on the sample from Estonia. The focus is on the development of the interpreter´s role as reflecting the changes in society, cultural and social practices. As for the theoretical background, we view the processes within the framework of Transition Studies (cf. Lauristin, Vihalemm 2010;  Kennedy 2002. The methodological framework is ethnographic research. More specifically:  we combine narrative studies and memory research ( Kõresaar, Kirss 2004; Riessman 1993, Middleton, Brown 2005, Gilbert 2008; method:  semi-structured interviews (cf. Nunan 1992, Van Maanen 1983, Gilbert 2008. The analysis of our on-going research also enables us to test and share with our readers the pros and cons of the chosen methodology and methods.

  1. Anatexis witnessed post-collisional evolution of the Dabie orogen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haijin; Zhang, Junfeng

    2017-09-01

    Crustal anatexis plays a significant role in the processes of orogenic evolution. We carried out a combined study of structure, U-Pb age and trace element on zircons from leucosome-based migmatites in the North Dabie zone to provide information on crustal anatexis during the evolution of the Dabie orogen. Protoliths of the migmatites are Middle Neoproterozoic (ca. 780-710 Ma) magmatic rocks that belong to the South China Block. They underwent a relatively low-T eclogite-facies metamorphism during the Middle to Late Triassic (235-225 Ma) continental subduction and collision. An over-thickened crustal root was formed and the Dabie orogen entered into the stage of post-collisional evolution after the Triassic. The earliest anatexis occurred at ca. 185 Ma; the anatexis in the Jurassic was weak and gentle due to episodic flow of metamorphic fluids with a prolonged interval. Nevertheless, it indicates that the crustal root started to become ductile and unstable at that time. Extensive epsodic anatexis occurred between ca. 160 Ma and 110 Ma. As the anatexis became stronger, more extensive and uninterrupted, the anatectic products changed gradually from low-degree migmatites to high-degree migmatites. The beginning of extensive anatexis at ∼160 Ma marks the beginning of orogenic activation. The duration of ca. 160-145 Ma corresponds to the orogenic activation when the collision-thickened crust still remained, whereas the period of ca. 145-110 Ma is in accordance with the orogenic collapse. The peak period of anatexis (ca. 145-125 Ma) was accompanied by plutonism, high-T granulite-facies metamorphism, extensional uplift and subsequent delamination of crustal root. After that, the anatexis trailed off until ca. 110 Ma. The long lasting multistage anatexis recorded in the migmatites has witnessed the evolution of the Dabie orogen in the postcollisional stage.

  2. From Bearing Witness to Art Exhibitions to Inspiring the Understanding of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burko, D.

    2016-12-01

    I intend to demonstrate how artists such as myself can influence the public discourse on climate change. I believe aesthetically compelling visualizations can transcend data and language. I will speak specifically to how I communicate scientific research to diverse populations. I have much to share since first speaking in 2012 on the Panel "Communication of Science through Art: Raison d'Etre for Interdisciplinary Communication". I then illustrated how I utilized visual cues such as archival evidence in the form of repeats, geological charts of recessional lines, graphs, symbols and Landsat maps in my large scale paintings and photographs and inspired learning. I continue to develop visual strategies delivering information on an emotional/non-verbal level. Now 4 years later, I've added the most dramatic layer to my creative process: bearing witness. I've been to the three largest ice fields in the world: Greenland, Antarctica and Argentina's Patagonia, observing the unprecedented pace of glacial melt. Those expeditions feed my practice, leading to exhibitions that begin a dialog with an audience not initially interested in science. In the past 5 years my work has appeared in 6 solo and 19 group exhibits all devoted to the environment. I make myself present in universities, museums and galleries to explain what the images are about. I require universities to include a public component: an all-college lecture or panel where the geography/environmental/sociology/geology departments participate with broad student involvement. I believe that such endeavors are worthwhile and can be models for further efforts to educate an unsuspecting audience. Artists can bridge the gap communicating to a public of art appreciators, nonscientists - how easy it is to understand geology and global warming. I believe we can even inspire attitudinal change. Aside from personal examples I will include other artists and exhibition venues contributing to this phenomenon.

  3. Progress in Teaching Physician–Patient Communication in Medical School; Personal Observations and Experience of a Medical Educator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimon Glick

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the enormous progress of Western medicine during the past century there has not be a concomitant rise in the public’s satisfaction with the medical profession. Much of the discontent relates to problems in physician–patient communication. The multiple advantages of good communication have been clearly demonstrated by numerous careful studies. While the past few decades have witnessed much more attention given to teaching communication skills in medical schools, there are a number of factors that create new problems in physician–patient communication and counteract the positive teaching efforts. The “hidden curriculum”, the increased emphasis on technology, the greater time pressures, and the introduction of the computer in the interface between physician and patient present new challenges for the teaching of physician-patient communication.

  4. Progress in teaching physician-patient communication in medical school; personal observations and experience of a medical educator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Shimon

    2011-04-01

    In spite of the enormous progress of Western medicine during the past century there has not be a concomitant rise in the public's satisfaction with the medical profession. Much of the discontent relates to problems in physician-patient communication. The multiple advantages of good communication have been clearly demonstrated by numerous careful studies. While the past few decades have witnessed much more attention given to teaching communication skills in medical schools, there are a number of factors that create new problems in physician-patient communication and counteract the positive teaching efforts. The "hidden curriculum", the increased emphasis on technology, the greater time pressures, and the introduction of the computer in the interface between physician and patient present new challenges for the teaching of physician-patient communication.

  5. Estimating flood discharge using witness movies in post-flood hydrological surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Coz, Jérôme; Hauet, Alexandre; Le Boursicaud, Raphaël; Pénard, Lionel; Bonnifait, Laurent; Dramais, Guillaume; Thollet, Fabien; Braud, Isabelle

    2015-04-01

    The estimation of streamflow rates based on post-flood surveys is of paramount importance for the investigation of extreme hydrological events. Major uncertainties usually arise from the absence of information on the flow velocities and from the limited spatio-temporal resolution of such surveys. Nowadays, after each flood occuring in populated areas home movies taken from bridges, river banks or even drones are shared by witnesses through Internet platforms like YouTube. Provided that some topography data and additional information are collected, image-based velocimetry techniques can be applied to some of these movie materials, in order to estimate flood discharges. As a contribution to recent post-flood surveys conducted in France, we developed and applied a method for estimating velocities and discharges based on the Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry (LSPIV) technique. Since the seminal work of Fujita et al. (1998), LSPIV applications to river flows were reported by a number of authors and LSPIV can now be considered a mature technique. However, its application to non-professional movies taken by flood witnesses remains challenging and required some practical developments. The different steps to apply LSPIV analysis to a flood home movie are as follows: (i) select a video of interest; (ii) contact the author for agreement and extra information; (iii) conduct a field topography campaign to georeference Ground Control Points (GCPs), water level and cross-sectional profiles; (iv) preprocess the video before LSPIV analysis: correct lens distortion, align the images, etc.; (v) orthorectify the images to correct perspective effects and know the physical size of pixels; (vi) proceed with the LSPIV analysis to compute the surface velocity field; and (vii) compute discharge according to a user-defined velocity coefficient. Two case studies in French mountainous rivers during extreme floods are presented. The movies were collected on YouTube and field topography

  6. Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit (Fabaceae: invasora ou ruderal? Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit (Fabaceae: invasive or ruderal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Nicola Martorano Neves da Costa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de espécies exóticas em plantios de recuperação de áreas degradadas tem sido condenada com base no argumento de que tais espécies podem se comportar como invasoras e contaminar os ecossistemas naturais ao redor das áreas onde forem plantadas. Leucaena leucocephala (leucena é espécie leguminosa exótica que tem sido frequentemente cultivada no Brasil para recuperação florestal, uma vez que apresenta simbiose com bactérias fixadoras de nitrogênio, melhorando a fertilidade dos solos. O potencial de invasão e persistência da leucena foi analisado a partir de um plantio misto, efetuado em 1983 em terreno com afloramento rochoso, parte do mosaico de uma paisagem dominada por matriz agrícola, com alguns fragmentos remanescentes de floresta estacional semidecidual e plantios arbóreos diversos. Em uma área de 200 ha, cada uma das 11 unidades do mosaico foi amostrada por meio de seis parcelas de 16 x 3 m (48 m², em que foram identificados e medidos (DAP todos os indivíduos de espécies arbóreas (altura mínima de 50 cm, para verificar se a área ocupada pela espécie está se expandindo. Na área em que foi utilizada leucena no plantio, analisou-se a estrutura da comunidade, com base na distribuição dos indivíduos em classes de tamanho, para verificar se a proporção da espécie exótica tende a aumentar com o tempo, configurando a persistência no ecossistema. Uma vez que nenhum indivíduo de L. leucocephala foi registrado entre os 4.599 amostrados além dos limites da área onde a espécie foi plantada, a conclusão é de que a espécie não está se comportando como invasora de ecossistemas naturais nessa condição ambiental, enquadrando-se melhor como ruderal. A análise da comunidade em regeneração sob as árvores plantadas evidenciou que a proporção da espécie exótica, que é intolerante à sombra, tende a diminuir com o tempo, ainda que lentamente, perdendo espaço para espécies nativas tolerantes

  7. Witnessing stressful events induces glutamatergic synapse pathway alterations and gene set enrichment of positive EPSP regulation within the VTA of adult mice: An ontology based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Jacob S.

    It is well known that exposure to severe stress increases the risk for developing mood disorders. Currently, the neurobiological and genetic mechanisms underlying the functional effects of psychological stress are poorly understood. Presenting a major obstacle to the study of psychological stress is the inability of current animal models of stress to distinguish between physical and psychological stressors. A novel paradigm recently developed by Warren et al., is able to tease apart the effects of physical and psychological stress in adult mice by allowing these mice to "witness," the social defeat of another mouse thus removing confounding variables associated with physical stressors. Using this 'witness' model of stress and RNA-Seq technology, the current study aims to study the genetic effects of psychological stress. After, witnessing the social defeat of another mouse, VTA tissue was extracted, sequenced, and analyzed for differential expression. Since genes often work together in complex networks, a pathway and gene ontology (GO) analysis was performed using data from the differential expression analysis. The pathway and GO analyzes revealed a perturbation of the glutamatergic synapse pathway and an enrichment of positive excitatory post-synaptic potential regulation. This is consistent with the excitatory synapse theory of depression. Together these findings demonstrate a dysregulation of the mesolimbic reward pathway at the gene level as a result of psychological stress potentially contributing to depressive like behaviors.

  8. TRADE, REVENUE AND WELFARE EFFECTS OF THE EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY CUSTOMS UNION PRINCIPLE OF ASYMMETRY ON UGANDA: AN APPLICATION OF WITS-SMART SIMULATION MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Othieno, Lawrence; Shinyekwa, Isaac

    2011-01-01

    Using the WITS-SMART simulation model, this paper provides insights on the effects of the East African Community Customs Union principle of asymmetry on Uganda with regard to trade, welfare and revenue effects since 2005. The end to the phased tariff reduction on category B products (these products were treated as sensitive products in 2005) increased trade creation and welfare effects. This effect shall have a reflection on consumer surplus in terms of reduced prices. The results also sugges...

  9. Staff and patient perspectives of a smoke-free health services policy in South Australia: A state-wide implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kimberley; Dono, Joanne; Sharplin, Greg; Bowden, Jacqueline; Miller, Caroline

    2017-08-01

    Few jurisdictions have implemented and evaluated a complete smoking ban across all health sites in their jurisdiction, with no designated smoking areas. This article examines staff and patient perceptions and experiences of a mandated smoke-free policy implemented across all government health facilities in South Australia, including mental health sites. An online survey of health staff was conducted prior to policy implementation (n=3098), 3 months post-implementation (n=2673) and 15 months post-implementation (n=2890). Consumer experiences of the policy were assessed via a telephone survey (n=1722; smokers n=254). Staff support for the policy was high across all time points. Two thirds of staff reported having witnessed some policy non-compliance, and self-reported exposure to second-hand smoke was comparable pre-implementation to 15 months post-implementation. Under the policy, 56.3% of smoking patients abstained completely whilst hospitalised and 37.6% cut down the amount that they smoked. Furthermore, 34.7% reported having been offered cessation support during hospitalisation. Whilst the smoke-free policy was viewed positively and had benefits for staff and patients, reports of witnessing some non-compliance were prevalent. While the extent of non-compliance is not known, and the measure used was sensitive, complementary strategies may be needed to reduce exposure to second-hand smoke, particularly at entrances. Health-care staff should be further encouraged to offer support to nicotine-dependent patients to foster compliance and promote abstinence during hospitalisation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Controlling patient participation during robot-assisted gait training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmerli Lukas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The overall goal of this paper was to investigate approaches to controlling active participation in stroke patients during robot-assisted gait therapy. Although active physical participation during gait rehabilitation after stroke was shown to improve therapy outcome, some patients can behave passively during rehabilitation, not maximally benefiting from the gait training. Up to now, there has not been an effective method for forcing patient activity to the desired level that would most benefit stroke patients with a broad variety of cognitive and biomechanical impairments. Methods Patient activity was quantified in two ways: by heart rate (HR, a physiological parameter that reflected physical effort during body weight supported treadmill training, and by a weighted sum of the interaction torques (WIT between robot and patient, recorded from hip and knee joints of both legs. We recorded data in three experiments, each with five stroke patients, and controlled HR and WIT to a desired temporal profile. Depending on the patient's cognitive capabilities, two different approaches were taken: either by allowing voluntary patient effort via visual instructions or by forcing the patient to vary physical effort by adapting the treadmill speed. Results We successfully controlled patient activity quantified by WIT and by HR to a desired level. The setup was thereby individually adaptable to the specific cognitive and biomechanical needs of each patient. Conclusion Based on the three successful approaches to controlling patient participation, we propose a metric which enables clinicians to select the best strategy for each patient, according to the patient's physical and cognitive capabilities. Our framework will enable therapists to challenge the patient to more activity by automatically controlling the patient effort to a desired level. We expect that the increase in activity will lead to improved rehabilitation outcome.

  11. Spine tumor resection among patients who refuse blood product transfusion: a retrospective case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisilevsky, Alexandra E; Stobart, Liam; Roland, Kristine; Flexman, Alana M

    2016-12-01

    To describe the perioperative blood conservation strategies and postoperative outcomes in patients who undergo complex spinal surgery for tumor resection and who also refuse blood product transfusion. A retrospective case series. A single-center, tertiary care and academic teaching hospital in Canada. All adult patients undergoing elective major spine tumor resection and refusing blood product transfusion who were referred to our institutional Blood Utilization Program between June 1, 2004, and May 9, 2014. Data on the use of iron, erythropoietin, preoperative autologous blood donation, acute normovolemic hemodilution, antifibrinolytic therapy, cell salvage, intraoperative hypotension, and active warming techniques were collected. Data on perioperative hemoglobin nadir, adverse outcomes, and hospital length of stay were also collected. Four patients who refused blood transfusion (self-identified as Jehovah's Witnesses) underwent non-emergent complex spine surgery for recurrent chondrosarcoma, meningioma, metastatic adenocarcinoma, and metastatic malignant melanoma. All patients received 1 or more perioperative blood conservation strategy including preoperative iron and/or erythropoietin, intraoperative antifibrinolytic therapy, and cell salvage. No patients experienced severe perioperative anemia (average hemoglobin nadir, 124 g/L) or anemia-related postoperative complications. Patients who decline blood product transfusion can successfully undergo major spine tumor resection. Careful patient selection and timely referral for perioperative optimization such that the risk of severe anemia is minimized are important for success. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Interrelationship of the Freshman Students’ Knowledge, Participation and Witnessing of the Eucharist as Presence, Sacrifice and Communion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt S. Candilas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the interrelationship of the freshman students’ knowledge, participation, and witnessing of the Eucharist as presence, sacrifice and communion. There were two hundred sixty-five freshman students involved in this investigation. Data were gathered using questionnaires and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings reveal that the students’ level of knowledge of and participation in the Holy Eucharist were average and high, respectively. Also, their lived experience of Eucharist as presence, sacrifice, and communion was to a high extent. Results of the study also show that students’ extent of knowledge of and participation in the Eucharist were significantly contributed to the extent to which they lived the Eucharist as presence, sacrifice and communion. Results further point the need of the campus ministry and religious studies instructor to emphasize strongly the teachings of the Church especially the Sacrament of the Holy Eucharist through catechism.

  13. Small Cytoskeleton-Associated Molecule, Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 Oncogene Partner 2/Wound Inducible Transcript-3.0 (FGFR1OP2/wit3.0), Facilitates Fibroblast-Driven Wound Closure

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Audrey; Hokugo, Akishige; Choi, Jae; Nishimura, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Wounds created in the oral cavity heal rapidly and leave minimal scarring. We have examined a role of a previously isolated cDNA from oral wounds encoding wound inducible transcript-3.0 (wit3.0), also known as fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 oncogene partner 2 (FGFR1OP2). FGFR1OP2/wit3.0 was highly expressed in oral wound fibroblasts without noticeable up-regulation of α-smooth muscle actin. In silico analyses, denaturing and nondenaturing gel Western blot, and immunocytology together dem...

  14. Bibliotherapy in a Patients' Library *

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, David J.

    1971-01-01

    This paper describes the involvement of patients in the Patients' Library at McLean Hospital, and the relationship between them and the librarian in library activities. The publication of a patients' magazine is discussed, with case histories of persons who had taken part in its production. The Patients' Librarian has a personal role in patient therapy, and accounts are given of various activities such as play-reading, poetry-reading, and the discussion of poems by established writers, with therapeutic aims in view. Actual clinical experiences are given. PMID:5146769

  15. Practice gaps in patient safety among dermatology residents and their teachers: a survey study of dermatology residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swary, Jillian Havey; Stratman, Erik J

    2014-07-01

    Curriculum and role modeling adjustments are necessary to address patient safety gaps occurring during dermatology residency. To identify the source of clinical practices among dermatology residents that affect patient safety and determine the best approach for overcoming gaps in knowledge and practice patterns that contribute to these practices. A survey-based study, performed at a national medical dermatology meeting in Itasca, Illinois, in 2012, included 142 dermatology residents from 44 residency programs in the United States and Canada. Self-reported rates of dermatology residents committing errors, identifying local systems errors, and identifying poor patient safety role modeling. Of surveyed dermatology residents, 45.2% have failed to report needle-stick injuries incurred during procedures, 82.8% reported cutting and pasting a previous author's patient history information into a medical record without confirming its validity, 96.7% reported right-left body part mislabeling during examination or biopsy, and 29.4% reported not incorporating clinical photographs of lesions sampled for biopsy in the medical record at their institution. Residents variably perform a purposeful pause ("time-out") when indicated to confirm patient, procedure, and site before biopsy, with 20.0% always doing so. In addition, 59.7% of residents work with at least 1 attending physician who intimidates the residents, reducing the likelihood of reporting safety issues they witness. Finally, 78.3% have witnessed attending physicians purposefully disregarding required safety steps. Our data reinforce the need for modified curricula, systems, and teacher development to reduce injuries, improve communication with patients and between physicians, residents, and other members of the health care team, and create an environment free of intimidation.

  16. BEST INTERESTS OF THE CHILD FOR CHILDREN IN CONTACT WITH THE LAW. VICTIMS AND WITNESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustina BOLOCAN-HOLBAN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available From the moment a child victim/witness comes into contact with the justice system, he/she should be fully informed about the process they may have to go through as this can reduce any feelings of insecurity or anxiety that the child may have. Knowing when and where they will be interviewed and who by, how the justice process works, when they will be required to testify, who will be present, and the protection measures available for them both at an initial interview and when giving their testimony can have a positive impact on the quality of the statement they make. Providing a child with information can empower the child and allow him or her to feel more in control of an unfamiliar situation.INTERESELE PRIORITARE ALE COPILULUI, VICTIMĂ ŞI MARTOR AL INFRACŢIUNII Din momentul în care copilul interacţionează, pentru prima dată, cu sistemul de justiţie, acesta trebuie să fie informat pe deplin despre întregul proces pe care îl va parcurge, pentru a evita orice sentimente de nesiguranţă şi anxietate pe care le poate simţi. El trebuie să fie informat despre modalitatea de audiere, despre persoana care va realiza audierea; el trebuie să cunoască cum se desfăşoară întregul proces, care este procedura de a depune declaraţii, măsurile de protecţie ce sunt asigurate copilului – toate acestea pot avea o influenţă pozitivă asupra calităţii declaraţiilor făcute. Informarea copilului despre întregul proces îl va încuraja şi îi va permite să deţină controlul într-o situaţie mai puţin familiară.

  17. 論美國專利訴訟之專家證人資格―以美國聯邦巡迴上訴法院與聯邦證據規則第702條有關之判決為中心 Qualification of Expert Witnesses in United States Patent Litigation: A Review of Federal Circuit Case Law Regarding Rule 702 of the Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    陳秉訓 Ping-Hsun Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available 專家證人在美國專利訴訟中扮演重要的角色。專利訴訟常涉及技術議題,需要技術專家的參與來幫助解釋請求項或協助陪審團瞭解專利技術或侵權物。當處理可專利性爭點時,技術專家則是事實認定者很好的顧問。此外,賠償金計算需要產業或財務會計理論等知識。賠償金專家必須參與,以能讓金錢式賠償的爭議得以處理。雖然專家證人的角色重要,但對相關判例法的研究不是很多,特別是針對證人資格或證詞採納等議題。因此,本文在探討巡迴上訴法院針對該類議題之判例。美國專利法並無著墨專家證人之規範,而相關議題主要是聯邦證據規則第702 條所主導。在本文中,首先分析 與第702 條解釋有關之司法意見,包括三件聯邦最高法院判決和幾件巡迴上訴法院判決。接著,本文著重在討論二類專家證人(技術專家和賠償金專家)之相關判決。第702 條要求專家必須具有「科學的、技術的、或特殊的知識」,但由地方法院的法官來裁定是否要准予或排除專家證人或意見作為 證據。此外,對於地院的裁定,巡迴上訴法院的審查基準是「裁量權之濫用」。因而,地院法官有很大的裁量空間。本文亦對相關判決進行分析,並整理相關法理原則。 Expert witnesses serve an important role in United States patent litigation. Patent litigation often involves complex technological issues. Technical experts are needed to help a judge interpret claim language or to assist a jury to understand patented technology or infringing products. When resolving the patentability issues, such as anticipation and obviousness, technical experts are good consultants for factfinders. Additionally, damages calculation requires knowledge of industries and financial or accounting theories. Damages experts must get in to resolve the issues of

  18. A constituição do perito psicólogo em varas de família à luz da análise institucional de discurso La constitución del experto psicólogo en juzgados de familia a la luz del análisis institucional de discurso The constitution of psychology expert witness in family courts in the lights of institutional discourse analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cristina Meirelles Ortiz

    2012-01-01

    transferencia, contribuye para una mejor comprensión del lugar del experto psicólogo en la escena procesal configurada por la institución judiciaria y para un debate más consistente sobre los diversos factores implicados en sus acciones. Por medio de ella, podemos comprender como se constituye el experto psicólogo desde la triangulación configurada en el proceso y la importancia del análisis de la transferencia procesal. La lectura crítica de los autos es el primer paso de ese análisis, y contribuye para posicionar al perito en relación a la demanda de la institución. La entrevista, que coloca el perito en contacto directo con los litigantes, evidencia la relación de exterioridad que, no obstante demandado por el proceso, el saber psicológico mantiene con relación al Derecho. Expectativas y afectos, así como posibles efectos subjetivos de la relación con el experto, deben ser considerados. El laudo es el momento en el que el experto psicólogo toma la palabra en el proceso judicial y tiene un carácter interventor. La pericia, como prueba judicial, se afirma en una cierta voluntad de verdad característica de la institución jurídica y, al mismo tiempo, en la intención del experto de, como coadyuvante de la escena procesal, en ella producir efectos singulares. Es importante que se reconozca que lo que se produce en la pericia judicial no es la Verdad, sino una verdad relativa, la atribución de un sentido posible al conflicto configurado en el proceso.The judicial process imposes on family dispute a triangular shape, constituting two litigant parties that require a decision by a third one, the judge. Institutional discourse analysis, by its conception of discourse, subject, institution and transference, contributes to a better understanding of the psychology expert witnesses place at the scene set by the judicial proceedings, and for a more consistent discussion on the various factors involved in their actions. Through it, we can understand how the psychology

  19. Bullying Experiment Based on the Doers' Perspective, Victim and Eye Witness on the Junior High School Student

    OpenAIRE

    Masruroh, Nurlailatul

    2016-01-01

    The Bullying Phenomena of 40 countries showed that Indonesia is ranked as the world's second highest state for bullying cases. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of Bullying Experience in Perspective Actors, Victims and Witnesses of The Junior Student "X" Batu City. The design and approach is Descriptive Qualitative and Case Study, it conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews to 11 participants consisting of students perpetrators, witnesses and victims of bullying. Data valid...

  20. Agranulocytosis in a patient with acute Parvovirus B19 infection: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Di Donato

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The definition of neutropenia is the reduction in the absolute number of neutrophils below 1.5×109. The chapter about acquired neutropenias affecting the adult population is of particular interest to the internist. PC, 75 years old man, was hospitalized because of fever, asthenia. In anamnesis: recent diagnosis of ulcerative pancolitis treated with mesalazine and corticosteroid therapy. During the hospitalization, to the fever resolution, we witnessed to a gradual reduction in the value of neutrophils leucocytes until the complete agranulocytosis. We set a therapy with granulocytes colony stimulating factors, and antifungal. The osteo-medullar biopsy confirmed a pure aplasia of the granulocyte marrow series without any evidence of cancer. The subsequent clinical development was favorable, with stable apyrexia and recovery of leucocytes count. Few days after, we received the positive response on the research of anti-Parvovirus B19 immunoglobulin M and in qualitative polymerase chain reaction. The patient was discharged with diagnosis agranulocytosis in patient with acute infection of Parvovirus B19. Neutropenia associated with Parvovirus infection is not frequent and is related to the presence of hematological diseases or condition of immunosuppression. The peculiarity of the case described is the complete agranulocytosis found: in fact in literature, only rare cases are described. Patient gave his informed consent.

  1. Patients for patient safety in China: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiongwen; Li, Yulin; Li, Jing; Mao, Xuanyue; Zhang, Lijuan; Ying, Qinghua; Wei, Xin; Shang, Lili; Zhang, Mingming

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the baseline status of patients' awareness, knowledge, and attitudes to patient safety in China, and to determine the factors that influence patients' involvement in patient safety. We conducted a cross sectional survey using questionnaires adapted from recent studies on patient safety from outside China. The items included medical errors, infection, medication safety, and other aspects of patient safety. The questionnaire included 17 items and 5 domains. The survey was conducted between Jan. 2009 and Dec. 2010 involving 1000 patients from ten grade-A hospitals in seven provinces or cities in China. Most patients from the surgery departments completed the questionnaires voluntarily and anonymously. Five reviewers independently input the data into Microsoft Excel 2003, and the data were double-checked. Data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 software for differences in the perceptions and attitudes of patients toward patient safety among different genders, ages, and regions. We distributed 1000 questionnaires and collected 959 completed questionnaires (response rate: 96%). Among the respondents, 58% of patients did not know what medical error is. Sixty-five percent of patients wanted disclosure of all medical errors. After errors occurred, 58% of patients wanted explanations of all possible harms that had resulted. Among 187 patients who had experienced medical errors, 83% of patients had sought appropriate legal action. About 52% of patients understood hospital infection, but 28% patients did not know that infections could occur in hospital. Seventy-eight percent of patients thought that medical staff should wash their hands before examining patients. More than half of the patients (68%) were willing to remind the staff of hygiene if they saw unsanitary conditions in a health clinic. Only 14% of patients knew the side effects of medications that they took. The majority of patients surveyed expressed willingness to contribute to patient safety, but their

  2. Punch grafting of chronic ulcers in patients with laminin-332-deficient, non-Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuen, Wing Yan; Huizinga, Janneke; Jonkman, Marcel F.

    Background: Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a genetic, heterogeneous, trauma-induced blistering disease. Patients with laminin-332-deficient non-Herlitz junctional EB (JEB-nH) can have impaired wound healing witnessed by persistent, small, deep ulcers on the hands and feet that adversely affect the

  3. Forensic neuropsychology and expert witness testimony: An overview of forensic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Elizabeth L

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychologists are frequently asked to serve as expert witnesses in an increasing number of legal contexts for civil and criminal proceedings. The skills required to practice forensic neuropsychology expand upon the knowledge, skills, and abilities developed by clinical neuropsychologists. Forensic neuropsychologists acquire expertise in understanding the roles and various functions of the legal system, as well as their role in addressing psycholegal questions to assist fact finders in making legal decisions. The required skills and the unique circumstances for clinical neuropsychologists pursing forensic work are reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Medico-legal opinions in cases for annulment of testament. Part II. Final conclusions of opinions. Quality of medical documentation. Evaluation of witnesses' testimonies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkowski, Jerzy T; Klimberg, Aneta

    2007-01-01

    The percentage of cases, in which devisors were unable to devise properly was high, what was mostly associated with the frequent drawing up of testaments by chronically ill individuals immediately before death. Grounds for pronouncing the devisor lacking in testamentary capacity were observed in 46.6% of cases, while 39.7% of devisors were found to lack free expression of will. Medical records were available in all the cases, including psychiatric records in 20.5% of cases and neurological records in 20.5%. In the majority of instances, the low quality of medical records hindered formulating expert opinions. The fact that in the majority of cases, the testimonies of witnesses were highly divergent indicated that they were either unable to assess the mental state of the devisor or else were themselves interested in the settlement of the case. Frequently, attending physicians from non-psychiatric wards were unable to answer questions on the mental state of the devisor, what resulted from their focusing on the somatic cause of hospitalization and the fact that their contact with the patient was very limited in time. Problems with certification on the basis of medical records were mainly associated with lacking psychiatric or neurological consults performed at the time the testament was drawn up; in some instances, the entire medical records from that period were missing. For this reason, individuals desiring to prepare a last will should be advised to undergo voluntary psychiatric assessment in this period. Medico-legal opinions in testament cases are difficult and time-consuming, but pleading one's case before the court is even more tedious and difficult.

  5. Bathing a patient in bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patient's skin, first wet the skin, then gently apply a small amount of soap. Check with the patient to make sure you are not rubbing too hard. Make sure you rinse all the soap off, then pat the area dry. Apply lotion before covering the area up. Bring fresh, ...

  6. Units for the protection of child victims and witnesses in the criminal proceedings: Domestic legislation and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milosavljević-Đukić Ivana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Republic of Serbia has invested maximum efforts in adjusting national legislation with the international legal framework, as well in fulfilling its obligations foreseen in relevant international documents, including the Child Rights Convention. The purpose of this paper is to present Units for the Protection of Child Victims and Witnesses in the Criminal Proceedings that were developed within the IPA project “Improvement of Children's Right through the System of Justice and Social Protection in Serbia”, funded by the EU, and implemented by the UNCEF in cooperation with the Ministry of Justice and Ministry of Labour, Employment, Veteran and Social Policy of the Republic of Serbia. The project was implemented from August 2014 to March 2017. The purpose of the Units is to ensure the best interest of children in situation when a child is identified as a victim or a witness of a crime and appears in the criminal or other court procedure. In this way, the state protects children who are important and infallible part of judicial proceedings from secondary victimization and traumatisation, given that the processes within institutions inevitably reflect on mental state of a child. Units were established in four cities: Belgrade, Niš, Novi Sad, and Kragujevac, and they operate at the regional level. This enables that all children, even those in rural areas, will be provided with adequate assistance and support during preparations for the hearing, during criminal proceedings, as well as in its aftermath. The role of the Units is multiple: along with the support to children, it also includes support to the judiciary agencies since the hearing may be performed with a help of professional personnel, psychologist, pedagogue or social worker. Since the members of the Units are trained for conducting forensic interviews according to the Protocol of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, their involvement by the judiciary becomes even

  7. Patients' and healthcare workers' perceptions of a patient safety advisory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwappach, David L B; Frank, Olga; Koppenberg, Joachim; Müller, Beat; Wasserfallen, Jean-Blaise

    2011-12-01

    To assess patients' and healthcare workers' (hcw) attitudes and experiences with a patient safety advisory, to investigate predictors for patients' safety-related behaviors and determinants for staff support for the advisory. Cross-sectional surveys of patients (n= 1053) and hcw (n= 275). Three Swiss hospitals. Patients who received the safety advisory and hcw caring for these patients. Patient safety advisory disseminated to patients at the study hospitals. Attitudes towards and experiences with the advisory. Hcw support for the intervention and patients' intentions to apply the recommendations were modelled using regression analyses. Patients (95%) and hcw (78%) agreed that hospitals should educate patients how to prevent errors. Hcw and patients' evaluations of the safety advisory were positive and followed a similar pattern. Patients' intentions to engage in safety were significantly predicted by behavioral control, subjective norms, attitudes, safety behaviors during hospitalization and experiences with taking action. Hcw support for the campaign was predicted by rating of the advisory (Odds ratio (OR) 3.4, confidence interval (CI) 1.8-6.1, Ppatients (OR 1.9, CI 1.1-3.3, P= 0.034) and experience of unpleasant situations (OR 0.6, CI 0.4-1.0, P= 0.035). The safety advisory was well accepted by patients and hcw. To be successful, the advisory should be accompanied by measures that target norms and barriers in patients, and support staff in dealing with difficult situations.

  8. Patient and nurse accounts of violent incidents in a medium secure unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsby, K; Baker, M

    2004-06-01

    Most studies examining violence in a forensic setting have adopted a statistical approach to associate relevant predictors and the likelihood of violence. Views of patients and nurses have been a relatively neglected research area. This study explored patients' and nurses' accounts of violent incidents, considering similarities and differences in their narratives. Permission was obtained from the local National Health Service Research Ethics Board and the Research Ethics Committee of University of East London. Anonymized transcripts were produced from semi-structured interviews conducted in a Medium Secure Unit with four nurses and four patients, who consented to talk at length with the first author about violent events they had witnessed on the Unit. Grounded theory analysis of the data generated a core category, 'control', and five constituent themes: the construction of identity of the perpetrator of violence; nurses' dual role of caring and controlling; aspects of parentalism involved in control; following set policies and procedures; and segregation from mainstream society. Because of widespread social interest and media coverage in the topic, discursive examination was made of aspects of social context arising within the data. This study was small scale and exploratory, and further confirmatory research is needed. Nevertheless, clear contrasts between the nurse and patient accounts indicated tentative suggestions for training (including user involvement) and intervention in managing violent behaviour.

  9. DECLARACIÓN DE LA PARTE COMO MEDIO DE PRUEBA Party as witness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Marín Verdugo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los procedimientos judiciales chilenos han sufrido importantes cambios en las últimas dos décadas. Han transitado desde un sistema escrito a uno por audiencias. Esto ha significado un nuevo diseño de la audiencia de juicio y en particular, de las reglas de la prueba. El alcance de estos cambios no es aun totalmente comprendido, lo que permite la sobrevivencia de algunas prácticas del sistema escrito anterior dentro del nuevo. Este trabajo identifica una de ellas, que consiste en la exclusión de las partes como testigos en sus propios juicios. Se explicará cuál fue el fundamento de esta exclusión en el sistema escrito anterior y cómo éste ha sido superado en varios ordenamientos comparados. Se sostendrá que en el contexto de los nuevos sistemas por audiencias chilenos, en los que el juez debe valorar la prueba en concreto, dicha exclusión carece de sentido y las partes deben ser admitidas para declarar voluntariamente. Se sostendrá también que las nuevas reglas de la prueba lo permiten, analizándolas pormenorizadamente. Asimismo se contestará a los argumentos esgrimidos para justificar la mantención de esta exclusión y finalmente, se propondrá una manera de rendir la declaración de la parte como testigo en conformidad a las nuevas reglas de la prueba.During the last two decades, the Chilean judicial procedures have undergone an important reform process. It went from a written procedure to a hearing-based procedure. This change involved a new design for the trial hearing and, in particular, for the rules of evidence. The meaning of these changes is not yet well understood, making it easier for the survival of former practices of the written system within the new hearing-based system. This paper identifies on of them, which is the exclusion of parties as witnesses. The paper explains the reasons of the origin of this rule of exclusion in the former written procedure and how it was subsequently overcome in several comparative

  10. Witnesses of God: Exhortatory Preachers in Medieval al-Andalus and the Magreb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones, Linda G.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    This article analyzes the rhetorical and ritual characteristics of pious exhortation (wa,z as practiced in al-Andalus and the Maghreb, based on specimens from two homiletic sources. The texts are considered in light of hagiographical and juridical data in order to assess the social role of exhortatory preachers and to explain the extraordinary impact of their sermons. The sermon's affective power derives from the preacher's personal charisma, rhetorical prowess, and his active engagement of his audience in the production of their own charismatic experience. The hagiographies considered depict the wa,iz as a witness to God's omnipotence, precipitating the religious conversion of even the socially marginalized.



    Este artículo analiza los aspectos retóricos y rituales de la exhortación piadosa (wa,z practicada en al-Andalus y el Magreb, tomando como base documental dos fuentes homiléticas. Los textos  se analizan a la luz de noticias hagiográficas y jurídicas con el fin de determinar el papel social de los wuPredictors of Successful Smoking Cessation after Inpatient Intervention for Stroke Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Eugene; Jo, Jun-Yong; Ahn, Ah-Leum; Oh, Eun-Jung; Choi, Jae-Kyung; Cho, Dong-Yung; Kweon, Hyuk-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking is a well-known risk factor of cancer, chronic disease, and cerebrovascular disease. Hospital admission is a good time to quit smoking but patients have little opportunity to take part in an intensive smoking cessation intervention. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors of successful smoking cessation among stroke patients who undergo an intensive cessation intervention during the hospitalization period. Methods Thirty-nine male smokers who were admitted wit...

  11. Desarrollo práctico sobre software de simulación Witness del proceso de facturación del pasajero en el Aeropuerto de Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    González Garcés, Jana

    2008-01-01

    Estudio del proceso de facturación en el Aeropuerto de Barcelona. El trabajo consta de tres partes, un estudio teórico basado en la información recopilada por el estudiante de diferentes fuentes, una modelización a través del programa de simulación Witness, una realimentación del modelo una vez contrastada la información teórica/práctica y trabajo de campo en el Aeropuerto de Barcelona. El trabajo debe concluir con una seríe de propuestas de mejora al sistema de facturación actual.

  12. Galileo as a Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiene, G.; Basso, C.

    2011-06-01

    The clinical history of Galileo, as it turns out from hundred letters he wrote and received, is so informative as to make it possible to delineate the natural history of his body. It is well known that he suffered from recurrent episodes of fever (terzana) since 1606, when he was in Florence as guest of Cristina Lorena for education of the future granduke Cosimo II. By reading signs and symptoms he reported several times, it is clear that he had various diseases (rheumatism, haemorroids, kidney stones, arrhythmias). When in December 1632, at the age of 68, Galileo delayed his journey to Rome claiming sickness, Pope Urban VIII committed 3 physicians to examine him. They reported that Galileo was affected by "pulsus intermittens" (most probably atrial fibrillation), large hernia at risk of rupture, dizziness, diffuse pain, hypochondriacal melancholy as a consequence of the "declining age". It was in February 1637 that he started to have eye disease with lacrimation and progressive loss of sight, which in 10 months led to loose at first the right eye and then also the left one. According to the consultation, asked at distance to Giovanni Trullio on February 1538 in Rome, the diagnosis of blindness due to bilateral uveitis came out. Keeping with the current medicine, the illnes might have been explained in the setting of an immune rheumatic disease (Reiter's syndrome). The cause of Galileo's death, which occurred on 8 January 1642 at the age of 78, is not known since it was not submitted to autopsy. We can speculate cardiac death due to pneumonia complicating congestive heart failure.

  13. Assessing the link between witnessing inter-parental violence and the perpetration of intimate partner violence in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Jahirul; Rahman, Mosiur; Broidy, Lisa; Haque, Syed Emdadul; Saw, Yu Mon; Duc, Nguyen Huu Chau; Haque, Md Nurruzzaman; Rahman, Md Mostafizur; Islam, Md Rafiqul; Mostofa, Md Golam

    2017-02-10

    We aimed to examine the influence of witnessing father-to-mother violence on: 1) perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV); and 2) endorsement of attitudes justifying wife beating in Bangladesh. This paper used data from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey. The analyses were based on the responses of 3374 ever-married men. Exposure to IPV was determined by men's self-reports of witnessing inter-parental violence in childhood. We used adjusted binary logistic regression models to assess the influence of exposure on husbands' perpetration of IPV and their endorsement of attitudes justifying wife beating. Nearly 60% of men reported violent behaviour towards an intimate partner and 35.7% endorsed attitudes justifying spousal abuse. Men who witnessed father-to-mother violence had higher odds of reporting any physical or sexual IPV (adjusted OR [AOR] = 3.26; 95% CI = 2.61, 4.06). Men who had witnessed father-to-mother violence were also 1.34 times (95% CI = 1.08, 1.65) more likely endorse attitudes justifying spousal abuse. Committing violence against an intimate partner is an all too frequent practice among men in Bangladesh. The study indicated that men who had witnessed father-to-mother violence were more likley to perpetrate IPV, suggesting an intergenerational transmission of violence. This transmission of violence may operate through the learning and modelling of attitudes favourable to spousal abuse. In support of this, witnnessing inter-parental violence was also associated with the endorsement of attitudes justifying spousal abuse. Our findings indicate the continued importance of efforts to identify and assist boys who have witnessed domestic violence and suggest such efforts should aim to change not just behaviours but also attitudes that facilitate such violence.

  14. Assessing the link between witnessing inter-parental violence and the perpetration of intimate partner violence in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Jahirul Islam

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to examine the influence of witnessing father-to-mother violence on: 1 perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV; and 2 endorsement of attitudes justifying wife beating in Bangladesh. Methods This paper used data from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey. The analyses were based on the responses of 3374 ever-married men. Exposure to IPV was determined by men’s self-reports of witnessing inter-parental violence in childhood. We used adjusted binary logistic regression models to assess the influence of exposure on husbands’ perpetration of IPV and their endorsement of attitudes justifying wife beating. Results Nearly 60% of men reported violent behaviour towards an intimate partner and 35.7% endorsed attitudes justifying spousal abuse. Men who witnessed father-to-mother violence had higher odds of reporting any physical or sexual IPV (adjusted OR [AOR] = 3.26; 95% CI = 2.61, 4.06. Men who had witnessed father-to-mother violence were also 1.34 times (95% CI = 1.08, 1.65 more likely endorse attitudes justifying spousal abuse. Conclusions Committing violence against an intimate partner is an all too frequent practice among men in Bangladesh. The study indicated that men who had witnessed father-to-mother violence were more likley to perpetrate IPV, suggesting an intergenerational transmission of violence. This transmission of violence may operate through the learning and modelling of attitudes favourable to spousal abuse. In support of this, witnnessing inter-parental violence was also associated with the endorsement of attitudes justifying spousal abuse. Our findings indicate the continued importance of efforts to identify and assist boys who have witnessed domestic violence and suggest such efforts should aim to change not just behaviours but also attitudes that facilitate such violence.

  15. Patient Involvement in Patient Safety: A Qualitative Study of Nursing Staff and Patient Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Andrea C; Macdonald, Marilyn

    2017-06-01

    The risk associated with receiving health care has called for an increased focus on the role of patients in helping to improve safety. Recent research has highlighted that patient involvement in patient safety practices may be influenced by patient perceptions of patient safety practices and the perceptions of their health care providers. The objective of this research was to describe patient involvement in patient safety practices by exploring patient and nursing staff perceptions of safety. Qualitative focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of nursing staff and patients who had previously completed a patient safety survey in 2 tertiary hospital sites in Eastern Canada. Six focus groups (June 2011 to January 2012) were conducted and analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Four themes were identified: (1) wanting control, (2) feeling connected, (3) encountering roadblocks, and (4) sharing responsibility for safety. Both patient and nursing staff participants highlighted the importance of building a personal connection as a precursor to ensuring that patients are involved in their care and safety. However, perceptions of provider stress and nursing staff workload often reduced the ability of the nursing staff and patient participants to connect with one another and promote involvement. Current strategies aimed at increasing patient awareness of patient safety may not be enough. The findings suggest that providing the context for interaction to occur between nursing staff and patients as well as targeted interventions aimed at increasing patient control may be needed to ensure patient involvement in patient safety.

  16. Creating a patient education tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonecypher, Karen

    2009-10-01

    Developing a patient education tool based on low literacy levels, behavioral theories, role modeling, and The Joint Commission's standards was the primary objective of this project. The initial goal was merely to develop a population-appropriate patient education tool. This led to a process whereby significant knowledge was gained by all to enrich overall professional development. An interdisciplinary team developed a low-literacy, self-management book for patients who had suffered a stroke. Team experts were responsible for the development of specific subject matter. Editing addressed the message, readability, typeface and font size, and charts and illustrations. Collaboration with the National Stroke Association guided the didactic pedagogical content presented. A well-known cartoonist who was a U.S. military veteran was willing to work with the team to develop the illustrations. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. An examination of the association between interviewer question type and story-grammar detail in child witness interviews about abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltis, Brooke B; Powell, Martine B; Snow, Pamela C; Hughes-Scholes, Carolyn H

    2010-06-01

    This study compared the effects of open-ended versus specific questions, and various types of open-ended questions, in eliciting story-grammar detail in child abuse interviews. The sample included 34 police interviews with child witnesses aged 5-15 years (M age=9 years, 9 months). The interviewers' questions and their relative sub-types were classified according to definitions reported in the child interview training literature. The children's responses were classified according to the proportion of story grammar and the prevalence of individual story grammar elements as defined by Stein and Glenn (1979). Open-ended questions were more effective at eliciting story grammar than specific questions. This finding was revealed across three age groups, two interview phases and irrespective of how question effectiveness was measured. However, not all types of open-ended questions were equally effective. Open-ended questions that encouraged a broad response, or asked the child to elaborate on a part of their account, elicited more story-grammar detail compared to open-ended questions that requested clarification of concepts or descriptions of the next (or another) activity or detail within a sequence. This study demonstrates that children's ability to provide story-grammar detail is maximised when there is minimal prompting from the interviewer. Given the association between story grammar production and victim credibility, greater guidance is warranted in interviewer training programs in relation to the effects and administration of different types of open-ended questions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Μαρτυρια [witness] in John 1�4: Towards an emerging, missional ecclesiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume H. Smit

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Theological investigation of the μαρτυρια[witness] lexeme in John 1�4 contributes significantly towards an understanding of an emerging, missional ecclesiology. This hypothesis is precipitated by the accelerated pace of change that our society is currently experiencing. The technological developments of the past 50 years have created a society that is dependent on this new technology, leading to the developing of a new cultural paradigm, in which the church is ill at home. The question of an emerging, missional ecclesiology is therefore building on the need for theological research from the perspective of this developing new paradigm. It was proposed that a hermeneutic approach should be taken. It was also argued that ecclesiology serves as the integration point for reflection and practical missional ministry. As such, the church as object of investigation is the ultimate technological praxis, as the faith community serves as the show-case of God�s presence in this world.

  19. Registered nurse and health care chaplains experiences of providing the family support person role during family witnessed resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jayne; Cottle, Elita; Hodge, Reverend Debbie

    2011-02-01

    To provide an in-depth exploration regarding the Registered Nurse (RN) and Healthcare Chaplains' (HCC) perspective of the role of the family support person (FSP) during family witnessed resuscitation (FWR). A phenomenological approach utilising in-depth interviews were undertaken outside of the work setting. A purposive sample of 4 RN's and 3 HCC were recruited from four sites within the United Kingdom. All interviews were tape recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed utilising Husserl's framework. Seven key themes emerged which included assessment, managing choice, navigating the setting, on-going commentary, coming to terms with death, conflicts and support. This study has provided an insight regarding the intense clinical engagement associated with the role of the FSP and highlighted the importance of this role for family member's optimal care and support. It is vital that adequate professional development is instigated and that support mechanisms are in place for those health care professionals (HCP) undertaking this role in order to help family members through this difficult experience. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The relation between patient education, patient empowerment and patient satisfaction: A cross-sectional-comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Mei-Yu; Wu, Shu-Chen; Tung, Tao-Hsin

    2018-02-01

    Patient empowerment is a paradigm of clinical practice. The goal of patient empowerment is to lead patients' health and wellbeing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relation between patient education, patient empowerment and patient satisfaction based on multi-hospital cross-sectional study design in Taiwan. In this cross-sectional survey, 609 inpatients in four teaching hospitals in northern Taiwan from August 2009 to July 2010 were recruited. Data were collected using Chinese version of the Patient Perceptions of Empowerment Scale (PPES), Sufficiency of Patient Education Questionnaire (SPEQ) and Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ). The multiple linear regression model was used to assess the independent effects of relevant factors on patient empowerment after controlling for the covariates. The overall mean empowerment scores was 44.80±5.94. There was a significant difference between the total scores and four dimensions of patient empowerment at different hospitals (t=5.44, p≤0.01). Sufficient patient education (β=0.568, 95%CI: 0.486-0.649) and patient satisfaction (β=0.317, 95%CI: 0.259-0.375) could significantly predict patient empowerment based on the multiple linear regression analysis, with a total variance was 54.4%. In conclusion, both sufficient patient education and patient satisfaction were positively related to patient empowerment. Hospitals in Taiwan should try to improve their patients' active involvement toward empowerment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. IgA-mediated epidermolysis bullosa acquisita : Two cases and review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vodegel, RM; de Jong, MCJM; Pas, HH; Jonkman, MF

    2002-01-01

    We describe 2 adult patients with a subepidermal bullous dermatosis with exclusively linear IgA depositions along the epidermal basement membrane zone that were deposited in the sublamina densa zone as witnessed by direct immunoelectron microscopy. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy of patients'

  3. Working with patients to optimise cataract outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Astbury

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the delights of ophthalmology is to witness the joy on the face of a patient with cataract when the dressing is taken off and sight has been restored. Unfortunately, for some patients, the result does not live up to their expectations. Despite cataract surgery being one of the most successful surgical interventions available, there is evidence that the visual outcome of cataract surgery in sub-Saharan Africa is not always good (defined as a VA of 6/18 or better. The proportion of good outcomes range from only 23% up to 70%, failing to reach the WHO target of 85% or better.

  4. Iridoschisis in a Nigerian Patient

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    or any other eye medications. A diagnosis of bilateral idiopathic iridoschisis, bilateral age‑related cataract (left > right), and bilateral narrow angles was made. The patient was scheduled for a left cataract surgery and bilateral peripheral laser iridotomies. She was also scheduled to have regular 6 monthly glaucoma review.

  5. Mismanagement of a hypochondriacal patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Bidaki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypochondriasis is a persistent preoccupation that despite appropriate medical evaluations and assurance of patient′s physical health, the patient insists on having a serious disease. The case which is discussed in this article is a 39-years-old woman that hospitalized for half of her life and no one can perceive her disorder according to her assertions. The mentioned case is a "difficult patient"with fear of oxygen shortage and being choked (Pnigophobia which leads to continuous tendency to wear oxygen device even during sleep. There is no benefit in exaggerating her condition for herself so there is no fictitious disorder considered. During the therapy she has been assured that she does not have a serious disease and she has learnt to decrease oxygen intake and breath with his mouth. The point that makes this study different from the others is that most of hypochondriacal patients have a fear of getting HIV, cancers, hepatitis and MS but our patient has phobia of pulmonary embolism.

  6. Child and Adult Witnesses: The Effect of Repetition and Invitation-Probes on Free Recall and Metamemory Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsson, Jens; Allwood, Carl Martin; Johansson, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Witnesses' event recall and the realism in their evaluation of the correctness of their recall are of great importance in forensic processes. These issues were investigated in the present study by use of calibration methodology. More specifically, we analyzed the effects of two recalls of the same event ("repetition") and of "probes"…

  7. Co-Animation of and Resistance to the Construction of Witness, Victim, and Perpetrator Identities in Forensic Interviews with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, Sharon K.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how the interrelated identities of witness, victim, and perpetrator are co-constructed in forensic interviews occurring after allegations of child sexual abuse are made. Work related to issues of power in the area of forensic interviews with children tends to focus on coerciveness, and interviewers have power relative to…

  8. Two-phase orthodontic treatment in a unilateral cleft lip and palate patient with 1-year follow-up results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant M Dhole

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of a patient with cleft lip and palate can be challenging. A 10-year and 10-month-old girl presented with uneven and crowded teeth. She had unilateral cleft lip and palate on left side for which she had undergone primary lip repair and palatoplasty when she was younger. On examination, she had concave facial appearance, crossbite of upper arch with reverse overjet of 2 mm, wits appraisal of 6 mm and impacted 23. She was treated with two-phase orthodontic treatment; growth modification appliances followed by fixed mechanotherapy. Total treatment time was 5 years. 1-year follow-up shows that results have been stable with good facial aesthetics and functional occlusion.

  9. Caring for pregnant women for whom transfusion is not an option. A national review to assist in patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidson-Gerber, Giselle; Kerridge, Ian; Farmer, Shannon; Stewart, Cameron L; Savoia, Helen; Challis, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal mortality and morbidity globally. Obstetric bleeding can be catastrophic and management is challenging, involving a coordinated multidisciplinary approach, which may include blood products. In settings where blood transfusion is not an option, either because of patient refusal (most commonly in Jehovah Witnesses) or because of unavailability of blood, management becomes even more challenging. Observational studies have demonstrated an association between refusal of blood products in major obstetric haemorrhage and increased morbidity and mortality. This review draws upon evidence in the literature, physiological principles and expert opinion for strategies and guidance to optimise the outcomes of pregnant women in whom blood transfusion is either refused or impossible. The importance of a multidisciplinary antenatal and perinatal management plan, including optimisation of haemoglobin and iron stores pre-delivery, blood loss minimisation, early haemorrhage control and postpartum anaemia treatment, is discussed. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  10. Events Leading to Hospital-Related Disenrollment of Home Hospice Patients: A Study of Primary Caregivers' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phongtankuel, Veerawat; Paustian, Shawn; Reid, Manney Carrington; Finley, Amanda; Martin, Angela; Delfs, John; Baughn, Rosemary; Adelman, Ronald D

    2017-03-01

    Approximately 25% of hospice disenrollments in the United States occur as the result of hospitalization, which can lead to burdensome transitions and undesired care. Informal caregivers (e.g., spouses, children) play a critical role in caring for patients on home hospice. Research examining hospital-related disenrollment among these patients is limited. To understand the events surrounding the hospitalization of patients discharged from home hospice through the perspective of their informal caregivers. Thirty-eight semistructured phone interviews with caregivers were conducted, and data regarding the events leading to hospitalization and hospice disenrollment were collected. Study data were analyzed by using qualitative methods. Subjects included caregivers of 38 patients who received services from one not-for-profit home hospice organization in New York City. Participants were English speaking only. Caregiver recordings were transcribed and analyzed by using content analysis. Content analysis revealed four major themes contributing to hospitalization: (1) distressing/difficult-to-witness signs and symptoms, (2) needing palliative interventions not deliverable in the home setting, (3) preference to be cared for by nonhospice physicians or at a local hospital, and (4) caregivers not comfortable with the death of their care recipient at home. Over half of all caregivers called 911 before calling hospice. Our study provides insight into the events leading to hospitalization of home hospice patients from the caregivers' perspective. Further research is needed to quantify the drivers of hospitalization and to develop interventions that reduce utilization, while improving care for home hospice patients and their caregivers.

  11. Effect of music therapy on oncologic staff bystanders: a substantive grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Clare; Magill, Lucanne

    2009-06-01

    Oncologic work can be satisfying but also stressful, as staff support patients and families through harsh treatment effects, uncertain illness trajectories, and occasional death. Although formal support programs are available, no research on the effects of staff witnessing patients' supportive therapies exists. This research examines staff responses to witnessing patient-focused music therapy (MT) programs in two comprehensive cancer centers. In Study 1, staff were invited to anonymously complete an open-ended questionnaire asking about the relevance of a music therapy program for patients and visitors (what it does; whether it helps). In Study 2, staff were theoretically sampled and interviewed regarding the personal effects of witnessing patient-centered music therapy. Data from each study were comparatively analyzed according to grounded theory procedures. Positive and negative cases were evident and data saturation arguably achieved. In Study 1, 38 staff unexpectedly described personally helpful emotional, cognitive, and team effects and consequent improved patient care. In Study 2, 62 staff described 197 multiple personal benefits and elicited patient care improvements. Respondents were mostly nursing (57) and medical (13) staff. Only three intrusive effects were reported: audibility, initial suspicion, and relaxation causing slowing of work pace. A substantive grounded theory emerged applicable to the two cancer centers: Staff witnessing MT can experience personally helpful emotions, moods, self-awarenesses, and teamwork and thus perceive improved patient care. Intrusive effects are uncommon. Music therapy's benefits for staff are attributed to the presence of live music, the human presence of the music therapist, and the observed positive effects in patients and families. Patient-centered oncologic music therapy in two cancer centers is an incidental supportive care modality for staff, which can reduce their stress and improve work environments and perceived

  12. Informed Strangers: Witnessing and Responding to Unethical Care as Student Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Engel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nursing students occupy a unique perspective in clinical settings because they are informed, through education, about how patient care ought to happen. Given the brevity of placements and their “visiting status” in clinical sites, students are less invested in the ethos of specific sites. Subsequently, their perspectives of quality care are informed by what should happen, which might differ from that of nurses and patients. The purpose of this study was to identify predominant themes in patient care, as experienced by students, and the influence that these observations have on the development of their ethical reasoning. Using a qualitative descriptive approach in which 27 nursing student papers and three follow-up in-depth interviews were analyzed, three main themes emerged: Good employee, poor nurse; damaged care; and negotiating the gap. The analysis of the ethical situations in these papers suggests that students sometimes observe care that lacks concern for the dignity, autonomy, and safety of patients. For these student nurses, this tension led to uncertainty about patient care and their eventual profession.

  13. Might rapid implementation of cardiopulmonary bypass in patients who are failing to recover after a cardiac arrest potentially save lives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Muhammad; Pessotto, Renzo

    2013-10-01

    The question addressed was whether it might be beneficial to have a rapid-response emergency cardiopulmonary bypass service for patients who suffer an in-hospital or an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of any aetiology. Eighty-five papers were reviewed using the reported search, of which 15 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date, country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. The concept of using emergency cardiopulmonary bypass (ECPB) for the management of cardiogenic shock and refractory cardiac arrest was developed in the late 1990s. Since this time, a large number of centres worldwide have reported success with use of ECPB for cardiac arrest refractory to conventional resuscitation techniques and for cardiogenic shock. This is a relatively new advancement in resuscitative strategy and is expanding in clinical practice. Clinical studies and experimental data reveal that ECPB is a very effective tool in the return of spontaneous circulation following refractory cardiac arrest. Resuscitation with this technique demonstrated survival benefit when compared with patients having conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation for >10 min after witnessed in-hospital arrest, especially if the cause of arrest is of cardiac origin. The reported finding from a systematic review of 1494 patients treated with ECPB noted that the overall survival rate was 47.4%; their results indicate that the application of ECPB in cardiac arrest improves survival and the likelihood of a satisfactory neurological outcome. An additional review revealed that acceptable survival rate and neurological outcomes (30%) can be achieved with extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in children after prolonged cardiac arrest (up to 95 min) refractory to standard resuscitation. However, no study has provided clear-cut evidence of the merits of ECPS in patients with out

  14. Resilience and Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Gordana Ristevska-Dimitrоvska; Izabela Filov; Domnika Rajchanovska; Petar Stefanovski; Beti Dejanova

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many studies have shown that a relationship exists between quality of life (QoL) and resilience in breast cancer patients, but few studies present information on the nature of this relationship of resilience on QoL. Our aim was to examine the relationship between resilience and quality of life in breast cancer patients. METHODS: QoL was measured in 218 consequent breast cancer patients, with EORTC - QLQ Core 30 questionnaire, and EORTC QLQ-BR23. The resilience was measured wit...

  15. Post-traumatic stress and coping in an inner-city child. Traumatogenic witnessing of interparental violence and murder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parson, E R

    1995-01-01

    Violence today appears to be ubiquitous: it even enters the clinical session, deeply internalized within child victims who were exposed to often unspeakable horror. Violence and its pernicious, horrific effects are observed in the streets, schools, parks, playgrounds, and homes of some inner-city communities. This article introduces the use of Anna Freud's Diagnostic Profile system with an inner-city child who, at the age of four, witnessed his mother fatally stab his father with a kitchen knife and at age eleven was assessed and treated by the author. Clinicians may wonder whether any kind of therapy could ever undo the serious fixations, regressions, developmental arrests, and integrate trauma-shattered ego functions observed in children exposed to visual horror and affective terror. Application of the Profile may offer some direction with these children: a panoramic view of their painful mood, their hypervigilance and distrust, fears, separation and annihilation anxieties, nightmares (with murder imagery), developmental anomalies and arrests is presented with clarity and force. The therapist uses countertransference responses to monitor the affect tolerance in the child and to determine the appropriate dosages of awareness the child can integrate from one moment to the next. The therapist also serves as the child's external stimulus barrier and explores feelings about media-driven portrayals of violence, stereotypes, and inner-city children and youths. The unsurpassed utility of the Profile as a diagnostic system that documents vital economic, dynamic, structural, genetic and adaptive-coping information about the child is discussed in detail as is the Profile's added benefit of possibly guarding against misdiagnosis and charting a course for psychotherapy in difficult city-violence trauma cases.

  16. Ostomy patients: a preliminary atudy

    OpenAIRE

    Trentini,Mercedes; B. Pacheco, Maria Albertina; L. Martine, Margareth; M. G. Vieira da Silva, Denise; R. de Farias, Selma; Duarte, Rosane; Martins, José Cristóvam; Espíndola Tomaz, Claudete

    2008-01-01

    This study reveals some aspects of ostomy patients life experience. The data were obtained by using the participant observation technique during the monthly meeting session of the Ostomy Patients Association from July 1989 to August 1991. The findings showed that the ostomized patients were concerned with: 1) the ostomy pouch (how to get it); 2) other persons opinion about ostomized patients; 3) their sexuality, and stoma care. The patients perceived themselves as physically disable and infer...

  17. Pattern of skeletal and dental malocclusions in Saudi orthodontic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrees, Abdullah M

    2012-03-01

    To determine the distribution of skeletal and dental malocclusions in a sample of Saudi orthodontic patients. Six hundred and two randomly selected pretreatment orthodontic records were evaluated in this descriptive, retrospective study conducted between June to September 2009 at the Orthodontic Clinic of the College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Cephalometric analysis using Dolphin software to measure the A point, Nasion, B point (ANB) angle and Wits appraisal was performed to determine the skeletal malocclusion. Angles classification was evaluated to determine the molar relationship using study models. The most common dental malocclusion was Angle Class I followed by the asymmetric molar relationship. The most common skeletal malocclusion using ANB angle was Class I, while the most common skeletal malocclusion using Wits appraisal was Class II. No gender difference was seen in the distribution of the molar relationship and skeletal relationship using both ANB angle and Wits appraisal. The pattern of skeletal and dental malocclusions in Saudi orthodontic patients differs, based on the variability of the methods used to assess the anteroposterior jaw-base relationship.

  18. Making Patient Engagement a Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushparajah, Daphnee S

    2017-07-24

    Patients are increasingly recognised as the true customers of healthcare. By providing insights and perspectives, patients can help the wider healthcare community better understand their needs and ultimately enhance the value of healthcare solutions being developed. In the development of new medicines, for example, meaningful patient engagement can enable the pharmaceutical industry, healthcare providers and other stakeholders to achieve more meaningful health outcomes. While both the pharmaceutical industry and regulators have achieved some progress in incorporating patient perspectives into their activities, the lack of standardised best practices and metrics has made it challenging to achieve consistency and measure success in patient engagement. Practical guidance for patient engagement can facilitate better interactions between patients or patient groups and other collaborators, e.g. industry, regulators and other healthcare stakeholders. Accordingly, UCB has developed an internal model for Patient Group Engagement incorporating four key principles, based on shared ambition, transparency, accountability and respect, essential for effective collaborations.

  19. Transformative narratives and ethical witnessing: the 7N Feminist Platform’s discursive strategies against gender-based violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Núñez Puente

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to explore the transformative possibilites of the narratives produced on gender-based violence. Therefore, we will analyze the online discursive strategies developed by the Feminist Platform 7N to bring about an anlytical model built upon the concept of the ethical witnessing articulated by Oliver (2001; 2004. We will discuss the relationship between giving testimony and witnessing gender-based violence, the kind of discourse developed and if it helps to identify sencondary victimization. We will also discuss whether this kind of discourses could be emancipatory and at the same time whether these narratives could be part of the feminist fight for women’s rights. We conclude that certain activist praxis against gender-based violence can challenge the hegemonic frames of recognition of gender-based violence and thus produce discourses on the victims of the violence which can be ultimately emancipatory.

  20. Determination and analysis of the physical chemical characteristics of witness coupons of boral for the CNLV; Determinacion y analisis de las caracteristicas fisico quimicas de cupones testigo de boral para la CNLV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez M, J.L.; Aguilar H, F.; Rivero G, T.; Carrillo M, R. [ININ, Apdo. Post 18-1027, Col Escandon, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: jlgm@nuclear.inin.mx; fah@nuclear.inin.mx; trg@nuclear.inin.mx; racm@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    The burnt fuel elements that are extracted in each charging of the Units 1 and 2 of the Nuclear Power Plant of Laguna Verde, are deposited in shelves placed in the storage reservoir designed for this end. Each cell or storage shelf has a structure type cage. Among the cells neutron absorber material is placed, (Boral), what allows to avoid the possible criticality that could settle down when accumulating in the storage the irradiated fuel elements. This boral has been designed to maintain its characteristics of thermal neutron absorber during a lifetime of the plant. To check that the wings and the Boral have not suffered some degradation or some change due to the environmental conditions in the warehouse, it is necessary to watch over their physical and chemical characteristics periodically, what is carried out by a surveillance program based on Badges or manufactured witness coupons of the same material that the wings. The badges witness are embedded in a special wing, which is placed in the place with more radiation in the pool. In this work the laboratory tests carried out in the ININ to the coupon witness 03 of the Unit 2, (II-03) are described, being presented the results and obtained conclusions. (Author)

  1. Adaptable healing patient room for stroke patients. A staff evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daemen, E M L; Flinsenberg, I C M; Van Loenen, E J; Cuppen, R P G; Rajae-Joordens, R J E

    2014-01-01

    This article is part of the focus theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "Pervasive Intelligent Technologies for Health". This paper addresses the evaluation with hospital staff of an in-patient environment that supports patients, family, nursing staff and medical specialists during the recovery process of neurology patients and especially patients recovering from a stroke. We describe the methods that were used to evaluate the Adaptive Daily Rhythm Atmospheres (ADRA), Artificial Skylight (AS) and Adaptive Stimulus Dosage (ASD) concepts. The goal of this evaluation was to gather qualitative and quantitative feedback from hospital staff about the usefulness, the usability and desirability of the Adaptive Daily Rhythm Atmospheres (ADRA), Artificial Skylight (AS) and Adaptive Stimulus Dosage (ASD) concepts that were implemented as different phases of a novel healing patient room. This paper reports the effects of these concepts with regard to 1) the healing process of the patient and 2) the workflow of the staff. These results are part of a larger R&D project and provide the initial feedback in an iterative user-centered design methodology. After signing informed consents, the group of participants was taken to the laboratory environment where they were introduced to the Adaptive Healing Environment Patient Room and where they could also experience the room. Then, the participants were seated next to the patient bed so they had a similar viewing angle as the patients. The participants received a booklet with questionnaires. The items on this questionnaire addressed the influence on the healing process (i.e., the possible effect the concept/phase has on the healing process of the patient, meaning faster recovery, better sleep and enhanced well-being) and influence on the workflow (i.e., the possible effect of such a concept/phase on the working activities of the staff in the ward). We presented every concept (AS and ASD) and all the phases of ADRA. After every

  2. Innovative Ideas for Developing Geophysics Field Schools in Classes with Small Numbers: Experience Gained from the AfricaArray/Wits Geophysics International Field School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, S. J.; Manzi, M. S.; Scheiber-Enslin, S. E.; Durrheim, R. J.; Nyblade, A.

    2016-12-01

    The geophysics program at Wits University has few students in its Honours program, making it difficult to run a fully-fledged field school. However, there is a dire need for field training both at Wits and throughout Africa. The solution is to expand the number of participants by taking additional students from Africa and the US. This has been sponsored by the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) and more recently UNESCO, and a variety of US NSF programs. More students make it efficient to acquire data using a variety of methods and provides for important networking and skills development. Expanding the number of participants means that more staff members are needed. In Africa, it is difficult to recruit corporate participants as volunteering for three weeks is simply too long to take off from work. Thus university academic staff must commit on an ongoing basis and this can lead to burnout. The timing of the field school is during prime research field time and the results are difficult to publish. The solution has been to use graduate students as instructors. This has turned out to be a valuable experience for graduate students; one or two graduate students are assigned to each method and they take on the responsibility of preparing lectures, equipment, software and computers. Thus the program has developed into a two tier training program, whereby Honours students participate as students with the objective of collecting data and writing a company style report and graduate students participate as instructors. Graduate students participate for one or two years and the payment is mitigated as they are required to work a number of hours for the department. This has led to the establishment of a vibrant network of young geophysicists throughout Africa and the US.

  3. Pathways from witnessing parental violence during childhood to involvement in intimate partner violence in adult life: The roles of depression and substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madruga, Clarice S; Viana, Maria Carmen; Abdalla, Renata Rigacci; Caetano, Raul; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of witnessing parental violence (WPV) during childhood and of current intimate partner violence (IPV) victimisation and aggression in a Brazilian sample, in order to verify pathways between WPV and involvement in IPV as an adult. The mediating roles of substance use and depression were investigated. Data came from the Second Brazilian National Alcohol and Drugs Survey, a multi-cluster probabilistic household survey, which gathered information on the use of psychoactive substances, current depressive disorder, history of childhood direct and indirect exposure to domestic violence and IPV in a nationally representative sample. A subsample of 2120 individuals aged 14 years or older was analysed. Weighted prevalence rates, adjusted odds ratio and conditional path models were performed. Being a victim of IPV was reported by 6% of the sample. Thus being, 4.1% reported being IPV perpetrators; these rates were 16.6% and 7.3%, respectively, among those who reported WPV (13%). WPV was associated with being a victim of IPV in adult life, but not with becoming a perpetrator, regardless of being a victim of physical violence during childhood. There was a direct effect of WPV on IPV mediated by depressive symptoms. Alcohol and cocaine consumption and age of drinking initiation mediated only when combined with depressive symptoms. Intergenerational transmission models of IPV through exposure during childhood can help to explain the high rates of domestic violence in Brazil. Our findings provide evidence to implement targeted prevention strategies where they are needed most: the victims of premature adverse experiences. [Madruga CS, Viana MC, Abdalla RR, Caetano R, Laranjeira R. Pathways from witnessing parental violence during childhood to involvement in intimate partner violence in adult life: The roles of depression and substance use. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:107-114]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol

  4. Evaluating the quality of prehospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation by reviewing automated external defibrillator records and survival for out-of-hospital witnessed arrests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Patrick Chow-In; Chen, Wen-Jone; Lin, Chih-Hao; Ma, Matthew Huei-Ming; Lin, Fang-Yue

    2005-02-01

    Without an easy method to monitor the performance of prehospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), earlier studies have not been able to assess the quality of CPR. In this study, we have used a new approach to evaluate prehospital CPR performance and the impact on outcome using data retrieved from the automatic external defibrillators (AED). Electrocardiography (ECG) and voice records from AED data cards from 633 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) were reviewed. Fifty-two witnessed cardiac arrests in ventricular fibrillation (VF) requiring post-shock CPR underwent an independent, structured review by two physicians. The adequacy of prehospital CPR was defined on the basis of noticeable deflection of the ECG with chest compressions, the actual number of chest compressions delivered per minute, and the continuity of prehospital CPR at the scene and during transport. Outcome measures included return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and survival to hospital admission and discharge. The quality of prehospital CPR was judged as adequate in 15 (29%, 95%; CI: 18-42%) and inadequate in 37 (71%, 95%; CI: 58-82%) of the consensus. Adequate CPR performance resulted in a higher rate of ROSC at the scene (53% versus 8%, 95% CI of the difference 14-76%), and survival to hospital discharge (53% versus 8%, 95% CI of the difference 14-76%). Two reviewers agreed on whether CPR was adequate in 92.3% of cases, with a kappa of 0.82. The quality of prehospital CPR is associated with a greater likelihood of survival in witnessed VF arrests in need of post-shock CPR. The potential of widely available electrocardiography and voice records in AEDs in providing a convenient and real-time evaluation of prehospital CPR should be explored further.

  5. Evaluating the PRASE patient safety intervention - a multi-centre, cluster trial with a qualitative process evaluation: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheard, Laura; O'Hara, Jane; Armitage, Gerry; Wright, John; Cocks, Kim; McEachan, Rosemary; Watt, Ian; Lawton, Rebecca

    2014-10-29

    Estimates show that as many as one in 10 patients are harmed while receiving hospital care. Previous strategies to improve safety have focused on developing incident reporting systems and changing systems of care and professional behaviour, with little involvement of patients. The need to engage with patients about the quality and safety of their care has never been more evident with recent high profile reviews of poor hospital care all emphasising the need to develop and support better systems for capturing and responding to the patient perspective on their care. Over the past 3 years, our research team have developed, tested and refined the PRASE (Patient Reporting and Action for a Safe Environment) intervention, which gains patient feedback about quality and safety on hospital wards. A multi-centre, cluster, wait list design, randomised controlled trial with an embedded qualitative process evaluation. The aim is to assess the efficacy of the PRASE intervention, in achieving patient safety improvements over a 12-month period.The trial will take place across 32 hospital wards in three NHS Hospital Trusts in the North of England. The PRASE intervention comprises two tools: (1) a 44-item questionnaire which asks patients about safety concerns and issues; and (2) a proforma for patients to report (a) any specific patient safety incidents they have been involved in or witnessed and (b) any positive experiences. These two tools then provide data which are fed back to wards in a structured feedback report. Using this report, ward staff are asked to hold action planning meetings (APMs) in order to action plan, then implement their plans in line with the issues raised by patients in order to improve patient safety and the patient experience.The trial will be subjected to a rigorous qualitative process evaluation which will enable interpretation of the trial results. fieldworker diaries, ethnographic observation of APMs, structured interviews with APM lead and collection

  6. Heroin overdose resuscitation with naloxone: patient uses own prescribed supply to save the life of a peer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Ian; McDonald, Rebecca; Tas, Basak; Strang, John

    2015-09-14

    Opiate overdose is the primary cause of death among injection-drug users, representing a major public health concern worldwide. Opiate overdose can be reversed through timely administration of naloxone, and users have expressed willingness to carry the antidote for emergency use (take-home naloxone). In November 2014, new WHO guidelines identified that naloxone should be made available to anyone at risk of witnessing an overdose. We present the case of a 46-year-old man in opioid-maintenance treatment who used take-home naloxone to rescue an overdose victim. This is the first- ever account of a patient using dose titration of naloxone to restore respiratory function while minimising the risk of adverse effects. To improve the safety of take-home naloxone, the authors call for clinicians involved in the treatment of opiate users to: prescribe take-home naloxone to all patients; forewarn patients of potential side effects; and instruct patients in naloxone dose titration. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  7. [The examination of men's wits by Juan Huarte de San Juan, and the dawn of the neurobiology of intelligence in the Spanish renaissance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Araguz, A; Bustamante-Martínez, C

    The Spanish renaissance doctor Juan Huarte de San Juan (1529-1588) was the author of a unique and immortal work, The Examination of Men's Wits, the edition princeps of which was printed in Baeza in 1575. Since then it has been reprinted at least 80 times and translated into seven languages, which makes it the most influential Spanish contribution to medicine ever published. In this paper we review the unjustly little-known figure of Huarte as the founder of Neuropsychology, and we also analyse his works from a historical and neuroscientific point of view. Huarte's writings deal with the problem of the organic relations between the brain and understanding, and accept the possible influences exerted by temper on the will within the field of the Neurobiology of Intelligence. Thus, over four centuries ago Huarte became the founder of Differential or Physiological Psychology, Neuropsychology, Eugenics and Career Guidance. Huarte's work not only played a fundamental role in the history and development of the body of neuroscientific knowledge, but has also been a clear (although not always cited) influence on scientists, philosophers and men of letters such as Alarcón, Bacon, Cabanis, Cervantes (whose Don Quixote was inspired by him), Charron, Chomsky, Gall, Goethe, Hume, Kant, Kretchmer, Lessing, Lope de Vega, Montaigne, Montesquieu, Nietzsche, Quevedo, Rousseau, Schopenhauer, Thomasius, Tirso de Molina and Ziegler. In the middle of the 16th century, Huarte and his Examination of Men's Wits, together with the works of the naturalist philosophers Gómez Pereira (Antoniana Margarita, 1554) and Miguel Sabuco (New Philosophy, 1587), constituted the prestigious triumvirate of Spanish Renaissance scholars who, for the first time in history, contemplated the workings of the brain from a point of view that had more to do with science than the supernatural.

  8. [A case of patient homicide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beine, K H

    1995-01-01

    The phenomenon of patient homicides committed by health service employees has, in the previous years, repeatedly aroused much attention. The cases made known in Germany, the USA, Holland, Norway, and Austria appear to provide evidence to the effect that we are not only dealing with unique incidents. The scientific investigation of this especially sensitive taboo-topic is, to date, missing. The judicial trials carried out emphatically indicate that culprit motives, colleague behavior, but also to a large extent decisions made by superiors remain unclear. It remains controversial, what effect working conditions, strain of employees, their level of education and personal viewpoints over such criminal acts they possess. Finally, the long latency period between the first internal suspicions and the responsible parties' appropriate reactions requires duplicatable explanation. The following paper presents a German single-case study of patient homicide by a female nurse. The focus on causality rests on the presentation of developments up to the point where the long-fermenting suspicion could no longer be dismissed, and appropriate consequences took place. The account largely avoids the "definite" findings required during the judicial process. It concerns rather above all an open, uncertain, and possibly without external influence course of development which in stages each colleague in the health professions can trace, to the point where the uncertain and horrifying suspicion became a certainty. With this single-case study in hand it is made understandable in which ways personal circumstances and professional conditions at the worksituation can intertwine in such a way that the original motivation to help turns into its abysmal opposite. It is the author's intention to make preventive learning possible through this single case study. Every employee in the health professions should proceed on the assumption that such occurrences could also in his own field of work come to

  9. Pulling a patient up in bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moving a patient in bed ... takes at least 2 people to safely move a patient up in bed. Friction from rubbing can ... A slide sheet is the best way to prevent friction. If you do not have one, you ...

  10. The difficult patient: a psychodynamic perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woods, Craig D

    2007-01-01

    Managing the "difficult" patient is a challenge all dentists face. This paper describes a psychodynamic model that pictures the dentist-patient relationship as a two-way interaction that involves unconscious processes...

  11. Building Geophysics Talent and Opportunity in Africa: Experience from the AfricaArray/Wits Geophysics Field School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, S. J.; Manzi, M.; Scheiber-Enslin, S. E.; Durrheim, R. J.; Jones, M. Q. W.; Nyblade, A.

    2015-12-01

    There are many challenges faced by geophysics students and academic staff in Africa that make it difficult to develop effective field and research programs. Challenges to conducting field work that have been identified, and that can be tackled are: lack of training on geophysical equipment and lack of exposure to field program design and implementation. To address these challenges, the AfricaArray/Wits Geophysics field school is designed to expose participants to a wide variety of geophysical instruments and the entire workflow of a geophysical project. The AA field school was initially developed for the geophysics students at the University of the Witwatersrand. However, by increasing the number of participants, we are able to make more effective use of a large pool of equipment, while addressing challenging geophysical problems at a remote field site. These additional participants are selected partially based on the likely hood of being able start a field school at their home institution. A good candidate would have access to geophysical equipment, but may not have knowledge of how to use it or how to effectively design surveys. These are frequently junior staff members or graduate students in leadership roles. The three week program introduces participants to the full geophysical field workflow. The first week is spent designing a geophysical survey, including determining the cost. The second week is spent collecting data to address a real geophysical challenge, such as determining overburden thickness, loss of ground features due to dykes in a mine, or finding water. The third week is spent interpreting and integrating the various data sets culminating in a final presentation. Participants are given all lecture material and much of the software is open access; this is done to encourage using the material at the home institution. One innovation has been to use graduate students as instructors, thus building a pool of talent that has developed the logistic and

  12. Are they trained? Prevalence, motivations and barriers to CPR training among cohabitants of patients with a coronary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariou, Guillaume; Pelaccia, Thierry

    2016-06-27

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest occurs most often at home and often in the presence of family members of the patient who witness the event. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training of the next of kin of at-risk patients is thus potentially beneficial. The aim of our study was to document the prevalence of appropriate training among cardiac patients' cohabitants, as well as the motivations or obstacles to seeking training. 153 cohabitants of 127 patients who were hospitalized 1 year prior for confirmed coronary disease in a cardiology department (Paris, France) were interviewed using a structured questionnaire between October 2013 and March 2014. 38 % of interrogated cohabitants had received CPR training, and in two-thirds of the cases, their training was undertaken prior to the onset of the patient's heart disease. The training received was often a single instruction session. Half took place more than 5 years prior to the interview. For two-thirds of interrogated families, the reasons they sought training were related to professional or military duties. Training undertaken solely due to cohabitation with a patient affected by coronary disease represented only 3.5 % of the trained respondents. A lack of information regarding existing training programs and a lack of concrete propositions were given as the main barriers to seeking training. The families of patients who are at-risk for cardiac arrests that were interrogated in our study are inadequately trained in CPR. The creation of dedicated training programs at cardiac rehabilitation services for patients' next of kin or the use of alternative methods such as self-instruction kits could potentially remedy this situation.

  13. Is South Africa on the verge of a medical malpractice litigation storm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa is witnessing a sharp increase in medical malpractice litigation as patients increasingly become aware of their rights in a setting of an overburdened health system with limited resources. Legitimate claims need to be compensated. However, the consequences of increased litigation are: (i) a further reduction in ...

  14. Circulating endothelial cells and circulating endothelial progenitors in kidney disease--victims, witnesses, or accomplices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Závada, J; Kideryová, L; Pytlík, R; Tesar, V

    2008-01-01

    Nephrologists deal with a host of pathologic conditions involving renal and systemic endothelium. Both in native and transplanted kidneys, often the insult to the renal endothelium initiates the pathogenic process ultimately leading to the loss of organ function. Also, systemic atherosclerosis is accelerated in patients with renal dysfunction. In this review we would like to cover the possible role of CECs and their counterparts--circulating EPCs in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction associated with chronic renal failure, ANCA-associated vasculitis, and progression of chronic renal disease.

  15. The psychological reactions after witnessing a killing in public in a Danish high school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, A.; Kurdahl, S.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: School killings attract immense media and public attention but psychological studies surrounding these events are rare. OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and possible risk factors of PTSD in 320 Danish high school students (mean age 18 years) 7...

  16. Approach to a tremor patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Soumya; Pandey, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Tremors are commonly encountered in clinical practice and are the most common movement disorders seen. It is defined as a rhythmic, involuntary oscillatory movement of a body part around one or more joints. In the majority of the population, tremor tends to be mild. They have varying etiology; hence, classifying them appropriately helps in identifying the underlying cause. Clinically, tremor is classified as occurring at rest or action. They can also be classified based on their frequency, amplitude, and body part involved. Parkinsonian tremor is the most common cause of rest tremor. Essential tremor (ET) and enhanced physiological tremor are the most common causes of action tremor. Isolated head tremor is more likely to be dystonic rather than ET. Isolated voice tremor could be considered to be a spectrum of ET. Psychogenic tremor is not a diagnosis of exclusion; rather, demonstration of various clinical signs is needed to establish the diagnosis. Severity of tremor and response to treatment can be assessed using clinical rating scales as well as using electrophysiological measurements. The treatment of tremor is symptomatic. Medications are effective in half the cases of essential hand tremor and in refractory patients; deep brain stimulation is an alternative therapy. Midline tremors benefit from botulinum toxin injections. It is also the treatment of choice in dystonic tremor and primary writing tremor. PMID:27994349

  17. 2 October 2012 - Egyptian Academy of Scientific Research and Technology President M. Al Sherbiny signing a protocol agreement with CERN Director-General R. Heuer, witnessed by Ambassador to the UN W. Bassim. This signature is followed by the signature of an MoU with ALICE and CMS Collaborations.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    Where present: ALICE Collaboration: CP. Giubellino, F. Carminati, C. Decosse, and A. N. Tawfik CMS Collaboration: T. Camporesi A. Charkiewicz, A. De Roeck, A. Petrilli, A. Sharma with S. Aly, Y. Assran, M. Attia, R. Masod and A. Radi

  18. Informed consent. Communication problems: a patient's view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, F

    In this paper, the author gives a personal account of how healthcare professionals' communication skills can contribute to confusion and fear in patients undergoing major treatment. She discusses why it is important for nursing staff to act as patient advocates and provide consistent information that is easily understood and that the patient can share with a relative or carer.

  19. Conceptualising patient empowerment: a mixed methods study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo, P.; Edwards, A.; Barr, P.J.; Scholl, I.; Elwyn, G.; Mcallister, M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, interventions and health policy programmes have been established to promote patient empowerment, with a particular focus on patients affected by long-term conditions. However, a clear definition of patient empowerment is lacking, making it difficult to assess

  20. Implementing and Using a Patient Portal: A qualitative exploration of patient and provider perspectives on engaging patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Bridget L; Brown, Judith Belle; Terry, Amanda; Cejic, Sonny; Stewart, Moira; Thind, Amardeep

    2016-07-04

    The use of portals might be expected to rise; however, adoption has been slow. Development of portals has occurred with limited patient involvement. This paper fills a need for literature concerning perspectives regarding the value of portals, how best to organize and provide portals, and critically how to seek patient involvement in implementation.ObjectiveThe objective was to explore the feelings, ideas, and expectations of patients and primary care providers concerning the implementation and use of patient portals. The study employed a descriptive qualitative design interviewing seven patients and four providers from an interdisciplinary primary health care clinic in Ontario, Canada. Patients were older with at least one chronic condition. Interviews were analysed independently by three coders who then met to synthesize the findings. There was limited experience of portals and substantial convergence between patients and providers regarding concerns and potential benefits with an overall positive view. Four themes emerged: 1) the Context in which patient portal use takes place; 2) the Necessary conditions for use of a patient portal; 3) the Implementation of a patient portal; and 4) the Use of a patient portal for care. Findings highlight that it is not sufficient to engage patients in the use of a portal; it is critical that patients be engaged in the early stages of implementation. With many health and fitness electronic tools available (e.g. Fitbit©), this study remind us that tools are not enough. Patient engagement requires patient-centred partnerships between patients and health care providers.

  1. Ethical dilemmas in blood transfusion in Jehovah's Witnesses: a legal-bioethical analysis Dilemas éticos en la transfusión sanguínea de Testigos de Jeová: un análisis jurídico-bioético Dilemas éticos na hemotransfusão em Testemunhas de Jeová: uma análise jurídico-bioética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inacia Sátiro Xavier de França

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify knowledge production by healthcare professionals about blood transfusion in Jehovah's Witnesses (JW, listing the therapeutic alternatives for blood transfusion in these individuals and citing the legal, ethical and bioethical standards regarding blood transfusion in JWs. METHODS: Data were collected in the LILACS and SciELO databases, Nursing journals and on http://www.google.com.br. Articles focusing on blood transfusion in JWs were included, and texts that were repeated or did not approach this theme were excluded. Content analysis was used. RESULTS: The thematic categories show that the JWs accept self-transfusion and are opposed to the medical practice of blood transfusion, even if it represents the continuity of life. CONCLUSION: Healthcare professionals experience ethical dilemmas when they need to perform blood transfusion in JWs due to the fact that religious freedom is not an absolute value, and the apparent collision of fundamental rights demands that a decision be made, centered on legal standards and bioethical principles.OBJETIVO: Identificar la producción de conocimiento por los profesionales de salud respecto a la transfusión sanguínea de Testigos de Jeova (TJ, listar las alternativas terapéuticas de la transfusión sanguínea en esos individuos y citar la ordenanza jurídica, ética y bioética en lo que concierne a la transfusión sanguínea en TJ. MÉTODOS: Se recolectaron datos en las bases de datos LILACS y SciELO, periódicos de Enfermería y en el http://www.google.com.br. Se incluyeron artículos enfocando la transfusión sanguínea en TJ, y se excluyeron a los que no abordaban esa temática o estaban repetidos. Se utilizó el análisis de contenido. RESULTADOS: Las categorías temáticas señalan que los TJ acatan la auto-transfusión y se contraponen a la práctica médica de la transfusión sanguínea, aunque ella represente la continuidad de la vida. CONCLUSIÓN: Los profesionales de salud

  2. Patient outcomes following defibrillation with a low energy biphasic truncated exponential waveform in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R D; Hankins, D G; Atkinson, E J

    2001-04-01

    To determine the outcome of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and ventricular fibrillation as the presenting rhythm while using automated external defibrillators (AEDs) that delivered non-escalating, impedance-compensated low-energy (150 J) shocks. AEDs delivering low-energy biphasic truncated exponential (BTE) shocks were employed in an emergency medical services (EMS) system in which first-arriving personnel - police, firefighters or paramedics - delivered the initial shocks. Patients were classified according to their response to shocks: restoration of sustained spontaneous circulation (ROSC) without need for epinephrine and other advanced life support (ALS) interventions; and ALS, those requiring epinephrine in all instances. The primary end-point was neurologically-intact discharge survival. Secondary end-points were ROSC with shocks only and the call-to-shock time interval. Of 42 patients with VF arrest treated with BTE shocks, 35 were bystander-witnessed. Of these 35, 14 (38%) regained a sustained ROSC on-scene with shocks only, needing no epinephrine for ROSC. All 14 survived to discharge home. Of the remaining 21 patients needing ALS intervention, only two (9.5%) survived to discharge. Overall, 16/35 patients (46%) survived to discharge home, an outcome comparable to our experience with patients treated with escalating high-energy monophasic waveform shocks. Low-energy (150 J) non-escalating biphasic truncated exponential waveform shocks terminate VF in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with high efficacy; patient outcome is comparable with that observed with escalating high-energy monophasic shocks. Low-energy shocks, in addition to high efficacy, may confer the advantage of less shock-induced myocardial dysfunction, though this will be difficult to define in the clinical circumstance of long-duration VF provoked by a pre-existing diseased myocardial substrate.

  3. Port-a-caths in cancer patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-01-01

    Jan 1, 1990 ... Abstract We report on 91 patients with cancer who under- went the insertion of89 venous and 4 hepatic arte- rial, implanted vascular ports (port-a-caths) for periods of up to 33 Illonths (total 1 525 patient-. ITlOnths). There were 1 fatal, 9 serious and 8 Illinor. cOlnplications in 18 patients which are described.

  4. A pragmatics' view of patient identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtner, Valentina; Galliers, Julia R; Wilson, Stephanie

    2010-10-01

    Patient identification is a central safety critical aspect of healthcare work. Most healthcare activities require identification of patients by healthcare staff, often in connection with the use of patient records. Indeed, the increasing reliance on electronic systems makes the correct matching of patients with their records a keystone for patient safety. Most research on patient identification has been carried out in hospital settings. The aim was to investigate the process of identification of patients and their records in the context of a primary healthcare clinic. A qualitative field study was carried out at a Walk-In Centre in London (UK). The identification of patients and their records was found to be a context-dependent process, both when formalised in procedures and when relying on informal practices. The authors discovered a range of formal and informal patient identifiers were used in this setting, depending on the task at hand. The theoretical lens of Pragmatics was applied to offer an explanation of this identification process. Context provides the cognitive scaffolding for a process of 'suitably constrained guesswork' about the identity of patients and their records. Implications for practice and for system design are discussed. Practitioners and technology designers should be aware of the risk for misidentifications inherent in this natural information processing activity.

  5. A rapid interview protocol supporting patient-centered quality improvement: hearing the parent's voice in a pediatric cancer unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobo, Elisa J; Billman, Glenn; Lim, Lillian; Murdock, J Wilken; Romero, Elvia; Donoghue, Donna; Roberts, William; Kurtin, Paul S

    2002-09-01

    The Institute of Medicine's 2001 report on quality delimits six dimensions of optimal care: safety, effectiveness, efficiency, timeliness, patient centeredness, and equity. In fall 2001 parents of pediatric cancer patients were interviewed to determine how well they thought these dimensions were addressed with respect to medication administration. Immediate goals were to identify system weaknesses and devise strategies to prevent future errors. A higher-order goal was to develop and demonstrate a model protocol for rapid-cycle interview assessments. Hematology/oncology directors worked with a research expert to develop a semistructured interview protocol. After training, which included directed reading, oral instruction, and role-playing, a convenience sample of 20 English- and Spanish-speaking parents of inpatients was recruited. Parents were asked to characterize current medication administration practices and to describe problems that they had experienced or witnessed. Rapid content analysis techniques were used to identify issues of importance to the parents. Parents' medication concerns centered on their children's comfort. Parents called for communication improvements, standardization of all nursing procedures and techniques, and a guide or an outline providing a clear understanding of what to expect when and from whom. Viewing these concerns in relation to the Institute of Medicine's quality domains allowed the department to frame an improvement action plan aligned with organizational and national priorities. With good supervision and limited focused training, inexperienced staff can successfully administer semistructured qualitative interviews and help analyze findings for rapid cycle improvement purposes. The protocol can be adapted for use in organizations interested in rapid qualitative assessments of patient and parent preferences.

  6. Fertigation by capillary action in seedlings of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit = Fertirrigação por capilaridade em mudas de Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Paiva Dantas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The leucena (Leucaena leucocephala, native to Central America, produces large quantities of viable seeds, which allows its propagation on a large scale; it is also fast-growing and can reach 7 m in height. The use of fertigation favours the absorption of nutrients, and the greater growth of the leucena seedlings, due to the application of less concentrated nutrient solutions of a consequently lower electrical conductivity. However, this practice requires a lot of manpower, and it is necessary to find alternative technologies that would allow a reduction in the costs of fertigation. The aim of this study therefore was to evaluate the viability of fertigation by capillary action, using different concentrations of a standard nutrient solution in the production of seedlings of leucena. A completely randomised experimental design was used, with treatments comprising four concentrations of nutrient solution (0, 50, 100 and 150% applied by capillary fertigation. Two nondestructive evaluations of growth were carried out at 25 and 40 days after sowing (DAS, and one destructive evaluation at 55 DAS. The variables to be evaluated were: plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves and biomass accumulation, besides the quality indices of the seedlings. Analysis of the data leads to the conclusion that seedlings of leucena can be produced at concentrations of between 70 and 100% of the nutrient solution through fertigation by capillary action. = A leucena (Leucaena leucocephala, originária da América Central, produz grandes quantidades de sementes viáveis, o que permite sua propagação em larga escala, e possui crescimento rápido, podendo chegar a 7 metros de altura. O uso da fertirrigação favorece a absorção de nutrientes e o maior crescimento das mudas de leucena, devido à aplicação de solução nutritiva menos concentrada e, consequentemente, com menor condutividade elétrica. Nesse sentido, objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a viabilidade

  7. How common is "common knowledge" about child witnesses among legal professionals? Comparing interviewers, public defenders, and forensic psychologists with laypeople.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Julie A; Warren, Amye R; Bruck, Maggie; Kuehnle, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluates the knowledge of jury-eligible college students (n = 192), investigative interviewers (n = 44), forensic psychologists (n = 39), and public defenders (n = 137) in regard to the research on interviewing children. These groups' knowledge was compared with the scientific research on the impact of interview techniques and practices on the accuracy of child witnesses. Jury-eligible students were the least knowledgeable, but their accuracy varied widely across items. Both interviewers and public defenders performed better than jury-eligible students, but they lacked substantial knowledge about the research on interviewing children on certain topics (e.g., using anatomically detailed dolls); forensic psychologists were the most knowledgeable. These findings suggest that professionals in the legal system need substantial professional development regarding the research on interviewing strategies with child witnesses. They also highlight the need for experts to provide case-relevant information to juries who lack basic information about the validity and reliability of children's reports. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Foveal spot: a report of thirteen patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Raymond S; Duncan, Jacque; Brucker, Allison; Prenner, Jonathan L; Brucker, Alexander J

    2003-06-01

    To describe the natural history of a series of patients with a small foveal or juxtafoveal red lesion. Retrospective chart review of 13 patients with a small foveal or juxtafoveal red spot. Long-term follow-up examination was obtained in seven patients. Thirteen patients with a mean age of 34.6 years are reported. Initial visual complaints ranged from no complaints to mild blurring and central distortion of vision. None of the patients had a history of sun gazing or known macular disease. Eleven of the 13 patients had best-corrected visual acuities in the involved eye that were better than 20/30. The lesions were bilateral in five patients and unilateral in eight. When performed, optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography were unremarkable. Follow-up was obtained in seven patients (mean, 58 months), and visual acuity remained stable in all affected eyes. In all patients, the lesions remained stable without expansion or alteration of the foveal appearance over the course of follow-up. This report identifies a foveal or juxtafoveal, irregular, apparently intraretinal, red lesion of unclear cause. Long-term follow-up of these patients has demonstrated stable visual acuity and lesion appearance.

  9. Delayed recovery of spontaneous circulation following cessation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in an older patient: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yili; Kim, Sijun; Dharia, Amishi; Shalshin, Aleksander; Dauer, Jan

    2013-03-12

    This report describes the apparent 'resurrection' of a patient in an emergency department setting. Befittingly named the 'Lazarus phenomenon', the recovery of spontaneous circulation after cessation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation is an extremely rare occurrence that was first described in 1982 and has been mentioned only 38 times in the medical literature. Our patient's case is remarkable in that it helps illustrate many of the mechanisms of this rare phenomenon. It also serves as a reminder of our limitations in determining when to terminate cardiopulmonary resuscitation and suggests that cessation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation should be approached with more care. An 89-year-old Caucasian woman with a medical history of hypertension, atrial fibrillation, hypothyroidism, aortic insufficiency, lymphedema and hypoxia secondary to partial lung resection presented to our hospital after a witnessed fall unassociated with head trauma or loss of consciousness. On examination, our patient was saturating at 85 percent and exhibited a decreased range of motion of the upper extremities and left hip. Radiographic images revealed a left femoral neck and left distal radius fracture. Our patient was stabilized on 100 percent fraction of inspired oxygen and was awaiting transfer to an in-patient unit when, at 3:30 a.m., she went into cardiac arrest. An advanced cardiac life support protocol was initiated, at which time our patient was intubated and administered epinephrine, vasopressin and sodium bicarbonate. Our patient remained unresponsive and asystolic so cardiopulmonary resuscitation was abandoned at 3:48 a.m. After five minutes a ventricular contraction was noted at 3:51 a.m. This progressed to sinus rhythm with a pulse at 3:53 a.m. Our patient was stabilized on norepinephrine and moved to our Intensive Care Unit. At 10:55 a.m., however, our patient again arrested and, despite resuscitative efforts, was pronounced dead at 11:03 a.m. Our patient's case clearly

  10. Bearing Silent Witness: A Grandfather's Secret Attestation to German War Crimes in Occupied France

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, McKay M

    2013-01-01

    Scholars have acknowledged that the study of World War II era intelligence can be an extremely arduous undertaking. Intelligence tradecraft, by its very nature, requires that certain information remain secret. It necessitates the sustained concealment of activities or events. Moreover, this government emphasis on secrecy often results in the suppression of sensitive information from historians and citizens alike. Thus, one must turn to declassified records of the past to reshape modern concep...

  11. A case study of haemoglobinopathy screening in the Netherlands: witnessing the past, lessons for the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jans, S.M.P.J.; van El, C.G.; Houwaart, E.S.; Westerman, M.J.; Janssens, R.J.P.A.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Plass, A.M.C.; Cornel, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. In 2007 neonatal screening (NNS) was expanded to include screening for sickle cell disease (SCD) and beta-thalassaemia. Up until that year no formal recommendations for haemoglobinopathy (carrier) screening existed in the Netherlands. Although it has been subject to debate in the past,

  12. A case study of haemoglobinopathy screening in the Netherlands: witnessing the past, lessons for the future.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jans, S.M.P.J.; El, C.G. van; Houwaart, E.S.; Westerman, M.J.; Janssens, R.J.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Plass, A.M.; Cornel, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In 2007 neonatal screening (NNS) was expanded to include screening for sickle cell disease (SCD) and beta-thalassaemia. Up until that year no formal recommendations for haemoglobinopathy (carrier) screening existed in the Netherlands. Although it has been subject to debate in the past,

  13. A case study of haemoglobinopathy screening in the Netherlands: witnessing the past, lessons for the future.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jans, S.M.P.J.; El, C.G. van; Houwaart, E.S.; Westerman, M.; Janssens, R.J.P.A.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Plass, A.M.C.; Cornel, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. In 2007 neonatal screening (NNS) was expanded to include screening for sickle cell disease (SCD) and beta-thalassaemia. Up until that year no formal recommendations for haemoglobinopathy (carrier) screening existed in the Netherlands. Although it has been subject to debate in the past,

  14. Knee Pain in a Renal Transplant Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-26

    HUBBARD FROM: 59 MDW/SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approval 25 APR 2017 1. Your paper, entitled Knee Pain In A Renal T ransplant Patient...MATERIAL TO BE PUBLISHED OR PRESENTED: Knee Pain in a Renal Transplant Patient 7. FUNDING RECEIVED FOR THIS STUDY? 0 YES IZJNO FUNDING SOURCE: 8. DO...41-108 PREVIOUS EDITIONS ARE OBSOLETE Page 3 of 3 Pages Title: Knee Pain in a Rena l Transplant Patient Authors: Matthew Hubbard, DO. Liem

  15. Conceptualising patient empowerment: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Paulina; Edwards, Adrian; Barr, Paul James; Scholl, Isabelle; Elwyn, Glyn; McAllister, Marion

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, interventions and health policy programmes have been established to promote patient empowerment, with a particular focus on patients affected by long-term conditions. However, a clear definition of patient empowerment is lacking, making it difficult to assess effectiveness of interventions designed to promote it. The aim in this study was to develop a conceptual map of patient empowerment, including components of patient empowerment and relationships with other constructs such as health literacy, self-management and shared decision-making. A mixed methods study was conducted comprising (i) a scoping literature review to identify and map the components underpinning published definitions of patient empowerment (ii) qualitative interviews with key stakeholders (patients, patient representatives, health managers and health service researchers) to further develop the conceptual map. Data were analysed using qualitative methods. A combination of thematic and framework analysis was used to integrate and map themes underpinning published definitions of patient empowerment with the views of key UK stakeholders. The scoping literature review identified 67 articles that included a definition of patient empowerment. A range of diverse definitions of patient empowerment was extracted. Thematic analysis identified key underpinning themes, and these themes were used to develop an initial coding framework for analysis of interview data. 19 semi-structured interviews were conducted with key stakeholders. Transcripts were analysed using the initial coding framework, and findings were used to further develop the conceptual map. The resulting conceptual map describes that patient empowerment can be conceived as a state ranging across a spectrum from low to high levels of patient empowerment, with the level of patient empowerment potentially measurable using a set of indicators. Five key components of the conceptual map were identified: underpinning ethos, moderators

  16. Revisional bariatric surgery in a transplant patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Al Sabah

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Bariatric surgery is a safe and effective procedure to assist renal transplant patients in losing weight. In addition, it has proven to be effective in the management of the co-morbidities that are associated with renal failure. Our study was also able to prove that converting form an SG to a bypass in a transplant patient is a safe and feasible option.

  17. Evaluating a Sexual Health Patient Education Resource

    OpenAIRE

    Matzo, Marianne; Troup, Sandi; Hijjazi, Kamal; Ferrell, Betty

    2015-01-01

    This article shares the findings of an evaluation of a patient teaching resource for sexual health entitled Everything Nobody Tells You About Cancer Treatment and Your Sex Life: From A to Z, which was accomplished through systematic conceptualization, construction, and evaluation with women diagnosed with breast or gynecologic cancer. This resource, which has evolved from patient-focused research and has been tested in the clinical setting, can be used in patient education and support. Oncolo...

  18. Determinants of patient satisfaction: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batbaatar, Enkhjargal; Dorjdagva, Javkhlanbayar; Luvsannyam, Ariunbat; Savino, Matteo Mario; Amenta, Pietro

    2017-03-01

    A large number of studies have addressed the detection of patient satisfaction determinants, and the results are still inconclusive. Furthermore, it is known that contradicting evidence exists across patient satisfaction studies. This article is the second part of a two-part series of research with a goal to review a current conceptual framework of patient satisfaction for further operationalisation procedures. The aim of this work was to systematically identify and review evidence regarding determinants of patient satisfaction between 1980 and 2014, and to seek the reasons for contradicting results in relationships between determinants and patient satisfaction in the literature to design a further robust measurement system for patient satisfaction. This systematic review followed the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The search was conducted in PubMed, CINAHL, and Scopus in October 2014. Studies published in full in peer reviewed journals between January 1980 and August 2014 and in the English language were included. We included 109 articles for the synthesis. We found several number of determinants of patient satisfaction investigated in a wide diversity of studies. However, study results were varied due to no globally accepted formulation of patient satisfaction and measurement system. Health care service quality indicators were the most influential determinants of patient satisfaction across the studies. Among them, health providers' interpersonal care quality was the essential determinant of patient satisfaction. Sociodemographic characteristics were the most varied in the review. The strength and directions of associations with patient satisfaction were found inconsistent. Therefore, person-related characteristics should be considered to be the potential determinants and confounders simultaneously. The selected studies were not able to show all potential characteristics which may have had

  19. Advantage of CPR-first over call-first actions for out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in nonelderly patients and of noncardiac aetiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamikura, Takahisa; Iwasaki, Hose; Myojo, Yasuhiro; Sakagami, Satoru; Takei, Yutaka; Inaba, Hideo

    2015-11-01

    To assess the benefit of immediate call or cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs). Of 952,288 OHCAs in 2005-2012, 41,734 were bystander-witnessed cases without prehospital involvement of physicians but with bystander CPR (BCPR) on bystander's own initiative. From those OHCAs, we finally extracted the following three call/BCPR groups: immediate Call+CPR (N=10,195, emergency call/BCPR initiated at 0 or 1 min after witness, absolute call-BCPR time interval=0 or 1 min), immediate Call-First (N=1820, emergency call placed at 0 or 1 min after witness, call-to-BCPR interval=2-4 min), immediate CPR-First (N=5446, BCPR initiated at 0 or 1 min after witness, BCPR-to-call interval=2-4 min). One-month neurologically favourable survivals were compared among the groups. Critical comparisons between Call-First and CPR-First groups were made considering arrest aetiology, age, and bystander-patient relationship after confirming the interactions among variables. The overall survival rates in immediate Call+CPR, Call-First, and CPR-First groups were 11.5, 12.4, and 11.5%, respectively without significant differences (p=0.543). Subgroup analyses by multivariate logistic regression following univariate analysis disclosed that CPR-first group is more likely to survive in subgroups of noncardiac aetiology (adjusted odds ratio; 95% confidence interval, 2.01; 1.39-2.98) and of nonelderly OHCAs (1.38; 1.09-1.76). Immediate CPR-first action followed by an emergency call without a large delay may be recommended when a bystander with sufficient skills to perform CPR witnesses OHCAs in nonelderly people and of noncardiac aetiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Lymphomatous meningoencephalitis in a patient with HAMVTSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irenio Gomes

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available A case of lymphomatous meningoencephalitis in a 23 year old Brazilian patient with HTLV-I/II associated myelopathy is reported. The patient was admitted to the hospital with a clinical picture of decreased consciousness level, stiffness of the neck and previous diagnosis of myeloneuropathy. CSF examination showed lymphocytosis with blastic cells and antibodies against HTLV-I/II.