WorldWideScience

Sample records for within-simulator training effectiveness

  1. Effects of teacher training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Larsen, Lea Lund

    2010-01-01

    The article gives a short overview over existing knowledge concerning the effect of teacher training in relation to adult learning. It presents a research design for measuring the effect of teacher traning....

  2. How to measure training effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Rae, Leslie

    1986-01-01

    Assessing training for effectiveness and value, this book covers the entire process from selecting and planning a training event, to validating and testing its outcome. This new, up-to-date edition includes details of the competence standards from the Training and Development

  3. Components of Effective Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lussier, James W; Shadrick, Scott B

    2006-01-01

    .... The two types of activity are markedly different in structure, pace, amount and type of coaching required, composition of the training audience, focus of conscious attention, appropriate performance...

  4. Placebo effects in cognitive training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foroughi, Cyrus K; Monfort, Samuel S; Paczynski, Martin; McKnight, Patrick E; Greenwood, P M

    2016-01-01

    ...: specifically, the role of placebo effects. We designed a procedure to intentionally induce a placebo effect via overt recruitment in an effort to evaluate the role of placebo effects in fluid intelligence gains from cognitive training...

  5. Measurement of effectiveness for training simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteling, J.E.; Oprins, E.A.P.B.; Kallen, V.L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses experimental designs, measures, and measurement methods for determining the effectiveness of training simulators. First, we describe experimental designs in which training effects of training simulators are compared to those of conventional training. Next, the most

  6. Physiological Effects of Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-25

    chronic resistance training programs, cross-sectional studies of competitive lifters (olympic lifters, powerlifters and bodybuilders ) have been...animal studies.8 4 𔄂 8 Over the past five years examination of bodybuilders revealed that the cross-sectional size of muscle fibers in the triceps...the adaptation may be the result of an increase in the number of fibers. A recent study of the * biceps brachii of bodybuilders contradicted

  7. Graduate Students' Effectiveness at Training Others in Progressive Relaxation Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Graduate students in psychology were effective at reducing undergraduate student anxiety through progressive relaxation training (PRT). Trainer sex did not differentially influence PRT effectiveness. (RM)

  8. Battling Bias: Effects of Training and Training Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poos, Jackie; van den Bosch, Karel; Janssen, C.P.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates whether cognitive bias in judgment and decision making can be reduced by training, and whether the effects are affected by the nature of the training environment. Theory suggests that biases can be overcome by training in critical reflective thinking. In addition, applied

  9. Battling bias : Effects of training and training context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poos, J.M.; Bosch, K. van den; Janssen, C.P.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates whether cognitive bias in judgment and decision making can be reduced by training, and whether the effects are affected by the nature of the training environment. Theory suggests that biases can be overcome by training in critical reflective thinking. In addition, applied

  10. Determinants of effective medical intern training at a training hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of effective medical intern training at a training hospital in North West Province, South Africa. N Sein, J Tumbo. Abstract. Background. Medical internship that entails training as a doctor and working in an accredited facility under supervision within the limits of a well-defined scope prepares the professional for ...

  11. Sales Training: Effects of Spaced Practice on Training Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffeld, Simone; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The benefits of spaced training over massed training practice are well established in the laboratory setting. In a field study design with sales trainings, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of spaced compared with massed practice on transfer quantity and quality, sales competence, and key figures.…

  12. Determinants of effective medical intern training at a training hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results. Determinants of effective training in internship were identified as good quality supervisors, effective supervision, adequate opportunity to experiential learning, conducive environment, good support system (hospital management, hospital staff, academic opportunities), personal attributes and reasonable work load.

  13. Does cumulating endurance training at the weekends impair training effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Tim; Auracher, Markus; Heeg, Katrin; Urhausen, Axel; Kindermann, Wilfried

    2006-08-01

    Due to occupational restrictions many people's recreational endurance activities are confined to the weekends. We intended to clarify if cumulating the training load in such a way diminishes endurance gains. We conducted a longitudinal study comparing training-induced changes within three independent samples. Thirty-eight healthy untrained participants (45+/-8 years, 80+/-18 kg; 172+/-9 cm) were stratified for endurance capacity and sex and randomly assigned to three groups: 'weekend warrior' (n=13, two sessions per week on consecutive days, 75 min each, intensity 90% of the anaerobic threshold; baseline lactate+1.5 mmol/l), regular training (n=12, five sessions per week, 30 min each, same intensity as weekend warrior), and control (n=13, no training). Training was conducted over 12 weeks and monitored by means of heart rate. Identical graded treadmill protocols before and after the training program served for exercise prescription and assessment of endurance effects. VO2max improved similarly in weekend warrior (+3.4 ml/min per kg) and register training (+1.5 ml/min per kg; P=0.20 between groups). Compared with controls (-1.0 ml/min per kg) this effect was significant for weekend warriors (Pexercise decreased significantly by 11 beats/min (weekend warriors, Ppopulation of healthy untrained subjects, cumulating the training load at the weekends does not lead to an impairment of endurance gains in comparison with a smoother training distribution.

  14. [Relationship between baroreflex function and training effects on altitude training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Ryo; Ogawa, Yojiro; Mizuochi, Fumio; Suzuki, Tsukasa; Takahashi, Masanori; Iwasaki, Kenichi

    2012-05-01

    Altitude training is frequently used for athletes requiring competitive endurance in an attempt to improve their sea-level performance. However, there has been no study in which the mechanisms by which spontaneous arterial-cardiac baroreflex function changes was examined in responders or nonresponders of altitude training. The purpose of this study was to clarify the different effects of altitude training on baroreflex function between responders and nonresponders. Twelve university student cross-country skiers (6 men, 6 women; age, 19±1 years) participated in the altitude training in a camp for 3 weeks, which was carried out in accordance with the method of Living High-Training Low. Baroreflex function was estimated by transfer function analysis before and after the training. The responders of the training were 3 men and 2 women, and the nonresponders were 3 men and 4 women. In the responders, the transfer function gain in the high-frequency range significantly increased after the training (28.9→46.5 ms/mmHg p=0.021). On the other hand, no significant change in this index was observed in the nonresponders (25.9→21.2 ms/mmHg p=0.405). As indicated by the results of transfer function gain in the high-frequency range, the baroreflex function in the responders increased significantly after the altitude training, whereas no significant change was observed in the nonresponders.

  15. Nicotine effects on biofeedback training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, D L

    1990-06-01

    Biofeedback involving hand warming has become a frequently used procedure in health and stress management programs. The present research examined the effects of smoking on the ability to learn temperature control during biofeedback training. Three groups of female college students were compared: groups of smokers who smoked prior to the biofeedback session were compared to smokers who did not smoke and to nonsmokers. The results showed that the greatest increase in skin temperature was for nonsmokers, followed by smokers who did not smoke for at least 1 hr before the biofeedback session. The group of smokers who smoked just prior to the biofeedback were not able to increase their skin temperature. The basal skin temperature measured before treatment was higher for smokers than nonsmokers. The results are discussed in terms of the paradoxical physiological arousing effects and the self-reported tranquilizing effects of smoking.

  16. Training needs analysis for MSMEs: how to improve training effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohayati, Y.; Wulandari, S.

    2017-12-01

    The study aims to analyze training needs for MSMEs in the area of Kabupaten Bandung by selecting the case of MSMEs joined in Association for Agricultural Product Process, focusing on marketing as the main topic of the training. The needs analysis was required to improve training participation and effectiveness. Both aspects are important to notice since making MSMEs participate in training is not an easy task. Similarly, the needs analysis was carried out to anticipate participants’ thoughts that the training does not give any benefits for them or is ineffective because it does not meet their needs although it was actually to help MSMEs improve their marketing knowledge expected to lead to their success. This research involved 100 MSMEs with business ages starting from less than five years to more than 15 years. Those involved MSMEs were dominated by MSMEs targeting local marketing areas. The data were collected by survey and judgmental sampling technique. By conducting a descriptive analysis, it can be concluded that the needs of SMEs on marketing training materials should focus on improving marketing skills such as product development, sales, and use of marketing media as well as discussing legal aspects such as the need for certification and product brand. The results of the study also concluded that there is a need for training that is supplemented by making visits to more successful SMEs as well as practices with on the job training methods.

  17. Cognitive bias modification training in adolescents: persistence of training effects

    OpenAIRE

    Belli, Stefano R.; Lau, Jennifer Y.F.

    2014-01-01

    Negative biases in the interpretation of social information are associated with anxious symptoms in adolescents. Previous studies have attempted to modify interpretive biases to alleviate anxious mood responses but the longevity of such training effects has not been established. A cognitive bias modification of interpretations (CBM-I) paradigm was administered to sixty-nine 15–17 year-olds. Participants were either trained to interpret ambiguous social situations positively, or received contr...

  18. Successful Training for Effective Negotiators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, John

    1980-01-01

    A training course for negotiators is presented, based upon models of learning processes, negotiation behaviors, and learner expectations. Course structure, the importance of practice and feedback, the place of concept formation, and evaluation are discussed. (SK)

  19. Effectiveness of on-the-job training

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Klink, Marcel; Streumer, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of on-the-job training (OJT). Presents a definition of OJT used for this research project which involved two studies: the first in the call centres of a large company, and the second in post offices. Gives the results of the study which indicate the OJT programs were only partially successful in realising training goals. Indicates that self-efficacy, prior experience with tasks, managerial support and workload were the most powerful predictors for training effec...

  20. Effects of endurance training on serum lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikenzer, Kati; Fikenzer, Sven; Laufs, Ulrich; Werner, Christian

    2018-02-01

    Physical activity is recommended as part of the lifestyle modification for the treatment of hyperlipidemia, however, the literature reports heterogeneous quantitative effects of exercise on serum lipids. We therefore reviewed the effects of aerobic exercise on serum lipids with special focus on the training effectiveness. Data regarding effects of endurance training (ET) on total Cholesterol (TC), LDL-Cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-Cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) were evaluated in a selective literature search. To account for the observed heterogeneity of the training interventions, studies were analyzed according to effectiveness (duration, intensity, frequency) of training. Unselected training intervention studies did not exert significant effects on serum LDL-C but showed minor positive effects on HDL-C and TG. Effective endurance training - defined as endurance training performed by an intensity of 65-75% of the heart rate reserve (corresponding to 75-85% maximum heart rate or 65-80% VO2max) for a duration of 40-50min per training unit on 3-4days/week over a period of 26-40weeks showed improvement of serum lipids. Effective training lowered TC by -3.75% (p=0.0006), LDL-C by -4.76% (p=0.0015), TG by -8.24% (p=0.0004) and increased HDL-C by +4.43% (p=0.0061). The analysis suggests that a minimum exercise threshold is necessary to produce effects on serum lipids. Overall, the quantitative effect of physical activity on serum lipids is small. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Effective Training for Millennial Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, Eric P.; Werth, Loredana

    2011-01-01

    A generational shift is occurring in training environments worldwide, a shift that promises to bring with it a dramatic and long-lasting impact. Just as years ago, those of the Baby Boomer generation passed the torch to Generation X, today the process is starting anew with Generation X and those who have come to be known as the Millennials.…

  2. Effectiveness of Mindfulness Training in Fostering Tobacco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the impact of mindfulness training in fostering tobacco cessation among undergraduates in a Nigerian university. It also observed the moderating effect of self-efficacy on the causal link between mindfulness training and tobacco cessation. Participants were 57 students randomly assigned to ...

  3. Effect of Pilates Training on Alpha Rhythm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Bian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of Pilates training on the brain function was investigated through five case studies. Alpha rhythm changes during the Pilates training over the different regions and the whole brain were mainly analyzed, including power spectral density and global synchronization index (GSI. It was found that the neural network of the brain was more active, and the synchronization strength reduced in the frontal and temporal regions due to the Pilates training. These results supported that the Pilates training is very beneficial for improving brain function or intelligence. These findings maybe give us some line evidence to suggest that the Pilates training is very helpful for the intervention of brain degenerative diseases and cogitative dysfunction rehabilitation.

  4. Effectiveness of low-intensity endurance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, T; Auracher, M; Heeg, K; Urhausen, A; Kindermann, W

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies point to the preventive efficacy of low-intensity endurance training in terms of cardiovascular risk factor modification and mortality reduction. In addition, it is frequently recommended as a means of stimulating fat metabolism. It was the intention of this study to clarify if endurance training effectiveness remains unimpaired when exercise intensity is reduced by a certain amount from "moderate" to "low", but total energy expenditure held constant. For this purpose, 39 healthy untrained subjects (44 +/- 7 yrs, 82 +/- 19 kg; 173 +/- 9 cm) were stratified for endurance capacity and sex and randomly assigned to 3 groups: "moderate intensity" (MOD, n = 13, 5 sessions per week, 30 min each, intensity 90 % of the anaerobic threshold [baseline lactate + 1.5 mmol/l]), "low intensity" (LOW, n = 13, 5 sessions per week, intensity 15 bpm below MOD, duration proportionally longer to arrive at the same total energy output as MOD), and control (CO, n = 13, no training). Training was conducted over 12 weeks and each session monitored by means of portable heart rate (HR) recorders. Identical treadmill protocols prior to and after the training program served for exercise prescription and documentation of endurance effects. VO (2max) improved similarly in both training groups (MOD + 1.5 ml x min (-1) x kg (-1); LOW + 1.7 ml x min (-1) x kg (-1); p = 0.97 between groups). Compared with CO (- 1.0 ml x min (-1) x kg (-1)) this effect was significant for LOW (p exercise decreased significantly by 9 bpm (MOD, p population of healthy untrained subjects, endurance training effectiveness might be slightly impaired when the training heart rate is chosen 15 bpm lower as compared to moderate intensity, but the total energy output held equal.

  5. Working Memory Training and Transfer in Older Adults: Effects of Age, Baseline Performance, and Training Gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinke, Katharina; Zeintl, Melanie; Rose, Nathan S.; Putzmann, Julia; Pydde, Andrea; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that working memory training may benefit older adults; however, findings regarding training and transfer effects are mixed. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of a process-based training intervention in a diverse sample of older adults and explored possible moderators of training and transfer effects. For…

  6. Effect of isokinetic training on shoulder impingement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T L; Fu, B M; Ngai, G; Yung, P

    2014-01-31

    The aim of this study was to review the literature evaluating the effect of isokinetic training in patients suffering from shoulder impingement syndrome (SIS). Studies published up to March 2011 were located from the Pubmed, Scopus, Lilacs, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, and Cochrane Library databases using "isokinetic", "shoulder", and "impingement" as key words. Referenced studies were also checked. Studies were included if isokinetic training was employed as at least one of the treatments in the therapeutic program to treat shoulder impingement or other shoulder pathologies leading to impingement-related pain. All eligible studies described the level of evidence, patient characteristics, interventions, outcome evaluation, results, complications, and return to work. There were 2 randomized control trials (RCTs) and 4 studies with level 4 evidence that met the inclusion criteria. All of the studies included showed a statistically or clinically significant outcome after isokinetic training. However, most of the studies could not identify the isolated effect of isokinetic training. There was not enough evidence to support or refute the effectiveness of isokinetic training for SIS. This result does not reflect a true lack of effect, but rather a lack of RCTs. A consensus definition of the different types and stages of SIS is urgently needed. More RCTs are also essential to clarify the value of this technique. The homogeneity of treatment interventions, study populations, and outcome measures should be prioritized. Further studies are also needed to clarify the differences in isokinetic data across different types and stages of shoulder impingement.

  7. The mediating role of training utility in the relationship between training needs assessment and organizational effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerde, W.; Tang, K.C.S.; Talbot, G.

    2008-01-01

    In a survey among respondents from 96 organizations, we found that the utility of training partially mediated the relationship between Training Needs Assessment (TNA) comprehensiveness and the effectiveness of the organization. We did not find an effect of training quantity on training utility and

  8. Effects of training on hearing protector attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Murphy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of training instruction, whether presented as the manufacturer′s printed instructions, a short video training session specific to the product, or as a one-on-one training session was evaluated using four hearing protection devices with eight groups of subjects. Naïve subjects were recruited and tested using three different forms of training: written, video, and individual training. The group averages for A-weighted attenuation were not statistically significant when compared between the video or the written instruction conditions, regardless of presentation order. The experimenter-trained A-weighted attenuations were significantly greater than the written and video instruction for most of the protectors and groups. For each earplug, the noise reduction statistic for A-weighting (NRS A and the associated confidence intervals were calculated for the 80 th and 20 th percentiles of protection. Across subject groups for each protector, the differences between NRS A ratings were found to be not statistically significant. Several comparisons evaluating the order of testing, the type of testing, and statistical tests of the performance across the groups are presented.

  9. How Effective Is Communication Training For Aircraft Crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Charlotte; Goguen, Joseph; Devenish, Linda

    1992-01-01

    Report surveys communication training for aircraft crews. Intended to alleviate problems caused or worsened by poor communication and coordination among crewmembers. Focuses on two training methods: assertiveness training and grid-management training. Examines theoretical background of methods and attempts made to validate their effectiveness. Presents criteria for evaluating applicability to aviation environment. Concludes communication training appropriate for aircraft crews.

  10. Effectiveness of on-the-job training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klink, Marcel; Streumer, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of on-the-job training (OJT). Presents a definition of OJT used for this research project which involved two studies: the first in the call centres of a large company, and the second in post offices. Gives the results of the study which indicate the OJT programs were

  11. Effects of Teacher Training in Adult Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Lund; Wahlgren, Bjarne

    This paper tries to shed light over two questions raised in the workshop: ‘Effects of Teacher Training' at the ASEM conference June 2009 on Teachers and Trainers in Adult Education and Lifelong Learning Professional Development in Asia and Europe. At first it is asked what do we already know abou...

  12. Effectiveness of trained community volunteers in improving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-03-18

    Mar 18, 2015 ... study was aimed at determining the effectiveness of trained community volunteers in delivering multiple anti‑malaria interventions to achieve rapid .... to life‑saving treatment and improved the health system efficiency while .... home management of malaria community daily case register adapted from the ...

  13. Core Competencies for Training Effective School Consultants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhouse, Katie Lynn Sutton

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and validate a set of core competencies of effective school-based consultants for preservice school psychology consultation training. With recent changes in service delivery models, psychologists are challenged to engage in more indirect, preventative practices (Reschly, 2008). Consultation emerges as…

  14. Effectiveness of trained community volunteers in improving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Malaria accounts for 70% of illnesses and 30% of deaths among children under 5 years in Nigeria. This study was aimed at determining the effectiveness of trained community volunteers in delivering multiple anti‑malaria interventions to achieve rapid reduction in morbidity and mortality among under 5 children ...

  15. Training Effectiveness of the Inertial Training and Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naczk Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of inertial training with different external loads using a new original device - the Inertial Training and Measurement System (ITMS. Forty-six physical education male students were tested. The participants were randomly divided into three training groups and a control group (C group. The training groups performed inertial training with three different loads three times weekly for four weeks. The T0 group used only the mass of the ITMS flywheel (19.4 kg, the T5 and T10 groups had an additional 5 and 10 kg on the flywheel, respectively. Each training session included three exercise sets involving the shoulder joint adductors. Before and after training, the maximal torque and power were measured on an isokinetic dynamometer during adduction of the shoulder joint. Simultaneously, the electromyography activity of the pectoralis major muscle was recorded. Results of the study indicate that ITMS training induced a significant increase in maximal muscle torque in the T0, T5, T10 groups (15.5%, 13.0%, and 14.0%, respectively. Moreover, ITMS training caused a significant increase in power in the T0, T5, T10 groups (16.6%, 19.5%, and 14.5%, respectively. The percentage changes in torque and power did not significantly differ between training groups. Electromyography activity of the pectoralis major muscle increased only in the T0 group after four weeks of training. Using the ITMS device in specific workouts allowed for an increase of shoulder joint adductors torque and power in physical education students.

  16. Effect of exercise training on leucine oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrix, M.K.; Layman, D.K.

    1986-03-01

    Oxidation of the BCAA leucine is increased during a bout of exhaustive exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of exercise training on leu oxidation during aerobic exercise. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a commercial diet ad lib and divided into sedentary and two trained groups. Animals were trained to run on a treadmill with a 10/sup 0/ incline at 28 m/min for 5 wks for either 50 or 120 min/day. There were no differences in food intake or body weight. After a 12 hr fast, animals were run for 50 or 120 min and changes in leu catabolism determined by measurement of in vivo leu oxidation and activity of branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD). For measurement of leu oxidation, rats were injected IP with 4 ..mu..Ci 1-/sup 14/C-leu during the last 15 min of exercise, placed in glass metabolic chambers, and /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ collected in 1 N NaOH for 30 min periods. Leu oxidation was increased by 40% after 50 min of exercise and by 79% after 120 min of exercise. Five weeks of training reduced the rate of leu oxidation during an exercise bout. The activity of the BCKAD was not increased in the trained animals after either 50 or 120 min of exercise. These data indicate that the rate of leu oxidation during exercises is dependent on the duration of the exercise and that training will reduce the magnitude of this effect.

  17. Effect of Nonlinguistic Auditory Training on Phonological and Reading Skills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murphy, C.F.B; Schochat, E

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the effect of nonverbal auditory training on reading and phonological awareness tasks in children with dyslexia and the effect of age in relation to post-training learning considering the ages from 7 to 14. Methods...

  18. Effects of Hypoxic Training versus Normoxic Training on Exercise Performance in Competitive Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun-Young Park, Kiwon Lim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In swimming competition, optimal swimming performance is characterized by a variety of interchangeable components, such as aerobic exercise capacity, anaerobic power and muscular function. Various hypoxic training methods would potentiate greater performance improvements compared to similar training at sea-level. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of six-weeks of hypoxic training on exercise performance in moderately trained competitive swimmers. Twenty swimmers were equally divided into a normoxic training group (n = 10 for residing and training at sea-level (PIO2 = 149.7 mmHg, and a hypoxic training group (n = 10 for residing at sea-level but training at 526 mmHg hypobaric hypoxic condition (PIO2 = 100.6 mmHg. Aerobic exercise capacity, anaerobic power, muscular function, hormonal response and 50 and 400 m swimming performance were measured before and after training, which was composed of warm-up, continuous training, interval training, elastic resistance training, and cool-down. The training frequency was 120 min, 3 days per week for 6 weeks. Muscular function and hormonal response parameters showed significant interaction effects (all p 0.288 in muscular strength and endurance, growth hormone; GH, insulin like growth factor-1; IGF-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor; VEGF. The other variables demonstrated no significant interaction effects. However, a hypoxic training group also showed significantly increased maximal oxygen consumption; VO2max (p = 0.001, peak anaerobic power (p = 0.001, and swimming performances for 50 m (p = 0.000 and 400 m (p = 0.000. These results indicated that the hypoxic training method proposed in our study is effective for improvement of muscular strength and endurance in moderately trained competitive swimmers compared to control group. However, our hypoxic training method resulted in unclear changes in aerobic exercise capacity (VO2max, anaerobic power, and swimming performance of 50 m and

  19. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Carl; Farland, Courtney V; Guidotti, Flavia; Harbin, Michelle; Roberts, Brianna; Schuette, Jeff; Tuuri, Andrew; Doberstein, Scott T; Porcari, John P

    2015-12-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT). Tabata (n = 21) completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15) completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min) @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. There were significant (p training group, as well as significant increases in peak (+8, + 9 and +5%) & mean (+4, +7 and +6%) power during Wingate testing, but no significant differences between groups. Measures of the enjoyment of the training program indicated that the Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p training in sedentary young adults. Key pointsSteady state training equivalent to HIIT in untrained studentsMild interval training presents very similar physiologic challenge compared to steady state trainingHIIT (particularly very high intensity variants were less enjoyable than steady state or mild interval trainingEnjoyment of training decreases across the course of an 8 week experimental training program.

  20. Training Effectiveness Evaluation of the Squad Engagement Training System (SETS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    Myron P. Viner "CAE-Link Corp. - , TiPO ?1990 June 1990 Approvud fcr public releas’u. distribution is unil~iutcd- 1 <.. --•( , . . ....-. ... a. .,,w n...SETS software . SETS, however, does provide the unique opportunity for realistic * OPFOR contact within the RC home-station training environment, and the

  1. Effects of plyometric training on soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Chun; Zhang, Na

    2016-08-01

    Plyometric training (PT) is a technique used to increase strength and explosiveness. It consists of physical exercises in which muscles exert maximum force at short intervals to increase dynamic performances. In such a training, muscles undergo a rapid elongation followed by an immediate shortening (stretch-shortening contraction), utilizing the elastic energy stored during the stretching phase. There is consensus on the fact that when used, PT contributes to improvement in vertical jump performance, acceleration, leg strength, muscular power, increase of joint awareness and overall sport-specific skills. Consequently, PT which was primarily used by martial artists, sprinters and high jumpers to improve performances has gained in popularity and has been used by athletes in all types of sports. However, although PT has been shown to increase performance variables in many sports, little scientific information is currently available to determine whether PT actually enhances skill performance in soccer players, considering that soccer is an extremely demanding sport. Soccer players require dynamic muscular performance for fighting at all levels of training status, including rapid movements such as acceleration and deceleration of the body, change of direction, vertical and horizontal jumps, endurance, speed as well as power for kicking and tackling. In this review we discussed the effects of PT on soccer players by considering gender and age categories.

  2. Effect of resistance training on total, central and abdominal adiposity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the clear benefits that resistance training might have in weight management the effects of resistance training on adiposity in sedentary individuals are unsubstantiated. As such, the aim of the study was to determine the effect of resistance training on anthropometric measures of total, central and abdominal adiposity.

  3. Effectiveness of didactic training on the cognitive knowledge of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effectiveness of didactic training on the cognitive knowledge of health ... by providing adequate training for health providers with available and functional basic ... Further studies are required to assess its long term impact on neonatal mortality.

  4. The Effect of Facilitative Communication Training on Teacher Response Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Lynette; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Examines effect of facilitative communication training on quality of teacher response to various student problems and to accompanying emotional states of anger, joy, or depression. Results indicated significant differences between trained and untrained groups. (Author)

  5. Effect of various training modalities on vertical jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kevin; Magnusen, Marshall; Walters, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the effects of weight training, training with weights and plyometrics, and training with weights and the VertiMax on vertical jump. Subjects were 37 intercollegiate athletes assigned to one of four training groups: strength (S), strength-plyometric (P), strength-VertiMax without arms (VNA), and strength-VertiMax with arms (VA). Each group completed a 6-week training program. There were no statistical increases in pre-post vertical jump within all groups. There were no significant differences for posttest vertical jump between the four training groups. Pre- and posttest effect sizes were minimal across all groups. The findings of this study demonstrate that there is no difference in vertical jump among strength training, plyometric training, and jump training over a 6-week timeframe.

  6. Effects of Kettlebell Training on Aerobic Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falatic, J Asher; Plato, Peggy A; Holder, Christopher; Finch, Daryl; Han, Kyungmo; Cisar, Craig J

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the effects of a kettlebell training program on aerobic capacity. Seventeen female National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate soccer players (age: 19.7 ± 1.0 years, height: 166.1 ± 6.4 cm, weight: 64.2 ± 8.2 kg) completed a graded exercise test to determine maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max). Participants were assigned to a kettlebell intervention group (KB) (n = 9) or a circuit weight-training (CWT) control group (n = 8). Participants in the KB group completed a kettlebell snatch test to determine individual snatch repetitions. Both groups trained 3 days a week for 4 weeks in addition to their off-season strength and conditioning program. The KB group performed the 15:15 MVO2 protocol (20 minutes of kettlebell snatching with 15 seconds of work and rest intervals). The CWT group performed multiple free-weight and dynamic body-weight exercises as part of a continuous circuit program for 20 minutes. The 15:15 MVO2 protocol significantly increased V̇O2max in the KB group. The average increase was 2.3 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹, or approximately a 6% gain. There was no significant change in V̇O2max in the CWT control group. Thus, the 4-week 15:15 MVO2 kettlebell protocol, using high-intensity kettlebell snatches, significantly improved aerobic capacity in female intercollegiate soccer players and could be used as an alternative mode to maintain or improve cardiovascular conditioning.

  7. Limited Effects of Set Shifting Training in Healthy Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Grönholm-Nyman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to flexibly shift between tasks or task sets declines in older age. As this decline may have adverse effects on everyday life of elderly people, it is of interest to study whether set shifting ability can be trained, and if training effects generalize to other cognitive tasks. Here, we report a randomized controlled trial where healthy older adults trained set shifting with three different set shifting tasks. The training group (n = 17 performed adaptive set shifting training for 5 weeks with three training sessions a week (45 min/session, while the active control group (n = 16 played three different computer games for the same period. Both groups underwent extensive pre- and post-testing and a 1-year follow-up. Compared to the controls, the training group showed significant improvements on the trained tasks. Evidence for near transfer in the training group was very limited, as it was seen only on overall accuracy on an untrained computerized set shifting task. No far transfer to other cognitive functions was observed. One year later, the training group was still better on the trained tasks but the single near transfer effect had vanished. The results suggest that computerized set shifting training in the elderly shows long-lasting effects on the trained tasks but very little benefit in terms of generalization.

  8. Effects of weight training on power performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAUKAB AZEEM

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Harris et al. declared that some researchers claim the use of 80% of 1RM is recommended toimprove power characteristics, while others suggest 50-60% of 1RM and below. Kawamori and Haff agreed withHarris et al., stating that there is inconsistency in the optimal load to produce the highest power. They claimedthat some studies that used untrained subjects, single joint exercises, and upper-body exercises reported 30-45%of 1RM, while others using trained subjects, multi-joint exercises, and lower-body exercises reported 30-70% of1RM.Method: The purpose of the study was to find out the effect of weight training in the developing the powerperformance among 20 students between 16 to 18 years of age enrolled for physical education course for theacademic year 2010, were selected as subjects. Pre and post test was conducted for the group on 1RM of squats,bench press and dead lift. 45 minutes weight training program, twice a week, for 12 weeks was given to thesubjects. The statistical tools used were mean, SD, and ‘t’ –test.Results & Discussion: The analysis of the data reveals that the subjects with the training have shownimprovement in the performance of squats from pre to post test with the mean and S.D being (76.00, 26.59 and(93.75, 27.19 respectively. The improvement is quite encouraging and highly significant (p<0.0001.With regard to bench press exercise of the subjects the mean and S.D in the pre and post test were (53.00, 23.14and (70.25, 23.37. The data clearly speaks of an improved performance from pre to post scores of the studentswhich is highly significant at (p<0.0001. The mean and S.D in the pre and post test were (104.00, 28.31 and(135.00, 24.97 respectively with respect to dead lift exercise. There is an increase in the power of the studentswhich is encouraging and highly significant with (p<0.0001.Conclusions: It is concluded from this study, that there was a marked improvement in the performance of thestudents in

  9. The effect of training on teachers' knowledge of effective classroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A single group pre-post test design was used, with a one-day training on classroom management techniques as the independent variable and the number of strategies that teachers suggest as effective for managing student behavior as the dependent variable. An open-ended structured interview was used to measure the ...

  10. [Effects of Training Students through a Program Simulating Medication Administration and Patient Instructions in Pre-training for Practical Training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Chigusa; Matsunaga, Tamihide; Suzuki, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacy school students were trained in a program simulating medication administration and giving adherence instructions. Following the training, the educational effects were evaluated. Students were separated into two groups. One group of students played the role of pharmacists and instructed simulated patients on medication adherence. Another group of students played the role of patients receiving simulated drug therapy; they were instructed on medication adherence by the students playing the role of pharmacists. The educational effects were evaluated using a questionnaire. The scores for "recognition of factors that influence medication adherence" tended to increase after the simulation, and they increased significantly after practical training. The scores for "self-evaluation of technique for instructing patients on medication adherence" increased significantly after the simulation, and they increased even more after practical training. The students' understanding of the effects on patients who were being instructed also increased significantly after the simulation, and these changes were maintained after practical training. In particular, students became more aware of the influence of pharmacists' attitudes. In practical training, the simulation training was helpful for bedside practice at hospital pharmacies and over-the-counter service at community pharmacies. Thus, the use of role play and simulated patients was an effective method for training pharmacy students to instruct patients on medication adherence.

  11. The Impact of Reason for Training on the Relationship between "Best Practices" and Sexual Harassment Training Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Elissa L.; Kulik, Carol T.; Bustamante, Jennifer; Golom, Frank D.

    2010-01-01

    The current study explored the use of best training practices on human resources managers' perceptions of sexual harassment training success and frequency of sexual harassment complaints. Results revealed no main effects of best training practices on sexual harassment training success. However, effects of best training practices on sexual…

  12. Effects of Skill Training on Working Memory Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuh-shiow; Lu, Min-ju; Ko, Hsiu-ping

    2007-01-01

    In this study we examined the effects of skill training, in particular mental abacus and music training, on working memory. Two groups of participants--children who had received mental abacus training and their controls--participated in Experiment 1. All participants performed the following span tasks: forward digit span, backward digit span,…

  13. The effect of a brief teacher training on student achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sijde, Peter

    1989-01-01

    On the basis of previously determined correlations between teacher behavior and student achievement, a training program for mathematics teachers was developed. Previous research had established that this training did change the behavior of teachers. This article reports the effects of the training

  14. Effectiveness of Dysphagia Training for Adult Learning Disabilities Support Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tredinnick, Gerlind; Cocks, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a 1-day dysphagia training package delivered to support workers who work with adults with a learning disability. Thirty-eight support staff took part in this study. Twenty-five support staff received training, and 13 did not receive training and therefore acted as a control group. Three questionnaires…

  15. Effect of resistance training on headache symptoms in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christoffer H; Jensen, Rigmor H.; Dalager, Tina

    2017-01-01

    training - regardless of the distribution during the week - effectively reduced both headache frequency and intensity in office workers. Thus, a large time-wise flexibility exists when implementing specific strength training at the workplace. However, only supervised training led to a reduction in use...

  16. Effectiveness of communication skills training for dental students.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Horst, G.; Leeds, J.G.; Hoogstraten, J.

    1984-01-01

    27 1st-yr dental students participated in a 3-day communication-skills training, and 39 nonparticipating 1st-yr dental students served as controls, to investigate the short-term effects of the training on participating Ss' communication skills. The general objective of the training was to advance

  17. The effect of cognitive training on evoked potentials in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Kariofillis

    2014-12-01

    The more general visuo-spatial training appears to have a longer-lasting effect on P2 latency than the specific auditory training. Alternatively, there may be specific auditory discrimination deficits in schizophrenia requiring more extensive training for a stable change.

  18. Training and Organizational Effectiveness: Moderating Role of Knowledge Management Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Azmawani Abd; Ng, Siew Imm; Sambasivan, Murali; Wong, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Training alone is not sufficient to enhance organizational effectiveness to a greater level because not all knowledge obtained from the training is properly transferred and applied to the organization. This study aims to investigate whether efforts invested by Malaysian manufacturers in employee training and knowledge transfer affect…

  19. Stress Prevention Training; Sex Differences inTypes of Stressors, Coping, and Training Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, M.H.J.; Hens, G.; Nijssen, A.

    2001-01-01

    The present study was aimed at examining the effectiveness of preventive group training and sex differences in types of work stressors, coping strategies, and training effects. Sixty-eight trainees of stress prevention courses of Regional Institutions for Ambulatory Mental Health Care (RIAGGs) in

  20. [Development and Effects of Assertiveness Training applying Dongsasub Training for Nursing Students in Clinical Practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoungsuk

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to develop assertiveness training applying Dongsasub training for junior nursing students, and to verify effectiveness of the training on assertiveness behavior, self-esteem, clinical practice stress, and clinical competence. The study design was a non-equivalent control group non-synchronized design. Participants were 63 nursing students in clinical training (31 students in the experimental group and 32 students in the control group). The assertiveness training applying Dongsasub training consisted of four sessions. Outcome variables included assertiveness behavior, self-esteem, clinical practice stress, and clinical competence. Data were analyzed using Chi-square, Fisher's exact test and independent samples t-test with SPSS/WIN 21.0. Scores of assertiveness behavior (t=-2.49, p=.015), self-esteem (t=-4.80, ptraining applying Dongsasub training can be used as a nursing intervention to lower clinical practice stress and improve the clinical competence of nursing students.

  1. Framing of different types of information needs within simulated work task situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borlund, Pia

    2016-01-01

    to reflect verificative, conscious topical and muddled topical information needs of each group of test participants. The study shows that it is challenging to formulate verificative simulated work task situations and to incorporate curiosity in the muddled topical simulated work task situations. The results......This paper reports a meta-evaluation of how to frame different types of information needs within simulated work task situations. This is done via an empirical study of teenagers and their teachers’ Internet information searching. Two sets of simulated work task situations were carefully designed...... also show that the search behaviour of the two groups differs across the information needs, as expected, but also between the two groups, owing to the search strategy and attitude of the teenagers. This is seen by how fast they were at searching and assessing relevance, often using Google’s ‘picture...

  2. Characteristics of Effective Training: Developing a Model To Motivate Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Dena; Ezell, Patsy

    2003-01-01

    The Parenting and Consumer Education project identified effective models for training welfare-to-work facilitators. Premises were the importance of process, learner responsibility, and improvement of social networks. Effective training was learner focused, inspiring, and motivating; demonstrated productive behaviors and effective life skills; and…

  3. Working memory training in children: Effectiveness depends on temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer-Luethi, Barbara; Bauer, Catherine; Perrig, Walter J

    2016-02-01

    Studies revealing transfer effects of working memory (WM) training on non-trained cognitive performance of children hold promising implications for scholastic learning. However, the results of existing training studies are not consistent and provoke debates about the potential and limitations of cognitive enhancement. To examine the influence of individual differences on training outcomes is a promising approach for finding causes for such inconsistencies. In this study, we implemented WM training in an elementary school setting. The aim was to investigate near and far transfer effects on cognitive abilities and academic achievement and to examine the moderating effects of a dispositional and a regulative temperament factor, neuroticism and effortful control. Ninety-nine second-graders were randomly assigned to 20 sessions of computer-based adaptive WM training, computer-based reading training, or a no-contact control group. For the WM training group, our analyses reveal near transfer on a visual WM task, far transfer on a vocabulary task as a proxy for crystallized intelligence, and increased academic achievement in reading and math by trend. Considering individual differences in temperament, we found that effortful control predicts larger training mean and gain scores and that there is a moderation effect of both temperament factors on post-training improvement: WM training condition predicted higher post-training gains compared to both control conditions only in children with high effortful control or low neuroticism. Our results suggest that a short but intensive WM training program can enhance cognitive abilities in children, but that sufficient self-regulative abilities and emotional stability are necessary for WM training to be effective.

  4. [Effect of acupuncture on rehabilitation training of child's autism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu-fen; Wei, Yong-ying; Chen, Yu-hua; Chen, Ming-ming

    2007-07-01

    To observe the effect of acupuncture on rehabilitation training for children's autism. Forty autistic children receiving rehabilitation training were divided into a control group and a treatment group, 20 cases in each group. The control group received rehabilitation training including ABA training, the Conductive Education Approach and the training of sensory integration, about 90 sessions for each training; the treatment group received acupuncture treatment for 60-90 sessions after the rehabilitation training. Their results were detected by the revised Chinese version of Psycho-Educational Profile for autistic and developmentally disabled children (C-PEP). The markedly effective rate was 55.0% in the treatment group and 15.0% in the control group with a very significant difference between the two groups (P autism.

  5. Army Training Study: Training Effectiveness Analysis (TEA) Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-08

    use. Personnel instability was examined to determine its effect on proficiency, morale , and soldier attitudes. The level of proficiency on Redeye...cognitive. A prototype of such a model has been developed by ARI. Research is needed to further address whether cognitiv ~ly organized skills are

  6. Evaluation of Training Effects of Primary School Girls’ Power Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. В. Іващенко

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Research objective. To experimentally ground the technological approaches to evaluation of the training effects of primary school girls’ power loads. Materials and methods. To achieve the tasks outlined, the research relied on the following methods: analysis of scientific and methodological literature, pedagogical testing, modeling, pedagogical observations and experiment, methods of mathematical experiment planning (complete factorial experiment, 2k type, discriminant analysis. The participants in the study were 32 second-grade girls. Research results. The training pattern effects the dynamics in the test results for the second-grade girls. The test results can improve provided that the power load brings about significant changes after the training at each spot, after the lesson (immediate training effect, and twenty four hours after the power load (delayed training effect. The higher the dynamics is for the immediate and delayed training effects, the more significant are the improved results of the power tests observed after as few as three lessons. Conclusions. The discriminant function can be used to classify the training effects of the second-grade girls’ power loads. The first canonical function explains the results variation by 96,2%. This suggests that it is highly informative. The centroid coordinates for five groups allow to interpret the canonical functions according to their role in differentiating the grades by the training effects of the power loads of the primary school girls. The positive pole of the first function has the condition centroids at the beginning of the power loads, after three, six, nine and twelve lessons; the negative pole has the centroids of the training effects after the power loads, after the lesson, after 24 hours. Thus, the reaction to the power load has immediate, delayed and cumulative training effects. The biggest cumulative training effect is after twelve lessons (3.045.

  7. Effects of resistance training on performance in previously trained endurance runners: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz-Ibañez, Manuel; Rodríguez-Pérez, Manuel

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this work was to identify, synthesize and evaluate the results of randomized controlled trials examining the effects of resistance training on performance indicators in previously trained endurance runners. A database search was carried out in PubMed, Science Direct, OvidSPMedLine, Wiley, Web of Science, ProQuest and Google Scholar. In accordance with the PRISMA checklist, 18 published articles dated prior to May 2016 involving 321 endurance runners were reviewed using the PEDro scale. Resistance training led to general improvements in muscular strength, running economy, muscle power factors, and direct performance in distances between 1,500 and 10,000 m. Such improvements were not accompanied by a significant increase in body mass or signs of overtraining. However, improvements did not occur in all cases, suggesting that they might depend on the specific characteristics of the resistance training applied. Although current evidence supports the effectiveness of resistance training to improve performance in already trained endurance runners, the methodological inconsistencies identified suggest that the results should be interpreted with caution. Future studies ought to investigate the benefits of resistance training in endurance runners while considering the existence of possible differentiated effects based on the specific characteristics of the resistance training carried out.

  8. School Board Training: Its Effect on Southern California Governance Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the impact the California School Boards Association's (CSBA) Masters in Governance (MIG) training program has on effective school board governance practice. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship exists between effective school boards and a commitment to seek and attend school board training. This…

  9. Effect of Phonological Training on Reading and Writing Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defior, Sylvia; Tudela, Pio

    1994-01-01

    Determines the effects of training of phonological abilities upon the acquisition of reading and writing during the first year of primary school. Finds significant effects on both reading and writing measures for the groups trained on phonological activities using manipulative materials. Discusses theoretical and educational implications. (RS)

  10. Leveraging Gaming Technology to Deliver Effective Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, James D.

    2011-01-01

    The best way to engage a soldier is to present them with training content consistent with their learning preference. Blended Interactive Multimedia Instruction (IMI) can be used to leach soldiers what they need to do, how to do each step, and utilize a COTS game engine to actually practices the skills learned. Blended IMI provides an enjoyable experience for the soldier, thereby increasing retention rates and motivation while decreasing the time to subject mastery. And now mobile devices have emerged as an exciting new platform, literally placing the training into the soldier's hands. In this paper, we will discuss how we leveraged commercial game engine technology, tightly integrated with the Blended IMI, to train soldiers on both laptops and mobile devices. We will provide a recent case study of how this training is being utilized, benefits and student/instructor feedback.

  11. Large strengthening effect of a hip-flexor training programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Bandholm, Thomas Quaade; Zebis, Mette

    2016-01-01

    .17-0.52) Nm/kg, in favour of the strength training group (p training using elastic bands as external loading, for only 6 weeks, substantially improves hip-flexor muscle strength. This simple exercise programme seems promising for future prevention and treatment......PURPOSE: To investigate the effect on hip-flexion strength of a 6-week hip-flexor training programme using elastic bands as resistance. We hypothesized that the training group, compared to a control group, would increase their hip-flexion strength more. METHODS: Thirty-three healthy subjects (45...... % females), 24(5) years of age, were included in a randomized controlled trial and allocated to heavy strength training of the hip-flexor muscles or to control (no strength training). Strength training of the hip-flexors (dominant leg) was performed three times 10 min per week for 6 weeks. The strength...

  12. Block periodization of high-intensity aerobic intervals provides superior training effects in trained cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnestad, B R; Hansen, J; Ellefsen, S

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of two different methods of organizing endurance training in trained cyclists. One group of cyclists performed block periodization, wherein the first week constituted five sessions of high-intensity aerobic training (HIT), followed by 3 weeks of one weekly HIT session and focus on low-intensity training (LIT) (BP; n = 10, VO2max  = 62 ± 2 mL/kg/min). Another group of cyclists performed a more traditional organization, with 4 weeks of two weekly HIT sessions interspersed with LIT (TRAD; n = 9, VO2max  = 63 ± 2 mL/kg/min). Similar volumes of both HIT and LIT was performed in the two groups. While BP increased VO2max , peak power output (Wmax) and power output at 2 mmol/L [la(-)] by 4.6 ± 3.7%, 2.1 ± 2.8%, and 10 ± 12%, respectively (P training compared with TRAD training (ES = 1.34, ES = 0.85, and ES = 0.71, respectively). The present study suggests that block periodization of training provides superior adaptations to traditional organization during a 4-week endurance training period, despite similar training volume and intensity. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Is Peer Review Training Effective in Iranian EFL Students’ Revision?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiseh Esmaeeli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effect of peer review training on the Iranian EFL students’ subsequent revision in an advanced writing class in Larestan Islamic Azad University. After 12 weeks class demonstration, teacher-reviewer conferences with 20 male and female students, the students’ first drafts, revisions, and reviewers’ comments were collected and compared the comments before and after peer review training. The findings revealed that the students incorporated significantly more comments into subsequent revisions after peer review training. Therefore, peer review training had a positive effect on the students’ subsequent revisions.

  14. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Foster, Courtney V. Farland, Flavia Guidotti, Michelle Harbin, Brianna Roberts, Jeff Schuette, Andrew Tuuri, Scott T. Doberstein, John P. Porcari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available High intensity interval training (HIIT has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly. Steady-state (n = 19 exercised (cycle ergometer 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT. Tabata (n = 21 completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15 completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. Results: There were significant (p < 0.05 increases in VO2max (+19, +18 and +18% and PPO (+17, +24 and +14% for each training group, as well as significant increases in peak (+8, + 9 and +5% & mean (+4, +7 and +6% power during Wingate testing, but no significant differences between groups. Measures of the enjoyment of the training program indicated that the Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p < 0.05 than the steady state and Meyer protocols, and that the enjoyment of all protocols declined (p < 0.05 across the duration of the study. The results suggest that although HIIT protocols are time efficient, they are not superior to conventional exercise training in sedentary young adults.

  15. Action video game training reduces the Simon Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Claire V; Barrett, Doug J K; Nitka, Aleksander; Raynes, Kerry

    2016-04-01

    A number of studies have shown that training on action video games improves various aspects of visual cognition including selective attention and inhibitory control. Here, we demonstrate that action video game play can also reduce the Simon Effect, and, hence, may have the potential to improve response selection during the planning and execution of goal-directed action. Non-game-players were randomly assigned to one of four groups; two trained on a first-person-shooter game (Call of Duty) on either Microsoft Xbox or Nintendo DS, one trained on a visual training game for Nintendo DS, and a control group who received no training. Response times were used to contrast performance before and after training on a behavioral assay designed to manipulate stimulus-response compatibility (the Simon Task). The results revealed significantly faster response times and a reduced cost of stimulus-response incompatibility in the groups trained on the first-person-shooter game. No benefit of training was observed in the control group or the group trained on the visual training game. These findings are consistent with previous evidence that action game play elicits plastic changes in the neural circuits that serve attentional control, and suggest training may facilitate goal-directed action by improving players' ability to resolve conflict during response selection and execution.

  16. Effects of Inspiratory and Expiratory Muscle Training in Normal Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Makoto; Kurosawa, Hajime; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2005-01-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) and expiratory muscle training (EMT) on ventilatory muscle strength, pulmonary function and responses during exercise testing. Young healthy women were randomly assigned to 3 groups: IMT (n=16); EMT (n=16); or untrained normal controls (NC, n=8). Subjects in the IMT and EMT groups trained for 15 minutes twice daily over 2 weeks at loads of 30% maximal inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength, respectively. V...

  17. EFFECT OF NEUROMUSCULAR TRAINING ON BALANCE AMONG UNIVERSITY ATHLETES

    OpenAIRE

    Mohansundar Sankaravel; Jeffrey Low Fook Lee; Ong Kuan Boon; Sanmuganathan Jeganathan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Proprioceptive deficiency followed by lateral ankle sprain leads to poor balance is not uncommon. It has been linked with increased injury risk among young athletes. Introducing neuromuscular training programs for this have been believed as one of the means of injury prevention. Hence, this study was aimed to determine the effects of six weeks progressive neuromuscular training (PNM Training) on static balance gains among the young athletes with a previous history of ankle sprains...

  18. The effects of balance training and ankle training on the gait of elderly people who have fallen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Nyeon-Jun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of balance training and muscle training around the ankle joints on the gait of elderly people who have experienced a fall. [Subjects] Twenty-six elderly people with a risk of falling and a Berg Balance Scale score of 37 to 50 points who had experienced a fall in the last year were randomly and equally assigned to either a balance training group or an ankle training group. The balance training group received training on a hard floor, training while maintaining balance on a cushion ball in a standing position, and training while maintaining balance on an unstable platform in a standing position; the ankle training group received training to strengthen the muscles around the ankle joints and conducted stretch exercise for the muscles around the ankle joints. [Results] There were significant changes in gait velocity, step length, and stride length in the balance training group after the intervention; there were significant changes in gait velocity, cadence, step time, cycle time, step length, and stride length in the ankle training group after the intervention. In a between-group comparison, the gait velocity of the balance training group showed a significant improvement compared with the ankle training group. [Conclusion] Both balance training and ankle joint training are effective in enhancing the gait ability of elderly people with a risk of falling; in particular, balance training is effective in improving the gait velocity of elderly people who have experienced a fall compared with ankle joint training.

  19. Handcycling: training effects of a specific dose of upper body endurance training in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettinga, Florentina J; Hoogwerf, Mark; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate a handcycling training protocol based on ACSM guidelines in a well-controlled laboratory setting. Training responses of a specific dose of handcycling training were quantified in a homogeneous female subject population to obtain a more in depth understanding of physiological mechanisms underlying adaptations in upper body training. 22 female able-bodied participants were randomly divided in a training (T) and control group (C). T received 7-weeks of handcycling training, 3 × 30 min/week at 65 % heart rate reserve (HRR). An incremental handcycling test was used to determine local, exercise-specific adaptations. An incremental cycling test was performed to determine non-exercise-specific central/cardiovascular adaptations. Peak oxygen uptake (peakVO2), heart rate (peakHR) and power output (peakPO) were compared between T and C before and after training. T completed the training sessions at 65 ± 3 % HRR, at increasing power output (59.4 ± 8.2 to 69.5 ± 8.9 W) over the training program. T improved on handcycling peakVO2 (+18.1 %), peakPO (+31.9 %), and peakHR (+4.0 %). No improvements were found in cycling parameters. Handcycling training led to local, exercise-specific improvements in upper body parameters. Results could provide input for the design of effective evidence-based training programs specifically aimed at upper body endurance exercise in females.

  20. Electromyostimulation and plyometric training effects on jumping and sprint time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, J A; Izquierdo, M; Maffiuletti, N A; García-López, J

    2006-07-01

    This study compared the effects of four-week training periods of electromyostimulation (EMS), plyometric training (P), or combined EMS and P training of the knee extensor muscles on 20 m sprint time (ST), jumping ability (Squat jump [SJ] and Countermovement jump [CMJ]), maximal isometric strength (MVC), and muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). Forty subjects were randomly assigned to one of the four treatment groups: electromyostimulation (EG), plyometric (PG), combined EMG, and P (EPG), that took place 4 times per week, and a control group (CG). Subjects were tested before and after the training program, as well as once more after 2 wk of detraining. A significant improvement (p < 0.05) in ST was observed after training (2.4 %) in EG while a significant slowing (p < 0.05) was observed (- 2.3 %) in EPG. Significant increases in EPG (p < 0.05) were observed in SJ (7.5 %) and CMJ (7.3 %) after training, while no significant changes in both jumps were observed after training and detraining for EG. A significant increase (p < 0.05) in MVC was observed after training (9.1 %) and after detraining (8.1 %) in EG. A significant increase (p < 0.05) in MVC was observed after training (16.3 %) in EPG. A significant increase (p < 0.01) in CSA was observed after training in EG (9.0 %) and in EPG (7.1 %). EMS combined with plyometric training increased the jumping height and sprint run in physically active men. In addition, EMS alone or EMS combined with plyometric training leads to increase maximal strength and to some hypertrophy of trained muscles. However, EMS training alone did not result in any improvement in jumping explosive strength development or even interfered in sprint run.

  1. Effect of different physical activity training methods on overweight adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatrehsamani, Shohreh; Khavarian, Noushin; Beizaei, Maryam; Ramedan, Reza; Poursafa, Parinaz; Kelishadi, Roya

    2010-01-01

    In view of the growing trend of obesity around the world, including in our country, and the effect of reduced physical activity in increasing the incidence of obesity and overweight in children and adolescents and limitations of families in providing transport for their children to attend exercise classes, as well as time limitations of students in taking part in these classes, accessing appropriate methods for presenting physical activity training seems essential. This non-pharmacological clinical trial was performed during six months from May to November 2007 on 105 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years with obesity, randomly assigned to 3 groups of thirty-five. Nutrition and treatment behavior were the same in all groups, but physical activity training in the first group was taking part in physical activity training classes twice a week, in the second group by providing a training CD, and in the third group via face-to-face training. Before and after the intervention, anthropometric indicators were measured and recorded. Mean body mass index (BMI) of participants in group attended physical activity training classes, and in the group undergone training with CD, after the interventions was significantly lower than that before the intervention. Our findings demonstrated that training using CDs can also be effective in reducing BMI in overweight and obese children and adolescents as much as face-to-face education and participation in physical training classes. Extending such interventions can be effective at the community level.

  2. Modeling the Effects of Stress: An Approach to Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuper, Taryn

    2010-01-01

    Stress is an integral element of the operational conditions experienced by combat medics. The effects of stress can compromise the performance of combat medics who must reach and treat their comrades under often threatening circumstances. Examples of these effects include tunnel vision, loss of motor control, and diminished hearing, which can result in an inability to perceive further danger, satisfactorily treat the casualty, and communicate with others. While many training programs strive to recreate this stress to aid in the experiential learning process, stress inducement may not always be feasible or desired. In addition, live simulations are not always a practical, convenient, and repeatable method of training. Instead, presenting situational training on a personal computer is proposed as an effective training platform in which the effects of stress can be addressed in a different way. We explore the cognitive and motor effects of stress, as well as the benefits of training for mitigating these effects in real life. While many training applications focus on inducing stress in order to "condition" the stress response, the author explores the possibilities of modeling stress to produce a similar effect. Can presenting modeled effects of stress help prepare or inoculate soldiers for stressful situations in which they must perform at a high level? This paper investigates feasibility of modeling stress and describes the preliminary design considerations of a combat medic training system that utilizes this method of battlefield preparation.

  3. Effectiveness of trained community volunteers in improving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-03-18

    Mar 18, 2015 ... of children <5 years of age, with an evaluation of its outcome on their knowledge and practice of malaria prevention and case management among the experimental group compared with the control group. The study made use of eight. Community volunteers (six females and two males) who were trained to ...

  4. Automated Employee Training: Efficiency and Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boedicker, Laurie

    2010-01-01

    New legislation or modifications to existing federal and state education legislation often mandate more training for district staff and more documentation to prove compliance. These regulations come with heavy penalties for noncompliance; yet these initiatives are usually unfunded, thus making it difficult to ensure that staff members receive the…

  5. An Intensive Training Program for Effective Teaching Assistants in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragisich, Vera; Keller, Valerie; Zhao, Meishan

    2016-01-01

    We report an intensive graduate teaching assistant (GTA) training program developed at The University of Chicago. The program has been assessed and has been successful in preparing GTAs for effective discussion and laboratory teaching for both general and organic chemistry. We believe that this training program can provide insightful information…

  6. Supporting transfer of training : effects of the supervisor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, D.J.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    One of the best-known and most widely used ways to improve employee performance in organisations is the use of corporate training. As a consequence, the effects of training are of major interest to both scholars and scientists in the field of human resource development. The results of research

  7. Predictors of Management Training Effectiveness for Nursing Supervisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMarco, Nicholas; Kuehl, Charles

    1976-01-01

    The study examined the moderating effects that nursing supervisors' leadership styles and interpersonal needs have on changes between their pre and post-training measures of leadership attitudes and opinions. The 119 subjects were participants in a two day management development training program. Tabulated findings and implications for hospitals…

  8. Training programs in research into the effectiveness of teacher behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomic, W.

    2008-01-01

    This article contends that studies into the effectiveness of teacher behavior should give more attention both to a systematic design of training programs as well as to the collection of implementation data concerning teacher behavior, before incorporating the training program into an experimental

  9. The Role of Motivation to Lead for Leadership Training Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiehl, Sibylle K.; Felfe, Jörg; Elprana, Gwen; Gatzka, Magdalena B.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the construct of motivation to lead (MtL) is considered as a predictor of leadership training effectiveness. MtL, the individual preference to take on leadership roles, is a motivation that specifically relates to the content of leadership training. A total of 132 managers participated in a longitudinal follow-up study. The…

  10. Employee Perceived Training Effectiveness Relationship to Employee Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahinidis, Alexandros G.; Bouris, John

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between perceived employee training effectiveness and job satisfaction, motivation and commitment. Design/methodology/approach: The study examined the responses of 134 employees and lower managers, of five large Greek organizations, after they had completed a training program.…

  11. The effect of caffeine supplementation on trained individuals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intense physical training increases oxidative stress and inflammation, resulting into muscle and cellular damage. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of caffeine supplementation on trained young individuals subjected to two treadmill maximal tests. Materials and Methods: It was a double-blind and ...

  12. Relative effectiveness of assertive training, modelling and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the Relative Effectiveness of Assertive Training (AT), modelling (M) and a combination of Assertive Training and Modelling (AT & M) techniques in improving the social skills of primary school isolates and consequently reduce their isolate behaviour. The study is a quasi experimental research that ...

  13. Physical and cognitive effects of virtual reality integrated training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Richard T; Watts, Kristopher P; Zhong, Peihan; Wei, Chen-Shuang

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the cognitive and physical impact of virtual reality (VR) integrated training versus traditional training methods in the domain of weld training. Weld training is very important in various industries and represents a complex skill set appropriate for advanced training intervention. As such, there has been a long search for the most successful and most cost-effective method for training new welders. Participants in this study were randomly assigned to one of two separate training courses taught by sanctioned American Welding Society certified welding instructors; the duration of each course was 2 weeks. After completing the training for a specific weld type, participants were given the opportunity to test for the corresponding certification. Participants were evaluated in terms of their cognitive and physical parameters, total training time exposure, and welding certification awards earned. Each of the four weld types taught in this study represented distinct levels of difficulty and required the development of specialized knowledge and skills. This study demonstrated that participants in the VR integrated training group (VR50) performed as well as, and in some cases, significantly outperformed, the traditional welding (TW) training group.The VR50 group was found to have a 41.6% increase in overall certifications earned compared with the TW group. VR technology is a valuable tool for the production of skilled welders in a shorter time and often with more highly developed skills than their traditionally trained counterparts. These findings strongly support the use ofVR integrated training in the welding industry.

  14. Training effects on endurance capacity in maximal intermittent exercise: comparison between continuous and interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanisho, Kei; Hirakawa, Kazufumi

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 2 different training regimens, continuous (CT) and interval (IT), on endurance capacity in maximal intermittent exercise. Eighteen lacrosse players were divided into CT (n = 6), IT (n = 6), and nontraining (n = 6) groups. Both training groups trained for 3 days per week for 15 weeks using bicycle ergometers. Continuous training performed continuous aerobic training for 20-25 minutes, and IT performed high-intensity pedaling comprising 10 sets of 10-second maximal pedaling with 20-second recovery periods. Maximal anaerobic power, maximal oxygen uptake (V(O2max)), and intermittent power output were measured before and after the training period. The intermittent exercise test consisted of a set of ten 10-second maximal sprints with 40-second intervals. Maximal anaerobic power significantly increased in IT (p training groups (p intermittent exercise test, the average of the total mean power output (1-10 sets) increased in both training groups (p training reduced lactate production and increased the mean power output, but there was little effect on high-power endurance capacity in maximal intermittent exercise. In contrast, although lactate production did not decrease, IT improved fatigability and mean power output in the last stage. These results indicated that the endurance capacities for maximal intermittent and continuous exercises were not identical. Ball game players should therefore improve their endurance capacity with high-intensity intermittent exercise, and it is insufficient to assess their capacity with only V(O2max) or continuous exercise tests.

  15. [Neurofeedback training in children with ADHD: behavioral and neurophysiological effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevensleben, Holger; Moll, Gunther H; Heinrich, Hartmut

    2010-11-01

    In a multicentre randomised controlled trial, we evaluated the clinical efficacy of neurofeedback (NF) training in children with ADHD and investigated the mechanisms underlying a successful training. We used an attention skills training, coupled with the training setting and demands made upon participants, as the control condition. At the behavioural level, NF was superior to the control group concerning core ADHD symptomatology as well as associated domains. For the primary outcome measure (improvement in the FBB-HKS total score), the effect size was .60. The same pattern of results was obtained at the 6-month follow-up. Thus, NF may be seen as a clinically effective module in the treatment of children with ADHD. At the neurophysiological level (EEG, ERPs), specific effects for the two NF protocols, theta/beta training, and training of slow cortical potentials were demonstrated. For example, for theta/beta training, a decrease of theta activity in the EEG was associated with a reduction of ADHD symptomatology. SCP training was accompanied inter alia by an increase in the contingent negative variation in the attention network test; thus, children were able to allocate more resources for preparation. EEG- and ERP-based predictors were also found. The present article reviewed the findings of the original papers related to the trial and outlines future research topics.

  16. Effects of Oral Health Training on Dental Plaque Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M amiri

    2016-02-01

    3- oral health training (control group . Two weeks and two months after the intervention, plaque index was measured. Positive and negative changes were recorded over time, and then, the study data were analyzed using Chi-square (bonferroni adjustment, McNemar, Kruskal-Wallis  and Paired t-Test. Results: The study results revealed no significant differences between the  halitosis group and the traditional group, though both had a significant difference with the control group. Positive changes in halitosis group especially within girls were held to be more durable compared to the other groups. Conclusion: Oral health training accompanging training of oral malodor, tooth decay and periodontal disease seems to be more effective on health promotion of senior high school students in Yazd. Furthermore, oral malodor training produces more durable effects. As a result, this training style is recommended in regard with eductional programs of schools.

  17. Measuring the Effectiveness of Information Security Training: A Comparative Analysis of Computer-Based Training and Instructor-Based Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Financial institutions are increasingly finding difficulty defending against information security risks and threats, as they are often the number one target for information thieves. An effective information security training and awareness program can be a critical component of protecting an organization's information assets. Many financial…

  18. Effects of an Intensive Resistant Training Sessions and Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeil Afzalpour

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intensive and acute exercise trainings may induce oxidative stress, but antioxidant supplements may attenuate its degenerative consequences. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of green tea supplementation on the oxidative stress indices after an intensive resistance training session. Materials and Methods: 40 non-athletes (without regular physical activity women were randomly divided into 4 equal (n=10 groups including green tea supplementation, green tea supplementation plus resistance training, resistance training, and control groups. After supplementation period (600 mg/day, 14 days, resistance training and green tea supplementation plus resistance training groups performed an intensive resistance training session at 75-85 % of one repetition maximum. The malondialdehyde and total thiol were measured as oxidative stress indices. Data were analyzed by using of repeated measure ANOVA and LSD tests at p<0.056T. Results: Results showed that after 14 days of green tea consumption, malondialdehyde significantly decreased in green tea supplementation (p=0.03 and green tea supplementation plus resistance training (p=0.01 groups, while total thiol increased significantly (p=0.01 in two green tea supplementation groups. However, an intensive resistance training session increased malondialdehyde (p=0.01 without any significantly changes in total thiol (p=0.426T. Conclusion: It seems that green tea supplementation can inhibit exercise-induced protein and lipid oxidation in non-athletes women via enhancement of antioxidant defense system of the body6T.6T

  19. Effects of manipulating volume and intensity training in masters swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Lorenzo; Porcelli, Simone; Bonato, Matteo; Pavei, Gaspare; La Torre, Antonio; Maggioni, Martina A; Bellistri, Giuseppe; Marzorati, Mauro

    2015-10-01

    Recently, some studies have suggested that overall training intensity may be more important than training volume for improving swimming performance. However, those studies focused on very young subjects, and/or the difference between high-volume and high-intensity training was blurred. The aim of this study was to investigate in masters swimmers the effects of manipulation of training volume and intensity on performance and physiological variables. A group of 10 male masters swimmers (age 32.3 ± 5.1 y) performed 2 different 6-wk training periods followed by 1 wk of tapering. The first period was characterized by high training volume performed at low intensity (HvLi), whereas the second period was characterized by low training volume performed at high intensity (LvHi). Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) during incremental arm exercise, individual anaerobic threshold (IAT), and 100-m, 400-m, and 2000-m-freestyle time were evaluated before and at the end of both training periods. HvLi training significant increased VO2peak (11.9% ± 4.9% [mean change ± 90%CL], P = .002) and performance in the 400-m (-2.8% ± 1.8%, P = .002) and 2000-m (-3.4% ± 2.9%, P = .025), with a likely change in IAT (4.9% ± 4.7%, P > .05). After LvHi training, speed at IAT (12.4% ± 5.3%, P = .004) and 100-m performance (-1.2% ± 0.8%, P = .001) also improved, without any significant changes in VO2peak, 2000-m, and 400-m. These findings indicate that in masters swimmers an increase of training volume may lead to an improvement of VO2peak and middle- to long-distance performance. However, a subsequent period of LvHi training maintains previous adjustments and positively affects anaerobic threshold and short-distance performance.

  20. The Effect of Clinical Psychiatric Training on Medical Students' Belief ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    femi oloka

    The Effect of Clinical Psychiatric Training on Medical Students'. Belief and .... ill lead to strained social interaction, low self-esteem, ...... psychiatry and mental illness in a Malaysian medical school. ... english/media/vol_3.pdf (accessed. January ...

  1. Effect of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular parameters and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular parameters and CD4 cell count of people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome: A randomized controlled trial.

  2. Effects of Cognitive Bias Modification Training via Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ranming; Cui, Lixia; Li, Feng; Xiao, Jing; Zhang, Qin; Oei, Tian P. S.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Negative cognitive biases have been linked to anxiety and mood problems. Accumulated data from laboratory studies show that positive and negative interpretation styles with accompanying changes in mood can be induced through cognitive bias modification (CBM) paradigms. Despite the therapeutic potential of positive training effects, few studies have explored training paradigms administered via smartphones. The current study aimed to compare the effectiveness of three different types of training programmes (cognitive bias modification-attention, CBM-A; cognitive bias modification-interpretation, CBM-I; attention and interpretation modification, AIM) administered via smart-phones by using a control condition (CC). Methods: Seventy-six undergraduate participants with high social anxiety (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, LSAS ≥ 30) were randomly assigned to four groups: CBM-A (n = 20), CBM-I (n = 20), AIM (n = 16), and CC (n = 20). Results: The results showed that the effects of CBM training, CBM-I training, or AIM training vs. CC for attention yielded no significant differences in dot-probe attention bias scores. The CBM-I group showed significantly less threat interpretation and more benign interpretation than the CC group on interpretation bias scores. Conclusions: The present results supported the feasibility of delivering CBM-I via smartphones, but the effectiveness of CBM-A and AIM training via smartphones was limited. PMID:28855880

  3. Effects of Cognitive Bias Modification Training via Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ranming; Cui, Lixia; Li, Feng; Xiao, Jing; Zhang, Qin; Oei, Tian P S

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Negative cognitive biases have been linked to anxiety and mood problems. Accumulated data from laboratory studies show that positive and negative interpretation styles with accompanying changes in mood can be induced through cognitive bias modification (CBM) paradigms. Despite the therapeutic potential of positive training effects, few studies have explored training paradigms administered via smartphones. The current study aimed to compare the effectiveness of three different types of training programmes (cognitive bias modification-attention, CBM-A; cognitive bias modification-interpretation, CBM-I; attention and interpretation modification, AIM) administered via smart-phones by using a control condition (CC). Methods:Seventy-six undergraduate participants with high social anxiety (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, LSAS ≥ 30) were randomly assigned to four groups: CBM-A (n = 20), CBM-I (n = 20), AIM (n = 16), and CC (n = 20). Results: The results showed that the effects of CBM training, CBM-I training, or AIM training vs. CC for attention yielded no significant differences in dot-probe attention bias scores. The CBM-I group showed significantly less threat interpretation and more benign interpretation than the CC group on interpretation bias scores. Conclusions: The present results supported the feasibility of delivering CBM-I via smartphones, but the effectiveness of CBM-A and AIM training via smartphones was limited.

  4. Effects of Cognitive Bias Modification Training via Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranming Yang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Negative cognitive biases have been linked to anxiety and mood problems. Accumulated data from laboratory studies show that positive and negative interpretation styles with accompanying changes in mood can be induced through cognitive bias modification (CBM paradigms. Despite the therapeutic potential of positive training effects, few studies have explored training paradigms administered via smartphones. The current study aimed to compare the effectiveness of three different types of training programmes (cognitive bias modification-attention, CBM-A; cognitive bias modification-interpretation, CBM-I; attention and interpretation modification, AIM administered via smart-phones by using a control condition (CC.Methods:Seventy-six undergraduate participants with high social anxiety (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, LSAS ≥ 30 were randomly assigned to four groups: CBM-A (n = 20, CBM-I (n = 20, AIM (n = 16, and CC (n = 20.Results: The results showed that the effects of CBM training, CBM-I training, or AIM training vs. CC for attention yielded no significant differences in dot-probe attention bias scores. The CBM-I group showed significantly less threat interpretation and more benign interpretation than the CC group on interpretation bias scores.Conclusions: The present results supported the feasibility of delivering CBM-I via smartphones, but the effectiveness of CBM-A and AIM training via smartphones was limited.

  5. Differential effect of motivational features on training improvements in school-based cognitive training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eKatz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive training often utilizes game-like motivational features to keep participants engaged. It is unclear how these elements, such as feedback, rewards, and theming impact player performance during training. Recent research suggests that motivation and engagement are closely related to improvements following cognitive training. We hypothesized that training paradigms featuring game-like motivational elements would be more effective than a version with no motivational elements. Five distinct motivational features were chosen for examination: a real-time scoring system, theme changes, prizes, end-of-session certificates, and scaffolding to explain the lives and leveling system included in the game. One version of the game was created with all these motivational elements included, and one was created with all of them removed. Other versions removed a single element at a time. Seven versions of a game-like n-back working memory task were then created and administered to 128 students in 2nd through 8th grade at school-based summer camps in southeastern Michigan. The inclusion of real-time scoring during play, a popular motivational component in both entertainment games and cognitive training, was found to negatively impact training improvements over the three day period. Surprisingly, scaffolding to explain lives and levels also negatively impacted training gains. The other game adjustments did not significantly impact training improvement compared to the original version of the game with all features included. These findings are preliminary and are limited by both the small sample size and the brevity of the intervention. Nonetheless, these findings suggest that certain motivational elements may distract from the core cognitive training task, reducing task improvement, especially at the initial stage of learning.

  6. Effects of combined training vs aerobic training on cognitive functions in COPD: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquino G

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Giovanna Aquino,1 Enzo Iuliano,1 Alessandra di Cagno,2 Angela Vardaro,3 Giovanni Fiorilli,1 Stefano Moffa,1 Alfonso Di Costanzo,1 Giuseppe De Simone,3 Giuseppe Calcagno1 1Department of Medicine and Health Sciences “Vincenzo Tiberio”, University of Molise, Campobasso, 2Department of Health Science, University ForoItalico, Rome, 3“Villa Margherita”, Benevento, Italy Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high-intensity aerobic training (AT and high-intensity aerobic training combined with resistance training (ie, combined training [CT] on cognitive function in patients with COPD. Methods: Twenty-eight Caucasian male patients (68.35±9.64 years; mean ± SD with COPD were recruited and randomized into two groups, AT and CT. Both groups performed physical reconditioning for 4 weeks, with a frequency of five training sessions per week. The CT group completed two daily sessions of 30 minutes: one aerobic session and one strength session, respectively; The AT group performed two 30-minute aerobic endurance exercise sessions on treadmill. Physical and cognitive function tests were performed before and after the training intervention performances. Results: Exercise training improved the following cognitive functions: long-term memory, verbal fluency, attentional capacity, apraxia, and reasoning skills (P<0.01. Moreover, the improvements in the CT group were significantly greater than those in the AT group in long-term memory, apraxia, and reasoning skills (P<0.05. Conclusion: CT may be a possible strategy to prevent cognitive decline and associated comorbidities in male patients with COPD. Keywords: physical training, cognition, resistance training, rehabilitation, respiratory disease

  7. Training effects of combined resistance and proprioceptive neck muscle exercising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Michael; Hohl, Kathrin; Bockholt, Ulrich; Schneider, Florian; Dehner, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    To investigate training effects of two different resistance and proprioceptive exercising concepts of neck muscles. Twenty-six healthy women participated in a randomized pilot trial. The test persons were randomized to two different neck-training programs (resistance training (RT) and proprioceptive resistance training (PRT)). They performed a standardized training program for the duration of ten weeks two times weekly. The neck strength, the cross-sectional area of three neck muscle groups (1. sternocleidomastoid muscles; 2. multifidus and semispinalis cervicis muscles; 3. semispinalis capitis and splenius muscles) and the proprioceptive capability evaluated by the dynamic joint repositioning error (DJRE) of the head were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Strength gain did not differ significantly between the two resistance training groups (PRT group: 8.2% to 29.3%; RT group: 1.4% to 19.8%). Change of hypertrophy of all neck muscle groups was significantly (ptraining, proprioceptive training led to a significantly higher muscle hypertrophy and didn't effect a significant deterioration of the proprioceptive capability compared to isolated resistance training.

  8. Cognitive training based on metamemory and mental images: Follow-up evaluation and booster training effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Ogava Aramaki

    Full Text Available Abstract In the second semester of 2008, 37 seniors participated in five cognitive training sessions based on creation of imagery and modification of self-efficacy for memory tasks. Objective: To carry out a follow-up evaluation after 18 months in order to detect possible maintenance of gains reported in the first post-test, namely, in measures of self-efficacy and episodic memory, and to evaluate the impact of a training booster, that is, test whether there are additional gains when training is offered for the second time to the same participants. Methods: 16 older adults agreed to participate in five training sessions for the second time. Participants were evaluated with the Mini Mental Status Examination - MMSE, the Geriatric Depression Scale - GDS, the Brief Cognitive Screening Battery - BCSB (naming and memorization of 10 pictures, animal category verbal fluency test, the Clock Drawing Test - CDT, the Story subtest from the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test - RBMT, the Memory Complaint Questionnaire - MAC-Q, and the Picture and Story domains from the Memory Self-Efficacy Questionnaire - MSEQ used to evaluate the effectiveness of the first intervention. Results: This study reports the maintenance of the effects generated by the original training conducted in 2008, and follow-up evaluations detected the presence of potential additional gains in some aspects of memory. Conclusions: Training boosters may help maintain cognitive stability in adulthood and old age.

  9. Effects of Cognitive Bias Modification Training via Smartphones

    OpenAIRE

    Ranming Yang; Lixia Cui; Feng Li; Jing Xiao; Qin Zhang; Oei, Tian P. S.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Negative cognitive biases have been linked to anxiety and mood problems. Accumulated data from laboratory studies show that positive and negative interpretation styles with accompanying changes in mood can be induced through cognitive bias modification (CBM) paradigms. Despite the therapeutic potential of positive training effects, few studies have explored training paradigms administered via smartphones. The current study aimed to compare the effectiveness of three...

  10. Effects of virtual reality-based training and task-oriented training on balance performance in stroke patients

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyung Young; Kim, You Lim; Lee, Suk Min

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the clinical effects of virtual reality-based training and task-oriented training on balance performance in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly allocated to 2 groups: virtual reality-based training group (n = 12) and task-oriented training group (n = 12). The patients in the virtual reality-based training group used the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus, which provided visual and auditory feedback as well as the movements that enabl...

  11. Effects on vocal range and voice quality of singing voice training: the classically trained female voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabon, Peter; Stallinga, Rob; Södersten, Maria; Ternström, Sten

    2014-01-01

    A longitudinal study was performed on the acoustical effects of singing voice training under a given study program, using the voice range profile (VRP). Pretraining and posttraining recordings were made of students who participated in a 3-year bachelor singing study program. A questionnaire that included questions on optimal range, register use, classification, vocal health and hygiene, mixing technique, and training goals was used to rate and categorize self-assessed voice changes. Based on the responses, a subgroup of 10 classically trained female voices was selected, which was homogeneous enough for effects of training to be identified. The VRP perimeter contour was analyzed for effects of voice training. Also, a mapping within the VRP of voice quality, as expressed by the crest factor, was used to indicate the register boundaries and to monitor the acoustical consequences of the newly learned vocal technique of "mixed voice." VRPs were averaged across subjects. Findings were compared with the self-assessed vocal changes. Pre/post comparison of the average VRPs showed, in the midrange, (1) a decrease in the VRP area that was associated with the loud chest voice, (2) a reduction of the crest factor values, and (3) a reduction of maximum sound pressure level values. The students' self-evaluations of the voice changes appeared in some cases to contradict the VRP findings. VRPs of individual voices were seen to change over the course of a singing education. These changes were manifest also in the average group. High-resolution computerized recording, complemented with an acoustic register marker, allows a meaningful assessment of some effects of training, on an individual basis and for groups that comprise singers of a specific genre. It is argued that this kind of investigation is possible only within a focused training program, given by a faculty who has agreed on the goals. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative Effectiveness of Low-Volume Time-Efficient Resistance Training Versus Endurance Training in Patients With Heart Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Gregers Winding; Birgitte Rosenmeier, Jaya; Petersen, Morten

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cardiorespiratory fitness is positively related to heart failure (HF) prognosis, but lack of time and low energy are barriers for adherence to exercise. We, therefore, compared the effect of low-volume time-based resistance exercise training (TRE) with aerobic moderate-intensity cycling......, and vascular function were evaluated before and after a 6-wk training intervention with 3 training sessions per week. The AMC group and the TRE group trained for 45 and 25 min per training session, respectively. During the training sessions, the TRE and AMC groups trained at 60 ± 4% and 59 ± 2% (mean...

  13. The effects of restorative care training on caregiver job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Bonnie L; Harrington, Susan S

    2013-01-01

    The job satisfaction of assisted living facility staff was examined as part of an evaluation study of a restorative care training program. Participants completed a job satisfaction survey at registration (before the training) and again at follow-up 3 months after registration (1 month after the conclusion of the training). Researchers examined the effects of training on job satisfaction. Researchers found a high level of job dissatisfaction at registration. At follow-up, responses were more positive on most of the items suggesting a slight but significant change to a more positive attitude toward their jobs. Improving staff job satisfaction in the assisted living environment is an important goal and needs further investigation. Providing staff with inservice training may be one way to help nurse educators achieve that goal.

  14. EFFECTIVE WAYS OF POSTGRADUATE PEDAGOGICAL EDUCATION INSTITUTES TEACHERS’ TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmyla V. Kalachova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of comparative analysis of training for teachers of postgraduate pedagogical education institutes for various forms of training: full-time, full-time- distance and distance after the author's program "Teacher training of postgraduate pedagogical education institutes for use of audiovisual teaching aids." The comparison was done on such indicators as the number of participants who completed the training, the pace of learning, quality control test mastery of the material of the course, the qualitative and quantitative performance indicators of individual case studies. As a result, the article identifies the main advantages and disadvantages of each form of education and recommended the most effective form of in-service training of the teaching load.

  15. Effects of music during exercise in different training status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldari, C; Macone, D; Bonavolontà, V; Guidetti, L

    2010-09-01

    This study examined the interaction of exercise and music to establish the impact of these factors on state-anxiety and time to exhaustion comparing trained and active participants. Twenty-six university students (13 trained, 13 active) completed the State-anxiety Inventory questionnaire before and after a submaximal treadmill running until volitional exhaustion in both music and no-music condition. ANOVA showed that both trained and active groups significantly reduced their State-Anxiety scores after exercise tasks (Pmusic. Finding also revealed that active group reported a higher significant reduction of their state anxiety score after exercise in music condition compared to no-music task (Pmusic (Pmusic during exercise may improve this effect in active but not in trained participants. Further, listening to music during exercise may prolong the participants' exercise experience but different training status seems to qualify differently this response.

  16. Pleiotropic effects of simvastatin in physically trained ovariectomized rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardes, N. [Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Unidade de Hipertensão, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Brito, J.O. [Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fernandes, T.G. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Cardiovascular, Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universdade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Llesuy, S.F. [University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Irigoyen, M.C. [Unidade de Hipertensão, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Belló-Klein, A. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Cardiovascular, Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universdade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); De Angelis, K. [Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-05-24

    This study tested the hypothesis that simvastatin treatment can improve cardiovascular and autonomic functions and membrane lipoperoxidation, with an increased effect when applied to physically trained ovariectomized rats. Ovariectomized rats were divided into sedentary, sedentary+simvastatin and trained+simvastatin groups (n = 8 each). Exercise training was performed on a treadmill for 8 weeks and simvastatin (5 mg/kg) was administered in the last 2 weeks. Blood pressure (BP) was recorded in conscious animals. Baroreflex sensitivity was evaluated by the tachycardic and bradycardic responses to BP changes. Cardiac vagal and sympathetic effects were determined using methylatropine and propranolol. Oxidative stress was evaluated based on heart and liver lipoperoxidation using the chemiluminescence method. The simvastatin-treated groups presented reduced body weight and mean BP (trained+simvastatin = 99 ± 2 and sedentary+simvastatin = 107 ± 2 mmHg) compared to the sedentary group (122 ± 1 mmHg). Furthermore, the trained group showed lower BP and heart rate compared to the other groups. Tachycardic and bradycardic responses were enhanced in both simvastatin-treated groups. The vagal effect was increased in the trained+simvastatin group and the sympathetic effect was decreased in the sedentary+simvastatin group. Hepatic lipoperoxidation was reduced in sedentary+simvastatin (≈21%) and trained+simvastatin groups (≈57%) compared to the sedentary group. Correlation analysis involving all animals demonstrated that cardiac lipoperoxidation was negatively related to the vagal effect (r = -0.7) and positively correlated to the sympathetic effect (r = 0.7). In conclusion, improvement in cardiovascular and autonomic functions associated with a reduction of lipoperoxidation with simvastatin treatment was increased in trained ovariectomized rats.

  17. Effectiveness of Virtual Reality Training in Orthopaedic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aïm, Florence; Lonjon, Guillaume; Hannouche, Didier; Nizard, Rémy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review to determine the effectiveness of virtual reality (VR) training in orthopaedic surgery. A comprehensive systematic review was performed of articles of VR training in orthopaedic surgery published up to November 2014 from MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases. We included 10 relevant trials of 91 identified articles, which all reported on training in arthroscopic surgery (shoulder, n = 5; knee, n = 4; undefined, n = 1). A total of 303 participants were involved. Assessment after training was made on a simulator in 9 of the 10 studies, and in one study it took place in the operating room (OR) on a real patient. A total of 32 different outcomes were extracted; 29 of them were about skills assessment. None involved a patient-related outcome. One study focused on anatomic learning, and the other evaluated technical task performance before and after training on a VR simulator. Five studies established construct validity. Three studies reported a statistically significant improvement in technical skills after training on a VR simulator. VR training leads to an improvement of technical skills in orthopaedic surgery. Before its widespread use, additional trials are needed to clarify the transfer of VR training to the OR. Systematic review of Level I through Level IV studies. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. In-Water Resisted Swim Training for Age-Group Swimmers: An Evaluation of Training Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Kosuke; Brammer, Christopher L; Sossong, Tyler D; Abe, Takashi; Stager, Joel M

    2017-09-22

    The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy of resisted sprint swim training with that of nonresisted sprint swim training on 50-m freestyle competition time (Vmax50) in age-group swimmers. Twenty-four age-group swimmers (age 10.6-14.9 y) were divided into resisted or nonresisted sprint swim training groups and completed a sprint swim training intervention 2 times per week for 10 weeks. Repeated 10-m sprints with progressively increasing resistance were used to determine measures of swim power. Skeletal muscle mass was estimated using B-mode ultrasound. Maturity status was estimated using predicted adult height (%Htadult) and maturity offset. A 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed no group × time interaction for measured variables. Vmax50 was correlated with skeletal muscle mass and swim power variables, but no significant relationship was found between relative changes in these variables. Estimated maturity status (%Htadult) appeared to be associated with initial measures of swim power and performance variables. Ten weeks of resisted sprint swim training was not any more effective than nonresisted sprint swim training at improving sprint swim performance in age-group swimmers.

  19. Living high-training low altitude training: effects on mucosal immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiollier, E; Schmitt, L; Burnat, P; Fouillot, J-P; Robach, P; Filaire, E; Guezennec, Cy; Richalet, J-P

    2005-06-01

    Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is the major immunoglobulin of the mucosal immune system. Whereas the suppressive effect of heavy training on mucosal immunity is well documented, little is known regarding the influence of hypoxia exposure on sIgA during altitude training. This investigation examined the impact of an 18-day Living high-training low (LHTL) training camp on sIgA levels in 11 (six females and five males) elite cross-country skiers. Subjects from the control group (n=5) trained and lived at 1,200 m of altitude, whereas, subjects from the LHTL group (n=6) trained at 1,200 m, but lived at a simulated altitude of 2,500, 3,000 and 3,500 m (3x6-day, 11 h day(-1)) in hypoxic rooms. Saliva samples were collected before, after each 6-day phases and 2 weeks thereafter (POST). Salivary sIgA, protein and cortisol were measured. There was a downward trend in sIgA concentrations over the study, which reached significance in LHTL (Ptraining. Two weeks of active recovery did not allow for proper sIgA recovery. The mechanism underlying this depression of sIgA could be mediated by neural factors.

  20. Exercise is good for your blood pressure: effects of endurance training and resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagard, R H

    2006-09-01

    1. Although several epidemiological studies have not observed significant independent relationships between physical activity or fitness and blood pressure, others have concluded that blood pressure is lower in individuals who are more fit or active. However, longitudinal intervention studies are more appropriate for assessing the effects of physical activity on blood pressure. 2. Previously, we have performed meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials involving dynamic aerobic endurance training or resistance training. Inclusion criteria were: random allocation to intervention and control; physical training as the sole intervention; inclusion of healthy sedentary normotensive and/or hypertensive adults; intervention duration of at least 4 weeks; availability of systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure; and publication in a peer-reviewed journal up to December 2003. 3. The meta-analysis on endurance training involved 72 trials and 105 study groups. After weighting for the number of trained participants, training induced significant net reductions of resting and day time ambulatory blood pressure of 3.0/2.4 mmHg (P pressure was more pronounced in the 30 hypertensive study groups (-6.9/-4.9) than in the others (-1.9/-1.6; P pressure of 3.5 mmHg (P pressure of 3.2 mmHg (P = 0.10). 5. In conclusion, dynamic aerobic endurance training decreases blood pressure through a reduction of systemic vascular resistance, in which the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system appear to be involved, and favourably affects concomitant cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, the few available data suggest that resistance training is able to reduce blood pressure.

  1. The effectiveness of robotic training depends on motor task characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal-Crespo, Laura; Rappo, Nicole; Riener, Robert

    2017-12-01

    Previous research suggests that the effectiveness of robotic training depends on the motor task to be learned. However, it is still an open question which specific task's characteristics influence the efficacy of error-modulating training strategies. Motor tasks can be classified based on the time characteristics of the task, in particular the task's duration (discrete vs. continuous). Continuous tasks require movements without distinct beginning or end. Discrete tasks require fast movements that include well-defined postures at the beginning and the end. We developed two games, one that requires a continuous movement-a tracking task-and one that requires discrete movements-a fast reaching task. We conducted an experiment with thirty healthy subjects to evaluate the effectiveness of three error-modulating training strategies-no guidance, error amplification (i.e., repulsive forces proportional to errors) and haptic guidance-on self-reported motivation and learning of the continuous and discrete games. Training with error amplification resulted in better motor learning than haptic guidance, besides the fact that error amplification reduced subjects' interest/enjoyment and perceived competence during training. Only subjects trained with error amplification improved their performance after training the discrete game. In fact, subjects trained without guidance improved the performance in the continuous game significantly more than in the discrete game, probably because the continuous task required greater attentional levels. Error-amplifying training strategies have a great potential to provoke better motor learning in continuous and discrete tasks. However, their long-lasting negative effects on motivation might limit their applicability in intense neurorehabilitation programs.

  2. Effect of endurance training on hypothalamic serotonin concentration and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caperuto, E C; dos Santos, R V T; Mello, M T; Costa Rosa, L F B P

    2009-02-01

    1. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that modulates several functions, such as food intake, energy expenditure, motor activity, mood and sleep. Acute exhaustive endurance exercise increases the synthesis, concentration and metabolism of serotonin in the brain. This phenomenon could be responsible for central fatigue after prolonged and exhaustive exercise. However, the effect of chronic exhaustive training on serotonin is not known. The present study was conducted to examine the effect of exhaustive endurance training on performance and serotonin concentrations in the hypothalamus of trained rats. 2. Rats were divided into three groups: sedentary rats (SED), moderately trained rats (MOD) and exhaustively trained rats (EXT), with an increase of 200% in the load carried during the final week of training. 3. Hypothalamic serotonin concentrations were similar between the SED and MOD groups, but were higher in the EXT group (P MOD group (P < 0.05). 4. Thus, the present study demonstrates that exhaustive training increases serotonin concentrations in the hypothalamus, together with decreased endurance performance after inadequate recovery time. However, the mechanism underlying these changes remains unknown.

  3. Effect of virtual reality training on laparoscopic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian R; Soerensen, Jette L; Grantcharov, Teodor P

    2009-01-01

    -14 minutes) and in the control group was 24 (20-29) minutes (Pincreased in a clinically relevant manner using proficiency based virtual reality simulator training. The performance level of novices......OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of virtual reality training on an actual laparoscopic operation. DESIGN: Prospective randomised controlled and blinded trial. SETTING: Seven gynaecological departments in the Zeeland region of Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 24 first and second year registrars specialising...... in gynaecology and obstetrics. INTERVENTIONS: Proficiency based virtual reality simulator training in laparoscopic salpingectomy and standard clinical education (controls). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The main outcome measure was technical performance assessed by two independent observers blinded to trainee...

  4. IT Competencies And The Conditions For Training Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasli, Amran M.

    This thesis investigates the levels of IT competencies and the conditions for training effectiveness among Malaysian university clerical workers using both quantitative and qualitative research methods. Seven conditions that affect the transfer of IT training to the workplace according to the ord...... but have varying impact on IT competence. Therefore, all seven constructs should be viewed in an integrated manner in accordance to the conceptual model proposed in this study....

  5. Ergogenic effects of quercetin supplementation in trained rats

    OpenAIRE

    Casuso Rafael A; Martínez-Amat Antonio; Martínez-López Emilio J.; Camiletti-Moirón Daniel; Porres Jesus M; Aranda Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Quercetin is a natural polyphenolic compound currently under study for its ergogenic capacity to improve mitochondrial biogenesis. Sedentary mice have exhibited increased endurance performance, but results are contradictory in human models. Methods We examined the effects of six weeks of endurance training and quercetin supplementation on markers of endurance performance and training in a rodent model. Rats were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: placebo+sed...

  6. Effects of high-intensity interval training on canoeing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Ta; Lee, Mien-Mien; Hsu, Shu-Ching; Chan, Kuei-Hui

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) utilizing a canoeing ergometer on endurance determinants, as well as aerobic and anaerobic performances among flat-water canoeists. Fourteen well-trained male flat-water canoeists were divided into an HIIT group or an MICT group. All subjects performed a continuous graded exercise test (GXT) and three fixed-distance (200, 500, and 1000 m) performance tests on a canoeing ergometer to determine canoeing economy, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), and power at VO2peak, and to calculate the critical velocity (CV) and anaerobic work capacity before and after the training programmes. The training programme involved training on a canoeing ergometer three times per week for four weeks. HIIT consisted of seven 2 min canoeing bouts at an intensity of 90% VO2peak separated by 1 min of rest. The MICT group was trained at an intensity of 65% VO2peak continuously for 20 min. After four weeks of training, performance in the 200-m distance test and the power at VO2peak significantly improved in the HIIT group; performance in the 500 m and 1000 m distances and CV significantly improved in the MICT group. However, all variables were not significantly different between groups. It is concluded that HIIT for four weeks is an effective training strategy for improvement of short-distance canoeing performance. In contrast, MICT improves middle-distance canoeing performances and aerobic capacity.

  7. Ergogenic effects of quercetin supplementation in trained rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casuso Rafael A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quercetin is a natural polyphenolic compound currently under study for its ergogenic capacity to improve mitochondrial biogenesis. Sedentary mice have exhibited increased endurance performance, but results are contradictory in human models. Methods We examined the effects of six weeks of endurance training and quercetin supplementation on markers of endurance performance and training in a rodent model. Rats were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: placebo+sedentary (PS, quercetin+sedentary (QS, placebo+endurance training (PT and quercetin+endurance training (QT. Quercetin was administered at a dose of 25 mg/kg on alternate days. During six weeks of treatment volume parameters of training were recorded, and after six weeks all groups performed a maximal graded VO2 max test and a low-intensity endurance run-to-fatigue test. Results No effects were found in VO2 peak (p>0.999, nor in distance run during low-intensity test, although it was 14% greater in QT when compared with PT (P = 0.097. Post-exercise blood lactate was increased in QT when compared with PT (p=0.023 and also in QS compared with PS (p=0.024. Conclusions This study showed no effects in VO2 peak, speed at VO2 peak or endurance time to exhaustion after six weeks of quercetin supplementation compared with placebo in trained rats. Quercetin was show to increase blood lactate production after high-intensity exercise.

  8. Sustaining the Effects of Gatekeeper Suicide Prevention Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtivelband, Annette; Aloise-Young, Patricia A; Chen, Peter Y

    2015-02-23

    Background: Gatekeeper training is a promising suicide prevention strategy that is growing in popularity. Although gatekeeper training programs have been found to improve trainee knowledge, self-efficacy, and perceived skills, researchers have found that the benefit of gatekeeper training may not last over time. Aims: The purpose of this study was to identify strategies for strengthening the long-term effects of suicide prevention gatekeeper training. Method: In-depth interviews and focus groups were conducted with gatekeepers (N = 44) and data were analyzed using a qualitative research approach. Results: The results of this study suggest that posttraining interventions may be more effective if they include the following seven themes: (a) social network - connecting with other gatekeepers; (b) continued learning - further education; (c) community outreach - building awareness; (d) accessibility - convenience; (e) reminders - ongoing communication; (f) program improvement -- enhancing previous training; and (g) certification - accreditation. Conclusion: Posttraining interventions that incorporate the themes from this study offer a promising direction in which to sustain the effects of gatekeeper suicide prevention training.

  9. The different effects of high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training for weightlessness countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Jie; Cheng, Tan; Zhi-Li, Li; Hui-juan, Wang; Wen-juan, Chen; Jianfeng, Zhang; Desheng, Wang; Dongbin, Niu; Qi, Zhao; Chengjia, Yang; Yanqing, Wang

    significantly higher than that in HIIT ZLS group. The maximum average peak torque for isometric left knee contraction was enhanced after 6-week training in all three groups. It was suggested that HITT can be used in weightlessness to maintain the cardiopulmonary function in a relatively short training period, but the effect of HIIT on the maintenance of muscle function still need further study. (Supported by State Key Laboratory Grant NO. SMFA10A04 and The Twelfth Five Year Plan of Medical and Health Research Grant NO. BWS11J055)

  10. Effect of specific resistance training on musculoskeletal pain symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Andersen, Lars Louis; Jørgensen, Marie Birk

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Pedersen, MT, Andersen, LL, Jørgensen, MB, Søgaard, K, and Sjøgaard, G. Effect of specific resistance training on musculoskeletal pain symptoms: Dose-response relationship. J Strength Cond Res 27(1): 229-235, 2013-The purpose of this study was to investigate the dose-response of strength...... training for relieving musculoskeletal pain in female office workers. The relation between the dose of training in terms of total training volume (sets × repetitions × load reported in training diaries) during a 16-week strength training program and changes in pain (calculated as pain index, 0-100%, from...... index in SRT and APE decreased significantly from baseline to follow-up (-25%/-22%) compared with changes in REF (-15%). In the dose-response analysis within the SRT group (n = 125), the total volume of training (mean 18.056 kg, SD = 13.798) was negatively correlated with changes in pain index (ß = -0...

  11. Exercise and Training at Altitudes: Physiological Effects and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Cecilia Vargas Pinilla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in altitude leads to a proportional fall in the barometric pressure, and a decrease in atmospheric oxygen pressure, producing hypobaric hypoxia that affects, in different degrees, all body organs, systems and functions. The chronically reduced partial pressure of oxygen causes that individuals adapt and adjust to physiological stress. These adaptations are modulated by many factors, including the degree of hypoxia related to altitude, time of exposure, exercise intensity and individual conditions. It has been established that exposure to high altitude is an environmental stressor that elicits a response that contributes to many adjustments and adaptations that influence exercise capacity and endurance performance. These adaptations include in crease in hemoglobin concentration, ventilation, capillary density and tissue myoglobin concentration. However, a negative effect in strength and power is related to a decrease in muscle fiber size and body mass due to the decrease in the training intensity. Many researches aim at establishing how training or living at high altitudes affects performance in athletes. Training methods, such as living in high altitudes training low, and training high-living in low altitudes have been used to research the changes in the physical condition in athletes and how the physiological adaptations to hypoxia can enhanceperformance at sea level. This review analyzes the literature related to altitude training focused on how physiological adaptations to hypoxic environments influence performance, and which protocols are most frequently used to train in high altitudes.

  12. Living high-training low: effect on erythropoiesis and aerobic performance in highly-trained swimmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robach, P.; Schmitt, L.; Brugniaux, J.V.

    2006-01-01

    The "living high-training low" model (LHTL), i.e., training in normoxia but sleeping/living in hypoxia, is designed to improve the athletes performance. However, LHTL efficacy still remains controversial and also little is known about the duration of its potential benefit. This study tested whether...... LHTL enhances aerobic performance in athletes, and if any positive effect may last for up to 2 weeks after LHTL intervention. Eighteen swimmers trained for 13 days at 1,200 m while sleeping/living at 1,200 m in ambient air (control, n=9) or in hypoxic rooms (LHTL, n=9, 5 days at simulated altitude of 2...... performance. The absence of any prolonged benefit after LHTL suggests that this LHTL model cannot be recommended for long-term purposes....

  13. Effects of traditional judo training session on muscle damage symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detanico, Daniele; Dal Pupo, Juliano; Franchini, Emerson; Fukuda, David H; Dos Santos, Saray G

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to analyze the acute effects of a judo training session on muscle strength, delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and serum creatine kinase (CK) activity. Ten male judo athletes participated in this study and performed a 90-min traditional judo training session. The following measurements were performed before and 48 hours after the training: shoulder external/internal rotation isokinetic torque, countermovement jump (CMJ), DOMS, and blood draw for serum CK analysis. Student's t-test with significance level set at 5% and, effect size analysis were used. Significant reduction was found in jump height in the CMJ after the training session (2.9%; moderate effect; P=0.02). No significant differences were observed in any of the measures of shoulder external/internal rotation isokinetic torque (P>0.05). An increase of the serum CK (49.4%; moderate effect; P=0.01) and DOMS (20.6%; large effect; P=0.003) were noted after the training session when compared to baseline. Judo training session resulted in increased serum CK activity, and muscle soreness. The decrease of CMJ performance indicates impairment in the lower-limbs muscle power production. However, the lack of difference of shoulder external/internal rotation torque before and 48 hours after the training session may indicate that the interval was enough to recover the upper-limbs strength in judokas of this study. These markers of muscle damage can be used to control muscle adaptation progress and to avoid sports-related disorders of athletes with similar characteristics to those evaluated in this study.

  14. Contralateral Effects After Unilateral Strength Training: A Meta-Analysis Comparing Training Loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirer-Sastre, Rafel; Beltrán-Garrido, Jose V; Corbi, Francisco

    2017-06-01

    There is solid evidence on the cross-training phenomenon, but the training load required to achieve it has yet to be established. The aim of this meta-analysis was to deduce which unilateral strength training load (duration, frequency, intensity, rest and type) would enable the biggest strength increases to be obtained in the inactive contralateral limb. The examined studies were limited to those written in the English language within the Web of Science, PubMed and SPORTDiscus databases. Ten of the 43 eligible studies were included, covering a total of 409 participants. The studies included in the meta-analysis showed a low risk of bias and had an estimated pooled effect size of 0.56 (95% CI from 0.34 to 0.78). Greater effect sizes were observed in lengthy protocols involving fast eccentric exercises using designs of 3 sets of 10 repetitions and a 2-minute rest time. Effect size did not relate to absolute volume, relative intensity, absolute duration and speed of execution. In conclusion, to optimize contralateral strength improvements, cross-training sessions should involve fast eccentric sets with moderate volumes and rest intervals.

  15. Contralateral Effects After Unilateral Strength Training: A Meta-Analysis Comparing Training Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafel Cirer-Sastre, Jose V. Beltrán-Garrido, Francisco Corbi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There is solid evidence on the cross-training phenomenon, but the training load required to achieve it has yet to be established. The aim of this meta-analysis was to deduce which unilateral strength training load (duration, frequency, intensity, rest and type would enable the biggest strength increases to be obtained in the inactive contralateral limb. The examined studies were limited to those written in the English language within the Web of Science, PubMed and SPORTDiscus databases. Ten of the 43 eligible studies were included, covering a total of 409 participants. The studies included in the meta-analysis showed a low risk of bias and had an estimated pooled effect size of 0.56 (95% CI from 0.34 to 0.78. Greater effect sizes were observed in lengthy protocols involving fast eccentric exercises using designs of 3 sets of 10 repetitions and a 2-minute rest time. Effect size did not relate to absolute volume, relative intensity, absolute duration and speed of execution. In conclusion, to optimize contralateral strength improvements, cross-training sessions should involve fast eccentric sets with moderate volumes and rest intervals.

  16. Effect of submaximal isometric wrist extension training on grip strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimose, Ryota; Matsunaga, Atsuhiko; Muro, Masuo

    2011-03-01

    Gripping force is produced by co-contraction of forearm flexors and extensors. Activation of extensors is important for stabilizing the wrist during gripping. However, forearm muscle function is complicated and the neurophysiological mechanism responsible for the gain in gripping force is unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether increasing forearm extensor activation with isometric wrist extension training has an effect on gripping force. Thirteen healthy subjects participated in this study. Maximal voluntary contraction of gripping was measured using a piezosensor (MVC(grip)) and EMG of forearm muscles at every wrist angle (from 70° flexion to 80° extension with 10° intervals) were measured simultaneously at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after training. Training consisted of 30 repetitions equal to 70% MVC of isometric wrist extension for 8 weeks (5/week) on the right side. Gripping force was measured on both sides using a grip dynamometer without wrist angle restriction. Gripping force, EMG, maximal wrist extension force, and wrist angle-gripping force curve were investigated after training. After training, maximal wrist extension force increased significantly. Gripping force on the trained side also increased significantly. The training changed wrist angle at peak of MVC(grip). EMG activation of forearm extensors increased and that of flexors decreased during gripping. These results suggest that wrist extension training leads to an increase in gripping force and changes the balance of EMG activation between forearm flexors and extensors during gripping. Therefore, this training method should be useful as a therapeutic strategy for increasing grip strength.

  17. Neural Plastic Effects of Cognitive Training on Aging Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Natalie T Y; Tam, Helena M K; Chu, Leung W; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Chan, Felix; Lam, Linda C W; Woo, Jean; Lee, Tatia M C

    2015-01-01

    Increasing research has evidenced that our brain retains a capacity to change in response to experience until late adulthood. This implies that cognitive training can possibly ameliorate age-associated cognitive decline by inducing training-specific neural plastic changes at both neural and behavioral levels. This longitudinal study examined the behavioral effects of a systematic thirteen-week cognitive training program on attention and working memory of older adults who were at risk of cognitive decline. These older adults were randomly assigned to the Cognitive Training Group (n = 109) and the Active Control Group (n = 100). Findings clearly indicated that training induced improvement in auditory and visual-spatial attention and working memory. The training effect was specific to the experience provided because no significant difference in verbal and visual-spatial memory between the two groups was observed. This pattern of findings is consistent with the prediction and the principle of experience-dependent neuroplasticity. Findings of our study provided further support to the notion that the neural plastic potential continues until older age. The baseline cognitive status did not correlate with pre- versus posttraining changes to any cognitive variables studied, suggesting that the initial cognitive status may not limit the neuroplastic potential of the brain at an old age.

  18. Effectiveness of Conversational Skill Training of Patients with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthasarathy R

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The disabling nature of deficitsin social and independent living skills of per-sons with severe and persisting mental disor-ders was a strong rationale for developing so-cial skills training as a rehabilitation modalitythat could attenuate those deficits. Aim andObjectives: To assess the effectiveness of con-versational skill training in patients with schizo-phrenia. Material and Methods: Multistagesimple random sampling method was used forthe present study to assign the patients to con-trol group from closed female ward and experi-mental group from open female ward. Random-ization was done through lottery method. Theage groups between 18-60 years were selectedfrom female individuals who were diagnosedwith schizophrenia and admitted in the hospitalin closed & open in-patient psychiatry units atNIMHANS. The tool used was rating scale forassessment of conversational skill. Skill train-ing was given using role play method. Total of15 sessions were conducted on conversationalskill. Results:The results suggested that therewas a significant difference in conversationalskill after the skill training between the experi-mental group and control group. Conclusion:Conversational skill training through role playis an effective method to improve the conver-sational skill of patients with schizophrenia.

  19. Effects of conflict resolution training integrated into a kindergarten curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevahn, L; Johnson, D W; Johnson, R T; Oberle, K; Wahl, L

    2000-01-01

    The effectiveness of a conflict resolution training program was examined in an American midwestern suburban elementary school. Participants were 80 kindergartners randomly assigned to an experimental or control condition in morning or afternoon time blocks. Children in the experimental condition received 9 hr of conflict resolution training integrated into a curriculum unit on friendship taught daily for 4 consecutive weeks. Children in the control condition were taught the identical friendship unit for the same period of time without conflict resolution training. Teachers rotated equally across conditions. Significant differences between trained and untrained children occurred in their knowledge and retention of the conflict resolution procedure, willingness and ability to use the procedure in conflict situations, and conceptual understanding of friendship.

  20. Chromium and exercise training: effect on obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K E; Chandler, R M; Castle, A L; Ivy, J L

    1997-08-01

    Chromium supplementation may affect various risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), including body weight and composition, basal plasma hormone and substrate levels, and response to an oral glucose load. This study examined the effects of chromium supplementation (400 micrograms.d-1), with or without exercise training, on these risk factors in young, obese women. Chromium picolinate supplementation resulted in significant weight gain in this population, while exercise training combined with chromium nicotinate supplementation resulted in significant weight loss and lowered the insulin response to an oral glucose load. We conclude that high levels of chromium picolinate supplementation are contraindicated for weight loss in young, obese women. Moreover, our results suggest that exercise training combined with chromium nicotinate supplementation may be more beneficial than exercise training alone for modification of certain CAD and NIDDM risk factors.

  1. Is Working Memory Training Effective? A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby-Lervag, Monica; Hulme, Charles

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that working memory training programs are effective both as treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other cognitive disorders in children and as a tool to improve cognitive ability and scholastic attainment in typically developing children and adults. However, effects across studies appear to be…

  2. Some Differential Effects of Two Training Group Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, Jon D.

    Concurrent with the increasing interest in the training group (T-Group) as a source of growth and personal awareness for its participants, is a need to examine the effects of the T-group on certain personality types. This paper presents a rationale for examining the effects of the T-group on introverts and extroverts. Two T-group styles were…

  3. Effectiveness of accommodation and constant resistance training on maximal strength and power in trained athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Ataee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Accommodation resistance is a training technique that may improve strength and power gains beyond those achieved by traditional free weights. In this method, chains are either added on a free-weight bar and combined with traditional plates or added to the bar as the entire load.Purpose. The aim of the current study was to compare the effectiveness of accommodation and constant resistance training methods during a four-week period on maximal strength and power in trained athletes.Methods. This study was comprised of 24 trained athletes, including 16 trained males [8 Wushu athletes (Kung-Fu and 8 wrestlers, age: 20.5 ± 2.00 yrs. old]. Participants were initially tested on weight, body circumference, fat percent, upper and lower body maximal strength, determined by the 1-repetition maximum (1RM test, which determines the greatest amount of weight a person can successfully lift, and upper and lower body power. Participants were equally randomized to either accommodation or constant resistance training groups. Both groups underwent resistance training for a four-week period that consisted of three sessions per week. Multivariate repeated-measures analyses of variance of the data were used to verify significant differences in strength and power between groups. The modified Bonferroni post hoc test was used to compare the obtained results in pre-, mid-, and post test.Results. In the accommodation resistance group, there was a significant difference in lower body maximal strength compared to the constant group (163.12 ± 18.82 kg in the accommodation group vs. 142.25 ± 20.04 kg in the constant group, P = 0.04. No significant differences were found in upper body power, lower body power, and upper body maximal strength between the two groups (P > 0.05.Conclusion. Although there was only a significant difference in lower body maximal strength between groups, accommodation resistance training may induce a physiological training response by improving the

  4. Cardiac rehabilitation in chronic heart failure: effect of an 8-week, high-intensity interval training versus continuous training

    OpenAIRE

    Freyssin, Céline; Prieur, Fabrice; Verkindt, Chantal; Benaich, Philippe; Maunier, Sébastien; Blanc, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    International audience; OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of an 8-week, high-intensity interval training protocol versus continuous training. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Cardiac rehabilitation center. PARTICIPANTS: Patients (N=26; mean age ± SD, 54±12y) with chronic heart failure were enrolled in a cardiac rehabilitation program for 8 weeks. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups that performed either interval training (IT) or continuous training (CT). ...

  5. The Effects of in-Season Repeated Sprint Training Compared to Regular Soccer Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solberg Nedrehagen Eirik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effects of repeated sprints (RSA training and regular soccer training on Yo-Yo IR-1 and RSA performance (6 × 40 m shuttle sprints. Thirteen semi-professional female soccer players and nine amateur male soccer players were randomised into a repeated sprint group (RSG; n = 12 or a regular soccer training group (STG; n = 10. The RSG soccer players executed 3-4 sets of 4-6 repeated sprints (30 m with 180° directional changes weekly during the last eight weeks of the in-season. In parallel, the STG soccer players performed low- to moderate intensity soccer training in form of technical or tactical skills. The RSG showed 15% improvement in Yo-Yo IR-1 (p = 0.04; ES = 1.83 and their mean RSA times were reduced by 1.5% (p = 0.02; ES = 0.89. No significant changes were found for the STG (Yo-Yo IR-1, p = 0.13; RSA, p = 0.49. Comparing the groups, greater improvements were observed in Yo-Yo IR-1 for the RSG (p = 0.02; ES = 1.15, but not for the RSA (p = 0.23; ES = -0.33. Similar training volumes and intensities (% of HFmax were observed between the groups (p = 0.22 and p = 0.79. In conclusion, a weekly RSA session integrated into a regular soccer regime improved in-season RSA and Yo-Yo IR-1 performance compared to regular soccer training.

  6. Simulation based teaching in interventional radiology training: is it effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, R; Dennick, R

    2017-03-01

    To establish the educational effectiveness of simulation teaching in interventional radiology training. Electronic databases (MEDLINE, ERIC, Embase, OvidSP, and Cochrane Library) were searched (January 2000 to May 2015). Studies specifically with educational outcomes conducted on radiologists were eligible. All forms of simulation in interventional training were included. Data were extracted based on the population, intervention, comparison, and outcome (PICO) model. Kirkpatrick's hierarchy was used to establish educational intervention effectiveness. The quality of studies was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Search resulted in 377 articles, of which 15 met the inclusion criteria. Thirteen of the 15 studies achieved level 2 of Kirkpatrick's hierarchy with only one reaching level 4. Statistically significant improvements in performance metrics as objective measures, demonstrating trainee competence were seen in 12/15 studies. Subjective improvements in confidence were noted in 13/15. Only one study demonstrated skills transferability and improvements in patient outcomes. Results demonstrate the relevance of simulated training to current education models in improving trainee competence; however, this is limited to the simulated environment as there is a lack of literature investigating its predictive validity and the effect on patient outcomes. The requirement for further research in this field is highlighted. Simulation is thus currently only deemed useful as an adjunct to current training models with the potential to play an influential role in the future of the interventional radiology training curriculum. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Effectiveness of humor training among adolescents with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Lin; Liu, Ya-Ru; Kuo, Ching-Chih; Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Chang, Yu-Lin

    2016-12-30

    Humor training has been applied to educational and clinical cases and has been found to be effective, but humor training for individuals with autism is relatively rare. The present study proposed a humor-knowledge and humor-skill training workshop to enhance the humor comprehension and appreciation of individuals with autism and examined the effects of the training. Participants were 20 adolescents with autism and average intelligence (above 70 in WAIS-III). They were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Both questionnaire of joke comprehension and appreciation and a humor style questionnaire were used as instruments. The results supported the effectiveness of the 15-h training. The comprehension and appreciation of nonsense humor were significantly increased in the experimental group in comparison with the control group, although the incongruity-resolution jokes remained difficult to comprehend. The tendency to use affiliative humor was greater among individuals with autism in the experimental group, suggesting that the appreciation of humor can be learned. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of fatigue and training status on firefighter performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, Katie J; Mullineaux, David R; Yates, James W; Abel, Mark G

    2012-04-01

    Firefighting is a strenuous occupation that requires optimal levels of physical fitness. The National Fire Protection Association suggests that firefighters should be allowed to exercise on duty to maintain adequate fitness levels. However, no research has addressed the effect of exercise-induced fatigue on subsequent fire ground performance. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to determine the effect that a single exercise session had on the performance of a simulated fire ground test (SFGT). Secondarily, this study sought to compare the effect of physical training status (i.e., trained vs. untrained firefighters) on the performance of an SFGT. Twelve trained (age: 31.8 ± 6.9 years; body mass index [BMI]: 27.7 ± 3.3 kg·m(-2); VO2peak: 45.6 ± 3.3 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and 37 untrained (age: 31.0 ± 9.0 years; BMI: 31.3 ± 5.2 kg·m(-2); VO2peak: 40.2 ± 5.2 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) male career firefighters performed a baseline SFGT. The trained firefighters performed a second SFGT after an exercise session. Time to complete the SFGT, heart rate, and blood lactate were compared between baseline and exercise SFGT (EX-SFGT) conditions. In the trained firefighters, time to complete the SFGT (9.6% increase; p = 0.002) and heart rate (4.1% increase; p = 0.032) were greater during the EX-SFGT compared with baseline, with no difference in post-SFGT blood lactate (p = 0.841). The EX-SFGT time of the trained firefighters was faster than approximately 70% of the untrained firefighters' baseline SFGT time. In addition, the baseline SFGT time of the trained firefighters was faster than 81% of the untrained firefighters. This study demonstrated that on-duty exercise training reduced the work efficiency in firefighters. However, adaptations obtained through regular on-duty exercise training may limit decrements in work efficiency because of acute exercise fatigue and allow for superior work efficiency compared with not participating in a training program.

  9. Disparate effects of training on brain activation in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidan, Inbal; Rosenberg-Katz, Keren; Jacob, Yael; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Mirelman, Anat

    2017-10-24

    To compare the effects of 2 forms of exercise, i.e., a 6-week trial of treadmill training with virtual reality (TT + VR) that targets motor and cognitive aspects of safe ambulation and a 6-week trial of treadmill training alone (TT), on brain activation in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). As part of a randomized controlled trial, patients were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of TT (n = 17, mean age 71.5 ± 1.5 years, disease duration 11.6 ± 1.6 years; 70% men) or TT + VR (n = 17, mean age 71.2 ± 1.7 years, disease duration 7.9 ± 1.4 years; 65% men). A previously validated fMRI imagery paradigm assessed changes in neural activation pretraining and post-training. Participants imagined themselves walking in 2 virtual scenes projected in the fMRI: (1) a clear path and (2) a path with virtual obstacles. Whole brain and region of interest analyses were performed. Brain activation patterns were similar between training arms before the interventions. After training, participants in the TT + VR arm had lower activation than the TT arm in Brodmann area 10 and the inferior frontal gyrus (cluster level familywise error-corrected [FWEcorr] p Exercise modifies brain activation patterns in patients with PD in a mode-specific manner. Motor-cognitive training decreased the reliance on frontal regions, which apparently resulted in improved function, perhaps reflecting increased brain efficiency. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. CT colonography: effect of experience and training on reader performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Stuart A.; Burling, David; Morley, Simon; Bartram, Clive I. [Department of Intestinal Imaging, St. Mark' s Hospital, Watford Road, Northwick Park, HA1 3UJ, London (United Kingdom); Halligan, Steve [Department of Intestinal Imaging, St. Mark' s Hospital, Watford Road, Northwick Park, HA1 3UJ, London (United Kingdom); Department of Cancer Research UK Colorectal Cancer Unit, St. Mark' s Hospital, Northwick Park, HA1 3UJ, London (United Kingdom); Bassett, Paul [Department of Statistics, St. Mark' s Hospital, Northwick Park, HA1 3UJ, London (United Kingdom); Atkin, Wendy [Department of Cancer Research UK Colorectal Cancer Unit, St. Mark' s Hospital, Northwick Park, HA1 3UJ, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effect of radiologist experience and increasing exposure to CT colonography on reader performance. Three radiologists of differing general experience (consultant, research fellow, trainee) independently analysed 100 CT colonographic datasets. Readers had no prior experience of CT colonography and received feedback and training after the first 50 cases from an independent experienced radiologist. Diagnostic performance and reporting times were compared for the first and second 50 datasets and compared with the results of a radiologist experienced in CT colonography. Before training only the consultant reader achieved statistical equivalence with the reference standard for detection of larger polyps. After training, detection rates ranged between 25 and 58% for larger polyps. Only the trainee significantly improved after training (P=0.007), with performance of other readers unchanged or even worse. Reporting times following training were reduced significantly for the consultant and fellow (P<0.001 and P=0.03, respectively), but increased for the trainee (P<0.001). In comparison to the consultant reader, the odds of detection of larger polyps was 0.36 (CI 0.16, 0.82) for the fellow and 0.36 (CI 0.14, 0.91) for the trainee. There is considerable variation in the ability to report CT colonography. Prior experience in gastrointestinal radiology is a distinct advantage. Competence cannot be assumed even after directed training via a database of 50 cases. (orig.)

  11. Effect of intense military training on body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavolti, Marcella; Battistini, Nino C; Dugoni, Manfredo; Bagni, Bruno; Bagni, Ilaria; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2008-03-01

    Individuals in a structural physical training program can show beneficial changes in body composition, such as body fat reduction and muscle mass increase. This study measured body composition changes by using 3 different techniques-skinfold thickness (SF) measurements, air displacement plethysmography (BOD-POD), and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-during 9 months of intense training in healthy young men engaged in military training. Twenty-seven young men were recruited from a special faction of the Italian Navy. The program previewed three phases: ground combat, sea combat, and amphibious combat. Body composition was estimated at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end of the training. After the subjects performed the ground combat phase, body composition variables significantly decreased: body weight (P BOD-POD (P = 0.90) and DXA was significantly greater than measured by SF. A significant difference was found in body mass index (BMI) measured during the study. BOD-POD and SF, compared with DXA, provide valid and reliable measurement of changes in body composition in healthy young men engaged in military training. In conclusion, the findings suggest that for young men of normal weight, changes in body weight alone and in BMI are not a good measure to assess the effectiveness of intense physical training programs, because lean mass gain can masquerade fat weight loss.

  12. The effects of PNF training on the facial profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namura, Mari; Motoyoshi, Mitsuru; Namura, Yasuhiro; Shimizu, Noriyoshi

    2008-03-01

    Although orthodontic treatment improves dentoalveolar problems, the facial profile seldom changes because the perioral muscles do not easily adapt to the new morphological circumstances. We employed proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF), which is training with added resisted movement to motions such as lifting the upper lip, lowering the lower lip, and sticking out the tongue, to adapt the perioral muscles to the new morphological circumstances. The subjects were 40 adults with an average age of 29.6 years. A series of PNF exercises was performed three times per day for 1 month. Lateral facial photographs were taken using a digital camera before training (T(0)), after training (T(1)), and 1 month after the end of training (T(2)). The nasolabial (NL), mentolabial (ML), and mentocervical (MC) angles were measured, and linear measurements were taken to verify the change of each measurement point. In the test group, the NL and ML angles significantly increased (P PNF exercise. From T(1) to T(2), the NL and ML angles decreased significantly, while the MC angle increased significantly. No significant differences were observed in these angles when the values measured at T(0) and T(2) were compared. Although the training appeared to be effective for sharpening the mouth and submandibular region, continued training is necessary to avoid relapse.

  13. Effects of resistance training in individuals with knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazielle Cordeiro Aguiar

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Osteoarthritis (OA, the most common form of arthritis, is considered the main cause of pain and disability in the elderly. Objective: To evaluate the effect of systematic muscle strength training on functional performance and quality of life in individuals with knee OA. Methods: Subjects with knee OA (n = 27, 46 - 76 years completed the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC, Medical Outcomes Short-Form 36-item Health Survey (SF-36, and visual analog scale (VAS questionnaires, musculoskeletal assessments, and 10-repetition maximum and timed 10-meter walk tests both before and after training. The training consisted of an exercise resistance program and stretches for 12 weeks (three sessions of 80 each per week. Results: Twenty-two subjects completed the training. Reduced overall scores and WOMAC physical function indicated improved functional performance (p < 0.001 as well as increased gait speed (p < 0.001. The perception of pain decreased after training, as evidenced by the VAS, WOMAC pain domain, and SF-36 scores (p < 0.001. Quality of life improvements occurred primarily in the areas of pain, functional capacity, and SF-36 physical aspects. No change in body mass index was noted (p = 0.93. Conclusion: Our results indicate that the combination of resistance training for the quadriceps, gluteus, and abdominal muscles could be a viable alternative to improving functionality and quality of life in patients with knee OA. However, more studies are necessary to confirm our findings.

  14. Effect of training on exposure judgment accuracy of industrial hygienists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadali, Monika; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Mulhausen, John R; Banerjee, Sudipto

    2012-01-01

    Results are presented from a study that investigated the effect of data interpretation training on exposure judgment accuracy of industrial hygienists across several companies in different industry sectors. Participating companies provided monitoring information on specific exposure tasks. Forty-nine hygienists from six companies participated in the study, and 22 industrial tasks were evaluated. The number of monitoring data points for individual tasks varied between 5 and 24. After reviewing all available basic characterization information for the job, task, and chemical, hygienists were asked to provide their judgment on the probability of the 95th percentile of the underlying exposure distribution being located in one of four exposure categories relative to the occupational exposure limit as outlined in the AIHA exposure assessment strategy. Ninety-three qualitative judgments (i.e., without reviewing monitoring data) and 2142 quantitative judgments (i.e., those made after reviewing monitoring data) were obtained. Data interpretation training, with simple rules of thumb for estimating 95th percentiles, was provided to all hygienists. A data interpretation test was administered before and after training. All exposure task judgments were collected before and after training. Data interpretation test accuracy for the hygienists increased from 48% to 67% after training (p < 0.001) and a significant underestimation bias was removed. Hygienist quantitative task judgment accuracy improved from 46% to 69% (p < 0.001) post-training. Accuracy results showed good improvement in industrial hygienists' quantitative judgments as a result of training. Hence, the use of statistical tools is promoted to improve judgments based on monitoring data and provide feedback and calibration to improve qualitative judgments. It may be worthwhile to develop standard training programs to improve exposure judgments.

  15. Training reveals the sources of Stroop and Flanker interference effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antao Chen

    Full Text Available In the field of cognitive control, dimensional overlap and pathway automaticity are generally believed to be critical for the generation of congruency effects. However, their specific roles in the generation of congruency effects are unclear. In two experiments, with the 4:2 mapping design, we investigated this issue by examining the training-related effects on congruency effects (the Stroop interference effect and the Flanker interference effect in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively normally expressed as incongruent minus congruent difference and on their subcomponents (the stimulus interference and response interference. Experiment 1 revealed that the stimulus interference in the Stroop task, wherein the task-relevant (printed color of word and the task-irrelevant (semantics of word dimensions of the stimuli were processed in different pathways, was present during early training but was virtually eliminated at the late stage of training. This indicates that the two dimensions overlap at the early stage but separate at the late stage. In contrast, Experiment 2 showed that the response interference in a variant of the Flanker task, wherein the task-relevant (central color word printed in black font and the task-irrelevant (flanking color words printed in black font dimensions of the stimuli were processed in the same pathway, was enhanced after training. This indicates that the enhanced automaticity of irrelevant-dimension processing induces stronger response competition, which therefore results in the larger response interference. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that (1 dimensional overlap is necessary for the generation of congruency effects, (2 pathway automaticity can affect the size of congruency effects, and (3 training enhances the degree of automatic processing in a given pathway.

  16. Exchange bias training effect in coupled all ferromagnetic bilayer structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binek, Ch; Polisetty, S; He, Xi; Berger, A

    2006-02-17

    Exchange coupled bilayers of soft and hard ferromagnetic thin films show remarkable analogies to conventional antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic exchange bias heterostructures. Not only do all these ferromagnetic bilayers exhibit a tunable exchange bias effect, they also show a distinct training behavior upon cycling the soft layer through consecutive hysteresis loops. In contrast with conventional exchange bias systems, such all ferromagnetic bilayer structures allow the observation of training induced changes in the bias-setting hardmagnetic layer by means of simple magnetometry. Our experiments show unambiguously that the exchange bias training effect is driven by deviations from equilibrium in the pinning layer. A comparison of our experimental data with predictions from a theory based upon triggered relaxation phenomena shows excellent agreement.

  17. Effect of speed endurance and strength training on performance, running economy and muscular adaptations in endurance-trained runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorup Petersen, Jacob; Tybirk, Jonas; Gunnarsson, Thomas Petursson

    2016-01-01

    (1 × week(-1)) intensity training with a reduction in total volume of ~58 %, whereas CON continued their training (~45 km week(-1)). RESULTS: In CSS, 400-m and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test performance was improved by 5 % (P ...PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of combined strength and speed endurance (SE) training along with a reduced training volume on performance, running economy and muscular adaptations in endurance-trained runners. METHODS: Sixteen male endurance runners (VO2-max: ~60 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) were...... randomly assigned to either a combined strength and SE training (CSS; n = 9) or a control (CON; n = 7) group. For 8 weeks, CSS replaced their normal moderate-intensity training (~63 km week(-1)) with SE (2 × week(-1)) and strength training (2 × week(-1)) as well as aerobic high (1 × week(-1)) and moderate...

  18. EFFECT OF NEUROMUSCULAR TRAINING ON BALANCE AMONG UNIVERSITY ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohansundar Sankaravel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proprioceptive deficiency followed by lateral ankle sprain leads to poor balance is not uncommon. It has been linked with increased injury risk among young athletes. Introducing neuromuscular training programs for this have been believed as one of the means of injury prevention. Hence, this study was aimed to determine the effects of six weeks progressive neuromuscular training (PNM Training on static balance gains among the young athletes with a previous history of ankle sprains. Methods: This study was an experimental study design, with pre and post test method to determine the effects of PNM Training on static balance gains. All data were collected at university’s sports rehabilitation lab before and after six weeks of intervention period. There were 20 male and female volunteer young athletes (20.9 ± 0.85 years of age with a previous history of ankle sprain involving various sports were recruited from the University community. All the subjects were participated in a six week PNM Training that included stability, strength and power training. Outcome measures were collected by calculating the errors on balance error scoring system made by the athletes on static balance before and after the six weeks of intervention period. Static balance was tested in firm and foam surfaces and recorded accordingly. Results: The researchers found a significant decrease (2.40 ± 0.82 in total errors among the samples at the post test compared with their pre test (P >0.05. Conclusions: The study demonstrates that a PNM Training can improve the static balance on both the firm and foam surfaces among the young athletes with a previous history of ankle sprains.

  19. Part 2: effect of training surface on acute physiological responses after sport-specific training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnie, Martyn J; Dawson, Brian; Pinnington, Hugh; Landers, Grant; Peeling, Peter

    2013-04-01

    This study compared the effect of sand and grass training surfaces during a sport-specific conditioning session in well-trained team sport athletes (n = 10). The participants initially completed a preliminary testing session to gather baseline (BASE) performance data for vertical jump, repeated sprint ability, and 3-km running time trial. Three days subsequent to BASE, all the athletes completed the first sport-specific conditioning session, which was followed by a repeat of the BASE performance tests the following day (24 hours postexercise). Seven days later, the same training session was completed on the opposing surface and was again followed 24 hours later by the BASE performance tests. During each session, blood lactate, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and heart rate (HR) were recorded, with player movement patterns also monitored via global positioning system units. Additionally, venous blood was collected preexercise, postexercise, and 24 hours postexercise, and analyzed for serum concentrations of Myoglobin, Haptoglobin, and C-Reactive Protein. Results showed significantly higher HR and RPE responses on SAND (p > 0.05), despite significantly lower distance and velocity outputs for the training session (p > 0.05). There were no differences in 24 hours postexercise performance (p > 0.05), and blood markers of muscle damage, inflammation and hemolysis were also similar between the surfaces (p > 0.05). These results suggest that performing a sport-specific conditioning session on a sand (vs. grass) surface can result in a greater physiological response, without any additional decrement to next-day performance.

  20. Effects of proprioception training with exercise imagery on balance ability of stroke patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    HYUNGJIN LEE; HEESOO KIM; MYUNGHWAN AHN; YOUNGYOUL YOU

    2015-01-01

    [Abstract.] [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine and compare the effects of proprioceptive training accompanied by motor imagery training and general proprioceptive training on the balance of stroke patients...

  1. Effects of proprioception training with exercise imagery on balance ability of stroke patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Hyungjin; Kim, Heesoo; Ahn, Myunghwan; You, Youngyoul

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine and compare the effects of proprioceptive training accompanied by motor imagery training and general proprioceptive training on the balance of stroke patients...

  2. The Acute Effect of Concurrent Training on Running Performance over 6 Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doma, Kenji; Deakin, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of strength training on alternating days and endurance training on consecutive days on running performance for 6 days. Methods: Sixteen male and 8 female moderately trained individuals were evenly assigned into concurrent-training (CCT) and strength-training (ST) groups. The CCT group undertook strength…

  3. The Effectiveness of the Behavioural Training for Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the short-term effects of behavioural training for preschool children. The goals of this programme were to reduce disruptive behaviour as well as shy and withdrawn behaviour, and to promote social-emotional competencies. In young children, insufficient emotional competencies and difficulties concerning adequate conflict…

  4. Effectiveness Of Six Thinking Hats Training In Improving The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effectiveness of Six Thinking Hats Training in improving the psychological well- being of prisoners. The study consisted of 24 convicted prisoners whose ages ranged from 19-60 years with a mean of 22.50 years. A 2x2 experimental group design was adopted, and subjects were randomly ...

  5. Effects of Interval Training Programme on Resting Heart Rate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DATONYE ALASIA

    Enugu, Nigeria, Department of Physiotherapy, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria ... Results: Findings of the study revealed significant effect of exercise training program on HR. Also, changes in VO max negatively. 2 correlated with changes in HR (r= -.503) at ... cardiovascular parameters.

  6. Effects of Training on Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Malaria is endemic in Nigeria, with significant records of mortality and morbidity. Adequate community involvement is central to a successful implementation of malaria control programs. This study assessed the effects of a training programme on knowledge of malaria prevention and control among ...

  7. Effect of training intervention on primary health care workers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design: A quasi experimental design, used multi stage sampling technique to select participants. Self-administered ... Conclusion: Training of PHC workers is an effective strategy of improving the level of knowledge and the quality of primary healthcare delivery services in Nigeria. Keywords: Primary healthcare, Oral health, ...

  8. therapeutic effect of continuous exercise training program on serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-01

    Sep 1, 2014 ... THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF CONTINUOUS EXERCISE TRAINING. PROGRAM ON SERUM CREATININE CONCENTRATION IN MEN. WITH HYPERTENSION: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL. L. SIKIRU1and G. C. OKOYE2. 1Biomedical Technology Dept., School of Health Technology, Federal ...

  9. Catfish Farmers Perception of Training Effectiveness of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed farmers' perception of the effectiveness of University of Nigeria Nsukka-West Africa Agricultural Productivity Programme (UNNWAAPP) training on catfish production around the University of Nigeria catchment area in Enugu State. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 42 respondents across ...

  10. Therapeutic effect of a moderate intensity interval training program ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therapeutic effect of a moderate intensity interval training program on the lipid profile in men with hypertension: A randomized controlled trial. S Lamina, GC Okoye. Abstract. Objective: Physical inactivity has been established as a major primary risk factor for the development of hypertension. Also, factors such as elevated ...

  11. Effects of Masters in Governance Training and School Board Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Rocky

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine how the California School Board Association's (CSBA) Masters in Governance (MIG) training program leads to more effective school board leadership and governance. This study employed the framework of authors Lee Bolman and Terrence Deal, the CSBA, and the Lighthouse Inquiry of the Iowa Association of School…

  12. 2012 Report Card on the Effectiveness of Teacher Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Tennessee General Assembly passed legislation in 2007 requiring that the State Board of Education produce an assessment on the effectiveness of teacher training programs. The law requires that the report include data on the performance of each program's graduates in the following areas: placement and retention rates, Praxis II results, and…

  13. Is Peer Review Training Effective in Iranian EFL Students' Revision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeeli, Hadiseh; Abasi, Maasumeh; Soori, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of peer review training on the Iranian EFL students' subsequent revision in an advanced writing class in Larestan Islamic Azad University. After 12 weeks class demonstration, teacher-reviewer conferences with 20 male and female students, the students' first drafts, revisions, and reviewers' comments were…

  14. The Moderating Role of Cultural Similarity in Leadership Training Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiumei Jane; Jiang, Jianfeng

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the moderating role of cultural similarity between leaders and followers on leadership training effectiveness in terms of followers' fairness perception and organizational citizenship behavior. Design/methodology/approach: A quasi-experiment was conducted with 40 managers from international corporations as the…

  15. Effect of Strategy Training on Vocabulary in EFL Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostovar-Namaghi, Seyd Ali; Rajaee, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Sixty Iranian high school EFL learners between 14 and 16 males participated in this study were randomly divided into two groups; experimental, and control. As the study aimed to know whether vocabulary strategy training effects on vocabulary learning of Iranian students, at first the control and experimental group were given a writing per-test…

  16. Measuring Effects of a Skills Training Intervention for Drug Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, J. David; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A test was conducted of a supplemental skills training and social-network-development aftercare program with 130 drug abusers from four residential therapeutic communities. The intervention produced positive effects on subjects' performance at the conclusion of treatment. Performance improved in situations involving avoidance of drug use, coping…

  17. Training Effectiveness Assessment. Volume II. Problems, Concepts, and Evaluation Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-01

    revisions . Evalua tion design must be based on satisfaction of particular information needs . To determine training effectiveness , the information needed...may not be able to comunicate accuratel y enouoh to 28 — — -----——- ——----. --~~~~— --‘ e- ’---.- .a

  18. Effect of Yoga Training on some Psychological Components ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Th e study aims at gauging effect of Yoga training with respect to certain psychological components. Fifty five Indian adults having age range 30 – 59, attending Yoga Shikshak Shibir (YSS), volunteered to be a part of this pre-post quasi, single – group experiment. YSS was a residential programme of 15 days executed by ...

  19. The effect of whole-body vibration training on selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The information on the use of whole-body vibration training (WBVT) on some health-related risk factors such as body composition and biochemical parameters is limited. The purpose of the study was therefore, to assess the effect of progressive WBVT on selected anthropometric and biochemical parameters in healthy ...

  20. Therapeutic effect of continuous exercise training program on serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Creatinine (Cr) has been implicated as an independent predictor of hypertension and exercise has been reported as adjunct therapy for hypertension. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of continuous training programme on blood pressure and serum creatinine concentration in black ...

  1. Effect of physical training on QTc interval in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuit, A.J.; Dekker, J M; de Vegt, F; Verheij, T C; Rijneke, R D; Schouten, E G

    In order to assess whether heart rate-adjusted QT duration (QTc) is reduced by physical activity in an elderly population, a randomized, controlled intervention study of the effect of a 6-month intensive training program on QTc was undertaken. The participants were 229 healthy men and women, aged

  2. Comparative Effects of Circuit Training Programme on Speed and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the Comparative Effects of Circuit Training Programme on Speed and Power of Pre- and Post-Menarcheal girls. A pre-test- posttest control group experimental design was used to carry out the study. A total of 80 Secondary School girls from St. Peter's College, Olomore, Abeokuta, in Ogun State of ...

  3. Comparative Effects of Circuit Training Programme on Speed and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the Comparative Effects of Circuit Training Programme on Speed and Power of Pre- and Post-Menarcheal girls. ... took part in the study. The subjects were not involved in competitive school sports. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select 40 pre-menarceal and 40 postmenarcheal girls ...

  4. The Effect of Resistance Training on Physical Characteristics Hemarthrosis Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Parhampour

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Resistance training with low intensity and high repetition, can improve ROM, muscle strength, pain, and crepitus in hemarthrosis knee joint. This may be effective to improve the quality of life in hemarthrosis especially in patient with severe haemophilia A, in whom rebleeding is unavoidable.

  5. Effects of visual skills training, vision coaching and sports vision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of three different approaches to improving sports performance through improvements in “sports vision:” (1) a visual skills training programme, (2) traditional vision coaching sessions, and (3) a multi-disciplinary approach identified as sports vision dynamics.

  6. Is Relaxation Training Effective in the Treatment of Clinical Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, Lee A.

    The process of relaxation is a complex triarchic phenomenon that incorporates behavioral, cognitive, and physiological components. Existing literature is surveyed in order to determine the efficacy of treating various forms of depression with cognitive-behavioral relaxation strategies. Relaxation training has been shown to be effective in treating…

  7. The Effects of Training Medical Students in Motivational Interviewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opheim, Arild; Andreasson, Sven; Eklund, Astri Brandell; Prescott, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of brief training in Motivational interviewing (MI) for medical students. Design: Video recordings of consultations between 113 final-year medical students and simulated patients were scored blind by two independent raters with the Motivational Interviewing Skill Code (MISC). Half of the students participated in a…

  8. Behavioral Effects of Relaxation Training Among Rural Preadolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteel, Jim; Matthews, Doris B.

    A study at South Carolina State College examined the psychosocial effects of relaxation training on student dropout, disruptive behavior,and absenteeism of rural preadolescents between 10 and 14 years of age. Phase 1 of the study was composed of 62 preadolescents selected randomly from 167 middle school students with no previous instruction in…

  9. effectiveness of an oral health care training workshop for school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a large number of children thereby play major role in the planning and implementation of oral health ... for the poor oral hygiene among them and their students. Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of an oral ... teachers who attended a two day oral health training workshop at. Eruwa, headquarters of Ibarapa East Local ...

  10. Effect of brief training on reliability and applicability of Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Effect of brief training on reliability and applicability of Global. Assessment of functioning scale by Psychiatric clinical officers in. Uganda. *Abbo C1, Okello ES1, Nakku J2. 1. Department of Psychiatry, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. 2. Butabika National Referral Mental Hospitals, Ministry ...

  11. Multiplying the Effect of Professional Development: Teachers Training Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen-Thomas, Holly; Casey, Patricia J.; Grosso, Liliana

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the effects of participation and collaboration in an in-service professional development project for secondary content area teachers referred to as "turnaround training." The participating teachers were experienced, skilled practitioners in their content areas (math, science, social studies, or English language…

  12. Effect Of Interval Training On Blood Pressure And Exercise Capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) is a determinant of cardiovascular risk in patient with hypertension. The primary purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of interval training program on MAP in black African subjects with hypertension. Two hundred and forty five male patients with mild to moderate ...

  13. Effects of Interval Training Programme on Resting Heart Rate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: It was concluded that moderate intensity interval training programs is effective in the non-pharmacological adjunct management of hypertension and may prevent cardiovascular event through the down regulation of HR in hypertension. Keywords: Hypertension; Interval exercise; cardiovascular risk factor; Heart ...

  14. Effect of aerobic exercise training on maternal weight gain in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Weight gains in pregnancy within the recommended guidelines are associated with healthy fetal and maternal outcomes; higher weight gains are associated with fetal macrosomia. This study was a systemic review of randomized controlled trials on the effect of aerobic training on maternal weight in ...

  15. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Psychosocial Status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inclusion criteria. Only those who volunteered to participate in the study were recruited. Subjects between the age range of 50 and 70 years with chronic mild to moderate and stable (>1 year duration) ... automated digital electronic BP monitor (Omron digital BP ..... The cardiovascular effects of exercise training in elderly.

  16. The Effect of Clinical Psychiatric Training on Medical Students' Belief ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background to the study: Medical student's attitude towards people with mental illness (PWMI) is very important for the future care of psychiatric patients. It has been postulated that psychiatric education could lead to a reduction in negative attitude towards PWMI. Objective: To assess the effect of clinical psychiatric training ...

  17. Effects of Interval Training Programme on Resting Heart Rate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DATONYE ALASIA

    Student's t and Pearson correlation tests were used in data analysis. Results: Findings of the study revealed significant effect of exercise training program on HR ... presentwith a series of functional and anatomic deficits, such as increasedvascular resistance, vessel rarefaction, increased heart energy expenditure, increased.

  18. Estimating the effect of training on individual durations of search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holm, Anders

    1996-01-01

    In this paper a statistical model combining duration of search for an apprentice vacancy and choice of entering a training programme aiming at helping students finding an vacancy is presented. Using conventional duration models yields a negative effect on durations of search from the programme.

  19. Employment Competence based Management to enhance Training Effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Goff, Solenn; Ristol, Santi; Estévez, José Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as: Le Goff, S., Ristol, S., & Estévez, J.A. (2006). Employing Competence based Management to enhance Training Effectiveness. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development, TENCompetence Conference. March 30th-31st,

  20. Training Implications of Harmful Effects of Psychological Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Louis G.; Boswell, James F.; Constantino, Michael J.; Goldfried, Marvin R.; Hill, Clara E.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this article is to delineate training implications regarding harmful effects associated with psychotherapy. The authors strongly recommend that trainees be made aware of (and encouraged to examine carefully) the potentially harmful treatments that have been recently identified (Lilienfeld, 2007). Consistent with a broad perspective on…

  1. The high-speed train and its spatial effects

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Gutiérrez Puebla

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the high-speed train from a spatial point of view. The basic characteristics of this transportation mode,the evolution of high-speed networks in several countries and the building of a trans-European high-speed railway network are studied.The paper analyses also the process of space-time convergence and its consequences on competitivity and cohesion;the tunel effect;the impact of the high speed-train on transportation demand;and the impacts on the city.

  2. COMPANY TRAINING FROM THE EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS POINT OF VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STAŇKOVÁ, Dana Maria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper concentrates on the topic of efficiency and effectiveness of company training. This work has set research goals that were solved using the interrogation method, questionnaire technique and free interview. Goal No. 1 was to investigate the situation in the company training from the motivation aspect and stimulating education system requirements. Goal No. 2 was to determine the use of educational methods, forms of training from the point of view of their efficiency. Goal No. 3 was to investigate into the attitude toward company training evaluation and exploitation of the individual levels of educational process efficiency evaluation. As a resource for the training efficiency evaluation the authors used Kirkpatrick’s 4-level Learning Evaluation Model extended with the ROI method. The research group consisted of a HR managers / managers from the SME sectors, b participants of these companies’ training programmes. The most important requirements for an efficient stimulating educational system involve the conformity with the needs and goals of the company, linking with the performance system and accord with the needs of an individual. The research has shown that in certain educational methods and forms there occurs conformity between the frequency of their usage in practice and apprehension of their efficiency, e.g. the controlled discussion method and the direct group education form. In others, such as the practical example method and individual consultation form, their usage in practice is minimal, but there is a high apprehension rate of their efficiency. The efficiency evaluation is implemented mostly only on the 1st and 2nd level (the reaction level and learning level. However, in a responsible approach to the efficient use of financial means invested into the training process also a shift of evaluation on the 3rd and 4th level (transfer to the work-place level and business result level and ROI are necessary.

  3. Effect of electrostimulation training-detraining on neuromuscular fatigue mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubeau, Marc; Zory, Raphaël; Gondin, Julien; Martin, Alain; Maffiuletti, Nicola A

    2007-08-31

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) training and subsequent detraining on neuromuscular fatigue mechanisms. Ten young healthy men completed one NMES fatigue protocol before and after a NMES training program of 4 weeks and again after 4 weeks of detraining. Muscle fatigue (maximal voluntary torque loss), central fatigue (activation failure), and peripheral fatigue (transmission failure and contractile failure) of the plantar flexor muscles were assessed by using a series of electrically evoked and voluntary contractions with concomitant electromyographic and torque recordings. At baseline, maximal voluntary torque decreased significantly with fatigue (Pmuscle activation after training and detraining was significantly lower compared to baseline values (Ptraining-detraining of the plantar flexor muscles significantly reduced the muscle fatigue associated to one single NMES exercise session. This was mainly attributable to a reduction in activation failure, i.e., lower central fatigue, probably as a result of subject's accommodation to pain and discomfort during NMES.

  4. Ventilation in chronic heart failure: effects of physical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, P; Meyer, T; Coats, A; Adamopoulos, S; Casadei, B; Conway, J; Sleight, P

    1992-11-01

    To assess the effects of exercise training on ventilatory function in chronic heart failure. Observer blinded random allocation crossover training and detraining trial. Assessment in hospital based clinical laboratory; training home based. 22 patients with chronic heart failure (New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II or III) recruited from a tertiary referral centre. All finished the study. Bicycle ergometer exercise for 20 minutes a day, five days a week for eight weeks at 70%-80% of maximum heart rate. Exercise capacity on graded incremental exercise test, minute ventilation, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide output. Peak work load increased from 96 W to 112 W and peak oxygen consumption from 14.1 ml/kg/min to 15.4 ml/kg/min (p physical deconditioning.

  5. Evaluating the quality and effectiveness of hazardous waste training programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolpa, R.L.; Haffenden, R.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Weaver, M.A. [Headquarters Air Force Materiel Command, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States)

    1996-05-01

    An installation`s compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste regulations is strongly dependent on the knowledge, skill, and behavior of all individuals involved in the generation and management of hazardous waste. Recognizing this, Headquarters Air Force Materiel Command (HQ/AFMC) determined that an in-depth evaluation of hazardous waste training programs at each AFMC installation was an appropriate element in assessing the overall effectiveness of installation hazardous waste management programs in preventing noncompliant conditions. Consequently, pursuant to its authority under Air Force Instruction (AFI) 32-7042, Solid and Hazardous Waste Compliance (May 12, 1994) to support and maintain hazardous waste training, HQ/AFMC directed Argonne National Laboratory to undertake the Hazardous Waste Training Initiative. This paper summarizes the methodology employed in performing the evaluation and presents the initiative`s salient conclusions.

  6. The effect of saccadic training on early reading fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Danielle F; Master, Christina L; Messner, Leonard V; Pang, Yi; Smith, Craig; Starling, Amaal J

    2014-08-01

    Eye movements are necessary for the physical act of reading and have been shown to relate to underlying cognitive and visuoattentional processes during reading. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of saccadic training using the King-Devick remediation software on reading fluency. In this prospective, single-blinded, randomized, crossover trial, a cohort of elementary students received standardized reading fluency testing pre- and posttreatment. Treatment consisted of in-school training 20 minutes per day, 3 days per week for 6 weeks. The treatment group had significantly higher reading fluency scores after treatment (P Saccadic training can significantly improve reading fluency. We hypothesize that this improvement in reading fluency is a result of rigorous practice of eye movements and shifting visuospatial attention, which are vital to the act of reading. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Effects of Welfare Reform on Vocational Education and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Dhaval M; Reichman, Nancy E; Corman, Hope; Das, Dhiman

    2011-12-01

    Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, this study estimates the effects of welfare reform on an important source of human capital acquisition among women at risk for relying on welfare: vocational education and training. The results suggest that welfare reform reduced enrollment in full-time vocational education and had no significant effects on part-time vocational education or participation in other types of work-related courses, though there appears to be considerable heterogeneity across states with respect to the strictness of educational policy and the strength of work incentives under welfare reform. In addition, we find evidence of heterogeneous effects by prior educational attainment. We find no evidence that the previously-observed negative effects of welfare reform on formal education (including college enrollment), which we replicated in this study, have been offset by increases in vocational education and training.

  8. Effectiveness of an Ultrasound Training Module for Internal Medicine Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonald Furman S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few internal medicine residency programs provide formal ultrasound training. This study sought to assess the feasibility of simulation based ultrasound training among first year internal medicine residents and measure their comfort at effectively using ultrasound to perform invasive procedures before and after this innovative model of ultrasound training. Methods A simulation based ultrasound training module was implemented during intern orientation that incorporated didactic and practical experiences in a simulation and cadaver laboratory. Participants completed anonymous pre and post surveys in which they reported their level of confidence in the use of ultrasound technology and their comfort in identifying anatomic structures including: lung, pleural effusion, bowel, peritoneal cavity, ascites, thyroid, and internal jugular vein. Survey items were structured on a 5-point Likert scales (1 = extremely unconfident, 5 = extremely confident. Results Seventy-five out of seventy-six interns completed the pre-intervention survey and 55 completed the post-survey. The mean confidence score (SD increased to 4.00 (0.47 (p Conclusion A simulation based ultrasound learning module can improve the self-reported confidence with which residents identify structures important in performing invasive ultrasound guided procedures. Incorporating an ultrasound module into residents' education may address perceived need for ultrasound training, improve procedural skills, and enhance patient safety.

  9. Effects of cognitive training based on metamemory and mental images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Bento Lima-Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract There is scant research evidence regarding training effects among elderly with limited educational experience. Research indicating an association between metamemory and memory performance is based on samples of older adults with at least 12 years of education. Objectives: To test the efficacy of a cognitive training program based on the creation of mental images and changes in specific aspects of metamemory in individuals with 3 to 15 years of education (M=8.38, SD=4.24. Methods: 37 older adults participated in five training sessions (Training Group (TG and 32 control subjects completed only pre and post test assessments (Control Group (CG including the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS, the Brief Cognitive Screening Battery (BCSB (naming and memorization of 10 pictures, animal category verbal fluency test, the Clock Drawing Test (CDT, the Story subtest from the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (RBMT, the Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q, and the Picture and Story domains from the Memory Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (MSEQ. Results: The TG showed significant improvement between pre and post tests on the delayed recall of the 10 pictures and in self-efficacy for the memorization of stories. These same changes were not found in the CG . Conclusions: Five-session cognitive training may lead to significant improvements in episodic memory and memory self-efficacy, an aspect of metamemory, in individuals with an average of 8 years of education.

  10. Effects of High-Intensity Training on Physiological and Hormonal Adaptions in Well-Trained Cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylta, Øystein; Tønnessen, Espen; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Hammarström, Daniel; Danielsen, Jørgen; Skovereng, Knut; Rønnestad, Bent R; Seiler, Stephen

    2017-06-01

    Investigate development of specific performance adaptions and hormonal responses every fourth week during a 12-wk high-intensity training (HIT) period in groups with different interval-training prescriptions. Sixty-three well-trained cyclists performing a 12-wk intervention consisting of two to three HIT sessions per week in addition to ad libitum low-intensity training. Groups were matched for total training load, but increasing HIT (INC) group (n = 23) performed interval-sessions as 4 × 16 min in weeks 1-4, 4 × 8 min in weeks 5-8, and 4 × 4 min in weeks 9-12. Decreasing HIT (DEC) group (n = 20) performed interval sessions in the opposite order as INC, and mixed HIT (MIX) group (n = 20) performed all interval-sessions in a mixed distribution during 12 wk. Cycling-tests and measures of resting blood hormones were conducted pre, weeks 4, 8, and 12. INC and MIX achieved >70% of total change in workload eliciting 4 mmol·L [la] (Power4mM) and V˙O2peak during weeks 1-4, versus only 34%-38% in DEC. INC induced larger improvement versus DEC during weeks 1-4 in Power4mM (effect size, 0.7) and V˙O2peak (effect size, 0.8). All groups increased similarly in peak power output during weeks 1-4 (64%-89% of total change). All groups' pooled, total and free testosterone and free testosterone/cortisol ratio decreased by 22% ± 15%, 13% ± 23%, and 14% ± 31% (all P MIX, and accompanied by changes in resting blood hormones consistent with increased but compensable stress load. In these well-trained subjects, accumulating 2-3 h·wk performing 4 × 16 min work bouts at best effort induces greater adaptions in Power4mM and V˙O2peak than accumulating ~1 h·wk performing best effort intervals as 4 × 4 min.

  11. The Effect of Two Different Concurrent Training Programs on Strength and Power Gains in Highly-Trained Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Petré, Pontus Löfving, Niklas Psilander

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of concurrent strength and endurance training have been well studied in untrained and moderately-trained individuals. However, studies examining these effects in individuals with a long history of resistance training (RT are lacking. Additionally, few studies have examined how strength and power are affected when different types of endurance training are added to an RT protocol. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of concurrent training incorporating either low-volume, high-intensity interval training (HIIT, 8-24 Tabata intervals at ~150% of VO2max or high-volume, medium-intensity continuous endurance training (CT, 40-80 min at 70% of VO2max, on the strength and power of highly-trained individuals. Sixteen highly-trained ice-hockey and rugby players were divided into two groups that underwent either CT (n = 8 or HIIT (n = 8 in parallel with RT (2-6 sets of heavy parallel squats, > 80% of 1RM during a 6-week period (3 sessions/wk. Parallel squat performance improved after both RT + CT and RT + HIIT (12 ± 8% and 14 ± 10% respectively, p < 0.01, with no difference between the groups. However, aerobic power (VO2max only improved after RT + HIIT (4 ± 3%, p < 0.01. We conclude that strength gains can be obtained after both RT + CT and RT + HIIT in athletes with a prior history of RT. This indicates that the volume and/or intensity of the endurance training does not influence the magnitude of strength improvements during short periods of concurrent training, at least for highly-trained individuals when the endurance training is performed after RT. However, since VO2max improved only after RT + HIIT and this is a time efficient protocol, we recommend this type of concurrent endurance training.

  12. Effect of training supervision on effectiveness of strength training for reducing neck/shoulder pain and headache in office workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Bibi; Andersen, Christoffer; Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effect of workplace neck/shoulder strength training with and without regular supervision on neck/shoulder pain and headache among office workers. Method. A 20-week cluster randomized controlled trial among 351 office workers was randomized into three groups: two trai...

  13. Effect of intensified training on muscle ion kinetics, fatigue development and repeated short term performance in endurance trained cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Thomas Gunnar Petursson; Christensen, Peter Møller; Thomassen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The effects of intensified training in combination with a reduced training volume on muscle ion kinetics, transporters and work capacity were examined. Eight well-trained cyclists replaced their regular training with speed-endurance training (12x30-s sprints) 2-3 times per wk and aerobic high......-intensity training (4-5x3-4min at 90-100% of maximal heart rate) 1-2 times per wk for 7 wks, and reduced training volume by 70% (intervention period; IP). The duration of an intense exhaustive cycling bout (EX2; 356±6 W), performed 2.5min after a 2-min intense cycle bout (EX1), was longer (p...

  14. The effects of training format on earplug performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Antony; Punch, Jerry; Stephenson, Mark; Paneth, Nigel; Wolfe, Edward; Murphy, William

    2007-10-01

    This experiment investigated the effect of small-group versus individual hearing loss prevention (HLP) training on the attenuation performance of passive insert-type hearing protection devices (HPDs). A subject-fit (SF) methodology, which gave naive listeners access only to the instructions printed on the HPD product label, was used to determine real-ear attenuation at threshold (REAT) at third-octave noise bands between 125-8000 Hz. REAT measurements were augmented by use of the Hearing Loss Prevention Attitude-Belief (HLPAB) survey, a field-tested self-assessment tool developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups, consisting of 25 listeners each, in a controlled behavioral-intervention trial. There were two types of HPDs (formable and premolded) and two training formats (individual and small group). A short multimedia program, including a practice session, was presented to all 100 listeners. Results showed training to have a significant effect, for both HPDs on real-ear attenuation and attitude, but, importantly, there was no difference between small-group and individual training.

  15. Effect of speed endurance and strength training on performance, running economy and muscular adaptations in endurance-trained runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorup, Jacob; Tybirk, Jonas; Gunnarsson, Thomas P; Ravnholt, Tanja; Dalsgaard, Sarah; Bangsbo, Jens

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effects of combined strength and speed endurance (SE) training along with a reduced training volume on performance, running economy and muscular adaptations in endurance-trained runners. Sixteen male endurance runners (VO2-max: ~60 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) were randomly assigned to either a combined strength and SE training (CSS; n = 9) or a control (CON; n = 7) group. For 8 weeks, CSS replaced their normal moderate-intensity training (~63 km week(-1)) with SE (2 × week(-1)) and strength training (2 × week(-1)) as well as aerobic high (1 × week(-1)) and moderate (1 × week(-1)) intensity training with a reduction in total volume of ~58 %, whereas CON continued their training (~45 km week(-1)). In CSS, 400-m and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test performance was improved by 5 % (P endurance training, along with a reduced training volume, can improve short-term exercise capacity and induce muscular adaptations related to anaerobic capacity in endurance-trained runners.

  16. Effect of training on corticomotor excitability in clinical neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittig-Rasmussen, B; Kasch, H; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, A; Svensson, P; Jensen, T S

    2014-09-01

    Corticomotor excitability has been shown to correlate with motor learning and functional recovery. The aim of the present study was to monitor changes in excitability of the corticomotor pathways induced by neck training and to compare the effects in patients with neck or knee pain and pain-free participants. Corticomotor excitability was assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation and electromyography at baseline, after 30 min and 1 h, and at a 1-week follow-up visit. The primary outcome measures were changes in amplitudes and latencies of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) at 1-week follow-up. MEP responses induced by neck training yielded significantly different outcomes in the three groups. In the group with neck pain and training, MEP amplitudes were significantly reduced between baseline and 30 min (p ≤ 0.05), but with no significant difference between baseline, 1 h (p = 0.178) and 1 week (p = 0.067). In the group with knee pain and training, MEP amplitudes significantly increased between baseline and 30 min (p ≤ 0.01) and 1 h (p pain-free group, there were no changes over time. Neck training reduced neuroplastic responsiveness of corticomotor pathways in neck pain patients in contrast to knee pain patients and pain-free participants. Increased attention to adaptive and maladaptive neuroplastic responses induced by training may prove valuable in the process of optimizing clinical outcomes. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  17. Effects of strength training on muscle fiber types and size; consequences for athletes training for high-intensity sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J L; Aagaard, P

    2010-01-01

    Training toward improving performance in sports involving high intense exercise can and is done in many different ways based on a mixture of tradition in the specific sport, coaches' experience and scientific recommendations. Strength training is a form of training that now-a-days have found its...... way into almost all sports in which high intense work is conducted. In this review we will focus on a few selected aspects and consequences of strength training; namely what effects do strength training have of muscle fiber type composition, and how may these effects change the contractile properties...... of the muscle and finally how will this affect the performance of the athlete. In addition, the review will deal with muscle hypertrophy and how it develops with strength training. Overall, it is not the purpose of this review to give a comprehensive up-date of the area, but to pin-point a few issues from which...

  18. Effects of strength training on muscle fiber types and size; consequences for athletes training for high-intensity sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J L; Aagaard, P

    2010-01-01

    way into almost all sports in which high intense work is conducted. In this review we will focus on a few selected aspects and consequences of strength training; namely what effects do strength training have of muscle fiber type composition, and how may these effects change the contractile properties...... of the muscle and finally how will this affect the performance of the athlete. In addition, the review will deal with muscle hypertrophy and how it develops with strength training. Overall, it is not the purpose of this review to give a comprehensive up-date of the area, but to pin-point a few issues from which......Training toward improving performance in sports involving high intense exercise can and is done in many different ways based on a mixture of tradition in the specific sport, coaches' experience and scientific recommendations. Strength training is a form of training that now-a-days have found its...

  19. Protein intake during training sessions has no effect on performance and recovery during a strenuous training camp for elite cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Bangsbo, Jens; Jensen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    during cycling at a training camp for top cyclists did not result in marked performance benefits compared to intake of carbohydrates when a recovery drink containing adequate protein and carbohydrate was ingested immediately after each training session in both groups. These findings suggest......BACKGROUND: Training camps for top-class endurance athletes place high physiological demands on the body. Focus on optimizing recovery between training sessions is necessary to minimize the risk of injuries and improve adaptations to the training stimuli. Carbohydrate supplementation during...... sessions is generally accepted as being beneficial to aid performance and recovery, whereas the effect of protein supplementation and timing is less well understood. We studied the effects of protein ingestion during training sessions on performance and recovery of elite cyclists during a strenuous...

  20. Effects of Training Load on Some Hormonal, Hematological and Biochemical Profile of Male Cyclists

    OpenAIRE

    Pralay Majumdar; Srividhya Sivaprakasam

    2014-01-01

    Hematological profiles of cyclists fluctuates are based on the volume/frequency/intensity of training. The present study examined the effects of training load on the cyclist’s biochemical profile which may be associated with over training. Twelve male cyclists volunteered to participate in this study. The participants completed a systematic training program which was divided into four phases i.e. phase I (560 km, continuous aerobic training), II (680 km, continuous aerobic training), III (720...

  1. Effects of aerobic training, resistance training, or both on psychological health in adolescents with obesity: The HEARTY randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Gary S; Kenny, Glen P; Alberga, Angela S; Prud'homme, Denis; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Gougeon, Réjeanne; Phillips, Penny; Tulloch, Heather; Malcolm, Janine; Doucette, Steve; Wells, George A; Ma, Jinhui; Cameron, Jameason D; Sigal, Ronald J

    2015-12-01

    To determine the effects of aerobic training, resistance training, and combined training on mood, body image, and self-esteem in adolescents with obesity. After a 4-week prerandomization treatment, 304 postpubertal adolescents (91 males, 213 females) with obesity ages 14-18 years were randomized to 1 of 4 groups for 22 weeks: aerobic training (n = 75), resistance training (n = 78), combined aerobic and resistance training (n = 75), or nonexercising control (n = 76). All participants received dietary counseling, with a daily energy deficit of 250 kcal. Mood was measured using the Brunel Mood Scale. Body image was assessed using the Multiple Body Self-Relations Questionnaire, and physical self-perceptions and global self-esteem were measured using the Harter Physical Self-Perceptions Questionnaire. Median adherence was 62%, 56%, and 64% in aerobic, resistance, and combined training, respectively. Resistance and combined training produced greater improvements than control on vigor, and resistance training reduced depressive symptoms. All groups improved on body image and physical self-perceptions, but combined showed greater increases than control on perceived physical conditioning, while only resistance training showed greater increases than controls on global self-esteem. Both combined and resistance training demonstrated greater increases in perceived strength than control. Psychological benefits were more related to better adherence and reductions in body fat than changes in strength or fitness. Resistance training, alone or in combination with aerobic training, may provide psychological benefits in adolescents with overweight or obesity, and therefore could be an alternative to aerobic training for some individuals in the biological and psychological management of adolescent obesity. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Effectiveness of part-task training and increasing-difficulty training strategies: a meta-analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, Christopher D; Hutchins, Shaun; Carolan, Thomas; Cumming, John

    2013-04-01

    The objective was to conduct meta-analyses that investigated the effects of two training strategies, increasing difficulty (ID) and part-task training (PTT), on transfer of skills and the variables that moderate effectiveness of the strategies. Cognitive load theory (CLT) provides a basis for predicting that training strategies reducing the intrinsic load of a task during training avail more resources to be devoted to learning. Two strategies that accomplish this goal, by dividing tasks in parts or by simplifying tasks in early training trials, have offered only mixed success. A pair of complementary effect size measures were used in the meta-analyses conducted on 37 transfer studies employing the two training strategies: (a) a transfer ratio analysis on the ratio of treatment transfer performance to control transfer performance and (b) a Hedges' g analysis on the standardized difference between treatment and control group means. PTT generally produced negative transfer when the parts were performed concurrently in the whole transfer task but not when the parts were performed in sequence. Variable-priority training of the whole task was a successful technique. ID training was successful when the increases were implemented adaptively but not when increased in fixed steps. Both strategies provided evidence that experienced learners benefited less, or suffered more, from the strategy, consistent with CLT. PTT can be successful if the integrated parts are varied in the priority they are given to the learner. ID training is successful if the increases are adaptive. The fundamental elements of CLT are confirmed.

  3. The Effectiveness of Social Skill Training on Hearing Impaired Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abas Mahvash-Vernosfaderani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hearing impairment child is at risk the loneliness living and the lost of social discussion coequals partnership. The purpose of this research was to determine the effectiveness of social skills training on decreasing the social phobia of students with hearing impairment. Materials and Methods: In this study, students with hearing impairment were randomly selected and the pre-test of SPIN was completed by them. Post-test for SPIN were administered immediately after intervention. To evaluate participant’s performance after a period of one month from the end of the instruction, both groups were reassessed. Results: Result of the follow-up scores show that after removing the effect of pre-test, there is statistically significant difference (F=11.371, p<0.001 between the scores of both group in follow-up position. Conclusion: Social skills training significantly decreased the social phobia in students with hearing impairment.

  4. Therapists’ Perspectives on the Effective Elements of Consultation Following Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidas, Rinad S.; Edmunds, Julie M.; Cannuscio, Carolyn C.; Gallagher, Mark; Downey, Margaret Mary; Kendall, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    Consultation is an effective implementation strategy to improve uptake of evidence-based practices for youth. However, little is known about what makes consultation effective. The present study used qualitative methods to explore therapists’ perspectives about consultation. We interviewed 50 therapists who had been trained 2 years prior in cognitive-behavioral therapy for child anxiety. Three themes emerged regarding effective elements of consultation: (1) connectedness with other therapists and the consultant, (2) authentic interactions around actual cases, and (3) the responsiveness of the consultant to the needs of individual therapists. Recommendations for the design of future consultation endeavors are offered. PMID:23435832

  5. Effects Of Task Training And Instructions On Foveal Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinalducci, Edward J.; Rose, Paul N.

    1987-09-01

    The goal of this research was to investigate the effects of foveal load on sensitivity in the peripheral visual field. Foveal load was manipulated by comparing the simple fixation of a cross vs. a first-order (i.e., rate) compensatory tracking task. Peripheral sensitivity was determined simultaneously for light flashes presented at different eccentricities along the horizontal meridian. The effects of training on the task were also evaluated in terms of changes in peripheral sensitivity. In general, the results showed no losses in peripheral sensitivity or a "tunnel vision" effect under the experimental conditions employed. These results are contrary to data obtained by previous investigators. Reasons for these findings are discussed.

  6. Eccentric utilization ratio: effect of sport and phase of training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, Michael R; Doyle, Timothy L A; Newton, Michael; Edwards, Dylan J; Nimphius, Sophia; Newton, Robert U

    2006-11-01

    The eccentric utilization ratio (EUR), which is the ratio of countermovement jump (CMJ) to static jump (SJ) performance, has been suggested as a useful indicator of power performance in athletes. The purpose of the study was to compare the EUR of athletes from a variety of different sports and during different phases of training. A total of 142 athletes from rugby union, Australian Rules Football, soccer, softball, and field hockey were tested. Subjects performed both CMJ and SJ on a force plate integrated with a position transducer. The EUR was measured as the ratio of CMJ to SJ for jump height and peak power. The rugby union, Australian Rules Football, and hockey athletes were tested during off-season and preseason to provide EUR data during different phases of training. For men, EUR for soccer, Australian Rules Football, and rugby was greater than softball (effect size range, 0.83-0.92). For women, EUR for soccer was greater than field hockey and softball (0.86- 1.0). There was a significant difference between the jump height and peak power method for the Australian Rules Football, rugby, and field hockey tests conducted preseason (p training with the values significantly increasing from off-season to preseason. The EUR provides the practitioner with information about the performance of athletes and appears to be sensitive to changes in the type of training being undertaken.

  7. Experimental study of visual training effects in shooting initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, Lluïsa; Solé, Joan; Palmi, Joan; Planas, Antoni; Soana, Carlos

    1999-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The present study was conducted to investigate the influence of specific visual training in shooting initiation performance. METHODS: Seventy-one first-year university students were divided randomly into two groups. The experimental group followed a nine-session shooting training program that included technical, physical and psychological components, along with specific visual exercises. The control group followed the same program with one difference: this group received theoretical lectures on psychological training techniques instead of doing visual exercises. Pre- and post-test results were obtained for shooting, concentration, saccades and visual acuity. RESULTS: Statistical analysis indicated significant gains in the four mentioned variables for the experimental group. The control group also showed significant differences in the three first variables but no significant improvement in visual acuity. No significant differences in shooting performance were observed between groups. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of vision training on sports initiation performance is still not clear. It cannot be assumed that the improvement is transferable to the performance of precision shooting at the stage of sports initiation.

  8. Effects of Pivoting Neuromuscular Training on Pivoting Control and Proprioception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Song Joo; Ren, Yupeng; Chang, Alison H.; Geiger, François; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Pivoting neuromuscular control and proprioceptive acuity may play an important role in ACL injuries. The goal of this study was to investigate whether pivoting neuromuscular training on an offaxis elliptical trainer (POINT) could improve pivoting neuromuscular control, proprioceptive acuity, and functional performance. Methods Among 41 subjects, 21 subjects participated in 18 sessions of POINT (3 sessions/week for 6 weeks), and 20 subjects served as controls who did their regular workout. Both groups received pre-, mid-, and post-intervention evaluations. Propensity score analysis with multivariable regression adjustment was used to investigate the effect of training on pivoting neuromuscular control (pivoting instability, leg pivoting stiffness, maximum internal and external pivoting angles), proprioceptive acuity, and functional performance in both groups. Results Compared to the control group, the training group significantly improved pivoting neuromuscular control as reduced pivoting instability, reduced maximum internal and external pivoting angles, increased leg pivoting stiffness, and decreased entropy of time to peak EMG in the gluteus maximus and lateral gastrocnemius under pivoting perturbations. Furthermore, the training group enhanced weight-bearing proprioceptive acuity and improved the single leg hop distance. Conclusion Improvement of pivoting neuromuscular control in functional weight-bearing activities and task performances following POINT may help develop lower limb injury prevention and rehabilitation methods to reduce ACL and other musculoskeletal injuries associated with pivoting sports. PMID:24389517

  9. Effects of pivoting neuromuscular training on pivoting control and proprioception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Song Joo; Ren, Yupeng; Chang, Alison H; Geiger, François; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2014-07-01

    Pivoting neuromuscular control and proprioceptive acuity may play an important role in anterior cruciate ligament injuries. The goal of this study was to investigate whether pivoting off-axis intensity adjustable neuromuscular control training (POINT) could improve pivoting neuromuscular control, proprioceptive acuity, and functional performance. Among 41 subjects, 21 subjects participated in 18 sessions of POINT (three sessions per week for 6 wk), and 20 subjects served as controls who did their regular workout. Both groups received pre-, mid-, and postintervention evaluations. Propensity score analysis with multivariable regression adjustment was used to investigate the effect of training on pivoting neuromuscular control (pivoting instability, leg pivoting stiffness, maximum internal, and external pivoting angles), proprioceptive acuity, and functional performance in both groups. Compared with the control group, the training group significantly improved pivoting neuromuscular control as reduced pivoting instability, reduced maximum internal and external pivoting angles, increased leg pivoting stiffness, and decreased entropy of time to peak EMG in the gluteus maximus and lateral gastrocnemius under pivoting perturbations. Furthermore, the training group enhanced weight-bearing proprioceptive acuity and improved the single leg hop distance. Improvement of pivoting neuromuscular control in functional weight-bearing activities and task performances after POINT may help develop lower limb injury prevention and rehabilitation methods to reduce anterior cruciate ligament and other musculoskeletal injuries associated with pivoting sports.

  10. IMPROVING THE METHODS OF ESTIMATION OF THE UNIT TRAIN EFFECTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro KOZACHENKO

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies of freight transportation by unit trains. The article is aimed at developing the methods of the efficiency evaluation of unit train dispatch on the basis of full-scale experiments. Duration of the car turnover is a random variable when dispatching the single cars and group cars, as well as when dispatching them as a part of a unit train. The existing methodologies for evaluating the efficiency of unit trains’ make-up are based on the use of calculation methodologies and their results can give significant errors. The work presents a methodology that makes it possible to evaluate the efficiency of unit train shipments based on the processing of results of experimental travels using the methods of mathematical statistics. This approach provides probabilistic estimates of the rolling stock use efficiency for different approaches to the organization of car traffic volumes, as well as establishes the effect for each of the participants in the transportation process.

  11. Identification of an Effective Total Quality Management Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-31

    quality= Responding to the consumer’s demand for the best value healthm r care, J. Nursing Quality Assurance. 2(3):70-78. - " mx"D0 Implementing Total...Quality takes 10 steps forward, Healthcare Forum Journal . 29-34. Process Management Institute, Inc. (1987). Achieving Integration of m the Philosophy of...missing link, Journal of Quality Assurance, 8-36. Effective Training Program 48 Tennessee Associates International (1990). Managing for Continuous

  12. Effects of pelvic floor muscle training during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Claudia De; Lopes,Marco Antonio Borges; Pereira, Luciana Carla Longo e; Zugaib, Marcelo

    2007-01-01

    OJETIVE: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of pelvic floor muscle training in 46 nulliparous pregnant women. METHODS: The women were divided into 2 groups: an exercise group and a control group. Functional evaluation of the pelvic floor muscle was performed by digital vaginal palpation using the strength scale described by Ortiz and by a perineometer (with and without biofeedback). RESULTS: The functional evaluation of the pelvic floor muscles showed a significant ...

  13. [Effective didactic skills training for teachers in continuing medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, M; Abanador, N; Mödder, U

    2005-09-01

    To develop, test, evaluate and implement effective state-of-the-art teacher training in didactic skills and methods. The training concept should be designed and beneficial for medical teachers' postgraduate medical education (CME). A 5-day workshop with 12 theoretical and 9 "hands-on" modules was designed and stepwise improved, according to the trainees' feedback. All trainees were trained in small groups (6 to 10 participants per workshop). The workshops consisted of mini-lectures, repeated micro teaching exercises and video-supported feedback concerning the following key-competencies: Communication of goals; methods to trigger interactivity; design of slides in power point presentations; effective feedback-techniques; and use of media, time-management, skills teaching, assessment methods (e. g. OSCE and others), evaluation and general presentation skills. The evaluation was based on two components: A) trainees' scores in two objective structured teaching exercises (OSTEs) at the beginning and end of workshop, with the ratings of 15 to 20 external observers checked for significant trends (Pearson's X2 test) in 17 given criteria for high teaching effectiveness; B) the trainees rated 20 teaching competencies in a retrospective "pre-post-analysis" (self-assessment questionnaire) at the end of each workshop and after 6 to 12 months later. The results revealed highly significant (p teaching methods turned out to be highly effective and can be attended by all medical teachers with different teaching backgrounds and specialties. The training has been certified for CME-credits by the Academy of the Physicians' State Association of North Rhine-Westphalia.

  14. Effects of virtual reality-based training and task-oriented training on balance performance in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung Young; Kim, You Lim; Lee, Suk Min

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the clinical effects of virtual reality-based training and task-oriented training on balance performance in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly allocated to 2 groups: virtual reality-based training group (n = 12) and task-oriented training group (n = 12). The patients in the virtual reality-based training group used the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus, which provided visual and auditory feedback as well as the movements that enabled shifting of weight to the right and left sides, for 30 min/day, 3 times/week for 6 weeks. The patients in the task-oriented training group practiced additional task-oriented programs for 30 min/day, 3 times/week for 6 weeks. Patients in both groups also underwent conventional physical therapy for 60 min/day, 5 times/week for 6 weeks. [Results] Balance and functional reach test outcomes were examined in both groups. The results showed that the static balance and functional reach test outcomes were significantly higher in the virtual reality-based training group than in the task-oriented training group. [Conclusion] This study suggested that virtual reality-based training might be a more feasible and suitable therapeutic intervention for dynamic balance in stroke patients compared to task-oriented training.

  15. Effectiveness of cognitive training for Chinese elderly in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok T

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Timothy Kwok,1,2 Anita Wong,3 Grace Chan,4 YY Shiu,3 Ko-Chuen Lam,2 Daniel Young,2 Daniel WH Ho,2 Florence Ho21Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 2Jockey Club Centre for Positive Ageing, Shatin, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 3The Hong Kong Chinese Women's Club Madam Wong Chan Sook Ying Memorial Care and Attention Home for the Aged, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China; 4The Hong Kong Council of Social Service, Hong Kong, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: In Hong Kong, the evidence for cognitive-training programs in fighting against memory complaints is lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Active Mind cognitive-training program in improving the cognitive function and quality of life (QoL for local community-dwelling Chinese older adults. A total of 200 subjects were recruited from 20 different district elderly community centers (DECCs. Centers were randomly assigned into either the intervention group or control group. The intervention group underwent eight 1-hour sessions of cognitive training, while the control group were included in the usual group activities provided by the DECCs. Standardized neuropsychological tests (the Chinese version of Mattis Dementia Rating Scale [CDRS] and the Cantonese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination and the QoL questionnaire SF12 were used to assess participants' cognitive function and QoL before and after the trial. A total of 176 subjects completed the study. The intervention group showed greater improvement in the cognitive function measured by total CDRS score (treatment: 12.24 ± 11.57 vs control: 4.37 ± 7.99; P < 0.001 and QoL measured by total SF12 score (treatment: 7.82 ± 13.19 vs control: 3.18 ± 11.61; P = 0.014. Subjects with lower education level were associated with better cognitive response to the cognitive-training program. The current findings indicated that the Active

  16. Effects of Electrical Stimulation, Exercise Training and Motor Skills Training on Strength of Children with Meningomyelocele: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagenais, Liese M.; Lahay, Erin R.; Stueck, Kailey A.; White, Erin; Williams, Lindsay; Harris, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    This systematic review provides a critical synthesis of research regarding the effects of electrical stimulation, exercise training, and motor skills training on muscle strength in children with meningomyelocele. Nine databases were searched using terms related to meningomyelocele and physical therapy interventions. Of 298 potentially relevant…

  17. The Effect of Training and Development on Employee Attitude as it Relates to Training and Work Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra L. Truitt

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is incumbent on training and development professionals to design, implement, and evaluate the effectiveness of their programs in reducing disputes in workplace performance. This study explores the relationships between training experiences and attitudes and attitudes about perceived job proficiency. In a sample of 237 full-time salaried/exempt and hourly/nonexempt employees from one academic institution and three businesses in the states of Maryland, Delaware, and Arizona, the author finds a direct relationship between one’s positive training experiences and attitudes and one’s proficiency. In this study, 86.8% of those who had updated training had the most positive attitudes toward training (γ = .293, p < .05. Furthermore, 80% of those who had negative training attitudes also had negative views on their proficiency (γ = .465, p < .000.

  18. Manage Computer Support Costs through Effective User Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Compagnon, Betty; Leydon, John F.

    1991-01-01

    This article presents the University of New Hampshire's approach to ongoing training of computer users and argues that training is an investment with a large payoff. The article considers factors affecting training success; computer support; academic computing training; and administrative computing training, including developing a user services…

  19. The Effects of Organizational Training on Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Cagri; Culha, Osman

    2010-01-01

    This empirical study investigated the impact of organizational training on employee commitment focusing on employees' emotional and affective responses towards their organization. Organizational training is conceptualized within a multidimensional framework consisting of motivation for training, access to training, benefits from training and…

  20. Effects of Training and Overtraining on Intervertebral Disc Proteoglycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueta, Renato H S; Tarini, Victor A F; Franciozi, Carlos E S; Tamaoki, Marcel J S; Medeiros, Valquíria P; Nader, Helena B; Faloppa, Flávio

    2018-01-01

    Animal experimental study. Evaluate the effect of physical activity and overtraining condition on glycosaminoglycan concentration on the intervertebral disc (IVD) using a rat running model. Some guidelines recommend the implementation of a physical exercise program as treatment for low back pain; however, cyclic loading impact on the health of the IVD and whether there is a dose-response relationship is still incompletely understood. Thirty-two rats ages 8 weeks were divided into four groups with eight animals each. The first 8 weeks were the adaptive phase, the overtraining phase was from the ninth to the eleventh week, which consisted of increasing the number of daily training sessions from 1 to 4 and the recovery phase was represented by the 12th and 13th weeks without training. Control group 1 (CG1) did not undergo any kind of training. Control group 2 (CG2) completed just the adaptive phase. Overtraining group 1 (OT1) completed the overtraining phase. Overtraining group 2 (OT2) completed the recovery phase. Running performance tests were used to assess the "overtraining" status of the animals. IVD glycosaminoglycans were extracted and quantified, and identified by electrophoresis. Glycosaminoglycans showed a distribution between chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate. Glycosaminoglycans quantification showed decreasing concentration at the following order: OT1 > CG2 > OT2 > CG1. Increased expression of dermatan sulfate was verified at the groups submitted to any training. Overtraining condition, as assessed by muscle and cardiovascular endurance did not lessen glycosaminoglycan concentration in the IVD. In fact, physical exercise increased glycosaminoglycan concentration in the IVD in proportion to the training load, even at overtraining condition, returning to normal levels after the recovery phase and glycosaminoglycan production is a reversible acute positive response for mechanical stimulation of the IVD. N/A.

  1. THE EFFECT OF SINGING TRAINING ON ACOUSTIC PARAMETERS OF VOICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Sibel Jagoda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to analyze the impact of singing training on the acoustic properties of students’ voices. The participants of the stuy were 20 students between 19 and 32 without absenteeism ranging from the 1st to the 4th grade. The voices of 12 female and 8 male students, enrolled at Selcuk University Dilek Sabancı State Conservatory Opera Main-department, Sub-department of Vocal Arts were recorded throughout 2014-2015 academic year using Shure Sm 48 model microphone in order to determine their acoustic properties using CSL (Computerized Speech Laboratory 4500 to the computer with Kay Elemetrics MDVP (Multi Dimensional Voice Program. In order to determine changes in the acoustic parameters and evaluate the effectiveness of the singing training given, a single sample -pre and post-test research design was used. Hence, among the acoustic properties, F0, (Fundamental Frequency F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, formant frequencies, jitter (%, shimmer (%, NHR (Ratio of harmonic noise parameters were evaluated. The statistical analyses made for the comparison of MDVP parameters before and after the vocal training revealed no statistically significant difference in the students’ F0, Jitter, Shimmer, NHR, F1, F2, F3, and F4 acoustic parameters. However, the F5 formant value revealed statistically significant differences in all the students and a statistically significant difference was seen in the F0 parameter and F5 formant values of female students. Fundamental frequency (F0 is an important parameter changing throughout the singing training process among the female students’ acoustic characteristics. The increase in the F5 formant values of female students and the acoustic properties of all students within normal ranges could be considered as an indicator of the positive impact of the singing training received.

  2. Effects of manual resistance training on fitness in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorgo, Sandor; King, George A; Candelaria, Norma G; Bader, Julia O; Brickey, Gregory D; Adams, Carolyn E

    2009-11-01

    Manual resistance training (MRT), an alternative to traditional resistance training, requires minimal equipment and may be effective when applied in school-based physical education (PE) classes. The purpose of this study was to document the physical changes in adolescents (n = 222) using MRT in school-based PE settings. Six fitness tests from the Fitnessgram assessment tool were selected to assess students' cardiovascular and muscular fitness, and skinfold tests were used to assess body composition. One control and 2 experimental groups were defined. The control group of students (n = 129) attended regular PE classes. One experimental group (n = 63) attended PE that was complemented by the MRT system. A second experimental group (n = 30) attended PE complemented by MRT and cardiovascular endurance training. With use of the selected Fitnessgram tests, post-test measurements were performed after 9 and 18 weeks of PE. At baseline, there were no significant differences among the 3 groups for most measures. Compared with baseline, the experimental groups improved significantly in all 6 fitness measures and showed more improvements than the control group in most fitness measures both at 9 and 18 weeks. None of the groups showed significant improvement in body composition. The results documented that an MRT-complemented PE program was effective in improving adolescents' muscular fitness. An 18-week combined MRT and cardiovascular endurance training program effectively improved cardiovascular and muscular fitness but was ineffective in improving adolescent body composition. An MRT-based exercise session requires minimal equipment and set-up and can be performed in a short period of time, and therefore it is suitable for application in regular PE settings.

  3. The effect of offering distance education on enrollment in onsite training at the National Conservation Training Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratz, Joan M.; Schuster, Rudy M.; Marcy, Ann H.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the effect that providing distance education courses would have on enrollment in courses offered on the campus of the National Conservation Training Center. This is an exploratory study and the results should be interpreted as preliminary rather than conclusive. The study included two components: analysis of existing training-enrollment data for the time period from October 1, 2007 to June 24, 2009, and a survey of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) employees regarding their preferences for onsite training and distance education. The analysis of training-enrollment data included training records for 2,823 Service employees. Using this dataset, we created a database that included region, supervisory status, number of enrollments in online training, instructor-led web-based classes, correspondence courses, courses at the campus of the National Conservation Training Center, and instructor-led courses off campus. Our analyses focused on differences between enrollment in distance education and onsite courses and the effects of regional affiliation, supervisory status, and course format. Generally, the regions closest to the campus had higher enrollment in onsite training and regions farther away had higher enrollment in distance education. Nonsupervisors were more likely to enroll in training on campus and supervisors were more likely to enroll in instructor-led training off site. Enrollment in instructor-led courses was higher than in self-paced courses, although this may result from fewer offerings of self-paced courses. The second component of the study involved a survey of Service employees regarding their preferences for distance education and onsite training. The survey was administered online and 911 Service employees responded. Overall, survey respondents indicated a small preference for onsite training and were more likely to enroll in onsite courses than distance education. When asked to indicate reasons that

  4. Strength training and testosterone treatment have opposing effects on migration inhibitor factor levels in ageing men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, D.; Christensen, L. L.; Kvorning, T.

    2013-01-01

    Strength Training and Testosterone Treatment Have Opposing Effects on Migration Inhibitor Factor Levels in Ageing Men......Strength Training and Testosterone Treatment Have Opposing Effects on Migration Inhibitor Factor Levels in Ageing Men...

  5. Mental rotation: effects of gender, training and sleep consolidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Debarnot

    Full Text Available A wide range of experimental studies have provided evidence that a night of sleep contributes to memory consolidation. Mental rotation (MR skill is characterized by fundamental aspect of both cognitive and motor abilities which can be improved within practice sessions, but little is known about the effect of consolidation after MR practice. In the present study, we investigated the effect of MR training and the following corresponding day- and sleep-related time consolidations in taking into account the well-established gender difference in MR. Forty participants (20 women practiced a computerized version of the Vandenberg and Kuse MR task. Performance was evaluated before MR training, as well as prior to, and after a night of sleep or a similar daytime interval. Data showed that while men outperformed women during the pre-training test, brief MR practice was sufficient for women to achieve equivalent performance. Only participants subjected to a night of sleep were found to enhance MR performance during the retest, independently of gender. These results provide first evidence that a night of sleep facilitates MR performance compared with spending a similar daytime interval, regardless gender of the participants. Since MR is known to involve motor processes, the present data might contribute to schedule relevant mental practice interventions for fruitful applications in rehabilitation and motor learning processes.

  6. The Effectiveness of Neurofeedback Training in Algorithmic Thinking Skills Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plerou, Antonia; Vlamos, Panayiotis; Triantafillidis, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Although research on learning difficulties are overall in an advanced stage, studies related to algorithmic thinking difficulties are limited, since interest in this field has been recently raised. In this paper, an interactive evaluation screener enhanced with neurofeedback elements, referring to algorithmic tasks solving evaluation, is proposed. The effect of HCI, color, narration and neurofeedback elements effect was evaluated in the case of algorithmic tasks assessment. Results suggest the enhanced performance in the case of neurofeedback trained group in terms of total correct and optimal algorithmic tasks solution. Furthermore, findings suggest that skills, concerning the way that an algorithm is conceived, designed, applied and evaluated are essentially improved.

  7. Does it take two to tango? Longitudinal effects of unilateral and bilateral integrative negotiation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerres, Alfred; Hüffmeier, Joachim; Freund, Philipp Alexander; Backhaus, Klaus; Hertel, Guido

    2013-05-01

    This study assesses longitudinal effects of different training designs on joint negotiation performance. In so doing, the study experimentally compares (a) bilateral training of both the seller and the buyer within a dyad with both (b) a no-training control condition and 2 conditions with unilateral training of either (c) the buyer or (d) the seller. Moreover, underlying psychological mechanisms of the training effect are assessed. Results of the study with 360 participants reveal a significant overall training effect on negotiation outcomes that remains stable over time. Consistent with our hypotheses, unilateral negotiation training is only effective if the trained party is the seller, and it fails if the trained party is the buyer. Additional mediation analyses reveal exchange of priority-related information as a causal mechanism underlying these effects. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Effects of imagery motor training on torque production of ankle plantar flexor muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdewind, Inge; Toering, ST; Bessem, B; van der Laan, O; Diercks, RL

    The aim of this study was to investigate in control subjects the effect of imagery training on the torque of plantar-flexor muscles of the ankle. Twenty-nine subjects were allocated to one of three groups that performed either imagery training, low-intensity strength training, or no training (only

  9. Effects of toe and ankle training in older people: a cross-over study.

    OpenAIRE

    Nagai, Koutatsu; Inoue, Takuya; Yamada, Yosuke; Tateuchi, Hiroshige; Ikezoe, Tome; Ichihashi, Noriaki; Tsuboyama, Tadao

    2011-01-01

    Maintenance of physical function in the elderly is important. Previous studies have focused mainly on training-center-based interventions, accompanied by training staff or equipped with training machinery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of toe and ankle training for the elderly.

  10. Firm-Related Training Tracks: A Random Effects Ordered Probit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, Wim; van den Brink, Henriette Maassen

    2003-01-01

    A random effects ordered response model of training is estimated to analyze the existence of training tracks and time varying coefficients in training frequency. Two waves of a Dutch panel survey of workers are used covering the period 1992-1996. The amount of training received by workers increased during the period 1994-1996 compared to…

  11. The effect of training and job interruptions on logging crews' safety in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out in Sokoine University of Agriculture Training Forest to assess the effect of training and job interruptions on logging crews' safety during tree cutting using chainsaw and two-man cross cut saws. For each cutting method, experienced and inexperienced crews were studied before training, after training ...

  12. Effect of Nursing Home Staff Training on Quality of Patient Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Margaret W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Assessed effects of nursing home staff training in care for the dying on quality of life of 306 terminally ill patients in 5 pairs of matched nursing homes assigned randomly to trained and not trained staff groups. Patients in trained homes had less depression and greater satisfaction with care than patients in control homes at 1 and 3 months.…

  13. The Effect of Training on Italian Firms' Productivity: Microeconomic and Macroeconomic Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrazzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I explore the effect of training on the productivity of a sample of Italian firms and the impact of training on EU economic growth. Specifically, retrieving data from a survey performed by the Italian Institute for the Development of Vocational Training in 2009, I find that employer-sponsored training displays a positive and…

  14. Effects of cycling training at imposed low cadences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst A.; Rønnestad, Bent R.

    2017-01-01

    The present article reviews effects of training at low imposed cadences in cycling. We performed a systematic literature search of MEDLINE and SPORTDiscus up to April 2016 to identify potentially relevant articles. Based on the titles and abstracts of the identified articles, a subset of articles...... was selected for evaluation. These articles constituted original research articles on adaptation to training at different imposed cadences in cycling. Seven articles were selected for evaluation. With regard to the terminology in the present article, "low cadences" refers to cadences below the freely chosen...... cadence. Eighty rpm can for example be considered a low cadence if effort is maximal. On the other hand, the cadence has to be lower than 80 rpm (e.g. 40-70 rpm) to be considered low if cycling is performed at low power output. The reason is that the choice of cadence is dependent on power output...

  15. Effects of pelvic floor muscle training during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Claudia; Lopes, Marco Antonio Borges; Carla Longo e Pereira, Luciana; Zugaib, Marcelo

    2007-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of pelvic floor muscle training in 46 nulliparous pregnant women. The women were divided into 2 groups: an exercise group and a control group. Functional evaluation of the pelvic floor muscle was performed by digital vaginal palpation using the strength scale described by Ortiz and by a perineometer (with and without biofeedback). The functional evaluation of the pelvic floor muscles showed a significant increase in pelvic floor muscle strength during pregnancy in both groups (P pelvic floor muscles. Pelvic floor muscle training resulted in a significant increase in pelvic floor muscle pressure and strength during pregnancy. A significant positive correlation between functional evaluation of the pelvic floor muscle and perineometry was observed during pregnancy.

  16. EEG Analysis of the Neurofeedback Training Effect in Algorithmic Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plerou, Antonia; Vlamos, Panayiotis; Margetaki, Aikaterini

    2017-01-01

    Although significant advances have been made in understanding several cognitive states, the algorithmic thinking ability is yet to be analyzed in terms of neuroscience and brain imaging techniques. Studies on the effects of neurofeedback on learning disabilities especially mathematics disorders are limited. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the brain activity and activation differences between neurofeedback trained participants and controls, during the overall EEG analysis during continuous algorithmic tasks performance. A study of 182 children of upper education is proposed to assess the efficacy of two protocols of neurofeedback training as means of algorithmic thinking ability evaluation. Results suggest statistical significant variation in the mean SD values in terms of several brain waves ratios during algorithmic task solving epochs.

  17. Concentric or eccentric training: effects and cross-education

    OpenAIRE

    Maquet, Didier; Delvaux, François; Croisier, Jean-Louis

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare pure concentric and eccentric isokinetic training with respect to their possible specificity in the progression of strength of the knee flexor and extensor muscles. Subjects were divided into 2 groups (eccentric or concentric training) and performed a specific training of dominant leg. Before and after the training session, isokinetic performances of trained leg and non-trained leg (cross-education) were evaluated. We observed a greater increase of ...

  18. Training young horses to social separation: Effect of a companion horse on training efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, E.; Christensen, Janne Winther; Keeling, LJ

    2011-01-01

    when horses were trained in pairs (P2) compared to when the same horses were subsequently trained alone (P1). Conclusions and potential relevance: It may not be efficient to habituate naive young horses to social separation initially with a partner as these horses appear to have to relearn being......, and heart rate is lower when the horse is subsequently trained alone, compared to control horses trained individually from the start. Methods: Young mares (n = 32), kept in groups of 4 were exposed to social separation: 2 horses of the group were trained singly (S1, n = 16) and the remaining 2 horses (n...... = 16) were trained first with a companion (P2) and then alone (P1). The training comprised 3 steps whereby distance from the group was gradually increased. The final learning criterion was met when a horse fed calmly alone inside a test arena (Step 3). Horses that were trained in a pair had to succeed...

  19. The effect of assertiveness training on student's academic anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebi, S; Sharifirad, G H R; Shahsiah, M; Botlani, S; Matlabi, M; Rezaeian, M

    2012-03-01

    Academic anxiety is an important educational problem that affects millions of students in colleges and schools over the world each year. Although a low level of anxiety can cause positive motivation for improvement of educational functioning, high levels of it can cause a disturbance in concentration, attention, storage of knowledge, recall and educational reduction. It has also been recently determined that there is a relationship between anxiety and assertiveness. Therefore, this study is an attempt to determine the effect of assertiveness training on reducing anxiety levels in pre-college academic students in Gonabad city in 2008. In this clinical trial study, all the pre-college students of Gonabad city were invited to participate and 89 students were divided into experimental and control groups. There were 3 questionnaires, namely demographic, academic anxiety and assertiveness Rathus questionnaires in which the validity and reliability were calculated and approved. The intervention for the experimental group was 5 sessions of assertiveness training using the PRECEDE model and 1 session for parents and teachers to help and support the intervention program. We had a post-test 8 weeks after the last training session for each group was conducted. The data was analyzed by SPSS. The results showed that anxiety levels and decisiveness in the target group were moderate to high and it is seen as a significant reverse relationship between these two factors (r = -0.69 and p academic anxiety and assertiveness in the control group.before and after the intervention. Due to a significant decrease in anxiety and increased decisiveness in the experimental group, it can be claimed that assertiveness training is an effective non-pharmacological method for reducing academic anxiety and it can improve academic performance.

  20. Development of the TARGET Training Effectiveness Tool and Underlying Algorithms Specifying Training Method - Performance Outcome Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    task/skill type (e.g., cognitive- quantitative reasoning skills, perceptual skills, psychomotor skills ) in order to identify which training methods...Moreover, if a user was interested in only examining part-task training for training psychomotor skills , with far transfer being the focus outcome of...studies examining methods in which to train psychomotor skills ). In sum, this capability enables users to view and examine summary information for only

  1. The Effect of Physical Readiness Training on Reserve Officers' Training Corps Freshmen Cadets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jonathan M; Stone, Jason D; Holt, Chris; Jenke, Shane C; Jagim, Andrew R; Jones, Margaret T

    2017-11-01

    The U.S. Army Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) is the largest commissioning source among all branches. Physical Readiness Training (PRT) is fundamental to ROTC cadet training. However, although studies have evaluated the effectiveness of PRT in cadets with prior PRT experience, no study has examined the early phase adaptations in those cadets with no prior PRT experience. To determine the effect of PRT over the course of an academic year (9 months) in freshmen ROTC cadets, thirteen (n = 13; 7 male [180.8 ± 4.7 cm, 77.4 ± 10.0 kg; 19.8 ± 6.5 % body fat], 6 female [159.5 ± 12.1 cm; 63.4 ± 8.4 kg; 29.6 ± 6.2% body fat]) cadets with no prior PRT performed laboratory (body composition, 1-repetition maximum [1RM] bench and squat, countermovement vertical jump, maximal aerobic capacity [VO2max]) and field-based ([Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) (2 minutes maximum push-ups and sit-ups, 2-mile run)]) measures of performance before (PRE), mid-year (MID), and at the conclusion of the academic year (POST). PRT was performed 3 times per week in accordance with Army standards. No changes occurred in body composition, VO2max, or countermovement vertical jump. 1RM bench improved at MID in men (PRE, 78.5 ± 8.4 kg; MID, 84.7 ± 8.0 kg) and women (PRE, 42.0 ± 10.2 kg; MID, 46.2 ± 10.9 kg) with no further improvement. Women improved 1RM back squat (PRE, 55.3 ± 13.5 kg; POST, 74.6 ± 14.6 kg) and APFT tests: push-ups (PRE, 27 ± 10; POST, 39 ± 12), sit-ups (PRE, 55 ± 19; POST, 74 ± 12), 2-mile run (PRE, 18.6 ± 2.9; POST, 17.2 ± 1.3 minutes); although men improved in push-ups (PRE, 54 ± 6; POST, 67 ± 8) and sit-ups (PRE, 63 ± 8; POST, 75 ± 9). Nine months of PRT improved APFT scores of freshmen cadets while minor effects were noted in laboratory-based performance. Given the lack of improvements in strength and power, it would be advisable to provide supplemental strength and power training. Being a large commissioning resource for the Army with greater access

  2. Handcycling : training effects of a specific dose of upper body endurance training in females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, Florentina J.; Hoogwerf, Mark; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    This study aims to evaluate a handcycling training protocol based on ACSM guidelines in a well-controlled laboratory setting. Training responses of a specific dose of handcycling training were quantified in a homogeneous female subject population to obtain a more in depth understanding of

  3. Developing Effective Training Skills. A Practical Guide to Designing and Delivering Group Training. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pont, Tony

    This book provides an overview of training in business along with a step-by-step guide for trainers to use in designing and presenting training programs for adults. The 10 chapters cover the following: (1) the training field--what it is; (2) designing the course; (3) delivering the course--the start-up; (4) learning theory; (5) course members; (6)…

  4. Safety training parks – A case study on the effectiveness of the trainings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Räsänen, Tuula; Sormunen, E.; Reiman, Arto

    2017-01-01

    The Safety Training Park (STP) concept is a unique Finnish safety training innovation. The STP provides different actors of the construction industry and other branches a practical occupational safety and health (OSH) training area. To the authors’ knowledge, no such parks exist in Europe besides...

  5. Effect of the movement speed of resistance training exercises on sprint and strength performance in concurrently training elite junior sprinters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazevich, Anthony J; Jenkins, David G

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 7 weeks of high- and low-velocity resistance training on strength and sprint running performance in nine male elite junior sprint runners (age 19.0+/-1.4 years, best 100 m times 10.89+/-0.21 s; mean +/- s). The athletes continued their sprint training throughout the study, but their resistance training programme was replaced by one in which the movement velocities of hip extension and flexion, knee extension and flexion and squat exercises varied according to the loads lifted (i.e. 30-50% and 70-90% of 1-RM in the high- and low-velocity training groups, respectively). There were no between-group differences in hip flexion or extension torque produced at 1.05, 4.74 or 8.42 rad x s(-1), 20 m acceleration or 20 m 'flying' running times, or 1-RM squat lift strength either before or after training. This was despite significant improvements in 20 m acceleration time (P training period. Although velocity-specific strength adaptations have been shown to occur rapidly in untrained and nonconcurrently training individuals, the present results suggest a lack of velocity-specific performance changes in elite concurrently training sprint runners performing a combination of traditional and semi-specific resistance training exercises.

  6. Effects of strength and endurance exercise order on endocrine responses to concurrent training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Thomas W; Howatson, Glyn; Russell, Mark; French, Duncan N

    2017-04-01

    The present study examined the effect of strength and endurance training order on the endocrine milieu associated with strength development and performance during concurrent training. A randomised, between-groups design was employed with 30 recreationally resistance-trained males completing one of four acute experimental training protocols; strength training (ST), strength followed by endurance training (ST-END), endurance followed by strength training (END-ST) or no training (CON). Blood samples were taken before each respective exercise protocol, immediately upon cessation of exercise, and 1 h post cessation of exercise. Blood samples were subsequently analysed for total testosterone, cortisol and lactate concentrations. Ability to maintain 80% 1RM during strength training was better in ST and ST-END than END-ST (both p training interventions elicited significant increases in testosterone (p training were greater following END-ST and ST than ST-END (both p endurance exercise prior to strength training resulted in impaired strength training performance. Blood cortisol and lactate concentrations were greater when endurance training was conducted prior to strength training than vice versa. As such, it may be suggested that conducting endurance prior to strength training may result in acute unfavourable responses to strength training when strength training is conducted with high loads.

  7. Generalization effects of coping-skills training: influence of self-defense training on women's efficacy beliefs, assertiveness, and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitlauf, J C; Smith, R E; Cervone, D

    2000-08-01

    Concern for personal safety is a pervasive stressor for many women. Developing competencies in physical self-defense may empower women to engage more freely in daily activities with less fear. This study assessed the effects of physical self-defense training on multiple aspects of women's perceived self-efficacy and other self-reported personality characteristics. Training powerfully increased task-specific (self-defense) efficacy beliefs as well as physical and global efficacy beliefs. Training increased self-reported assertiveness, and posttraining decreases in hostility and aggression were found on several of the subscales of The Aggression Questionnaire (A. H. Buss & M. Perry, 1992), indicating that training did not have an aggression-disinhibiting effect. In the experimental condition, most of the effects were maintained (and some delayed effects appeared at follow-up.

  8. Effect of interactive metronome training on children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, R J; Jacokes, L E; Cassily, J F; Greenspan, S I; Tuchman, R F; Stemmer, P J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a specific intervention, the Interactive Metronome, on selected aspects of motor and cognitive skills in a group of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study included 56 boys who were 6years to 12 years of age and diagnosed before they entered the study as having ADHD. The participants were pretested and randomly assigned to one of three matched groups. A group of 19 participants receiving 15 hr of Interactive Metronome training exercises were compared with a group receiving no intervention and a group receiving training on selected computer video games. A significant pattern of improvement across 53 of 58 variables favoring the Interactive Metronome treatment was found. Additionally, several significant differences were found among the treatment groups and between pretreatment and posttreatment factors on performance in areas of attention, motor control, language processing, reading, and parental reports of improvements in regulation of aggressive behavior. The Interactive Metronome training appears to facilitate a number of capacities, including attention, motor control, and selected academic skills, in boys with ADHD.

  9. Finite pulse effects in CPMG pulse trains on paramagnetic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskes, Michal; Grey, Clare P

    2015-09-14

    The Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence is commonly used in high resolution NMR spectroscopy and in magnetic resonance imaging for the measurement of transverse relaxation in systems that are subject to diffusion in internal or external gradients and is superior to the Hahn echo measurement, which is more sensitive to diffusion effects. Similarly, it can potentially be used to study dynamic processes in electrode materials for lithium ion batteries. Here we compare the (7)Li signal decay curves obtained with the CPMG and Hahn echo sequences under static conditions (i.e., in the absence of magic angle spinning) in paramagnetic materials with varying transition metal ion concentrations. Our results indicate that under CPMG pulse trains the lifetime of the (7)Li signal is substantially extended and is correlated with the strength of the electron-nuclear interaction. Numerical simulations and analytical calculations using Floquet theory suggest that the combination of large interactions and a train of finite pulses, results in a spin locking effect which significantly slows the signal's decay. While these effects complicate the interpretation of CPMG-based investigations of diffusion and chemical exchange in paramagnetic materials, they may provide a useful approach to extend the signal's lifetime in these often fast relaxing systems, enabling the use of correlation experiments. Furthermore, these results highlight the importance of developing a deeper understanding of the effects of the large paramagnetic interactions during multiple pulse experiments in order to extend the experimental arsenal available for static and in situ NMR investigations of paramagnetic materials.

  10. Significantly enhanced memory effect in metallic glass by multistep training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M. X.; Luo, P.; Sun, Y. T.; Wen, P.; Bai, H. Y.; Liu, Y. H.; Wang, W. H.

    2017-11-01

    The state of metastable equilibrium glass can carry an imprint of the past and exhibit memory effect. As a hallmark of glassy dynamics, memory effect can affect glassy behavior as it evolves further upon time. Even though the physical picture of the memory effect has been well studied, it is unclear whether a glass can recall as many pieces of information as possible, and if so, how the glass will accordingly behave. We report that by fractionizing temperature interval, inserting multistep aging protocols, and optimizing the time of each temperature step, i.e., by imposing a multistep "training" on a prototypical P d40N i10C u30P20 metallic glass, the memory of the trained glass can be significantly strengthened, marked by a pronounced augment in potential energy. These findings provide a new guide for regulating the energy state of glass by enhancing the nonequilibrium behaviors of the memory effect and offer an opportunity to develop a clearer physical picture of glassy dynamics.

  11. Video Game Self-efficacy and its Effect on Training Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skilan A. Ortiz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of using serious games for training on task performance and declarative knowledge outcomes. The purpose was to determine if serious games are more effective training tools than traditional methods. Self-efficacy, expectations for training, and engagement were considered as moderators of the relationship between type of training and task performance as well as type of training and declarative knowledge. Results of the study offered support for the potential of serious games to be more effective than traditional methods of training when it comes to task performance.

  12. Effects of combined electromyostimulation and gymnastics training in prepubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deley, Gaëlle; Cometti, Carole; Fatnassi, Anaïs; Paizis, Christos; Babault, Nicolas

    2011-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of a 6-week combined electromyostimulation (EMS) and gymnastic training program on muscle strength and vertical jump performance of prepubertal gymnasts. Sixteen young women gymnasts (age 12.4 ± 1.2 yrs) participated in this study, with 8 in the EMS group and the remaining 8 as controls. EMS was conducted on knee extensor muscles for 20 minutes 3 times a week during the first 3 weeks and once a week during the last 3 weeks. Gymnasts from both groups underwent similar gymnastics training 5-6 times a week. Isokinetic torque of the knee extensors was determined at different eccentric and concentric angular velocities ranging from -60 to +240° per second. Jumping ability was evaluated using squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ), reactivity test, and 3 gymnastic-specific jumps. After the first 3 weeks of EMS, maximal voluntary torque was increased (+40.0 ± 10.0%, +35.3 ± 11.8%, and +50.6 ± 7.7% for -60, +60, and +240°s⁻¹, respectively; p < 0.05), as well as SJ, reactivity test and specific jump performances (+20.9 ± 8.3%, +20.4 ± 26.2% and +14.9 ± 17.2% respectively; p < 0.05). Six weeks of EMS were necessary to improve the CMJ (+10.1 ± 10.0%, p < 0.05). Improvements in jump ability were still maintained 1 month after the end of the EMS training program. To conclude, these results first demonstrate that in prepubertal gymnasts, a 6-week EMS program, combined with the daily gymnastic training, induced significant increases both in knee extensor muscle strength and nonspecific and some specific jump performances.

  13. Electromyostimulation training effects on neural drive and muscle architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondin, Julien; Guette, Marie; Ballay, Yves; Martin, Alain

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of 4 and 8 wk of electromyostimulation (EMS) training on both muscular and neural adaptations of the knee extensor muscles. Twenty males were divided into the electrostimulated group (EG, N = 12) and the control group (CG, N = 8). The training program consisted of 32 sessions of isometric EMS over an 8-wk period. All subjects were tested at baseline (B) and retested after 4 (WK4) and 8 (WK8) wk of EMS training. The EMG activity and muscle activation obtained under maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) was used to assess neural adaptations. Torque and EMG responses obtained under electrically evoked contractions, muscle anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA), and vastus lateralis (VL) pennation angle, both measured by ultrasonography imaging, were examined to analyze muscular changes. At WK8, knee extensor MVC significantly increased by 27% (P < 0.001) and was accompanied by an increase in muscle activation (+6%, P < 0.01), quadriceps muscle ACSA (+6%, P < 0.001), and VL pennation angle (+14%, P < 0.001). A significant increase in normalized EMG activity of both VL and vastus medialis (VM) muscles (+69 and +39%, respectively, P < 0.001) but not of rectus femoris (RF) muscle was also found at WK8. The ACSA of the VL, VM, and vastus intermedius muscles significantly increased at WK8 (5-8%, P < 0.001) but not at WK4, whereas no changes occurred in the RF muscle. We concluded that the voluntary torque gains obtained after EMS training could be attributed to both muscular and neural adaptations. Both changes selectively involved the monoarticular vastii muscles.

  14. Effects of muscular endurance training on musculoskeletal disorders in teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Valevein Rodrigues

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction Physical exercise is indicated to reduce the incidence of musculoskeletal symptoms in teachers.Objective To evaluate the effects of muscular endurance training on muscle strength and musculoskeletal symptoms related to the lower limbs of public elementary school teachers.Materials and methods Thirty-one female teachers were divided into two groups: control (CG, n = 15 and muscular endurance training (TG, n = 16. The training consisted of two sets of 15 repetitions of exercises for quadriceps and hamstring muscle groups, twice a week, for 7 weeks, which were conducted with 50% of 10 repetition maximum(10RM (first to fourth week and 60% of 10 RM (fifth to seventh week. Musculoskeletal symptoms (Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, isometric peak torque (Load cell and muscle strength (10RM were assessed before and after intervention. ANOVA for repeated measures and Tukey post hoc were used to analyse strength and peak torque of quadriceps and hamstrings and Chi-square goodness-of-fit test were used to analyse the frequency of occurrence of osteomuscular symptoms.Results The highest incidence of symptoms was found in the lumbar region in both groups. Training caused increased muscle strength of the quadriceps and hamstrings, but there were no significant differences in either the peak torque in the quadriceps and hamstrings or in the reduction of musculoskeletal symptoms.Conclusion The exercise program performed in this study increased the dynamic strength in the TG in relation to the CG, but did not alter the incidence of symptoms in the lumbar region and lower limbs in neither of the groups. Thus, results suggest that the duration of intervention may not have been enough to increase peak torque and decrease musculoskeletal symptoms.

  15. Is balance exercise training as effective as aerobic exercise training in fibromyalgia syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duruturk, Neslihan; Tuzun, Emine Handan; Culhaoglu, Belde

    2015-05-01

    The aim was to compare the effect of aerobic and balance exercises on pain severity, myalgic score, quality of life, exercise capacity and balance in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). A total of 33 females diagnosed with FMS by the American College of Rheumatology criteria were recruited in this randomised controlled study and allocated to aerobic exercise (AE) or balance exercise (BE) groups. Exercises were performed three times a week, for 6 weeks on a treadmill or with a Tetrax interactive balance system (TIBS). Outcome measures were characterised by myalgic score, visual analogue scale, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), exercise testing, Timed Up-Go (TUG) and TIBS measurements. Comparisons from baseline to 6 weeks were evaluated using Wilcoxon test. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare differences between groups. Effect sizes were also calculated. Improvements in pain, myalgic score and FIQ were found in both groups (p < 0.05). While comparing groups, myalgic score was significant (p = 0.02, d = -1.77), the value was higher in AE. Exercise duration, Borg scale, resting blood pressures (RBP) and maximal heart rate were significant in AE. In BE, Borg scale, exercise duration was significant (p < 0.05). While comparing groups, diastolic RBP (p = 0.04, d = -0.92), exercise duration (p = 0.00, d = -1.64) were significant, with higher values in AE. TUG significantly changed in groups (p < 0.05, d ≥ -1.22). Stability scores, eyes open while standing on elastic pads (p = 0.00, d = -0.98) and head back (p = 0.03, d = -0.74), were significant, with higher values in BE. This study showed that BE provided some improvements in FMS, but AE training led to greater gains. BE training should be included in comprehensive programs.

  16. the effect of training on teachers' knowledge of effective classroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    learning than the home environment, peer group, and community influences. Wang and colleagues reported that effective classroom management increases student engagement in the learning process, decreases disruptive behaviors, and enables teachers to make effective use of limited instructional time. A classroom is ...

  17. The effect of music training program on phonological awareness in preschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    Franziska eDegé; Gudrun eSchwarzer

    2011-01-01

    The present experiment investigated the effect of a music training program on phonological awareness in preschoolers. In particular, the effects of a music training program and a phonological skills training program on phonological awareness were compared. If language and music share basic processing mechanisms, the effect of both programs on enhancing phonological awareness should be similar. Forty-one preschoolers (22 boys) were randomly assigned to a phonological skills training program, a...

  18. Advanced proficiency EHR training: effect on physicians' EHR efficiency, EHR satisfaction and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastagir, M Tariq; Chin, Homer L; McNamara, Michael; Poteraj, Kathy; Battaglini, Sarah; Alstot, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    The best way to train clinicians to optimize their use of the Electronic Health Record (EHR) remains unclear. Approaches range from web-based training, class-room training, EHR functionality training, case-based training, role-based training, process-based training, mock-clinic training and "on the job" training. Similarly, the optimal timing of training remains unclear--whether to engage in extensive pre go-live training vs. minimal pre go-live training followed by more extensive post go-live training. In addition, the effectiveness of non-clinician trainers, clinician trainers, and peer-trainers, remains unclearly defined. This paper describes a program in which relatively experienced clinician users of an EHR underwent an intensive 3-day Peer-Led EHR advanced proficiency training, and the results of that training based on participant surveys. It highlights the effectiveness of Peer-Led Proficiency Training of existing experienced clinician EHR users in improving self-reported efficiency and satisfaction with an EHR and improvements in perceived work-life balance and job satisfaction.

  19. Does clinical teacher training always improve teaching effectiveness as opposed to no teacher training? A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckwoldt, Jan; Svensson, Jörg; Lingemann, Christian; Gruber, Hans

    2014-01-08

    Teacher training may improve teaching effectiveness, but it might also have paradoxical effects. Research on expertise development suggests that the integration of new strategies may result in a temporary deterioration of performance until higher levels of competence are reached. In this study, the impact of a clinical teacher training on teaching effectiveness was assessed in an intensive course in emergency medicine. As primary study outcome students' practical skills at the end of their course were chosen. The authors matched 18 clinical teachers according to clinical experience and teaching experience and then randomly assigned them to a two-day-teacher training, or no training. After 14 days, both groups taught within a 12-hour intensive course in emergency medicine for undergraduate students. The course followed a clearly defined curriculum. After the course students were assessed by structured clinical examination (SCE) and MCQ. The teaching quality was rated by students using a questionnaire. Data for 96 students with trained teachers, and 97 students with untrained teachers were included. Students taught by untrained teachers performed better in the SCE domains 'alarm call' (p teachers (p = 0.05). At the end of a structured intensive course in emergency medicine, students of trained clinical teachers performed worse in 2 of 4 practical SCE domains compared to students of untrained teachers. In addition, subjective evaluations of teaching quality were worse in the group of trained teachers. Difficulties in integrating new strategies in their teaching styles might be a possible explanation.

  20. The Effectiveness of Motivation Training for Increasing Students' Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Dessy Pranungsari, Fatwa Tentama

    2014-01-01

    Students' low level of motivation becomes a matter of concern to be addressed immediately. Students' motivation needs to be improved as it is a factor that will affect their lives in the future. This study aims to observe or examine the effectiveness of motivation training in increasing students' motivation.The research method used was the pre-experiment with one group pre-test post-test design. The subjects of this study were 15 boy and girl students of Grade X of SMK who had a low level of ...

  1. Does progressive resistance strength training as additional training have any measured effect on functional outcomes in older hospitalized patients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Andersen, Christina W.; Pedersen, Sigrid F

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of progressive resistance strength training as additional training measured on functional outcomes in older hospitalized patients. DESIGN: A single-blinded randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Department of Geriatric Rehabilitation in university hospital...... = 0.05). Analysis by the mixed-effects model showed that the treatment group improved more than the control group in all outcome variables. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that for older hospitalized patients progressive resistance strength training as additional training may have an effect compared....... PARTICIPANTS: A sample of 71 patients were successively included and randomized either to the treatment group (TG) (n = 36) or the control group (CG) (n = 35). Fifteen participants dropped out (TG n = 7; CG n = 8), leaving 56 participants with a mean age of 79 (SD 7). INTERVENTION: Participants...

  2. The Effects of Simulation-based Transvaginal Ultrasound Training on Quality and Efficiency of Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolsgaard, Martin Grønnebæk; Ringsted, Charlotte; Rosthøj, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of adding simulation-based transvaginal ultrasound training to trainees' clinical training compared with only clinical training on quality of and efficiency of care. BACKGROUND: Simulation-based ultrasound training may be an effective adjunct to clinical training......, but no studies have examined its effects on quality and efficiency of care. METHODS: Trainees from 4 University Hospitals in East Denmark were included (N = 54). Participants were randomized to either simulation-based ultrasound training and clinical training (intervention group, n = 28), or to clinical training......, 33.5-55.1) and 19.8% (95% CI, 4.1-32.9) in the intervention and control group, respectively (P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Simulation-based ultrasound training improved quality of care and reduced the need for repeated patient examination and trainee supervision....

  3. The effect of combined resisted agility and repeated sprint training vs. strength training on female elite soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalfawi, Shaher A I; Haugen, Thomas; Jakobsen, Tore A; Enoksen, Eystein; Tønnessen, Espen

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of in-season combined resisted agility and repeated sprint training with strength training on soccer players' agility, linear single sprint speed, vertical jump, repeated sprint ability (RSA), and aerobic capacity. Twenty well-trained elite female soccer players of age ± SD 19.4 ± 4.4 years volunteered to participate in this study. The participants were randomly assigned to either the agility and repeated sprint training group or to the strength training group. All the participants were tested before and after a 10-week specific conditioning program. The pretest and posttest were conducted on 3 separate days with 1 day of low-intensity training in between. Test day 1 consisted of squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), and RSA. Test day 2 consisted of a 40-m maximal linear sprint and an agility test, whereas a Beep test was conducted on test day 3 to assess aerobic capacity. The agility and repeated sprint training implemented in this study did not have a significant effect on agility, although there was a tendency for moderate improvements from 8.23 ± 0.32 to 8.06 ± 0.21 seconds (d = 0.8). There was a significant (p agility performance (d = -0.1). No between-group differences were observed. The outcome of this study indicates the importance of a well-planned program of conditioning that does not result in a decreased performance of the players, the great importance of strength and conditioning specialist in implementing the training program, and the importance of choosing the time of the year to implement such conditioning training programs. However, the fact that the present training program did not cause any decline in performance indicates that it is useful in maintaining the soccer players' physical performance during the competition period.

  4. Effect of speed endurance training and reduced training volume on running economy and single muscle fiber adaptations in trained runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Casper; Christiansen, Danny; Christensen, Peter Møller

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether improved running economy with a period of speed endurance training and reduced training volume could be related to adaptations in specific muscle fibers. Twenty trained male (n = 14) and female (n = 6) runners (maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 -max.......05) in ST muscle fibers, and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 1 (SERCA1) was lower (P economy at 60% vVO2 -max (11.6 ± 0.2 km/h) and at v10-km (13.7 ± 0.3 km/h) was ~2% better (P ....3 ± 0.3 vs. 18.9 ± 0.3 km/h) after than before the intervention. Thus, improved running economy with intense training may be related to changes in expression of proteins linked to energy consuming processes in primarily ST muscle fibers....

  5. High Intensity Interval Training in Handcycling: The Effects of a 7 Week Training Intervention in Able-bodied Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenmakers, Patrick; Reed, Kate; Van Der Woude, Luc; Hettinga, Florentina J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In lower body endurance training, quantities of both moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) can lead to an improved physiological capacity and performance. Limited research is available regarding the endurance and muscular capacity of the upper body, and how training contributes to improvements in performance capacity is still unknown. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of HIIT and MICT on the physiological capacity and handcycling performance of able-bodied men in a well-controlled laboratory setting. Methods: Twenty four recreationally active men (22 ± 2 years; 1.84 ± 0.04 m; 79 ± 10 kg) were matched on incremental handcycling pre-test performance (peakPO) and then randomly assigned to HIIT, MICT, or a non-training control group (CON, 3 × n = 8). Participants in HIIT completed 14 interval training sessions, performing 4 × 4 min intervals at 85% heart rate reserve (%HRR), and seven continuous training sessions at 55 %HRR (every 2nd training session of the week). Participants in MICT performed 21 training sessions of 30 min at 55 %HRR. After the intervention, changes in peak oxygen uptake (peakVO 2 ) and peak power output (peakPO) were compared within and between HIIT, MICT and CON. Results: The average external training load per training session did not differ between MICT and HIIT ( p = 0.713). Improvements after HIIT in peakVO 2 (22.2 ± 8.1%) and peakPO (47.1 ± 20.7%) were significantly larger compared with MICT and CON ( p HIIT occurred despite training 22% less time than MICT. No significant changes were found in CON. Discussion: As in lower body endurance sports, HIIT proved to be very effective in improving the physiological and performance capacity of upper body exercise. Whilst physiological capacity in both training groups improved significantly compared with CON, the present study shows that peakVO 2 and peakPO improved more after HIIT than after MICT in able

  6. Training healthcare professionals for the future: internationalism and effective inclusion of global health training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Deborah Murdoch; Redmond, Anthony; Bax, Nigel

    2011-01-01

    There has been a continuing rise in recent years of the number of medical schools in the developed world offering 'global health' teaching to its students. Yet, the term itself is used in a number of contexts and as yet no clear consensus on what constitutes an appropriate or successful global health education programme has been reached. Approaches to sustainable internationalisation of medical curricula include the expansion of not only opportunities for training in specific global health topics, but also the development of broader generic graduate attributes including global citizenship and ethical, cultural and social responsibility. Key components for successful implementation of such an educational framework includes a breadth of educational approach to effect truly integrated and effective curricular internationalisation. That such programmes can offer benefits is appreciated by both faculty and students alike, but there is also a burgeoning concern about potential negative effects of socially and culturally insensitive programmes. We explore three potential pedagogic approaches to the subject; Model A: an 'additive' or contributory model of global health content (the commonest current approach), Model B: an 'integrated' approach and Model C: the more challenging 'transformative' approach requiring institutional as well as programme flexibility.

  7. Effect of Core Training on Male Handball Players' Throwing Velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchado, Carmen; García-Ruiz, José; Cortell-Tormo, Juan Manuel; Tortosa-Martínez, Juan

    2017-02-01

    In handball, throwing velocity is considered to be one of the essential factors in achieving the ultimate aim of scoring a goal. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effect of a core training program on throwing velocity in 30 handball players (age 18.7 ± 3.4 years, body height 179.3 ± 7.0 cm, body mass 78.9 ± 7.7 kg), 16 of whom were in the junior category and 14 of whom were in the senior category. The 30 players were randomly divided into two groups, the control group (n = 15) and the experimental group (n = 15). For a period of ten weeks, both groups attended their regular handball training sessions (four per week), but in addition, the experimental group participated in a program specifically aimed at progressively strengthening the lumbo-pelvic region and consisting of seven exercises performed after the general warm-up in each regular session. Pre- and post-tests were carried out to analyze each player's throwing velocity from different throwing positions and thus assess the effects of this specific training program. Statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in throwing velocity were observed between the experimental group, which presented a percentage improvement of 4.5%, and the control group, which did not show any improvement. The results seem to indicate that an increase in the strength and stability of the lumbo-pelvic region can contribute to an improvement in the kinetic chain of the specific movement of throwing in handball, thus, increasing throwing velocity.

  8. Effectiveness and feasibility of eccentric and task-oriented strength training in individuals with stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkerts, Mireille A; Hijmans, Juha M.; Elsinghorst, Anne L.; Mulderij, Yvon; Murgia, Alessio; Dekker, Rienk

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strength training can increase function in individuals with stroke. However it is unclear which type of strength training is most effective and feasible. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect and feasibility of an intervention combining eccentric and task-oriented strength training in

  9. Manual on Cost-Effectiveness of Training Modalities in Population Education. Population Education Programme Service Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This manual is the result of a regional training workshop on the cost-effectiveness of different training strategies in population education by Unesco in Kathmandu, Nepal, June 1-8, 1987. The purpose of the manual is to enable project staff to initiate studies to determine cost-effective training strategies in population growth control education.…

  10. Effects of interset whole-body vibration on bench press resistance training in trained and untrained individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timon, Rafael; Collado-Mateo, Daniel; Olcina, Guillermo; Gusi, Narcis

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated positive effects of acute vibration exercise on concentric strength and power, but few have observed the effects of vibration exposure on resistance training. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of whole body vibration applied to the chest via hands on bench press resistance training in trained and untrained individuals. Nineteen participants (10 recreationally trained bodybuilders and 9 untrained students) performed two randomized sessions of resistance training on separate days. Each strength session consisted of 3 bench press sets with a load of 75% 1RM to failure in each set, with 2 minutes' rest between sets. All subjects performed the same strength training with either, vibration exposure (12 Hz, 4 mm) of 30 seconds immediately before each bench press set or without vibration. Number of total repetitions, kinematic parameters, blood lactate and perceived exertion were analyzed. In the untrained group, vibration exposure caused a significant increase in the mean velocity (from 0.36±0.02 to 0.39±0.03 m/s) and acceleration (from 0.75±0.10 to 0.86±0.09 m/s2), as well as a decrease in perceived effort (from 8±0.57 to 7.35±0.47) in the first bench press set, but no change was observed in the third bench press set. In the recreationally trained bodybuilders, vibration exposure did not cause any improvement on the performance of bench press resistance training. These results suggest that vibration exposure applied just before the bench press exercise could be a good practice to be implemented by untrained individuals in resistance training.

  11. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of LTR Training versus Simulation Training and Stress Inoculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    live animal model for many emergency procedures in the complex educational training system of the military to prepare medical personnel for deployment... education training objectives. The integration of simulation technology has augmented but not replaced the live animal model for many emergency...translation of the Department of Defense’s medical education training objectives. The integration of simulation technology has augmented but not replaced the

  12. The effect of plyometric training program on young volleyball players in their usual training period

    OpenAIRE

    Vassil, Karin; Bazanov, Boriss

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out the efficiency of composed plyometric training program on youth volleyball players force capabilities in their usual training period. The plyometric training program was applied during 16 week period where was attended twenty-one 12-19 years old youth volleyball players. Twelve of them were female and nine male volleyball players. There were three control testings. All subjects participated in following tests: standing long jump, depth leap long jump,...

  13. The effectiveness of an oculometer training tape on pilot and copilot trainees in a commercial flight training program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D. H.; Coates, G. D.; Kirby, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    A study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a video tape detailing the various aspects of instrument scanning by experienced pilots on performance by pilots and copilots undergoing flight training in a Boeing 737 flight simulator. The performance ratings by instructor pilots (IP's) and self-reported instrument scan behavior by trainees were compared with those of a control group. The results indicated that the training tape had little or no effect on performance by trainees in the experimental group. Feedback from the IP's and trainees suggested that a feedback strategy providing each trainee's individual instrument scan behavior might be more beneficial in flight training than the general instructional strategy of the oculometer training tape. Flight training personnel and trainees' reports of performance decrements on or around the third day of flight simulator training were investigated. The IP's performance ratings of 27 pilot and copilot trainees failed to reveal a systematic performance decrement; however, feedback from the trainees revealed that their own attribution of performance decrements was associated with the order in which their training occurred within a session. Further research was suggested.

  14. Effects of Training Attendance on Muscle Strength of Young Men after 11 Weeks of Resistance Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentil, Paulo; Bottaro, Martim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Training attendance is an important variable for attaining optimal results after a resistance training (RT) program, however, the association of attendance with the gains of muscle strength is not well defined. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to verify if attendance would affect muscle strength gains in healthy young males. Methods Ninety two young males with no previous RT experience volunteered to participate in the study. RT was performed 2 days a week for 11 weeks. One repetition maximum (1RM) in the bench press and knee extensors peak torque (PT) were measured before and after the training period. After the training period, a two step cluster analysis was used to classify the participants in accordance to training attendance, resulting in three groups, defined as high (92 to 100%), intermediate (80 to 91%) and low (60 to 79%) training attendance. Results According to the results, there were no significant correlations between strength gains and training attendance, however, when attendance groups were compared, the low training attendance group showed lower increases in 1RM bench press (8.8%) than the other two groups (17.6% and 18.0% for high and intermediate attendance, respectively). Conclusions Although there is not a direct correlation between training attendance and muscle strength gains, it is suggested that a minimum attendance of 80% is necessary to ensure optimal gains in upper body strength. PMID:23802051

  15. Respiratory muscle training (RMT) in late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD): Effects of training and detraining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harrison N; Crisp, Kelly D; Robey, Randall R; Case, Laura E; Kravitz, Richard M; Kishnani, Priya S

    2016-02-01

    Determine the effects of a 12-week respiratory muscle training (RMT) program in late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD). We investigated the effects of 12-weeks of RMT followed by 3-months detraining using a single-subject A-B-A experimental design replicated across 8 adults with LOPD. To assess maximal volitional respiratory strength, our primary outcomes were maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximum expiratory pressure (MEP). Effect sizes for changes in MIP and MEP were determined using Cohen's d statistic. Exploratory outcomes targeted motor function, and peak cough flow (PCF) was measured in the last 5 subjects. From pretest to posttest, all 8 subjects exhibited increases in MIP, and 7 of 8 showed increases in MEP. Effect size data reveal the magnitude of increases in MIP to be large in 4 (d≥1.0) and very large in 4 (d≥2.0), and effect sizes for increases in MEP were large in 1 (d≥1.0) and very large in 6 (d≥2.0). Across participants, pretest to posttest MIP and MEP increased by a mean of 19.6% (sd=9.9) and 16.1% (sd=17.3), respectively. Respiratory strength increases, particularly for the inspiratory muscles, were generally durable to 3-months detraining. These data suggest our 12-week RMT program results in large to very large increases in inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength in adults with LOPD. Additionally, increases in respiratory strength appeared to be relatively durable following 3-months detraining. Although additional research is needed, RMT appears to offer promise as an adjunctive treatment for respiratory weakness in LOPD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mindfulness Training among Individuals with Parkinson's Disease: Neurobehavioral Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickut, Barbara; Hirsch, Mark A.; Van Hecke, Wim; Mariën, Peter; Parizel, Paul M.; Crosiers, David; Cras, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate possible neurobehavioral changes secondary to a mindfulness based intervention (MBI) training for individuals living with Parkinson's disease (PD). Background. In the context of complementary medicine, MBIs are increasingly being used for stress reduction and in patient populations coping with chronic illness. The use of alternative and complementary medicine may be higher in patients with chronic conditions such as PD. However, behavioral effects of mindfulness training in PD have not yet been reported in the literature and this points to an unmet need and warrants further examination. Methods. A total of 27 out of 30 PD patients completed a randomized controlled longitudinal trial. Questionnaires and the UPDRS I–IV were obtained at baseline and 8-week follow-up. Results. Significant changes after the MBI were found including a 5.5 point decrease on the UPDRS motor score, an increase of 0.79 points on Parkinson's disease questionnaire (PDQ-39) pain item, and a 3.15 point increase in the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire observe facet. Conclusions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first quantitative analysis of neurobehavioral effects of MBI in PD. PMID:26101690

  17. Effects of core and non-dominant arm strength training on drive distance in elite golfers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Jun Sung

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The combination of core and non-dominant arm strength exercises can provide a more effective specialized training program than core alone training for golfers to increase their drive distances.

  18. Effects of visual, seat, and platform motion during flight simulator air transport pilot training and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-27

    Access to affordable and effective flight-simulation training devices (FSTDs) is critical to safely train airline crews in aviating, navigating, communicating, making decisions, and managing flight-deck and crew resources. This paper provides an over...

  19. The effects of 20-m repeated sprint training on aerobic capacity in college volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaynak Kerimhan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a repeated sprint training program in addition to volleyball training on the aerobic capacity of college volleyball players.

  20. The effect of contralesional limb activation training and sustained attention training for self-care programmes in unilateral spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, F. Colin; Manly, Tom; Coyle, Donna; Robertson, Ian H.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of two rehabilitation techniques for unilateral spatial neglect, contra-lesional limb activation and sustained attention training, on impaired activities of daily living. METHODS: Two single case, time-series designs incorporating baseline, intervention and post-intervention phases. RESULTS: Significant improvements were observed in both neuropsychological measures and in the independent performance of everyday activities coincident with the start of training. The benefits were well maintained during the post-training period. CONCLUSIONS: The results support the use of the two techniques in achieving functional goals for unilateral neglect patients.

  1. EFFECTS OF HIGH INTENSITY TRAINING AND CONTINUOUS ENDURANCE TRAINING ON AEROBIC CAPACITY AND BODY COMPOSITION IN RECREATIONALLY ACTIVE RUNNERS

    OpenAIRE

    Kuno Hottenrott; Sebastian Ludyga; Stephan Schulze

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of two different training programs (high-intensity-training vs. continuous endurance training) on aerobic power and body composition in recreationally active men and women and to test whether or not participants were able to complete a half marathon after the intervention period. Thirty-four recreational endurance runners were randomly assigned either to a Weekend-Group (WE, n = 17) or an After-Work- Group (AW, n = 17) for a 12 week-intervention...

  2. Computer Technology Training in the Workplace: A Longitudinal Investigation of the Effect of Mood, ,

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesh, Viswanath; Speier, Cheri

    1999-01-01

    How does a person's mood during technology training influence motivation, intentions, and, ultimately, usage of the new technology? Do these mood effects dissipate or are they sustainable over time? A repeated-measures field study (n = 316) investigated the effect of mood on employee motivation and intentions toward using a specific computer technology at two points in time: immediately after training and 6 weeks after training. Actual usage behavior was assessed for 12 weeks after training. ...

  3. Effects of aggression replacement training in young offender institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmqvist, Rolf; Hill, Teci; Lang, Annicka

    2009-02-01

    This article reports a study where aggression replacement training (ART), combined with token economy, was compared with relationally oriented treatment at four residential treatment units in a nonrandomized design. In all, 57 adolescents in the ages between 16 and 19 participated. Outcome was measured as weighted indices of sentences and police suspicion reports. The results show no differences between the treatment models. In a separate analysis, the hypotheses were tested that those adolescents would relapse less frequently who admitted their crimes at intake or who could talk about guilt for their criminal acts. These hypotheses were refuted as main effects, but an interaction effect was found that suggests that adolescents with less consciousness of guilt got better results at the ART institutions. Case descriptions suggest that a more individualized approach to treatment, where ART is used for those adolescents who are motivated for it, would give better results.

  4. Task performance in spinal cord injury: effect of helplessness training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wool, R N; Siegel, D; Fine, P R

    1980-07-01

    The effects of failure or helplessness training on the task performance of recently injured spinal cord patients were assessed using the learned helplessness theory as a model. The theory states that individuals who experience uncontrollable failure become depressed and feel helpless, while those who experience self-controlled success develop a sense of competence and feel industrious. To provide validation of the learned helplessness theory, 24 recently injured spinal cord patients were interviewed and then tested for helplessness effects and depression on 2 standard learned helplessness tasks. Results suggest that it may be possible to immunize spinal cord injured patients against debilitating emotional reactions to paralysis with a success-oriented rehabilitation regime during the initial stages of recovery.

  5. Virtual Reality Training: "Cybersickness" and Effects on Sensorimotor Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harm, Deborah L.; Taylor, Laura C.

    2003-01-01

    The overall goal of this study is to examine the extent to which exposure to virtual reality (VR) systems produces motion sickness and disrupts sensorimotor functions. Two of the major problems in using VRs are: 1) potential "cybersickness", a form of motion sickness, and 2) maladaptive sensorimotor coordination following virtual environment (VE) training. It is likely that users will eventually adapt to any unpleasant perceptual experiences in a virtual environment. However the most critical problem for training applications is that sensorimotor coordination strategies learned in the VE may not be similar to the responses required in the real environment. This study will evaluate and compare responses to the two types of VR delivery systems (head-mounted display [HMD] and a dome-projection system [DOME]), two exposure duration periods (30 minutes or 60 minutes), and repeated exposures (3 sessions). Specific responses that we will examine include cybersickness severity and symptom patterns, and several sensorimotor functions (eye-hea.d and eye-head-hand coordination, and postural equilibrium). To date, all hardware and software acquisition, development, integration and testing has been completed. A database has been developed and tested for the input, management and storage of all questionnaire data. All data analysis scripts have been developed and tested. Data was collected from 20 subjects in a pilot study that was conducted to determine the amount of training necessary to achieve a stable performance level. Seven subjects are currently enrolled in the study designed to examine the effects of exposure to VE systems on postural control. Data has been collected from two subjects, and it is expected that the results from ten subjects will be presented.

  6. Effects of concurrent training on health aspects of elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Leandro Peres Campos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n4p437 Training programs that include aerobics and strength exercises, either at the same session or alternate days are defined as concurrent training (CT. The objective of this study was to verify the effects of a CT program on biochemical parameters,cardiovascular fitness, body composition and neuromuscular aspects. Twenty two elderly women physically active were randomly allocated to one of the five groups: AS (aerobic exercises followed by strength training; n=5, SA (strength activities followed by aerobics exercises; n=5, AG (aerobics exercise only;n=5, SG (strength activities only; n=4, CG (control group; n=3. The program lasted 12 weeks. Tests of dynamic and static strength, flexibility, aerobic power, body composition and biochemical parameters were conducted. In the aerobics power test, AS and SA groups showed differences in the post-test compared to the CG. In dynamic strength test of upper limbs, the groups S, SA, AS showed statistical differences from the CG in the post-test (p=0.009, 0.006 and 0.002 respectively. Only the AS group presented some difference from the pre to post-tests (P=003. AG, SG, SA, AS showed differences in the post-test inrelation to the CG for the lower limbs strength test (p<0.001. From pre to post-test within the same group, the groups SG, SA and AS showed differences (p=0.001, 0.03, 0.02. Stretching, static strength, biochemical factors and body composition showed no association with any of the groups. We concluded that CT was equivalent to the strength and aerobics exercises performed exclusively.

  7. Effects of concurrent training on health aspects of elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Leandro Peres Campos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Training programs that include aerobics and strength exercises, either at the same session or alternate days are defined as concurrent training (CT. The objective of this study was to verify the effects of a CT program on biochemical parameters,cardiovascular fitness, body composition and neuromuscular aspects. Twenty two elderly women physically active were randomly allocated to one of the five groups: AS (aerobic exercises followed by strength training; n=5, SA (strength activities followed by aerobics exercises; n=5, AG (aerobics exercise only;n=5, SG (strength activities only; n=4, CG (control group; n=3. The program lasted 12 weeks. Tests of dynamic and static strength, flexibility, aerobic power, body composition and biochemical parameters were conducted. In the aerobics power test, AS and SA groups showed differences in the post-test compared to the CG. In dynamic strength test of upper limbs, the groups S, SA, AS showed statistical differences from the CG in the post-test (p=0.009, 0.006 and 0.002 respectively. Only the AS group presented some difference from the pre to post-tests (P=003. AG, SG, SA, AS showed differences in the post-test inrelation to the CG for the lower limbs strength test (p<0.001. From pre to post-test within the same group, the groups SG, SA and AS showed differences (p=0.001, 0.03, 0.02. Stretching, static strength, biochemical factors and body composition showed no association with any of the groups. We concluded that CT was equivalent to the strength and aerobics exercises performed exclusively.

  8. Effectiveness of Emotional Intelligence Training on Alexithymia of Male Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karami Rad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Emotions are part of the human nature and are considered as one the necessities of human life. However, if left uncontrolled or unregulated, they will create problems for the individual and others. Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of emotional intelligence training on alexithymia of male students with high levels of alexithymia. Materials and Methods The statistical population consisted of undergraduate male students enrolled at Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz between 2012 and 2013. Samples were selected via two stages by using the random cluster multistage method. The first stage involved distributing and collecting 623 measures of alexithymia (TAS-20 in the form of a multi-stage cluster between students and also selecting 40 individuals from those with scores of a higher standard deviation than the average in this scale. The second stage consisted of selecting 30 individuals who possessed the criteria for entering the groups. The test group after eight training sessions (two times a week and the control group without any intervention simultaneously completed the post-test. For data analysis, analysis of univariate covariance (ANCOVA was used. Results Statistical analysis showed that emotional intelligence training affected male students with alexithymia (Eta2 = 0.77 and P < 0.0001 and F = 92.27 and the mean score of emotional alexithymia related to the experimental group reduced from 67.80 to 51.60. Conclusions According to these findings, emotional intelligence can be taught in order to reduce the level of students’ alexithymia and improve emotional problems in individuals with high alexithymia.

  9. Trained immunity: consequences for the heterologous effects of BCG vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinnijenhuis, Johanneke; van Crevel, Reinout; Netea, Mihai G

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence from epidemiologic and immunologic studies have shown that in addition to target disease-specific effects, vaccines have heterologous effects towards unrelated pathogens. Like some other vaccines, bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has shown in observational studies and randomized clinical trials to increase survival beyond the disease burden of the target disease. The immunologic substrate for these non-specific protective effects have been ascertained to heterologous T cell effects on the one hand, and to priming of innate immunity on the other hand. The term 'trained immunity' has been proposed to describe these potentiating effects of vaccines on innate immune responses. This process can explain the rapid effects of BCG vaccination and has been suggested to be mediated by epigenetic programming of monocytes or macrophages. This novel concept has important implications for the possible use of vaccines, for vaccination policy and even for the design of novel immunotherapeutic approaches. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Effect of dance video game training on elderly's cognitive function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Azman, Nursyairah; SUZUKI, Kota; SUZUKI, Tatsuya; ONO, Yumie; EDANAKA, Yuki; KUNIEDA, Fukuo; NAKATA, Masahiro; WATANABE, Kazuko

    2017-01-01

    We used dance video game (DVG) training as a mean of improving elderly's cognitive function and investigated whether the elderly with MCI could overcome the once affected cognitive function via continuous DVG training...

  11. Management training effects on nurse manager leadership behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K R; D'Argenio, C

    1991-01-01

    Costly organization-based leadership/management development training gives little evidence that such training affects long-term changes in nurse manager leader style adaptability in meeting situations and staff needs.

  12. Effects of strength training on endurance capacity in top-level endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, P; Andersen, J L

    2010-01-01

    The effect of concurrent strength (S) and endurance (E) training on adaptive changes in aerobic capacity, endurance performance, maximal muscle strength and muscle morphology is equivocal. Some data suggest an attenuated cardiovascular and musculoskeletal response to combined E and S training......, while other data show unimpaired or even superior adaptation compared with either training regime alone. However, the effect of concurrent S and E training only rarely has been examined in top-level endurance athletes. This review describes the effect of concurrent SE training on short-term and long......-term endurance performance in endurance-trained subjects, ranging from moderately trained individuals to elite top-level athletes. It is concluded that strength training can lead to enhanced long-term (>30 min) and short-term (...

  13. Effects of strength training on endurance capacity in top-level endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, P; Andersen, J L

    2010-01-01

    The effect of concurrent strength (S) and endurance (E) training on adaptive changes in aerobic capacity, endurance performance, maximal muscle strength and muscle morphology is equivocal. Some data suggest an attenuated cardiovascular and musculoskeletal response to combined E and S training......-term endurance performance in endurance-trained subjects, ranging from moderately trained individuals to elite top-level athletes. It is concluded that strength training can lead to enhanced long-term (>30 min) and short-term (......, while other data show unimpaired or even superior adaptation compared with either training regime alone. However, the effect of concurrent S and E training only rarely has been examined in top-level endurance athletes. This review describes the effect of concurrent SE training on short-term and long...

  14. THE NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF WHOLE BODY VIBRATION TRAINING

    OpenAIRE

    KOÇ, Gözde; K. Alparslan ERMAN

    2012-01-01

    Whole body vibration training, the person’s entire body on a platform, creates a vibration that may affect the muscles and bones. Despite the vibration used of massage and treatment since ancient times, it was used as a training method in recent years and became very popular and has attracted the attention of researchers. Whole body vibration training used both sport science with the aim to improve performance and in the fields of medicine for sports therapy. Whole body vibration training bri...

  15. Effects of Serial and Concurrent Training on Acquisition and Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Kara L.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Donaldson, Jeanne M.; Phillips, Cara L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite a large body of research demonstrating that generalization to novel stimuli can be produced by training sufficient exemplars, the methods by which exemplars can be trained remain unclear. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate 2 methods, serial and concurrent presentation of stimuli, to train sufficient exemplars. Five preschool…

  16. Effects of Psychotherapy Training and Intervention Use on Session Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, James F.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Wasserman, Rachel H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study was an investigation of the relationships among therapist training variables, psychotherapy process, and session outcome in a psychotherapy training clinic. The aims were to assess the relationship between "training as usual" and intervention use in individual psychotherapy, to investigate the relationship between therapist…

  17. STAFF TRAINING MANAGEMENT IN AN COMMERCIAL BANK: EFFECTS AND SYNERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Artemyev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the dependence of a commercial bank on a staff number and a profit on staff training expenses. Necessity of an address approach in the process of the staff training is proved. The key features of this approach are revealed. The authors describe its realization in the automated system of training control.

  18. EFFECTS OF INTENSIVE STRENGTH TRAINING ON CARDIOVASCULAR ENDURANCE (Review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Gračanin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Each physical activity, as a specific type of “body stress”, initiates complexes biochemical, physical, psychological and functional organism reactions. As a result of adaptation to working pressures, it is primarily implied to capacity of an organism to perform physical activity of certain volume and intensity. Consequently, any type of exercise has a positive impact on cardiovascular system. Blood pressure and heart rate decrease, because the heart grows stronger and, hence, more efficient and capable to pump more blood per one heart beat. Strength training exercises cause maximal mobilization of muscle during a short period of time, with huge loss of energy. This paper analysis researches published during the 1997-2010 period of time, which dealt with the topic of effects of intensive strength trainings exercises on cardiovascular endurance. The aim of this research is gathering and analyzing of accessible researches and conclusions reached. Based on the analyzed data’s, it can be concluded that intensive strength exercises above all improve physical activity capacity of an organism, improves level of muscle strength, increase cardiovascular endurance and enhances organism recovery. Accordingly, overall physical and mental organism balance is improved, which are the key components for life quality.

  19. Effect of yogic training on physiological variables in working women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurwale, Manisha V; Gadkari, Jayeshree V

    2014-01-01

    Depression and anxiety in women sharply rising. Working women have high level of stress than non working women. Increasing amount of work stress at home and work place and its impact on family and home environment can be seen, which affect their emotional, psychological and physical health. The concept of yoga is helpful for reducing anxiety and improving cardiorespiratory parameters has created a great interest in the medical research field. The present study was conducted to assessing the effect of yogic exercises and meditation in working women. Yogic session was carried out for 16 weeks. Cardiorespiratory parameters (pulse rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure and breath holding time) were measured before and after yoga training. Stress was measured by anxiety score as an indicator of stress, also Visual reaction time as an indicator of cognitive function and finger dexterity score as an indicator of motor skills were measured before and after yoga training. Statistical analysis was done by paired 't' test. It was found that statistically significant improvement in cardiorespiratory parameters, anxiety score, visual reaction time and finger dexterity score (P meditation & relaxation technique in a sequence is the best available resource to meet the.present day needs of society.

  20. Investigating the effect of in-service training on advisors' effectiveness through psychological empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Dokaneheeifard

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency is one of the fundamental concepts in any organization including ministry of education of Iran. Teachers and counselors are the main assets of this organization and education plays a key role in achieving the organization's goals. In-service training is a technique for improving the quality and effectiveness of the advisors. This paper presents a study on the effect of in-service training on advisors’ effectiveness through psychological empowerment. The study uses a questionnaire developed by Spreitzer (1995 [Spreitzer, G. M. (1995. Psychological empowerment in the workplace: Dimensions, measurement, and validation. Academy of management Journal, 38(5, 1442-1465.] to examine the effects of five variables; namely self- efficacy, self-determination, impact, meaningfulness and trust. Using structural equation modeling, the study has determined that all five psychological empowerment components had positive and meaningful effects on in-service training. In addition, in-service training maintained positive and meaningful impacts on all components on psychological empowerment. Moreover, in-service training positively influenced on psychological empowerment.

  1. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a transfer (interhemispheric) training programme in the early stages of fencing training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Mateusz; Bronikowski, Michał; Nowik, Agnieszka; Tomczak, Maciej; Strugarek, Jan

    2017-07-24

    A high level of motor coordination (with an emphasis on the accuracy of hand movements) is an important part of fencers' training. Research on motor coordination shows that both hemispheres of the brain are involved in controlling the action of each of the upper limbs. As the physical training of one hand is believed to significantly increase the performance of the other (untrained) hand [14], the authors attempt to verify the hypothesis that specialized training of the nondominant limb can improve the performance of the dominant hand in fencing. The study was carried out in Poznań, Poland, in 2015 and involved the experimental (N=8) and control (N=8) groups of cadets (12.7±0.5 years old); body mass 38.69±4.08; body height 153.47±6.17), who were randomly selected from fencers belonging to the Fencing Club "Warta" in Poznań, Poland. Participants in the study belonged to one training group with a similar training experience of about six years. All participants in the study (N = 16) declared righthandedness during trainings and duels. Their right lateralization was also confirmed in a survey, which was conducted using the Edinburgh Questionnaire [21]. The experimental training programme included six weeks of specialized training of the coordination skills of the nondominant side. It was carried out five times a week. Each session took 30 minutes. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of transfer (interhemispheric) training with the use of the nondominant hand in particular, on the performance of the dominant hand in fencing. The results indicate that the transfer (interhemispheric) training reduced test accomplishment time in tasks performed with the right upper limb during accuracy tests. The procedures applied in the study also reduced test accomplishment time in tasks performed with the left upper limb. The study demonstrates that an interhemispheric training programme can effectively improve the accuracy of fencing actions, at least in the early

  2. Priming Hand Motor Training with Repetitive Stimulation of the Fingertips; Performance Gain and Functional Imaging of Training Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotze, Martin; Ladda, Aija Marie; Roschka, Sybille; Platz, Thomas; Dinse, Hubert R

    Application of repetitive electrical stimulation (rES) of the fingers has been shown to improve tactile perception and sensorimotor performance in healthy individuals. To increase motor performance by priming the effects of active motor training (arm ability training; AAT) using rES. We compared the performance gain for the training increase of the averaged AAT tasks of both hands in two groups of strongly right-handed healthy volunteers. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) before and after AAT was assessed using three tasks for each hand separately: finger sequence tapping, visually guided grip force modulation, and writing. Performance during fMRI was controlled for preciseness and frequency. A total of 30 participants underwent a two-week unilateral left hand AAT, 15 participants with 20 minutes of rES priming of all fingertips of the trained hand, and 15 participants without rES priming. rES-primed AAT improved the trained left-hand performance across all training tasks on average by 32.9%, non-primed AAT improved by 29.5%. This gain in AAT performance with rES priming was predominantly driven by an increased finger tapping velocity. Functional imaging showed comparable changes for both training groups over time. Across all participants, improved AAT performance was associated with a higher contralateral primary somatosensory cortex (S1) fMRI activation magnitude during the grip force modulation task. This study highlights the importance of S1 for hand motor training gain. In addition, it suggests the usage of rES of the fingertips for priming active hand motor training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Neuromuscular adaptations to concurrent training in the elderly: effects of intrasession exercise sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Izquierdo, Mikel; Pinto, Stephanie Santana; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini; Vaz, Marco Aurélio; Lanferdini, Fábio Juner; Radaelli, Régis; González-Izal, Miriam; Bottaro, Martim; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was investigate the effects of different intrasession exercise orders in the neuromuscular adaptations induced by concurrent training in elderly. Twenty-six healthy elderly men (64.7 ± 4.1 years), were placed into two concurrent training groups: strength prior to (SE, n = 13) or after (ES, n = 13) endurance training. Subjects trained strength and endurance training during 12 weeks, three times per week performing both exercise types in the same training session. Upper an...

  4. Effects of activity repetition training with Salat (prayer) versus task oriented training on functional outcomes of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghous, Misbah; Malik, Arshad Nawaz; Amjad, Mian Imran; Kanwal, Maria

    2017-07-01

    Stroke is one of most disabling condition which directly affects quality of life. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of activity repetition training with salat (prayer) versus task oriented training on functional outcomes of stroke. The study design was randomized control trial and 32 patients were randomly assigned into two groups'. The stroke including infarction or haemorrhagic, age bracket 30-70 years was included. The demographics were recorded and standardized assessment tool included Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Motor assessment scale (MAS) and Time Up and Go Test (TUG). The measurements were obtained at baseline, after four and six weeks. The mean age of the patients was 54.44±10.59 years with 16 (59%) male and 11(41%) female patients. Activity Repetition Training group showed significant improvement (pfunctional status as compare to task oriented training group. The repetition with motivation and concentration is the key in re-learning process of neural plasticity.

  5. Effects of aerobic, anaerobic, and concurrent training on bone mineral density of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Chacon Castoldi

    Full Text Available Abstract A sample of 39 rats were divided into the following groups: baseline (BL; aerobic training (ET4 and ET8; anaerobic training (ST4 and ST8; and concurrent training (CT4 and CT8. The aerobic training was performed by swimming with a load corresponding to 70% of the anaerobic threshold; the anaerobic training was performed by jumping in water with a load corresponding to 50% of body weight; and the concurrent training combined the two protocols. The analysis of BMDwas performed on the tibia of the animals and showed an increase in the density of the ST4, CT4, ET8, ST8, and CT8 groups when compared with both the BL and ET4. Thus, it is concluded that anaerobic exercise was shown to be effective in increasing the BMD of animals afterfour weeks of training; however, aerobic training was only able to raise BMD following eight weeks of training.

  6. Differential cardiac effects of aerobic interval training versus moderate continuous training in a patient with schizophrenia: a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eHerbsleb

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rates for patients with schizophrenia are reported to contribute to their reduced life expectancy. Common reasons for increased cardiac mortality rates include cigarette smoking, obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes and poorer health behavior in general. The majority of excess mortality among people with schizophrenia is caused by cardiovascular complications. Reduced vagal activity might be one important mechanism leading to this increased cardiac mortality and has been consistently described in patients and their healthy first-degree relatives.In this case study, we compared two different aerobic exercise regimes in one patient with chronic schizophrenia to investigate their effects on cardiovascular regulation. The patient completed a 6-week period of moderate continuous training followed by a 6-week period of interval training, each regime 2 times per week, on a stationary bicycle. This was followed by a 6-week period of detraining. Primary outcome measures examined heart rate (HR and heart rate variability (HRV at rest while secondary measures assessed fitness parameters such as the ventilatory threshold 1 (VT1. We observed that interval training was far more effective than moderate continuous training in increasing HRV, as indicated by RMSSD (improvement to baseline 27% vs. 18%, and reducing resting heart rate (-14% vs. 0%. Improvement in VT1 (21% vs. -1% was only observed after interval training. Our study provides preliminary data that the type of intervention is highly influential for improving cardiac function in patients with schizophrenia. While cardiovascular function might be influenced by continuous training to some degree, no such effect was present in this patient with schizophrenia. In addition, the beneficial effect of interval training on heart rate regulation vanished completely after a very short period of detraining after the intervention.

  7. Effects of intermittent hypoxic training performed at high hypoxia level on exercise performance in highly trained runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Anthony M J; Borrani, Fabio

    2018-02-02

    This study exanimated the effects of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) conducted at a high level of hypoxia with recovery at ambient air on aerobic/anaerobic capacities at sea level and hematological variations. According to a double-blind randomized design, fifteen highly endurance-trained runners completed a 6-weeks regimented training with 3 sessions per week consisting of intermittent runs (6x work-rest ratio of 5':5') on a treadmill at 80-85% of maximal aerobic speed ([Formula: see text]). Nine athletes (hypoxic group, HG) performed the exercise bouts at FI0 2  = 10.6-11.4% while six athletes (normoxic group, NG) exercised at ambient air. Running time to exhaustion at a velocity corresponding to 95% [Formula: see text] significantly increased for HG while no effect was found for NG. Regarding [Formula: see text], no significant effects were found in either training group. In addition, the decline of jumping performances over a 45s-continuous maximal vertical jump test (i.e. anaerobic capacity index) tended to be lower in HG compared to NG. The levels of the studied hematological variables, including erythropoietin and hematocrit, did not significantly change for either HG or NG. These results highlight that our IHT protocol may induce additional effects on aerobic performance without compromising the anaerobic capacity index in highly-trained athletes.

  8. The effects of training with loads that maximise power output and individualised repetitions vs. traditional power training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J M Sarabia

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that strength training effects (i.e. neural or structural vary, depending on the total repetitions performed and velocity loss in each training set.The aim of this study is to compare the effects of two training programmes (i.e. one with loads that maximise power output and individualised repetitions, and the other following traditional power training.Twenty-five males were divided into three groups (optimum power [OP = 10], traditional training [TT = 9] and control group [CG = 6]. The training load used for OP was individualised using loads that maximised power output (41.7% ± 5.8 of one repetition maximum [1RM] and repetitions at maximum power (4 to 9 repetitions, or 'reps'. Volume (sets x repetitions was the same for both experimental groups, while intensity for TT was that needed to perform only 50% of the maximum number of possible repetitions (i.e. 61.1%-66.6% of 1RM. The training programme ran over 11 weeks (2 sessions per week; 4-5 sets per session; 3-minute rests between sets, with pre-, intermediate and post-tests which included: anthropometry, 1RM, peak power output (PPO with 30%, 40% and 50% of 1RM in the bench press throw, and salivary testosterone (ST and cortisol (SC concentrations. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE and power output were recorded in all sessions.Following the intermediate test, PPO was increased in the OP group for each load (10.9%-13.2%. Following the post-test, both experimental groups had increased 1RM (11.8%-13.8% and PPO for each load (14.1%-19.6%. Significant decreases in PPO were found for the TT group during all sets (4.9%-15.4%, along with significantly higher RPE (37%.OP appears to be a more efficient method of training, with less neuromuscular fatigue and lower RPE.

  9. Evaluating the effectiveness of teacher training in Applied Behaviour Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Ian M; Honan, Rita; McClean, Brian; Daly, Michael

    2005-09-01

    Interventions for children with autism based upon Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) has been repeatedly shown to be related both to educational gains and to reductions in challenging behaviours. However, to date, comprehensive training in ABA for teachers and others have been limited. Over 7 months, 11 teachers undertook 90 hours of classroom instruction and supervision in ABA. Each teacher conducted a comprehensive functional assessment and designed a behaviour support plan targeting one behaviour for one child with an autistic disorder. Target behaviours included aggression, non-compliance and specific educational skills. Teachers recorded observational data for the target behaviour for both baseline and intervention sessions. Support plans produced an average 80 percent change in frequency of occurrence of target behaviours. Questionnaires completed by parents and teachers at the end of the course indicated a beneficial effect for the children and the educational environment. The potential benefits of teacher implemented behavioural intervention are discussed.

  10. Effectiveness of Mental Health First Aid training in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kamilla B.; Morthorst, Britt Reuter; Vendsborg, Per B.

    2016-01-01

    and ability to recognize mental illness and improved positive attitudes towards people suffering from mental health problems. METHOD: Study design was a randomized trial with a waitlist control group. The intervention group was compared with the control group at 6-month follow-up. Both groups completed...... at baseline and at 6-month follow-up. RESULTS: A significant difference was found between employees trained in the intervention group compared to the control group at 6-month follow-up on the items of confidence in making contact to (Cohen's d 0.17), talking to (Cohen's d 0.18) and providing help to (Cohen......PURPOSE: To examine the effect of the Australian educational intervention Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) in a Danish context. Primary outcome was improvement concerning confidence in help-giving behavior towards people suffering from mental illness. Secondary outcomes were increased knowledge...

  11. Effects of Short-Term Dynamic Constant External Resistance Training and Subsequent Detraining on Strength of the Trained and Untrained Limbs: A Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo B. Costa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-term resistance training has been shown to increase isokinetic muscle strength and performance after only two to nine days of training. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of three days of unilateral dynamic constant external resistance (DCER training and detraining on the strength of the trained and untrained legs. Nineteen men were randomly assigned to a DCER training group or a non-training control group. Subjects visited the laboratory eight times, the first visit was a familiarization session, the second visit was a pre-training assessment, the subsequent three visits were for training sessions (if assigned to the training group, and the last three visits were post-training assessments 1, 2, and 3 (i.e., 48 h, 1 week, and 2 weeks after the final training session. Strength increased in both trained and untrained limbs from pre- to post-training assessment 1 for the training group and remained elevated at post-training assessments 2 and 3 (p ≤ 0.05. No changes were observed in the control (p > 0.05. Possible strength gains from short-term resistance training have important implications in clinical rehabilitation settings, sports injury prevention, as well as other allied health fields such as physical therapy, occupational therapy, and athletic training.

  12. EFFECT OF A HOME EXERCISE TRAINING-PROGRAM IN PATIENTS WITH CYSTIC-FIBROSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEJONG, W; GREVINK, RG; ROORDA, RJ; KAPTEIN, AA; VANDERSCHANS, CP

    Physical training in patients with pulmonary diseases, including cystic fibrosis (CF), may improve exercise tolerance in these patients. Most training programs are performed in a clinical setting. Little information is available concerning the effect of home exercise training programs in CF

  13. The effects of teacher training on new instructional behaviour in reading comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jager, B.; Reezigt, G.J.; Creemers, B.P.M.

    2002-01-01

    This study concerns the effects of teacher training in instructional behaviour based on new insights in the field of learning and instruction. In an experiment, eight teachers were trained to apply a cognitive apprenticeship model and five teachers were trained to apply a direct instruction model in

  14. The Effects of Musical Aptitude and Musical Training on Phonological Production in Foreign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Zhengwei; Wu, Yidi; Xiang, Xiaocui; Qian, Huimin

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates 128 Chinese college students to examine the effects of their musical aptitude and musical training on phonological production in four foreign languages. Results show that musically-trained students remarkably possessed stronger musical aptitude than those without musical training and performed better than their counterpart…

  15. A Quantitative Analysis of the Effect of Resistance Training on Strength Test Score Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-02

    M., Thomakos, P., … Mitrakou, A.(2005). Leptin and adiponectin responses in overweight inactive elderly following resistance training and detraining ...variables that would be thought of as aptitudes. If ATIs occur in resistance training, the interactions must be identified to match people to programs...Chatzinikolaou, A., Leontsini, D., Taxildaris, K. (2005). Strength training and detraining effects on muscular strength, anaerobic power, and mobility

  16. Gender and the Effect of Working Hours on Firm-Sponsored Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picchio, Matteo; van Ours, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Using employees’ longitudinal data, we study the effect of working hours on the propensity of firms to sponsor training of their employees. We show that, whereas male part-time workers are less likely to receive training than male full-timers, parttime working women are as likely to receive training

  17. Self-Regulation in Error Management Training: Emotion Control and Metacognition as Mediators of Performance Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Nina; Frese, Michael

    2005-01-01

    In error management training, participants are explicitly encouraged to make errors and learn from them. Error management training has frequently been shown to lead to better performance than conventional trainings that adopt an error avoidant approach. The present study investigated self-regulatory processes mediating this effect. Fifty-five…

  18. The Effects of Training on Automatization of Word Recognition in English as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Nobuhiko

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of word-recognition training on the word-recognition processing of learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). Providing 7-week word-recognition training, the study examined whether such training improves EFL learners' word-recognition performance. The main aspects of this study concerned word…

  19. 38 CFR 21.8280 - Effective date of induction into a vocational training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... induction into a vocational training program. 21.8280 Section 21.8280 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... Vocational Training Program Entrance, Termination, and Resources § 21.8280 Effective date of induction into a vocational training program. Subject to the limitations in § 21.8022, the date an eligible child is inducted...

  20. Concept Attainment Teaching Methodology (CATM)--An Effective Approach for Training Workers on Chemicals Health Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Abdulqadir Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Workers handling chemicals need to understand the risk to health involved in their work, and this requires training. In this study effectivity of concept attainment teaching methodology (CATM) as training strategy for cleaning workers was assessed. CATM was used to train workers on chemicals information and health hazards. Pictures, illustrations,…

  1. The Role of Regulatory Focus in Determining Career-Development Training Program Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weide, Jeffrey Lee

    2014-01-01

    American organizations spend over $135 billion annually on training with an unknown return on investment. When budgets decline, leaders typically reduce training, despite the known influence of such training on employee motivation. To explore the perceptions of government-focused project managers regarding the effect of a lack of standardized…

  2. The aerodynamic effects of passing trains to surrounding objects and people

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Two safety issues are raised on the aerodynamic effects of a passing train on its surroundings. First, a high-speed train passing other trains on an adjacent track exerts aerodynamic pressure that can affect the structural integrity of window mount a...

  3. The effect of choice options in training curricula on the supply of and demand for apprenticeships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.; de Grip, A.; Kriechel, B.

    2016-01-01

    Building on Lazear’s skill weights approach, we study the effect of having more or less heterogeneity in the training curriculum on supply of and demand for apprenticeship training. Modernizations of training curricula provide us with a quasi-experimental setting as these modernizations can be seen

  4. Effects of 8-Week Training on Aerobic Capacity and Swimming Performance of Boys Aged 12 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzeczny, Ryszard; Kuberski, Mariusz; Deska, Agnieszka; Zarzeczna, Dorota; Rydz, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Anna; Balchanowski, Tomasz; Bosiacki, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the effects of 8-week endurance training in swimming on work capacity of boys aged 12 years. Material and methods: The following groups of schoolboys aged 12 years were studied: untrained control (UC; n = 14) and those training swimming for two years. The latter ones were subjected to 8-week training in classical style (CS; n…

  5. Effects of Training Leaders in Needs-Based Methods of Running Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Emily M.; Malouff, John M.; Rangan, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of brief training in how to lead organizational meetings. The training was based on an attendee-needs-based model of running meetings. Twelve mid-level managers completed the training. The study showed a significant pre to post increase in the number of needs-based behaviors displayed by meeting leaders and in…

  6. Effect of Psychosocial Skills Training on Functional Remission of Patients With Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzdil, Nurcan; Tanrıverdi, Derya

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted as a two-group pretest-posttest design to determine the effect of psychosocial skills training on functional remission levels of patients with schizophrenia. A total of 100 patients were divided into the training group (n = 50) and the control group (n = 50). The data were collected using a Personal Information Form and Functional Remission of General Schizophrenia (FROGS) scale. The 13-session training program was given in the form of face-to-face group training and 45- to 60-min sessions twice a week. Training was completed by five groups. Every group comprised of 9 to 12 individuals on average. The training group had higher scores significantly on functional remission levels compared with the control group after psychosocial skills training (p training has become considerably effective in increasing the functional remission levels of patients with schizophrenia. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Effects of Partner's Improvisational Resistance Training on dancers' muscular strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Rheba E; Dorgo, Sandor

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of Partner's Improvisational Resistance Training (PIRT) on muscular strength, body circumference, and body fat percentage in 10 female college-age dancers in comparison with 8 female dancers in a control group. The PIRT program, based on the concepts of manual resistance training, is the application of contact improvisation in a systematic strength development program, which proposes a way of contextualizing muscular strength development within the dance class. The program lasted 8 weeks, meeting 3 times weekly for 60-minute sessions. The muscular strength pre- and posttests included 1-repetition maximum (1RM) for leg extension, leg flexion, leg press, bench press, lat pulldown, back extension, and modified sit-up. Hydrostatic weighing for body composition and circumference measures on the waist, hip, shoulder, upper arm, and thigh were made pre- and posttest analyses. There were no significant pretest differences between the groups for age, height, body weight, body fat percentage, any of the circumference measures, or 5 of the 7 muscular strength measures. At posttest, neither group showed significant changes in total body weight, body fat percentage, or lean body weight. The experimental group showed significant decrements in the waist and hip circumference measures, and all other body circumference changes were nonsignificant. The experimental group showed significant changes from pretest to posttest for all seven 1RM strength measures and greater absolute and relative strength improvements in 5 measures compared with the control group. Thus, the 8-week PIRT program for female dancers was found effective in improving overall muscular strength and decreasing circumference in the waist-hip region, but it did not elicit significant changes in body composition.

  8. Training Needs Assessment: A Must for Developing an Effective Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Judith

    2002-01-01

    Presents a rationale for conducting training needs assessment and discusses types of analyses: organizational, task, and individual. Compares advantages and disadvantages of the following assessment methods: surveys, interviews, performance appraisals, observations, tests, assessment centers, focus groups, document reviews, and advisory…

  9. P1-1: The Effect of Convergence Training on Visual Discomfort in 3D TV Viewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Min Jeon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated whether convergence training has an effect on reducing visual discomfort in viewing a stereoscopic TV. Participants were assigned into either a training group or a control group. In the training group, one of the two different training procedures is provided: gradual change or random change in the disparities of bar stimulus which was used for convergence training. Training itself was very effective so that convergence fusional range was improved after 3 repeated trainings with intervals of two weeks. In order to evaluate the effect of convergence training on visual discomfort, the visual discomfort in 3D TV viewing was measured before and after training sessions. The results showed that a significant reduction in visual discomfort was found after training only in one training group. These results demonstrated a repeated convergence training might be helpful in reducing the visual discomfort. Further studies should be needed to set the most effective parameters of training of this pattern.

  10. The Effect of Different Resistance Training Load Schemes on Strength and Body Composition in Trained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Charles Ricardo; Aoki, Marcelo Saldanha; Crisp, Alex Harley; de Mattos, Renê Scarpari; Lins, Miguel Alves; da Mota, Gustavo Ribeiro; Schoenfeld, Brad Jon; Marchetti, Paulo Henrique

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of moderate-load (10 RM) and low-load (20 RM) resistance training schemes on maximal strength and body composition. Sixteen resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: a moderate-load group (n = 8) or a low-load group (n = 8). The resistance training schemes consisted of 8 exercises performed 4 times per week for 6 weeks. In order to equate the number of repetitions performed by each group, the moderate load group performed 6 sets of 10 RM, while the low load group performed 3 sets of 20 RM. Between-group differences were evaluated using a 2-way ANOVA and independent t-tests. There was no difference in the weekly total load lifted (sets × reps × kg) between the 2 groups. Both groups equally improved maximal strength and measures of body composition after 6 weeks of resistance training, with no significant between-group differences detected. In conclusion, both moderate-load and low-load resistance training schemes, similar for the total load lifted, induced a similar improvement in maximal strength and body composition in resistance-trained men.

  11. Cumulative Training Dose's Effects on Interrelationships Between Common Training-Load Models During Basketball Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Aaron T; Fox, Jordan L; Borges, Nattai R; Dascombe, Ben J; Dalbo, Vincent J

    2017-02-01

    The influence of various factors on training-load (TL) responses in basketball has received limited attention. This study aimed to examine the temporal changes and influence of cumulative training dose on TL responses and interrelationships during basketball activity. Ten state-level Australian male junior basketball players completed 4 × 10-min standardized bouts of simulated basketball activity using a circuit-based protocol. Internal TL was quantified using the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE), summated heart-rate zones (SHRZ), Banister training impulse (TRIMP), and Lucia TRIMP models. External TL was assessed via measurement of mean sprint and circuit speeds. Temporal TL comparisons were performed between 10-min bouts, while Pearson correlation analyses were conducted across cumulative training doses (0-10, 0-20, 0-30, and 0-40 min). sRPE TL increased (P training doses (r = .84-.89; P training doses lasting beyond 20 min. Thus, the interchangeability of commonly used internal and external TL approaches appears dose-dependent during basketball activity, with various psychophysiological mediators likely underpinning temporal changes.

  12. The Effect of Different Resistance Training Load Schemes on Strength and Body Composition in Trained Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes Charles Ricardo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of moderate-load (10 RM and low-load (20 RM resistance training schemes on maximal strength and body composition. Sixteen resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: a moderate-load group (n = 8 or a low-load group (n = 8. The resistance training schemes consisted of 8 exercises performed 4 times per week for 6 weeks. In order to equate the number of repetitions performed by each group, the moderate load group performed 6 sets of 10 RM, while the low load group performed 3 sets of 20 RM. Between-group differences were evaluated using a 2-way ANOVA and independent t-tests. There was no difference in the weekly total load lifted (sets × reps × kg between the 2 groups. Both groups equally improved maximal strength and measures of body composition after 6 weeks of resistance training, with no significant between-group differences detected. In conclusion, both moderate-load and low-load resistance training schemes, similar for the total load lifted, induced a similar improvement in maximal strength and body composition in resistance-trained men.

  13. The Effect of Different Resistance Training Load Schemes on Strength and Body Composition in Trained Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Charles Ricardo; Aoki, Marcelo Saldanha; Crisp, Alex Harley; de Mattos, Renê Scarpari; Lins, Miguel Alves; da Mota, Gustavo Ribeiro; Schoenfeld, Brad Jon; Marchetti, Paulo Henrique

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of moderate-load (10 RM) and low-load (20 RM) resistance training schemes on maximal strength and body composition. Sixteen resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: a moderate-load group (n = 8) or a low-load group (n = 8). The resistance training schemes consisted of 8 exercises performed 4 times per week for 6 weeks. In order to equate the number of repetitions performed by each group, the moderate load group performed 6 sets of 10 RM, while the low load group performed 3 sets of 20 RM. Between-group differences were evaluated using a 2-way ANOVA and independent t-tests. There was no difference in the weekly total load lifted (sets × reps × kg) between the 2 groups. Both groups equally improved maximal strength and measures of body composition after 6 weeks of resistance training, with no significant between-group differences detected. In conclusion, both moderate-load and low-load resistance training schemes, similar for the total load lifted, induced a similar improvement in maximal strength and body composition in resistance-trained men. PMID:28828088

  14. Assessment of training effects on employability within the institutional Spanish training model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez-del-Río, Antonio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The association between quantity of training and employability was analysed through a non experimental research with two non equivalent groups. The operationalization of training quantity is considered to provide an indicator of training effort. Thus, training effort (number of courses was analysed as the independent variable and employability as dependent variable (occupation indicators, activity enhancement and job performance. The results show that training is related to activity enhancement, specially when workers belong to a small/medium enterprise (SME and/or to technical or qualified positions. A positive association between training and performance also appeared in the case of SMEs. Se analiza la asociación entre cantidad de formación y empleabilidad mediante una investigación no experimental con dos grupos no equivalentes. Se considera que la operativización de la cantidad de formación proporciona un indicador próximo al esfuerzo formativo realizado. Así, se estudió la variable independiente esfuerzo formativo (número de cursos y la dependiente, empleabilidad (indicadores de ocupación, enriquecimiento de actividad y desempeño. Los resultados muestran que la formación está asociada al enriquecimiento de la actividad, sobre todo si los trabajadores pertenecen a una PYME y/o a puestos técnicos o cualificados. También hay una asociación positiva entre formación y desempeño en PYMES.

  15. Effects of Auditory Attention Training with the Dichotic Listening Task: Behavioural and Neurophysiological Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallus, Jussi; Soveri, Anna; Hämäläinen, Heikki; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Laine, Matti

    2015-01-01

    Facilitation of general cognitive capacities such as executive functions through training has stirred considerable research interest during the last decade. Recently we demonstrated that training of auditory attention with forced attention dichotic listening not only facilitated that performance but also generalized to an untrained attentional task. In the present study, 13 participants underwent a 4-week dichotic listening training programme with instructions to report syllables presented to the left ear (FL training group). Another group (n = 13) was trained using the non-forced instruction, asked to report whichever syllable they heard the best (NF training group). The study aimed to replicate our previous behavioural results, and to explore the neurophysiological correlates of training through event-related brain potentials (ERPs). We partially replicated our previous behavioural training effects, as the FL training group tended to show more allocation of auditory spatial attention to the left ear in a standard dichotic listening task. ERP measures showed diminished N1 and enhanced P2 responses to dichotic stimuli after training in both groups, interpreted as improvement in early perceptual processing of the stimuli. Additionally, enhanced anterior N2 amplitudes were found after training, with relatively larger changes in the FL training group in the forced-left condition, suggesting improved top-down control on the trained task. These results show that top-down cognitive training can modulate the left-right allocation of auditory spatial attention, accompanied by a change in an evoked brain potential related to cognitive control.

  16. Effect of direct and indirect voice training in Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology students

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Andréia Cristina Muznlinger dos; Borrego, Maria Cristina De Menezes; Behlau,Mara

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To verify the effect of two approaches of vocal training in Speech Language Pathology and Audiology students, a direct and an indirect approach.METHODS: Participants were 25 female Speech Language Pathology and Audiology students divided into two groups: direct training with vocal exercises, DTG (n=13); and indirect training with vocal orientations, ITG (n=12). The training sessions were conducted by the same speech language pathologist in six weekly sessions of 30 minutes. Both grou...

  17. Effect of Robot-Assisted Game Training on Upper Extremity Function in Stroke Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyeong Woo; Kim, Sang Beom; Lee, Jong Hwa; Lee, Sook Joung; Kim, Jin Wan

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of combining robot-assisted game training with conventional upper extremity rehabilitation training (RCT) on motor and daily functions in comparison with conventional upper extremity rehabilitation training (OCT) in stroke patients. Methods Subjects were eligible if they were able to perform the robot-assisted game training and were divided randomly into a RCT and an OCT group. The RCT group performed one daily session of 30 minutes of robot-assisted game tr...

  18. Effect of proprioception cross training on repositioning accuracy and balance among healthy individuals

    OpenAIRE

    El-Gohary, Tarek Mohamed; Khaled, Osama Ahmed; Ibrahim, Sameh R; Alshenqiti, Abdullah M; Ibrahim, Mahmoud I

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate possible cross effects of proprioception training on proprioception repositioning accuracy of the knee joint and on balance in healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty healthy college students and faculty members from faculty of physical therapy, Cairo University were recruited to participate. Participants were randomly assigned to training group (n=30) and control group (n=30). The training group received proprioceptive training program only for the dominant le...

  19. Effects of brief training on use of automated external defibrillators by people without medical expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, K Blake; Gugerty, Leo; Muth, Eric

    2008-04-01

    This study examined the effect of three types of brief training on the use of automatic external defibrillators (AEDs) by 43 lay users. Because AEDs were recently approved for home use, brief training for nonprofessional users needs investigation. During training, the exposure training group read an article about AEDs that provided no information on how to operate them; the low-training group inspected the AED and read the operating instructions in the paper-based manual but was not allowed to use the device; and the high-training group watched a training video and performed a mock resuscitation using the AED but no manikin. All participants returned 2 weeks later and performed a surprise simulated AED resuscitation on a manikin. Most participants in each training group met criteria of minimally acceptable performance during the simulated manikin resuscitation, as measured by time to first shock, pad placement accuracy, and safety check performance. All participants who committed errors were able to successfully recover from them to complete the resuscitation. Compared with exposure training, the low and high training had a beneficial effect on time to first shock and errors. Untrained users were able to adequately use this AED, demonstrating walk-up-and-use usability, but additional brief training improved user performance. This study demonstrated the importance of providing high-quality but brief training for home AED users. In conjunction with other findings, the current study helps demonstrate the need for well-designed training for consumer medical devices.

  20. Effect of Working Memory Updating Training on Retrieving Symptoms of Children With Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoying; Ye, Maolin; Chang, Lei; Chen, Weigang; Zhou, Renlai

    2017-06-01

    Working memory (WM) deficiency is a primary reason for the poor academic performance of children with learning disabilities (LDs). Studies have shown that the WM of typical children could be improved through training, and WM training contributes to improving their fluid intelligence and academic achievement. However, few studies have investigated WM training for children with LDs, and results have been inconsistent. The present study examined the long-term effects of WM updating training and whether it can mitigate LD symptoms. Fifty-four children with LDs were recruited and divided randomly into a training or control group. The training group underwent adaptive running WM training for 20 days. Before and after training, the 2 groups completed a 2-back task, a digit span task (forward and backward), Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices test, and a scholastic attainment test (Chinese and math). The tests were repeated 6 months later. The results showed that, as compared with the controls, the training group exhibited significant improvements in the digit backward span task, 2-back task, and Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices. The math scores of the training group improved significantly by 6 months after the training. The results of this study suggest that WM updating training could mitigate the cognitive deficits of LDs and improve the WM capacity, fluid intelligence, and math scores of children with LDs. Moreover, the training effects could be maintained for at least 6 months.

  1. Does clinical teacher training always improve teaching effectiveness as opposed to no teacher training? A randomized controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Teacher training may improve teaching effectiveness, but it might also have paradoxical effects. Research on expertise development suggests that the integration of new strategies may result in a temporary deterioration of performance until higher levels of competence are reached. In this study, the impact of a clinical teacher training on teaching effectiveness was assessed in an intensive course in emergency medicine. As primary study outcome students’ practical skills at the end of their course were chosen. Methods The authors matched 18 clinical teachers according to clinical experience and teaching experience and then randomly assigned them to a two-day-teacher training, or no training. After 14 days, both groups taught within a 12-hour intensive course in emergency medicine for undergraduate students. The course followed a clearly defined curriculum. After the course students were assessed by structured clinical examination (SCE) and MCQ. The teaching quality was rated by students using a questionnaire. Results Data for 96 students with trained teachers, and 97 students with untrained teachers were included. Students taught by untrained teachers performed better in the SCE domains ‘alarm call’ (p teaching quality was rated significantly better by students of untrained teachers (p = 0.05). Conclusions At the end of a structured intensive course in emergency medicine, students of trained clinical teachers performed worse in 2 of 4 practical SCE domains compared to students of untrained teachers. In addition, subjective evaluations of teaching quality were worse in the group of trained teachers. Difficulties in integrating new strategies in their teaching styles might be a possible explanation. PMID:24400838

  2. Effect of exercise training on in vivo lipolysis in intra-abdominal adipose tissue in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, L H; Stallknecht, B; Fluckey, J D

    2000-01-01

    Intra-abdominal obesity is associated with cardiovascular disease and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and physical training has been suggested to alleviate these conditions. We compared epinephrine-stimulated lipolysis in vivo in three intra-abdominal adipose tissues (ATs: retroperitoneal......, parametrial, and mesenteric) and in subcutaneous AT, and we also studied the effect of physical training. Moreover, we studied the effect of physical training on epinephrine-stimulated lipolysis in muscle in vivo. Female rats were either swim trained (15 wk, n = 8) or sedentary (n = 7). Under anesthesia......: 73 +/- 12 (trained) vs. 14 +/- 4 (sedentary) ml. 100 g(-1). min(-1), P

  3. The effect of music training program on phonological awareness in preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska eDegé

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment investigated the effect of a music training program on phonological awareness in preschoolers. In particular, the effects of a music training program and a phonological skills training program on phonological awareness were compared. If language and music share basic processing mechanisms, the effect of both programs on enhancing phonological awareness should be similar. Forty-one preschoolers (22 boys were randomly assigned to a phonological skills training program, a music training program, and a control group that received sports training (from which no effect was expected. Preschoolers were trained for 10 minutes on a daily basis over a period of 20 weeks. In a pretest, no differences were found between the three groups in regard to age, gender, intelligence, socioeconomic status, and phonological awareness. Children in the phonological skills group and the music group showed significant increases in phonological awareness from pre- to post-test. The children in the sports training group did not show a significant increase from pre- to post-test. The enhancement of phonological awareness was basically driven by positive effects of the music program and the phonological skills program on phonological awareness for large phonological units. The data suggests that phonological awareness can be trained with a phonological skills training program as well as a music training program. These results can be interpreted as evidence of a shared sound category learning mechanism for language and music at preschool age.

  4. The acute effects intensity and volume of strength training on running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doma, Kenji; Deakin, Glen Bede

    2014-01-01

    Strength training has been shown to cause acute detrimental effects on running performance. However, there is limited investigation on the effect of various strength training variables, whilst controlling eccentric contraction velocity, on running performance. The present study examined the effects of intensity and volume (i.e. whole body vs. lower body only) of strength training with slow eccentric contractions on running economy (RE) [i.e. below anaerobic threshold (AT)] and time-to-exhaustion (TTE) (i.e. above AT) 6 hours post. Fifteen trained and moderately endurance trained male runners undertook high-intensity whole body (HW), high-intensity lower body only (HL) and low-intensity whole body (LW) strength training sessions with slow eccentric contractions (i.e. 1:4 second concentric-to-eccentric contraction) in random order. Six hours following each strength training session, a RE test with TTE was conducted. The results showed that HW, HL and LW sessions had no effect on RE and that LW session had no effect on TTE (P ≥ 0.05). However, HW and HL sessions significantly reduced TTE (P training performance below AT, although caution should be taken for endurance training sessions above AT amongst trained and moderately endurance trained runners.

  5. ORDER EFFECTS OF CONCURRENT ENDURANCE AND RESISTANCE TRAINING ON POST-EXERCISE RESPONSE OF NON-TRAINED WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Di Blasio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise is used for the promotion and maintenance of good health and for the improvement of physical fitness. Both endurance and resistance exercises are needed to carry out a complete training program. Because time may be a barrier to physical exercise practice, the aim of this study was to verify whether the order of execution of endurance and resistance exercises, in concurrent training, has different effects on the metabolic responses during recovery. Thirteen healthy women [24.40 (1.67 years, Mean (SD] were investigated for energy expenditure (EE, oxygen consumption (VO2, ventilation (Ve, respiratory frequency (RF, proportion of oxygen in expired air (FeO2 and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE both before and after three concurrent endurance and resistance trainings, carried out in different orders: endurance-resistance training (ERT, resistance-endurance training (RET and alternating endurance-resistance training (AERT. AERT elicited a significantly greater increase of EE, VO2, and Ve and a greater decrease of FeO2. ERT elicited a lower increase of RPE. Acute post-exercise physiological responses to concurrent endurance and resistance physical exercise seem to depend on the order of execution of the two parts: among the selected protocols, AERT seems to elicit the best responses

  6. The addition of strength training to aerobic interval training: effects on muscle strength and body composition in CHF patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchla, Anthi; Karatzanos, Eleftherios; Dimopoulos, Stavros; Tasoulis, Athanasios; Agapitou, Varvara; Diakos, Nikolaos; Tseliou, Eleni; Terrovitis, John; Nanas, Serafim

    2011-01-01

    The loss of lean muscle mass and muscle strength is a common problem in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients. Endurance training is efficient in improving patient exercise capacity. This study sought to evaluate the additional effects of strength training on muscle strength and body composition in chf patients participating in an interval training program. Twenty consecutive, stable CHF patients participated in a rehabilitation program. Subjects were randomly assigned to aerobic (n = 10) or combined aerobic plus strength training group (n = 10). Aerobic group performed interval training on cycle ergometers. Strength training incorporated exercises for various muscle groups, including quadriceps, hamstrings, biceps brachii, and the deltoids. Both regimes were of the same duration. Body composition was evaluated by whole-body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and quadriceps strength by the sum of the 2-repetition maximum (2-RM) test for each leg. Peak oxygen uptake (.VO(2peak)) and peak work load (W(peak)) as well as oxygen uptake (.VO(2AT)) and workload at anaerobic threshold (W(AT)) were evaluated by a symptom limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Concerning leg lean mass, no significant within-subjects or between-groups changes were observed (P > .05). Both groups improved in 2-RM test (P CHF patients. Adaptations other than hypertrophy, such as muscle fiber type alterations and/or neuromuscular adjustments, may account for these results.

  7. Effects of concurrent training on explosive strength and VO(2max) in prepubescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marta, C; Marinho, D A; Barbosa, T M; Izquierdo, M; Marques, M C

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of an 8-weeks training period of resistance training alone (GR), combined resistance and endurance training (GCON) and a control group (GC) on explosive strength and V(O2max) in a large sample of prepubescent boys and girls. 125 healthy children (58 boys, 67 girls), aged 10-11 years old (10.8±0.4 years) were assigned into 2 training groups to train twice a week for 8 weeks: GR (19 boys, 22 girls), GCON (21 boys, 24 girls) and a control group (GC: 18 boys, 21 girls; no training program). A significant but medium-sized increase from pre- to the post-training in the vertical jump (Effect size=0.22, F=34.44, ptraining group (GR and GCON) and sex factors did not significantly influence the evolution of strength variables from pre- to the post-training. The V(O2max) increased significantly only in GCON. Concurrent training is equally effective on training-induced explosive strength, and more efficient than resistance training only for V(O2max), in prepubescent boys and girls. This should be taken into consideration in order to optimize strength training school-based programs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Sibling rivalry: training effects, emergence of dominance and incomplete control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhaiem, Sarah; Hofer, Heribert; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Brunner, Edgar; East, Marion L

    2012-09-22

    Within-brood or -litter dominance provides fitness-related benefits if dominant siblings selfishly skew access to food provided by parents in their favour. Models of facultative siblicide assume that dominants exert complete control over their subordinate sibling's access to food and that control is maintained, irrespective of the subordinate's hunger level. By contrast, a recent functional hypothesis suggests that subordinates should contest access to food when the cost of not doing so is high. Here, we show that within spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) twin litters, dominants most effectively skew access to maternal milk in their favour when their aggression prompts a highly submissive response. When hungry, subordinates were less submissive in response to aggression, thereby decreasing lost suckling time and increasing suckling time lost by dominants. In a species where adult females socially dominate adult males, juvenile females were more often dominant than males in mixed-sex litters, and subordinate sisters used more effective counter-tactics against dominant brothers than subordinate brothers against dominant sisters. Our results provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence in a mammal that dominant offspring in twin litters do not exert complete control over their sibling's access to resources (milk), and that sibling dominance relationships are influenced by sibling sex and training effects.

  9. Order effects of concurrent endurance and resistance training on post-exercise response of non-trained women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Blasio, Andrea; Gemello, Eugenio; Di Iorio, Angelo; Di Giacinto, Gabriella; Celso, Tiziana; Di Renzo, Donatella; Sablone, Andrea; Ripari, Patrizio

    2012-01-01

    Physical exercise is used for the promotion and maintenance of good health and for the improvement of physical fitness. Both endurance and resistance exercises are needed to carry out a complete training program. Because time may be a barrier to physical exercise practice, the aim of this study was to verify whether the order of execution of endurance and resistance exercises, in concurrent training, has different effects on the metabolic responses during recovery. Thirteen healthy women [24.40 (1.67) years, Mean (SD)] were investigated for energy expenditure (EE), oxygen consumption (VO2), ventilation (Ve), respiratory frequency (RF), proportion of oxygen in expired air (FeO2) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) both before and after three concurrent endurance and resistance trainings, carried out in different orders: endurance-resistance training (ERT), resistance-endurance training (RET) and alternating endurance-resistance training (AERT). AERT elicited a significantly greater increase of EE, VO2, and Ve and a greater decrease of FeO2. ERT elicited a lower increase of RPE. Acute post-exercise physiological responses to concurrent endurance and resistance physical exercise seem to depend on the order of execution of the two parts: among the selected protocols, AERT seems to elicit the best responses. Key pointsThe concurrent execution of both endurance and resistance exercise, in the same training session, could be a practical solution to conform to guidelines for health in the presence of lack of time.The order of concurrent execution of both endurance and resistance exercise, in the same training session, influences the amplitude of some post-exercise physiological responses.

  10. Communication skills training in dementia care: a systematic review of effectiveness, training content, and didactic methods in different care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggenberger, Eva; Heimerl, Katharina; Bennett, Michael I

    2013-03-01

    Caring for and caring about people with dementia require specific communication skills. Healthcare professionals and family caregivers usually receive little training to enable them to meet the communicative needs of people with dementia. This review identifies existent interventions to enhance communication in dementia care in various care settings. We searched MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, Gerolit, and Web of Science for scientific articles reporting interventions in both English and German. An intervention was defined as communication skills training by means of face-to-face interaction with the aim of improving basic communicative skills. Both professional and family caregivers were included. The effectiveness of such training was analyzed. Different types of training were defined. Didactic methods, training content, and additional organizational features were qualitatively examined. This review included 12 trials totaling 831 persons with dementia, 519 professional caregivers, and 162 family caregivers. Most studies were carried out in the USA, the UK, and Germany. Eight studies took place in nursing homes; four studies were located in a home-care setting. No studies could be found in an acute-care setting. We provide a list of basic communicative principles for good communication in dementia care. Didactic methods included lectures, hands-on training, group discussions, and role-play. This review shows that communication skills training in dementia care significantly improves the quality of life and wellbeing of people with dementia and increases positive interactions in various care settings. Communication skills training shows significant impact on professional and family caregivers' communication skills, competencies, and knowledge. Additional organizational features improve the sustainability of communication interventions.

  11. Legionella on board trains: effectiveness of environmental surveillance and decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Gianluigi; Vincenti, Sara; Ferriero, Anna Maria; Boninti, Federica; Sezzatini, Romina; Turnaturi, Cinzia; Gliubizzi, Maria Daniela; Munafò, Elio; Ceccarelli, Gianluca; Causarano, Carmelo; Accorsi, Massimo; Del Nord, Pasquale; Ricciardi, Walter; Laurenti, Patrizia

    2012-08-07

    Legionella pneumophila is increasingly recognised as a significant cause of sporadic and epidemic community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. Many studies describe the frequency and severity of Legionella spp. contamination in spa pools, natural pools, hotels and ships, but there is no study analysing the environmental monitoring of Legionella on board trains. The aims of the present study were to conduct periodic and precise environmental surveillance of Legionella spp. in water systems and water tanks that supply the toilet systems on trains, to assess the degree of contamination of such structures and to determine the effectiveness of decontamination. A comparative pre-post ecological study was conducted from September 2006 to January 2011. A total of 1,245 water samples were collected from plumbing and toilet water tanks on passenger trains. The prevalence proportion of all positive samples was calculated. The unpaired t-test was performed to evaluate statistically significant differences between the mean load values before and after the decontamination procedures; statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. In the pre-decontamination period, 58% of the water samples were positive for Legionella. Only Legionella pneumophila was identified: 55.84% were serogroup 1, 19.03% were serogroups 2-14 and 25.13% contained both serogroups. The mean bacterial load value was 2.14 × 10(3) CFU/L. During the post-decontamination period, 42.75% of water samples were positive for Legionella spp.; 98.76% were positive for Legionella pneumophila: 74.06% contained serogroup 1, 16.32% contained serogroups 2-14 and 9.62% contained both. The mean bacterial load in the post-decontamination period was 1.72 × 10(3) CFU/L. According to the t-test, there was a statistically significant decrease in total bacterial load until approximately one and a half year after beginning the decontamination programme (p = 0.0097). This study indicates that systematic environmental surveillance

  12. Legionella on board trains: effectiveness of environmental surveillance and decontamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaranta Gianluigi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Legionella pneumophila is increasingly recognised as a significant cause of sporadic and epidemic community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. Many studies describe the frequency and severity of Legionella spp. contamination in spa pools, natural pools, hotels and ships, but there is no study analysing the environmental monitoring of Legionella on board trains. The aims of the present study were to conduct periodic and precise environmental surveillance of Legionella spp. in water systems and water tanks that supply the toilet systems on trains, to assess the degree of contamination of such structures and to determine the effectiveness of decontamination. Methods A comparative pre-post ecological study was conducted from September 2006 to January 2011. A total of 1,245 water samples were collected from plumbing and toilet water tanks on passenger trains. The prevalence proportion of all positive samples was calculated. The unpaired t-test was performed to evaluate statistically significant differences between the mean load values before and after the decontamination procedures; statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Results In the pre-decontamination period, 58% of the water samples were positive for Legionella. Only Legionella pneumophila was identified: 55.84% were serogroup 1, 19.03% were serogroups 2–14 and 25.13% contained both serogroups. The mean bacterial load value was 2.14 × 103 CFU/L. During the post-decontamination period, 42.75% of water samples were positive for Legionella spp.; 98.76% were positive for Legionella pneumophila: 74.06% contained serogroup 1, 16.32% contained serogroups 2–14 and 9.62% contained both. The mean bacterial load in the post-decontamination period was 1.72 × 103 CFU/L. According to the t-test, there was a statistically significant decrease in total bacterial load until approximately one and a half year after beginning the decontamination programme (p

  13. THE EFFECTS OF THE USE OF SERIES CARD MEDIA ON TOILET TRAINING SKILL TOWARD AUTISM CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Nauli Nainggolan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Effects of the usage of series images card media on toilet training skill toward autistic children. This research was aimed at describing the effects of the used of series images card media on toilet training toward autistic children. This research used experimental approach in the form of Single Subject Research (SSR, using the A-B-A’ design. The result of the research showed that the series images card media had effects on autism child toilet training skill.   Pengaruh Penggunaan Media Kartu Gambar Berseri terhadap Keterampilan Toilet Training (BAK Siswa Autis. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan pengaruh penggunaan kartu gambar berseri terhadap ketrampilan toilet training anak autis. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode eksperimen dengan menggunakan Single Subject Research (SSR. Dalam penelitian ini desain yang digunakan adalah desain A-B-A’. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa media kartu gambar berseri toilet training berpengaruh terhadap kemampuan toilet training anak autis.

  14. WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION TRAINING COMPARED WITH RESISTANCE TRAINING: EFFECT ON SPASTICITY, MUSCLE STRENGTH AND MOTOR PERFORMANCE IN ADULTS WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ahlborg, Lotta; Andersson, Christina; Julin, Per

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on spasticity, muscle strength and motor performance after 8 weeks of whole-body vibration training compared with resistance training in adults with cerebral palsy. Methods...

  15. The Effect of Training Data Set Composition on the Performance of a Neural Image Caption Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    ARL-TR-8124 ● SEP 2017 US Army Research Laboratory The Effect of Training Data Set Composition on the Performance of a Neural...Laboratory The Effect of Training Data Set Composition on the Performance of a Neural Image Caption Generator by Abigail Wilson Montgomery Blair...REPORT TYPE Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Effect of Training Data Set Composition on the Performance of a

  16. Effect of training on muscle triacylglycerol and structural lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn W; Dela, Flemming

    2003-01-01

    We studied whether endurance training impacts insulin sensitivity by affecting the structural and storage lipids in humans. Eight male subjects participated (age 25 +/- 1 years, height 178 +/- 3 cm, weight 76 +/- 4 kg [mean +/- SE]). Single-leg training was performed for 30 min/day for 4 weeks...... polyunsaturates, which may indicate that membrane lipids may have a role in the training-induced increase in insulin sensitivity....

  17. The effectiveness of EMG biofeedback training in low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouwen, A; Solinger, J W

    1979-06-01

    Eighteen patients with chronic low back pain (lbp) of muscle tension origin were given an EMG biofeedback training. Compared to seven controls they showed a significant decrease during training in muscle tension and subsequently in pain. However, at follow-up EMG levels dropped to the initial (high) level. Pain scores of patients with high pain decrements during training showed further improvement during follow-up, which was not the case with patients showing less substantial improvement. The importance of cognitions was discussed.

  18. The effect of training level on opioid utilization efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberman, Dmitry; Ahmad, Mian; Green, Michael S

    2015-05-01

    This study focuses on residents' ability to predict opioid administration requirements and if improvement is made as learners progress. Residents request opioid from the pharmacy at the start of the day based on clinical assignment. Unused and wasted opioids are returned at the end of the day. The labor and cost associated with this process are not trivial nor is the risk of excess opioid access. We examined if estimation of daily opioid use by residents increased in accuracy as progression through the program occurred. We conducted a retrospective analysis in the setting of the operating room examining pharmacy opioid usage. The measurements included the number of vials requested, the number of vials dispensed, and the number of vials returned. Information was stratified in our database by the level of training. The set inclusion criterion was any surgery performed in the operating rooms that required the use of opioids. The exclusion criteria included anesthesia that required a regional block, cardiac surgeries, emergent cases, and obstetric cases. A total of 104 opioid requests were made that met our criteria. Comparing CA-1 and CA-3 residents and CA-2 and CA-3 residents, a statistically significant difference exists between the number of vials requested and the number returned. Our data show a statistically significant difference in efficiency as residents progress from their CA-1 year to CA-3 year. In summary, our findings support the idea that residents are able to better predict opioid requirements for cases as they progress through training. Closely monitoring such patterns can serve a useful educational purpose and allow for identification of misuse. Improvement in cost-effective care and limiting waste while working in a complex integrated health care environment are additional benefits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Inferring Saving in Training Time From Effect Size Estimates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burright, Burke

    2000-01-01

    .... Students' time saving represents a major potential benefit of using them. This paper fills a methodology gap in estimating the students' timesaving benefit of asynchronous training technologies...

  20. Training and Job Satisfaction for Organizational Effectiveness: A Case Study from the Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Hasebur Rahman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Every organization needs well-adjusted, trained, and experienced people to perform its activities effectively and efficiently. Today’s business environment has become complex; the training for employees’ education is becoming a diver for adjusting dynamic change in organizational interfaces. This survey reveals that employee training and job satisfactions have a significant positive relationship with organizational effectiveness. The survey also indicates that job dissatisfaction has an insignificant relationship with organizational effectiveness in commercial banks. The study indicates that to chase dynamic business environments, management should focus on building human resources through diverse training for promoting organizational effectiveness.

  1. The Effects of Level of Training on Employee Perceived Empowerment, Commitment and Job Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Backeberg, Pamela

    2001-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of level of training on employees' perceived psychological empowerment, commitment, and resultant job performance within the hospitality industry...

  2. Effects of intensified training and taper on immune function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Papacosta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although resting immune function is not very different in athletes compared with non-athletes periods of intensified training (overreaching in already well trained athletes can result in a depression of immunity in the resting state. Illness-prone athletes appear to have an altered cytokine response to antigen stimulation and exercise. Having low levels of salivary IgA secretion also makes athletes more susceptible to upper respiratory tract infections. Overtraining is associated with recurrent infections and immunodepression is common, but immune functions do not seem to be reliable markers of impending overtraining. There are several possible causes of the diminution of immune function associated with periods of heavy training. One mechanism may simply be the cumulative effects of repeated bouts of intense exercise (with or without tissue damage with the consequent elevation of stress hormones, particularly glucocorticoids such as cortisol, causing temporary inhibition of TH-1 cytokines with a relative dampening of the cell-mediated response. When exercise is repeated frequently there may not be sufficient time for the immune system to recover fully. Tapering has been described as a gradual reduction in the training load which allows the recovery of physiological capacities that were impaired by previous intensive training and permits further training-induced adaptations to occur accompanied by competition performance enhancements. The majority of the studies that have examined the recovery of immunoendocrine responses during 1-3 week tapers in trained athletes have mainly reported enhanced performance, often accompanied by increased anabolic activity, reduced physiological stress and restoration of mucosal immunity and immune function.Quando se compara a função imune, em repouso, de atletas e não atletas, não se verificam grandes diferenças. Porém, períodos de treinamento intensificado ("overreaching" em atletas bem treinados podem

  3. Long-term effects of mnemonic training in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Ruth; Brooks, John O; Friedman, Leah; Schröder, Carmen M; Morgan, Kevin S; Kraemer, Helena C

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the long-term effect of mnemonic training on memory performance in older adults. Five years after participation in a mnemonic training study, we followed-up 112 community-dwelling older adults, 60 years of age and over. Delayed recall of a word list was assessed prior to, and immediately following mnemonic training, and at the 5-year follow-up. Overall, there was no significant difference between word recall prior to training and that exhibited at follow-up. However, pre-training performance, gain scores in performance immediately post-training and use of the mnemonic predicted performance at follow-up. Individuals who self-reported using the mnemonic exhibited the highest performance overall, with scores significantly higher than at pre-training. Our findings suggest that mnemonic training has long-term benefits for some older adults, particularly those who continue to employ the mnemonic.

  4. Sustained effect of simulation-based ultrasound training on clinical performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolsgaard, M G; Ringsted, C; Dreisler, E

    2015-01-01

    on a virtual-reality transvaginal ultrasound simulator until an expert performance level was attained followed by training on a pelvic mannequin. After two months of clinical training, one transvaginal ultrasound scan was recorded for assessment of participants' clinical performance. Two blinded ultrasound......OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the effect of initial simulation-based transvaginal ultrasound training compared to only clinical training on the clinical performances of residents in Obstetrics and Gynecology (OB-GYN) measured at two months into the residency. METHODS: In a randomized study......, new residents in OB-GYN (N = 33) without prior ultrasound experience were included from three teaching hospitals. Participants were allocated to simulation-based training and subsequent clinical training (n = 18) or only clinical training (n = 15). The simulation-based training was performed...

  5. Assessor training strategies and their effects on accuracy, interrater reliability, and discriminant validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, F

    2001-04-01

    This study compares the effects of data-driven assessor training with schema-driven assessor training and control training. The sample consisted of 229 industrial and organizational psychology students and 161 managers who were randomly assigned to 1 of these training strategies. Participants observed and rated candidates in an assessment center exercise. The data-driven and schema-driven assessor training approaches outperformed the control training on all 3 dependent variables. The schema-driven assessor training resulted in the largest values of interrater reliability, dimension differentiation, and accuracy. Managers provided significantly more accurate ratings than students but distinguished less between the dimensions. Practical implications regarding the design of assessor trainings and the composition of assessor teams are proposed.

  6. The effect of an eight-week training programme on core stability in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A strong core musculature dynamically stabilises the pelvis during functional movements. Although it has been established that focused core training has a positive effect in numerous sports, little is known about the effect in gymnasts. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of an eight week core training programme on ...

  7. Comparing the Cost-Effectiveness of Simulation Modalities: A Case Study of Peripheral Intravenous Catheterization Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaranuwatchai, Wanrudee; Brydges, Ryan; Carnahan, Heather; Backstein, David; Dubrowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    While the ultimate goal of simulation training is to enhance learning, cost-effectiveness is a critical factor. Research that compares simulation training in terms of educational- and cost-effectiveness will lead to better-informed curricular decisions. Using previously published data we conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of three…

  8. The effect of self-directed virtual reality simulation on dissection training performance in mastoidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Foghsgaard, Søren; Konge, Lars; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten

    2016-08-01

    To establish the effect of self-directed virtual reality (VR) simulation training on cadaveric dissection training performance in mastoidectomy and the transferability of skills acquired in VR simulation training to the cadaveric dissection training setting. Prospective study. Two cohorts of 20 novice otorhinolaryngology residents received either self-directed VR simulation training before cadaveric dissection training or vice versa. Cadaveric and VR simulation performances were assessed using final-product analysis with three blinded expert raters. The group receiving VR simulation training before cadaveric dissection had a mean final-product score of 14.9 (95 % confidence interval [CI] [12.9-16.9]) compared with 9.8 (95% CI [8.4-11.1]) in the group not receiving VR simulation training before cadaveric dissection. This 52% increase in performance was statistically significantly (P training was effective in increasing cadaveric dissection mastoidectomy performance and suggests that mastoidectomy skills are transferable from VR simulation to the traditional dissection setting. Virtual reality simulation training can therefore be employed to optimize training, and can spare the use of donated material and instructional resources for more advanced training after basic competencies have been acquired in the VR simulation environment. NA. Laryngoscope, 126:1883-1888, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Effects of Weight Resistance Training on Swimmers with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Víquez Ulate y Andrea Mora Campos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of weight resistance training on strength in swimmers with Down Syndrome (DS. Seven swimmers with DS participated in the study: 6 men and 1 woman, 23.14 years of age ± 4.59 and with 6.14 years ± 2.34 years of swimming. Instruments: One repetition maximum (RM test to determine the individual’s maximum muscular strength. Procedure: the study was conducted for 10 weeks (2 weeks at baseline, 6 weeks of treatment and 2 weeks to see the effects of retention. Results: significantly positive changes were detected in the maximum strength of pectoral muscles (F=5.768; p=0.006, dorsal muscles (F = 26.770; p=7.45e-007, femoral biceps (F = 32.530; p=1.76e-007, quadriceps (F = 8.391; p=0.001, triceps (F = 11.217; p=0.0002 and these adjustments were maintained with no significant changes for two weeks, while the biceps muscle (F=4.145; p=0.021 behaved differently since it suffered no significant adjustments during the program.

  10. Effects of Heavy Strength Training on Running Performance and Determinants of Running Performance in Female Endurance Athletes: e0150799

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olav Vikmoen; Truls Raastad; Olivier Seynnes; Kristoffer Bergstrøm; Stian Ellefsen; Bent R Rønnestad

    2016-01-01

      Purpose The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training to normal endurance training on running performance and running economy in well-trained female athletes...

  11. How Effective is Anti-Phishing Training for Children?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lastdrager, Elmer; Carvajal Gallardo, Inés; Hartel, P.H.; Junger, M.

    2017-01-01

    User training is a commonly used method for preventing victimization from phishing attacks. In this study, we focus on training children, since they are active online but often overlooked in interventions. We present an experiment in which children at Dutch primary schools received an anti-phishing

  12. The effect of high load training on psychomotor speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhof, E.; Lemmink, K.; Zwerver, J.; Mulder, T.

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether overreached athletes show psychomotor slowness after a period of high load training. Fourteen well-trained cyclists (10 male, 4 female, mean age 25.3 [SD = 4.1] years, mean maximal oxygen consumption 65.5 [SD=8.1] ml/ kg-min) performed a

  13. The Effects of Musical Training on Verbal Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Michael S.; Moore, Katherine Sledge; Yip, Chun-Yu; Jonides, John; Rattray, Katie; Moher, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    A number of studies suggest a link between musical training and general cognitive abilities. Despite some positive results, there is disagreement about which abilities are improved. One line of research leads to the hypothesis that verbal abilities in general, and verbal memory in particular, are related to musical training. In the present…

  14. Combined effects of myofeedback and isokinetic training on hand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Khaled A. Olama

    2012-04-25

    Apr 25, 2012 ... extension was evaluated by using digital electro-goniometer. Both groups received a designed physical therapy program with isokinetic training for the triceps brachii muscle for 60 min, in addition group B received myofeedback training. * Corresponding author. Address: El-Rehab City, Group 95, Building.

  15. Combined effects of myofeedback and isokinetic training on hand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both groups received a designed physical therapy program with isokinetic training for the triceps brachii muscle for 60 min, in addition group B received myofeedback training. Results: The post treatment results revealed significant improvement in the measured variables of both groups when comparing their pre and post ...

  16. Theoretical Framework for Evaluation of Cross-cultural Training Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triandis, Harry C.

    1977-01-01

    Considers six types of cross-cultural training including general, specific, affective, cognitive, behavioral and self-insight, and examines the quantity and timing of the training and the attributes of the trainers and the trainees. Available from: Transaction Periodicals Consortium, Rutgers--The State University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903,…

  17. Brief Classroom Training Sessions for Workplace Readiness: Are They Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palesy, Debra

    2017-01-01

    Classroom training sessions for new home care workers (HCWs) are often brief and ad hoc, varying in format and content. Yet the application of this training may be central to worker and client safety. A qualitative approach was adopted for this inquiry, comprising two separate but related practical studies. In the first, exploratory study,…

  18. Effectiveness of LifeRAFT Undergraduate Helping Skills Training Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Elizabeth L.; Davidson, Kenzie; Davidson, Spencer M.

    2017-01-01

    LifeRAFT, a helping skills training model for undergraduate paraprofessionals, addresses training needs for applied psychology skills for undergraduate psychology majors. LifeRAFT draws from three empirically supported psychotherapy treatments to introduce counselling theory and encourage helping skill progression. Trainees learn practical helping…

  19. Understanding the Effect of Skills Training on Women's Economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will evaluate the impact of skills training on women's livelihoods in rural Pakistan. ... The PSDF is a joint UK Department for International Development-Pakistan and Government of Punjab initiative aimed at providing skills and vocational training opportunities to women in ... Project Leader. Dr Asim Ijaz Khwaja ...

  20. Effectiveness of Mobile Learning on Athletic Training Psychomotor Skill Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davie, Emily; Martin, Malissa; Cuppett, Micki; Lebsack, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Context: Instruction of psychomotor skills is an important component of athletic training education. Accommodating the varied learning abilities and preferences of athletic training students can be challenging for an instructor initiating skill acquisition in a traditional face-to-face (F2F) environment. Video instruction available on mobile…

  1. The effects of exercise training in patients with peripheral vascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients with peripheral vascular disease (PVD) suffer from the symptom of intermittent claudication and are therefore intolerant to walking. Exercise training has been shown to be a beneficial treatment for patients with PVD. Therefore studies have aimed to assess the efficacy of exercise training programmes. This review ...

  2. Effective Chaperone Selection and Training for Enhanced Youth Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emily J.; Roop, Kelsey; MacArthur, Stacey

    2017-01-01

    This article identifies key strategies for selecting and training chaperones for youth programs. Although substantial research on volunteer core competencies and training exists, very little has been written to specifically address volunteers who serve in a chaperone capacity. We surveyed chaperones who had participated in an international youth…

  3. Effects of Creativity Training, Defensiveness, and Intelligence on Divergent Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellas, Marie

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether creativity could be facilitated by a training method based on a salient characteristic of the creative individual, namely, his ability to synthesize elements from two disparate psychological entities: (1) visual experiences; and (2) emotional states. A four-session training program is described in…

  4. The effect of characterisation training on the congruence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... facial expression, led to believable/congruent role play and improved communication on various levels. Conclusion. The post-training outcomes showed clear improvement regarding the congruence of SP portrayals. The changes can be contributed to SP training focused on 3D character development by creating subtext, ...

  5. Effects of exercise training on performance and function in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although much research exists on individuals with CP, there is conflicting evidence for the benefits of exercise training in these individuals. This is due to the use of sedentary, paediatric populations and varied methodologies. Investigating individuals who have undergone high-volume exercise training from a young age ...

  6. Effects of kettlebell training on postural coordination and jump performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jay, Kenneth; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil

    2013-01-01

    . The outcome measures were postural reactions to sudden perturbation and maximal countermovement jump height.Compared to the control group, the training group significant decreased stopping time following perturbation (-109ms, 95% CI [-196:-21]). Jump height increased significantly in the training group (1.5cm...

  7. Revalidate Forms of Presence in Training Effectiveness: Mediating Effect of Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shinyi; Hung, Tze-Chien; Lee, Chia-Tsung

    2015-01-01

    With the community of inquiry framework, this study seeks to explore the relationship among forms of presence, self-efficacy, and training effectiveness. A total of 210 working professionals participated to the study via online survey and email communication with a valid response rate of 29.53%. The technique of partial least square was used to…

  8. Effectiveness and efficiency of training in digital healthcare packages: training doctors to use digital medical record keeping software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benwell, Nicola; Hird, Kathryn; Thomas, Nicholas; Furness, Erin; Fear, Mark; Sweetman, Greg

    2017-10-01

    costly and there is little other than anecdotal evidence that currently supports its efficacy in the workplace. What does the paper add? Assessment of accuracy when using the BOSSnet system over time revealed that daily use rather than formalised training appeared to have the most impact on performance. Formalised training was rated poorly, and this appeared to correlate with time between training and use. The present study suggests that formalised training, if required, should be delivered close in time to actual use of the system to benefit end-users. The study also shows that daily experience is more effective than formalised training to improve accuracy. What are the implications for practitioners? Formalised training for ICT needs to be scheduled in close proximity to end-user use of the ICT. Current scheduling may be beneficial for ease of delivery, but unless it is delivered at a suitable time the benefits are minimal. Formalised training programs may not be critical for all staff and all staff improve with contextualised experience given time. Training may be better suited to optional rather than compulsory delivery programs with ongoing delivery to suit user schedules.

  9. The effect of dyad versus individual simulation-based ultrasound training on skills transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolsgaard, Martin G; Madsen, Mette E; Oxlund, Birgitte S

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Dyad practice may be as effective as individual practice during clinical skills training, improve students' confidence, and reduce costs of training. However, there is little evidence that dyad training is non-inferior to single-student practice in terms of skills transfer. OBJECTIVES......: This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of simulation-based ultrasound training in pairs (dyad practice) with that of training alone (single-student practice) on skills transfer. METHODS: In a non-inferiority trial, 30 ultrasound novices were randomised to dyad (n = 16) or single-student (n...... of these completed the transfer test. Dyad training was found to be non-inferior to single-student training: transfer test OSAUS scores were significantly higher than the pre-specified non-inferiority margin (delta score 7.8%, 95% confidence interval -3.8-19.6%; p = 0.04). More dyad (71.4%) than single (30...

  10. The effect of self-directed virtual reality simulation on dissection training performance in mastoidectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Foghsgaard, Søren; Konge, Lars

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To establish the effect of self-directed virtual reality (VR) simulation training on cadaveric dissection training performance in mastoidectomy and the transferability of skills acquired in VR simulation training to the cadaveric dissection training setting. STUDY DESIGN....... RESULTS: The group receiving VR simulation training before cadaveric dissection had a mean final-product score of 14.9 (95 % confidence interval [CI] [12.9-16.9]) compared with 9.8 (95% CI [8.4-11.1]) in the group not receiving VR simulation training before cadaveric dissection. This 52% increase...... in performance was statistically significantly (P increase VR simulation performance (P = 0.22). CONCLUSIONS: Two hours of self-directed VR simulation training was effective in increasing cadaveric dissection mastoidectomy performance and suggests...

  11. Effect of sprint cycle training on activities of antioxidant enzymes in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Apple, F. S.; Sjödin, B.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of intermittent sprint cycle training on the level of muscle antioxidant enzyme protection was investigated. Resting muscle biopsies, obtained before and after 6 wk of training and 3, 24, and 72 h after the final session of an additional 1 wk of more frequent training, were analyzed...... (P trained muscle. The present study demonstrates that intermittent sprint cycle training that induces an enhanced capacity for anaerobic energy generation also improves...... for activities of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Activities of several muscle metabolic enzymes were determined to assess the effectiveness of the training. After the first 6-wk training period, no change in GPX, GR, or SOD...

  12. Effects of repetitive handgrip training on endurance, specificity, and cross-education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, R K; Leo, K C; Messaros, A J; Somers, V K

    1999-05-01

    Exercise programs are more likely to be successful when they are based on research that predicts the outcomes of such training. This study determined the effect of submaximal rhythmic handgrip training on rhythmic handgrip endurance or work (RHW), isometric handgrip endurance time (IHE), and maximal voluntary isometric contraction for the handgrip force (MVIC) (in newtons). Twenty-four male subjects (mean age=26.2 years) with right-hand dominance were randomly assigned to a regular training group (n=8), a low-level training group (n=8), or a control group (n=8). Rhythmic handgrip work, IHE, and MVIC were determined bilaterally before and after 6 weeks of a rhythmic right handgrip training program using 30% of MVIC. The low-level training group performed daily training with a near-zero load (effect on submaximal IHE and MVIC of the handgrip, but it had a large effect on RHW of the trained extremity. The regular training group and the low-level training group showed similar increases in cross-education, suggesting that cross-education during endurance training is not intensity-dependent.

  13. Effects of Exercise Training on Haematology and Maximal Cardiac Output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonne, Thomas Christian

    increased after altitude training by 6.2 ± 3.9% (P VO2max was similar before and after training camps in both groups (LHTH: n = 7, SL: n = 6). Maximal 200 m speed reached in an incremental swimming step-test (P......Qmax may increase within a few weeks of exercise and the underlying mechanisms leading to this are likely to be multi-factorial. Plasma volume is generally thought to rapidly increase in response to exercise training driving an increase in Qmax and hence VO2max. Structural and functional changes...... they can be a challenge in an anti-doping context. In study I nine individuals performed six weeks of endurance exercise. Intravascular volumes, Qmax and VO2max were measured before and after the training intervention. Any increases in BV were then restored by phlebotomy. After the training period, PV, RCV...

  14. Effects of different strength training methods on postexercise energetic expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Rodrigo Lavinas; Brentano, Michel Arias; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2010-08-01

    Although many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of strength training in increasing energetic expenditure (EE) both during and after training sessions, there are no studies available that analyze the influence on EE of the order in which exercises are performed. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to verify whether the order in which exercises are performed, represented by 2 different methods of strength training (circuit [CT] and pre-exhaustion [PE]), influences the magnitude of the excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) as well as the EE. Eight nonstrength-trained women participated in the study. Two strength training sessions, with different orders of execution, were held with 7 exercises performed with loads of between 50% and 55% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). The oxygen uptake was measured before the training sessions, and the difference between the values found was taken as the EPOC of each training session and used in later analysis. No significant differences were found in either the EPOC (CT: 7.19 L +/- 6.17 an. PE: 7.22 +/- 5.84 L) or the postexercise EE (CT: 34.67 +/- 29.76 Kcal, PE: 34.77 +/- 28.15 Kcal) of the 2 training methodologies. Our results indicate that, in strength training, the magnitude of the EPOC is not linked to the order in which the exercises are performed. However, the absence of recovery periods between the sets and the exercises promotes an increase in the magnitude of the EPOC to the levels found in training sessions with higher percentages of 1RM.

  15. The Effects of Sport-Specific Drills Training or High-Intensity Interval Training in Young Tennis Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Sanz, David; Sarabia, Jose Manuel; Moya, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    To compare the effects of combining high-intensity training (HIT) and sport-specific drill training (MT) versus sportspecific drill training alone (DT) on fitness performance characteristics in young tennis players. Twenty young tennis players (14.8 ± 0.1 y) were assigned to either DT (n = 10) or MT (n = 10) for 8 wk. Tennis drills consisted of two 16- to 22-min on-court exercise sessions separated by 3 min of passive rest, while MT consisted of 1 sport-specific DT session and 1 HIT session, using 16-22 min of runs at intensities (90-95%) related to the velocity obtained in the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (VIFT) separated by 3 min of passive rest. Pre- and posttests included peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), VIFT, speed (20 m, with 5- and 10-m splits), 505 Agility Test, and countermovement jump (CMJ). There were significant improvements after the training period in VO2peak (DT 2.4%, ES = moderate; MT 4.2%, ES = large) and VIFT (DT 2.2%, ES = small; MT 6.3%, ES = large) for both DT and MT, with no differences between training protocols. Results also showed a large increase in the 505 Agility Test after MT, while no changes were reported in the other tests (sprint and CMJ), either for MT or DT. Even though both training programs resulted in significant improvements in aerobic performance, a mixed program combining tennis drills and runs based on the VIFT led to greater gains and should be considered the preferred training method for improving aerobic power in young athletes.

  16. Aerodynamic effects of high-speed passenger trains on other trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    This study assesses the potential safety risks associated with aerodynamic loads produced by the Acela high-speed train when passing freight and bi-level commuter passenger cars. Acela operates at speeds up to 150 mph, on tangent tracks adjacent to n...

  17. Redirecting learners' attention during training: effects on cognitive load, transfer test performance and training efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Merriënboer, J.J.G.; Schuurman, Jan Gerrit; de Croock, M.B.M.; Paas, F.G.W.C.

    2002-01-01

    Cognitive load theory provides guidelines for improving the training of complex cognitive skills and their transfer to new situations. One guideline states that extraneous cognitive load that is irrelevant to the construction of cognitive schemata should be minimised. Experiment 1 (N=26) compares

  18. Case study into the effect of intensive mass training on chronic pure alexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda

    2015-01-01

    , the training was conducted over a short but intensive period of time and thirdly, the training was focused on regaining reading abilities without the use of compensatory techniques by targeting the various areas of the reading process according to the psycholinguistic model. The study demonstrated......This paper describes the results from a case study into the effects of intensive reading training on a patient with acquired pure alexia disorder. The training targeted the various stages of the basic reading process based on the theories of the psycholinguistic language model as a mixture...... that there is a potential for substantial improvements in reading speed using an intensive training method....

  19. The effects of resistance training prioritization in NCAA Division I Football summer training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert A; Martin, Gerard J; Szivak, Tunde K; Comstock, Brett A; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Hooper, David R; Flanagan, Shawn D; Looney, David P; Volek, Jeff S; Maresh, Carl M; Kraemer, William J

    2014-01-01

    Resistance training (RT) is an integral part of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I Football performance programs. In the sport of football, there are several components that a strength and conditioning coach must be aware of. These include body mass, size, strength, power, speed, conditioning, and injury prevention, among others. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the RT component of a performance program could be prioritized for specific results using a nonlinear training model, grouping athletes by eligibility year. The NCAA Division I football student athletes were placed into 3 separate groups based on the playing year. All subjects participated in a 10-week, 4 days·week-1 off-season summer resistance training program. The training of group 1 (n = 20, age: 18.95 ± 0.76 years, height: 186.63 ± 7.21 cm, body mass: 97.66 ± 18.17 kg, playing year: 1.05 ± 0.22 years) prioritized hypertrophy-based RT to gain body mass. The training of group 2 (n = 20, age: 20.05 ± 1.05 years, height: 189.42 ± 5.49 cm, body mass: 106.99 ± 13.53 kg, and playing year: 2.35 ± 0.75 years) prioritized strength-based RT to gain strength. The training of group 3 (n = 20, age: 21.05 ± 1.10 years, height: 186.56 ± 6.73 cm, body mass: 109.8 ± 19.96 kg, playing year: 4.4 ± 0.50 years) prioritized power-based RT to gain power. Performance tests were evaluated during the first weeks of March (Spring) and August (Fall). The test measures included body mass (kilograms), 1-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press (kilograms), 1RM back squat (kilograms), 1RM power clean (kilograms), and countermovement vertical jump (CMVJ) height (centimeters). The primary findings of this investigation were as follows: group 1 saw significant increases in bench press maximum, back squat maximum, and power clean maximum (p ≤ 0.05). Group 2 saw significant increases in bench press maximum, back squat maximum, and power clean maximum (p ≤ 0.05). Group 3 saw a significant

  20. Effects of Emotion Regulation Training on Attachment Style of Primiparous Pregnant Women with Insecure Attachment

    OpenAIRE

    Tayebeh Reyhani; Aliye Shojafar; Morteza Modares Gharavi; Saeed Vaghee; Toktam Kazemeini; Shadi Shayan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pregnant women with insecure attachment style are at high risk of psychiatric disorders. Since emotions are the first coordinators of attachment behavior, emotion regulation training can alter maternal attachment style. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of emotion regulation training on the attachment styles of primiparous pregnant women with insecure attachment style. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of training programs on the headache of patients afte...

  1. Growth hormone enhances effects of endurance training on oxidative muscle metabolism in elderly women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, K H; Isaksson, F; Juul, A

    2000-01-01

    The present study investigated whether recombinant human (rh) growth hormone (GH) combined with endurance training would have a larger effect on oxidative capacity, metabolism, and body fat than endurance training alone. Sixteen healthy, elderly women, aged 75 yr, performed closely monitored...... in the two subjects receiving rhGH. In conclusion, rhGH adds to the effects of endurance training on muscle oxidative enzymes and causes a reduction in body fat in elderly women....

  2. Effect of training on physical fitness in once weekly college physical education class

    OpenAIRE

    石倉, 恵介; 佐藤, 和; 富川, 理充

    2017-01-01

    To determine the effect of training in a once weekly PE class, we measured the physical fitness and body composition of 47 university students (37 male, 10 female) at pre- and post-training period. They set the goal to either "increase muscle strength or hypertrophy (MS)", "cardiorespiratory fitness (CF)", or "fat reduction (FR)". After the training period, muscle strength and muscle mass increased significantly in the MS group. However, there was no effect in the FR group. The CF group was v...

  3. Trained innate immunity as underlying mechanism for the long-term, nonspecific effects of vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Bastiaan A; Arts, Rob J W; van Crevel, Reinout

    2015-01-01

    provide protection against certain infections in vaccination models independently of lymphocytes. This process is regulated through epigenetic reprogramming of innate immune cells and has been termed "trained immunity." It has been hypothesized that induction of trained immunity is responsible...... for the protective, nonspecific effects induced by vaccines, such as BCG, measles vaccination, and other whole-microorganism vaccines. In this review, we will present the mechanisms of trained immunity responsible for the long-lasting effects of vaccines on the innate immune system....

  4. Effects of a group circuit progressive resistance training program compared with a treadmill training program for adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviram, Ronit; Harries, Netta; Namourah, Ibtisam; Amro, Akram; Bar-Haim, Simona

    2017-08-01

    To determine whether goal-directed group circuit progressive resistance exercise training (GT) can improve motor function in adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) and to compare outcomes with a treadmill training (TT) intervention. In a multi-centered matched pairs study, 95 adolescents with spastic CP (GMFCS II-III) were allocated to GT or TT interventions for 30 bi-weekly one hour training. Outcome measures of GMFM-66, GMFM-D%, GMFM-E%, TUG, 10 meter walk test (10 MWT), and 6 minute walk test (6 MWT) were made at baseline (T1), after interventions (T2) and 6 months post training (T3). Both training programs induced significant improvement in all outcome measures (T2-T1) that were mostly retained at T3. At the end of the intervention, the GT group showed an advantage in all measured changes compared to the TT group and in percentage changes. Differences were significant (p programs were effective in improving motor function in adolescents with cerebral palsy. The GT program had generally greater benefits based on the functional measures.

  5. The effect of internal audit effectiveness, auditor responsibility and training in fraud detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Drogalas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between internal audit effectiveness, internal auditor’s responsibility, training and fraud detection. During the last decade internal auditing has become an integral part of modern businesses since it is capable of detecting errors or offences which lead to fraud. In order to investigate the above relationship, we conducted a survey of companies listed in the Athens Stock Exchange. We used factor analysis to validate the survey instrument and to construct our variables measuring fraud detection, internal audit effectiveness, auditor responsibility and training. We used regression analysis to test for significance between the constructed variables. Our analysis shows that audit effectiveness, auditor responsibility and auditor training affect positively and significantly the detection of fraud. Our results highlight the importance of internal audit in detecting accounting fraud and the need of companies to invest on internal audit processes and training in order to achieve enhanced corporate performance. Finally, our research stresses the importance of internal audit and fraud detection for companies which operate in countries which are in a period of economic crisis.

  6. Concurrent training effect on muscle fibers in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Chacon Castoldi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the modeling of muscle fibers in rats submitted to different exercise protocols. Fifty-five Wistar rats were submitted divided into four different groups: Control group (CG; N=16; endurance training group (ETG; N=13, strength training group (STG; N=13 and concurrent training group (CTG; N=13. The intensity of endurance training was determined by the critical workload. Statistical analysis involved the Kruskal-Wallis test for multiple comparisons, followed by Dunn's post test (p0.05 occurred in the STG and CTG at both four (mean:2952,95 ± 878,39 mean:2988,84 ± 822,58 and eight weeks respectively (mean:3020,26 ± 800.91; mean:3104,91 ± 817,87. The findings demonstrate similar results obtained with strength training and concurrent training, with a greater increase in muscle fiber area in both groups in comparison to the control group and group submitted to endurance training.

  7. Effects of action video game training on visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacker, Kara J; Curby, Kim M; Klobusicky, Elizabeth; Chein, Jason M

    2014-10-01

    The ability to hold visual information in mind over a brief delay is critical for acquiring information and navigating a complex visual world. Despite the ubiquitous nature of visual working memory (VWM) in our everyday lives, this system is fundamentally limited in capacity. Therefore, the potential to improve VWM through training is a growing area of research. An emerging body of literature suggests that extensive experience playing action video games yields a myriad of perceptual and attentional benefits. Several lines of converging work suggest that action video game play may influence VWM as well. The current study utilized a training paradigm to examine whether action video games cause improvements to the quantity and/or the quality of information stored in VWM. The results suggest that VWM capacity, as measured by a change detection task, is increased after action video game training, as compared with training on a control game, and that some improvement to VWM precision occurs with action game training as well. However, these findings do not appear to extend to a complex span measure of VWM, which is often thought to tap into higher-order executive skills. The VWM improvements seen in individuals trained on an action video game cannot be accounted for by differences in motivation or engagement, differential expectations, or baseline differences in demographics as compared with the control group used. In sum, action video game training represents a potentially unique and engaging platform by which this severely capacity-limited VWM system might be enhanced.

  8. Effect of high-intensity training versus moderate training on peak oxygen uptake and chronotropic response in heart transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, C H; Snoer, M; Christensen, S

    2014-01-01

    In heart transplant (HTx) recipients, there has been reluctance to recommend high-intensity interval training (HIIT) due to denervation and chronotropic impairment of the heart. We compared the effects of 12 weeks' HIIT versus continued moderate exercise (CON) on exercise capacity and chronotropic...... effect on oxygen uptake, and led to an unexpected increase in HRpeak accompanied by a faster HRrecovery . This indicates that the benefits of HIIT are partly a result of improved chronotropic response....

  9. Performance in sports--With specific emphasis on the effect of intensified training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangsbo, J

    2015-12-01

    Performance in most sports is determined by the athlete's technical, tactical, physiological and psychological/social characteristics. In the present article, the physical aspect will be evaluated with a focus on what limits performance, and how training can be conducted to improve performance. Specifically how intensified training, i.e., increasing the amount of aerobic high-intensity and speed endurance training, affects physiological adaptations and performance of trained subjects. Periods of speed endurance training do improve performance in events lasting 30 s-4 min, and when combined with aerobic high-intensity sessions, also performance during longer events. Athletes in team sports involving intense exercise actions and endurance aspects, such as soccer and basketball, can also benefit from intensified training. Speed endurance training does reduce energy expenditure and increase expression of muscle Na(+), K(+) pump α subunits, which may preserve muscle cell excitability and delay fatigue development during intense exercise. When various types of training are conducted in the same period (concurrent training), as done in a number of sports, one type of training may blunt the effect of other types of training. It is not, however, clear how various training modalities are affecting each other, and this issue should be addressed in future studies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The effectiveness of a diversity awareness training programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colette Cavaleros

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a diversity awareness training programme. A sample of 382 employees from four different departments within a large accounting firm was used to form the groups of a simulated Solomon four-group design. The impact of a two-day workshop on diversity awareness was assessed using a 68-item questionnaire designed to measure awareness of self, impact of differences, performance management, career development, teamwork, work-family needs, participation, organisational culture, relationship building, and general satisfaction with the organisation. Opsomming Die doel met hierdie studie was om die effektiwiteit van ‘n bewustheid-van-diversiteit opleidingsprogram te bepaal. Werknemers uit vier departemente van ‘n groot ouditeursfirma het die groepe van ‘n gesimuleerde Solomon viergroepontwerp gevorm (N = 382. Die impak van ‘n tweedagwerkwinkel oor bewustheid-van-diversiteit is bepaal met ‘n 68-item vraelys wat ontwikkel is om bewustheid van die self, impak van verskille, prestasiebestuur, loopbaanontwikkeling, spanwerk, werk-gesinsbehoeftes, deelname, organisasiekultuur, ontwikkeling van verhoudings, en algemene tevredenheid met die organisasie te meet.

  11. Effects of Yoga training on Personality of school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanti Semwal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Personality is not only the physical and mental aspect but also the behaviour or adjustment to the surroundings of an individual. It develops gradually from the childhood –adulthood & may affect or gets influenced by various factors like genetic, social and environmental. Adolescent period is the best time to shape & determine ones destiny. We can channelize their energy in a right direction to make them a responsible human being. Yoga is one intervention mentioned by Pallant (2000, as being directed at increasing control over one’s physical reactions. Method: A longitudinal interventional study was done in school children of classes VIII- X. Introversion – Extroversion Inventory was used to assess the type of personality before & after yoga therapy and appropriate suggestions were given accordingly. Results: A total of 271 secondary school students were included in the study. Before intervention majorities (77.1% were of ambivert trait, Girls were found to be more introvert & boys were more extroverts.  After yoga therapy pattern was same but the number of students decreased in introvert & extrovert personality from (10.7 & 11.5 to (2.9 & 4.8 respectively. Conclusion: The present study has shown that training in yoga helped in modifying the personality type in adolescent students. After home, school is the second important place, which help in developing sense of morality and sociability .Yoga is cost effective and easy to implement but need to be regularly reinforce to bring about a sustainable behavioural change.

  12. The effects of passive leg press training on jumping performance, speed, and muscle power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiang; Chen, Chuan-Shou; Ho, Wei-Hua; Füle, Róbert János; Chung, Pao-Hung; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

    2013-06-01

    Passive leg press (PLP) training was developed based on the concepts of the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) and the benefits of high muscle contraction velocity. Passive leg press training enables lower limb muscle groups to apply a maximum downward force against a platform moved up and down at high frequency by an electric motor. Thus, these muscle groups accomplished both concentric and eccentric isokinetic contractions in a passive, rapid, and repetitive manner. This study investigates the effects of 10 weeks of PLP training at high and low movement frequencies have on jumping performance, speed, and muscle power. The authors selected 30 college students who had not performed systematic resistance training in the previous 6 months, including traditional resistance training at a squat frequency of 0.5 Hz, PLP training at a low frequency of 0.5 Hz, and PLP training at a high frequency of 2.5 Hz, and randomly divided them into 3 groups (n = 10). The participants' vertical jump, drop jump, 30-m sprint performance, explosive force, and SSC efficiency were tested under the same experimental procedures at pre- and post-training. Results reveal that high-frequency PLP training significantly increased participants' vertical jump, drop jump, 30-m sprint performance, instantaneous force, peak power, and SSC efficiency (p training (p training significantly increased participants' vertical jump, 30-m sprint performance, instantaneous force, and peak power (p training only increased participants' 30-m sprint performance and peak power (p training at high movement frequency. A PLP training machine powered by an electrical motor enables muscles of the lower extremities to contract faster compared with voluntary contraction. Therefore, muscle training with high contraction velocity is one of the main methods of increasing muscle power. Passive leg press training is a unique method for enhancing jump performance, speed, and muscle power.

  13. Effects of Submaximal Endurance Training and Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Pain Threshold in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jalal Taherabadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to beneficial effects of endurance training and vitamin D3 in diabetes mellitus, purpose of this study is effects submaximal endurance training and vitamin D3 supplementation on pain threshold in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats (250±20 g, N=40 were made diabetic by streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, subcutaneously. 72 h after injection diabetes induction was confirmed by tail vein blood glucose concentration (>300 mg/dl. Then animals were divided to five groups: diabetic control (DC, diabetic trained (DT, diabetic -vitamin D (DD, diabetic trained and vitamin D (DTD, and control (C. Animals were submitted to endurance training by treadmill and vitamin D3 treatment (twice aweek, intrapretonally for 4 weeks. 48 h after at the end of exercise and treatment protocol, we used tail-flick to assess the effects of training and vitamin D3 on thermal pain threshold. We used one way ANOVA statistical analysis to compare differences between groups, significance level of p<0.05 was considered.Results: Diabetic induced hyperalgesia were decreased significantly by vitamin D but not 4 weeks endurance exercise training. Concurrent effects of training and vitamin D on thermal pain threshold were not significantly higher than vitamin D effects alone.Conclusion: It is concluded that vitamin D administration given at the time of diabetes induction may be able to restore thermal hyperalgesia. But effects of endurance exercise training needs to more investigation in diabetic rats.

  14. Effect of Playful Balancing Training - A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Jessen, Jari Due

    2013-01-01

    We used the modular playware in the form of modular interactive tiles for playful training of community-dwelling elderly with balancing problem. During short-term play on the modular interactive tiles, the elderly were playing physical, interactive games that were challenging their dynamic balance......, agility, endurance, and sensor-motoric reaction. A population of 12 elderly (average age: 79) with balancing problems (DGI average score: 18.7) was randomly assigned to control group or tiles training group, and tested before and after intervention. The tiles training group had statistical significant...

  15. Downhill exercise training in monocrotaline-injected rats: Effects on echocardiographic and haemodynamic variables and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enache, Irina; Favret, Fabrice; Doutreleau, Stéphane; Goette Di Marco, Paola; Charles, Anne-Laure; Geny, Bernard; Charloux, Anne

    2017-02-01

    Eccentric exercise training has been shown to improve muscle force strength without excessive cardiovascular stress. Such an exercise modality deserves to be tested in pulmonary arterial hypertension. We aimed to assess the effects of an eccentric training modality on cardiac function and survival in an experimental monocrotaline-induced model of pulmonary arterial hypertension with right ventricular dysfunction. Forty rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups: 40mg/kg monocrotaline-injected sedentary rats; 40mg/kg monocrotaline-injected eccentric-trained rats; sedentary control rats; or eccentric-trained control rats. Eccentric exercise training consisted of downhill running on a treadmill with a -15° slope for 30minutes, 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Training tolerance was assessed by echocardiography, right ventricle catheterization and the rats' maximal eccentric speed. Survival in monocrotaline-injected eccentric-trained rats was not different from that in monocrotaline-injected sedentary rats. Monocrotaline-injected eccentric-trained rats tolerated this training modality well, and haemodynamic status did not deteriorate further compared with monocrotaline-injected sedentary rats. The eccentric maximal speed decline was less pronounced in trained compared with sedentary pulmonary arterial hypertension rats. Eccentric exercise training had no detrimental effects on right heart pressure, cardiac function and survival in rats with stable monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Postexercise oxygen consumption in trained females: effect of exercise duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, T J; Vroman, N B; Kertzer, R

    1994-07-01

    Many research studies report the long-lasting elevation of metabolism following exercise. However, little is known regarding the impact of duration and intensity on this phenomenon, particularly in trained women in whom the time of the menstrual cycle has been controlled. This study examined the effects of a constant walking intensity (70% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max)) on the treadmill at various levels of duration (20, 40, and 60 min) on 3-h recovery of oxygen uptake (VO2). Eight trained (mean +/- SD) (VO2max = 47.6 +/- 3.2 ml.kg-1.min-1) females (mean age = 30.2 +/- 5.0 yr, mean weight = 58.7 +/- 7.6 kg, mean height = 165.6 +/- 7.0 cm) participated in the study. Subjects reported to the lab for a maximal oxygen consumption test and returned on four additional occasions (control, 20, 40, 60 min) in random fashion. Treadmill speed and grade were established to yield the appropriate intensity for each subject. Following each exercise bout subjects sat quietly for a 3-h time period. Variables measured included VO2, minute ventilation (VE), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and core (rectal) temperature (Tc). Variables were measured each 15 min of recovery. An ANOVA was used to assess differences due to duration. Excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) was calculated by subtracting the resting VO2 from the absolute VO2 and summing the individual EPOCs during each 3-h postexercise session and comparing these individual values to the preexercise VO2 values. The EPOC was significantly elevated (P < 0.05) in each of the three durations as compared with the control (sitting) and preexercise periods. The total EPOC was significantly higher for the 60-min duration (15.2 l) as compared with either 20-min (8.b l) or 40-min (9.8 l) duration (P < 0.05). This was observed without significant changes in VE, RER, HR, SBP, DBP, or Tc. Additionally, there were no differences during exercise

  17. The influence of training characteristics on the effect of aerobic exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure : A meta-regression analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vromen, T.; Kraal, J. J.; Kuiper, J.; Spee, R. F.; Peek, N.; Kemps, H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Although aerobic exercise training has shown to be an effective treatment for chronic heart failure patients, there has been a debate about the design of training programs and which training characteristics are the strongest determinants of improvement in exercise capacity. Therefore, we performed a

  18. Influence of the type of training task on intermanual transfer effects in upper-limb prosthesis training : A randomized pre-posttest study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romkema, Sietske; Bongers, Raoul M.; van der Sluis, Corry K.

    2017-01-01

    Intermanual transfer, the transfer of motor skills from the trained hand to the untrained hand, can be used to train upper limb prosthesis skills. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between the magnitude of the intermanual transfer effect and the type of training task. The used

  19. Effect of Robot-Assisted Game Training on Upper Extremity Function in Stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of combining robot-assisted game training with conventional upper extremity rehabilitation training (RCT) on motor and daily functions in comparison with conventional upper extremity rehabilitation training (OCT) in stroke patients. Methods Subjects were eligible if they were able to perform the robot-assisted game training and were divided randomly into a RCT and an OCT group. The RCT group performed one daily session of 30 minutes of robot-assisted game training with a rehabilitation robot, plus one daily session of 30 minutes of conventional rehabilitation training, 5 days a week for 2 weeks. The OCT group performed two daily sessions of 30 minutes of conventional rehabilitation training. The effects of training were measured by a Manual Function Test (MFT), Manual Muscle Test (MMT), Korean version of the Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) and a questionnaire about satisfaction with training. These measurements were taken before and after the 2-week training. Results Both groups contained 25 subjects. After training, both groups showed significant improvements in motor and daily functions measured by MFT, MMT, and K-MBI compared to the baseline. Both groups demonstrated similar training effects, except motor power of wrist flexion. Patients in the RCT group were more satisfied than those in the OCT group. Conclusion There were no significant differences in changes in most of the motor and daily functions between the two types of training. However, patients in the RCT group were more satisfied than those in the OCT group. Therefore, RCT could be a useful upper extremity rehabilitation training method. PMID:28971037

  20. Effect of Robot-Assisted Game Training on Upper Extremity Function in Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeong Woo; Kim, Sang Beom; Lee, Jong Hwa; Lee, Sook Joung; Kim, Jin Wan

    2017-08-01

    To determine the effects of combining robot-assisted game training with conventional upper extremity rehabilitation training (RCT) on motor and daily functions in comparison with conventional upper extremity rehabilitation training (OCT) in stroke patients. Subjects were eligible if they were able to perform the robot-assisted game training and were divided randomly into a RCT and an OCT group. The RCT group performed one daily session of 30 minutes of robot-assisted game training with a rehabilitation robot, plus one daily session of 30 minutes of conventional rehabilitation training, 5 days a week for 2 weeks. The OCT group performed two daily sessions of 30 minutes of conventional rehabilitation training. The effects of training were measured by a Manual Function Test (MFT), Manual Muscle Test (MMT), Korean version of the Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) and a questionnaire about satisfaction with training. These measurements were taken before and after the 2-week training. Both groups contained 25 subjects. After training, both groups showed significant improvements in motor and daily functions measured by MFT, MMT, and K-MBI compared to the baseline. Both groups demonstrated similar training effects, except motor power of wrist flexion. Patients in the RCT group were more satisfied than those in the OCT group. There were no significant differences in changes in most of the motor and daily functions between the two types of training. However, patients in the RCT group were more satisfied than those in the OCT group. Therefore, RCT could be a useful upper extremity rehabilitation training method.

  1. Short- and long-term effects of endurance training in patients with mitochondrial myopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, T D; Dunø, M; Schwartz, M

    2009-01-01

    mtDNA mutations. RESULTS: Three-month moderate-intensity training increased oxidative capacity by 23%, which was sustained after 6-12 months of low-intensity training. Training and deconditioning did not induce adverse effects on clinical symptoms, muscle morphology and mtDNA mutation load in muscle......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It is unknown whether prolonged training is a safe treatment to alleviate exercise intolerance in patients with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. METHODS: The effect of 3 and 12 months training and 3-12 months deconditioning was studied in four patients carrying different....... CONCLUSION: Long-term training effectively improves exercise capacity in patients with mitochondrial myopathy, and appears to be safe....

  2. The need for faculty training programs in effective feedback provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Wahbi A

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah Al Wahbi1,2 1King Saud University for Health Sciences, 2King Abdulaziz Medical City, Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract: An important aspect of professional teaching practice is a practitioner's ability to critically evaluate the performances of subordinates for whom he or she is responsible. This is a common practice within social sciences as well as for professionals from applied specialties. The literature on professional clinical expertise identifies reflective practice as perfect when they are thoroughly accepted by practitioners. In health-related professions, critical reflection in the form of feedback that serves as the bridge between theory and practice is endorsed. The aims and objectives of this study were directed toward the application of a mixed methodology approach in order to evaluate the requirements for a feedback training program and to detect the present feedback provision skills of clinical mentors in practice. The quantitative analysis measured the effectiveness of clinical teachers' feedback in order to understand whether their understanding of and skills for giving feedback to promote students were adequate. On the other hand, the qualitative methods explored self-perceptions of feedback skills and efficacy in enabling students to improve their clinical practice. Effective feedback from faculty and the learner provides a useful and meaningful experience for absorbing knowledge and critical thinking into clinical practice. Nonadherence and limited expertise of mentors in giving feedback are the main themes of this study, and were evaluated and acknowledged through systematic analysis. Keywords: clinical mentors, feedback mechanism, feedback proficiency 

  3. Effect of training on the reliability of satiety evaluation and use of trained panellists to determine the satiety effect of dietary fibre: a randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky A Solah

    Full Text Available The assessment of satiety effects on foods is commonly performed by untrained volunteers marking their perceived hunger or fullness on line scales, marked with pre-set descriptors. The lack of reproducibility of satiety measurement using this approach however results in the tool being unable to distinguish between foods that have small, but possibly important, differences in their satiety effects. An alternate approach is used in sensory evaluation; panellists can be trained in the correct use of the assessment line-scale and brought to consensus on the meanings of descriptors used for food quality attributes to improve the panel reliability. The effect of training on the reliability of a satiety panel has not previously been reported.In a randomised controlled parallel intervention, the effect of training in the correct use of a satiety labelled magnitude scale (LMS was assessed versus no-training. The test-retest precision and reliability of two hour postprandial satiety evaluation after consumption of a standard breakfast was compared. The trained panel then compared the satiety effect of two breakfast meals containing either a viscous or a non-viscous dietary fibre in a crossover trial.A subgroup of the 23 panellists (n = 5 improved their test re-test precision after training. Panel satiety area under the curve, "after the training" intervention was significantly different to "before training" (p < 0.001. Reliability of the panel determined by intraclass correlation (ICC of test and retest showed improved strength of the correlation from 0.70 pre-intervention to 0.95 post intervention. The trained "satiety expert panel" determined that a standard breakfast with 5g of viscous fibre gave significantly higher satiety than with 5g non-viscous fibre (area under curve (AUC of 478.2, 334.4 respectively (p ≤ 0.002.Training reduced between panellist variability. The improved strength of test-retest ICC as a result of the training intervention

  4. Comparative effects of emotion management training and social skills training in Korean children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Sil; Lee, Woo Kyeong

    2015-02-01

    ADHD is associated with social and emotional impairment that goes beyond the core symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and attention deficits. This study evaluates the comparative efficacy of emotional management training (EMT) with social skills training (SST) and no treatment in children with ADHD. A randomized, controlled treatment outcome study was conducted with 32 boys and 40 girls (aged 10-12 years). The Child Behavior Checklist, Emotion Expression Scale for Children, Child Depression Inventory, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for children were completed before and after the intervention. The EMT group exhibited a significant improvement in emotion recognition and expressive reluctance. Therefore, focusing on emotion identification and expression in social cognitive processes (i.e., EMT), instead of merely focusing on social skills (SST), enhances treatment efficacy. These results support the hypothesis that focusing on the identification and expression of emotional information processes, instead of merely focusing on social skills (SST) enhances treatment efficacy. © 2013 SAGE Publications.

  5. Comparison of the effects of visual feedback training and unstable surface training on static and dynamic balance in patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hyuck-Soon; Kim, Jin-Hong; Choi, Bo-Ram

    2017-10-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the effects of visual feedback training and unstable surface training on the static and dynamic balance of stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The study enrolled 20 stroke patients and randomly assigned them to visual feedback training and unstable surface training groups. Both groups performed 30 minutes of conventional exercise therapy twice a week for 4 weeks. In addition, the subjects in the visual feedback training group completed a visual feedback training regimen and the subjects in the unstable surface training group completed training on an unstable surface (30-minute session three times a week for 4 weeks in both groups). Static and dynamic balance parameters were recorded immediately before and after the 4 weeks of training. For data analysis, the paired and independent t-test was used to compare the two groups. [Results] In the visual feedback training group, the sway line at the postural sway of the center of pressure and trace length decreased significantly after training. In both groups, the sway range at the limits of stability in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions increased significantly after training. [Conclusion] Visual feedback training was better at improving static and dynamic balance than unstable surface training in stroke patients.

  6. Effects of Magnifier Training: Evidence from a Camera Built in the Magnifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, F.N.; Cox, R.F.A.; Reimer, A.M.; Verezen, C.A.; Rison, P.; Huurneman, B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the effect of an evidence-based magnifier training on viewing behavior in visually impaired children aged 3 to 6½ years. Methods: Effects of a training with a stand magnifier were evaluated by analyzing recordings of 21 visually impaired children, obtained from a

  7. The Effect of Depth Jumps and Weight Training on Leg Strength and Vertical Jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clutch, David; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Two experiments examined the results of depth jumping programs to determine: (1) whether certain depth jumping routines, when combined with weight training, are better than others; and (2) the effect of depth jumping on athletes already in training. Results indicated that depth jumping is effective, but no more so than regular jumping routines.…

  8. The Mediating Role of Social Support in the Evaluation of Training Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvelos, Rita; Ferreira, Aristides I.; Bates, Reid

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to contribute to the understanding of factors that affect training effectiveness. According to the literature, social support, perceived content validity, transfer design, the motivation to improve work through learning and positive transfer, contribute to the effectiveness of training.…

  9. Effects of magnifier training: evidence from a camera built in the magnifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, F.N.; Cox, R.F.; Reimer, A.M.; Verezen, C.A.; Rison, P.; Huurneman, B.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study evaluated the effect of an evidence-based magnifier training on viewing behavior in visually impaired children aged 3 to 6(1/2) years. METHODS: Effects of a training with a stand magnifier were evaluated by analyzing recordings of 21 visually impaired children, obtained from a

  10. Gender and Physical Training Effects on Soldier Physical Competencies and Physiological Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    Libraries and Archives will also receive hardcopies.” Gender and Physical Training Effects on Soldier Physical Competencies and Physiological... Library , US 1 Materials Information, Cambridge Scientific Abstracts, US 1 Documents Librarian , The Center for Research Libraries , US 1 SPARES...Gender and Physical Training Effects on Soldier Physical Competencies and Physiological Strain Mark J Patterson, Warren S Roberts, Wai-Man

  11. Effectiveness of a Modified Rapid Toilet Training Workshop for Parents of Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinald, Katherine; Mirenda, Pat

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with developmental disabilities often experience challenges in acquiring toileting skills, which highlights a need for effective toilet training strategies that can be readily disseminated to caregivers. The purpose of this multiple baseline study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a modified rapid toilet training workshop provided…

  12. The effect of body weight changes and endurance training on 24h substrate oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.; Saris, W.H.M.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of body weight changes and endurance training on 24h substrate oxidation. Pasman WJ, Westerterp MS, Saris WH. Maastricht University, Department of Human Biology, The Netherlands. Pasman@voeding.tno.nl OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of exercise training and dietary macronutrient

  13. The Effect of Clinical Psychiatric Training on Medical Students' Belief ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    femi oloka

    Background to the study: Medical student's attitude towards people with mental illness (PWMI) is very important for the future care of psychiatric patients. .... Nigeria. The College provides training for medical and dental ..... friendship with. PWMI.

  14. Is systematic training in opioid overdose prevention effective?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Albert Espelt; Marina Bosque-Prous; Cinta Folch; Ana Sarasa-Renedo; Xavier Majó; Jordi Casabona; M Teresa Brugal; REDAN Group

    2017-01-01

    The objectives were to analyze the knowledge about overdose prevention, the use of naloxone, and the number of fatal overdoses after the implementation of Systematic Training in Overdose Prevention (STOOP) program...

  15. Legionella on board trains: effectiveness of environmental surveillance and decontamination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quaranta, Gianluigi; Vincenti, Sara; Ferriero, Anna Maria; Boninti, Federica; Sezzatini, Romina; Turnaturi, Cinzia; Gliubizzi, Maria Daniela; Munafò, Elio; Ceccarelli, Gianluca; Causarano, Carmelo; Accorsi, Massimo; Del Nord, Pasquale; Ricciardi, Walter; Laurenti, Patrizia

    2012-01-01

    .... Many studies describe the frequency and severity of Legionella spp. contamination in spa pools, natural pools, hotels and ships, but there is no study analysing the environmental monitoring of Legionella on board trains...

  16. Effectiveness of Conversational Skill Training of Patients with Schizophrenia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parthasarathy R; Lalitha K; Padmavathi N

    2013-01-01

    Background: The disabling nature of deficitsin social and independent living skills of per-sons with severe and persisting mental disor-ders was a strong rationale for developing so-cial skills training...

  17. Effectiveness of Intensive Physician Training in Upfront Agenda Setting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brock, Douglas M; Mauksch, Larry B; Witteborn, Saskia; Hummel, Jeffery; Nagasawa, Pamela; Robins, Lynne S

    2011-01-01

    ... are raised.We hypothesized that when physicians were trained to use collaborative upfront agenda setting, visits would be no longer, more concerns would be identified, fewer concerns would surface late...

  18. The Effect of Personnel Training on Corporate Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E A Zakablutskaya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problems arising in commercial organizations as a result of initiatives in the area of purposeful changes in company corporate culture, and analyses the mechanism of initiating and introducing such changes through personnel training.

  19. Effect of training algorithms on neural networks aided pavement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    pavement modeling results for training the NN aided inverse analysis is .... Also, the Asphalt Institute's Thickness Design Manual MS-1 recommends ERi as ..... http://www.infrastructurereportcard.org/sites/default/files/RC2009_full_report.pdf ...

  20. Effects of biofeedback training on physiological coherence, health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of love with special reference to its personal, familial, communal and general psychotherapeutic implications. Integrative findings attest to the value of this form of biofeedback training for meaningful, rapid health and performance benefits. Keywords: Biofeedback, workshop, physiological coherence, health, spirituality.

  1. Army Training Study: Training Effectiveness Analysis (TEA) Summary. Volume 1. Armor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-08

    definitions of the concepts of skill and retention.P DEFINITION OF SKILL EmFasizig the idea that skills are behaviors which involve the coordination of...different measures on retention." Similar conclusions have been echoed 9Rlalwes and Pegan , An Integrated A]proech. 3-5 thrcughout the skill retention...was productive and that indfviduals receiving remedial training generally retained information once it was learned. This is supportive of the idea that

  2. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of LTR Training versus Simulation Training and Stress Inoculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    processes and purposeful actions. System dynamics modeling relies on both quantitative and qualitative data and allows us to run simulations on...Live tissue training Stress Inoculation Combat medic readiness Combat casualty care Military preparedness System Dynamics Modeling Return on...body (simulator). 4. Ride Along Supplement: one day of trainee ride-along as a paramedic’s shadow, with the Emergency Medical Service ( EMS ) agency

  3. The effect of formal, neonatal communication-intervention training on mothers in kangaroo care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alta Kritzinger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to low-birth-weight, preterm birth, HIV and/or AIDS and poverty-related factors, South Africa presents with an increased prevalence of infants at risk of language delay. A Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC unit offers unique opportunities for training.Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine if formal, neonatal communication-intervention training had an effect on mothers’ knowledge and communication interaction with their high-risk infants.Methods: Three groups of mothers participated: Group 1 was trained whilst practicing KMC; Group 2 was not trained but practiced KMC; and Group 3 was also not trained but practiced sporadic KMC. Ten mothers per group were matched for age, education level and birth order of their infants. The individual training was based on graded sensory stimulation and responsive mother-infant communication interaction, which emphasised talking and singing by the mother.Results: Significant differences were found in mother-infant communication interaction between all three groups, which indicated a positive effect on Group 1 with training. Group 2, KMC without training, also had a positive effect on interaction. However, Group 1 mothers with training demonstrated better knowledge of their infants and were more responsive during interaction than the other two groups.Conclusion: The present study suggests that neonatal communication-intervention training adds value to a KMC programme. Normal 0 false false false EN-ZA X-NONE X-NONE

  4. Effects of a high-intensity intermittent training program on aerobic capacity and lipid profile in trained subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouerghi, Nejmeddine; Khammassi, Marwa; Boukorraa, Sami; Feki, Moncef; Kaabachi, Naziha; Bouassida, Anissa

    2014-01-01

    Data regarding the effect of training on plasma lipids are controversial. Most studies have addressed continuous or long intermittent training programs. The present study evaluated the effect of short-short high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on aerobic capacity and plasma lipids in soccer players. The study included 24 male subjects aged 21-26 years, divided into three groups: experimental group 1 (EG1, n=8) comprising soccer players who exercised in addition to regular short-short HIIT twice a week for 12 weeks; experimental group 2 (EG2, n=8) comprising soccer players who exercised in a regular football training program; and a control group (CG, n=8) comprising untrained subjects who did not practice regular physical activity. Maximal aerobic velocity and maximal oxygen uptake along with plasma lipids were measured before and after 6 weeks and 12 weeks of the respective training program. Compared with basal values, maximal oxygen uptake had significantly increased in EG1 (from 53.3±4.0 mL/min/kg to 54.8±3.0 mL/min/kg at 6 weeks [P<0.05] and to 57.0±3.2 mL/min/kg at 12 weeks [P<0.001]). Maximal oxygen uptake was increased only after 12 weeks in EG2 (from 52.8±2.7 mL/min/kg to 54.2±2.6 mL/min/kg, [P<0.05]), but remain unchanged in CG. After 12 weeks of training, maximal oxygen uptake was significantly higher in EG1 than in EG2 (P<0.05). During training, no significant changes in plasma lipids occurred. However, after 12 weeks, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels had decreased (by about 2%) in EG1 but increased in CG. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased in EG1 and EG2, but decreased in CG. Plasma triglycerides decreased by 8% in EG1 and increased by about 4% in CG. Twelve weeks of short-short HIIT improves aerobic capacity. Although changes in the lipid profile were not significant after this training program, they may have a beneficial impact on health.

  5. Training models in laparoscopy: a systematic review comparing their effectiveness in learning surgical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willaert, W; Van De Putte, D; Van Renterghem, K; Van Nieuwenhove, Y; Ceelen, W; Pattyn, P

    2013-01-01

    Surgery has traditionally been learned on patients in the operating room, which is time-consuming, can have an impact on the patient outcomes, and is of variable effectiveness. As a result, surgical training models have been developed, which are compared in this systematic review. We searched Pubmed, CENTRAL, and Science Citation index expanded for randomised clinical trials and randomised cross-over studies comparing laparoscopic training models. Studies comparing one model with no training were also included. The reference list of identified trials was searched for further relevant studies. Fifty-eight trials evaluating several training forms and involving 1591 participants were included (four studies with a low risk of bias). Training (virtual reality (VR) or video trainer (VT)) versus no training improves surgical skills in the majority of trials. Both VR and VT are as effective in most studies. VR training is superior to traditional laparoscopic training in the operating room. Outcome results for VR robotic simulations versus robot training show no clear difference in effectiveness for either model. Only one trial included human cadavers and observed better results versus VR for one out of four scores. Contrasting results are observed when robotic technology is compared with manual laparoscopy. VR training and VT training are valid teaching models. Practicing on these models similarly improves surgical skills. A combination of both methods is recommended in a surgical curriculum. VR training is superior to unstructured traditional training in the operating room. The reciprocal effectiveness of the other models to learn surgical skills has not yet been established.

  6. Effects of intensified training and taper on immune function

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Papacosta; Michael Gleeson

    2013-01-01

    Although resting immune function is not very different in athletes compared with non-athletes periods of intensified training (overreaching) in already well trained athletes can result in a depression of immunity in the resting state. Illness-prone athletes appear to have an altered cytokine response to antigen stimulation and exercise. Having low levels of salivary IgA secretion also makes athletes more susceptible to upper respiratory tract infections. Overtraining is associated with recurr...

  7. Increasing the Effectiveness of Army Pre-Deployment Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    3rd BCTs, 101st Airborne Division. These fine men and women hosted me, supported my research, and provided reams of data. I pray that 1/10, 1/101... safety is a pertinent concern, but cannot prevent tough, realistic training.35 One suggestion was the use of blanks during all training...should develop an extensive mountaineering conditioning program IOT prepare for the rigors involved with such terrain.53 One commander commented, If

  8. Game-Based Training Effectiveness Evaluation in an Operational Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    814-828. Tannenbaum, S. I., & Yukl , G. (1992). Training and development in work organizations . In M. R. Rosenweig, & L. W. Porter (Eds.), Annual...7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Aptima, Inc. 12 Gill Street, Suite 1400 Woburn, MA 01801 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT...outcomes. Both the level of unit preparation for the training and the level of unit leadership involvement during exercise management positively

  9. The effects of the European Working Time Directive on surgical training: the basic surgical trainee's perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, B D

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: On the 1 August 2009, the implementation of European Working Time Directive became European law and was implemented in Galway University Hospital (GUH). AIMS: The aim of the study is to ascertain the opinion of the 25 surgical SHOs in GUH on the effect of the implementation of an EWTD compliant roster had on the quality of their training. METHODS: A questionnaire was circulated to all 25 surgical SHOs. RESULTS: Twenty-two (88%) SHOs report a reduction in the quality of their training. 18 (72%) report a reduction in the development of their operative skills. The SHOs believed the EWTD Rotas would encourage Irish graduates to train abroad. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical training faces a challenge with the implementation of EWTD Rotas. Major changes need to be made to the surgical training structure to train surgeons to the highest standard and to retain Irish-trained surgeons in the Irish healthcare system.

  10. Resistance training among young athletes: safety, efficacy and injury prevention effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, A D; Myer, G D

    2010-01-01

    A literature review was employed to evaluate the current epidemiology of injury related to the safety and efficacy of youth resistance training. Several case study reports and retrospective questionnaires regarding resistance exercise and the competitive sports of weightlifting and powerlifting reveal that injuries have occurred in young lifters, although a majority can be classified as accidental. Lack of qualified instruction that underlies poor exercise technique and inappropriate training loads could explain, at least partly, some of the reported injuries. Current research indicates that resistance training can be a safe, effective and worthwhile activity for children and adolescents provided that qualified professionals supervise all training sessions and provide age-appropriate instruction on proper lifting procedures and safe training guidelines. Regular participation in a multifaceted resistance training programme that begins during the preseason and includes instruction on movement biomechanics may reduce the risk of sports-related injuries in young athletes. Strategies for enhancing the safety of youth resistance training are discussed.

  11. Is Young Age a Limiting Factor When Training Balance? Effects of Child-Oriented Balance Training in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wälchli, Michael; Ruffieux, Jan; Mouthon, Audrey; Keller, Martin; Taube, Wolfgang

    2017-09-27

    Balance training (BT) studies in children reported conflicting results without evidence for improvements in children under the age of 8. The aim of this study therefore was to compare BT adaptations in children of different age groups to clarify whether young age prevents positive training outcomes. The effects of 5 weeks of child-oriented BT were tested in 77 (38 girls and 39 boys) participants of different age groups (6-7 y, 11-12 y, and 14-15 y) and compared with age-matched controls. Static and dynamic postural control, explosive strength, and jump height were assessed. Across age groups, dynamic postural sway decreased (-18.7%; P = .012; [Formula: see text]) and explosive force increased (8.6%; P = .040; [Formula: see text]) in the intervention groups. Age-specific improvements were observed in dynamic postural sway, with greatest effects in the youngest group (-28.8%; P = .026; r = .61). In contrast to previous research using adult-oriented balance exercises, this study demonstrated for the first time that postural control can be trained from as early as the age of 6 years in children when using child-oriented BT. Therefore, the conception of the training seems to be essential in improving balance skills in young children.

  12. Cardiac rehabilitation in chronic heart failure: effect of an 8-week, high-intensity interval training versus continuous training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyssin, Céline; Verkindt, Chantal; Prieur, Fabrice; Benaich, Philippe; Maunier, Sébastien; Blanc, Philippe

    2012-08-01

    To compare the effects of an 8-week, high-intensity interval training protocol versus continuous training. Randomized controlled trial. Cardiac rehabilitation center. Patients (N=26; mean age ± SD, 54±12y) with chronic heart failure were enrolled in a cardiac rehabilitation program for 8 weeks. Patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups that performed either interval training (IT) or continuous training (CT). IT consisted of 3 sessions of 12 repetitions of 30 seconds of exercise at very high intensity, followed by 60 seconds of complete rest. The CT group performed CT exercises, which consisted of 45 minutes of aerobic exercise. Parameters of gas exchanges: peak oxygen consumption (Vo(2)peak), first ventilator threshold (VT1), distance at six-minute walk test (6MWT), and level of anxiety and depression were measured. The IT group increased significantly their Vo(2)peak, the duration of the exercise test, the oxygen pulse, oxygen consumption at the VT1, and the distance walked during the 6MWT. The CT group only increased the time at the VT1 and the distance performed at the 6MWT. The improvement in the time at the VT1 was significantly higher for the IT group than for the CT group. This study shows that IT at very high intensity for patients with heart failure appears to be more effective than CT in improving indices of submaximal exercise capacity. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Progressive Muscle Relaxation on Pain Threshold and Effectiveness of Footballers’ Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaworska Lilianna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Relaxing in the athlete’s training process is underutilized. Relaxation techniques, however, should be taught from the very beginning of the footballer’s training career. The main aim of this study was to present the effect of progressive muscle relaxation on pressure pain threshold levels and the effectiveness of the footballer’s training. Methods. A sample of 32 football players participated in the therapeutic program consisting of 8 PMR sessions. Before and after applying a pressure therapy, the pain threshold in the lumbar region was measured by a dolorimeter and the Cooper test was carried out to determine the footballers’ level of endurance. Results. PMR training did not increase significantly the pain threshold level in the experimental group (p > 0.05, but it increased significantly the distance covered in the Cooper test (p = 0.04. Analysis of the Spearman rank correlation was also carried out (p = 0.81. Conclusions. PMR does not lower pain perception threshold. PMR therapy increases the distance measured by the Cooper test. In order to determine the role of PMR in injury prevention, further research is necessary.

  14. The effect of training methodology on knowledge representation in categorization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Hélie

    Full Text Available Category representations can be broadly classified as containing within-category information or between-category information. Although such representational differences can have a profound impact on decision-making, relatively little is known about the factors contributing to the development and generalizability of different types of category representations. These issues are addressed by investigating the impact of training methodology and category structures using a traditional empirical approach as well as the novel adaptation of computational modeling techniques from the machine learning literature. Experiment 1 focused on rule-based (RB category structures thought to promote between-category representations. Participants learned two sets of two categories during training and were subsequently tested on a novel categorization problem using the training categories. Classification training resulted in a bias toward between-category representations whereas concept training resulted in a bias toward within-category representations. Experiment 2 focused on information-integration (II category structures thought to promote within-category representations. With II structures, there was a bias toward within-category representations regardless of training methodology. Furthermore, in both experiments, computational modeling suggests that only within-category representations could support generalization during the test phase. These data suggest that within-category representations may be dominant and more robust for supporting the reconfiguration of current knowledge to support generalization.

  15. Technological Approaches to Evaluating Training Effects of Power Load in Primary Schoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. М. Худолій

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Research objective. To experimentally ground the technological approaches to evaluating training effects of primary schoolers’ power loads. Materials and methods. To achieve the objectives outlined, the research used the following methods: analysis of scientific and methodological literature, pedagogical testing, modeling, pedagogical observation and experiment, methods of mathematical experiment planning (complete factorial experiment, 2k type, discriminant analysis. The participants in the study were 32 second grade boys. Research results. The training pattern affects the dynamics in the test results for the second grade boys. The test results can improve provided that the power load brings about significant changes after the training at each spot, after the training (immediate training effect, and twenty four hours after the power load (delayed training effect. The higher the dynamics is for the immediate and delayed training effects, the more significant are the improved power tests results observed after as few as three lessons. Conclusions. The discriminant function can be used to classify the training effects of the second grade boys’ power loads. The first canonical function explains the results variation by 85.0%, the second one — by 14.0%. This suggests that they are highly informative. The centroid coordinates for five groups allow to interpret the canonical functions according to the role differentiating the grades by the training effects of the primary schoolers’ power loads. The positive pole of the first function has the condition centroids at the beginning of the power loads, after three, six, nine and twelve lessons; the negative pole has the centroids of the training effects after the power loads, after the lesson, after 24 hours. Thus, the reaction to the power load has immediate, delayed and cumulative training effects.

  16. Inquiry-based training improves teaching effectiveness of biology teaching assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, P. William; Ellefson, Michelle R.

    2013-01-01

    Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) are used extensively as undergraduate science lab instructors at universities, yet they often have having minimal instructional training and little is known about effective training methods. This blind randomized control trial study assessed the impact of two training regimens on GTA teaching effectiveness. GTAs teaching undergraduate biology labs (n = 52) completed five hours of training in either inquiry-based learning pedagogy or general instructional “best practices”. GTA teaching effectiveness was evaluated using: (1) a nine-factor student evaluation of educational quality; (2) a six-factor questionnaire for student learning; and (3) course grades. Ratings from both GTAs and undergraduates indicated that indicated that the inquiry-based learning pedagogy training has a positive effect on GTA teaching effectiveness. PMID:24147138

  17. Inquiry-based training improves teaching effectiveness of biology teaching assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, P William; Ellefson, Michelle R

    2013-01-01

    Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) are used extensively as undergraduate science lab instructors at universities, yet they often have having minimal instructional training and little is known about effective training methods. This blind randomized control trial study assessed the impact of two training regimens on GTA teaching effectiveness. GTAs teaching undergraduate biology labs (n = 52) completed five hours of training in either inquiry-based learning pedagogy or general instructional "best practices". GTA teaching effectiveness was evaluated using: (1) a nine-factor student evaluation of educational quality; (2) a six-factor questionnaire for student learning; and (3) course grades. Ratings from both GTAs and undergraduates indicated that indicated that the inquiry-based learning pedagogy training has a positive effect on GTA teaching effectiveness.

  18. The effect of training volume and intensity on improvements in muscular strength and size in resistance-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangine, Gerald T; Hoffman, Jay R; Gonzalez, Adam M; Townsend, Jeremy R; Wells, Adam J; Jajtner, Adam R; Beyer, Kyle S; Boone, Carleigh H; Miramonti, Amelia A; Wang, Ran; LaMonica, Michael B; Fukuda, David H; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2015-08-01

    This investigation compared the effect of high-volume (VOL) versus high-intensity (INT) resistance training on stimulating changes in muscle size and strength in resistance-trained men. Following a 2-week preparatory phase, participants were randomly assigned to either a high-volume (VOL; n = 14, 4 × 10-12 repetitions with ~70% of one repetition maximum [1RM], 1-min rest intervals) or a high-intensity (INT; n = 15, 4 × 3-5 repetitions with ~90% of 1RM, 3-min rest intervals) training group for 8 weeks. Pre- and posttraining assessments included lean tissue mass via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, muscle cross-sectional area and thickness of the vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF), pectoralis major, and triceps brachii muscles via ultrasound images, and 1RM strength in the back squat and bench press (BP) exercises. Blood samples were collected at baseline, immediately post, 30 min post, and 60 min postexercise at week 3 (WK3) and week 10 (WK10) to assess the serum testosterone, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1), cortisol, and insulin concentrations. Compared to VOL, greater improvements (P intensity resistance training stimulates greater improvements in some measures of strength and hypertrophy in resistance-trained men during a short-term training period. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  19. Simulator fidelity and training effectiveness: a comprehensive bibliography with selected annotations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rankin, W.L.; Bolton, P.A.; Shikiar, R.; Saari, L.M.

    1984-05-01

    This document contains a comprehensive bibliography on the topic of simulator fidelity and training effectiveness, prepared during the preliminary phases of work on an NRC-sponsored project on the Role of Nuclear Power Plant Simulators in Operator Licensing and Training. Section A of the document is an annotated bibliography consisting of articles and reports with relevance to the psychological aspects of simulator fidelity and the effectiveness of training simulators in a variety of settings, including military. The annotated items are drawn from a more comprehensive bibliography, presented in Section B, listing documents treating the role of simulators in operator training both in the nuclear industry and elsewhere.

  20. Effects of Plyometric Training on Rock’n’Roll Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Nitzsche

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to analyse if plyometric training increases the sport specific performance in rock’n’roll dancers. Design: Fifteen semi-professional rock’n’roll dancers participated in a plyometric training study. Pre- and posttests were conducted to document alterations of sport specific performance, reactive strength as well as maximal isokinetic torque. Method: The participants (n=15 accomplished two training sessions weekly for a training period of 6 weeks. The training program consisted of different of jumps. Pre- and posttests included a rock’n’roll specific performance test examining the maximal number of kicks within 30 s. Moreover, jumping height and ground contact time (GCT during drop jump were determined to calculate reactive strength (RSI. Maximal dynamic torque and work were determined during maximal isokinetic contractions of the plantar flexors. Results: The number of kicks increased from 46.5 ± 2.6 to 49.4 ± 2.7 (p=0.00, dZ=1.83.The RSI increased significantly from 2.57 ± 0.29 to 2.72 ± 0.44 (p=0.05, dZ=0.55. The gains of RSI are based on increases in jumping height (pretest: 24.6 ± 4.0 cm, posttest 26.5 ± 4.7 cm, p=0.01, dZ=0.71, whereas the GCT remained unaltered (p=0.53. The work during maximal isokinetic plantar flexions increased significantly in both legs (jumping leg: p = 0.04, dZ=0.58; kicking leg: p=0.05, dZ=0.55. Conclusions: Plyometric training increases the kicking frequency during rock’n’roll dance. This might be attributed to the observed increase in reactive strength. Training induced changes in muscle activity or structure were discussed. It is suggested to implement plyometric training into the training program of rock’n’roll dancers. Keywords: Rock’n’roll, plyometric training, reactive strength, plantar flexors

  1. Effects of Field of View and Visual Complexity on Virtual Reality Training Effectiveness for a Visual Scanning Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Eric D; Bowman, Doug A; Kopper, Regis; Stinson, Cheryl; Scerbo, Siroberto; McMahan, Ryan P

    2015-07-01

    Virtual reality training systems are commonly used in a variety of domains, and it is important to understand how the realism of a training simulation influences training effectiveness. We conducted a controlled experiment to test the effects of display and scenario properties on training effectiveness for a visual scanning task in a simulated urban environment. The experiment varied the levels of field of view and visual complexity during a training phase and then evaluated scanning performance with the simulator's highest levels of fidelity and scene complexity. To assess scanning performance, we measured target detection and adherence to a prescribed strategy. The results show that both field of view and visual complexity significantly affected target detection during training; higher field of view led to better performance and higher visual complexity worsened performance. Additionally, adherence to the prescribed visual scanning strategy during assessment was best when the level of visual complexity during training matched that of the assessment conditions, providing evidence that similar visual complexity was important for learning the technique. The results also demonstrate that task performance during training was not always a sufficient measure of mastery of an instructed technique. That is, if learning a prescribed strategy or skill is the goal of a training exercise, performance in a simulation may not be an appropriate indicator of effectiveness outside of training-evaluation in a more realistic setting may be necessary.

  2. The effects of verbal information and approach-avoidance training on children's fear-related responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Kathryn J; Lisk, Stephen C; Mikita, Nina; Mitchell, Sophie; Huijding, Jorg; Rinck, Mike; Field, Andy P

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the effects of verbal information and approach-avoidance training on fear-related cognitive and behavioural responses about novel animals. One hundred and sixty children (7-11 years) were randomly allocated to receive: a) positive verbal information about one novel animal and threat information about a second novel animal (verbal information condition); b) approach-avoidance training in which they repeatedly pushed away (avoid) or pulled closer (approach) pictures of the animals (approach-avoidance training), c) a combined condition in which verbal information was given prior to approach-avoidance training (verbal information + approach-avoidance training) and d) a combined condition in which approach-avoidance training was given prior to verbal information (approach-avoidance training + verbal information). Threat and positive information significantly increased and decreased fear beliefs and avoidance behaviour respectively. Approach-avoidance training was successful in training the desired behavioural responses but had limited effects on fear-related responses. Verbal information and both combined conditions resulted in significantly larger effects than approach-avoidance training. We found no evidence for an additive effect of these pathways. This study used a non-clinical sample and focused on novel animals rather than animals about which children already had experience or established fears. The study also compared positive information/approach with threat information/avoid training, limiting specific conclusions regarding the independent effects of these conditions. The present study finds little evidence in support of a possible causal role for behavioural response training in the aetiology of childhood fear. However, the provision of verbal information appears to be an important pathway involved in the aetiology of childhood fear. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Exercise training in patients with heart disease: review of beneficial effects and clinical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Stephan; Laughlin, M Harold; O'Conner, Christopher; Duncker, Dirk J

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades exercise training has evolved into an established evidence-based therapeutic strategy with prognostic benefits in many cardiovascular diseases (CVDs): In stable coronary artery disease (CAD) exercise training attenuates disease progression by beneficially influencing CVD risk factors (i.e., hyperlipidemia, hypertension) and coronary endothelial function. In heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) training prevents the progressive loss of exercise capacity by antagonizing peripheral skeletal muscle wasting and by promoting left ventricular reverse remodeling with reduction in cardiomegaly and improvement of ejection fraction. Novel areas for exercise training interventions include HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), pulmonary hypertension, and valvular heart disease. In HFpEF, randomized studies indicate a lusitropic effect of training on left ventricular diastolic function associated with symptomatic improvement of exercise capacity. In pulmonary hypertension, reductions in pulmonary artery pressure were observed following endurance exercise training. Recently, innovative training methods such as high-intensity interval training, resistance training and others have been introduced. Although their prognostic value still needs to be determined, these approaches may achieve superior improvements in aerobic exercise capacity and gain in muscle mass, respectively. In this review, we give an overview of the prognostic and symptomatic benefits of exercise training in the most common cardiac disease entities. Additionally, key guideline recommendations for the initiation of training programs are summarized. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Education effect of the simple suspension method training for fifth-year medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagara, Hidenori; Kawate, Yuri; Tanaka, Mamoru; Tanaka, Akihiro; Izushi, Fumio; Izishi, Fumio; Araki, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    The clinical training curriculum for fifth-year students of a school of medicine (Department of Medicine) includes training in clinical pharmacy, which is conducted by the Department of Pharmacy. Following training involving the simple suspension method, a survey was conducted to examine its effects to improve medical students' knowledge on the proper use of drugs. Forty-eight 5th-year students of Ehime University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, underwent training that employed the simple suspension method, and examinations were conducted prior to and following it to assess its effects. Following the training, the questionnaire results were analyzed using Quantification Theory Class II to examine whether knowledge acquired from it had motivated the students to use the simple suspension method. A correspondence structural analysis was also conducted to identify improvements in the training. The correct answer rate increased from 55.2±2.4% before to 83.8±1.7% after training, which supports its learning effects. The presence or absence of changes in disposition and the efficacy of the method for patients with dysphagia strongly motivated the medical students to use the method. As a future improvement, it is necessary to describe differences between the crushing and simple suspension methods during training. The results of a survey on training involving medical students conducted based on the simple suspension method suggested its learning effects and knowledge that motivated them to use the method.

  5. The effectiveness of multimedia visual perceptual training groups for the preschool children with developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Nan; Lin, Chin-Kai; Wei, Ta-Sen; Liu, Chi-Hsin; Wuang, Yee-Pay

    2013-12-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of three approaches to improving visual perception among preschool children 4-6 years old with developmental delays: multimedia visual perceptual group training, multimedia visual perceptual individual training, and paper visual perceptual group training. A control group received no special training. This study employed a pretest-posttest control group of true experimental design. A total of 64 children 4-6 years old with developmental delays were randomized into four groups: (1) multimedia visual perceptual group training (15 subjects); (2) multimedia visual perceptual individual training group (15 subjects); paper visual perceptual group training (19 subjects); and (4) a control group (15 subjects) with no visual perceptual training. Forty minute training sessions were conducted once a week for 14 weeks. The Test of Visual Perception Skills, third edition, was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. Paired-samples t-test showed significant differences pre- and post-test among the three groups, but no significant difference was found between the pre-test and post-test scores among the control group. ANOVA results showed significant differences in improvement levels among the four study groups. Scheffe post hoc test results showed significant differences between: group 1 and group 2; group 1 and group 3; group 1 and the control group; and group 2 and the control group. No significant differences were reported between group 2 and group 3, and group 3 and the control group. The results showed all three therapeutic programs produced significant differences between pretest and posttest scores. The training effect on the multimedia visual perceptual group program and the individual program was greater than the developmental effect Both the multimedia visual perceptual group training program and the multimedia visual perceptual individual training program produced significant effects on visual perception. The

  6. Effects of moderate aerobic exercise training on chronic primary insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Giselle Soares; Poyares, Dalva; Santana, Marcos Gonçalves; D'Aurea, Carolina Vicaria Rodrigues; Youngstedt, Shawn D; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of long-term moderate aerobic exercise on sleep, quality of life, and mood of individuals with chronic primary insomnia, and to examine whether these effects differed between exercise in the morning and exercise in the late afternoon. Nineteen sedentary individuals with chronic primary insomnia, mean age 45.0 (standard error [SE] 1.9) years, completed a 6-month exercise training protocol, randomized to morning and late-afternoon exercise groups. Combining polysomnographic data across both time points, this study found a significant decrease in sleep onset latency (from 17.1 [SE 2.6] min to 8.7 [SE 1.4] min; Psleep onset (from 63.2 [SE 12.8] min to 40.1 [SE 6.0] min), and a significant increase in sleep efficiency (from 79.8 [SE 3.0]% to 87.2 [SE 1.6]%) following exercise. Data from sleep diaries revealed significant improvement in sleep onset latency (from 76.2 [SE 21.5] min to 80.3 [SE 7.4] min) sleep quality (from 41.5 [SE 5.2]% to 59.4 [SE 6.6]%) and feeling rested in the morning (from 50.8 [SE 5.3] to 65.1 [SE 5.0]). There were generally no significant differences in response between morning and late-afternoon exercise. Following exercise, some quality-of-life measures improved significantly, and a significant decrease was seen in the following Profile of Mood State measures: tension-anxiety (from 7.2 [SE 1.0] to 3.5 [SE 1.0]), depression (from 5.9 [SE 1.2] to 3.3 [SE 1.1]) and total mood disturbance (from 9.2 [SE 4.8] to -1.7 [SE 4.8]). These effects did not vary between morning and late-afternoon exercise. Long-term moderate aerobic exercise elicited significant improvements in sleep, quality of life and mood in individuals with chronic primary insomnia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Growth hormone enhances effects of endurance training on oxidative muscle metabolism in elderly women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, K H; Isaksson, F; Juul, A

    2000-01-01

    The present study investigated whether recombinant human (rh) growth hormone (GH) combined with endurance training would have a larger effect on oxidative capacity, metabolism, and body fat than endurance training alone. Sixteen healthy, elderly women, aged 75 yr, performed closely monitored...... endurance training on a cycle ergometer over 12 wk. rhGH was given in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled design in addition to the training program. GH administration resulted in a doubling of serum insulin-like growth factor I levels. With endurance training, peak oxygen uptake increased...... in the two subjects receiving rhGH. In conclusion, rhGH adds to the effects of endurance training on muscle oxidative enzymes and causes a reduction in body fat in elderly women....

  8. Could Low-Frequency Electromyostimulation Training be an Effective Alternative to Endurance Training? An Overview in One Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deley, Gaëlle; Babault, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    This preliminary study aimed to investigate the effects of a six-week low-frequency electromyostimulation training (10Hz) on the cardiovascular, respiratory and muscular systems. To that purpose, aerobic capacity, knee extensor muscles strength and architecture, muscle sympathetic nervous activity, blood pressure and heart rate have been evaluated in one healthy male subject (33 year-old, 1.73 m, 73 kg). Results showed improvement of aerobic capacity (+4.5% and +11.5% for maximal oxygen uptake and ventilatory threshold) and muscle strength (+11% and +16% for voluntary and evoked force). Moreover, for the first time, this study demonstrated low-frequency training effects on muscle architecture (+3%, +12% and -11% for muscle thickness, pennation angle and fascicle length) and cardiovascular parameters (-22%, -18% and -21% for resting muscle sympathetic nervous activity, heart rate and mean blood pressure). Interestingly, these results suggest that this method may have beneficial effects on all systems of the body. The investigation of training effects on muscle architecture and cardiovascular parameters should therefore be pursued since highly deconditioned subjects are likely to fully benefit from these adaptations. Key pointsThese results confirmed that 5 weeks of low-frequency electrical stimulation have beneficial effects on aerobic capacity and muscle strength.This study demonstrated that low-frequency electrical stimulation applied for as short as 5 weeks have a great impact on muscle architecture and cardiovascular parameters and control.This type of training might therefore be interesting for rehabilitation of patients who are unable to perform endurance exercises.

  9. Could Low-Frequency Electromyostimulation Training be an Effective Alternative to Endurance Training? An Overview in One Adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deley, Gaëlle; Babault, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    This preliminary study aimed to investigate the effects of a six-week low-frequency electromyostimulation training (10Hz) on the cardiovascular, respiratory and muscular systems. To that purpose, aerobic capacity, knee extensor muscles strength and architecture, muscle sympathetic nervous activity, blood pressure and heart rate have been evaluated in one healthy male subject (33 year-old, 1.73 m, 73 kg). Results showed improvement of aerobic capacity (+4.5% and +11.5% for maximal oxygen uptake and ventilatory threshold) and muscle strength (+11% and +16% for voluntary and evoked force). Moreover, for the first time, this study demonstrated low-frequency training effects on muscle architecture (+3%, +12% and -11% for muscle thickness, pennation angle and fascicle length) and cardiovascular parameters (-22%, -18% and -21% for resting muscle sympathetic nervous activity, heart rate and mean blood pressure). Interestingly, these results suggest that this method may have beneficial effects on all systems of the body. The investigation of training effects on muscle architecture and cardiovascular parameters should therefore be pursued since highly deconditioned subjects are likely to fully benefit from these adaptations. Key points These results confirmed that 5 weeks of low-frequency electrical stimulation have beneficial effects on aerobic capacity and muscle strength. This study demonstrated that low-frequency electrical stimulation applied for as short as 5 weeks have a great impact on muscle architecture and cardiovascular parameters and control. This type of training might therefore be interesting for rehabilitation of patients who are unable to perform endurance exercises. PMID:24790503

  10. Transient Adverse Side Effects During Neurofeedback Training: A Randomized, Sham-Controlled, Double Blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogel, Ainat; Guez, Jonathan; Getter, Nir; Keha, Eldad; Cohen, Tzlil; Amor, Tali; Todder, Doron

    2015-09-01

    The benefits of clinical neurofeedback training are well known, however, its adverse side-effects are less studied. This research focuses on the transient adverse side effects of neurofeedback training via a double-blind, sham/controlled methodology. Thirty healthy undergraduate students volunteers were randomly divided into three treatment groups: increasing a modified Sensory Motor Rhythm, increasing Upper Alpha, and Sham/control group who receive a random reward. The training sessions were administered for a total of ten sessions. Questionnaires of transient adverse side effects were completed by all volunteers before each session. The results suggest that similar to most medical treatments, neurofeedback can cause transient adverse side effects. Moreover, most participants reported experiencing some side effects. The side effects can be divided into non-specific side effect, associated with the neurofeedback training in general and specific ones associated with the particular protocol. Sensory Motor Rhythm protocol seems to be the most sensitive to side effects.

  11. The Effects of Training and Subject Reproducibility During Vertical Impact Acceleration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallagher, Hilary; Pellettiere, Joseph; Doczy, Erica

    2005-01-01

    .... There is little data, however, describing the effects of subject training on human response. There are also questions regarding the effect of subject reproducibility and how it might affect data variability...

  12. Could Low-Frequency Electromyostimulation Training be an Effective Alternative to Endurance Training? An Overview in One Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Deley

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This preliminary study aimed to investigate the effects of a six-week low-frequency electromyostimulation training (10Hz on the cardiovascular, respiratory and muscular systems. To that purpose, aerobic capacity, knee extensor muscles strength and architecture, muscle sympathetic nervous activity, blood pressure and heart rate have been evaluated in one healthy male subject (33 year-old, 1.73 m, 73 kg. Results showed improvement of aerobic capacity (+4.5% and +11.5% for maximal oxygen uptake and ventilatory threshold and muscle strength (+11% and +16% for voluntary and evoked force. Moreover, for the first time, this study demonstrated low-frequency training effects on muscle architecture (+3%, +12% and -11% for muscle thickness, pennation angle and fascicle length and cardiovascular parameters (-22%, -18% and -21% for resting muscle sympathetic nervous activity, heart rate and mean blood pressure. Interestingly, these results suggest that this method may have beneficial effects on all systems of the body. The investigation of training effects on muscle architecture and cardiovascular parameters should therefore be pursued since highly deconditioned subjects are likely to fully benefit from these adaptations.

  13. Muscle activation during resistance training with no external load - effects of training status, movement velocity, dominance, and visual feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentil, Paulo; Bottaro, Martim; Noll, Matias; Werner, Scott; Vasconcelos, Jessica Cabral; Seffrin, Aldo; Campos, Mario Hebling

    2017-10-01

    To explore the acute effects of training status, movement velocity, dominance, and visual feedback on muscle activation and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during resistance training with no external load (no-load resistance training; NLRT). Thirty-three men (17 untrained and 16 trained), performed elbow flexions in four NLRT sessions: 1) slow velocity with EMG visual feedback, 2) slow velocity without EMG visual feedback, 3) fast velocity with EMG feedback, and 4) fast velocity without EMG feedback. RPE was measured using the Borg Discomfort scale. EMG for the biceps and triceps were recorded for both arms. EMG feedback had no influence on RPE. The peak and mean EMG values were not different for the biceps (93.8±11.5% and 50±13.1%) and triceps (93.7±23.9% and 49.6±16.2%). The results revealed a difference in the training status, with higher peak EMG for untrained than for trained participants (96.9±20% vs. 90.2±15.6%). However the values for mean EMG were not different between the untrained and trained (50.3±15.7% vs. 49.2±13.7%) participants. There was no difference in the peak (92.8±19% vs. 94.7±20.4%) and mean (49.8±15.0% vs. 49.7±14.5%) EMG values for the dominant and non-dominant sides. Peak EMG values were not different between faster and slower velocities (93.6±19.6% and 93.9±17.8%). However, mean EMG was higher for slower (50.5±14.4%) than for faster (48.5±15.4%) velocities. The peak and mean EMG during contractions with (93.3±17.5% and 49.5±14.1%) and without visual feedback (94.2±19.9% and 50±15.4%) were not significantly different. NLRT produces high levels of muscle activation independent of training, status, dominance, movement velocity, and visual feedback. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of high intensity training and continuous endurance training on aerobic capacity and body composition in recreationally active runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hottenrott, Kuno; Ludyga, Sebastian; Schulze, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of two different training programs (high-intensity-training vs. continuous endurance training) on aerobic power and body composition in recreationally active men and women and to test whether or not participants were able to complete a half marathon after the intervention period. Thirty-four recreational endurance runners were randomly assigned either to a Weekend-Group (WE, n = 17) or an After-Work- Group (AW, n = 17) for a 12 week-intervention period. WE weekly completed 2 h 30 min of continuous endurance running composed of 2 sessions on the weekend. In contrast, AW performed 4 30 min sessions of high intensity training and an additional 30 min endurance run weekly, always after work. During an exhaustive treadmill test aerobic power was measured and heart rate was continuously recorded. Body composition was assessed using bio-impedance. Following the intervention period all subjects took part in a half-marathon. AW significantly improved peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) from 36.8 ± 4.5 to 43.6 ± 6.5 [mL.min(-1).kg(-1)], velocity at lactate threshold (VLT) from 9.7 ± 2.2 to 11.7 ± 1.8 [km.h(-1)] and visceral fat from 5.6 ± 2.2 to 4.7 ± 1.9 In WE VO2 peak signifi-cantly increased from 38.8 ± 5.0 to 41.5 ± 6.0 [mL.min(-1).kg(-1)], VLT from 9.9 ± 1.3 to 11.2 ± 1.7 [km.h(-1)] and visceral fat was reduced from 5.7 ± 2.1 to 5.4 ± 1.9 (p recreationally active runners. Key pointsContinuous endurance training and high intensity training lead to significant improvements of aerobic capacity and body compositionBoth training methods enable recreationally active runners to finish a half-marathonHigh intensity training is favorable to improve VO2 peak.

  15. Effect of injury prevention training on knee mechanics in female adolescents during puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Reiko; Kuramochi, Rieko; Fukubayashi, Toru

    2014-04-01

    Female adolescents change their landing mechanics during puberty. It is unknown whether implementation of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention training reduces the loss of knee control in female athletes during puberty. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of injury prevention training on dynamic knee alignment in female basketball players specifically when the knee mechanics were changing during puberty. Sixty female junior high school basketball players participated and were divided into two groups: a training group (n = 32) and a control group (n = 28). The training group underwent an injury prevention program for 6 months, whereas the control group maintained a regular training routine. The knee valgus motion and knee flexion range of motion during a drop vertical jump were measured before and after the training period. The probability of a high knee abduction moment (pKAM) was also evaluated using an ACL injury prediction algorithm. The knee valgus motion was significantly increased in the control group (p training group (p = 0.64). Similarly, the knee flexion range of motion was significantly decreased in the control group (p training group (p = 0.55). The pKAM was significantly increased in the control group (p training group (p = 0.06). Implementation of injury prevention training was effective in limiting the loss of knee control in female athletes during puberty. Lowering the risk of ACL injury might be possible in this population. 2b.

  16. Effect of proprioception cross training on repositioning accuracy and balance among healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gohary, Tarek Mohamed; Khaled, Osama Ahmed; Ibrahim, Sameh R; Alshenqiti, Abdullah M; Ibrahim, Mahmoud I

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] To investigate possible cross effects of proprioception training on proprioception repositioning accuracy of the knee joint and on balance in healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty healthy college students and faculty members from faculty of physical therapy, Cairo University were recruited to participate. Participants were randomly assigned to training group (n=30) and control group (n=30). The training group received proprioceptive training program only for the dominant leg while the control group did not receive any kind of training. Outcome measures were twofold: (1) proprioception repositioning accuracy quantified through the active repositioning test for the non-dominant knee; and (2) balance stability indices determined through using Biodex balance system. Measurements were recorded before and after 8 weeks of proprioception training. [Results] There were significant decrease in the error of repositioning accuracy and the stability indices including anterposterior stability index, mediolateral stability index, and overall stability index of training group, measured post training, compared with control group. [Conclusion] Proprioception training has significant cross training effects on proprioception repositioning accuracy of the knee joint and on balance among healthy subjects.

  17. The effect of combined avoidance and control training on implicit food evaluation and choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakoschke, Naomi; Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika

    2017-06-01

    Continual exposure to food cues in the environment contributes to unhealthy eating behaviour. According to dual-process models, such behaviour is partly determined by automatic processing of unhealthy food cues (e.g., approach bias), which fails to be regulated by controlled processing (e.g., inhibitory control). The current study aimed to investigate the effect of combined avoidance and control training on implicit evaluation (liking), choice, and consumption of unhealthy snack food. Participants were 240 undergraduate women who were randomly allocated to one of four experimental conditions of a 2 (avoidance training: training versus control) x 2 (control training: training versus control) between-subjects design. The combined training group had a more negative implicit evaluation of unhealthy food than either of the two training conditions alone or the control condition. In addition, participants trained to avoid unhealthy food cues subsequently made fewer unhealthy snack food choices. No significant group differences were found for food intake. Participants were women generally of a healthy weight. Overweight or obese individuals may derive greater benefit from combined training. Results lend support to the theoretical predictions of dual-process models, as the combined training reduced implicit liking of unhealthy food. At a practical level, the findings have implications for the effectiveness of interventions targeting unhealthy eating behaviour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Learning to control actions: transfer effects following a procedural cognitive control computerized training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitzan Shahar

    Full Text Available Few studies have addressed action control training. In the current study, participants were trained over 19 days in an adaptive training task that demanded constant switching, maintenance and updating of novel action rules. Participants completed an executive functions battery before and after training that estimated processing speed, working memory updating, set-shifting, response inhibition and fluid intelligence. Participants in the training group showed greater improvement than a no-contact control group in processing speed, indicated by reduced reaction times in speeded classification tasks. No other systematic group differences were found across the different pre-post measurements. Ex-Gaussian fitting of the reaction-time distribution revealed that the reaction time reduction observed among trained participants was restricted to the right tail of the distribution, previously shown to be related to working memory. Furthermore, training effects were only found in classification tasks that required participants to maintain novel stimulus-response rules in mind, supporting the notion that the training improved working memory abilities. Training benefits were maintained in a 10-month follow-up, indicating relatively long-lasting effects. The authors conclude that training improved action-related working memory abilities.

  19. Does Body Mass Index Modify Memory, Reasoning, and Speed of Processing Training Effects in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel O; Xu, Huiping; Callahan, Christopher M; Unverzagt, Frederick W

    2016-11-01

    To describe 10-year trajectories of cognitive performance by body mass index (BMI) class and to investigate BMI differences in response to memory, reasoning, and speed of processing training in older adults. This is a secondary analysis of the multisite, randomized trial Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly. There were 701 older adults with normal weight, 1,081 with overweight, and 902 with obesity (mean age 73.6) randomized to memory training, reasoning training, speed of processing training, or no-training control group. Participants completed memory, reasoning, and speed of processing tests. Baseline sociodemographic, health, and chronic disease measures were included as covariates in analyses. The 10-year trajectories of memory, reasoning, or speed of processing performance did not differ by BMI status among the participants randomized to the untrained control arm. The training effect on the reasoning and speed of processing outcomes did not differ by BMI status. The training effect on the memory outcome in participants with a BMI indicating obesity, however, was just 38% of that observed in participants with normal-weight BMI. These analyses of data from the largest trial of cognitive training ever conducted suggest that older adults with obesity may be less responsive to memory training. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  20. Effects of an eight week military training program on aerobic indices and psychomotor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, J P; Donne, B; O'Brien, D

    2012-03-01

    This study assessed the effects of eight weeks of military training on aerobic fitness indices, military skills and neuropsychological function. Thirty five (n = 35) male Irish Defence Forces personnel, divided into training (n = 20) and control (n = 15) subgroups, completed tests of military aptitude (Kim's games, judging distance, fire order, map reading, weapon assembly) and neuropsychological function (Symbol digit modalities test (SDMT), Trail making test, Stroop test and grooved pegboard test) pre- and post-intervention. The repeated measures study design sought to account for any learning effect. Participants also completed a 10km route march, a two mile run and three by 20m shuttle run tests at both time points to quantify changes in fitness variables. The training sub-group significantly (P march was significantly higher in both training (P training sub-group conducted the route march at a significantly faster speed on the second occasion. Military training significantly improved performance in 3/18 neuropsychological test components and 2/12 military skills test components. Training significantly improved ability to estimate both short (error; 36 +/- 6 vs. 12 +/- 1%) and intermediate (error; 72 +/- 12 vs. 11 +/- 3%) distances post-intervention. The training sub-group significantly (P training sub-group (51.3 +/- 3.2 vs. 63.8 +/- 5.4). In conclusion, aerobic fitness and a minority of neuropsychological and military skills tests improved following 8 weeks of military training.