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Sample records for withim medieval ruins

  1. Ruin probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Søren; Albrecher, Hansjörg

    , extensions of the classical compound Poisson model to allow for reserve-dependent premiums, Markov-modulation, periodicity, change of measure techniques, phase-type distributions as a computational vehicle and the connection to other applied probability areas, like queueing theory. In this substantially......The book gives a comprehensive treatment of the classical and modern ruin probability theory. Some of the topics are Lundberg's inequality, the Cramér-Lundberg approximation, exact solutions, other approximations (e.g., for heavy-tailed claim size distributions), finite horizon ruin probabilities...

  2. Ruin probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Søren; Albrecher, Hansjörg

    The book gives a comprehensive treatment of the classical and modern ruin probability theory. Some of the topics are Lundberg's inequality, the Cramér-Lundberg approximation, exact solutions, other approximations (e.g., for heavy-tailed claim size distributions), finite horizon ruin probabilities...... updated and extended second version, new topics include stochastic control, fluctuation theory for Levy processes, Gerber–Shiu functions and dependence......., extensions of the classical compound Poisson model to allow for reserve-dependent premiums, Markov-modulation, periodicity, change of measure techniques, phase-type distributions as a computational vehicle and the connection to other applied probability areas, like queueing theory. In this substantially...

  3. The Controlled Ruin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Mo Michelsen Stochholm

    2016-01-01

    Building on partial demolition, The Controlled Ruin constituted an attempt to compress and subsequently stretch the inherent matter of time in the natural decay process. Given that the rapid incipient stages of decay that follow in the aftermath of abandonment are often considered unsightly, The ...... provoked an exchange of memories of the building. This also triggered a discussion of the merits of privacy among the local people. Subsequent decay of the ruin proved to influence the feeling of the local community....

  4. Ruin problems and tail asymptotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn-Nielsen, Anders

    The thesis Ruin Problems and Tail Asymptotics provides results on ruin problems for several classes of Markov processes. For a class of diffusion processes with jumps an explicit expression for the joint Laplace transform of the first passage time and the corresponding undershoot is derived...

  5. Love and Ruin(s): Robert Frost on Moral Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    This essay begins where Alasdair MacIntyre's "After Virtue" begins: facing a moral world in ruin. MacIntyre argues that this predicament leaves us with a choice: we can follow the path of Friedrich Nietzsche, accepting this moral destruction and attempting to create lives in a rootless, uncertain world, or the path of Aristotle, working to reclaim…

  6. Medieval Dobrun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Marko Đ.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An interesting and highly structured medieval complex, Dobrun has been attracting attention of scholars for a long time. Unlike the ruins of medieval fortifications, the remains of wall-painting in the former monastery church received most of the attention. A series of problems have, however remained open. Some of them have escaped observation, and there are hypotheses that ought to be reassessed. The Dobrun complex is not a matter of local or regional significance. It is a surviving testimony to the events and processes that marked the century preceding the final Ottoman occupation of Serbia and Bosnia. After outlining the research work done to date and analyzing the original historical documents and physical remains, this paper brings the author's views of the issue and some reflections aimed at suggesting directions of further research. The Dobrun complex is situated on the fringe of a hospitable landscape in the lower Rzav valley, not far from Višegrad. It is a region of present-day Republika Srpska on the border with Serbia. The medieval fortifications high up on cliffs above either side of the river controlled the entrance to the gorge, a natural border between western Serbia and Podrinje (the Drina river basin. About a kilometer downstream, on a plot of flat land above the right riverbank, surrounded by rocky hillsides and opening onto a gully cut by a mountain stream, sits the monastic complex of Dobrun with the Church of the Annunciation. The discussion of the structural remains of the complex (Fig. 2 proceed from the multipart whole, which consists of fortifications on the rocks above either bank of the Rzav, built in such a way as to take full advantage of the terrain for defence purposes. The steep slopes and inaccessible rocks complete with walls and towers form a fortress considered at the time of building to be virtually unassailable. Fortification elements were laid out on the western edge of the gorge, which was and still is an

  7. Ruin and Revolution in ``Hamlet."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, P. D.

    1999-05-01

    In the cosmic allegorical interpretation of Shakespeare's "Hamlet" (BAAS 28, 859 & 1305, 1996; Mercury 26:1, 20, 1997; RPS 18:3, 6, 1997; Giornale di Astronomia 24:3, 27, 1998), the usurper King Claudius, namesake of Ptolemy, personifies geocentricity. Textual support for this reading is found in 1.2 where Hamlet is associated with the Sun, as befits a rightful heir, while Claudius is associated with the Earth. In 3.3 Claudius fears Hamlet's antics. Rosencrantz states that the lives of many depend on the well-being of the King. He warns that if the King were to be imperiled, his subjects, those "ten thousand lesser things", would fall in a "boisterous ruin" along with "each small annexment" and "petty consequence." These 10,000 lesser lights are the naked eye stars (mv ~ 6.5) which would collapse with the demise of the pre-Diggesian firmament, along with ancient planets and their geometrical contrivances. In 5.1 Shakespeare puns on "De revolutionibus" when he refers to "fine revolution." The double meaning of "revolution" (alteration, orbital motion) was in use long before 1600. Since "revolution" is used in the context of digging, it may refer as much to the Diggesian as the Copernican Revolution. Shakespeare's prescience is revealed by his anticipation of change, as encapsulated geocentricity is transformed to stellar boundlessness, while his presence is suggested by fatherly concerns and ghost-like direction.

  8. A comparison of probability of ruin and expected discounted utility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Individuals in defined-contribution retirement funds currently have a number of options as to how to finance their post-retirement spending. The paper considers the ranking of selected annuitisation strategies by the probability of ruin and by expected discounted utility under different scenarios. 'Ruin' is defined as occurring ...

  9. Policy Temporality and Marked Bodies: Feminist Praxis amongst the Ruins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillow, Wanda S.

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the challenges of temporality into policy studies utilizing US education policy and young mothers as a working example. Situating the need for attention to temporality amidst the ruins of inquiry and ruins of education outcomes for young mothers, the author builds on recent "spatial policy sociology" and turns to…

  10. Approximating the Finite-Time Ruin Probability under Interest Force

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brekelmans, R.C.M.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.

    2000-01-01

    We present an algorithm to determine both a lower and an upper bound for the finite-time probability of ruin for a risk process with constant interest force. We split the time horizon into smaller intervals of equal length and consider the probability of ruin in case premium income for a time

  11. When was medieval philosophy?

    OpenAIRE

    Marenbon, John

    2011-01-01

    Typescript of an Inaugural Lecture by John Marenbon, as Honorary Professor of Medieval Philosophy in the University of Cambridge, delivered November 30, 2011. John Marenbon argues against the usual chronological division, according to which there was a period of ‘medieval philosophy’ corresponding roughly to the Middle Ages. Using as his basis an argument about why studying antiquated philosophy is valuable, he explains why such a question about chronological divisions is important.

  12. Borges, immortality and the circular ruins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstein, Catalina

    2002-06-01

    The author explores ideas surrounding immortality and death focusing on the interplay between their development in two stories by Borges ('The circular ruins' and 'The immortal') and their manifestation in a patient. With the help of Borges's stories, the author addresses the desperate necessity experienced by some individuals to search for immortality. This is not just an expression of the universal wish to live forever but, at a deeper level, arises from the impossibility of bearing the mental pain of experiencing ordinary human vulnerability and loss - death being the ultimate expression of such vulnerability. It is suggested that the relentless pursuit of immortality in such individuals expresses an omnipotent phantasy of ridding the self of the emotional pain and fear that arises through being alive. It leads to a denial of the emotional significance of passage of time, of separation and sexual differences. In actuality, the individual's state of not feeling approximates to a complete loss of human identity and emotional death, with no place for any meaningful others. The individual him/herself becomes a 'mere image', living in a delusional world peopled by him/herself and his/ her projections, and ending up trapped inside the circular ruins he/she has generated. The horror experienced at the stark awareness of the individual's emotional death and the wish to re-establish contact with the good internal objects that have been attacked sets in motion the long process of searching for the recovery of a sense of temporality (that would still include the wish for immortality) and, with it, a sense of identity.

  13. Essays on medieval computational astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Bergón, José Chabás

    2014-01-01

    In Essays on Medieval Computational Astronomy the authors provide examples of original and intelligent approaches and solutions given by medieval astronomers to the problems of their discipline, mostly presented in the form of astronomical tables.

  14. Casa Grande Ruins National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project - Plot Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This layer contains spatial information for 25 plots sampled during vegetation mapping and classification efforts at Casa Grande Ruins NM, AZ. Data was collected by...

  15. Some results of ruin probability for the classical risk process

    OpenAIRE

    He Yuanjiang; Li Xucheng; John Zhang

    2003-01-01

    The computation of ruin probability is an important problem in the collective risk theory. It has applications in the fields of insurance, actuarial science, and economics. Many mathematical models have been introduced to simulate business activities and ruin probability is studied based on these models. Two of these models are the classical risk model and the Cox model. In the classical model, the counting process is a Poisson process and in the Cox model, the counting process...

  16. Early Medieval stylistic rhetoric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G.P. van der Walt

    1981-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the well-known expert on medieval rhetoric, James J. Murphy, the three typical medieval forms of rhetoric are the art of letter writing, the art of preaching and the art of poetry (Murphy, 1971, p. xv. In this paper we are concerned only with the second of these arts, namely, the rhetoric of preaching. Though the perceptive treatises on the rhetoric of preaching, the so-called artes praedicandi, did not originate before the thirteenth century, pulpit rhetoric was very much alive in the earlier part of the Middle Ages and fine examples of this kind of eloquence can be quoted.

  17. The Ruins of the British Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahl Kaminer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The subjects of Owen Hatherley’s A Guide to the New Ruins of Great Britain are architecture and urban development. The book addresses also some broader cultural, political and economic references, as well as personal anecdotes and memories. It includes many encounters with the remnants of the British welfare state.As an extension to his blog postings and a sequel of sorts to his previous Militant Modernism, Hatherley’s antagonist here is the semi-official architecture of New Labour, which he terms ‘pseudomodernism’: an unimaginative, inferior, and, in its own specific way, also tacky architecture of white stucco, steel and glass. He attacks the Faustian bargain of Richard Rogers and his allies with neoliberalism, a pact that produces a modernism devoid of social content, reflected by the unimaginative, speculation-driven architectural design. While Hatherley produces the promised indictment of recent British architecture, the book is, at the end of the day, primarily a eulogy to the disappearing postwar architecture he so evidently loves.

  18. Ruin probability with claims modeled by a stationary ergodic stable process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikosch, T; Samorodnitsky, G

    2000-01-01

    For a random walk with negative drift we study the exceedance probability (ruin probability) of a high threshold. The steps of this walk (claim sizes) constitute a stationary ergodic stable process. We study how ruin occurs in this situation and evaluate the asymptotic behavior of the ruin

  19. Approximation of ruin probabilities via Erlangized scale mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peralta, Oscar; Rojas-Nandayapa, Leonardo; Xie, Wangyue

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we extend an existing scheme for numerically calculating the probability of ruin of a classical Cramér–Lundbergreserve process having absolutely continuous but otherwise general claim size distributions. We employ a dense class of distributions that we denominate Erlangized scale m...

  20. Aztec Ruins National Monument. Teacher's Guide, Grades 4-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Theresa, Comp.

    This teacher's guide is for educators in classrooms, outdoor education, youth groups, scouting, and after-school programs to teach about the Aztec Ruins National Monument (New Mexico). The teaching materials in the guide support the New Mexico educational standards in science, social studies, language arts, mathematics, and art. Since the guide's…

  1. Charisma, Medieval and Modern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Dickson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Popularized by the mass media, Max Weber’s sociological concept of charisma now has a demotic meaning far from what Weber had in mind. Weberian charismatic leaders have followers, not fans, although, exceptionally, fans mutate into followers. This essay aims to trace some of the dimensions of Weberian charismatic religious leadership in comparative perspective, medieval and modern. Examples include: preachers, “double charisma,” professors, “collective charisma,” religious radicals, the economy of charisma, transgressive sexuality, demagogues, living saints.1

  2. Making medieval art modern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth den Hartog

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Janet T. Marquardt’s book ‘Zodiaque. Making medieval art modern’ discusses the historical context, history and impact of the Zodiaque publications issued by the monks from the abbey of Ste-Marie de la Pierre-qui-Vire in Burgundy between 1951 and 2001 and links the striking photogravures, the core business of these books, to the modern movement. Although Marquardt’s view that the Zodiaque series made a great impact on the study of Romanesque sculpture is somewhat overrated, her claim that the photogravures should be seen as avant-garde works of art and the books as a “museum without walls” is entirely convincing.

  3. Russian Medieval Military Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rappoport, Pavel

    1969-12-01

    Full Text Available In Russia defensive works were not less important than in Western Europe. Russian chronicles are full of reports of the building of towns, of their siege and defence. In Ancient Russian the word town meant not a town in the modern sense, but only a fortified settlement as distinct from an unfortified one. Thus the concept town applied to medieval towns proper and to citadels, feudal castles and even fortified villages. Every population centre with a wall round it was called a town. Moreover, until the 17th century this word was frequently applied to mean the fortifications themselves.

  4. [Sterility in medieval noblemen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eickels, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    The social competence of the medieval nobleman was closely associated with his male sense of honour. One essential aspect of his masculinity was the ability to produce progeny. The childlessness of a good ruler needed special justification, the childlessness of a bad ruler was seen as God's punishment. In terms of canon law, the inability to procreate was irrelevant as long as the marriage could be consummated. Considering the importance of the procreative capacity and its symbolic significance one must ask to what extent it was possible to ascertain sterility in the Middle Ages. In the case of noblemen one can assume that they could obtain certainty about their fertility through their premarital and extramarital intercourse. This might explain why some rulers and nobles accepted a childless marriage without deeming it necessary to take another wife (or plan their itinerary in a way that enabled them to produce progeny).

  5. Statistical Analysis of Radio Propagation Channel in Ruins Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cellphone based localization system for search and rescue in complex high density ruins has attracted a great interest in recent years, where the radio channel characteristics are critical for design and development of such a system. This paper presents a spatial smoothing estimation via rotational invariance technique (SS-ESPRIT for radio channel characterization of high density ruins. The radio propagations at three typical mobile communication bands (0.9, 1.8, and 2 GHz are investigated in two different scenarios. Channel parameters, such as arrival time, delays, and complex amplitudes, are statistically analyzed. Furthermore, a channel simulator is built based on these statistics. By comparison analysis of average excess delay and delay spread, the validation results show a good agreement between the measurements and channel modeling results.

  6. What Is Medieval European Literature?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Borsa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The editors of Interfaces: A Journal of Medieval European Literatures explain the scope and purpose of the new journal by mapping out the significance and possible meanings of the three key terms of the subtitle: ‘literature,’ ‘medieval,’ ‘Europe.’ The specific theme of Issue 1 is introduced: ‘Histories of Medieval European Literatures: New Patterns of Representation and Explanation.’ With respect to this theme, theoretical problems concerning teleology and the present possibilities for literary historical narratives are raised. Finally the editors state the journal’s commitment to a scholarly forum which is non-profit and open-access. The bibliography refers to key critical reading which shapes the journal’s approach to medieval European literatures.

  7. The False Ruins of Villa Torlonia: the Nymphaeum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Spila

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay deals with a singular construction built by Giovanni Battista Caretti in the garden of Villa Torlonia in Rome, between 1800 and 1830. The so-called “ruin of nymphaeum”, the only surviving part of a composite system of ruins, built for Alessandro Torlonia, has not, until now, been the object of any exhaustive study which could clarify historic and design aspects, and furthermore, characterize this particular class of folies. The essay analyses the building with the help of accurate measurements. A lack of archival documents did not prevent the author proposing some interesting theses on the method of construction and the possible models of reference, also in relation to the antiquarian culture of the architect (who was also the architect of the Gallery of Ercole and Lira in the destroyed Palazzo Torlonia in piazza Venezia. Particular attention is paid to the spolia which were re-used in the ruin, among which, a part from the original complex of statues (classified by Carlo Gasparri and now displayed in the museum of the Casino dei Principi, two large fragments of a Domitian cornice, and a group of 15th century consoles, probably from the studio of Andrea Bregno, all stand out. The specific characteristics of these fragments suggest that they originate from the antiques collection of the Colonna family, a collection, the importance of which is documented by some previously unknown archival documents cited in the essay.

  8. Wind Diagrams in Medieval Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kedwards, Dale

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study of the sole wind diagram that survives from medieval Iceland, preserved in the encyclopaedic miscellany in Copenhagen's Arnamagnæan Institute with the shelf mark AM 732b 4to (c. 1300-25). It examines the wind diagram and its accompanying text, an excerpt on the winds...... from Isidore of Seville's Etymologies. It also examines the perimeter of winds on two medieval Icelandic world maps, and the visual traditions from which they draw....

  9. Ruin Time and Severity for a Lévy Subordinator Claim Process: A Simple Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Lefèvre

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with an insurance risk model whose claim process is described by a Lévy subordinator process. Lévy-type risk models have been the object of much research in recent years. Our purpose is to present, in the case of a subordinator, a simple and direct method for determining the finite time (and ultimate ruin probabilities, the distribution of the ruin severity, the reserves prior to ruin, and the Laplace transform of the ruin time. Interestingly, the usual net profit condition will be essentially relaxed. Most results generalize those known for the compound Poisson claim process.

  10. La narrativa hebrea medieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángeles Navarro Peiro

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available El tema que vamos a tratar es el del estudio de las narraciones literarias hispanohebreas escritas en prosa rimada, tradiclonalmente conocidas con el nombre de maqámas. Pensamos que, aunque el estudio científico de estas narraciones tuvo sus inicios también entre las grandes figuras de la investigación judía de finales del siglo xix, principios del xx, la narrativa ha sido en cierto modo algo así como la «cenicienta» de la Literatura hispanohebrea, ya que realmente los estudios a ella dedicados ocupan un lugar minoritario en comparación con los miles de páginas que tratan por ejemplo sobre la poesía. Sin embargo, y gracias a la varita mágica de los actuales investigadores, el interés por el estudio de las narraciones hispanohebreas medievales se ha ido incrementando y se está poniendo de manifiesto en diversos lugares del mundo. Es posible, pues, que la narrativa ocupe al fin el relevante lugar que le corresponde en la corte maravillosa de la literatura hebrea medieval.

  11. Ruin probabilities in models with a Markov chain dependence structure

    OpenAIRE

    Constantinescu, Corina; Kortschak, Dominik; Maume-Deschamps, Véronique

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In this paper we derive explicit expressions for the probability of ruin in a renewal risk model with dependence described-by/incorporated-in the real-valued random variable Zk = −cτk + Xk , namely the loss between the (k − 1)–th and the k–th claim. Here c represents the constant premium rate, τk the inter-arrival time between the (k − 1)–th and the k–th claim and Xk is the size of the k–th claim. The dependence structure among (Zk )k>0 is given/driven by a Markov chai...

  12. Some results of ruin probability for the classical risk process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Yuanjiang

    2003-01-01

    the assumption that random sequence followed the Γ distribution with density function f(x=x1β−1β1βΓ(1/βe−xβ, x>0, where β>1. This paper studies the ruin probability of the classical model where the random sequence follows the Γ distribution with density function f(x=αnΓ(nxn−1e−αx, x>0, where α>0 and n≥2 is a positive integer. An intermediate general result is given and a complete solution is provided for n=2. Simulation studies for the case of n=2 is also provided.

  13. Selling or telling? A theory of ruin value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Ole Verner

    2011-01-01

    Selling or telling? : A theory of ruin value  Abstract: To what extent can tourism be described as an agent of peace? Can war and conflict be reconciled through tourism? Why is the children's memorial in Hiroshima so important and why is the Holocaust memorial in Berlin a reconciliating...... will explore four tracks of this doomsday vision: in fiction, facts and in the world of tourism. 1. The architect who, as Faust, sold his soul for immortality and the consequences thereof. 2. The artist who creates a personal vision of our fear and anxiety. 3. A comparative analysis of a group of mainstream...... into why the ruin and the memorial are fundamental parts of our cultural heritage, and why the image of the apocalypse in tourism and the new game and film media are important and brings us closer together.                                            Keywords: Post apocalypse, art and hell, death cults...

  14. Disputing strategies in medieval Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orning, Hans Jacob

    practice and process as key analytical concepts, these authors explore formal law and litigation in conjunction with non-formal legal proceedings such as out-of-court mediation, rituals, emotional posturing, and feuding. Their insights place the Northern medieval world in a European context of dispute...

  15. [Neurology in medieval regimina sanitatis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Frutos González, V; Guerrero Peral, A L

    2011-09-01

    In medical medieval literature some works about dietetics stand out. Dietetics, as a separate branch of medicine, includes not only food or drinks, but other environmental factors influencing on health. They are known as regimina sanitatis or salutis, and specially developed in the Christian west. They generally consisted of a balance between the Galenic "six non-natural things"; factors regulating health and its protection: environment, exercise, food, sleep, bowel movements and emotions. After reviewing the sources and defining the different stages of this genre, we have considered three of the most out-standing medieval regimina, the anonymous Regimen sanitatis salernitanum, Arnaldo de Vilanova's Regimen sanitatis ad regem aragonum and Bernardo de Gordon's Tractatus of conservatione vite humane. In them we review references to neurological disease. Though not independently considered, there is a significant presence of neurological diseases in the regimina. Dietetics measures are proposed to preserve memory, nerves, or hearing, as well as for the treatment of migraine, epilepsy, stroke or dizziness. Regimina are quiet representative among medical medieval literature, and they show medieval physicians vision of neurological diseases. Dietetics was considered useful to preserve health, and therapeutics was based on natural remedies. 2010 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Crop Protection in Medieval Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadoks, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Mediterranean and West European pre-modern agriculture (agriculture before 1600) was by necessity ‘organic agriculture’. Crop protection is part and parcel of this agriculture, with weed control in the forefront. Crop protection is embedded in the medieval agronomy text books but specialised

  17. Application of Gambler's Ruin Problem to Sediment Transport Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Christina; Lai, Kung-Chung

    2013-04-01

    This study develops a Gambler's ruin model of sediment particle interaction between bed material and water column inflows. Given several transitions between the bed material and the water column, this study calculates the probabilities starting from a given number of sediment particles to the maximum allowable number of sediment particles in the water column and the mean time that the particles remained in the water column. The model is also used to simulate the effective risk of the water treatment plant reaching limits in the water quality standard. The model is also used to quantify variability in the effective risk of exceeding the maximum carry capacity of the Shihmen reservoir basin. The modeling results, including the expected value and variance in sediment concentrations as well as the confidence interval of effective risk, are presented.

  18. Application of gambler's ruin model to sediment transport problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Christina W.; Hsu, Yaowen; Lai, Kung-Chung; Wu, Nai-Kuang

    2014-03-01

    This study applies the gambler's ruin model to simulate sediment transport. First, the model is mathematically formulated to determine the probability of reaching the maximum state of the sediment carrying capacity, and the mean time spent in transient states before reaching the maximum sediment carrying capacity. Experimental data are used to model the sediment movement process given the bedload and the suspended load particles in the water column. The impact of different parameters is discussed under varying flow conditions and varying sediment particle characteristics. The model shows that, as the maximum number of particles increases, the probability that the flow can carry the particles decreases. A smaller particle size is normally associated with a higher probability of reaching the maximum sediment carrying capacity under the same flow condition. It is also found that as the time a particle spends in the water column increases, the probability of the flow maintaining the same number of particles after several sediment particle transitions into different states increases. In the second case study, the effective risk of a given number of sediment particles in the water column reaching the maximum capacity of the water treatment plant in the Shihmen Reservoir Basin in 2008 is modeled. The Xia Yun hydrologic station is selected for the simulation because it is a fully comprehensive hydrologic station and is located near the Shihmen Reservoir. Moreover, a novel approach is used to incorporate uncertainty analysis in the gambler's ruin model: the Perturbance Moments Method (PMM). Results of expected value and one-standard-deviation interval in the number of sediment particles in the water column are acquired.

  19. Medieval monsters, in theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a plethora of studies on the medieval monster. These studies have contributed significantly to our understanding of religion, art, literature, and science in the Middle Ages. However, a tendency to treat the medieval monster in purely symbolic and psychological terms ignores the lived experiences of impaired medieval people and their culture's attitudes toward them. With the aid of recent insights provided by disability studies, this article aims to confront "real" medieval monsters--e.g., physically impaired human beings--in both their human and monstrous aspects.

  20. Ruin Probabilities with Dependence on the Number of Claims within a Fixed Time Window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Constantinescu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the ruin probabilities for a renewal insurance risk process with inter-arrival times depending on the claims that arrive within a fixed (past time window. This dependence could be explained through a regenerative structure. The main inspiration of the model comes from the bonus-malus (BM feature of pricing car insurance. We discuss first the asymptotic results of ruin probabilities for different regimes of claim distributions. For numerical results, we recognise an embedded Markov additive process, and via an appropriate change of measure, ruin probabilities could be computed to a closed-form formulae. Additionally, we employ the importance sampling simulations to derive ruin probabilities, which further permit an in-depth analysis of a few concrete cases.

  1. Telling time: representations of ruins in the grotesques of sixteenth-century Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fabricius Hansen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Prospects of ruins feature frequently within the grotesques or ornamental frescoes of sixteenth-century Italy. What is at stake in the representations of ruins seems to be at stake on a more general level in the grotesques seen as a compositional device: the visualisation of passages between a form and the formless, or between culture and nature, with change and movement as key concepts. The article addresses how the exploration of transformation, which is fundamental to the representation of ruins in grotesques, is manifested in subject matter, composition, and spatial relations; and how all three are aspects of the telling of time. It is suggested that the prevalence of ruins in grotesques highlights the preoccupation with temporality as a major theme in the visual culture of the period.

  2. Casa Grande Ruins National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project - Spatial Vegetation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class contains complete polygonal coverage (map units) for two management units of Casa Grande Ruins NM. Each polygon has been attributed with either...

  3. [Portable antiquities: transporation, ruins, and communications in nineteenth-century archeology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorny, Irina

    2008-01-01

    The article addresses an issue in nineteenth-century archeology: the transformation of ancient American ruins into scientific evidence. It focuses specifically on the case of Palenque, a city discovered in the jungle in the late eighteenth century. The archeological exploration of this find, which occurred shortly after Central American and Mexican independence, entailed efforts to make these ruins portable. The article analyzes some of the means devised and used in their transportation.

  4. Historical ruins of remote sensing archaeology in arid desertified environment, northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, N. K.; Li, X.

    2017-02-01

    Silk Road is an important exchange channel for human communication and culture propagation between ancient China and the West during historical periods. A lot of human activities performed in Silk Road and many historical ruins leave behind to present. Archaeological ruins can play a significant role in studying and restoring the past human activities, as well as understanding regional environmental changes. There were many flourishingly human activities during different historical periods that were developed in ancient Juyan Oasis in the downstream of the Heihe River Basin. A large number of historical ruins that reflect past human activities preserved between numerous of the nebkhas and sand dunes. In this study, combined high-resolution remote sensing imageries with in situ truths investigated during the fieldwork, certain unknown ruins were identified according to the image features of historical ruins that appear in remotely sensed data, which were undiscovered during the previous field archaeological investigations and unreported in the past public literatures. Almost all of the newly discovered ruins that were identified using remote sensing images are distributed in the Lvcheng and BJ2008 surroundings. Newly findings supplement the missing gaps that were not taking into account during the previous field surveys.

  5. Medieval Romances: "Perceval" to "Monty Python."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehle, Dorothy M.

    A selection of romances from medieval literature can be used successfully in undergraduate literature classes to trace the appearance and relevance of medieval themes, motifs, and characters in works of modern poetry, fiction, and film. New scholarly editions, historiographies, translations, and modernizations give both teachers and students more…

  6. The Barbarian North in Medieval Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Rix, Robert William

    the disciplines of poetry, history, rhetoric, linguistics, and archaeology. After years of intense critical interest in medieval attitudes towards the classical world, Africa, and the East, this first book-length study of ‘the North’ will inspire new debates and repositionings in medieval studies....

  7. Dramatic Aspects of Medieval Magic in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Leif

    2011-01-01

    The arcle deal with the performative aspects of medieval spells and rituals. The most important spells are cited in extenso and commented uopn.......The arcle deal with the performative aspects of medieval spells and rituals. The most important spells are cited in extenso and commented uopn....

  8. Disputing strategies in medieval Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In Scandinavia the study of disputes is still a relatively new topic: The papers offered here discuss how conflicts were handled in Scandinavian societies in the Middle Ages before the emergence of strong centralized states. What strategies did people use to contest power, property, rights, honour...... practice and process as key analytical concepts, these authors explore formal law and litigation in conjunction with non-formal legal proceedings such as out-of-court mediation, rituals, emotional posturing, and feuding. Their insights place the Northern medieval world in a European context of dispute...... studies. With introductory sections on social structure, sources materials, and the historiography of Scandinavian dispute studies....

  9. Medieval theories of mental representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, S

    1998-11-01

    Throughout most of the Middle ages, it was generally held that stored mental representations of perceived objects or events preserved the forms or species of such objects. This belief was consistent with a metaphor used by Plato. It was also consistent with the medieval belief that a number of cognitive processes took place in the ventricles of the brain and with the phenomenology of afterimages and imagination itself. In the 14th century, William of Ockham challenged this belief by claiming that mental representations are not stored but instead constructed in the basis of past learned experiences.

  10. [Natural philosophy in medieval medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riha, Ortrun

    2007-01-01

    Medieval medicine is not much interested in natural philosophy. Nevertheless, it is based upon clear methodological and epistemological principles, where the word 'nature' is used in several ways. The natural 'virtues' of things--including magical ones--are most important for therapy. Human health is influenced by stars (planets, zodiac) and seasons, and the physician has to take into account such cosmic effects. The chances of healing depend on the patients' 'nature' in relation to the power of illness. A strong nature makes medicine superfluous, an overwhelming disease cannot be beaten. Thus, medicine is limited to 'neutral' situations when supporting the patient makes his 'nature' win.

  11. Ruin Analysis of a Discrete-Time Dependent Sparre Andersen Model with External Financial Activities and Randomized Dividends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Soo Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider a discrete-time dependent Sparre Andersen risk model which incorporates multiple threshold levels characterizing an insurer’s minimal capital requirement, dividend paying situations, and external financial activities. We focus on the development of a recursive computational procedure to calculate the finite-time ruin probabilities and expected total discounted dividends paid prior to ruin associated with this model. We investigate several numerical examples and make some observations concerning the impact our threshold levels have on the finite-time ruin probabilities and expected total discounted dividends paid prior to ruin.

  12. Psychiatry and psychology in medieval Persia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili, Nasser; Gorji, Ali

    2006-12-01

    The history of psychological sciences and especially the ways in which related disorders were treated in medieval Persia are not well known in the West. The main objective of this article is to review the clinical approaches to psychological disorders used by practitioners in medieval Persia. Several documents still exist from which the clinical data on different psychological syndromes in medieval Persia can be ascertained. Data for this review were identified by searches of MEDLINE, Current Contents, the Internet, references from relevant articles and books, the Astan-e-Ghods Razavi Library, the Tehran University Library, the Mashhad University Library, and the files of the authors. Search terms included psychiatry, psychology, Persian, medieval, Avicenna, and pharmacotherapy. The medieval practitioners defined various signs and symptoms, apparent causes, and hygienic and dietary rules for prevention of these disorders. Medieval Persian medical writings encouraged the treatment of psychological disorders by tackling the conditions that cause or contribute to the disorder and through the use of electrical-shock therapy, phlebotomy, psychotherapy, music and color therapy, and especially prescription of long lists of medicaments. Some of the approaches of doctors in medieval Persia are accepted today, although most remain largely unexamined. With further research, more of these treatments may be shown to be of use to modern medicine.

  13. Natural remedies for impotence in medieval Persia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghi Ghadiri, M; Gorji, A

    2004-02-01

    Man's preoccupation with potency, or the lack thereof, has been present through the ages. Several documents still exist from which the clinical approaches of erectile dysfunction (ED) in medieval Persia can be ascertained. The medieval physicians described definitions and apparent causes of ED. They also noted hygienic and dietary rules as well as long lists of natural substances used in the treatment of ED. Many of the approaches of practitioners in medieval Persia are accurate and accepted even today; however, still more of them could be of use to modern medicine. The present review provides an overview of the knowledge of ED at the time.

  14. Quasicrystals in Medieval Islamic Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peter

    2009-03-01

    The conventional view holds that girih (geometric star-and-polygon) patterns in medieval Islamic architecture were conceived by their designers as a network of zigzagging lines, and drafted directly with a straightedge and a compass. I discuss our recent findings that, by 1200 A. D., a conceptual breakthrough occurred in which girih patterns were reconceived as tessellations of a special set of equilateral polygons (girih tiles) decorated with lines. These girih tiles enabled the creation of increasingly complex periodic girih patterns, and by the 15th century, the tessellation approach was combined with self-similar transformations to construct nearly-perfect quasicrystalline patterns. These patterns have remarkable properties; they do not repeat periodically, and have special symmetry---and were not understood in the West until the 1970s. I will discuss some of the properties of Islamic quasicrystalline tilings, and their relation to the Penrose tiling, perhaps the best known quasicrystal pattern.

  15. Analysing Medieval Urban Space; a methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlous L. Craane MA

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This article has been written in reaction to recent developments in medieval history and archaeology, to study not only the buildings in a town but also the spaces that hold them together. It discusses a more objective and interdisciplinary approach for analysing urban morphology and use of space. It proposes a 'new' methodology by combining town plan analysis and space syntax. This methodology was trialled on the city of Utrecht in the Netherlands. By comparing the results of this 'new' methodology with the results of previous, more conventional, research, this article shows that space syntax can be applied successfully to medieval urban contexts. It does this by demonstrating a strong correlation between medieval economic spaces and the most integrated spaces, just as is found in the study of modern urban environments. It thus provides a strong basis for the use of this technique in future research of medieval urban environments.

  16. Living with Disfigurement in Early Medieval Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Skinner, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    This book examines social and medical responses to the disfigured face in early medieval Europe, arguing that the study of head and facial injuries can offer a new contribution to the history of early...

  17. Calculation of ruin probabilities for a dense class of heavy tailed distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis; Samorodnitsky, Gennady

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a class of infinite-dimensional phase-type distributions with finitely many parameters as models for heavy tailed distributions. The class of finite-dimensional phase-type distributions is dense in the class of distributions on the positive reals and may hence approximat...... any such distribution. We prove that formulas from renewal theory, and with a particular attention to ruin probabilities, which are true for common phase-type distributions also hold true for the infinite-dimensional case. We provide algorithms for calculating functionals of interest...... of distributions with a slowly varying tail. An example from risk theory, comparing ruin probabilities for a classical risk process with Pareto distributed claim sizes, is presented and exact known ruin probabilities for the Pareto case are compared to the ones obtained by approximating by an infinite...

  18. The time to ruin in some additive risk models with random premium rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    to have a Laplace transform that is a rational function. The main results describe the joint Laplace transform of the time at ruin and the deficit at ruin. The method used consists in finding partial eigenfunctions for the generator of the joint process consisting of the Markov process and the accumulated...... claims process, a joint process which is also Markov. These partial eigenfunctions are then used to find a martingale that directly leads to an expression for the desired Laplace transform. In the final section, three examples are given involving different types of the underlying Markov process....

  19. Medieval and Post-medieval Turnshoes from Kempten (Allgäu), Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atzbach, Rainer

    2001-01-01

    In the Mühlberg-Ensemble in Kempten, a group of three late medieval citizen's houses, a complex of concealed shoes was found. The shoes follow the stylistic development between 1470 AD until 1530 AD. The post-medieval ones have not been made in the contemporary welted technique, but stick...

  20. The wall/ ruin: meaning and memory in landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lavoie

    1997-03-01

    . 'Everything is text, and all text is indefinitely ambiguous' (1989, p.148. In this paper I will try to show that neither of the alternatives need be accepted, that there can be a conception of meaning that is neither verificationist (scientistic, nor empty (purely textual. This provides us with room to give levels of meaning to the world and to understand behaviour in a way which is neither scientific nor merely textual. I argue that for space to be intrinsically and authentically meaningful, design must be conceived imaginatively. This imaginative conception will involve and appeal to a metaphorical visual vocabulary which provides a non-literal, but authentic experience of time and space. As a result, an artifact may become an object of authentic aesthetic appreciation. I will illustrate this rather abstract conception with a variety of concrete examples, drawn primarily from landscape architecture using the wall and the ruin as an archetypal form of design language. This example offers a variety of interpretations and meanings, but ones which are necessarily underpinned by the notions (or criteria of truth and falsity. I will consider the implications for design from the perspective of both the designer and the participant. I believe this account opens up levels of meaning, truth and legitimation which help us to understand the true significance and value of design and, in particular, landscape design.

  1. Medieval Stars in Melk Abbey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, P. G.; Zotti, G.

    2012-05-01

    Melk Abbey, a marvel of European high baroque architecture, is one of the most frequently visited tourist attractions in Austria, attracting 450 000 visitors each year. The monastery's museum presents selected aspects of Benedictine life in Melk since the monastery's foundation in 1089. After the church, the library is the second-most important room in a Benedictine monastery. Due to the wide scientific interests and contacts of the medieval monks, these libraries also contain manuscripts on mathematics, physics and astronomy. In 2009, the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009), the annual library exhibition was fully dedicated to astronomical manuscripts and early prints from the past 1000 years. Following earlier research work on astronomical manuscripts in Melk's library, we were invited to organise the exhibition. In addition, we also presented a lecture series and provided more background in an accompanying book. Because of positive feedback from the visitors, the exhibition was extended until March 2011. In the two years of its duration, the exhibition was seen by more than 900 000 visitors. In this article, we describe the background to the scientific project, how the exhibition was organised and lessons learned from this project.

  2. Second order corrections for the limits of normalized ruin times in the presence of heavy tails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Søren; Kortschak, Dominik

    In this paper we consider a compound Poisson risk model with regularly varying claim sizes. For this model in [4] an asymptotic formula for the finite time ruin probability is provided when the time is scaled by the mean excess function. In this paper we derive the rate of convergence for this fi...

  3. Random recurrence equations and ruin in a Markov-dependent stochastic economic environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collamore, Jeffrey F.

    2009-01-01

    We develop sharp large deviation asymptotics for the probability of ruin in a Markov-dependent stochastic economic environment and study the extremes for some related Markovian processes which arise in financial and insurance mathematics, related to perpetuities and the ARCH(1) and GARCH(1,1) tim...

  4. Ruin Probabilities and Aggregrate Claims Distributions for Shot Noise Cox Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrecher, H.; Asmussen, Søren

    claim size is investigated under these assumptions. For both light-tailed and heavy-tailed claim size distributions, asymptotic estimates for infinite-time and finite-time ruin probabilities are derived. Moreover, we discuss an extension of the model to an adaptive premium rule that is dynamically...

  5. Problems in the study of the medieval heritage in the Lim valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Marko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Discussing the results of archaeological investigation at two important medieval sites - remains of the monastery of St George at Mažići near Priboj and of the church at Drenova near Prijepolje - the author puts forward his critical observations that make significant revisions to the conclusions suggested by excavators. The remains of a monastery at Mažići have long ago been identified with the monastery of St George in the župa (district of Dabar known from early 13th-century records. In the 1310s a monastery of St George is referred to in association with the toponym of Orahovica. After a long gap, the monastery is referred to again several times in the 1600s until its final destruction in 1743, as St George’s at Orahovica or simply Mažić(i. The report following systematic archaeological excavations suggests the unacceptable and unfounded conclusion, with dating and interpretation that the monastery church was built in the 13th century, received additions in the 14th, and was renovated in the 16th-17th centuries when there was a hospital attached to it. Careful analysis of the structural remains and the site’s stratigraphy clearly shows that the monastery was built on the site of a medieval cemetery of a 14th-15th-century date, which means that the church and its buildings cannot be older than the 16th century. The author also argues against the assumed presence of a monastic hospital, the assumption being based upon metal artifacts misinterpreted as "medical instruments" (parchment edge trimmer, compasses, fork!!!. The author’s inference is that the ruins at Mažići are not the remains of the monastery of St George, which should be searched for elsewhere, but possibly the legacy of a 14th-century monastic establishment which was moved there from an as yet unknown location most likely about the middle of the 16th century. The site at Drenova, with remains of a church destroyed by land slide, has been known since the late 19th

  6. Medievalism: From Ruskin toChesterton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Jenko

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the topic of medievalism as all existing, still evolving, and future forms of reception of the Middle Ages, focusing primarily on the issues of the term itself and the problems that arise with its definition, its occurrence in John Ruskin’s time, various historical forms, and their variations, especially considering some of the implications of its official or academic aspect – namely, medieval studies in general. Consequently, the article shows that medievalism entails a step beyond or beneath the usual opposition between the real and false Middle Ages. In terms of objectivity as an ideal, as the search or quest for the real Middle Ages (and also as a reaction against subjective receptions, colored by presuppositions, preconceptions, and prejudice, medievalism shifts our perspective on the opposition between the objective and subjective, inaugurating a field of study that centers on the objective-subjective, which should not be seen or taken as a synthesis. Furthermore, it pinpoints a change or shift in the status of truth itself: a truth with no guarantee. Primarily making reference to art history, the article emphasizes the importance of medievalist fantasies and proposes a much needed re-reading of Panofsky’s take on the scholastic habitus. Both terms, fantasy and/or habitus, permeate the field of medievalism, opening what is perhaps the most important question: that of (works of art and materiality.

  7. The Barbarian North in Medieval Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Rix, Robert William

    the disciplines of poetry, history, rhetoric, linguistics, and archaeology. After years of intense critical interest in medieval attitudes towards the classical world, Africa, and the East, this first book-length study of ‘the North’ will inspire new debates and repositionings in medieval studies.......This book examines the sustained interest in legends of the pagan and peripheral North, tracing and analyzing the use of an ‘out-of-Scandinavia’ legend (Scandinavia as an ancestral homeland) in a wide range of medieval texts from all over Europe, with a focus on the Anglo-Saxon tradition. The pagan...... North was an imaginative region, which attracted a number of conflicting interpretations. To Christian Europe, the pagan North was an abject Other, but it also symbolized a place from which ancestral strength and energy derived. Rix maps how these discourses informed ‘national’ legends of ancestral...

  8. Gioacchino Volpe and the medieval religious movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Artifoni

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a widened version of a lecture held in 2005 at the congress: ‘Gioacchino Volpe between past and present’, issued in the volume edited by R. Bonuglia (Rome 2007. It analyzes the main topics present in the work by Gioacchino Volpe: Movimenti religiosi e sette ereticali nella società medievale italiana (secoli XI-XIV (‘Religious movements and heretical sects in Italian Medieval society (11th-14th century', of 1922, and connects such essay to the author’s interests for ‘social’ history in the period after the 11th century. It also casts light on the influence of  Volpe’s thesis on many Italian Medieval scholars, who studied the medieval heresies over the 20th century (Morghen, Dupré Theseider, Manselli, Violante.

  9. Mapping Medievalism: An Indigenous Political Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Dion Fletcher

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of Kathryn Brush (ed., Mapping Medievalism at the Canadian Frontier, London Ontario Canada: Museum London and the McIntosh Gallery, 2010. Mapping Medievalism, a collection of essays written by a professor and nine graduate students, is an examination of the role of settlers’ imagination of Europe’s middle ages in the development of Canadian culture. The project aims to be inclusive of Aboriginal histories, and some authors grapple with the colonial implications of the settlers’ imagining of the medieval. This review provides an indigenous political perspective on the book, and argues that some essays provide useful insight into colonial processes. However, some essays approach colonialism in a non-productive fashion and, ultimately, the publication falls short of its aim to be inclusive to Aboriginal histories.

  10. The Medieval Dublin Project: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall O'hOisin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the Medieval Dublin Project. It covers the development and release of the DVD ‘Medieval Dublin: From Vikings to Tudors (Schools Edition,’ and outlines the major virtual and interactive features developed for that release. The paper also covers the collaboration that took place between the DVD development team and the academic community and discusses the ways in which 3D visualisations, timelines, interactivity and character-based storytelling were used to present Dublin’s archaeological heritage in an engaging and interesting way

  11. Episodes in the mathematics of medieval Islam

    CERN Document Server

    Berggren, J L

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an account of selected topics from key mathematical works of medieval Islam, based on the Arabic texts themselves. Many of these works had a great influence on mathematics in Western Europe. Topics covered in the first edition include arithmetic, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and numerical approximation; this second edition adds number theory and combinatorics. Additionally, the author has included selections from the western regions of medieval Islam—both North Africa and Spain. The author puts the works into their historical context and includes numerous examples of how mathematics interacted with Islamic society.

  12. The contemporary in post-medieval archaeology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAtackney, Laura; Penrose, Sefryn

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary archaeology is an emerging field of enquiry within the wider discipline associated with the questioning of temporal boundaries in what we study and why we engage with material remains of the recent past more generally. This article argues that contemporary archaeology should be broadly...... defined at this stage in its development and therefore can be located in Post-Medieval Archaeology through research that explicitly engages with what it is to conduct contemporary archaeology, but also through those implicitly considering how the past intrudes into the present. We believe that Post......-Medieval Archaeology will continue to highlight archaeological studies of the contemporary into the future....

  13. Anthony Davenport. Medieval Narrative – An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard TRIM

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This latest book by Tony Davenport represents not only a very useful guide to the different types of narrative associated with the Middle Ages but also succinctly describes their origins in Antiquity as well as linking up the various genres of medieval story-telling to present-day fiction in prose and film. The introductory pages thus give a global picture of narrative both before and after the medieval period and the Middle Ages are thereby not left in a vacuum. Although the focus is on Engl...

  14. Medieval Storytelling and Analogous Oral Traditions Today: Two Digital Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Birge Vitz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay presents two open-access digital databases of video clips of modern performances of medieval narratives and analogous living oral storytelling traditions: Performing Medieval Narrative Today: A Video Showcase and Arthurian Legend in Performance. To help people recognize the performability of medieval narratives, these websites offer examples of medieval-type storytelling that are still alive today in various parts of the world, as well as clips from performances of medieval narrative created by a new generation of storytellers.

  15. THz reflectometric imaging of medieval wall paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz time-domain reflectometry has been applied to the investigation of a medieval Danish wall painting. The technique has been able to detect the presence of carbonblack layer on the surface of the wall painting and a buried insertion characterized by high reflectivity values has been found...

  16. The Barbarian North in Medieval Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Rix, Robert William

    This book examines the sustained interest in legends of the pagan and peripheral North, tracing and analyzing the use of an ‘out-of-Scandinavia’ legend (Scandinavia as an ancestral homeland) in a wide range of medieval texts from all over Europe, with a focus on the Anglo-Saxon tradition. The pag...

  17. Gambler's ruin problem on Erdős-Rényi graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Néda, Zoltán; Davidova, Larissa; Újvári, Szeréna; Istrate, Gabriel

    2017-02-01

    A multiagent ruin-game is studied on Erdős-Rényi type graphs. Initially the players have the same wealth. At each time step a monopolist game is played on all active links (links that connect nodes with nonzero wealth). In such a game each player puts a unit wealth in the pot and the pot is won with equal probability by one of the players. The game ends when there are no connected players such that both of them have non-zero wealth. In order to characterize the final state for dense graphs a compact formula is given for the expected number of the remaining players with non-zero wealth and the wealth distribution among these players. Theoretical predictions are given for the expected duration of the ruin game. The dynamics of the number of active players is also investigated. Validity of the theoretical predictions is investigated by Monte Carlo experiments.

  18. New Methodologies for the Documentation of Fortified Architecture in the State of Ruins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallavollita, F.; Ugolini, A.

    2017-05-01

    Fortresses and castles are important symbols of social and cultural identity providing tangible evidence of cultural unity in Europe. They are items for which it is always difficult to outline a credible prospect of reuse, their old raison d'être- namely the military, political and economic purposes for which they were built- having been lost. In recent years a Research Unit of the University of Bologna composed of architects from different disciplines has conducted a series of studies on fortified heritage in the Emilia Romagna region (and not only) often characterized by buildings in ruins. The purpose of this study is mainly to document a legacy, which has already been studied in depth by historians, and previously lacked reliable architectural surveys for the definition of a credible as well as sustainable conservation project. Our contribution will focus on different techniques and methods used for the survey of these architectures, the characteristics of which- in the past- have made an effective survey of these buildings difficult, if not impossible. The survey of a ruin requires, much more than the evaluation of an intact building, reading skills and an interpretation of architectural spaces to better manage the stages of documentation and data processing. Through a series of case studies of fortified buildings in ruins, we intend to describe the reasons that guided the choice of the methods and tools used and to highlight the potentials and the limits of these choices in financial terms.

  19. NEW METHODOLOGIES FOR THE DOCUMENTATION OF FORTIFIED ARCHITECTURE IN THE STATE OF RUINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fallavollita

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fortresses and castles are important symbols of social and cultural identity providing tangible evidence of cultural unity in Europe. They are items for which it is always difficult to outline a credible prospect of reuse, their old raison d'être- namely the military, political and economic purposes for which they were built- having been lost. In recent years a Research Unit of the University of Bologna composed of architects from different disciplines has conducted a series of studies on fortified heritage in the Emilia Romagna region (and not only often characterized by buildings in ruins. The purpose of this study is mainly to document a legacy, which has already been studied in depth by historians, and previously lacked reliable architectural surveys for the definition of a credible as well as sustainable conservation project. Our contribution will focus on different techniques and methods used for the survey of these architectures, the characteristics of which- in the past- have made an effective survey of these buildings difficult, if not impossible. The survey of a ruin requires, much more than the evaluation of an intact building, reading skills and an interpretation of architectural spaces to better manage the stages of documentation and data processing. Through a series of case studies of fortified buildings in ruins, we intend to describe the reasons that guided the choice of the methods and tools used and to highlight the potentials and the limits of these choices in financial terms.

  20. Un gobierno medieval en un mundo global.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Becerra

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The Colegio Mayor de Nuestra Señora del Rosario is a unique case in the World of corporate governance enduring, by which this university, one of the most prestigious institutions in Colombia, could preserve its culture and medieval tradition in the election of their authorities and governance becoming a modern higher education institution that educate the future social leaders. Nova et Vetera – the New and the Old– the integration of today reality and dynamics, and its future projection, with the more ancient university tradition of the Medieval concept of “Universitas Scholarium” becoming a modern institution of 354 years old. These successful combinations produced by the continuity of traditional corporate governance since 1653 has empowered the institution and permit it to lead the most important intellectual, political and social changes of the country.

  1. Management of tremor in medieval Persia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargaran, Arman; Zarshenas, Mohammad M; Mehdizadeh, Alireza; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali

    2013-01-01

    Tremor has been described in traditional systems of medicine throughout history. Persian medicine was one of those systems in medieval times and in it neurology and neurosurgery were also widely practiced and accepted. Based on the main Persian medical manuscripts, the current study focuses on the medieval concept of tremor as an important neurological disorder in order to clarify the development of neurology. Accordingly, three main approaches to the control and treatment of tremor in traditional Persian medicine are considered. First is lifestyle modification. The administration of simple medicines is the second, and the last is the application of compound medicines. Our study shows how much was known about tremor in traditional Persian medicine.

  2. Insight into the Fulnek Church and Parish Medieval Building Chronology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustinková Lucie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The church of the Holy Trinity and parish in Fulnek was for nearly four centuries an Augustinian canonry and collegiate church (1293-1389. The medieval church and parish building chronology, however, have not been thus far established. From research between 2015 and 2016 we have been able to identify medieval portions of the buildings, clarify the site medieval construction phases and date the parish buildings (formerly the canonry from dendrochronological analysis of embedded wooden scaffolding.

  3. Geriatric management in medieval Persian medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Emami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Iran, a large group of patients are elderly people and they intend to have natural remedies as treatment. These remedies are rooted in historical of Persian and humoral medicine with a backbone of more than 1000 years. The current study was conducted to draw together medieval pharmacological information related to geriatric medicine from some of the most often manuscripts of traditional Persian medicine. Moreover, we investigated the efficacy of medicinal plants through a search of the PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases. In the medieval Persian documents, digestible and a small amount of food such as chicken broth, honey, fig and plum at frequent intervals as well as body massage and morning unctioning are highly recommended. In the field of pharmacotherapy, 35 herbs related to 25 families were identified. Plants were classified as tonic, anti-aging, appetizer, memory and mood enhancer, topical analgesic and laxative as well as health improvement agents. Other than historical elucidation, this paper presents medical and pharmacological approaches that medieval Persian practitioners applied to deal with geriatric complications.

  4. Disintegration of monetary system of medieval Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnjatović Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is the process of gradual disintegration of monetary system of medieval Serbia during the second half of the 14th and the first half of the 15th century. This period is characterized by an appearance of frequent usurpations of the ruling right to mint coinage by local landlords and the attempts of the rulers from Lazarević and Branković families to restore unified monetary system. Common debasements and restorations of silver coinage provoked economic instability and induced frequent turning backwards to the custom of using weighted silver instead of silver coins as commodity monetary standard. The aim of this paper is to explain the reasons for those phenomena. We apply qualitative, historical, empirical analysis where we consider money minting right holders and their decisions to debase and restore the value of silver dinars. We found that gradual disintegration of monetary system of medieval Serbian State continued until the fall of Serbian Despotate as a consequence of political instability following dissolution of medieval Serbian Empire and economic and financial exhaustion of Serbia by Ottoman suzerains.

  5. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Casa Grande Ruins National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Brian F.; Albrecht, Eric W.; Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Halvorson, William L.; Anning, Pamela; Docherty, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary This report summarizes results of the first comprehensive biological inventory of Casa Grande Ruins National Monument (NM) in southern Arizona. Surveys at the monument were part of a larger effort to inventory vascular plants and vertebrates in eight National Park Service units in Arizona and New Mexico. In 2001 and 2002 we surveyed for vascular plants and vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) at Casa Grande Ruins NM to document the presence, and in some cases relative abundance, of species. By using repeatable study designs and standardized field techniques, which included quantified survey effort, we produced inventories that can serve as the basis for a biological monitoring program. Of the National Park Service units in the region, no other has experienced as much recent ecological change as Casa Grande Ruins NM. Once situated in a large and biologically diverse mesquite bosque near the perennially flowing Gila River, the monument is now a patch of sparse desert vegetation surrounded by urban and commercial development that is rapidly replacing agriculture as the dominant land use in the area. Roads, highways, and canals surround the monument. Development, and its associated impacts, has important implications for the plants and animals that live in the monument. The plant species list is small and the distribution and number of non-native plants appears to be increasing. Terrestrial vertebrates are also being impacted by the changing landscape, which is increasing the isolation of these populations from nearby natural areas and thereby reducing the number of species at the monument. These observations are alarming and are based on our review of previous studies, our research in the monument, and our knowledge of the biogeography and ecology of the Sonoran Desert. Together, these data suggest that the monument has lost a significant portion of its historic complement of species and these changes will likely intensify as

  6. Building on ruins: Copernicus' defense of ancient astronomers against modern critics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, Karl

    2008-09-01

    Nicholas Copernicus'De revolutionibus (1543) is a frequent starting point for histories of the Scientific Revolution on account of his dramatic reversal of the cosmic order handed down from antiquity. Nevertheless, Copernicus also mounted a surprisingly sharp attack on one of his contemporaries who tried to correct ancient astronomers. This uneasy balance between respecting and criticizing ancient works was part of broader contemporaneous attempts to grapple with the fragmentary legacies of past generations. Debates over stone ruins as well as manuscript texts shaped the evolution of early printed books, and artists, printers and instrument makers joined natural philosophers in pursuing novelties even while emulating tradition.

  7. A Memory of Shadows and of Stone. Traumatic Ruins, Conservation, Social Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Sulfaro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the scars caused by many terrible traumatic events, such as the atomic bomb, the Holocaust, genocides, massacres, and also deep socio-economic transformations, the notion of memory in the contemporary age is nearly always the result of a conflict between the conservation of some elements of the past and the oblivion of others. The ruin or the place of a tragedy is no longer merely a trace of a terrible past but, through a resemantization process, it becomes a sign, which is transmittable to the future. This introduces some questions to the issue of traumatic ruin: what are the social implications of ‘memorializing’ the trauma? Who decides what kind of traces of the past to deliver to the future? What is the role of conservation and architectural restoration in these processes? The present paper focuses on the possible practices in the processes of the representation of the past, with special regard to the relationship between places/buildings, memory and social processes. In particular, the paper deals with the consequences of practices involving a reinterpretation of the past and, practices aimed at leaving the signs of traumatic events visible on a building, a monument or a place: practices which, as they involve oblivion and remembrance, describe the contemporary condition of memory.

  8. Ruins in Reverse. An Exhibition at Tate Modern (March 1st - June 24th 2013

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    Colin Philip Sterling

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the same week Ruins in Reverse opened at the Tate Modern gallery in London, Jonathan Jones asked on his Guardian Blog whether archaeology might be ‘the new art’ (2013. He posed this question as a result of two recent exhibitions at The British Museum, namely Ice Age Art and Life and Death in Pompeii and Herculaneum, both of which sought to emphasise the aesthetic qualities of archaeological objects. As Jones argued, such exhibitions ‘popularise’ the discipline by drawing attention to the ‘stupendous beauty of things that survive from the past’. While visitor numbers go some way to demonstrating the veracity of this comment, it seems restrictive both to art and to archaeology to frame any relationship between the two in this way. The spectacular archaeological find is atypical and potentially deceptive. A more potent line of enquiry - one adopted by several of the artists featured in Ruins in Reverse - might be to consider the present itself through an archaeological lens, applying the language of ‘discovery’ and ‘excavation’ to artefacts and locations that few would call stupendous or beautiful.

  9. Possible sources of archaeological maize found in Chaco Canyon and Aztec Ruin, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, L.V.; Stein, J.R.; Taylor, H.E.

    2009-01-01

    Maize played a major role in Chaco's interaction with outlying communities in the southern Colorado Plateau. This paper seeks to determine where archaeological corn cobs brought to Chaco Canyon were grown. Strontium-isotope and trace-metal ratios of 180 soil-water and 18 surface-water sites in the Southern Colorado Plateau have revealed possible source areas for some of 37 archaeological corn cobs from Chaco Canyon and 10 archaeological corn cobs from Aztec Ruin, New Mexico. The most probable source areas for cobs that predate the middle-12th-century drought include several Upper Rio Chaco sites (not including Chaco Canyon). There are many potential source areas for cobs that date to the late A.D. 1100s and early 1200s, all of which lie in the eastern part of the study area. Some Athapascan-age cobs have potential source areas in the Totah, Lobo Mesa, and Dinetah regions. One Gallo Cliff Dwelling cob has a strontium-isotope ratio that exceeds all measured soil-water values. Field sites for this cob may exist in association with Paleozoic and Precambrian rocks found 80-90 km from Chaco Canyon. Potential source areas for most Aztec Ruin cobs (many of which were found in rooms dating to the first half of the 13th-century) appear to be associated with a loess deposit that blankets the Mesa Verde and McElmo Dome regions.

  10. Medieval bindings: stiff board structures in Slovenian manuscript collection

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    Jedert Vodopivec

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the research of particular binding structures in extant Slovene medieval codices. The research is limited only to stiff-board bound medieval manuscript collections in Slovenian public archives and libraries. The research synthetically presents particular structures, binding techniques and materials on medieval manuscripts bound or rebound before 16th century. The basis of the research is a census of extant medieval bookbinding monuments, which includes all obtainable data, sketches, pencil rubbings, and photographs. The paper aims to present the methodology of work used in the research as well as the process of formulating description form related to conservation bookbinding. The paper closes with observations and conclusions drawn from the analysis of the Slovenian collection of medieval codices.

  11. Medieval Arabic medical views on male homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, B

    1994-01-01

    Medieval medical views on homosexuality are outlined. Three theories seem to have been present. The first considers homosexuality as a nasty psychological phenomenon that ought to be punished rather than treated. The second theory suggests that an abnormal sensory innervation to the penis requires intense sensory input to achieve sexual satisfaction. A third congenital theory proposes that homosexuality results when the maternal sperm prevails over the paternal sperm. The most important proponent of the first theory was Avicenna (Ibn-Sîna, 980-1037 A.D.); a literal translation of the relevant chapter from his Canon of Medicine is given.

  12. Muslim Slaves and Freedmen in Medieval Portugal

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    Soyer, François

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of slavery in medieval Portugal has focused almost exclusively on the status and fate of the sub-Saharan Africans who started to arrive in the kingdom from 1441 onwards. The work of A. C. de C. M Saunders, A Social History of Black Slaves and Freedmen in Portugal 1441-1555 (Cambridge University Press, 1982 has been particularly important in this respect. In stark contrast to this, the fate of the substantial number of Muslim slaves who lived and worked in Portugal during the medieval period has to a large extent been overlooked. Using documentary evidence obtained from the national Portuguese archives, this article proposes to analyse in detail the origins of these slaves, their economic and social role and the laws that were promulgated to control them and their owners. The status of freedmen and manumission practices are also closely studied.

    El estudio de la esclavitud en el Portugal medieval ha sido dominado por estudios sobre los esclavos oriundos del África subsahariana que comenzaron a ser importados en aquel reino desde 1441. La obra de A. C. de C. M. Saunders, A Social History of Black Slaves and Freedmen in Portugal 1441-1555 (Cambridge University Press, 1982 ha sido particularmente importante a este respecto. En contraste con esta situación, se sabe relativamente poco de los esclavos musulmanes en el reino medieval de Portugal. Utilizando nuevas fuentes documentales del archivo nacional portugués, este artículo se propone examinar los orígenes de estos esclavos musulmanes y su posición económica y social en el Portugal del medievo, así como las leyes reales que fueron promulgadas para controlar a los esclavos y a sus dueños. La posición social de los libertos y las prácticas de manumisión serán también estudiadas.

  13. Muslim Slaves and Freedmen in Medieval Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Soyer, François

    2007-01-01

    The study of slavery in medieval Portugal has focused almost exclusively on the status and fate of the sub-Saharan Africans who started to arrive in the kingdom from 1441 onwards. The work of A. C. de C. M Saunders, A Social History of Black Slaves and Freedmen in Portugal 1441-1555 (Cambridge University Press, 1982) has been particularly important in this respect. In stark contrast to this, the fate of the substantial number of Muslim slaves who lived and worked in Portuga...

  14. Embroided Portraits in the Romanian Medieval Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Marghidan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available If the artistic value of the Romanian medieval embroidery is obvious, it is no less real its documentary value. Most embroided portraits are made on liturgical pieces and they are a proof of the relationship of the rulers with the Orthodox Church. The position of the characters is a mute way of communicating the status that the voievod had. The vertical rigid representations, kneeling, the gestures of the palms and elbows, the beneficence objects, the way characters are grouped, the proportion or their placement in the work can be symbolically interpreted depending on the type of the Liturgical item on which the embroidery was done.

  15. Fontes para o estudo da arte medieval

    OpenAIRE

    Fraga Sampedro, Mª Dolores

    2013-01-01

    A materia Fontes documentais e literarias para a Historia da Arte, posúe o carácter de obrigatoria e ten que ser cursada no segundo ano (2º curso), en concreto no segundo cuadrimestre. Está integrada no módulo Coñecementos sistemáticos e integrados do feito artístico. Esta materia está estreitamente relacionada con Literatura e Arte no mundo antigo e medieval de primeiro curso, Fundamentos teóricos da historia da Arte de primeiro curso, Métodos de Análise e Interpretación do Fenómen...

  16. Voluntarism and realism in medieval ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldane, J

    1989-01-01

    In contrast to other articles in this series on the history of moral philosophy the present essay is not devoted to expounding the views of a single author, or to examining a particular moral theory. Instead it discusses an important dispute between two medieval accounts of the relation between theological and moral propositions. In addition to its historical interest this debate is important both because it connects earlier and later ethical thought--being influenced by Greek moral theories and influencing subsequent European philosophy--and because it concerns issues that remain important to philosophers and to those who claim that their ethical beliefs are dictated by religious convictions. PMID:2926786

  17. Ritual. Medieval Liturgy and the Senses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2015-01-01

    , and movement within that setting. Also visual artefacts and in some cases, the 'sacramental' use of material objects were involved. In a particular ceremony, carried out since Antiquity on the basis of John 13:1-17, the narrative of Jesus washing the feet of the disciples, the singing of chants was combined...... with the actual washing of the feet of either monks or poor people. The combination of words and melodies with elaborate melismas, and the further sensorial staging and setting of the ceremony produced a 'polyphony' of media, which can be analysed by way of early medieval notions of sacrament. The chapter also...

  18. PIXE analysis of medieval silver coins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelouahed, H. Ben, E-mail: habdelou@cern.ch [Centre National des Sciences et Technologies Nucleaires (CNSTN), Pole technologique, 2020 Sidi Thabet, Tunis (Tunisia); Gharbi, F. [Centre National des Sciences et Technologies Nucleaires (CNSTN), Pole technologique, 2020 Sidi Thabet, Tunis (Tunisia); Roumie, M. [IBA Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission, National Council for Scientific Research, 11-8281, Beirut (Lebanon); Baccouche, S. [Centre National des Sciences et Technologies Nucleaires (CNSTN), Pole technologique, 2020 Sidi Thabet, Tunis (Tunisia); Romdhane, K. Ben [Faculte des lettres et des sciences humaines, Universite de Tunis (Tunisia); Nsouli, B. [IBA Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission, National Council for Scientific Research, 11-8281, Beirut (Lebanon); Trabelsi, A. [Centre National des Sciences et Technologies Nucleaires (CNSTN), Pole technologique, 2020 Sidi Thabet, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2010-01-15

    We applied the proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analytical technique to twenty-eight medieval silver coins, selected from the Tunisian treasury. The purpose is to study the fineness evolution from the beginning of the 7th to the 15th centuries AD. Each silver coin was cleaned with a diluted acid solution and then exposed to a 3 MeV proton beam from a 1.7 MV tandem accelerator. To allow the simultaneous detection of light and heavy elements, a funny aluminum filter was positioned in front of the Si(Li) detector entrance which is placed at 135{sup o} to the beam direction. The elements Cu, Pb, and Au were observed in the studied coins along with the major component silver. The concentration of Ag, presumably the main constituent of the coins, varies from 55% to 99%. This significant variation in the concentration of the major constituent reveals the economical difficulties encountered by each dynasty. It could be also attributed to differences in the composition of the silver mines used to strike the coins in different locations. That fineness evolution also reflects the poor quality of the control practices during this medieval period. In order to verify the ability of PIXE analytical method to distinguish between apparently similar coins, we applied hierarchical cluster analysis to our results to classify them into different subgroups of similar elemental composition.

  19. Episodes in the mathematics of medieval Islam

    CERN Document Server

    Berggren, J L

    1986-01-01

    From the reviews: The book is, in spite of the author's more modest claims, an introductory survey of main developments in those disciplines which were particularly important in Medieval Islamic mathematics...No knowledge of mathematics (or of the history of mathematics) beyond normal high-school level is presupposed, and everything required beyond that (be it Apollonian theory of conics or the definitions of celestial circles) is explained carefully and clearly. Scattered throughout the work are a number of lucid remarks on the character of Islamic mathematics or of mathematical work in general. The book will hence not only be an excellent textbook for the teaching of the history of mathematics but also for the liberal art aspect of mathematics teaching in general. - Jens Høyrup, Mathematical Reviews ...as a textbook, this work is highly commendable...It is definitely the product of a skillful mathematician who has collected over the years a reasonably large number of interesting problems from medieval Arab...

  20. Archaeogeophysical Studies in the Ruins of Kars-Ani (Turkey) in the 2009 Excavation Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskan, Nihan; Ahmet Yuksel, Fethi; Gorucu, Ziya; Coruhlu, Yasar

    2010-05-01

    The Ani ancient city, which is at 48 km distance to Kars (Turkey), is founded at the banks of the Arpacay River flowing in the vicinity of Turkey - Armenia border and is in the borders of Mevcut Ocakli Village. Recent studies show that the first settlement in Ani ancient city could be in the 5th millenium B.C.(Chalcolithic Period) and moreover, there were some buildings built in the Iron and Bronze Period. In the early 9th century, Ashot Msaker, who was Bagratuni dynasty (806-827), declared their first capital city at Bagaran, some 40 km south of Ani, and then transferred it to Kars in the year 929. In 961, King Ashot III (953-977) transferred the capital city from Kars to Ani. Ani expanded during the reign of King Smbat II (977-989). Recent research shows that by the early 11th century the population of Ani was over 100,000. After capture of Ashot, Ani surrendered to Byzantine controlled in 1045. A Greek governor was installed in the city. In 1064 a Seljuk Turkish army, headed by Sultan Alparslan, attacked and captured Ani. Then the Georgians captured Ani in 1124, 1161 and 1174. By the 14th century Ani was ruled by the Turkish dynasties, namely Jalayrids and the Kara Koyunlu. After the Persian Safavids ruled Ani, it became part of the Turkish Ottoman Empire in 1579. A small town remained within its walls until 1650 A.C. and it was completely abandoned by the middle of the 18th century. Examples of Sasani, Arabic, Armenian, and Seljuk architecture can be found among the Ani ruins. Ani is home to the first Turkish mosque built in Anatolia, namely Ebul Menucehr. The mosque was erected by the members of the Seljuk Dynasty in 1072. The first archaeological excavations were conducted at Ani in 1892. Since then, several archaeological excavations have been done in Ani. In the 2009 excavation season, magnetic methods were applied in Ani ruins to find the exact locations of the ruins. Magnetic Gradient Measurements were taken in front of Ebul Menucehr Mosque. After

  1. A luminescence dating study of the sediment stratigraphy of the Lajia Ruins in the upper Yellow River valley, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhu; Huang, Chun Chang; Pang, Jiangli; Zhou, Yali; Zha, Xiaochun; Wang, Longsheng; Zhou, Liang; Guo, Yongqiang; Wang, Leibin

    2014-06-01

    Pedo-sedimentological fieldwork were carried out in the Lajia Ruins within the Guanting Basin along the upper Yellow River valley. In the eolian loess-soil sections on the second river terrace in the Lajia Ruins, we find that the land of the Qijia Culture (4.20-3.95 ka BP) are fractured by several sets of earthquake fissures. A conglomerated red clay covers the ground of the Qijia Culture and also fills in the earthquake fissures. The clay was deposited by enormous mudflows in association with catastrophic earthquakes and rainstorms. The aim of this study is to provide a luminescence chronology of the sediment stratigraphy of the Lajia Ruins. Eight samples were taken from an eolian loess-soil section (Xialajia section) in the ruins for optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. The OSL ages are in stratigraphic order and range from (31.94 ± 1.99) ka to (0.76 ± 0.02) ka. Combined OSL and 14C ages with additional stratigraphic correlations, a chronological framework is established. We conclude that: (1) the second terrace of the upper part of Yellow River formed 35.00 ka ago, which was followed by the accumulation of the eolian loess-soil section; and (2) the eolian loess-soil section is composed of the Malan Loess of the late last glacial (MIS-2) and Holocene loess-soil sequences.

  2. A Study of Pattern Prediction in the Monitoring Data of Earthen Ruins with the Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yun; Wang, Xin; Eshragh, Faezeh; Wang, Xuanhong; Chen, Xiaojiang; Fang, Dingyi

    2017-05-11

    An understanding of the changes of the rammed earth temperature of earthen ruins is important for protection of such ruins. To predict the rammed earth temperature pattern using the air temperature pattern of the monitoring data of earthen ruins, a pattern prediction method based on interesting pattern mining and correlation, called PPER, is proposed in this paper. PPER first finds the interesting patterns in the air temperature sequence and the rammed earth temperature sequence. To reduce the processing time, two pruning rules and a new data structure based on an R-tree are also proposed. Correlation rules between the air temperature patterns and the rammed earth temperature patterns are then mined. The correlation rules are merged into predictive rules for the rammed earth temperature pattern. Experiments were conducted to show the accuracy of the presented method and the power of the pruning rules. Moreover, the Ming Dynasty Great Wall dataset was used to examine the algorithm, and six predictive rules from the air temperature to rammed earth temperature based on the interesting patterns were obtained, with the average hit rate reaching 89.8%. The PPER and predictive rules will be useful for rammed earth temperature prediction in protection of earthen ruins.

  3. The Effects of Largest Claim and Excess of Loss Reinsurance on a Company’s Ruin Time and Valuation

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    Yuguang Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We compare two types of reinsurance: excess of loss (EOL and largest claim reinsurance (LCR, each of which transfers the payment of part, or all, of one or more large claims from the primary insurance company (the cedant to a reinsurer. The primary insurer’s point of view is documented in terms of assessment of risk and payment of reinsurance premium. A utility indifference rationale based on the expected future dividend stream is used to value the company with and without reinsurance. Assuming the classical compound Poisson risk model with choices of claim size distributions (classified as heavy, medium and light-tailed cases, simulations are used to illustrate the impact of the EOL and LCR treaties on the company’s ruin probability, ruin time and value as determined by the dividend discounting model. We find that LCR is at least as effective as EOL in averting ruin in comparable finite time horizon settings. In instances where the ruin probability for LCR is smaller than for EOL, the dividend discount model shows that the cedant is able to pay a larger portion of the dividend for LCR reinsurance than for EOL while still maintaining company value. Both methods reduce risk considerably as compared with no reinsurance, in a variety of situations, as measured by the standard deviation of the company value. A further interesting finding is that heaviness of tails alone is not necessarily the decisive factor in the possible ruin of a company; small and moderate sized claims can also play a significant role in this.

  4. Hospitality, culture and regeneration: urban decay, entrepreneurship and the "ruin" bars of Budapest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugosi, Peter; Bell, David; Lugosi, Krisztina

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the relationships between hospitality, culture and urban regeneration through an examination of rom (ruin) venues, which operate in dilapidated buildings in Budapest, Hungary. The paper reviews previous work on culture and urban regeneration in order to locate the role of hospitality within emerging debates. It subsequently interrogates the evolution of the rom phenomenon and demonstrates how, in this context, hospitality thrives because of social and physical decay in urban locations, how operators and entrepreneurs exploit conflicts among various actors involved in regeneration and how hospitality may be mobilised purposefully in the regeneration process. The paper demonstrates how networked entrepreneurship maintains these operations and how various forms of cultural production are entangled and mobilised in the venues' hospitality propositions.

  5. Architectural Ruins and Urban Imaginaries: Carlos Garaicoa’s Images of Havana

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    Jodi Kovach

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary Cuban artist Carlos Garaicoa juxtaposes photographic images of Havana’s architectural ruins with timidly articulated drawings that trace the outlines of the dilapidated buildings in empty urbanscapes. Each of these fragile drawings, often composed of delicate threads adhered to a photograph of a site after demolition, serves as a vestige of the sagging structure that the artist photographed prior to destruction. The dialogue that emerges from these photograph/drawing diptychs implies the unmooring of the radical utopian underpinnings of revolutionary ideology that persisted in the policies of Cuba’s Período especial (Special Period of the 1990s, and suggests a more complicated narrative of Cuba’s modernity, in which the ambiguous drawings—which could indicate construction plans or function as mnemonic images—represent empty promises of economic growth that must negotiate the real socio-economic crises of the present. This article proposes that Garaicoa’s critique of the goals and outcomes of the Special Period through Havana’s ruins suggests a new articulation of the baroque expression— one that calls to mind the anti-authoritative strategies of twentieth-century Neo-Baroque literature and criticism. The artist historically grounds the legacy of the Cuban Revolution’s modernizing project in the country’s real economic decline in the post-Soviet era, but he also takes this approach to representing cities beyond Cuba’s borders, thereby posing broader questions about the architectural symbolism of the 21st-century city in the ideological construction of modern globalizing society.

  6. Medieval iconography of watermelons in Mediterranean Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S.; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Cucurbitaceae), is an important fruit vegetable in the warmer regions of the world. Watermelons were illustrated in Mediterranean Antiquity, but not as frequently as some other cucurbits. Little is known concerning the watermelons of Mediterranean Europe during medieval times. With the objective of obtaining an improved understanding of watermelon history and diversity in this region, medieval drawings purportedly of watermelons were collected, examined and compared for originality, detail and accuracy. Findings The oldest manuscript found that contains an accurate, informative image of watermelon is the Tractatus de herbis, British Library ms. Egerton 747, which was produced in southern Italy, around the year 1300. A dozen more original illustrations were found, most of them from Italy, produced during the ensuing two centuries that can be positively identified as watermelon. In most herbal-type manuscripts, the foliage is depicted realistically, the plants shown as having long internodes, alternate leaves with pinnatifid leaf laminae, and the fruits are small, round and striped. The manuscript that contains the most detailed and accurate image of watermelon is the Carrara Herbal, British Library ms. Egerton 2020. In the agriculture-based manuscripts, the foliage, if depicted, is not accurate, but variation in the size, shape and coloration of the fruits is evident. Both red-flesh and white-flesh watermelons are illustrated, corresponding to the typical sweet dessert watermelons so common today and the insipid citron watermelons, respectively. The variation in watermelon fruit size, shape and coloration depicted in the illustrations indicates that at least six cultivars of watermelon are represented, three of which probably had red, sweet flesh and three of which appear to have been citrons. Evidently, citron watermelons were more common in Mediterranean Europe in the past than they are today. PMID:23904443

  7. The virtues of balm in late medieval literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truitt, Elly R

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that balm, or balsam, was, by the late medieval period, believed to be a panacea, capable of healing wounds and illnesses, and also preventing putrefaction. Natural history and pharmacological texts on balm from the ancient and late antique periods emphasized specific qualities of balm, especially its heat; these were condensed and repeated in medieval encyclopedias. The rarity and cost of balsam, from antiquity through the medieval period, and the high rate of counterfeiting also demonstrate its high demand and significance in medicine and religious ritual. Travel writing and itineraria from the early and central medieval periods added a new layer to ideas about the capabilities of balsam: that it originated from a Christian miracle and was a particularly Christian plant.

  8. Limitations imposed by wearing armour on Medieval soldiers' locomotor performance

    OpenAIRE

    Askew, Graham N.; Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E.

    2011-01-01

    In Medieval Europe, soldiers wore steel plate armour for protection during warfare. Armour design reflected a trade-off between protection and mobility it offered the wearer. By the fifteenth century, a typical suit of field armour weighed between 30 and 50 kg and was distributed over the entire body. How much wearing armour affected Medieval soldiers' locomotor energetics and biomechanics is unknown. We investigated the mechanics and the energetic cost of locomotion in armour, and determined...

  9. Historical fencing and scientific research medieval weapons: common ground

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    B. V. Hrynchyshyn

    2015-07-01

    We considered various approaches to the reconstruction of the historical fencing. It is proved that the activities of such societies has a positive effect on the process research of features of medieval weapons, fighting tactics of different periods The various approaches to the reconstruction of the historical fencing. Proved that the activities of such societies has a positive effect on the process research of features of medieval weapons, fighting tactics of different periods.

  10. Why We Need a Medieval Narratology: A Manifesto

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    Eva von Contzen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of the growing interest in diachronic approaches and the historicizing of narratology, a medieval narratology is called for which systematically scrutinizes medieval forms and functions of narration. In the first part of the article, the problems of applying classical narratological theories to medieval literature are sketched, as well as the reasons for the relative invisibility of the narratological studies already conducted by medievalists. In the second part, the main parameters of a medieval narratology are outlined by means of selected sample analyses across a range of genres. A medieval narratology, it is argued, requires necessary shifts and modifications of existing theories, but also an open dialogue between the disciplines. Both narratologists and medievalists can profit from such an endeavor, which does not reject classical and post-classical theories. Rather, it is based on an informed understanding of the historical grounding of narrative forms and their place in the history of literature. The essay rounds off with a proposal of “Ten Theses for a Medieval Narratology”.

  11. R.ox.an.e: An Embedded System for Search and Rescue of Trapped in the Ruins of an Earthquake

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    A. Pantelis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available R.ox.an.e is an embedded system for search and rescue of trapped victims in the ruins of an earthquake. A rescue team coulduse such kind of digital assistants in order to have quick and safe information about the disaster. The proposed system is asmall size vehicle, with microcontroller based hardware and is wirelessly controlled. The operator has full control of thevehicle and is able to capture real time image of the accident place and various sensors measurements.

  12. Light - Shadow Interactions in Italian Medieval Churches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incerti, Manuela

    In the relationship between architecture and the sky, it is possible to identify three different design issues. The first regards the alignment of buildings with visible points on the horizon that coincide with the rising or setting of a celestial body (sun, planets, stars, or moon) on particular dates during the astronomical year (or liturgical year for sacred buildings). The second is the relationship between planimetric design and the design of the elevations. We are all familiar today with several "light effects", which sometimes have almost hierophanic characteristics that, on certain days of the year, were used to engross, captivate, and amaze the spectator. Contrary to the first two issues, the third comes after the design and building stages and concerns the question of decorative elements. It is reasonable to believe that many years after the works were terminated, certain wall finishings were chosen over others, such as painted frescoes or statues. Whoever did this was fully aware, thanks to direct observation, that such decoration would be struck by a single ray of light on a specific day. This chapter examines light-shadow interactions in some Italian medieval churches.

  13. The Medieval Mordva According to Archaeological Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeleneev Yuriy A.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of formation and cultural development of the Mordovians (the Mordva in the Middle Ages is considered in the article. The Mordovian ethnos had started its formation process in the early Common Era by way of merger of small related ethnic groups. By the 8th century, these groups united into two subethnoses – the Moksha and the Erzya, which have been preserved up to date. Four major stages are identified in the medieval history of the Mordva, which are mainly traced on the basis of archeological materials: 1 final stage of the tribal system (8th–10th cc.; 2 formation of the early Mordva states in the 11th–13th cc.; 3 the Mordva as part of the Golden Horde in the second half of the 13th through to 15th cc.; 4 the Mordva as part of the Russian State in the 16th to18th cc. For each period, the settlement area of the Mordovians, the characteristic features of their material culture, and the predominant directions of cultural relations are determined.

  14. El simbolismo animal en la cultura medieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Carmen Morales Muñiz

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Abordar un tema tan amplio y complejo como el de la simbología animal en los siglos medievales en un espacio tan corto, me obliga a seleccionar los puntos prioritarios a tratar. En primer lugar adelanto que el trabajo aquí presentado es parte de una línea de investigación más amplia sobre culturas zoológicas en la España medieval, entendiendo comparativamente a la cristiana, a la musulmana y a la judía. Como se sabe, la zoohistoria y sus implicaciones en la vida del Inombre —sobre todo esto último— es una especialidad cada vez más cultivada dentro de la investigación reciente, también para la Edad Media. La simbología, dentro de aquella especialidad, resulta uno de los aspectos más sugerentes, y en estas líneas queremos plantear los puntos más relevantes de esta contribución.

  15. Women, bodies, and Hebrew medieval medical literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caballero Navas, Carmen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores different views on the female body articulated within Hebrew medieval texts on women’s health care. It also investigates whether texts also integrate women’s own perceptions of their bodies, and of their needs and care. I have analysed how this genre of Hebrew literature understood two key issues in the construction of sexed bodies: menstruation and cosmetics.

    Este trabajo examina distintas visiones sobre el cuerpo femenino que articulan los textos hebreos medievales dedicados al cuidado de la salud de las mujeres e investiga en qué medida están representadas en ellos las percepciones que las propias mujeres tienen de sus cuerpos, y de sus necesidades y preocupaciones. Para ello, he analizado el tratamiento que este género de la literatura hebrea ha dado a dos temas clave en la sexuación de los cuerpos: la menstruación y la cosmética.

  16. Multiscale Pigment Analysis of Medieval Illuminated Manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestak, Erica; Manukyan, Khachatur; Wiescher, Michael; Gura, David

    2017-09-01

    Three medieval illuminated manuscripts (codd. Lat. b. 1; Lat. b. 2; Lat. e. 4), housed at the University of Notre Dame's Hesburgh Library, vary in style, pigments, scribes, and regions, despite all three being Psalters used in the Late Middle Ages. XRF and Raman spectroscopy, which provided the elemental and molecular composition of the pigments, respectively, were used to analyze the pigments' compositions in an attempt to narrow further the manuscripts' possible origins. This experimental investigation emphasizes the importance of understanding the history of the manuscript through their pigments. Codd. Lat. b. 1 and Lat. b. 2 are Latinate German Psalters from the fifteenth century likely used in Katharinenkloster in Nuremberg. While there are visible differences in style within each Psalter, the variations in some of the pigment compositions, such as the inconstant presence of zinc, suggest different admixtures. Cod. Lat. e. 4 is a Latinate English Psalter from the fourteenth century, and it was written by two scribes and illuminated by two distinct painters. It is currently being tested to determine whether there are any correlations between the scribes and painters. These physical analyses will clarify the origins and provenances of the manuscripts.

  17. ‘Not Months but Moments’: Ephemerality, Monumentality, and the Pavilion in Ruins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihor Junyk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines a fundamental tension between ephemerality and monumentality in the history of pavilion architecture. Descended from the ancient tent, the pavilion was taken up by European landscape architecture in the eighteenth century. Integrated into an aesthetic of the picturesque, these ephemeral structures were both settings and instruments of a set of fleeting experiences that can be grouped under the category of reverie. However, during the course of the nineteenth century, the pavilion underwent a dramatic change, gradually becoming the monumental representative of the nations that participated at the various expositions and World’s Fairs that took place during that century and the next. Unable to actualize the permanence they were meant to embody, pavilions instead called forth aggressive fantasies of ruin and death. Wary of the deathly aesthetics of monumentality and sublimity, architects working in the last couple decades have returned the pavilion to its original ephemerality. Experimenting with new materials and digital technologies they have created contemporary follies as new spaces for reverie.

  18. 78 FR 28274 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Medieval Treasures from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Medieval Treasures from Hildesheim... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Medieval Treasures from Hildesheim,'' imported...

  19. »Becoming English«: Nationality, Terminology, and Changing Sides in the Late Middle Ages. Medieval Worlds|Comparative Studies on Medieval Europe - Volume 5. 2017 medieval worlds Volume 5. 2017|

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Late medieval English chronicles contain several puzzling references to the idea of people ›becoming English‹ by changing allegiance, usually in the context of war. How does this fit in with the predominantly ›racial‹ understanding of nationhood that permeated late-medieval English literary texts and official rhetoric, based on well-established ideas about birth, blood and heredity? These assumptions provided a powerfully persistent backdrop to late- medieval English writers’ constructions of...

  20. Research output in medieval and crusades studies 1981-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Kjersgaard

    2017-01-01

    of the methodological considerations necessary in carrying out this kind of quantitative research. On the basis of bibliometric statistics generated from the International Medieval Bibliography (IMB) and Bibliographie de Civilisation Médiévale (BCM), the article identifies a numeric decrease in research output both......This article investigates the numerical research output of crusade studies over the past thirty years. The article compares its findings to the output of medieval studies in general in the same period. It shows in detail how the applied bibliometric statistics are generated and elaborates on some...

  1. Role of Light - Shadow Hierophanies in Early Medieval Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataoguz, Kirsten

    In the early Middle Ages, solar observance shaped the art and architecture of Christian churches in primarily three ways. First, medieval writers from across the Mediterranean often related dramatic lighting effects to alignment with the rising sun on astronomically and liturgically significant days. Second, in still-surviving pictorial compositions, light coming in through strategically placed windows aligned with the east-west axis stands in for Christ in a variety of recognizable compositions. Third, archaeoastronomers have hypothesized that select medieval pictorial programs were coordinated with fenestration to spotlight-specific scenes and figures on specific days and at specific hours.

  2. Genome-wide comparison of medieval and modern Mycobacterium leprae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuenemann, Verena J; Singh, Pushpendra; Mendum, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    Leprosy was endemic in Europe until the Middle Ages. Using DNA array capture, we have obtained genome sequences of Mycobacterium leprae from skeletons of five medieval leprosy cases from the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Denmark. In one case, the DNA was so well preserved that full de novo assembly...... origin for leprosy in the Americas, and the presence of an M. leprae genotype in medieval Europe now commonly associated with the Middle East. The exceptional preservation of M. leprae biomarkers, both DNA and mycolic acids, in ancient skeletons has major implications for palaeomicrobiology and human...

  3. Estética na Filosofia Medieval [Aesthetics in medieval Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Costa,Marcos Roberto Nunes

    2012-01-01

    Fazendo uma junção entre a concepção cosmológico-filosófico-racional do Beloda Filosofia Antiga e os princípios judaico-cristãos, notadamente à concepçãoteleológica de que o homem é um ser para Deus, o qual se alcança pelainterioridade humana, a Filosofia Medieval, combatendo o “sensualismo” e“imanitismo” dos Antigos, acabaria por superar a própria Filosofia Antiga, construindouma nova Estética de caráter cosmológico-filosófico-religiosa, voltadapara o inteligível enquanto ser transcendental ...

  4. Wartime Women Rape: A Means of Moral Attack and Emasculation in Lynn Nottage’s Ruined

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaff Ganim Salih

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Women rape at warfare was considered a consequence of war in the social, literary and political world for a long period of time. Some criminals of rape escaped justice and others were persecuted on the basis that they were involved in mass rape because it was a natural consequence of war. But, women are targeted with rape in time of war because they are the symbolic representation of a culture, ethnicity, and the unifying fabric of their people and nation. The objective of this paper is to show that war rape is not a result of war; instead it is a means of human destruction through moral attack and emasculation. It aims to show that women rape in warfare is neither a misogynist act nor a sexual violence but it is a pre-planned weapon used strategically and systematically to fulfill certain political and military agenda. The study focuses on the sexual abuse of women in the Democratic Republic of Congo in time of war in Lynn Nottage’s Pulitzer Prize play, Ruined (2007. The study applies Jonathan Gottschall’s Strategic Rape theory, which highlights war rape as a pre-planned military strategy. The enemy emasculates men and attacks them morally by raping their women. Consequently, men’s failure to protect their women causes them to give up resistance, leave their lands and families because of shame and humiliation. The study concludes that women rape in time of war is a tactic followed by conquerors intentionally to facilitate and guarantee the achievement of certain pre-planned goals as was the case of mass rape in the DRC.

  5. Saving the Phenomena in Medieval Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeskin, K.

    2011-06-01

    Aristotle's theory of motion is based on two principles: (1) all motion to either from the midpoint of the Earth, toward it, or around it, and (2) circular motion must proceed around an immovable point. On this view, the heavenly bodies are individual points of light carried around by a series of concentric spheres rotating at a constant pace around the midpoint of the Earth. But even in Aristotle's day, it was known that this theory had a great deal of difficulty accounting for planetary motion. Ptolemy's alternative was to introduce epicycles and eccentric orbits, thus denying Aristotle's view of natural motion. There was no doubt that Ptolemy's predictions were far better than Aristotle's. But for the medievals, Aristotle's theory made better intuitive sense. Moreover, Ptolemy's theory raised the question of how one sphere could pass through another. What to do? The solution of Moses Maimonides (1138-1204) was to say that it is not the job of the astronomer to tell us how things actually are but merely to propose a series of hypotheses that allow us to explain the relevant data. This view had obvious theological implications. If astronomy could explain planetary motion in an acceptable way, there was reason to believe that the order or structure of the heavens is what it is by necessity. This suggests that God did not exercise any degree of choice in making it that way. But if astronomy cannot explain planetary motion, the most reasonable explanation is that we are dealing with contingent phenomena rather than necessary ones. If there is contingency, there is reason to think God did exercise a degree of choice in making the heavens the way they are. A God who exercises choice is much closer to the God of Scripture. Although Galileo changed all of this, and paved the way for a vastly different view of astronomy, the answer to one set of questions raises a whole different set. In short, the heavenly motion still poses ultimate questions about God, existence, and

  6. "The Ruins": Large cold seep sandstone chimneys in the upper Miocene Santa Margarita Sandstone, Scotts Valley, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H.; Bazan, C.; Perry, F.; Garrison, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    In 1856 a peculiar letter in a San Francisco newspaper reported the discovery of an ancient ruin on a sandy hillside in Scotts Valley, CA (Santa Cruz County). The purported "great and magnificent structure" consisted of 50 sandstone columns, some of which were said to be capped by a dome. Exploration of the site by speculators and treasure hunters in the 1850's produced no artifacts or evidence of human activity and regrettably resulted in removal or destruction of most of the original columns. Despite its depletion, and subsequent assessment as a wholly geological phenomenon, the locality is still known locally as "The Ruins". In order to evaluate the origin of the distinctive cementation at the Ruins we mapped its remaining features and collected samples for petrographic, XRD and stable isotope analysis. The site, presently located on private property, consists of at least 12 columns and numerous flattened, discontinuous slabs of well indurated sandstone exposed over ~160 square meters. Stratigraphically it is in the uppermost part of the upper Miocene Santa Margarita Sandstone, 7-15 m below its contact with the overlying Santa Cruz Mudstone. The columns range from 0.5-2 m in diameter and the tallest rises 1.5 m above the surface. All of the columns are distinctly chimney-like, with circular cross sections and hollow central cavities that in some cases are partially filled with separately cemented rings. They describe a SW-NE linear trend on the south side of a hill. A horizon of sandstone slabs, 0.2-1.7 m in length, stratigraphically overlies the chimneys at the top of the hill. Both chimneys and slabs consist of coarse-grained, moderately-sorted sandstone cemented by sparry low-Mg calcite. Most samples also contain abundant remains of the echinoid Astrodapsis spatiosus. δ18O values range from -5.15‰ (chimney) to -2.32‰ (slab); δ13C values range from -19.89‰ (chimney) to -1.95‰ (slab). Stable isotope values seem tied to location rather than contrasting

  7. The Medieval Swedish Horror Ballad in the Romantic Era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhr, Mattias

    2014-01-01

    In the late 18th century the Horror Ballad became popular in Sweden. The rediscovery of medieval tales and ballads inspired the Romantic authors. Clas Livijn uses the medieval folksong of "Hafsfrun" in his dramatic play of the same title (1806). In Livijn’s own library we also find many Scandinav......In the late 18th century the Horror Ballad became popular in Sweden. The rediscovery of medieval tales and ballads inspired the Romantic authors. Clas Livijn uses the medieval folksong of "Hafsfrun" in his dramatic play of the same title (1806). In Livijn’s own library we also find many...... Scandinavian texts from the 17th century, by Saxo Gramaticus, Verelius and others as well as modern printings of old texts by for instance Afzelius. The Horror Ballad in Sweden was introduced by Johan Henrik Kellgren in “Fredrics vålnad” in 1793, although it’s in reality a translation of “Ludvigs Gjenfærd...

  8. Social representations of memory and gender in later medieval England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Bronach

    2012-12-01

    Social representations in later medieval culture have attracted little attention amongst psychologists, pre-dating the development of the so-called 'public sphere' in the eighteenth century. In addition, the association of pre-modern societies with 'traditional' modes of communication in social psychology places implicit limits on areas that may be studied through the lens of social representation theory. This article analyses the way in which knowledge circulated in late medieval society, noting initially the plural nature of representations of events and marginal groups, and the myriad channels through which beliefs were consolidated. In later medieval England perceptions of the past depended on collective and group memory, with customary rights and local histories forged through 'common knowledge', hearsay and the opinions of 'trustworthy men' of the village. The final section of this commentary provides an analysis of testimony from the late medieval church courts, in which witnesses articulated gender ideologies that reflected perceptions drawn from everyday life. Social representations of women were thus deployed in ecclesiastical suits, on the one hand supporting evidence of female witnesses and on the other justifying misogynistic stereotypes of women's behaviour.

  9. Medieval Music. Alfonso X & the Cantigas de Santa Maria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Lee

    This lesson introduces students to music in the Court of Alfonso X The Learned, Spanish king from 1252-1284. The readings provide information about King Alfonso, his political ambitions, and his contributions to Spanish medieval history. The lesson also introduces his establishment of laws with new legal codes and his remarkable collection of…

  10. From the Dictionary of Medieval Latin in Czech Lands. Gracocenderius

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedinová, Hana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 140, 3/4 (2017), s. 455-470 ISSN 0024-4457 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : ravens * ancient and medieval zoology * Latin names of birds * Bartholomaeus de Solencia dictus Claretus * Aristotle * Aristoteles Latinus * Michael Scotus * Thomas of Cantimpré Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics OBOR OECD: Specific languages

  11. Proper Living - Exploring Domestic Ideals in Medieval Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mette Svart

    2014-01-01

    , and ornaments. This paper addresses ideas of proper living in affluent rural and urban milieus in medieval Denmark, particularly as they are expressed through houses, inventories, and murals, and it also addresses current challenges in understanding the materialized ideas based on excavations and analysis...

  12. Herbal diuretics in medieval Persian and Arabic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Bosmia, Anand N; Fakhree, Mohammad A A; Jouyban, Abolghasem; Balch, Margaret Wood; Loukas, Marios; Khodadoust, Kazem; Khalili, Majid; Eknoyan, Garabed

    2015-06-01

    In accord with the notions of humoralism that prevailed in medieval medicine, therapeutic interventions, including diuretics, were used to restore the disturbed balance among the four humors of the human body: blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile. Most diuretics were derived from plants. The primary textual reference on herbal diuretics was Dioscorides's De Materia Medica, which was written during the first century CE. The authors reviewed the medieval medical texts written in Persian and Arabic and compiled a list of 135 herbal diuretics used by the medieval medical authorities for treating various ailments. Between the 8th and 11th centuries CE, Middle Eastern physicians systematically reviewed extant books on medicine and pharmacotherapy and compiled new and expanded lists of herbal medicines, diuretics in particular. Furthermore, they introduced new chemical methods of extraction, distillation, and compounding in the use of herbal medicines. Several herbal remedies now are considered as potentially safe and affordable alternatives to chemical pharmaceuticals. Thus, research on medieval herbal therapies may prove to be relevant to the practice of current cardiovascular and renal pharmacotherapy. The authors propose that modern research methods can be employed to determine which of these agents actually are effective as diuretics.

  13. Some Early Optics: Classical and Medieval. Experiment No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devons, Samuel

    Information related to the history of optics with emphasis on the classical and medieval periods is presented. Notes are included on experiments dealing with refraction at a plane interface between two media; refraction by transparent spheres; light, color, and reflection by transparent spheres. (Author/SA)

  14. Norse agriculture in Greenland? Farming in a remote medieval landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Peter Steen

    The aim of the project Norse Farming in Greenland: Agriculture on the edge was to determine whether the Norse farmers actually cultivated crops in Greenland during colonisation in the Viking age and the medieval period. This was investigated by analysing macrofossils extracted from soil samples...

  15. Medieval Science, the Copernican Revolution, and Physics Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uritam, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    Points out the need for a greater awareness, among physicists, of medieval physical science. Reviews briefly and gives examples of notable achievements of the era and argues that the view of science of fourteenth-century nominalism has greater affinity to today's theoretical physics than that of the Scientific Revolution. (Author/GS)

  16. Cereal production, high status and climate in Medieval Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlendsson, Egill; Riddell, Scott

    2017-04-01

    At Hrísbrú (formerly the medieval Mosfell estate) in the Mosfell Valley, southwest Iceland, archaeologists have excavated a medieval skáli (hall) proposed to be the high status residence of a chieftain. This is indicated by the size of the skáli, artefacts (foreign goods), archaeofaunal (cattle/sheep bone) ratios and macrobotanical remains (cereal grain). The analysis of pollen from nearby natural contexts suggests that cereals were grown locally. Using multiple profile palynological approach, this paper examines if the apparent cereal production is representative of high status in the Icelandic context. First as a correlate by confirming that cereals were grown in association with the archaeological features characteristic of high status; secondly, as an indicator in its own right through comparison with other palynological datasets from inferred lower status farms. The presence or absence of cereal-type pollen (cf. barley) and other arable correlates was examined for each site. The results suggest that medieval cereal cultivation in the Mosfell Valley was confined to the landholding of the medieval Mosfell estate. This feature is seen as an attribute of the locale's greater status in relation to the other farms in Mosfell Valley. The abandonment of cereal cultivation at the Mosfell estate around AD 1200 is probably associated with interactions between changes in the nation's social power structure and how marginal cereal production in Iceland was (and is) in terms of climate.

  17. Elementos de História da Filosofia Medieval

    OpenAIRE

    Coutinho, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Exposição dos principais temas e autores da filosofia medieval: Filosofia e religião; filosofia patrística, com relevo para Santo Agostinho; filosofia escolástica, com relevo para Anselmo de Cantuária, Tomás de Aquino e São Boaventura; decadência escolástica.

  18. Multi-Ethnicity and Material Exchangesin Late Medieval Tallinn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    his article examines the cultural and social dynamics of a multi-ethnic medieval town. Taking the lower town of Tallinn as a case study, this paper identifies the major urban ethnic groups living in the town and discusses their co-existence, self-definition, and processes of categorization...

  19. Imágenes y apocaliptismo en el Occidente medieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanmartín, Israel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article will explore the importance of imagery in the medieval world and particularly in some representations related to eschatological events related to apocalypticism. We´ll work separately the images in the medieval world and a brief development of apocalypticism. The ultimate stage of the article will seek opportunities for dialogue between images and apocalypticism, which lead us to reflect on different iconography and apocalyptic. We ended withthe importance of “location” of the so-called object-images in relation to its function of making the absent and present practice of producing real.

    En el presente artículo se estudiará la importancia de las imágenes en el mundo medieval y en concreto en algunas representaciones vinculadas a episodios escatológicos vinculados al apocaliptismo. Estudiaremos de forma separada tanto la imagen en el mundo medieval como un breve desarrollo del apocaliptismo. El fin último del trabajo será buscar los espacios de encuentro entre las imágenes y el apocaliptismo, que nos llevarán a reflexionar sobre diferentes iconografías apocalípticas y concluir en la importancia de la “localización” de las llamadas imágenes-objeto en relación a su función de hacer presente lo ausente y ejercer de productoras de lo real.

  20. Playing Thieves: Passion Performance in the Early Medieval West

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Irving, Andrew James McGregor

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the origin, development, and interpretation of a curious brief dramatic element in the medieval Western Good Friday liturgy. It describes the transformative interplay between rubric, material objects, performance practice, and interpretation, in the context of the reading of the

  1. Genealogical relationships between early medieval and modern inhabitants of Piedmont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Vai

    Full Text Available In the period between 400 to 800 AD, also known as the period of the Barbarian invasions, intense migration is documented in the historical record of Europe. However, little is known about the demographic impact of these historical movements, potentially ranging from negligible to substantial. As a pilot study in a broader project on Medieval Europe, we sampled 102 specimens from 5 burial sites in Northwestern Italy, archaeologically classified as belonging to Lombards or Longobards, a Germanic people ruling over a vast section of the Italian peninsula from 568 to 774. We successfully amplified and typed the mitochondrial hypervariable region I (HVR-I of 28 individuals. Comparisons of genetic diversity with other ancient populations and haplotype networks did not suggest that these samples are heterogeneous, and hence allowed us to jointly compare them with three isolated contemporary populations, and with a modern sample of a large city, representing a control for the effects of recent immigration. We then generated by serial coalescent simulations 16 millions of genealogies, contrasting a model of genealogical continuity with one in which the contemporary samples are genealogically independent from the medieval sample. Analyses by Approximate Bayesian Computation showed that the latter model fits the data in most cases, with one exception, Trino Vercellese, in which the evidence was compatible with persistence up to the present time of genetic features observed among this early medieval population. We conclude that it is possible, in general, to detect evidence of genealogical ties between medieval and specific modern populations. However, only seldom did mitochondrial DNA data allow us to reject with confidence either model tested, which indicates that broader analyses, based on larger assemblages of samples and genetic markers, are needed to understand in detail the effects of medieval migration.

  2. Geophysical Exploration of Tyuonyi Ruins in Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A. L.; Taylor-Offord, S.; Rosado, A.; Ly, P.; Gonzales, J.; Civitello, J. A.; Johnston, G.; Ferguson, J. F.; McPhee, D.; Pellerin, L.

    2016-12-01

    while spatially high-frequency anomalies suggest a number of buried objects, possibly a looter's pit and an unexcavated room block. The study concludes that the prospective trail could be built around the periphery of the ruin with little to no disturbance of any archaeologically significant features and there may be unexcavated room blocks of the pueblo.

  3. Patriarch Ephrem: A late medieval saintly cult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Danica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Patriarch Ephrem, monk and hermit, writer and saint, Bulgarian-born but twice the leader of the Serbian Church (1375-78 and 1389-92, is an outstanding figure of the late medieval Balkans. His "life and works" are discussed here in the light of hagiological texts and the information provided by various types of sources with the view to drawing some historically relevant conclusions. The main source of information about Ephrem's life and activity are the eulogies, Life and service composed by bishop Mark, his disciple and loyal follower for twenty-three years. Making use of hagiographical topica combined with plentiful data of undoubted documentary value, he relates the story of Ephrem's life through all of its major stages: from his birth and youth to his withdrawal from the world and taking of a monk's habit. Of formative influence were his years on the Holy Mount Athos, where he experienced different styles of monastic life, coenobitic, as well as solitary, which he practiced in the well-known hermitages in the heights of Athos. The further course of Ephrem's life was decided by the turbulent developments in the Balkans brought about by the Ottoman conquests. In that sense, his biography, full of forced and voluntary resettlements, is a true expression of the spirit of the times. Forced to flee Mount Athos, Ephrem made a short stay in Bulgaria and then, about 1347, came to Serbia, where he spent the rest of his life. An eminent representative of the monastic elite and under the aegis of the Serbian patriarch, he spent ten years in a hesychastria of the Monastery of Decani. For reasons of security, he then moved to a cave hermitage founded specially for him in the vicinity of the Patriarchate of Pec. It was in that cell, where he lived for twenty years powerfully influencing the monastic environment, that his literary work profoundly marked by hesychast thought and eschatology, was created. Ephrem twice accepted the office of patriarch in the

  4. Romantic versus scientific perspective: the ruins of Radlin palace in Wielkopolska region in the light of remote sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilgocka, Aleksandra; Ruciński, Dominik; RÄ czkowski, Włodzimierz

    2015-06-01

    Although ruins of palace in Radlin, localized in Wielkopolska Region (Poland), could have been a great inspiration for romantic landscape painters, they were hardly considered as the subject of artistic interest. Nevertheless they stand as a marker in a landscape as a romantic background for the village on one hand and a memento for the neighbouring graveyard on another. Small scale excavations carried out in late 1950s with historical maps and analysis of still standing remains gave a general idea about wings order, localisation of main entrance and communication routs inside courtyard. Those early research thereby were the first step to change the meaning of this place from romantic to more scientific. New remote sensing technology allows move even further into scientific direction. The ruins in Radlin have been included into project ArchEO - archaeological applications of Earth Observation techniques. The main aim of the project in case of Radlin is an attempt to answer the question to what extent very high resolution optical satellite imagery might allow better understanding the spatial structure of the place. The various processing techniques were applied to facilitate the detection of archaeological features' impact on the vegetation condition. It enabled to assess the usefulness of satellite based data in recognizing specific archaeological remains. Thus, potential and limitations of satellite imagery versus other sources of spatial information like historic maps, excavation results, aerial photographs and Lidar will be discussed.

  5. Histories of Medieval European Literatures: New Patterns of Representation and Explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Borsa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Interfaces: A Journal of Medieval European Literatures is invested in bringing together the linguistic, literary, and historical expertise to take a European approach to medieval literature. The journal aims to establish a forum both for articles which move across literatures (plural and also, more ambitiously, to foster reflections on a more elusive, but no longer entirely absent, object, European medieval literature (singular.In line with the journal’s scope and vision to promote integrated approaches to European medieval literatures, we begin by facing head-on the multiple challenges of devising new types of narratives about medieval textual cultures. We have invited papers which take a wider regional perspective and move across medieval Europe as well as papers which bring an explicitly European perspective to more specific topics (with a tighter thematic, chronological, geographic, or linguistic focus.

  6. Auditory Ossicles in Archaeological Skeletal Material from Medieval Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, M; Grøntved, A M

    2000-01-01

    Auditory ossicles were collected from two skeletal materials from early medieval Denmark. A total of 147 and 1,162 ossicles were obtained from the 2 materials, constituting 23% and 55% of the possible in vivo ossicles. The numbers and percentages found are among the highest reported from studies ...... of archaeological skeletal material. Archaeological ossicles may be used in palaeopathological evaluation of chronic otitis media and otosclerosis, and morphometric studies of the ossicles might be valuable in analysis of population genetics and taxonomy.......Auditory ossicles were collected from two skeletal materials from early medieval Denmark. A total of 147 and 1,162 ossicles were obtained from the 2 materials, constituting 23% and 55% of the possible in vivo ossicles. The numbers and percentages found are among the highest reported from studies...

  7. Genome-wide comparison of medieval and modern Mycobacterium leprae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuenemann, Verena J; Singh, Pushpendra; Mendum, Thomas A; Krause-Kyora, Ben; Jäger, Günter; Bos, Kirsten I; Herbig, Alexander; Economou, Christos; Benjak, Andrej; Busso, Philippe; Nebel, Almut; Boldsen, Jesper L; Kjellström, Anna; Wu, Huihai; Stewart, Graham R; Taylor, G Michael; Bauer, Peter; Lee, Oona Y-C; Wu, Houdini H T; Minnikin, David E; Besra, Gurdyal S; Tucker, Katie; Roffey, Simon; Sow, Samba O; Cole, Stewart T; Nieselt, Kay; Krause, Johannes

    2013-07-12

    Leprosy was endemic in Europe until the Middle Ages. Using DNA array capture, we have obtained genome sequences of Mycobacterium leprae from skeletons of five medieval leprosy cases from the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Denmark. In one case, the DNA was so well preserved that full de novo assembly of the ancient bacterial genome could be achieved through shotgun sequencing alone. The ancient M. leprae sequences were compared with those of 11 modern strains, representing diverse genotypes and geographic origins. The comparisons revealed remarkable genomic conservation during the past 1000 years, a European origin for leprosy in the Americas, and the presence of an M. leprae genotype in medieval Europe now commonly associated with the Middle East. The exceptional preservation of M. leprae biomarkers, both DNA and mycolic acids, in ancient skeletons has major implications for palaeomicrobiology and human pathogen evolution.

  8. Imagining Place and Moralizing Space: Jerusalem at Medieval Westminster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Slater

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Monuments and landscape ensembles across medieval Europe recreated the Christian holy places of Jerusalem for local devotees. Contemporary legends surrounding the death of King Henry IV in 1413, who died in the Jerusalem Chamber in the abbot’s house at Westminster Abbey, place the room firmly within this cultural tradition. In the sixteenth century, a neighbouring Jericho Parlour was built. This paper highlights the political significances of such “recreated Jerusalem” sites: in contrast to the religious and demographic diversity found in the earthly city, and in connection with European crusading and imperial ambitions. Exploring the “death in Jerusalem” topos in detail, it argues that the Jerusalem Chamber should not be understood as a recreated holy place. Instead, the links to the Holy Land found in the abbot’s house form part of an imaginative reinvention of space within medieval Westminster, deliberately intended to provoke moral admonition and self-scrutiny in its users.

  9. Translation Memory and Computer Assisted Translation Tool for Medieval Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Törcsvári Attila

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Translation memories (TMs, as part of Computer Assisted Translation (CAT tools, support translators reusing portions of formerly translated text. Fencing books are good candidates for using TMs due to the high number of repeated terms. Medieval texts suffer a number of drawbacks that make hard even “simple” rewording to the modern version of the same language. The analyzed difficulties are: lack of systematic spelling, unusual word orders and typos in the original. A hypothesis is made and verified that even simple modernization increases legibility and it is feasible, also it is worthwhile to apply translation memories due to the numerous and even extremely long repeated terms. Therefore, methods and algorithms are presented 1. for automated transcription of medieval texts (when a limited training set is available, and 2. collection of repeated patterns. The efficiency of the algorithms is analyzed for recall and precision.

  10. Further Evidence for Medieval Faulting along the Puerto Rico Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, B. F.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Fuentes, Z.; Halley, R. B.; Spiske, M.; Tuttle, M. P.; Wei, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Has the Antilles Subduction Zone produced thrust or outer-rise earthquakes east of Hispaniola? An affirmative answer is suggested by tiered evidence for overwash 120 km south of the Puerto Rico Trench. The evidence comes from Anegada, British Virgin Islands, 200 km east-northeast of San Juan, Puerto Rico. PREVIOUS FINDINGS* suggested that a medieval overwash event had greater geologic effects at Anegada than did a Lisbon(?) event, and that both events outrank recent storms. The medieval overwash, in AD 1200-1450, dislodged brain corals from a reef, moved them as much as 500 m across a shallow subtidal flat, and scattered them as solitary boulders as much as 1000 m inland. Gentler overwash in 1650-1800, called Lisbon(?) because it may represent the 1755 tsunami, laid down a sheet of sand and island-derived shells as much as 1500 m from the north shore. A recent hurricane of category 4 left no durable geologic record other than sandy fans within 40 m of the south shore. NEW FINDINGS reinforce the ranking medieval > Lisbon(?) > storm: (1) The medieval event washed ashore marine shells that the Lisbon(?) event did not. An articulated marine bivalve (Codakia orbicularis), probably deposited live, is part of an overwash fan 400 m inland from Windlass Bight. The shell dates to the same time window as the medieval coral boulders. Additional articulated Codakia shells and a conch shell adjoin the buried base of one of these coral boulders 1500 m south of the fringing reef from which the coral was probably derived. (2) Lisbon(?) overwash used breaches that the medieval event had cut through beach ridges of the north shore. The re-use is marked by sand: on the muddy floor of a partly filled breach, on an organic soil in another such breach, and on a pre-existing fan south of an area of beach-ridge dissection. The buried organic soil, inset into a old breach, is 500 m inland from an area, near Cow Wreck High Point, where young beach ridges may have been breached for the first

  11. Judicial astrology in theory and practice in later medieval Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Hilary M

    2010-06-01

    Interrogations and elections were two branches of Arabic judicial astrology made available in Latin translation to readers in western Europe from the twelfth century. Through an analysis of the theory and practice of interrogations and elections, including the writing of the Jewish astrologer Sahl b. Bishr, this essay considers the extent to which judicial astrology was practiced in the medieval west. Consideration is given to historical examples of interrogations and elections mostly from late medieval English manuscripts. These include the work of John Dunstaple (ca. 1390-1453), the musician and astrologer who is known have served at the court of John, duke of Bedford. On the basis of the relatively small number of surviving historical horoscopes, it is argued that the practice of interrogations and elections lagged behind the theory.

  12. Flower symbolism and the cult of relics in medieval Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Popović Danica

    2008-01-01

    The Life of archbishop Eustathios I [Jevstatije] (1279-1286), deserving head of the medieval Serbian Church and a saint, is a very interesting source for studying the cult of relics with the Serbs. This is not surprising considering that the Life was penned by one of the most illustrious of Eustathios' successors on the church throne, Daniel II [Danilo], a learned Athonite and unquestionable master of the hagiographie literary genre. In his account of the life of his distinguished predecessor...

  13. The Medieval History of Russian Regions in the School Textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Katsva, Leonid

    2008-01-01

    Russia is a very specific country, enjoying huge territories and the great variety of ethnic groups, that's why the attempt of studying the history of all, or just the largest regions is doomed to failure; that's why it's necessary to create a special course (or just a separate textbook) of historical ethnology. The study of the regional history in the school course of the medieval history of Russia is connected with the topic "The period of Feudal Partition of Rus"; traditionally Russian sch...

  14. The north gate of medieval Belgrade's suburb on the Sava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Marko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the recent archaeological investigation of the 14th-century north wall of medieval Belgrade's Suburb on the Sava. Based on the analysis of the discovered remains, it discusses the entrance tower with the gate and the adjacent portion of the curtain wall, offering a conjectural reconstruction of the original appearance of the north entrance to the Suburb and an analysis of its fortification system.

  15. Scientific Report: Second Edition of the International Conference “Medieval Europe in Motion”

    OpenAIRE

    Cavero, Alicia Miguélez

    2017-01-01

    The Second Edition of the International Conference “Medieval Europe in Motion” took place in Lisbon in April 4-6, 2015. It aimed to follow up the initiative "Medieval Europe in Motion: the circulation of artists, images, patterns and ideas, from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic coast", held in Lisbon in 2013 and organized by the Institute for Medieval Studies of the Nova University Lisbon. With the aim of creating academic, scientific and organizational synergies, this second edition was org...

  16. Sex Difference in Medieval Theology and Canon Law. A Tribute to Joan Cadden 

    OpenAIRE

    Van Der Lugt, Maaike

    2010-01-01

    International audience; In order to evaluate the role and importance of sex difference in medieval theology and canon law, this article concentrates on two cases: the hermaphrodite's access to the sacraments of baptism, marriage and ordination, and the creation of the first woman. The author shows that, compared to other intellectual frameworks (Roman law, medieval muslim law), medieval theology, but especially canon law was relatively egalitarian.; Etude du rôle et de l'importance de la diff...

  17. Uncovering the Secret: Medieval Women, Magic and the Other

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwikowska Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For medieval audiences women occupied a specific, designated cultural area which, while they could freely form it according to their will and nature, was in fact imaginary and immaterial. Women in social, legal, and religious contexts were mostly counted among the receptive, inactive, and non-ruling groups. On both levels, there was a group of features universally defining all women: the strong, virtuous and independent model Aquinas lamented was replaced in real life by the sinful, carnal and weak stereotype, and the erotic, emotional, mysterious, and often wild type present predominantly in literature. Indeed, women were a source of scientific, theological, and cultural fascination because of their uncanny and complex nature, producing both fear and desire of the source and nature of the unattainable and inaccessible femininity. In social contexts, however, the enchantress seems to lose that veil of allure and, instead, is forced to re-define her identity by suppressing, denying, or losing her supernatural features. With the example of Saint Agnes from the South English Legendary Life of Saint Agnes, and Melior from Partonope of Blois (ca. 1450, the article will explore how medieval texts dealt with the complex and unruly female supernatural, and how its neutralization and subduing fitted into the moral, scientific, and cultural norms of medieval society.

  18. Limitations imposed by wearing armour on Medieval soldiers' locomotor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Graham N; Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E

    2012-02-22

    In Medieval Europe, soldiers wore steel plate armour for protection during warfare. Armour design reflected a trade-off between protection and mobility it offered the wearer. By the fifteenth century, a typical suit of field armour weighed between 30 and 50 kg and was distributed over the entire body. How much wearing armour affected Medieval soldiers' locomotor energetics and biomechanics is unknown. We investigated the mechanics and the energetic cost of locomotion in armour, and determined the effects on physical performance. We found that the net cost of locomotion (C(met)) during armoured walking and running is much more energetically expensive than unloaded locomotion. C(met) for locomotion in armour was 2.1-2.3 times higher for walking, and 1.9 times higher for running when compared with C(met) for unloaded locomotion at the same speed. An important component of the increased energy use results from the extra force that must be generated to support the additional mass. However, the energetic cost of locomotion in armour was also much higher than equivalent trunk loading. This additional cost is mostly explained by the increased energy required to swing the limbs and impaired breathing. Our findings can predict age-associated decline in Medieval soldiers' physical performance, and have potential implications in understanding the outcomes of past European military battles.

  19. Discourses on sex differences in medieval scholarly Islamic thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelrab, Sherry Sayed

    2011-01-01

    This study explores how medical authorities in medieval Islamic society understood and analyzed Greek authorities on the differences between men and women and their mutual contributions to the process of reproduction. As this research illustrates, such thinkers' interpretations of sex differences did not form a consistent corpus, and were in fact complex and divergent, reflecting, and contributing to, the social and cultural constructs of gender taken up by European authors in the Middle Ages. While some scholars have argued for a "one sex" view of human beings in the medieval period, a close reading of Islamic medical authors shows that the plurality and complexity of ideas about sex differences and the acceptance of the flexibility of barriers between the sexes make it difficult to assume that the biological knowledge about sex differences formed a unitary ideological foundation for a system of gender hierarchy. It is clear, however, that whatever their differences, medieval Islamic discussions of sex differences implicitly or explicitly emphasized the inferiority of the female body.

  20. Erecting Sex: Hermaphrodites and the Medieval Science of Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVun, Leah

    2015-01-01

    This essay focuses on "hermaphrodites" and the emerging profession of surgery in thirteenth- and fourteenth-century Europe. During this period, surgeons made novel claims about their authority to regulate sexual difference by surgically ''correcting" errant sexual anatomies. Their theories about sex, I argue, drew upon both ancient roots and contemporary conflicts to conceptualize sexual difference in ways that influenced Western Europe for centuries thereafter. I argue that a close examination of medieval surgical texts complicates orthodox narratives in the broader history of sex and sexuality: medieval theorists approached sex in sophisticated and varied manners that belie any simple opposition of modern and premodern paradigms. In addition, because surgical treatments of hermaphrodites in the Middle Ages prefigure in many ways the treatment of atypical sex (a condition now called, controversially, intersex or disorders/differences of sex development) in the modern world, I suggest that the writings of medieval surgeons have the potential to provide new perspectives on our current debates about surgery and sexual difference.

  1. The Medieval Concept of Music Perception. Hearing, Calculating and Contemplating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Witkowska-Zaremba

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeking to indicate the most salient features of the medieval perception of music, we must first of all point to the close relationship between the sensual and intellectual elements. This relationship is most conspicuous in the term "harmonica" introduced in the Latin Middle Ages by Boethius and defined as follows: "harmonica is the faculty of perceiving through senses and the intellect the differences between high and low sounds". The same definition reveals another significant feature of the perception of music, namely, that the importance is attached not to individual sounds, but to the differences or relationships between them, that is to the intervals. Since - in accordance with the Pythagorean tradition, which was a major force in medieval music theory - the relationship between sounds can be expressed numerically, it may therefore be considered in terms of the relationship of two numbers, apart from actual sound and beyond physical time. The question arises whether this concept of music could influence the perception of a medieval listener. For instance, can listening to music be understood as a process which engages both cognitive powers and concerns reducing in some unspecified manner the data perceived and processed by the senses to abstract categories which can be conceived only by the intellect?

  2. Judicial privilgies of Saxons in mixed disputes in Medieval Serbia

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    Katančević Andreja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the contemporary testimonies, wealth of the Serbian medieval kings was significantly increased by exploitation of number of precious metal mines that existed in their realm. Beginnings of the mine exploitation in medieval Serbia are related to the settlements of Saxon miners. Saxons were mining experts in medieval Europe who worked in distant mines far away from their homeland Saxony. They worked in this profitable mining business not only in Serbia, but also in Bohemia, Hungary (Transylvania and modern Slovakia and Bosnia. The settlement of Saxons in Serbia occurred in time of the reign of King Stefan Uros I (1234-1276. Although without preserved sources which could directly support this thesis, Serbian historiography advocates that certain privileges were granted to the Roman Catholic Saxons at the time of their migration in orthodox Serbia. It appears that these privileges included self-government, freedom of religion, and mining concessions. Also judicial privileges are often mentioned in historiography especially the right of Saxons to one half of the members of their ethnicity in judicial collegium and jury in the case of a dispute with member of another ethic group. This paper attempts to test the thesis related to composition of mixed courts and juries by applying historical method, and linguistic, systemic and historical interpretation of the sources such as King's Charters issued to Dubrovnik, Dusan's Code and Despot Stefan's Mining Code.

  3. Study of the ruining behaviour of a structure with reinforced concrete carrying walls; Etude du comportement a la ruine d'une structure a murs porteurs en beton arme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manas, B

    1998-06-01

    Nuclear facility buildings must be constructed with the respect of para-seismic rules. These rulesare defined according to the most probable seismic risk estimated for the sites. This study concerns the ruining behaviour of a structure made of reinforced concrete walls. In a first part, a preliminary study on reinforced concrete is performed with the Castem 2000 finite elements code. This study emphasizes the non-linear phenomena that take place inside the material, such as the cracking of concrete and the plasticization of steels. In a second part, predictive calculations were performed on a U-shape structure. This structure was submitted to earthquakes of various magnitudes and the response of the structure was analyzed and interpreted. (J.S.)

  4. Bounds of Ruin Probabilities for Insurance Companies in the Presence of Stochastic Volatility on Investments⋆ ⋆⋆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Begoña

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we consider a model of an insurance company where the insurer has to face a claims process which follows a Compound Poisson process with finite exponential moments. The insurer is allowed to invest in a bank account and in a risky asset described by Geometric Brownian motion with stochastic volatility that depends on an external factor modelled as a diffusion process. By using exponential martingale techniques we obtain upper and lower bounds for the ruin probabilities, that recover the known bounds for constant volatility models. Finally we apply the results to a truncated Scott model. Dans ce travail, nous considérons un modèle d’une compagnie d’assurance où l’assureur doit faire face a un processus de sinistres qui suit un processus de Poisson Composé avec des moments exponentiels finis. L’assureur est autorisé à investir dans un compte bancaire et un actif à risque décrit par le mouvement Brownien Géométrique à volatilité stochastique qui dépend d’un facteur externe modélisé comme un processus de diffusion. En utilisant des techniques de martingale exponentielle, nous obtenons une borne supérieur et une borne inférieur pour les probabilités de ruine, qui récupèrent les bornes connues pour les modèles de volatilité constante. Enfin, nous appliquons les résultats au modèle de Scott tronqué.

  5. Integrated Geophysycal Prospecting in Late Antiquity and Early Medieval Sites in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotta, Maria Teresa; Leucci, Giovanni; De Giorgi, Lara; Matera, Loredana; Persico, Raffaele; Muci, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution, the results of some integrated geophysical prospecting (magnetometric and GPR) are exposed. This work has been performed in collaboration between archaeologists and geophysicists within the research project "History and Global Archaeology of the Rural Landascapes in Italy, between Late Antiquity and Medieval period. Integrated systems of sources, methodologies, and technologies for a sustainable development", financed by the Italian Ministry for Instruction, University and Research MIUR. In particular, the archaeological sites of Badia and San Giovanni in Malcantone, both in the Apulia Region (eastern-southern Italy) have been prospect. The sites have been identified on the basis of available documents, archaeological surveys and testimonies. In particular, we know that in Badia [1] it was probable the presence of an ancient roman villa of the late ancient period (strongly damaged by the subsequent ploughing activities). Whereas in San Giovanni there is still, today, a small chapel (deconsecrated) that was likely to be part of a previous larger church (probably a basilica of the early Christian period) restricted in the subsequent centuries (probably in more phases). The Saracen raids of the XVI centuries made the site ruined and abandoned. In both sites integrated prospecting have been performed [2-6] with a the integration of archaeological, magnetometer and a GPR data have provided some interesting results, allowing to overcome the difficulties relative to an extensive GPR prospecting, that could not be performed because of the intrinsic superficial roughness and/or the intensive ploughing activities. The prospecting activities, in particular, have added elements that seem to confirm the main archaeological hypothesis that motivate their performing, as it will be show at the conference. References [1] M. T, Giannotta, G. Leucci, R. Persico, M. Leo Imperiale, The archaeological site of Badia in terra d'Otranto: contribution of the

  6. Medieval Universities, Legal Institutions, and the Commercial Revolution. NBER Working Paper No. 17979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantoni, Davide; Yuchtman, Noam

    2012-01-01

    We present new data documenting medieval Europe's "Commercial Revolution'' using information on the establishment of markets in Germany. We use these data to test whether medieval universities played a causal role in expanding economic activity, examining the foundation of Germany's first universities after 1386 following the Papal Schism. We…

  7. Carmen medieval en la iglesia de Santa María, en Tábara (Zamora)

    OpenAIRE

    del Hoyo, Javier

    2007-01-01

    En este artículo, los autores descubren un carmen epigraphicum medieval gracias a la recolocación del texto y a su correcta interpretación. In this paper, the authors reveal a new Medieval Latin carmen epigraphicum, because of the recolocation of the text and its correct interpretation.

  8. The medieval feminine personage in the romance O guarani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrânio Gurgel Lucena

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We objectify to present a intertextual analysis of the literary text that contemplates a process of mythical constitution of the personages of the romance the Guarani (1857 of the writer Jose de Alencar. Focamos the analysis on the Cecília young for where we discover its “static” adaptation as medieval myth in the Brazilian romantic romance. The unconditional, protective and servile love of the Peri indian (One arquétipo of the medieval knight. conditions the construction of the loved one, therefore under the medieval myth of the gracious love, a personage is formed in function of the other, is opposing destinations that search the balance in the love. Exactly being something distant and inaccessible, as they present the trovadorescas Cantigas of love. In the theoretical recital, we have: MOISÉS (2004 - 2005 characterizing the mythos and the definitions of the plain and round personages; a platonic reference to the servile love in the Slap-up meal; Spalding (1973, Brunel (1988 for the dicionarizações concerning the thematic one and of the critical one; in the literary theory, Brunel, Pichois and Rousseau (1995, p.115: the myth, “a narrative set consecrated by the tradition”; in Samuel (2000, the mythical literariedade in the formation of a people; Bosi (1994, information on the indianismo and Coutinho (1988, gênese of our literariedade and the romantic romance. Thus, our work presents a result to the literary study: the thematic influence of the Average Age and its mythical love (gracious and servile in the composition of the indianista romance.

  9. Recovery of a medieval Brucella melitensis genome using shotgun metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Gemma L; Sergeant, Martin J; Giuffra, Valentina; Bandiera, Pasquale; Milanese, Marco; Bramanti, Barbara; Bianucci, Raffaella; Pallen, Mark J

    2014-07-15

    Shotgun metagenomics provides a powerful assumption-free approach to the recovery of pathogen genomes from contemporary and historical material. We sequenced the metagenome of a calcified nodule from the skeleton of a 14th-century middle-aged male excavated from the medieval Sardinian settlement of Geridu. We obtained 6.5-fold coverage of a Brucella melitensis genome. Sequence reads from this genome showed signatures typical of ancient or aged DNA. Despite the relatively low coverage, we were able to use information from single-nucleotide polymorphisms to place the medieval pathogen genome within a clade of B. melitensis strains that included the well-studied Ether strain and two other recent Italian isolates. We confirmed this placement using information from deletions and IS711 insertions. We conclude that metagenomics stands ready to document past and present infections, shedding light on the emergence, evolution, and spread of microbial pathogens. Importance: Infectious diseases have shaped human populations and societies throughout history. The recovery of pathogen DNA sequences from human remains provides an opportunity to identify and characterize the causes of individual and epidemic infections. By sequencing DNA extracted from medieval human remains through shotgun metagenomics, without target-specific capture or amplification, we have obtained a draft genome sequence of an ~700-year-old Brucella melitensis strain. Using a variety of bioinformatic approaches, we have shown that this historical strain is most closely related to recent strains isolated from Italy, confirming the continuity of this zoonotic infection, and even a specific lineage, in the Mediterranean region over the centuries. Copyright © 2014 Kay et al.

  10. Finding the Sacred Direction: Medieval Books on the Qibla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, M.

    2009-08-01

    Medieval Islamic scholars wrote a great number of books on the qibla, the Sacred Direction. These books had a huge readership and provided instructions for finding the direction of Mecca by either exact or approximate means. In principle, the qibla was a purely religious subject, but in practice its determination required the use of astronomy as an applied science. As so often, religion and politics had many points of contact and, in this case, it was generally political considerations that prevailed. Finally, the analysis of nautical charts can offer new perspectives. As yet, modern scholarship has not established the link between this area of study and the classical literature on this subject.

  11. The ethics of heroism in medieval and American Indian tales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, A

    1990-01-01

    Oral-traditional stories detail their heroes' growth through a narrative pattern of exile and return that places the heroes in situations repeatedly challenging their strength and resolve. Through the motif of the quest, medieval and American Indian tales alike reaffirm general psychological truths that bear upon our understanding of human nature. Stories about heroes are stories about us: about our desires to grow up, to defeat death, to prove ourselves in difficult situations, and to achieve recognition or admiration among our peers (Becker, 1973, p. 4). In this way, medieval and American Indian tales are about self-actualization. They maintain that "one has within oneself proclivity toward growth and unity of personality ... and an automatic thrust toward expression" of these qualities (Yalom, 1980, p. 9). All forms of literature, however, reflect ideas peculiar to their cultures. The ways in which these basic human truths are represented in medieval and American Indian tales suggest the differing religious or social concerns that have informed these truths and have given them shape. To a large degree, the medieval knight's view of "self" and "other" encompasses the view that Western humanity has had (and continues to have) of itself. This is a view conditioned upon the superiority of the "self" as measured against the inferiority of the "other," reinforced through existing social (hierarchial) and religious (Judeo-Christian) codes of behavior. Such codes are not only inadequate to the task of interpreting American Indian perceptions of "self" and "other," they are inimical to the ethical foundation underlying them. Scott Momaday remarks that "you cannot understand how the Indian thinks of himself in relation to the world around him unless you understand his conception of what is appropriate; particularly what is morally appropriate within the context of that relationship" (Basso, 1984, p. 46). For the American Indian hero, self-actualization is self

  12. Visitors’ Motivations, Satisfaction and Loyalty Towards Castro Marim Medieval Fair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iolanda Márcia Barbeitos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study tests the relationship between motivation, satisfaction, and loyalty using a structural equation model. Data have been collected through a questionnaire applied to visitors attending a local festival, Castro Marim Medieval Fair, which hosts every year between 45.000 and 60.000 visitors. Results show that satisfaction towards controlled variables of the event within the venue’s boundaries, such as animation, gastronomy, and handicraft, influences visitors’ overall satisfaction towards the event. On the other hand, they also reveal a direct relationship between overall satisfaction and loyalty. The study contributes to a better understanding of visitors’ behaviour and provides useful guidance to festival ideation and design.

  13. How science survived: medieval manuscripts' "demography" and classic texts' extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisne, John L

    2005-02-25

    Determining what fraction of texts and manuscripts have survived from Antiquity and the Middle Ages has been highly problematic. Analyzing the transmission of texts as the "paleodemography" of their manuscripts yields definite and surprisingly high estimates. Parchment copies of the foremost medieval textbooks on arithmetical and calendrical calculation closely fit age distributions expected for populations with logistic growth and manuscripts with exponential survivorship. The estimated half-lives of copies agree with Bischoff's paleographically based suggestion that roughly one in seven manuscripts survive in some form from ninth-century Carolingian workshops. On this basis, many if not most of the leading technical titles circulating in Latin probably survived, even from late Antiquity.

  14. Neuropsychiatric phenomena in the medieval text Cantigas de Santa Maria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondim, Francisco De Assis Aquino; Griesbach, Sarah H; Thomas, Florian P

    2015-05-12

    To discuss the neuropsychiatric phenomena described in Cantigas de Santa Maria (Canticles of St. Mary [CSM]). CSM is a collection of 427 canticles composed in Galician-Portuguese between 1252 and 1284 at the Court of King Alfonso X the Wise of Spain (1221-1284). The canticles (of which 9 are repeated) include devotional and liturgical poems and 353 narrative stories consisting mainly of depictions of Marian miracles. Most are set to music and many are illustrated. We reviewed the canticles for description of miracles and other neuropsychiatric phenomena. Two neurologists reached a consensus about the descriptions. Of the 353 miracles, 279 medically relevant facts (from 187 canticles) and 25 instances of resurrection were reported. Possible neuropsychiatric conditions were described in 98 canticles. Physicians were mentioned in 16 narratives. The most common neurologic conditions detailed were blindness (n = 17), dystonia, weakness, and deformities (n = 20). Other common conditions included psychosis (n = 15), speech disorder/deaf-mutism (n = 12), infections (n = 15), sexual dysfunction/infertility/obstetrical-gynecologic issues (n = 18), head trauma (n = 5), ergotism/St. Anthony's fire (n = 7), and others. There were 9 instances of prodromic mystical experiences/hallucinations heralding death. While limited by retrospection and interpretation of neuropsychiatric phenomena in the medieval context, these short accounts are among the first descriptions of neuropsychiatric conditions in early Portuguese/Galician. They reflect how medieval societies used rational and irrational approaches to understand occurrences in their lives. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  15. Archeological Applications of XAFS: Prehistorical Paintings And Medieval Glasses

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    Farges, F.; Chalmin, E.; Vignaud, C.; Pallot-Frossard, I.; Susini, J.; Bargar, J.; Brown, G.E., Jr.; Menu, M.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2006-10-27

    High-resolution manganese and iron K-edges XANES spectra were collected on several samples of archeological interest: prehistorical paintings and medieval glasses. XANES spectra were collected at the ID21 facility (ESRF, Grenoble, France) using a micro-beam device and at the 11-2 beamline (SSRL, Stanford, USA) using a submillimetric beam. The medieval glasses studied are from gothic glass windows from Normandy (XIVth century). The aim of this study is to help understand the chemical durability of these materials, exposed to weathering since the XIVth century. They are used as analogues of weathered glasses used to dump metallic wastes. These glasses show surficial enrichment in manganese, due to its oxidation from II (glass) to III/IV (surface), which precipitates as amorphous oxy-hydroxides. Similarly, iron is oxidized on the surface and forms ferrihydrite-type aggregates. The prehistorical paintings are from Lascaux and Ekain (Basque country). We choose in that study the black ones, rich in manganese to search for potential evidences of some 'savoir-faire' that the Paleolithic men could have used to realize their paint in rock art, as shown earlier for Fe-bearing pigments. A large number of highly valuable samples, micrometric scaled, were extracted from these frescoes and show large variation in the mineralogical nature of the black pigments used, from an amorphous psilomelane-type to a well-crystallized pyrolusite. Correlation with the crystals morphology helps understanding the know-how of these early artists.

  16. Late Medieval Hospital Reforms and the Canon Law

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    Thomas Frank

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The inquiry is inspired by the author's interest in late medieval concepts of reform, and focuses specifically on the concrete case of hospital reforms. Since the structure of reform discourse is closely connected to legal arguments, the article concentrates on selected canonistic texts from the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries concerning hospitals: the Tractatus hospitalitatis by Johannes Lapo of Castiglione (about 1370 and some commentaries on the Clementine decretal Quia contingit (1312/1317. The analysis deals with legal arguments which are relevant to reform (e.g. the convertibility a hospital founder’s testament, and furthermore discusses key notions related to problems like the affiliation of hospitals with the legal sphere of the Church. The ambivalence of canonistic arguments, which may either foster or prevent reform initiatives, is evident in the use of narrative figures such as the tension between origins and the present (i.e. the foundation of a hospital and its later evolution. Jurists employed such rhetoric devices to address the problem of the relationship between time and the development of law, but at the same time these narrative figures have a structural affinity with reform discourse. It may be concluded that the most important contribution of late medieval canonists to hospital reforms does not consist in straightforward instructions pro or contra reform, but in the fact that canon law elaborated the conditions that made it possible to think of reform.

  17. DNA and bone structure preservation in medieval human skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson-Thomas, Yvette M; Norton, Andrew L; Coulson-Thomas, Vivien J; Florencio-Silva, Rinaldo; Ali, Nadir; Elmrghni, Samir; Gil, Cristiane D; Sasso, Gisela R S; Dixon, Ronald A; Nader, Helena B

    2015-06-01

    Morphological and ultrastructural data from archaeological human bones are scarce, particularly data that have been correlated with information on the preservation of molecules such as DNA. Here we examine the bone structure of macroscopically well-preserved medieval human skeletons by transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry, and the quantity and quality of DNA extracted from these skeletons. DNA technology has been increasingly used for analyzing physical evidence in archaeological forensics; however, the isolation of ancient DNA is difficult since it is highly degraded, extraction yields are low and the co-extraction of PCR inhibitors is a problem. We adapted and optimised a method that is frequently used for isolating DNA from modern samples, Chelex(®) 100 (Bio-Rad) extraction, for isolating DNA from archaeological human bones and teeth. The isolated DNA was analysed by real-time PCR using primers targeting the sex determining region on the Y chromosome (SRY) and STR typing using the AmpFlSTR(®) Identifiler PCR Amplification kit. Our results clearly show the preservation of bone matrix in medieval bones and the presence of intact osteocytes with well preserved encapsulated nuclei. In addition, we show how effective Chelex(®) 100 is for isolating ancient DNA from archaeological bones and teeth. This optimised method is suitable for STR typing using kits aimed specifically at degraded and difficult DNA templates since amplicons of up to 250bp were successfully amplified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hallazgos inéditos de moneda medieval en Galicia

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    Núñez Meneses, Pablo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work wants to promote medieval mumismatic material found in Galicia, which still remained unpublished outside the institutions where it is preserved, aware of the importance of the knowledge of all possible data for historical interpretation, being the coin finds the truer testimony, along with the documentation, of the use and circulation of money at all times. We have visited numismatists funds from principal Galician museums and institutions who kindly opened us their doors, discovering, on occasions, medieval coins that had gone unnoticed or other badly catalogued. Sometimes, however, the cataloguing was perfect and the metrological work and photography was already done. This search was necessary because of the scarce published medieval coin finds for Northwest Spain, insufficient to draw firm conclusions. It has allowed us to conclude, among other things, that coins and money are already very present in rural areas in XII and XIII Galician middle ages, or that Portuguese coins had immense presence in medieval XIV and XV Galicia. Nevertheless, we know that recent archaeological activity in Galicia is discovering new specimens that will increase our knowledge, allowing us to know if there has been or not coin survival in several decades or if depression of the use of money after the fall of the Roman Empire has been so intense as it seems up to the recovery of XII century.El presente trabajo pretende dar a conocer el material numismático medieval hallado en Galicia que aún permanecía inédito fuera de las instituciones donde se preserva, conscientes de la importancia del conocimiento de todos los datos posibles para la interpretación histórica, siendo los hallazgos de moneda el más fiel testimonio, junto a la documentación, del uso y circulación de la moneda en todas épocas. Hemos accedido a los fondos numismáticos de diversos museos e instituciones de Galicia que amablemente nos abrieron sus puertas, descubriendo, en ocasiones

  19. Ancient DNA: genomic amplification of Roman and medieval bovine bones

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    A. Valentini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cattle remains (bones and teeth of both roman and medieval age were collected in the archaeological site of Ferento (Viterbo, Italy with the aim of extracting and characterising nucleic acids. Procedures to minimize contamination with modern DNA and to help ancient DNA (aDNA preservation of the archaeological remains were adopted. Different techniques to extract aDNA (like Phenol/chloroform extraction from bovine bones were tested to identify the method that applies to the peculiar characteristics of the study site. Currently, aDNA investigation is mainly based on mtDNA, due to the ease of amplification of the small and high-copied genome and to its usefulness in evolutionary studies. Preliminary amplification of both mitochondrial and nuclear aDNA fragments from samples of Roman and medieval animals were performed and partial specific sequences of mitochondrial D-loop as well as of nuclear genes were obtained. The innovative amplification of nuclear aDNA could enable the analysis of genes involved in specific animal traits, giving insights of ancient economic and cultural uses, as well as providing information on the origin of modern livestock population.

  20. Saint Florian Office in the Medieval Cracow Breviaries

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    Szymon Fedorowicz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The liturgical cult of Saint Florian in the Cracow Church was developing rapidly in medieval times. A few dozen years after his relics had been brought to Cracow , a native patron – Saint Stanislaus- became a saint. Since then the cult of a foreign and unknown martyr deteriorated. The revival of Saint Florian’s cult was possible under the influence of Zbigniew Oleśnicki, a bishop who appointed him as patron saint of the whole Polish Kingdom, thus making him equally important as Saint Adalbert, Saint Stanislaus and Saint Wacław. Since that time the liturgical cult of Saint Florian was of high significance, which can be certified by liturgical texts and formulas found in Cracow medieval breviaries. The analysis of their content leads to the conclusion that the older the breviaries, the fewer texts mentioning Saint Florian. The oldest breviaries contain only the liturgical collect referring to him. The newer ones are gradually enriched with the elements of choral liturgy and lessons originating from the legend about Saint Florian. Between the 15th and 16th centuries the liturgy in honor of Saint Florian culminates in the rhymed office.

  1. Lichens as possible agents of sandstone deterioration in Jesuitic ruins of San Ignacio Miní (Misiones Province, Argentina

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    Rosato, V. G.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The ruins of San Ignacio Miní, in NE Argentina, Misiones Province, included by the UNESCO in the list of World Heritage in 1984, were built in the 18th century by the Guarani people under the supervision of the Jesuite Congregation. The ruins are located in a tropical weather zone, exposed to extreme conditions of heat and humidity affecting the rocks used in its construction. These rocks are identified as siliceous sandstones, mainly formed by rounded to subrounded clasts, with scarce angulose particles, containing 96% quartz. Weather characteristics encourage the growth of vascular plants as well as algae and mosses and other organisms that damage materials. Among these, there are 18 lichen species (belonging to 18 genera, 8 foliose, 3 fruticose and 7 crustose. The damaging action of these lichens has been observed through SEM observations and EDAX microanalysis of rock samples colonized by Caloplaca sp. and Buellia sp.

    Incluidas en la lista de Patrimonio Mundial por la UNESCO, las ruinas de San Ignacio Miní, en el NE de Argentina, provincia de Misiones, fueron construidas en el siglo XVIII por pobladores guaraníes supervisados por la Compañía de Jesús. Las ruinas se encuentran en una zona de clima tropical, expuestas a condiciones extremas de calor y humedad que alteran a las rocas empleadas en su construcción. Estas rocas se identifican como areniscas silíceas, formadas por clastos redondeados a sub-redondeados, con escasas partículas angulosas, con un contenido de 96,0% cuarzo. Las características del clima favorecen el desarrollo tanto de plantas vasculares como también de musgos, algas y otros organismos capaces de dañar a los materiales. Entre éstos se incluyen 18 especies de líquenes (pertenecientes a 18 géneros, 8 foliosos, 3 fruticosos y 7 crustosos. Las observaciones con SEM y los microanálisis EDE de muestras de roca colonizadas por Caloplaca sp. y Buellia sp sugieren que estos líquenes ejercen una acci

  2. Patterns and prevalence of violence-related skull trauma in medieval London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowka, Kathryn

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to identify the patterns and prevalence of violence-related skull trauma (including the cranium and mandible) among a large sample of skeletons from medieval London (1050-1550 AD). In total, data from 399 skulls, representing six different sites from across medieval London, were analyzed for evidence of trauma and assessed for the likelihood that it was caused by violence. The sites include the three parish cemeteries of St Nicholas Shambles (GPO75), St Lawrence Jewry (GYE92), and St Benet Sherehog (ONE94); the two monastic houses of London Blackfriars (PIC87) and St Mary Graces (MIN86); and the early inmate cemetery from the medieval hospital of St Mary Spital (NRT85). The overall findings suggest that violence affected all aspects of medieval London society, but how that violence was characterized largely depended on sex and burial location. Specifically, males from the lay cemeteries appear to have been the demographic most affected by violence-related skull injuries, particularly blunt force trauma to the cranial vault. Using both archaeological and historical evidence, the results suggest that violence in medieval London may have been more prevalent than in other parts of medieval England, particularly rural environments, but similar to other parts of medieval Europe. However, more studies focusing on medieval trauma, and violence specifically, need to be carried out to further strengthen these results. In particular, males from the lay cemeteries were disproportionately affected by violence-related trauma, especially blunt force trauma. It perhaps indicates a means of informal conflict resolution as those of lower status did not always have the newly established medieval legal system available to them. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A Historical Center in the Aspects of Identity/Culture/Space: Santa Ruins in the Context of Sustainability

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    Murat TUTKUN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the historic environments located in rural areas, the difficulty of transportation and physical services causes the active use of these fields be difficult, and over time, these areas are faced with the danger of extinction. In this sense, “Santa Ruins” that is one of the important locations especially in terms of its historical importance, many architectural heritages that it contains and the mountain tourism is an important figure which faces extinction. Santa Ruins is considered as one of the areas to be protected when it’s examined in terms of its history, religious and cultural background, the character of rural settlement, its location at the intersection of important historic routes, the architectural / cultural heritages that it contains, having archaeological value, and the natural value of the region, etc. In the studies done specific to Piştoflu District, the necessary measurements of the buildings in the neighbourhood and the measurement drawings that belong to the buildings were obtained using photogrammetric and conventional methods after the historical researches, photography studies and obtaining the overall work plan. The considerations were done in the context of identity, culture and space by analysing the structural data, building material data, information about its conservation status, living conditions and the data related to in-service spaces and non-advanced spaces of the buildings that are located on this area.

  4. The Monument as Ruin: Natality, Spectrality, and the History of the Image in the Tirana Independence Monument

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    Raino Isto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the Tirana Independence Monument, first inaugurated in November of 2012 on the hundredth anniversary of Albanian independence from the Ottoman Empire. The monument, designed by Visar Obrija and Kai Roman Kiklas, swiftly fell into disrepair until it was recently renovated in November of 2015. The article analyzes the monument’s function in terms of its doubled existence as a sign of perpetual natality (the possibility of the rebirth of national consciousness and as a ruin with a spectral pseudo-presence (as an object that continually reminds us of the disjunctures that divorce the present from its historicity. It considers the way the monument’s inauguration relates to the politics of monumentality in contemporary Albania, and argues that the monument’s gradual ruination between 2012 and 2015 can be read as a particular manifestation of the history of the image in late capitalist society.Keywords: spectrality, natality, monumentality, Albania, Tirana, independence, national identity, grid, public sculpture

  5. Frail or hale: Skeletal frailty indices in Medieval London skeletons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, Douglas E.

    2017-01-01

    To broaden bioarchaeological applicability of skeletal frailty indices (SFIs) and increase sample size, we propose indices with fewer biomarkers (2–11 non-metric biomarkers) and compare these reduced biomarker SFIs to the original metric/non-metric 13-biomarker SFI. From the 2-11-biomarker SFIs, we choose the index with the fewest biomarkers (6-biomarker SFI), which still maintains the statistical robusticity of a 13-biomarker SFI, and apply this index to the same Medieval monastic and nonmonastic populations, albeit with an increased sample size. For this increased monastic and nonmonastic sample, we also propose and implement a 4-biomarker SFI, comprised of biomarkers from each of four stressor categories, and compare these SFI distributions with those of the non-metric biomarker SFIs. From the Museum of London WORD database, we tabulate multiple SFIs (2- to 13-biomarkers) for Medieval monastic and nonmonastic samples (N = 134). We evaluate associations between these ten non-metric SFIs and the 13-biomarker SFI using Spearman’s correlation coefficients. Subsequently, we test non-metric 6-biomarker and 4-biomarker SFI distributions for associations with cemetery, age, and sex using Analysis of Variance/Covariance (ANOVA/ANCOVA) on larger samples from the monastic and nonmonastic cemeteries (N = 517). For Medieval samples, Spearman’s correlation coefficients show a significant association between the 13-biomarker SFI and all non-metric SFIs. Utilizing a 6-biomarker and parsimonious 4-biomarker SFI, we increase the nonmonastic and monastic samples and demonstrate significant lifestyle and sex differences in frailty that were not observed in the original, smaller sample. Results from the 6-biomarker and parsimonious 4-biomarker SFIs generally indicate similarities in means, explained variation (R2), and associated P-values (ANOVA/ANCOVA) within and between nonmonastic and monastic samples. We show that non-metric reduced biomarker SFIs provide alternative

  6. Some early medieval swords in the Wallace Collection and elsewhere

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    Edge, David

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of eight early medieval swords shows that some were made from a single piece of steel, while others had a steel cutting edge welded on. Heat-treatment to harden the steel was undertaken in six out of seven cases; the other proved to be a modern replica.

    El análisis de ocho espadas altomedievales muestra que algunas de ellas fueron hechas a partir de una sola pieza de acero, mientras que a otras se les ha soldado un cortante filo de este material. El endurecimiento del acero mediante forja fue realizado en seis de siete casos, mientras que el restante se demostró que era una réplica moderna.

  7. Crusading and Chronicle Writing on the Medieval Baltic Frontier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , it has become one of the most widely read and acknowledged frontier crusading and missionary chronicles. Henry's chronicle offers many opportunities to test and broaden the new approaches and key concepts brought along by recent developments in medieval studies, including the new pluralist definition......, Jüri Kivimäe; Henry the interpreter: language, orality and communication in the 13th-century Livonian mission, Alan V. Murray; Martyrs and miracles: depicting death in the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia, Marek Tamm; Henry of Livonia on woods and wilderness, Torben Kjersgaard Nielsen; 'Verbis non...... and interpretations, Valter Lang and Heiki Valk; Ösel and the Danish kingdom: re-visiting Henry's Chronicle and the archaeological evidence, Marika Mägi. Part III Appropriations: The use and uselessness of the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia in the Middle Ages, Anti Selart; The Chronicon Livoniae in early modern...

  8. Orgin of Slag from Early Medieval Age Furnaces in Nitra

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    Julius Dekan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Two types of archaeological artefacts from remains of Early Medieval Age furnaces excavated in Nitra are analysed. They are supposed to originate from slag of glass and iron production. Employing Mossbauer spectrometry, iron crystallographic sites are identified and compared. In all samples, Fe2+ and Fe3+ structural positions were revealed. Some of the archeological artefacts including those that were supposed to originate from glass production show a presence of metallic iron and/or magnetic oxides. Based on the results of Mossbauer effect measurements performed at room temperature as well as 77 K (liquid nitrogen temperature analytical evidence is provided that the iron sites identified are not as those usually encountered in glasses. Consequently, a conclusion is proposed that neither of the investigated furnaces was used for glass production.

  9. Una historiografía sobre historia medieval

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    Jean-Claude Scmitt

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hace poco tiempo, Otto-Gerhard Oexle nos introducía en las "tendencias recientes de la historia medieval en Alemania", mostrándonos con fineza en qué medida los medievalistas alemanes de hoy buscan, más o menos explicitamente, reconcilarse con el gran vuelco socoilógico alean de comienzos de siglo -especialmente aquel de Georg Simmel y de Max Weber- contrarrestado, como es sabido, por la "catástrofe" del nazismo y sus consecuencia sobre la historigrafía durante ese período y, probablemente también fuera de ella. En Francia, la fecundidad del pensamiento de un Marc Bloch o de una Maurice Halbwachs, por el contrario, pudo inscribirse en la continuidad de la ruptura epistemológica iniciada a comienzos del siglo XX por Emile Durkheim.

  10. The Romanian countries in the system of medieval diplomatic relations

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    Silvia DULSCHI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The basic element of medieval diplomatic system of Romanian Principalities where the messengers (solii. In distinct category of messengers where selected distinguished, cultivated, fine and refined men. They spoke the most relevant languages in circulation at the time, possessed good manners, the art of conversation, and art of swordplay. History noted the names of some famous messengers, such as Ion Ţamblac, Luca Cirja, count Mihalcea, David and Theodore Corbea, Nicolae Milescu Spataru. In this article we aim to call attention to lesser known figure of Ion Caraiman, messenger in Constantinople of the ruling family of Movilesti at the end of XVI century and early XVII century, whose successful diplomatic activity has been appreciated not only by the Ottoman dignitaries, but also ambassadors of great powers in Constantinople, who once wrote in their reports about his achievements.

  11. Decagonal and quasi-crystalline tilings in medieval Islamic architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peter J; Steinhardt, Paul J

    2007-02-23

    The conventional view holds that girih (geometric star-and-polygon, or strapwork) patterns in medieval Islamic architecture were conceived by their designers as a network of zigzagging lines, where the lines were drafted directly with a straightedge and a compass. We show that by 1200 C.E. a conceptual breakthrough occurred in which girih patterns were reconceived as tessellations of a special set of equilateral polygons ("girih tiles") decorated with lines. These tiles enabled the creation of increasingly complex periodic girih patterns, and by the 15th century, the tessellation approach was combined with self-similar transformations to construct nearly perfect quasi-crystalline Penrose patterns, five centuries before their discovery in the West.

  12. Radiocarbon dating of medieval manuscripts from the University of Seville

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    Santos, F.J., E-mail: fsantos@us.e [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA), Avda. Thomas Alva Edison 7, Isla de la Cartuja, 41092 Seville (Spain); Gomez-Martinez, I.; Garcia-Leon, M. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA), Avda. Thomas Alva Edison 7, Isla de la Cartuja, 41092 Seville (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    Eleven samples (parchment and paper) from different medieval manuscripts belonging to the cultural heritage of the University of Seville have been radiocarbon dated on the 1 MV AMS facility at the CNA in Seville (Spain). The objective of this study is double. First of all, these are the first real 'unknown' samples treated in the radiocarbon laboratory and dated on our AMS facility, SARA (Spanish Accelerator for Radionuclide Analysis). Besides, some useful information about the manuscripts can be obtained, either to corroborate the dates, or in some cases, to decide between possible dates. As expected, a general agreement is found between radiocarbon results and palaeographical data. Nevertheless, some interesting facts have been learned through this study. We present in this paper the procedure to prepare the samples and the ages obtained with a brief discussion of the results.

  13. [Medicinal plants and symbols in the medieval mystic altarpiece].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Louis-Paul; Verilhac, Régine; Ferrandis, Jean-Jacques; Trépardoux, Francis

    2011-01-01

    The medieval mystic altarpiece towers above the altar table. It is linked to the evocation of a religious mystery beyond our faculty of reasoning. Symbolism of an enclosed garden evokes the image of the Heavenly Garden isolated by a wall from the rest of earthly world. In this mystic chiefly Rhenan altarpiece the enclosed garden is that of Virgin Mary who in the Middle Ages was likened to the spouse in the song of songs. The Blessed Virgin is painted with flowers, lily, rose, violet, lily of the valley. Most of these are medicinal plants in order to implore a faith healing for the believers. All in all about fifty plants are showed on Rhenan altarpieces and on 14th century mystic altarpieces almost contemporary of Issenheim's altarpiece, some Italian, some Rhenan.

  14. Isidoro de Sevilla: el banco de datos medieval

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    Américo Abad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available San Isidoro de Sevilla, el Doctor egregius de Ios siglos VI y VII, constituye una referencia medieval de suma importancia y en varios aspectos. Su obra enciclopédica, su pensamiento jurídico y filosófico, su conducción de los asuntos políticos, su apología de la iglesia como institución ecuménica, cuando apenas se dibujaban los primeros rasgos -impalpables casi - de la sociedad civil y del estado y la organizacJón del saber y del conocimiento llegados a su tiempo.Contenido: Presentación. El proyecto enciclopédico. Universo y sistema. Etimologías y otros textos. La ley y el gobierno. La filosofía. Comunidad y comunidades. Consideraciones finales

  15. The Relations between Astronomy and Music in Medieval Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardumyan, Arpi

    2015-07-01

    In Middle Ages Astronomy and Music were included in the four sciences, together with Mathematics and Geometry. From ancient times philosophers thought that harmony lies in the basis of world creation. The Earth was in the centre of the Universe, and the seven planets went around it, the Sun and the Moon in their number. Harmony was also in the basis of music, with seven sounds due to seven planets. It was considered that owing to harmonic rotation cosmic universal music appears, and it is not attainable for human ear as it is used to it. Medieval connoisseurs of music therapy believed that for healing a person his astrological data must first be cleared out, in order to define in which musical mode should sound the melody in order to treat him/her. Comparing music with astrology they considered easier to practise the first one because the celestial luminaries are much higher and farther from people.

  16. Spontaneous generation in medieval Jewish philosophy and theology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaziel, Ahuva

    2012-01-01

    The concept of life forms emerging from inanimate matter--spontaneous generation--was widely accepted until the nineteenth century. Several medieval Jewish scholars acknowledged this scientific theory in their philosophical and religious contemplations. Quite interestingly, it served to reinforce diverse, or even opposite, theological conclusions. One approach excluded spontaneously-generated living beings form the biblical account of creation or the story of the Deluge. Underlying this view is an understanding that organisms that generate spontaneously evolve continuously in nature and, therefore, do not require divine intervention in their formation or survival during disastrous events. This naturalistic position reduces the miraculous dimension of reality. Others were of the opinion that spontaneous generation is one of the extraordinary marvels exhibited in this world and, accordingly, this interpretation served to accentuate the divine aspect of nature. References to spontaneous generation also appear in legal writings, influencing practical applications such as dietary laws and actions forbidden on the Sabbath.

  17. Medieval emergence of sweet melons, Cucumis melo (Cucurbitaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S.; Amar, Zohar; Lev, Efraim

    2012-01-01

    Background Sweet melons, Cucumis melo, are a widely grown and highly prized crop. While melons were familiar in antiquity, they were grown mostly for use of the young fruits, which are similar in appearance and taste to cucumbers, C. sativus. The time and place of emergence of sweet melons is obscure, but they are generally thought to have reached Europe from the east near the end of the 15th century. The objective of the present work was to determine where and when truly sweet melons were first developed. Methods Given their large size and sweetness, melons are often confounded with watermelons, Citrullus lanatus, so a list was prepared of the characteristics distinguishing between them. An extensive search of literature from the Roman and medieval periods was conducted and the findings were considered in their context against this list and particularly in regard to the use of the word ‘melon’ and of adjectives for sweetness and colour. Findings Medieval lexicographies and an illustrated Arabic translation of Dioscorides' herbal suggest that sweet melons were present in Central Asia in the mid-9th century. A travelogue description indicates the presence of sweet melons in Khorasan and Persia by the mid-10th century. Agricultural literature from Andalusia documents the growing of sweet melons, evidently casabas (Inodorous Group), there by the second half of the 11th century, which probably arrived from Central Asia as a consequence of Islamic conquest, trade and agricultural development. Climate and geopolitical boundaries were the likely causes of the delay in the spread of sweet melons into the rest of Europe. PMID:22648880

  18. Dental health and diet in early medieval Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Mario

    2015-09-01

    With the aim to get a better picture of dental health, diet and nutrition in early medieval Ireland a population-based study focusing on several attributes of oral health in adult individuals was conducted. The study focused on possible differences between sexes and age groups in terms of frequency and distribution of studied pathologies in order to determine whether these differences result from different diets, cultural practices or are age-related. Permanent dentitions belonging to adult individuals from five Irish early medieval sites were examined for the evidence of caries, ante-mortem tooth loss, abscesses, calculus, alveolar bone resorption and tooth wear. All pathologies were analysed and presented by teeth and alveoli. A total of 3233 teeth and 3649 alveoli belonging to 167 individuals (85 males and 82 females) were included into the analysis. Males exhibited significantly higher prevalence of abscesses, heavy wear and alveolar bone resorption, while females exhibited significantly higher prevalence of calculus. All studied dento-alveolar pathologies showed a strong correlation with advanced age, except calculus in females. Additionally, dental wear associated with habitual activities was observed in two females. The results of the present study confirm the data gained by written sources and stable isotopes analyses suggesting the diet of the early Irish was rich in carbohydrates with only occasional use of meat. Furthermore, significant differences between the sexes in terms of recorded pathologies strongly suggest different nutritional patterns with females consuming foods mostly based on carbohydrates in comparison to males. The observed sex-differences might also occur due to differences between male and female sex such as reproductive biology and pregnancy, a somewhat different age distributions, but also as a result of different cultural practices between the sexes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Archaeomagnetic Study performed on Early Medieval Buildings from western France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, A.; Lanos, P.; Dufresne, P.; Blain, S.; Guibert, P.; Oberlin, C.; Sapin, C.

    2009-05-01

    A multiple dating study, involving a collaboration between specialists of dating techniques (thermoluminescence (TL) and radiocarbon), historians of art and archaeologists, has been carried out on several early medieval buildings from western France. The early medieval period is not well known especially in France where there is a lack of visible evidence that identifies pre-Romanesque architecture. The majority of buildings to have survived from this period are religious ones, considered important enough to be made of strong, non-perishable material such as stone or brick, as for example the churches of Notre-Dame-sous- Terre in the Mont-Saint-Michel or St Martin in Angers. Due to their significance in architectural history, it is imperative to position them accurately in the chronology of the history of art. Bricks are often used to build up round-headed arches or to reinforce the frame of a wall with bonding courses in those churches. TL dating and archeomagnetic analysis were performed on cores drilled within bricks while radiocarbon dating were undertaken on coals found within mortars. In order to increase the number of data during the early Middle Ages, archeointensity determinations using the classical Thellier technique with anisotropy of thermal remanence and cooling rate corrections were performed. Archaeomagnetic directions were used to recognize the firing position of bricsk during manufacture. Reliable and precise ages were obtained on the church Notre-Dame-sous-Terre; they indicate two phases of building in 950±50AD and 990±50AD. Mean archeointensities obtained on 17 (21) samples from the first (second) phases appears very closed 69.1±1.2 and 68.3±1.6 microTesla. Ages and archeomagnetic results obtained on 4 other sites will be presented and compared to the available data in western Europe.

  20. Investigation of medieval ceramics from Ras by physicochemical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zindović Nataša D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Although early medieval Serbian ceramic is well described by the archeologists and historians, knowledge of the Balkan ceramic production is still limited. Archaeometric study of ceramics provenance, technology of preparation and used pigments as well as influence of neighboring countries and specific characteristics of different workshops has never been performed so far. The detailed knowledge of the micro-chemical and micro-structural nature of an archaeological artifact is critical in finding solutions to problems of restoration, conservation, dating and authentication in the art world. In this work we present results of systematic investigation of pottery shards from archeological site Ras. The term Ras, which signifies both the fortress and the region encompassing the upper course of Raška River, used to be the center of the medieval Serbian state. Both the ceramic body and the polychromatic glaze of the artifacts were studied by a multianalitical approach combining optical microscopy (OM, FT-IR spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence (XRF. Mineralogical composition of pottery shards has been determined combining results obtained by FT-IR spectroscopy, after deconvolution of the spectra, and XRPD analysis. Firing temperature has been estimated based on the mineralogical composition and positions of Si-O stretching (-1000 cm-1 and banding (-460 cm-1 vibrations. Investigated samples have been classified into two groups based on the mineralogical composition, cross sections and firing temperature. Larger group consists of samples of fine-grained, homogeneous ceramics with firing temperatures bellow 800 °C which indicates imported products. Second, smaller group consists of inhomogeneous ceramics with firing temperatures between 850 and 900 °C produced in the domestic workshops. The obtained results will be used to build up a national database for the compositions of bodies, glazes and pigments.

  1. Pliny’s Naturalis Historia and Medieval Animal Iconography

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    Tine Germ

    2007-12-01

    Studying Pliny’s influence on animal iconography is rendered additionally difficult because the methods of transferring content from literary tradition into an artistic medium have been insufficiently explored. The most tangible and recognizable is the role of bestiaries; in numerous examples of late Romanesque and Gothic sculptures it is possible to prove the direct influence of animal illuminations and descriptions in bestiaries, in which the method of depiction expresses the awareness of the symbolic value of the animal, which is transferred from the bestiaries into architectural sculpture and other fine arts media. A special role in studying the transfer of allegoric content from bestiaries into medieval animal iconography is played by the written records of medieval artists, which have been rarely preserved, and especially by “pattern books” (Musterbücher, which on the one hand sculptors and painters used as a direct template and, on the other, undoubtedly express the author’s knowledge of bestiaries. Thus, the animal drawings from the famous Sketchbook of Villard de Honnecourt indicate that the author was familiar with contemporary bestiaries and found inspiration in them; however, the relations between the drawings – juxtaposition of positively and negatively valued animals – indicates that he also took their symbolic value into account. Villard’s Sketchbook reveals an additional interesting detail: his annotation to the drawing of a porcupine reveals the influence of Pliny’s Naturalis Historia on the formation of the symbolic meaning of animals because Villard explicitly mentions features of the porcupine that were first mentioned by Pliny the Elder.

  2. ACTIVE BRIBERY IN CROATIAN MEDIEVAL AND MODERN LAW

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    Mijo Galiot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When it comes to writing about the history of punishment, it is always linked with critically re-thinking and better understanding of the contemporary system of punishment, as a result of its long historical development. In such a way, „contemporary criminal law cannot be seen as a result of an effort made by a certain nation or in a certain epoch“. „Permanently faced with social changes, in its long historical development, criminal law has been modifying its fundamental principles and categories, by building new institutes and instruments, in order to become less cruel and more human, but not less efficient than in earlier stages of its development, characterized by rudeness, cruelty and exemplarity of its sanctions. Although it is not easy to answer the question, if there is the measure, in which social understanding of punishment and its purpose, determines the civilizational level in the society, there is no doubt about the fact that civilizational and legal point of view towards punishment derives from a waste range of factors: general, cultural, sociological, psychological, religious, political and other factors that should be taken altogether in their historical dimension. The genesis of criminal law is linked with the moment of establishing the public authorities and the state. According to different criteria, it is possible to introduce different periodization of criminal law. When it comes to the historical criterion, there can be made a historical division into periods of ancient, medieval, modern and contemporary criminal law (punishment, which periods should not be taken as absolutely inseparable. The point of this paper is to present a review and development of punishing active bribery in the Croatian medieval and modern law.

  3. Traditional healing with animals (zootherapy): medieval to present-day Levantine practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lev, Efraim

    2003-01-01

    .... Intensive research into the phenomenon of zootherapy in the Levant from early medieval to present-day traditional medicine yielded 99 substances of animal origin which were used medicinally during that long period...

  4. Anticancer bioactivity of compounds from medicinal plants used in European medieval traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teiten, Marie-Hélène; Gaascht, François; Dicato, Mario; Diederich, Marc

    2013-11-01

    Since centuries, natural compounds from plants, animals and microorganisms were used in medicinal traditions to treat various diseases without a solid scientific basis. Recent studies have shown that plants that were used or are still used in the medieval European medicine are able to provide relieve for many diseases including cancer. Here we summarize impact and effect of selected purified active natural compounds from plants used in European medieval medicinal traditions on cancer hallmarks and enabling characteristics identified by Hanahan and Weinberg. The aim of this commentary is to discuss the pharmacological effect of pure compounds originally discovered in plants with therapeutic medieval use. Whereas many reviews deal with Ayurvedic traditions and traditional Chinese medicine, to our knowledge, the molecular basis of European medieval medicinal approaches are much less documented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A coesão por conectores no português medieval

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Antonio Nakayama

    2011-01-01

    O objetivo desta pesquisa e investigar os mecanismos coesivos por conectores noportugues medieval. Partiu-se do pressuposto de que o portugues medieval contava com elementos coesivos diferentes do que se encontra no moderno, mesmo eles pertencendo a um grupo de palavras pouco propenso a evolucoes. No latim vulgar, descartou-se quase a totalidade das variadas conjuncoes, e, desse modo, a fase inicial do portugues e cenario de um intenso processo de formacao de novos termos de conexao, o qual r...

  6. Re-approaching the Western medieval church treasury inventory, c. 800-1250

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Salvatore Ackley

    2014-01-01

    Medieval church treasury inventories document an astonishing abundance of sumptuous treasury objects that no longer exist. These inventories, however, tend to withhold data of traditional interest to art history with their terse, formulaic, and minimal descriptions. Thus they have been somewhat marginalized. This essay recommends future approaches to these texts. By excavating generic conventions to detect underlying value systems, these inventories become quite voluble regarding medieval...

  7. Calculating the Middle Ages? The Project "Complexities and Networks in the Medieval Mediterranean and Near East" (COMMED)

    CERN Document Server

    Preiser-Kapeller, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The project "Complexities and networks in the Medieval Mediterranean and Near East" (COMMED) at the Division for Byzantine Research of the Institute for Medieval Research (IMAFO) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences focuses on the adaptation and development of concepts and tools of network theory and complexity sciences for the analysis of societies, polities and regions in the medieval world in a comparative perspective. Key elements of its methodological and technological toolkit are applied, for instance, in the new project "Mapping medieval conflicts: a digital approach towards political dynamics in the pre-modern period" (MEDCON), which analyses political networks and conflict among power elites across medieval Europe with five case studies from the 12th to 15th century. For one of these case studies on 14th century Byzantium, the explanatory value of this approach is presented in greater detail. The presented results are integrated in a wider comparison of five late medieval polities across Afro-Eurasia ...

  8. From wayfaring elites to local associations: Sufis in Medieval Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephrat, Daphna

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is part of a comprehensive study of the Sufis of medieval Palestine. At its heart resides the birth of locally embedded Sufi-inspired associations in this historical framework in the course of the Earlier Middle Period (late tenth to mid-­­­­thirteenth centuries. Drawing on the profiles of renowned Sufi traditionalists and legalists living in the Palestine of the time, the article highlights the assimilation of Sufis into the scholarly circles of the religiously learned, the ‘ulama’, and the social order. It outlines how they perceived their role and place in society and disseminated the truth of Islam, and how, parallel with their integration into the world of the ‘ulama’ of the established legal schools (the madhhabs, they developed their own inner life and organizational forms and devised their own ways of integrating into the fabric of social and communal life. The early development of a coherent local Sufi congregation around the Sufi guide out of the loosely knit and dispersed circle of disciples is closely tied to the change in the concept of guidance for advancement along the Path and the change in the relationship between master and disciple.

    Este artículo es parte de un estudio de conjunto sobre los sufíes de la Palestina medieval. Se centra en el surgimiento de asociaciones de inspiración sufí en contextos locales de ese ámbito geográfico durante el primer periodo medieval (desde finales del s. X hasta la mitad del s. XIII. A partir de las biografías de tradicionistas y juristas sufíes famosos que vivieron en la Palestina de la época, se pone de relieve la integración de los sufíes en los círculos de los

  9. How to stop e-mail spam, spyware, malware, computer viruses, and hackers from ruining your computer or network the complete guide for your home and work

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    It seems like everywhere you go on the Internet, there is spam, spyware, and the risk of viruses infecting your computer and ruining your online experience. In businesses alone, according to Nucleus Research Inc. spam costs more than 712 per employee each year in productivity and computing resources and the estimation on money lost by businesses due to computer viruses ranges between 100 million and 2 billion annually depending on how the total is calculated. This complete, revolutionary book has compiled all of the vital information you need to make sure that you are able to combat the risk

  10. Medieval Europe. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.6. World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 7.6 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Europe." Seventh-grade students study the geography of Europe and the Eurasian land mass; describe the spread of Christianity north of the Alps and…

  11. Medieval Japan. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.5. World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 7.5 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of medieval Japan." Seventh-grade students describe the significance of Japan's proximity to China and Korea and the influence of these countries on Japan; discuss the reign of…

  12. Monaldo Viganti from Pesaro, pharmacist in medieval Dubrovnik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekić Radmilo B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The business community from Italian cities had an important role in the development and the prosperity of medieval Dubrovnik. One of the most distinguished foreigners in Dubrovnik was the pharmacist Monaldo Viganti whose activity, based on published and unpublished materials in the Dubrovnik Archives, shown in this -paper from 30-80s of the 15th century. In addition to running pharmacy, he especially excelled in managing loan services by financing -Dubrovnik cloth producers and merchants. Viganti was a full citizen of Dubrovnik and afterwards Antunini, he intensively traded on the Apenine Peninsula and inside the Balkans. He often did business associated with other merchants. After his arrival in Dubrovnik his closest collaborator was Paolo Tomazi, pharmacist married to Viganti's sister. Later he became a member of numerous trade associations. He started his family in Dubrovnik and his heirs kept on his tradition and became prominent pharmacists in Dubrovnik. Monaldo was a link, which contributed, the prosperity of Dubrovnik and through trade activities connected Apenine and Balkan Peninsula.

  13. Octoechos: A model and inspiration for Serbian medieval hymnographer

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    Subotin-Golubović Tatjana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Octoechos is not merely a musical manual in everyday use during the service in Orthodox Church, but also a comprehensive anthology of church poetry. It contains poetical works of great Byzantine poets, such as John of Damascus, Joseph the Hymnographer, Andrew of Crete. The use of Octoechos during the service is strictly regulated by Typicon. After accepting the Orthodox rite, the Slavs were acquainted with Octoechos which has undoubtedly made a great impression on the attentive audiences present at the service. Octoechos has also influenced the work of medieval Serbian hymnographers all of whom were, as it is well known, pious men. The influence of the poetics typical of hymns of the Octoechos has already been present in the Akoluthia to St. Simeon written by St. Sava. In the hymnographical work of Theodosius this influence is even more present, especially in his Canons on the eight modes (echoi that follow the pattern of the supplicatory canons of the Octoechos. Ephraim, who was the Serbian patriarch in two turns (1375-1379, 1389-1392, wrote his church hymns and prayers following those of the Octoechos. Ephraim composed his stichera dedicated to Christ and Theotokos following the regular change of tones of the Octoechos. The spirit of Octoechos has also marked the work of the last Serbian anonymous hymnographers who wrote Akoluthia to the Translation of the holy relics of Saint Apostle Luke to Serbia and the Paraklisis to St. Luke (mid 15th century.

  14. Nobleza e iglesias propias en la Cantabria alto-medieval

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    María Isabel LORING GARCÍA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available La documentación altomedieval cántabra, o mejor de Liébana, Asturias de Santillana y Trasmiera, ofrece innumerables ejemplos de donaciones totales o parciales de iglesias a los monasterios de la región, de lo que se desprende que los donantes, en su mayoría laicos, eran propietarios de las mismas. Nos hallamos, por tanto, ante un fenómeno que con mayor o menor acierto se viene designando con la expresión de «iglesias propias», institución típicamente medieval que se caracteriza por el hecho de que la iglesia junto con sus bienes forma una unidad indisoluble dentro del patrimonio del fundador o del de sus descendientes. Estos pueden enajenarlas mediante cualquier negocio jurídico, designar el clero que la sirva y percibir todos o al menos parte de los ingresos producidos. Esta institución remonta sus orígenes al Bajo Imperio, concretamente es resultado de la cristianización del medio rural, donde por regla general las iglesias eran levantadas por los propietarios territoriales en sus dominios pasando a constituir una dependencia más de los mismos.

  15. Medieval horse stable; the results of multi proxy interdisciplinary research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejmal, Miroslav; Lisá, Lenka; Fišáková Nývltová, Miriam; Bajer, Aleš; Petr, Libor; Kočár, Petr; Kočárová, Romana; Nejman, Ladislav; Rybníček, Michal; Sůvová, Zdenka; Culp, Randy; Vavrčík, Hanuš

    2014-01-01

    A multi proxy approach was applied in the reconstruction of the architecture of Medieval horse stable architecture, the maintenance practices associated with that structure as well as horse alimentation at the beginning of 13th century in Central Europe. Finally, an interpretation of the local vegetation structure along Morava River, Czech Republic is presented. The investigated stable experienced two construction phases. The infill was well preserved and its composition reflects maintenance practices. The uppermost part of the infill was composed of fresh stabling, which accumulated within a few months at the end of summer. Horses from different backgrounds were kept in the stable and this is reflected in the results of isotope analyses. Horses were fed meadow grasses as well as woody vegetation, millet, oat, and less commonly hemp, wheat and rye. Three possible explanations of stable usage are suggested. The stable was probably used on a temporary basis for horses of workers employed at the castle, courier horses and horses used in battle.

  16. Advances in optics in the medieval Islamic world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khalili, Jim

    2015-04-01

    This paper reviews the state of knowledge in the field of optics, mainly in catoptrics and dioptrics, before the birth of modern science and the well-documented contributions of men such as Kepler and Newton. The paper is not intended to be a comprehensive survey of the subject such as one might find in history of science journals; instead, it is aimed at the curious physicist who has probably been taught that nothing much of note was understood about the behaviour of light, beyond outdated philosophical musings, prior to the seventeenth century. The paper will focus on advances during the medieval period between the ninth and fourteenth centuries, in both the east and the west, when the theories of the Ancient Greeks were tested, advanced, corrected and mathematised. In particular, it concentrates on a multivolume treatise on optics written one thousand years ago by the Arab scholar, Ibn al-Haytham, and examines how it influenced our understanding of the nature of reflection and refraction of light. Even the well-informed physicist should find a few surprises here, which will alter his or her view of the debt we owe to these forgotten scholars.

  17. The Name Day as a Part of Medieval Historiographical Narrative

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    Anna F. Litvina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the ways in which the celebration of the name day (imeniny of Russian princes or their entourages was presented in the Russian chronicles. The custom of celebrating the name day was firmly rooted in the Russian princely environment. For a chronicle narrative, the very rootedness of this custom and the number of its associated actions plays an important role—it is this rootedness that makes stories told in the chronicles quite opaque to the modern reader. A prince’s Christian name and the day of his patron saint were considered to be important background knowledge for the audience of the medieval compiler. There were, apparently, clear ideas about appropriate behavior for prince or a person from his environment on his name day or on the eve of this day but, on the other hand, such assumptions explain why this kind of “normal” behavior rarely forms the subject of special reflection in the chronicles. It is not only a description of the celebration itself that might be very informative, whether it be a church service, a ceremonial feast with various relatives, or an exchange of gifts, but also the description of acts and deeds that were undertaken specifically on a prince’s name day. Therefore, particular attention is given here to stories about undue or inappropriate behavior on this special day. The paper deals with the function and nature of such episodes in the broader context of historiographical narrative.

  18. Medieval Round Churches and the Shape of the Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagensen, Erling; Lind, Niels C

    2015-12-01

    There is a unique cluster of four medieval round churches, linked by a simple geometry, on Bornholm Island in the Baltic Sea. Why so many and why so close together? Immediate simple answers are "Just by chance" and "For no reason." Why are the churches round? "Defense." This essay proposes another hypothesis for this unique situation: the churches are astronomical observatories, meant to solve a scientific problem (Is the Earth really spherical?) and a practical problem (How far is it to sail west to the Orient?). The capacity and desire to find answers, together with other practical needs related to astronomy, can better explain these round churches' special architecture. The geometry that connects them fits the ideal pattern with an angular accuracy of 1 minute of a degree. The round churches may be the earliest astronomical observatories in Christian Europe; other hypotheses have been shown to be untenable. Their location provides for a good method to estimate the Earth's extent in the east-west direction, seemingly the earliest such measurements.

  19. Education and transmission of knowledge in medieval India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiyid Zaheer Husain Jafri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The various regions of the Indian subcontinent came into contact with the Islamic cultural tradition in the seventh century CE. Indian scholars were able to leave a mark on the world of Islamic scholarship especially in the fields of ḥadīth and other connected disciplines, significantly underlining their recognition for contributions in the Islamic East. An attempt has been made to analyse and to understand the processes of transmission of knowledge through formal and informal means, including the transfer of accumulated experience to the next generation and even the passing of “intuitive knowledge” to the seeker of knowledge. It has been argued that the level of Indian scholarship in certain disciplines was at par with the level of scholarship in the Islamic East. It has also been examined that during the medieval period Sanskrit based studies flourished at important Hindu pilgrimage centres such as Benaras, often described by European travellers as the Athens of India. The Royal and private libraries functioned with firm footings. Finally, it is shown that education and transmission of knowledge was organized in a manner that owes much to the best of Greco-Arab tradition.

  20. [Disciplinary non-consolidation. On the original of medieval archaeology in the 1920s and the 1930s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the roots of the sub-discipline medieval archaeology that emerged in German-speaking universities in the 1950s and 1960s. In the 1930s, research practices crucial for the formation of medieval archaeology, such as the investigation of medieval castles and peasant houses, became more prominent in the humanities, especially in the context of vilkisch research. After the Nazis took power in Germany, they encouraged such research because it built a scientific basis for their nationalist policy. This politically motivated funding did not result in a new discipline, in contrast to research fields such as prehistory and folklore studies. In this article, I propose two explanations for why medieval archaeology did not emerge as an interdisciplinary research field in the 1930s and 1940s, even though the course was set for its development. First, for archaeologists, art historians, and regional medieval historians, research objects such as medieval castles were semantically too indeterminate. Archaeologists would investigate a castle as a building completely destroyed and buried under rubble, while art historians would be interested in its building technique, and regional medieval historians in its written record. Second, disciplines that were important for the creation of medieval archaeology, such as prehistoric archaeology, art history, and regional medieval history, structurally did not allow for the emergence of an interdisciplinary research field in the 1930s. In particular, prehistoric archaeology, which was crucial for the development of medieval archaeology, itself was not fully institutionalized at universities in the 1930s. This institutionalization process prevented the emergence and development of an interdisciplinary research field such as medieval archaeology To demonstrate this argument, I draw on two examples of investigations of castles, one in Nazi Germany and the other in the German-speaking part of Switzerland.

  1. Using a multi-user desktop-based virtual reality system to recreate the São Miguel das Missões ruins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Selan R; Fraga, Letícia S

    2002-10-01

    This paper presents a project initiated back in 1999, in which Virtual Reality is applied in order to create a virtual community over the Internet. The desktop-based multi-user virtual reality system recreates a three-dimensional environment based on photogrammetric maps from the São Miguel das Missões church ruins. The ruins correspond to one of the Jesuit Mission (settlement) which was active in the south of Brazil in the 17th and 18th centuries. It has a great importance to the local region in terms of cultural, historic, and tourist aspects. It has also been inscribed in the UNESCO's world heritage list since 1983. This electronic mock-up allows several interactive operations such as community chats, electronic message exchanging, message boards, walking-through, discussion groups, and embedding of other media such as movies, sound, and html pages. The only requirement necessary to access the community is a web browser powered with any Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) plug-in freely available over the Internet. It is expected that such a solution improves the conservation and dissemination of the Brazilian historic patrimony, congregating history, art, and tourist information in one place on the Internet.

  2. ‘FOR MUSIKE MEUEÞ AFFECCIOUNS’: INTERPRETING HARP PERFORMANCE IN MEDIEVAL ROMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Bennett

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Performances are focal points in medieval romances with musical protagonists. Whilst these performances may not necessarily be accurate representations of medieval music, such episodes in popular literature are valuable to early music practitioners because they describe the whole context of the performance. These scenes preserve a snapshot of the medieval experience of music: the physicality of the performance, the sounds created and the emotional responses to the music. The hyperbolic tendencies of popular literature are effective at communicating imagined performance contexts because of the use of language that deliberately presents and evokes extremes of emotion, involving the reader or listener in a simulacrum of musical affect. When used alongside surviving musical notation, musical treatises, accounts of performances in historical records, and iconography, these romances are, I argue, a highly valuable and informative source for medieval performance. They reveal to the modern reader how music was perceived and represented in the medieval popular imagination. This paper will examine harp performances in several music-focused romances and I will set alongside these examples my own amateur reconstructions of the performances as described.

  3. Books authored/co-authored and edited/co-edited by members of staff of the Department of Medieval/Medieval and Renaissance Archaeology, Aarhus University, 1971-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesdahl, Else

    2015-01-01

    Chronologically organized list of books authored/co-authored and edited/co-edited by members of staff of the Department of Medieval and Renaissance Archaeology, Aarhus University, 1971-2014......Chronologically organized list of books authored/co-authored and edited/co-edited by members of staff of the Department of Medieval and Renaissance Archaeology, Aarhus University, 1971-2014...

  4. Life in Ruins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2011-01-01

    When artists are inspired to travel in Europe to study art and history of the Western world, Italy is a good place to start. With its ancient architecture, rich cultural heritage, and superb works of art, Italy has been the quintessential center of Western art history for centuries. It was the good fortune of Alabama-based artist and teacher…

  5. In search of "Organ III" strata-a sedimentary record of the Medieval Warm Period (ca. AD 900 to 1300)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The period AD 900 to 1300, internationally referred to as the Medieval Warm Period, is a critical time for the archaeological record of the Southwestern USA. During the Medieval Warm Period both alluvial and eolian sedimentation increased, but not to the magnitude of the middle Holocene (the Altithe...

  6. „Incendula“ or „monedula“? An Enigmatic Bird Name in Medieval Latin-Written Sources

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedinová, Hana

    -, č. 74 (2016), s. 89-109 ISSN 1376-7453 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : latin lexicography * ancient and medieval zoology * ancient and medieval zoology * latin names of birds * Bartholomaeus de Solencia dictus Claretus * Aristoteles * Aristoteles Latinus * Michael Scotus * Thomas of Cantimpré Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics OBOR OECD: Specific languages

  7. An Introduction to the Medieval English: The Historical and Literary Context, Traces of Church and Philosophical Movements in the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behtash, Esmail Zare; Toroujeni, Seyyed Morteza Hashemi; Samani, Farzane Safarzade

    2017-01-01

    The Transition from Greek to medieval philosophy that speculated on religion, nature, metaphysics, human being and society was rather a rough transition in the history of English literature. Although the literature content of this age reflected more religious beliefs, the love and hate relationship of medieval philosophy that was mostly based on…

  8. The Medieval Climate (A)nomaly over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Johannes P.; Büntgen, Ulf; Ljungqvist, Fredrik C.; Esper, Jan; Fernández-Donado, Laura; Gonzalez-Rouco, Fidel J.; Luterbacher, Jürg; McCarroll, Danny; Smerdon, Jason E.; Wagner, Sebastian; Wahl, Eugene R.; Wanner, Heinz; Zorita, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    the last one and a half millennia: the Little Ice Age (LIA) and the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA). While the reconstructions and the ensembles of simulations show higher medieval temperatures and cooler temperatures during the LIA, the spatial distribution of anomalies and the range of values differ. The warm episodes from 7th to 12th century compare well to the warm summer temeratures in the late 20th century and early 21st century, both in spatial extent and magnitude. However, the warm summer of 2003 still remains to be the warmest year in the considered time span, both at the grid cell scale but also when considering the European averages. Tingley M.P. and Huybers P. JClim 10, 2759-2781, 2782-2800 (2010a,b) Werner J.P. et al. JClim accepted (2012)

  9. Аrchitectural ruins phenomenon ФЕНОМЕН АРХИТЕКТУРНЫХ РУИН

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    Fedorov Viktor Vladimirovich

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern academic research has a large area of behaviorist and environmental studies focusing on the spatial factor employed to explain the reality. The concept of understanding ruins as monuments of the past dates back to the days of the Renaissance. Exposed to destruction in the past ages, they have acquired numerous meanings, thus, becoming a source of ideas about the past. It is appropriate to speak about “historic” and “modern” ruins. In the first case, the time distance between the moments of construction and perception of ruins is quite large. In the second case, ruins comprise the outcome of inaccurate design, construction or maintenance of buildings, natural disasters or wars. They also have a symbolic and semantic content. The interest in the phenomenon of ruins has brought forth the notion of«false ruins» (in landscape parks and «future ruins» (paintings and fiction. The spatial and time scale of the urban environment (including ruins generates a powerful symbolic content. Ruins often symbolize a pathological state of the society that strives to minimize the presence of such objects in the everyday life. Developing culture prefers creative motives and tends to replace destructive ones. Since the 1980s, the phenomenon of architectural ruins has been rapidly expanding its presence in the virtual space due to:1 the complexity of visual assessments because of the lack of familiar structural elements to be employed to estimate the size of buildings; 2 the violation of the balance of space, mass, shape, typical of architectural creations; 3 the dominance of the deaf mass (remains of columns, walls, etc.; 4 the lack of spatial reference, volume, symmetry, reinforcing irrationality in perception of ruins (the loss of the original image destroys the unity of form and content; 5 the loss of opinions on the functional purpose of buildings; 6 exclusive picturesque ruins; 7 background lighting, colour and texture of surfaces

  10. Postmortem Inventories in Medieval Valencia. A Source for the Study of Household Consumption and Living Standards

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    Luis Almenar Fernández

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Basic questions about the nature of postmortem inventories in late medieval Valencia have rarely been asked. What distinguished them from other lists of goods and what was their legal basis? Why were inventories made? Which goods were listed and which ones omitted? How many inventories are preserved today? Which sectors of medieval society requested them? The answers that this paper provides clearly show the potential of a serial and quantitative usage of the Valencian inventory for the study of household consumption, an analysis that would enable us to measure far more accurately the changes in living standards in late medieval society to a degree that is difficult to achieve in other regions of Europe.

  11. "By expresse experiment": the doubting midwife Salome in late medieval England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Alaya

    2015-01-01

    This article examines late medieval English representations of the startling and apocryphal story of Salome, the skeptical midwife who dares to touch, or at least attempt to touch, the Virgin Mary "in sexu secreto" during a postpartum examination at the nativity. Salome's story originated in the second century, but its late medieval iterations are inflected by a culture interested in evaluating and examining sensory evidence, in both medicine and religion. The story appears in sermon collections, devotional texts, the cycle nativity plays, and John Lydgate's Life of Our Lady, and these variations demonstrate the intersection of gender and experience-based knowledge in medical and devotional contexts. Salome's story provides a unique opportunity to study late medieval interpretations of female medicine, materialism, and spirituality.

  12. Tristan and Isolde, or On the Conventions and Liberties of Medieval Eros

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    Florica Bodistean

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Although written by men, medieval literature, whose main invention isassociated with courtly love, seems to be the echo of women’s Eros-relatedBovarism. Having a status of servitude in society, the medieval woman ispraised in literature. She becomes an object of adoration in a conventionthat follows the principles of feudal behaviour, but offers to the followingcenturies a fundamental lesson about love – a love which involves distanceand platonicism. In this context, my study aims to point to the modernity ofthe novel Tristan and Isolde, which breaks the known patterns byambiguating not only the moral medieval Manichaeism, but also the idea ofan unconsummated love and by proposing a complex female model, foreverdifferent according to the perspective from which she is perceived: thehusband’s, the lover’s, God’s.

  13. The medieval župa: Nahiya of Vatnica

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    Pekić Radmilo B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of disclosed and closed records of the Dubrovnik Archive, Turkish census from 1468-1469. and 1475-1477, researches on the ground and relevant literature, we made an attempt to discover how the župa of Vatnica got its name and to define its borders that parted the area of Travunia from the area of Hum. Vatnica had been populated before Slavic people settled the area. Recent history records present Vatnica borders vaguely and imprecisely. Our findings contradict the findings presented in history records that state Travunia borders stretch to Trusina. The župa of Vatnica was placed eastward from the župa of Dabar in Hum land, with the borderline alongside Divin and Kuti village. In the northwest Vatnica bordered župa of Nevesinje alongside Davidovići and Lukavac villages, while the southeast border was reaching župa of Rudine, east from Narat village. Turkish invasion brought in suffering and migrations with local people causing them to leave their homes. Turkish administrative system naturalized itself according to its needs thus changing the old borders. While occupied by Turks, a part of former župa of Vatnica, including Vatnica village, became a part of Turkish nahiya Dabar, but at the same time on the east side of Vatnica village existed nahiya of Vatnica stayed behind with six unpopulated villages, which was supported by the Turkish census. Windy political odds affected the medieval economy of Vatnica. Population pursued agriculture, above all grape growing. They would breed draught cattle for transport and market. Economy of this region was partly influenced by Dubrovnik where the youngster would go to find work and learn trade. Remainders of the past times are stone tombs called 'stećak' as well as the sites of orthodox churches.

  14. Perspectives of Medieval Persian Medicine on Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Parviz, Mohsen; Sheibani, Behnam; Schiess, Nicoline; Ghorbanifar, Zahra; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Nazem, Esmail; Sadeghpour, Omid; Rezaeizadeh, Hossein

    2017-07-28

    Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) was the prevailing practice of medicine in the Eurasia region up through the 18th century, a practice of medicine stemming back to Hippocrates and to the 5000 year old civilization of the region. It is a school of medicine which touches on many a delicate points which may seem unimaginable within the realm of modern allopathic medicine. This practice of ancient medicine besides shedding light on various possible theoretical modern day disorders serves as a vast resource for therapeutics. In this paper we present study of the manuscripts of this ancient medical practice in search of symptom presentations coinciding with presentation of multiple sclerosis (MS). Material &Methods: This paper represents a comprehensive search through TPM texts and manuscripts with the intention to seek possible clues on MS from potentially valuable age-old resources. We predominantly focused our search on the works of five eminent physicians of Medieval Persia: Avicenna (980-1037 AD), Haly Abbas (949-982 AD), Rhazes (865-925 AD), Averroes (1126-1198 AD) and Jorjani (1042-1137 AD). In this paper, the authors attempt a theory and conclude with high probability that a conjunction of a series of signs, symptoms found in TPM texts under the terms khadar, isterkha and falej form the symptoms and the disease pattern of modern day MS. This theory draws upon existent similarities in terms of disease pathology, disease patterns and predisposing factors seen between MS and the related morbidities within Persian Medicine. We recommend further examinations of such potentially valuable long-standing resources, examining the diagnoses and treatments as set forth by Persian Medicine through international collaboration within the global scientific community. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. An Early Medieval Tradition of Building in Britain

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    Gardiner, Mark

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Early medieval houses in Britain were largely constructed of timber. Various approaches have been adopted for interpreting the character of these buildings, since no standing structure survives. These include the study of water-logged timber, the reproduction of methods of working and the reconstruction of buildings, as well as the conventional analysis of the plans of excavations. The problems of identifying the ethnic affiliations of houses in Britain are particularly acute because the structural features which define the building traditions in England and Scotland have rarely been identified. However, it is argued that it is possible to identify a distinctive tradition of building in timber which persists from the fifth to the eleventh or even twelfth century, and is found throughout England and into southern Scotland.En la Gran Bretaña de la alta Edad Media se solían construir las viviendas de madera y por consiguiente no queda ninguna estructura en pie. Así, se han adoptado varios enfoques para interpretar las características de dichas viviendas, como el análisis de la madera saturada de agua, la recreación de la metodología de trabajo y la reconstrucción de edificios, así como los tradicionales análisis de las plantas de las construcciones en las excavaciones. La atribución étnica de las viviendas en Gran Bretaña resulta especialmente difícil porque rara vez se han identificado las tradiciones constructivas de Inglaterra y Escocia. No obstante, se ha argumentado que es posible identificar a una tradición característica de construcción en madera que se mantuvo del siglo V al siglo XI e incluso hasta el siglo XII y que se puede encontrar en toda Inglaterra y en el sur de Escocia.

  16. Ethnicity in Transylvania. From medieval peoples to modern nations

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    Radu Lupescu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Transilvania es una región de Europa, en dónde en el transcurso de los siglos convivieron y conviven muchas naciones. Entre ellas jugaron el rol determinante los húngaros, los rumanos, los sajones y los székelys (seklers, quiénes ya estaban presentes en el doce siglo en Transilvania. La fecha de su inmigración, sus tareas y el territorio dónde habitaron fueron distintas y esta situación se refleja de sus derechos y fueros propios. Pero a diferencia de las épocas anteriores los reyes húngaros de orígen de casa de Anjou excluyeron los rumanos ortodoxos de la Gobernación de Transilvania, así no podía desarrollarse la nobleza propia de ellos. A partir de 1437 la nobleza y la aristocracia de otras tres naciones fueron aliados y cuando en el siglo XVI se descompusó el Reino Húngaro, ellas asumieron la Gobernación de Transilvania. Al mismo tiempo Transilvania se convirtió en patria acogedora a las nuevas confesiones y religiones protestantes. Este modo se formó aquel sistema que podemos denominar de tres naciones privilegiadas y de cuatro religiones admitidas. Esta representación de tipo medieval estaba en vigor hasta el siglo XIX. cuando las naciones modernas la sucidieron. Los rumanos aprovecharon la oportunidad ofrecida y han conseguido cerrar filas entre las naciones transilvanas.Palabras clave: Hungarians, Romanians, Saxons, Székelys, Transylvania, Nation.___________________________Keywords:Hungarians, Romanians, Saxons, Székelys, Transylvania, Nation.

  17. Vessels from Late Medieval cemeteries in the Central Balkans

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    Bikić Vesna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a rare occurrence in late medieval cemeteries, vessels have been found on almost all major sites of the period, such as Novo Brdo, Trgovište, Reljina Gradina and the churchyard of St Peter’s near Novi Pazar, the churchyard of St Nicholas’ at Kuršumlija, the churchyard of St Stephen’s at Milentija near Brus, Mali Zvečan, Mirijevo, Vinča. Vessels occur in different places, both on top of and in graves. Fragments of pottery and glass vessels are relatively abundant in layers of earth filling burial pits and chambers, and in those immediately overlaying burial pits or gravestones. The available data make it possible to recognize almost all functional types. The most frequently found pottery shapes are larger liquid containers - jugs and pitchers, and apparently there have also been many pots, both hearth cooking and glazed (figs. 1-3; 5-9. Recognizable among the glass vessels are bottles, usually those with long fluted necks and biconical, as well as infrequent icon lamps. The data about the vessels found buried with the deceased is much more detailed. Such finds are recorded at Mačvanska Mitrovica (fig. 10/3, Brestovik (fig. 13/3, Mirijevo (fig. 4/1, Vinča (figs. 4/2; 10/4, Stragari near Kragujevac, Milentija near Brus, round the church of St Peter near Novi Pazar, at the monastery of Končulić (fig. 13/2 and the monastery of Gradac. The relatively plentiful and diverse vessels discovered at the cemeteries of medieval Trgovište are especially illustrative (fig. 10/2, 7. The available descriptions of vessels and archaeological contexts provide a general impression about the types of vessels recorded in the cemeteries of a late medieval and early modern date in the central Balkans. Glass bottles as a rule were laid in graves, while earth-fill layers, apart from bottles, contained plentiful shards of drinking vessels. As for the bottles, two types were registered: biconical and those with long fluted necks (figs. 10; 12/1. Among

  18. [Subjectivity and objectivity, semiotics and diagnosis. An approach to the medieval concept of illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riha, O

    1996-01-01

    Relying on their patients' complaints, medieval physicians did not discriminate theoretically between sickness and health. As for the types of illness, there were two different concepts of disease: The semiotic tracts (sphygmology, uroscopy, hematoscopy) describe signs of dyscrasia and locus affectus, while the medical handbooks combine symptoms like fever, pain, nausea, constipation etc. with the signs of pulse, urine and blood. The term "diagnosis" should be used only for this latter type of disease. Because of the ancient model of humoral pathology and because of the deductive construction of symptomatology, "medieval" illnesses cannot be compared with "ours".

  19. Entre a arte e a ciência: as visões sobre a cartografia medieval / Between art and science: the views on medieval cartograph

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, Thiago José; Universidade de Brasília - UnB

    2015-01-01

    Considerando as formas de percepção e representação dos espaços sagrados e profanos no Ocidente medieval cristão, o presente estudo se propõe a analisar as concepções e proposições que, em diferentes contextos historiográficos, permearam a compreensão, a descrição e a sistematização dos testemunhos legados pela produção cartográfica medieval. Neste sentido, entre a arte e a ciência, esperamos que esta breve reflexão seja capaz de delinear perspectivas analíticas que se adequem as latentes esp...

  20. On the Jewish Nature of Medieval Spanish Biblical Translations Linguistic Differences between Medieval and Post-Exilic Spanish Translations of the Bible

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    Schwarzwald, Ora

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A linguistic comparison of medieval Spanish translations of the Hebrew Bible and the Constantinople and Ferrara post exilic Ladino translations reveals systematic lexical and grammatical variations. These differences can be explained by the population groups to which the translations were targeted: Christian for the medieval translations; Jewish (or former converso for the post-exilic ones. The conclusion is that the medieval translations are not Jewish in nature and could therefore not have been a source for the post-exilic versions which were based on oral tradition.

    Una comparación lingüística de las traducciones hispano-medievales de la Biblia hebrea y las postexílicas de Constantinopla y Ferrara revela variaciones sistemáticas léxicas y gramaticales. Esas diferencias pueden explicarse por la audiencia a las que iban dirigidas dichas traducciones: cristiana, en el caso de las medievales; judía (o exconversa en el de las post-exílicas. La autora concluye que las traducciones medievales no son judías, por naturaleza, y en consecuencia, no podrían haber sido una fuente para las versiones post-exílicas que estaban basadas en la tradición oral.

  1. Padua and the Stars: Medieval Painting and Illuminated Manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canova, G. M.

    2011-06-01

    In the Middle Ages, the University of Padua was one of the most prominent centre for astrological studies in Europe. The Paduan doctor and philosopher, Pietro d'Abano, who lived in the first decades of the 14th century, was the main figure in this field. At the end of the 13th century, during a long stay in Paris, he got in contact with the new astrological doctrines flourished after the translation into Latin of Ptolemy's and Arab's works in Spain. Thus, when he went back to Padua, he published several studies on the influence of celestial bodies on human life and human physical characteristics and psychology. These ideas deeply affected the Paduan society of the 14th century and, consequently, the most important painters chose or were asked to evoke the images of stars, planets, and their properties. This adventure began with Giotto who shows a surprising interest in celestial bodies in the Scrovegni Chapel where he represented a comet, and soon after he produced a cycle of astrological paintings on the vault of the Palazzo della Ragione in the Public Palace of Padua. Unfortunately, in 1420, these paintings were destroyed in a fire, but the magnificent cycle of astrological frescoes realized soon after on the walls of the same room gives us some clues on Giotto's work and shows us the complexity of the Medieval astrological science. Other astrological paintings, still preserved, were realized by the painters of the Carrarese Court such as Guariento, who painted the planets and their influences on human ages in the church of the Eremitani, and Giusto dei Menabuoi who represented a superb zodiac around a realistic map of Earth in the Cathedral Baptistery. So Padua really became the capital of astrological painting in Europe. Other evidence of the astrological image in the Veneto Region, between the 14th and 15th centuries, can be found in the manuscripts illuminated in the milieu of the University of Padua and in the first books printed in Venice.

  2. Farmsteads in early medieval Germany – architecture and organisation

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    Schreg, Rainer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In Germany early medieval rural settlements are known from a rising number of excavated sites. Rural architecture was a wooden architecture. Only churches were built in stone. A farmstead consisted of several buildings: the main house and several economic buildings as pit houses and storages. Before the 1980s, when large scale excavations became more and more common, there was little awareness of changes in rural settlement history. The formation of still existing villages was only late in the Middle Ages. However, even today it is difficult to understand the changes in rural architecture as there are distinct regional differences. Probably the 5th century on the one hand and the period of village formation between the 10th and 13th centuries on the other hand were the most innovative periods. This article provides a short characteristic of buildings and settlement organisation. He gives an outline of research history and identifies some recent trends and future perspectives of research.Tenemos conocimiento de los asentamientos rurales de la alta Edad Media en Alemania gracias a un número creciente de excavaciones arqueológicas. La arquitectura rural es una arquitectura de madera, reservándose la piedra para las iglesias. Las alquerías comprendían varias edificaciones: la casa principal y varias construcciones destinadas a fines económicos, como las viviendas semienterradas y almacenes. Antes de los años 80 del siglo pasado, cuando las excavaciones a gran escala se hicieron más habituales, se conocía poco sobre la evolución de la historia de los asentamientos rurales. Las aldeas que aún permanecen se formaron a finales de la Edad Media e incluso hoy resulta difícil entender los cambios que se produjeron en la arquitectura rural cuando existen diferencias regionales. Es probable que el periodo comprendido entre el siglo V, por una parte, y los siglos X y XIII por otra fue la de mayor innovación. El presente artículo ofrece un

  3. Elemental mapping of medieval teeth using XRF technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muja, Cristina [Laboratoire Diagnostics des Plasma, CUFR J.F.C, Albi (France); Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest (Romania); Vasile Parvan Institute of Archaeology, Bucharest (Romania); Therese, Laurent; Guillot, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.guillot@univ-jfc.fr [Laboratoire Diagnostics des Plasma, CUFR J.F.C, Albi (France)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Recent developments in X-Ray Fluorescence micro-analysis techniques made the traditional range of XRF applications expand, benefiting from the combination of single point analysis with high spatial element imaging. The sample is scanned through the X-Ray beam and corresponding spectra are continuously read from the detector and correlated to a particular position on the sample. In this work, elemental concentrations were obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique (Jobin Yvon Horiba XGT-5000 instrument) offering detailed elemental analysis. The instrument is equipped with a tungsten X-ray tube and a beryllium window, operating at 50 kV with a beam collimator of 100{mu}m in diameter to irradiate the sample and with a Si detector. Tooth mapping provided semi-quantitative information and highlighted the regions of interest. Then multi-points analysis was used to obtain quantitative results on calcium, phosphorus, strontium and iron. As the chemical composition of dental tissues is similar to the one of bone tissue, the certified reference materials NIST SRM 1400 Bone Ash and NIST SRM 1486 Bone Meal were used for calibration. In this study, only permanent first molars were selected for analysis. The material comes from the medieval cemetery (XII{sup th} . XIII{sup th}) of Feldioara (Bra.ov County, Romania). In the same time, modern teeth were used as reference. The top of the tooth was removed using a diamond disk, with a cut lying perpendicular to the dental cusps, creating a flat transversal surface to be characterized. XRF elemental (Ca, P, Sr, Fe) and ratio (Ca/P, Sr/Ca, Sr/Fe) distribution images for dental tissues (enamel and dentin) were obtained from past and modern teeth with and without caries and the results are presented and discussed. The analysis of the spatial element distribution in the teeth tissues revealed severe alterations in elemental composition of both enamel and dentin from the regions affected by caries that were confirmed by the

  4. Allegory of the ruin in the recent Argentine narrative: La descomposición of Hernán Ronsino and Bajo este sol tremendo of Carlos Busqued

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    Juan José Guerra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the novels La descomposición (2007, by Hernan Ronsino, and Bajo este sol tremendo (2009, by Carlos Busqued , as texts in which the real is configured through the allegory of ruin (Benjamin 2012 [ 1928 ] as suggestive images of social and subjective processes of deterioration. In both novels, these images allegorize a world in a state of decomposition and in which the past survives in the present as remnants of the real (Garramuño 2009. Both texts open onto the overlapping time frames, but whereas in the case of La descomposición the past constantly emerges as a way to influence and to question the present, in Bajo este sol tremendo the understanding of the past seems sealed and all that the text enables is a rapt contemplation of the remnants of the real.

  5. Early Medieval silver pearl from Lumbe's garden cemetery at Prague Castle: Composition, manufacture, deterioration, and conservation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Děd, J.; Ottenwelter, Estelle; Šejvlová, Ludmila

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2016), s. 174-183 ISSN 0039-3630 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP405/12/2195 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : medieval jewellery * Lumbe's Garden * archaeometry Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 0.578, year: 2016

  6. Formalizations après la lettre : studies in Medieval logic and semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutilh Novaes, Catarina

    2006-01-01

    This thesis is on the history and philosophy of logic and semantics. Logic can be described as the ‘science of reasoning’, as it deals primarily with correct patterns of reasoning. However, logic as a discipline has undergone dramatic changes in the last two centuries: while for ancient and medieval

  7. Studies on tofts, peasants and hierarchies in medieval rural Denmark - some comments from an archaeological perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mette Svart

    2013-01-01

    A classical starting point for an archaeological discussion of hierarchy in Danish settlement research is the toft, particularly its size and position in the spatial arrangement of the medieval village. The main concern of this article is to identify and discuss related problems, in particular th...

  8. The use of geothermal energy at a chieftan's farm in medieval Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Sveinbjarnardottir

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological investigations at the farm site of Reykholt, in the Reykholtsdalur valley in western Iceland (Fig. 1 , have produced evidence of sophisticated use of geothermal energy in the medieval period that is unmatched by comparable finds elsewhere in this geothermally and volcanically active country.

  9. 'Fro Paris to Inglond'? The danse macabre in text and image in late-medieval England

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterwijk, Sophia

    2009-01-01

    This thesis examines the character, spread, development and influence of the Dance of Death or danse macabre theme in late-medieval England within its literary, socio- and art-historical context. It traces the origins of the theme and, following the deaths in 1422 of the English king Henry V and

  10. Social inequality and death as illustrated in late-medieval death dances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractLate-medieval murals and books of the then-popular "dances of death" usually represented the living according to their social standing. These works of art thus provide an interesting opportunity to study the relationship between social inequality and death

  11. El sentido del saber en la Escolástica medieval

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    Javier Vergara Ciordia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available La historia del aprendizaje es en parte la historia de la cultura. En este artículo se aborda cómo se entendieron en la Edad Media las relaciones entre el conocimiento y el aprendizaje. En primer lugar se estudia la historia del conocimiento enciclopédico hasta la escolástica medieval; a continuación se analiza la concepción medieval de la historia y del libro, haciendo especial hincapié en su carácter sacral; el artículo termina analizando la concepción del conocimiento en los enciclopedistas, especialmente en la figura y obra de Vicente de Beauvais, a quien se debe la principal enciclopedia de esta época.The history of Learning is partly the history of Culture. In this article we find an approach about the way the relationships between Knowledge and Learning were understood in the Middie Ages. Firstly there is and analysls of the history of encyclopedic knowledge till the scholastic medieval. Then, we find an analysls about the medieval conception of history and of the book, with and special stress in thelr sacred character. Lastly, the study analyces the conception of Knowledge in the enciclopedists, especially in the figure and work of Vincent of Beauvais, to whom the main encyclopedia of this time is owed.

  12. Material Culture and Diasporic Experiences: A Case of Medieval Hanse Merchantsin the Baltic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    The Hanseatic League, a late medieval merchant association with roots in northern German towns, is credited with the establishment of extensive economic and geographic connections and considerable impact on the development of urban culture around the Baltic and the North Sea. Its merchants, regul...

  13. Micromorphological Approaches to the Formation and Biographies of Early Medieval Towns in Northwest Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wouters, Barbora

    Even after decades of intensive research, the complex stratigraphy of many early medieval and Viking towns in continental Europe remains poorly understood. Debate continues about crucial aspects such as their origins, the changes they underwent through time and, in some cases, their supposed ‘dec...

  14. Druids, deer and ‘words of power’: coming to terms with evil in medieval Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsje, J.; van Doorn-Harder, N.; Minnema, L.

    2008-01-01

    This contribution describes what is understood by evil, as perceived within Irish medieval texts, both by the authors and by the groups described in the texts. It attempts to include the points of view of possible audiences or readers of the texts as well. The definition of evil employed here thus

  15. Becoming Artifacts Medieval Seals, Passports and the Future of Digital Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chango, Mawaki

    2012-01-01

    What does a digital identity token have to do with medieval seals? Is the history of passports of any use for enabling the discovery of Internet users' identity when crossing virtual domain boundaries during their digital browsing and transactions? The agility of the Internet architecture and its simplicity of use have been the engines of its…

  16. Gods, Buddhas, and Organs Buddhist Physicians and Theories of Longevity in Early Medieval Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edward R. Drott

    2010-01-01

    This article examines medical works aimed at nourishing life and promoting longevity composed or compiled by Buddhist priests in early medieval Japan, focusing on the Chōseiryōyōhō and the Kissayōjōki...

  17. Toward a Foundation of Library Philosophy: Comparing the Medieval and Modern Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschman, John

    Through a comparison of the historical perspectives of medieval and modern libraries, this paper is designed to clarify the purpose and goals of the library, and to promote a public and intellectual debate to guide future developments. The Middle Ages were chosen because libraries possessed an importance and centrality to learning, civilization,…

  18. Be Masters in that You Teach and Continue to Learn: Medieval Muslim Thinkers on Educational Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    This article is dedicated to shedding light on a spectrum of issues in educational thought in Islam, which may--due to their universal relevance--be of interest not only to specialists but also to a wider readership. It also provides an idea of the educational views and philosophies advocated by some great medieval Muslim thinkers which offer…

  19. In praise of death : history and poetry in medieval Marwar (South Asia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphorst, Janet

    2008-01-01

    This study of heroic and epic “war poetry” transmitted by the poets of pastoral-nomadic communities in medieval Marwar (Rajasthan) evokes the lived past of the Rajput, Bhil and Charan of the Marwari desert with a detailed analysis of poetic sources concerning Pabuji, a fourteenth-century warrior and

  20. Searching for Scandinavians in pre-Viking Scotland : Molecular fingerprinting of Early Medieval combs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Von Holstein, Isabella C C; Ashby, Steven P.; van Doorn, Nienke L.; Sachs, Stacie M.; Buckley, Michael; Meiri, Meirav; Barnes, Ian; Brundle, Anne; Collins, Matthew J.

    The character and chronology of Norse colonisation in Early Medieval northern Scotland (8th-10th centuries AD) is hotly debated. The presence of reindeer antler raw material in 'native' or 'Pictish' type combs from the Orkney Isles, northern Scotland has been put forward as evidence for a long and

  1. The death of a medieval Danish warrior. A case of bone trauma interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forsom Eva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1934 a grave was found in the church ruins of the Cistercian Abbey at Øm in central Jutland, Denmark (founded in 1172, demolished 1561 AD. The grave contained the skeletal remains of an individual lying in a supine position with the head towards the west. The anthropological analysis revealed that the remains belonged to a young male, aged 25-30 years at death and approximately 162.7 cm tall. He had 9 perimortem sharp force lesions, five of which were cranial and four were postcranial, indicating he suffered a violent death in a swordfight.

  2. Flower symbolism and the cult of relics in medieval Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Danica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Life of archbishop Eustathios I [Jevstatije] (1279-1286, deserving head of the medieval Serbian Church and a saint, is a very interesting source for studying the cult of relics with the Serbs. This is not surprising considering that the Life was penned by one of the most illustrious of Eustathios' successors on the church throne, Daniel II [Danilo], a learned Athonite and unquestionable master of the hagiographie literary genre. In his account of the life of his distinguished predecessor, Daniel describes extensively the events constituting the key stage in the glorification of a saint, namely Eustathios' death and posthumous occurrences at his grave. As most holy men, Eustathios foresaw his own death, and he departed from this world serenely. He was buried, with due honours, in the 'marble grave' he had prepared for himself in the cathedral church of Holy Saviour at Žiča. In keeping with the well-established saint-making process, a few years after the funeral 'extraordinary signs' began to occur at the archbishop's grave, in this particular case, candlelight and a multitude of murmuring voices followed by the miraculous cure of an incurably ill person. These occurrences preceded the great miracle which, to the best of my knowledge, is unparalleled in the medieval Serbian practice of relic veneration. Namely, 'one day they found growing from his marble grave three flowers endowed with wondrous beauty and impossible to liken to anything else. For, indeed, they were not of earthly humidity or of union with flowers that grow from earth; but, o wonder, how a dry stone standing for so long in the church could send forth fragrant flowers, to the renewal of the sanctified one's body'. Flower metaphors occur in the Service to the holy archbishop Eustathios, yet another piece penned by Daniel II, notably in his paraphrases of Psalm 92, 12-14 ('The righteous shall flourish like the palm tree: he shall grow like a cedar in Lebanon. These that be

  3. LA FORMACIÓN DEL HÁBITAT MEDIEVAL EN CATALUÑA: ALDEAS, ESPACIOS ALDEANOS Y VÍAS DE COMUNICACIÓN/Medieval Settlement Formation in Catalonia: Villages, their Territories and Communication Paths

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jordi Bolòs

    2013-01-01

    .... Special emphasis is placed on the interest of interpreting by means of consulting documents, maps and orthophotomaps as witnesses that allow us to know the boundaries of the Early Medieval settlements...

  4. THE ORIGIN OF THE CONCEPT OF NEUROPATHIC PAIN IN EARLY MEDIEVAL PERSIA (9TH-12TH CENTURY CE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Mojtaba; Shams, Mesbah; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Zargaran, Arman; Dalfardi, Behnam; Borhani-Haghighi, Afshin

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is supposed to be a post-renaissance described medical entity. Although it is often believed that John Fothergill (1712-1780) provided the first description of this condition in 1773, a review of the medieval Persian medical writings will show the fact that neuropathic pain was a medieval-originated concept. "Auojae Asab" [Nerve-originated Pain] was used as a medical term in medieval Persian medical literature for pain syndromes which etiologically originated from nerves. Physicians like Rhazes (d. 925 CE), Haly Abbas (d. 982 CE), Avicenna (d. 1037 CE), and Jorjani (d. 1137 CE) have discussed multiple aspects of nerve-originated pain including its classification, etiology, differentiating characteristics, different qualities, and pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments. Recognizing medieval scholars' views on nerve-originated pain can lighten old historical origins of this concept.

  5. Maternal Genetic Composition of a Medieval Population from a Hungarian-Slavic Contact Zone in Central Europe: e0151206

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Veronika Csákyová; Anna Szécsényi-Nagy; Aranka Csosz; Melinda Nagy; Gabriel Fusek; Péter Langó; Miroslav Bauer; Balázs Gusztáv Mende; Pavol Makovický; Mária Bauerová

    2016-01-01

    ...). This geographical region is interesting to study because its medieval multi-ethnic population lived in the so-called contact zone of the territory of the Great Moravian and later Hungarian state formations...

  6. [Crusading and Chronicle Writing on the Medieval Baltic Frontier: A Companion to the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia] / Michael Amundsen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Amundsen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Crusading and chronicle writing on the medieval Baltic frontier : a companion to the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia / edited by Marek Tamm, Linda Kaljundi, Carsten Selch Jensen. Farnham : Ashgate, 2011

  7. An Introduction to the Medieval English: The Historical and Literary Context, Traces of Church and Philosophical Movements in the Literature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zare Behtash, Esmail; Hashemi Toroujeni, Seyyed Morteza; Safarzade Samani, Farzane

    2017-01-01

    .... Although the literature content of this age reflected more religious beliefs, the love and hate relationship of medieval philosophy that was mostly based on the Christianity with Greek civilization...

  8. Universidade, liberdade e política na comuna medieval: um estudo de cartas oficiais University, freedom and politics in the medieval commune: a study of official letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Analisamos, neste artigo, três cartas nas quais estão registrados debates políticos travados no interior da comuna medieval pela liberdade e pelo estabelecimento de regras para o 'bem viver'. Elas revelam a mudança social que estava ocorrendo no interior da comuna medieval que se expressam na luta em prol da liberdade de circulação dos indivíduos e dos produtos, na sistematização da vida universitária por meio da organização de estatutos e na conscientização dos reis para a importância do conhecimento para o desenvolvimento de seus territórios. Nas cartas verificamos um importante processo histórico. Ao mesmo tempo em que seus discursos estavam vinculados à ordem vigente, as reivindicações apontavam para algo novo, distante das estruturas feudais. Assim, por meio desta análise assistimos o movimento paradoxal no qual as pessoas ainda se identificam com o presente, mas suas manifestações revelam as rupturas necessárias para a construção de novas relações que se opõem às vigentes.In this paper, it was analyzed three letters, in which are registered the political debates pro-freedom and pro-establishing rules for 'living well' carried out within the Medieval Commune. The letters reveal the social changes that were taking place in the Medieval Commune, expressed in the struggle on behalf of individuals' freedom for mobility and freedom for the circulation of products, in the systemization of university life, through organization of statutes, and in the kings' awareness on the relevance of knowledge, in order to achieve the development of their territories. A significant historical process was verified in the letters. Whereas, speeches were linked to the current effective order, the letters claimed for something new, distant from feudalist structures. Thus, through this analysis, it was observed a paradoxical movement, in which people identify themselves with the present; however, their manifestations reveal a necessary

  9. Digitising Patterns of Power (DPP): Applying Digital Tools in the Analysis of Political and Social Transformations in the Historical Region of Macedonia (12th–14th Centuries). Medieval Worlds|Comparative Studies on Medieval Europe - Volume 5. 2017 medieval worlds Volume 5. 2017|

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    The project »Digitising Patterns of Power«(hereafter DPP) is funded within the programme »Digital Humanities: Langzeitprojekte zum kulturellen Erbe«of the Austrian Academy of Sciences for a period of four years (2015-2018). It is hosted at the Institute for Medieval Research (IMAFO) of the same Academy and unites as a cluster project various experts from the fields of medieval history, Byzantine studies, historical geography, archaeology, geography, cartography, geographical information scien...

  10. Excavating a Silk Road City: the Medieval Citadel of Taraz, Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giles Dawkes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The city of Taraz, located near the southern border with Uzbekistan, is one of the most significant historic settlements in Kazakhstan, and two seasons of fieldwork in the central market-place have revealed a substantial depth of medieval stratigraphy. Despite frequent mentions in Arabic and Chinese written sources, both the form and evolution of this important Silk Road city remain poorly understood. Evidence for a series of successive medieval buildings, including a bathhouse and a Zoroastrian flame shrine, was found in the area of the former citadel. These excavations, undertaken as a joint initiative between the Centre for Applied Archaeology and Kazakh archaeologists, were the first for 50 years in the city and form part of a wider public outreach programme.

  11. Advice concerning pregnancy and health in late medieval Europe: peasant women's wisdom in The Distaff Gospels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garay, Kathleen; Jeay, Madeleine

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores an area which has proven difficult for scholars to penetrate: women's popular wisdom concerning medical matters in the later medieval period. Contextualized within an examination of medieval medical texts both by and about women, our discussion focuses on a later 15th-century French work, The Distaff Gospels. This text, published recently in English for the first time since 1510, consists of more than 200 pieces of advice or "gospels," ostensibly conveyed to one another by a group of women who met together during the long winter evenings to spin. A significant portion of the advice might be considered "medical" in nature; it is grouped into two broad categories: pregnancy and health. We conclude that although our text is male mediated, it provides a reliable and valuable guide to peasant women's medical lore during this period.

  12. Transient Astronomical Events as Inspiration Sources of Medieval and Renaissance Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incerti, M.; Bònoli, F.; Polcaro, V. F.

    2011-06-01

    It is known long since that a number of exceptional and highly impressive astronomical events have been represented in Medieval artworks. We just remember the Bayeux Tapestry and Giotto's The Adoration of the Magi in the Scrovegni Chapel in Padua, representing the P/Halley comet transits of 1067 and 1301, respectively, while The Apparition of Star to Magi fresco in the San Pietro in Valle Abbey in Ferentillo (1182) has been suggested to represent the 1181 supernova. However, no systematic survey of figurative Medieval and Renaissance art has been performed to date, in order to analyzing the role of transient astronomical events as inspiration sources of artworks in these epochs. In this work, we analyze a significant number of artworks, dated between the 9th and 16th century and representing figurative elements in some way connected with astronomy, in order to evaluate if they have been influenced by coeval extraordinary astronomical events.

  13. Sacred and profane topography in a medieval Serbian parish - an outline

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    Bojanin Stanoje

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a basic research scope of the social importance of microtoponyms and topographical features of villages and their precincts, which in the Middle Ages were organized as parish communities. The social space of the rural environment is segmented by different entities important for the social and religious life of the local community, such as a parish church with its yard, a cemetery, other churches and chapels in the fields and groves, freestanding crosses, certain bodies of water or some marked trees, typically the oak. The issue of the methods of analysing medieval sources of different provenience and fragmented data is of major importance. In order to understand the sources properly, we have to be aware of the social segmentation of a medieval society, from which diverse interpretation and functions of the cultural artefacts and performances (rituals, festivities originated. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177032: Tradition, innovation and identity in the Byzantine world

  14. The vernacularization of science, medicine, and technology in late medieval Europe: broadening our perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossgrove, W

    2000-01-01

    The "vernacularization" of medieval texts dealing with scientific subjects was a more complicated process than earlier views would suggest. While popularizations were certainly important, some vernacular texts were written for specialists (especially in medicine). Certain texts describing practical knowledge had no Latin original to draw from or relied on models from Antiquity quite unrelated to contemporary practice. Their study is further complicated by the state of research, which in some cases is relatively good (e.g. treatises on hunting) but in others doesn't even allow for a preliminary overview (e.g. surgeries). Other complicating factors are distribution (the limited circulation, e.g., of 'encyclopedias" against the presence of the ps.-Aristotelian Secreta Secretorum in all languages) and the availabilty of inventories, Middle Dutch and Middle English texts being the best documented. The essay concludes on some speculations about the similarity between contemporary English and Medieval Latin as scientific languages, and possible future developments.

  15. Red layered medieval stained glass window characterization by means of micro-PIXE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega-Feliu, I., E-mail: iofeliu@us.es [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Thomas A. Edison 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Gomez-Tubio, B. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Thomas A. Edison 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Aplicada III, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Respaldiza, M.A. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Thomas A. Edison 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Capel, F. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    Red layered medieval stained glass windows on a transparent greenish substrate are characteristic of European medieval cathedrals, but few compositional analyses have been performed on the coloured layers. The PIXE technique has been performed on a red layered stained glass window obtained during the restoration works carried out in Las Huelgas Monastery in Burgos (Spain). Protons of 3 MeV with a beam of 4 x 5 {mu}m{sup 2} were used to acquire elemental maps of a cross section of the sample, in order to observe the homogeneity of the layered structure and its substrate. In our work, copper was detected as in other layered glasses but a correspondence with lower amounts of zinc has also been determined. Both elements appear enriched in the red coloured layers, while the other quantified elements have the same relative composition along the sample. Corrosion layers, due to the lead supporting structure of the window, were also found.

  16. Interaction of pulse laser radiation of 532 nm with model coloration layers for medieval stone artefacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colson, J. [University of Vienna, Department of Physical Chemistry, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Nimmrichter, J. [Austrian Federal Office for the Care of Monuments, Department for Conservation and Restoration, Arsenal, Objekt 15, Tor 4, A-1030 Vienna (Austria); Kautek, W., E-mail: wolfgang.kautek@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Department of Physical Chemistry, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-05-01

    Multilayer polychrome coatings on medieval and Renaissance stone artefacts represent substantial challenges in laser cleaning. Therefore, polychromic models with classical pigments, minium (Pb{sub 2}{sup 2+}Pb{sup 4+}O{sub 4}), zinc white (ZnO), and lead white ((PbCO{sub 3}){sub 2}·Pb(OH){sub 2}) in an acrylic binder, were irradiated with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser emitting at 532 nm. The studied medieval pigments exhibit strongly varying incubation behaviours directly correlated to their band gap energies. Higher band gaps beyond the laser photon energy of 2.3 eV require more incubative generation of defects for resonant transitions. A matching of the modification thresholds after more than four laser pulses was observed. Laser cleaning with multiple pulsing should not exceed ca. 0.05 J/cm{sup 2} when these pigments coexist in close spatial proximity.

  17. The basis of the modern medical hygiene in the medieval Medical School of Salerno.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifulco, Maurizio; Capunzo, Mario; Marasco, Magda; Pisanti, Simona

    2015-01-01

    The link between hygiene and the concept of transmission of infective diseases was established earlier than the birth of microbiology, thanks to the studies of two neglected physicians of maternity clinic, Ignác Fülöp Semmelweis and Oliver Holmes, in the mid-1800s. Surprisingly, centuries earlier, a medieval women physician, Trotula de Ruggiero, introduced for the first time the notion of diseases’ prevention, highlighting the importance of the association of personal hygiene, balanced nutrition and physical activity for better health. Moreover, she was particularly concerned of hands hygiene for the midwives during child birth, to preserve the good health of both the mother and the baby. She practiced inside the medieval Medical School of Salerno, whose main text, the “Regimen Sanitatis Salerni” has an entire part dedicated to hygiene, providing hygienic precepts that anticipate the concepts derived from the revolutionary discoveries in medical science only centuries later.

  18. Universality of revealed Law and reflections on religions in Medieval Islamic philosophy: a few considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Barchiesi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available By analysing some Medieval Islamic philosophical theories, this paper aims at investigating the approach adopted by authors such as Avicenna and Averroës in respect of religions different from those of origin (Judaism, Christianism, Zoroastrianism and Sabeism. Moreover, it reflects on the universality of Islamic religion. The author will examine these philosophers' thoughts on prophetic teaching, recalling the Platonic sources from which they were developed, she will motivate the relevance of such thoughts in political science and she will explain their purposes. Furthermore, through a comparison with several scholars who have focused on whether Islamic Law has a conventional or natural status, she will try to investigate the origins of this problem, by examining the universal message that those Islamic Medieval philosophers found in revealed Law and the reasons that led them to present it as addressed to the whole mankind.

  19. Combined GPR and ERT exploratory geophysical survey of the Medieval Village of Pancorbo Castle (Burgos, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Álvarez, José-Paulino; Rubio-Melendi, David; Quirós Castillo, Juan Antonio; González-Quirós, Andrés; Cimadevilla-Fuente, David

    2017-09-01

    Ground-penetrating Radar (GPR) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) have been fruitfully employed for archaeological purposes. An area at the Pancorbo medieval site in Burgos (Spain) has been jointly explored by GPR and ERT in the search for the buried remains of the Pancorbo medieval village. After data collection, quality control and merging, a shallow depth of interest was identified and studied in detail. 3D resistivity simulation, considering sensible geometrical structures of the targets helped discover anomalies present in the area. On the other hand, visual GPR inspection was considerably enhanced by trace energy attribute analysis which provided a plan view of the existing anomalies. Two posterior archaeological excavations have a very good correlation between the identified anomalies and the excavated remains. The survey also provides hints for the continuation of the excavation.

  20. The Impact of Devegetated Dune Fields on North American Climate During the Late Medieval Climate Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, B. I.; Seager, R.; Miller, R. L.

    2011-01-01

    During the Medieval Climate Anomaly, North America experienced severe droughts and widespread mobilization of dune fields that persisted for decades. We use an atmosphere general circulation model, forced by a tropical Pacific sea surface temperature reconstruction and changes in the land surface consistent with estimates of dune mobilization (conceptualized as partial devegetation), to investigate whether the devegetation could have exacerbated the medieval droughts. Presence of devegetated dunes in the model significantly increases surface temperatures, but has little impact on precipitation or drought severity, as defined by either the Palmer Drought Severity Index or the ratio of precipitation to potential evapotranspiration. Results are similar to recent studies of the 1930s Dust Bowl drought, suggesting bare soil associated with the dunes, in and of itself, is not sufficient to amplify droughts over North America.

  1. Acoustic vessels as an expression of medieval music tradition in Serbian sacred architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Zorana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Archaeoacoustics is a multidisciplinary field of research focused on the history of the relatedness of the field of sound and architecture. The architectural history of Europe, from Antiquity to the modern period, is abundant in the findings of vessels, which are considered to have an acoustic purpose. This paper addresses these acoustic vessels embedded in the massive walls of sacred architecture in medieval Serbia (15 churches. We considered the wide context of current archaeoacoustic research, in order to argue that this practice can be regarded as an expression of a certain medieval musical tradition. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 177012: Society, spiritual and material culture and communication on the Balkans in prehistory and early history of Balkans and Grant no. 179048: Theory and practice of science in society: multidisciplinary, educational and intergenerational perspectives

  2. Aristotle's carp as Claretus' bird comor? Tracing the origin of one medieval term

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedinová, Hana

    -, č. 2 (2016), s. 111-123 ISSN 0567-8269 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13043 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : ancient and medieval zoology * Latin lexicography * Aristoteles * Aristoteles Latinus * Michael Scotus * Thomas of Cantimpré * Claretus * carp * komor * comor Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics http://www.karolinum.cz/ink2_stat/index.jsp?include=AUC_clanek&id=2668&casopis=94&zalozka=0&predkl=0

  3. Study on the medieval eruptive activity of the Somma-Vesuvius volcano in the SW sector

    OpenAIRE

    Paolillo, Annarita

    2016-01-01

    The PhD project is divided in three parts: (i) a detailed mapping of the Southern-Western sector of the Vesuvius, integrating stratigraphic and petrologic data with archaeological and historical information; (ii) a study of the medieval eruptive activity of the Somma-Vesuvius volcano, an important period of the Vesuvius’ activity, which has been definitely under-researched, in which we focused on the correlations between inland and offshore tephra fallout deposits, integrating newly collected...

  4. Formas no personales del verbo en el español medieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Pawlik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we intend to investigate the three elements of the Spanish verb system, ie. infinitive (cantar, present and past participles (cantando, cantado. We will find out the changes undergone by these grammatical forms and their function during medieval Spanish. This period is considered to be crucial for the formation and the future role played by the impersonal forms of verb.

  5. The occipital area in medieval dogs and the role of occipital dysplasia in dog breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Janeczek, Maciej; CHROSZCZ, Aleksander

    2014-01-01

    An investigation was carried out on 42 dog skulls from the early medieval period. The skulls were excavated in Wroclaw, Poland, and in Novgorod and Moscow, Russia. Craniometric measurements were taken. On the basis of the basion-ethmoid measurement, the shoulder height was estimated. The foramen magnum height and width were measured and the foramen magnum index was calculated. The foramen magnum was typical in shape, and any occipital dysplasia signs observed were in the skulls. The results o...

  6. Arqueología Medieval en Guipúzcoa. Estado actual y perspectivas de futuro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mercedes Urteaga Artigas

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available La Arqueología Medieval en Guipúzcoa tiene una larga trayectoria. Iniciada a principios de siglo, las actuaciones se han sucedido hasta el presente, de manera intermitente. En la actualidad presenta una evolución acelerada, ligada, sobre todo, a las intervenciones de salvamento. El futuro de la misma, parece especialmente vinculado a este tipo de actuaciones arqueológicas.

  7. La escolástica medieval en los escritos confesionales del luteranismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Svensson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El artículo busca establecer la presencia de elementos de la escolástica medieval en los escritos confesionales del luteranismo. Por esta vía se busca alcanzar algunas precisiones sobre la continuidad en este periodo de la historia intelectual, así como iluminar también el tipo de valoración de la actividad filosófica por parte de los reformadores.

  8. Water management strategies and the cave-dwelling phenomenon in Late-Medieval Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Buhagiar, Keith

    2007-01-01

    In the arid Maltese archipelago, farmers have been almost exclusively dependent on the annual rainfall, aided by irrigation where the geology permits. The archaeological significance and relevance of narrow rock-cut tunnels tapping the perched aquifer had until my study of the medieval and early modern cave-settlements and water galleries in NW. Malta, south-west of the Great Fault (Fig. 1),1 and further fieldwork since 2002, escaped scholarly atten- tion. The geology of Ma...

  9. The Conservation of Early Post-Medieval Period Coins Found in Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Aive Viljus; Mart Viljus

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with archaeological find material with a low silver content and the problems of conserving such material. The aim of the research was to find the most suitable method for the conservation of poorly preserved early post-medieval period coins with varying composition. For this, first, the composition of both the metal and the corrosion products of the archaeological coins were analysed, after which comparative experiments of different cleaning methods were carried out in orde...

  10. From Rome to the Antipodes: the medieval form of the world

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Here we discuss how some medieval scholars in the Western Europe viewed the form of the world and the problem of the Antipodes, starting from the Natural History written by Pliny and ending in the Hell of Dante Alighieri. From the center of the Earth, Dante and Virgil came to the Antipodes: eventually, their existence was accepted. Among the others, we will discuss the works of the Venerable Bede and Sylvester the Second.

  11. The "Endura" of The Cathars' Heresy: Medieval Concept of Ritual Euthanasia or Suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiamis, Costas; Tounta, Eleni; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study is to explore the medieval concepts on the voluntary death of severely sick people, as they emerge through the endura (endurance) of the heresy of the Cathars in France (twelfth to fourteenth centuries). The endura was the prerequisite act of repentance that would allow the fallen soul to return to heaven. The endura was a necessary act of repentance, after the performance of a ceremonial purification of the soul (consolamentum), and consisted of the patients' voluntary abstention from vital food. The consolamentum and endura could be performed in the final stage of a disease with the consent of the patients or their relatives. The role of the Cathar physician was only to determine the severity of the disease and the forthcoming death of the patient. The physician was not allowed to take steps that would deprive the life of the patient, and the performance of the ritual endura was duty of the spiritual leaders of the community. The modern ethical approach to this subject is dictated by the medieval belief on the salvation of the soul and tries to answer the question of whether the endura could be seen as a medieval concept of a ritual euthanasia or fell within the theological sin of suicide.

  12. Archaeology of Architecture and Archaeology of houses in Early Medieval Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quirós Castillo, Juan Antonio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce the «Archaeology of Architecture and Household Archaeology in Early Medieval Europe» dossier, the object of which is to explore the different approaches, methodologies and themes analysed in the study of early medieval architecture in western Europe. More specifically, in what follows, analysis is undertaken of the contexts which explain the recent development of studies on this topic, as well as the main contributions of the seven papers which form this dossier. In addition, the main historical and archaeological problems raised by the analysis of this material record are also discussed.En este trabajo se presenta el dossier «Archaeology of Architecture and Household Archaeology in Early Medieval Europe», que pretende explorar los distintos enfoques, metodologías y temáticas analizadas en el estudio de las arquitecturas altomedievales en el marco de Europa occidental. Más concretamente se analizan los contextos que explican el desarrollo reciente de los estudios sobre esta materia, las principales aportaciones de los siete trabajos que conforman este dossier y se discuten los principales problemas históricos y arqueológicos que plantea el análisis de este registro material.

  13. The Medieval Song as Historical Memory of The Social Construction of Female Reflections for Literature Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Sodré

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to demonstrate how the social representation of women was historically built to consolidate a stereotypical social memory, sexist and patriarchal female in Christian Eastern society and from a multidisciplinary perspective and critical with theoretical support of sociocognitive proposal of Critical Studies of Speech and literature critics, it is possible to propose discussions on this issue in the medieval literary text teaching and recover the dialogue with social issues that today represent a concern for our society. From the study of a medieval song from Alfonso X (XIII century, we try to present the discursive strategies that reveal the polarized construction of the medieval social representation of a double minority: a woman (gender and “soldadeira” (occupation. The results of this article to outline the ways in which some concepts produced in the Speech from the Critical Studies can contribute to a dialogical awareness of the student in literary text teaching, point to the need to consider social issues in education, which not only conducive to students perception of the dialogical relations between different times, but also recover the discussion of a historical memory, cultural and social on the subject of women.

  14. The Legal Regulation of Artisan and Trade Corporations in the Cities of Medieval Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine G. Medvedev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article features an analysis of the legal regulation of the formation and activity of artisan and trade corporations in the cities of medieval Europe. Based on the findings of an analysis of existing scientific theories, as well as a study of legal and regulatory acts, the author aims to explore the issue of the emergence of cities and workshop organizations in them and reveal their legal essence and content. The relevance of this paper is due to the fact that up until now a sufficiently definitive opinion is yet to be propounded in historical and historical/legal science as to the origin and development of such specific urban institutions as workshops and workshop corporations, with their special legal regulation. The author comes to the conclusion that the formation of cities and workshop organizations reflected the evolution of the economic and social development of medieval society, which was associated with social division of labor. The paper’s major focus is not on the statutory regulation of the work of masters and not on the regulation of workshop craft methods, which can be explained quite logically by the economic need for adapting medieval artisan production to the limited needs and capacity of the local market, and which is the subject of study for the majority of present-day scholars, but issues related to the very organization of the workshop, its position in the system of urban establishments, as well as the legal status of its members.

  15. Los animales en el mundo medieval cristiano-occidental : actitud y mentalidad

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    María Dolores Carmen Morales Muñiz

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo analiza el peso que los animales tuvieron en la sociedad medieval y especialmente en la mentalidad del hombre. Se subraya la importancia que el uso material de los animales tuvo a la hora de conformar esa actitud. En la segunda parte del trabajo se profundiza en manifestaciones como la simbología o la magia en donde los animales jugaron un papel principal. Un último punto del trabajo comenta la hipótesis de J. Salisbury sobre el descubrimiento, a partir del siglo xii, del animal interior presente en los hombres.The present paper reviews the role played by animals in medieval society and mentality. In particular we stress the importance which the material use of each species had in determining specific roles. The second part of the work deals with symbolic and magical connotations, fields in which animáis played a most prominent role throughout medieval times. One final aspect comments on J. Salisbury's hypothesis of «the beast within man» which seems to date back to the tweifth century.

  16. Reported weather events in medieval Hungary: the 11th-15th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    In the presentation an overview of weather events, documented in contemporary written sources - available both in private and institutional evidence -, is provided: geographically the study covers the Hungarian kingdom (occasionally also with sources from the medieval Croatian kingdoms) that included most parts of the Carpathian Basin. Even if the temporal coverage extends the high and late medieval period between 1000 to 1500, most of the data comes from the late medieval times, with special emphasis on the 15th century. Most of the information is available regarding cold spells (e.g. early and late frosts), but especially cold winter periods. Nevertheless, contemporary documentary evidence - mainly legal documentation (charters), official and private correspondence, partly narratives and town accounts - also consists of evidence concerning other, weather-related extreme events such as (thunder)storms, floods and droughts. Apart from the discussion of the availability and type of these events, based on the relative frequency of occurrence we can define periods when a higher frequency and magnitude of weather-related events were reported that is mainly not dependent on changing source densities. These detectable periods (e.g. the early and mid-14th, early and late 15th centuries) are also a further, separate topic of discussion in the presentation.

  17. Connecting medieval megadroughts and surface climate in the Last Millennium Reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, M. P.; Emile-Geay, J.; Anderson, D. M.; Hakim, G. J.; Horlick, K. A.; Noone, D.; Perkins, W. A.; Steig, E. J.; Tardif, R.

    2016-12-01

    The North American Drought Atlas shows severe, long-lasting droughts during the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Because drought frequency and severity over the coming century is an area of vital interest, better understanding the causes of these historic droughts is crucial. A variety of research has suggested that a La Niña state was important for producing medieval megadroughts [1], and other work has indicated the potential roles of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation [2] and internal atmospheric variability [3]. Correlations between drought and large-scale climate patterns also exist in the instrumental record [4], but understanding these relationships is far from complete. To investigate these relationships further, a data assimilation approach is employed. Proxy records - including tree rings, corals, and ice cores - are used to constrain climate states over the Common Era. By using general circulation model (GCM) output to quantify the covariances in the climate system, climate can be constrained not just at proxy sites but for all covarying locations and climate fields. Multiple GCMs will be employed to offset the limitations of imperfect model physics. This "Last Millennium Reanalysis" will be used to quantify relationships between North American medieval megadroughts and sea surface temperature patterns in the Atlantic and Pacific. 1. Cook, E. R., et al., Earth-Sci. Rev. 81, 93 (2007). 2. Oglesby, R., et al., Global Planet. Change 84-85, 56 (2012). 3. Stevenson, S., et al., J. Climate 28, 1865 (2015). 4. Cook, B. I., et al., J. Climate 27, 383 (2014).

  18. Duration and severity of Medieval drought in the Lake Tahoe Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleppe, J.A.; Brothers, D.S.; Kent, G.M.; Biondi, F.; Jensen, S.; Driscoll, N.W.

    2011-01-01

    Droughts in the western U.S. in the past 200 years are small compared to several megadroughts that occurred during Medieval times. We reconstruct duration and magnitude of extreme droughts in the northern Sierra Nevada from hydroclimatic conditions in Fallen Leaf Lake, California. Stands of submerged trees rooted in situ below the lake surface were imaged with sidescan sonar and radiocarbon analysis yields an age estimate of ∼1250 AD. Tree-ring records and submerged paleoshoreline geomorphology suggest a Medieval low-stand of Fallen Leaf Lake lasted more than 220 years. Over eighty more trees were found lying on the lake floor at various elevations above the paleoshoreline. Water-balance calculations suggest annual precipitation was less than 60% normal from late 10th century to early 13th century AD. Hence, the lake’s shoreline dropped 40–60 m below its modern elevation. Stands of pre-Medieval trees in this lake and in Lake Tahoe suggest the region experienced severe drought at least every 650–1150 years during the mid- and late-Holocene. These observations quantify paleo-precipitation and recurrence of prolonged drought in the northern Sierra Nevada.

  19. SharedCanvas: A Collaborative Model for Medieval Manuscript Layout Dissemination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, Robert D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Albritton, Benjamin [Stanford University; Schwemmer, Rafael [e-codices; Van De Sompel, Herbert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a model based on the principles of Linked Data that can be used to describe the interrelationships of images, texts and other resources to facilitate the interoperability of repositories of medieval manuscripts or other culturally important handwritten documents. The model is designed from a set of requirements derived from the real world use cases of some of the largest digitized medieval content holders, and instantiations of the model are intended as the input to collection-independent page turning and scholarly presentation interfaces. A canvas painting paradigm, such as in PDF and SVG, was selected based on the lack of a one to one correlation between image and page, and to fulfill complex requirements such as when the full text of a page is known, but only fragments of the physical object remain. The model is implemented using technologies such as OAI-ORE Aggregations and OAC Annotations, as the fundamental building blocks of emerging Linked Digital Libraries. The model and implementation are evaluated through prototypes of both content providing and consuming applications. Although the system was designed from requirements drawn from the medieval manuscript domain, it is applicable to any layout-oriented presentation of images of text.

  20. Application of Analytic Signal and Euler Deconvolution in Archaeo-Magnetic Prospection for Buried Ruins at the Ancient City of Pelusium, NW Sinai, Egypt: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Akram Mekhael; Sauck, William August; Shendi, El-Arabi Hendi; Rashed, Mohamed Ahmed; Abd El-Maksoud, Mohamed

    2013-07-01

    Progress in the past three decades in geophysical data processing and interpretation techniques was particularly focused in the field of aero-geophysics. The present study is to demonstrate the application of some of these techniques, including Analytic Signal, Located Euler Deconvolution, Standard Euler Deconvolution, and 2D inverse modelling, to help in enhancing and interpreting the archeo-magnetic measurements. A high-resolution total magnetic field survey was conducted at the ancient city of Pelusium (name derived from the ancient Pelusiac branch of the Nile, and recently called Tell el-Farama), located in the northwestern corner of the Sinai Peninsula. The historical city had served as a harbour throughout the Egyptian history. Different ruins at the site have been dated back to late Pharaonic, Graeco-Roman, Byzantine, Coptic, and Islamic periods. An area of 10,000 m2, to the west of the famous huge red brick citadel of Pelusium, was surveyed using the magnetic method. The chosen location was recommended by the Egyptian archaeologists, where they suspected the presence of buried foundations of a temple to the gods Zeus and Kasios. The interpretation of the results revealed interesting shallow-buried features, which may represent the Temple's outer walls. These walls are elongated in the same azimuth as the northern wall of the citadel, which supports the hypothesis of a controlling feature such as a former seacoast or shore of a distributary channel.

  1. Karg S., D.E. Robinson (2002): Secondary food plants from medieval sites in Denmark: fruits, nuts, vegetables, herbs and spices. In: K. Viklund, R. Engelmark (eds.) Nordic Archaeobotany-NAG 2000 in Umeå.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karg, Sabine

    2002-01-01

    Secondary food plants from medieval sites in Denmark: fruits, nuts, vegetables, herbs and spices.......Secondary food plants from medieval sites in Denmark: fruits, nuts, vegetables, herbs and spices....

  2. La filosofía medieval. Desde sus orígenes patrísticos hasta la Escolástica barroca. [Reseña

    OpenAIRE

    García-Cuadrado, J.A. (José Ángel)

    2004-01-01

    Reseña de Josep-Ignasi SARANYANA, La filosofía medieval. Desde sus orígenes patrísticos hasta la Escolástica barroca, EUNSA («Pensamiento Medieval y Renacentista », 51), Pamplona 2003, 520 pp., 17 x 24, ISBN 84-313-2100-8.

  3. New evidence for the catastrophic demise of a prehistoric settlement (the Lajia Ruins) in the Guanting Basin, upper Yellow River, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Huang, Chun Chang; Zheng, Zixing; Hu, Ying; Zhang, Yuzhu; Guo, Yongqiang; Zhou, Qiang

    2017-09-01

    The Lajia Ruins in the Guanting Basin, NW China, are a product of the prehistoric Qijia Culture. Like Pompeii, they are a rare example of an archaeological site preserved by a natural disaster and are therefore important in archaeology, anthropology and geology. However, the nature of the disaster(s) responsible for the destruction of the site remains controversial. Most studies have focused on an earthquake and a red clay layer directly overlying the site and a detailed stratigraphic study of the mid-Holocene sedimentary strata combined with other intervals of red clay deposition (hence possible disasters) is lacking. We identified a mid-Holocene paleosol sequence (the Shanglajia section) at the site which contains two layers of red clay, dated to 3950 a BP and 3500 a BP, intercalated within the mid-Holocene paleosol (S0). Subsequent multi-proxy analysis indicated that the characteristics of the two red clay layers resemble those of typical Tertiary red clay deposits and the modern gully deposit at the foot of the Great Red Hills, but are distinctly different from those of the slackwater deposits of the Yellow River and the mid-Holocene paleosol. Our results suggest that, at 3950 a BP and 3500 a BP, two large-scale rainstorm-induced mudflow events, originating from the gullies to the north, flooded the Lajia area on the second terrace of the Yellow River, devastating and burying the human settlements. We infer that the intensified erosion and mass wasting were caused by human activity; in addition, natural factors such as rainstorms and earthquakes, may also have played an important role in triggering catastrophic mudflow events in the Tertiary Red Clay deposits. Overall, our results provide further insights into prehistoric man-land relationships in this environmentally sensitive region which may have implications for modern land use in this region of China and elsewhere.

  4. Mahalle as a Territorial Unit of the Medieval Bakhchisaray: According to the Kadiasker Notebooks’ Materials »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Abibullaeva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is based on the Kadiasker notebooks materials (Court registries, which represent a valuable source of the Crimean Khanate history. To date, these regulatory documents have been studied partially because they represent Ottoman arabografic manuscripts of the 17th–18th centuries, which makes them difficult to study. The topic will be considered in the context of the medieval (islamic city of Bakhchisaray. Due to the extant Court Registries of the 17th–18th centuries, it has become possible today to provide the most complete picture of the social life of the medieval city and its neighborhoods. The study of revealed names of neighborhoods allowed us to successfully identify the citizens’ occupation and social structure of urban society. The conducted overview of the data for each block of the past century has shown that the name of blocks tend to be very durable, though did not remain unchanged. Tracing the century after century changes in the composition and names of the urban neighborhoods by the use of matched written and ethnographic (questionnaire data as well as observations of the historically appearance of the city of Bakhchisaray, lead the author to the conclusion that the formation of residential areas was one of the manifestations of the city development. The locations of some of the neighborhoods were determined based on the information of court registries and extant monuments of medieval Bakhchisaray. Unfortunately, identifying of approximate boundaries of all blocks is a challenging task, due to the fact that not all the mosques, fountains, madrassas and other architectural buildings, which are guides in our study, are preserved. In turn, the Kadiasker notebooks are also partially preserved, and they are one of the few sources that allow detailed study of ethnography issues, muslim law and history of the Crimean Khanate.

  5. The modern enterprise – successor of business organization forms in ancient Rome and medieval Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Pacala

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, researchers and practitioners are increasingly interested in the role and influence of the forms of business organization on the economy and society. Interpretations of the role of companies in the modern period, ranging from enthusiastic support (as the most important invention of capitalism, an explanation of the Western civilization’s expansion to moderate and often critical positions, where the company is seen as a solution, not necessarily optimal, to market imperfections. On the other hand, we often ponder upon the explanation of political, administrative and infrastructural success of ancient Rome: the state or the enterprise (the private initiative? Closer to our time, we rediscover with amazement that the "dark" Middle Ages are not at all dark and lacking in progress, at least in terms of capitalist organization and logic. The development of trade in the two poles of medieval Europe (the Mediterranean and the BaltoScandinavian area, of industry and trade in the North-Western quadrant (Flanders and neighbouring regions, was concurrent with the improvement of organizational forms of business, with the diversity and flexibility of entrepreneurial or even corporate frameworks. Of course, the study of historical sources (ancient or medieval cannot provide direct answers or solutions to the questions of modern society, because the challenges of today are rather different to those of the past. On the other hand, understanding history can help companies to build a more complete and a wiser enterprise functionality and role in the modern society, to reformulate the questions and to find new solutions. Our paper, with a clear juridical perspective on economic history, focuses on the organization of firms in ancient Rome and medieval Europe, tries to provide examples, useful interpretations and diverse solutions to the problems of contemporary society and economy.

  6. Piloting a National Programme for the Digitization of Medieval Manuscripts in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fabian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An initiative to develop a concerted national programme for the digitization of medieval manuscripts in Germany was launched by five German manuscript centres in January 2013. This new proposal aims at the development of a master plan for the digitization of nearly all surviving medieval manuscripts in Germany and at the establishment of a new funding programme of the DFG (German Research Foundation, the largest research funding organization in Germany.Besides this fundamental financial aspect, other objectives are the diffusion of technical standards and know-how to less experienced cultural heritage institutions and the creation of a nationwide network of competent partners, e.g. in the areas of digitization itself, long-term storage of digital data, the administration of persistent identifiers, and the internet presentation of digital collections. An important role will be played by the German manuscripts portal, Manuscripta Mediaevalia, which is intended as the central hub for both the presentation of digital collections of German manuscripts, but also of the relevant metadata, that is, digital and ideally searchable full-text versions of scholarly, in-depth manuscript descriptions. Of course, this centralization and aggregation will also facilitate the exchange of data with other institutions.The pilot phase will lead to the definition of a national digitization strategy with a clear prioritization of projects to be approached. It also aims at the creation of a sustainable technical infrastructure for the integration of both primary and secondary digital data. In this way, the current fragmentation of information in a plethora of local digitization projects is to be superseded by a unitary and complete virtual research environment for all those interested in medieval manuscripts from Germany.

  7. La necrópolis medieval del Cerro de la Horca de Toledo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Taboada, Arturo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The archaeological excavation of part of a medieval necropolis at the Cerro de la Horca (Toledo has provided new information regarding burial traditions in Toledo. One formal aspect is common to the broad range of graves that have been brought to light, namely the pit that was dug for the burial, being of considerable depth in a number of cases. Because little is known of the funerary practices in Toledo during the Middle Ages and hardly any objects have been recovered in the excavation, it is difficult to identify the religious community to which it belonged. Whereas the location of Muslim and Christian cemeteries have been known through documentary and archaeological sources, only popular traditions quoted so far the Jewish necropolis, its location remaining thus a mystery.

    La excavación arqueológica desarrollada en un sector del Cerro de La Horca ha permitido conocer aspectos inéditos del ritual de enterramiento medieval en Toledo. Se ha documentado una amplia tipología de tumbas con un único elemento constructivo común para todas ellas, la excavación previa de una fosa que, en numerosos casos, alcanza gran profundidad. El desconocimiento sobre el mundo funerario medieval toledano y la falta de materiales arqueológicos representativos en esta necrópolis han obligado a reflexionar sobre la comunidad religiosa a la que pertenecen estos enterramientos. Por fuentes históricas y excavaciones previas, conocemos la localización de necrópolis musulmanas y cristianas. La localización de la(s judía(s había sido, al menos hasta ahora, una incógnita.

  8. Charlemagne's summit canal: an early medieval hydro-engineering project for passing the Central European Watershed.

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    Christoph Zielhofer

    Full Text Available The Central European Watershed divides the Rhine-Main catchment and the Danube catchment. In the Early Medieval period, when ships were important means of transportation, Charlemagne decided to link both catchments by the construction of a canal connecting the Schwabian Rezat and the Altmühl rivers. The artificial waterway would provide a continuous inland navigation route from the North Sea to the Black Sea. The shortcut is known as Fossa Carolina and represents one of the most important Early Medieval engineering achievements in Europe. Despite the important geostrategic relevance of the construction it is not clarified whether the canal was actually used as a navigation waterway. We present new geophysical data and in situ findings from the trench fills that prove for the first time a total length of the constructed Carolingian canal of at least 2300 metres. We have evidence for a conceptual width of the artificial water course between 5 and 6 metres and a water depth of at least 60 to 80 cm. This allows a crossing way passage of Carolingian cargo scows with a payload of several tons. There is strong evidence for clayey to silty layers in the trench fills which reveal suspension load limited stillwater deposition and, therefore, the evidence of former Carolingian and post-Carolingian ponds. These findings are strongly supported by numerous sapropel layers within the trench fills. Our results presented in this study indicate an extraordinarily advanced construction level of the known course of the canal. Here, the excavated levels of Carolingian trench bottoms were generally sufficient for the efficient construction of stepped ponds and prove a final concept for a summit canal. We have evidence for the artificial Carolingian dislocation of the watershed and assume a sophisticated Early Medieval hydrological engineering concept for supplying the summit of the canal with adequate water.

  9. La revisión de un cuento medieval en un sitio de Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Noël-Gaudreault

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This article has as a topic the revision of a text with the help of a Web page. Our question was, “What are the elements of the rewriting phase for a didactical sequence on fiction writing, when using computer tools, in this case to create a tale within a medieval setting?” We summarize the advantages of using a Web site for this, and we go on by tracing out the concepts that underlie rereading and rewriting the tale, and by listing the main objects to check during the revision process, completeness, coherence-cohesion, vocabulary, syntax and spelling.

  10. El arte medieval y la Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez de León Fernández, Ángeles

    2011-01-01

    La presente tesis reúne en tres capítulos un estudio global dentro del ámbito de la real academia de bellas artes de san Fernando de Madrid sobre la revalorización del arte y la historia medieval en España desde 1752. Incluye en su contenido los discursos de recepción ordenados cronológicamente y por materias, el catalogo de los dibujos que se conservan que representan los monumentos, esculturas, pinturas, etc. Ordenados por estilos y materias y los episodios históricos propuestos para el fom...

  11. The siting and environmental change of a high medieval monastery in central German highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büdel, Christian; Tintrup, Angela; Baumhauer, Roland

    2017-04-01

    The geology of central German highlands is dominated by Triassic sandstones of the Bunter sandstone unit (German: Buntsandstein). These rocks commonly lack of minerals and they are unsuitable for beneficial agriculture. Early settlers in the Spessart highlands in central Germany therefore preferred patches of Pleistocene loess accumulation for the siting of their residences. The occurrence and distribution of this preferred loess-sites at high medieval times is of high interest and still under discussion. The investigated monastery site of Elisabethenzell was founded, developed and abandoned during a short medieval period and in an exposed and delimited area. The investigation of its environmental history and landscape offers insights to the careful decision of the former settlers. Both, historical maps and the data from laser altimetry were assessed in order to compile a comprehensive overview of the monasteries situation. In addition, pedologic, sedimentologic and geomorphologic prospections were conducted and all data was assessed using a geographic information system (GIS). At selected sites ramming core probes, and sections helped to determine specific soil and sediment characteristics. The results show subsoils of mineral-poor sandstones and Pleistocene periglacial layers with a thickness of up to 4-6 meters. The constructional elements of the monastery take advantage of the shape of the Pleistocene landforms, which was observed together with a local melioration of the mostly acidic Cambisols. This is provided by the delimited occurrence of loamy loesses in relictic Luvisols. The meliorated soils coincide with a better availability of water, which is due to the local geomorphology and higher clay contents in underlying Miocene and Pliocene sediments. As a consequence, medieval agriculture and gardening is likely and the landforms reveal preferable areas offering a confined gradation as well as evidence for the prevention of soil erosion. A prospection of soil

  12. The Conservation of Early Post-Medieval Period Coins Found in Estonia

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    Aive Viljus

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with archaeological find material with a low silver content and the problems of conserving such material. The aim of the research was to find the most suitable method for the conservation of poorly preserved early post-medieval period coins with varying composition. For this, first, the composition of both the metal and the corrosion products of the archaeological coins were analysed, after which comparative experiments of different cleaning methods were carried out in order to find out the least harmful and most efficient method. A test was also performed to determine the necessity and efficiency of stabilizing the surface of the coins after cleaning.

  13. The Ebstorf Map: tradition and contents of a medieval picture of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pischke, G.

    2014-07-01

    The Ebstorf Map (Wilke, 2001; Kugler, 2007; Wolf, 2004, 2006, 2007, 2009a, b), the largest medieval map of the world whose original has been lost, is not only a geographical map. In the Middle Ages, a map contained mystic, historical and religious motifs. Of central importance is Jesus Christ, who, in the Ebstorf Map, is part of the earth. The Ebstorf Map contains the knowledge of the time of its creation; it can be used for example as an atlas, as a chronicle of the world, or as an illustrated Bible.

  14. In praise of death: history and poetry in medieval Marwar (South Asia)

    OpenAIRE

    Kamphorst, Janet

    2008-01-01

    This study of heroic and epic “war poetry” transmitted by the poets of pastoral-nomadic communities in medieval Marwar (Rajasthan) evokes the lived past of the Rajput, Bhil and Charan of the Marwari desert with a detailed analysis of poetic sources concerning Pabuji, a fourteenth-century warrior and present-day Hindu god. The author, who undertook three years of archival and anthropological research in western Rajasthan, offers an interpretation of Pabuji’s world that allows us to look afresh...

  15. A lime based mortar for thermal insulation of medieval church vaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, P.K.; Hansen, Tessa Kvist

    . The lambda-value of the insulation mortar is 0.08 W/m K or twice the lambda-value for mineral wool. The water vapour permeability is equal to a medieval clay brick, and it has three times higher capacity for liquid water absorption. The mortar was applied to the top side of the vaults in a thickness of 10 cm......, despite a water vapour pressure gradient up to 500 Pa between the nave and attic. There was no reduction in energy consumption the first winter, possibly due to the increased heat loss related to the drying of the mortar....

  16. Reconstruction of spatial patterns of climatic anomalies during the medieval warm period (AD 900-1300)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, H.F. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States). Environmental Research Labs.; Hughes, M.K. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Lab. of Tree-Ring Research

    1992-12-31

    The workshop will focus on climatic variations during the Medieval Warm Period or Little Climatic Optimum. The nominal time interval assigned to this period is AD 900--1300, but climate information available during the century or two preceding and following this episode is welcome. The aims of the workshop will be to: examine the available evidence for the existence of this episode; assess the spatial and temporal synchronicity of the climatic signals; discuss possible forcing mechanisms; and identify areas and paleoenvironmental records where additional research efforts are needed to improve our knowledge of this period. This document consists of abstracts of eighteen papers presented at the meeting.

  17. Qual manera quier: «interposition» in Medieval Spanish indefinite compounds

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    Enrique Pato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article, which is part of a larger study of changes in Spanish grammar, deals with the history of indefinite compounds and, more specifically with interposition in Medieval Spanish (qual manera quier, a structure inherited from Latin. The study describes indefinite compounds, and then provides evidence of their distribution by text type, the noun interposed, preposition applied and accompanying conjunction. The study is based on data from the Alfonsine corpus and includes information from other corpora; it also examines the occurrence of other compounds and comparable uses in other languages.

  18. Medieval Slavic-German Bilingualism in the Light of Austrian Hybrid Proper Names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Holzer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Examining the medieval Slavic-German bilingualism on the territory of present-day Austria, one should differentiate bilingualism of a territory (i. e. coexistence, within an area, of speakers of two different languages, each speaking one language from individual bilingualism (capacity of an individual to speak two languages. The paper deals with the question whether it is possible to prove the Slavic-German individual bilingualism in the Middle Ages based on the study of hybrid proper names. The author argues that only calques (e. g., Tobropotoch German *Friesnik, modified by folk etymology into a compound name Friesenegg.

  19. Cranial vault trauma and selective mortality in medieval to early modern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldsen, Jesper L; Milner, George R; Weise, Svenja

    2015-01-01

    To date, no estimates of the long-term effect of cranial vault fractures on the risk of dying have been generated from historical or prehistoric skeletons. Excess mortality provides a perspective on the efficacy of modern treatment, as well as the human cost of cranial injuries largely related...... to interpersonal violence in past populations. Three medieval to early modern Danish skeletal samples are used to estimate the effect of selective mortality on males with cranial vault injuries who survived long enough for bones to heal. The risk of dying for these men was 6.2 times higher than...

  20. The past as text. The theory and practice of Medieval Historiograpy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel López

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Spiegel, Gabrielle. The past as texto. The theory and practice of medieval historiography. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Paperback edition, 1999, 298 p. Este libro que reúne once artículos escritos entre 1971 y 1997 constituye una invitación a enfrentar los retos de la propuesta postmodernista, a conocer sus limitaciones, pero también a tener en cuenta sus ventajas. Consta de dos partes. La primera se ocupa de los fundamentos teóricos y sociales del llamado giro lingüístico y su influencia en los estudios de historia.

  1. [Health and dietetics in medieval preventive medicine: the health regimen of Peter of Spain (thirteenth century)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Dulce O Amarante Dos; Fagundes, Maria Daílza da Conceição

    2010-06-01

    This text is an analysis of a preventive medical work, Liber de conservanda sanitate, composed in the thirteenth century by the Portuguese physician and doctor, Peter of Spain (?1210-1277). His work enables us to look at the conceptions of health and hygiene and understand the social role of university physicians in medieval preventive medicine. The work constantly displays the notion of the balance in corporal health between internal elements, or natural things (complexion, for example), and external ones, or non-natural things (air, sleep, exercise, food, baths, passions of the soul).

  2. ECOHYDROLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES OF DEGRADING BAOLIS DURING MEDIEVAL PERIOD IN DELHI: traditional practices of water management

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    Subhash Anand

    2017-03-01

    Baolis es el depósito de agua en los monumentos arquitectónicos que habían sido construidos por varios sultanato de Delhi en diferentes períodos de tiempo y la mayoría de Baolis fueron construidos durante el período de tiempo medieval. Los Baolis se encuentran en todo el país, pero todos son diferentes en lo que respecta al arte y la arquitectura. Los sultanatos de Delhi habían construido una serie de Baolis en Delhi para mostrar su control y prestigio en la sociedad. Hay alrededor de 12 Baolis existentes en Delhi y de ellos, cuatro Baolis están a punto de extinguirse y pocos Baolis como Nizamuddin, Firoz Shah y Rajon ki Baolis están siendo utilizados por la gente local. Este artículo comprende la información relacionada con Baolis que fue construida por sultanatos de Delhi durante el período de tiempo medieval en Delhi. El presente trabajo intenta describir el método tradicional de gestión del agua como Baolis en época medieval y su estado actual. El estudio se basa en fuentes primarias y secundarias de información y se realizó una encuesta primaria y personal y se han utilizado fuentes secundarias de datos e información en este documento. El artículo concluyó que Baolis no está teniendo buenas condiciones y estas están muy contaminadas y degradadas y su degradación también conduce a la pérdida ecológica hidrológica en sus áreas adyacentes. Los acercamientos descuidados de la gente hacia estos Baolis son causas principales detrás de la extinción y de la degradación de estos Baolis. La conciencia de la comunidad y la participación es la única manera de proteger a estos Baolis de la extinción. Palabras clave: Baolis; Arquitectónico; Monumento; Medieval; Degradación; Eco hidrología; Contaminación; Manejo.

  3. “WHAT DOES A WOMAN WANT?” EMBRACING THE GODDESS IN MEDIEVAL ROMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Logan Dale

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines an archetype, or mytheme, that lies at the heart of a medieval tale, Chaucer’s Wife of Bath’s Tale from The Canterbury Tales. Writers of the fourteenth century used classical mythology as a way of aligning themselves with a revered past and Celtic myth asa way of incorporating the pre-Christian heritage of magic. The mythic narrative employed often changed form to serve the author’s purpose. The Celtic archetype in the Wife’s Tale, an image of transformation, was transform...

  4. Royalist medievalisms in the age of revolution : From Robert de Lézardière to Chateaubriand, 1792-1831

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    Carolina Armenteros

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the histories of the French monarchy composed by French royalists of the period 1787-1831 with a threefold aim: to develop a model of how French royalist medievalisms evolved from Revolution to Restoration; to investigate whether the French Revolution altered perceptions of the Middle Ages; and to elaborate a theory of the relationship between medievalism and politics. The exercise is especially revelatory when studying periods of severe press censorship like the one that occupies us, and political groups inimical – like our monarchists – to the theoretical expression of political ideals.

  5. Orden de palabras en hebreo, griego, latín y romanceamiento castellano medieval de Joel (I

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    Olegario García de la Fuente

    1983-06-01

    Full Text Available A complete analysis of the word order in the Hebrew, Greek, Latin and medieval Spanish version of Joel’s text reveals that the word order of the Greek version of the Septuagint and Vulgate is based on the Hebrew text and that the word order of the Vetus Latina is based on the Greek version. The word order of the medieval Spanish version, Manuscript I-I-6 of El Escorial, up to now unpublished, depends also a great deal on the word order of the Vulgate, on which this version is based.

  6. Alchemical poetry in medieval and early modern Europe: a preliminary survey and synthesis. Part II - Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Didier

    2011-03-01

    This article provides a preliminary description of medieval and early modern alchemical poetry composed in Latin and in the principal vernacular languages of western Europe. It aims to distinguish the various genres in which this poetry flourished, and to identify the most representative aspects of each cultural epoch by considering the medieval and early modern periods in turn. Such a distinction (always somewhat artificial) between two broad historical periods may be justified by the appearance of new cultural phenomena that profoundly modified the character of early modern alchemical poetry: the ever-increasing importance of the prisca theologia, the alchemical interpretation of ancient mythology, and the rise of neo-Latin humanist poetry. Although early modern alchemy was marked by the appearance of new doctrines (notably the alchemical spiritus mundi and Paracelsianism), alchemical poetry was only superficially modified by criteria of a scientific nature, which therefore appear to be of lesser importance. This study falls into two parts. Part I provides a descriptive survey of extant poetry, and in Part II the results of the survey are analysed in order to highlight such distinctive features as the function of alchemical poetry, the influence of the book market on its evolution, its doctrinal content, and the question of whether any theory of alchemical poetry ever emerged. Part II is accompanied by an index of the authors and works cited in both parts.

  7. Making computers noble. An experiment in automatic analysis of medieval texts

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    Andrea Colli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available L’analisi informatica di testi filosofici, la creazione di database, ipertesti o edizioni elettroniche non costituiscono più unicamente una ricerca di frontiera, ma sono da molti anni una risorsa preziosa per gli studi umanistici. Ora, non si tratta di richiedere alle macchine un ulteriore sforzo per comprendere il linguaggio umano, quanto piuttosto di perfezionare gli strumenti affinché esse possano essere a tutti gli effetti collaboratori di ricerca. Questo articolo è concepito come il resoconto di un esperimento finalizzato a documentare come le associazioni lessicali di un gruppo selezionato di testi medievali possa offrire qualche suggerimento in merito ai loro contenuti teorici. Computer analysis of texts, creation of databases hypertexts and digital editions are not the final frontier of research anymore. Quite the contrary, from many years they have been representing a significant contribution to medieval studies. Therefore, we do not mean to make the computer able to grasp the meaning of human language and penetrate its secrets, but rather we aim at improving their tools, so that they will become an even more efficient equipment employed in research activities. This paper is thought as a sort of technical report with the proposed task to verify if an automatic identification of some word associations within a selected groups of medieval writings produces suggestions on the subject of the processed texts, able to be used in a theoretical inquiry.

  8. Molecular identification by "suicide PCR" of Yersinia pestis as the agent of medieval black death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoult, D; Aboudharam, G; Crubézy, E; Larrouy, G; Ludes, B; Drancourt, M

    2000-11-07

    Medieval Black Death is believed to have killed up to one-third of the Western European population during the 14th century. It was identified as plague at this time, but recently the causative organism was debated because no definitive evidence has been obtained to confirm the role of Yersinia pestis as the agent of plague. We obtained the teeth of a child and two adults from a 14th century grave in France, disrupted them to obtain the pulp, and applied the new "suicide PCR" protocol in which the primers are used only once. There were no positive controls: Neither Yersinia nor Yersinia DNA were introduced in the laboratory. A negative result is followed by a new test using other primers; a positive result is followed by sequencing. The second and third primer pair used, coding for a part of the pla gene, generated amplicons whose sequence confirmed that it was Y. pestis in 1 tooth from the child and 19/19 teeth from the adults. Negative controls were negative. Attempts to detect the putative alternative etiologic agents Bacillus anthracis and Rickettsia prowazekii failed. Suicide PCR avoids any risk of contamination as it uses a single-shot primer-its specificity is absolute. We believe that we can end the controversy: Medieval Black Death was plague.

  9. [Study of dental attrition in a medieval adult population from Southwest France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esclassan, R; Boimond, L; Sevin, A; Donat, R; Lucas, S; Grimoud, A M

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the authors was to study dental attrition in a medieval sample of paired mandibles and maxillas from the Southwest France (IX to XV century). We selected 58 adult individuals with maxillas and mandibles in good state of conservation, 29 women and 29 men from the medieval collection of Vilarnau-d'Amont (Western Pyrenees, France). Attrition was graded according to the Brabant index. We found a high prevalence of attrition in this sample. The first molars (M1) were the maxillary and mandibular teeth most concerned by attrition. The most frequent attrition level was level 2, with dentin exposure. We did not find any significant difference of tooth wear between maxillary and mandibular teeth, even if maxillary teeth seemed to be more worn. There was symmetry of attrition between the left and right side. There was no significant difference between men and women. Working on paired mandibles and maxillas showed that attrition in the middle age was a global phenomenon, intermaxillary and symmetric. It was much more severe than today, rapidly evolving and generalized because of the abrasive quality of food, cooking, chewing habits, and intensity of chewing pressure.

  10. Exposition des ymages des figures qui sunt: discourses about images in Medieval Occident

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    Maria Cristina Correia Leandro Pereira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to what indicates the famous – and questionable – formula "Bible des illetrés”, the medieval discourses on images went well beyond just highlighting its didactic function. In this article, we present a sample of this diversity, analyzing a number of medieval texts dealing with images, which we have divided into five broad categories (not mutually exclusive: on the contrary, sometimes complementary. The first and most numerous are the theoretical discourses on images involving theological questions. Then, still based on arguments of theological order, a second group corresponds to those texts that seek to intervene in the practice of images through normative propositions. As a result from the previous two types is the third group: the speeches dealing with the reception of images and the reactions they cause. A fourth group are the writings that mention the producers of images: both practical documents and those that express value judgments about their Works. And finally, there are texts that describe the images, both their iconographic content and their materiality.

  11. Medieval Warm Period Archives Preserved in Limpet Shells (Patella Vulgata) From Viking Deposits, United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobilia, M.; Surge, D.

    2008-12-01

    The Medieval Warm Period (700-1100 YBP) represents a recent period of warm climate, and as such provides a powerful comparison to today's continuing warming trend. However, the spatial and temporal variability inherent in the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) makes it difficult to differentiate between global climate trends and regional variability. The continued study of this period will allow for the better understanding of temperature variability, both regional and global, during this climate interval. Our study is located in the Orkney Islands, Scotland, which is a critical area to understand climate dynamics. The North Atlantic Oscillation and Gulf Stream heavily influence climate in this region, and the study of climate intervals during the MWP will improve our understanding of the behavior of these climate mechanisms during this interval. Furthermore, the vast majority of the climate archive has been derived from either deep marine or arctic environments. Studying a coastal environment will offer valuable insight into the behavior of maritime climate during the MWP. Estimated seasonal sea surface temperature data were derived through isotopic analysis of limpet shells (Patella vulgata). Analysis of modern shells confirms that growth temperature tracks seasonal variation in ambient water temperature. Preliminary data from MWP shells record a seasonal temperature range comparable to that observed in the modern temperature data. We will extend the range of temperature data from the 10th through 14th centuries to advance our knowledge of seasonal temperature variability during the late Holocene.

  12. Characterization of a Messer – The late-Medieval single-edged sword of Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajfar, Peter; Medved, Jožef; Klančnik, Grega [Department of Materials and Metallurgy, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva cesta 12, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lazar, Tomaž [National Museum of Slovenia, Prešernova cesta 20, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Nečemer, Marijan [Jožef Stefan Institut, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mrvar, Primož, E-mail: primoz.mrvar@omm.ntf.uni-lj.si [Department of Materials and Metallurgy, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva cesta 12, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-12-15

    Metallurgical characterization of a sword blade fragments dating from the second half of the 15th century found in central Slovenia was performed in order to determine its chemical composition, microstructure, microhardness, and to obtain insight into the methods of manufacture of a late-medieval Messer sword. As the artefact was broken, examinations were limited to six very small fragments that were allowed to be removed from the cutting edge, core and the back of the blade. Light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, differential scanning calorimetry, thermodynamics approach and Vickers micro-hardness tests were employed to analyze the microstructure and mechanical properties. The results show that the sword was manufactured from a single wrought iron billet. The surface of the sword was carburized. No evidence of quenching was found. The ferritic microstructure is concentrated in the core, and the pearlitic in the outer layer of the blade. All metal fragments contained non-metallic inclusions that were derived mostly from slag and some from hammer scale. - Highlights: • A metallurgical characterization of a medieval sword blade has been performed. • The carbon content decreased from the surface to the core of the blade. • The dominant microstructure in the outer layer is pearlite and in the core is ferrite. • The presence of lump shaped and elongated non-metallic inclusions was observed. • The sword was manufactured from a single wrought iron billet.

  13. Archeoseismic study of damage in Roman and Medieval structures in the center of Cologne, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzen, Klaus-G.; Schreiber, Stephan; Fleischer, Claus; Reamer, Sharon K.; Wiosna, Isabel

    2013-04-01

    The causes of damage observed in archeological records or preserved monuments are often difficult to be determined unequivocally, particularly when the possibility of secondary earthquake damage exists. Such secondary damage has been previously proposed for the Roman Praetorium, the governor's palace in the center of Cologne. Ongoing excavations since 2007 revealed additional damage. The existing ground that has been uncovered and documented extends the affected area to 175 × 180 m. We present a comprehensive virtual model of the excavation area based on 200 3D laserscans together with a systematic analysis of the damage patterns and an improved model of the terrain during Roman/Medieval times including geotechnical parameters of the subsurface. Five locations with different damage patterns, including a Roman sewer, the octagonal central part of the Praetorium, a section with strongly inclined massive walls, a 13 m deep deformed well, a collapsed hypocaust, and damages in the Medieval mikveh are analyzed in detail. We use site-specific synthetic strong ground motion seismograms to test the possibility of earthquake-induced ground failures as a cause for the observed damage. This subsurface model is also used to test the possibility of hydraulically-induced damages by seepage and erosion of fine-grained material from stray sand. Heavy rainstorms can induce a direct stream of surface water through the fine sand layers to the ground water table. Simulated ground motion for assumed worst-case earthquake scenarios do not provoke slope instability at the level necessary to explain the structural damages.

  14. Manifestation of the solar activity in price of composite unite of consumable for Medieval England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustil'Nik, L. A.; Yom Din, G.

    We present in this work development of our previous approach to search of the solar activity manifestation in wheat price dynamics, reported in COSPAR 2002 [1]. In this work we investigate dynamics of prices of composite unite of consumable for medieval time in southern England. We show that like to wheat price these price of consumable show burst-type component in its variations. We investigate statistics of time interval between consumable price bursts and show that these intervals have statistical properties similar the same as for time intervals between extremes (minimums) of solar activity (sunspot number) both in estimated mean and standard deviation of the intervals duration and for distribution of intervals. We consider this similarity as caused by high sensitivity of consumables price to price of wheat, main component of consumables in that time. We analyze asymmetry for prices in phase of minimum and maximum of sunspots as additional test of causality between solar activity and price level. We discuss possible physical explanation of discovered connection, in particular solar activity-space weather-cosmic ray-cloudiness-agriculture chain. [1] Lev A. Pustilnik, Gregory Yom Din, 2003, Influence of Solar Activity on State of Wheat Market in Medieval England, astro-ph/, 0312244, Solar Physics (in print)

  15. Hermenêutica medieval: a compreensão espiritual de Joaquim de Fiore

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    Noeli Dutra Rossatto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo trata a hermenêutica medieval sob o prisma da compreensão espiritual (intelectio spiritualis de Joaquim de Fiore (1135-1202. Mostra que a noção de Trindade serve de base para retomar o método alegórico e o tipológico da tradição. Além disso, serve para propor o novo método por concórdia que, a nosso ver, culminará na maior inovação da leitura da história medieval. Entre os resultados, destacamos a continuidade imediata dessa hermenêutica com os franciscanos espirituais do século XIII e sua influência direta na cultura luso-brasileira. Avaliamos também os estudos que tentam encontrar em Joaquim a gênese da filosofia da história hegeliana. Por fim, analisamos sumariamente a proposta de Gianni Vattimo, que encontra o novo sentido do cristianismo no legado joaquimita.

  16. A spectroscopic study of Brazilwood paints in medieval books of hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Maria João; Otero, Vanessa; Vitorino, Tatiana; Araújo, Rita; Muralha, Vânia S F; Lemos, Ana; Picollo, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    In this work, microspectrofluorimetry was for the first time applied to the identification of the red organic lakes that are characteristic of the lavish illuminations found in 15(th) century books of hours. Microspectrofluorimetry identified those red paints, ranging from opaque pink to dark red glazes, as brazilwood lakes. An unequivocal characterization was achieved by comparison with reference paints produced following recipes from the medieval treatise The Book on How to Make Colours, and was further confirmed by fiber optic reflectance spectroscopy (FORS). For these treasured cultural objects, microspectrofluorimetry and FORS proved to be the only techniques that could identify, in situ or in microsamples, the chromophore responsible for the pinkish hues: a brazilein-Al(3+) complex. Additionally, a multi-analytical approach provided a full characterization of the color paints, including pigments, additives, and binders. Microspectroscopic techniques, based on infrared and X-ray radiation, enabled us to disclose the full palette of these medieval manuscripts, including the elusive greens, for which, besides malachite, basic copper sulfates were found; Raman microscopy suggested a mixture of brochantite and langite. Infrared analysis proved invaluable for a full characterization of the additives that were applied as fillers or whites (chalk, gypsum, and white lead) as well as the proteinaceous and polysaccharide binders that were found pure or in mixture.

  17. Ethics in the medieval university: the importance of classics reading for the elaboration of Thomas Aquinas

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    Tatyana Murer Cavalcante

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present some considerations about the importance of reading to the development of the ethics conceptions of Thomas Aquinas (1224 - 5? / 1274. At the dawn of the thirteenth century, the townspeople of Medieval West created a new institution designed for knowledge and education: the University. In it, teachers and disciples were debating key issues for the new society using mainly texts of Ancient Philosophy and Christians, but also Arab and Jewish writings. The literacy forms used encompassed mainly lectio and disputatio , and counteracted by distinct theoretical bases, those thinkers eventually recreated the summa , in a original and fundamental form to the philosophical elaboration of that time. To discuss the importance of reading in the formulation of the concept of ethics in the medieval university, we will present some characteristics of the production of knowledge in the thirteenth century linked to its historical context and then discuss some ethical considerations of Thomas Aquinas, one of the most prominent authors of that period. Considering the limits of this article, only one text, “The object of charity” based on Aquinas major work, the Summa of Theology, will be discussed in depth. Preliminarily, it is possible to state that as well as the reading of classical authors by Thomas Aquinas and other masters of the thirteenth century, helped them develop knowledge about ethics conforming to their time, historical reading of these authors helps in the understanding of today.

  18. Two medieval plague treatises and their afterlife in early modern England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, George R

    2003-07-01

    This study of an adaptation of the popular John of Burgundy plague treatise by Thomas Moulton, a Dominican friar, ca. 1475, and a translation of the so-called Canutus plague treatise by Thomas Paynell, printed 1534, shows how the medieval traditions they represent were carried forward, well into the sixteenth century, and also subjected to change in light of religious, moral, and medical concerns of early modern England. The former had a long life in print, ca. 1530-1580, whereas Paynell's translation exists in one printed version. Moulton's adaptation differs from its original and from the Canutus treatise in putting great emphasis on the idea that onsets of plague were acts of divine retribution for human sinfulness. In this respect, Moulton reshaped the tradition of the medieval plague treatise and anticipated the religious and social construction of plague that would take shape in the first half of the sixteenth century. Its long history in print indicates that Moulton's treatise expressed the spirit of that construction and probably influenced the construction as well. The contrasting histories of the two treatises attest not only to the dramatic change brought about by religious and social forces in the sixteenth century, but to a growing recognition of the value of the printing press for disseminating medical information-in forms that served social and ideological ends.

  19. Warming and Cooling: The Medieval Climate Anomaly in Africa and Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüning, Sebastian; Gałka, Mariusz; Vahrenholt, Fritz

    2017-11-01

    The Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) is a well-recognized climate perturbation in many parts of the world, with a core period of 1000-1200 Common Era. Here we present a palaeotemperature synthesis for the MCA in Africa and Arabia, based on 44 published localities. The data sets have been thoroughly correlated and the MCA trends palaeoclimatologically mapped. The vast majority of available Afro-Arabian onshore sites suggest a warm MCA, with the exception of the southern Levant where the MCA appears to have been cold. MCA cooling has also been documented in many segments of the circum-Africa-Arabian upwelling systems, as a result of changes in the wind systems which were leading to an intensification of cold water upwelling. Offshore cores from outside upwelling systems mostly show warm MCA conditions. The most likely key drivers of the observed medieval climate change are solar forcing and ocean cycles. Conspicuous cold spikes during the earliest and latest MCA may help to discriminate between solar (Oort Minimum) and ocean cycle (Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, AMO) influence. Compared to its large share of nearly one quarter of the world's landmass, data from Africa and Arabia are significantly underrepresented in global temperature reconstructions of the past 2,000 years. Onshore data are still absent for most regions in Africa and Arabia, except for regional data clusters in Morocco, South Africa, the East African Rift, and the Levant coast. In order to reconstruct land palaeotemperatures more robustly over Africa and Arabia, a systematic research program is needed.

  20. [Study of the prevalence and distribution of dental caries in a medieval population in Southwest France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esclassan, R; Astie, F; Sevin, A; Donat, R; Lucas, S; Grimoud, A M

    2008-02-01

    Teeth are an interesting material for the study of ancient populations. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of caries in a medieval sample of paired maxillas in a rural population in Southwest France and to compare men and women. Our sample included 58 adults, 29 men and 29 women, with dentate maxillas in good state of conservation, for a total of 1,395 teeth out of a possible 1,846 (75%). The number of caries and their localization were noted. The frequency of antemortem missing teeth was 8.67%. The prevalence of caries was 17.46% and the most frequent caries were occlusal and proximal. Second and third molars were the most frequently affected maxillary and mandibular teeth. Caries on maxillary teeth were statistically more frequent than on mandibular teeth (p0.05). Our study showed that the frequency and the distribution of dental caries in this medieval population from southwest France were comparable to those of other European populations from the same period. The low level of caries was probably due to attrition and noncariogenic food. Differences between men and women were not significant, even though our results suggest that men were much more concerned by caries than women, especially for posterior teeth. A different diet may be the reason for this difference.

  1. Il Decameron de Pier Paolo Pasolini: da prosa medieval ao roteiro cinematográfico Il Decameron by Pier Paolo Pasolini: from the medieval prose to the screenplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Regina Siega

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo situa-se no campo das teorias da recepção e trabalha com o conceito de "leitura como ato criativo", desenvolvido por Hans Robert Jauss e Wolfgang Iser. Interpretando o roteiro como estrutura textual produtora de imagens literárias, elegemos como objeto de estudo o texto Il Decameron, escrito por Pier Paolo Pasolini com base na obra de Giovanni Boccaccio. Na análise, investigamos os efeitos poéticos produzidos pela releitura do texto medieval, indicando as transformações que o realismo boccacciano assume na linguagem de Pasolini. Para tanto, evidenciamos a importância que as realidades do sexo e da morte adquirem no roteiro, observando como o autor conjuga estes temas às reflexões que faz sobre a própria contemporaneidade.Questo articolo è situato nel campo delle teorie della ricezione e lavora con il concetto di "lettura come atto creativo", sviluppato da Hans Robert Jauss e Wolfgang Iser. Nell'interpretare la sceneggiatura come struttura testuale produttrice di immagini letterarie, scegliamo come oggetto di studio il testo Il Decameron, scritto da Pier Paolo Pasolini basato sull'opera di Giovanni Boccaccio. Nell'analisi, investighiamo gli effetti poetici prodotti dalla rilettura del testo medioevale indicando le trasformazioni che il realismo boccacciano assume nel linguaggio di Pasolini. Pertanto, evidenziamo l'importanza che le realtà del sesso e della morte acquisiscono nella sceneggiatura, osservando come l'autore concilia questi temi con le riflessioni che fa sulla propria contemporaneità.This article is situated in the field of the reception theories and works with the concept of "reading as creative act", developed by Hans Robert Jauss and Wolfgang Iser. Seeing in the screenplay a textual structure that produces literary images, we choose as our object the text Il Decameron, written by Pier Paolo Pasolini based on Boccaccio's work. In the analysis, we investigate the poetic effects produced by the rereading of

  2. Elites and their children : a study in the historical anthropology of medieval China, 500-1000 AD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pissin, Annika

    2009-01-01

    The history of children in medieval China, as in other parts of the world and in pre-modern times, stands in marked contrast to the traditional areas of historical inquiry such as the history of the state, the history of the economy or intellectual history. Children generally do not have political

  3. Van Giffen’s Dogs : Cranial Osteometry of Iron Age to Medieval Period Dogs from the Northern Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheele, Esther E.; Çakirlar, Canan

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents biometric data from a collection of 488 dogs skulls originating from 58 (archaeological) sites in the northern Netherlands dating from the Iron Age to the Medieval Period. The crania were originally collected and documented in the early 20th century by Prof. Albert Egges van

  4. Farm Studies and Post-Medieval Rural Archaeology in Denmark: Comments on the Past, the Present and the Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mette Svart

    2012-01-01

    Farms and villages formed a powerful and important scene for the emergence and development of cultural studies as well as post-medieval archaeology in the first half of the 20th century in Denmark. However, the present research agenda in museums and universities, and in some respect the antiquari...

  5. The Nature of Beauty: The Arts in Greece, Rome and the Medieval Period. Program for Gifted Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garton, Harry A.; Woodbury, Virginia Garton

    One in a series of instructional units designed for gifted students, the booklet focuses on the arts in Greece, Rome, and the Medieval period. Narrative information on Greek pottery, sculpture, architecture, music, and dance is followed by lists of suggested activities for students and reference lists of texts and media. A similar unit on the…

  6. Ambiguous pots: Everyday practice, migration and materiality. The case of medieval Baltic ware on the island of Bornholm (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    importance of daily practices and mundane objects indealing with a rupture caused by migration. As a case study I use an example of medieval(eleventh century) Western Slavic migration to the island of Bornholm (Denmark) andproduction and daily handling of ceramic pots, the so-called Baltic ware. I explore...

  7. Hidden library : Visualizing fragments of medieval manuscripts in early-modern bookbindings with mobile macro-XRF scanner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorden, Jorien R.; Käyhkö, Anna; Kwakkel, Erik; Dik, J.

    2017-01-01

    This experiment demonstrates the large potential of macro-XRF imaging for the visualization of fragments of medieval manuscripts hidden in early-modern bookbindings. The invention of the printing press in the fifteenth century made manuscripts obsolete and bookbinders started recycling their

  8. Antigüedades portátiles: transportes, ruinas y comunicaciones en la arqueología del siglo XIX Portable antiquities: transportation, ruins, and communications in nineteenth-century archeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Podgorny

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo presentamos un problema de la arqueología del siglo XIX: la transformación de las ruinas de la antigüedad americana en evidencia científica. Tomando el caso de la exploración arqueológica de Palenque luego de la independencia centroamericana y mexicana, analizaremos los intentos por hacer portátil las ruinas de una ciudad hallada en la selva a fines del siglo XVIII, analizando algunos de los medios creados y utilizados para resolver su transporte.The article addresses an issue in nineteenth-century archeology: the transformation of ancient American ruins into scientific evidence. It focuses specifically on the case of Palenque, a city discovered in the jungle in the late eighteenth century. The archeological exploration of this find, which occurred shortly after Central American and Mexican independence, entailed efforts to make these ruins portable. The article analyzes some of the means devised and used in their transportation.

  9. In commemorating one thousandth anniversary of the Avicenna's Canon of Medicine: gastric headache, a forgotten clinical entity from the medieval Persia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazljou, Seyyed Mohammad Bagher; Togha, Mansoureh; Ghabili, Kamyar; Alizadeh, Mahdi; Keshavarz, Mansoor

    2013-05-30

    Although the connection between head and stomach and hence the condition known as "gastric headache" was well known to the ancients, it has received little attention since the early 20th century. Herein, we review the teachings of the medieval Persian physicians about the gastric headache along with the related signs, symptoms, types and causes. The medieval Persian scholars adopted the main ideas of the gastric headache from predecessors in the ancient Greece and Rome, added substantial sub-categories and details to the earlier descriptions and therapeutic options. The medieval Persian physicians' contributions to the concept of gastric headache influenced beyond doubt the later accounts of this condition.

  10. La tradición medieval prearistotélica y la formación de la politica como teoría a partir de 1265

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    Francisco Bertelloni

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the gradual constitution of the politica as theory in the middle ages within the division of the philosophiamoralis in ethica, oeconomica and politica. The author organizes the paper in three parts in accordance with three different stages of medieval treatment of the politica as science. First he gives an overview of the medieval notion of politica until the first half of the thirteenth century. Secondly he analyzes Albert's conception of politica in the treatise Super Ethica. Thirdly he shows Albert's modifications of his own conception after the medieval reception of Aristotle's Politics.

  11. When erosion ruins the chronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Steffen; Enters, Dirk; Blume, Katharina; Lücke, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Human land-use has considerably shaped the landscape of north-western Germany over the past millennia. Deforestation and agriculture created a predominantly open scenery preserved until today with only a few remnants of former landscape elements such as woodlands, peat bogs, heath lands and lakes. Here we present a multi-proxy approach including sedimentological and geochemical parameters (e. g. element concentrations and stable isotopes) as well as biological proxies (pollen, macro fossils and diatoms) combined with an archaeological site analysis to investigate the effects of prehistoric land-use on lake systems and their catchment areas with a special focus on changes of the water quality, e. g. eutrophication and acidification and its natural regeneration during phases of weaker land-use impact. The study reveals a millenia-long history of erosion processes caused by successive selective woodland clearances starting in Neolithic Times. The geochemical evidence of soil erosion is recorded by distinct peaks of the terrigenic elements K and Ti. However, due to (1) the low sensitivy of the XRF scanner for Si and (2) the prevalence of diatom related biogenic silicon XRF-scanning of highly organic lake sediments fails to reflect the actual sand input caused by erosion. Particularly single quartz grains are not detected in the organic sediment matrix. Therefore we make successful use of mineral grain analysis which previously has only been applied to record aeolian input in bogs. K and Ti concentrations are not correlated with the content of mineral grains which suggest two different erosion processes. Our efforts to construct robust age-depth relationships based on AMS 14C-dates of terrestrial plant macrofossils reveal a specific dating issue of northwest German lakes. Especially in younger sediments we observe 14C-dates which are on the one hand too old and on the other hand among themselves roughly contemporaneous. We explain this feature with the extensive bog growth since Neolithic times which eventually reached the lake shores and water level fluctuations of the lakes. Successive erosion of the bog margins in the course of anthropogenic disturbance of wetland sites caused the observed contamination of lacustrine sediments with older material. Amino acid dating, OSL-dating and tephrochronology are suitable alternatives to surmount the dating difficulties inherent in northwest German lakes.

  12. On the street and in the bathhouse: medieval Galenism in action?

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    Coomans, J.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we combine the perspective of medieval urban hygiene and the fi ndings of medical and intellectual historians by tracing some ways in which medieval urban residents and governments attempted to limit disease and promote health by recourse to preventative measures. In both of the urban regions and domains in focus, namely Italian streets and Dutch bathhouses, considerable thought had been put into reducing the health risks perceived as attending upon them, at times devising arguments and procedures that possibly refl ect insights from prevailing medical theories and the advice of practitioners. We suggest that the relation between medical learning and health practices was more complex than a trickledown process, and analyze them in the context of pre-modern “healthscaping”: a physical, social, legal, administrative, and political process by which urban individuals, groups, and especially governments sought to safeguard and improve collective wellbeing.En este artículo combinamos la perspectiva de la higiene urbana medieval con los hallazgos de los historiadores de la medicina y de la intelectualidad, analizando algunas de las formas con que los habitantes y los gobiernos urbanos medievales intentaron limitar las enfermedades y promover la salud mediante medidas preventivas. En las dos regiones que se toman en consideración (las calles italianas y los baños holandeses, se hizo un esfuerzo de reflexión considerable para reducir los riesgos de la salud, elaborando a veces argumentos y procedimientos que reflejaban las ideas de las teorías médicas imperantes y los consejos de los profesionales. Sugerimos que la relación entre el aprendizaje médico y las prácticas de salud era más compleja que un simple proceso de propagación, y la analizamos en el contexto de la preservación de la salud de carácter pre-moderno: un proceso físico, legal, administrativo y político mediante el cual individuos, grupos y, especialmente

  13. Living Documents, Dying Archives: Towards a Historical Anthropology of Medieval Arabic Archives

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    El-Leithy, Tamer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on an analysis of several collections of Medieval Arabic documents, this paper argues for the study of “archiving practices”, which selectively use documents as parts of wider social strategies of group formation and reproduction. This method also allows us to uncover the temporality (life-cycle of documents and archives, including their dispersal, cycles of obsolescence and recycling; tactics of erasure, and deliberate destruction.

    Este trabajo es un análisis de varias colecciones de documentos árabes y propone estudiar las prácticas de archivo. Después de proponer un nuevo método de estudio de los documentos y los “archivos” o colecciones, este trabajo presta especial atención a las diferentes prácticas relacionadas con documentos; su producción, su uso, su conservación e, incluso, su destrucción deliberada.

  14. Teaching Medieval Music Today: New Approaches to Paleography and Music History

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    Cesarino Ruini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Besides a tendency to abstractness, inherent in the technical nature of the subject itself, a common problem in the teaching of medieval music history is how to awaken the interest of learners in matters that are so far back in time as to have nothing in common with modern sensibility. Referring to the introduction of the staff by Guido of Arezzo in the 11th century, the article tries to explain how, by aptly combining chronologically organized descriptions of facts with a basic study of documents (that is, by adopting the rudiments of the research methods used by expert historians, students can be encouraged to reconstruct history with a strict method. This approach also sheds light on the reasons why men and women of the past adopted certain innovations or kept certain traditions alive.

  15. Cultural Trauma and Christian Identity in the Late Medieval Heroic Epic, The Siege of Jerusalem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarco, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines scenes of violence in the late medieval poem The Siege of Jerusalem in order to reveal the ways in which trauma is used as the grounds upon which Christian/Jewish difference is established. In particular, I argue that this poem serves as an example of a widespread element in Christian chivalric identity, namely the need to manage the repetitive invocation of Christ's crucifixion (ritually repeated through liturgical and poetic invocation) as a means of asserting both the bodily and psychic integrity of the Christian subject in contrast to the violently abjected figure of the Jewish body. The failure of The Siege protagonist, Wespasian, to navigate the cultural trauma of the crucifixion is contrasted to the successful management of trauma by the martial hero, Tancred, in Tasso's epic, Gerusalemme Liberata, illustrating the range of imaginative possibilities for understanding trauma in pre-modern war literature.

  16. MKHITAR GOSH'S MEDIEVAL LAW CODE AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR ARMENIAN COMMUNITIES ABROAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davtyan, Susanna; Khachatryan, Mikayel; Johrian, Ara; Ghazaryan, Karen

    2014-07-01

    The Law Book of the medieval Armenian legal and economic thought is an exceptional work that encompasses valuable information of the Armenian nation's domestic life. Mkhitar Gosh was considered to be one of the most outstanding figures and lawyers (lawmakers) of all times. Armenian Law Code after Mkhitar Gosh is writhed at 12 century. One of the primary sources for the law code was Armenian customary law. This Code became moral code for guiding for hall Armenians over the world because of high moral spirit reflecting Armenian mentality. This article presents the brief history of extension of legal rules setting out in the Law Code. The Law Code was established and widely used not only in Armenia but also in a number of Armenian communities abroad (Russian, Poland, Georgia, Latvia, India etc.). Law Code was accepted by all Armenians. Moreover, it served for the development of legislation for a number of civilized European and Asian countries.

  17. High throughput, multiplexed pathogen detection authenticates plague waves in medieval Venice, Italy.

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    Thi-Nguyen-Ny Tran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Historical records suggest that multiple burial sites from the 14th-16th centuries in Venice, Italy, were used during the Black Death and subsequent plague epidemics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: High throughput, multiplexed real-time PCR detected DNA of seven highly transmissible pathogens in 173 dental pulp specimens collected from 46 graves. Bartonella quintana DNA was identified in five (2.9% samples, including three from the 16th century and two from the 15th century, and Yersinia pestis DNA was detected in three (1.7% samples, including two from the 14th century and one from the 16th century. Partial glpD gene sequencing indicated that the detected Y. pestis was the Orientalis biotype. CONCLUSIONS: These data document for the first time successive plague epidemics in the medieval European city where quarantine was first instituted in the 14th century.

  18. High throughput, multiplexed pathogen detection authenticates plague waves in medieval Venice, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thi-Nguyen-Ny; Signoli, Michel; Fozzati, Luigi; Aboudharam, Gérard; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2011-03-10

    Historical records suggest that multiple burial sites from the 14th-16th centuries in Venice, Italy, were used during the Black Death and subsequent plague epidemics. High throughput, multiplexed real-time PCR detected DNA of seven highly transmissible pathogens in 173 dental pulp specimens collected from 46 graves. Bartonella quintana DNA was identified in five (2.9%) samples, including three from the 16th century and two from the 15th century, and Yersinia pestis DNA was detected in three (1.7%) samples, including two from the 14th century and one from the 16th century. Partial glpD gene sequencing indicated that the detected Y. pestis was the Orientalis biotype. These data document for the first time successive plague epidemics in the medieval European city where quarantine was first instituted in the 14th century.

  19. Medieval orthopaedic history in Germany: Hieronymus Brunschwig and Hans von Gersdorff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernigou, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    Hans von Gerssdorff and Hieronymus Brunschwig, who flourished in Germany in the latter half of the fifteenth century, have both left early printed treatises on Surgery which give excellent woodcuts showing pictures of instruments, operations, and costumes, at the end of the medieval period. Hieronymus Brunschwig or Hieronymus Brunschwygk (ca. 1450 - ca. 1512), was a German surgeon (wundartzot), alchemist and botanist. He was notable for his methods of treatment of gunshot wounds. His most influential book was the Buch der Cirurgia. Gersdorff(1455-1529) was a military surgeon who gained wide experience during 40 years of campaigning and was an expert in the treatment of battlefield injuries. His work covers anatomy, surgery, leprosy, and glossaries of anatomical terms, diseases, and medications.

  20. Study of medieval enamelling on gilded objects combining SEM-EDAX and PIXE

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    Chamon, J.; Barrio, J.; Arroyo, M. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM), SECYR Laboratory, Departamento de Arqueologia y Prehistoria, Madrid (Spain); Gutierrez, P.C.; Climent-Font, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM), Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales (CMAM), Madrid (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    A set of fragments of metallic artefacts from the medieval period excavated from Ciudad Real in Spain has been studied. The objects are gilded copper buckles with a champleve enamelling decoration. The composition of predominantly blue-coloured enamels has been analysed using three non-destructive techniques, SEM-EDAX (scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Analyses show that Co is responsible for the blue colour. The results of the two techniques are compared, as well as the main components which constitute the enamel. Analyses suggest that Cu is responsible for red colour. (orig.)

  1. Medieval Victoria-Gasteiz Interaction between virtual and augmented reality in the 16th century

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    Ainhoa Pérez-Valle

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Medieval Vitoria-Gasteiz’s game provides information about the history and lifestyle of this town in the 16th century, which has been rebuilt through procedural software. This interactive application allows you to enjoy an experience that merges the virtual party with an ‘in situ’ visit to the city’s streets nowadays, enabling travel through time. The game becomes a competition in which users have to overcome challenges and could enjoy Augmented Reality’s benefits. The main goal of the project is the cultural heritage transmission. And this is done through one of the best ways to do this, in a funny way. Learn “playing”. Being education and tourism the main application fields.

  2. Special object extraction from medieval books using superpixels and bag-of-features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Rushmeier, Holly

    2017-01-01

    We propose a method to extract special objects in images of medieval books, which generally represent, for example, figures and capital letters. Instead of working on the single-pixel level, we consider superpixels as the basic classification units for improved time efficiency. More specifically, we classify superpixels into different categories/objects by using a bag-of-features approach, where a superpixel category classifier is trained with the local features of the superpixels of the training images. With the trained classifier, we are able to assign the category labels to the superpixels of a historical document image under test. Finally, special objects can easily be identified and extracted after analyzing the categorization results. Experimental results demonstrate that, as compared to the state-of-the-art algorithms, our method provides comparable performance for some historical books but greatly outperforms them in terms of generality and computational time.

  3. Sleep paralysis in medieval Persia - the Hidayat of Akhawayni (?-983 AD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golzari, Samad Ej; Khodadoust, Kazem; Alakbarli, Farid; Ghabili, Kamyar; Islambulchilar, Ziba; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Khalili, Majid; Abbasnejad, Feridoon; Sheikholeslamzadeh, Niloufar; Shahabi, Nasrollah Moghaddam; Hosseini, Seyed Fazel; Ansarin, Khalil

    2012-01-01

    Among the first three manuscripts written in Persian, Akhawayni's Hidayat al-muta'allemin fi al-tibb was the most significant work compiled in the 10th century. Along with the hundreds of chapters on hygiene, anatomy, physiology, symptoms and treatments of the diseases of various organs, there is a chapter on sleep paralysis (night-mare) prior to description and treatment of epilepsy. The present article is a review of the Akhawayni's teachings on sleep paralysis and of descriptions and treatments of sleep paralysis by the Greek, medieval, and Renaissance scholars. Akhawayni's descriptions along with other early writings provide insight into sleep paralysis during the Middle Ages in general and in Persia in particular.

  4. Sleep paralysis in medieval Persia – the Hidayat of Akhawayni (?–983 AD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golzari, Samad EJ; Khodadoust, Kazem; Alakbarli, Farid; Ghabili, Kamyar; Islambulchilar, Ziba; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Khalili, Majid; Abbasnejad, Feridoon; Sheikholeslamzadeh, Niloufar; Shahabi, Nasrollah Moghaddam; Hosseini, Seyed Fazel; Ansarin, Khalil

    2012-01-01

    Among the first three manuscripts written in Persian, Akhawayni’s Hidayat al-muta’allemin fi al-tibb was the most significant work compiled in the 10th century. Along with the hundreds of chapters on hygiene, anatomy, physiology, symptoms and treatments of the diseases of various organs, there is a chapter on sleep paralysis (night-mare) prior to description and treatment of epilepsy. The present article is a review of the Akhawayni’s teachings on sleep paralysis and of descriptions and treatments of sleep paralysis by the Greek, medieval, and Renaissance scholars. Akhawayni’s descriptions along with other early writings provide insight into sleep paralysis during the Middle Ages in general and in Persia in particular. PMID:22701323

  5. Cranioplasty in medieval Persia and the potential spread of this knowledge to Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Agutter, Paul S; Loukas, Marios; Shokouhi, Ghaffar; Khalili, Majid; Farhoudi, Mehdi; Tubbs, R Shane

    2012-12-01

    Skull trepanation is an ancient and often religious act found in remains from around the world. However, cranioplasty for the surgical treatment of skull pathologies is a relatively recent phenomenon. In this paper, we focus on the account of skull injury and cranioplasty in medieval Persia. Herein, we describe and translate the over 500-year-old writings of the Persian physician Baha al-Dowleh Razi regarding cranioplasty in an excerpt from his book entitled Khulasat al-Tajarib (Summary of Experiences). This early writer detailed the methods and indications for cranioplasty including the use of xenographs. Additionally, we attempt to trace this early understanding of skull surgery and follow its possible spread to Europe. It is such early experiences and methods of cranial surgery on which we base our current understanding of neurosurgery.

  6. An Evidence-Based Study on Medicinal Plants for Hemorrhoids in Medieval Persia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Khademi, Fatemeh; Rahmanifard, Maryam; Zarshenas, Mohammad M

    2017-10-01

    Hemorrhoids is one of the most common gastrointestinal diseases. There are several therapeutic options associated with some complications. Therefore, researchers look for traditional medicines as a potential resource for introduction of new natural drugs. The current study reports an evidence-based review of herbal remedies for hemorrhoids in traditional Persian medicine. A comprehensive survey about hemorrhoids on the most important manuscripts of traditional Persian medicine was done. Then, scientific data banks were searched for possible related properties of each herb in the conventional medicine. We reported some historical aspects of traditional Persian medicine view on classification, examination, and predisposing factors of hemorrhoids. In addition, we have reported 105 medicinal plants belonging to 51 families. More than half of the reported herbs exhibited anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. Although lack of human studies regarding the mentioned herbs is noted, positive results from experimental findings can be considered for new drug discovery supported by traditional and medieval experiences.

  7. Opening of the medieval Jeroným Mine in the Czech Republic to the public

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    Koøínek Robert

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The beginnings of underground mining in the locality go back to the first half of the 16th century. The mining and sporadic exploitation then continued with many interruptions till the beginning of the 20th century. According to historic data, the depth range of mine workings is approximately 50 m. The opening of the Èistá – Jeroným complex to the public is designed to be economical with the aim to utilise, e.g. for the purpose of mining tourism, especially a medieval large-volume room that together with flooded stoped-out workings forms an inimitable atmosphere underground. This article is focused primarily on geomechanical problems connected with the opening of this complex to the public.

  8. Solar and Calendrical Symbolism in the Early Medieval Finnish Church Murals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridderstad, Marianna

    2015-05-01

    The earliest church murals of the first stone churches in Finland were painted at the time when Christianity had only just become the official faith in the region and the old ethnic religion was still widely practiced. The 'pagan' motifs of these Early Medieval Finnish church murals reflect the complexity of the religious beliefs in this transition phase. The church actively transformed the festivals of the vernacular religion by giving Christian meanings to the symbols and rituals, as well as by replacing the ethnic deities with Christian figures. The solar symbolism and the calendrical motifs of the church murals are interpreted as imagery largely based on the Christianized remnants of the pre-Christian annual festivals. The earliest church murals thus provide important insight into the pre-Christian religious beliefs of late Iron Age Finland. Many of the motifs and symbols represented in the murals are related to the annual fertility cult and the solar goddess as one of its central figures.

  9. Global signatures and dynamical origins of the Little Ice Age and Medieval Climate Anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Michael E; Zhang, Zhihua; Rutherford, Scott; Bradley, Raymond S; Hughes, Malcolm K; Shindell, Drew; Ammann, Caspar; Faluvegi, Greg; Ni, Fenbiao

    2009-11-27

    Global temperatures are known to have varied over the past 1500 years, but the spatial patterns have remained poorly defined. We used a global climate proxy network to reconstruct surface temperature patterns over this interval. The Medieval period is found to display warmth that matches or exceeds that of the past decade in some regions, but which falls well below recent levels globally. This period is marked by a tendency for La Niña-like conditions in the tropical Pacific. The coldest temperatures of the Little Ice Age are observed over the interval 1400 to 1700 C.E., with greatest cooling over the extratropical Northern Hemisphere continents. The patterns of temperature change imply dynamical responses of climate to natural radiative forcing changes involving El Niño and the North Atlantic Oscillation-Arctic Oscillation.

  10. Persistent positive North Atlantic oscillation mode dominated the Medieval Climate Anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouet, Valérie; Esper, Jan; Graham, Nicholas E; Baker, Andy; Scourse, James D; Frank, David C

    2009-04-03

    The Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) was the most recent pre-industrial era warm interval of European climate, yet its driving mechanisms remain uncertain. We present here a 947-year-long multidecadal North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) reconstruction and find a persistent positive NAO during the MCA. Supplementary reconstructions based on climate model results and proxy data indicate a clear shift to weaker NAO conditions into the Little Ice Age (LIA). Globally distributed proxy data suggest that this NAO shift is one aspect of a global MCA-LIA climate transition that probably was coupled to prevailing La Niña-like conditions amplified by an intensified Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the MCA.

  11. Dementia, personhood and embodiment: what can we learn from the medieval history of memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Stephen

    2013-05-01

    Memory and dementia are historical ideas that preceded the development of modern neuroscientific, psychogeriatric and medical approaches to aging and cognitive impairment. This article explores the value of such historical ideas in order to understand the discourses and metaphors by which Western thought has individualized memory as the guarantor of rational personhood, while at the same, treating memory decline as a threat to healthy and successful aging. Discussion focuses on the relationship between memory and the body in the classical and medieval ars memoria (the art of memory) and in the early modern philosophies of personhood, particularly the work of John Locke. Conclusions consider the significance of Western culture's history of embodied memory as it moved from cosmic to individual to neurocognitive sites for our wider views about the treatment of dementia.

  12. Sobre pechos y pecheros de un concejo medieval : Paredes de Nava

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    María Jesús Fuente Pérez

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Los autores que han estudiado la fiscalidad medieval han tenido que hacer frente a algunos problemas irresolubles; cuestiones como quienes pagaban o cuánto pagaban pueden resultar relativamente fáciles si se comparan con la dificultad de averiguar la forma de estimar la base imponible o valorar si la estimación buscaba la igualdad de los contribuyentes o si éstos se veían beneficiados o perjudicados por distintos modos de imposición. La propia terminología es, a veces, un problema, pues no hay uniformidad en la denominación de impuestos, de oficiales, de unidades de tributación o de otros términos que aparecen con frecuencia en la documentación fiscal de la época.

  13. THE CHARACTERIZATION OF MEDIEVAL CERAMICS EXCAVATED FROM THE EĞIRDIR CARAVANSERAI (TURKEY

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    GÜRSEL YANIK

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen potsherds from the Eğirdir Caravanserai (south-west of Turkey were characterized by optical microscopy (OM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Mineralogical and petrographic studies of medieval potsherds in there show a ceramic body composed of a microcrystalline to amorphous matrix with various clasts and voids. The thin section, XRD and SEM analyses of samples showed that potsherds consist of K-feldspar (orthoclase, plagioclase (albite and anorthite, pyroxene (diopside, melilite (gehlenite, mullite, wollastonite, mica (biotite and muscovite, chlorite, leucite, amphibole, quartz, calcite, iron minerals (hematite and magnetite and trace amounts of sphene. The obtained results showed that calcareous materials including illitic-kaolinitic clays were used for pottery production and the potsherds were fired in the temperatures from 800 to 1150°C.

  14. Johannitius (809-873 AD), a medieval physician, translator and author.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalfardi, Behnam; Daneshfard, Babak; Nezhad, Golnoush Sadat Mahmoudi

    2016-08-01

    The medieval physician, translator and author Abū Zayd Ḥunayn ibn Isḥāq al-'Ibādī, best known in the West as Johannitius, is considered the best translator of Greek texts, particularly medical writings, into Arabic. He made great inroads in the art of translation in the Islamic world. In addition to his own translations, Johannitius put significant effort into training pupils and passing knowledge about translation to succeeding generations. He was also a great writer, compiling over 100 books on different subjects, especially medical. Among his own works, the illustrious Kitab al-Ashr Maqalat fil-Ayn (Ten Treatises on the Eye) contains the oldest known illustration of the structure of the eye. It served as the primary source for Galen's theory of vision and subsequent use by Western scholars. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. APRESENTAÇÃO DO NÚMERO TEMÁTICO DE FILOSOFIA MEDIEVAL

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    Guy Hamelin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O VIIº Colóquio de História da Filosofia Medieval, realizado em novembro de 2009 em Brasília, foi dedicado ao tema: “Argumentação e interpretação na Filosofia Medieval”. Na ocasião, sete medievalistas brasileiros e estrangeiros encontraram-se para apresentar seu trabalho e discutir o assunto. O encontro foi possível graças à ajuda financeira do Departamento de Filosofia da Universidade de Brasília e da CAPES. Aproveitamos o espaço para agradecê-los. Apresentamos, no presente número temático, seis artigos ligados direta ou indiretamente a essa questão.

  16. TOMÁS DE AQUINO COMO ANTECEDENTE MEDIEVAL DE LA TOLERANCIA MODERNA

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    Ezequiel Téllez Maqueo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The author examines briefly some texts belonging to the thomistic corpus, in which is shown that tolerance is not a proper value of modernity, but it was practiced and explained by Thomas Aquinas who lived in a rich multicultural period of history as the medieval age was, where he defended convincingly his own beliefs with respect and toleration in the presence of all kind of thinkers (muslims and jewish thinkers, heretics, unbelievers, etc. with whom he didn’t agree entirely. After concluding that prostitution is inmoral but not illegal according to Aquinas, such any tolerant philosopher would do it, the author determines the nature and limits of this ethic virtue, giving good reasons to be cultivated it by anyone.

  17. La influencia de la Alquimia medieval hispana en la Europa moderna,

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    López Pérez, Miguel

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The pseudolullian texts of german paracelsists in Spain specify the peninsular paracelsism. This texts, and many others, were influenced by other previous texts, like these of the same Lull, Arnau of Vilanova and John of Rupescissa, that's the reason why this ideas made a return trip and the spanish mediaeval alchemy determined directly to the european alchemy.

    Los textos pseudolulianos de paracelsistas alemanes en España concretan los años del paracelsismo peninsular. Dichos textos, y algunos más, estaban influenciados por otros anteriores, como los del propio Lulio, Arnau de Vilanova y Juan de Rupescissa, por lo que dichas ideas hicieron un viaje de ida y vuelta y la Alquimia hispana medieval influenció directamente a la europea.

  18. Interpreting Medieval Inter-tidal Features at Weelie's Taing on Papa Westray, Orkney, NE Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Edward; Gibson, Julie; Littlewood, Mark

    2016-12-01

    Investigation of the inter-tidal heritage of the Orkney Islands is used to interpret a previously perplexing complex at Weelie's Taing on Papa Westray. The study revealed a previously unknown type of harbour since identified in several locations around Orkney. Situated in exposed environmental situations, shelter is formed by an `ayre', a type of spit that encloses a loch, and which has been used historically as a landing place or crossing of the inter-tidal zone. A complex landing area, pier, tower and ship-blockage suggest Weelie's Taing was used as a harbour. Important fishing grounds exploited since the Neolithic are nearby, and Papa Westray was the site of water-focussed religious communities. It is suggested that Weelie's Taing was in use in the medieval period when Papa Westray was less isolated than today with the presence of ecclesiastical communities and situation on the Orkney-Shetland route.

  19. Repeated catastrophic valley infill following medieval earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Anne; Stolle, Amelie; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R; Andermann, Christoff; Tofelde, Stefanie; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2016-01-08

    Geomorphic footprints of past large Himalayan earthquakes are elusive, although they are urgently needed for gauging and predicting recovery times of seismically perturbed mountain landscapes. We present evidence of catastrophic valley infill following at least three medieval earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya. Radiocarbon dates from peat beds, plant macrofossils, and humic silts in fine-grained tributary sediments near Pokhara, Nepal's second-largest city, match the timing of nearby M > 8 earthquakes in ~1100, 1255, and 1344 C.E. The upstream dip of tributary valley fills and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry of their provenance rule out local sources. Instead, geomorphic and sedimentary evidence is consistent with catastrophic fluvial aggradation and debris flows that had plugged several tributaries with tens of meters of calcareous sediment from a Higher Himalayan source >60 kilometers away. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. A method for estimating age of Danish medieval sub-adults based on long bone length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primeau, C.; Lynnerup, Niels; Friis, Laila Saidane

    2012-01-01

    for aging archaeological Danish sub-adults from the medieval period based on diaphyseal lengths. The problem with using data on Danish samples, which have been derived from a different population, is the possibility of skewing age estimates. In this study 58 Danish archaeological sub-adults were examined......The preferred method for aging archaeological sub-adult skeletons is by dental examination. In cases where no dental records are available, age estimation may be performed according to epiphyseal union, skeletal elements or diaphyseal lengths. Currently no data have been produced specifically....... This study indicated that with the regression formulae developed, estimation of age can be done with reasonable results on Danish sub-adults. The Danish data were then compared to data from a different archaeological sample and a modern sample. It showed that the modern data indicated a consistently lower...

  1. Contributions of Human Osteo-archaeology to the reconstruction of climatic shifts in medieval Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria DIANA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Huizinga (1996 used striking but quite realistic words to describe the Middle Ages: ‘When the world was half a thousand years younger all events had much sharper outlines than now [...] Sickness contrasted more strongly with health. The cutting cold and the dreaded darkness of winter were more concrete evils’.This picture is particularly appropriate for depicting the ‘Little Ice Age’ (c. 14th – 19th centuries, a period which strongly contrasted with the previous ‘Medieval Warm Period’. It was a time of hardships for populations across Europe, tormented by climatic shifts, famine, epidemics and wars for many consecutive years, sometimes even decades, when seasons manifested their extremes in long, harsh winters, cool and wet summers, and cold peaks such as the so called Great Frost in 1709.Scholars and scientists have used several tools for the reconstruction of past climates and the understanding of the complex human-environment relations. The most ‘traditional’ indicators are human instrumental and non-instrumental records, natural proxies, and archaeological sources. Where available, church archives, journals and chronicles written by travellers and diplomats are very useful sources of information before technological devices to measure temperature and precipitation were invented. However, in recent years more disciplines have joined this ever-growing inter-disciplinary network. In Romania, historical (Cernovodeanu and Binder 1993 and new climatologic (Geantă et al. 2012; Cristea et al. 2014 studies have shown that during the late medieval period a substantial climate change occurred in the Romanian Countries as in the more documented Western countries.

  2. From and to Portugal. The circulation of nobles in Medieval Hispania (12th-15th centuries

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    de Sotto Mayor Pizarro, José Augusto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the circulation of nobles among the various peninsular realms, from the 12th to the 15th century, can be an excellent and helpful observatory to a better understanding of the evolution of nobiliary and regal powers, as well as the links between them, in a period marked by the gradual affirmation of national monarchies. Besides these issues, and with a special emphasis on the relationship between Portugal and Castille, it can be of great interest to verify until when, to the nobility, the links of blood and the interest of lineage were superposed to the growing importance of the definition of the political frontiers in medieval Hispania.[pt] A análise da circulação de nobres entre os diferentes reinos peninsulares, desde o século XII até ao século XV, poderá revelar-se um excelente observatório para se compreender melhor, quer a evolução dos poderes nobiliárquico e régio quer a forma como ambos se articularam, num período marcado pela gradual afirmação das monarquias nacionais. Para além destas questões, e com um enfoque especial nas relações entre Portugal e Castela, poderá ser muito interessante verificar até quando, para a nobreza, os laços de parentesco e os interesses das linhagens se sobrepuseram à cada vez maior definição das fronteiras políticas dentro da Hispânia medieval.

  3. Iconología política en la Cataluña medieval

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    Puigarnau, Alfons

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Between the XIIIth and the XIV centuries, the so called Quatre grans cròniques (Four Great Chronicles are written in Mediaeval Catalonia. Three of the four authors of these documents show the historical facts as connected with and allowed by the Divine Providence. They develop a concept of History in which Space and time are categories necessarily moved by a supernatural force that gives them a reason for being, and the possibility of a free self-development. If we analyse these three major documents we will check an attempt of legitimate political power through a comparison between the present authority and the historical authority of the Jewish Kings of Israel, mainly David and Salomon. This is the "Icon of Political Power" that catalan medieval chroniclers want to reproduce.

    Entre los siglos XIII y XIV se escriben en Cataluña las llamadas Quatre grans cròniques. Tres de sus cuatro autores muestran la pretendida conexión de los hechos históricos con la Providencia divina. Desarrollan un concepto de Historia en el que el Espacio y el Tiempo son categorías necesariamente dominadas por fuerzas sobrenaturales. Al analizar estos documentos se registra un intento de legitimar el poder político a través del paralelismo entre la autoridad presente y la autoridad hostórica de los reyes de Israel, David y Salomón. Tras este intento de legitimación del poder político se encuentra, por tanto, una importante iconología del poder político en la Cataluña medieval.

  4. Paesaggi monastici della Basilicata altomedievale / Monastic landscapes of the Early Medieval Basilicata

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    Francesca Sogliani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Le ricerche sul paesaggio altomedievale e medievale della Basilicata, disegnato dalle fonti documentarie e da quelle materiali, sono state incentrate di recente sulla lettura archeologica delle trasformazioni insediative del territorio. Ai precedenti sistemi di gestione, rappresentati da pochi centri urbani e dalle ville rurali che mantengono il loro assetto fino all’età tardoantica, pur se con alcune a volte sostanziali modifiche, si sostituiscono a partire dall’VIII secolo altre realtà: nuovi centri urbani, siti fortificati, villaggi e chiese rurali, insediamenti monastici. Questi ultimi, sia di rito latino che di rito greco, giocheranno un ruolo fondamentale nello sfruttamento delle risorse del territorio rurale nonché nella riorganizzazione della compagine demografica ed economica della regione, all’indomani dei conflitti politici e delle crisi istituzionali rappresentati dal conflitto greco-gotico e dalle lotte tra potere longobardo, bizantino e normanno. The researches on early medieval and medieval landscape of Basilicata, drawn from documentary and archaeological sources, have been focused recently on the settlement transformations of the territory. Previous systems of land management, consisting of a few urban centers and rural villas that retain their structure, while offering some significant changes at times, until Late Antiquity, are replaced from the 8th c. by new items: new urban centers, fortified sites, villages and rural churches and monastic settlements. These last, both Latin and Greek, will play a key role in the exploitation of the resources of rural areas as well as in the reorganization of the demographic and economic structure of the region, in the aftermath of the political conflicts and institutional crisis represented by the Gothic war and power struggles between the Lombard, Byzantine and Norman role.

  5. Historical and Technical Notes on Aqueducts from Prehistoric to Medieval Times

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    Giovanni De Feo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the evolution of aqueduct technologies through the millennia, from prehistoric to medieval times. These hydraulic works were used by several civilizations to collect water from springs and to transport it to settlements, sanctuaries and other targets. Several civilizations, in China and the Americas, developed water transport systems independently, and brought these to high levels of sophistication. For the Mediterranean civilizations, one of the salient characteristics of cultural development, since the Minoan Era (ca. 3200–1100 BC, is the architectural and hydraulic function of aqueducts used for the water supply in palaces and other settlements. The Minoan hydrologists and engineers were aware of some of the basic principles of water sciences and the construction and operation of aqueducts. These technologies were further developed by subsequent civilizations. Advanced aqueducts were constructed by the Hellenes and, especially, by the Romans, who dramatically increased the application scale of these structures, in order to provide the extended quantities of water necessary for the Roman lifestyle of frequent bathing. The ancient practices and techniques were not improved but survived through Byzantine and early medieval times. Later, the Ottomans adapted older techniques, reintroducing large-scale aqueducts to supply their emerging towns with adequate water for religious and social needs. The scientific approach to engineering matters during the Renaissance further improved aqueduct technology. Some of these improvements were apparently also implemented in Ottoman waterworks. Finally the industrial revolution established mechanized techniques in water acquisition. Water is a common need of mankind, and several ancient civilizations developed simple but practical techniques from which we can still learn. Their experience and knowledge could still play an important role for sustainable water supply

  6. Medieval and Renaissance anatomists: the printing and unauthorized copying of illustrations, and the dissemination of ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanska, Douglas J; Lanska, John Robert

    2013-01-01

    The vanguard that began to question Galenic anatomical dogma originated in northern Italy in the latter half of the thirteenth century, and not coincidentally this was where human dissection was introduced, which in turn eventually fostered the origins of realistic anatomical illustration in the late fifteenth century. With the advent of the printing press and moveable type at this time, printed books began to supersede hand-copied medieval manuscripts, and labor-intensive techniques were soon developed to integrate text and illustrations on the printed page. The same technology was used to pirate the illustrations of prior authors with varying fidelity. Specific medieval and Renaissance anatomical illustrations can often be traced from their inceptions through different stages of development to the final printed images, and then through subsequent pirated versions in various abridgements or other compendia. The most important milestone in the development of anatomy and anatomical illustration was the publication in 1543 by Andreas Vesalii of De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body), commonly referred to simply as the Fabrica. With this work, Vesalii succeeded in coordinating a publication production team (author, artists, block cutters, publisher, and typesetters) to achieve an unprecedented integration of scientific discourse, medical illustration, and typography. However, despite Vesalii's valiant efforts to prevent unauthorized duplication, the illustrations from the Fabrica were extensively plagiarized. Although Vesalii found such piracy frustrating and annoying, the long-term effect was to make Vesalii's ideas known to a wider readership and to help solidify his own revolutionary contributions to anatomy. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [The reception of medieval Europe in the Baltic Sea region, Papers of the XIIth Visby Symposium held at Gotland University, Visby] / Juhan Kreem

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreem, Juhan, 1971-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: The reception of medieval Europe in the Baltic Sea Region : papers of the XIIth Visby Symposium, held at Gotland University, Visby / editor: Jörn Staecker. Visby : Gotland University Press, 2009. (Acta Visbyensia ; 12)

  8. Differential preservation of children's bones and teeth recovered from early medieval cemeteries: possible influences for the forensic recovery of non-adult skeletal remains

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bernadette M Manifold

    2013-01-01

      The skeletal preservation of 421 non-adult skeletons from four early medieval sites in England, Scotland and Wales were compared to assess whether geographical location and geology have an impact...

  9. [Crusading and chronicle writing on the medieval Baltic frontier: A companion to the chronicle of Henry of Livonia] / Radosław Biskup

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Biskup, Radosław

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Crusading and chronicle writing on the medieval Baltic frontier : a companion to the chronicle of Henry of Livonia, eds. Marek Tamm, Linda Kaljundi, Carsten Selch Jensen. Farnham ; Burlington (Vt.) : Ashgate, c2011

  10. [The Reception of Medieval Europa in the Baltic Sea Region. Papers of the XIIth Visby Symposium held at Gotland University, Visby] / Stefan Donecker

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Donecker, Stefan, 1977-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus : The Reception of Medieval Europa in the Baltic Sea Region. Papers of the XIIth Visby Symposium held at Gotland University, Visby. Viby : Gotland University Press, 2009. (Acta Visbyensia. 12)

  11. Gurupá - das ruínas aos cemitérios Gurupá: from the ruins to the cemeteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Karl Pressler

    2012-12-01

    traces left by social memory (personal e officinal letters and fictional literature (romances, such flows of people, ideas, images and ideals challenge us to rethink the character of phantasmagoria and fictional values of belonging, formation and identity. This study compare three voices: the letters of the Portuguese ambassador-traveler Francisco X. Mendonça Furtado, the Amazon Trilogy of Alfred Döblin and the work of the native novelists Dalcídio Jurandir to knowing how political and aesthetic imagination inflected or configured the individual creative enquire and in which form are collectively of Amazonia (Nationalization and Culture imagined or represented. This comparative study especially considering the regional background which liberate one of the most potentialities of imagination and confronting in dialogic interaction the Phantasmagoria with the ruins of the reality, the political imagination with the narrative fictionalisation..

  12. Origen y evolución urbana de Alcañiz. De la villa medieval a la ciudad renacentista

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    Juan José Barragán Villagrasa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La ciudad de Alcañiz (Aragón constituye un ejemplo de las reformas que el urbanismo renacentista impulsó en las villas medievales, ligado en este caso al desarrollo del Concejo, y la progresiva independencia municipal respecto al señorío de la Orden de Calatrava, con sede en el castillo. Hemos indagado en el modelo de urbanismo medieval impulsado por los calatravos desde la repoblación del territorio, formado por dos líneas de muralla, una de ellas inédita, y que hemos denominado «muralla alta». Desde el Concejo medieval, con sede en las Casas Comunes, se desarrolla un nuevo modelo de urbanismo, con nuevos espacios públicos como la Plaza Mayor, una trama de calles más anchas y regulares, y el desarrollo de una edificación más estandarizada, que convivirá con lo culminando en la construcción de la Casa Consistorial por el Concejo posmedieval, institución que actualmente conocemos como Ayuntamiento.The town of Alcañiz, in Aragon, is a good example of the reforms that Renaissance town plannings spread in medieval towns. In this case, it is linked to the development of the town Council, and the progressive local independence from the Calatrava Lordship, whose headquarter were inside the castle. We have researched the medieval town planning promoted by the Calatravos since the repopulation of the territory. It is formed by two lines of city walls, one of which was unknown and we have called it «the high wall». From the medieval Council House, sited in the Common Houses, a new model of urbanism is developed, with new public spaces like the Main Square, wider and more regular street patterns and the development of a more standarized way of building that has co-existed with the medieval quarters until the present days.

  13. History of mathematical education in ancient, medieval and pre modern India (within the Chapter: Mathematics Education in Oriental Antiquity and Middle Ages)

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Agathe

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Very little is known of the context in which much of ancient India's scholarly knowledge burgeoned. Part of this ignorance springs precisely from the fact that very little is known about elementary, higher or specialised education in ancient and medieval India. For ancient and medieval mathematics in the Indian sub-continent, most of the studied textual sources are in Sanskrit, a brahmanical language which became the scholarly language of an educated cosmopolitan elite...

  14. O IMAGINÁRIO MEDIEVAL NA COLÔNIA: O BESTIÁRIO EM FERNÃO CARDIM THE MEDIEVAL IMAGINATION IN COLOGNE: The BESTIÁRIO IN FERNÃO CARDIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEDRO CARLOS FONSECA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo consiste numa interpretação crítica de aspectos do imagináriomedieval relativos à tradição bestiária nos relatos do Padre Fernão Cardimsobre a fauna colonial brasileira. Examina que muitas das figuralizações darealidade animal de Cardim são baseadas em formas imaginativas derepresentação, as quais ainda demonstram a influência do pensamentoescolástico medieval. Adiantando alguns argumentos, o estudo indica quemuitos outros relatos sobre a realidade brasileira no período colonial refletem,na verdade e acima de tudo, o passado e a mentalidade tradicionais dos seusautores.This study is a critical analysis of aspects of the medieval imaginary, as far asits bestiary is concerned, in Father Fernão Cardim´s accounts of colonialBrazilian fauna. It examines that many of Cardim´s figuralizations of animalreality are based on imaginative forms of representation which still bear theinfluence of the medieval scholastic thinking. Advancing some argments, thestudy points out that many other accounts of Brazilian reality in the colonialperiod are indeed much indebted, and above all, to the traditional past andmentality of their authors.

  15. Opisthorchiasis in infant remains from the medieval Zeleniy Yar burial ground of XII-XIII centuries AD

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    Sergey Mikhailovich Slepchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a paleoparasitological analysis of the medieval Zeleniy Yar burial ground of the XII-XII centuries AD located in the northern part of Western Siberia. Parasite eggs, identified as eggs of Opisthorchis felineus, were found in the samples from the pelvic area of a one year old infant buried at the site. Presence of these eggs in the soil samples from the infant’s abdomen suggests that he/she was infected with opisthorchiasis and imply consumption of undercooked fish. Ethnographic records collected among the population of the northern part of Western Siberia reveal numerous cases of feeding raw fish to their children. Zeleniy Yar case of opisthorchiasis suggests that this dietary custom has persisted from at least medieval times.

  16. Opisthorchiasis in infant remains from the medieval Zeleniy Yar burial ground of XII-XIII centuries AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepchenko, Sergey Mikhailovich; Gusev, Alexander Vasilevich; Ivanov, Sergey Nikolaevich; Svyatova, Evgenia Olegovna

    2015-01-01

    We present a paleoparasitological analysis of the medieval Zeleniy Yar burial ground of the XII-XII centuries AD located in the northern part of Western Siberia. Parasite eggs, identified as eggs of Opisthorchis felineus, were found in the samples from the pelvic area of a one year old infant buried at the site. Presence of these eggs in the soil samples from the infant’s abdomen suggests that he/she was infected with opisthorchiasis and imply consumption of undercooked fish. Ethnographic records collected among the population of the northern part of Western Siberia reveal numerous cases of feeding raw fish to their children. Zeleniy Yar case of opisthorchiasis suggests that this dietary custom has persisted from at least medieval times. PMID:26602874

  17. Hysterical paralysis and premature burial: a medieval Persian case, fear and fascination in the West, and modern practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agutter, Paul S; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Rashidi, Mohammad Reza; Khalili, Majid; Hosseini, Seyed Fazel; Ghabili, Kamyar; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A; Loukas, Marios

    2013-04-01

    Premature burial (taphophobia) is an ancient fear, but it became especially common in 18th and 19th century Europe and may have a modern-day counterpart. Examination of a well-documented case from medieval Persia reveals the importance of funeral practices in the risk of actual premature burial and sheds light on the question of why taphophobia became so prevalent in Europe during the early industrial revolution period. The medieval Persian case was attributed to hysterical paralysis (conversion). We discuss the relationship between hysterical paralysis and premature burial more generally and show that although understanding of conversion syndrome remains incomplete, modern knowledge and practices have limited the risk of any similar tragedy today. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  18. Mycological and palynological studies of early medieval cultural layers from strongholds in Pszczew and Santok (western Poland

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    Kinga Mazurkiewicz-Zapałowicz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cultural layers from early medieval strongholds in Pszczew and Santok have been examined for the presence of pollen grains and spores as well as residues of fungi. The presence of the following remains has been recorded: fossil hyphopodia of Gaeumannomyces, teliospores of Puccinia, spores of Bipolaris, Thecaphora and Tilletia, teliospores of the genus Urocystis, Ustilago and Uromyces, ascocarps (perithecium of the Ascomycota or the pycnidium of Sphaeropsidales. A greater diversity and abundance of fungi spores sensu lato was recorded in Santok, as compared to Pszczew. Both early medieval sites recorded a significant proportion of cereal pollen, including Secale cereale. It remains an undisputed fact that the grains and other plants collected in both strongholds were strongly infected with fungi. The analysis of the cultural layers for the presence of fungi remains provides significant data on the presence of certain species of plants and their growth conditions in natural environments and in agriculture.

  19. The Smell of Relics: Authenticating Saintly Bones and the Role of Scent in the Sensory Experience of Medieval Christian Veneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Anthony Brazinski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ''The archaeology of smell is a burgeoning field in recent scholarship. This paper adds to existing literature by investigating the function of smell in relation to relic sales and veneration in medieval Europe, a hitherto understudied area of research. Collating historical texts concerning the translatio of saintly relics in Western Europe and the Byzantine Empire with archaeological sources associated with relic veneration and religious worship (including ampullae, unguentaria, sarcophagi, holy oils, pillow graves, and silk, this paper suggests that (1 smell was used in the medieval world as a means to challenge or confirm a relic’s authenticity, and (2 olfactory liquids that imbued or permeated material objects in the context of worship functioned as a means of focusing attention on relic veneration and were an essential part of the cult and/or pilgrimage experience.

  20. El uso político de la edad media. The myth of nations. The medieval origins of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Ignacio López

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El uso político de la edad media. Geary, Patrick, The Myth of Nations. The Medieval Origins of Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002, pp: 199. El libro de Patrick Geary es una brillante crítica a los abusos que políticos e incluso historiadores han hecho a propósito de la temprana Edad Media. En efecto, este historiador norteamericano muestra que ideólogos del nacionalismo europeo de nuestro tiempo se han basado y aún se basan en un conocimiento erróneo de la época medieval para fundamentar sus propios prejuicios y exclusiones. Según esa interpretación, los pueblos modernos de hoy se constituyeron por primera vez en el período posterior a la caída del Imperio Romano y a la consolidación en Europa de los llamados pueblos germanos.

  1. RESENHA: BROADIE, A. Introduction to medieval logic. Segunda edição. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2002.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Cabeceiras

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Nessa obra, Broadie, após discutir qual seria a melhor ordem de exposição paraum texto sobre lógica medieval, decide tratar primeiro dos termos, depois dasproposições e, por fim, das inferências. Mas, não se restringindo ao que era uniforme oupredominante na Idade Média, explora disputas envolvendo lógicos ou filósofos daqueleperíodo. Delimitando seu objeto, estabelece que a obra lidará, hegemonicamente, commaterial produzido no período entre a segunda metade do século XIII e o final do séculoXV, por considerar essa a fase mais produtiva no que se refere à lógica medieval.

  2. Photogrammetric Modelling for Urban Medieval Site Mapping. A Case Study from Curtea de Argeş, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nistor Constantin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Detailed mapping of urban historical sites superposed on natural landforms within built-up areas is a real challenge. Digital photogrammetric techniques meet the requirements for mapping archaeological sites within dense built-up areas. The objectives are to reveal the landform value in medieval site development and to analyse its impact on the landforms. The aim of the present study is to highlight the contribution of geomatics technologies for the evaluation and preservation of historical sites using UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle imagery and field photos for 3D modelling. Curtea de Argeş medieval site, established on Argeş River terraces and attested since the 13th century, represents the town core for which the specific methodology was applied.

  3. Chemical and Microbiological Properties of Diagnostic Layers in the Filling of the Foundation Pits of Medieval Buildings

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    Borisov Aleksandr V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of diagnostically significant layers within the filling of medieval buildings foundation pits has been suggested in the article. The term “diagnostically significant layers” has been proposed to define the layers with specific morphological, chemical and microbiological properties that had been forming in the filling of pits as a result of certain processes. This paper presents a systematization of Different diagnostic layers have been systematized in the article, and their composition, properties and conditions of formation are described. The study was conducted on the Dmitrovskoye-2 and Kruzhok medieval sites (Moscow oblast. The proposed concept can serve as the basis for retrospective analysis aimed at the following trends: layer properties –mechanism of its formation; initial material – its participation in building functional operation.

  4. Raman microscopy and x-ray fluorescence analysis of pigments on medieval and Renaissance Italian manuscript cuttings

    OpenAIRE

    Burgio, Lucia; Clark, Robin J. H.; Hark, Richard R.

    2010-01-01

    Italian medieval and Renaissance manuscript cuttings and miniatures from the Victoria and Albert Museum were analyzed by Raman microscopy to compile a database of pigments used in different periods and different Italian regions. The palette identified in most manuscripts and cuttings was found to include lead white, gypsum, azurite, lazurite, indigo, malachite, vermilion, red lead, lead tin yellow (I), goethite, carbon, and iron gall ink. A few of the miniatures, such as the historiated capit...

  5. Infant feeding practice in medieval Japan: stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of human skeletons from Yuigahama-minami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutaya, Takumi; Shimomi, Akina; Nagaoka, Tomohito; Sawada, Junmei; Hirata, Kazuaki; Yoneda, Minoru

    2015-02-01

    A longer breastfeeding duration provides various positive effects in subadult health because of abundant immunological factors and nutrients in human breast milk, and decreases the natural fertility of a population through lactational amenorrhea. In this study, we measured stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in the bone collagen of three adults and 45 subadults from the Yuigahama-minami site (from 12th to 14th century) in Kamakura, the early medieval capital of Japan. Marine foods, C3 -based terrestrial foods, and freshwater fish are the primarily protein sources for adults. The changes in the nitrogen isotope ratios of subadults suggest that the relative dietary protein contribution from breast milk started to decrease from 1.1 years of age and ended at 3.8 years. The age at the end of weaning in the Yuigahama-minami population was greater than that in the typical non-industrial populations, a premodern population in the Edo period Japan, and medieval populations in the UK. Skeletons of townspeople from medieval Kamakura indicate severe nutritional stress (e.g., enamel hypoplasia and cribra orbitalia), yet this longer duration of breastfeeding did not compensate adverse effects for nutritional deficiency. The longer breastfeeding period may have been a consequence of complementary food shortage and bad health of subadults. Kamakura experienced urbanization and population increase in the early medieval period. The younger age-at-death distribution and high nutritional stresses in the Yuigahama-minami population and later weaning, which is closely associated with longer inter-birth interval for mothers, suggests that Kamakura developed and increased its population by immigration during urbanization. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Reconstruction of an architectonic space for the recuperation of a large medieval fresco in San Zeno Abbey in Verona.

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    Libero Cecchini

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The restoration of a large medieval fresco situated inside San Zeno Abbey formed part of the interventions performed on this monument in the last two decades, partly described in the previous article. Issues that arose during the works advised the putting into practice of a rigorous research and restoration process, in which the interdisciplinary collaboration of archaeologists, architects, engineers, geologists, chemists and restorers played a crucial part in the recuperation of a painting of great historic and artistic value.

  7. An Introduction to the Medieval English: The Historical and Literary Context, Traces of Church and Philosophical Movements in the Literature

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    Esmail Zare Behtash

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Transition from Greek to medieval philosophy that speculated on religion, nature, metaphysics, human being and society was rather a rough transition in the history of English literature. Although the literature content of this age reflected more religious beliefs, the love and hate relationship of medieval philosophy that was mostly based on the Christianity with Greek civilization was exhibited clearly. The modern philosophical ideologies are the continuation of this period’s ideologies. Without a well understanding of the philosophical issues related to this age, it is not possible to understand the modern ones well. The catholic tradition as well as the religious reform against church called Protestantism was organized in this age. In Medieval Period, philosophy and theoretical thoughts related to the Christianity were well-organized and the philosophy, science and theoretical thoughts served religion. Philosophy had different forms and orientations in various stages of this period. One of these philosophical thoughts was the Augustinian philosophy which was strongly in favor of church with its different practices and styles. It used Platonic and Neo-Platonic traditions to prove that faith is the result of divine dispensations, not the result of human will power and wisdom. On the other hand, according to Aquinas, we experience different types of the effects that existed in the world around us. He believed that we assign an effective cause to each effect we experienced around us. Additionally, he claimed that reasoning was the only way to reach the real faith. In fact, philosophy of Medieval Period attempted to prove that religious assertions and ideologists were in search of matching their philosophical beliefs with the beliefs of Christianity. Christianity as the dominant factor in Middle English Literature helped English to be stablished as a literary language.

  8. Funeral and Memorial Ceremonialism and Armor Complex of the Ancient and Medieval Population (to the statement of the problem

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    Izmaylov Iskander L.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to one of the major aspects of archeology: the reconstruction of social relations on the basis of data on burial and mortuary ceremonialism. Attention is mainly focused on the theoretical problems of the ratio of the “living” reality and its reflection in funeral monuments, especially on the armor as the key material used to determine the social status and restore the armor complex of ancient and medieval societies.

  9. Difficult middles, hybridity and ambivalence of a medieval frontier: the cultural landscape of Lolland and Falster (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the cultural and political landscape of the Danish islands of Lolland and Falster in the Middle Ages. The close economic and dynastic relationships between medieval Denmark and the Slavic area south of the Baltic Sea, as well as Slavic settlement on the islands, contributed...... hybridity in material culture, pays attention to the ambivalence towards ‘national’ projects and underlines the complex and multi-positional identities of the islanders....

  10. Medieval herbal iconography and lexicography of Cucumis (cucumber and melon, Cucurbitaceae) in the Occident, 1300—1458

    OpenAIRE

    Paris, Harry S.; Janick, Jules; Daunay, M-Christin

    2011-01-01

    Background The genus Cucumis contains two species of important vegetable crops, C. sativus, cucumber, and C. melo, melon. Melon has iconographical and textual records from lands of the Mediterranean Basin dating back to antiquity but cucumber does not. Our goal was to obtain an improved understanding of the history of these crops in the Occident. We examined medieval images purportedly of Cucumis, determined their specific identity, and compared them for originality, accuracy, and the lexicog...

  11. Iron Documents. Interdisciplinary studies on the technology of late medieval european plate armour production between 1350 and 1500

    OpenAIRE

    Goll, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to find out details on the production of late medieval European plate-armour for the field-use. Therefore, the author first collected thousands of extant objects in a database. With this stock of data he then was able to cluster and to structure the armour parts by various typological and technological aspects. To ease the access to the topic, the author defined an understandable and standardized terminology and typology for the different variations of...

  12. A Destruktion heideggeriana da ontologia medieval em Die Grundprobleme Der Phänomenologie (§§ 10-12

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    Bento Silva Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Em primeiro lugar, (1 examinarei a chamada Destruktion fenomenológica da ontologia medieval, componente básico do método a partir da história da ontologia. Nessa seção, coloco algumas questões sobre a apropriação da Idade Média com base na escolástica tardia, como se esta fosse o "cume" das reflexões precedentes! Em segundo lugar, (2 apresento a reflexão de próprio Heidegger sobre a ontologia medieval tal como se expõe no curso de semestre de verão de 1927 ("Os problemas fundamentais da fenomenologia", ministrado na Universidade de Marburg. Igualmente nessa parte, faço algumas reflexões críticas sobre a leitura heideggeriana dos medievais, que se presta muito mais para conhecer o próprio modo de pensar de Heidegger do que os medievais em si mesmos, ou seja, pela leitura cursiva dos textos em seu contexto histórico e cultural: sem o élan espiritual, consubstancial aos escritos de Tomás de Aquino, por exemplo, a organização conceitual deste último não pareceria um sistema assaz grandioso e seco? Esta não terá sido a compreensão de Heidegger, fruto da separação metodológica feita entre mística medieval e filosofia escolástica desde o curso não proferido intitulado "Fundamentos filosóficos da Mística Medieval" (1918-1919?

  13. Reliquias y relicarios: una aproximación al estudio del culto a los santos en la Navarra medieval

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    García de la Borbolla García de Paredes, Ángeles

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In medieval Europe, relics, which are small material or physical objects conserved as a way of remembering a holy person, aroused religious sentiments that resonated with people's collective beliefs. At the same time, this faith and piety also inspired a desire to possess relics, to collect them and keep them safe in the main religious centres of the time. This paper describes the most outstanding relics in the medieval kindgom of Navarre.Las reliquias, que a primera vista son pequeños recuerdos materiales o físicos de un personaje santo, despertaron en el Occidente medieval unos sentimientos religiosos sustentados sobre unas creencias colectivas. Al mismo tiempo, esa fe y piedad impulsaron también un deseo y afán por poseerlas, acumularlas y custodiarlas en los principales centros religiosos del momento. En esta ocasión se presentarán los casos más sobresalientes del reino de Navarra en los siglos medievales.

  14. Social Perception of Infertility and Its Treatment in Late Medieval Italy: Margherita Datini, an Italian Merchant's Wife.

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    Nam, Jong Kuk

    2016-12-01

    Because the perception of infertility in medieval Europe ranged from the extremely religious view of it as a malediction of God or the devil's work, to the reasonable medical conception of it as a sort of disease to treat, it is very difficult to determine the general attitudes of ordinary people towards infertility. This article seeks to elucidate the common social perception of infertility and its treatment in late medieval Europe by analyzing the case of Margherita Datini, an Italian merchant's wife who lived in the 1400s. It relies heavily on the documents left by her and her husband, Francesco Datini; the couple left many records, including letters of correspondence between them. Margherita and those around her regarded infertility not as the devil's curse or a punishment by God but as a disease that can be cured. Margherita and her husband, Francesco, tried hard to cure their infertility. They received treatment and prescriptions from several doctors while also relying on folk remedies, religious therapies, and even magical remedies. The comparative analysis of Datini documents, medical books, and theoretical treatises or prescriptive essays by clerics suggests that the general perception of infertility in medieval Europe was located between the extremely religious and modern medical conceptions of it.

  15. La imagen del judío en la España medieval

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    Enrique Cantera Montenegro

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde fechas tempranas de la Edad Media fue configurándose y difundiéndose una imagen peyorativa de los judíos, expresión de la profunda antipatía que hacia ellos sentía la población mayoritaria cristiana. La imagen del judío medieval, que fue conformada a lo largo de los siglos por los derechos civil y canónico, consiste en un estereotipo, con rasgos muy semejantes entre los diferentes ámbitos geo-históricos del Occidente europeo. Lejos de ser un reflejo fiel de la realidad, guarda una estrecha relación con el lugar que la minoría hebrea ocupaba en la conciencia colectiva cristiana medieval: de este modo, pese a que los judíos constituían un grupo heterogéneo desde los más diversos puntos de vista socio-económico, religioso o cultural, aparecían homogeneizados a través de diversos rasgos que el subconsciente de la población mayoritaria convertía en universales. Entre los rasgos que identificaban hacia el exterior a la minoría hebrea se escogían los más llamativos: determinados rasgos físicos y del carácter; el uso de ciertas prendas de vestir; el ejercicio de algunas actividades profesionales, principalmente el préstamo con interés, y la posesión de enormes riquezas; o la práctica de ciertos crímenes rituales. Esta homogeneización del grupo actuaba como un auténtico estigma, y explica en buena medida la actitud hostil hacia la minoría hebrea, tanto desde un punto de vista teórico como en la práctica. En este trabajo se analizan los distintos argumentos que conformaron la imagen del judío medieval, a su vez generadores de odio hacia la población hebrea y legitimadores de las actitudes hostiles de la población mayoritaria.Since the early beginning of the Middie Ages, the jewish bad image spread among the christian - majority population as an expression of a deep feeling of rejection towards them. The middie ages jewish image is a result of the influence of the civil and religious laws through centuries and

  16. Finding the lost arches of the Medieval Avignon's Bridge (Avignon, Provence, South France): a geoarchaeological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilardi, M.; Vella, M. A.; Hermitte, D.; Parisot, J. C.; Dussouillez, P.; Fleury, T. J.; Provansal, M.; Delanghe-Sabatier, D.; Demory, F.; Mathé, P. E.; Quesnel, Y.; Danos, S.; Balossino, S.; Delpey, Y.; Hartmann-Virnich, A.; Berthelot, M.

    2012-04-01

    This papers aims to precisely locate the medieval arches of the so called Avignon's (Saint Bénézet) Bridge (South France) and to reconstruct the fluvial dynamics of the Rhone River from Early Medieval Times to the 19th century. Until now, just four remnant arches are still visible (near Avignon) and it is estimated that 22 arches (which represents a total length of approximately 920 meters) were built to span over one of the largest French Rivers. The late roman and early mediaeval dates of several foundation poles extracted from the river bed might suggest the existence of an earlier bridge, though it remains uncertain if any of such an earlier structure was still visible when the first mediaeval bridge was built. The mediaeval bridge was erected from 1177 until 1185 (in less than 10 years), but modified a few decades later when stone arches were erected, thus raising the road level substantially. The structure of the bridge being vulnerable, seasonal floods proved a neverending threat and cause of damage which was frequently repaired with masonry or wood. Final abandon of the edifice could be placed in the late 1660s - Early 1670s according to historical sources. Questions arose about the location of the "lost arches" and evident flood events dated back to the Little Ice Age (e.g. 1500 to 1850) could be responsible of the partial destruction of the bridge. Few archaeological, architectural, historical and palaeoenvironmental works have been undertaken in order to determine the precise shape of the Saint Bénézet Bridge at certain stages of its history. Since 2010, a joint team composed by laboratories affiliated to the French Public Research Centre (CNRS) and to Universities of Avignon and of Aix-Marseille 1 is trying to link the different phases of constructions/destructions of the monument with the fluvial dynamics of the Rhone River for the concerned period (ANR PAVAGE). The geoarchaeological approach adopted comprises bathymetric surveys (SONAR and

  17. Ancient and medieval Iberia seen through glass: An archaeometric perspective; La Hispania antigua y medieval a través del vidrio: la aportación de la arqueometría

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan Ares, J. de; Nadine Schibille, N.

    2017-11-01

    The study of ancient and medieval glasses has identified distinct compositional groups as a result of the chemical characteristics of the raw materials used for its production. Archaeometric analysis can determine the provenance of the glass, and has demonstrated a large-scale production and commercialisation of raw glass throughout the Mediterranean during the ancient and medieval periods. Secondary workshops on the Iberian Peninsula imported raw glass from the Near East for the better part of the first millennium CE, following a similar pattern observed elsewhere in the Mediterranean region. However, there are some indications that point to a local production of glass and that deserve further investigation. In the ninth century, natron glass was replaced in al-Ándalus by plant ash and lead-rich glass that may represent a local production. Little is known about the production or use of glass in the Christian parts of the peninsula during this period. The increasing volume of analytical data on Spanish glass demonstrates the potential of an archaeometric approach to shed light not only on the production and trade of glass on the Iberian Peninsula but also on the ancient and medieval economy more generally. [Spanish] El estudio del vidrio antiguo y medieval ha permitido identificar distintos grupos composicionales que son resultado de las características químicas de las materias primas empleadas en su fabricación. Los análisis arqueométricos permiten determinar la procedencia del vidrio, demostrando que el vidrio primario fue producido y comercializado a gran escala a través del Mediterráneo durante la Antigüedad y la Edad Media. Los talleres hispanos importaron vidrio primario desde Próximo Oriente durante la mayor parte del primer milenio d. C. siguiendo un patrón paralelo al resto del Mediterráneo. Sin embargo, algunos indicios señalan que pudieron convivir con vidrios de fabricación local que merecen ser investigados. En el siglo IX el vidrio de

  18. Building, inhabiting and «perceiving» private houses in early medieval Italy

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    Bianchi, Giovanna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the article sums up the evolution of the subject of private houses and homes in Italian historiography, beginning mainly in the 1970s, when scholars began to take an interest in this subject, also thanks to the development of the modern discipline of Medieval Archeology. After identifying current lines of research, the second section analyzes the main kinds of dwellings, their geographical distribution, and their various chronologies. The third section goes on to discuss the issue of how these residential buildings were the product of particular technical skills, analyzing the characteristics of the knowledge of the people who built them, in some cases also attested to in written sources. The fourth section seeks to link specific choices of construction solution to the socio-economic context of the time, trying to establish a connection between the type of buildings that were built, the kind of life their inhabitants led, and the contemporary mentality. The last section is dedicated to a sort of final synthesis, with a brief, further examination of the various issues dealt with in the article as a whole.La primera parte del artículo hace un resumen de la evolución de las casas particulares y viviendas domésticas en la historiografía italiana a partir de los años 70, cuando los estudiosos empezaron a interesarse por el tema y también gracias al desarrollo de la disciplina moderna de arqueología medieval. Tras identificar las actuales líneas de investigación, la segunda parte analiza los principales tipos de vivienda, su distribución geográfica y diversas cronologías. La tercera aborda el concepto de las viviendas residenciales como el resultado de determinadas habilidades técnicas y analiza las características del conocimiento del pueblo que las levantó, corroborando algunos casos con fuentes documentales. La cuarta parte intenta encontrar una relación entre las decisiones tomadas en determinadas soluciones

  19. Historical Epidemics Cartography Generated by Spatial Analysis: Mapping the Heterogeneity of Three Medieval "Plagues" in Dijon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanaud, Pierre; Galanaud, Anne; Giraudoux, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This work was designed to adapt Geographical Information System-based spatial analysis to the study of historical epidemics. We mapped "plague" deaths during three epidemics of the early 15th century, analyzed spatial distributions by applying the Kulldorff's method, and determined their relationships with the distribution of socio-professional categories in the city of Dijon. Our study was based on a database including 50 annual tax registers (established from 1376 to 1447) indicating deaths and survivors among the heads of households, their home location, tax level and profession. The households of the deceased and survivors during 6 years with excess mortality were individually located on a georeferenced medieval map, established by taking advantage of the preserved geography of the historical center of Dijon. We searched for clusters of heads of households characterized by shared tax levels (high-tax payers, the upper decile; low-tax payers, the half charged at the minimum level) or professional activities and for clusters of differential mortality. High-tax payers were preferentially in the northern intramural part, as well as most wealthy or specialized professionals, whereas low-tax payers were preferentially in the southern part. During two epidemics, in 1400-1401 and 1428, areas of higher mortality were found in the northern part whereas areas of lower mortality were in the southern one. A high concentration of housing and the proximity to food stocks were common features of the most affected areas, creating suitable conditions for rats to pullulate. A third epidemic, lasting from 1438 to 1440 had a different and evolving geography: cases were initially concentrated around the southern gate, at the confluence of three rivers, they were then diffuse, and ended with residual foci of deaths in the northern suburb. Using a selected historical source, we designed an approach allowing spatial analysis of urban medieval epidemics. Our results fit with the view

  20. Historical Epidemics Cartography Generated by Spatial Analysis: Mapping the Heterogeneity of Three Medieval "Plagues" in Dijon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Galanaud

    Full Text Available This work was designed to adapt Geographical Information System-based spatial analysis to the study of historical epidemics. We mapped "plague" deaths during three epidemics of the early 15th century, analyzed spatial distributions by applying the Kulldorff's method, and determined their relationships with the distribution of socio-professional categories in the city of Dijon.Our study was based on a database including 50 annual tax registers (established from 1376 to 1447 indicating deaths and survivors among the heads of households, their home location, tax level and profession. The households of the deceased and survivors during 6 years with excess mortality were individually located on a georeferenced medieval map, established by taking advantage of the preserved geography of the historical center of Dijon. We searched for clusters of heads of households characterized by shared tax levels (high-tax payers, the upper decile; low-tax payers, the half charged at the minimum level or professional activities and for clusters of differential mortality.High-tax payers were preferentially in the northern intramural part, as well as most wealthy or specialized professionals, whereas low-tax payers were preferentially in the southern part. During two epidemics, in 1400-1401 and 1428, areas of higher mortality were found in the northern part whereas areas of lower mortality were in the southern one. A high concentration of housing and the proximity to food stocks were common features of the most affected areas, creating suitable conditions for rats to pullulate. A third epidemic, lasting from 1438 to 1440 had a different and evolving geography: cases were initially concentrated around the southern gate, at the confluence of three rivers, they were then diffuse, and ended with residual foci of deaths in the northern suburb.Using a selected historical source, we designed an approach allowing spatial analysis of urban medieval epidemics. Our results fit

  1. The Resurfaced Medieval Manuscript Codex Filippi and the Zadar redaction of the Passion of St Anastasia

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    Trpimir Vedriš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Zadar’s medieval manuscript known as Cod. Lat. Iaderensis Filippi (S. Mariae has been rediscovered after its whereabouts were unknown following its translocation from Zadar during World War II and its acquisition in London in 1997. The most recent research on the manuscript, which was familiar to the older experts on Zadar’s hagiography, has confirmed many of the previous conclusions and suggestions, but the possibility to work on the manuscript itself after almost a century has also brought new insights about its nature and the nature of the legends contained therein. As the older experts argued, it is a segment of a once far larger liturgical codex (of some 300 pages owned by the Benedictine monastery of St Chrysogonus. The author has accepted the conclusions of the previous researchers and suggested that the manuscript should be described as Legendarium. In its present form (consisting of only 21 sheets, the Cod. Lat. Iaderensis Filippi (S. Mariae contains two hagiographic legends: a late antique Passio Sanctae Anastasiae and a local legend called Translatio Beati Grisogoni martyris. Based on a codicological and palaeographic analysis, as well as the stylistic and iconographic features of the preserved miniatures and other decorative elements, the author has suggested the period between the late 13th and late 14th centuries as the probable date of its making. Having thus delimited the approximate terminus ante quem for this redaction of the two legends about the saints of Zadar, the author has further suggested a link between this variant of the Passio Sanctae Anastasiae and other known medieval versions of that originally late antique legend. Based on the content, palaeography, and style of the manuscript, the codex has been compared to similar liturgical books from a wider northern Adriatic area. Having observed some analogies (primarily in terms of content and language with a group of manuscripts from a wider Aquileian area, the author

  2. Environmental drivers of Yersinia pestis - a holistic perspective on Medieval Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buentgen, U.

    2009-09-01

    Recent studies have indicated some evidence for a link between climate variability and plague (Yersinia pestis) dynamics in Central Asia and during most of the 20th century. An intensification of plague outbreaks via population peaks in its host-species, the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus) and its fleas (Xenopsylla spp) has been found to occur during periods of warmer spring and wetter summer climate. This is important, as human epidemics of plague ultimately originate in its wildlife reservoirs. Given the fact that Medieval Europe was strongly devastated by the Black Death - the second pandemic after the Justinian plague ~540AD, and that the worldwide highest quality and quantity of climate proxy data exist for Europe, we here present, for the first time, a holistic approach to enhance understanding of the mid-14th century Black Death. This is of primary importance not only for medical/epidemiological research, but also for other scientific communities, because the Black Death disease had a sustainable impact on the socio-economic development, culture, art, and religion of Medieval Europe. Palaeoclimatic records of annually resolved European temperature and drought variability are compiled, a high-resolution time-series of anthropogenic deforestation is utilized, documentary archives of socio-economic relevance are considered, and the animal-born plague bacterium is placed in the ecological web. Considering the European/North Atlantic sector and the last millennium, periods of high solar radiation and reduced volcanic activity shift the North Atlantic Oscillation into a generally positive mode, yielding towards warmer temperatures and an intensification of the hydrological cycle. We now argue that increased internal circulation resulted in an overall wetter and warmer climate ~1350AD, which most likely was able to promote the prevalence of existing and widespread Yersinia pestis bacillus. Resulting outbreaks of bubonic plague could have been also supported by the

  3. Empathy in the Making: Crafting the Believer’s Emotions in the Late Medieval Low Countries

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    Herman Roodenburg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses affective piety as it developed in the late medieval Low Countries – the new, sentiment-laden devotion concentrating on the humanity and vulnerability of Christ, on his nativity but especially his Passion, the physical cruelty he suffered in his last days on earth. Views on the late Middle Ages, as if they still knew a ‘childlike’ universe, one in which the emotions and the senses were given free rein, have been rightly discarded by Barbara Rosenwein and other scholars, but her own cognitive approach threatens to overlook the bodily and sensory dimensions of emotions. An embodiment approach would offer a wider and more promising perspective. Discussing the numerous Netherlandish passion narratives and passion paintings, their cruel and blood-drenched imagery is situated within older medieval traditions of meditation and artificial memory. To illustrate the period’s religious ‘pathopoeia’, the shaping of the believers’ embodied emotions, part of the argument focuses on a relatively unknown Passion narrative by the fifteenth-century Franciscan Johannes Brugman. Empathie in de maak. Religieuze emoties en retorica in de laat-middeleeuwse NederlandenIn deze bijdrage richt ik me op de affectieve vroomheid in de laat-middeleeuwse Nederlanden – de nieuwe, emotioneel geladen devotie die zich concentreerde op de menselijkheid en kwetsbaarheid van Christus, op de geboorte maar meer nog op het lijdensverhaal, alle fysieke wreedheid die hem in zijn laatste dagen werd aangedaan. Opvattingen als zouden de late Middeleeuwen nog een ‘kinderlijk’universum hebben gekend, een universum waarin de emoties en de zintuigen nog alle ruimte kregen, zijn door Barbara Rosenwein en andere onderzoekers terecht terzijde geschoven. Maar Rosenweins cognitieve benadering verwaarloost op haar beurt de lichamelijke en zintuiglijke dimensies van emoties. Een ‘embodiment’-benadering biedt hier een breder perspectief. Besproken worden de

  4. The Medieval Climate Anomaly and Byzantium: A review of the evidence on climatic fluctuations, economic performance and societal change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xoplaki, Elena; Fleitmann, Dominik; Luterbacher, Juerg; Wagner, Sebastian; Haldon, John F.; Zorita, Eduardo; Telelis, Ioannis; Toreti, Andrea; Izdebski, Adam

    2016-04-01

    At the beginning of the Medieval Climate Anomaly, in the ninth and tenth century, the medieval eastern Roman empire, more usually known as Byzantium, was recovering from its early medieval crisis and experiencing favourable climatic conditions for the agricultural and demographic growth. Although in the Balkans and Anatolia such favourable climate conditions were prevalent during the eleventh century, parts of the imperial territories were facing significant challenges as a result of external political/military pressure. The apogee of medieval Byzantine socio-economic development, around AD 1150, coincides with a period of adverse climatic conditions for its economy, so it becomes obvious that the winter dryness and high climate variability at this time did not hinder Byzantine society and economy from achieving that level of expansion. Soon after this peak, towards the end of the twelfth century, the populations of the Byzantine world were experiencing unusual climatic conditions with marked dryness and cooler phases. The weakened Byzantine socio-political system must have contributed to the events leading to the fall of Constantinople in AD 1204 and the sack of the city. The final collapse of the Byzantine political control over western Anatolia took place half century later, thus contemporaneous with the strong cooling effect after a tropical volcanic eruption in AD 1257. We suggest that, regardless of a range of other influential factors, climate change was also an important contributing factor to the socio-economic changes that took place in Byzantium during the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Crucially, therefore, while the relatively sophisticated and complex Byzantine society was certainly influenced by climatic conditions, and while it nevertheless displayed a significant degree of resilience, external pressures as well as tensions within the Byzantine society more broadly contributed to an increasing vulnerability in respect of climate impacts. Our

  5. Human palatal growth evaluated on medieval crania using nerve canal openings as references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejrsen, B; Kjaer, I; Jakobsen, J

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to measure postnatal lengthening and widening of the hard palate by use of nerve canal openings as references. The relationship of the dentition to the greater palatine foramina was also investigated. Thirty-nine medieval dry skulls were examined, 22 from children and 17 from adults. All crania were photographed at a 1.1 scale. The dimensions of the maxilla and the location of the dentition were determined from the photographs. The study showed that palatal growth in length in the sagittal plane takes place anterior to the greater palatine foramen. The growth increment in the area between the incisive foramen and the transverse palatine suture is more pronounced than the growth increment in the area between the transverse palatine suture and the greater palatine foramen. The distance from the greater palatine foramina to the posterior margin of the palate did not increase significantly with age. The growth in width seems to continue into adult life. The first permanent molars and the surrounding bone are moved forwards in relation to the greater palatine foramina during growth. The space for the developing maxillary premolars and molars therefore has to be obtained by growth in the transverse palatine suture.

  6. Ibn al-Haytham and His Influence on Post-Medieval Western Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Charles

    Born in Basra in 965, but doing most of his work in Cairo's Al-Azhar Mosque, Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized as Alhazen or Alhacen) wrote nearly one hundred works on topics as diverse as optics, poetry and politics. For nearly four hundred years his treatment of a particular geometry of reflection from flat and curved surfaces has been known as ''Alhazen's problem,'' and today al-Haytham is primarily known for his writings on geometrical optics, astronomy, and mathematics. However, as I will discuss, with his landmark seven-volume Kitāb al-Manāzir [Book of Optics], published sometime between 1028 and 1038, al-Haytham made intellectual contributions that subsequently were incorporated throughout the core of post-Medieval Western culture. His seminal work on the human vision system initiated what remains an unbroken chain of development that connects 21st century optical scientists with the 11th century Ibn al-Haytham. The noted science historian, David Lindberg, wrote that ''Alhazen was undoubtedly the most significant figure in the history of optics between antiquity and the seventeenth century.'' Impressive and accurate as that characterization is, our recent discoveries show that it significantly understates the impact that al-Haytham had on areas as wide-ranging as the theology, literature, art, and science of Europe. Portions of this work was done in collaboration with David Hockney.

  7. Early medieval stone-lined graves in Southern Germany: analysis of an emerging noble class.

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    Rott, Andreas; Turner, Nils; Scholz, Ulrike; von Heyking, Kristin; Immler, Franziska; Peters, Joris; Haberstroh, Jochen; Harbeck, Michaela

    2017-04-01

    Stone-lined graves, which first appear in Bavarian territory during the 7(th) century AD, are assumed to be tombs of emerging nobility. While previous research on stone-lined grave goods supports their status as elite burials, an important factor defining nobility-kinship-has not been examined so far. Morphological analysis of the commingled skeletal remains of 21 individuals from three archaeological sites was carried out. Radiocarbon dating was conducted on these individuals to gain information on usage intervals of these graves. To test whether stone-lined graves can be considered family graves, analyses of mitochondrial HVR I, Y-chromosomal and autosomal STRs were carried out. Morphological examination revealed a surplus of males buried in stone-lined graves and radiocarbon dating points to usage of the tombs for several generations. According to aDNA analysis, kinship can be assumed both between and within stone-lined graves. Taken together, these results hint at burials of family members with high social status being inhumed at the same site, in some cases even the same grave, for several generations. They also suggest, for the first time, that an early medieval linear cemetery was structured according to biological kinship. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Anatomical knowledge among medieval folk artists: osteological interpretation of two Dance of Death motifs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petaros, Anja; Čulina, Tatjana; Šuran, Andrea; Škrobonja, Ante

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy has a long history that started with dissection of animals and then expanded and flourished thanks to dissections performed on human bodies. Artists had a crucial role in uncovering the secrets of human anatomy. While most studies have focused on the influence of famous Renaissance artists on human anatomy studies, the anatomical drawings by pre-Renaissance artists and local craftsmen have remained in their shadow. One of the most popular artistic genres in which complete or parts of human skeletons appear is the Dance of Death (Danse Macabre). This article is an anthropological study of two medieval Dance of Death frescoes that are unusual in being relatively early as well as accurately datable. A comparative morphological analysis of the two late 15th century works present in Istria has been conducted. The two works were painted by two local masters and show how the artists filled the gaps in their knowledge of human anatomy mostly with insights into animal bones and imagination. Their artworks, even though only 16 years apart, demonstrate substantial differences in the representation of the skeletons. The article argues that the history of medicine and of art could make good use of osteology and physical anthropology in attempts to define and understand how anatomical knowledge developed among pre-Renaissance and post-Renaissance artists and local people. PMID:23763286

  9. The pharmacology of medieval sedatives: the "Great Rest" of the Antidotarium Nicolai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Nicholas; Gabra, Martino

    2014-08-08

    Past practices of compound drugs from different plant ingredients enjoyed remarkable longevity over centuries yet are largely dismissed by modern science as subtherapeutic, lethal or fanciful. To examine the phytochemical content of a popular medieval opiate drug called the "Great Rest" and gauge the bioavailability and combined effects of its alkaloid compounds (morphine, codeine, hyoscyamine, scopolamine) on the human body according to modern pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters established for these compounds. We reviewed the most recent studies on the pharmacodynamics of morphine, codeine, hyoscyamine and scopolamine to ascertain plasma concentrations required for different physiological effects and applied these findings to dosage of the Great Rest. Given the proportional quantities of the alkaloid rich plants, we calculate the optimal dose of Great Rest to be 3.1±0.1-5.3±0.76 g and reveal that the lethal dose of Great Rest is double the therapeutic concentration where all three alkaloid compounds are biologically active. This study helps establish the effective dose (ED50), toxic dose (TD50) and lethal dose (LD50) rates for the ingestion of raw opium, henbane and mandrake, and describes their probable combined effects, which may be applied to similar types of pre-modern pharmaceuticals to reveal the empirical logic behind past practices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Max Dvořák and the History of Medieval Art

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    Hans H. Aurenhammer

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The intellectual development of Max Dvořák (1874-1921, one of the protagonists of the ‘Vienna School of Art History’, was characterized by a constant process of methodological self-criticism. His changing views on Medieval Art are known above all by two texts: The Enigma of the Art of the Van Eyck Brothers (1904, strongly influenced by Wickhoff and Riegl and by an ‘impressionistic’ view of modernity, and Idealism and Naturalism in Gothic Sculpture and Painting (1918, an essay dating to Dvořák’s late, ‘expressionistic’, period. Knowing only these two texts, the decisive turn undertaken by Dvořák around 1920 could be interpreted as a sudden change of paradigm. As the paper wants to show, this view has to be revised after having read and analyzed Dvořák’s hitherto unpublished university lectures on Western European Art in the Middle Ages which were given four times from 1906 to 1918.

  11. VIRTUAL PLATFORMS FOR HERITAGE PRESERVATION IN THE MIDDLE EAST: THE CASE OF MEDIEVAL CAIRO

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    Mohamed Gamal Abdelmonem

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Much of the effort in VH is directed towards accurate representation of historic structures, objects or artefacts. There is little attention is paid, however, to the human aspects of city life, the intangible heritage to which people can actually relate. Digital models of historic buildings and spaces only give a sense of precision. Yet, rituals, human attitude and cultural traditions remained a gap in current research and advanced technology in heritage visualization. Virtual Heritage Environments (VHE suffer from the lack of ‘thematic interactivity’ due to the limited cultural content and engaging modules largely used in photorealistic video gaming systems. In order to approach virtual fidelity and accurate reproduction of historic environments, this paper reports on a research process to investigate and incorporate a Cultural-feed into digital platforms of Virtual Heritage. In doing so, the paper focuses on the Middle East in general and Medieval Cairo in particular. It discusses conceptual and practical framework for the development of virtual heritage platforms as a research, educational and engagement tool that brings historic spaces and buildings back to the recognition of the public eye of the ordinary user. It analyses current practices and projects of the virtual heritage technologies and reports on field work that took place in Islamic Cairo with Five Start-Up entrepreneurs.

  12. Discourse on pulse in medieval Persia--the Hidayat of Al-Akhawayni (?-983 A D.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadoust, Kazem; Ardalan, Mohammadreza; Ghabili, Kamyar; Golzari, Samad E J; Eknoyan, Garabed

    2013-06-20

    In a period of compilation, original observations and expansion (900-1100 A.D.), Persians described new clinical manifestations of the diseases and expanded the earlier knowledge of materia medica. In the epoch of the Arabic language domination in the scientific literature of this period, advent of medical authors to write in Farsi shined in the Persian principalities. Akhawayani Bokhari was by far the most outstanding scholar of the time who wrote one of the earliest pandects of medicine of the period, the Hidayat al-Mutallimin fi al-Tibb (Learner's Guide to Medicine) in new Persian. The Hidayat is a relatively short and simplified digest of medicine at the time providing a glimpse of high level of medical education at the Samanid period (819-999). The present article is a translation of the sections of the Hidayat related to the pulse and its characters and conditions affecting the pulse in an attempt to increase our knowledge of the medicine, and particularly the pulse examination throughout the medieval era. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dental and oral diseases in Medieval Persia, lessons from Hedayat Akhawayni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadoust, Kazem; Ardalan, Mohammadreza; Pourabbas, Reza; Abdolrahimi, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Persian physicians had a great role in assimilation and expansion of medical sciences during the medieval period and Islamic golden age. In fact the dominant medical figures of that period were of Persian origin such as Avicenna and Razes, but their works have been written in Arabic that was the lingua franca of the period. Undoubtedly the most substantial medical book of that period that has been written in Persian belongs to Abubakr Rabi ibn Ahmad al-Akhawayni al-Bokhari and his book, Hidayat al-Mutallimin fi-al-Tibb (Learner's Guide to Medicine).There are two chapters related to oral and dental diseases in the Hidayat, a chapter on dental pain and a chapter on bouccal pain. Akhawayni's views on dental diseases and treatments are mainly based on anatomical principles and less influenced by humeral theory and no mention about the charms, magic and amulets. False idea of dental worm cannot be seen among his writings. Cutting of the dental nerve for relieving the pain, using the anesthetizing fume, using the natural antiseptic and keeping the tooth extraction as the last recourse deserves high praise.

  14. The origin and chronology of medieval silver coins based on the analysis of chemical composition

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    Pańczyk Ewa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Medieval Central Europe coins - the Saxon coins, also called as the Otto and Adelheid denarii, as well as the Polish ones, the Władysław Herman and Bolesław Śmiały coins - were examined to determine their provenance and dating. Their attribution and chronology often constitute a serious problem for historians and numismatists. For hundreds of years, coins were in uncontrolled conditions and in variable environment. Destructed and inhomogeneous surface were the effect of corrosion processes. Electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS, X-ray fluorescence (XRF analysis (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF and total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF, and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS were applied. The results of these investigations are significant for our knowledge of the history of Central European coinage, especially of Polish coinage

  15. Kala-tau Hill as a Medieval Monument of Archaeology and Epigraphy in the Western Urals

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    Gabdrafikov I.M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To provide a description of Starokalmashevo hillfort and the Starokalmashevo gravestone with an Arabic epitaph found in the mid-20th century in close proximity to the site of ancient settlement. They are here described not only as monuments of the Middle Ages, but also as objects of historical heritage testifying to the continuous process of ethno-culturogenesis in the Western Cis-Urals up to modern times. Research materials: The author considers the issues of medieval history, ethno- and cultural genesis of the Western Cis-Urals in light of the example of the Starokalmashevo hillfort, located on the hill of Kala-tau (Chekmagushevsky district of the Republic of Bashkortostan, as well as the Starokalmashevo gravestone. The author provides a complex description of these archaeological and cultural monuments and points out the importance of preserving these objects as an integral part of the local population and the entire Volga-Ural region’s collective historical memory. Research novelty: The author presents new materials, including the stories of community elders about the origin of the above-mentioned archaeological sites. He analyzes the inscriptions on the tombstone, including its new reading, and draws a conclusion about the continuity of the population of this territory for a sustained period.

  16. Law and Memory. The Many Aspects of the Legal Inquisition in the Medieval Crown of Aragon

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    Kagay, Donald J.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the importance of the legal inquisition in the medieval Crown of Aragon. The form is reviewed from its Roman origins through the influence of Visigothic law and that of the various law codes of eastern Spain during the Middle Ages. The use of the legal inquisition by the crown, the church, the nobility and town governments clearly demonstrates how adaptable it could be. The form's manipulation of both written evidence and witness testimony is crucial for the understanding of how Iberian law perceived and shaped the memory of past events.

    Este artículo analiza la importancia de la encuesta judicial en la Corona de Aragón en la Edad Media. El autor re visa esta forma jurídica desde sus orígenes romanos, pasando por la influencia de la ley visigótica y la de los varios códigos legales de la España oriental durante el Medievo. El uso de la encuesta judicial por la corona, la iglesia, la nobleza y los gobiernos municipales demuestra claramente cuan adaptable podía ser. La manipulación de la encuesta, de la evidencia escrita y de las declaraciones de los testigos son cruciales para comprender cómo la ley ibérica percibió y estableció la memoria de acontecimientos pasados.

  17. Towards the Study of the Early Medieval Site Bashanta-II

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    Ochir-Goryaeva Maria A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors offer preliminary results on study of a new early medieval site discovered in the Gorodovikovo District (Kalmykia during a field survey near Bashanta-I hillfort at Chapaevskoe Lake (or Tsagan nur in Kalmyk language. The new site is found 8 km to the south-west from Bashanta-I hillfort, on the bank of the Egorlyk River. The site is dated by two radiocarbon dates by the middle of the 7th – late 8th centuries, i.e. by the time of Khazar Khanate. Some preliminary studies on the site included topographical mapping, collection of stray finds and a few prospection pits. These activities yielded numerous ceramic sherds, roof tiles and debris of masonry. Judging by the existing cultural stratum, remains of stone structures made of shell stone blocks and numerous ceramic finds of good quality, the new site was a settlement of Saltovo-Mayaki Culture, presumably a satellite hillfort. The identity of ceramics and construction materials allowed the authors to name this new site as Bashanta-II.

  18. Social inequality and death as illustrated in late-medieval death dances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenbach, J P

    1995-09-01

    Late-medieval murals and books of the then-popular "dances of death" usually represented the living according to their social standing. These works of art thus provide an interesting opportunity to study the relationship between social inequality and death as it was perceived by the works' commissioners or executers. The social hierarchy in these dances of death is mostly based on the scheme of the three orders of the feudal society; variations relate to the inclusion of female characters, new occupations, and non-Christian characters. Many dances of death contain severe judgments on highplaced persons and thus seem to be expressions of a desire for greater social equality. However, a more thorough analysis reveals that the equality of all before death that these dances of death proclaimed held nothing for the poor but only threatened the rich. Because of a lack of reliable data, it is not yet completely clear whether during the late Middle Ages all were indeed equally at risk for premature mortality. Available evidence, however, suggests that the clergy and nobility actually had a higher life expectancy than people placed lower in the social hierarchy. Despite modern changes in the perception of, and knowledge about, social inequality and mortality, these dances of death still capture the imagination, and they suggest that the phenomenon of socioeconomic inequalities in mortality could be used more to emphasize contemporary moral messages on social inequality.

  19. Glacier maxima in Baffin Bay during the Medieval Warm Period coeval with Norse settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nicolás E; Schweinsberg, Avriel D; Briner, Jason P; Schaefer, Joerg M

    2015-12-01

    The climatic mechanisms driving the shift from the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) to the Little Ice Age (LIA) in the North Atlantic region are debated. We use cosmogenic beryllium-10 dating to develop a moraine chronology with century-scale resolution over the last millennium and show that alpine glaciers in Baffin Island and western Greenland were at or near their maximum LIA configurations during the proposed general timing of the MWP. Complimentary paleoclimate proxy data suggest that the western North Atlantic region remained cool, whereas the eastern North Atlantic region was comparatively warmer during the MWP-a dipole pattern compatible with a persistent positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation. These results demonstrate that over the last millennium, glaciers approached their eventual LIA maxima before what is considered the classic LIA in the Northern Hemisphere. Furthermore, a relatively cool western North Atlantic region during the MWP has implications for understanding Norse migration patterns during the MWP. Our results, paired with other regional climate records, point to nonclimatic factors as contributing to the Norse exodus from the western North Atlantic region.

  20. New radiocarbon data to study the history of roman and medieval Florence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnoldus-Huyzendveld, A. [Dipartimento di Archeologia e Storia delle Arti, Universita di Siena, via Roma 56, 53100 Siena (Italy); Fedi, M.E., E-mail: fedi@fi.infn.i [INFN Sezione di Firenze, via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Cantini, F.; Bruttini, J. [Dipartimento di Archeologia e Storia delle Arti, Universita di Siena, via Roma 56, 53100 Siena (Italy); Cartocci, A. [INFN Sezione di Firenze, via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Firenze, via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Calabrisotto, C. Scire [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Firenze, via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    Florence is a town worldwide known for its Renaissance masterpieces. It is often forgotten that it was founded during Roman times and remained a small village until the end of the early Middle Ages, practically confined within the ancient Roman boundaries. Since 2003, an extended archaeological research executed by the University of Sienna has studied the most ancient layers in the centre of Florence with the aim to enhance both the archaeological and paleo-environmental reconstruction of this area. One of the peculiarities of these excavations is that the early medieval layers were poor in datable ceramics, thus charcoals were sampled from different stratigraphic layers in order to contribute to the dating. Several data have already been published; here we focus on the excavation site of Palazzo Vecchio, now the seat of the municipality of Florence. This area is located close to the Arno river, along the eastern margin of the slightly elevated height upon which the Roman town was founded; actually, in the layers beneath the surface, the Roman theatre is still preserved. Radiocarbon dating of charcoals was performed in the LABEC laboratory in Florence, at the AMS beam line of the AMS-IBA 3 MV Tandetron accelerator. Comparison of these new data with the former ones and with the archaeological and geological data adds new information especially on natural phenomena like floods and on the human occupation of this area in the past.

  1. The late medieval kidney--nephrology in and about the fourteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2012-01-01

    The Late Medieval Period was a decisive period in the history of medicine. It was then that medical education was integrated into the universities that were coming into existence and when medicine made its transition from a menial trade to a regulated profession with a statutory basis of learning and graduation. It was also then that the necessities of understanding the fabric of the body was realized; for the first time in history, the study of anatomy and of human dissection were incorporated into the medical curriculum. This was a defining change whose subsequent expansion and evolution would bring about the study of function (physiology) and changes in disease (pathology). Few advances were made in the study of the kidney, which was considered part of the venous circulation, whose function was subservient to that of nutrition in eliminating excess fluid. Uroscopy flourished and reached unrealistic levels of dominance in the diagnosis, treatment, and prognostication of any and all diseases, especially in the hands of quacks and charlatans. Alchemy, a mysterious pseudo-science, blossomed into a discipline that nurtured experimentation and laid the rudimentary foundations of scientific study, chemistry, and pharmacology. It was also then that surgery took form as a specialty that actually provided much of the medical care of the period including that of the principal diseases of the kidney, obstruction and calculi, and thereby laid the foundations of what in time would become urology. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Glacier maxima in Baffin Bay during the Medieval Warm Period coeval with Norse settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nicolás E.; Schweinsberg, Avriel D.; Briner, Jason P.; Schaefer, Joerg M.

    2015-01-01

    The climatic mechanisms driving the shift from the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) to the Little Ice Age (LIA) in the North Atlantic region are debated. We use cosmogenic beryllium-10 dating to develop a moraine chronology with century-scale resolution over the last millennium and show that alpine glaciers in Baffin Island and western Greenland were at or near their maximum LIA configurations during the proposed general timing of the MWP. Complimentary paleoclimate proxy data suggest that the western North Atlantic region remained cool, whereas the eastern North Atlantic region was comparatively warmer during the MWP—a dipole pattern compatible with a persistent positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation. These results demonstrate that over the last millennium, glaciers approached their eventual LIA maxima before what is considered the classic LIA in the Northern Hemisphere. Furthermore, a relatively cool western North Atlantic region during the MWP has implications for understanding Norse migration patterns during the MWP. Our results, paired with other regional climate records, point to nonclimatic factors as contributing to the Norse exodus from the western North Atlantic region. PMID:26665173

  3. Revealing the biography of a hidden medieval manuscript using synchrotron and conventional imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouyet, E; Devine, S; Grafakos, T; Kieckhefer, R; Salvant, J; Smieska, L; Woll, A; Katsaggelos, A; Cossairt, O; Walton, M

    2017-08-22

    Reading the content of hidden texts from ancient manuscripts has become an increasingly important endeavor thanks to the variety of non-destructive analytical tools and image processing routines available for this task. In this study, portable macro X-Ray Fluorescence (MA-XRF-tube), Visible Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) together with Synchrotron based macro X-Ray Fluorescence (MA-XRF-SR) are combined with signal processing methods to reveal the biography of a degraded manuscript recycled as binding material for a 16th century printed edition of Hesiod's Works and Days. The analytical techniques allow visualizing the hidden text, revealing passages from the Institutes Justinian, a 6th century A.D codification of the Roman Law, with further marginal comments on medieval Canon Law. In addition, the identification of the materials (e.g. pigments, inks) part of the original manuscript together with their sequence of use are revealed: i) the preparation of the parchment using a Ca-based preparation layer, ii) drawing of ruled guide lines, using a Pb-based pen or ink, iii) writing of the main text using a rich Fe-gall ink with modulating color pigments (Hg-, Cu- and Pb- based) and iv) addition of two types of comments to the main text, one of the ink used for the comments being a Fe-gall ink rich in Cu. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Recreating a medieval urban scene with virtual intelligent characters: steps to create the complete scenario

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    Ana Paula Cláudio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available From historical advice to 3D modeling and programming, the process of reconstructing cultural heritage sites populated with virtual inhabitants is lengthy and expensive, and it requires a large set of skills and tools. These constraints make it increasingly difficult, however not unattainable, for small archaeological sites to build their own simulations. In this article, we describe our attempt to minimize this scenario. We describe a framework that makes use of free tools or campus licenses and integrates the curricular work of students in academia. We present the details of methods and tools used in the pipeline of the construction of the virtual simulation of the medieval village of Mértola in the south of Portugal. We report on: a the development of a lightweight model of the village, including houses and terrain, and b its integration in a game engine in order to c include a virtual population of autonomous inhabitants in a simulation running in real-time.

  5. X-ray fluorescence analysis of ancient and medieval brass artifacts from south Moravia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlozek, M. [Methodical Centre of Conservation-Technical Museum in Brno, Purkynova 105, 612 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Komoroczy, B. [Institute of Archeology of the Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Kralovopolska 147, 612 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Trojek, T., E-mail: tomas.trojek@fjfi.cvut.cz [Department of Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, 115 19 Praha 1 (Czech Republic)

    2012-07-15

    This paper deals with an investigation of archeological finds using X-ray fluorescence analysis and microanalysis. The main aim of the investigation was to prove the production of brass in the South Moravian Region (part of the Czech Republic) in former times. The probable brass production technology is described. Various objects dating back to Antiquity and to the Middle Ages were investigated using two X-ray fluorescence systems, and the results of the analyses are discussed. The measurements showed, e.g., that fragments of Roman scale armor and a belt fitting dating back to Antiquity were made of brass. Brass was also identified on the surfaces of various ancient and medieval molds and melting pots. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Semiquantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis of archeological finds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two different gilding techniques of a brass belt terminal found in Brno. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of brass before the Great Moravian period. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evidence of brass casting in the 12th century in Brno.

  6. Medieval Multilingualism in Poland: Creating a Corpus of Greater Poland Court Oaths (Rotha

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    Kopaczyk Joanna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the research plan for the preparation of a searchable electronic repository of the earliest extant legal oaths from medieval Poland drawing on the expertise in historical corpus-building developed for the history of English. The oaths survive in the overwhelmingly Latin land books from the period between 1386 and 1446 for six localities Greater Poland, in which the land courts operated: Poznań, Kościan, Pyzdry, Gniezno, Konin and Kalisz. A diplomatic edition of the oaths was published in five volumes by Polish historical linguists (Kowalewicz & Kuraszkiewicz 1959–1966. The edition is the only comprehensive resource of considerable scope (over 6300 oaths from the years 1386–1446 for the study of the earliest attestations of the Polish language beyond glosses. Recognising some limitations, but most of all its unparalleled coverage of the coexistence of Latin and the vernacular, the ROThA project embarks on transforming the edition into an open up-to-date digital resource. We thus aim to facilitate research into the history of Polish and Latin as well as of the legal system and the related social and linguistic issues of the period.

  7. La Universidad Clásica Medieval, origen de la Universidad Latinoamericana

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    Julio César Schara

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Para poder comprender las nuevas políticas públicas debemos deconstruir las mismas teorías que puedan abordar el valor de la universidad en la sociedad del siglo XXI, debemos rehacer el sistema metodológico para estar en posibilidad no sólo de descubrir las leyes de la organización y significación de la investigación universitaria, sino para transformar los elementos constitutivos que han determinado la inercia de esa institución de la época contemporánea. Por ello, es importante el análisis de las estructuras históricas, que si bien han variado de una época a otra, y de la distancia del mundo clásico, grecolatino, al mundo medieval, llevan en su estructura contenidos latentes sincrónicos que nos permitirían resemantizar el sentido futuro de la universidad. Esto sería también un análisis dialéctico, esto es, una conjugación del espectro diacrónico contemporáneo y sincrónico histórico, de la dinámica misma de las estructuras universitarias.

  8. Traditional healing with animals (zootherapy): medieval to present-day Levantine practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Efraim

    2003-03-01

    Animals and products derived from different organs of their bodies have constituted part of the inventory of medicinal substances used in various cultures since ancient times. This article reviews the history of healing with animals in the Levant (the Land of Israel and parts of present-day Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan, defined by the Muslims in the Middle Ages as Bilad al-Sham) throughout history. Intensive research into the phenomenon of zootherapy in the Levant from early medieval to present-day traditional medicine yielded 99 substances of animal origin which were used medicinally during that long period. Fifty-two animal extracts and products were documented as being used from the early Muslim period (10th century) to the late Ottoman period (19th century). Seventy-seven were recorded as being used in the 20th century. Seven main animal sources have been exploited for medical uses throughout history: honey, wax, adder, beaver testicles, musk oil, coral, and ambergris. The first three are local and relatively easy to obtain; the last four are exotic, therefore, rare and expensive. The use of other materials of animal origin came to an end in the course of history because of change in the moral outlook of modern societies. Among the latter we note mummy, silkworm, stinkbug, scarabees, snail, scorpion, and triton.

  9. Characterisation of medieval yellow silver stained glass from Convento de Cristo in Tomar, Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, J. [Dep. de Conservacao e Restauro, FCT-UNL, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Vilarigues, M. [Dep. de Conservacao e Restauro, FCT-UNL, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); VICARTE, FCT-UNL, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Ruivo, A. [VICARTE, FCT-UNL, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); REQUIMTE, FCT-UNL, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Corregidor, V.; Silva, R.C. da [Unidade de Fisica e Aceleradores, LFI, ITN, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); CFNUL, Av., Prof. Gama Pinto n 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Alves, L.C., E-mail: lcalves@itn.pt [Unidade de Fisica e Aceleradores, LFI, ITN, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); CFNUL, Av., Prof. Gama Pinto n 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-10-15

    Yellow decoration effects in stained glasses using silver staining were first applied in the beginning of the 14th century. The glass piece being decorated was usually painted on its side intended to be facing the exterior environment, and then fired to temperatures between 500 and 650 {sup o}C, resulting in colours ranging from pale lemon to deep orange. Stained glass fragments painted by this process and belonging to the Convento de Cristo, in Tomar, Portugal, were characterised using micro-PIXE, and complemented with other analytical techniques, namely UV-Vis spectroscopy and XRF. Preliminary analysis showed that a mixture of Ag and Cu was used for the production of the yellow staining. In order to understand this staining process and the influence of the firing temperature on the resulting colours, several soda and potash glasses with compositions similar to those of medieval glasses were produced and characterised. The role played by the addition of Cu in the final colours was also investigated.

  10. Acoustic emission monitoring of medieval towers considered as sensitive earthquake receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpinteri, A.; Lacidogna, G.; Niccolini, G.

    2007-04-01

    Many ancient masonry towers are present in Italian territory. In some cases these structures are at risk on account of the intensity of the stresses they are subjected to due to the high level of regional seismicity. In order to preserve this inestimable cultural heritage, a sound safety assessment should take into account the evolution of damage phenomena. In this connection, acoustic emission (AE) monitoring can be highly effective. This study concerns the structural stability of three medieval towers rising in the centre of Alba, a characteristic town in Piedmont (Italy). During the monitoring period a correlation between peaks of AE activity in the masonry of these towers and regional seismicity was found. Earthquakes always affect structural stability. Besides that, the towers behaved as sensitive earthquake receptors. Here a method to correlate bursts of AE activity in a masonry building and regional seismicity is proposed. In particular, this method permits to identify the premonitory signals that precede a catastrophic event on a structure, since, in most cases, these warning signs can be captured well in advance.

  11. Sex Assessment Using the Femur and Tibia in Medieval Skeletal Remains from Ireland: Discriminant Function Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Mario

    2016-04-01

    Sex determination based on discriminant function analysis of skeletal measurements is probably the most effective method for assessment of sex in archaeological and contemporary populations due to various reasons, but it also suffers from limitations such as population specificity. In this paper standards for sex assessment from the femur and tibia in the medieval Irish population are presented. Six femoral and six tibial measurements obtained from 56 male and 45 female skeletons were subjected to discriminant function analysis. Average accuracies obtained by this study range between 87.1 and 97%. The highest level of accuracy (97%) was achieved when using combined variables of the femur and tibia (maximum diameter of femoral head and circumference at tibial nutrient foramen), as well as two variables of the tibia (proximal epiphyseal breadth and circumference at nutrient foramen). Discriminant functions using a single variable provided accuracies between 87.1 and 96% with the circumference at the level of the tibial nutrient foramen providing the best separation. High accuracy rates obtained by this research correspond to the data recorded in other studies thus confirming the importance of discriminant function analysis in assessment of sex in both archaeological and forensic contexts.

  12. Adverbial expressions within the legal domain: from medieval fueros to their consolidation in language

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    Adela García Valle

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of legal language in the study of historical phraseological, it is here analyzed the presence, use and evolution of adverbial phrases in some outstanding medieval fueros, and also how a good number of adverbial expressions have transcended and developed from legal language to other contexts, owed to —at least in some cases— a clear colloquial origin (a sabiendas, por bien.... This characteristic joins many others, such as the creation of complex syntagmas derived from the union of simple expressions: de cabo a rabo, a diestro y a sinestro, a tuerto o a derecho, etc. It is therefore interesting to study the individual, particular history of each adverbial phrase found, as well as the most productive syntactical combinations of expressions. We will also focus on their projection beyond the legal domain as well as on the numerous similarities in the different hispanic linguistic areas, demonstrating thus a first phase which is common to peninsular romance writings (scriptae.

  13. A lime based mortar for thermal insulation of medieval church vaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tessa Kvist; Larsen, Poul Klenz; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    was measured to 0.08 W/mK, which is twice the value for mineral wool. It has 1/3 of the resistance to water vapour diffusion as brick, and a high capacity for liquid water absorption. This is a benefit in the case of rain leaking from the roof, because the water does not penetrate further down into the bricks.......There are 1700 medieval churches in Denmark, and many of these have brick vaults. The thickness is only 12 – 15 cm, and the heat loss through this building component is large. Thermal insulation has not been permitted until now in respect for the antiquarian values and doubts about the effect...... on water vapour transport through the vault, and the risk of condensation inside the insulation. A new mortar was developed for thermal insulation of bricks vaults, consisting mainly of expanded perlite, mixed with slaked lime. These materials are compatible with the fired clay bricks and the lime mortar...

  14. New evidence for the occurrence of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in medieval Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, David A.; Lord, Tom C.; Jacobi, Roger M.

    2006-01-01

    The presence of Eurasian lynx as a former native species in Britain during the Holocene is known from bones recovered from several sites. AMS radiocarbon dating of lynx bone recovered from two sites in the Craven area of northern England gave 1842 +/- 35 14C yr BP and 1550 +/- 24 14C yr BP, together representing the youngest dates for lynx from England, and in the case of the latter, the youngest for Britain as a whole. These dates support the view that the game animal whose occurrence in the nearby Lake District is described in the early 7th century Cumbric text Pais Dinogad, and whose translation to date has been problematic, is a lynx. The occurrence of lynx in early medieval Britain shows that earlier periods of climate change, previously blamed for the species' extinction in Britain, were not responsible. Instead, anthropogenic factors such as severe deforestation, declining deer populations, and persecution, are likely to have caused the extirpation of lynx in Britain. Consequently, the lynx qualifies as a candidate for reintroduction. Large-scale reafforestation, the growth of deer populations, and more positive attitudes towards carnivores in modern society, could permit the restoration of lynx to Britain, particularly in Scotland.

  15. Teste Albumasare cum Sibylla: astrology and the Sibyls in medieval Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoller, Laura Ackerman

    2010-06-01

    In the 1480s Dominican humanist Filippo de' Barbieri published an illustration of a supposedly ancient female seer called the 'Sybilla Chimica', whose prophetic text repeated the words of the ninth-century astrologer Abu Ma'shar. In tracing the origins of Barbieri's astrological Sibyl, this article examines three sometimes interlocking traditions: the attribution of an ante-diluvian history to the science of the stars, the assertion of astrology's origins in divine revelation, and the belief in the ancient Sibyls' predictions of the birth of Christ and other Christian truths. Medieval authors from the twelfth century on began to cite these traditions together, thereby simultaneously authorizing the use of astrology to predict religious changes and blurring the categories of natural and supernatural as applied to human understanding. This blending of astrology and prophecy appears notably in works by such authors as John of Paris, John of Legnano, Johannes Lichtenberger, and Marsilio Ficino. Ultimately the trajectory that produced Barbieri's astrological Sibyl would lead to a wave of astrological apocalyptic predictions in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, as well as to the harnessing of astrology for the defense of the faith in the form of an astrological natural theology, sacralizing science as well as nature.

  16. Detection and strain typing of ancient Mycobacterium leprae from a medieval leprosy hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Michael Taylor

    Full Text Available Nine burials excavated from the Magdalen Hill Archaeological Research Project (MHARP in Winchester, UK, showing skeletal signs of lepromatous leprosy (LL have been studied using a multidisciplinary approach including osteological, geochemical and biomolecular techniques. DNA from Mycobacterium leprae was amplified from all nine skeletons but not from control skeletons devoid of indicative pathology. In several specimens we corroborated the identification of M. leprae with detection of mycolic acids specific to the cell wall of M. leprae and persistent in the skeletal samples. In five cases, the preservation of the material allowed detailed genotyping using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and multiple locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA. Three of the five cases proved to be infected with SNP type 3I-1, ancestral to contemporary M. leprae isolates found in southern states of America and likely carried by European migrants. From the remaining two burials we identified, for the first time in the British Isles, the occurrence of SNP type 2F. Stable isotope analysis conducted on tooth enamel taken from two of the type 3I-1 and one of the type 2F remains revealed that all three individuals had probably spent their formative years in the Winchester area. Previously, type 2F has been implicated as the precursor strain that migrated from the Middle East to India and South-East Asia, subsequently evolving to type 1 strains. Thus we show that type 2F had also spread westwards to Britain by the early medieval period.

  17. Acoustic emission monitoring of medieval towers considered as sensitive earthquake receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Carpinteri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Many ancient masonry towers are present in Italian territory. In some cases these structures are at risk on account of the intensity of the stresses they are subjected to due to the high level of regional seismicity. In order to preserve this inestimable cultural heritage, a sound safety assessment should take into account the evolution of damage phenomena. In this connection, acoustic emission (AE monitoring can be highly effective. This study concerns the structural stability of three medieval towers rising in the centre of Alba, a characteristic town in Piedmont (Italy. During the monitoring period a correlation between peaks of AE activity in the masonry of these towers and regional seismicity was found. Earthquakes always affect structural stability. Besides that, the towers behaved as sensitive earthquake receptors. Here a method to correlate bursts of AE activity in a masonry building and regional seismicity is proposed. In particular, this method permits to identify the premonitory signals that precede a catastrophic event on a structure, since, in most cases, these warning signs can be captured well in advance.

  18. Sleep paralysis in medieval Persia – the Hidayat of Akhawayni (? –983 AD

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    Golzari SE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Samad EJ Golzari,1 Kazem Khodadoust,5 Farid Alakbarli,6 Kamyar Ghabili,2 Ziba Islambulchilar,3 Mohammadali M Shoja,1 Majid Khalili,1 Feridoon Abbasnejad,1 Niloufar Sheikholeslamzadeh,7 Nasrollah Moghaddam Shahabi,4 Seyed Fazel Hosseini,2 Khalil Ansarin11Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences; 2Medical Philosophy and History Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences; 3Department of Pharmaceutics, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences; 4Students' Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 5Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences; 6Institute of Manuscripts of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku, Azerbaijan; 7Faculty of Law, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IranAbstract: Among the first three manuscripts written in Persian, Akhawayni's Hidayat al-muta`allemin fi al-tibb was the most significant work compiled in the 10th century. Along with the hundreds of chapters on hygiene, anatomy, physiology, symptoms and treatments of the diseases of various organs, there is a chapter on sleep paralysis (night-mare prior to description and treatment of epilepsy. The present article is a review of the Akhawayni's teachings on sleep paralysis and of descriptions and treatments of sleep paralysis by the Greek, medieval, and Renaissance scholars. Akhawayni's descriptions along with other early writings provide insight into sleep paralysis during the Middle Ages in general and in Persia in particular.Keywords: sleep paralysis, night-mare, Akhawayni, Persia

  19. Medieval and modern testimonia sanctitatis of Euphemia of Racibórz (died in 1359

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Kublin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For some time, the Opole diocese has been planning to conduct the process of beatification of the saintly Dominican Euphemia (Ofka, the Piast, the princess of Racibórz. She was born around 1299, and on April 9, 1313, she entered the Order of Preachers in Raciborz, where from 1341 to 1346 and from 1349 to 1359 she held the office of prioress. She died in the same convent on January 17, 1359, worshipped as blessed. The article discusses the issue of evidence of Princess Euphemia’s sanctity of life, bringing to the fore medieval source documentation as well as her hagiography by Abraham Bzowski OP. These testimonials allow us to take a closer look at Ofka’s spirituality and her work, especially her great commitment to the operation and development of the Dominican monastery in Racibórz. A particular attention was paid to the fact of referring to this Racibórz Piast as antiqua, as was found in the files of Polish Dominican Provincial Chapter from 1338, which seems to be an expression of esteem and admiration for her saintly life. A particular type of evidence of her saintly life is the cult of Euphemia, which continues to this day.

  20. The medieval earthquakes of the Armenian Plateau and the historic towns of Ayrarat and Shirak (Dvin, Ani, Erevan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hasrat'yan

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The ancient Armenian capitals have been struck by particularly violent earthquakes throughout the ages. Their prestigious and original monuments have been destroyed and reconstructed many times. The author examines in particular the situation of the monumental complex of Dvin, which has been subjected to a thorough and extensive campaign of archaeological excavations over the last twenty years or so, and that of Garni. struck by a violent earthquake in the 17th century. It was during this quake that the ancient temple of Garni was ruined; it was completely reconstructed in the present century. The author notes that some architectural techniques adopted in Armenian churches may be interpreted as antiseismic measures. They were developed in an environment in which the frequent experience of seismic damage could have offered numerous empirical observations on which they could be based.

  1. Tota depicta picturis grecis. The style and iconography of religious painting in medieval Kotor (Montenegro

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    Valentina Živković

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to render a basic review of the circumstances of the setting up, recognition, duration and dissolving of religious painting in late medieval Kotor, which is in various sources and studies called pictura graeca. This involves a specific metod which can be seen correspondingly in the style as well as the iconography, and thus it is necessary to perceive and analyse this occurance as a well-rounded and complex phenomenon with a historical, social, economic, religious and cultural context. Thus the emergence and duration of Kotor`s pictura graeca can be examined in regards to the public for which it had been founded, that is, as an expression of the preference of the milieu and the patrons, formed in certain historical context. The special character of the form and contents represents a basic trait of Kotor's religious painting corroborated by the preserved fragments of the wall paintings which emerged in the period from the beginning of the 13th to the end of the 15th century. The studiyng of Kotor`s pictura graeca in a historical context in which it emerged and endured inspires the contemplating of the course which Kotor took, from a distinctive cultural and diplomatic centre within the framework of the Serbian medieval state to a border town at the edge of the Venetian Republic. Lo scopo di questo saggio è quello di fornire una revisione generale delle circostanze della costituzione, del riconoscimento, della durata e della dissoluzione della pittura religiosa nella Cattaro tardo medievale, che in varie fonti e studi è chiamata pictura graeca. Questo comporta uno specifico metodo che può essere messo alla prova corrispondentemente nello stile così come nell’iconografia, consistente nel considerare e analizzare tale evento come un fenomeno complesso all’interno del contesto storico, sociale, economico, religioso e culturale. Così la nascita e la durata della pictura graeca di Cattaro possono essere esaminate

  2. Effect of mortar joint thickness on deformability in medieval stone walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassinello, M. J.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the stone walls in Gothic cathedrals revealed that Medieval master builders varied mortar joint thicknesses from one structural member to another. This fact, which has gone largely unnoticed to date, has a considerable impact on the structural behavior of cathedrals,due to its direct effect on two fundamental parameters,deformability and strength. In the absence offield data, an experimental test program was conducted at the INTEMAC Central Laboratory to determine the possible variations in deformability of Medieval masonry with changes in joint mortar thickness in the range found in the structural members of Spanish Gothic cathedrals. The results obtained show —further to an observation by Eduardo Torroja— that mortar joints are a determinant in the structural behavior of masonry. The modulus of deformation varied from 169.7 to 5,632.7 N/mm2at joint thicknesses ranging from 17.00 to 5.50 mm. Structural models should be adapted to accommodate this behavior pattern via parametric sensitivity analysis to obtain a clearer understanding of structural behaviour in Gothic cathedrals.El análisis desarrollado sobre las fábricas pétreas de las catedrales góticas revela que los maestros medievales utilizaron diferentes espesores de juntas de mortero en cada uno de sus elementos estructurales. Este hecho —no tenido en cuenta hasta la fecha— tiene una gran repercusión en el comportamiento estructural de la catedral,ya que influye directamente en sus parámetros fundamentales: deformabilidad y resistencia. Dada la inexistencia de datos, realizamos un programa experimental de ensayos en el laboratorio central de INTEMAC, para establecerlos posibles rangos de variabilidad de la deformabilidad de las fábricas medievales en función de la variabilidad del espesor del mortero de juntas que detectamos en los diferentes elementos estructurales de las catedrales góticas españolas. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran

  3. Underwater Dendrochronology of the Sierra Nevada: Testing the Medieval Mega-Drought Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, F.; Kleppe, J. A.; Brothers, D.; Kent, G.

    2006-12-01

    As stated in the NAS STR Report, "regional and large-scale reconstructions of changes in other climatic variables, such as precipitation, over the last 2,000 years would provide a valuable complement to those made for temperature." In this context, we focus on the 'Medieval Mega-drought Hypothesis', which is based on radiocarbon dating of dead trees and stumps found underwater in Sierra Nevada lakes and streambeds, and states that century-long dry periods caused lakes to retreat and streams to dry up, with the most recent mega-droughts happening during medieval times. While several paleoclimatic records support this hypothesis, some do not, and the possibility exists that geomorphic processes, such as landslides caused by seismic events, were responsible for the presence of trees and stumps under current bodies of water. Given the relevance of this hypothesis, not only for sustainable water management but also for social stability and security, it is necessary to test it beyond reasonable doubt. One way to do so is by measuring the location, orientation, and time of origin of underwater trees, to determine if they were transported or grew in situ. For example, during 2005 wood samples were retrieved from submerged trees at Fallen Leaf Lake, California. The trees had been previously located and documented using an ROV that can obtain high resolution color video, and collect small surface samples using a gripper, down to a water depth of about 150 m. For tree-ring dating, a reference chronology from AD 543 to 2003 was developed using live and dead western juniper trees located near the lake. One underwater sample, i.e. a branch cross section that included 69 rings, was then dated to AD 1085-1153. This shows that it is feasible to obtain calendar dates and continuous ring-width series from underwater trees in the Sierra Nevada. Submerged trees in Fallen Leaf Lake were mapped in summer 2006 using an EdgeTech 4200 side-scan system capable of decimeter resolution. The 5

  4. Silver Furnishings of Medieval Altar of St. Stanislaus in Cracow Cathedral

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    Krzysztof Czyżewski

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at these elements of St. Stanislaus’ tomb in the Gothic Cathedral on the Wawel Hill which were made of silver. Except for one (a reliquary diptych all were destroyed and are known only from written records. The basic issue is to establish the date and the founder of a wooden coffin covered with gilded silver plates, in which the relics of the Martyr were placed. The literature on the subject attributed the foundation of the reliquary to St. Kunegunda (1234-1292, Elizabeth of Poland (1305-1380, St. Jadwiga, Hedvig of Anjou (1374-1399 and Ladislaus the Short (1260 or 1261-1333. Thanks to the records written in 1631 by a priest Jan Wielewicki which mention the renovation of the medieval coffin, we know that it had an inscription which unequivocally pointed to the person of Elizabeth of Poland, wife of a Hungarian king Charles I Robert and mother of a king of Hungary and Poland Louis d’Anjou, as the founder. A detailed description included in the records of an inspection of the Cracow Cathedral in 1670 allows an approximate reconstruction of this work of art, which was a box-reliquary of approximate measurements: 175, 8x87, 9x43, 95 cm, closed with a ridge roof cover of unknown height. It had cast decoration. The longer sides were each interspersed with 6 and the shorter with 2 pictures with the scenes from St. Stanislaus’s life. Likenesses of 18 bishops adorned both patches of the corners and axes of the shorter sides were accentuated with buttresses. Top rims of the cover were decorated with an open-work comb (tracery. Iconographic programme cannot be reconstructed on the basis of the existing sources. After a new coffin for the remains of the Saint was funded by Sigismund III, the old one was used as a reliquary for the hand and placed in St. Peter and Paul’s chapel, which - according to tradition - originally housed the tomb. After the cathedral was looted by the Swedes in 1657, the medieval reliquary was put back in

  5. In Commemorating One Thousandth Anniversary of the Avicenna's Canon of Medicine: Gastric Headache, A Forgotten Clinical Entity from the Medieval Persia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Alizadeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the connection between head and stomach and hence the condition known as “gastric headache” was well known to the ancients, it has received little attention since the early 20th century. Herein, we review the teachings of the medieval Persian physicians about the gastric headache along with the related signs, symptoms, types and causes. The medieval Persian scholars adopted the main ideas of the gastric headache from predecessors in the ancient Greece and Rome, added substantial sub-categories and details to the earlier descriptions and therapeutic options. The medieval Persian physicians’ contributions to the concept of gastric headache influenced beyond doubt the later accounts of this condition.

  6. Surveying Medieval Archaeology: a New Form for Harris Paradigm Linking Photogrammetry and Temporal Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drap, P.; Papini, O.; Pruno, E.; Nucciotti, M.; Vannini, G.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents some reflexions concerning an interdisciplinary project between Medieval Archaeologists from the University of Florence (Italy) and ICT researchers from CNRS LSIS of Marseille (France), aiming towards a connection between 3D spatial representation and archaeological knowledge. It is well known that Laser Scanner, Photogrammetry and Computer Vision are very attractive tools for archaeologists, although the integration of representation of space and representation of archaeological time has not yet found a methodological standard of reference. We try to develop an integrated system for archaeological 3D survey and all other types of archaeological data and knowledge through integrating observable (material) and non-graphic (interpretive) data. Survey plays a central role, since it is both a metric representation of the archaeological site and, to a wider extent, an interpretation of it (being also a common basis for communication between the 2 teams). More specifically 3D survey is crucial, allowing archaeologists to connect actual spatial assets to the stratigraphic formation processes (i.e. to the archaeological time) and to translate spatial observations into historical interpretation of the site. We propose a common formalism for describing photogrammetrical survey and archaeological knowledge stemming from ontologies: Indeed, ontologies are fully used to model and store 3D data and archaeological knowledge. Xe equip this formalism with a qualitative representation of time. Stratigraphic analyses (both of excavated deposits and of upstanding structures) are closely related to E. C. Harris theory of "Stratigraphic Unit" ("US" from now on). Every US is connected to the others by geometric, topological and, eventually, temporal links, and are recorded by the 3D photogrammetric survey. However, the limitations of the Harris Matrix approach lead to use another representation formalism for stratigraphic relationships, namely Qualitative Constraints

  7. AMS radiocarbon dating of mortar: The case study of the medieval UNESCO site of Modena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmine, Lubritto [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Ambientali, Biologiche e Farmaceutiche & CIRCE lab, Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli, I-81100 Caserta (Italy); Caroselli, Marta; Lugli, Stefano [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, I-41100 Modena (Italy); Marzaioli, Fabio [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica & CIRCE lab, Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli, I-81100 Caserta (Italy); Nonni, Sara [Università degli Studi “Sapienza”, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Marchetti Dori, S. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, I-41100 Modena (Italy); Terrasi, Filippo [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica & CIRCE lab, Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli, I-81100 Caserta (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    The carbon dioxide contributing to binder formation during the set of a lime mortar reflects the atmospheric {sup 14}C content at the time of construction of a building. For this reason, the {sup 14}C dating of mortars is used with increasing frequencies in archaeological and architectural research. Mortars, however, may also contain carbonaceous contaminants potentially affecting radiocarbon dating. The Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental heritage (CIRCE) of the Second University of Naples (SUN) has recently obtained some promising results in mortar radiocarbon dating thanks to the development of a procedure (i.e. CryoSoniC/Cryo2SoniC) aiming to eliminate exogenous C contamination that may occur in a mortar. The construction history of the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Modena (Italy) is still controversial and represents a challenging case study for the application of absolute dating methodologies for different reasons. From the point of view of {sup 14}C dating, for example, given the high percentage of carbonate aggregates composing these samples, Modena mortars represent an experimental test particularly indicative of exogenous carbon sources suppression ensuring methodology accuracy. In this paper several AMS Radiocarbon dates were carried out on lime lumps with the aim to: (i) verify procedure accuracy by a comparison of the results obtainable from lime lumps dated after different treatments (i.e. bulk lime lumps vs. CryoSoniC purified lime lumps); (ii) compare different building phases absolute chronology for the medieval UNESCO site of Modena, with that assumed by historical sources in order to assess preliminary the {sup 14}C dating feasibility for of the site. Historical temporal constraints and mortar clustering, based on petrography, have been applied to define a temporal framework of the analyzed structure. Moreover, a detailed petrographic characterization of mortars was used both as a preliminary tool for the choice of samples

  8. Qualitative Assessment of the Condition of Tatarstan Medieval Fortified Settlements Under the Data of Remote Sensing

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    Gainullin Iskander I.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the modern condition of the archaeological monuments of the Republic of Tatarstan as an essential manmade part of the cultural landscape. According to UNESCO directive, the “cultural landscape” is considered not only as a result of cooperation between man and nature, but also as a natural and cultural territorial complex with a structural and functional integrity developing in specific physical and geographical, cultural and historical conditions. Medieval fortified settlements with a system of defensive fortifications which are easily identified on the basis of remote sensing data were selected as research subjects. The identification and evaluation of monument destruction risks are a priority in the investigation of cultural heritage sites. Due to the fact that most of the monuments are located on the banks of minor rivers, the primary task of investigation was the assessment of the risk of their destruction as a result of natural (dangerous exogenous processes. The second objective was to evaluate the role of the human factor in the destruction of archaeological sites. One of the main utilized techniques is the search and analysis of archival and modern remote sensing data. This approach allows to correct settlement shapes, confirm their sizes and location in the landscape, thus resolving the issue of updating the information on cultural heritage sites. For the first time in the Tatarstan Republic, investigation results will allow to determine the past and current changes in the condition of the monuments and conduct a quantitative assessment of the risks of their destruction prior to the determination of priority regions for the performance of salvage and rescue excavations.

  9. Raman spectroscopic study of a post-medieval wall painting in need of conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G M; Farwell, Dennis W; Brooke, Christopher J

    2005-09-01

    Raman spectroscopic studies of four specimens from an important angel wall painting in need of conservation work in a medieval church have provided some information about the pigments and pigment compositions which will influence possible future preservation and restoration strategies. Excitation of the Raman spectra at 1,064 nm in macroscopic mode and at 785 nm in microscopic mode revealed that the white pigment on the angel's wings was a mixture of barytes with calcite and lead white in minor composition. Although the specimens provided were not directly associated with coloured regions of the painting, yellow and blue microcrystals were found and they were identified as chrome yellow and lazurite, respectively. Red and brown particles were identified as cinnabar/vermilion and haematite. Several green particles were also found but could not be identified. The green and blue crystals could be related to neighbouring coloured regions of the artwork and the yellow colour could be identified as a background to the angel figure. Particles of carbon were found to be dispersed throughout the specimens and can be ascribed to soot from candles, heating stoves or oil lamps providing lighting in the church. No evidence for biological deterioration was found from the spectra. The unusual pigment palette is strongly suggestive of a later date of painting than was originally believed but there is a possibility that an earlier rendition exists underneath. Following a review of the spectroscopic data, a more extensive sampling protocol is recommended, from which some stratigraphic evidence could identify the underlying plaster and possible artwork.

  10. Mortality risk and survival in the aftermath of the medieval Black Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitte, Sharon N

    2014-01-01

    The medieval Black Death (c. 1347-1351) was one of the most devastating epidemics in human history. It killed tens of millions of Europeans, and recent analyses have shown that the disease targeted elderly adults and individuals who had been previously exposed to physiological stressors. Following the epidemic, there were improvements in standards of living, particularly in dietary quality for all socioeconomic strata. This study investigates whether the combination of the selective mortality of the Black Death and post-epidemic improvements in standards of living had detectable effects on survival and mortality in London. Samples are drawn from several pre- and post-Black Death London cemeteries. The pre-Black Death sample comes from the Guildhall Yard (n = 75) and St. Nicholas Shambles (n = 246) cemeteries, which date to the 11th-12th centuries, and from two phases within the St. Mary Spital cemetery, which date to between 1120-1300 (n = 143). The St. Mary Graces cemetery (n = 133) was in use from 1350-1538 and thus represents post-epidemic demographic conditions. By applying Kaplan-Meier analysis and the Gompertz hazard model to transition analysis age estimates, and controlling for changes in birth rates, this study examines differences in survivorship and mortality risk between the pre- and post-Black Death populations of London. The results indicate that there are significant differences in survival and mortality risk, but not birth rates, between the two time periods, which suggest improvements in health following the Black Death, despite repeated outbreaks of plague in the centuries after the Black Death.

  11. Mortality risk and survival in the aftermath of the medieval Black Death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon N DeWitte

    Full Text Available The medieval Black Death (c. 1347-1351 was one of the most devastating epidemics in human history. It killed tens of millions of Europeans, and recent analyses have shown that the disease targeted elderly adults and individuals who had been previously exposed to physiological stressors. Following the epidemic, there were improvements in standards of living, particularly in dietary quality for all socioeconomic strata. This study investigates whether the combination of the selective mortality of the Black Death and post-epidemic improvements in standards of living had detectable effects on survival and mortality in London. Samples are drawn from several pre- and post-Black Death London cemeteries. The pre-Black Death sample comes from the Guildhall Yard (n = 75 and St. Nicholas Shambles (n = 246 cemeteries, which date to the 11th-12th centuries, and from two phases within the St. Mary Spital cemetery, which date to between 1120-1300 (n = 143. The St. Mary Graces cemetery (n = 133 was in use from 1350-1538 and thus represents post-epidemic demographic conditions. By applying Kaplan-Meier analysis and the Gompertz hazard model to transition analysis age estimates, and controlling for changes in birth rates, this study examines differences in survivorship and mortality risk between the pre- and post-Black Death populations of London. The results indicate that there are significant differences in survival and mortality risk, but not birth rates, between the two time periods, which suggest improvements in health following the Black Death, despite repeated outbreaks of plague in the centuries after the Black Death.

  12. Soil pollution indices conditioned by medieval metallurgical activity - A case study from Krakow (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Joanna; Mazurek, Ryszard; Gąsiorek, Michał; Setlak, Marcin; Zaleski, Tomasz; Waroszewski, Jaroslaw

    2016-11-01

    The studied soil profile under the Main Market Square (MMS) in Krakow was characterised by the influence of medieval metallurgical activity. In the presented soil section lithological discontinuity (LD) was found, which manifests itself in the form of cultural layers (CLs). Moreover, in this paper LD detection methods based on soil texture are presented. For the first time, three different ways to identify the presence of LD in the urban soils are suggested. The presence of LD had an influence on the content and distribution of heavy metals within the soil profile. The content of heavy metals in the CLs under the MMS in Krakow was significantly higher than the content in natural horizons. In addition, there were distinct differences in the content of heavy metals within CLs. Profile variability and differences in the content of heavy metals and phosphorus within the CLs under the MMS were activity indicators of Krakow inhabitants in the past. This paper presents alternative methods for the assessment of the degree of heavy metal contamination in urban soils using selected pollution indices. On the basis of the studied total concentration of heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Mn, Cr, Cd, Ni, Sn, Ag) and total phosphorus content, the Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo), Enrichment Factor (EF), Sum of Pollution Index (PIsum), Single Pollution Index (PI), Nemerow Pollution Index (PINemerow) and Potential Ecological Risk (RI) were calculated using different local and reference geochemical backgrounds. The use of various geochemical backgrounds is helpful to evaluate the assessment of soil pollution. The individual CLs differed from each other according to the degree of pollution. The different values of pollution indices within the studied soil profile showed that LDS should not be evaluated in terms of contamination as one, homogeneous soil profile but each separate CL should be treated individually. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Stroke as a probable cause of death in some Serbian medieval rulers].

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    Jovitsh, N; Jovitsh, J

    1995-01-01

    The medical analysis of illnesses and causes of death of Serbian rulers in the Middle-Ages, is difficult. Only a tentative diagnosis can be made. In addition to their religious character old Serbian biographies offer many information; they are, however, often insufficient and fragmentary. While the true state of health of Serbian rulers cannot be known, there are some descriptions and documents useful for such attempts. Stroke was presumed to be the cause of death of some Serbian medieval rulers. According to his biographers, Teodosije and Domentian, King Stefan Prvovenchani (First-Crowned) (1217-1228) had two apoplectic accidents. When the first stroke occurred, he was paralytic, bedridden and loozing his general strenght. According to St. Sava he very well recovered after the first stroke. The second stroke, in the near future, was fatal. Some authors supposed the abuse as ethyl that impaired his health. King Stefan Urosh II Milutin (1282-1321) died as a seventy years old man. His biographer, Archbishop of Petsh, Danilo II wrote about a sudden onset of the disease. King Milutin was paralyzed and aphasic. In the terminal stage, he was unconscious and insensible. Preceding stresses may be an aetiological factor. According to Constantine the Philosopher, biographer of despot Stefan Lazarevitsh (1402-1427), this ruler died when he was 53 years old. The onset of the disease was sudden. Despot showed motor weakness, dyscoordinated movements, disordered balance and sensorium, speaking disturbances, and paralysis. He died in coma next morning, on July 18, 1427. This clinical feature suggests possible cerebro-vascular insult. It is not clear whether the existing rheumatic disease played a certain role in the aetiolotgy of stroke in this case. Some data suggested the emotional lability and incontinence as warning symptoms.

  14. Heterotrophic microorganisms in deteriorated medieval wall paintings in southern Italian churches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, O; Sannino, L; Palomba, S; Anastasio, M; Blaiotta, G; Villani, F; Moschetti, G

    2010-01-01

    The Campania region in southern Italy is noted for its large number of churches that harbour invaluable frescoes, dated from the beginnings of the 4th up to the 13th century. The wall paintings represent an integral part of the monuments, and their deterioration constitutes a potentially significant loss for the world's cultural heritage. Heterotrophic microorganisms such as bacteria and mould can grow on the surface of paintings that contain a wide range of organic and inorganic constituents, and provide different ecological niches that are exploited by a large variety of microbial species. We isolated and identified the heterotrophic microorganisms found in the biodegraded medieval wall paintings of seven historical churches in Campania. The paintings showed different levels of microbial contamination. Microbiological analysis of different paintings gave an overview of the different heterotrophic microorganisms. Bacteria and moulds were isolated from 77% of the sampling points analysed, in which the most common type of alteration was discolouration often associated with detachment of the paint layer. Bacterial strains were identified by 16S rRNA partial sequence analysis. The Bacillus genus was isolated in all churches, even though the type of species was variable, whereas all actinomycetes strains, isolated in five of the seven churches analysed, could be referred to the Streptomyces genus. The similarity of the sequences analysed of the 42 Bacillus spp., 2 Paenibacillus spp. and reference strains of different species showed that these bacteria differentiated in 14 groups. The most frequently occurring taxa were most closely related to Bacillus cereus/thurigiensis/anthracis and Bacillus pumilus groups. Thirteen Streptomyces spp. were differentiated in seven groups on the basis of neighbor-joining analysis of 16S rRNA. Fungi belonging to the genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Alternaria were also isolated from deteriorated wall paintings.

  15. AMS radiocarbon dating of mortar: The case study of the medieval UNESCO site of Modena

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    Carmine, Lubritto; Caroselli, Marta; Lugli, Stefano; Marzaioli, Fabio; Nonni, Sara; Marchetti Dori, S.; Terrasi, Filippo

    2015-10-01

    The carbon dioxide contributing to binder formation during the set of a lime mortar reflects the atmospheric 14C content at the time of construction of a building. For this reason, the 14C dating of mortars is used with increasing frequencies in archaeological and architectural research. Mortars, however, may also contain carbonaceous contaminants potentially affecting radiocarbon dating. The Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental heritage (CIRCE) of the Second University of Naples (SUN) has recently obtained some promising results in mortar radiocarbon dating thanks to the development of a procedure (i.e. CryoSoniC/Cryo2SoniC) aiming to eliminate exogenous C contamination that may occur in a mortar. The construction history of the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Modena (Italy) is still controversial and represents a challenging case study for the application of absolute dating methodologies for different reasons. From the point of view of 14C dating, for example, given the high percentage of carbonate aggregates composing these samples, Modena mortars represent an experimental test particularly indicative of exogenous carbon sources suppression ensuring methodology accuracy. In this paper several AMS Radiocarbon dates were carried out on lime lumps with the aim to: (i) verify procedure accuracy by a comparison of the results obtainable from lime lumps dated after different treatments (i.e. bulk lime lumps vs. CryoSoniC purified lime lumps); (ii) compare different building phases absolute chronology for the medieval UNESCO site of Modena, with that assumed by historical sources in order to assess preliminary the 14C dating feasibility for of the site. Historical temporal constraints and mortar clustering, based on petrography, have been applied to define a temporal framework of the analyzed structure. Moreover, a detailed petrographic characterization of mortars was used both as a preliminary tool for the choice of samples and to infer about the

  16. The Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae illustrated in medieval manuscripts known as the Tacuinum Sanitatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S.; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Beginning in the last two decades of the 14th century, richly illuminated versions of the Tacuinum Sanitatis, the Latin translation of an 11th-century Arabic manuscript known as Taqwim al-Sihha bi al-Ashab al-Sitta, were produced in northern Italy. These illustrated manuscripts provide a window on late medieval life in that region by containing some 200 full-page illustrations, many of which vividly depict the harvest of vegetables, fruits, flowers, grains, aromatics and medicinal plants. Our objective was to search for and identify the images of taxa of Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae. Methods We have located all reported illustrated Tacuinum Sanitatis and similar or related manuscripts, searched through printed or electronic reproductions of them, categorized six of them that display full-page illustrations as archetypic, and established the identity of the Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae appearing in these six manuscripts. Key Results and Conclusions Of the Cucurbitaceae, Cucumis sativus (short-fruited cucumbers), Cucumis melo (including round as well as elongate melons), Citrullus lanatus (both sweet watermelons and citrons), and Lagenaria siceraria (including bottle-shaped as well as long gourds), are illustrated. Of the Solanaceae, Solanum melongena (egg-shaped purple aubergines) and Mandragora sp. (mandrake) are illustrated. These depictions include some of the earliest known images of cucumber, casaba melon (Cucumis melo Inodorous Group) and aubergine, each of which closely resembles an extant cultivar-group or market type. Overall, the botanically most accurate images are in the version of the Tacuinum located in the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna, cod. ser. n. 2644. Similarities and differences in botanical accuracy among the images of Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae in the six archetypal Tacuinum manuscripts suggest to us that another illustrated Tacuinum, now lost, may have antedated and served as a model or inspiration for the

  17. Examination of the eclipse records of Japanese medieval times and the Earth's rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sôma, Mitsuru; Tanikawa, Kiyotaka; Kawabata, Kin-Aki; Imae, Hiromichi

    Timed records of solar and lunar eclipses were written in many medieval Japanese books. The present article examines those in the 9-12 centuries for studying the Earth's rotation. Recordings of timed data of solar and lunar eclipses started in the 9th century in Japan. Because the moon was in the penumbral area of the Earth's shadow in many of lunar eclipses recorded in Japanese books, the definition of the time of the beginning and the end of eclipses in not clear cut and then we can't use them for studies of the Earth's rotation. The time of the beginning of solar eclipses written by predictions was very early comparing with the true values in all the cases and then these are not suitable to use for our studies. The predicted time of the maximum and the end for solar eclipses in the 10th century are confirmed to be those in Kyoto. The eclipses were actually observed at the predicted time in Kyoto as we can confirm from these books. In the 11th-12th centuries, the predicted time of the maximum and the end of solar eclipses were, curiously, those in China and then observed eclipses were different from the prediction in Kyoto. In cases of solar eclipses predicted to end before the sunrise in China, Japanese book sometimes recorded that the predictor did not report to the authorized office of the Government because the event was nighttime eclipse and that the solar eclipse was observed at the time of sunrise contradicting the prediction. In cases of solar eclipses predicted to occur just before the sunset in China, Japanese books sometimes recorded predicted time of the beginning, the maximum, and the end in China as those in Kyoto and that the solar eclipse did not occur contradicting the prediction.

  18. The Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae illustrated in medieval manuscripts known as the Tacuinum Sanitatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2009-06-01

    Beginning in the last two decades of the 14th century, richly illuminated versions of the Tacuinum Sanitatis, the Latin translation of an 11th-century Arabic manuscript known as Taqwim al-Sihha bi al-Ashab al-Sitta, were produced in northern Italy. These illustrated manuscripts provide a window on late medieval life in that region by containing some 200 full-page illustrations, many of which vividly depict the harvest of vegetables, fruits, flowers, grains, aromatics and medicinal plants. Our objective was to search for and identify the images of taxa of Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae. We have located all reported illustrated Tacuinum Sanitatis and similar or related manuscripts, searched through printed or electronic reproductions of them, categorized six of them that display full-page illustrations as archetypic, and established the identity of the Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae appearing in these six manuscripts. Of the Cucurbitaceae, Cucumis sativus (short-fruited cucumbers), Cucumis melo (including round as well as elongate melons), Citrullus lanatus (both sweet watermelons and citrons), and Lagenaria siceraria (including bottle-shaped as well as long gourds), are illustrated. Of the Solanaceae, Solanum melongena (egg-shaped purple aubergines) and Mandragora sp. (mandrake) are illustrated. These depictions include some of the earliest known images of cucumber, casaba melon (Cucumis melo Inodorous Group) and aubergine, each of which closely resembles an extant cultivar-group or market type. Overall, the botanically most accurate images are in the version of the Tacuinum located in the Osterreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna, cod. ser. n. 2644. Similarities and differences in botanical accuracy among the images of Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae in the six archetypal Tacuinum manuscripts suggest to us that another illustrated Tacuinum, now lost, may have antedated and served as a model or inspiration for the six surviving archetypic manuscripts.

  19. Discussing Medieval Dialogue between the Soul and the Body and Question of Dualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Peklar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is based on the rejection of medieval dualism or on distinguishing the body from the flesh, as suggested by Suzannah Biernoff (2002. This differentiation corresponds to an interpretation of the body, actually corpse, within some of the body and soul debates including the popular Visio Philiberti. Here the body is not sinful flesh, but is presented neutrally or realistically (not grotesquely, because the personality is thematized instead of the ideology. Thus in this debate, physicality is distinct from problematic weakness, and expresses the individual. This means that, unlike in the transi where the individual is transient or perishes with the decaying flesh (and finally becomes an anonymous skeleton, individuality is not fixed to the flesh or inconstant matter. Rather, it is carried by the incorporeal body or spiritual image which is autonomous or distinct from its material grounding, and so individuality is not superficial. The difference between the body and the flesh is also maintained in illustrations, although they are corporeal images, since the parchment displays the image of the individual just as skin does, however, in the preparation of parchment, the flesh was removed from the skin. Or, in the picturesque words of Giles of Rome, “liquid is taken into and poured out of a waterskin but the skin remains”,44 meaning, in accordance with Paul (1 Corinthians 15, 49, individuality is the individual form, independent of material, and therefore worth preserving. In short, not only the individuality is important, but it also has to be expressed by the image.

  20. Space Climate Manifestation in Earth Prices from Medieval England up to Modern U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustilnik, L. A.; Din, G. Yom

    2004-10-01

    In this study we continue to search for possible manifestations of space weather influence on prices of agricultural products and consumables. We note that the connection between solar activity and prices is based on the causal chain that includes several nonlinear transition elements. These nonlinear elements are characterized by threshold sensitivity to external parameters and lead to very inhomogeneous local sensitivity of the price to space weather conditions. It is noted that “soft type” models are the most adequate for description of this class of connections. Two main observational effects suitable for testing causal connections of this type of sensitivity are considered: burst-like price reactions on changes in solar activity and price asymmetry for selected phases of the sunspot cycle. The connection, discovered earlier for wheat prices of Medieval England, is examined in this work on the basis of another 700-year data set of consumable prices in England. Using the same technique as in the previous part of our work (Pustilnik and Yom Din, 2004) we show that statistical parameters of the interval distributions for price bursts of consumable basket and for sunspot minimum states are similar to one another, as was reported earlier for wheat price bursts. Possible sources of these consistencies between three different multiyear samples are discussed. For a search of possible manifestations of the ‘space weather -wheat market’ connection in modern time, we analyze dynamics of wheat prices in the U.S.A. in the twentieth century. We show that the wheat prices revealed a maximum/minimum price asymmetry consistent with the phases of the sunspot cycle. We discuss possible explanations of this observed asymmetry, unexpected under conditions of globalization of the modern wheat market.

  1. The climatic context of major plague outbreaks in late medieval England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribyl, Kathleen

    2017-04-01

    The climatological triggers of major plague outbreaks in late medieval and early modern Europe remain unclear; recent studies have been inconclusive. Plague is primarily a rodent disease and due to the involvement of rodent hosts and insect vectors, the epidemiology of plague is complicated, but research on outbreaks in the Third Pandemic, which began in the late nineteenth century, has shown that in central and eastern Asia plague is linked to specific meteorological conditions. The disease adapts to a varied spectrum of ecological and climatological settings, which influence the development of plague waves, and due to Europe's geographical diversity, this paper focuses on one region, England, in its search for meteorological parameters contributing to plague outbreaks. The study period of this paper is defined by the arrival of Yersinia pestis in the British Isles in 1348 and the end of the fifteenth century. During this time, England's population dynamics were mortality-driven due to recurrent epidemic disease; and public health measures, such as quarantining, had not yet been introduced, hence the influence of social factors on the formation of major plague waves was very limited. The geographical and temporal focus of this study allows for the combination of the series of English major plague outbreaks, verified in the original texts, with the high-quality climate reconstructions based on both documentary sources and proxy data available for this region. The detailed analysis of the mechanisms contributing to English plague waves presented in this paper, reveals a complex interplay of time-lag responses and concurrent conditions involving temperature and precipitation parameters.

  2. Transferencias matrimoniales en el Occidente islámico medieval: las joyas como regalo de boda

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    Zomeño Rodríguez, Amalia

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes several legal cases concerning donations and loans of jewels in the context of the Islamic marriage in the Middle Ages. The bride receives gifts of jewels from her would-be husband that form part of her property thereafter. The father also offers a substantial contribution of jewels to her daughter, yet often this is given with the expectation of their being returned subsequent to the marriage ceremony. Two of the gifts studied here consist of a strand of pearls, gold earrings, and silver anklets. They are jewels described already in ethnographic studies as part of the adornment that the bride traditionally wears at weddings in the contemporary Maghreb.Este trabajo analiza varios casos en los que se reflejan problemas legales surgidos en torno a una donación o préstamo de joyas, dentro del contexto matrimonial islámico medieval. La novia, de hecho, recibe varios regalos que contienen joyas de manos de su marido, que formarán parte de sus propiedades después de su boda. Por otro lado, el padre entrega también un conjunto importante de joyas a su hija, pero es frecuente que le sean prestadas con la intención de que se le devuelvan posteriormente. Dos de los regalos que aquí se estudian contienen un sartal de aljófar, unos zarcillos de oro y unas ajorcas de plata. Todas ellas son joyas que han sido ya descritas en los trabajos de etnografía como parte de los adornos que la novia lleva tradicionalmente en su boda en el Magreb actual.

  3. Holy smoke in medieval funerary rites: chemical fingerprints of frankincense in southern Belgian incense burners.

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    Baeten, Jan; Deforce, Koen; Challe, Sophie; De Vos, Dirk; Degryse, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Frankincense, the oleogum resin from Boswellia sp., has been an early luxury good in both Western and Eastern societies and is particularly used in Christian funerary and liturgical rites. The scant grave goods in late medieval burials comprise laterally perforated pottery vessels which are usually filled with charcoal. They occur in most regions of western Europe and are interpreted as incense burners but have never been investigated with advanced analytical techniques. We herein present chemical and anthracological results on perforated funerary pots from 4 Wallonian sites dating to the 12-14th century AD. Chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis of lipid extracts of the ancient residues and comparison with extracts from four Boswellia species clearly evidence the presence of degraded frankincense in the former, based on characteristic triterpenoids, viz. boswellic and tirucallic acids, and their myriad dehydrated and oxygenated derivatives. Cembrane-type diterpenoids indicate B. sacra (southern Arabia) and B. serrata (India) as possible botanical origins. Furthermore, traces of juniper and possibly pine tar demonstrate that small amounts of locally available fragrances were mixed with frankincense, most likely to reduce its cost. Additionally, markers of ruminant fats in one sample from a domestic context indicate that this vessel was used for food preparation. Anthracological analysis demonstrates that the charcoal was used as fuel only and that no fragrant wood species were burned. The chars derived from local woody plants and were most likely recovered from domestic fires. Furthermore, vessel recycling is indicated by both contextual and biomarker evidence. The results shed a new light on funerary practices in the Middle Ages and at the same time reveal useful insights into the chemistry of burned frankincense. The discovery of novel biomarkers, namely Δ2-boswellic acids and a series of polyunsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, demonstrates the high

  4. Holy smoke in medieval funerary rites: chemical fingerprints of frankincense in southern Belgian incense burners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Baeten

    Full Text Available Frankincense, the oleogum resin from Boswellia sp., has been an early luxury good in both Western and Eastern societies and is particularly used in Christian funerary and liturgical rites. The scant grave goods in late medieval burials comprise laterally perforated pottery vessels which are usually filled with charcoal. They occur in most regions of western Europe and are interpreted as incense burners but have never been investigated with advanced analytical techniques. We herein present chemical and anthracological results on perforated funerary pots from 4 Wallonian sites dating to the 12-14th century AD. Chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis of lipid extracts of the ancient residues and comparison with extracts from four Boswellia species clearly evidence the presence of degraded frankincense in the former, based on characteristic triterpenoids, viz. boswellic and tirucallic acids, and their myriad dehydrated and oxygenated derivatives. Cembrane-type diterpenoids indicate B. sacra (southern Arabia and B. serrata (India as possible botanical origins. Furthermore, traces of juniper and possibly pine tar demonstrate that small amounts of locally available fragrances were mixed with frankincense, most likely to reduce its cost. Additionally, markers of ruminant fats in one sample from a domestic context indicate that this vessel was used for food preparation. Anthracological analysis demonstrates that the charcoal was used as fuel only and that no fragrant wood species were burned. The chars derived from local woody plants and were most likely recovered from domestic fires. Furthermore, vessel recycling is indicated by both contextual and biomarker evidence. The results shed a new light on funerary practices in the Middle Ages and at the same time reveal useful insights into the chemistry of burned frankincense. The discovery of novel biomarkers, namely Δ2-boswellic acids and a series of polyunsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons

  5. La infanta Urraca y el cerco de Zamora en la historiografía medieval castellana y leonesa

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    Martín Prieto, Pablo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to compose a general panorama over the image of princess Urraca of Leon-Castile as it appears and evolves in the context of Medieval Castilian cronicles. Her outstanding role in Castilian politics of the late 11th century has been object to much attention on the part of historians ever since. In particular, she is to be remembered in connection to the murder of the Castilian king Sancho II, her brother, before the walls of Zamora. This crucial turning point in Iberian history was embroidered in legendary epics, leading to a wide accusation against Urraca as an inductor to her brother’s assassination. The present paper is concerned with a critical examination of the medieval cronicles, so as to verify and trace the progress and oscillations about the construction of Urraca’s posterity on behalf of Sancho’s death.

    El presente estudio pretende dibujar un panorama general sobre la imagen de la infanta castellana Urraca, tal como ésta se refleja y evoluciona en las principales fuentes historiográficas castellanas y leonesas de época medieval. Desde aquellos tiempos, los historiadores han prestado mucha atención a la importancia de Urraca en la política castellana del final del siglo XI. Se la recuerda especialmente por su relación con el asesinato de su hermano el monarca castellano Sancho II ante los muros de Zamora. Este acontecimiento crucial de la historia peninsular fue objeto de amplia elaboración épica, resultando en una acusación contra Urraca como inductora de la muerte de su hermano. Nuestro artículo propone un examen crítico de las crónicas medievales, al objeto de verificar y seguir la formación y las vacilaciones en la construcción de la posteridad de Urraca a cuenta de la muerte de Sancho.

  6. Veedors, marquejadors, maestros: el valor de la experiencia en la carpintería medieval. El ejemplo valenciano

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    Izquierdo Aranda, Teresa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the carpenter’s guild of Valencia in the Middle Ages, experience and skill were two notions captured in the more comprehensive idea of expertise. The appreciation of this added value made the expert an indispensable figure inside the guild. He was present in the different positions of control and inspection established by by-laws, which ensured the quality of goods manufactured, the proper level of teaching, and the accreditation of new masters. This figure also acted as an expert assessor, estimating the work of a colleague of even assessing the value of his interventions. In this article we examine the notion of expert in medieval carpentry and the infl uence of his practical application in the daily routine of woodworkers.En la carpintería medieval valenciana, la experiencia y la destreza eran dos nociones complementarias de la idea más amplia de pericia. La apreciación de este valor añadido hacía del experto una figura imprescindible en la corporación de oficios, a través de los diversos encargos de control e inspección arbitrados por los estatutos para asegurar la calidad en la factura y en la enseñanza desarrollada por cada maestro, así como en los exámenes de magisterio. El experto también estaba presente en las tasaciones periciales, en las que su juicio servía para certificar la aptitud de la obra realizada por un colega o incluso valorar su intervención. En este artículo examinaremos la noción de experto en l’art de la fusteria o carpintería medieval valenciana y en qué medida su aplicación práctica afectaba al trabajo cotidiano de un maestro carpintero en los siglos XIV al XVI.

  7. Frequency of dental caries in children in the Early Iron Age and the Medieval populations from Ukraine

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    Yanko Nataliia Valentinovna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we determine the caries frequency in children of the Early Iron Age (EIA (the 9th - the 3d centuries BC and the Medieval populations (the 8th - the beginning of the 15th century AD from the Ukraine area, and compare the results with the data from several European populations who lived at the same time. The EIA is presented by 41 children skeletons, three of which were Cimmerian (the 9th - the 7th centuries BC from the territory of contemporary Poltava region; 38 skulls from the territory of contemporary Poltava region and Crimea represented Scythian period (the 7th - the 3d centuries BC. Remains of 24 children from the Medieval populations were also examined, three of which were the ancient Hungarians from the Poltava region (the 8th - the 9th centuries AD, 6 Khazars from the Kharkiv region (the 8th - the 9th centuries, 1 child related the Old Rus culture from the Kyiv region (the 9th century, and 14 representatives of the nomadic populations in the Golden Horde period (the 13th - the beginning of the 15th century from the Poltava and Zaporizhzhya regions. Taking in consideration the letter archaeobotanical studies we suggest that there were no major changes in the plants exploited during all the studied periods. The frequency of carious lesions in children from the Medieval populations (8.3% in individuals, 0.5% in deciduous teeth, and 0.4% in permanent teeth is only slightly higher than those from the EIA period (2.4% in individuals and 0.2% in deciduous teeth. These indexes were not larger those of majority of European populations dated to the same historic period. Further isotopic, chemical and palaeobotanical studies of the additional sites, with sufficient sample sizes, allow us to learn so much more of the cariogenic factors in children of the past populations from the Ukraine area.

  8. Las huellas del miedo en la literatura de viajes medieval : una aproximación metodológica

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    Pablo Martín Prieto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo propone una aproximación metodológica al miedo como emoción ligada a los viajes y peregrinaciones en la Edad Media. Una selección de fuentes editadas de la literatura de viajes medieval sirve como base para el análisis de diversas expresiones de temor debidas a una amplia variedad de viajeros medievales. En estas fuentes, el mar, los peligros de posibles agresiones, la enfermedad, la soledad y lo desconocido prevalecen ampliamente entre los motivos de temor aducidos por los viajeros. En ellas también se señala la reacción positiva frente al miedo, manifiesta en remedios como la devoción y el conocimiento. El artículo enmarca el interés del tema dentro del ámbito y los métodos de la historia de las emociones.This study presents a methodological approach to fear as a phenomenon connected with travels and pilgrimages in the Middle Ages. A selection of published sources from medieval travel literature is used to analyse expressions of fear on the part of a wide variety of different medieval travellers. The sea, dangers of potential attacks, illness, solitude, and the unknown stand out among the most frequently confessed motives for the fear of travellers in these sources. These sources also record positive reactions to fear as evidenced by solutions found in devotion and knowledge. This study falls within the scope and method of the history of emotions.

  9. Predictive models and spatial analysis for the study of deserted medieval villages in Basilicata Region (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscione, Marilisa; Danese, Maria; Masini, Nicola; Sabia, Canio

    2016-04-01

    The study is focused on villages that are abandoned throughout the Basilicata from the 13th to the 15th century (Masini 1998), which is an emblematic case of abandonment of settlements in Late Middle Ages, which was a very common phenomenon throughout the whole Europe, attracting the interest of several historians and archaeologists (Demians d'Archimbaud 2001) The aim of the present study is to offer a contribution to knowledge of the medieval Basilicata's landscapes and settlement's dynamics with a multidisciplinary approach, derived from the rescue archeology: we have integrated the documentary sources with the use of spatial analysis and predictive models (Danese et al. 2009). The preventive archeology was born to conciliate the protection of archeological heritage, in evidence and potential, with the needs of urban design and planning. It is of fundamental importance, for a reliable evaluation of archaeological potential (identifying invisible traces) to use innovative diagnostic technologies: geophysical prospections, remote sensing (Lasaponara & Masini 2010; Lasaponara et al. 2016) and spatial analysis for the creation of predictive models. The latter are used to accomplish operational purposes but also for the historical landscape reconstruction (Danese et al. 2013; 2014). They contribute to analyse settlements and their dynamics on the basis of definite method and parameters. Thanks to predictive models it is possible, in fact, to start off by information of well-known archeological sites and use this knowledge as an empiric test for understand which elements have influenced their localization in the space. The relationships among natural environment, social context and position site are analysed in order to make clear the rules of settlement. These rules are then used into the model (Podobnikar et al. 2001). In this work the employed methodology is Spatial Analysis, in order to subdivide the territory based on its importance respect to a given function

  10. Mística medieval femenina un acercamiento al lenguaje teológico de ayer y de hoy

    OpenAIRE

    González Bernal, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Esta investigación es el resultado de un estudio sobre tres maestras místicas que en la Edad Media desarrollaron una teología que da razón, no solo de la concepción de un Dios en el contexto de la sociedad medieval, sino que revela la experiencia de un Dios mediante un lenguaje que actualiza el misterio en épocas y lugares. La investigación se propuso responder a los siguientes interrogantes ¿Qué lectura teológica hacen las maestras místicas Matilde de Magdeburgo, Margarita Porete y Hadewijch...

  11. El comercio de los esclavos musulmanes en el Portugal medieval : rutas y papel económico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Soyer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente existen muy pocos estudios acerca de la esclavitud musulmana en Portugal. Cuando se trata el comercio de los esclavos en la historia portuguesa, generalmente los trabajos se refieren al comercio de los esclavos africanos que los navegantes portugueses comenzaron traer de vuelta a Europa desde el año 1441 en adelante, a pesar de que desde el siglo XI existía una pobulación de esclavos musulmanes —los llamados mouros cativos—. En este artículo propongo estudiar, de la forma la más detallada posible, las características y dinámicas del comercio de los esclavos musulmanes en el reino cristiano de Portugal durante la Edad Media, tratando de responder a preguntas relevantes, como las de cuál era el origen y el papel económico de los esclavos musulmanes en el Portugal medieval, qué sabemos del comercio de los esclavos en aquel reino, o a la cuestión de si Portugal fue un país exportador o importador de esclavos.Whilst the presence of Muslim slaves in medieval Spain has attracted considerable scholarly attention from historians both inside and outside of the Iberian Peninsula, the same cannot be said of the history of Muslim slaves in the medieval Christian kingdom of Portugal. Most studies of slavery in Portugal focus on captives from sub-Saharan Africa brought back by Portuguese slavers to Europe from 1441 onwards even though Muslim slaves were present in Portugal from the eleventh century at the very least. We know next-to-nothing about these Muslim slaves. This article proposes to examine in as much detail as possible the characteristics and dynamics of the commerce of Muslim slaves in medieval Portugal. It addresses problematic questions regarding the origins and economic role of Muslim slaves in premodern Portugal, the nature of slave trading and whether Portugal was an importer or exporter of slaves.

  12. A motive of the Bull’s Head as a Decoration of the Medieval Churches in Southern Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Endoltseva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the examples of a syncretism of the traditional believes and Christianity in the Middle Ages. There is a representation of the bull’s head in the architectural decoration of some of the medieval churches (f. i. Svetitskhoveli in Mtskheta, XI c., Georgia; the Holy Cross Cathedral on the Island of Akdamar, X c., Turkey; monasteries of Geghard, XIII c. and Sanain, XII c., Armenia; it is obviously connected with an ancient cult of the bull wide-spread in the Mediterranean world from the Neolithic period until modern time.

  13. Sobre el uso de la autoridad en la medicina medieval : Aristóteles, Galeno y las moscas volantes

    OpenAIRE

    Salmón Muñiz, Fernando

    1993-01-01

    El presente trabajo pretende hacer una reflexión sobre el papel de la autoridad en la medicina académica bajomedieval. Para ello se ha elegido un tema potencialmente polémico en las aulas medievales, el mecanismo de la percepción visual, donde el Aristóteles y el Galeno históricos estaban en desacuerdo. La inevitabilidad o no del conflicto entre las autoridades y la necesidad de su reconciliación o explicación, serán cuestionadas a la luz del problema que para el médico medieval supuso dar un...

  14. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Photography: Exploring the Medieval City of Merv, on the Silk Roads of Central Asia

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    Tim Williams

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ancient Merv Project is a collaboration between the Turkmenistan Ministry of Culture, the Ancient Merv State Park and the UCL Institute of Archaeology. It aims to research, protect and conserve the remains of one of the great historic cities of the Silk Roads. This paper explores a new survey of the Islamic city using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle to take comprehensive and systematic vertical photographs to assist in the analysis of the medieval cityscape. The background to the research and the application of the technology are presented, together with our initial conclusions.

  15. Late Holocene lowland fluvial archives and geoarchaeology: Utrecht's case study of Rhine river abandonment under Roman and Medieval settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dinter, Marieke; Cohen, Kim M.; Hoek, Wim Z.; Stouthamer, Esther; Jansma, Esther; Middelkoop, Hans

    2017-06-01

    Fluvial lowlands have become attractive human settling areas all around the world over the last few millennia. Because rivers kept changing their course and networks due to avulsion, the sedimentary sequences in these areas are archives of both fluvial geomorphological and archaeological development. We integrated geological and archaeological datasets to demonstrate the concurrence of the gradual abandonment of a major Rhine channel (Utrecht, The Netherlands), the development of human habitation in the area, and the interactions between them. The Utrecht case study highlights the stage-wise abandonment of a natural river channel, due to avulsion, coincident with intensifying human occupation in Roman and Early Medieval times (1st millennium AD). The analyses make maximum use of very rich data sets available for the study area and the tight age control that the geo-archaeological dataset facilitates, offering extra means of time-control to document the pacing of the abandonment process. This allows us to quantify change in river dimensions and meander style and to provide discharge estimates for successive stages of the abandonment phase over a 1000-year period of abandonment succession, from mature river to eventual Late Medieval overbuilt canal when the Rhine branch had lost even more discharge. Continued geomorphic development during this period - which includes the 'Dark Ages' (450-1000 AD) - appears to have been crucial in the development of Utrecht from Roman army fortress to Medieval ecclesial centre. The settlement dynamics in and around the city of Utrecht changed during the various phases of abandonment. In the bifurcating network of river branches forming the Rhine-Meuse delta, the main Rhine branch hosted the Roman limes military border and transport route. The Rhine- Vecht bifurcation at Utrecht provided an excellent location to raise a Roman fort. Continued geomorphic activity during abandonment in Early Medieval times was characterised by enhanced

  16. El mundo rural medieval en la historiografía en alemán desde 1930

    OpenAIRE

    Demade, Julien

    2004-01-01

    Es imposible entender los logros y las debilidades de la historiografía en alemán sobre la historia rural medieval durante los últimos treinta y cinco años sin analizar las peculiaridades (institucionales e intelectuales) de la historiografía alemana en general, y sus antiguas raíces. Porque las consecuencias no son sólo la posición bastante marginal de la historia rural actualmente, agravada por su dificultad para abordar nuevos temas y métodos de investigación, sino también para reconocerlo...

  17. Las huellas del miedo en la literatura de viajes medieval : una aproximación metodológica

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Prieto, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo propone una aproximación metodológica al miedo como emoción ligada a los viajes y peregrinaciones en la Edad Media. Una selección de fuentes editadas de la literatura de viajes medieval sirve como base para el análisis de diversas expresiones de temor debidas a una amplia variedad de viajeros medievales. En estas fuentes, el mar, los peligros de posibles agresiones, la enfermedad, la soledad y lo desconocido prevalecen ampliamente entre los motivos de temor aducidos por lo...

  18. What makes Breton lays ‘Breton’? Bretons, Britons and Celtic ‘otherness’ in medieval romance

    OpenAIRE

    Carruthers, Leo

    2014-01-01

    An exploration of the semantic and cultural fields behind the term ‘Breton’ suggests that the modern word ‘Celtic’ corresponds better to what is implied by the expression ‘Breton lay’. It is commonly supposed that the Breton lays, in both Old French of the 12th century and Middle English of the 14th century, were based on songs originally sung by Breton minstrels. But the word ‘Breton’ is misleading ; while it now refers to the inhabitants of Brittany, in medieval literature ‘Breton’ and ‘Bri...

  19. The influence of different amplitudes of Total Solar Irradiance changes on the Medieval climate in coupled model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, S.; Zorita, E.; Gonzalez-Rouco, F. J.

    2012-12-01

    The climate of Medieval times (950-1250 AD) has been investigated with a set of simulations using the comprehensive ECHO-G AOGCM. To test the influence of changes in external solar forcing two simulations with different amplitudes of the variations in solar activity have been carried out, the first one assuming a 0.35 ‰ difference between the Late Maunder Minimum and present day, and the second one assuming only half of this change. All simulations are forced with changes in orbital and greenhouse gas forcing, but the reference simulation is carried out with constant solar forcing. The evolution of modelled Northern hemispheric summer near-surface temperatures shows a significant (alpha=0.05) anomaly indicating higher temperatures of around +0.2 K (+0.1 K) for the high-amplitude (low amplitude) simulation over the period 1100 -1300 AD compared to the reference simulation. Temperatures on the northern hemispheric scale therefore respond linearly on the amplitude of solar activity changes. The control simulation, forced without any changes in external solar activity, shows no increased temperature levels during the entire medieval period. The spatially resolved temperature anomaly patterns show largest temperature anomalies over continental areas, with maximum values around +0.5 K over the interiors of the Northern hemispheric continents during the entire Medieval period. For smaller spatial scales, for instance Scandinavia, the forced simulations show no such clear-cut positive temperature signals because the ratio between signal and internal variability is reduced. For the North Atlantic region the internal variability is mostly affected by the variability related to the NAO and the North Atlantic drift. Compared to the reference simulation the summer NAO shows in both simulations a negative phase during the entire medieval period, mostly pronounced within the high-amplitude solar forcing simulation. The North Atlantic SST anomaly pattern also shows a response to

  20. Idea e imagen del rey en la diplomática medieval hispana: el valor de los preámbulos = Idea and Image of Kingship in Spanish Medieval Diplomatics: The Importance of Preambles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Martín Prieto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo trata del papel de los preámbulos de diplomas reales en la España medieval, como fuente para establecer varios rasgos definitorios de los reyes y la realeza tal como entonces se entendían. La detenida consideración de una cierta cantidad de tales preámbulos de documentos reales ayuda a caracterizar ideas e imágenes generales que definen la representación de la realeza de acuerdo con la propaganda de la época. Algunas concepciones clave sobre las dimensiones y deberes morales de la realeza pueden seguirse a lo largo de series enteras de documentos reales en la larga duración, al tiempo que adoptan formas diplomáticas diferentes en los preámbulos.This paper deals with the role of the preamble in royal documents of medieval Spain as a source for establishing various defining traits of kings and kingship as they were understood at the time. Thorough consideration of a certain number of such preambles in royal charters allows one to determine the general ideas and images that inform the representation of kingship as portrayed by the propaganda of its era. Some key ideas pertaining to the scope and moral duties of royalty can be traced throughout an entire series of royal charters in the long term, while assuming different diplomatic forms in the preambles.