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Sample records for witherspoon incorporated landfill-1630

  1. Work plan for the radiological survey for the David Witherspoon, Incorporated, Landfill-1630 site, Knoxville, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This work plan establishes the methods and requirements for performing a radiological survey at the David Witherspoon, Incorporated, Landfill-1630 Site, Knoxville, Tennessee (DWI 1630 Site) in accordance with requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). The radiological survey will identify the radiological contamination level of the equipment and debris stored at the DWI 1630 Site. The data generated from the survey activities will support the decisions for characterization of the equipment/debris and aid in subsequent disposition and waste handling. The survey activities to be performed under this work plan include an equipment radiological survey, a walkover survey, and an immunoassay testing for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This work plan includes a quality assurance (QA)/quality control (QC) project plan, a health and safety (H&S) plan, and a waste management plan.

  2. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the David Witherspoon, Inc., 901 Site, Knoxville, Tennessee: Volume 2, Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This document contains the appendixes for the remedial investigation and feasibility study for the David Witherspoon, Inc., 901 site in Knoxville, Tennessee. The following topics are covered in the appendixes: (A) David Witherspoon, Inc., 901 Site Historical Data, (B) Fieldwork Plans for the David Witherspoon, Inc., 901 Site, (C) Risk Assessment, (D) Remediation Technology Discussion, (E) Engineering Support Documentation, (F) Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements, and (G) Cost Estimate Documentation.

  3. Remedial investigation/feasibility study for the David Witherspoon, Inc., 901 Site, Knoxville, Tennessee: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This remedial investigation (RI)/feasibility study (FS) supports the selection of remedial actions for the David Witherspoon, Inc. 901 Maryville Pike Site in Knoxville, Tennessee. Operations at the site, used as a recycling center, have resulted in past, present, and potential future releases of hazardous substances in to the environment. This Site is a Tennessee Superfund site. A phased approach was planned to (1) gather existing data from previous investigations managed by the Tenn. Dept. of Environment and Conservation; (2) perform a preliminary RI, including risk assessments, and an FS with existing data to identify areas where remedial action may be necessary; (3) gather additional field data to adequately define the nature and extent of risk-based contaminants that present identifiable threats to human and/or ecological receptors; and (4) develop remedial action alternatives to reduce risks to acceptable levels.

  4. Development testing of the chemical analysis automation polychlorinated biphenyl standard analysis method during surface soils sampling at the David Witherspoon 1630 site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, M.A.; Klatt, L.N.; Thompson, D.H. [and others

    1998-02-01

    The Chemical Analysis Automation (CAA) project is developing standardized, software-driven, site-deployable robotic laboratory systems with the objective of lowering the per-sample analysis cost, decreasing sample turnaround time, and minimizing human exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials associated with DOE remediation projects. The first integrated system developed by the CAA project is designed to determine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) content in soil matrices. A demonstration and development testing of this system was conducted in conjuction with surface soil characterization activities at the David Witherspoon 1630 Site in Knoxville, Tennessee. The PCB system consists of five hardware standard laboratory modules (SLMs), one software SLM, the task sequence controller (TSC), and the human-computer interface (HCI). Four of the hardware SLMs included a four-channel Soxhlet extractor, a high-volume concentrator, a column cleanup, and a gas chromatograph. These SLMs performed the sample preparation and measurement steps within the total analysis protocol. The fifth hardware module was a robot that transports samples between the SLMs and the required consumable supplies to the SLMs. The software SLM is an automated data interpretation module that receives raw data from the gas chromatograph SLM and analyzes the data to yield the analyte information. The TSC is a software system that provides the scheduling, management of system resources, and the coordination of all SLM activities. The HCI is a graphical user interface that presents the automated laboratory to the analyst in terms of the analytical procedures and methods. Human control of the automated laboratory is accomplished via the HCI. Sample information required for processing by the automated laboratory is entered through the HCI. Information related to the sample and the system status is presented to the analyst via graphical icons.

  5. Incorporating Feminist Standpoint Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    2005-01-01

    As has been noted by Alvin Goldman, there are some very interesting similarities between his Veritistic Social Epistemology (VSE) and Sandra Harding’s Feminist Standpoint Theory (FST). In the present paper, it is argued that these similarities are so significant as to motivate an incorporation...

  6. Nepal CRS project incorporates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The Nepal Contraceptive Retail Sales (CRS) Project, 5 years after lauching product sales in June 1978, incorporated as a private, nonprofit company under Nepalese management. The transition was finalized in August 1983. The Company will work through a cooperative agreement with USAID/Kathmandu to complement the national family planning goals as the program continues to provide comtraceptives through retail channels at subsidized prices. Company objectives include: increase contraceptive sales by at least 15% per year; make CRS cost effective and move towards self sufficiency; and explore the possibility of marketing noncontraceptive health products to improve primary health care. After only5 years the program can point to some impressive successes. The number of retial shops selling family planning products increased from 100 in 1978 to over 8000, extending CRS product availability to 66 of the country's 75 districts. Retail sales have climbed dramatically in the 5-year period, from Rs 46,817 in 1978 to Rs 271,039 in 1982. Sales in terms of couple year protection CYP) have grown to 24,451 CYP(1982), a 36% increase over 1980 CYP. Since the beginning of the CRS marketing program, total distribution of contraceptives--through both CRS and the Family Planning Maternal and Child Haelth (FP/MCH) Project--has been increasing. While the FP/MCH program remains the largest distributor,contribution of CRS Products is increasing, indicating that CRS is creating new product acceptors. CRS market share in 1982 was 43% for condoms and 16% for oral contraceptives (OCs). CRS markets 5 products which are subsidized in order to be affordable to consumers as well as attractive to sellers. The initial products launched in June 1978 were Gulaf standard dose OCs and Dhaal lubricated colored condoms. A less expensive lubricates, plain Suki-Dhaal condom was introduced in June 1980 in an attempt to reach poorer rural populations, but rural distribution costs are excessive and Suki

  7. EFFECT OF INCORPORATING EXPANDED POLYSTYRENE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... Abstract. Incorporating expanded polystyrene granules in concrete matrix can produce lightweight polystyrene aggregate concrete of various densities. Workability which is an important property of concrete, affects the rate of placement and the degree of compaction of concrete. Inadequate compaction.

  8. Incorporating Argumentation through Forensic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines how to incorporate argumentation into a forensic science unit using a mock trial. Practical details of the mock trial include: (1) a method of scaffolding students' development of their argument for the trial, (2) a clearly outlined set of expectations for students during the planning and implementation of the mock…

  9. Incorporating Spirituality in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Kathleen S; Hay, Jennifer L; Lubetkin, Erica I

    2016-06-01

    Addressing cultural competency in health care involves recognizing the diverse characteristics of the patient population and understanding how they impact patient care. Spirituality is an aspect of cultural identity that has become increasingly recognized for its potential to impact health behaviors and healthcare decision-making. We consider the complex relationship between spirituality and health, exploring the role of spirituality in primary care, and consider the inclusion of spirituality in existing models of health promotion. We discuss the feasibility of incorporating spirituality into clinical practice, offering suggestions for physicians.

  10. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  11. Advanced window incorporating vacuum glazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Osamu; Misonou, Masao; Kato, Hidemi; Nagasaka, Shigeki

    1999-10-01

    Vacuum glazing product named SPACIATM, being an unique product with very high levels of thermal insulation properties in a very small thickness, is described in detail. The construction and manufacturing process of SPACIATM are reported. Its design, which was originally established by R.E. Collins et al. of the University of Sydney, has been adjusted in order to meet the requirements of the Japanese market and the requirements of mass production process. SPACIATM is found to have several unique features including airborne sound insulation as well as thermal insulation. Energy required for air conditioning was simulated for Japanese houses with various glazings, and it was revealed that SPACIATM could save the energy efficiently. Finally, hybrid IG unit, where vacuum glazing is incorporated into a conventional IG unit, is proposed for further improvement of thermal insulation.

  12. 49 CFR 572.190 - Incorporated materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.190 Section 572.190... Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.190 Incorporated materials. (a) The following materials are hereby... Register approved the materials incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part...

  13. 49 CFR 572.80 - Incorporated materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.80 Section 572.80... Incorporated materials. The drawings and specifications referred to in § 572.81(a) that are not set forth in full are hereby incorporated in this part by reference. These materials are thereby made part of this...

  14. 49 CFR 587.5 - Incorporated materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 587.5 Section 587.5... Barrier § 587.5 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings and specifications referred to in this regulation that are not set forth in full are hereby incorporated in this part by reference. These materials are...

  15. 49 CFR 572.30 - Incorporated materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.30 Section 572.30....30 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings and specifications referred to in this regulation that... Federal Register has approved the materials incorporated by reference. For materials subject to change...

  16. 49 CFR 572.180 - Incorporated materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.180 Section 572.180... Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.180 Incorporated materials. (a) The following materials are... Federal Register approved the materials incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1...

  17. Numeral Incorporation in Japanese Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ktejik, Mish

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the morphological process of numeral incorporation in Japanese Sign Language. Numeral incorporation is defined and the available research on numeral incorporation in signed language is discussed. The numeral signs in Japanese Sign Language are then introduced and followed by an explanation of the numeral morphemes which are…

  18. INCORPORATING GRAMMAR INTO TRANSLATION CLASSROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurendi Wiwoho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the teaching of translation. It is important to lay a strong foundation in translating for the second year students of English Department. The main goal of this study is to identify and improve students‘ grammar awareness and their grammatical adjustment ability especially in translating Indonesian sentences and short paragraphs into English. The data used in this study were students‘ translation assignments in Translation I course at the English Department of the Favulty of Languages and Culture, University of 17 Agustus 1945 Semarang, academic year 2015-2016. The findings of the research showed that the second year students still made a lot of grammatical mistakes especially in translating Indonesian sentences and short paragraphs into English. The greatest problem faced by the students was related with the use of verbs and tenses, followed by other problems related with the use of parts of speech and function words. This implies that incorporating grammar in teaching translation is important, in which students‘ awareness and knowledge of grammar should be taken with care. Therefore, in addition to these findings, a general model of grammatical instruction in translation teaching was presented to be useful for translation teachers.

  19. Ensemble learning incorporating uncertain registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Ivor J A; Woolrich, Mark W; Andersson, Jesper L R; Groves, Adrian R; Schnabel, Julia A

    2013-04-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach for improving the accuracy of statistical prediction methods in spatially normalized analysis. This is achieved by incorporating registration uncertainty into an ensemble learning scheme. A probabilistic registration method is used to estimate a distribution of probable mappings between subject and atlas space. This allows the estimation of the distribution of spatially normalized feature data, e.g., grey matter probability maps. From this distribution, samples are drawn for use as training examples. This allows the creation of multiple predictors, which are subsequently combined using an ensemble learning approach. Furthermore, extra testing samples can be generated to measure the uncertainty of prediction. This is applied to separating subjects with Alzheimer's disease from normal controls using a linear support vector machine on a region of interest in magnetic resonance images of the brain. We show that our proposed method leads to an improvement in discrimination using voxel-based morphometry and deformation tensor-based morphometry over bootstrap aggregating, a common ensemble learning framework. The proposed approach also generates more reasonable soft-classification predictions than bootstrap aggregating. We expect that this approach could be applied to other statistical prediction tasks where registration is important.

  20. Incorporation of heparin into biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakiyama-Elbert, Shelly E

    2014-04-01

    This review provides an overview of the incorporation of heparin into biomaterials with a focus on drug delivery and the use of heparin-based biomaterials for self-assembly of polymer networks. Heparin conjugation to biomaterials was originally explored to reduce the thrombogenicity of materials in contact with blood. Many of the conjugation strategies that were developed for these applications are still popular today for other applications. More recently heparin has been conjugated to biomaterials for drug delivery applications. Many of the delivery approaches have taken advantage of the ability of heparin to bind to a wide variety of growth factors, protecting them from degradation and potentiating interactions with cell surface receptors. More recently, the use of heparin as a base polymer for scaffold fabrication has also been explored, often utilizing non-covalent binding of heparin with peptides or proteins to promote self-assembly of hydrogel networks. This review will highlight recent advances in each of these areas. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Incorporating transgenerational testing and epigenetic ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of environmental chemicals have been shown to alter markers of epigenetic change. Some published multi-generation rodent studies have identified effects on F2 and greater generations after chemical exposures solely to F0 dams, but were not focused on chemical safety. We were interested in how outcomes related to epigenetic changes could be identified and incorporated into chemical testing and risk assessment. To address this question, we conducted a systematic literature review to identify transgenerational (TG) epigenetic studies in rodents. These were analyzed to characterize the methods and observed outcomes, and to evaluate strengths, limitations, and biases. Our analysis found that test substances were administered to pregnant F0 dams; endpoints assessed in F1 to F4 generation offspring included growth, puberty timing, steroid hormone levels, abdominal adiposity, organ weights, histopathology, and epigenetic biomarkers. Biases were minimized through, e.g., randomization procedures, avoiding sibling or cousin matings, and independent multiple reviews of histopathology data. However, the numbers of litters assigned to control and test groups were not always transparently reported, nested statistical analyses of data was not always utilized to address litter effects, and “blind” testing was seldom performed. Many of these studies identified chemicals or combinations of chemicals that produced TG effects and/or adult-onset diseases, but there is a

  2. The kerogen vanadyl porphyrins: incorporation during catagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIROSLAV P. PREMOVIC

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural vanadyl (VO2+-deoxophylloerythroetioporphyrins (DPEP have been shown to be capable of reacting and quantitatively incorporating into immature kerogen model materials (torbanite, lignites, subbituminous coal and immature lacustrine kerogen at 200°C for 72 h in the absence/presence of air. Electron spin resonance was used to monitor the incorporation of VO2+-DPEP into the kerogen models. The products of the incorporation resemble natural kerogen enriched with VO2+. The simulation experiments described in this paper clearly show that the kerogen VO2+-P may originate from VO2+-DPEP incorporation into the kerogen macromolecular structures during catagenesis.

  3. 49 CFR 572.40 - Incorporated materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incorporated materials. 572.40 Section 572.40... Percentile Male § 572.40 Incorporated materials. (a) The drawings, specifications, manual, and computer... by reference. These materials are thereby made part of this regulation. The Director of the Federal...

  4. Incorporating Sociology into Community Service Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochschild, Thomas R., Jr.; Farley, Matthew; Chee, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Sociologists and instructors who teach about community service share an affinity for understanding and addressing social problems. While many studies have demonstrated the benefits of incorporating community service into sociology courses, we examine the benefits of incorporating sociological content into community service classes. The authors…

  5. Composites incorporated a conductive polymer nanofiber network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzo, Lilo Danielle; Newbloom, Gregory

    2017-04-11

    Methods of forming composites that incorporate networks of conductive polymer nanofibers are provided. Networks of less-than conductive polymers are first formed and then doped with a chemical dopant to provide networks of conductive polymers. The networks of conductive polymers are then incorporated into a matrix in order to improve the conductivity of the matrix. The formed composites are useful as conductive coatings for applications including electromagnetic energy management on exterior surfaces of vehicles.

  6. Independent Verification Final Summary Report for the David Witherspoon, Inc. 1630 Site Knoxville, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.C. Weaver

    2009-04-29

    The primary objective of the independent verification was to determine if BJC performed the appropriate actions to meet the specified “hot spot” cleanup criteria of 500 picocuries per gram (pCi/g) uranium-238 (U-238) in surface soil. Specific tasks performed by the independent verification team (IVT) to satisfy this objective included: 1) performing radiological walkover surveys, and 2) collecting soil samples for independent analyses. The independent verification (IV) efforts were designed to evaluate radioactive contaminants (specifically U-238) in the exposed surfaces below one foot of the original site grade, given that the top one foot layer of soil on the site was removed in its entirety.

  7. Incorporating immigrants: integrating theoretical frameworks of adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treas, Judith

    2015-03-01

    To encourage research on immigrants and aging by analyzing theoretical commonalities in the two fields and identifying potential contributions of aging theories, specifically to the understanding of neglected age differences in the pace of immigrant incorporation. Survey of the historical development of assimilation theory and its successors and systematic comparison of key concepts in aging and immigrant incorporation theories. Studies of immigrants, as well as of the life course, trace their origins to the Chicago School at the turn of the 20th century. Today, both theoretical perspectives emphasize adaptation as a time-dependent, multidimensional, nonlinear, and multidirectional process. Immigrant incorporation theories have not fully engaged with a key concern of aging theory-why there are age differences. Insights from cognitive aging and developmental biology, life-span developmental psychology, and age stratification and the life course suggest explanations for age differences in the speed of immigrant incorporation. Theories of adaptation to aging and theories of immigrant incorporation developed so independently that they neglected the subject they have in common, namely, older immigrants. Because they address similar conceptual problems and share key assumptions, a productive dialogue between two vibrant fields is long overdue. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Hybrid gold single crystals incorporating amino acids

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Linfeng; Weber, Eva; Fitch, Andy N; Pokroy, Boaz

    2016-01-01

    Composite hybrid gold crystals are of profound interest in various research areas ranging from materials science to biology. Their importance is due to their unique properties and potential implementation, for example in sensing or in bio-nanomedicine. Here we report on the formation of hybrid organic-metal composites via the incorporation of selected amino acids histidine, aspartic acid, serine, glutamine, alanine, cysteine, and selenocystine into the crystal lattice of single crystals of gold. We used electron microscopy, chemical analysis and high-resolution synchrotron powder X ray diffraction to examine these composites. Crystal shape, as well as atomic concentrations of occluded amino acids and their impact on the crystal structure of gold, were determined. Concentration of the incorporated amino acid was highest for cysteine, followed by serine and aspartic acid. Our results indicate that the incorporation process probably occurs through a complex interaction of their individual functional groups with ...

  9. Genetic incorporation of recycled unnatural amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Wooseok; Kim, Sanggil; Jo, Kyubong; Lee, Hyun Soo

    2016-02-01

    The genetic incorporation of unnatural amino acids (UAAs) into proteins has been a useful tool for protein engineering. However, most UAAs are expensive, and the method requires a high concentration of UAAs, which has been a drawback of the technology, especially for large-scale applications. To address this problem, a method to recycle cultured UAAs was developed. The method is based on recycling a culture medium containing the UAA, in which some of essential nutrients were resupplemented after each culture cycle, and induction of protein expression was controlled with glucose. Under optimal conditions, five UAAs were recycled for up to seven rounds of expression without a decrease in expression level, cell density, or incorporation fidelity. This method can generally be applied to other UAAs; therefore, it is useful for reducing the cost of UAAs for genetic incorporation and helpful for expanding the use of the technology to industrial applications.

  10. Incorporation of new medicines by the National Commission for Incorporation of Technologies, 2012 to June 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Rosângela; Silva, Rondineli Mendes da; Pedro, Érica Militão; Oliveira, Ione Ayala Gualandi de; Biz, Aline Navega; Santana, Pamela

    2017-08-01

    The National Commission for incorporation of Health Technologies (CONITEC), established in 2011, advises the Ministry of Health in decisions related to the incorporation, exclusion or change of medicines, products and procedures in the Unified Health System (SUS).The study investigated the decision-making process, profile of demands and incorporation of new medicines in the SUS from January/2012 to June/2016, based on data available on the CONITEC website. All submissions were evaluated and characterized by technology and applicant type. The incorporations were analyzed according to the Anatomical-Therapeutic-Chemical classification, International Classification of Disease of the clinical indication and active record in the National Health Surveillance Agency. In the period, 485 submissions were received, 92.2% concerning requests for incorporation and 62.1% for medicines, of which 93 (30.1%) received a favorable recommendation for incorporation. Domestic demands were more successful than externally originated ones. Six unregistered drugs were incorporated. Infectious and parasitic diseases and musculoskeletal diseases constituted the main clinical indications. The recommendation of incorporation occurred mainly based on the additional clinical benefits and low budget impact.

  11. Incorporating the dimensions of sustainability into information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    IS project management as a business process can contribute to the sustainability of an organisation by incorporating sustainability in the project management processes. (Garies, Huemann, & Martinuzzi 2013). Various authors have emphasised the importance of sustainability as a managerial issue in the past few years ...

  12. Incorporating Proverbial Language into the Spanish Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuessel, Frank H., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The proverbial language of Spanish provides a resource for teaching and testing various aspects of phonetics, syntax, vocabulary, and cultural features of the language. Incorporation of these features into the Spanish curriculum can enrich the classroom experience. Specific suggestions for their use are provided. (Author/MSE)

  13. Microbial incorporation of nitrogen in stream detritus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane M. Sanzone; Jennifer L. Tank; Judy L. Meyer; Patrick J. Mulholland; Stuart E.G. Findlay

    2001-01-01

    We adapted the chloroform fumigation method to determine microbial nitrogen (N) and microbial incorporation of 15N on three common substrates [leaves, wood and fine benthic organic matter (FBOM)] in three forest streams. We compared microbial N and 15 content of samples collected during a 6-week15N-NH...

  14. Technical Note: Effect of Incorporating Expanded Polystyrene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incorporating expanded polystyrene granules in concrete matrix can produce lightweight polystyrene aggregate concrete of various densities. Workability which is an important property of concrete, aects the rate of placement and the degree of compaction of concrete. Inadequate compaction leads to reduction in both ...

  15. Incorporating sustainable development objectives into land administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Jude

    2006-01-01

    lay in incorporating market based instruments (MBI) and complex commodities into LAS and revitalization of land information through inventive Web based initiatives. The EGM developed a vision outlined in this paper for future LAS sufficiently flexible to adapt to this changing world of new technology...

  16. Incorporating Feminism into Rehabilitation Counselor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Mookyong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The author describes how rehabilitation counselor educators can incorporate the feminist perspective in teaching rehabilitation counselors-in-training by exploring history, core values, and training methods of feminism. Method: Based on a literature review, the author compares philosophy and concepts of rehabilitation counseling and…

  17. Incorporating Social Media in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMeans, April

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating social media into the classroom will provide a positive, upbeat learning environment that students are engaged in on a regular basis. In doing this, educators will be ensuring discussion, collaboration, critical thinking, and creativity amongst their students. Social media is a knowledgeable topic for our students, and it is an…

  18. Incorporating the Aesthetic Dimension into Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, R. Scott; Wolfe, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a case study that was undertaken to discover not only the belief and intent behind the everyday opportunities that four exemplary teachers offered their high performing students but what activities they incorporated into their everyday lessons in an attempt to make sense of how aesthetic experiences may enhance learning. The…

  19. Particle Filtering Methods for Incorporating Intelligence Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    appropriate information-updating mechanism. There exists a variety of ways to incorporate information updating. These methods include simple heuristics , such...threshold is preferable. It produces smoother results that are visibly more tractable. It eliminates a possible source of bias in the model by not

  20. Incorporating PACER into an Inclusive Basketball Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Carlos M.; Cohen, Rona; Hersman, Bethany L.; Barrett, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Cooperative learning is an instructional method designed to teach students to work together in small, structured, heterogeneous teams to achieve a common goal. The Performer and Coach Earn Rewards (PACER) system is a new way to incorporate cooperative learning in the gymnasium. It consists of six components that help teachers to introduce new…

  1. KRYPTON INCORPORATION IN SPUTTERED SILICON FILMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GREUTER, MJW; NIESEN, L; HAKVOORT, RA; DEROODE, J; VANVEEN, A; BERNTSEN, AJM; SLOOF, WG

    1993-01-01

    The incorporation of Kr in sputtered a-Si films has been investigated in a systematic way by varying the Kr to Si flux, yielding Kr concentrations up to 5 at %. Compositions were determined with X-ray microanalysis. A model has been applied to describe the composition of the growing film. The layers

  2. Incorporating Graphics in Automated Social Science Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    Develops procedures for the automatic generation and incorporation of graphics (both statistical and analytical) into mathematically oriented multiple choice examinations. Uses an integrated spreadsheet to create and associate tabular data, diagrams, questions, and answers. Illustrates the process of constructing multiple choice questions and…

  3. Incorporating groundwater flow into the WEPP model

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Elliot; Erin Brooks; Tim Link; Sue Miller

    2010-01-01

    The water erosion prediction project (WEPP) model is a physically-based hydrology and erosion model. In recent years, the hydrology prediction within the model has been improved for forest watershed modeling by incorporating shallow lateral flow into watershed runoff prediction. This has greatly improved WEPP's hydrologic performance on small watersheds with...

  4. Incorporating Engineering Design Challenges into STEM Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Householder, Daniel L., Ed.; Hailey, Christine E., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Successful strategies for incorporating engineering design challenges into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses in American high schools are presented in this paper. The developers have taken the position that engineering design experiences should be an important component of the high school education of all American…

  5. Synthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles incorporated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles incorporated bentonite clay for electrocatalytic sensing of arsenic(III). Pankaj Kumar Rastogi Dharmendra Kumar Yadav Shruti Pandey Vellaichamy Ganesan Piyush Kumar Sonkar Rupali Gupta. Regular Articles Volume 128 Issue 3 March 2016 pp 349-356 ...

  6. Staphylococcus aureus Sortase A-Mediated Incorporation of Peptides: Effect of Peptide Modification on Incorporation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvie Hansenová Maňásková

    Full Text Available The endogenous Staphylococcus aureus sortase A (SrtA transpeptidase covalently anchors cell wall-anchored (CWA proteins equipped with a specific recognition motif (LPXTG into the peptidoglycan layer of the staphylococcal cell wall. Previous in situ experiments have shown that SrtA is also able to incorporate exogenous, fluorescently labelled, synthetic substrates equipped with the LPXTG motif (K(FITCLPETG-amide into the bacterial cell wall, albeit at high concentrations of 500 μM to 1 mM. In the present study, we have evaluated the effect of substrate modification on the incorporation efficiency. This revealed that (i by elongation of LPETG-amide with a sequence of positively charged amino acids, derived from the C-terminal domain of physiological SrtA substrates, the incorporation efficiency was increased by 20-fold at 10 μM, 100 μM and 250 μM; (ii Substituting aspartic acid (E for methionine increased the incorporation of the resulting K(FITCLPMTG-amide approximately three times at all concentrations tested; (iii conjugation of the lipid II binding antibiotic vancomycin to K(FITCLPMTG-amide resulted in the same incorporation levels as K(FITCLPETG-amide, but much more efficient at an impressive 500-fold lower substrate concentration. These newly developed synthetic substrates can potentially find broad applications in for example the in situ imaging of bacteria; the incorporation of antibody recruiting moieties; the targeted delivery and covalent incorporation of antimicrobial compounds into the bacterial cell wall.

  7. Incorporating ecological functions in conservation decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Emilia; Linke, Simon; Hermoso, Virgilio; Geist, Juergen

    2017-10-01

    Systematic conservation planning has become a standard approach globally, but prioritization of conservation efforts hardly considers species traits in decision making. This can be important for species persistence and thus adequacy of the conservation plan. Here, we developed and validated a novel approach of incorporating trophic information into a systematic conservation planning framework. We demonstrate the benefits of this approach using fish data from Europe's second largest river, the Danube. Our results show that adding trophic information leads to a different spatial configuration of priority areas at no additional cost. This can enhance identification of priority refugia for species in the lower position of the trophic web while simultaneously identifying areas that represent a more diverse species pool. Our methodological approach to incorporating species traits into systematic conservation planning is generally applicable, irrespective of realm, geographical area, and species composition and can potentially lead to more adequate conservation plans.

  8. Active Microwave Metamaterials Incorporating Ideal Gain Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Xin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Incorporation of active devices/media such as transistors for microwave and gain media for optics may be very attractive for enabling desired low loss and broadband metamaterials. Such metamaterials can even have gain which may very well lead to new and exciting physical phenomena. We investigate microwave composite right/left-handed transmission lines (CRLH-TL incorporating ideal gain devices such as constant negative resistance. With realistic lumped element values, we have shown that the negative phase constant of this kind of transmission lines is maintained (i.e., left-handedness kept while gain can be obtained (negative attenuation constant of transmission line simultaneously. Possible implementation and challenging issues of the proposed active CRLH-TL are also discussed.

  9. Emissive sensors and devices incorporating these sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swager, Timothy M; Zhang, Shi-Wei

    2013-02-05

    The present invention generally relates to luminescent and/or optically absorbing compositions and/or precursors to those compositions, including solid films incorporating these compositions/precursors, exhibiting increased luminescent lifetimes, quantum yields, enhanced stabilities and/or amplified emissions. The present invention also relates to sensors and methods for sensing analytes through luminescent and/or optically absorbing properties of these compositions and/or precursors. Examples of analytes detectable by the invention include electrophiles, alkylating agents, thionyl halides, and phosphate ester groups including phosphoryl halides, cyanides and thioates such as those found in certain chemical warfare agents. The present invention additionally relates to devices and methods for amplifying emissions, such as those produced using the above-described compositions and/or precursors, by incorporating the composition and/or precursor within a polymer having an energy migration pathway. In some cases, the compositions and/or precursors thereof include a compound capable of undergoing a cyclization reaction.

  10. Structural incorporation of As5+ into hematite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolanz, Ralph M; Wierzbicka-Wieczorek, Mária; Čaplovičová, Mária; Uhlík, Peter; Göttlicher, Jörg; Steininger, Ralph; Majzlan, Juraj

    2013-08-20

    Hematite (α-Fe2O3) is one of the most common iron oxides and a sink for the toxic metalloid arsenic. Arsenic can be immobilized by adsorption to the hematite surface; however, the incorporation of As in hematite was never seriously considered. In our study we present evidence that, besides adsorption, the incorporation of As into the hematite crystals can be of great relevance for As immobilization. With the coupling of nanoresolution techniques and X-ray absorption spectroscopy the presence of As (up to 1.9 wt %) within the hematite crystals could be demonstrated. The incorporated As(5+) displays a short-range order similar to angelellite-like clusters, epitaxially intergrown with hematite. Angelellite (Fe4As2O11), a triclinic iron arsenate with structural relations to hematite, can epitaxially intergrow along the (210) plane with the (0001) plane of hematite. This structural composite of hematite and angelellite-like clusters represents a new immobilization mechanism and potentially long-lasting storage facility for As(5+) by iron oxides.

  11. Potential incorporation of transuranics into uranium phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C. W.; Wronkiewicz, D. J.; Buck, E. C.

    1999-12-07

    The UO{sub 2} in spent nuclear fuel is unstable under moist oxidizing conditions and will be altered to uranyl oxide hydrate phases. The transuranics released during the corrosion of spent fuel may also be incorporated into the structures of secondary U{sup 6+} phases. The incorporation of radionuclides into alteration products will affect their mobility. A series of precipitation tests were conducted at either 150 or 90 C for seven days to determine the potential incorporation of Ce{sup 4+} and Nd{sup 3+} (surrogates for Pu{sup 4+} and Am{sup 3+}, respectively) into uranium phases. Ianthinite ([U{sub 2}{sup 4+}(UO{sub 2}){sub 4}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}](H{sub 2}O){sub 5}) was produced by dissolving uranium oxyacetate in a solution containing copper acetate monohydrate as a reductant. The leachant used in these tests were doped with either 2.1 ppm cerium or 399 ppm neodymium. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) analysis of the solid phase reaction products which were dissolved in a HNO{sub 3} solution indicates that about 306 ppm Ce (K{sub d} = 146) was incorporated into ianthinite, while neodymium contents were much higher, being approximately 24,800 ppm (K{sub d} = 62). Solid phase examinations using an analytical transmission electron microscope/electron energy-loss spectrometer (AEM/EELS) indicate a uniform distribution of Nd, while Ce contents were below detection. Becquerelite (Ca[(UO{sub 2}){sub 6}O{sub 4}(OH){sub 6}]{center_dot}8H{sub 2}O) was produced by dissolving uranium oxyacetate in a solution containing calcium acetate. The leachant in these tests was doped with either 2.1 ppm cerium or 277 ppm neodymium. ICP-MS results indicate that about 33 ppm Ce (K{sub d}=16) was incorporated into becquerelite, while neodymium contents were higher, being approximately 1,300 ppm (K{sub d}=5). Homogeneous distribution of Nd in the solid phase was noted during AEM/EELS examination, and Ce contents were also below detection.

  12. Incorporating sustainability into accounting curricula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazelton, James; Haigh, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    This paper chronicles the journey of two projects that sought to incorporate principles of sustainable development into predominantly technical postgraduate accounting curricula. The design and delivery of the projects were informed by Freirian principles of praxis and critical empowerment....... The first author introduced sustainability-related material into a core technical accounting unit and created an elective unit. The second author participated with students to evaluate critically social reports of employers, current and potential. In terms of an objective of bringing reflexivity...... as vocational skills) add to the difficulties for sustainability in penetrating already overcrowded curricula....

  13. Incorporating opponent models into adversary search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmel, D.; Markovitch, S. [Technion, Haifa (Israel)

    1996-12-31

    This work presents a generalized theoretical framework that allows incorporation of opponent models into adversary search. We present the M* algorithm, a generalization of minimax that uses an arbitrary opponent model to simulate the opponent`s search. The opponent model is a recursive structure consisting of the opponent`s evaluation function and its model of the player. We demonstrate experimentally the potential benefit of using an opponent model. Pruning in M* is impossible in the general case. We prove a sufficient condition for pruning and present the {alpha}{beta}* algorithm which returns the M* value of a tree while searching only necessary branches.

  14. Incorporating Resilience into Dynamic Social Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-20

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0258 Incorporating Resilience into Dynamic Social Models Eunice Santos UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT EL PASO 500 UNIV ST ADMIN BLDG...209 EL PASO, TX 79968-0001 07/20/2016 Final Report DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. Air Force Research Laboratory AF Office Of...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of Texas at El Paso 500 W University Avenue El Paso, TX 8

  15. Radiation collimator and systems incorporating same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Daren R [Idaho Falls, ID; Yoon, Woo Y [Idaho Falls, ID; Jones, James L [Idaho Falls, ID; Haskell, Kevin J [Idaho Falls, ID; Bennett, Brion D [Idaho Falls, ID; Tschaggeny, Charles W [Woods Cross, UT; Jones, Warren F [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-09-13

    A collimator including a housing having disposed therein a shield element surrounding a converter core in which a photon beam is generated from electrons emanating from a linear accelerator. A beam channeler longitudinally adjacent the shield element has a beam aperture therethrough coaxially aligned with, and of the same diameter as, an exit bore of the converter core. A larger entry bore in the converter core is coaxial with, and longitudinally separated from, the exit bore thereof. Systems incorporating the collimator are also disclosed.

  16. Incorporation of Nanosensors into Aerospace Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medelius, Pedro J.

    2007-01-01

    Traditional sensors are too big and heavy for installation in space vehicles, including the Space Shuttle Orbiter as well as future manned and unmanned vehicles currently in the early design phase. Advances in nanotechnology have led to the availability of smaller and more accurate sensors. Multiple and redundant nanosensors can be used to conduct more accurate and comprehensive measurements in a space vehicle. Early planning can lead to the relatively easy incorporation of miniature sensors sharing power and communication lines, thus reducing the requirement for large amount of electrical and/or optical cabling.

  17. Incorporating intelligence into structured radiology reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Charles E.

    2014-03-01

    The new standard for radiology reporting templates being developed through the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) and DICOM organizations defines the storage and exchange of reporting templates as Hypertext Markup Language version 5 (HTML5) documents. The use of HTML5 enables the incorporation of "dynamic HTML," in which documents can be altered in response to their content. HTML5 documents can employ JavaScript, the HTML Document Object Model (DOM), and external web services to create intelligent reporting templates. Several reporting templates were created to demonstrate the use of scripts to perform in-template calculations and decision support. For example, a template for adrenal CT was created to compute contrast washout percentage from input values of precontrast, dynamic postcontrast, and delayed adrenal nodule attenuation values; the washout value can used to classify an adrenal nodule as a benign cortical adenoma. Dynamic templates were developed to compute volumes and apply diagnostic criteria, such as those for determination of internal carotid artery stenosis. Although reporting systems need not use a web browser to render the templates or their contents, the use of JavaScript creates innumerable opportunities to construct highly sophisticated HTML5 reporting templates. This report demonstrates the ability to incorporate dynamic content to enhance the use of radiology reporting templates.

  18. Incorporating Geospatial Technology into Teacher Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproles, E. A.; Songer, L.

    2009-12-01

    The need for students to think spatially and use geospatial technologies is becoming more critical as these tools and concepts are increasingly incorporated into a broad range of occupations and academic disciplines. Geospatial Teaching Across the Curriculum (Geo-STAC) is a collaborative program that provides high school teachers with mentored professional development workshops in geospatial thought and technology. The seminars, led by community college faculty, give high school teachers the ability to incorporate geospatial technology into coursework across the curriculum — in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) and non-STEM disciplines. Students participating in the hands-on lessons gain experience in web-based and desktop Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The goals of the workshop are for teachers to: (1) understand the importance of geospatial thinking; (2) learn how to employ geospatial thinking in each discipline; (3) learn about geospatial technologies; (4) develop a Web-based GIS lesson; and, (5) implement a Web-based GIS lesson. Additionally, Geo-STAC works with high school students so that they: (1) understand the importance of geospatial technologies and careers in future job markets; (2) learn how to use Web-based GIS to solve problems; and, (3) visit the community college GIS lab and experience using desktop GIS. Geo-STAC actively disseminates this collaborative model to colleges to community colleges and high schools across the country.

  19. Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbesi, Karina; Chan, Peter; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Kantner, Colleen; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Stephen; Rosenquist, Gregory; Buskirk, Robert Van; Yang, Hung-Chia; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2011-10-31

    The technical analyses in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have typically assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. There is, however, considerable evidence that this assumption does not reflect real market prices. Costs and prices generally fall in relation to cumulative production, a phenomenon known as experience and modeled by a fairly robust empirical experience curve. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and shipment data obtained as part of the standards analysis process, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These allow us to develop more representative appliance price projections than the assumption-based approach of constant prices. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards for these products. The impact on the national modeling can be significant, often increasing the net present value of potential standard levels in the analysis. In some cases a previously cost-negative potential standard level demonstrates a benefit when incorporating experience. These results imply that past energy conservation standards analyses may have undervalued the economic benefits of potential standard levels.

  20. Optoelectronic devices incorporating fluoropolymer compositions for protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xuming; Chum, Pak-Wing S.; Howard, Kevin E.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Sumner, William C.; Wu, Shaofu

    2015-12-22

    The fluoropolymer compositions of the present invention generally incorporate ingredients comprising one or more fluoropolymers, an ultraviolet light protection component (hereinafter UV protection component), and optionally one or more additional ingredients if desired. The UV protection component includes a combination of at least one hindered tertiary amine (HTA) compound having a certain structure and a weight average molecular weight of at least 1000. This tertiary amine is used in combination with at least one organic, UV light absorbing compound (UVLA compound) having a weight average molecular weight greater than 500. When the HTA compound and the UVLA compound are selected according to principles of the present invention, the UV protection component provides fluoropolymer compositions with significantly improved weatherability characteristics for protecting underlying materials, features, structures, components, and/or the like. In particular, fluoropolymer compositions incorporating the UV protection component of the present invention have unexpectedly improved ability to resist blackening, coloration, or other de gradation that may be caused by UV exposure. As a consequence, devices protected by these compositions would be expected to have dramatically improved service life. The compositions have a wide range of uses but are particularly useful for forming protective layers in optoelectronic devices.

  1. Incorporating User-oriented Security into CC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Current versions of the Common Criteria concentrate very heavily on technical security issues which are relevant for the design of secure systems. This approach largely ignores a number of questions which can have great significance for whether or not the system can be operated securely...... in an environment which contains not only other computer systems, but also human users. A case study involving the design of a secure medical instrumentation system will be used to illustrate the problems involved in incorporating user requirements into a secure design, so that system, when implemented, will help...... users to understand whether they are operating the system in a secure manner, thus avoiding user-related pitfalls such as leaking of confidential data as a result of inappropriate input, loss of patient privacy, inappropriate user reactions due to slow system response, or other similar threats...

  2. Active containment systems incorporating modified pillared clays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundie, P. [Envirotech (Scotland) Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom)]|[Environmental Resource Industries Disposal Pty Ltd., Perth (Australia); McLeod, N. [Envirotreat Ltd., Kingswinford (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The application of treatment technologies in active containment systems provides a more advanced and effective method for the remediation of contaminated sites. These treatment technologies can be applied in permeable reactive walls and/or funnel and gate systems. The application of modified pillared clays in active containment systems provides a mechanism for producing permeable reactive walls with versatile properties. These pillared clays are suitably modified to incorporate reactive intercalatants capable of reacting with both a broad range of organic pollutants of varying molecular size, polarity and reactivity. Heavy metals can be removed from contaminated water by conventional ion-exchange and other reactive processes within the clay structure. Complex contamination problems can be addressed by the application of more than one modified clay on a site specific basis. This paper briefly describes the active containment system and the structure/chemistry of the modified pillared clay technology, illustrating potential applications of the in-situ treatment process for contaminated site remediation.

  3. Radiation Shielding Materials and Containers Incorporating Same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirsky, Steven M.; Krill, Stephen J.; and Murray, Alexander P.

    2005-11-01

    An improved radiation shielding material and storage systems for radioactive materials incorporating the same. The PYRolytic Uranium Compound (''PYRUC'') shielding material is preferably formed by heat and/or pressure treatment of a precursor material comprising microspheres of a uranium compound, such as uranium dioxide or uranium carbide, and a suitable binder. The PYRUC shielding material provides improved radiation shielding, thermal characteristic, cost and ease of use in comparison with other shielding materials. The shielding material can be used to form containment systems, container vessels, shielding structures, and containment storage areas, all of which can be used to house radioactive waste. The preferred shielding system is in the form of a container for storage, transportation, and disposal of radioactive waste. In addition, improved methods for preparing uranium dioxide and uranium carbide microspheres for use in the radiation shielding materials are also provided.

  4. Jay Carter Enterprises, Incorporated steam engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The Small Community Solar Thermal Power Experiment (SCSE) selected an organic rankine cycle (ORC) engine driving a high speed permanent magnet alternator (PMA) as the baseline power conversion subsystem (PCS) design. The back-up conceptual PCS design is a steam engine driving an induction alternator delivering power directly to the grid. The development of the automotive reciprocating simple rankine cycle steam engine and how an engine of similar design might be incorporated into the SCSE is discussed. A description of the third generation automotive engine is included along with some preliminary test data. Tests were conducted with the third generation engine driving an induction alternator delivering power directly to the grid. The purpose of these tests is to further verify the effects of expander inlet temperature, input thermal power level, expansion ratio, and other parameters affecting engine performance to aid in the development of an SCSE PCS.

  5. Fluoride removal using lanthanum incorporated chitosan beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansiwal, Amit; Thakre, Dilip; Labhshetwar, Nitin; Meshram, Siddharth; Rayalu, Sadhana

    2009-11-01

    Highly selective material based on naturally occurring biomaterial namely chitosan has been designed for the defluoridation of water. Lanthanum incorporated chitosan beads (LCB) were prepared using precipitation method. The synthesis was optimized by varying different synthesis parameters namely lanthanum loading, complexation and precipitation time, strength of ammonia solution used for precipitation, drying time, etc. Lanthanum incorporated chitosan beads were characterized using SEM, FTIR, XRD and EDX. Surface area of LCB was observed to be 2.76 m(2)g(-1). The equilibrium adsorption data fitted well to Langmuir adsorption isotherm and showing maximum fluoride adsorption capacity of 4.7 mg g(-1) with negligible lanthanum release. Kinetic study reveals that adsorption of fluoride is fast and follows pseudo-first-order kinetics. The effect of pH was also studied and the best efficiency was observed at pH 5. Presence of sulphate, nitrate and chloride marginally affected the removal efficiency, however drastic reduction in fluoride uptake was observed in the presence of carbonate and bicarbonate. Negative value of change in free energy (DeltaG degrees) and positive value of change in entropy (DeltaS degrees) suggest the adsorption of fluoride by LCB is feasible and spontaneous process. Positive value of change in enthalpy (DeltaH degrees) suggests the process of fluoride adsorption is endothermic in nature. Regeneration study reveals that 1M ammonium chloride solution appears to be the promising regeneration media showing 81.22% regeneration. The adsorption capacity of LCB was similar in fluoride-contaminated ground water collected from Dhar district of Madhya Pradesh, India, as compared to simulated water.

  6. Daydreams incorporate recent waking life concerns but do not show delayed ('dream-lag') incorporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Elaine; Reid, Alexander M; Edwards, Christopher L; Malinowski, Josie E; Ruby, Perrine M; Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; Blagrove, Mark T

    2017-11-08

    This study investigates the time course of incorporation of waking life experiences into daydreams. Thirty-one participants kept a diary for 10 days, reporting major daily activities (MDAs), personally significant events (PSEs) and major concerns (MCs). They were then cued for daydream, Rapid Eye Movement (REM) and N2 dream reports in the sleep laboratory. There was a higher incorporation into daydreams of MCs from the previous two days (day-residue effect), but no day-residue effect for MDAs or PSEs, supporting a function for daydreams of processing current concerns. A day-residue effect for PSEs and the delayed incorporation of PSEs from 5 to 7 days before the dream (the dream-lag effect) have previously been found for REM dreams. Delayed incorporation was not found in this study for daydreams. Daydreams might thus differ in function from REM sleep dreams. However, the REM dream-lag effect was not replicated here, possibly due to design differences from previous studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 40 CFR 59.412 - Incorporations by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for Effects of Gamma Radiation on Coatings for Use in Light-Water Nuclear Power Plants, incorporation... Test Method for Chemical Resistance of Coatings Used in Light-Water Nuclear Power Plants, incorporation...

  8. Incorporating travel time reliability into the Highway Capacity Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This final report documents the activities performed during SHRP 2 Reliability Project L08: Incorporating Travel Time Reliability into the Highway Capacity Manual. It serves as a supplement to the proposed chapters for incorporating travel time relia...

  9. 75 FR 17737 - Industrial Economics, Incorporated; Transfer of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... AGENCY Industrial Economics, Incorporated; Transfer of Data AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Economics, Incorporated in accordance with 40 CFR 2.307(h)(3) and 2.308(i)(2). Industrial Economics... enable Industrial Economics, Incorporated to fulfill the obligations of the contract. DATES: Industrial...

  10. Incorporating Student Activities into Climate Change Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, H.; Kelly, K.; Klein, D.; Cadavid, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    Under a NASA grant, Mathematical and Geospatial Pathways to Climate Change Education, students at California State University, Northridge integrated Geographic Information Systems (GIS), remote sensing, satellite data technologies, and climate modelling into the study of global climate change under a Pathway for studying the Mathematics of Climate Change (PMCC). The PMCC, which is an interdisciplinary option within the BS in Applied Mathematical Sciences, consists of courses offered by the departments of Mathematics, Physics, and Geography and is designed to prepare students for careers and Ph.D. programs in technical fields relevant to global climate change. Under this option students are exposed to the science, mathematics, and applications of climate change science through a variety of methods including hands-on experience with computer modeling and image processing software. In the Geography component of the program, ESRI's ArcGIS and ERDAS Imagine mapping, spatial analysis and image processing software were used to explore NASA satellite data to examine the earth's atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere in areas that are affected by climate change or affect climate. These technology tools were incorporated into climate change and remote sensing courses to enhance students' knowledge and understanding of climate change through hands-on application of image processing techniques to NASA data. Several sets of exercises were developed with specific learning objectives in mind. These were (1) to increase student understanding of climate change and climate change processes; (2) to develop student skills in understanding, downloading and processing satellite data; (3) to teach remote sensing technology and GIS through applications to climate change; (4) to expose students to climate data and methods they can apply to solve real world problems and incorporate in future research projects. In the Math and Physics components of the course, students learned about

  11. Incorporating Hypnosis into Pediatric Clinical Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergrast, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing numbers of licensed health professionals who care for children have been trained in clinical hypnosis. The evidence base for the safety and efficacy of this therapeutic approach in a wide variety of conditions is also growing. Pediatricians and other health professionals who have received training may wish to apply these skills in appropriate clinical scenarios but still may be unsure of the practical matters of how to incorporate this skill-set into day to day practice. Moreover, the practical application of such skills will take very different forms depending on the practice setting, types of acute or chronic conditions, patient and family preferences, and the developmental stages of the child or teen. This article reviews the application of pediatric clinical hypnosis skills by describing the use of hypnotic language outside of formal trance induction, by describing natural trance states that occur in children and teens in healthcare settings, and by describing the process of planning a clinical hypnosis encounter. It is assumed that this article does not constitute training in hypnosis or qualify its readers for the application of such skills; rather, it may serve as a practical guide for those professionals who have been so trained, and may serve to inform other professionals what to expect when referring a patient for hypnotherapy. The reader is referred to specific training opportunities and organizations. PMID:28300761

  12. Incorporating Hypnosis into Pediatric Clinical Encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Pendergrast

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing numbers of licensed health professionals who care for children have been trained in clinical hypnosis. The evidence base for the safety and efficacy of this therapeutic approach in a wide variety of conditions is also growing. Pediatricians and other health professionals who have received training may wish to apply these skills in appropriate clinical scenarios but still may be unsure of the practical matters of how to incorporate this skill-set into day to day practice. Moreover, the practical application of such skills will take very different forms depending on the practice setting, types of acute or chronic conditions, patient and family preferences, and the developmental stages of the child or teen. This article reviews the application of pediatric clinical hypnosis skills by describing the use of hypnotic language outside of formal trance induction, by describing natural trance states that occur in children and teens in healthcare settings, and by describing the process of planning a clinical hypnosis encounter. It is assumed that this article does not constitute training in hypnosis or qualify its readers for the application of such skills; rather, it may serve as a practical guide for those professionals who have been so trained, and may serve to inform other professionals what to expect when referring a patient for hypnotherapy. The reader is referred to specific training opportunities and organizations.

  13. Prototype-Incorporated Emotional Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedotun, Oyebade K; Khashman, Adnan

    2017-08-15

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) aim to simulate the biological neural activities. Interestingly, many ''engineering'' prospects in ANN have relied on motivations from cognition and psychology studies. So far, two important learning theories that have been subject of active research are the prototype and adaptive learning theories. The learning rules employed for ANNs can be related to adaptive learning theory, where several examples of the different classes in a task are supplied to the network for adjusting internal parameters. Conversely, the prototype-learning theory uses prototypes (representative examples); usually, one prototype per class of the different classes contained in the task. These prototypes are supplied for systematic matching with new examples so that class association can be achieved. In this paper, we propose and implement a novel neural network algorithm based on modifying the emotional neural network (EmNN) model to unify the prototype- and adaptive-learning theories. We refer to our new model as ``prototype-incorporated EmNN''. Furthermore, we apply the proposed model to two real-life challenging tasks, namely, static hand-gesture recognition and face recognition, and compare the result to those obtained using the popular back-propagation neural network (BPNN), emotional BPNN (EmNN), deep networks, an exemplar classification model, and k-nearest neighbor.

  14. Incorporating flow into practice and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Joann Marie

    2011-01-01

    In the music profession, individuals often work under stress filled conditions. This is especially true for individuals making their living as performing musicians. Musical performance anxiety has been well documented in both students and professionals. For some, the experience may lead to a termination of what might otherwise remain a successful performing career. Humans are susceptible to anxiety and so the phenomenon of musical performance anxiety is not likely to disappear. Learning how to effectively deal with musical performance anxiety is paramount for those in the performing arts. Entering a state of flow, in which there is total absorption in an activity, allows for the possiblity of any ensuing anxiety to become facilitative, rather than debilitative. This article will discuss several characteristics of flow, as defined by Mihalyi Csikszentmihalyi, and provide practical applications for musical practice and performance in an attempt to counterbalance musical performance anxiety. Musicians will benefit from a closer examination of the elements of flow and means of incorporating these elements into practice and performance.

  15. Silica incorporated membrane for wastewater based filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, C. S.; Bilad, M. R.; Nordin, N. A. H. M.

    2017-10-01

    Membrane technology has long been applied for waste water treatment industries due to its numerous advantages compared to other conventional processes. However, the biggest challenge in pressure driven membrane process is membrane fouling. Fouling decreases the productivity and efficiency of the filtration, reduces the lifespan of the membrane and reduces the overall efficiency of water treatment processes. In this study, a novel membrane material is developed for water filtration. The developed membrane incorporates silica nanoparticles mainly to improve its structural properties. Membranes with different loadings of silica nanoparticles were applied in this study. The result shows an increase in clean water permeability and filterability of the membrane for treating activated sludge, microalgae solution, secondary effluent and raw sewage as feed. Adding silica into the membrane matrix does not significantly alter contact angle and membrane pore size. We believe that silica acts as an effective pore forming agent that increases the number of pores without significantly altering the pore sizes. A higher number of small pores on the surface of the membrane could reduce membrane fouling because of a low specific loading imposed to individual pores.

  16. Incorporation of Technetium into Spinel Ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukens, Wayne W. [Chemical; Magnani, Nicola [Chemical; European; Tyliszczak, Tolek [Advanced; Pearce, Carolyn I. [Geosciences; Shuh, David K. [Chemical

    2016-11-21

    Technetium (99Tc) is a problematic fission product for the long-term disposal of nuclear waste due to its long half-life, high fission yield, and to the environmental mobility of pertechnetate, the stable species in aerobic environments. One approach to preventing 99Tc contamination is using sufficiently durable waste forms. We report the incorporation of technetium into a family of synthetic spinel ferrites that have environmentally durable natural analogs. A combination of X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and chemical analysis reveals that Tc(IV) replaces Fe(III) in octahedral sites and illustrates how the resulting charge mismatch is balanced. When a large excess of divalent metal ions is present, the charge is predominantly balanced by substitution of Fe(III) by M(II). When a large excess of divalent metal ions is absent, the charge is largely balanced by creation of vacancies among the Fe(III) sites (maghemitization). In most samples, Tc is present in Tc-rich regions rather than being homogeneously distributed.

  17. Incorporation of Technetium into Spinel Ferrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukens, Wayne W; Magnani, Nicola; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Pearce, Carolyn I; Shuh, David K

    2016-12-06

    Technetium ((99)Tc) is a problematic fission product for the long-term disposal of nuclear waste due to its long half-life, high fission yield, and to the environmental mobility of pertechnetate, the stable species in aerobic environments. One approach to preventing (99)Tc contamination is using sufficiently durable waste forms. We report the incorporation of technetium into a family of synthetic spinel ferrites that have environmentally durable natural analogs. A combination of X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and chemical analysis reveals that Tc(IV) replaces Fe(III) in octahedral sites and illustrates how the resulting charge mismatch is balanced. When a large excess of divalent metal ions is present, the charge is predominantly balanced by substitution of Fe(III) by M(II). When a large excess of divalent metal ions is absent, the charge is largely balanced by creation of vacancies among the Fe(III) sites (maghemitization). In most samples, Tc is present in Tc-rich regions rather than being homogeneously distributed.

  18. Incorporation of salinity in Water Availability Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurbs, Ralph A.; Lee, Chihun

    2011-10-01

    SummaryNatural salt pollution from geologic formations in the upper watersheds of several large river basins in the Southwestern United States severely constrains the use of otherwise available major water supply sources. The Water Rights Analysis Package modeling system has been routinely applied in Texas since the late 1990s in regional and statewide planning studies and administration of the state's water rights permit system, but without consideration of water quality. The modeling system was recently expanded to incorporate salinity considerations in assessments of river/reservoir system capabilities for supplying water for environmental, municipal, agricultural, and industrial needs. Salinity loads and concentrations are tracked through systems of river reaches and reservoirs to develop concentration frequency statistics that augment flow frequency and water supply reliability metrics at pertinent locations for alternative water management strategies. Flexible generalized capabilities are developed for using limited observed salinity data to model highly variable concentrations imposed upon complex river regulation infrastructure and institutional water allocation/management practices.

  19. Incorporating national priorities into the curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Deborah Y

    2012-01-01

    There are many aspects of care that need an overhaul to function safely, efficiently, and effectively. There needs to be a new culture in health care that focuses on safety and quality, and it will take many shareholders working together to make this possible. The National Priorities Partnership is a group of 28 national organizations from across the health care spectrum collaborating to change the health care delivery system. The Partners acknowledged four challenges individuals face in the current U.S. system: harm, disparity, disease burden, and waste. To meet these challenges and improve performance, the Partners identified six priorities: patient and family engagement, population health, safety, care coordination, palliative and end-of-life care, and overuse (National Priorities Partnership). It is hopeful that when put into practice, these essentials will have a significant impact on improving health care. It comes down to creating a culture of safety and quality. This culture should start during entry-level education for health care providers, such as nursing schools. The priorities and goals provide a framework that can be incorporated into the curriculum so future nurses are aware of the issues and challenges in health care today. Each challenge needs evidence-based strategies for achieving the desired results. It is time to create a culture of safety and quality in health care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Incorporating neurophysiological concepts in mathematical thermoregulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingma, Boris R. M.; Vosselman, M. J.; Frijns, A. J. H.; van Steenhoven, A. A.; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W. D.

    2014-01-01

    Skin blood flow (SBF) is a key player in human thermoregulation during mild thermal challenges. Various numerical models of SBF regulation exist. However, none explicitly incorporates the neurophysiology of thermal reception. This study tested a new SBF model that is in line with experimental data on thermal reception and the neurophysiological pathways involved in thermoregulatory SBF control. Additionally, a numerical thermoregulation model was used as a platform to test the function of the neurophysiological SBF model for skin temperature simulation. The prediction-error of the SBF-model was quantified by root-mean-squared-residual (RMSR) between simulations and experimental measurement data. Measurement data consisted of SBF (abdomen, forearm, hand), core and skin temperature recordings of young males during three transient thermal challenges (1 development and 2 validation). Additionally, ThermoSEM, a thermoregulation model, was used to simulate body temperatures using the new neurophysiological SBF-model. The RMSR between simulated and measured mean skin temperature was used to validate the model. The neurophysiological model predicted SBF with an accuracy of RMSR thermoregulation models can be equipped with SBF control functions that are based on neurophysiology without loss of performance. The neurophysiological approach in modelling thermoregulation is favourable over engineering approaches because it is more in line with the underlying physiology.

  1. Evolutionary Snowdrift Game Incorporating Costly Punishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yap Yee Jiun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of punishments in promoting cooperation is an important issue. We incorporate costly punishments into the snowdrift game (SG by introducing a third punishing (P character and study the effects.  The punishers, who carry basically a cooperative (C character, are willing to pay a cost of a so as to punish a non-cooperative (D opponent by ß. Depending on the initial fractions of the characters, a, ß, and the cost-to-benefit ratio r in SG, the three-character system evolves either into a steady state consisting only of C and P characters or only of C and D characters in a well-mixed population.  The former situation represents an enhancement in cooperation relative to SG, while the latter is similar to SG. The dynamics in approaching these different steady states are found to be different.  Analytically, the key features in the steady states and dynamics obtained by simulations are captured by a set of differential equations.  The sensitivity to the initial distribution of characters is studied by depicting the flow in a phase portrait and analyzing the nature of fixed points. The analysis also shows the role of P-character in preventing a system from invasion by D-character agents. Starting from a population consisting only of C and P agents, a D-character agent intended to invade the system cannot survive when the initial fraction of P-agents is greater than r/ß. Our model, defined intentionally as a simulation algorithm, can be readily generalized to incorporate many interesting effects, such as those in a networked population. ABSTRAK: Peranan hukuman dalam meningkatkan kerjasama merupakan isu penting.  Hukuman berat diterapkan ke dalam permainan hanyutan salji (snowdrift game (SG dengan memperkenalkan karekter penghukum (P ketiga dan akibatnya dipantau. Penghukum, pada asasnya membawa watak koperatif (C, sanggup membayar kos a, agar dia menghukum lawan yang tidak koperatif (D dengan ß. Bergantung kepada pecahan permulaan watak

  2. Incorporating seascape connectivity in conservation prioritisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    In conservation prioritisation, it is often implicit that representation targets for individual habitat types act as surrogates for the species that inhabit them. Yet for many commercially and ecologically important coral reef fish species, connectivity among different habitats in a seascape may be more important than any single habitat alone. Approaches to conservation prioritisation that consider seascape connectivity are thus warranted. I demonstrate an approach that can be implemented within a relatively data-poor context, using widely available conservation planning software. Based on clearly stated assumptions regarding species’ habitat usage and movement ability, this approach can be adapted to different focal species and contexts, or refined as further data become available. I first derive a seascape connectivity metric based on area-weighted proximity between juvenile and adult habitat patches, and then apply this during spatial prioritisation using the decision-support software Marxan. Using a case study from Micronesia, I present two applications: first, to inform prioritisation for a network of marine protected areas to achieve regional objectives for habitat representation; and second, to identify nursery habitat patches that are most likely to supply juveniles to adult populations on reefs within existing protected areas. Incorporating seascape connectivity in conservation prioritisation highlights areas where small marine protected areas placed on coral reefs might benefit from proximity to other habitats in the seascape, and thus be more effective. Within the context of community tenure over resources, identification of critical nursery habitats to improve the effectiveness of existing marine protected areas indicates where collaboration across community boundaries might be required. Outputs from these analyses are likely to be most useful in regions where management is highly decentralised, imposing spatial constraints on the size of individual

  3. Solutions to Overland Flow Incorporating Infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyraz, Uǧur; Gülbaz, Sezar; Melek Kazezyılmaz-Alhan, Cevza

    2017-04-01

    Overland flow is represented by flood wave propagation and plays an important role in hydrology and hydraulics. Flood wave propagation concerns many disciplines and thus, scientists such as hydrologists, city planners, irrigation practitioners and hydraulic and environmental engineers are studying on developing accurate solutions for flood wave equations. The dynamic wave equations consist of continuity and momentum equations and describe unsteady and non-uniform flow conditions. Diffusion wave equations can be derived from the dynamic wave equations by neglecting the local and convective acceleration terms in the momentum equation. The kinematic wave model obtained by ignoring both inertial and pressure terms is the simplest routing method which substitutes a steady uniform flow relationship in the momentum equation. In order to calculate the overland flow, these three types of flood wave equations are solved with many different numerical techniques. Nevertheless, the dynamic interaction between surface flow and infiltration is not sufficiently investigated. In this study, the effect of infiltration on overland flow is explored by incorporating the integrated Horton equation into the flood wave equations. Integrated Horton method calculates infiltration under variable rainfall intensity. MacCormack explicit finite difference method is employed in solving the coupled infiltration-overland flow problem. Hydrographs for overland flow with and without infiltration effects are obtained under different rainfall intensities and soil conditions and compared. It is found that infiltration affects both the peak and the shape of hydrographs considerably. Furthermore, the effect of rainfall intensity and soil conditions on overland flow is also observed. Keywords: Overland flow; MacCormack; infiltration; Integrated Horton Method; Kinematic waves, Diffusion waves, Dynamic waves.

  4. Incorporating psychological influences in probabilistic cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kujawski, Edouard; Alvaro, Mariana; Edwards, William

    2004-01-08

    Today's typical probabilistic cost analysis assumes an ''ideal'' project that is devoid of the human and organizational considerations that heavily influence the success and cost of real-world projects. In the real world ''Money Allocated Is Money Spent'' (MAIMS principle); cost underruns are rarely available to protect against cost overruns while task overruns are passed on to the total project cost. Realistic cost estimates therefore require a modified probabilistic cost analysis that simultaneously models the cost management strategy including budget allocation. Psychological influences such as overconfidence in assessing uncertainties and dependencies among cost elements and risks are other important considerations that are generally not addressed. It should then be no surprise that actual project costs often exceed the initial estimates and are delivered late and/or with a reduced scope. This paper presents a practical probabilistic cost analysis model that incorporates recent findings in human behavior and judgment under uncertainty, dependencies among cost elements, the MAIMS principle, and project management practices. Uncertain cost elements are elicited from experts using the direct fractile assessment method and fitted with three-parameter Weibull distributions. The full correlation matrix is specified in terms of two parameters that characterize correlations among cost elements in the same and in different subsystems. The analysis is readily implemented using standard Monte Carlo simulation tools such as {at}Risk and Crystal Ball{reg_sign}. The analysis of a representative design and engineering project substantiates that today's typical probabilistic cost analysis is likely to severely underestimate project cost for probability of success values of importance to contractors and procuring activities. The proposed approach provides a framework for developing a viable cost management strategy for

  5. Kennedy Space Center's Partnership with Graftel Incorporated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Carol Anne

    2010-01-01

    NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has recently partnered with Graftel Incorporated under an exclusive license agreement for the manufacture and sale of the Smart Current Signature Sensor. The Smart Current Signature Sensor and software were designed and developed to be utilized on any application using solenoid valves. The system monitors the electrical and mechanical health of solenoids by comparing the electrical current profile of each solenoid actuation to a typical current profile and reporting deviation from its learned behavior. The objective of this partnership with Graftel is for them to develop the technology into a hand-held testing device for their customer base in the Nuclear Power Industry. The device will be used to perform diagnostic testing on electromechanical valves used in Nuclear Power plants. Initially, Graftel plans to have working units within the first year of license in order to show customers and allow them to put purchase requests into their next year's budget. The subject technology under discussion was commercialized by the Kennedy Space Center Technology Programs and Partnerships Office, which patented the technology and licensed it to Graftel, Inc., a company providing support, instrumentation, and calibration services to the nuclear community and private sector for over 10 years. For the nuclear power industry, Graftel designs, manufacturers, and calibrates a full line of testing instrumentation. Grafters smart sensors have been in use in the United States since 1993 and have proved to decrease set-up time and test durations. The project was funded by Non-Destructive Engineering, and it is felt that this technology will have more emphasis on future vehicles. Graftel plans to market the Current Signature Sensor to the Electric Utility industry. Graftel currently supplies product and services to the Nuclear Power Industry in the United States as well as internationally. Product and services sold are used in non-destructive testing for

  6. Energy Efficient Electrochromic Windows Incorporating Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheri Boykin; James Finley; Donald Anthony; Julianna Knowles; Richard Markovic; Michael Buchanan; Mary Ann Fuhry; Lisa Perrine

    2008-11-30

    One approach to increasing the energy efficiency of windows is to control the amount of solar radiation transmitted through a window by using electrochromic technology. What is unique about this project is that the electrochromic is based on the reduction/oxidation reactions of cathodic and anodic organic semi-conducting polymers using room temperature ionic liquids as ion transport electrolytes. It is believed that these types of coatings would be a lower cost alternative to traditional all inorganic thin film based electrochromic technologies. Although there are patents1 based on the proposed technology, it has never been reduced to practice and thoroughly evaluated (i.e. durability and performance) in a window application. We demonstrate that by using organic semi-conductive polymers, specific bands of the solar spectrum (specifically visible and near infrared) can be targeted for electrochemical variable transmittance responsiveness. In addition, when the technology is incorporated into an insulating glass unit, the energy parameters such as the solar heat gain coefficient and the light to solar gain ratio are improved over that of a typical insulating glass unit comprised of glass with a low emissivity coating. A minimum of {approx}0.02 quads of energy savings per year with a reduction of carbon emissions for electricity of {approx}320 MKg/yr benefit is achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. Note that these values include a penalty in the heating season. If this penalty is removed (i.e. in southern climates or commercial structures where cooling is predominate year-round) a maximum energy savings of {approx}0.05 quad per year and {approx}801 MKg/yr can be achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. In its current state, the technology is not durable enough for an exterior window application. The primary downfall is that the redox chemistry fails to

  7. Incorporating Safety into a Unit Operations Laboratory Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Julia A.

    1998-01-01

    Details the incorporation of safety procedures and issues into the curriculum of an undergraduate chemical engineering unit operations laboratory course. Includes checklists and sample reporting forms. (DDR)

  8. 33 CFR 155.140 - Incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS General § 155..., Standard Practice for Reporting Visual Observations of Oil on Water, incorporation by reference approved...

  9. Incorporation of therapeutically modified bacteria into gut microbiota inhibits obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Zhongyi; Guo, Lilu; Zhang, Yongqin; Walzem, Rosemary L; Pendergast, Julie S; Printz, Richard L; Morris, Lindsey C; Matafonova, Elena; Stien, Xavier; Kang, Li; Coulon, Denis; McGuinness, Owen P; Niswender, Kevin D; Davies, Sean S

    2014-01-01

    ...; therefore, altering a person's microbiota may ameliorate disease. One potential microbiome-altering strategy is the incorporation of modified bacteria that express therapeutic factors into the gut microbiota...

  10. Role of Glycol Chitosan-incorporated Ursolic Acid Nanoparticles in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of ursolic acid (UA)-incorporated glycol chitosan (GC) nanoparticles on inhibition of human osteosarcoma. Methods: U2OS and Saos-2 osteosarcoma cells were transfected with ursolic acid (UA) incorporated glycol chitosan (GC) nanoparticles. Ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry was used ...

  11. 12 CFR 611.1135 - Incorporation of service corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Reason(s) for the amendment; (iii) Language of the articles of incorporation provision, as amended; and... and the justification for the proposed entity; and (3) The proposed articles of incorporation... completed application, we will issue a charter for your service corporation as a corporate body and a...

  12. The biokinetic of incorporates radionuclides; Die Biokinetik von inkorporierten Radionukliden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breustedt, Bastian [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenforschung; Giussani, Augusto [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' ' Externe und interne Dosimetrie, Biokinetik' '

    2017-08-01

    Incorporated radionuclides from nuclear accidents, fission product releases or nuclear medical administration are distributed in the human body in organs and tissue, absorbed 9or excreted. The interpretation of incorporation monitoring results and the estimation of the internal doses that cannot be measured directly need mathematical methods and the formulation of biokinetic models.

  13. 24 CFR 3280.4 - Incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...—American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, New York 10018 APA—American Plywood... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS General § 3280.4 Incorporation by reference. (a) The specifications, standards and codes of the following organizations are incorporated by...

  14. Incorporating Twitter, Instagram, and Facebook in Economics Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bahrani, Abdullah; Patel, Darshak

    2015-01-01

    Social media is one of the most current and dynamic developments in education. In general, the field of economics has lagged behind other disciplines in incorporating technologies in the classroom. In this article, the authors provide a guide for economics educators on how to incorporate Twitter, Instagram, and Facebook inside and outside of the…

  15. IN SITU AND POST REACTION COBALT-INCORPORATION INTO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    was incorporated onto APTS-modified ethylene-bridged silica materials by in situ and by incipient wetness addition .... In situ and post reaction cobalt-incorporation into mesoporous organosilica materials. Bull. Chem. .... measurements, the samples were sprinkled on a disk smeared with carbon and then coated with gold.

  16. 76 FR 48722 - Domestic Mail Manual; Incorporation by Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... 111 Domestic Mail Manual; Incorporation by Reference AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final rule... Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM ), and its incorporation by... (202) 268-3789. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The most recent Issue 300 of the Domestic Mail Manual (DMM...

  17. 77 FR 45246 - Domestic Mail Manual; Incorporation by Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... 111 Domestic Mail Manual; Incorporation by Reference AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Final rule... Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM ) dated June 24, 2012, and its incorporation by reference in the Code... most recent issue of the Domestic Mail Manual (DMM) is dated June 24, 2012. This issue of the DMM...

  18. Selective incorporation of 5-hydroxytryptophan into proteins in mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiwen; Alfonta, Lital; Schultz, Peter G

    2014-02-25

    This invention provides methods and compositions for incorporation of an unnatural amino acid into a peptide using an orthogonal aminoacyl tRNA synthetase/tRNA pair. In particular, an orthogonal pair is provided to incorporate 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan in a position encoded by an opal mutation.

  19. 27 CFR 21.6 - Incorporations by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..._locations.html. (c) Material from the “Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (13th Edition 1980)” (AOAC) is incorporated by reference in this part. This incorporation... the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 11 North 19th Street, Suite 210, Arlington, Virginia...

  20. In vitro fermentation of diets incorporating different levels of carob ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SOF

    2013-04-06

    Apr 6, 2013 ... In vitro fermentation of diets incorporating carob pulp using inoculum from rabbit caecum. A. Gasmi- ... The aim of this work was to evaluate the nutritive value of carob pulp for rabbits using the in vitro digestibility and gas ..... than cellulose and hemicellulose (Sniffen et al., 1992). Diets incorporating of 0%, ...

  1. Learning from the grandmothers: incorporating indigenous principles into qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loppie, Charlotte

    2007-02-01

    In this article, the author describes the process she undertook to incorporate Indigenous principles into her doctoral research about the midlife health experiences of elder Aboriginal women in Nova Scotia, Canada. By employing qualitative methods within the context of an Indigenous worldview, she gained knowledge of and developed competence in Aboriginal health research. The emergent partnership among Aboriginal community research facilitators, participating Mi'kmaq women, and the researcher provided many opportunities for the researcher to incorporate the paradigmatic and methodological traditions of Western science and Indigenous cultures. The application of these principles to this study might provide a useful example for other health researchers who are attempting to incorporate diverse methodological principles.

  2. Teachers' incorporation of nanoscale science and engineering lessons into the classroom and factors that influence this incorporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Kelly M.

    Previous research has shown that teachers face a number of challenges when incorporating innovative science content into their curricula. These challenges include: lack of science equipment; lack of support from a professional development team; lack of time to plan and teach the lessons; weak teacher content knowledge; and problems created by teachers' beliefs about teaching and learning including, their beliefs about reform efforts (Peers, Diezmann, & Watters, 2003; Roehrig, Kruse, & Kern, 2007). One innovative and interdisciplinary science field currently under investigation is nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) due to its emerging prominence in society, the need to help students gain entry into the job market, and the need to educate informed citizens. As teachers and science educators begin to incorporate nanoscale science and engineering concepts into existing science curricula, many factors will influence the incorporation of the NSE concepts. This study was specifically designed to examine how middle- and high-school teachers incorporated NSE lessons into their current curricula and the factors that influenced how these lessons were incorporated. Interviews were the primary data source for this study, with teachers' reflective narratives and classroom observations contributing to the data. The constant comparative method (Glaser & Strauss, 1967; Patton, 2002) was used in analyzing the data to determine the themes that emerged. The results of this study demonstrated that although teachers indicated many factors that influenced their decision to incorporate NSE into the curriculum. Teachers' content knowledge, teachers' beliefs about student abilities, and teachers' beliefs about the fit of NSE lessons to the current science curriculum were the most influential factors in determining the way teachers' incorporated NSE lessons. If teachers did not have the content knowledge nor were confident in their content knowledge, NSE incorporation did not occur

  3. Case Study: Transportation Initiative Incorporates Alternative Fuels and Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Lovell Federal Health Care Center in North Chicago, Illinois, reduced greenhouse gases by incorporating electric vehicles and alternative fuels into fleet operations. Lovell FHCC increased its electric fleet by 200 in one year.

  4. 14 CFR 36.6 - Incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Availability for purchase. Published material incorporated by reference in this part may be purchased at the...) Alaskan Region Headquarters, 222 West 7th Avenue, #14, Anchorage, Alaska, 99513. (x) European Office...

  5. Incorporation of vanadyl porphyrins into kerogen structures during catagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premovic, P.I.; Tonsa, I.R.; Dordevic, D.M.; Premovic, M.P. [Univesity of Nis, Nis (Yugoslavia). Dept. of Chemistry, Lab. for Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry

    2000-07-01

    Natural vanadyl (VO{sup 2+})-deoxophylloerythroetioporphyrins (DPEP) are shown to be capable of reacting and quantitatively incorporating into the immature koergen model materials (torbanite, lignites, subbituminous coal and an immature lacustrine kerogen) at 200{degree}C for 72 h in the absence/presence of air oxygen. Electron spin resonance is used to monitor the incorporation of VO{sup 2+}-DPEP into the kerogen models. The products of the incorporation resemble natural kerogen enriched with VO{sup 2+}-DPEP. The simulation experiments described in this paper clearly show that the kerogen VO{sup 2+}-P may originate from VO{sup 2+}-DPEP incorporation into the kerogen macromolecular structures during catagenesis. 20 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. Incorporating ITS into corridor planning : Seattle case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-01

    The goals of this study were to develop a methodology for incorporating Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) into the transportation planning process and apply the methodology to estimate ITS costs and benefits for one case study. A major result ...

  7. 46 CFR 92.01-2 - Incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), Consolidated Text of the International Convention for the... all Amendments in Effect from January 2001) (2001) (“IMO SOLAS 74”), incorporation by reference...

  8. Incorporating direct marketing activity into latent attrition models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweidel, David A.; Knox, George

    2013-01-01

    When defection is unobserved, latent attrition models provide useful insights about customer behavior and accurate forecasts of customer value. Yet extant models ignore direct marketing efforts. Response models incorporate the effects of direct marketing, but because they ignore latent attrition,

  9. Synthesis, characterization, and antiplasmodial activity of polymer-incorporated aminoquinolines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Aderibigbe, BA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, aminoquinoline compounds were synthesized, characterized and incorporated into water soluble polymers to form conjugates. The conjugates were characterized by X ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), Scanning...

  10. Synthesis and Enzymatic Incorporation of Modified Deoxyuridine Triphosphates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkai Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To expand the chemical functionality of DNAzymes and aptamers, several new modified deoxyuridine triphosphates have been synthesized. An important precursor that enables this aim is 5-aminomethyl dUTP, whereby the pendent amine serves as a handle for further synthetic functionalization. Five functional groups were conjugated to 5-aminomethyl dUTP. Incorporation assays were performed on several templates that demand 2–5 sequential incorporation events using several commercially available DNA polymerases. It was found that Vent (exo- DNA polymerase efficiently incorporates all five modified dUTPs. In addition, all nucleoside triphosphates were capable of supporting a double-stranded exponential PCR amplification. Modified PCR amplicons were PCR amplified into unmodified DNA and sequenced to verify that genetic information was conserved through incorporation, amplification, and reamplification. Overall these modified dUTPs represent new candidate substrates for use in selections using modified nucleotide libraries.

  11. Incorporating modern OpenGL into computer graphics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Guido; Muller, Thomas; Ertl, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    University of Stuttgart educators have updated three computer science courses to incorporate forward-compatible OpenGL. To help students, they developed an educational framework that abstracts some of modern OpenGL's difficult aspects.

  12. Application of zein antimicrobial edible film incorporating Zataria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-06-12

    Jun 12, 2015 ... 1Research Department of Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food ..... Inhibition of Salmonella enteritidis in cheese by zein edible film incorporated ... cup is then sealed to prevent vapor loss except through the test.

  13. Incorporating Information Literacy Skills into Analytical Chemistry: An Evolutionary Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Mary M.; Jackson, Paul T.

    2007-01-01

    The American Chemical Society (ACS) has recently decided to incorporate various information literacy skills for teaching analytical chemistry to the students. The methodology has been found to be extremely effective, as it provides better understanding to the students.

  14. In vivo incorporation of cobalt into Propionibacterium shermanii superoxide dismutase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, B; Sehn, A P; Sette, M; Paci, M; Desideri, A; Rotilio, G

    1994-07-18

    Propionibacterium shermanii, an aerotolerant anaerobic bacterium, has already been shown to incorporate, depending on the metal supplementation to the medium, either iron or manganese or copper into the same superoxide dismutase protein. The in vivo incorporation of cobalt in the same superoxide dismutase was obtained in an iron-, manganese- and copper-depleted medium. The protein was isolated and characterized by NMR which offers the possibility to identify the amino acid residues at the active site exploiting isotropically shifted proton resonance.

  15. Bioactivity of 2?-deoxyinosine-incorporated aptamer AS1411

    OpenAIRE

    Xinmeng Fan; Lidan Sun; Yun Wu; Lihe Zhang; Zhenjun Yang

    2016-01-01

    Aptamers can be chemically modified to enhance nuclease resistance and increase target affinity. In this study, we performed chemical modification of 2?-deoxyinosine in AS1411, an anti-proliferative G-rich oligodeoxynucleotide aptamer, which binds selectively to the nucleolin protein. Its function was augmented when 2?-deoxyinosine was incorporated at positions 12, 13, 15, and 24 of AS1411, respectively. In addition, double incorporation of 2?-deoxyinosine at positions 12 and 24 (FAN-1224dI),...

  16. Differential incorporation of biotinylated polyamines by transglutaminase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ju Hong; Kim, Chai Wan; Shin, Dong Myung; Kim, Kyu il; Cho, Sung Yup; Kwon, Joon Cheol; Choi, Kyung Ho; Kang, Heun Soo; Kim, In Gyu

    2003-01-16

    Polyamine incorporation or cross-linking of proteins, post-translational modifications mediated by transglutaminase 2 (TGase 2), have been implicated in a variety of physiological functions including cell adhesion, extracellular matrix formation and apoptosis. To better understand the intracellular regulation mechanism of TGase 2, the properties of biotinylated polyamines as substrates for determining in situ TGase activity were analyzed. We synthesized biotinylated spermine (BS), and compared the in vitro and in situ incorporation of BS with that of biotinylated pentylamine (BP), which is an artificial polyamine derivative. When measured in vitro, BP showed a significantly higher incorporation rate than BS. In contrast, in situ incorporation of both BS and BP was not detected even in TGase 2-overexpressed 293 cells. Cells exposed to high calcium showed a marked increase of BP incorporation but not of BS. These data indicate that the in situ activity of TGase 2 gives different results with different substrates, and suggest the possibility of overrepresentation of in situ TGase 2 activity when assayed with BP. Therefore, careful interpretation or evaluation of in situ TGase 2 activity may be required.

  17. Incorporation of Uranium into Hematite during crystallization from ferrihydrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Timothy A; Morris, Katherine; Law, Gareth T W; Livens, Francis R; Mosselmans, J Frederick W; Bots, Pieter; Shaw, Samuel

    2014-04-01

    Ferrihydrite was exposed to U(VI)-containing cement leachate (pH 10.5) and aged to induce crystallization of hematite. A combination of chemical extractions, TEM, and XAS techniques provided the first evidence that adsorbed U(VI) (≈3000 ppm) was incorporated into hematite during ferrihydrite aggregation and the early stages of crystallization, with continued uptake occurring during hematite ripening. Analysis of EXAFS and XANES data indicated that the U(VI) was incorporated into a distorted, octahedrally coordinated site replacing Fe(III). Fitting of the EXAFS showed the uranyl bonds lengthened from 1.81 to 1.87 Å, in contrast to previous studies that have suggested that the uranyl bond is lost altogether upon incorporation into hematite. The results of this study both provide a new mechanistic understanding of uranium incorporation into hematite and define the nature of the bonding environment of uranium within the mineral structure. Immobilization of U(VI) by incorporation into hematite has clear and important implications for limiting uranium migration in natural and engineered environments.

  18. Incorporation of mammalian actin into microfilaments in plant cell nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paves Heiti

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actin is an ancient molecule that shows more than 90% amino acid homology between mammalian and plant actins. The regions of the actin molecule that are involved in F-actin assembly are largely conserved, and it is likely that mammalian actin is able to incorporate into microfilaments in plant cells but there is no experimental evidence until now. Results Visualization of microfilaments in onion bulb scale epidermis cells by different techniques revealed that rhodamine-phalloidin stained F-actin besides cytoplasm also in the nuclei whereas GFP-mouse talin hybrid protein did not enter the nuclei. Microinjection of fluorescently labeled actin was applied to study the presence of nuclear microfilaments in plant cells. Ratio imaging of injected fluorescent rabbit skeletal muscle actin and phalloidin staining of the microinjected cells showed that mammalian actin was able to incorporate into plant F-actin. The incorporation occurred preferentially in the nucleus and in the perinuclear region of plant cells whereas part of plant microfilaments, mostly in the periphery of cytoplasm, did not incorporate mammalian actin. Conclusions Microinjected mammalian actin is able to enter plant cell's nucleus, whereas incorporation of mammalian actin into plant F-actin occurs preferentially in the nucleus and perinuclear area.

  19. Marine antifouling performance of polymer coatings incorporating zwitterions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Claudia; Guerin, Andrew J; El-Zubir, Osama; Ruiz-Sanchez, Antonio J; Dixon, Luke I; Reynolds, Kevin J; Dale, Marie L; Ferguson, James; Houlton, Andrew; Horrocks, Benjamin R; Clare, Anthony S; Fulton, David A

    2017-11-01

    Zwitterionic materials display antifouling promise, but their potential in marine anti-biofouling is still largely unexplored. This study evaluates the effectiveness of incorporating small quantities (0-20% on a molar basis) of zwitterions as sulfobetaine methacrylate (SBMA) or carboxybetaine methacrylate (CBMA) into lauryl methacrylate-based coatings whose relatively hydrophobic nature encourages adhesion of the diatom Navicula incerta, a common microfouling organism responsible for the formation of 'slime'. This approach allows potential enhancements in antifouling afforded by zwitterion incorporation to be easily quantified. The results suggest that the incorporation of CBMA does provide a relatively minor enhancement in fouling-release performance, in contrast to SBMA which does not display any enhancement. Studies with coatings incorporating mixtures of varying ratios of the cationic monomer [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride and the anionic monomer (3-sulfopropyl)methacrylate, which offer a potentially lower cost approach to the incorporation of anionic and cationic charge, suggest these monomers impart little significant effect on biofouling.

  20. Incorporation of pyrene in polypyrrole/polystyrene magnetic beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głowala, Paulina; Budniak, Adam; Krug, Pamela; Wysocka, Barbara; Berbeć, Sylwia; Dec, Robert; Dołęga, Izabela; Kacprzak, Kamil; Wojciechowski, Jarosław; Kawałko, Jakub; Kępka, Paweł; Kępińska, Daria; Kijewska, Krystyna; Mazur, Maciej

    2014-10-15

    Pyrene, a fluorescent dye, was incorporated into polystyrene particles coated with polypyrrole. The incorporation was achieved by treating the polypyrrole/polystyrene (PPy/PS) beads in a tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution of the pyrene fluorophore followed by rinsing with methanol. The polystyrene cores of the beads swell in THF, allowing penetration of pyrene molecules into the polystyrene structure. The addition of methanol causes contraction of the swollen polystyrene, which encapsulates the dye molecules inside the beads. It is shown that the polypyrrole coating is permeable with respect to both the dye and the solvent, allowing the transport of molecules between the polystyrene cores and the contacting solution. The polypyrrole adlayer can be used as a matrix for the incorporation of magnetic nanoparticles. Embedded particles provide magnetic functionality to the PPy/PS beads. It is demonstrated that the pyrene-loaded beads can be manipulated with an external magnetic field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Incorporation of phosphorus donors in (110)-textured polycrystalline diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazea, A.; Barjon, J.; D'Haen, J.; Mortet, V.; D'Olieslaeger, M.; Haenen, K.

    2009-04-01

    The incorporation efficiency of phosphorus was studied as a function of the surface orientation of grains in (110)-textured polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited diamond. Cathodoluminescence mapping of such films exhibits large local differences in relative intensities stemming from P-bound and free excitons. Combined with electron backscattering diffraction mapping, these data allow assessing of the donor concentration as a function of the grain orientation. While [P] can vary between 1015 and >1018 cm-3 within one film, misorientation angles of more than 10° with respect to the exact [110] axis assure an enhanced incorporation of P with concentrations surpassing 5×1017 cm-3. The role of the surface morphology in the observation of these large incorporation differences is explained.

  2. Detection of vitellogenin incorporation into zebrafish oocytes by FITC fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoi Hayato

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large volumes of lymph can be collected from the eye-sacs of bubble-eye goldfish. We attempted to induce vitellogenin (Vtg in the eye-sac lymph of bubble-eye goldfish and develop a method for visualizing Vtg incorporation by zebrafish oocytes using FITC-labeling. Methods Estrogen efficiently induced Vtg in the eye-sac lymph of goldfish. After FITC-labeled Vtg was prepared, it was injected into mature female zebrafish. Results Incorporation of FITC-labeled Vtg by zebrafish oocytes was detected in in vivo and in vitro experiments. The embryos obtained from zebrafish females injected with FITC-labeled Vtg emitted FITC fluorescence from the yolk sac and developed normally. Conclusion This method for achieving Vtg incorporation by zebrafish oocytes could be useful in experiments related to the development and endocrinology of zebrafish oocytes.

  3. Spatial Distribution of Dopant Incorporation in CdTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrey, Harvey; Moseley, John; Colegrove, Eric; Burst, James; Albin, David; Metzger, Wyatt; Al-Jassim, Mowafak

    2016-11-21

    In this work we use state-of-the-art cathodoluminescence (CL) spectrum imaging that provides spectrum-per-pixel mapping of the CL emission to examine how dopant elements are incorporated into CdTe. Emission spectra and intensity are used to monitor the spatial distribution of additional charge carriers through characteristic variations in the CL emission based on theoretical modeling. Our results show that grain boundaries play a role in the incorporation of dopants in CdTe, whether intrinsic or extrinsic. This type of analysis is crucial for providing feedback to design different processing schedules that optimize dopant incorporation in CdTe photovoltaic material, which has struggled to reach high carrier concentration values. Here, we present results on CdTe films exposed to copper, phosphorus, and intrinsic doping treatments.

  4. Development of Approaches for Deuterium Incorporation in Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Barbara R [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Soon after the discovery of deuterium, efforts to utilize this stable isotope of hydrogen for labeling of plants began and have proven successful for natural abundance to 20% enrichment. However, isotopic labeling with deuterium (2H) in higher plants at the level of 40% and higher is complicated by both physiological responses, particularly water exchange through transpiration, and inhibitory effects of D2O on germination, rooting, and growth. The highest incorporation of 40 50% had been reported for photoheterotrophic cultivation of the duckweed Lemna. Higher substitution is desirable for certain applications using neutron scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. 1H2H-NMR and mass spectroscopy are standard methods frequently used for determination of location and amount of deuterium substitution. The changes in infrared (IR) absorption observed for H to D substitution in hydroxyl and alkyl groups provide rapid initial evaluation of incorporation. Short-term experiments with cold-tolerant annual grasses can be carried out in enclosed growth containers to evaluate incorporation. Growth in individual chambers under continuous air perfusion with dried sterile-filtered air enables long-term cultivation of multiple plants at different D2O concentrations. Vegetative propagation from cuttings extends capabilities to species with low germination rates. Cultivation in 50% D2O of annual ryegrass and switchgrass following establishment of roots by growth in H2O produces samples with normal morphology and 30 40 % deuterium incorporation in the biomass. Winter grain rye (Secale cereale) was found to efficiently incorporate deuterium by photosynthetic fixation from 50% D2O but did not incorporate deuterated phenylalanine-d8 from the growth medium.

  5. Isotopic incorporation rates and discrimination factors in mantis shrimp crustaceans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya S deVries

    Full Text Available Stable isotope analysis has provided insights into the trophic ecology of a wide diversity of animals. Knowledge about isotopic incorporation rates and isotopic discrimination between the consumer and its diet for different tissue types is essential for interpreting stable isotope data, but these parameters remain understudied in many animal taxa and particularly in aquatic invertebrates. We performed a 292-day diet shift experiment on 92 individuals of the predatory mantis shrimp, Neogonodactylus bredini, to quantify carbon and nitrogen incorporation rates and isotope discrimination factors in muscle and hemolymph tissues. Average isotopic discrimination factors between mantis shrimp muscle and the new diet were 3.0 ± 0.6 ‰ and 0.9 ± 0.3 ‰ for carbon and nitrogen, respectively, which is contrary to what is seen in many other animals (e.g. C and N discrimination is generally 0-1 ‰ and 3-4 ‰, respectively. Surprisingly, the average residence time of nitrogen in hemolymph (28.9 ± 8.3 days was over 8 times longer than that of carbon (3.4 ± 1.4 days. In muscle, the average residence times of carbon and nitrogen were of the same magnitude (89.3 ± 44.4 and 72.8 ± 18.8 days, respectively. We compared the mantis shrimps' incorporation rates, along with rates from four other invertebrate taxa from the literature, to those predicted by an allometric equation relating carbon incorporation rate to body mass that was developed for teleost fishes and sharks. The rate of carbon incorporation into muscle was consistent with rates predicted by this equation. Our findings provide new insight into isotopic discrimination factors and incorporation rates in invertebrates with the former showing a different trend than what is commonly observed in other animals.

  6. Development of approaches for deuterium incorporation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barbara R; Shah, Riddhi

    2015-01-01

    Soon after the discovery of deuterium, efforts to utilize this stable isotope of hydrogen for labeling of plants began and have proven successful for natural abundance to 20% enrichment. However, isotopic labeling with deuterium ((2)H) in higher plants at the level of 40% and higher is complicated by both physiological responses, particularly water exchange through transpiration, and inhibitory effects of D2O on germination, rooting, and growth. The highest incorporation of 40-50% had been reported for photoheterotrophic cultivation of the duckweed Lemna. Higher substitution is desirable for certain applications using neutron scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. (1)H(2)H NMR and mass spectroscopy are standard methods frequently used for determination of location and amount of deuterium substitution. The changes in infrared (IR) absorption observed for H to D substitution in hydroxyl and alkyl groups provide rapid initial evaluation of incorporation. Short-term experiments with cold-tolerant annual grasses can be carried out in enclosed growth containers to evaluate incorporation. Growth in individual chambers under continuous air perfusion with dried sterile-filtered air enables long-term cultivation of multiple plants at different D2O concentrations. Vegetative propagation from cuttings extends capabilities to species with low germination rates. Cultivation in 50% D2O of annual ryegrass and switchgrass following establishment of roots by growth in H2O produces samples with normal morphology and 30-40% deuterium incorporation in the biomass. Winter grain rye (Secale cereale) was found to efficiently incorporate deuterium by photosynthetic fixation from 50% D2O but did not incorporate deuterated phenylalanine-d8 from the growth medium. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. and UT-Battelle, LLC, Contract no. DE-AC05-00OR22725. All rights reserved.

  7. Incorporation of tryptophan analogues into the lantibiotic nisin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liang; Shao, Jinfeng; Li, Qian; van Heel, Auke J; de Vries, Marcel P; Broos, Jaap; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2016-05-01

    Lantibiotics are posttranslationally modified peptides with efficient inhibitory activity against various Gram-positive bacteria. In addition to the original modifications, incorporation of non-canonical amino acids can render new properties and functions to lantibiotics. Nisin is the most studied lantibiotic and contains no tryptophan residues. In this study, a system was constructed to incorporate tryptophan analogues into nisin, which included the modification machinery (NisBTC) and the overexpression of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS). Tryptophan and three different tryptophan analogues (5-fluoroTrp (5FW), 5-hydroxyTrp (5HW) and 5-methylTrp (5MeW)) were successfully incorporated at four different positions of nisin (I1W, I4W, M17W and V32W). The incorporation efficiency of tryptophan analogues into mutants I1W, M17W and V32W was over 97 %, while the mutant I4W showed relatively low incorporation efficiency (69-93 %). The variants with 5FW showed relatively higher production yield, while 5MeW-containing variants showed the lowest yield. The dehydration efficiency of serines or threonines was affected by the tryptophan mutants of I4W and V32W. The affinity of the peptides for the cation-ion exchange and reverse phase chromatography columns was significantly reduced when 5HW was incorporated. The antimicrobial activity of IIW and its 5FW analogue both decreased two times compared to that of nisin, while that of its 5HW analogue decreased four times. The 5FW analogue of I4W also showed two times decreased activity than nisin. However, the mutant M17W and its 5HW analogue both showed 32 times reduced activity relative to that of nisin.

  8. Incorporating Technetium in Minerals and Other Solids: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luksic, Steven A.; Riley, Brian J.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2015-08-29

    Technetium (Tc) can be incorporated into a number of different solids including spinel, sodalite, rutile, tin dioxide, pyrochlore, perovskite, goethite, layered double hydroxides, cements, and alloys. Synthetic routes are possible for each of these phases, ranging from high temperature ceramic sintering to ball-milling of constituent oxides. However, in practice, Tc has only been incorporated into solid materials by a limited number of the possible syntheses. Reviewing the diverse ways in which Tc-immobilizing materials can be made shows the range of options available.

  9. Strategies for incorporation of polymer photovoltaics into garments and textiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Biancardo, M.; Winther-Jensen, B.

    2006-01-01

    The incorporation of polymer photovoltaics into textiles was demonstrated following two different strategies. Simple incorporation of a polyethyleneterphthalate (PET) substrate carrying the polymer photovoltaic device prepared by a doctor blade technique necessitated the use of the photovoltaic...... device as a structural element. The total area of the device on PET was typically much smaller than the active area due to the decorative design of the aluminium electrode. Elaborate integration of the photovoltaic device into the textile material involved the lamination of a polyethylene (PE) film onto...

  10. A Market for Company Incorporations in the European Union?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkmose, Hanne Søndergaard

    2005-01-01

    The article discuss the European market for company incorporation in light of the recent decisions of the European Court of Justice; Centros (1999 E.C.R. at I-1487), Überseering (2002 E.C.R. at I-9919) and Inspire Art (2003 E.C.R. at I-10155)......The article discuss the European market for company incorporation in light of the recent decisions of the European Court of Justice; Centros (1999 E.C.R. at I-1487), Überseering (2002 E.C.R. at I-9919) and Inspire Art (2003 E.C.R. at I-10155)...

  11. "Violent Intent Modeling: Incorporating Cultural Knowledge into the Analytical Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Nibbs, Faith G.

    2007-08-24

    While culture has a significant effect on the appropriate interpretation of textual data, the incorporation of cultural considerations into data transformations has not been systematic. Recognizing that the successful prevention of terrorist activities could hinge on the knowledge of the subcultures, Anthropologist and DHS intern Faith Nibbs has been addressing the need to incorporate cultural knowledge into the analytical process. In this Brown Bag she will present how cultural ideology is being used to understand how the rhetoric of group leaders influences the likelihood of their constituents to engage in violent or radicalized behavior, and how violent intent modeling can benefit from understanding that process.

  12. IN SITU AND POST REACTION COBALT-INCORPORATION INTO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... spectroscopy show that the surfactant is removed by solvent extraction. Cobalt ion incorporation is confirmed by Raman spectroscopy and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. KEY WORDS: Bifunctional periodic mesoporous organosilica, 1,2-bistrimethoxysilylethane, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, Sol-gel, Cobalt Bull.

  13. Behaviour of high-strength concrete incorporating ground ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of tests were carried out on concrete incorporating Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) of “Mittal steel Annaba” (Algeria) ... Keywords: High strength concrete- fillers- high-temperature- polypropylene fibres- Ground granulated. Furnace Slag ..... hybrid fibre reinforced high strength concrete after heat exposition ...

  14. Moving bodies, shifting selves: integration and incorporation through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Because of similarities in style, and the informality and fluidity of both dance forms, tensions emerged in the mid-2000s, when many jazz dancers, influenced by the local salsa scene, copied and incorporated what were described as 'salsa moves' into jazz routines, resulting in contestations over whether what was seen as a ...

  15. 10 CFR 431.63 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.63 Section 431.63 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND...

  16. 10 CFR 431.303 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th... through Friday, except Federal holidays, or go to: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.303 Section 431...

  17. 10 CFR 431.293 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.293 Section 431.293 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL...

  18. 10 CFR 431.85 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th Floor, 950 L'Enfant Plaza, SW., Washington, DC 20024, 202-586-2945, or go to: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.85 Section 431.85...

  19. 10 CFR 431.443 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, Sixth Floor, 950 L'Enfant Plaza, SW., Washington, DC 20024, (202) 586-2945, or go to http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/. Standards can be... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.443 Section 431...

  20. Incorporating other texts: Intertextuality in Malaysian CSR reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaran Rajandran

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, corporate social responsibility (CSR is relatively new but corporations have been required to engage in and disclose their CSR. A typical genre for disclosure is CSR reports and these reports often refer to other texts. The article investigates the act of referencing to other texts or intertextuality in Malaysian CSR reports. It creates an archive of CEO Statements and Environment Sections in CSR reports and studies the archive for keywords, which can identify the incorporated texts. The function of these texts is examined in relation to Malaysia’s corporate context. CSR reports contain explicit references to documents (policies, regulations, reports, research, standards and to individuals/groups (CEOs, stakeholders, expert organizations. The incorporated texts display variation in corporate control, which organizes these texts along an intertextual cline. The cline helps to identify corporate and non-corporate sources among the texts. The selection of incorporated texts may reflect government and stock exchange demands. The texts are not standardized and are relevant for the CSR domain and corporations, where these texts monitor and justify CSR performance. Yet, the incorporated texts may perpetuate inexact reporting because corporations select the texts and the parts of texts to refer to. Since these texts have been employed to scrutinize initiatives and results, CSR reports can claim to represent the “truth” about a corporation’s CSR. Hence, intertextuality serves corporate interests.

  1. incorporated thiadiazole hybrids as potential anti-breast cancer agents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    agents [4,5]. Some of the isatin incorporated thiazolines and benzthiazoles have shown significant anti breast cancer activity [6,7]. Therefore, there is essential to search and develop novel and potent chemotherapeutic agents that could overcome this health problem. ..... Mariana FF, Olea N. Antitumoral, mutagenic and.

  2. INCORPORATION OF SALICYLATES INTO POLY(L-LACTIDE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SUPER, H; GRIJPMA, DW; PENNINGS, AJ

    Recent studies have indicated that complications like swelling and inflammation of the surrounding tissue may occur in the late stage of the in vivo degradation of semi-crystalline PLLA bone fixation devices. Incorporation of an anti-inflammatory drug, like a salicylate, in the poly(L-lactide) chain

  3. Virtual LEGOs: Incorporating Minecraft into the Art Education Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overby, Alexandra; Jones, Brian L.

    2015-01-01

    What could video games bring to a K-12 visual arts curriculum? Overby and Jones were skeptical about incorporating gaming and virtual worlds into the classroom, but watching their own children engaging in the video game Minecraft changed their perception. As they started researching the game and how these kids were operating within the space, they…

  4. Incorporating an Honor Code into an Information Assurance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, Jeffrey A.

    2017-01-01

    Plagiarism and cheating is on the increase around the world. Academic misconduct hurts the student committing the offense, other students who know about the offense, the faculty, and the academic reputation of the school where the misconduct occurs. One of the steps that a school can take to fight academic misconduct is to incorporate an honor…

  5. 14 CFR 150.13 - Incorporations by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Level Meters,” dated 1973. (d) Availability for purchase. Published material incorporated by reference in this part may be purchased at the price established by the publisher or distributor at the... Postal Center, Los Angeles) 90009. (ix) Alaskan Regional Office, 222 W. 7th Avenue #14, Anchorage, AK...

  6. Incorporating Transformative Consumer Research into the Consumer Behavior Course Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to understanding consumer behavior for the benefit of business organizations, transformative consumer research (TCR) seeks to understand consumer behavior for the benefit of consumers themselves. Following Mari's (2008) call for the incorporation of TCR in doctoral programs in marketing, this article outlines the relevance of TCR to…

  7. Incorporating Sustainability Issues into the Financial Accounting Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskin, Daniel L.; Burke, Megan M.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the views that society holds of capital allocation suggest that sustainability reporting needs to be incorporated into the financial accounting curriculum. This paper reviews the background and history of corporate social responsibility and sustainability reporting and discusses formation of the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board…

  8. Enhancing the soil organic matter pool through biomass incorporation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felipe G. Sanchez; Emily A. Carter; John F. Klepac

    2003-01-01

    A study was installed in the upper Coastal Plains of South Carolina, USA that sought to examine the impact of incorporating downed slash materials into subsoil layers on soil chemical and physical properties as compared with the effect of slash materials left on the soil surface. Two sites were examined which differed in soil textural composition: sandy vs. clay.

  9. 24 CFR 100.201a - Incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FAIR HOUSING DISCRIMINATORY CONDUCT UNDER THE FAIR HOUSING ACT Prohibition Against Discrimination... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incorporation by reference. 100.201a Section 100.201a Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  10. Application of zein antimicrobial edible film incorporating Zataria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zein based edible film was developed and incorporated with Zataria multiflora boiss essential oil. Mechanical and microbiological characteristics of this biofilms were measured. Increasing concentration of antimicrobial agent in film reduced stretchability, tensile strength and elongation, however increased the thickness and ...

  11. 40 CFR 63.14 - Incorporations by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (MD-35), U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. For information on the availability of this... Compounds by Extractive Direct Interface Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, incorporation by.... Box 133318, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3318 or at http://www.ncasi.org. (1) NCASI Method DI/MEOH...

  12. incorporating digital technology in the teaching and learning of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings illustrate the potential of technology integration in French classrooms for supporting students' French language learning in Technical University of Kenya. The attitude towards learning the language has changed; the learners enjoy being in a French classroom when a digital device is incorporated in the lesson.

  13. Body and Organ Weight Changes following Dietary Incorporation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They were sacrificed by dazing with a cervical blow at the end of the experimental period. The kidney, liver, intestine and spleen were excised and weighed. Results: Relative kidney, liver, spleen and intestinal weights increased significantly in groups fed diets incorporated with 10% Vernonia amygdalina and Vernonia ...

  14. Incorporating Trauma-Informed Care into School-Based Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sandra L.; Ashley, Olivia Silber; White, LeBretia; Axelson, Sarah; Clark, Marc; Burrus, Barri

    2017-01-01

    Background: This article provides an overview of the rationale and process for incorporating trauma-informed approaches into US school-based programs, using school-based adolescent pregnancy prevention programs as an example. Methods: Research literature is reviewed on the prevalence and outcomes of childhood trauma, including the links between…

  15. The value of incorporating avoidable factors into perinatal audits-

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To assess whether incorporating a system of identifying, classifying and grading avoidable factors into a perinatal audit can be useful in identifying problem areas. Design. Descriptive study. Setting. Black urban population, Pretoria, South Africa. Subjects. All perinatal deaths of infants weighing more than 1 000 g ...

  16. Incorporation of Certain Hydrophobic Excipients in the Core of Melt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: A process of melt granulation whereby the drug powder is mixed with a melted wax has been used to modify the dissolution rates of drug particles. The present study investigated how the incorporation of hydrophobic materials (talc or magnesium stearate) in the core of such granules may further retard drug ...

  17. Incorporating moving dynamic tyre loads in pavement design and analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJvdM

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the dynamic vehicle and tyre load effects for incorporation into the analysis procedure of the development of pavement design and analysis. This is achieved by investigating tyre loads. Fingerprinting of South...

  18. 22 CFR 212.13 - Incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incorporation by reference. 212.13 Section 212.13 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC INFORMATION Publication in the... are reasonably available to the class of persons affected thereby are deemed to be published in the...

  19. Incorporating Problem-Based Experiential Teaching in the Agricultural Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, R. J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A forestry and agronomy course at Iowa State University incorporates problem-based team projects on real-world situations as a means of providing students with integrative and meaningful experiential learning. Student evaluations of these courses indicate that students recognize and appreciate the integrative nature of the problem-based team…

  20. Cholesteric carbohydrate liquid crystals incorporating an intact glucopyranose moiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, E; Engberts, J.B.F.N.; Kellogg, R.M; van Doren, H.A.

    1997-01-01

    Recently, the first monosaccharide derivatives containing a fully intact monosaccharide and two vicinal OH-groups which display thermotropic chiral mesophases were synthesized. These liquid crystals have a rigid core, with a trans-decalin-like skeleton incorporating the D-glucopyranose ring,

  1. Rethinking PhD Learning Incorporating Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, Miri; Od-Cohen, Yehudit

    2009-01-01

    This paper grows from research which focuses on the learning characteristics of PhD students, incorporating communities of practice both during their studies and beyond completion of their PhD, and drawing on theories of adult learning and lifelong learning. It shows how professional discourse enhances academic discourse through student engagement…

  2. Incorporating hydrologic data and ecohydrologic relationships into ecological site descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Jason Williams; Frederick B. Pierson; Kenneth E. Spaeth; Joel R. Brown; Osama Z. Al-Hamdan; Mark A. Weltz; Mark A. Nearing; Jeffrey E. Herrick; Jan Boll; Pete Robichaud; David C. Goodrich; Phillip Heilman; D. Phillip Guertin; Mariano Hernandez; Haiyan Wei; Stuart P. Hardegree; Eva K. Strand; Jonathan D. Bates; Loretta J. Metz; Mary H. Nichols

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to recommend a framework and methodology for incorporating hydrologic data and ecohydrologic relationships in Ecological Site Descriptions (ESDs) and thereby enhance the utility of ESDs for assessing rangelands and guiding resilience-based management strategies. Resilience-based strategies assess and manage ecological state...

  3. New mixed ligand complexes of ruthenium (II) that incorporate a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    New mixed ligand complexes of ruthenium(II) that incorporate a modified phenanthroline ligand: Synthesis, spectral characterization and DNA binding. S Murali C V ... Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF ... Ruthenium(II) complexes; modified phenanthroline ligand; spectroscopy; DNA binding; fluorescence enhancement.

  4. Experiences with incorporating formal techniques into industrial practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osaiweran, A.; Schuts, M.; Hooman, J.

    2014-01-01

    We report about experiences at Philips Healthcare with component-based development supported by formal techniques. The formal Analytical Software Design (ASD) approach of the company Verum has been incorporated into the industrial workflow. The commercial tool ASD:Suite supports both compositional

  5. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA; Wang, Lei [San Diego, CA

    2012-02-14

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  6. Incorporating models of spatial variation in sampling strategies for soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The efficiency of soil sampling strategies can be increased by incorporating a spatial variation model. The model can be used in the random selection of sample points i.e. in the sampling design, or in spatial estimation (prediction). In the first approach inference is based on a sampling

  7. Inorganic–Organic Hybrids Incorporating a Chiral Cyclic Ammonium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inorganic–Organic Hybrids Incorporating a Chiral Cyclic Ammonium Cation. ... South African Journal of Chemistry ... In this paper we report the synthesis and the crystal structure of eight inorganic–organic hybrids containing various lead halides as the inorganic motif and a chiral, primary ammonium cation as the organic ...

  8. Site Specific Genetic Incorporation of Azidophenylalanine in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Nan; Singh, N Sadananda; Slade, Susan E; Jones, Alexandra M E; Balasubramanian, Mohan K

    2015-11-24

    The diversity of protein functions is impacted in significant part by the chemical properties of the twenty amino acids, which are used as building blocks for nearly all proteins. The ability to incorporate unnatural amino acids (UAA) into proteins in a site specific manner can vastly expand the repertoire of protein functions and also allows detailed analysis of protein function. In recent years UAAs have been incorporated in a site-specific manner into proteins in a number of organisms. In nearly all cases, the amber codon is used as a sense codon, and an orthogonal tRNA/aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (RS) pair is used to generate amber suppressing tRNAs charged with the UAA. In this work, we have developed tools to incorporate the cross-linking amino acid azido-phenylalanine (AzF) through the use of bacterial tRNA(Tyr) and a modified version of TyrRS, AzFRS, in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which is an attractive model organism for the study of cell behavior and function. We have incorporated AzF into three different proteins. We show that the majority of AzF is modified to amino-phenyl alanine, but protein cross-linking was still observed. These studies set the stage for exploitation of this new technology for the analysis of S. pombe proteins.

  9. Incorporating Perceived Importance of Service Elements into Client Satisfaction Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chang-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the need for incorporating perceived importance of service elements into client satisfaction measures. Method: A secondary analysis of client satisfaction data from 112 clients of an elderly case management setting was conducted. Results: This study found that the relationship between global…

  10. Beyond Multiplication: Incorporating Importance into Client Satisfaction Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chang-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This article brings the discussions on incorporating perceived importance across study areas into the study of client satisfaction and cautions the use of multiplicative scores (multiplying satisfaction and importance scores) as a weighting method. An alternative weighting method is provided. Method: Analyze data from a client…

  11. 10 CFR 431.105 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... incorporates by reference the following test procedures into Subpart G of Part 431. The Director of the Federal... given here for information and guidance. (2) List of References. (i) ASTM Standard Test Method C518-91... of the Heat Flow Meter Apparatus.” (ii) ASTM Standard Test Method C177-97, “Standard Test Method for...

  12. Incorporating Wind Excerpts in the School Band Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Professional musicians and college students commonly study orchestral excerpts, but a similar practice has yet to be implemented in the band field. Due to their widespread use in orchestral auditions, excerpts have been incorporated as a tool for musical development. Many college professors regularly assign excerpt study as part of their…

  13. Incorporating behavioral techniques into a serious video game for children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about how to design serious video games for children. The purpose of this paper is to describe how behavior change techniques promoting self-regulation were incorporated into a serious video game to help children consume more fruit and vegetables, and the extent to which these techn...

  14. Incorporating Study Strategies in Developmental Mathematics/College Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles, Selina Vasquez; Offer, Joey; Ward, Debra P.; Dochen, Carol W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the effectiveness of incorporating study strategies in a developmental mathematics/college algebra program. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected through a quasiexperimental methodology. Results show that students reported increases on the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI)…

  15. Incorporating rural users in small-scale growing container ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If the users of products developed for them are incorporated in the design process it is more likely that an acceptable and usable outcome will be achieved. A user-centred design process places a stronger emphasis on user involvement. In cases where the users live far away from the design facilities, certain logistical and ...

  16. Forgiveness in Criminal Law through Incorporating Restorative Mediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessen, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    In this monograph, the author argues for the integration of the concept of forgiveness into criminal law through incorporating restorative justice practices such as victim-offender mediation. Although forgiveness is not a purpose in itself nor can it be enforced, criminal law should provide room for

  17. Effect of dietary incorporation of Vernonia colorata (Willd) leaves on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of 5 and 10% dietary incorporation of leaves of Vernonia colorata on serum triacyglycerol, cholesterol, high density lipoproteins (HDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) was studied in albino rats. Processed and unprocessed leaves of Vernonia colorata (PVC and UPVC) ...

  18. 40 CFR 80.1468 - Incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incorporation by reference. 80.1468 Section 80.1468 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Biodiesel Fuel Blend Stock (B100) for Middle Distillate Fuels, Approved 2009; IBR approved for § 80.1401. (5...

  19. Osmium and cobalt complexes incorporating facially coordinated N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Osmium and cobalt complexes incorporating facially coordinated N,N,O donor azo-imine ligands: Redox and catalytic properties. Poulami Pattanayak, a. Debprasad Patra, a. Jahar Lal Pratihar, a. Andrew Burrows,. Mary F. Mahon b and Surajit Chattopadhyay* a a. Department of Chemistry, University of Kalyani, ...

  20. Incorporation of Chlorogenic Acids in Coffee Brew Melanoidins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekedam, E.K.; Schols, H.A.; Boekel, van T.; Smit, G.

    2008-01-01

    The incorporation of chlorogenic acids (CGAs) and their subunits quinic and caffeic acids (QA and CA) in coffee brew melanoidins was studied. Fractions with different molecular weights, ionic charges, and ethanol solubilities were isolated from coffee brew. Fractions were saponified, and the

  1. High conductivity electrolyte solutions and rechargeable cells incorporating such solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Charles Austen; Zhang, Sheng-Shui; Xu, Kang

    1998-01-01

    This invention relates generally to electrolyte solvents for use in liquid or rubbery polymer electrolyte solutions as are used, for example, in electrochemical devices. More specifically, this invention relates to sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solvents and sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solutions incorporating such solvents.

  2. Incorporating crown dimensions into stem height and basal area for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four crown dimensions (crown diameter, crown projection area, crown length and crown ratio) were each incorporated into nonlinear individual tree total height and basal area increment models for African white wood (Triplochiton scleroxylon K. Schum). The basic height/basal area growth model was formulated as a ...

  3. Incorporating a priori knowledge into initialized weights for neural classifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Zhe; Feng, T.J.; Feng, Tian-Jin; Houkes, Z.

    2000-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANN), especially, multilayer perceptrons (MLP) have been widely used in pattern recognition and classification. Nevertheless, how to incorporate a priori knowledge in the design of ANNs is still an open problem. The paper tries to give some insight on this topic

  4. The value of incorporating avoidable factors into perinatal audits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To assess whether incorporating a system of identifying, classifying and grading avoidable factors into a perinatal audit can be useful in identifying problem areas. Design. Descriptive study. Setting. Black urban population, Pretoria, South Africa. Subjects. All perinatal deaths of infants weighing more than 1 000 g ...

  5. INCORPORATION DU COPRAH ET DES CUTICULES DE CACAO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mots clés : Aliments, arachide, cacao, coprah, cuticules, Oreochromis niloticus. ABSTRACT. INCORPORATION OF COCONUT OIL CAKE, COCOA BEAN SHELL AND PEANUT SKIN IN. DIET FOR NILE TILAPIA (Oreohromis niloticus, LINNÉ, 1758) REARED IN POND : EFFECT ON. GROWTH AND BIOCHEMICAL ...

  6. Osmium and cobalt complexes incorporating facially coordinated N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 125; Issue 1. Osmium and cobalt complexes incorporating ... Mary F Mahon2 Surajit Chattopadhyay1. Department of Chemistry, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741235, India; Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, BA27AY, UK ...

  7. Structure and properties of a family of sugar vanadates incorporating ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 112; Issue 3. Structure and properties of a family of sugar vanadates incorporating VO3+. Kajal Krishna Rajak Sankar Prasad Rath. Volume 112 Issue 3 June 2000 pp 380-380. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  8. Structure and properties of a family of sugar vanadates incorporating ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Structure and properties of a family of sugar vanadates incorporating VO. 3+. KAJAL KRISHNA RAJAKa and SANKAR PRASAD RATHb. aDepartment of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Calcutta 700 032, India. bDepartment of Inorganic Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Calcutta 700 032, India.

  9. Imagery rescripting: Is incorporation of the most aversive scenes necessary?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dibbets, P.; Arntz, A.

    2016-01-01

    During imagery rescripting (ImRs) an aversive memory is relived and transformed to have a more positive outcome. ImRs is frequently applied in psychological treatment and is known to reduce intrusions and distress of the memory. However, little is known about the necessity to incorporate the central

  10. Incorporating Learning Outcomes into an Introductory Geotechnical Engineering Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiegel, Gregg L.

    2013-01-01

    The article describes the process of incorporating a set of learning outcomes into a geotechnical engineering course. The outcomes were developed using Bloom's taxonomy and define the knowledge, skills, and abilities the students are expected to achieve upon completion of the course. Each outcome begins with an action-oriented verb corresponding…

  11. Incorporating Six Sigma Methodology Training into Chemical Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lenore L.

    2007-01-01

    Six Sigma is a buzz term in today's technology and business world and there has been increasing interest to initiate Six Sigma training in college education. We have successfully incorporated Six Sigma methodology training into a traditional chemical engineering course, Engineering Experimentation, at Texas Tech University. The students have…

  12. Leachability of fired clay brick incorporating with sewage sludge waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Salim, Nurul Salhana Abdul; Sarani, Noor Amira; Rahmat, Nur Aqma Izurin; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri

    2017-09-01

    Sewage sludge is sewerage from wastewater treatment plants that generates millions tons of sludge ever year. Regarding this activity, it causes lack management of waste which is harmful to the surrounding conditions. Therefore, this study is focuses on the incorporation of sewage sludge waste into fired clay brick to provide an option of disposal method, producing adequate quality of brick as well as limiting the heavy metal leachability to the environment. Sewage sludge brick (SSB) mixtures were incorporated with 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 30% of sewage sludge waste (SSW). Heavy metals of crushed SSB were determined by using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) according to Method 1311 of United State Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) standard. From the results obtained, up to 20% of SSW could be incorporated into fired clay brick and comply with the USEPA standard. Therefore, this study revealed that by incorporating SSW into fired clay brick it could be an alternative method to dispose the SSW and also could act as a replacement material for brick manufacturing with appropriate mix and design.

  13. Incorporating parametric uncertainty into population viability analysis models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Conor P.; Runge, Michael C.; Larson, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Uncertainty in parameter estimates from sampling variation or expert judgment can introduce substantial uncertainty into ecological predictions based on those estimates. However, in standard population viability analyses, one of the most widely used tools for managing plant, fish and wildlife populations, parametric uncertainty is often ignored in or discarded from model projections. We present a method for explicitly incorporating this source of uncertainty into population models to fully account for risk in management and decision contexts. Our method involves a two-step simulation process where parametric uncertainty is incorporated into the replication loop of the model and temporal variance is incorporated into the loop for time steps in the model. Using the piping plover, a federally threatened shorebird in the USA and Canada, as an example, we compare abundance projections and extinction probabilities from simulations that exclude and include parametric uncertainty. Although final abundance was very low for all sets of simulations, estimated extinction risk was much greater for the simulation that incorporated parametric uncertainty in the replication loop. Decisions about species conservation (e.g., listing, delisting, and jeopardy) might differ greatly depending on the treatment of parametric uncertainty in population models.

  14. INCORPORATING GOOD LAND GOVERNANCE IN THE DISASTER REGION OF YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarno Sunarno

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Land is one of the most major capitals in our life. Without it, sustainability of human existence is very impossible. Unfortunately, land problems in Indonesia have unique challenges compared to other countries. Many of kinds of challenges are in the form of the natural disasters. This paper is going to measure how well the principles of good governance has been incorporated in the Yogyakarta Special Region Land administration System generally by studying on the Merapi Disaster Mitigation, particularly in how  land planning for the Merapi Disaster’s victims is performed. The research methodology employs a combined research method, it means that fundamental principles in process and its output of both the doctrinal and non doctrinal approaches is synergized to based on the research’s activity unites. Configuration of  the land administration systems in achieving people prosperity has been affected by evolution of political, cultural, and legal awareness of local communities and central government policy. To conclude, incorporating a disaster response based land policy principles requires an integrated law and policy making system among parties through the implementation of good governance principle in the record of public participation voices and sustainable development interests. Notable reports illustrate that the good land governance incorporation encouraged and inspired land planning system to be more efficient and effective. Particularly in the natural disaster mitigation and reconstruction, incorporating good land governance principles furthermore encourages land policy makers to achieve the responsive land management in line with social demands and sustainable development programs.

  15. Evaluating the benefits of incorporating traditional birth attendants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of our intervention was to examine the benefits of incorporating traditional birth attendants (TBA) in HIV Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) service delivery. We developed a training curriculum for TBAs related to PMTCT and current TBA roles in Malawi. Fourteen TBAs and seven TBA ...

  16. Incorporating a Diabetes Certificate Program in a Pharmacy Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Sterrett, James; Croom, Meg; Phillips, Cynthia M.; Shrader, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine student competency and confidence in the provision of diabetes care and satisfaction with incorporation of the American Pharmacist Association/American Association of Diabetes Educators (APhA/AADE) diabetes certificate program into the required doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum.

  17. Method Development for Efficient Incorporation of Unnatural Amino Acids

    KAUST Repository

    Harris, Paul D.

    2014-04-01

    The synthesis of proteins bearing unnatural amino acids has the potential to enhance and elucidate many processes in biochemistry and molecular biology. There are two primary methods for site specific unnatural amino acid incorporation, both of which use the cell’s native protein translating machinery: in vitro chemical acylation of suppressor tRNAs and the use of orthogonal amino acyl tRNA synthetases. Total chemical synthesis is theoretically possible, but current methods severely limit the maximum size of the product protein. In vivo orthogonal synthetase methods suffer from the high cost of the unnatural amino acid. In this thesis I sought to address this limitation by increasing cell density, first in shake flasks and then in a bioreactor in order to increase the yield of protein per amount of unnatural amino acid used. In a parallel project, I used the in vitro chemical acylation system to incorporate several unnatural amino acids, key among them the fluorophore BODIPYFL, with the aim of producing site specifically fluorescently labeled protein for single molecule FRET studies. I demonstrated successful incorporation of these amino acids into the trial protein GFP, although incorporation was not demonstrated in the final target, FEN1. This also served to confirm the effectiveness of a new procedure developed for chemical acylation.

  18. Incorporating risk in the economic evaluation of road infrastructure projects

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schutte, IC

    2009-05-26

    Full Text Available credibility to the process and ensure strategic decisions that are more defendable. In this study, a prosedure for incorporating risk is suggested. It involves the identification of inputs critical to the economic success of the project, the quantification...

  19. Effect of nanoliposomes on the stabilization of incorporated retinol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... Accepted 27 August, 2010. Nanoliposomes containing retinol were prepared, and the stability of the incorporated retinol was evaluated. Average ... retinol from meat and provitamin A carotenoids, such as β-carotene from plant tissue. However ... *Corresponding author. E-mail: sclee@kyungnam.ac.kr. Tel:.

  20. The incorporation of gender perspective into Spanish health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfs, Izabella; Borrell, Carme; Artazcoz, Lucia; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta

    2007-12-01

    Most studies into social determinants of health conducted in Spain based on data from health surveys have focused on social class inequalities. This paper aims to review the progressive incorporation of gender perspective and sex differences into health surveys in Spain, and to suggest design, data collection and analytical proposals as well as to make policy proposals. Changes introduced into health surveys in Spain since 1995 to incorporate gender perspective are examined, and proposals for the future are made, which would permit the analysis of differences in health between women and men as a result of biology or because of gender inequalities. The introduction of gender perspective in health surveys requires the incorporation of questions related to family setting and reproductive work, workplace and society in general to detect gender differences and inequalities (for example, domestic work, intimate partner violence, discrimination, contract type or working hours). Health indicators reflecting differential morbidity and taking into account the different life cycle stages must also be incorporated. Analyses ought to be disaggregated by sex and interpretation of results must consider the complex theoretical frameworks explaining the differences in health between men and women based on sex differences and those related to gender. Analysis of survey data ought to consider the impact of social, political and cultural constructs of each society. Any significant modification in procedures for collection of data relevant to the study of gender will require systematic coordination between institutions generating the data and researchers who are trained in and sensitive to the topic.

  1. 45 CFR 170.499 - Incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and § 170.423. (2) ISO/IEC GUIDE 65 General Requirements for Bodies Operating Product Certification... INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY STANDARDS, IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS, AND CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Temporary Certification Program for HIT § 170.499 Incorporation...

  2. Nanostructured copper particles-incorporated Nafion-modified ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chemical energy conversion/storage, metal corrosion, fuel cell and electrocatalysis. [1–5]. Different materials ... oxygen reduction have been extensively investigated at catalysts-incorporated mod- ified electrodes [5–8]. .... indicates that the oxygen reduction at GC/Nf/Cunano electrode follows diffusion- controlled process.

  3. 46 CFR 107.115 - Incorporation by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incorporation by reference. 107.115 Section 107.115 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS... standards are on file in the Federal Register library and are available from the appropriate organizations...

  4. Site specific incorporation of keto amino acids into proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA; Wang, Lei [San Diego, CA

    2008-10-07

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate keto amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with keto amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  5. Contribution of seven legumes residues incorporated into soil and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment evaluated the impact of seven legumes cover crops residues incorporated into degraded soil (Aeschynomene histrix, Centrosema pubescens, Chamaecrista rotundifolia, Mucuna pruriens, Pueraria phaseoloides, Stylosanthes guianensis and S. Hamata) on maize yield, N uptake and harvest index in the ...

  6. Comforting Children and Families Who Grieve: Incorporating Spiritual Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome, Annette

    2011-01-01

    Based on specific school and community tragedies, this article reviews difficult situations and how students' spiritual and religious beliefs were incorporated into school-based grief interventions. Suggestions are made to strengthen this often untapped resource, encouraging school-based mental health professionals to consult with community…

  7. Reinforcement of latex rubber by the incorporation of amphiphilic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latex rubbers are fabricated from latex suspensions. During the fabrication process, latex particles are bound together while water is removed from the suspension. This report shows that the mechanical properties of latex rubbers can be improved by incorporating a small amount of amphiphilic submicr...

  8. The effect of apricot kernel flour incorporation on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results obtained in this study suggest that acceptable noodles in terms of physicochemical and sensory properties could be produced by incorporating AKF into wheat flour up to the level of 15% flour weight basis. Therefore, AKF could successfully be used to enrich noodles, giving alternative utilization opportunity to ...

  9. Enhancing the soil organic matter pool through biomass incorporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe G. Sanchez; Emily A. Carter; John F. Klepac

    2003-01-01

    A study was installed in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA that sought to examine the impact of incorporating downed slash materials into subsoil layers on soil chemical and physical properties as compared with the effect of slash materials left on the soil surface. Baseline levels of slash were estimated by establishing transects within harvested stands...

  10. Incorporation of Certain Hydrophobic Excipients in the Core of Melt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patrick Erah

    been used to modify the dissolution rates of drug particles. The present study investigated how the incorporation of hydrophobic materials (talc or magnesium stearate) in the core of such granules may further retard drug release. Method - The hydrophobic powder was mixed with the drug (paracetamol) powder prior to melt.

  11. Incorporation of metal related materials into electrically neutral polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Clair, A. K.; Taylor, L. T.

    1981-01-01

    Developments in the field of metal-containing polymers are reviewed with emphasis on neutral polymers incorporating dissolved metal salts, metal complexes, organometallic compounds, and metals. Polymer systems discussed include: polyamides, polyimides, polyalcohols, polyesters, polyacetylene, polyethylene, and polysiloxane. Most of the studies focus on the modification of polymer properties such as adhesive properties, thermal behavior, electrical conductivity, polymer flammability, and mechanical properties.

  12. 75 FR 70235 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Industrial Economics, Incorporated

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... AGENCY Access to Confidential Business Information by Industrial Economics, Incorporated AGENCY... will authorize its contractor, Industrial Economics, Incorporated (IEc) to access Confidential Business..., Industrial Economics, Incorporated (IEc) will assist the Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance...

  13. Re-embodiment: incorporation through embodied learning of wheelchair skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standal, Øyvind F

    2011-05-01

    In this article, the notion of re-embodiment is developed to include the ways that rearrangement and renewals of body schema take place in rehabilitation. More specifically, the embodied learning process of acquiring wheelchair skills serves as a starting point for fleshing out a phenomenological understanding of incorporation of assistive devices. By drawing on the work of Merleau-Ponty, the reciprocal relation between acquisition habits and incorporation of instruments is explored in relation to the learning of wheelchair skills. On the basis of this, it is argued that through learning to manoeuvre the wheelchair, a reversible relation between is established between the moving body-subject and the wheelchair. In this sense, re-embodiment involves a gestalt switch from body image to body schema.

  14. Incorporation of Waste Ceramic Blocks in Structural Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Orley Magalhães; das Graças da Silva-Valenzuela, Maria; Andrade, Christiano Gianesi Bastos; Junior, Antonio Hortêncio Munhoz; Valenzuela-Díaz, Francisco Rolando

    In Brazil, Ceramics Industries produce bricks and ceramic tiles in practically all the country. In the southwestern region of Bahia are located some of these industries. A considerable proportion of the material produced do not pass the quality control for not having a uniform visual appearance or have cracks. These burned pieces are generally discarded, resulting in a big quantity of waste. The objective of this work is the characterization of this industrial waste and thus consign them to other industrial applications. Our results demonstrate that the burned waste have potential to be used for incorporation in common clay for structural ceramics, thereby avoiding its disposal in nature and reducing this environmental liability. Experimental bodies were tested with different quantities of waste. The common clay and the burned waste were characterized by XRD, TG/DTA, and SEM. The burned specimens were tested for mechanical strength, water absorption, bulk density, and apparent porosity. An incorporation of 10% of waste furnished the best results.

  15. Incorporation of 140-lanthanum into bones, teeth and hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Gavarron, F; Huque, T; Rabinowitz, J L; Brand, J G

    1988-03-01

    The incorporation of lanthanum in the form of 140-lanthanum onto the surface of teeth, bone and synthetic hydroxyapatite was investigated. A small amount of lanthanum was taken up by the surface of all of the materials studied regardless of their origin. The depth of penetration into bone and teeth was dependent upon lanthanum concentration and time of incubation and, in these experiments, ranged from an estimated 5 to 15 microns. An exchange of lanthanum for calcium in the apatite matrix may be responsible for increased resistance of the hard tissues to acid dissolution. The effects of pH, temperature, time and concentration of the lanthanum solutions on this incorporation were investigated. Possible clinical uses of this effect are discussed.

  16. Enzymatic Incorporation of Modified Purine Nucleotides in DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El Asrar, Rania; Margamuljana, Lia; Abramov, Mikhail; Bande, Omprakash; Agnello, Stefano; Jang, Miyeon; Herdewijn, Piet

    2017-12-14

    A series of nucleotide analogues, with a hypoxanthine base moiety (8-aminohypoxanthine, 1-methyl-8-aminohypoxanthine, and 8-oxohypoxanthine), together with 5-methylisocytosine were tested as potential pairing partners of N 8 -glycosylated nucleotides with an 8-azaguanine or 8-aza-9-deazaguanine base moiety by using DNA polymerases (incorporation studies). The best results were obtained with the 5-methylisocytosine nucleotide followed by the 1-methyl-8-aminohypoxanthine nucleotide. The experiments demonstrated that small differences in the structure (8-azaguanine versus 8-aza-9-deazaguanine) might lead to significant differences in recognition efficiency and selectivity, base pairing by Hoogsteen recognition at the polymerase level is possible, 8-aza-9-deazaguanine represents a self-complementary base pair, and a correlation exists between in vitro incorporation studies and in vivo recognition by natural bases in Escherichia coli, but this recognition is not absolute (exceptions were observed). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Engineering the translation apparatus to incorporate nonnatural amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yang

    2010-06-01

    Incorporation of nonnatural amino acids into proteins has exerted great effects on many fields. In recent years, the engineering of translation apparatus facilitates the boom of this field. The modifications on tRNAs, tRNA synthetases, ribosomes, elongation factors and release factors efficiently broaden the repertoire of amino acids and largely increase the efficiency of incorporation. In addition, deep understanding of the translation mechanism helps us generate certain kinds of RNAs which can act as alternative translation components to catalyze the aminoacylation step or inhibitors to attenuate the activity of a certain component. Here I review the strategies to evolve or engineer the components of translation apparatus as well as the methods to control their activity to meet our needs.

  18. Controlled nitrogen incorporation in GaNSb alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Ashwin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of N in molecular-beam epitaxy of GaNxSb1−x alloys with x ⩽ 0.022 has been investigated as a function of temperature (325–400°C and growth rate 0.25–1.6 μmh−1. At fixed growth rate, the incorporated N fraction increases as the temperature is reduced until a maximum N content for the particular growth rate reached. At each temperature, there is a range of growth rates over which the N content is inversely proportional to the growth rate; the results are understood in terms of a kinetic model. The systematic growth rate- and temperature-dependence enables the N content and resulting band gap to be controlled.

  19. Efficient Incorporation of Markov Random Fields in Change Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2009-01-01

    Many change detection algorithms work by calculating the probability of change on a pixel-wise basis. This is a disadvantage since one is usually looking for regions of change, and such information is not used in pixel-wise classification - per definition. This issue becomes apparent in the face...... of noise, implying that the pixel-wise classifier is also noisy. There is thus a need for incorporating local homogeneity constraints into such a change detection framework. For this modelling task Markov Random Fields are suitable. Markov Random Fields have, however, previously been plagued by lack...... of efficient optimization methods or numerical solvers. We here address the issue of efficient incorporation of local homogeneity constraints into change detection algorithms. We do this by exploiting recent advances in graph based algorithms for Markov Random Fields. This is combined with an IR-MAD change...

  20. Synthesis, characterization, and antiplasmodial activity of polymer-incorporated aminoquinolines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderibigbe, B A; Neuse, E W; Sadiku, E R; Ray, S Shina; Smith, P J

    2014-06-01

    In this research, aminoquinoline compounds were synthesized, characterized, and incorporated into water-soluble polymers to form conjugates. The conjugates were characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to confirm the successful incorporation of the aminoquinoline compound on to the polymer. The synthesized conjugates were screened for in vitro antiplasmodial activity in triplet test against chloroquine-sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum and chloroquine drug was used as a reference drug in all the experiments. A full dose-response was performed to determine the concentration inhibiting 50% of parasite growth (IC50 value). Polymeric conjugates containing 3-diethylamino-1-propylamine solubilizing units were found to be most active against the chloroquine-sensitive strain of P. falciparum. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Incorporation of Spike and Membrane Glycoproteins into Coronavirus Virions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujike, Makoto; Taguchi, Fumihiro

    2015-01-01

    The envelopes of coronaviruses (CoVs) contain primarily three proteins; the two major glycoproteins spike (S) and membrane (M), and envelope (E), a non-glycosylated protein. Unlike other enveloped viruses, CoVs bud and assemble at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC). For efficient virion assembly, these proteins must be targeted to the budding site and to interact with each other or the ribonucleoprotein. Thus, the efficient incorporation of viral envelope proteins into CoV virions depends on protein trafficking and protein–protein interactions near the ERGIC. The goal of this review is to summarize recent findings on the mechanism of incorporation of the M and S glycoproteins into the CoV virion, focusing on protein trafficking and protein–protein interactions. PMID:25855243

  2. Transient stability risk assessment of power systems incorporating wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miao, Lu; Fang, Jiakun; Wen, Jinyu

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale wind farm integration has brought several aspects of challenges to the transient stability of power systems. This paper focuses on the research of the transient stability of power systems incorporating with wind farms by utilizing risk assessment methods. The detailed model of double...... fed induction generator has been established. Wind penetration variation and multiple stochastic factors of power systems have been considered. The process of transient stability risk assessment based on the Monte Carlo method has been described and a comprehensive risk indicator has been proposed....... An investigation has been conducted into an improved 10-generator 39-bus system with a wind farm incorporated to verify the validity and feasibility of the risk assessment method proposed....

  3. INTERIM REPORT IMPROVED METHODS FOR INCORPORATING RISK IN DECISION MAKING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, M. J.; Fraley, D. W.; Denning, R. S.

    1980-08-01

    This paper reports observations and preliminary investigations in the first phase of a research program covering methodologies for making safety-related decisions. The objective has been to gain insight into NRC perceptions of the value of formal decision methods, their possible applications, and how risk is, or may be, incorporated in decision making. The perception of formal decision making techniques, held by various decision makers, and what may be done to improve them, were explored through interviews with NRC staff. An initial survey of decision making methods, an assessment of the applicability of formal methods vis-a-vis the available information, and a review of methods of incorporating risk and uncertainty have also been conducted.

  4. Radionuclide Incorporation and Long Term Performance of Apatite Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianwei [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Lian, Jie [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Gao, Fei [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-01-04

    This project aims to combines state-of-the-art experimental and characterization techniques with atomistic simulations based on density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. With an initial focus on long-lived I-129 and other radionuclides such as Cs, Sr in apatite structure, specific research objectives include the atomic scale understanding of: (1) incorporation behavior of the radionuclides and their effects on the crystal chemistry and phase stability; (2) stability and microstructure evolution of designed waste forms under coupled temperature and radiation environments; (3) incorporation and migration energetics of radionuclides and release behaviors as probed by DFT and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations; and (4) chemical durability as measured in dissolution experiments for long term performance evaluation and model validation.

  5. Biological evaluation of nanosilver incorporated cellulose pulp for hygiene products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavitha Sankar, P.C.; Ramakrishnan, Reshmi; Rosemary, M.J., E-mail: rosemarymj@lifecarehll.com

    2016-04-01

    Cellulose pulp has a visible market share in personal hygiene products such as sanitary napkins and baby diapers. However it offers good surface for growth of microorganisms. Huge amount of research is going on in developing hygiene products that do not initiate microbial growth. The objective of the present work is to produce antibacterial cellulose pulp by depositing silver nanopowder on the cellulose fiber. The silver nanoparticles used were of less than 100 nm in size and were characterised using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction studies. Antibacterial activity of the functionalized cellulose pulp was proved by JIS L 1902 method. The in-vitro cytotoxicity, in-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies were done with silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp for introducing a new value added product to the market. Cytotoxicity evaluation suggested that the silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp is non-cytotoxic. No irritation and skin sensitization were identified in animals tested with specific extracts prepared from the test material in the in-vivo experiments. The results indicated that the silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp meets the requirements of the standard practices recommended for evaluating the biological reactivity and has good biocompatibility, hence can be classified as a safe hygiene product. - Highlights: • Different amounts of silver nanoparticles (0.2 g–0.4 g/napkin) were added to cellulose pulp. • The silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp was proved to be antibacterial by JIS L 1902 method. • The minimum concentration of silver required for antibacterial activity with no cytotoxicity has been found out. • In-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies confirmed the biocompatibility of the material.

  6. Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs Workshop Two: Agricultural Landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted two workshops on Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs with Oak Ridge and Argonne National Laboratories in 2014. The second workshop focused on agricultural landscapes and took place in Argonne, IL from June 24—26, 2014. The workshop brought together experts to discuss how landscape design can contribute to the deployment and assessment of sustainable bioenergy. This report summarizes the discussions that occurred at this particular workshop.

  7. Study of structural modification of PVA by incorporating Ag nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, Isha; Sharma, Annu, E-mail: asharma@kuk.ac.in; Rozra, Jyoti; Aggarwal, Sanjeev [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119 (India); Dhiman, Rajnish [Department of Physics and Chemistry, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Sharma, Pawan K. [Department of Chemistry, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Nanocomposites of PVA with Ag nanoparticles dispersed in it were synthesized using solution casting method. The morphology and size distribution of Ag nanoparticles embedded in PVA matrix were obtained by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Raman spectroscopy was used to examine structural changes taking place inside polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix due to incorporation of Ag nanoparticle. Raman analysis indicates that Ag nanoparticles interact with PVA through H-bonding.

  8. The Importance of Incorporating Student Presentations in EFL Listening Courses

    OpenAIRE

    河内, 智子

    2012-01-01

    The present study explores the significance of incorporating “mini-presentations” in EFL(English as a Foreign Language) listening courses. Public speaking seems to be a skill on which Japanese students have generally received little training, possibly due to the lack of emphasis on the ability in the current Japanese school curriculum. However, developing Japanese students’ adeptness to express one’s ideas publicly in English is becoming increasingly important not only for students to survive...

  9. From Words to Action: Incorporation of Sustainability in Architectural Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badiossadat Hassanpour

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Schools of architecture play a major role in motivating and inspiring students to gain competencies in sustainability through pedagogical practices. However, at the operational level, the incorporation of sustainability within architectural programmes needs to be integrated into both the curricula and teaching methods. There are few studies on how architectural programmes’ curricula and pedagogical practices can be institutionally articulated, as well as on how the required coherency among components can be empowered operationally. Since the interrelation of the courses form the structure of the curricula and provide certain inputs for the students’ knowledge and skill, any operational risk can harm the quality assurance. Therefore, an operational framework aimed for a coordinated incorporation of sustainability in architectural programmes is required. In order to achieve this, scrutinising substantial equivalence programmes could provide constructive outcomes for the improvement of the existing programmes and future experiences for students. In order to determine the articulation of sustainability issues in architectural education, in this research, a recently accredited school in the Eastern Mediterranean region was chosen as a case study. The study includes an analysis of course descriptions, teaching methods, and teacher and student perceptions about the incorporation of sustainability into the courses. Also, jury sessions’ evaluation criteria are assessed as a pedagogical tool. Then, the horizontal and vertical articulation of courses within the curricula and their coordination were studied accordingly. The findings reveal that horizontal and vertical relations between different course types that share similar learning objectives are very important. However, this relation and continuum should be perceivable by students, tutors, and the relevant stakeholders; otherwise, any attempt would remain superficial. Accordingly, the association

  10. Study of structural modification of PVA by incorporating Ag nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saini, I.; Sharma, A.; Rozra, J.

    2016-01-01

    Nanocomposites of PVA with Ag nanoparticles dispersed in it were synthesized using solution casting method. The morphology and size distribution of Ag nanoparticles embedded in PVA matrix were obtained by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE......-SEM). Raman spectroscopy was used to examine structural changes taking place inside polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix due to incorporation of Ag nanoparticle. Raman analysis indicates that Ag nanoparticles interact with PVA through H-bonding. © 2016 Author(s)....

  11. General score tests for regression models incorporating 'robust' variance estimates

    OpenAIRE

    David Clayton; Joanna Howson

    2002-01-01

    Stata incorporates commands for carrying out two of the three general approaches to asymptotic significance testing in regression models, namely likelihood ratio (lrtest) and Wald tests (testparms). However, the third approach, using "score" tests, has no such general implementation. This omission is particularly serious when dealing with "clustered" data using the Huber-White approach. Here the likelihood ratio test is lost, leaving only the Wald test. This has relatively poor asymptotic pro...

  12. Incorporating Hydroepidemiology into the Epidemia Malaria Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimberly, M. C.; Merkord, C. L.; Henebry, G. M.; Senay, G. B.

    2014-12-01

    Early warning of the timing and locations of malaria epidemics can facilitate the targeting of resources for prevention and emergency response. In response to this need, we are developing the Epidemic Prognosis Incorporating Disease and Environmental Monitoring for Integrated Assessment (EPIDEMIA) computer system. EPIDEMIA incorporates software for capturing, processing, and integrating environmental and epidemiological data from multiple sources; data assimilation techniques that continually update models and forecasts; and a web-based interface that makes the resulting information available to public health decision makers. The system will enable forecasts that incorporate lagged responses to environmental risk factors as well as information about recent trends in malaria cases. Because the egg, larval, and pupal stages of mosquito development occur in aquatic habitats, information about the spatial and temporal distributions of stagnant water bodies is critical for modeling malaria risk. Potential sources of hydrological data include satellite-derived rainfall estimates, evapotranspiration (ET) calculated using a simplified surface energy balance model, and estimates of soil moisture and fractional water cover from passive microwave radiometry. We used partial least squares regression to analyze and visualize seasonal patterns of these variables in relation to malaria cases using data from 49 districts in the Amhara region of Ethiopia. Seasonal patterns of rainfall were strongly associated with the incidence and seasonality of malaria across the region, and model fit was improved by the addition of remotely-sensed ET and soil moisture variables. The results highlight the importance of remotely-sensed hydrological data for modeling malaria risk in this region and emphasize the value of an ensemble approach that utilizes multiple sources of information about precipitation and land surface wetness. These variables will be incorporated into the forecasting models at

  13. Whey protein-based films incorporated with oregano essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Prestes Lessa Fernandes Oliveira; Larissa Canhadas Bertan; Christiane Maciel Vasconcellos Barros De Rensis; Ana Paula Bilck; Priscila Cristina Bizam Vianna

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to prepare whey protein-based films incorporated with oregano essential oil at different concentrations, and evaluate their properties and antimicrobial activity. Films were more flexible with increasing the concentration of oregano oil and water vapor permeability was higher in the films with oregano oil. Increasing the concentration of essential oil decreased the water solubility. The solubility of control film and film with 1.5% oregano oil was 20.2 and 14.0%, res...

  14. Strategies for Incorporating Cultural Competence Into Childbirth Education Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Margaret J.

    2007-01-01

    Cultural competence affects all interactions with prospective parents and families. Childbirth educators need to assess their own cultural competence, beginning with an understanding of their own background and how it affects interactions with families. The purpose of this article is to enhance the incorporation of cultural competency, cultural awareness, and cultural sensitivity into the childbirth education curricula. Methods for enhancing cultural competence in a multicultural global socie...

  15. Incorporating a Robot into an Autism Therapy Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    49–52. 6. G. Pioggia et al., “An Android for Enhancing Social Skills and Emotion Recognition in People with Autism ,” IEEE Trans. Neural Systems...Assessing the Social- Emotional Development of Children with ASD,” Autism Spectrum Dis­ orders: Issues in Assessment and Intervention, P.A. Prelock...k Incorporating a Robot into an Autism Therapy Team Michael A. Goodrich, Mark Colton, Bonnie Brinton, Martin Fujiki, J. Alan Atherton, and Lee

  16. Incorporating the Arts and Humanities in Palliative Medicine Education

    OpenAIRE

    Marchand, Lucille R

    2006-01-01

    The arts and humanities allow the teaching of palliative medicine to come alive by exploring what is often regarded as the most frightening outcome of the illness experience – death and dying. Palliative medicine focuses on the relief of suffering, but how can suffering be understood if the story of the patient is not told through prose, poetry, music, and images? This article describes how teaching can incorporate the power of story through the arts to enrich the palliative medicine curric...

  17. The feasibility of incorporating Vpx into lentiviral gene therapy vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha A McAllery

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While current antiretroviral therapy has significantly improved, challenges still remain in life-long targeting of HIV-1 reservoirs. Lentiviral gene therapy has the potential to deliver protective genes into the HIV-1 reservoir. However, inefficient reverse transcription (RT occurs in HIV-1 reservoirs during lentiviral gene delivery. The viral protein Vpx is capable of increasing lentiviral RT by antagonizing the restriction factor SAMHD1. Incorporating Vpx into lentiviral vectors could substantially increase gene delivery into the HIV-1 reservoir. The feasibility of this Vpx approach was tested in resting cell models utilizing macrophages and dendritic cells. Our results showed Vpx exposure led to increased permissiveness of cells over a period that exceeded 2 weeks. Consequently, significant lower potency of HIV-1 antiretrovirals inhibiting RT and integration was observed. When Vpx was incorporated with anti-HIV-1 genes inhibiting either pre-RT or post-RT stages of the viral life-cycle, transduction levels significantly increased. However, a stronger antiviral effect was only observed with constructs that inhibit pre-RT stages of the viral life cycle. In conclusion this study demonstrates a way to overcome the major delivery obstacle of gene delivery into HIV-1 reservoir cell types. Importantly, incorporating Vpx with pre-RT anti-HIV-1 genes, demonstrated the greatest protection against HIV-1 infection.

  18. Rumen microbial growth estimation using in vitro radiophosphorous incorporation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, Ives Claudio da Silva; Machado, Mariana de Carvalho; Cabral Filho, Sergio Lucio Salomon; Gobbo, Sarita Priscila; Vitti, Dorinha Miriam Silber Schmidt; Abdalla, Adibe Luiz [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    Rumen microorganisms are able to transform low biological value nitrogen of feed stuff into high quality protein. To determine how much microbial protein that process forms, radiomarkers can be used. Radiophosphorous has been used to mark microbial protein, as element P is present in all rumen microorganisms (as phospholipids) and the P:N ratio of rumen biomass is quite constant. The aim of this work was to estimate microbial synthesis from feedstuff commonly used in ruminant nutrition in Brazil. Tested feeds were fresh alfalfa, raw sugarcane bagasse, rice hulls, rice meal, soybean meal, wheat meal, Tifton hay, leucaena, dehydrated citrus pulp, wet brewers' grains and cottonseed meal. {sup 32} P-labelled phosphate solution was used as marker for microbial protein. Results showed the diversity of feeds by distinct quantities of nitrogen incorporated into microbial mass. Low nutrient availability feeds (sugarcane bagasse and rice hulls) promoted the lowest values of incorporated nitrogen. Nitrogen incorporation showed positive relationship (r=0.56; P=0.06) with the rate of degradation and negative relationship (r=-0.59; P<0.05) with fiber content of feeds. The results highlight that easier fermentable feeds (higher rates of degradation) and/or with lower fiber contents promote a more efficient microbial growth and better performance for the host animal. (author)

  19. Incorporating Trauma-Informed Care Into School-Based Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sandra L; Ashley, Olivia Silber; White, LeBretia; Axelson, Sarah; Clark, Marc; Burrus, Barri

    2017-12-01

    This article provides an overview of the rationale and process for incorporating trauma-informed approaches into US school-based programs, using school-based adolescent pregnancy prevention programs as an example. Research literature is reviewed on the prevalence and outcomes of childhood trauma, including the links between trauma and pregnancy. Information is then presented concerning the implementation of trauma-informed approaches in school settings, describing activities undertaken, barriers encountered, and outcomes achieved. Next, we describe the implications of this literature for school-based adolescent pregnancy prevention programs, outlining the reasons for including trauma-informed approaches in these programs, the prerequisites for doing so, and some examples of successful implementation. Many children in our country experience trauma, placing them at increased risk of multiple health concerns including adolescent pregnancy. In response to this situation, some schools have successfully incorporated trauma-informed approaches into adolescent pregnancy prevention programs, as well as other programming. Incorporating trauma-informed approaches into school settings, including school-based adolescent pregnancy prevention programs, is a viable and important way to address the multiple needs of traumatized children. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  20. Incorporation of lean methodology into pharmacy residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Natalie; Snider, Holly; Edgerton, Lisa; Whalin, Laurie

    2017-03-15

    The implementation of lean methodology into pharmacy residency programs at a community teaching hospital is described. New Hanover Regional Medical Center, a community teaching hospital in southeastern North Carolina, fully adopted a lean culture in 2010. Given the success of lean strategies organizationally, this methodology was used to assist with the evaluation and development of its pharmacy residency programs in 2014. Lean tools and activities have also been incorporated into residency requirements and rotation learning activities. The majority of lean events correspond to the required competency areas evaluating leadership and management, teaching, and education. These events have included participation in and facilitation of various lean problem-solving and communication tools. The application of the 4 rules of lean has resulted in enhanced management of the programs and provides a set of tools by which continual quality improvement can be ensured. Regular communication and direct involvement of all invested parties have been critical in developing and sustaining new improvements. In addition to program enhancements, lean methodology offers novel methods by which residents may be incorporated into leadership activities. The incorporation of lean methodology into pharmacy residency programs has translated into a variety of realized and potential benefits for the programs, the preceptors and residents, and the health system. Specific areas of growth have included quality-improvement processes, the expansion of leadership opportunities for residents, and improved communication among program directors, preceptors, and residents. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Incorporating A Structured Writing Process into Existing CLS Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Karen; Latshaw, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Good communication and critical thinking are essential skills for all successful professionals, including Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Laboratory Science (CLS/MLS) practitioners. Professional programs can incorporate writing assignments into their curricula to improve student written communication and critical thinking skills. Clearly defined, scenario-focused writing assignments provide student practice in clearly articulating responses to proposed problems or situations, researching and utilizing informational resources, and applying and synthesizing relevant information. Assessment rubrics, structured feedback, and revision writing methodologies help guide students through the writing process. This article describes how a CLS Program in a public academic medical center, located in the central United States (US) serving five centrally-located US states has incorporated writing intensive assignments into an existing 11-month academic year using formal, informal and reflective writing to improve student written communication and critical thinking skills. Faculty members and employers of graduates assert that incorporating writing intensive requirements have better prepared students for their professional role to effectively communicate and think critically.

  2. Gene Delivery via DNA Incorporation Within a Biomimetic Apatite Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, L. N.; McFalls, K. M.; Kohn, D. H.

    2009-01-01

    Integrating inductivity with conductivity in a material may advance tissue engineering. An organic/inorganic hybrid was developed by incorporating plasmid DNA encoding for the β-gal gene complexed with Lipofectamine 2000® (DNA-Lipoplex) within apatite via coprecipitation. It is hypothesized that this system will result in enhanced transfection efficiency compared to DNA-Lipoplexes adsorbed to the mineral surface and DNA coprecipitated without Lipofectamine 2000®. PLGA films were cast onto glass slips and apatite and DNA were coprecipitated in modified simulated body fluid (mSBF). DNA-Lipoplex presence in mineral, DNA-Lipoplex stability (vs. coprecipitation time), and transfection efficiency (determined with C3H10T1/2 cells) as a function of coprecipitation time, DNA-Lipoplex concentration, and DNA incorporation method were studied. DNA-Lipoplex presence and spatial distribution on apatite were confirmed through fluorescence. Transfection efficiency was highest for 6 h of DNA- Lipoplex coprecipitation. Differences in transfection efficiency were found between the DNA concentrations, with the highest efficiency for coprecipitation being 40 μg/ml (p≤0.009 relative to other coprecipitation concentrations). Significant differences in transfection efficiency existed between incorporation methods (p<0.05) with the highest efficiency for DNA-Lipoplex coprecipitation. This hybrid material system not only integrates inductivity provided by the DNA and conductivity provided by the apatite, but it also has significant implications in non-viral gene delivery due to its ability to increase transfection efficiency. PMID:19775750

  3. Periodontal tissue regeneration with PRP incorporated gelatin hydrogel sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Dai; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Sato, Soh

    2015-10-20

    Gelatin hydrogels have been designed and prepared for the controlled release of the transforming growth factor (TGF-b1) and the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB). PRP (Platelet rich plasma) contains many growth factors including the PDGF and TGF-b1. The objective of this study was to evaluate the regeneration of periodontal tissue following the controlled release of growth factors in PRP. For the periodontal ligament cells and osteoblast, PRP of different concentrations was added. The assessment of DNA, mitochondrial activity and ALP activity were measured. To evaluate the TGF-β1 release from PRP incorporated gelatin sponge, amounts of TGF-β1 in each supernatant sample were determined by the ELISA. Transplantation experiments to prepare a bone defect in a rat alveolar bone were an implanted gelatin sponge incorporated with different concentration PRP. In DNA assay and MTT assay, after the addition of PRP to the periodontal ligament cells and osteoblast, the cell count and mitochondrial activity had increased the most in the group with the addition of 5  ×  PRP. In the ALP assay, after the addition of PRP to the periodontal ligament cells, the cell activity had increased the most in the group with the addition of 3  ×  PRP. In the transplantation, the size of the bone regenerated in the defect with 3  ×  PRP incorporated gelatin sponge was larger than that of the other group.

  4. Bioactivity of 2′-deoxyinosine-incorporated aptamer AS1411

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xinmeng; Sun, Lidan; Wu, Yun; Zhang, Lihe; Yang, Zhenjun

    2016-01-01

    Aptamers can be chemically modified to enhance nuclease resistance and increase target affinity. In this study, we performed chemical modification of 2′-deoxyinosine in AS1411, an anti-proliferative G-rich oligodeoxynucleotide aptamer, which binds selectively to the nucleolin protein. Its function was augmented when 2′-deoxyinosine was incorporated at positions 12, 13, 15, and 24 of AS1411, respectively. In addition, double incorporation of 2′-deoxyinosine at positions 12 and 24 (FAN-1224dI), 13 and 24 (FAN-1324dI), and 15 and 24 (FAN-1524dI) promoted G-quartet formation, as well as inhibition of DNA replication and tumor cell growth, and induced S-phase cell cycle arrest. In further animal experiments, FAN-1224dI, FAN-1324dI and FAN-1524dI resulted in enhanced treatment effects than AS1411 alone. These results suggested that the position and number of modification substituents in AS1411 are critical parameters to improve the diagnostic and therapeutic function of the aptamer. Structural investigations of the FAN-1524dI/nucleolin complex structure, using molecular dynamics simulation, revealed the critical interactions involving nucleolin and 2′-dI incorporated AS1411 compared with AS1411 alone. These findings augment understanding of the role of 2′-deoxyinosine moieties in interactive binding processes. PMID:27194215

  5. Bioactivity of 2'-deoxyinosine-incorporated aptamer AS1411.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xinmeng; Sun, Lidan; Wu, Yun; Zhang, Lihe; Yang, Zhenjun

    2016-05-19

    Aptamers can be chemically modified to enhance nuclease resistance and increase target affinity. In this study, we performed chemical modification of 2'-deoxyinosine in AS1411, an anti-proliferative G-rich oligodeoxynucleotide aptamer, which binds selectively to the nucleolin protein. Its function was augmented when 2'-deoxyinosine was incorporated at positions 12, 13, 15, and 24 of AS1411, respectively. In addition, double incorporation of 2'-deoxyinosine at positions 12 and 24 (FAN-1224dI), 13 and 24 (FAN-1324dI), and 15 and 24 (FAN-1524dI) promoted G-quartet formation, as well as inhibition of DNA replication and tumor cell growth, and induced S-phase cell cycle arrest. In further animal experiments, FAN-1224dI, FAN-1324dI and FAN-1524dI resulted in enhanced treatment effects than AS1411 alone. These results suggested that the position and number of modification substituents in AS1411 are critical parameters to improve the diagnostic and therapeutic function of the aptamer. Structural investigations of the FAN-1524dI/nucleolin complex structure, using molecular dynamics simulation, revealed the critical interactions involving nucleolin and 2'-dI incorporated AS1411 compared with AS1411 alone. These findings augment understanding of the role of 2'-deoxyinosine moieties in interactive binding processes.

  6. Incorporation monitoring during handling of medically used radionuclides; Inkorporationsueberwachung beim Umgang mit medizinisch genutzten Radionukliden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, Werner; Gerstmann, Udo [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany). FB Strahlenschutz und Gesundheit; Scholl, Clemens [Landesinstitut fuer Arbeitsgestaltung NRW, Duesseldorf (Germany). Inkorporationsmessstelle; Wanke, Carsten [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany). Strahlenschutz und Medizinische Physik

    2017-08-01

    The necessity of incorporation monitoring in nuclear medicine is dependent of the incorporation factor. For important applications, such as Tc-99m diagnostics and the radioiodine therapy specific measuring programs allow the determination of the incorporation factor. These factors are usually marginal so that a periodic monitoring is either not necessary or replaced by simple threshold measurements. Experiences of incorporation measuring stations show that incorporation might occur but does not induce significant doses.

  7. Herbicide incorporation by irrigation and tillage impact on runoff loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Thomas L; Truman, Clint C; Strickland, Timothy C; Bosch, David D; Webster, Theodore M

    2008-01-01

    Runoff from farm fields is a common source of herbicide residues in surface waters. Incorporation by irrigation has the potential to reduce herbicide runoff risks. To assess impacts, rainfall was simulated on plots located in a peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) field in Georgia's Atlantic Coastal Plain region after pre-emergence application of metolachlor (2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-[(1S)-2-methoxy-1-methylethyl]-acetamide) and pendimethalin (N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitro-benzenamine). Runoff, sediment, and herbicide loss as function of strip tillage (ST) versus conventional tillage (CT) were compared with and without irrigation (12.5 mm) after application of an herbicide tank mixture. For the CT system, metolachlor runoff was reduced 2x and pendimethalin 1.2x when compared with the non-irrigated treatment. The difference in irrigated and non-irrigated metolachlor means was significant (P = 0.05). Irrigation reduced metolachlor runoff by 1.3x in the ST system, but there was a 1.4x increase for pendimethalin. Overall results indicated that irrigation incorporation reduces herbicide runoff with the greatest impact when CT is practiced and products like metolachlor, which have relatively low K(oc) and high water solubility, are used. The lower ST system response was likely due to a combination of spray interception and retention by the ST system cover crop mulch and higher ST soil organic carbon content and less total runoff. During the study, the measured K(oc) of both herbicides on runoff sediment was found to vary with tillage and irrigation after herbicide application. Generally, K(oc) was higher for ST sediment and when irrigation incorporation was used with the CT system. These results have significant implications for simulation model parametization.

  8. The Manufacturing of Textile Products with Incorporated Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curteza Antonela

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the main causes of disabling deficits is neurological affections. Many times, the evolution of the condition leads to a diminution of the patient’s life quality. Functional electrical stimulation (FES is part of the neurological rehabilitation process that comprises all the actions one can take in order to increase a patient’s integration and autonomy degree from a social and financial point of view. FES is a method based on substituting the commands that are usually transmitted by the nervous system with an electric impulse. The use of such a method on different body areas required the development of some adequate devices, starting with the stimulator itself and finishing with the way in which the stimulus is conveyed to the effectors. Textile materials that incorporate sensors and, mainly, the clothing products that have such components in their structure, have a high applicability potential; they can be used for preventing illnesses and for the rehabilitation of seniors, of people who are confined to bed, sportsmen, people who suffer from long-term illnesses, disabled people, thus diminishing the time one spends in the hospital. A possible solution for manufacturing incorporated textile electrodes consists in the insertion of some electro-conductive yarns onto textile surfaces by using a variety of technologies. The project approaches the use of knitting, a widespread textile technology. The incorporated knitted electrodes were accomplished by applying the knitting technology on single circular small diameter machines. Thus, we were able to obtain a variety of knitted articles as two-dimensional or three-dimensional tubular knitted fabric. Their dimensions, structures, and parameters correspond to the typo-dimensions of the human body and to the purpose for which the clothing product was designed. The knitted versions were tested by using a Microstim2v2 (PW = 300 μs, 40 Hz neurostimulator for which the current intensity was

  9. Inertization of galvanic sludges by its incorporation in ceramic products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira, J. M. F.

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Sludges produced by the physico-chemical treatments of waste waters generated by electroplating plants were physically and chemically characterised and incorporated in ceramic pastes. The influence of the amount of sludges added to a typical brick composition on the various processing steps and on the green and fired properties was studied. The environmental risks of the incorporation of these sludges rich in heavy metals such as Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, etc. were evaluated by performing leaching tests on the fired products. The results showed that sludge contents up to 15 % could be incorporated without affecting significantly the physical characteristics of the ceramic products. Furthermore, a successful inertization of the pollutants was achieved.

    Se han caracterizado desde el punto de vista químico y físico lodos procedentes de las aguas residuales de procesos de galvanizado. Posteriormente se han incorporado a pastas cerámicas, convencionales de la industria ladrillera, estudiándose la influencia de las cantidades añadidas sobre las propiedades de los materiales tanto en verde como en el producto final y durante las distintas etapas de fabricación. Se evaluaron los riesgos medioambientales derivados de la incorporación de los metales pesados, tales como Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni etc, presentes en los lodos, mediante la realización de ensayos de lixiviado. Los resultados indican que puede incorporarse hasta un 15% en peso de dichos lodos, sin que se produzcan cambios significativos en las propiedades físicas de los materiales cerámicos obtenidos. Se ha obtenido, asimismo, un procedimiento viable de inertización de los agentes contaminantes.

  10. Incorporating Sustainability into Site Closure - A Field Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austrins, L. M.; West, J.

    2013-12-01

    Long term management of former chemical production facilities can be a costly and time consuming element of site closure, however, implementation of creative measures to introduce sustainability and reduce the need for onsite presence can be successfully incorporated into the site closure process. A case study demonstrating this involves a facility located in Sarnia, Ontario, which was an active multi chemical production facility from the 1940s, until it was decommissioned and sold between 2005 and 2010. The facility consisted of 322 acres of production areas. Several elements which allowed for reduced onsite presence and lower management costs were incorporated into the site decommissioning plan, including; phased remediation planning, and selection of sustainable components as part of remediation, surface water management, and groundwater management. The sustainability and management modifications were successfully negotiated and approved by the local regulatory agency. Due to the size and complexity of the site, a holistic approach for the facility was needed and included the development of a comprehensive decision matrix. Each remediation alternative incorporated sustainable practices. Ex-situ remediation consisted of excavation of contaminated subsurface medium and consolidation at a 4.7 acre onsite soil treatment area designed specifically for the site closure process. In-situ remediation consisted of injection of amendment into the native soils using hydraulic fracture and injection. When the plant was an active operating facility, groundwater management required active pumping and groundwater treatment through a series of carbon treatment units. Active pumping has been replaced by passive hydraulic control through the use of tree plantations.

  11. Linear energy transfer incorporated intensity modulated proton therapy optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenhua; Khabazian, Azin; Yepes, Pablo P.; Lim, Gino; Poenisch, Falk; Grosshans, David R.; Mohan, Radhe

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of incorporating linear energy transfer (LET) into the optimization of intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plans. Because increased LET correlates with increased biological effectiveness of protons, high LETs in target volumes and low LETs in critical structures and normal tissues are preferred in an IMPT plan. However, if not explicitly incorporated into the optimization criteria, different IMPT plans may yield similar physical dose distributions but greatly different LET, specifically dose-averaged LET, distributions. Conventionally, the IMPT optimization criteria (or cost function) only includes dose-based objectives in which the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is assumed to have a constant value of 1.1. In this study, we added LET-based objectives for maximizing LET in target volumes and minimizing LET in critical structures and normal tissues. Due to the fractional programming nature of the resulting model, we used a variable reformulation approach so that the optimization process is computationally equivalent to conventional IMPT optimization. In this study, five brain tumor patients who had been treated with proton therapy at our institution were selected. Two plans were created for each patient based on the proposed LET-incorporated optimization (LETOpt) and the conventional dose-based optimization (DoseOpt). The optimized plans were compared in terms of both dose (assuming a constant RBE of 1.1 as adopted in clinical practice) and LET. Both optimization approaches were able to generate comparable dose distributions. The LET-incorporated optimization achieved not only pronounced reduction of LET values in critical organs, such as brainstem and optic chiasm, but also increased LET in target volumes, compared to the conventional dose-based optimization. However, on occasion, there was a need to tradeoff the acceptability of dose and LET distributions. Our conclusion is that the

  12. Cesium Incorporation and Diffusion in Cancrinite, Soalite, Zeolite, and Allophane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mon, Jarai; Deng, Youjun; Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B.

    2005-11-28

    At the US Department of Energy?s Hanford site, high level nuclear waste has leaked from under4 ground storage tanks. The waste consists of hyperalkaline solutions, which upon contact with the 5 sediments, caused dissolution of silicate minerals and precipitation of secondary aluminosilicate minerals. Cancrinite, sodalite, LTA zeolite, and allophane have been identified as the new mineral phases 7 in laboratory simulations. Cesium, the major radionuclide in the waste solutions, may be incorporated 8 into the structural framework of the precipitates. The objectives of this study were to determine the 9 resistance of incorporated Cs to ion exchange and the mobility and diffusion coefficient of Cs in the 10 minerals. The minerals were synthesized in solutions mimicking the tank waste and were washed with 11 deionized water. Two sets of experiments were conducted to test the resistance of Cs to ion exchange. 12 In the first set, Cs was exchanged three times at 80 C by 0.5 N Na, K, or Ca. The Cs remaining in 13 minerals was quantified after acid digestion. In the second set, we studied the Cs desorption kinetics 14 by using 0.1 M Na as ion exchanger. Cesium concentration in the solution phase was measured as a 15 function of time for 23 days. Cesium incorporated in sodalite and cancrinite was far more difficult to 16 replace than that in LTA zeolite and allophane. Most of the incorporated Cs (94?99%) in LTA zeolite 17 and allophane was readily exchangeable with Na or K; less than 20% of Cs in sodalite and <55% of 2 Cs in cancrinite could be exchanged. The fraction of desorbed Cs was also affected by the exchanging 19 ions; the ion with lowest dehydration energy (K) was the most effective in replacing Cs. The results 20 of the desorption kinetics experiments showed that Cs desorbed quickly from LTA zeolite and the Cs 21 diffusion coefficient was close to that in solution; i.e., about 10?9 m2/s. Solid-state NMR analysis 22 supported the high mobility of Cs in LTA zeolite

  13. Linear energy transfer incorporated intensity modulated proton therapy optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenhua; Khabazian, Azin; Yepes, Pablo P; Lim, Gino J; Poenisch, Falk; Grosshans, David R; Mohan, Radhe

    2017-11-13

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of incorporating linear energy transfer (LET) into the optimization of intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plans. Because increased LET correlates with increased biological effectiveness of protons, high LETs in target volumes and low LETs in critical structures and normal tissues are preferred in an IMPT plan. However, if not explicitly incorporated into the optimization criteria, different IMPT plans may yield similar physical dose distributions but greatly different LET, specifically dose-averaged LET, distributions. Conventionally, the IMPT optimization criteria (or cost function) only includes dose-based objectives in which the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is assumed to have a constant value of 1.1. In this study, we added LET-based objectives for maximizing LET in target volumes and minimizing LET in critical structures and normal tissues. Due to the fractional programming nature of the resulting model, we used a variable reformulation approach so that the optimization process is computationally equivalent to conventional IMPT optimization. In this study, five brain tumor patients who had been treated with proton therapy at our institution were selected. Two plans were created for each patient based on the proposed LET-incorporated optimization (LETOpt) and the conventional dose-based optimization (DoseOpt). The optimized plans were compared in terms of both dose (assuming a constant RBE of 1.1 as adopted in clinical practice) and LET. Both optimization approaches were able to generate comparable dose distributions. The LET-incorporated optimization achieved not only pronounced reduction of LET values in critical organs, such as brainstem and optic chiasm, but also increased LET in the target volumes, compared to the conventional dose-based optimization. However, on occasion, there was a need to tradeoff the acceptability of dose and LET distributions. Our conclusion is that the

  14. Phenomena based Methodology for Process Synthesis incorporating Process Intensification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutze, Philip; Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Woodley, John

    2013-01-01

    Process intensification (PI) has the potential to improve existing as well as conceptual processes, in order to achieve a more sustainable production. PI can be achieved at different levels. That is, the unit operations, functional and/or phenomena level. The highest impact is expected by looking...... at processes at the lowest level of aggregation which is the phenomena level. In this paper, a phenomena based synthesis/design methodology incorporating process intensification is presented. Using this methodology, a systematic identification of necessary and desirable (integrated) phenomena as well...

  15. Incorporation of Monovalent Cations in Sulfate Green Rust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, B. C.; Dideriksen, K.; Katz, A.

    2014-01-01

    Green rust is a naturally occurring layered mixed-valent ferrous-ferric hydroxide, which can react with a range of redox-active compounds. Sulfate-bearing green rust is generally thought to have interlayers composed of sulfate and water. Here, we provide evidence that the interlayers also contain...... with water showed that Na+ and K+ were structurally fixed in the interlayer, whereas Rb+ and Cs+ could be removed, resulting in a decrease in the basal layer spacing. The incorporation of cations in the interlayer opens up new possibilities for the use of sulfate green rust for exchange reactions with both...

  16. Strategies for incorporating cultural competence into childbirth education curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Margaret J

    2007-01-01

    Cultural competence affects all interactions with prospective parents and families. Childbirth educators need to assess their own cultural competence, beginning with an understanding of their own background and how it affects interactions with families. The purpose of this article is to enhance the incorporation of cultural competency, cultural awareness, and cultural sensitivity into the childbirth education curricula. Methods for enhancing cultural competence in a multicultural global society are discussed. Strategies are also presented to address the challenges of assessing parents and families of diverse cultures and their beliefs, traditions, and special needs in the plan of care.

  17. Incorporating geometric and radiative effects into infrared scanning computer analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrick, D. L.; Kantsios, A. G.

    1983-01-01

    A NASA program, the SILTS experiment (Shuttle Infrared Leeside Temperature Sensing) will utilize an infrared scanning system mounted at the tip of the vertical stabilizer to remotely measure the surface temperature of the leeside of the Space Shuttle during entry from orbit. Scans of the fuselage and one wing will be made alternately. The experiment will correlate real full scale data to ground-based information. In order to quantitatively assess the temperature profile of the surface, an algorithm is required which incorporates the Space Shuttle shape, location of specific materials on the surface, and the measurement geometry between the camera and the surface. This paper will discuss the algorithm.

  18. POF based glucose sensor incorporating grating wavelength filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Hafeez Ul; Aasmul, Søren; Bang, Ole

    2014-01-01

    , improve the mechanical stabilization of assay compartment by exploring the side excitation and side coupling method, ease of manufacturing and feasibility of Polymer Fiber Bragg gratings as filters. During the project, fibers will be drawn and fiber bragg gratings will be inscribed at DTU Fotonik...... AND RESEARCH IN POLYMER OPTICAL DEVICES; TRIPOD. Within the domain of TRIPOD, research is conducted on "Plastic Optical Fiber based Glucose Sensors Incorporating Grating Wavelength Filters". Research will be focused to optimized fiber tips for better coupling efficiency, reducing the response time of sensor...

  19. Effects of oxide incorporation in proton conducting organic electrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Sörgel, Seniz

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the effects of incorporation of various types of oxide particles (e.g. ZrO2, TiO2, Al2O3) into proton conducting organic electrolytes is investigated. As a weak liquid model electrolyte, moderately proton conducting imidazole is chosen. As a highly proton conducting strong polymer electrolyte, and simultaneously practically very important electrolyte, Nafion® is selected for the second part of the work. In the first part of this work, for the first time, the applicabilit...

  20. Integrated Photonic Devices Incorporating Low-Loss Fluorinated Polymer Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Jong Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Low-loss polymer materials incorporating fluorinated compounds have been utilized for the investigation of various functional optical devices useful for optical communication and optical sensor systems. Since reliability issues concerning the polymer device have been resolved, polymeric waveguide devices have been gradually adopted for commercial application systems. The two most successfully commercialized polymeric integrated optic devices, variable optical attenuators and digital optical switches, are reviewed in this paper. Utilizing unique properties of optical polymers which are not available in other optical materials, novel polymeric optical devices are proposed including widely tunable external cavity lasers and integrated optical current sensors.

  1. Incorporating existing network information into gene network inference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Christley

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available One methodology that has met success to infer gene networks from gene expression data is based upon ordinary differential equations (ODE. However new types of data continue to be produced, so it is worthwhile to investigate how to integrate these new data types into the inference procedure. One such data is physical interactions between transcription factors and the genes they regulate as measured by ChIP-chip or ChIP-seq experiments. These interactions can be incorporated into the gene network inference procedure as a priori network information. In this article, we extend the ODE methodology into a general optimization framework that incorporates existing network information in combination with regularization parameters that encourage network sparsity. We provide theoretical results proving convergence of the estimator for our method and show the corresponding probabilistic interpretation also converges. We demonstrate our method on simulated network data and show that existing network information improves performance, overcomes the lack of observations, and performs well even when some of the existing network information is incorrect. We further apply our method to the core regulatory network of embryonic stem cells utilizing predicted interactions from two studies as existing network information. We show that including the prior network information constructs a more closely representative regulatory network versus when no information is provided.

  2. Conceptualising how SMEs incorporate green content in their websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig M. Parker

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a framework on how Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs can proactively incorporate content relating to their ecological responsibility (or green activities in their websites. SME studies offer limited guidance on, and conceptualisation of, how organisations can incorporate different types of content into their website designs. This paper addresses this problem by presenting the results of an exploratory, qualitative content analysis of Australian SME websites where emergent themes are interpreted using framing and legitimacy theories. It describes three dimensions (location, presentation, and specificity which comprise the framework, under which the themes are grouped. The paper outlines how scholars can use the framework to develop models and carry out evaluations regarding how SMEs embed green content, and potentially other specific content types, in their websites. It also summarises how the framework can assist SMEs (or website developers serving them make informed decisions regarding framing their websites as green, or de-emphasising this content, by paying attention to its location (e.g. homepage, navigation bars and presentation (e.g. how paragraphs, images, etc are used within webpages. The legitimacy or credibility of the green content can be enhanced using different types of specificity (e.g. statistics, detail of processes and actions, and third-party substantiation.

  3. Enhanced biological stability of collagen with incorporation of PAMAM dendrimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shaoping; Yung, Lin Yue Lanry

    2009-10-01

    The crosslinking methods of collagen using glutaraldehyde (GTA) and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC)/N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) are frequently performed in biomedical applications, but both methods still have their own disadvantages, including the GTA cytotoxicity and low degree of EDC/NHS crosslinking. In this study, we incorporated polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer with surface amine groups into the two aforementioned crosslinking methods to improve the biostability and structural integrity of collagen. Fifty micromolar of dendrimer concentration was found to have negligible in vitro cytotoxicity and was used for EDC and GTA crosslinking of collagen. The collagenase digestion assay showed that the collagen scaffolds crosslinked in the presence of PAMAM exhibited a higher denature temperature and higher resistance against collagenase digestion compared with their counterparts without dendrimer. Cell proliferation with human conjunctival fibroblasts showed that the incorporation of PAMAM in EDC crosslinking significantly increased the proliferation. All the crosslinked scaffolds also exhibited higher structural stability than the noncrosslinked scaffold. Crosslinking with EDC and PAMAM together yielded substantially higher proliferation and may be a suitable collagen scaffold for biomedical applications.

  4. Incorporating best practices into undergraduate critical care nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Zara R; Iafrati, Nancy S

    2014-02-01

    Incorporation of best clinical practices into the baccalaureate critical care nursing curriculum is important. At The College at Brockport, best clinical practices are introduced early in the semester and are reinforced throughout the semester in both class and clinical settings. Among the best clinical practices included are those recommended by the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses, The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, the Institute for Healthcare Improvement, The Joint Commission, Quality and Safety Education for Nurses, the Surviving Sepsis Campaign, and the Institute for Safe Medication Practices. The culminating assignment of the semester requires students to focus on patient safety. Students describe the use of the National Patient Safety Goals and other best practices in the critical care setting. The role of the nurse leader and exploration of near-miss and work-around events also are described. Nursing students need to provide safe competent nursing care by incorporating best practices into their clinical practice now and in the future when they become registered professional nurses.

  5. Preparation of Lipid Nanoemulsions Incorporating Curcumin for Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songyot Anuchapreeda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a new formulation of a curcumin lipid nanoemulsion having the smallest particle size, the highest loading, and a good physical stability for cancer chemotherapy. Curcumin lipid nanoemulsions were prepared by a modified thin-film hydration method followed by sonication. Soybean oil, hydrogenated L-α-phosphatidylcholine from egg yolk, and cosurfactants were used to formulate the emulsions. The resultant nanoemulsions showed mean particle diameter of 47–55 nm, could incorporate 23–28 mg curcumin per 30 mL, and were stable in particle size for 60 days at 4°C. The cytotoxicity studies of curucumin solution and curcumin-loaded nanoemulsion using B16F10 and leukemic cell lines showed IC50 values ranging from 3.5 to 30.1 and 22.2 to 53.7 μM, respectively. These results demonstrated the successful incorporation of curcumin into lipid nanoemulsion particles with small particle size, high loading capacity, good physical stability, and preserved cytotoxicity.

  6. Band gap engineering of indium zinc oxide by nitrogen incorporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, J.J., E-mail: jjosila@hotmail.com [Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad esq. Paseo la Bufa, Fracc. Progreso, C.P. 98060 Zacatecas (Mexico); Doctorado Institucional de Ingeniería y Ciencia de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Av. Salvador Nava, Zona Universitaria, C.P. 78270 San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Aguilar-Frutis, M.A.; Alarcón, G. [Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Legaría, Calz. Legaría No. 694, Col. Irrigación, C.P. 11500 México D.F. (Mexico); Falcony, C. [Departamento de Física, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional campus Zacatenco, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, C.P. 07360 México D.F. (Mexico); and others

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • IZON thin films were deposited by RF reactive sputtering at room temperature. • The effects of nitrogen on physical properties of IZO were analyzed. • Optical properties of IZON were studied by SE and UV–vis spectroscopy. • Adachi and classical parameters were quantitative and qualitatively congruent. • Nitrogen induces a gradual narrowing band gap from 3.5 to 2.5 eV on IZON films. - Abstract: The effects of nitrogen incorporation in indium zinc oxide films, as grown by RF reactive magnetron sputtering, on the structural, electrical and optical properties were studied. It was determined that the variation of the N{sub 2}/Ar ratio, in the reactive gas flux, was directly proportional to the nitrogen percentage measured in the sample, and the incorporated nitrogen, which substituted oxygen in the films induces changes in the band gap of the films. This phenomenon was observed by measurement of absorption and transmission spectroscopy in conjunction with spectral ellipsometry. To fit the ellipsometry spectra, the classical and Adachi dispersion models were used. The obtained optical parameters presented notable changes related to the increment of the nitrogen in the film. The band gap narrowed from 3.5 to 2.5 eV as the N{sub 2}/Ar ratio was increased. The lowest resistivity obtained for these films was 3.8 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm with a carrier concentration of 5.1 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}.

  7. From Unnatural Amino Acid Incorporation to Artificial Metalloenzymes

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Arwa A.

    2016-12-04

    Studies and development of artificial metalloenzymes have developed into vibrant areas of research. It is expected that artificial metalloenzymes will be able to combine the best of enzymatic and homogenous catalysis, that is, a broad catalytic scope, high selectivity and activity under mild, aqueous conditions. Artificial metalloenzyme consist of a host protein and a newly introduced artificial metal center. The host protein merely functions as ligand controlling selectivity and augmenting reactivity, while the metal center determines the reactivity. Potential applications range from catalytic production of fine chemicals and feedstock to electron transfer utilization (e.g. fuel cells, water splitting) and medical research (e.g. metabolic screening). Particularly modern asymmetric synthesis is expected to benefit from a successful combination of the power of biocatalysis (substrate conversion via multi-step or cascade reactions, potentially immortal catalyst, unparalleled selectivity and optimization by evolutionary methods) with the versatility and mechanism based optimization methods of homogeneous catalysis. However, so far systems are either limited in structural diversity (biotin-avidin technology) or fail to deliver the selectivities expected (covalent approaches). This thesis explores a novel strategy based on the site-selective incorporation of unnatural, metal binding amino acids into a host protein. The unnatural amino acids can either serve directly as metal binding centers can be used as anchoring points for artificial metallo-cofactors. The identification expression, purification and modification of a suitable protein scaffolds is fundamental to successfully develop this field. Chapter 2 and 3 detail a rational approach leading to a highly engineered host protein. Starting with fluorescent proteins, which combine high thermal and pH stability, high expression yields, and fluorescence for ease of quantification and monitoring an efficient and fast

  8. Nanomaterials incorporated ultrasound contrast agents for cancer theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lei; Ke, Heng-Te

    2016-09-01

    Nanotechnology provides various nanomaterials with tremendous functionalities for cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. Recently, theranostics has been developed as an alternative strategy for efficient cancer treatment through combination of imaging diagnosis and therapeutic interventions under the guidance of diagnostic results. Ultrasound (US) imaging shows unique advantages with excellent features of real-time imaging, low cost, high safety and portability, making US contrast agents (UCAs) an ideal platform for construction of cancer theranostic agents. This review focuses on the development of nanomaterials incorporated multifunctional UCAs serving as theranostic agents for cancer diagnostics and therapeutics, via conjugation of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs), CuS nanoparticles, DNA, siRNA, gold nanoparticles (GNPs), gold nanorods (GNRs), gold nanoshell (GNS), graphene oxides (GOs), polypyrrole (PPy) nanocapsules, Prussian blue (PB) nanoparticles and so on to different types of UCAs. The cancer treatment could be more effectively and accurately carried out under the guidance and monitoring with the help of the achieved theranostic agents. Furthermore, nanomaterials incorporated theranostic agents based on UCAs can be designed and constructed by demand for personalized and accurate treatment of cancer, demonstrating their great potential to address the challenges of cancer heterogeneity and adaptation, which can provide alternative strategies for cancer diagnosis and therapeutics.

  9. Nanomaterials incorporated ultrasound contrast agents for cancer theranostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lei; Ke, Heng-Te

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology provides various nanomaterials with tremendous functionalities for cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. Recently, theranostics has been developed as an alternative strategy for efficient cancer treatment through combination of imaging diagnosis and therapeutic interventions under the guidance of diagnostic results. Ultrasound (US) imaging shows unique advantages with excellent features of real-time imaging, low cost, high safety and portability, making US contrast agents (UCAs) an ideal platform for construction of cancer theranostic agents. This review focuses on the development of nanomaterials incorporated multifunctional UCAs serving as theranostic agents for cancer diagnostics and therapeutics, via conjugation of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs), CuS nanoparticles, DNA, siRNA, gold nanoparticles (GNPs), gold nanorods (GNRs), gold nanoshell (GNS), graphene oxides (GOs), polypyrrole (PPy) nanocapsules, Prussian blue (PB) nanoparticles and so on to different types of UCAs. The cancer treatment could be more effectively and accurately carried out under the guidance and monitoring with the help of the achieved theranostic agents. Furthermore, nanomaterials incorporated theranostic agents based on UCAs can be designed and constructed by demand for personalized and accurate treatment of cancer, demonstrating their great potential to address the challenges of cancer heterogeneity and adaptation, which can provide alternative strategies for cancer diagnosis and therapeutics. PMID:27807499

  10. Mechanical and durability aspects of concrete incorporating secondary aluminium slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Satish Reddy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impact can be minimised by making use of many industrial wastes in a sustainable manner. Recycling and reutilisation of industrial waste and by-products is of paramount importance in cement and concrete industry. In view of rapid infrastructure growth, there is an emerging need for development of cementitious materials or fillers either to replace cement or fine aggregate for stable growth. One of the industrial wastes is secondary aluminium dross. In this paper, an attempt has been made to study the mechanical and durability aspects of concrete incorporated with secondary aluminium dross. Cement has been partially replaced by secondary aluminium dross in different proportions to study the mechanical and durability aspects. Various properties such as compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength, sorptivity, water absorption, rapid chloride penetration have been studied for the usefulness of secondary aluminium dross as construction material. It is observed that up to 15% replacement of cement by secondary aluminium dross, the responses are comparable with the conventional concrete. Studies have also been carried out by adding other supplementary cementitious materials such as fly ash and silica fume in various proportions along with secondary aluminium dross and found the improved mechanical and durability properties. From the overall study, it can be concluded that the concrete incorporated with secondary aluminium dross can be used for making paver blocks, refractory bricks and for normal concrete strength applications.

  11. Whey protein-based films incorporated with oregano essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Prestes Lessa Fernandes Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to prepare whey protein-based films incorporated with oregano essential oil at different concentrations, and evaluate their properties and antimicrobial activity. Films were more flexible with increasing the concentration of oregano oil and water vapor permeability was higher in the films with oregano oil. Increasing the concentration of essential oil decreased the water solubility. The solubility of control film and film with 1.5% oregano oil was 20.2 and 14.0%, respectively. The addition of 1% of oregano oil improved the resistance of the films. The tensile strength for the control film was 66.0 MPa, while for the film with 1% of oregano oil was 108.7 MPa. Films containing 1.5% oregano oil showed higher antimicrobial activity. The zone of inhibition ranged from 0 to 1.7 cm. The results showed that the whey protein-based films incorporated with oregano essential oil has potential application as active packaging.

  12. Effects of MMP Inhibitors Incorporated within Dental Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almahdy, A.; Koller, G.; Sauro, S.; Bartsch, J.W.; Sherriff, M.; Watson, T.F.; Banerjee, A.

    2012-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibition has been shown to reduce adhesive bond degradation when applied as a pre-conditioner, adding to clinical steps in the placement of adhesives, but their incorporation within dental adhesives has not been fully explored. This study examined the effect of including 2 MMP inhibitors (BB94 and GM6001) within the primers of 3 commercially available adhesives. Fluorometric assay and zymography showed that adhesives with MMP inhibitors had high affinity toward both synthetic fluorogenic FRET peptides (95%) and dentin powder substrates, respectively. The immediate microtensile bond strength was enhanced for 2 types of adhesives following the addition of both inhibitors. However, no changes were detected between the control and the inhibitor groups following 3-month storage. The modified two-step etch-and-rinse and single-step systems showed less Rhodamine B penetration to the “hybrid layer” and to the “adhesive”, respectively. The incorporation of BB94 and GM6001 within the primers resulted in the inhibition of dentin MMPs with improved initial bond strength and enhanced sealing ability. PMID:22518030

  13. Development of thermoplastic starch blown film by incorporating plasticized chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Khanh Minh; Yoksan, Rangrong

    2015-01-22

    The objective of the present work was to improve blown film extrusion processability and properties of thermoplastic starch (TPS) film by incorporating plasticized chitosan, with a content of 0.37-1.45%. The effects of chitosan on extrusion processability and melt flow ability of TPS, as well as that on appearance, optical properties, thermal properties, viscoelastic properties and tensile properties of the films were investigated. The possible interactions between chitosan and starch molecules were evaluated by FTIR and XRD techniques. Chitosan and starch molecules could interact via hydrogen bonds, as confirmed from the blue shift of OH bands and the reduction of V-type crystal formation. Although the incorporation of chitosan caused decreased extensibility and melt flow ability, as well as increased yellowness and opacity, the films possessed better extrusion processability, increased tensile strength, rigidity, thermal stability and UV absorption, as well as reduced water absorption and surface stickiness. The obtained TPS/chitosan-based films offer real potential application in the food industry, e.g. as edible films. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Properties of fired clay brick incorporating with sewage sludge waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Salim, Nurul Salhana Abdul; Sarani, Noor Amira; Rahmat, Nur Aqma Izurin; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri

    2017-09-01

    The production of sludge in wastewater treatment plant is about to increase every year and most of the sludge was directly disposed to landfill. In addition, the constraint to treat sludge is very high in cost and time- consuming could be disadvantages to the responsible parties. Therefore, this research was conducted to utilize sludge produced from the wastewater treatment plant into fired clay brick as one of the alternatives of disposal method. In this study, the research attempt to incorporate sewage sludge waste (SSW) into fired clay brick. The sewage sludge brick (SSB) mixtures were incorporated with 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20% of SSW. The manufactured bricks were fired at 1050°C with heating rate of 1°C/min. Physical and mechanical properties test were conducted such as shrinkage, density, water absorption and compressive strength. As the conclusion, brick with utilization 5% of SSW is acceptable to produce good quality of brick. This study shows by using SSW in fired clay brick could be an alternative method to dispose of the SSW and also could act as a replacement material for brick manufacturing with appropriate mix and design.

  15. College Algebra in Context: A Project Incorporating Social Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Catalano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of an innovative college algebra text designed for use in a data-driven, activity-oriented college algebra course, incorporating realistic problem situations emphasizing social and economic issues, including hunger and poverty, energy, and the environment. The course incorporates quantitative literacy themes, is informed by existing college algebra texts within the college algebra reform movement, and implements a collaborative pedagogical approach intended to provide future K-12 teachers an alternative model for the teaching of mathematics. The paper contains a short history of the project development phase, supported by an NSF grant (DUE #0442979, as well as the perceived role of the project in the college algebra reform and quantitative literacy movements. We make a short case for redefining the content of a college algebra course and acknowledging that for many students, it has become a terminal mathematics course. A description of the contents of the text, its relation to more traditional college algebra content, and four example student activities are included (on the topics of homelessness, the effects of airline deregulation, real estate versus savings as investment instruments, and the 2008 election. A summary of evaluation and assessment data from five years of pilot-testing, done primarily in conjuction with our NSF grant evaluation plan, is provided.

  16. Incorporating technetium in minerals and other solids: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luksic, Steven A., E-mail: steven.luksic@pnnl.gov; Riley, Brian J.; Schweiger, Michael; Hrma, Pavel

    2015-11-15

    Technetium (Tc) can be incorporated into a number of different solids including spinel, sodalite, rutile, tin dioxide, pyrochlore, perovskite, goethite, layered double hydroxides, cements, and alloys. Synthetic routes are possible for each of these phases, ranging from high-temperature ceramic sintering to ball-milling of constituent oxides. However, in practice, Tc has only been incorporated into solid materials by a limited number of the possible syntheses. A review of the diverse ways in which Tc-immobilizing materials can be made shows the wide range of options available. Special consideration is given to hypothetical application to the Hanford Tank Waste and Vitrification Plant, such as adding a Tc-bearing mineral to waste glass melter feed. A full survey of solid Tc waste forms, the common synthesis routes to those waste forms, and their potential for application to vitrification processes are presented. The use of tin dioxide or ferrite spinel precursors to reduce Tc(VII) out of solution and into a durable form are shown to be of especially high potential. - Highlights: • This paper covers synthesis methods for technetium-containing solids. • Synthesis routes summarized cover a variety of temperatures and chemistries. • Many synthetic routes have not yet been demonstrated with technetium. • Fe(OH){sub 2} SnO{sub 2} and others show potential to capture Tc{sup 7+} from aqueous solution into stable waste forms.

  17. Characterization of active paper packaging incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiastuti, T.; Khasanah, L. U.; Atmaka Kawiji, W.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.

    2016-02-01

    Utilization of ginger pulp waste from herbal medicine and instant drinks industry in Indonesia currently used for fertilizer and fuel, whereas the ginger pulp still contains high oleoresin. Active paper packaging were developed incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin (0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% w/w). Physical (thickness, tensile strength, and folding endurance, moisture content), sensory characteristics and antimicrobial activity of the active paper were evaluated. Selected active paper then were chemically characterized (functional groups). The additional of ginger pulp oleoresin levels are reduced tensile strength, folding endurance and sensory characteristic (color, texture and overall) and increased antimicrobial activity. Due to physical, sensory characteristic and antimicrobial activity, active paper with 2% ginger pulp oleoresin incorporation was selected. Characteristics of selected paper were 9.93% of water content; 0.81 mm of thickness; 0.54 N / mm of tensile strength; 0.30 of folding endurance; 8.43 mm inhibits the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescence and 27.86 mm inhibits the growth of Aspergillus niger (antimicrobial activity) and neutral preference response for sensory properties. For chemical characteristic, selected paper had OH functional group of ginger in 3422.83 cm-1 of wave number and indicated contain red ginger active compounds.

  18. Salinity controls on Na incorporation in Red Sea planktonic foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezger, E. M.; de Nooijer, L. J.; Boer, W.; Brummer, G. J. A.; Reichart, G. J.

    2016-12-01

    Whereas several well-established proxies are available for reconstructing past temperatures, salinity remains challenging to assess. Reconstructions based on the combination of (in)organic temperature proxies and foraminiferal stable oxygen isotopes result in relatively large uncertainties, which may be reduced by application of a direct salinity proxy. Cultured benthic and planktonic foraminifera showed that Na incorporation in foraminiferal shell calcite provides a potential independent proxy for salinity. Here we present the first field calibration of such a potential proxy. Living planktonic foraminiferal specimens from the Red Sea surface waters were collected and analyzed for their Na/Ca content using laser ablation quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Using the Red Sea as a natural laboratory, the calibration covers a broad range of salinities over a steep gradient within the same water mass. For both Globigerinoides ruber and Globigerinoides sacculifer calcite Na/Ca increases with salinity, albeit with a relatively large intraspecimen and interspecimen variability. The field-based calibration is similar for both species from a salinity of 36.8 up to 39.6, while values for G. sacculifer deviate from this trend in the northernmost transect. It is hypothesized that the foraminifera in the northernmost part of the Red Sea are (partly) expatriated and hence should be excluded from the Na/Ca-salinity calibration. Incorporation of Na in foraminiferal calcite therefore provides a potential proxy for salinity, although species-specific calibrations are still required and more research on the effect of temperature is needed.

  19. Incorporating VIBE into the precision optics manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGroote Nelson, Jessica; Gould, Alan; Klinger, Charles; Mandina, Michael

    2011-09-01

    The VIBE™ process is a full-aperture, conformal polishing process incorporating high frequency and random motion designed to rapidly remove sub-surface damage in a VIBE pre-polish step and eliminate mid-spatial frequency (MSF) errors in a VIBE finishing step. The VIBE process has potential to be introduced in two areas of today's modern optics manufacturing process. The first instance is replacing the conventional pre-polishing step with the rapid VIBE pre-polish step. Results will be discussed in this paper that show 10 - 50x higher removal rates compared to conventional polishing for a variety of optical materials. High removal rates combined with the compliant lap results in damage-free surfaces that have the same form that was generated by the CNC generation process for spherical and non-spherical surfaces. The second potential area to incorporate VIBE into today's modern optics manufacturing process is as a finishing step after deterministic sub-aperture polishing to remove mid-spatial frequency errors. By selectively altering the compliant properties of the VIBE pad, and adjusting the frequency of the VIBE motion, VIBE finishing can reduce the mid-spatial frequencies caused from sub-aperture polishing processes while maintaining the desired corrected surface form. This paper will serve as an in-depth review of the VIBE process and how it complements other modern CNC optics manufacturing technologies, as well as highlighting recent VIBE advances specifically in the area of conformal optic fabrication.

  20. A simplified framework for incorporating health into community development initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, Bethany; Lindberg, Ruth; Givens, Marjory; Wernham, Aaron

    2014-11-01

    Community development seeks to address the consequences of poverty through initiatives that improve housing, economic opportunity, service availability, and community capacity. There is growing recognition that the fields of community development and public health have much in common with regard to target populations, objectives, and challenges. Individual and neighborhood-level poverty are well-documented risk factors for illness and premature death. But relatively few developers systematically analyze how their projects could affect the health of the target community. Tools and metrics that facilitate incorporating health into planning, financing, and implementing new community development projects and programs will foster more widespread and productive collaboration between these two fields. We propose a simple framework to facilitate the identification and measurement of potential health effects, actions to optimize anticipated positive impacts, and strategies to mitigate potential negative impacts. The framework is drawn from an analysis of health impact assessments and includes four elements: identifying the health status of the population served, considering neighborhood-level influences on health, building design features important to health, and incorporating community engagement and capacity-building activities into the initiative. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  1. Incorporation of therapeutically modified bacteria into gut microbiota inhibits obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongyi; Guo, Lilu; Zhang, Yongqin; Walzem, Rosemary L; Pendergast, Julie S; Printz, Richard L; Morris, Lindsey C; Matafonova, Elena; Stien, Xavier; Kang, Li; Coulon, Denis; McGuinness, Owen P; Niswender, Kevin D; Davies, Sean S

    2014-08-01

    Metabolic disorders, including obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, are widespread in Westernized nations. Gut microbiota composition is a contributing factor to the susceptibility of an individual to the development of these disorders; therefore, altering a person's microbiota may ameliorate disease. One potential microbiome-altering strategy is the incorporation of modified bacteria that express therapeutic factors into the gut microbiota. For example, N-acylphosphatidylethanolamines (NAPEs) are precursors to the N-acylethanolamide (NAE) family of lipids, which are synthesized in the small intestine in response to feeding and reduce food intake and obesity. Here, we demonstrated that administration of engineered NAPE-expressing E. coli Nissle 1917 bacteria in drinking water for 8 weeks reduced the levels of obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet. Mice that received modified bacteria had dramatically lower food intake, adiposity, insulin resistance, and hepatosteatosis compared with mice receiving standard water or control bacteria. The protective effects conferred by NAPE-expressing bacteria persisted for at least 4 weeks after their removal from the drinking water. Moreover, administration of NAPE-expressing bacteria to TallyHo mice, a polygenic mouse model of obesity, inhibited weight gain. Our results demonstrate that incorporation of appropriately modified bacteria into the gut microbiota has potential as an effective strategy to inhibit the development of metabolic disorders.

  2. Incorporating the TRMM Dataset into the GPM Mission Data Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Erich Franz; Ji, Yimin; Chou, Joyce; Kelley, Owen; Kwiatkowski, John; Stout, John

    2016-01-01

    In June 2015 the TRMM satellite came to its end. The 17 plus year of mission data that it provided has proven a valuable asset to a variety of science communities. This 17plus year data set does not, however, stagnate with the end of the mission itself. NASA/JAXA intend to integrate the TRMM data set into the data suite of the GPM mission. This will ensure the creation of a consistent, intercalibrated, accurate dataset within GPM that extends back to November of 1998. This paper describes the plans for incorporating the TRMM 17plus year data into the GPM data suite. These plans call for using GPM algorithms for both radiometer and radar to reprocess TRMM data as well as intercalibrating partner radiometers using GPM intercalibration techniques. This reprocessing will mean changes in content, logical format and physical format as well as improved geolocation, sensor corrections and retrieval techniques.

  3. Incorporating Measures of Sleep Quality into Cancer Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redeker, Nancy S.; Pigeon, Wilfred R.; Boudreau, Eilis A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction/background Sleep disturbance may influence the development of cancer and responses to treatment. It is also closely tied to recovery and quality of life in cancer patients, survivors, and caregivers, and recent studies have begun to show beneficial effects of sleep promoting interventions. Despite the importance of sleep to cancer and its treatment and the availability of numerous tools for measuring sleep quality and quantity, sleep measurements are underutilized in cancer studies. Methods This review, written for cancer researchers interested in incorporating sleep measures into their studies, is designed to raise awareness about the importance of sleep and suggest strategies for including sleep evaluation in cancer studies. Conclusions Inclusion of readily available sleep measures may ultimately improve cancer care by facilitating studies that lead to a greater understanding of how sleep and sleep disturbance influence all aspects of cancer care and the patient experience. PMID:25510361

  4. Incorporating Interpersonal Skills into Otolaryngology Resident Selection and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu-Myers, Yemeng; Myers, Christopher G

    2018-01-01

    Increasing attention has been paid to the selection of otolaryngology residents, a highly competitive process but one with room for improvement. A recent commentary in this journal recommended that residency programs more thoroughly incorporate theory and evidence from personnel psychology (part of the broader field of organizational science) in the resident selection process. However, the focus of this recommendation was limited to applicants' cognitive abilities and independent work-oriented traits (eg, conscientiousness). We broaden this perspective to consider critical interpersonal skills and traits that enhance resident effectiveness in interdependent health care organizations and we expand beyond the emphasis on selection to consider how these skills can be honed during residency. We advocate for greater use of standardized team-based care simulations, which can aid in assessing and developing the key interpersonal leadership skills necessary for success as an otolaryngology resident.

  5. Digital terrain model generalization incorporating scale, semantic and cognitive constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partsinevelos, Panagiotis; Papadogiorgaki, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Cartographic generalization is a well-known process accommodating spatial data compression, visualization and comprehension under various scales. In the last few years, there are several international attempts to construct tangible GIS systems, forming real 3D surfaces using a vast number of mechanical parts along a matrix formation (i.e., bars, pistons, vacuums). Usually, moving bars upon a structured grid push a stretching membrane resulting in a smooth visualization for a given surface. Most of these attempts suffer either in their cost, accuracy, resolution and/or speed. Under this perspective, the present study proposes a surface generalization process that incorporates intrinsic constrains of tangible GIS systems including robotic-motor movement and surface stretching limitations. The main objective is to provide optimized visualizations of 3D digital terrain models with minimum loss of information. That is, to minimize the number of pixels in a raster dataset used to define a DTM, while reserving the surface information. This neighborhood type of pixel relations adheres to the basics of Self Organizing Map (SOM) artificial neural networks, which are often used for information abstraction since they are indicative of intrinsic statistical features contained in the input patterns and provide concise and characteristic representations. Nevertheless, SOM remains more like a black box procedure not capable to cope with possible particularities and semantics of the application at hand. E.g. for coastal monitoring applications, the near - coast areas, surrounding mountains and lakes are more important than other features and generalization should be "biased"-stratified to fulfill this requirement. Moreover, according to the application objectives, we extend the SOM algorithm to incorporate special types of information generalization by differentiating the underlying strategy based on topologic information of the objects included in the application. The final

  6. Incorporation of continuous student assessment into lectures in engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllymäki, S.

    2013-08-01

    A continuous student assessment system was incorporated into an advanced microelectronic course. This study investigated the relationship between the continuous assessment system based on home exams and individual student achievement. The perspective was based on the learning frameworks of the social constructivist theory. Six fourth-year engineering students participated in the study, which covered 13 lectures and 5 home exams. Feedback sessions concerning the particular exam were held after every exam. Correlations between the exams, the feedback, and individual student achievement were computed. The results indicated a positive correlation between continuous assessment and student achievement. Rather than being improved a lot, student achievement stabilised statistically at a higher level. Additionally, student's absence was very low (5%) despite the voluntary participation in the course. Continuous assessment realised with home exams induced two-way discussions between the teacher and the students. Unprompted, the students learned additional material and discussed it in the exam essays, confirming the principles of social constructivist theory.

  7. Biodegradable fibre scaffolds incorporating water-soluble drugs and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J; Meng, J; Simonet, M; Stingelin, N; Peijs, T; Sukhorukov, G B

    2015-07-01

    A new type of biodegradable drug-loaded fibre scaffold has been successfully produced for the benefit of water-soluble drugs and proteins. Model drug loaded calcium carbonate (CaCO3) microparticles incorporated into poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) fibres were manufactured by co-precipitation of CaCO3 and the drug molecules, followed by electrospinning of a suspension of such drug-loaded microparticles in a PLGA solution. Rhodamine 6G and bovine serum albumin were used as model drugs for our release study, representing small bioactive molecules and protein, respectively. A bead and string structure of fibres was achieved. The drug release was investigated with different drug loadings and in different pH release mediums. Results showed that a slow and sustained drug release was achieved in 40 days and the CaCO3 microparticles used as the second barrier restrained the initial burst release.

  8. A New Methodology for Incorporating Chiral Linkers into Stapled Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Juan C; Sipthorp, James; Xu, Wenshu; Itzhaki, Laura S; Ley, Steven V

    2017-06-19

    Stapled peptides have arisen as a new class of chemical probe and potential therapeutic agents for modulating protein-protein interactions. Here, we report the first two-component i,i+7 stapling methodology that makes use of two orthogonal, on-resin stapling reactions to incorporate linkers bearing a chiral centre into a p53-derived stapled peptide. Post-stapling modifications to the chain were performed on-resin and enabled rapid access to various peptide derivatives from a single staple. The stapled peptides have increased helicity, protease stability and in vitro binding affinities to MDM2 compared to the equivalent unstapled peptide. This approach can be used to generate a library of diverse stapled peptides with different properties starting from a single stapled peptide, with scope for much greater functional diversity than that provided by existing stapling methodologies. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  9. Incorporation of cytokinins into DNA of wheat seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudryashova, I.B.; Vanyushin, B.F.

    1986-08-20

    After incubation of wheat seedlings with (/sup 3/H)benzylaminopurine or (8-/sup 3/H)zeathin appreciable radioactivity was found in the purine bases of DNA, mainly in adenine. Moreover, as a result of acid hydrolysis labeled cytokinins were isolated from labeled highly purified preparations of the total DNA of wheat seedlings. Their radioactivity constituted 5-10% of the radioactivity of the adenine bases in the DNA. After mild acid hydrolysis (/sup 3/H)benzylaminopurine and (/sup 3/H)zeathin were found in the deoxyribonucleoside fraction obtained from cytokinin-labeled DNA. Thus, different cytokinins (N/sup 6/-substituted adenine derivatives) are covalently incorporated into the newly synthesized DNA of plants.

  10. Teaching strategies to incorporate genomics education into academic nursing curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo Garcia, Sylvia P; Greco, Karen E; Loescher, Lois J

    2011-11-01

    The translation of genomic science into health care has expanded our ability to understand the effects of genomics on human health and disease. As genomic advances continue, nurses are expected to have the knowledge and skills to translate genomic information into improved patient care. This integrative review describes strategies used to teach genomics in academic nursing programs and their facilitators and barriers to inclusion in nursing curricula. The Learning Engagement Model and the Diffusion of Innovations Theory guided the interpretation of findings. CINAHL, Medline, and Web of Science were resources for articles published during the past decade that included strategies for teaching genomics in academic nursing programs. Of 135 articles, 13 met criteria for review. Examples of effective genomics teaching strategies included clinical application through case studies, storytelling, online genomics resources, student self-assessment, guest lecturers, and a genetics focus group. Most strategies were not evaluated for effectiveness. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Incorporating transcultural care education in allied health curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, J M; Riehl, G K

    2001-01-01

    A clinical skill recently identified as a necessary curricular component in allied health programs is transculturally competent care. It is imperative to teach allied health students transcultural care skills, first, because the population of the United States is becoming more ethnically, culturally, and racially diverse, and the allied health workforce must be prepared for this change. Second, Western medicine has historically reflected European values and traditions. Because other cultures view health and disease differently, health care workers must understand and be respectful of values and traditions that differ from their own. And finally, organizations that accredit health care facilities and academic programs, and licensing boards, are recognizing cultural competency as an important clinical skill for all health care workers. Based on existing literature on transcultural care education, which primarily comes from nursing, this article suggests a model for its incorporation in allied health curricula.

  12. Incorporating permaculture and strategic management for sustainable ecological resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Faiza; Lodhi, Suleman A; Khan, Safdar Shah; Sarwar, Farhana

    2016-09-01

    Utilization of natural assets to the best efficient level without changing natural balance has become a critical issue for researchers as awareness on climate change takes central position in global debate. Conventional sustainable resource management systems are based on neoclassical economic approach that ignores the nature's pattern and therefore are not actually capable of sustainable management of resources. Environmentalists are lately advocating incorporation of Permaculture as holistic approach based on ethics, equitable interaction with eco-systems to obtain sustainability. The paper integrates philosophy of permaculture with strategic management frameworks to develop a pragmatic tool for policy development. The policy design tool augments management tasks by integrating recording of natural assets, monitoring of key performance indicators and integration of sectorial policies in real time, bringing out policy as a truly live document. The tool enhances the edifice process, balancing short term viewpoints and long term development to secure renewability of natural resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Technetium incorporation in scheelite: insights from first-principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Matthew; Kim, Eunja; Weck, Philippe F; Chernesky, Wendy; Czerwinski, Kenneth R

    2016-11-15

    Atomistic investigations of crystalline scheelite, CaWO4, and (99)Tc-bearing scheelite, CaWO4:Tc, have been carried out using density functional theory. The lattice constants, bulk modulus, and volume compression data of CaWO4 have been calculated and compared with experimental data, with a focus on predictive understanding of (99)Tc incorporation in CaWO4. Defect formation energies have been computed for several possible interstitial (I) and substitutional (S) sites of (99)Tc in CaWO4. Both I(Oh) and S(W) sites were found to be energetically favourable for Tc doping. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra for each (99)Tc defect type have been simulated to help interpret the complex experimental XRD patterns. This work on CaWO4:Tc provides insights into materials generated during nuclear weapons testing and useful spectral signatures for nuclear forensics.

  14. Incorporating linguistic knowledge for learning distributed word representations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    Full Text Available Combined with neural language models, distributed word representations achieve significant advantages in computational linguistics and text mining. Most existing models estimate distributed word vectors from large-scale data in an unsupervised fashion, which, however, do not take rich linguistic knowledge into consideration. Linguistic knowledge can be represented as either link-based knowledge or preference-based knowledge, and we propose knowledge regularized word representation models (KRWR to incorporate these prior knowledge for learning distributed word representations. Experiment results demonstrate that our estimated word representation achieves better performance in task of semantic relatedness ranking. This indicates that our methods can efficiently encode both prior knowledge from knowledge bases and statistical knowledge from large-scale text corpora into a unified word representation model, which will benefit many tasks in text mining.

  15. Scheduling a Single Mobile Robot Incorporated into Production Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Vinh Quang; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Steger-Jensen, Kenn

    2013-01-01

    . This chapter deals with the problem of finding optimal operating sequence in a manufacturing cell of a mobile robot with manipulation arm that feeds materials to feeders. The “Bartender Concept” is discussed to show the cooperation between the mobile robot and industrial environment. The performance criterion...... to the challenges of issues such as energy conservation and pollution preventions. Facing the central tension between manufacturing and environmental drivers is difficult, but critical to develop new technologies, particularly mobile robots, that can be incorporated into production to achieve holistic solutions...... is to minimize total traveling time of the robot with the smallest consumed amount of battery energy in a given planning horizon. A mixed-integer programming (MIP) model is developed to find the optimal solutions for the problem. Two case studies are implemented at an impeller production line to demonstrate...

  16. Incorporating uncertainty in RADTRAN 6.0 input files.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, Matthew L.; Weiner, Ruth F.; Heames, Terence John (Alion Science and Technology)

    2010-02-01

    Uncertainty may be introduced into RADTRAN analyses by distributing input parameters. The MELCOR Uncertainty Engine (Gauntt and Erickson, 2004) has been adapted for use in RADTRAN to determine the parameter shape and minimum and maximum of the distribution, to sample on the distribution, and to create an appropriate RADTRAN batch file. Coupling input parameters is not possible in this initial application. It is recommended that the analyst be very familiar with RADTRAN and able to edit or create a RADTRAN input file using a text editor before implementing the RADTRAN Uncertainty Analysis Module. Installation of the MELCOR Uncertainty Engine is required for incorporation of uncertainty into RADTRAN. Gauntt and Erickson (2004) provides installation instructions as well as a description and user guide for the uncertainty engine.

  17. Building Blocks Incorporating Waste Materials Bound with Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanaya I.N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper described an investigation and evaluation which was carried out in the United Kingdom-UK, on the properties of masonry building block materials that incorporate waste materials, namely: steel slag, crushed glass, coal fly ash, rice husk ash (RHA, incinerator sewage sludge ash (ISSA, municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWIBA or shortened as IBA, bound with bitumen or asphalt, named as Bitublock. The binder used was 50 pen bitumen. The properties of the blocks evaluated were: compressive strength, density, porosity, initial rate of suction (IRS, creep, and volume stability. It was found that the Bitublock performance can be improved by optimizing porosity and curing regime. Compaction level of 2 MPa and curing regime of 200°C for 24 hours gave satisfactory bitublock performances that at least comparable to concrete block found in the United Kingdom (UK. The Volume stability (expansion of the unit is affected by environment relative humidity.

  18. Improved Oxidase Mimetic Activity by Praseodymium Incorporation into Ceria Nanocubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lei; Fernandez-Garcia, Susana; Tinoco, Miguel; Yan, Zhaoxia; Xue, Qi; Blanco, Ginesa; Calvino, Jose J; Hungria, Ana B; Chen, Xiaowei

    2017-06-07

    Ceria nanocubes (NC) modified with increasing concentrations of praseodymium (5, 10, 15, and 20 mol %) have been successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal method. The as-synthesized Pr-modified ceria nanocubes exhibit an enhanced oxidase-like activity on the organic dye TMB within a wide range of concentrations and durations. The oxidase activity increases with increasing Pr amounts in Pr-modified ceria nanocubes within the investigated concentration range. Meanwhile, these Pr-modified ceria nanocubes also show higher reducibility than pure ceria nanocubes. The kinetics of their oxidase mimetic activity is fitted with the Michaelis-Menten equation. A mechanism has been proposed on how the Pr incorporation could affect the energy level of the bands in ceria and hence facilitate the TMB oxidation reaction. The presence of Pr(3+) species on the surface also contributes to the increasing activity of the Pr-modified ceria nanocubes present higher oxidase activity than pure ceria nanocubes.

  19. Incorporating Science and Society into the College Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teske, J. K.; Prather, E. E.; Wallace, C. S.; Meyers, M.; CATS

    2013-04-01

    We present initial results from our study of how science does or does not influence the worldviews of introductory, general education college astronomy students. Our data was gathered over one course (one semester). We examine students' ideas on provocative topics such as the relationship between science and religion, comparisons between the return on investment from different government programs, the limits of scientific inquiry, and how/if science can help to solve critical problems facing our society today. Since this is the last formal science course many of these general education astronomy students will ever take, the experiences they have during this course are crucial for developing worldviews that incorporate positive ideas about the role of science in society.

  20. Incorporation of Trees in Smallholder Land Use Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Syed Ajijur

    as a mechanism for sustaining both biodiversity and its associated ecosystem services in agricultural areas, by increasing tree cover, while maintaining agricultural production. The main aim of this thesis is to assess the rate of return resulting from incorporating trees into food-crop-based smallholder......-off between short-term loss of agricultural income and longer-term economic gain from planting trees in farmland. However, constraints of local food crop cultivation traditions, insecure land tenure, insufficient investment capital, lack of knowledge, lack of technical assistance, and perceived risk...... of investing in land due to local conflict (in Bangladesh) limit farmers’ willingness to adopt this land use alternative. Various conditions can facilitate tree farming, including a carefully designed landscape approach, with the elements of both segregation and integration of land uses, supported by competent...

  1. Electronic cigarettes: incorporating human factors engineering into risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ling; Rudy, Susan F; Cheng, James M; Durmowicz, Elizabeth L

    2014-05-01

    A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the impact of human factors (HF) on the risks associated with electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and to identify research gaps. HF is the evaluation of human interactions with products and includes the analysis of user, environment and product complexity. Consideration of HF may mitigate known and potential hazards from the use and misuse of a consumer product, including e-cigarettes. Five databases were searched through January 2014 and publications relevant to HF were incorporated. Voluntary adverse event (AE) reports submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the package labelling of 12 e-cigarette products were analysed. No studies specifically addressing the impact of HF on e-cigarette use risks were identified. Most e-cigarette users are smokers, but data on the user population are inconsistent. No articles focused specifically on e-cigarette use environments, storage conditions, product operational requirements, product complexities, user errors or misuse. Twelve published studies analysed e-cigarette labelling and concluded that labelling was inadequate or misleading. FDA labelling analysis revealed similar concerns described in the literature. AE reports related to design concerns are increasing and fatalities related to accidental exposure and misuse have occurred; however, no publications evaluating the relationship between AEs and HF were identified. The HF impacting e-cigarette use and related hazards are inadequately characterised. Thorough analyses of user-product-environment interfaces, product complexities and AEs associated with typical and atypical use are needed to better incorporate HF engineering principles to inform and potentially reduce or mitigate the emerging hazards associated with e-cigarette products.

  2. Electronic cigarettes: incorporating human factors engineering into risk assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ling; Rudy, Susan F; Cheng, James M; Durmowicz, Elizabeth L

    2014-01-01

    Objective A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the impact of human factors (HF) on the risks associated with electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and to identify research gaps. HF is the evaluation of human interactions with products and includes the analysis of user, environment and product complexity. Consideration of HF may mitigate known and potential hazards from the use and misuse of a consumer product, including e-cigarettes. Methods Five databases were searched through January 2014 and publications relevant to HF were incorporated. Voluntary adverse event (AE) reports submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the package labelling of 12 e-cigarette products were analysed. Results No studies specifically addressing the impact of HF on e-cigarette use risks were identified. Most e-cigarette users are smokers, but data on the user population are inconsistent. No articles focused specifically on e-cigarette use environments, storage conditions, product operational requirements, product complexities, user errors or misuse. Twelve published studies analysed e-cigarette labelling and concluded that labelling was inadequate or misleading. FDA labelling analysis revealed similar concerns described in the literature. AE reports related to design concerns are increasing and fatalities related to accidental exposure and misuse have occurred; however, no publications evaluating the relationship between AEs and HF were identified. Conclusions The HF impacting e-cigarette use and related hazards are inadequately characterised. Thorough analyses of user–product–environment interfaces, product complexities and AEs associated with typical and atypical use are needed to better incorporate HF engineering principles to inform and potentially reduce or mitigate the emerging hazards associated with e-cigarette products. PMID:24732164

  3. Getter Incorporation into Cast Stone and Solid State Characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asmussen, Robert M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lawter, Amanda R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephenson, John R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bowden, Mark E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Washton, Nancy M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Neeway, James J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Du, Yingge [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pearce, Carolyn I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clayton, Ray E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Saslow, Sarah A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buck, Edgar C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cordova, Elsa [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-28

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is collecting relevant available data on waste forms for use as a supplemental immobilization technology, to provide the additional capacity needed to treat low-activity waste (LAW) in Hanford Site tanks and complete the tank waste cleanup mission in a timely and cost-effective manner. One candidate supplemental waste form, fabricated using a low-temperature process, is a cementitious grout called Cast Stone. Cast Stone has been under investigation for this application at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) since initial screening tests in FY13. This report is the culmination of work to lower the diffusivities of Tc and I from Cast Stone using getters. Getters are compounds added to a system designed to selectively sequester a species of interest to provide increased stability to the species. The work contained within this report is related to waste form development and testing, and does not directly support the 2017 integrated disposal facility (IDF) performance assessment. However, this work contains valuable information which may be used in performance assessment maintenance past FY17, and in future waste form development. This report on performance characterization of Tc and I getters in Cast Stone fabricated with simulated LAW covers several areas of interest and major findings to WRPS: investigating performance of potassium metal sulfide (KMS-2-SS) and tin (II) apatite (Sn-A) as Tc getters when incorporated into Cast Stone; investigating performance of silver exchanged zeolite (Ag-Z) and argentite (Arg) as I getters when incorporated into Cast Stone; utilizing sequential addition of Tc and I getters to overcome any deleterious interactions between the getters in solution; determining, for the first time, Tc distribution within the cured Cast Stone and its evolution during leaching; and performing solid state characterization of getters and Cast Stone samples to support leach test findings and develop a

  4. System 80+{trademark} standard design incorporates radiation protection lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crom, T.D.; Naugle, C.L. [Duke Engineering & Services, Inc., Charlotte, NC (United States); Turk, R.S. [ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Power, Windsor, CT (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Many lessons have been learned from the current generation of nuclear plants in the area of radiation protection. The following paper will outline how the lessons learned have been incorporated into the design and operational philosophy of the System 80+{trademark} Standard Design currently under development by ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) with support from Duke Engineering and Services, Inc. and Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation in the Balance-of-Plant design. The System 80+{trademark} Standard Design is a complete nuclear power plant for national and international markets, designed in direct response to utility needs for the 1990`s, and scheduled for Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Design Certification under the new standardization rule (10 CFR Part 52). System 80+{trademark} is a natural extension of System 80{sup R} technology, an evolutionary change based on proven Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) in operation at Palo Verde in Arizona and under construction at Yonggwang in the Republic of Korea. The System 80+{trademark} Containment and much of the Balance of Plant design is based upon Duke Power Company`s Cherokee Plant, which was partially constructed in the late 1970`s, but, was later canceled (due to rapid declined in electrical load growth). The System 80+{trademark} Standard Design meets the requirements given in the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) Requirements Document. One of these requirements is to limit the occupational exposure to 100 person-rem/yr. This paper illustrates how this goal can be achieved through the incorporation of lessons learned, innovative design, and the implementation of a common sense approach to operation and maintenances practices.

  5. Incorporating Terrestrial Processes in Models of PETM Carbon Cycle Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, G. J.

    2016-12-01

    Evidence for the massive, rapid release of carbon to the ocean/atmosphere/biosphere system at the onset of the PETM is unequivocal, but the sequence of feedbacks that governed the evolution and recovery of the carbon cycle over the subsequent 150,000 years of the event remain unclear. Sedimentological evidence suggests that much of the excess carbon was eventually sequestered as carbonate in marine sediments, but there is also significant and growing evidence for changes in continental carbon cycle processes, most of which have not been incorporated in models of the event. I describe several aspects of the observed or implied continental response to the PETM, including changes in ecosystem organic carbon storage, soil carbonate growth, and export of organic carbon to the marine margins. These processes, along with continental silicate weathering, have been incorporated in a terrestrial module for a simple box model of the PETM carbon cycle, which is being used to evaluate their potential impact on global carbon cycle response and recovery. Although changes in terrestrial organic carbon storage can help explain patterns of global carbon isotope change throughout the event, constraints from ocean pH records suggest that other mechanisms must have contributed to pacing the duration and recovery of the PETM. Model results suggest that enhanced soil carbonate formation and the provenance of organic carbon buried in continental margin sediments are two poorly constrained variables that could alter the interpretation and implications of the continental records. Given the strong potential for, and high uncertainty in, future changes in terrestrial carbon cycle processes, resolving the nature and long-term impacts of such changes during the PETM represents a major opportunity to leverage the geologic record of this hyperthermal to increase understanding of human-induced global change.

  6. Developing safety performance functions incorporating reliability-based risk measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Shewkar El-Bassiouni; Sayed, Tarek

    2011-11-01

    Current geometric design guides provide deterministic standards where the safety margin of the design output is generally unknown and there is little knowledge of the safety implications of deviating from these standards. Several studies have advocated probabilistic geometric design where reliability analysis can be used to account for the uncertainty in the design parameters and to provide a risk measure of the implication of deviation from design standards. However, there is currently no link between measures of design reliability and the quantification of safety using collision frequency. The analysis presented in this paper attempts to bridge this gap by incorporating a reliability-based quantitative risk measure such as the probability of non-compliance (P(nc)) in safety performance functions (SPFs). Establishing this link will allow admitting reliability-based design into traditional benefit-cost analysis and should lead to a wider application of the reliability technique in road design. The present application is concerned with the design of horizontal curves, where the limit state function is defined in terms of the available (supply) and stopping (demand) sight distances. A comprehensive collision and geometric design database of two-lane rural highways is used to investigate the effect of the probability of non-compliance on safety. The reliability analysis was carried out using the First Order Reliability Method (FORM). Two Negative Binomial (NB) SPFs were developed to compare models with and without the reliability-based risk measures. It was found that models incorporating the P(nc) provided a better fit to the data set than the traditional (without risk) NB SPFs for total, injury and fatality (I+F) and property damage only (PDO) collisions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Physicochemical and organoleptic properties of cookies incorporated with legume flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Thongram

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries like India, with increasing urbanization, the demand for processed food and bakery products particularly cookies command wide popularity in both urban and rural mass. Hence, an attempt was made to develop functionally and nutritionally improved cookies and the influence of the partial replacement of the wheat flour by legume on the quality characteristic of cookies was analyzed. Six blends were prepared by homogenously mixing chickpea flour, pigeon pea, moong bean flour, and cowpea flour with wheat flour in the percentage proportions: 100, 25:75, 25:75, 25:75, 25:75, and 10:10:10:10:60 (CPF:WWF, PF:WWF, MF:WWF, CF:WWF, and CPF:PF:MF:CF:WWF and later used to make cookies. Chemical and functional properties of the composite flours and chemical as well as sensory characteristics of cookies made from the above combinations were determined. The incorporation of legume flour significantly affected the physical, chemical, and phytonutrient parameters of the cookies. The results revealed that functional properties, viz. water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, and swelling property, increased with addition of legume flours. The physical analysis revealed that the diameter and height increased with the incorporation of legume flour. The results of the proximate composition showed that the A6 possesses highest percentage of proteins (13.42% and crude fat (22.90%, A5 contains maximum value of crude fiber (2.10% and DPPH radical scavenging activity (55.47%, A1 showed maximum moisture (10.60%, A2 total phenolic content (6.14 TAE mg/100 g, and A3 showed maximum ash (3.66%. Statistical results revealed that the addition of selected pulse flours and a combination of these whole flours do not have a significant effect (p > 0.05 on the sensory characteristics of cookies.

  8. Incorporating gravity into trace dynamics: the induced gravitational action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Stephen L.

    2013-10-01

    We study the incorporation of gravity into the trace dynamics framework for classical matrix-valued fields, from which we have proposed that quantum field theory is the emergent thermodynamics, with state vector reduction arising from fluctuation corrections to this thermodynamics. We show that the metric must be incorporated as a classical, not a matrix-valued, field, with the source for gravity the exactly covariantly conserved trace stress-energy tensor of the matter fields. We then study corrections to the classical gravitational action induced by the dynamics of the matrix-valued matter fields, by examining the average over the trace dynamics canonical ensemble of the matter field action, in the presence of a general background metric. Using constraints from global Weyl scaling and three-space general coordinate transformations, we show that to zeroth order in derivatives of the metric, the induced gravitational action in the preferred rest frame of the trace dynamics canonical ensemble must have the form \\begin{equation} \\fl\\Delta S=\\int d^4x (^{(4)}g)^{1/2}(g_{00})^{-2} A (g_{0i}g_{0j}g^{ij}/g_{00},D^ig_{ij}D^j/g_{00},g_{0i}D^i/g_{00} ) , \\end{equation} with Di defined through the co-factor expansion of (4)g by (4)g/(3)g = g00 + g0iDi, and with A(x, y, z) a general function of its three arguments. This action has ‘chameleon-like’ properties: for the Robertson-Walker cosmological metric, it exactly reduces to a cosmological constant, but for the Schwarzschild metric it diverges as (1 - 2M/r)-2 near the Schwarzschild radius, indicating that it may substantially affect the horizon structure.

  9. Towards incorporating epigenetic mechanisms into carcinogen identification and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herceg, Zdenko; Lambert, Marie-Pierre; van Veldhoven, Karin; Demetriou, Christiana; Vineis, Paolo; Smith, Martyn T; Straif, Kurt; Wild, Christopher P

    2013-09-01

    Remarkable progress in the field of epigenetics has turned academic, medical and public attention to the potential applications of these new advances in medicine and various fields of biomedical research. The result is a broader appreciation of epigenetic phenomena in the a etiology of common human diseases, most notably cancer. These advances also represent an exciting opportunity to incorporate epigenetics and epigenomics into carcinogen identification and safety assessment. Current epigenetic studies, including major international sequencing projects, are expected to generate information for establishing the 'normal' epigenome of tissues and cell types as well as the physiological variability of the epigenome against which carcinogen exposure can be assessed. Recently, epigenetic events have emerged as key mechanisms in cancer development, and while our search of the Monograph Volume 100 revealed that epigenetics have played a modest role in evaluating human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs so far, epigenetic data might play a pivotal role in the future. Here, we review (i) the current status of incorporation of epigenetics in carcinogen evaluation in the IARC Monographs Programme, (ii) potential modes of action for epigenetic carcinogens, (iii) current in vivo and in vitro technologies to detect epigenetic carcinogens, (iv) genomic regions and epigenetic modifications and their biological consequences and (v) critical technological and biological issues in assessment of epigenetic carcinogens. We also discuss the issues related to opportunities and challenges in the application of epigenetic testing in carcinogen identification and evaluation. Although the application of epigenetic assays in carcinogen evaluation is still in its infancy, important data are being generated and valuable scientific resources are being established that should catalyse future applications of epigenetic testing.

  10. Towards incorporating epigenetic mechanisms into carcinogen identification and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herceg, Zdenko

    2013-01-01

    Remarkable progress in the field of epigenetics has turned academic, medical and public attention to the potential applications of these new advances in medicine and various fields of biomedical research. The result is a broader appreciation of epigenetic phenomena in the a etiology of common human diseases, most notably cancer. These advances also represent an exciting opportunity to incorporate epigenetics and epigenomics into carcinogen identification and safety assessment. Current epigenetic studies, including major international sequencing projects, are expected to generate information for establishing the ‘normal’ epigenome of tissues and cell types as well as the physiological variability of the epigenome against which carcinogen exposure can be assessed. Recently, epigenetic events have emerged as key mechanisms in cancer development, and while our search of the Monograph Volume 100 revealed that epigenetics have played a modest role in evaluating human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs so far, epigenetic data might play a pivotal role in the future. Here, we review (i) the current status of incorporation of epigenetics in carcinogen evaluation in the IARC Monographs Programme, (ii) potential modes of action for epigenetic carcinogens, (iii) current in vivo and in vitro technologies to detect epigenetic carcinogens, (iv) genomic regions and epigenetic modifications and their biological consequences and (v) critical technological and biological issues in assessment of epigenetic carcinogens. We also discuss the issues related to opportunities and challenges in the application of epigenetic testing in carcinogen identification and evaluation. Although the application of epigenetic assays in carcinogen evaluation is still in its infancy, important data are being generated and valuable scientific resources are being established that should catalyse future applications of epigenetic testing. PMID:23749751

  11. 76 FR 69722 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Protection Strategies Incorporated

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... AGENCY Access to Confidential Business Information by Protection Strategies Incorporated AGENCY... access to the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) confidential business information and to provide notice that this contract has been extended until December 31, 2011. Protection Strategies Incorporated (PSI...

  12. 33 CFR 148.722 - Should the construction plan incorporate best available technology and recommended industry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... incorporate best available technology and recommended industry practices? 148.722 Section 148.722 Navigation... plan incorporate best available technology and recommended industry practices? Each applicant must... industry practices as directed in § 148.730. ...

  13. 75 FR 56096 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Industrial Economics Incorporated

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Access to Confidential Business Information by Industrial Economics Incorporated AGENCY... Economics Incorporated (IEI) of Cambridge, MA, to access information which has been submitted to EPA under...

  14. 75 FR 47318 - GE Asset Management Incorporated and GE Investment Distributors, Inc.; Notice of Application and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... COMMISSION GE Asset Management Incorporated and GE Investment Distributors, Inc.; Notice of Application and.... Applicants: GE Asset Management Incorporated (``GEAM'') and GE Investment Distributors, Inc. (``GEID... Management, Office of Investment Company Regulation). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The following is a temporary...

  15. Strontium and barium incorporation into freshwater bivalve shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liqiang; Schöne, Bernd R.

    2015-04-01

    Despite strong vital control, trace elements of bivalve shells can potentially serve as proxies of environmental change. However, to reconstruct past environments with the geochemical properties of the shells and determine the degree to which the element levels are biologically influenced, it is essential to experimentally determine the relationship between environmental variables and the element composition of the shells. In particular, the trace element geochemistry of freshwater bivalve shells has so far received little attention. Here, we present a controlled laboratory experiment that aimed at providing a better understanding of the influence of changing environmental variables on the incorporation of trace elements into freshwater bivalve shells. Under controlled conditions, Asian clams Corbicula fluminea were reared for 5 weeks in three sets of experiments: (1) different water temperature (10, 16, and 22° C) and different food levels (an equally mixed Scenedesmu quadricanda and Chlorella vulgaris at rations of 0.4, 2, 4, and 8 × 104 cells ml-1 d-1); (2) different water temperature (10, 16, and 22° C) and different element levels (Sr, Ba); (3) five sediment types (sand, slightly muddy sand, muddy sand, slightly sandy mud and mud). In the first set of experiments, shell Sr/Ca showed a significantly negative correlation with temperature, where Sr/Ca decreased linearly by about 1.6 to 2.1% per 1° C, but responded far more weakly to food availability. On the other hand, temperature and food availability affected shell Ba/Ca ratios, which potentially confounds the interpretation of Ba/Ca variations. Moreover, shell Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca exhibited a clearly negative dependence on shells growth rate that varied significantly among combinations of temperature and food availability. In the second set of experiments, shell Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca were positively and linearly related to water Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca for all temperatures. However, significantly negative effects of

  16. 75 FR 22630 - Nautilus, Inc., Currently Known as Med-Fit Systems Incorporated, Commercial Division, Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Employment and Training Administration Nautilus, Inc., Currently Known as Med-Fit Systems Incorporated.... was sold in September 2009 and is currently known as Med-Fit Systems, Incorporated. Some workers... insurance (UI) tax account under the name Med-Fit Systems, Incorporated. Accordingly, the Department is...

  17. Incorporation and University Governance: A Comparative Perspective from China and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Futao

    2006-01-01

    This article is mainly concerned with the impact of incorporation on changes in public sector higher education in both China and Japan since the 1990s. The article deals with the context and the major policies and processes concerning incorporation of the public sector in the two countries. It then examines influences exerted by incorporation on…

  18. 17 CFR 260.7a-29 - Incorporation of exhibits as such.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incorporation of exhibits as... Incorporation of exhibits as such. (a) Any exhibit or part thereof previously or concurrently filed with the...) and § 229.10(d) of this chapter, be incorporated by reference as an exhibit to any application...

  19. THE INCORPORATION OF RADIOACTIVITY FROM GLYCINE-C$sup 14$ BY MAMMALIAN SPERMATOZOA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, C.N.

    1962-05-15

    The metabolic pathways of glycine incorporation were investigated by biochemical and radibautographic methods. Results show that glycine is utilized hy bovine spermatoza and is incorporated into all fractions of the sperm cell. Incorporation into the nucleic acid fraction and especially into thymine indicates that there is a turnover in the desoxyribenucleic acid during storage of bovine spermatoza. (C.H.)

  20. A mathematical model for incorporating biofeedback into human postural control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersal Tulga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biofeedback of body motion can serve as a balance aid and rehabilitation tool. To date, mathematical models considering the integration of biofeedback into postural control have represented this integration as a sensory addition and limited their application to a single degree-of-freedom representation of the body. This study has two objectives: 1 to develop a scalable method for incorporating biofeedback into postural control that is independent of the model’s degrees of freedom, how it handles sensory integration, and the modeling of its postural controller; and 2 to validate this new model using multidirectional perturbation experimental results. Methods Biofeedback was modeled as an additional torque to the postural controller torque. For validation, this biofeedback modeling approach was applied to a vibrotactile biofeedback device and incorporated into a two-link multibody model with full-state-feedback control that represents the dynamics of bipedal stance. Average response trajectories of body sway and center of pressure (COP to multidirectional surface perturbations of subjects with vestibular deficits were used for model parameterization and validation in multiple perturbation directions and for multiple display resolutions. The quality of fit was quantified using average error and cross-correlation values. Results The mean of the average errors across all tactor configurations and perturbations was 0.24° for body sway and 0.39 cm for COP. The mean of the cross-correlation value was 0.97 for both body sway and COP. Conclusions The biofeedback model developed in this study is capable of capturing experimental response trajectory shapes with low average errors and high cross-correlation values in both the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions for all perturbation directions and spatial resolution display configurations considered. The results validate that biofeedback can be modeled as an additional

  1. Structural Modification in Carbon Nanotubes by Boron Incorporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handuja Sangeeta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have synthesized boron-incorporated carbon nanotubes (CNTs by decomposition of ferrocene and xylene in a thermal chemical vapor deposition set up using boric acid as the boron source. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy studies of the synthesized CNT samples showed that there was deterioration in crystallinity and improvement in alignment of the CNTs as the boron content in precursor solution increased from 0% to 15%. Raman analysis of these samples showed a shift of ~7 cm−1in wave number to higher side and broadening of the G band with increasing boron concentration along with an increase in intensity of the G band. Furthermore, there was an increase in the intensity of the D band along with a decrease in its wave number position with increase in boron content. We speculate that these structural modifications in the morphology and microstructure of CNTs might be due to the charge transfer from boron to the graphite matrix, resulting in shortening of the carbon–carbon bonds.

  2. In Vitro Biocompatibility of Endodontic Sealers Incorporating Antibacterial Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzhak Abramovitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main cause of endodontic disease is bacteria. Disinfection is presently achieved by cleaning the root canal system prior to obturation. Following setting, root canal filling is devoid of any antibacterial effect. Endodontic sealers with antimicrobial properties yet biocompatible may enhance root canal therapy. For this purpose, quaternized polyethylenimine nanoparticles which are antibacterial polymers, biocompatible, nonvolatile, and stable may be used. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of added QPEI on the cytotoxicity of AH Plus, Epiphany, and GuttaFlow endodontic sealers. The effect of these sealers on the proliferation of RAW 264.7 macrophage and L-929 fibroblast cell lines and on the production of TNFα from macrophages was examined. Cell vitality was evaluated using a colorimetric XTT assay. The presence of cytokines was determined by two-site ELISA. Results show that QPEI at 1% concentration does not impair the basic properties of the examined sealers in both macrophages and fibroblast cell lines. Incorporation of 1% QPEI into the sealers did not impair their biocompatibility. QPEI is a potential clinical candidate to improve antibacterial activity of sealers without increasing cytotoxicity.

  3. Novel sintered ceramic materials incorporated with EAF carbon steel slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayannis, V.; Ntampegliotis, K.; Lamprakopoulos, S.; Papapolymerou, G.; Spiliotis, X.

    2017-01-01

    In the present research, novel sintered clay-based ceramic materials containing electric arc furnace carbon steel slag (EAFC) as a useful admixture were developed and characterized. The environmentally safe management of steel industry waste by-products and their valorization as secondary resources into value-added materials towards circular economy have attracted much attention in the last years. EAF Carbon steel slag in particular, is generated during the manufacture of carbon steel. It is a solid residue mainly composed of rich-in- Fe, Ca and Si compounds. The experimental results show that the beneficial incorporation of lower percentages of EAFC up to 6%wt. into ceramics sintered at 950 °C is attained without significant variations in sintering behavior and physico-mechanical properties. Further heating up to 1100 °C strongly enhances the densification of the ceramic microstructures, thus reducing the porosity and strengthening their mechanical performance. On the other side, in terms of thermal insulation behavior as well as energy consumption savings and production cost alleviation, the optimum sintering temperature appears to be 950 °C.

  4. EVALUATION OF CHEMICALS INCORPORATED WOOD FIBRE CEMENT MATRIX PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MST. SADIA MAHZABIN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Wood fibre cement (WFC boards are well established commercially and widely used in many developed countries. The combination of the properties of two important materials, i.e., cement, and previously treated fibrous materials like wood or agricultural residues; which made up the board, contributed in the performance of the board as building material. In this work, the WFC matrix (WFCM samples are produced to determine the physical properties of WFCM such as the density and water absorption. The wood fibres are incorporated/treated with three different chemical additives; calcium formate (Ca(HCOO2, sodium silicate (Na2.SiO3 and magnesium chloride (MgCl2 prior to mixing with cement. The mechanical properties of the WFCM, with or without chemicals treatment of fibres, such as the compressive strength and flexural strength are evaluated. Three wood/cement ratios (50:50, 40:60, 30:70 are used and the percentages of water and accelerator were 80% and 3% based on the cement weight, respectively. Three moisture-conditioned samples; accelerated aging, dry and wet conditions are used for flexural test. The results reveal that the wood/cement ratio, chemical additives and moisture content had a marked influence on the physical and mechanical properties of the matrix. Finally, it has been shown that the 40:60 wood/cement ratio samples with prior chemicals treatment of the fibres that undergo accelerated aging conditioning achieve higher strength then dry and wet-conditioned boards.

  5. Incorporating Non-energy Benefits into Energy Savings Performance Contracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Gilligan, Donald; Singer, Terry

    2012-06-01

    This paper evaluates the issue of non-energy benefits within the context of the U.S. energy services company (ESCO) industry?a growing industry comprised of companies that provide energy savings and other benefits to customers through the use of performance-based contracting. Recent analysis has found that ESCO projects in the public/institutional sector, especially at K-12 schools, are using performance-based contracting, at the behest of the customers, to partially -- but not fully -- offset substantial accumulated deferred maintenance needs (e.g., asbestos removal, wiring) and measures that have very long paybacks (roof replacement). This trend is affecting the traditional economic measures policymakers use to evaluate success on a benefit to cost basis. Moreover, the value of non-energy benefits which can offset some or all of the cost of the non-energy measures -- including operations and maintenance (O&M) savings, avoided capital costs, and tradable pollution emissions allowances-- are not always incorporated into a formal cost-effectiveness analysis of ESCO projects. Nonenergy benefits are clearly important to customers, but state and federal laws that govern the acceptance of these types of benefits for ESCO projects vary widely (i.e., 0-100percent of allowable savings can come from one or more non-energy categories). Clear and consistent guidance on what types of savings are recognized in Energy Savings agreements under performance contracts is necessary, particularly where customers are searching for deep energy efficiency gains in the building sector.

  6. Incorporating advanced EMI technologies in operational munitions characterization surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonathan S.; Shubiditze, Fridon; Pasion, Leonard; Schultz, Gregory; Chung, Heesoo

    2011-06-01

    The presence of unexploded ordnance (UXO), discarded military munitions (DMM), and munitions constituents (MC) at both active and formerly used defense sites (FUDS) has created a necessity for production-level efforts to remove these munitions and explosives of concern (MEC). Ordnance and explosives (OE) and UXO removal operations typically employ electromagnetic induction (EMI) or magnetometer surveys to identify potential MEC hazards in previously determined areas of interest. A major cost factor in these operations is the significant allocation of resources for the excavation of harmless objects associated with fragmentation, scrap, or geological clutter. Recent advances in classification and discrimination methodologies, as well as the development of sensor technologies that fully exploit physics-based analysis, have demonstrated promise for significantly reducing the false alarm rate due to MEC related clutter. This paper identifies some of the considerations for and the challenges associated with implementing these discrimination methodologies and advanced sensor technologies in production-level surveys. Specifically, we evaluate the implications of deploying an advanced multi-axis EMI sensor at a variety of MEC sites, the discrimination methodologies that leverage the data produced by this sensor, and the potential for productivity increase that could be realized by incorporating this advanced technology as part of production protocol.

  7. Incorporating multiple ecological criteria in classical zero one selection algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Memtsas

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Avifauna on Greek wetland sites is used as a model for the implementation of the Set Covering Problem in selecting nature reserves. Three site conservation values, which depend on species presence, are used as selection criteria. Their calculation is based upon species richness, species rarity and species-danger status. The conservation values must be inserted in the linear programming problem’s objective function by the form of weighting factors. Optimal solutions according to the three ecological criteria are produced. These solutions belong to the set of alternative optimal solutions of the basic Set Covering Problem with no other criterion taken into account except that of the whole species-list coverage. The set of alternative optimal solutions is generated by the explicit exclusion method. The relative value of goal programming and weighing up-criteria methods in producing a unique solution based on the three criteria simultaneously is assessed. Both methods coincide with the same alternative solution that is thus regarded as the final optimal one incorporating all the three ecological criteria.

  8. Incorporating Genetics into Your Studies: A Guide for Social Scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle eDick

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThere has been a surge of interest in recent years in incorporating genetic components into on-going longitudinal, developmental studies and related psychological studies. While this represents an exciting new direction in developmental science, much of the research on genetic topics in developmental science does not reflect the most current practice in genetics. This is likely due, in part, to the rapidly changing landscape of the field of genetics, and the difficulty this presents for developmental scientists who are trying to learn this new area. In this review, we present an overview of the paradigm shifts that have occurred in genetics and we introduce the reader to basic genetic methodologies. We present our view of the current stage of research ongoing at the intersection of genetics and social science, and we provide recommendations for how we could do better. We also address a number of issues that social scientists face as they integrate genetics into their projects, including choice of a study design (candidate gene versus genome-wide association versus sequencing, different methods of DNA collection, and special considerations involved in the analysis of genotypic data. Through this review, we hope to equip social scientists with a deeper understanding of the many considerations that go into genetics research, in an effort to foster more meaningful cross-disciplinary initiatives.

  9. Enhanced bioactivity of glass ionomer cement by incorporating calcium silicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Song; Cai, Yixiao; Engqvist, Håkan; Xia, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GIC) are known as a non-bioactive dental cement. During setting the GIC have an acidic pH, driven by the acrylic acid component. It is a challenge to make GIC alkaline without disturbing its mechanical properties. One strategy was to add slowly reacting systems with an alkaline pH. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possibility of forming a bioactive dental material based on the combination of glass ionomer cement and calcium silicates. Two types of GIC were used as control. Wollastonite (CS also denoted β-CaSiO3) or Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) was incorporated into the 2 types of GIC. The material formulations' setting time, compressive strength, pH and bioactivity were compared between modified GIC and GIC control. Apatite crystals were found on the surfaces of the modified cements but not on the control GIC. The compressive strength of the cement remained with the addition of 20% calcium silicate or 20% MTA after one day immersion. In addition, the compressive strength of GIC modified with 20% MTA had been increased during the 14 d immersion (p < 0 .05).

  10. Immunology teaching by incorporating knowledge from theater and music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Elisa Ferreira Almeida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Immunology knowledge is important to therapeutic prevention of several diseases. The aim of this study was present a teaching methodology of Immunology and verify its efficacy as the knowledge acquisition by the participants of an event. To assess the progress of knowledge by the participants as well the use of the play and sung music, each participant fill a questionnaire, containing ten questions, before and after the presentation. The results were evaluated by paired T test at 5%. In both types there was knowledge incorporation after the play activity because the notes after the event were statistically higher. The participants remained attentive and praised the event. The knowledge showed by most of participants was considered lower and regular before the event and after the ludic activities they showed higher grades which categorized knowledge as regular and high. It was concluded that the methodology used contributed with knowledge acquisition and could contribute with the cultural and social education of the participants.

  11. Incorporation of water in pyrope: a first principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manga, V. R.; Mookherjee, M.; Muralidharan, K.

    2014-12-01

    Pyrope (Mg3Al2Si3O12) rich garnet is the most important secondary mineral phase with volume fractions ranging between 20 % in the shallow upper mantle to 40 % in the lower part of upper mantle. The volume fractions of garnet in subducted oceanic crusts are as high as 80 %. However, our understanding of the incorporation of water in garnet as proton defect is rather limited. Experimental studies conducted at pressures and temperatures relevant to the deep lower mantle have resulted in wide range of water contents ranging between 0 wt % to ~ 0.8 wt %. In a pyriolyte composition representative of the upper mantle, unlike olivine (Mg2SiO4), which remains largely iso-chemical upon compression, garnet undergoes solid solution with pyroxene (MgSiO3) and as a result there is a continuous evolution of the chemistry of garnet as a function of pressure. This complicates the analysis of proton defects using conventional thermodynamics expressing water solubility as a function of water fugacity, oxide activity, and activation volume. To circumvent this issue, we use first principles simulations to explore the relative energetics of the formation of protons in Mg, Al, and Si sites. Preliminary results at ambient conditions indicate positive enthalpy changes for the proton defects in all the sites, with silicon site being the most favorable. We intend to explore the effect of pressure and temperature on the defect formation energies. Acknowledgement- MM is supported by the US National Science Foundation grant (EAR-1250477).

  12. Speed Control of Multiphase Cage Induction Motors Incorporating Supply Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drozdowski Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the control possibility of the multiphase cage induction motors having number of phases greater than 3. These motors have additional properties for speed control that distinguish them from the standard 3 phase motors: operation at various sequences of supplying voltages due to the inverter control and possible operation with few open-circuited phases. For each supply sequence different no load speeds at the same frequency can be obtained. This feature extends the motor application for miscellaneous drive demands including vector or scalar control. This depends mainly on the type of the stator winding for a given number of phases, since the principle of motor operation is based on co-operation of higher harmonics of magnetic field. Examples of operation are presented for a 9-phase motor, though general approach has been discussed. This motor was fed by a voltage source inverter at field oriented control with forced currents. The mathematical model of the motor was reduced to the form incorporating all most important physical features and appropriate for the control law formulation. The operation was illustrated for various supply sequences for “healthy” motor and for the motor operating at one phase broken. The obtained results have shown that parasitic influence of harmonic fields interaction has negligible influence on motor operation with respect to the useful coupling for properly designed stator winding.

  13. Exponential growth of LBL films with incorporated inorganic sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsiadlo, Paul; Michel, Marc; Lee, Jungwoo; Verploegen, Eric; Wong Shi Kam, Nadine; Ball, Vincent; Lee, Jaebeom; Qi, Ying; Hart, A John; Hammond, Paula T; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2008-06-01

    The fastest growth pattern of layer-by-layer (LBL) assembled films is exponential LBL (e-LBL), which has both fundamental and practical importance. It is associated with "in-and-out" diffusion of flexible polymers and thus was considered to be impossible for films containing clay sheets with strong barrier function, preventing diffusion. Here, we demonstrate that e-LBL for inorganic sheets is possible in a complex tricomponent film of poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI), poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), and Na(+)-montmorillonite (MTM). This system displayed clear e-LBL patterns in terms of both initial accumulation of materials and unusually thick individual bilayers later in the deposition process with film thicknesses reaching 200 microm for films composed of 200 pairs of layers. Successful incorporation of MTM layers was observed by scanning electron microscopy and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Surprisingly, the growth rate was found to be nearly identical in films with and without clay layers, which suggests fast permeation/reptation of polyelectrolytes between the nanosheets during the "in-and-out" diffusion of polymer. In considering these findings, e-LBL growth property is expected for a wide array of available inorganic nanoscale components and have a potential to greatly expand the e-LBL field and LBL field altogether. The large thickness and rapid growth of the films affords fast preparation of nanostructured materials which is essential for multiple practical applications ranging from optical devices to ultrastrong composites.

  14. Incorporation of massage into psychotherapy: an integrative and conjoint approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadzki, Paul; Parekh-Bhurke, Sheetal

    2011-02-01

    This article presents the potential integration of psychotherapy and massage when considering the essence of their beneficial effects. The essence of this model of practice is multifaceted, combining principles from anatomy, physiology and neuroscience with psychotherapy to benefit patient care. It has been advocated that possessing multidisciplinary knowledge from these areas of science enhances psychotherapists' holistic care of their depressive patients. A narrative review of the literatures and a qualitative, conceptual synthesis has been performed to create a new theoretical-pragmatic construct. This article introduces the concept of massage practice as a part of psychotherapy practice and presents the potential integration of psychotherapeutic knowledge with clinical decision-making and the management of depressive symptoms. The authors emphasize the usefulness of multi- and interdisciplinary knowledge in the psychotherapeutic process and explain how this knowledge might be extrapolated and incorporated into theoretical and practical settings to benefit depressive patients. The justification for this concept is also presented. The principles set out in this article may be a useful source of information for psychotherapists concerned about their patients' holistic well-being in addition to the psychopathology for which they have sought treatment. Researchers and psychotherapists can obtain valuable and additional knowledge through cross-fertilization of ideas across the arguments presented here.

  15. Improving Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation by incorporating nondominated solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kian Sheng; Ibrahim, Zuwairie; Buyamin, Salinda; Ahmad, Anita; Naim, Faradila; Ghazali, Kamarul Hawari; Mokhtar, Norrima

    2013-01-01

    The Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm is widely used to solve multiobjective optimisation problems. This algorithm optimises one objective using a swarm of particles where their movements are guided by the best solution found by another swarm. However, the best solution of a swarm is only updated when a newly generated solution has better fitness than the best solution at the objective function optimised by that swarm, yielding poor solutions for the multiobjective optimisation problems. Thus, an improved Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm is introduced by incorporating the nondominated solutions as the guidance for a swarm rather than using the best solution from another swarm. In this paper, the performance of improved Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm is investigated using performance measures such as the number of nondominated solutions found, the generational distance, the spread, and the hypervolume. The results suggest that the improved Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm has impressive performance compared with the conventional Vector Evaluated Particle Swarm Optimisation algorithm.

  16. ZAP! Adapted: Incorporating design in the introductory electromagnetism lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, J. A.

    2002-04-01

    In the last decade the Accreditation Board of Engineering and Technology(ABET) significantly reformed the criteria by which engineering programs are accredited. The new criteria are called Engineering Criteria 2000 (EC2000). Not surprisingly, engineering design constitutes an essential component of these criteria. The Engineering Physics program at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) underwent an ABET general review and site visit in the fall of 2000. In preparation for this review and as part of a campus-wide curriculum reform the Physics Department was challenged to include elements of design in its introductory laboratories. As part of the background research for this reform, several laboratory programs were reviewed including traditional and studio modes as well as a course used by Cal Tech and MIT called "ZAP!" which incorporates design activities well-aligned with the EC2000 criteria but in a nontraditional delivery mode. CSM has adapted several ZAP! experiments to a traditional laboratory format while attempting to preserve significant design experiences. The new laboratory forms an important component of the reformed course which attempts to respect the psychological principles of learner-based education. This talk reviews the reformed introductory electromagnetism course and how the laboratories are integrated into the pedagogy along with design activities. In their new form the laboratories can be readily adopted by physics departments using traditional delivery formats.

  17. Chitosan-incorporated different nanocomposite HPMC films for food preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmuga Priya, D.; Suriyaprabha, R.; Yuvakkumar, R.; Rajendran, V.

    2014-02-01

    Chitosan nanoparticles were synthesized by cross-linking with sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) using ionic gelation method and casted into hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) films. XRD, FTIR, and UV-Vis spectra showed the corresponding phase, characteristic peaks of CS-TPP functional groups, and transmittance of the films, respectively. Oleic acid, TiO2, neem powder, and Ag of equal ratio were added as an additive to the optimized 1 wt% of chitosan-HPMC films and studied for its mechanical, solubility, thermal, structural, and antimicrobial property. The better physio-chemical and biological properties are achieved in the films incorporated with TiO2 and neem. The characterized films were directly tested for the preservation of grape and plums and for their decay index. Polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activity of the preserved fruits showed that grape and plums remained unchanged, respectively, for 10 days and for 3 weeks. This study reveals that shelf life of the grape using TiO2- and neem-doped CS-HPMC films was extended up to 10 days with good sensory and textural qualities compared with other films.

  18. Tantalum strength model incorporating temperature, strain rate and pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hojun; Battaile, Corbett; Brown, Justin; Lane, Matt

    Tantalum is a body-centered-cubic (BCC) refractory metal that is widely used in many applications in high temperature, strain rate and pressure environments. In this work, we propose a physically-based strength model for tantalum that incorporates effects of temperature, strain rate and pressure. A constitutive model for single crystal tantalum is developed based on dislocation kink-pair theory, and calibrated to measurements on single crystal specimens. The model is then used to predict deformations of single- and polycrystalline tantalum. In addition, the proposed strength model is implemented into Sandia's ALEGRA solid dynamics code to predict plastic deformations of tantalum in engineering-scale applications at extreme conditions, e.g. Taylor impact tests and Z machine's high pressure ramp compression tests, and the results are compared with available experimental data. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  19. Incorporation of Latino Immigrants into the American Party System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O. Sears

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Are Latinos, especially immigrants, less partisan than other American ethnic groups? In the 2012 Latino Immigrant National Election Study and American National Election Studies datasets, a greater proportion of Latinos self-categorize as partisans on the standard measure of party identification than previously theorized. Only non-naturalized Latino immigrants showed unusual nonincorporation into the party system. Both continuing subjective engagement in the politics of their country of origin and nonpolitical assimilation in the United States were associated with greater partisan self-categorization, even controlling for relevant demographics. However, self-categorization may underestimate incorporation into the party system by overlooking latent partisan preferences. Indeed, Latino immigrants show quite crystallized attitudes toward the parties and their candidates, even those who did not self-categorize as Democrats or Republicans. Only non-naturalized immigrants show notably low levels of partisan crystallization. Most seemingly unincorporated Latino immigrants may simply be in the early stages of developing partisan identities rather than deliberately standing outside the party system.

  20. Enhanced bioactivity of glass ionomer cement by incorporating calcium silicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Song; Cai, Yixiao; Engqvist, Håkan; Xia, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Glass ionomer cements (GIC) are known as a non-bioactive dental cement. During setting the GIC have an acidic pH, driven by the acrylic acid component. It is a challenge to make GIC alkaline without disturbing its mechanical properties. One strategy was to add slowly reacting systems with an alkaline pH. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possibility of forming a bioactive dental material based on the combination of glass ionomer cement and calcium silicates. Two types of GIC were used as control. Wollastonite (CS also denoted β-CaSiO3) or Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) was incorporated into the 2 types of GIC. The material formulations’ setting time, compressive strength, pH and bioactivity were compared between modified GIC and GIC control. Apatite crystals were found on the surfaces of the modified cements but not on the control GIC. The compressive strength of the cement remained with the addition of 20% calcium silicate or 20% MTA after one day immersion. In addition, the compressive strength of GIC modified with 20% MTA had been increased during the 14 d immersion (p < 0 .05). PMID:26787304

  1. Health care in small prisons: incorporating high-quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Jean-Pierre; Casillas, Alejandra; Mary, Gérard; Secretan, Anne-Dominique; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Wolff, Hans

    2013-01-01

    In the past, health management in Geneva's six post-trial prisons had been variable and inconsistent. In 2008, the unit of penitentiary medicine of the Geneva University Hospitals was mandated to re-organize and provide health care at all six prison facilities. The specific aim of this paper is to outline the example as a practical solution to some of the common challenges in unifying the structure and process of health services across multiple small facilities, while meeting European prison health and local quality standards. Geneva's post-trial prisons are small and close to one another in geographical proximity - ideal conditions for the construction of a health mobile team (HMT). This multidisciplinary mobile team operated like a community ambulatory care model; it was progressively launched in all prison facilities in Geneva. The authors incorporated an implementation strategy where health providers partnered with prison and community stakeholders in the health delivery model's development and adaption process. The model's strategic initiatives are described along the following areas, in light of other international prison health activity and prior care models: access to a health care professional, equivalence of care, patient consent, confidentiality, humanitarian interventions, and professional competence and independence. From the perspective of the HMT members, the authors provide the "lessons learned" through this experience, especially to providers who are working on prison health services reform and coordination improvement. The paper particularly stresses the importance of partnering with community health stakeholders and prison staff, a key component to the approach.

  2. Divine Intersections: Hindu Ritual and the Incorporation of Religious Others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathinka Frøystad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article throws the study of multireligious sociality in Western contexts into sharp relief by examining the case of India. Much of the current scholarship of cosmopolitanism and multiculturalism tends to assume that religious beliefs, practices and spaces make the respective religious communities close entirely in upon themselves. While this assumption may hold true for most of the Western settings we study, it does not necessarily give an accurate description of the conditions for multireligious sociality in other parts of the world. In India, for instance, religious boundaries still display signs of malleability despite the religious politicization and occasional interreligious violence of the past decades. Drawing on recent anthropological research, this article shows that people of different religious denominations still visit Sufi shrines, that Hindus still incorporate ritual elements and divine beings from the religious traditions of their Others and that they exercise a wide personal choice in terms of spiritual activities, thus enabling spiritual paths that cross in and out of Hinduism. In a Hindu context rituals do not necessarily have an insulating effect; they may also provide points of intersection that open up toward the Other, thus fostering familiarity and recognition. Similar arguments have been made for Buddhist settings. The question is thus whether the current scholarship of cosmopolitanism may entail a certain monotheistic bias that needs to accounted for, something that is of particular importance when theorizing in ways that make universal claims.

  3. Slavic Village: incorporating active living into community development through partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Emily K; Scofield, Jennifer L

    2009-12-01

    The Slavic Village neighborhood in Cleveland, Ohio, is a diverse community of 30,524 residents that is struggling economically yet strong in tradition. The neighborhood is located just south of downtown and adjacent to the city's industrial valley. Slavic Village Development (SVD) works with local and state partners to improve the quality of life for its residents, including low-income and market-rate housing developments, economic development, community organizing, and greenspace planning. Using the Active Living by Design framework (ALbD), SVD developed strong partnerships to address preparation, promotions, programs, policy, and physical projects. Efforts were focused on Safe Routes to School, neighborhood activities, asset mapping, worksite wellness, and social marketing. The ALbD project changed both the physical environment of Slavic Village and its marketed image. The initiative built cross-disciplinary partnerships that leveraged individual strengths to implement strategies to make Slavic Village a vibrant, healthy, family-friendly neighborhood that promotes active living. There is a strong connection between health and community development. When partners from multiple disciplines work together on a common goal, it is easier to leverage resources and create change. Resource development will always be a challenge. Through the leadership of SVD and its strong ties in the community, the ALbD initiative has re-engaged residents and businesses in efforts to restore the vitality of the community. The partnership in Cleveland has successfully incorporated health into community development, a model of collaboration that can be replicated in other communities.

  4. Incorporating Feature-Based Annotations into Automatically Generated Knowledge Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, L. I.; Lederman, J. I.; Aldridge, K. D.

    2006-12-01

    Earth Science Markup Language (ESML) is efficient and effective in representing scientific data in an XML- based formalism. However, features of the data being represented are not accounted for in ESML. Such features might derive from events (e.g., a gap in data collection due to instrument servicing), identifications (e.g., a scientifically interesting area/volume in an image), or some other source. In order to account for features in an ESML context, we consider them from the perspective of annotation, i.e., the addition of information to existing documents without changing the originals. Although it is possible to extend ESML to incorporate feature-based annotations internally (e.g., by extending the XML schema for ESML), there are a number of complicating factors that we identify. Rather than pursuing the ESML-extension approach, we focus on an external representation for feature-based annotations via XML Pointer Language (XPointer). In previous work (Lumb &Aldridge, HPCS 2006, IEEE, doi:10.1109/HPCS.2006.26), we have shown that it is possible to extract relationships from ESML-based representations, and capture the results in the Resource Description Format (RDF). Thus we explore and report on this same requirement for XPointer-based annotations of ESML representations. As in our past efforts, the Global Geodynamics Project (GGP) allows us to illustrate with a real-world example this approach for introducing annotations into automatically generated knowledge representations.

  5. Barriers, activities and participation: Incorporating ICF into service planning datasets.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donovan, MA

    2009-05-21

    Purpose. Guided by the World Health Organization\\'s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), a measure of activity and participation (MAP) was developed and incorporated into the National Physical and Sensory Disability Database in Ireland. The aims of this article are to investigate and explore the relationship between the barriers, participation restriction and functioning levels experienced by people with disabilities. Method. Seven thousand five hundred and sixty-two personal interviews with people meeting specific eligibility criteria for registering onto the database were conducted across four health service executive regions in Ireland. Results. Overall, differences in barriers, participation restriction and activity limitations experienced by people with different types of disabilities were found to be significant. Furthermore, low functioning and experience of barriers were indicators of participation restriction. Conclusions. This article has shown that elements of the ICF have been successfully operationalised in a service planning tool through the development of the MAP. This provides a more holistic view of disability and will enable the impact of service interventions to be measured over time.

  6. Incorporating Behavioral Techniques into a Serious Videogame for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Debbe

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about how to design serious videogames for children. The purpose of this article is to describe how behavior change techniques promoting self-regulation were incorporated into a serious videogame to help children consume more fruits and vegetables (FVs) and the extent to which these techniques were used by players. A secondary goal is to contribute to the body of scientific knowledge regarding how to design effective serious videogames for children. This research examines the gameplay data from an effective 10-episode online serious videogame promoting FV consumption to preadolescent children in the United States (roughly 9-11-year-olds). Children participated in the self-regulation components. Modifications to reduce potential cognitive overload and inform future game design were identified. This research provided suggestive evidence that behavior change techniques promoting self-regulation can be successfully integrated into a serious videogame for children without detracting from game appeal. It also emphasizes the importance of formative research to the design of an appealing game where children understand and can successfully perform the behavior change procedures.

  7. Incorporating Primary Scientific Literature in Middle and High School Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C. Fankhauser

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Primary literature is the most reliable and direct source of scientific information, but most middle school and high school science is taught using secondary and tertiary sources. One reason for this is that primary science articles can be difficult to access and interpret for young students and for their teachers, who may lack exposure to this type of writing. The Journal of Emerging Investigators (JEI was created to fill this gap and provide primary research articles that can be accessed and read by students and their teachers. JEI is a non-profit, online, open-access, peer-reviewed science journal dedicated to mentoring and publishing the scientific research of middle and high school students. JEI articles provide reliable scientific information that is written by students and therefore at a level that their peers can understand. For student-authors who publish in JEI, the review process and the interaction with scientists provide invaluable insight into the scientific process. Moreover, the resulting repository of free, student-written articles allows teachers to incorporate age-appropriate primary literature into the middle and high school science classroom. JEI articles can be used for teaching specific scientific content or for teaching the process of the scientific method itself. The critical thinking skills that students learn by engaging with the primary literature will be invaluable for the development of a scientifically-literate public.

  8. Incorporating modelled subglacial hydrology into inversions for basal drag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Koziol

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A key challenge in modelling coupled ice-flow–subglacial hydrology is initializing the state and parameters of the system. We address this problem by presenting a workflow for initializing these values at the start of a summer melt season. The workflow depends on running a subglacial hydrology model for the winter season, when the system is not forced by meltwater inputs, and ice velocities can be assumed constant. Key parameters of the winter run of the subglacial hydrology model are determined from an initial inversion for basal drag using a linear sliding law. The state of the subglacial hydrology model at the end of winter is incorporated into an inversion of basal drag using a non-linear sliding law which is a function of water pressure. We demonstrate this procedure in the Russell Glacier area and compare the output of the linear sliding law with two non-linear sliding laws. Additionally, we compare the modelled winter hydrological state to radar observations and find that it is in line with summer rather than winter observations.

  9. Improving the Hydrophobicity of ZnO by PTFE Incorporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Srivastava

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to obtain a zinc oxide- (ZnO- based superhydrophobic surface in a simple and cost-effective manner. Chemical immersion deposition being simple and economical has been adopted to develop modified ZnO coating on glass substrate. Several modifications of ZnO like treatment with alkanoic acid (stearic acid and fluoroalkylsilane to tune the surface wettability (hydrophobicity were attempted. The effect of thermal treatment on the hydrophobic performance was also studied. It was observed that thermal treatment at 70°C for 16 hrs followed by immersion in stearic acid resulted in high water contact angle (WCA, that is, a superhydrophobic surface. Thus, a modified ZnO superhydrophobic surface involves the consumption of large amount of electrical energy and time. Hence, the alternate involved the incorporation of low surface energy fluoropolymer polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE in the ZnO coating. The immersion deposited ZnO-PTFE composite coating on modification with either stearic acid or fluoroalkylsilane resulted in a better superhydrophobic surface. The coatings were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM for the surface morphology. It was found that microstructure of the coating was influenced by the additives employed. A flower-like morphology comprising of needle-like structure arranged in a radial manner was exhibited by the superhydrophobic coating.

  10. Carbopol-Incorporated Thermoreversible Gel for Intranasal Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabagar Balakrishnan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the preparation and evaluation of a poloxamer 407 (P407-based thermoreversible gel using Carbopol 934P (C934P as a mucoadhesive polymer and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD for enhancing the aqueous solubility and intranasal absorption of fexofenadine hydrochloride (FXD HCl. The prepared gels were characterized by gelation temperature, viscoelasticity, and drug release profile. Thermoreversibility of P407/C934P gel was demonstrated by rheological studies. The incorporation of carbopol into P407 gel also reduced the amounts of drug released from the gel formulations (p < 0.05. In vivo pharmacokinetic results of the prepared gel formulations in rabbits (at 0.5 mg/kg dose showed that the relative bioavailability of drug from P407/C934P gel was 11.3 and 2.7-fold higher than those of drug solution and P407 gel group, respectively. These findings suggested that developed thermoreversible gels could be used as promising dosage forms to improve intranasal drug absorption.

  11. Carbopol-incorporated thermoreversible gel for intranasal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Prabagar; Park, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Chung-Kil; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Hahn, Tae-Wook; Song, Ki-Won; Cho, Hyun-Jong

    2015-03-04

    The present study describes the preparation and evaluation of a poloxamer 407 (P407)-based thermoreversible gel using Carbopol 934P (C934P) as a mucoadhesive polymer and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) for enhancing the aqueous solubility and intranasal absorption of fexofenadine hydrochloride (FXD HCl). The prepared gels were characterized by gelation temperature, viscoelasticity, and drug release profile. Thermoreversibility of P407/C934P gel was demonstrated by rheological studies. The incorporation of carbopol into P407 gel also reduced the amounts of drug released from the gel formulations (p < 0.05). In vivo pharmacokinetic results of the prepared gel formulations in rabbits (at 0.5 mg/kg dose) showed that the relative bioavailability of drug from P407/C934P gel was 11.3 and 2.7-fold higher than those of drug solution and P407 gel group, respectively. These findings suggested that developed thermoreversible gels could be used as promising dosage forms to improve intranasal drug absorption.

  12. Magnesium incorporated bentonite clay for defluoridation of drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakre, Dilip; Rayalu, Sadhana; Kawade, Raju [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI-CSIR), Nagpur 440020 (India); Meshram, Siddharth [Department of Chemistry, Laxminarayan Institute of Technology (LIT), RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur (India); Subrt, J. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, ASC, Rez (Czech Republic); Labhsetwar, Nitin, E-mail: nk_labhsetwar@neeri.res.in [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI-CSIR), Nagpur 440020 (India)

    2010-08-15

    Low cost bentonite clay was chemically modified using magnesium chloride in order to enhance its fluoride removal capacity. The magnesium incorporated bentonite (MB) was characterized by using XRD and SEM techniques. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted to study and optimize various operational parameters such as adsorbent dose, contact time, pH, effect of co-ions and initial fluoride concentration. It was observed that the MB works effectively over wide range of pH and showed a maximum fluoride removal capacity of 2.26 mg g{sup -1} at an initial fluoride concentration of 5 mg L{sup -1}, which is much better than the unmodified bentonite. The experimental data fitted well into Langmuir adsorption isotherm and follows pseudo-first-order kinetics. Thermodynamic study suggests that fluoride adsorption on MB is reasonably spontaneous and an endothermic process. MB showed significantly high fluoride removal in synthetic water as compared to field water. Desorption study of MB suggest that almost all the loaded fluoride was desorbed ({approx}97%) using 1 M NaOH solution however maximum fluoride removal decreases from 95.47 to 73 (%) after regeneration. From the experimental results, it may be inferred that chemical modification enhances the fluoride removal efficiency of bentonite and it works as an effective adsorbent for defluoridation of water.

  13. Magnesium incorporated bentonite clay for defluoridation of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakre, Dilip; Rayalu, Sadhana; Kawade, Raju; Meshram, Siddharth; Subrt, J; Labhsetwar, Nitin

    2010-08-15

    Low cost bentonite clay was chemically modified using magnesium chloride in order to enhance its fluoride removal capacity. The magnesium incorporated bentonite (MB) was characterized by using XRD and SEM techniques. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted to study and optimize various operational parameters such as adsorbent dose, contact time, pH, effect of co-ions and initial fluoride concentration. It was observed that the MB works effectively over wide range of pH and showed a maximum fluoride removal capacity of 2.26 mgg(-1) at an initial fluoride concentration of 5 mg L(-1), which is much better than the unmodified bentonite. The experimental data fitted well into Langmuir adsorption isotherm and follows pseudo-first-order kinetics. Thermodynamic study suggests that fluoride adsorption on MB is reasonably spontaneous and an endothermic process. MB showed significantly high fluoride removal in synthetic water as compared to field water. Desorption study of MB suggest that almost all the loaded fluoride was desorbed ( approximately 97%) using 1M NaOH solution however maximum fluoride removal decreases from 95.47 to 73 (%) after regeneration. From the experimental results, it may be inferred that chemical modification enhances the fluoride removal efficiency of bentonite and it works as an effective adsorbent for defluoridation of water. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Studying and Incorporating Efficiency into Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukejohn W. Day

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency is defined as the use of resources in such a way as to maximize the production of goods and services. Improving efficiency has been the focus of management in many industries; however, it has not been until recently that incorporating efficiency models into healthcare has occurred. In particular, the study and development of improvement projects aimed at enhancing efficiency in GI have been growing rapidly in recent years. This focus on improving efficiency in GI has been spurred by the dramatic rise in the demand for endoscopic procedures as well as the rising number of insured patients requiring GI care coupled at the same time with limited resources in terms of staffing and space in endoscopy centers. This paper will critically review the history of efficiency in endoscopy centers, first by looking at other healthcare industries that have extensively studied and improved efficiency in their fields, examine a number of proposed efficiency metrics and benchmarks in endoscopy centers, and finally discuss opportunities where endoscopy centers could improve their efficiency.

  15. Imagery rescripting: Is incorporation of the most aversive scenes necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibbets, Pauline; Arntz, Arnoud

    2016-01-01

    During imagery rescripting (ImRs) an aversive memory is relived and transformed to have a more positive outcome. ImRs is frequently applied in psychological treatment and is known to reduce intrusions and distress of the memory. However, little is known about the necessity to incorporate the central aversive parts of the memory in ImRs. To examine this necessity one hundred participants watched an aversive film and were subsequently randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions: ImRs including the aversive scenes (Late ImRs), ImRs without the aversive scenes (Early ImRs), imaginal exposure (IE) or a control condition (Cont). Participants in the IE intervention reported the highest distress levels during the intervention; Cont resulted in the lowest levels of self-reported distress. For the intrusion frequency, only the late ImRs resulted in fewer intrusions compared to the Cont condition; Early ImRs produced significantly more intrusions than the Late ImRs or IE condition. Finally, the intrusions of the Late ImRs condition were reported as less vivid compared to the other conditions. To conclude, it seems beneficial including aversive scenes in ImRs after an analogue trauma induction.

  16. Incorporating Service Learning into the Introductory Astronomy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, K.

    2002-05-01

    The introductory Astronomy course can be enriched by adding a service learning component to it. This enables students to interact with and educate the general public about matters of outer space. At Slippery Rock University we have incorporated this idea into our Astronomy and Space Science courses. Working in groups, the students do a presentation which is often interdisciplinary. Frequently the department gets requests from schools to do a show specifically tailored to a topic like the solar system or constellations. Such projects are beneficial to students in many ways. They demand a thorough knowledge of the subject matter so as to communicate to the audience in a clear and nontechnical manner. The students also experience first hand the difficulties involved in coordinating a group effort. They learn to take responsibility for their allocated part and how to combine effectively to make the entire show a success. Interacting with various age groups demands a versatility in planning content and public speaking skills not easily available elsewhere in a traditional education. Our planetarium facilities help in attracting diverse audiences from preschoolers to senior citizens. Performance in these shows constitutes twenty five percent of course grade. Feedback from audience groups helps refine future shows by subsequent student cohorts.

  17. Enhanced Statistical Estimation of Air Temperature Incorporating Nighttime Light Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhao Chen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Near surface air temperature (Ta is one of the most critical variables in climatology, hydrology, epidemiology, and environmental health. In situ measurements are not efficient for characterizing spatially heterogeneous Ta, while remote sensing is a powerful tool to break this limitation. This study proposes a mapping framework for daily mean Ta using an enhanced empirical regression method based on remote sensing data. It differs from previous studies in three aspects. First, nighttime light data is introduced as a predictor (besides land surface temperature, normalized difference vegetation index, impervious surface area, black sky albedo, normalized difference water index, elevation, and duration of daylight considering the urbanization-induced Ta increase over a large area. Second, independent components are extracted using principal component analysis considering the correlations among the above predictors. Third, a composite sinusoidal coefficient regression is developed considering the dynamic Ta-predictor relationship. This method was performed at 333 weather stations in China during 2001–2012. Evaluation shows overall mean error of −0.01 K, root mean square error (RMSE of 2.53 K, correlation coefficient (R2 of 0.96, and average uncertainty of 0.21 K. Model inter-comparison shows that this method outperforms six additional empirical regressions that have not incorporated nighttime light data or considered predictor independence or coefficient dynamics (by 0.18–2.60 K in RMSE and 0.00–0.15 in R2.

  18. Shale-oil-recovery systems incorporating ore beneficiation. Final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, M.A.; Klumpar, I.V.; Peterson, C.R.; Ring, T.A.

    1982-10-01

    This study analyzed the recovery of oil from oil shale by use of proposed systems which incorporate beneficiation of the shale ore (that is concentration of the kerogen before the oil-recovery step). The objective was to identify systems which could be more attractive than conventional surface retorting of ore. No experimental work was carried out. The systems analyzed consisted of beneficiation methods which could increase kerogen concentrations by at least four-fold. Potentially attractive low-enrichment methods such as density separation were not examined. The technical alternatives considered were bounded by the secondary crusher as input and raw shale oil as output. A sequence of ball milling, froth flotation, and retorting concentrate is not attractive for Western shales compared to conventional ore retorting; transporting the concentrate to another location for retorting reduces air emissions in the ore region but cost reduction is questionable. The high capital and energy cost s results largely from the ball milling step which is very inefficient. Major improvements in comminution seem achievable through research and such improvements, plus confirmation of other assumptions, could make high-enrichment beneficiation competitive with conventional processing. 27 figures, 23 tables.

  19. Photolysis of incorporated benzophenone derivatives inside compressed lipid monolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEJAN Z. MARKOVIC

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to study the possibility of the occurrence of radical-type lipid peroxidation of the lipid constituents on biomembranes, in compressed monolayers, having lipoidal benzophenone photosensitizers incorporated. The triplets of the photosensitizer abstract allylic and doubly-allylic hydrogen atoms from anticonjugated moities of the lipid molecules. The results simultaneously confirmed the occurrence of H-abstraction (and so the initiation of the peroxidizing chain mechanism, and the absence of the formation of lipid peroxides. The reason lies in "cage effect": the highly restricted spacial area of compressed lipid monolayers limits the mobility of the created radicals (lipid radicals and ketyl radicals and leads to their recombination, thus preventing the propagation step of the chain mechanism. With certain reservations it may be concluded that these results have a clear implication on real biomembranes: the structure of which is one of themain factors preventing the spread of the chain reaction, and the formation of lipid peroxides.

  20. Acceptors in II-IV Semiconductors - Incorporation and Complex Formation

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A strong effort is currently devoted to the investigation of defects and the electrical activation of dopant atoms in II-VI semiconductors. In particular, the knowledge about the behaviour of acceptors, prerequisite for the fabrication of p-type semiconductors, is rather limited. The perturbed $\\,{\\gamma\\gamma}$ -angular correlation technique (PAC) and the photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) using the radioactive isotopes $^{77}\\!$Br and $^{111}\\!$Ag will be applied for investigating the behaviour of acceptor dopant atoms and their interactions with defects in II-VI semiconductors. The main topic will be the identification of the technical conditions for the incorporation of electrically active acceptors in the II-VI semiconductors ~ZnS, ZnSe, ZnTe, CdS, CdSe, and CdTe with particular emphasis on the compounds~ CdTe, ZnSe, and ZnTe. The investigations will be supplemented by first exploratory PL experiments with the group V acceptors $^{71}\\!$As and $^{121}\\!$Sb. With help of the probe $^{111}\\!$Ag, the pos...

  1. Energy Efficiency Measures to Incorporate into Remodeling Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaukus, C. [Building America Research Alliance, Kent, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Energy improvements in a home are often approached as one concerted effort, beginning with a simple walk-through assessment or more in-depth energy audit and followed by the installation of recommended energy measures. While this approach allows for systems thinking to guide the efforts, comprehensive energy improvements of this nature are undertaken by a relatively small number of U.S. households compared to piecemeal remodeling efforts. In this report, the U.S Department of Energy Building America Retrofit Alliance research team examines the improvement of a home’s energy performance in an opportunistic way by examining what can be done to incorporate energy efficiency measures into general remodeling work and home repair projects. This allows for energy efficiency upgrades to occur at the same time as remodeling proejcts. There are challenges to this approach, not the least of which being that the work will take place over time in potentially many separate projects. The opportunity to improve a home’s energy efficiency at one time expands or contracts with the scope of the remodel. As such, guidance on how to do each piece thoughtfully and with consideration for potential future projects, is critical.

  2. Remote homology detection incorporating the context of physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya, Oscar; Tischer, Irene

    2014-02-01

    A new method for remote protein homology detection, called support vector machine incorporating the context of physicochemical properties (SVM-CP), is presented. Recent discriminative methods are based on concatenating information extracted from each protein by considering several physicochemical properties. We show that there are physicochemical properties that reflect the functional or structural characteristics of each specific protein family, but there are also some physicochemical properties that affect the accuracy of the classification techniques. The research highlights the importance of the selection of physicochemical properties in remote homology detection. Most of the methods slide a window over every protein sequence to extract physicochemical information. This extraction is usually performed by giving the same importance to every value in the window, i.e., averaging the physicochemical values in the observation window. SVM-CP takes into account that every residue in a sliding window has a different weight, which reflects the importance or contribution to the representative value of the window. The SVM-CP method reaches a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) score of 0.93462, which is the highest value for a remote homology detection method based on the sequence composition information. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Incorporating effects of forest litter in a snow process model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, J. P.; Melloh, R.; Robinson, P.; Jordan, R.

    2000-12-01

    Net solar radiation often dominates the snow surface energy exchange during ablation in many conifer forests. Reflection of solar radiation from the snow surface depends not only on snow properties, but also on forest litter lying on and within the snowpack. We know of no validated model reported in the literature that accounts for the influence of forest litter on snow surface energy exchanges. The purpose of this work is to test an existing algorithm's ability to accumulate forest litter in snow layers and to predict the subsequent effect of litter on the snow surface albedo. Field studies in a conifer stand of red spruce-balsam fir in northern Vermont, USA, provided key data for validation, including subcanopy radiation, meteorology, snow depth, and images of litter accumulation. We ran the litter algorithm coupled with the snow model SNTHERM for the ablation season, and predictions compared well with measurements of snow depth, snow surface litter coverage, and snow surface albedo beneath the conifer canopy. Model results suggest that for this forest and ablation season, the current litter algorithm realistically distributes litter in the snowpack through time with validated effects on snow surface litter concentration and albedo. The poor relationship between mean wind speed and change in litter coverage on the snow surface suggest that, for this forest and ablation season, incorporating wind events into the algorithm will not improve the results.

  4. Incorporating Speech Recognition into a Natural User Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    The Augmented/ Virtual Reality (AVR) Lab has been working to study the applicability of recent virtual and augmented reality hardware and software to KSC operations. This includes the Oculus Rift, HTC Vive, Microsoft HoloLens, and Unity game engine. My project in this lab is to integrate voice recognition and voice commands into an easy to modify system that can be added to an existing portion of a Natural User Interface (NUI). A NUI is an intuitive and simple to use interface incorporating visual, touch, and speech recognition. The inclusion of speech recognition capability will allow users to perform actions or make inquiries using only their voice. The simplicity of needing only to speak to control an on-screen object or enact some digital action means that any user can quickly become accustomed to using this system. Multiple programs were tested for use in a speech command and recognition system. Sphinx4 translates speech to text using a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based Language Model, an Acoustic Model, and a word Dictionary running on Java. PocketSphinx had similar functionality to Sphinx4 but instead ran on C. However, neither of these programs were ideal as building a Java or C wrapper slowed performance. The most ideal speech recognition system tested was the Unity Engine Grammar Recognizer. A Context Free Grammar (CFG) structure is written in an XML file to specify the structure of phrases and words that will be recognized by Unity Grammar Recognizer. Using Speech Recognition Grammar Specification (SRGS) 1.0 makes modifying the recognized combinations of words and phrases very simple and quick to do. With SRGS 1.0, semantic information can also be added to the XML file, which allows for even more control over how spoken words and phrases are interpreted by Unity. Additionally, using a CFG with SRGS 1.0 produces a Finite State Machine (FSM) functionality limiting the potential for incorrectly heard words or phrases. The purpose of my project was to

  5. Incorporation of crust at the Lesser Antilles arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J. P.; Bezard, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    Most convergent margin magmas exhibit geochemical characteristics of continental crust, incorporated via subduction of continental sediment into the arc source (mantle wedge) or via assimilation of continental crust by arc magmas en route to surface. Resolving which of these processes dominate at a given arc is important in avoiding the circularity of the question of the origin of the continental crust. The Lesser Antilles is built on oceanic lithosphere so in principle any crustal signature has been introduced via sediment subduction. Geochemical variations in magmas along the arc have been matched with the variations displayed in sediments outboard of the trench 1 . At about the same time, similarly comprehensive data sets were produced from along the Lesser Antilles, arguing that much of the geochemical diversity reflected crustal contamination rather than source contamination 2. These claims were based on; 1) correlations between isotopic ratios and indices of differentiation, 2) high delta18O, which argues for extensive interaction with material that has interacted with water at low T and finally the observation that the highest Pb isotope ratios in the lavas actually exceed the highest seen in the sediments. The latter problem has now been solved since a wider range of sediments have now been examined, with a section of black shales exhibiting remarkably radiogenic Pb isotopes 3 . We have re-examined the origin of geochemical variations by comparing two specific volcanoes, Mt Pelee in the centre of the arc and The Quill in the north 4. The idea is to explore differentiation trends at a given volcano, and back project them to reasonable primitive magma compositions. In that way we can account for geochemical effects resulting from differentiation, and focus on source variations (contributions from slab to wedge along the Antilles). From this we conclude that 1) both suites differentiate largely by amphibole-plag fractionation, along with contamination by the

  6. Incorporating Genomics and Bioinformatics across the Life Sciences Curriculum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ditty, Jayna L.; Kvaal, Christopher A.; Goodner, Brad; Freyermuth, Sharyn K.; Bailey, Cheryl; Britton, Robert A.; Gordon, Stuart G.; Heinhorst, Sabine; Reed, Kelynne; Xu, Zhaohui; Sanders-Lorenz, Erin R.; Axen, Seth; Kim, Edwin; Johns, Mitrick; Scott, Kathleen; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.

    2011-08-01

    Undergraduate life sciences education needs an overhaul, as clearly described in the National Research Council of the National Academies publication BIO 2010: Transforming Undergraduate Education for Future Research Biologists. Among BIO 2010's top recommendations is the need to involve students in working with real data and tools that reflect the nature of life sciences research in the 21st century. Education research studies support the importance of utilizing primary literature, designing and implementing experiments, and analyzing results in the context of a bona fide scientific question in cultivating the analytical skills necessary to become a scientist. Incorporating these basic scientific methodologies in undergraduate education leads to increased undergraduate and post-graduate retention in the sciences. Toward this end, many undergraduate teaching organizations offer training and suggestions for faculty to update and improve their teaching approaches to help students learn as scientists, through design and discovery (e.g., Council of Undergraduate Research [www.cur.org] and Project Kaleidoscope [www.pkal.org]). With the advent of genome sequencing and bioinformatics, many scientists now formulate biological questions and interpret research results in the context of genomic information. Just as the use of bioinformatic tools and databases changed the way scientists investigate problems, it must change how scientists teach to create new opportunities for students to gain experiences reflecting the influence of genomics, proteomics, and bioinformatics on modern life sciences research. Educators have responded by incorporating bioinformatics into diverse life science curricula. While these published exercises in, and guidelines for, bioinformatics curricula are helpful and inspirational, faculty new to the area of bioinformatics inevitably need training in the theoretical underpinnings of the algorithms. Moreover, effectively integrating bioinformatics

  7. Myoinositol gets incorporated into numerous membrane glycoproteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae; incorporation is dependent on phosphomannomutase (sec53).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conzelmann, A; Fankhauser, C; Desponds, C

    1990-01-01

    We recently described a 125 kd membrane glycoprotein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae which is anchored in the lipid bilayer by an inositol-containing phospholipid. We now find that when S. cerevisiae cells are metabolically labeled with [3H]myoinositol, many glycoproteins become labeled more strongly than the 125 kd protein. Myoinositol is attached to these glycoproteins as part of a phospholipid moiety which resembles glycophospholipid anchors of other organisms. Labeling of proteins with [3H]myoinositol for short times and in secretion mutants blocked at various stages of the secretory pathway shows that these phospholipid moieties can be added to proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum and that these proteins are transported to the Golgi by the regular secretory pathway. sec53, a mutant which cannot produce GDP-mannose at 37 degrees C, does not incorporate myoinositol or palmitic acid into membrane glycoproteins at this temperature, suggesting that GDP-mannose is required for the biosynthesis of these phospholipid moieties. All other secretion and glycosylation mutants tested add phospholipid moieties to proteins normally. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:2178923

  8. Incorporating medical interventions into carrier probability estimation for genetic counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katki Hormuzd A

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mendelian models for predicting who may carry an inherited deleterious mutation of known disease genes based on family history are used in a variety of clinical and research activities. People presenting for genetic counseling are increasingly reporting risk-reducing medical interventions in their family histories because, recently, a slew of prophylactic interventions have become available for certain diseases. For example, oophorectomy reduces risk of breast and ovarian cancers, and is now increasingly being offered to women with family histories of breast and ovarian cancer. Mendelian models should account for medical interventions because interventions modify mutation penetrances and thus affect the carrier probability estimate. Methods We extend Mendelian models to account for medical interventions by accounting for post-intervention disease history through an extra factor that can be estimated from published studies of the effects of interventions. We apply our methods to incorporate oophorectomy into the BRCAPRO model, which predicts a woman's risk of carrying mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 based on her family history of breast and ovarian cancer. This new BRCAPRO is available for clinical use. Results We show that accounting for interventions undergone by family members can seriously affect the mutation carrier probability estimate, especially if the family member has lived many years post-intervention. We show that interventions have more impact on the carrier probability as the benefits of intervention differ more between carriers and non-carriers. Conclusion These findings imply that carrier probability estimates that do not account for medical interventions may be seriously misleading and could affect a clinician's recommendation about offering genetic testing. The BayesMendel software, which allows one to implement any Mendelian carrier probability model, has been extended to allow medical interventions, so future

  9. Incorporation of Collagen in Calcium Phosphate Cements for Controlling Osseointegration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsien Hu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effect of supplementing a non-dispersive dicalcium phosphate-rich calcium phosphate bone cement (DCP-rich CPC with type I collagen on in vitro cellular activities and its performance as a bone graft material. Varying amounts of type I collagen were added during the preparation of the DCP-rich CPC. In vitro cell adhesion, morphology, viability, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity were evaluated using progenitor bone cells. Bone graft performance was evaluated via a rat posterolateral lumbar fusion model and osteointegration of the implant. New bone formations in the restorative sites were assessed by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT and histological analysis. We found that the incorporation of collagen into the DCP-rich CPC was associated with increased cell adhesion, cell viability, and ALP activity in vitro. The spinal fusion model revealed a significant increase in bone regeneration. Additionally, better osseointegration was observed between the host bone and graft with the DCP-rich CPC supplemented with collagen than with the collagen-free DCP-rich CPC control graft. Furthermore, compared to the control graft, the results of micro-CT showed that a smaller amount of residual material was observed with the collagen-containing DCP-rich CPC graft compared with the control graft, which suggests the collagen supplement enhanced new bone formation. Of the different mixtures evaluated in this study (0.8 g DCP-rich CPC supplemented with 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mL type I collagen, respectively, DCP-rich CPC supplemented with 0.4 mL collagen led to the highest level of osteogenesis. Our results suggest that the DCP-rich CPC supplemented with collagen has potential to be used as an effective bone graft material in spinal surgery.

  10. Incorporation of quality updates for JPSS CGS Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, S.; Grant, K. D.; Ibrahim, W.; Brueske, K. F.; Smit, P.

    2016-12-01

    NOAA's next-generation environmental satellite, the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). JPSS satellites carry sensors which collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The first JPSS satellite was launched in 2011 and is currently NOAA's primary operational polar satellite. The JPSS ground system is the Common Ground System (CGS), and provides command, control, and communications (C3) and data processing (DP). A multi-mission system, CGS provides combinations of C3/DP for numerous NASA, NOAA, DoD, and international missions. In preparation for the next JPSS satellite, CGS improved its multi-mission capabilities to enhance mission operations for larger constellations of earth observing satellites with the added benefit of streamlining mission operations for other NOAA missions. This paper will discuss both the theoretical basis and the actual practices used to date to identify, test and incorporate algorithm updates into the CGS processing baseline. To provide a basis for this support, Raytheon developed a theoretical analysis framework, and the application of derived engineering processes, for the maintenance of consistency and integrity of remote sensing operational algorithm outputs. The framework is an abstraction of the operationalization of the science-grade algorithm (Sci2Ops) process used throughout the JPSS program. By combining software and systems engineering controls, manufacturing disciplines to detect and reduce defects, and a standard process to control analysis, an environment to maintain operational algorithm maturity is achieved. Results of the use of this approach to implement algorithm changes into operations will also be detailed.

  11. Project ASPIRE: Incorporating Integrative Medicine Into Residency Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Haq; Via, Christina M; Ali, Ather; Rosenberger, Lisa D

    2015-11-01

    Griffin Hospital, a community hospital affiliated with Yale School of Public Health and Yale School of Medicine, received Health Resources and Services Administration funding to strengthen and improve its combined internal medicine and general preventive medicine residency program by incorporating an integrative medicine curriculum. The purpose of project ASPIRE (Advancing Skills of Preventive medicine residents through Integrative medicine Education, Research and Evaluation) was to create, implement, and evaluate a needs-based, innovative training curriculum in integrative medicine. Through this robust new training, the authors aimed to produce preventive medicine-trained physicians with competencies in integrative medicine to collaboratively work with other integrative medicine practitioners in interdisciplinary teams to provide holistic, patient-centered care. The multifaceted collaborative curriculum was composed of didactics, grand rounds, journal club, objective structured clinical examinations, and two new practicum rotations in integrative medicine. The new practicum rotations included block rotations at the Integrative Medicine Center at Griffin Hospital and the Yale Stress Center. Between 2012 and 2014, three cohorts participated in the curriculum; two of these cohorts included three advanced preventive medicine residents each and the fourth included four residents. Project faculty conducted 14 lectures and journal clubs, and two grand rounds. Six of the ten participating residents (60%) completed integrative medicine clinical rotations. Residents' attitudes toward integrative medicine were evaluated through self-assessment using the Complementary, Alternative, and Integrative Medicine Attitudes Questionnaire; data were analyzed in 2015. This article describes the results of this prospective observational study based on single-institution experience over the course of the 2-year project period. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine

  12. Incorporating Geoethics in Introductory Earth System Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, J.

    2014-12-01

    The integrative nature of Earth System Science courses provides extensive opportunities to introduce students to geoethical inquiry focused on globally significant societal issues. Geoscience education has traditionally lagged in its efforts to increase student awareness of the significance of geologic knowledge to understanding and responsibly confronting causes and possible solutions for emergent, newly emerging, and future problems of anthropogenic cause and consequence. Developing an understanding of the human impact on the earth system requires early (lower division) and for geoscience majors, repeated (upper division) curricular emphasis on the interactions of the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, and pedosphere across space and through time. Capturing the interest of university students in globally relevant earth system issues and their ethical dimensions while first learning about the earth system is an important initial step in bringing geoethical deliberation and awareness to the next generation of geoscientists. Development of a new introductory Earth System Science course replacing a traditional introductory Physical Geology course at Montana State University has involved abandonment of concept-based content organization in favor of a place-based approach incorporating examination of the complex interactions of earth system components and emergent issues and dilemmas deriving from the unique component interactions that characterize each locale. Thirteen different place-based week-long modules (using web- and classroom-based instruction) were developed to ensure cumulative broad coverage across the earth geographically and earth system components conceptually. Each place-based instructional module contains content of societal relevance requiring synthesis, critical evaluation, and reflection by students. Examples include making linkages between deforestation driven by economics and increased seismicity in Haiti, agriculture and development

  13. PEM Electrolyzer Incorporating an Advanced Low-Cost Membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamdan, Monjid [Giner, Inc.

    2013-08-29

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has identified hydrogen production by electrolysis of water at forecourt stations as a critical technology for transition to the hydrogen economy; however, the cost of hydrogen produced by present commercially available electrolysis systems is considerably higher than the DOE 2015 and 2020 cost targets. Analyses of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer systems indicate that reductions in electricity consumption and electrolyzer stack and system capital cost are required to meet the DOE cost targets. The primary objective is to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective energy-based system for electrolytic generation of hydrogen. The goal is to increase PEM electrolyzer efficiency and to reduce electrolyzer stack and system capital cost to meet the DOE cost targets for distributed electrolysis. To accomplish this objective, work was conducted by a team consisting of Giner, Inc. (Giner), Virginia Polytechnic Institute & University (VT), and domnick hunter group, a subsidiary of Parker Hannifin (Parker). The project focused on four (4) key areas: (1) development of a high-efficiency, high-strength membrane; (2) development of a long-life cell-separator; (3) scale-up of cell active area to 290 cm2 (from 160 cm²); and (4) development of a prototype commercial electrolyzer system. In each of the key stack development areas Giner and our team members conducted focused development in laboratory-scale hardware, with analytical support as necessary, followed by life-testing of the most promising candidate materials. Selected components were then scaled up and incorporated into low-cost scaled-up stack hardware. The project culminated in the fabrication and testing of a highly efficient electrolyzer system for production of 0.5 kg/hr hydrogen and validation of the stack and system in testing at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

  14. Starting them Early: Incorporating Communication Training into Undergraduate Research Internships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, B. A.; Morris, A. R.; Charlevoix, D.

    2014-12-01

    In order to truly broaden the impact of our scientific community, effective communication should be taught alongside research skills to developing scientists. In the summer of 2014, we incorporated an informal communications course into the 10th year of UNAVCO's Research Experiences in Solid Earth Science for Students (RESESS), a year-long internship program centered around an 11-week intensive summer research experience. The goals of the newly designed course included giving students the tools they need to make a broader impact with their science, starting now; improving the students' confidence in public speaking and using social media for outreach; and giving students the tools they need to apply for jobs or graduate school. Specifically, the course included teaching of professional communication skills, such as e-mail and phone etiquette, resume and CV tailoring, and interview techniques, and public communications skills, such as crafting and simplifying messages, visual communication for the public, and public speaking. Student interns were encouraged to step back from the details of their research projects to put their work into a big-picture context relevant to the public and to policy makers. The course benefited from input and/or participation from UNAVCO Education and Community Engagement staff, engineering and managerial staff, and graduate student interns outside the RESESS program, and University of Colorado research and communications mentors already involved in RESESS. As the summer program is already packed with research and skill development, one major challenge was fitting in teaching these communications skills amongst many other obligations: a GRE course, a peer-focused scientific communications course, a computing course, and, of course, research. Can we do it all? This presentation will provide an overview of the course planning, articulation of course goals, and execution challenges and successes. We will present our lessons learned from

  15. Project ASPIRE: Incorporating Integrative Medicine Into Residency Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Haq; Via, Christina M.; Ali, Ather; Rosenberger, Lisa D.

    2016-01-01

    Griffin Hospital, a community hospital affiliated with Yale School of Public Health and Yale School of Medicine, received Health Resources and Services Administration funding to strengthen and improve its combined internal medicine and general preventive medicine residency program by incorporating an integrative medicine curriculum. The purpose of project ASPIRE (Advancing Skills of Preventive medicine residents through Integrative medicine Education, Research and Evaluation) was to create, implement, and evaluate a needs-based, innovative training curriculum in integrative medicine. Through this robust new training, the authors aimed to produce preventive medicine-trained physicians with competencies in integrative medicine to collaboratively work with other integrative medicine practitioners in interdisciplinary teams to provide holistic, patient-centered care. The multifaceted collaborative curriculum was composed of didactics, grand rounds, journal club, objective structured clinical examinations, and two new practicum rotations in integrative medicine. The new practicum rotations included block rotations at the Integrative Medicine Center at Griffin Hospital and the Yale Stress Center. Between 2012 and 2014, three cohorts participated in the curriculum; two of these cohorts included three advanced preventive medicine residents each and the fourth included four residents. Project faculty conducted 14 lectures and journal clubs, and two grand rounds. Six of the ten participating residents (60%) completed integrative medicine clinical rotations. Residents’ attitudes toward integrative medicine were evaluated through self-assessment using the Complementary, Alternative, and Integrative Medicine Attitudes Questionnaire; data were analyzed in 2015. This article describes the results of this prospective observational study based on single-institution experience over the course of the 2-year project period. PMID:26477907

  16. Incorporating the Variability of Wind Power with Electric Heat Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Long

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available With the mass introduction of wind power in Northern China, wind power variability has appeared. In this article, both existing electric heat pumps (EHPs and coal-fired combined heat and power (CHP facilities, which are generally equipped with extraction-condensing steam turbines coupled with district heating for space heating purposes, are proposed to incorporate the variability of wind power equivalently. The authors’ proposal arises from the facts that: (1 EHPs can provide space heating in the domestic sector with little thermal comfort change (e.g., energy carriers for space heating purposes can be switched from heating water to electricity; (2 coal-fired CHP units in Northern China can usually generate more electrical power corresponding to a shaved thermal power production. Thus, it is suggested that heating water from CHP units be shaved when the wind generation is low due to the variability of wind power, so as to enable more electrical power production and compensate for the corresponding insufficient wind generation. Following this, in the future and for some space heating loads at appropriate distances, electricity used as energy carrier should be converted by electric heat pumps for space heating. Thus, more electricity consumption will be achieved so as to avoid wasting wind power when the wind generation it is high. A numerical simulation is performed in order to illustrate the authors’ proposal. It is shown that the impact of variability of wind generation can be equivalently reduced to a great extent, which enable more wind power integration instead of curtailment and potential energy conservation. Moreover, in contrast to before, both the thermal and electrical power of coal-fired CHP units are no longer constants. In addition, the ratio of electrical to thermal power of CHP units is no longer constant either, and results in less energy consumption compared with fixed ratio. Finally, electricity consumed by end users’ EHPs

  17. Giardia intestinalis incorporates heme into cytosolic cytochrome b₅.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrih, Jan; Harant, Karel; Martincová, Eva; Sutak, Robert; Lesuisse, Emmanuel; Hrdý, Ivan; Tachezy, Jan

    2014-02-01

    The anaerobic intestinal pathogen Giardia intestinalis does not possess enzymes for heme synthesis, and it also lacks the typical set of hemoproteins that are involved in mitochondrial respiration and cellular oxygen stress management. Nevertheless, G. intestinalis may require heme for the function of particular hemoproteins, such as cytochrome b5 (cytb5). We have analyzed the sequences of eukaryotic cytb5 proteins and identified three distinct cytb5 groups: group I, which consists of C-tail membrane-anchored cytb5 proteins; group II, which includes soluble cytb5 proteins; and group III, which comprises the fungal cytb5 proteins. The majority of eukaryotes possess both group I and II cytb5 proteins, whereas three Giardia paralogs belong to group II. We have identified a fourth Giardia cytb5 paralog (gCYTb5-IV) that is rather divergent and possesses an unusual 134-residue N-terminal extension. Recombinant Giardia cytb5 proteins, including gCYTb5-IV, were expressed in Escherichia coli and exhibited characteristic UV-visible spectra that corresponded to heme-loaded cytb5 proteins. The expression of the recombinant gCYTb5-IV in G. intestinalis resulted in the increased import of extracellular heme and its incorporation into the protein, whereas this effect was not observed when gCYTb5-IV containing a mutated heme-binding site was expressed. The electrons for Giardia cytb5 proteins may be provided by the NADPH-dependent Tah18-like oxidoreductase GiOR-1. Therefore, GiOR-1 and cytb5 may constitute a novel redox system in G. intestinalis. To our knowledge, G. intestinalis is the first anaerobic eukaryote in which the presence of heme has been directly demonstrated.

  18. Incorporating a primary care practicum in midwifery education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Julia Lange; Phillippi, Julia C

    2015-01-01

    There is a shortage of primary care providers in the United States. As more individuals obtain health insurance coverage with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the number seeking care will increase dramatically. Both the Institute of Medicine and the American College of Nurse-Midwives state that certified nurse-midwives and certified midwives should function at their full scope of practice, which includes primary care services as delineated by the Core Competencies for Basic Midwifery Practice. Nonetheless, the percentage of midwives who self-identify as primary care providers is decreasing. Dedicated primary care educational experiences may increase student confidence and encourage the incorporation of primary care into midwifery practice after graduation. Midwifery students in 2 cohorts completed questionnaires before and after a dedicated primary care practicum to study changes in the perceived level of confidence in primary care provision. The students in cohort A participated in 45 hours of primary care clinical time, whereas the students in cohort B participated in 88 hours of primary care clinical time. Postclinical focus groups provided qualitative data on student perceptions and attitudes about the clinical experience. Student responses were coded by cohort and analyzed using qualitative descriptive analysis. Seventeen midwifery students from 2 cohorts completed questionnaires. Students in both cohorts reported increased perceived confidence in almost all primary care domains. Participation in a dedicated primary care clinical rotation increased student-perceived confidence in primary care practice. The inclusion of designated primary care clinical education in nurse-midwifery education may contribute to meeting the national need for primary care providers. This article is part of a special series of articles that address midwifery innovations in clinical practice, education, interprofessional collaboration, health policy, and global health

  19. Energy Efficiency Measures to Incorporate into Remodeling Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaukus, C.

    2014-12-01

    Energy improvements in a home are often approached as one concerted effort, beginning with a simple walk-through assessment or more in-depth energy audit and followed by the installation of recommended energy measures. While this approach allows for systems thinking to guide the efforts, comprehensive energy improvements of this nature are undertaken by a relatively small number of the households in our nation compared to more piecemeal remodeling efforts. Even when programs like the Weatherization Assistance Program and Home Performance with ENERGY STAR are considered, homes that have had a comprehensive energy makeover still represent a small fraction of the 111.1 million households. In this report, the U.S Department of Energy Building America Retrofit Alliance research team looks at the improvement of a home's energy performance in an opportunistic way: it examines what can be done to incorporate energy efficiency measures into general remodeling work and home repair projects. This allows for the possibility for people who would not normally pursue energy efficiency but will remodel their kitchen or re-side their home to improve their home's performance at the same time. There are challenges to this approach, not the least of which being that the work will take place over time in potentially many separate projects. The opportunity to improve a home's energy efficiency at one time expands or contracts with the scope of the remodel. As such, guidance on how to do each piece thoughtfully and with consideration for potential future projects, is critical.

  20. Incorporating Non-Coding Annotations into Rare Variant Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom G Richardson

    Full Text Available The success of collapsing methods which investigate the combined effect of rare variants on complex traits has so far been limited. The manner in which variants within a gene are selected prior to analysis has a crucial impact on this success, which has resulted in analyses conventionally filtering variants according to their consequence. This study investigates whether an alternative approach to filtering, using annotations from recently developed bioinformatics tools, can aid these types of analyses in comparison to conventional approaches.We conducted a candidate gene analysis using the UK10K sequence and lipids data, filtering according to functional annotations using the resource CADD (Combined Annotation-Dependent Depletion and contrasting results with 'nonsynonymous' and 'loss of function' consequence analyses. Using CADD allowed the inclusion of potentially deleterious intronic variants, which was not possible when filtering by consequence. Overall, different filtering approaches provided similar evidence of association, although filtering according to CADD identified evidence of association between ANGPTL4 and High Density Lipoproteins (P = 0.02, N = 3,210 which was not observed in the other analyses. We also undertook genome-wide analyses to determine how filtering in this manner compared to conventional approaches for gene regions. Results suggested that filtering by annotations according to CADD, as well as other tools known as FATHMM-MKL and DANN, identified association signals not detected when filtering by variant consequence and vice versa.Incorporating variant annotations from non-coding bioinformatics tools should prove to be a valuable asset for rare variant analyses in the future. Filtering by variant consequence is only possible in coding regions of the genome, whereas utilising non-coding bioinformatics annotations provides an opportunity to discover unknown causal variants in non-coding regions as well. This should allow

  1. Incorporating resident research into the dermatology residency program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard F; Raimer, Sharon S; Kelly, Brent C

    2013-01-01

    Programmatic changes for the dermatology residency program at The University of Texas Medical Branch were first introduced in 2005, with the faculty goal incorporating formal dermatology research projects into the 3-year postgraduate training period. This curriculum initially developed as a recommendation for voluntary scholarly project activity by residents, but it evolved into a program requirement for all residents in 2009. Departmental support for this activity includes assignment of a faculty mentor with similar interest about the research topic, financial support from the department for needed supplies, materials, and statistical consultation with the Office of Biostatistics for study design and data analysis, a 2-week elective that provides protected time from clinical activities for the purpose of preparing research for publication and submission to a peer-reviewed medical journal, and a departmental award in recognition for the best resident scholarly project each year. Since the inception of this program, five classes have graduated a total of 16 residents. Ten residents submitted their research studies for peer review and published their scholarly projects in seven dermatology journals through the current academic year. These articles included three prospective investigations, three surveys, one article related to dermatology education, one retrospective chart review, one case series, and one article about dermatopathology. An additional article from a 2012 graduate about dermatology education has also been submitted to a journal. This new program for residents was adapted from our historically successful Dermatology Honors Research Program for medical students at The University of Texas Medical Branch. Our experience with this academic initiative to promote dermatology research by residents is outlined. It is recommended that additional residency programs should consider adopting similar research programs to enrich resident education. PMID:23901305

  2. Temporal succession in carbon incorporation from macromolecules by particle-attached bacteria in marine microcosms: Particle-attached bacteria incorporating organic carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayali, Xavier [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Stewart, Benjamin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mabery, Shalini [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Weber, Peter K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-12-21

    Here, we investigated bacterial carbon assimilation from stable isotope-labelled macromolecular substrates (proteins; lipids; and two types of polysaccharides, starch and cellobiose) while attached to killed diatom detrital particles during laboratory microcosms incubated for 17 days. Using Chip-SIP (secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis of RNA microarrays), we identified generalist operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from the Gammaproteobacteria, belonging to the genera Colwellia, Glaciecola, Pseudoalteromonas and Rheinheimera, and from the Bacteroidetes, genera Owenweeksia and Maribacter, that incorporated the four tested substrates throughout the incubation period. Many of these OTUs exhibited the highest isotope incorporation relative to the others, indicating that they were likely the most active. Additional OTUs from the Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Alphaproteobacteria exhibited generally (but not always) lower activity and did not incorporate all tested substrates at all times, showing species succession in organic carbon incorporation. We also found evidence to suggest that both generalist and specialist OTUs changed their relative substrate incorporation over time, presumably in response to changing substrate availability as the particles aged. This pattern was demonstrated by temporal succession from relatively higher starch incorporation early in the incubations, eventually switching to higher cellobiose incorporation after 2 weeks.

  3. Quantum-Mechanical Methods for Quantifying Incorporation of Contaminants in Proximal Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay C. Shuller-Nickles

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Incorporation reactions play an important role in dictating immobilization and release pathways for chemical species in low-temperature geologic environments. Quantum-mechanical investigations of incorporation seek to characterize the stability and geometry of incorporated structures, as well as the thermodynamics and kinetics of the reactions themselves. For a thermodynamic treatment of incorporation reactions, a source of the incorporated ion and a sink for the released ion is necessary. These sources/sinks in a real geochemical system can be solids, but more commonly, they are charged aqueous species. In this contribution, we review the current methods for ab initio calculations of incorporation reactions, many of which do not consider incorporation from aqueous species. We detail a recently-developed approach for the calculation of incorporation reactions and expand on the part that is modeling the interaction of periodic solids with aqueous source and sink phases and present new research using this approach. To model these interactions, a systematic series of calculations must be done to transform periodic solid source and sink phases to aqueous-phase clusters. Examples of this process are provided for three case studies: (1 neptunyl incorporation into studtite and boltwoodite: for the layered boltwoodite, the incorporation energies are smaller (more favorable for reactions using environmentally relevant source and sink phases (i.e., ΔErxn(oxides > ΔErxn(silicates > ΔErxn(aqueous. Estimates of the solid-solution behavior of Np5+/P5+- and U6+/Si4+-boltwoodite and Np5+/Ca2+- and U6+/K+-boltwoodite solid solutions are used to predict the limit of Np-incorporation into boltwoodite (172 and 768 ppm at 300 °C, respectively; (2 uranyl and neptunyl incorporation into carbonates and sulfates: for both carbonates and sulfates, it was found that actinyl incorporation into a defect site is more favorable than incorporation into defect-free periodic

  4. Incorporation of microplastics from litter into burrows of Lumbricus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza; Gertsen, Hennie; Gooren, Harm; Peters, Piet; Salánki, Tamás; van der Ploeg, Martine; Besseling, Ellen; Koelmans, Albert A; Geissen, Violette

    2017-01-01

    Pollution caused by plastic debris is an urgent environmental problem. Here, we assessed the effects of microplastics in the soil surface litter on the formation and characterization of burrows built by the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris in soil and quantified the amount of microplastics that was transported and deposited in L. terrestris burrows. Worms were exposed to soil surface litter treatments containing microplastics (Low Density Polyethylene) for 2 weeks at concentrations of 0%, 7%, 28%, 45% and 60%. The latter representing environmentally realistic concentrations found in hot spot soil locations. There were significantly more burrows found when soil was exposed to the surface treatment composed of 7% microplastics than in all other treatments. The highest amount of organic matter in the walls of the burrows was observed after using the treatments containing 28 and 45% microplastics. The highest microplastic bioturbation efficiency ratio (total microplastics (mg) in burrow walls/initial total surface litter microplastics (mg)) was found using the concentration of 7% microplastics, where L. terrestris introduced 73.5% of the surface microplastics into the burrow walls. The highest burrow wall microplastic content per unit weight of soil (11.8 ± 4.8 g kg- 1 ) was found using a concentration of 60% microplastics. L. terrestris was responsible for size-selective downward transport when exposed to concentrations of 7, 28 and 45% microplastics in the surface litter, as the fraction ≤50 μm microplastics in burrow walls increased by 65% compared to this fraction in the original surface litter plastic. We conclude that the high biogenic incorporation rate of the small-fraction microplastics from surface litter into burrow walls causes a risk of leaching through preferential flow into groundwater bodies. Furthermore, this leaching may have implications for the subsequent availability of microplastics to terrestrial organisms or for the transport

  5. Incorporating alternative design clinical trials in network meta-analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorlund K

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kristian Thorlund,1–3 Eric Druyts,1,4 Kabirraaj Toor,1,5 Jeroen P Jansen,1,6 Edward J Mills1,3 1Redwood Outcomes, Vancouver, BC, 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 3Stanford Prevention Research Center, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA; 4Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, 5School of Population and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 6Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA Introduction: Network meta-analysis (NMA is an extension of conventional pairwise meta-analysis that allows for simultaneous comparison of multiple interventions. Well-established drug class efficacies have become commonplace in many disease areas. Thus, for reasons of ethics and equipoise, it is not practical to randomize patients to placebo or older drug classes. Unique randomized clinical trial designs are an attempt to navigate these obstacles. These alternative designs, however, pose challenges when attempting to incorporate data into NMAs. Using ulcerative colitis as an example, we illustrate an example of a method where data provided by these trials are used to populate treatment networks. Methods: We present the methods used to convert data from the PURSUIT trial into a typical parallel design for inclusion in our NMA. Data were required for three arms: golimumab 100 mg; golimumab 50 mg; and placebo. Golimumab 100 mg induction data were available; however, data regarding those individuals who were nonresponders at induction and those who were responders at maintenance were not reported, and as such, had to be imputed using data from the rerandomization phase. Golimumab 50 mg data regarding responses at week 6 were not available. Existing relationships between the available components were used to impute the expected proportions in this missing subpopulation. Data for placebo maintenance

  6. Incorporating IStation into Early Childhood Classrooms to Improve Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Luo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: IStation is an adaptive computer-based reading program that adapts to the learner’s academic needs. This study investigates if the Istation computer-based reading program promotes reading improvement scores as shown on the STAR Reading test and the IStation test scaled scores for elementary school third-grade learners on different reading levels. Background: Prior literature provided a limited evidence base for incorporating computer-adaptive learning technologies to improve reading comprehension in the con-text of early childhood education. Methodology: Using a mixed-method case study research approach, this study purports to investigate the effects of IStation and examine the perspectives of teachers and students. Supported by survey and interview data, this case study employed a sample of 98 public school third-grade students in an urban elementary school in the southeastern United States as well as the three classroom teachers. Contribution: This study has provided a additional data to show evidence for the effectiveness of a computer-based reading program, IStation, by using the students’ and teachers’ viewpoints as well as reading comprehension test scores data; and b recommendations for practitioners and researchers regarding professional development for IStation implementation. Findings: The results of this study show a strong correlation between the usage of IStation and the rise of STAR reading scores during the time IStation was integrated. There were differing opinions regarding the effectiveness of IStation between students and teachers, as well as between low and high achieving students. Teachers recognized that intervening variables of teachers’ whole and small group lessons individualized for each class, as well as students’ practice sessions both at home and at school, could have also resulted in improved STAR reading scores. Recommendations for Practitioners: There is no one-size-fits-all solution when

  7. Incorporation of Socio-scientific Content into Active Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, D. B.; Lewis, J. E.; Anderson, K.; Latch, D.; Sutheimer, S.; Webster, G.; Moog, R.

    2014-12-01

    support their position. In this presentation, we will present examples of the socio-scientific components of several activities, and discuss the challenges associated with incorporating socio-scientific components into content-based class activities.

  8. Incorporating Context Dependency of Species Interactions in Species Distribution Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lany, Nina K; Zarnetske, Phoebe L; Gouhier, Tarik C; Menge, Bruce A

    2017-07-01

    Species distribution models typically use correlative approaches that characterize the species-environment relationship using occurrence or abundance data for a single species. However, species distributions are determined by both abiotic conditions and biotic interactions with other species in the community. Therefore, climate change is expected to impact species through direct effects on their physiology and indirect effects propagated through their resources, predators, competitors, or mutualists. Furthermore, the sign and strength of species interactions can change according to abiotic conditions, resulting in context-dependent species interactions that may change across space or with climate change. Here, we incorporated the context dependency of species interactions into a dynamic species distribution model. We developed a multi-species model that uses a time-series of observational survey data to evaluate how abiotic conditions and species interactions affect the dynamics of three rocky intertidal species. The model further distinguishes between the direct effects of abiotic conditions on abundance and the indirect effects propagated through interactions with other species. We apply the model to keystone predation by the sea star Pisaster ochraceus on the mussel Mytilus californianus and the barnacle Balanus glandula in the rocky intertidal zone of the Pacific coast, USA. Our method indicated that biotic interactions between P. ochraceus and B. glandula affected B. glandula dynamics across >1000 km of coastline. Consistent with patterns from keystone predation, the growth rate of B. glandula varied according to the abundance of P. ochraceus in the previous year. The data and the model did not indicate that the strength of keystone predation by P. ochraceus varied with a mean annual upwelling index. Balanus glandula cover increased following years with high phytoplankton abundance measured as mean annual chlorophyll-a. M. californianus exhibited the same

  9. Incorporating Web 2.0 Technologies from an Organizational Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, R.

    2009-12-01

    The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) provides support for the organization, facilitation, and dissemination of online educational and scientific materials and information to a wide range of stakeholders. ARCUS is currently weaving the fabric of Web 2.0 technologies—web development featuring interactive information sharing and user-centered design—into its structure, both as a tool for information management and for educational outreach. The importance of planning, developing, and maintaining a cohesive online platform in order to integrate data storage and dissemination will be discussed in this presentation, as well as some specific open source technologies and tools currently available, including: ○ Content Management: Any system set up to manage the content of web sites and services. Drupal is a content management system, built in a modular fashion allowing for a powerful set of features including, but not limited to weblogs, forums, event calendars, polling, and more. ○ Faceted Search: Combined with full text indexing, faceted searching allows site visitors to locate information quickly and then provides a set of 'filters' with which to narrow the search results. Apache Solr is a search server with a web-services like API (Application programming interface) that has built in support for faceted searching. ○ Semantic Web: The semantic web refers to the ongoing evolution of the World Wide Web as it begins to incorporate semantic components, which aid in processing requests. OpenCalais is a web service that uses natural language processing, along with other methods, in order to extract meaningful 'tags' from your content. This metadata can then be used to connect people, places, and things throughout your website, enriching the surfing experience for the end user. ○ Web Widgets: A web widget is a portable 'piece of code' that can be embedded easily into web pages by an end user. Timeline is a widget developed as part of the

  10. Chemical incorporation of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane into thermoset matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hosouk

    type. Octaaminophenyl(T8)POSS and dodecaaminophenyl(T12)POSS were synthesized, characterized and then incorporated into two types of thermoset resins: (1) the bisphenol-F-based cyanate ester resin, PT-15, and (2) epoxy (Epon 828, Shell Chemical Corp.)/4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane (DDM) resin, respectively, to make two series of nanocomposites. The sum of amino groups in both DDM and POSS were held in a 1:1 mole ratio to the epoxy groups. EPON-828/POSS/DDM (78.63/0/21.37, 77.48/5/17.52, 76.34/10/13.66, 74.05/20/5.95 and 72.28/27.72/0 wt/wt/wt compositions for both series) was prepared. PT-15/POSS composites (99/1, 97/3 and 95/5 wt/wt compositions for both types) were also prepared.

  11. Doping incorporation paths in catalyst-free Be-doped GaAs nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casadei, Alberto; Heiss, Martin; Colombo, Carlo; Ruelle, Thibaud; Fontcuberta i Morral, Anna [Laboratoire des Materiaux Semiconducteurs, Institut des Materiaux, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Krogstrup, Peter; Roehr, Jason A.; Upadhyay, Shivendra; Sorensen, Claus B.; Nygard, Jesper [Nano-Science Center and Center for Quantum Devices, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-01-07

    The incorporation paths of Be in GaAs nanowires grown by the Ga-assisted method in molecular beam epitaxy have been investigated by electrical measurements of nanowires with different doping profiles. We find that Be atoms incorporate preferentially via the nanowire side facets, while the incorporation path through the Ga droplet is negligible. We also show that Be can diffuse into the volume of the nanowire giving an alternative incorporation path. This work is an important step towards controlled doping of nanowires and will serve as a help for designing future devices based on nanowires.

  12. Incorporation of Mobile Application (App) Measures Into the Diagnosis of Smartphone Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Lin, Po-Hsien; Chiang, Chih-Lin; Lee, Yang-Han; Yang, Cheryl C H; Kuo, Terry B J; Lin, Sheng-Hsuan

    2017-07-01

    Global smartphone expansion has brought about unprecedented addictive behaviors. The current diagnosis of smartphone addiction is based solely on information from clinical interview. This study aimed to incorporate application (app)-recorded data into psychiatric criteria for the diagnosis of smartphone addiction and to examine the predictive ability of the app-recorded data for the diagnosis of smartphone addiction. Smartphone use data of 79 college students were recorded by a newly developed app for 1 month between December 1, 2013, and May 31, 2014. For each participant, psychiatrists made a diagnosis for smartphone addiction based on 2 approaches: (1) only diagnostic interview (standard diagnosis) and (2) both diagnostic interview and app-recorded data (app-incorporated diagnosis). The app-incorporated diagnosis was further used to build app-incorporated diagnostic criteria. In addition, the app-recorded data were pooled as a score to predict smartphone addiction diagnosis. When app-incorporated diagnosis was used as a gold standard for 12 candidate criteria, 7 criteria showed significant accuracy (area under receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] > 0.7) and were constructed as app-incorporated diagnostic criteria, which demonstrated remarkable accuracy (92.4%) for app-incorporated diagnosis. In addition, both frequency and duration of daily smartphone use significantly predicted app-incorporated diagnosis (AUC = 0.70 for frequency; AUC = 0.72 for duration). The combination of duration, frequency, and frequency trend for 1 month can accurately predict smartphone addiction diagnosis (AUC = 0.79 for app-incorporated diagnosis; AUC = 0.71 for standard diagnosis). The app-incorporated diagnosis, combining both psychiatric interview and app-recorded data, demonstrated substantial accuracy for smartphone addiction diagnosis. In addition, the app-recorded data performed as an accurate screening tool for app-incorporated diagnosis.

  13. 75 FR 22219 - Update of Revised and Reaffirmed Documents Incorporated by Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ..., productivity, competition, jobs, the environment, public health or safety, or State, local, or tribal...; incorporated by reference at Sec. 250.901(a), (d); (j) American Welding Society (AWS), AWS Codes, 550 NW, Le... Welding Code--Steel; incorporated by reference at Sec. 250.901(a), (d); (2) AWS D1.4-98, Structural...

  14. 75 FR 51148 - Notice of Solicitation of Public Comment on Consideration of Incorporating IFRS Into the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Solicitation of Public Comment on Consideration of Incorporating IFRS Into the Financial... Standards (``IFRS'') into the financial reporting system for U.S. issuers. These three topics, derived from the staff's work plan on consideration of the incorporation of IFRS, involve the impact of such...

  15. 75 FR 51150 - Notice of Solicitation of Public Comment on Consideration of Incorporating IFRS Into the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Solicitation of Public Comment on Consideration of Incorporating IFRS Into the Financial... Standards (``IFRS'') into the financial reporting system for U.S. issuers. These three topics, derived from the staff's Work Plan on considering the incorporation of IFRS into the financial reporting system for...

  16. Surface plasmon resonance in nanostructured Ag incorporated ZnS films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalana, S. R.; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P., E-mail: vpmpillai9@gmail.com [Department of Optoelectronics, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram– 695581, Kerala (India); Ganesan, V. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Khandwa Road, Indore- 452017, Madhyapradesh (India)

    2015-10-15

    Silver incorporated zinc sulfide thin films are prepared by RF magnetron sputtering technique and the influence of silver incorporation on the structural, optical and luminescence properties is analyzed using techniques like grazing incidence X-Ray diffraction (GIXRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), micro-Raman spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy and laser photoluminescence spectroscopy. XRD analysis presents hexagonal wurtzite structure for the films. A reduction of crystallinity of the films is observed due to Ag incorporation. The Raman spectral analysis confirms the reduction of crystallinity and increase of strain due to the Ag incorporation. AFM analysis reveals a rough surface morphology for the undoped film and Ag incorporation makes the films uniform, dense and smooth. A blue shift of band gap energy with increase in Ag incorporation is observed due to quantum confinement effect. An absorption band (450-650 nm region) due to surface plasmon resonance of the Ag clusters present in the ZnS matrix is observed for the samples with higher Ag incorporation. The complex dielectric constant, loss factor and distribution of volume and surface energy loss of the ZnS thin films are calculated. Laser photoluminescence measurements gives an intense bluish green emission from the ZnS films and a quenching of the PL emission is observed which can be due to the metal plasmonic absorption and non-radiative energy transfer due to Ag incorporation.

  17. 77 FR 27081 - II-VI, Incorporated, Infrared Optics-Saxonburg Division, Saxonburg, Pennsylvania; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... Employment and Training Administration II-VI, Incorporated, Infrared Optics--Saxonburg Division, Saxonburg... former workers of II-VI, Incorporated, Infrared Optics--Saxonburg Division, Saxonburg, Pennsylvania... employment related to the production of infrared and CO 2 laser optics, and related materials. The initial...

  18. 78 FR 23593 - Certain Mobile Electronic Devices Incorporating Haptics; Termination of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... COMMISSION Certain Mobile Electronic Devices Incorporating Haptics; Termination of Investigation AGENCY: U.S... within the United States after importation of certain mobile electronic devices incorporating haptics....usitc.gov . The public record for this investigation may be viewed on the Commission's electronic docket...

  19. 77 FR 12284 - Access to Confidential Business Information; Protection Strategies Incorporated

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... AGENCY Access to Confidential Business Information; Protection Strategies Incorporated AGENCY... Strategies Incorporated (PSI) of Arlington, VA, to access information which has been submitted to EPA under... determined to be Confidential Business Information (CBI). DATES: Access to the confidential data occurred on...

  20. 40 CFR 174.25 - Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant. 174.25 Section 174.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Exemptions...

  1. 75 FR 20265 - Airworthiness Directives; Liberty Aerospace Incorporated Model XL-2 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ...-020-AD; Amendment 39-16264; AD 2009-08-05 R1] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Liberty... Liberty Aerospace Incorporated Model XL-2 airplanes. AD 2009-08-05 currently requires repetitively... approved the incorporation by reference of Liberty Aerospace, Inc. Service Document Critical Service...

  2. 77 FR 29275 - Oklahoma: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 272 Oklahoma: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program... in the regulations entitled ``Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Programs'', Oklahoma's authorized hazardous waste program. The EPA will incorporate by reference into the Code of Federal...

  3. 75 FR 36609 - Oklahoma: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 272 Oklahoma: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program... in the regulations entitled ``Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Programs'', Oklahoma's authorized hazardous waste program. The EPA will incorporate by reference into the Code of Federal...

  4. 76 FR 26681 - Wisconsin: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 272 Wisconsin: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management... codify in the regulations entitled ``Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Programs,'' Wisconsin's authorized hazardous waste program. EPA will incorporate by reference into the Code of Federal Regulations...

  5. 77 FR 29231 - Oklahoma: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 272 Oklahoma: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management... Hazardous Waste Management Programs'' to provide notice of the authorization status of State programs and to...'s hazardous waste management program and incorporates by reference authorized provisions of the...

  6. 77 FR 3224 - New Mexico: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ...; FRL-9613-5] New Mexico: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY... regulations entitled ``Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Programs,'' New Mexico's authorized hazardous waste program. The EPA will incorporate by reference into the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) those...

  7. 77 FR 46964 - Oklahoma: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 272 Oklahoma: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management... Hazardous Waste Management Programs'' to provide notice of the authorization status of State programs and to...'s hazardous waste management program and incorporates by reference authorized provisions of the...

  8. 77 FR 46994 - Oklahoma: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 272 Oklahoma: Incorporation by Reference of State Hazardous Waste Management Program... in the regulations entitled ``Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Programs'', Oklahoma's authorized hazardous waste program. The EPA will incorporate by reference into the Code of Federal...

  9. 78 FR 43953 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and... thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on July 9, 2013, Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated (the... to route such orders on a global basis or as a manual override on an order-by- order basis if some...

  10. 78 FR 36805 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...\\ notice is hereby given that on June 6, 2013, Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated (the ``Exchange.... In 2002, the Exchange added to its Fees Schedule a rebate for duplicate fees related to manual data...

  11. 78 FR 73211 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing of a... hereby given that on November 18, 2013, Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated (the ``Exchange'' or... such rejection. Because the current order creation process is a manual, on-floor process, the current...

  12. 76 FR 44638 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Stock Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Stock Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing of Proposed... thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on July 7, 2011, the Chicago Stock Exchange, Incorporated... submissions to ensure that the manual comparison is valid. For example, many of these transactions represent...

  13. 76 FR 63971 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...\\ notice is hereby given that on October 3, 2011, the Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated (the... and Firms as either electronic or manual. See NYSE Amex Options Fees Schedule, Trade Related Charges...

  14. 78 FR 62887 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing of a... September 27, 2013, Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated (the ``Exchange'' or ``CBOE'') filed with... that limitation). Further, this $0.01 minimum increment will put the electronic and manual entry of...

  15. 77 FR 59226 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...\\ notice is hereby given that on September 12, 2012, Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated (the... Basis for, the Proposed Rule Change 1. Purpose Currently, the Exchange assesses a Manual Appointment...

  16. 75 FR 1437 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Order Approving a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Order Approving a..., the Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated (``CBOE'' or the ``Exchange'') filed with the... route to the CBOE's Complex Order Book or to PAR for manual handling.\\5\\ \\4\\ See CBOE Rule 6.53C(d). \\5...

  17. 76 FR 42757 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and... hereby given that on June 30, 2011, the Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated (the ``Exchange'' or... orders of a Non- Trading Permit Holder Affiliate as defined herein: $.25 per contract for manual...

  18. 77 FR 57171 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing of a... that on August 30, 2012, Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated (``Exchange'' or ``CBOE'') filed... Official workstations located in the trading crowds for manual handling, and/ or to other order management...

  19. 77 FR 22824 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...\\ notice is hereby given that on April 2, 2012, the Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated (the... assesses professional customers a $0.25 per contract fee for manual executions and a $0.23 per contract fee...

  20. 78 FR 39807 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and... thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on June 19, 2013, Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated... into the book, cancellation, or routing for manual handling. Examples of such validation checks include...

  1. 78 FR 25112 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...\\ notice is hereby given that on April 10, 2013, Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated (the... Proprietary Facilitation fees as being assessed a fee of $0.00 per contract for manual, AIM Agency/Primary...

  2. 76 FR 13690 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...\\ notice is hereby given that on February 25, 2011 , Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated (the... collect these fees for orders initially routed for manual handling by CBOE Floor Brokers. More...

  3. 77 FR 4844 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Order Approving a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Order Approving a.... Introduction On November 29, 2011, the Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated (``Exchange'' or ``CBOE... complex order is routed for manual handling to PAR or a booth. \\11\\ CBOE Rule 6.53C, Interpretation and...

  4. 75 FR 1053 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Industrial Economics, Incorporated

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... Industrial Economics, Incorporated AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Access to Data and Request for Comments. SUMMARY: EPA will authorize its contractor, Industrial Economics... Contracts No. EP-W-6-065 and EP07H000213, Industrial Economics, Incorporated (IEc) will assist the Office of...

  5. Making Invasion models useful for decision makers; incorporating uncertainty, knowledge gaps, and decision-making preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys Yemshanov; Frank H Koch; Mark Ducey

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty is inherent in model-based forecasts of ecological invasions. In this chapter, we explore how the perceptions of that uncertainty can be incorporated into the pest risk assessment process. Uncertainty changes a decision maker’s perceptions of risk; therefore, the direct incorporation of uncertainty may provide a more appropriate depiction of risk. Our...

  6. A new achiral reagent for the incorporation of multiple amino groups into oligonucleotides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Carsten; Petersen, Kenneth H.; Egholm, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The synthesis of a new functionalized achiral linker reagent (10) for the incorporation of multiple primary amino groups into oligonucleotides is described. The linker reagent is compatible with conventional DNA-synthesis following the phosphoramidite methodology, and the linker can be incorporated...

  7. 78 FR 68058 - Next Generation Risk Assessment: Incorporation of Recent Advances in Molecular, Computational...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... AGENCY Next Generation Risk Assessment: Incorporation of Recent Advances in Molecular, Computational, and..., ``Next Generation Risk Assessment: Incorporation of Recent Advances in Molecular, Computational, and... period was published on September 30, 2013. At the request of the American Chemistry Council, the public...

  8. 78 FR 69987 - Airworthiness Directives; Erickson Air-Crane Incorporated Helicopters (Type Certificate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ...-30-AD; Amendment 39-17662; AD 2013-23-07] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Erickson Air-Crane... Erickson Air-Crane Incorporated (Erickson), and expands the applicability to include the similar Erickson... information identified in this AD, contact Erickson Air-Crane Incorporated, ATTN: Chris Erickson, Director of...

  9. 77 FR 73265 - Airworthiness Directives; Erickson Air-Crane Incorporated Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ...-03-AD; Amendment 39-17267; AD 2012-23-11] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Erickson Air-Crane... are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Erickson Air-Crane Incorporated (Erickson) Model S... Air-Crane Incorporated, ATTN: Chris Erickson/Compliance Officer, 3100 Willow Springs Rd., P.O. Box...

  10. 75 FR 56487 - Airworthiness Directives; Erickson Air-Crane Incorporated Model S-64F Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Erickson Air-Crane... Air-Crane Incorporated (Erickson Air-Crane) Model S- 64F helicopters. The AD would require, at... the service information identified in this proposed AD from Erickson Air-Crane Incorporated, 3100...

  11. 78 FR 40063 - Airworthiness Directives; Erickson Air-Crane Incorporated Helicopters (Type Certificate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Erickson Air-Crane... helicopter has been transferred to Erickson Air-Crane Incorporated (Erickson), and expand the applicability... Air-Crane Incorporated, ATTN: Chris Erickson/Compliance Officer, 3100 Willow Springs Rd., PO Box 3247...

  12. Loblolly pine growth and soil nutrient stocks eight years after forest slash incorporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe G. Sanchez; Emily A. Carter; Zakiya H. Leggett

    2009-01-01

    Incorporation of forest slash during stand establishment is proposed as a means of increasing soil carbon and nutrient stocks. If effective, the increased soil carbon and nutrient status may result in increased aboveground tree growth. Eight years after study installation, the impact of forest slash incorporation into the soil on soil carbon and nutrient stocks, foliar...

  13. 77 FR 4587 - GE Asset Management Incorporated, et al.; Notice of Application and Temporary Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... COMMISSION GE Asset Management Incorporated, et al.; Notice of Application and Temporary Order January 24... also have applied for a permanent order. Applicants: GE Asset Management Incorporated (``GEAM''), GE... Daniele Marchesani, Branch Chief, at (202) 551-6821 (Division of Investment Management, Office of...

  14. Enzymatically mediated incorporation of 2-chlorophenol 4-chlorophenol into humic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, P.; Randall, A.; Jørgensen, O.

    1994-01-01

    A possible route to chlorinated humic substances in the environment, is an indirect chlorination of humic material by enzymatically mediated incorporation of low molecular weight organo-chlorine compounds into the humic skeleton. The enzymatically mediated incorporation of 2-chlorophenol and 4-ch......-chlorophenol into humic acids by Horseradish Peroxidase is reported. The incorporation is accompanied by a significant polymerization of the chlorophenols. The stability of the chlorinated humic acids as well as the environmental implication are discussed.......A possible route to chlorinated humic substances in the environment, is an indirect chlorination of humic material by enzymatically mediated incorporation of low molecular weight organo-chlorine compounds into the humic skeleton. The enzymatically mediated incorporation of 2-chlorophenol and 4...

  15. Physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of citral and quercetin incorporated kafirin-based bioactive films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giteru, Stephen Gitonga; Coorey, Ranil; Bertolatti, Dean; Watkin, Elizabeth; Johnson, Stuart; Fang, Zhongxiang

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of kafirin-based bioactive films incorporating the plant essential oil citral and the polyphenol quercetin. The addition of quercetin and citral both imparted a yellowish colour to the films. The tensile strength of films significantly decreased and elongation at break increased when citral was incorporated, whereas addition of quercetin did not alter these two film parameters. The rate of water vapour transmission of the films decreased with citral incorporation but the water vapour permeability was not affected by either citral or quercetin incorporation. Furthermore, incorporation of citral and quercetin significantly lowered the oxygen permeability of the films. Film made of kafirin alone had antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes, however, films incorporating citral exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity against Campylobacter jejuni, L. monocytogenes, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. These results suggest that kafirin-based films incorporating citral and quercetin have potential as bioactive packaging to improve food safety and quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Enzymatic synthesis and RNA interference of nucleosides incorporating stable isotopes into a base moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Akihiko; Shiraishi, Mitsuya; Terado, Nanae; Tanabe, Atsuhiro; Fukuda, Kenji

    2015-10-15

    Thymidine phosphorylase was used to catalyze the conversion of thymidine (or methyluridine) and uracil incorporating stable isotopes to deoxyuridine (or uridine) with the uracil base incorporating the stable isotope. These base-exchange reactions proceeded with high conversion rates (75-96%), and the isolated yields were also good (64-87%). The masses of all synthetic compounds incorporating stable isotopes were identical to the theoretical molecular weights via EIMS. (13)C NMR spectra showed spin-spin coupling between (13)C and (15)N in the synthetic compounds, and the signals were split, further proving incorporation of the isotopes into the compounds. The RNA interference effects of this siRNA with uridine incorporating stable isotopes were also investigated. A 25mer siRNA had a strong knockdown effect on the MARCKS protein. The insertion position and number of uridine moieties incorporating stable isotopes introduced into the siRNA had no influence on the silencing of the target protein. This incorporation of stable isotopes into RNA and DNA has the potential to function as a chemically benign tracer in cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Green synthesis of magnesium ion incorporated nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and their mechanical, dielectric and photoluminescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arul, K. Thanigai; Kolanthai, Elayaraja [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Manikandan, E. [Nanosciences African Network (NANO-AFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation (NRF), Materials Research Department, Cape Town, South Africa. (South Africa); Bhalerao, G.M. [University Grants Commission – Department of Atomic Energy, Consortium for Scientific Research, Kalpakkam 603 104 (India); Chandra, V. Sarath; Ramya, J. Ramana [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Mudali, U. Kamachi [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Nair, K.G.M. [Accelerator Material Science Section, Material Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Kalkura, S.Narayana, E-mail: kalkurasn@annauniv.edu [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Rapid technique to synthesize nanorods of magnesium ion incorporated hydroxyapatite. • Enhanced electrical and mechanical properties. • Improved photoluminescence and wettability on magnesium incorporation. • Increased in vitro bioactivity. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HAp-Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2,} 35 nm) and magnesium (Mg{sup 2+}) ion incorporated HAp were synthesized by microwave technique. XRD (X-ray diffraction), FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), FE-HRTEM (Field emission high resolution transmission electron microscopy), DLS (dynamic light scattering), EDXRF (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry), microhardness, permittivity and alternating current (ac) conductivity, besides the PL (photoluminescence), wettability and in vitro bioactivity of the samples were analysed. EDXRF revealed the Mg{sup 2+} ion incorporation in HAp. The Mg{sup 2+} ion incorporation did not alter the phase but drastically reduced the crystallite size and particle size respectively by 48% and 32%. There was enhanced microhardness (24%) at low level (<13%) and decreased zeta potential of Mg{sup 2+} ion incorporation. The permittivity, ac conductivity, PL, wettability and in vitro bioactivity were enhanced on Mg{sup 2+} ion incorporation. These properties enable them to be a promising candidate for wound healing, bone replacement applications and also as a biosensor.

  18. Swimming behaviour and calcium incorporation into inner ear otoliths of fish after vestibular nerve transection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, E.; Anken, R. H.; Rahmann, H.

    2004-01-01

    Previous investigations on neonate swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri) revealed that otolithic calcium incorporation (visualized using the calcium tracer alizarin complexone) and thus otolith growth had ceased after nerve transection, supporting a hypothesis according to which the gravity-dependent otolith growth is regulated neuronally. Subsequent investigations on larval cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus) yielded contrasting results, repeatedly depending on the particular batch of cichlids investigated. Like most neonate swordtails, Type I cichlids revealed a stop of calcium incorporation after unilateral vestibular nerve transection. Their behaviour after transection was normal, and the otolithic calcium incorporation in controls of the same batch was symmetric. In Type II cichlids, however, vestibular nerve transection had no effect on otolithic calcium incorporation. They behaved kinetotically after transection (this kind of kinetosis was qualitatively similar to the swimming behaviour exhibited by larval cichlids during microgravity in the course of parabolic aircraft flights). The otolithic calcium incorporation in control animals was asymmetric. These results show that the effects of vestibular nerve transection as well as the efficacy of the mechanism, which regulates otolith growth/otolithic calcium incorporation, are - depending on the particular batch of animals - genetically predispositioned. In conclusion, the regulation of otolithic calcium incorporation is guided neuronally, in part via the vestibular nerve and, in part, via a further pathway, which remains to be addressed in the course of future investigations.

  19. Incorporating the life course model into MCH nutrition leadership education and training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughton, Betsy; Eppig, Kristen; Looney, Shannon M; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie; Spear, Bonnie A; Spence, Marsha; Stang, Jamie S

    2013-01-01

    Life course perspective, social determinants of health, and health equity have been combined into one comprehensive model, the life course model (LCM), for strategic planning by US Health Resources and Services Administration's Maternal and Child Health Bureau. The purpose of this project was to describe a faculty development process; identify strategies for incorporation of the LCM into nutrition leadership education and training at the graduate and professional levels; and suggest broader implications for training, research, and practice. Nineteen representatives from 6 MCHB-funded nutrition leadership education and training programs and 10 federal partners participated in a one-day session that began with an overview of the models and concluded with guided small group discussions on how to incorporate them into maternal and child health (MCH) leadership training using obesity as an example. Written notes from group discussions were compiled and coded emergently. Content analysis determined the most salient themes about incorporating the models into training. Four major LCM-related themes emerged, three of which were about training: (1) incorporation by training grants through LCM-framed coursework and experiences for trainees, and similarly framed continuing education and skills development for professionals; (2) incorporation through collaboration with other training programs and state and community partners, and through advocacy; and (3) incorporation by others at the federal and local levels through policy, political, and prevention efforts. The fourth theme focused on anticipated challenges of incorporating the model in training. Multiple methods for incorporating the LCM into MCH training and practice are warranted. Challenges to incorporating include the need for research and related policy development.

  20. Liquid metal/metal oxide frameworks with incorporated Ga2O3 for photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Naidu, Boddu S; Ou, Jian Zhen; O'Mullane, Anthony P; Chrimes, Adam F; Carey, Benjamin J; Wang, Yichao; Tang, Shi-Yang; Sivan, Vijay; Mitchell, Arnan; Bhargava, Suresh K; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh

    2015-01-28

    Solvothermally synthesized Ga2O3 nanoparticles are incorporated into liquid metal/metal oxide (LM/MO) frameworks in order to form enhanced photocatalytic systems. The LM/MO frameworks, both with and without incorporated Ga2O3 nanoparticles, show photocatalytic activity due to a plasmonic effect where performance is related to the loading of Ga2O3 nanoparticles. Optimum photocatalytic efficiency is obtained with 1 wt % incorporation of Ga2O3 nanoparticles. This can be attributed to the sub-bandgap states of LM/MO frameworks, contributing to pseudo-ohmic contacts which reduce the free carrier injection barrier to Ga2O3.

  1. 14CO2 INCORPORATION INTO THE NUCLEIC ACIDS OF SYNCHRONOUSLYGROWING CHLORELLA CELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stange, Luise; Kirk, Martha; Bennett, Edward L; Calvin, M

    1962-03-08

    A study of the incorporation of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} into cell components of synchronously growing Chlorella pyrenoidosa has shown that DNA is synthesized primarily during the latter stages of the cell cycle prior to cell division. RNA was synthesized at an approximately equal rate during each of the three phases of the cell growth studied. No major differences were noted in the incorporation of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} into the soluble cell components in these long-term incorporation studies.

  2. Influence of the Nanoclay Cloisite 20A Incorporation on Properties of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Jorge N.; Silva, Andressa A.; Valenzuela-Diaz, Francisco R.; Moura, Esperidiana A. B.

    This work aims to study the influence of the nanoclay Cloisite 20A incorporation on mechanical properties of ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene). The incorporation of Cloisite 20A was made in two steps; firstly, a masterbatch was preparated and then, it was incorporated in ABS. The Cloisite 20A masterbatch using 40 % of nanoclay and 60 % of SAN (Styrene Acrylonitrile) was prepared in an adiabatic mill. After that, Cloisite 20A masterbarch at 1 and 5 % (wt) was added in ABS. The resulting nanocomposites were characterized by tensile tests and the correlation between properties was discussed.

  3. Assessing Natural Isothiocyanate Air Emissions after Field Incorporation of Mustard Cover Crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trott, Donna M.; LePage, Jane; Hebert, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    A regional air assessment was performed to characterize volatile natural isothiocyanate (NITC) compounds in air during soil incorporation of mustard cover crops in Washington State. Field air sampling and analytical methods were developed specific to three NITCs known to be present in air at appreciable concentrations during/after field incorporation. The maximum observed concentrations in air for the allyl, benzyl, and phenethyl isothiocyanates were respectively 188, 6.1, and 0.7 lg m-3 during mustard incorporation. Based on limited inhalation toxicity information, airborne NITC concentrations did not appear to pose an acute human inhalation exposure concern to field operators and bystanders.

  4. 49 CFR 1310.4 - Incorporation of tariff provisions by reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR HOUSEHOLD GOODS CARRIERS § 1310.4 Incorporation of tariff provisions by reference. (a... contract of carriage for the transportation of household goods, provided that: (1) The bill of lading or... household goods. ...

  5. Next Generation Risk Assessment: Incorporation of Recent Advances in Molecular, Computational, and Systems Biology (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Next Generation Risk Assessment: Incorporation of Recent Advances in Molecular, Computational, and Systems Biology. This report describes new approaches that are faster, less resource intensive, and more robust that can help ...

  6. Synthesis of Functionalised Nucleosides for Incorporation into Nucleic Acid-Based Serine Protease Mimics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemieke Madder

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of nucleosides modified with an extra imidazole, carboxyl and hydroxyl group is described. These nucleosides can be incorporated into an oligonucleotide duplex, thus generating a novel type of serine protease mimic.

  7. Incorporated City Boundaries in Iowa in 2010 as Derived from the Census Places Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Incorporated Cities in Iowa in 2010, as derived from the Census Places dataset. Original abstract: The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files...

  8. Radiological accidents: methodologies of radio nuclides dis incorporation; Accidentes radiologicos: metodologias de desincorporacion de radionuclidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez F, E. A. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Medicina, Paseo Tollocan s/n, 50180 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Paredes G, L. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Cortes, A., E-mail: lydia.paredes@inin.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Jose Ma. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    Derived of the radioactive or nuclear material management, exists the risk that accidents can happen where people cases are presented with internal radioactive contamination, who will receive specialized medical care to accelerate the radioactive dis incorporation with the purpose of diminishing the absorbed dose and the associate biological effects. In this work treatments of radioactive dis incorporation were identified, in function of the radionuclide, radiation type, radioactive half life, biological half life, critical organ, ingestion duct and patient type. The factor time is decisive for the effectiveness of the selected treatment in the blockade stage (before the accident) or dis incorporation (after the accident); this factor is related with the radioactive and biological half lives. So to achieve dis incorporation efficiencies of more to 70%, the patient clinical treatment will begin before the first third of the biological half life of the radionuclide that generated the internal contamination. (Author)

  9. Development of guidelines for incorporation of vertical ground motion effects in seismic design of highway bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    This study was undertaken with the objective of assessing the current provisions in SDC-2006 for incorporating : vertical effects of ground motions in seismic evaluation and design of ordinary highway bridges. A : comprehensive series of simulations ...

  10. A viral scaffolding protein triggers portal ring oligomerization and incorporation during procapsid assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motwani, Tina; Lokareddy, Ravi K.; Dunbar, Carmen A.; Cortines, Juliana R.; Jarrold, Martin F.; Cingolani, Gino; Teschke, Carolyn M.

    2017-01-01

    Most double-stranded DNA viruses package genetic material into empty precursor capsids (or procapsids) through a dodecameric portal protein complex that occupies 1 of the 12 vertices of the icosahedral lattice. Inhibiting incorporation of the portal complex prevents the formation of infectious virions, making this step an excellent target for antiviral drugs. The mechanism by which a sole portal assembly is selectively incorporated at the special vertex is unclear. We recently showed that, as part of the DNA packaging process for bacteriophage P22, the dodecameric procapsid portal changes conformation to a mature virion state. We report that preformed dodecameric rings of P22 portal protein, as opposed to portal monomers, incorporate into nascent procapsids, with preference for the procapsid portal conformation. Finally, a novel role for P22 scaffolding protein in triggering portal ring formation from portal monomers is elucidated and validated by incorporating de novo assembled portal rings into procapsids. PMID:28782023

  11. 76 FR 14746 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds Change in State of Incorporation; Western Bonding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds Change in State of Incorporation; Western Bonding Company; Western Insurance Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service... Bonding Company (NAIC 13191) and Western Insurance Company (NAIC 10008) have redomesticated from the state...

  12. Production, characterization, and mechanical behavior of cementitious materials incorporating carbon nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofirbers (CNFs) have excellent properties : (mechanical, electrical, magnetic, etc.), which can make them effective : nanoreinforcements for improving the properties of materials. The incorporation of : CNT/Fs in...

  13. Political Township and Incorporated City Boundaries in Iowa in 2010 as Derived from Census Datasets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Political Township and Incorporated City Boundaries in Iowa in 2010, as Derived from Census Datasets Original Abstract: The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and...

  14. 77 FR 65843 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Montgomery County, Alabama and Incorporated Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... Montgomery County, Alabama and Incorporated Areas AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION... proposed rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Montgomery County, Alabama and... sources in Montgomery County, Alabama. FEMA is withdrawing the proposed rulemaking and intends to publish...

  15. 77 FR 15390 - Certain Mobile Electronic Devices Incorporating Haptics; Receipt of Amended Complaint...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Mobile Electronic Devices Incorporating Haptics; Receipt of Amended Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION...

  16. Incorporation of different antibiotics into carbonated hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium implants, release and antibiotic efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stigter, M.; Bezemer, J.M.; de Groot, K.; Layrolle, P.

    2004-01-01

    Carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA) coatings were applied onto titanium implants by using a biomimetic precipitation method. Different antibiotics were incorporated into the CHA coatings and their release and efficacy against bacteria growth were studied in vitro. The following antibiotics were used

  17. 77 FR 751 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Matters Incorporated by Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    .... 571.5 when incorporated materials are referenced and to correct grammatical errors. This rule does not... these publications within each section. The amendments also correct grammatical errors and incorrect...

  18. Effect of Incorporating Nanoporous Metal Phosphate Materials on the Compressive Strength of Portland Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn M. Wellman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous metal phosphate (NP-MPO materials are being developed for removal of contaminant oxyanions (As(OHO32−, CrO42−, and TcO4−, and cations (mercury, cadmium, and lead from water and waste streams. Following sequestration, incorporation of metal laden NP-MPOs as a portion of cement formulation would provide an efficient and low-cost way to immobilize metal laden NP-MPOs in an easily handled waste form suitable for permanent disposal. There are no known investigations regarding the incorporation of NP-MPOs in concrete and the effects imparted on the physical and mechanical properties of concrete. Results of this investigation demonstrated that incorporating of NP-MPO materials requires additional water in the concrete formulation which decreases the compressive strength. Thus, incorporation of NP-MPOs in concrete may not serve as an efficient means for long-term disposal.

  19. Surface-Engineered Graphene Quantum Dots Incorporated into Polymer Layers for High Performance Organic Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Kyu; Kim, Sang Jin; Park, Myung Jin; Bae, Sukang; Cho, Sung-Pyo; Du, Qing Guo; Wang, Dong Hwan; Park, Jong Hyeok; Hong, Byung Hee

    2015-09-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs), a newly emerging 0-dimensional graphene based material, have been widely exploited in optoelectronic devices due to their tunable optical and electronic properties depending on their functional groups. Moreover, the dispersibility of GQDs in common solvents depending on hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity can be controlled by chemical functionalization, which is particularly important for homogeneous incorporation into various polymer layers. Here we report that a surface-engineered GQD-incorporated polymer photovoltaic device shows enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE), where the oxygen-related functionalization of GQDs enabled good dispersity in a PEDOT:PSS hole extraction layer, leading to significantly improved short circuit current density (Jsc) value. To maximize the PCE of the device, hydrophobic GQDs that are hydrothermally reduced (rGQD) were additionally incorporated in a bulk-heterojunction layer, which is found to promote a synergistic effect with the GQD-incorporated hole extraction layer.

  20. Thermodynamic and hydration effects for the incorporation of a cationic 3-aminopropyl chain into DNA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soto, Ana Maria; Kankia, Besik I; Dande, Prasad; Gold, Barry; Marky, Luis A

    2002-01-01

    .... In order to understand the energetic and hydration contributions for the incorporation of a cationic side chain in DNA a combination of spectroscopy, calorimetry and density techniques were used...

  1. Preparation and characterization of lanthanum-incorporated hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium substrates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lou, W; Dong, Y; Zhang, H; Jin, Y; Hu, X; Ma, J; Liu, J; Wu, G

    2015-01-01

    ...) coating, using a dip-coating technique with a La-HA sol along with post-heat treatment. The XRD, FTIR and EDX results presented in this paper confirmed that lanthanum was successfully incorporated into the structure of HA...

  2. 77 FR 66165 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Scotland County, NC, and Incorporated Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    ... Determinations for Scotland County, NC, and Incorporated Areas AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS... its proposed rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Scotland County, North... or more flooding sources in Scotland County, North Carolina. FEMA is withdrawing the proposed...

  3. 7 CFR 1755.97 - Incorporation by reference of telecommunications standards and specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incorporation by reference of telecommunications... Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TELECOMMUNICATIONS POLICIES ON... telecommunications standards and specifications. The following telecommunications bulletins have been approved for...

  4. Surface-Engineered Graphene Quantum Dots Incorporated into Polymer Layers for High Performance Organic Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Kyu; Kim, Sang Jin; Park, Myung Jin; Bae, Sukang; Cho, Sung-Pyo; Du, Qing Guo; Wang, Dong Hwan; Park, Jong Hyeok; Hong, Byung Hee

    2015-01-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs), a newly emerging 0-dimensional graphene based material, have been widely exploited in optoelectronic devices due to their tunable optical and electronic properties depending on their functional groups. Moreover, the dispersibility of GQDs in common solvents depending on hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity can be controlled by chemical functionalization, which is particularly important for homogeneous incorporation into various polymer layers. Here we report that a surface-engineered GQD-incorporated polymer photovoltaic device shows enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE), where the oxygen-related functionalization of GQDs enabled good dispersity in a PEDOT:PSS hole extraction layer, leading to significantly improved short circuit current density (Jsc) value. To maximize the PCE of the device, hydrophobic GQDs that are hydrothermally reduced (rGQD) were additionally incorporated in a bulk-heterojunction layer, which is found to promote a synergistic effect with the GQD-incorporated hole extraction layer. PMID:26392211

  5. Incorporating travel-time reliability into the congestion management process : a primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This primer explains the value of incorporating travel-time reliability into the Congestion Management Process (CMP) : and identifies the most current tools available to assist with this effort. It draws from applied research and best practices : fro...

  6. Efficient Production of Hydrogen from Decomposition of Formic Acid over Zeolite Incorporated Gold Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallas-Hulin, Agata; Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen; Kegnæs, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Formic acid has a great potential as a safe and convenient source of hydrogen for sustainable chemical synthesis and renewable energy storage. Here, we report a heterogeneous gold nanoparticles catalyst for efficient production of hydrogen from vapor phase decomposition of formic acid using zeolite...... incorporated gold nanoparticles. The catalyst is prepared by pressure assisted impregnation and reduction (PAIR), which results in a uniform distribution of small gold nanoparticles that are incorporated into zeolite silicalite-1 crystals. Consequently, the incorporated nanoparticles exhibit increased...... sintering stability. Based on these results, we believe that incorporation of metal nanoparticles in zeolites may find use as highly active and selective heterogeneous catalysts for the production of hydrogen in future renewable energy applications....

  7. Incorporating a Socio-Ecological-Technological Systems (SETS) perspective into the adaptive management framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incorporating a social-ecological-technological systems (SETS) perspective to the adaptive management process requires that stakeholders and managers conceptualize restoration projects as part of coupled human and natural systems and assess underlying social drivers and accrued b...

  8. Hepcidin is the major predictor of erythrocyte iron incorporation in anemic African children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron supplementation strategies in the developing world remain controversial owing to fears of exacerbating prevalent infectious diseases. Understanding the conditions in which iron will be absorbed and incorporated into erythrocytes is therefore important. We studied Gambian children with either po...

  9. Mn and Zn incorporation into calcite as a function of chloride aqueous concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temmam, M.; Paquette, J.; Vali, H.

    2000-07-01

    During spiral growth of the calcite rhombohedron {10 overline14}, divalent metals substituting for Ca 2+ are differentially incorporated due to steric differences inherent to the asymmetric kink sites exposed at nonequivalent growth steps. Hence, ions "larger" than Ca 2+ (e.g., Sr 2+ and Ba 2+) exhibit an incorporation trend opposite to that of "smaller" ions (e.g., Mn 2+ and Co 2+). However, Zn 2+ exhibits the same incorporation trend as large ions in coprecipitation experiments conducted from strong NH 4Cl electrolytes. In this study we compared the incorporation trends of Zn and Mn from solutions with various chloride content to test the possibility that the adsorption of "large" ZnCl n2-n aqueous complexes influences the site preference of Zn. The incorporation trends of Mn and Zn were opposite at the symmetrically nonequivalent growth steps. From a 0.4 M NH 4Cl solution, where Zn aqueous speciation was thermodynamically dominated by the "free" aquo ion, Zn maintained its site preference for the geometrically less constrained surface sites. Thus, Zn exhibits a particular interaction with surface sites and its incorporation trend is not controlled by the prevalence of ZnCl n2-n complexes. Other factors like the electronic configuration must be considered. The surface microtopography of calcite was found to be sensitive to changes in the aqueous concentrations of NH 4Cl and Zn. Decreases in NH 4Cl concentration resulted in an increase of the density of growth hillocks. The strong adsorbing behaviour of Zn increased the surface roughness, decreased the rate of growth, perturbed the spiral growth mechanism, and triggered the nucleation of discrete surface precipitates (˜0.2 μm) along macrosteps. An increase of Cl incorporation, despite the decrease of its aqueous concentration by dilutions of the parent solution, suggests that surface roughness at the calcite-solution interface is another factor involved in the nonequilibrium process of impurity element

  10. Amendment of the calculation principles for incorporation monitoring; Novellierung der Berechnungsgrundlage zur Inkorporationsueberwachung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosske, D.; Dalheimer, A.; Dettmann, K.; Hartmann, M.; Karcher, K.; Koenig, K.; Scheler, R. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz Oberschleissheim/Berlin (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The present status (January 2002) of the amendment of the calculation principles for incorporation monitoring is presented. This amendment follows very closely the former calculation principles. Only the text is adapted to the new Radiation Protection Ordinance, and to the amendments of the additional guidelines for incorporation monitoring. Moreover, the extensive annex of tables is revised, in the course of which the values were re-calculated by using the recent ICRP models which serve as a basis for the EU Directive. (orig.)

  11. Incorporation of Novel MRI and Biomarkers into Prostate Cancer Active Surveillance Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0441 TITLE: Incorporation of Novel MRI and Biomarkers into Prostate Cancer Active Surveillance Risk Assessment...REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 09/01/2016 – 08/31/2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Incorporation of Novel MRI and Biomarkers into Prostate Cancer Active...have engaged my mentors, enrolled in courses and conferences to augment my knowledge of translational science and MRI imaging, and I have developed and

  12. Zinc incorporation via the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism into InP nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Weert, Maarten H M; Helman, Ana; van den Einden, Wim; Algra, Rienk E; Verheijen, Marcel A; Borgström, Magnus T; Immink, George; Kelly, John J; Kouwenhoven, Leo P; Bakkers, Erik P A M

    2009-04-08

    We report the incorporation of zinc atoms into vapor-liquid-solid grown indium phosphide nanowires via a gold catalyst particle. We demonstrate this by synthesizing axial pn-junctions, chemically etching them, and fabricating electrical contacts in a vertical configuration. Electrical measurements show clear diode behavior. Control of dopant incorporation is crucial for future applications and will eventually lead to full freedom of design.

  13. Using annotations in an electronic process handbook to systematically incorporate experience into processes

    OpenAIRE

    Becker-Kornstaedt, U.; Reinert, R.

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge and experience are key assets in software process improvement. An instrument to communicate software process knowledge to the people performing the process are process handbooks in printed or file-based form. However, even in the electronic form, these handbooks still lack adequate support to incorporate experience gained during process execution. This paper presents the concept of an electronic process handbook that allows users to incorporate their experience into the process hand...

  14. Effect of the Y955C mutation on mitochondrial DNA polymerase nucleotide incorporation efficiency and fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, Patricia A; Johnson, Kenneth A

    2011-07-26

    The human mitochondrial DNA polymerase (pol γ) is responsible for the replication of the mitochondrial genome. Mutation Y955C in the active site of pol γ results in early onset progressive external ophthalmoplegia, premature ovarian failure, and Parkinson's disease. In single-turnover kinetic studies, we show that the Y955C mutation results in a decrease in the maximal rate of polymerization and an increase in the K(m) for correct incorporation. The mutation decreased the specificity constant for correct incorporation of dGTP, TTP, and ATP to values of 1.5, 0.35, and 0.044 μM(-1) s(-1), respectively, representing reductions of 30-, 110-, and 1300-fold, respectively, relative to the value for the wild-type enzyme. The fidelity of incorporation was reduced 6-130-fold, largely because of the significant decrease in the specificity constant for correct dATP:T incorporation. For example, k(cat)/K(m) for forming a TTP:T mismatch was decreased 10-fold from 0.0002 to 0.00002 μM(-1) s(-1) by the Y955C mutant, but the 1300-fold slower incorporation of the correct dATP:T relative to that of the wild type led to a 130-fold lower fidelity. While correct incorporation of 8-oxo-dGTP was largely unchanged, the level of incorporation of 8-oxo-dG with dA in the template strand was reduced 500-fold. These results support a role for Y955 in stabilizing A:T base pairs at the active site of pol γ and suggest that the severe clinical symptoms of patients with this mutation may be due, in part, to the reduced efficiency of incorporation of dATP opposite T, and that the autosomal dominant phenotype may arise from the resulting higher mutation frequency. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  15. Effects of Straw Incorporation on Soil Nutrients, Enzymes, and Aggregate Stability in Tobacco Fields of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiguang Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of straw incorporation on soil nutrients, enzyme activity, and aggregates in tobacco fields, we conducted experiments with different amounts of wheat and maize straw in Zhucheng area of southeast Shandong province for three years (2010–2012. In the final year of experiment (2012, straw incorporation increased soil organic carbon (SOC and related parameters, and improved soil enzyme activity proportionally with the amount of straw added, except for catalase when maize straw was used. And maize straw incorporation was more effective than wheat straw in the tobacco field. The percentage of aggregates >2 mm increased with straw incorporation when measured by either dry or wet sieving. The mean weight diameter (MWD and geometric mean diameter (GMD in straw incorporation treatments were higher than those in the no-straw control (CK. Maize straw increased soil aggregate stability more than wheat straw with the same incorporation amount. Alkaline phosphatase was significantly and negatively correlated with soil pH. Sucrase and urease were both significantly and positively correlated with soil alkali-hydrolysable N. Catalase was significantly but negatively correlated with soil extractable K (EK. The MWD and GMD by dry sieving had significantly positive correlations with SOC, total N, total K, and EK, but only significantly correlated with EK by wet sieving. Therefore, soil nutrients, metabolic enzyme activity, and aggregate stability might be increased by increasing the SOC content through the maize or wheat straw incorporation. Moreover, incorporation of maize straw at 7500 kg·hm−2 was the best choice to enhance soil fertility in the tobacco area of Eastern China.

  16. Incorporation monitoring with triage measurements in Switzerland; Inkorporationsueberwachung mit Triagemessungen in der Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmiger, Raphael [Bundesamt fuer Gesundheit BAG, Liebefeld (Switzerland). Abteilung Strahlenschutz

    2017-08-01

    The actual valid concept of incorporation monitoring in Switzerland was implemented in 1999 with the regulation on personal dosimetry based on the recommendations of an expert group for dosimetry of the Helvetian commission for radiation protection (KSR). IN the sense of an uncomplicated and practical solution for the respective companies it is a two-step monitoring using two different measuring methods: a simplified triage measurement performed by the company and the incorporation measurement by an authorized dosimetry station.

  17. Incorporating big data into treatment plan evaluation: Development of statistical DVH metrics and visualization dashboards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles S. Mayo, PhD

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Statistical DVH offers an easy-to-read, detailed, and comprehensive way to visualize the quantitative comparison with historical experiences and among institutions. WES and GEM metrics offer a flexible means of incorporating discrete threshold-prioritizations and historic context into a set of standardized scoring metrics. Together, they provide a practical approach for incorporating big data into clinical practice for treatment plan evaluations.

  18. Increasing the fidelity of noncanonical amino acid incorporation in cell-free protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Qinglei; Fan, Chenguang

    2017-11-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis provides a robust platform for co-translational incorporation of noncanonical amino acid (ncAA) into proteins to facilitate biological studies and biotechnological applications. Recently, eliminating the activity of release factor 1 has been shown to increase ncAA incorporation in response to amber codons. However, this approach could promote mis-incorporation of canonical amino acids by near cognate suppression. We performed a facile protocol to remove near cognate tRNA isoacceptors of the amber codon from total tRNAs, and used the phosphoserine (Sep) incorporation system as validation. By manipulating codon usage of target genes and tRNA species introduced into the cell-free protein synthesis system, we increased the fidelity of Sep incorporation at a specific position. By removing three near cognate tRNA isoacceptors of the amber stop codon [tRNA Lys , tRNA Tyr , and tRNA Gln (CUG)] from the total tRNA, the near cognate suppression decreased by 5-fold without impairing normal protein synthesis in the cell-free protein synthesis system. Mass spectrometry analyses indicated that the fidelity of ncAA incorporation was improved. Removal of near cognate tRNA isoacceptors of the amber codon could increase ncAA incorporation fidelity towards the amber stop codon in release factor deficiency systems. We provide a general strategy to improve fidelity of ncAA incorporation towards stop, quadruplet and sense codons in cell-free protein synthesis systems. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Biochemistry of Synthetic Biology - Recent Developments" Guest Editor: Dr. Ilka Heinemann and Dr. Patrick O'Donoghue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Leucine Incorporation Method Estimates Bacterial Growth Equally Well in Both Oxic and Anoxic Lake Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Bastviken, David; Tranvik, Lars

    2001-01-01

    Bacterial biomass production is often estimated from incorporation of radioactively labeled leucine into protein, in both oxic and anoxic waters and sediments. However, the validity of the method in anoxic environments has so far not been tested. We compared the leucine incorporation of bacterial assemblages growing in oxic and anoxic waters from three lakes differing in nutrient and humic contents. The method was modified to avoid O2 contamination by performing the incubation in syringes. Is...

  20. Effects of vestibular nerve transection on the calcium incorporation of fish otoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anken, Ralf H.; Edelmann, Elke; Rahmann, Hinrich

    2001-08-01

    Previous investigations revealed that the growth of fish inner ear otoliths (otolith size and calcium-incorporation) depends on the amplitude and the direction of gravity, suggesting the existence of a (negative) feedback mechanism. In search for the regulating unit, the vestibular nerve was transected unilaterally in neonate swordtail fish ( Xiphophorus helleri) which were subsequently incubated in the calcium-tracer alizarin-complexone. Calcium incorporation ceased on the transected head sides, indicating that calcium uptake is neurally regulated.

  1. Incorporation of iodine into apatite structure: a crystal chemistry approach using Artificial Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Jianwei eWang

    2015-01-01

    Materials with apatite crystal structure have a great potential for incorporating the long-lived radioactive iodine isotope (129I) in the form of iodide (I−) from nuclear waste streams. Because of its durability and potentially high iodine content, the apatite waste form can reduce iodine release rate and minimize the waste volume. Crystal structure and composition of apatite (A5(XO4)3Z) was investigated for iodide incorporation into the channel of the structure using Artificial Neural Networ...

  2. Developing an institutional framework to incorporate ecosystem services into decision making-Proceedings of a workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Dianna; Arthaud, Greg; Brookshire, David; Gunther, Tom; Pincetl, Stephanie; Shapiro, Carl; Van Horne, Bea

    2011-01-01

    The routine and effective incorporation of ecosystem services information into resource management decisions requires a careful consideration of the value of goods and services provided by natural systems. A multidisciplinary workshop was held in October 2008 on "Developing an Institutional Framework to Incorporate Ecosystem Services into Decision Making." This report summarizes that workshop, which focused on examining the relationship between an institutional framework and consideration of ecosystem services in resource management decision making.

  3. A Self-Assembling Protein Hydrogel Technology for Enzyme Incorporation onto Electrodes in Biofuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-26

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0369 A Self-Assembling Protein Hydrogel Technology for Enzyme Incorporation onto Electrodes in Biofuel Cells (YIP) Zhilei Chen...Incorporation Onto Electrodes in Biofuel Cells 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER C12-00857 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-12-1-0330 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...activity enzyme immobilization on electrodes in enzymatic biofuel cells. Enzymatic biofuel cells hold great potential for providing flexible, compact

  4. Systems engineering and the user: Incorporation of user requirements into the SE process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naugle, John E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is organized into four parts. In the Gestation Phase, I describe the process of starting a new mission and establishing its rough boundaries. Next I show how the scientific experiments are selected. Then we enter the Preliminary Design Phase, where we incorporate the scientist's instruments into the systems engineering process. Finally, I show how the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) assures NASA management and the scientists that the scientific requirements have been incorporated into the systems engineering process to everyone's satisfaction.

  5. DOD Civilian Personnel. Intelligence Personnel System Incorporates Safeguards, but Opportunities Exist for Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    PERSONNEL Intelligence Personnel System Incorporates Safeguards, but Opportunities Exist for Improvement December 2009 GAO-10-134...response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and...Incorporates Safeguards, but Opportunities Exist for Improvement 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  6. Biocompatibility of poly(lactic acid) with incorporated graphene-based materials

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Artur Moreira; Moreira, Susana Margarida Gomes; Gonçalves, Inês; Gama, F. M.; Mendes, Adélio; Magalhães, Fernão D.

    2013-01-01

    The incorporation of graphene-based materials has been shown to improve mechanical properties of poly(lactic acid) (PLA). In this work, PLA films and composite PLA films incorporating two graphene-based materials – graphene oxide (GO) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) – were prepared and characterized regarding not only biocompatibility, but also surface topography, chemistry and wettability. The presence of both fillers changed the films surface topography, increasing the roughness, and modif...

  7. Biocompatibility of poly(lactic acid) with incorporated graphene-based materials

    OpenAIRE

    Artur Pinto; Susana Moreira; Ines C Goncalves; Francisco M Gama; Adelio M Mendes; Fernao D Magalhaes

    2013-01-01

    The incorporation of graphene-based materials has been shown to improve mechanical properties of poly(lactic acid) (PLA). In this work, PLA films and composite PLA films incorporating two graphene-based materials - graphene oxide (GO) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) - were prepared and characterized regarding not only biocompatibility, but also surface topography, chemistry and wettability. The presence of both fillers changed the films surface topography, increasing the roughness, and modif...

  8. Infrared analysis of clay bricks incorporated with spent shea waste from the shea butter industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adazabra, A N; Viruthagiri, G; Shanmugam, N

    2017-04-15

    The peculiar challenge of effective disposing abundant spent shea waste and the excellent compositional variation tolerance of clay material offered an impetus to examine the incorporation of spent shea waste into clay material as an eco-friendly disposal route in making clay bricks. For this purpose, the chemical constituent, mineralogical compositions and thermal behavior of both clay material and spent shea waste were initially characterized from which modelled brick specimens incorporating 5-20 wt% of the waste into the clay material were prepared. The clay material showed high proportions of SiO 2 (52.97 wt%) and Al 2 O 3 (27.10 wt%) indicating their rich kaolinitic content: whereas, the inert nature of spent shea waste was exhibited by their low oxide content. The striking similarities in infrared absorption bands of pristine clay material and clay materials incorporated with 15 wt% of spent shea waste showed that the waste incorporation had no impact on bond formation of the clay bricks. Potential performance benefits of developing bricks from clay material incorporated with spent shea waste included improved fluxing agents, economic sintering and making of sustainable bricks. Consequently, the analytical results authenticate the incorporation of spent shea waste into clay materials for various desired benefits aside being an environmental correct route of its disposal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Swimming Behavior and Calcium Incorporation into inner Ear Otoliths of Fish after vestibular Nerve Transection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, E.; Anken, R.; Rahmann, H.

    Previous investigations on neonate swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri) revealed that otolithic calcium incorporation (visualized using the calcium-tracer alizarin- complexone) and thus otolith growth had ceased after nerve transection, supporting a hypothesis according to which the gravity-dependent otolith growth is regulated neuronally. Subsequent investigations on larval cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus) yielded contrasting results, repeatedly depending on the particular batch of cichlids investigated: Like neonate swordtails, type I cichlids revealed a stop of calcium incorporation after unilateral vestibular nerve transection. Their behaviour after transection was normal and the otolithic calcium incorporation in controls of the same batch was symmetrical. In type II cichlids, however, vestibular nerve transection had no effect on otolithic calcium incorporation. They behaved kinetotically after transection (this kind of kinetosis was qualitatively similar to the swimming behaviour exhibited by larval cichlids during microgravity in the course of parabolic aircraft flights). The otolithic calcium incorporation in control animals was asymmetrical. These results stongly suggest that the effects of vestibular nerve transection as well as the efficacy of the mechanism, which regulates otolith growth/otolithic calcium incorporation, are - depending on the particular batch of animals - genetically predispositioned. Thus, it is assumed that the mechanisms regulating otolith growth and equlibibrium differ in the two types of cichlid fish. This work was financially supported by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) e.V. (FKZ: 50 WB 9997).

  10. The synthesis and hydrogen storage properties of a MgH(2) incorporated carbon aerogel scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Gross, Adam F; Van Atta, Sky L; Lopez, Maribel; Liu, Ping; Ahn, Channing C; Vajo, John J; Jensen, Craig M

    2009-05-20

    A new approach to the incorporation of MgH2 in the nanometer-sized pores of a carbon aerogel scaffold was developed, by infiltrating the aerogel with a solution of dibutylmagnesium (MgBu2) precursor, and then hydrogenating the incorporated MgBu2 to MgH2. The resulting impregnated material showed broad x-ray diffraction peaks of MgH2. The incorporated MgH2 was not visible using a transmission electron microscope, which indicated that the incorporated hydride was nanosized and confined in the nanoporous structure of the aerogel. The loading of MgH2 was determined as 15-17 wt%, of which 75% is reversible over ten cycles. Incorporated MgH2 had >5 times faster dehydrogenation kinetics than ball-milled activated MgH2, which may be attributed to the particle size of the former being smaller than that of the latter. Cycling tests of the incorporated MgH(2) showed that the dehydrogenation kinetics are unchanged over four cycles. Our results demonstrate that confinement of metal hydride materials in a nanoporous scaffold is an efficient way to avoid aggregation and improve cycling kinetics for hydrogen storage materials.

  11. Flow cytometric assessment of specific leucine incorporation in the open Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarmin, A.; van Wambeke, F.; Catala, P.; Courties, C.; Lebaron, P.

    2011-02-01

    The surface of the Mediterranean Sea is a low-phosphate-low-chlorophyll marine area where marine heterotrophic prokaryotes significantly contribute to the biogeochemical cycles of all biogenic elements such as carbon, notably through the mineralization of dissolved organic compounds. Cell-specific leucine incorporation rates were determined in early summer in the open stratified Mediterranean Sea. The bulk leucine incorporation rate was on average 5 ± 4 pmol leu l-1 h-1 (n=30). Cell-specific 3H-leucine incorporation rates were assayed using flow cytometry coupled to cell sorting. Heterotrophic prokaryotes (Hprok) were divided into cytometric groups according to their side scatter and green fluorescence properties: high nucleic acid containing cells (HNA) with high scatter (HNA-hs) and low scatter (HNA-ls) and low nucleic acid containing cells (LNA). Cell-specific leucine incorporation rates of these cytometric groups ranged from 2 to 54, 0.9 to 11, and 1 to 12 × 10-21 mol cell-1 h-1, respectively. LNA cells represented 45 to 63% of the Hprok abundance, and significantly contributed to the bulk leucine incorporation rates, from 12 to 43%. HNA/LNA ratios of cell-specific leucine incorporation were on average 2.0 ± 0.7 (n=30). In surface layers (from 0 m down to the deep chlorophyll depth, DCM), cell-specific rates of HNA-hs were elevated (7 and 13 times greater than LNA and HNA-ls, respectively). Nevertheless, on average HNA-hs (26%) and LNA (27%) equally contributed to the bulk leucine incorporation in these layers. Prochlorococcus cells were easily sorted near the DCM and displayed cell-specific leucine incorporation rates ranging from 3 to 55 × 10-21 mol leu cell-1 h-1, i.e. as high as HNA-hs'. These sorted groups could therefore be defined as key-players in the process of leucine incorporation into proteins. The mixotrophic features of certain photosynthetic prokaryotes and the high contribution of LNA cells to leucine incorporation within the microbial

  12. Flow cytometric assessment of specific leucine incorporation in the open Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Talarmin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The surface of the Mediterranean Sea is a low-phosphate-low-chlorophyll marine area where marine heterotrophic prokaryotes significantly contribute to the biogeochemical cycles of all biogenic elements such as carbon, notably through the mineralization of dissolved organic compounds. Cell-specific leucine incorporation rates were determined in early summer in the open stratified Mediterranean Sea. The bulk leucine incorporation rate was on average 5 ± 4 pmol leu l−1 h−1 (n=30. Cell-specific 3H-leucine incorporation rates were assayed using flow cytometry coupled to cell sorting. Heterotrophic prokaryotes (Hprok were divided into cytometric groups according to their side scatter and green fluorescence properties: high nucleic acid containing cells (HNA with high scatter (HNA-hs and low scatter (HNA-ls and low nucleic acid containing cells (LNA. Cell-specific leucine incorporation rates of these cytometric groups ranged from 2 to 54, 0.9 to 11, and 1 to 12 × 10-21 mol cell−1 h−1, respectively. LNA cells represented 45 to 63% of the Hprok abundance, and significantly contributed to the bulk leucine incorporation rates, from 12 to 43%. HNA/LNA ratios of cell-specific leucine incorporation were on average 2.0 ± 0.7 (n=30. In surface layers (from 0 m down to the deep chlorophyll depth, DCM, cell-specific rates of HNA-hs were elevated (7 and 13 times greater than LNA and HNA-ls, respectively. Nevertheless, on average HNA-hs (26% and LNA (27% equally contributed to the bulk leucine incorporation in these layers. Prochlorococcus cells were easily sorted near the DCM and displayed cell-specific leucine incorporation rates ranging from 3 to 55 × 10-21 mol leu cell−1 h−1, i.e. as high as HNA-hs'. These sorted groups could therefore be defined as key-players in the process of leucine incorporation into proteins. The

  13. [H-3]thymidine incorporation into whole liver as an alternative to [H-3]thymidine incorporation into DNA as a parameter of cell proliferation in regenerating liver tissue in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, KP; Brinker, M; van Veen, M; Daemen, T; Scherphof, GL; Slooff, MJH

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To monitor liver regeneration following partial hepatectomy, liver cell proliferation can be measured by assaying in vivo [H-3]thymidine incorporation into liver cell DNA. We hypothesized that [H-3]thymidine incorporation into whole liver tissue parallels [H-3]thymidine incorporation into

  14. Saos-2 cell-mediated mineralization on collagen gels: Effect of densification and bioglass incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gengbo; Pastakia, Meet; Fenn, Michael B; Kishore, Vipuil

    2016-05-01

    Plastic compression is a collagen densification process that has been widely used for the development of mechanically robust collagen-based materials. Incorporation of bioglass within plastically compressed collagen gels has been shown to mimic the microstructural properties of native bone and enhance in vitro cell-mediated mineralization. The current study seeks to decouple the effects of collagen densification and bioglass incorporation to understand the interplay between collagen packing density and presence of bioglass on cell-mediated mineralization. Saos-2 cell-mediated mineralization was assessed as a measure of the osteoconductivity of four different collagen gels: (1) uncompressed collagen gel (UC), (2) bioglass incorporated uncompressed collagen gel (UC + BG), (3) plastically compressed collagen gel (PC), and (4) bioglass incorporated plastically compressed collagen gel (PC + BG). The results indicated that collagen densification enhanced mineralization as shown by SEM, increased alkaline phosphatase activity and produced significantly higher amounts of mineralized nodules on PC gels compared to UC gels. Further, the amount of nodule formation on PC gels was significantly higher compared to UC + BG gels indicating that increase in matrix stiffness due to collagen densification had a greater effect on cell-mediated mineralization compared to bioglass incorporation into loosely packed UC gels. Incorporation of bioglass into PC gels further enhanced mineralization as evidenced by significantly larger nodule size and higher amount of mineralization on PC + BG gels compared to PC gels. In conclusion, collagen densification via plastic compression improves the osteoconductivity of collagen gels. Further, incorporation of bioglass within PC gels has an additive effect and further enhances the osteoconductivity of collagen gels. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Calculation of partial isotope incorporation into peptides measured by mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harms Hauke

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stable isotope probing (SIP technique was developed to link function, structure and activity of microbial cultures metabolizing carbon and nitrogen containing substrates to synthesize their biomass. Currently, available methods are restricted solely to the estimation of fully saturated heavy stable isotope incorporation and convenient methods with sufficient accuracy are still missing. However in order to track carbon fluxes in microbial communities new methods are required that allow the calculation of partial incorporation into biomolecules. Results In this study, we use the characteristics of the so-called 'half decimal place rule' (HDPR in order to accurately calculate the partial13C incorporation in peptides from enzymatic digested proteins. Due to the clade-crossing universality of proteins within bacteria, any available high-resolution mass spectrometry generated dataset consisting of tryptically-digested peptides can be used as reference. We used a freely available peptide mass dataset from Mycobacterium tuberculosis consisting of 315,579 entries. From this the error of estimated versus known heavy stable isotope incorporation from an increasing number of randomly drawn peptide sub-samples (100 times each; no repetition was calculated. To acquire an estimated incorporation error of less than 5 atom %, about 100 peptide masses were needed. Finally, for testing the general applicability of our method, peptide masses of tryptically digested proteins from Pseudomonas putida ML2 grown on labeled substrate of various known concentrations were used and13C isotopic incorporation was successfully predicted. An easy-to-use script 1 was further developed to guide users through the calculation procedure for their own data series. Conclusion Our method is valuable for estimating13C incorporation into peptides/proteins accurately and with high sensitivity. Generally, our method holds promise for wider applications in qualitative

  16. 75 FR 43557 - TA-W-73,682, Hartford Financial Services Group, Incorporated, Medical Bill Processing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... Employment and Training Administration TA-W-73,682, Hartford Financial Services Group, Incorporated, Medical...; TA-W-73,682A, Hartford Financial Services Group, Incorporated Medical Bill Processing and Production... Financial Services Group, Incorporated, Medical Bill Processing and Production Center Support, Aurora...

  17. Incorporation of plant materials in the control of root pathogens in muskmelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Mirne de Macêdo Dantas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plant materials[Sunn Hemp (Crotalaria juncea, Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L., Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz and Neem (Azadirachta indica] and the times of incorporation of these materials in regards to the incidence of root rot in melon was evaluated in Ceará state, Brazil. The experiment was conducted in a commercial area with a history of root pathogens in cucurbitaceae. The randomized block design was used, in a 5 x 3 factorial arrangement with four repetitions. The treatments consisted of a combination of four plant materials (sunn hemp, castor beans, cassava and neem and a control with no soil incorporation of plant material and three times of incorporation (28, 21, and 14 days before the transplanting of the seedlings. Lower incidence of root rot was observed in practically all of the treatments where materials were incorporated at different times, with variation between the materials, corresponding with the time of incorporation, in relation to the soil without plant material. The pathogens isolated from the symptomatic muskmelon plants were Fusarium solani, Macrophomina phaseolina, Monosporascus cannonballus and Rhizoctonia solani, F. solani being encountered most frequently.

  18. The effect of incorporation time of different crops on the residual effect on spring cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. KÄNKÄNEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the time of incorporation of different green manures and barley residues on the grain yield of spring cereals in two successive seasons was studied in seven field trials. Annual hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth, red clover (Trifolium pratense L., westerwold ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. var. westerwoldicum and straw of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. were incorporated into the soil by ploughing in early September, late October and the following May, and by reduced tillage in May. Spring barley was established in the following spring, and spring oats (Avena sativa L. one year later. In general the grain yield of spring barley after legumes was similar to that after barley, in spite of the fact that N fertilization was reduced by 40 kg ha-1. The two autumn ploughing treatments resulted in a good yield of spring barley more reliably than did the spring incorporations. Because delayed autumn ploughing did not decrease the grain yield, a delaying procedure can be recommended for its potential of decreasing nitrogen leaching. Spring ploughing could be used on all but clay soils. Incorporating ryegrass or red clover in spring by using reduced tillage often decreased the grain yield of barley. Timing of incorporation did not have a consistent effect on the grain yield of oats in the third experimental year.;

  19. Incorporation of arsenic into gypsum: Relevant to arsenic removal and immobilization process in hydrometallurgical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Danni; Yuan, Zidan [Key Laboratory of Pollution Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang, Shaofeng, E-mail: wangshaofeng@iae.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Pollution Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Jia, Yongfeng, E-mail: yongfeng.jia@iae.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Pollution Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Demopoulos, George P. [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2B2 (Canada)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Quantitatively studied the incorporation of arsenic into the structure of gypsum. • Arsenic content in the solid increased with pH and initial arsenic concentration. • Calcium arsenate phase precipitated in addition to gypsum at higher pH values. • The structure of gypsum and its morphology was altered by the incorporated arsenate. • The incorporated arsenate formed sainfeldite-like local structure in gypsum. - Abstract: Gypsum precipitates as a major secondary mineral during the iron-arsenate coprecipitation process for the removal of arsenic from hydrometallurgical effluents. However, its role in the fixation of arsenic is still unknown. This work investigated the incorporation of arsenic into gypsum quantitatively during the crystallization process at various pHs and the initial arsenic concentrations. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to characterize the coprecipitated solids. The results showed that arsenate was measurably removed from solution during gypsum crystallization and the removal increased with increasing pH. At lower pH where the system was undersaturated with respect to calcium arsenate, arsenate ions were incorporated into gypsum structure, whereas at higher pH, calcium arsenate was formed and constituted the major arsenate bearing species in the precipitated solids. The findings may have important implications for arsenic speciation and stability of the hydrometallurgical solid wastes.

  20. Psychophysical and neurophysiological responses to acupuncture stimulation to incorporated rubber hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Youngbyoung; Lee, In-Seon; Jung, Won-Mo; Park, Kyungmo; Park, Hi-Joon; Wallraven, Christian

    2015-03-30

    From a neuroscientific perspective, the sensations induced by acupuncture are not only the product of the bottom-up modulation of simple needling at somatosensory receptors, but also of the reciprocal interaction of top-down modulation from the brain. The present study investigated whether acupuncture stimulation to incorporated body parts produces brain responses that are similar to the responses observed following acupuncture stimulation to the real hand. The present study included 17 participants who watched a rubber hand being synchronously stroked with their unseen left hand to induce incorporation of the rubber hand into their body. After the experimental modification of body ownership, acupuncture needle stimulation was applied to the LI4 acupoint on the incorporated rubber hand while brain activity was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). When the rubber hand was fully incorporated with the real body, acupuncture stimulation to the rubber hand resulted in the experience of the DeQi sensation as well as brain activations in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), insula, secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), and medial temporal (MT) visual area. The insular activation was associated with the DeQi sensation from the rubber hand. The psychophysical and neurophysiological responses associated with acupuncture stimulation to the incorporated rubber hand were influenced by an enhanced bodily awareness of the hand, which was likely due to top-down modulation from the interoceptive system in the brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.