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Sample records for witch experiment acquiring

  1. The WITCH experiment Acquiring the first recoil ion spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlov, V Yu; Coeck, S; Delahaye, P; Friedag, P; Herbane, M; Herlert, A; Kraev, I S; Tandecki, M; Van Gorp, S; Wauters, F; Weinheimer, Ch; Wenander, F; Zakoucky, D; Severijns, N

    2008-01-01

    The standard model of the electroweak interaction describes beta-decay in the well-known V-A form. Nevertheless, the most general Hamiltonian of a beta-decay includes also other possible interaction types, e.g. scalar (S) and tensor (T) contributions, which are not fully ruled out yet experimentally. The WITCH experiment aims to study a possible admixture of these exotic interaction types in nuclear beta-decay by a precise measurement of the shape of the recoil ion energy spectrum. The experimental set-up couples a double Penning trap system and a retardation spectrometer. The set-up is installed in ISOLDE/CERN and was recently shown to be fully operational. The current status of the experiment is presented together with the data acquired during the 2006 campaign, showing the first recoil ion energy spectrum obtained. The data taking procedure and corresponding data acquisition system are described in more detail. Several further technical improvements are briefly reviewed.

  2. Progress at the WITCH experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, M; Delauré, B J; Golovko, V V; Kozlov, V Yu; Kraev, I S; Lindroth, A; Phalet, T; Severijns, N; Versyck, S; Beck, D; Quint, W; Ames, F; Delahaye, P; Guenaut, C

    2003-01-01

    The WITCH-experiment will measure the energy spectrum of the recoiling daughter ions in $\\beta$-decay to search for non-standard scalar and tensor type interaction. To facilitate this a Penning trap is used to store the radioactive ions. Thus the recoil ions can leave the source without any energy loss and their energy can be probed by the subsequent retardation spectrometer. The experiment is being set up at present at ISOLDE/CERN. The principle and the status of the WITCH-experiment will be presented. (12 refs).

  3. Computer controls for the WITCH experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Tandecki, M; Van Gorp, S; Friedag, P; De Leebeeck, V; Beck, D; Brand, H; Weinheimer, C; Breitenfeldt, M; Traykov, E; Mader, J; Roccia, S; Severijns, N; Herlert, A; Wauters, F; Zakoucky, D; Kozlov, V; Soti, G

    2011-01-01

    The WITCH experiment is a medium-scale experimental set-up located at ISOLDE/CERN. It combines a double Penning trap system with,a retardation spectrometer for energy measurements of recoil ions from beta decay. For a correct operation of such a set-up a whole range of different devices is required. Along with the installation and optimization of the set-up a computer control system was developed to control these devices. The CS-Framework that is developed and maintained at GSI, was chosen as a basis for this control system as it is perfectly suited to handle the distributed nature of a control system.We report here on the required hardware for WITCH, along with the basis of this CS-Framework and the add-ons that were implemented for WITCH. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ion tracking simulations for the WITCH experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Baczyk, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    The WITCH experiment (standing for Weak Interation Trap for CHarged particles) is dedicated to high-precision measurements of fundamental properties of electroweak interaction. Its first goal is to indirectly determine the electron-neutrino correlation coefficient in $\\beta$ decay by measuring the energy spectrum of the recoiling nuclei. For this, a set-up consisting of two Penning traps, a retardation spectrometer and an MCP (Microchannel Plate) detector was designed and coupled to REXTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN.

  5. The WITCH Experiment : towards weak interactions studies. Status and prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlov, V.Yu.; Coeck, S.; Herbane, M.; Kraev, I.S.; Severijns, N.; Wauters, F.; Delahaye, P.; Herlert, A.; Wenander, F.; Zakoucky, D.

    2006-01-01

    Primary goal of the WITCH experiment is to test the Standard Model for a possible ad-mixture of a scalar or tensor type interaction in $\\beta$-decay. This information will be inferred from the shape of the recoil energy spectrum. The experimental set-up was completed and is under intensive commissioning at ISOLDE (CERN). It combines a Penning trap to store the ions and a retardation spectrometer to probe the recoil ion energy. A brief overview of the WITCH set-up and the results of commissioning tests performed until now are presented. Finally, perspectives of the physics program are reviewed.

  6. Progress at the WITCH experiment towards weak interaction studies

    CERN Document Server

    Tandecki, Michaël

    A measurement of the $\\beta$–ν angular correlation in nuclear $\\beta$- decay is a good probe to search for physics beyond the Standard Model, independent of assumptions like parity, charge and time reversal violation. The WITCH (Weak Interaction Trap for Charged Particles) experiment will measure this correlation with the aim of further constraining the possible existence of scalar currents in the weak interaction or find a positive indication. The setup is located at ISOLDE/CERN and consists of a double Penning trap system combined with a retardation spectrometer to probe the energy of the recoil ions from the $\\beta$- decay. The shape of the recoil ion energy spectrum allows to determine the $\\beta$–ν angular correlation coefficient, $a$. Past experiments have allowed to measure this parameter with a precision of 0.5–1 %. The aim of the WITCH experiment is to measure $a$ with a precision of about 0.5 %.\\\\ A first step towards this goal has already been taken in 2006 with the measurement of a recoil ...

  7. Search for non Standard Model physics in nuclear-$\\beta$ decay with the WITCH experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Coeck, Sam

    In this work the WITCH experiment, which primarily aims for precision measurements of the beta-neutrino-angular correlation coefficient, is presented in detail. First a theoretical description of the beta-decay process is presented and it was shown how measurements of correlation coefficients can reveal the exact nature of the weak interaction. Although many experiments have already been conducted in this field, there is still considerable room for additional phenomena that are not included in the Standard Model. At WITCH the beta-neutrino-angular correlation coefficient will be obtained from precision measurements of the energy spectrum of the nuclei that recoil after beta-decay, thus avoiding the need to observe the neutrino. To enable a measurement of the recoiling ions, the setup uses a combination of two electromagnetic Penning traps and a retardation spectrometer. This allows one to construct the scattering free radioactive source that is needed as the recoiling ions have only a very small kinetic energ...

  8. A compact radio frequency quadrupole for ion bunching in the WITCH experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Traykov, E.; Breitenfeldt, M.; Delahaye, P.; De Leebeeck, V.; Friedag, P.; Herlert, A.; Geeraert, N.; Heirman, W.; Lonne, P.I.; Mader, J.; Roccia, S.; Soti, G.; Tandecki, M.; Timmermans, M.; Thiboud, J.; Van Gorp, S.; Wauters, F.; Weinheimer, C.; Zakoucky, D.; Severijns, N.

    2011-01-01

    During the last several years the WITCH (Weak Interaction Trap for CHarged particles) experimental setup at ISOLDE has undergone various upgrades aiming at improvement of general performance. An essential innovation, a compact Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) ion cooler and buncher device, was designed and successfully commissioned as a part of the off-line tuning system of WITCH. The RFQ is coupled to the existing surface ionization ion source providing high intensity ion bunches (up to 10(7) ions per bunch) towards the pulsed drift tube and the Penning traps of WITCH. This achievement allows for loading and tuning of the Penning traps in the domain of space charge limits and grants off-line operation independently of the REX-ISOLDE ion source. The current upgrade allows for a more thorough and frequent testing with bunched stable ion beams of high intensities, which will be used for studying various systematic effects involved in experiments with radioactive ions. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The WITCH experiment: completion of a set-up to investigate the structure of weak interactions with a Penning trap

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlov, V.Yu.; Beck, D.; Beck, M.; Coeck, S.; Delaure, B.; Kopecky, S.; Lindroth, A.; Delahaye, P.; Wenander, F.; Golovko, V.V.; Kraev, I.S.; Phalet, T.

    2006-01-01

    The WITCH experiment aims to study a possible admixture of a scalar or tensor type interaction in beta decay by determining the beta-neutrino angular correlation from the shape of the recoil energy spectrum. The installation period was completed and intensive commissioning of the set-up was performed already. The lay-out of the WITCH set-up and results of commissioning tests performed until now are described here, showing that the full set-up up to the spectrometer is now operational, although several efficiencies are still to be improved. Due to its feature of being able to measure the energy spectrum for recoil ions, the WITCH experiment also opens possibilities for other observables.

  10. Search for physics beyond the standard electroweak model with the WITCH experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Van Gorp, Simon

    A measurement of the $\\beta$-neutrino angular correlation coefficient $a$ yields information on possible exotic couplings in the weak interaction. To this end the energy distribution of the recoiling daughter nucleus after $\\beta$-decay, which depends on $a$, is measured precisely. Any deviation of the measured distribution with the one expected from the Standard Model can reveal new physics. If no deviation is found stringent limits can be set on the possible presence of different types of new physics beyond the Standard Model. The WITCH experiment, located at ISOLDE, CERN aims to determine $a$ with a final precision below 1%. $\\\\$ Ion bunches are created with REXTRAP and injected in the WITCH setup. The energy of these ion bunches is pulsed down in the Pulsed Drift Tube section, prior to the capture of the ions in the first of two Penning traps. The motion of the radioactive ions is cooled before the transfer to a second Penning trap, the decay trap, which acts as the scattering-free sou...

  11. Behavior of many ions in a Penning trap and results of the WITCH experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Porobic, Tomica

    Precision measurements of the beta−neutrino angular correlation in nuclear beta-decay provide a unique window into the physics beyond the Standard model. The WITCH (Weak Interaction Trap for CHarged particles) experiment aims to measure this correlation, a(beta-nu), in order to impose a more stringent constraint on the exotic scalar current admixture in the beta-decay Hamiltonian. The apparatus is situated at CERN/ISOLDE laboratory and consists of a unique combination of a retardation spectrometer and two Penning traps, with one of them serving as a scattering-free source. This configuration is suited for a precise measurement of the energy spectrum of 35Ar recoiled daughter ions. The shape of the spectrum then allows a determination of a(beta-nu) and consequently of the presence or absence of a scalar current. Radioactive 35Ar ions are created at ISOLDE by impinging 1.2 GeV protons on the target material. After being separated by a magnetic separator and bunched by REXTRAP, a high-capacity Penning trap, th...

  12. First detection and energy measurement of recoil ions following beta decay in a Penning trap with the WITCH experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, M; Kozlov, V Yu; Breitenfeld, M; Delahaye, P; Friedag, P; Herbane, M; Herlert, A; Kraev, I S; Mader, J; Tandecki, M; Van Gorp, S; Wauters, F; Weinheimer, Ch; Wenander, F; Severijns, N

    2011-01-01

    The WITCH experiment (Weak Interaction Trap for CHarged particles) will search for exotic interactions by investigating the beta-neutrino angular correlation via the measurement of the recoil energy spectrum after beta decay. As a first step the recoil ions from the beta-minus decay of 124In stored in a Penning trap have been detected. The evidence for the detection of recoil ions is shown and the properties of the ion cloud that forms the radioactive source for the experiment in the Penning trap are presented.

  13. Alfalfa witches'-broom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa witches'-broom was first reported in 1969 in Australia and later in South Africa, Canada, and Saudi Arabia. More recently, specific phytoplasmas associated with alfalfa witches'-broom have been identified from symptomatic plants in the United States (Wisconsin), Italy, Lithuania, Oman, Ira...

  14. AHP 38: THE WITCHES OF TIBET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pema Kyi པདྨ་སྐྱིད།

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available THE WITCHES OF TIBET is a fictionalized account of a Tibetan girl's childhood in Mgo log (Golok in Qinghai Province. The narrative begins with how a little girl's life was saved by a gift of a mysterious pill from a kind, local woman who locals regarded as a witch. These and other magic moments are from personal experiences that relatives and others related about their own lives, and what the author dreamed and imagined. This text illustrates how a Tibetan woman is influenced by those around her, the natural environment, and her dreams. In addition, four stories are given, two of which only women tell among themselves.

  15. Witch Wildland Fire, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The October wildfires that plagued southern California were some of the worst on record. One of these, the Witch Wildland fire, burned 198,000 acres north of San Diego, destroying 1125 homes, commercial structures, and outbuildings. Over 3,000 firefighters finally contained the fire two weeks after it started on October 21. Now begins the huge task of planning and implementing mitigation measures to replant and reseed the burned areas. This ASTER image depicts the area after the fire, on November 6; vegetation is green, burned areas are dark red, and urban areas are blue. On the burn severity index image, calculated using infrared and visible bands, red areas are the most severely burned, followed by green and blue. This information can help the US Forest Service to plan post-fire activities. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The

  16. WITCH, a Penning trap for weak interaction studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlov, V Yu

    2005-01-01

    This work is the completion of the installation of the WITCH set-up and the first tests and commissioning of it. The first goal of the WITCH experiment is to improve the present limit on a scalar interaction in nuclear $\\beta$-decay by determining the $\\beta$-neutrino angular correlation parameter $a$ via a precise measurement of the shape of the energy spectrum of the recoil ions. The development of the WITCH set-up and its installation at ISOLDE (CERN) were recently completed. The principle of WITCH is based on a combination of a Penning trap to confine the radioactive ions and a retardation spectrometer to probe the energy of the recoil ions resulting from $\\beta$-decays in the trap. Extensive computer simulations show that for a reasonable measurement time a precision on the $a$-parameter of 0.5% can be achieved. This corresponds to an upper limit for the scalar interaction constant Cs/Cv < 9% at 95% C.L. Designing and constructing a set-up as large and complex as the WITCH set-up takes time, several y...

  17. Seeing mathematics: perceptual experience and brain activity in acquired synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogaard, Berit; Vanni, Simo; Silvanto, Juha

    2013-01-01

    We studied the patient JP who has exceptional abilities to draw complex geometrical images by hand and a form of acquired synesthesia for mathematical formulas and objects, which he perceives as geometrical figures. JP sees all smooth curvatures as discrete lines, similarly regardless of scale. We carried out two preliminary investigations to establish the perceptual nature of synesthetic experience and to investigate the neural basis of this phenomenon. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, image-inducing formulas produced larger fMRI responses than non-image inducing formulas in the left temporal, parietal and frontal lobes. Thus our main finding is that the activation associated with his experience of complex geometrical images emerging from mathematical formulas is restricted to the left hemisphere.

  18. American Indians, Witchcraft, and Witch-hunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    Explores North American Indian beliefs about witchcraft and witch-hunting. Focuses on the ideas and actions of the Iroquois about witchcraft. Addresses the changes in ideas of North American Indians living in the nineteenth century. Notes the transition from men and women perceived as witches to mostly females. (CMK)

  19. On Believing in Witches | Saari | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Second, I try to show that Ikuenobe's attempt to demonstrate that the belief in witches and witchcraft has a rational foundation is not convincing. Admittedly, Africans, who live in magic-ridden cultures, have reasons that locally justify their belief in witches and witchcraft. However, when the justification offered for this belief is ...

  20. SUMMARY OF LONG TERM EXPERIENCE IN ACQUIRED HEART DISEASES SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Semenovsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss the results of surgical treatment in patients with different acquired heart diseases. Procedures ranged from valve reconstruction, coronary artery revascularization, surgical repair or graft repair of the thoracic aorta to hybrid surgery in patients with combined acquired heart valve diseases and coronary artery diseases. The implementation of biological grafts for aortic repair in 147 cases was successfully performed with low in-hospital mortality (9.8%. Hybrid procedures in patients older than 70 years allowed reducing hospital mortality rate in 3 times in comparison with the standard surgery: 4% vs. 12%, respectively. We developed and introduced into clinical practice the original protocol for patients with aortal valve disease and low left ventricularejection fraction (mean – 24.3%. Due to this protocol 46 procedures were performed, in-hospital mortality was 4.4%. Cardiac surgery in patients on dialysis is one of the priorities in our practice. Our experience demonstrates that short waiting time of kidney transplantation after heart valve replacement improves long-term outcomes.

  1. Witch persecutions and torture: Comment on Alison and Alison (2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöberg, Rickard L

    2017-10-01

    In their article Alison and Alison (2017) argue that historical experiences speak against the efficacy of torture. In this comment experiences from the witch persecutions in Europe during the 15th to 17th centuries that support this notion are discussed. Converging data suggests that torture was often instrumental in making large numbers of suspects confess to flying children through the air to nocturnal satanic meetings, during this period. A comparison of the number of false self incriminating confessions given during the Swedish witch trial in the parish of Rättvik 1671 (before royal sanction of torture was given) and the parish of Ockelbo 1675 (after royal sanction of torture was given) is used to illustrate this point. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Witch trials: Discontent in early modern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Chris

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between income and witch trials in early modern Europe. We start by using climate data to proxy for income levels. This builds on previous work by exploiting a far richer panel dataset covering 356 regions and 260 years, including both seasonal temperature and rainfall, as well as over 30,036 witch trials newly documented for this study. We find that a one degree temperature shock leads to a near quadrupling in witch trials in any given year. The second pa...

  3. Paediatric Acquired Recto –Vestibular Fistula: Experience In Accra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The association of acquired recto-vaginal fistula (RVF) with the human immunodeficiency virus is increasingly being recognized and reported in the literature Congenital recto - vestibular fistulae associated with imperforate anus is not uncommon, but it is rare to see children with acquired recto - vestibular fistula. From 1997 ...

  4. Sorceresses and witches: some Cervantine spells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Lara Alberola

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervantes is one of the authors who has introduced sorceresses and witches most abundantly in his work. For this reason, it is urgent to pay attention to this distinguished writer to trace a general view of the Spanish literature devoted to witches and sorceresses in the Golden Age. Don Miguel allows sorceresses from other lands, those who behave as procuresses, classical ones and, of course, witches to swarm in the pages of his texts. He lets himself feel fascinated, once and again, by supernatural women to the extent of becoming one of the main promoters of their literary treatment. Though he believes he is a scoffer of his magic creatures, he ends up by becoming an artist fascinated by those same characters he criticised; who, besides, fascinates his readers; and who, even scarcely perceiving it, is the first one in showing, within fiction, a human witch with her own voice, Cañizares.

  5. On the difficulties of acquiring mathematical experience: Case rural education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm

    2014-01-01

    Based on a variety of philosophical approaches and my own work for decades in pure and applied mathematics teaching and research, I explain my view upon the basic difficulties of acquiring the “Mathematical Experience” (in the sense of P.J. Davis and R. Hersh 1981) and submit a list of claims how...

  6. The American Dark Ages and the Terrorist Witch in Season of the Witch

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vercruysse, Tom

    2013-01-01

    In this article we argue that Season of the Witch (Sena, 2011) is not to be analyzed according to its faithfulness to the known historical sources, but only by understanding medievalist codes, traditions and (filmic) intertextuality...

  7. Patient Perspectives on Acquiring Spectacles: A Cambodian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormsby, Gail Melva; Grant-Skiba, Dawn; Naidoo, Kovin; Keeffe, Jill E

    2016-01-01

    To assess the perspectives of patients who acquired spectacles from an eye unit/vision center in Cambodia. A sample (n = 62) of patients was selected across 4 provinces: Prey Veng, Siem Reap, Battambang, and Takeo. The Patient Spectacle Satisfaction Survey covering demographic and semistructured questions regarding patient satisfaction, style, and costs incurred was used to collect data. Information was transcribed and translated into English and analyzed by thematic coding using NVivo. Although there were more women seeking eye health care treatment, there was no significant age difference. Patient satisfaction levels were high although the patients had to pay for transportation, registration, and the glasses themselves. A total of 60 patients (96.7%) stated they would recommend the refractive service center to others. Despite a high level of awareness of eye disease such as cataract, only 2 in 10 people could accurately identify cataract as a major cause of poor vision or blindness. Most of the people (52%) blamed bad vision or blindness on dust or other foreign objects getting into the eye, old age (31%), or poor hygiene (16%). Most people will pay eye care costs once barriers to seeking treatment have been broken via education and encouragement. Satisfaction of wearing spectacles was associated with improved vision; style, color, and fit of the spectacles; and protection from sunlight and dust. The proximity of and easy access to health facilities influenced patient desire to seek treatment.

  8. 1972 Witches' Tales Around Reading Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jampolsky, Gerald G.

    This paper describes how some children with learning problems feel about themselves; points out some possible witches' tales regarding understanding and communication with such children; and discusses some clinical opinions that have been developed at the Child Center, Kentfield, regarding these children. The contents of the paper include: a…

  9. Witches and Witchfinding in Educational Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Frank W.

    1986-01-01

    Loosely coupled educational organizations exhibit structural similarities to preliterate societies in their lack of formal leadership and control. The identification of social outsiders as "witches" to explain disasters affecting preliterate societies may have its counterpart in educational organizations when nonconformists are…

  10. Child Witch Hunts in Contemporary Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The persecution of children as witches has received widespread reportage in the international mass media. In recent years, hundreds of children have been killed, maimed and abandoned across Africa based on individual and village-level accusations of witchcraft. Despite the media focus, to date, very little systematic study has…

  11. Nigerian Children with Acquired Heart Disease: The Experience in Lagos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barakat Adeola Animasahun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most of the recent reports on acquired heart diseases (AHDs among Nigerian children are either retrospective or cover a short period of time with fewer subjects. The last report on AHDs among children in Lagos was about a decade ago; it was, however, not specific to children with AHDs but was part of a report on structural heart diseases among children in Lagos. The present study was carried out to document the prevalence and profile of different AHDs in children and to compare the findings with those previously reported.Methods: We conducted a quantitative, nonexperimental, prospective, and cross-sectional review of all consecutive cases of AHDs diagnosed with echocardiography at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital between January 2007 and June 2016. Comparisons between the normally distributed quantitative data were made with the Student t test, while the χ2 test was applied for the categorical data. Results: The subjects with AHDs were 73 males and 52 females, with a male-to-female ratio of 1.4:1. The children were aged 15 days to 14 years, with a mean of 6.61 ± 4.26 years. Rheumatic heart disease was the most common AHD, documented in a quarter of the children, followed by dilated cardiomyopathy and pericardial effusion in 20.8% and 17.3%, respectively. Less common lesions encountered were Kawasaki disease, mitral valve prolapse, hyperdynamic circulation, and supraventricular tachycardia. Conclusion: Rheumatic heart disease was still the most common AHD in the children in the present study. Dilated cardiomyopathy and pericardial effusion are on the increase as has been reported earlier.

  12. 'They're not witches. …' Young children and their parents' perceptions and experiences of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, C; O'Reilly, M; Karim, K; Vostanis, P

    2015-05-01

    Recent initiatives have emphasized the ongoing need to include children in healthcare research, which is relevant to the development of both paediatric and mental healthcare services. Our aim was to contribute children and their parents' perceptions and experiences of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS), with the objective of providing guidance for those wishing to improve inclusivity and empowerment. We performed a thematic analysis of interview data taken from 11 children (9 boys, 2 girls, aged 8-12) and their parents (12 mothers, 2 fathers), who had recently been referred to CAMHS for mental health and educational problems. Three core themes emerged from the data. Fear of the unknown refers to emotional apprehension due to uncertainty of what happens in CAMHS. However children also provided useful reassurances for future service users. Therapeutic engagement refers to the importance of being listened to and building up good relationships with professionals. Finally making services acceptable was discussed in terms of issues of accessibility, session tolerances and suggestions for the development of child-centred services. Children were able to provide potentially useful opinions of CAMHS. In a time of limited resources it is imperative that the voices of children and their parents are acknowledged in order to improve accessibility and experiences within CAMHS. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Acquired brain injury services in the Republic of Ireland: experiences and perceptions of families and professionals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDermott, Garret L

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to highlight the experiences and perceptions of rehabilitation services among families of people with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) and among professionals working in ABI rehabilitation services in Ireland.

  14. Taxes, lawyers, and the decline of witch trials in France

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Noel D; Koyama, Mark

    2011-01-01

    How is rule of law established? We address this question by exploring the effect of increases in fiscal capacity on the establishment of well-enforced, formal, legal standards in a preindustrial economy. Between 1550 and 1700, there were over 2,000 witch trials in France. Prosecuting a witch required local judges to significantly deviate from formal rules of evidence. Hence, we exploit the significant variation across time and space in witch trials and fiscal capacity across French regions be...

  15. The WITCH Model. Structure, Baseline, Solutions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosetti, V.; Massetti, E.; Tavoni, M.

    2007-07-01

    WITCH - World Induced Technical Change Hybrid - is a regionally disaggregated hard link hybrid global model with a neoclassical optimal growth structure (top down) and an energy input detail (bottom up). The model endogenously accounts for technological change, both through learning curves affecting prices of new vintages of capital and through R and D investments. The model features the main economic and environmental policies in each world region as the outcome of a dynamic game. WITCH belongs to the class of Integrated Assessment Models as it possesses a climate module that feeds climate changes back into the economy. In this paper we provide a thorough discussion of the model structure and baseline projections. We report detailed information on the evolution of energy demand, technology and CO2 emissions. Finally, we explicitly quantifiy the role of free riding in determining the emissions scenarios. (auth)

  16. Witchcraft beliefs and witch hunts: an interdisciplinary explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Niek

    2013-06-01

    This paper proposes an interdisciplinary explanation of the cross-cultural similarities and evolutionary patterns of witchcraft beliefs. It argues that human social dilemmas have led to the evolution of a fear system that is sensitive to signs of deceit and envy. This was adapted in the evolutionary environment of small foraging bands but became overstimulated by the consequences of the Agricultural Revolution, leading to witch paranoia. State formation, civilization, and economic development abated the fear of witches and replaced it in part with more collectivist forms of social paranoia. However, demographic-economic crises could rekindle fear of witches-resulting, for example, in the witch craze of early modern Europe. The Industrial Revolution broke the Malthusian shackles, but modern economic growth requires agricultural development as a starting point. In sub-Saharan Africa, witch paranoia has resurged because the conditions for agricultural development are lacking, leading to fighting for opportunities and an erosion of intergenerational reciprocity.

  17. WITCH: a recoil spectrometer for weak interaction and nuclear physics studies

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, M; Golovko, V.V.; Kozlov, V.Yu.; Kraev, I.S.; Lindroth, A.; Phalet, T.; Schuurmans, P.; Severijns, N.; Vereecke, B.; Versyck, S.; Beck, D.; Quint, W.; Ames, F.; Bollen, G.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental set-up is described for the precise measurement of the recoil energy spectrum of the daughter ions from nuclear beta decay. The experiment is called WITCH, short for Weak Interaction Trap for CHarged particles, and is set up at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. The principle of the experiment and its realization are explained as well as the main physics goal. A cloud of radioactive ions stored in a Penning trap serves as the source for the WITCH experiment, leading to the minimization of scattering and energy loss of the decay products. The energy spectrum of the recoiling daughter ions from the $\\beta$--decays in this ion cloud will be measured with a retardation spectrometer. The principal aim of the WITCH experiment is to study the electroweak interaction by determining the beta--neutrino angular correlation in nuclear $\\beta$--decay from the shape of this recoil energy spectrum. This will be the first time that the recoil energy spectrum of the daughter ions from $\\beta$--decay can be measured ...

  18. Long term outcome of acquired food allergy in pediatric liver recipients: a single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antigoni Mavroudi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Food induced sensitization has been reported in pediatric liver recipients. However long term follow up has not been established so far. We report here our experience regarding 3 pediatric patients who developed acquired food allergy after liver transplantation. The first patient suffered from persistent diarrhea and eczema. The second one presented with abdominal pain with no signs of rejection, abdominal discomfort, vomiting when ingesting milk proteins and responded well to the elimination diet. The third patient presented with facial angioedema and hoarseness of voice. She had multiple food allergies and reacted to milk, egg and sesame. All the patients had elevated total Immunoglobulin E (IgE and elevated specific IgE antibodies to the implicated food allergens. The first patient presented clinical manifestations of allergy when she was 19 months old. The second patient became allergic at the age of 16 and the third patient at the age of 3. The symptoms of food allergy persisted for 8 years in the first case and for 2 years in the other two cases. Low levels of specific IgE antibodies to the implicated food allergens and an enhanced T-helper 1 cell immune response toward interferon-gamma production were markers of tolerance acquisition. The long term prognosis in our cases was excellent. Food allergy resolved in all the patients. The long term prognosis of acquired food allergy after liver transplantation is currently obscure. More studies would be needed including greater number of patients to determine whether acquired food allergy is transient in pediatric liver recipients.

  19. [Witch trials in the Salem as a medical error. Witch hunts in the XVII century and the medical art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Wiktor

    2005-01-01

    That article concerns with the influences of medical practitioners in witch hunts in the Salem (1692). Witch trials in England and English colonies in the XVII century were mainly criminal trials. Witchcraft had been there considered principally as a crime-tool rather then the crime itself. Witches were usually accused of crimes such as the murder and the disease sending. Physicians normally played in that situations the role of court experts. They decided if analyzed disease had normal or abnormal, artificial origin. In the Salem an medical practitioner judged that an illness which touched some children had come from the acts of sorcery. That was the beginning of a long and bloody witch hunt. Death sentences in the Salem trial were also justified with applying medical and physical categories to show the objectivity of a witchcraft. Salem judges were sure that by using "objective" categories they had been able to proof the existence of material relations between the witch and bewitched persons without the possibility of error.

  20. Exploring the experiences of people with the dual diagnosis of acquired brain injury and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocks, Errol; Bulsara, Caroline; O'Callaghan, Annalise; Netto, Julie; Boaden, Ross

    2014-01-01

    People with the dual diagnosis of acquired brain injury and mental illness (ABI/MI) are vulnerable to a range of negative life experiences, which has received limited attention in the literature. The objective of the project described in this paper was to identify and describe these experiences in order to distinguish barriers and facilitators to successful rehabilitation and recovery. The project used qualitative methodologies. The 15 participants were eight people with ABI/MI, two family members and five support workers. Nineteen interviews were conducted. Analysis of these interviews produced a set of five key themes, with each theme elaborated by a set of descriptive issues. The five themes were loss, personal development, occupation, family and services. The experiences of people with ABI/MI were strongly negative. They faced more barriers than facilitators to recovery. Current policies and practices were inadequate. Enhanced stakeholder collaboration and co-ordination and a more individualized, long-term perspective on the needs of people with ABI/MI are recommended to guide future policy and practice. Future research on quality-of-life, wellbeing, community inclusion and participation in ordinary life was recommended.

  1. Male partner experiences of females with an acquired brain injury: An interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsden, Cara; Kiemle, Gundi; Mullin, Stephen

    2017-09-01

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) not only has an impact on the survivor, but also on the partner and personal relationships as a whole. The present study aimed to investigate the male partner experience of living with a female with an ABI; exploring role change, intimacy and future expectations. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six male partners of five females with a subarachnoid haemorrhage and one female with a traumatic brain injury. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed in depth using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Four main themes captured the male partner's lived experience; "Entering the unknown world of ABI", "Imprisoned by the ABI", "Compassion without self-compassion", and "Holding on to hope". The accounts uncovered the male partner's journey following ABI; the unpredictability, sorrow, frustration, and finally acceptance and commitment to their partner. They identified the limited support available for partners following ABI; the sense of feeling forgotten by services and the need for information and support in the acute stages. Rehabilitation needs to take a systemic and longer-term focus, supporting both the survivor and their partner through the journey of ABI.

  2. Watching the witching world: The role of superstition in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As controversial and mysterious as it may be, witchcraft is considered very much part of the Malawian world view. Despite their invisibility, witches are believed by many to exist. This paper aims to articulate an analysis of the common portrayal of such superstition in the contemporary Malawian film. It argues that the portrayal ...

  3. PLANT INDUCTION OF GERMINATION OF WITCH WEED SEEDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Legume-cereal rotation can reduce density of witch weed (Striga hermonthica) seeds in soil. However, legume species and cultivars vary greatly in ability to stimulate germination of S. hermonthica seeds of same or different populations, hence the need for simple method for routine characterisation of these species and ...

  4. Genetic and Biological Diversity of Trichoderma stromaticum, a Mycoparasite of the Cacao Witches'-Broom Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Jorge T; Pomella, Alan W V; Bowers, John H; Pirovani, Carlos P; Loguercio, Leandro L; Hebbar, K Prakash

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT The witches'-broom disease, caused by the basidiomycete Crinipellis perniciosa, is the most limiting factor for cacao cultivation in Brazil. Trichoderma stromaticum is a mycoparasite of the witches'-broom pathogen of cacao that is currently being applied in the field to manage the disease in Bahia State, Brazil. In this work, molecular and traditional methods were used to study the genetic and biological diversity of this mycoparasite. Ninety-one isolates, mostly collected from farms not sprayed with the fungus, were analyzed by amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP), which showed that two genetic groups (I and II) of T. stromaticum occur in Bahia State. This classification of T. stromaticum into two distinct AFLP groups was also in agreement with several other characteristics, including growth on agar media at different temperatures and sporulation on infected stem segments (broom pieces) and rice grains. Group II favors higher temperatures compared with group I. The genetic and biological differences of the isolates, however, were not evident in field experiments, where sporulation was evaluated on the surface of brooms under natural conditions. Our results show that there is considerable genetic and biological diversity within T. stromaticum in Bahia and other cacao-growing regions of South America that are affected by the witches'-broom disease. This diversity could be explored in the development of efficient biological control agents against the disease. Factors that may affect the application and performance of this biocontrol agent in the field, such as sporulation on rice substrate and on the brooms and growth at various temperatures, are discussed.

  5. Congenital and acquired pediatric breast anomalies: a review of 20 years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadove, A Michael; van Aalst, John A

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this article was to review the senior author's 20 years of experience in the treatment of pediatric breast abnormalities, to propose a classification system for their treatment, and to provide a synopsis of treatment options. Congenital and acquired breast anomalies were identified in a retrospective chart review (n = 66). Breast abnormalities were classified as hyperplastic (n = 44), deformational (n = 11), or hypoplastic (n = 11). Hyperplastic abnormalities included gynecomastia, hyperplasia, polythelia, polymastia, and giant fibroadenoma. Deformational abnormalities were categorized as either iatrogenic (previous thoracostomy, thoracotomy, or tumor excision) or traumatic (thermal or penetrating injuries). Hypoplastic abnormalities included athelia, unilateral and bilateral hypoplasia, tuberous breast, and Poland syndrome. Type of surgery, age at initial operation, and number of operations were recorded for all patients. Hyperplastic abnormalities were treated with breast reduction techniques and required the fewest operations per patient (1.14), followed by iatrogenic breast injury (2.1 per patient). The average number of procedures required for hypoplastic abnormalities was 2.45 per patient. The highest reoperation rates were seen in patients with burn injuries to the breast and patients with Poland syndrome. Mean age at initial operation was highest in the deformational group (18.5 years) and lowest in the hyperplastic group (17.4 years). Classification of pediatric breast abnormalities and considerations about timing for surgery and the likely need for staged operations aid in anticipating and optimizing clinical outcomes.

  6. [Validation of knowledge acquired from experience: opportunity or threat for nurses working in operating theatres?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvat-Bouëdec, Cécile

    2005-06-01

    The law n 2002-73, dated 17 January 2002, of social modernisation, as it is called, reformed continuing professional training in France. It established a new system of professional certification, the validation of the knowledge acquired from experience (VAE in French). Since 2003, the Health Ministry has been studying a project to set up the VAE for health professions, among which, in particular, the profession of the state registered nurse working in operating theatres (IBODES in French). A state diploma sanctions the training enabling to practise this profession. In the future, the VAE will open a new access way to this diploma. Does this evolution constitute a threat for the profession, and a risk or an opportunity for individual people? The aim of this thesis is to characterise the impacts of the VAE on the IBODE profession and its current system of training. Two sociological and educational approaches are comforted by a field survey. A historical background of the IBODE profession develops the evolution of the caring practices, and presents the evolution of the training systems. A sociological approach enables to analyse the vocational focus of the IBODE on looking at functionalist theories. Therefore, the study enables to think that the VAE will have no consequences on the vocational focus of the IBODE. The VAE is then the object of an educational approach within the context of continuing professional training. The topics on which it could apply and the resistances it causes are studied. Some examples are taken within other Ministries. This study shows that the VAE involves an adaptation of training centres. The VAE constitutes a genuine opportunity for the IBODE profession. However, to manage its setting up in a delicate human context, the field professionals should be involved as early as possible in the reflection initiated by the Ministry.

  7. Bruxas: figuras de poder Witches: figures of power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Basso Menna Barreto Gomes Zordan

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available As mulheres que tanto a história como a imaginação popular mitificaram como "bruxas" constituem figuras que expurgam as fobias da Contra Reforma. As bruxas foram torturadas e queimadas para sinalizar os perigos de práticas e saberes à margem da Igreja e de outras instituições dominantes na Idade Moderna. Parteiras, curandeiras e carpideiras, as bruxas misturam em seu caldeirão os mistérios da vida e da morte herdados das tradições pagãs. Este artigo percorre textos de historiadores, em especial o de Jules Michelet, que no século XIX construiu a imagem romântica e martirizada da bruxa, e o manual de inquisidores do século XIV, o Malleus Maleficarum, que descreve os poderes da bruxa, sua aliança com o demônio e sua ameaça para o cristianismo. Os discursos instaurados por tais textos constroem tanto a imagem que glorifica a bruxa quanto aquela que a execra, mostrando ambas o potencial transformador de suas práticas e de sua ligação com a sexualidade.The women whom history and popular imagination mythicized as "witches" constitute figures that purge the phobias of the Counter Reformation. Witches were tortured and burned to signal the dangers of practices and knowledge in the margins of the Church and other dominant institutions in the Modern Age. Midwives, healers and weepers, the witches blend in their large kettle the mysteries of life and death inherited from pagan traditions. This paper examines some historians' texts, especially that of Jules Michelet, who created the witch's romantic and martyred image, and the inquisitors' manual Malleus Maleficarum, that describes the witch's powers, her alliance with the demon and her threat to Christianity. These texts establish, through their different discourses, two opposing images: one that glorifies witches and another that execrates them, in order to show the transforming potential of their practices and their connection with sexuality.

  8. A ‘DIVELLISH’ WOMAN DISCOVERED: THE WITCH OF NEWBURY, 1643

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheilagh Ilona O'Brien

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During September 1643 a number of publications related the news that a witch had been found and killed by Roundhead soldiers just prior to the Battle of Newbury. This article will analyse the contents of the longest work on the Witch of Newbury, A Most Certain, Strange, and True Discovery of a VVitch, focusing in particular on aspects of the account which illustrate developments in early modern English witch beliefs. In ascertaining her identity, the soldiers relied upon popular beliefs about witches and their powers, and these beliefs informed their reactions to the witch. The discussion of the Witch of Newbury’s powers ,and the soldiers perceptions of them, illustrates how ideas about witchcraft could and did change throughout the seventeenth-century, and in particular, during the English Civil Wars.

  9. The Implementation of the Validation of Acquired Experience (VAE) in France Would Be a Cultural Revolution in Higher Education Training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafont, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    This contribution shows the conditions of a change of prospect in higher education which is based on institutional and policy positioning in favor of the implementation of the devices of Validation of Acquired Experience (VAE) which is used to deliver a whole or components of a qualification (certification) on the basis of the knowledge and skills…

  10. Being Met as marked - patients' experiences of being infected with community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyman, Eva; Lindahl, Berit; Bergbom, Ingegerd; Sjöström, Harrieth Thunberg; Åhrén, Christina

    2016-12-01

    It is known that patients who acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitals suffer and feel as plague. Moreover, the patient interaction with nurses and physicians is described as frightening. Little is known about patient experiences after having acquired CA-MRSA concerning care and everyday life. To reveal and interpret otherwise healthy patients' lived experiences of receiving care and their everyday life after having acquired community MRSA (CA-MRSA). A phenomenological hermeneutic approach guided by Ricouer was conducted. Interviews with twelve patients were transcribed verbatim into a text. The text was analysed in three phases: naive understanding, structural analysis and comprehensive understanding to reveal a possible being in the world. In this study, this referred to what it means to be infected with CA-MRSA. The findings indicate that patients who acquired MRSA experience a changed body image. They suffer from ignorant and frightened behavior from healthcare workers, social contacts, and also of being bullied by colleagues. Despite this, patients assume great responsibility for protecting others. However, knowledgeable staff alleviate suffering and bring peace of mind to the patients. Preventing patient's feelings of being a pest, an outsider living with fear, requires urgent education and understanding about resistant bacteria and how to meet an infected patient. The results describing patients, affected with MRSA, may contribute and touch the readers to better understanding of patient's changed body image and suffering and how to mitigate these feelings. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  11. Adding insult to brain injury: young adults' experiences of residing in nursing homes following acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Aoife; Heary, Caroline; Ward, Marcia; MacNeela, Pádraig

    2017-08-28

    There is general consensus that adults under age 65 with acquired brain injury residing in nursing homes is inappropriate, however there is a limited evidence base on the issue. Previous research has relied heavily on third-party informants and qualitative studies have been of questionable methodological quality, with no known study adopting a phenomenological approach. This study explored the lived experiences of young adults with brain injury residing in aged care facilities. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was employed to collect and analyze data from six semi-structured interviews with participants regarding their experiences of living in nursing homes. Two themes were identified, including "Corporeal prison of acquired brain injury: broken selves" and "Existential prison of the nursing home: stagnated lives". Results illustrated that young adults with acquired brain injury can experience aged care as an existential prison in which their lives feel at a standstill. This experience was characterized by feelings of not belonging in a terminal environment, confinement, disempowerment, emptiness and hope for greater autonomy through rehabilitation. It is hoped that this study will provide relevant professionals, services and policy-makers with insight into the challenges and needs of young adults with brain injury facing these circumstances. Implications for rehabilitation This study supports the contention that more home-like and age-appropriate residential rehabilitation services for young adults with acquired brain injury are needed. As development of alternative accommodation is a lengthy process, the study findings suggest that the interim implementation of rehabilitative care in nursing homes should be considered. Taken together with existing research, it is proposed that nursing home staff may require training to deliver evidence-based rehabilitative interventions to those with brain injury. The present findings add support to the call for systemic

  12. Magie, Hexen und Strafverfolgung Magic, Witches, and Prosecution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Duncker

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In der Reihe „Historische Einführungen“ des Campus Verlags versucht Johannes Dillinger, die Entwicklung von Magie- und Hexereivorstellungen vom Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart zu beschreiben. Die Hexenverfolgungen und -prozesse der Frühen Neuzeit und ihre Voraussetzungen nehmen dabei etwas mehr als die Hälfte der Gesamtdarstellung ein. Das Buch bietet in erster Linie eine Einführung in die neuere und neueste Sekundärliteratur und die dort besprochenen aktuellen Streitpunkte. In einem Teilabschnitt wird auch auf die Hexenverfolgung als Frauenverfolgung eingegangen und nach Ursachen für den hohen Frauenanteil unter den Verfolgten geforscht.Johannes Dillinger attempts to describe the development of the belief in magic and witches from the Middle Ages to today in his book published in the Campus Verlag series “Introductions to History.” Witch persecutions and prosecutions of the Early Modern period and their preconditions take up more than half of the overall study. In particular, the book provides an introduction to the newer and newest secondary literature and to those issues discussed in this literature. One section also approaches the persecution of witches as the persecution of women and searches for the reasons behind the high percentage of women among the persecuted.

  13. Masquerades of acquired demyelination in children: experiences of a national demyelinating disease program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, Julia; Bar-Or, Amit; Arnold, Douglas L; Sadovnick, A Dessa; Marrie, Ruth Ann; Banwell, Brenda

    2013-02-01

    The diagnosis of acquired demyelinating syndromes of the central nervous system in children requires exclusion of other acute central nervous system disorders. In a 23-site national demyelinating disease study, standardized clinical, laboratory, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were obtained prospectively from onset, and serially at 3, 6, and 12 months and annually. Twenty of 332 (6%) participants (mean [SD] age, 10.21 [4.32] years; 12 (60%) female) were ultimately diagnosed with vascular disorders (primary or secondary central nervous system vasculitis, vasculopathy, stroke, or migraine, n = 11 children), central nervous system malignancy (n = 3), mitochondrial disease (n = 2), or central nervous system symptoms in the accompaniment of confirmed infection (n = 4). Red flags that may serve to distinguish disorders in the differential of acquired demyelination are described.

  14. Tertiary center experience with primary endoscopic laryngoplasty in pediatric acquired subglottic stenosis and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaber Alshammari

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Our study showed that primary endoscopic management was successful in 82.3% of cases of acquired subglottic stenosis including those with high grade stenosis and long segment of more than 12 mm in terms of the craniocaudal length. CO2 laser was an important tool to convert mature hard stenotic segment into a soft one. The latter yielded to the lateral pressure created by balloon dilatation better.

  15. Women Behaving Badly: Dahl's Witches Meet the Women of the Eighties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Anne-Marie

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the issue of misogyny in Roald Dahl's 1983 book and Nicolas Roeg's 1989 film, "The Witches." Looks at the general differences in the two texts--the most explicit difference is in the film's ending. Explores the significance of the witch in the book and to what extent Roeg's film uses the implied connection between evil and gender. (PA)

  16. The Reality of Fiction and the Ethics of Storytelling in Eleanor Estes's "The Witch Family"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinecken, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    This essay examines Eleanor Estes's critically neglected 1960 novel "The Witch Family", arguing that the novel anticipates some of the major preoccupations of later children's literature in its early concern with issues of textuality. While Estes is largely known as a writer of simple family stories, "The Witch Family" is an innovative work of…

  17. La Noche de las Brujas Module. Nivel Primario. [The Night of the Witches Module. Primary Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Delia

    La Noche de las Brujas (Halloween) is the topic of this primary level unit. The objectives are to enable the child to: (1) draw scenery, using his imagination, about witches, castles, and devils; (2) write compositions on witches, devils, and Halloween; (3) explain the story "La Noche de las Brujas"; (4) tell about any adventures or…

  18. Genotypic Characterization of Cherry Witches` Broom Pathogen Taphrina wiesneri Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Tae Seo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The ascomycetous fungus Taphrina wiesneri, the pathogen of cherry witches` broom, is highly pathogenic to Prunus yedoensis, the most widely planted cherry trees in Korea as park and roadside trees. A collection of 13 strains of the pathogen in Korea and Japan was characterized by 18S rDNA gene sequence and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis. In cluster analysis based on 18S rDNA gene sequence the strains were divided into 2 clusters. In RFLP analysis of the rDNA-IGS region using HhaI, the strains were separated into four patterns, B, C, D and G, of which pattern G was new.

  19. Acquiring experience in pathology predominantly from what you see, not from what you read: the HIPON e-learning platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccioni, Olga; Vrasidas, Charalambos; Brcic, Luka; Armenski, Goce; Seiwerth, Sven; Smeets, Annemieke; van Krieken, J Han Jm; Lazaris, Andreas C

    2015-01-01

    It is indisputable that nowadays one of the hardest and most important tasks in medicine and especially in medical education, is the conversion of the extensive amount of available data, into medical experience, after a proper analysis. A project under the title "ICT (Information and Communication Technology) eModules on HistoPathology: a useful online tool for students, researchers and professionals - HIPON", co-financed by the Lifelong Learning Program of the Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA), The Commission of the European Union, has been launched at the beginning of 2013. HIPON's purpose is not to provide just another pathology website atlas, but to convey professional experience and thinking in pathology. HIPON has resulted in a well-structured and user-friendly, open resource, multi-language, e-learning platform which, taking advantage of modern image technology, offers medical students, researchers, and professionals a valuable teaching instrument so that they can acquire professional experience in pathology. The mid-term report of HIPON has been favorably evaluated by the EACEA experts who appreciated the potential of our teaching tool in providing the opportunity and the means to acquire medical experience. Through the use of virtual slides, educative videos and microscopic, high resolution, marked images accompanied by relevant questions and answers, HIPON project aims to make end-users able to think as experienced pathologists and become highly efficient in correlating pathologic data with other clinical-laboratory information.

  20. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of acquired hemophilia A: experience at a single center in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yoshiyuki; Yanagisawa, Kunio; Uchiumi, Hideki; Ishizaki, Takuma; Mitsui, Takeki; Gouda, Fumito; Ieko, Masahiro; Ichinose, Akitada; Nojima, Yoshihisa; Handa, Hiroshi

    2017-07-01

    Acquired hemophilia A (AHA), which is caused by autoantibodies against coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) is a rare, life-threatening bleeding disorder, the incidence of which appears to be increasing in Japan as the population ages. However, the clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of AHA remain difficult to establish due to the rarity of this disease. We retrospectively analyzed data from 25 patients (median age 73 years; range 24-92 years; male n = 15) diagnosed with AHA between 1999 and 2015 at Gunma University Hospital. We identified autoimmune diseases and malignancy as underlying conditions in four and three patients, respectively. Factor VIII activity was significantly decreased in all patients (median 2.0%; range <1.0-8.0) by FVIII inhibitor (median 47.0 BU/mL; range 2.0-1010). Among 71 bleeding events, subcutaneous or intramuscular hemorrhage was the most prevalent. Seventeen patients required bypassing agents. Twenty-two (91.7%) of 24 patients treated with immunosuppressive agents achieved complete response (CR) during a median of 57.5 days (range 19-714 days). Although three patients (12%) relapsed and seven (28%) died of infection, none of the deaths were related to bleeding. Although most of our patients achieved CR after immunosuppressive therapy, the rate of infection-related mortality was unsatisfactorily high.

  1. A Qualitative Synthesis of Families’ and Students’ Hospital-to-School Transition Experiences Following Acquired Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R. Hartman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Acquired brain injury (ABI is one of the greatest causes of death and disability among children in Canada. Following ABI, children are required to transition back to school and adapt to the physical, cognitive, behavioral, social, and emotional demands of the school environment. We conducted a qualitative systematic review of students’ and parents’ experiences of the transition back to school following ABI. We identified 20 articles that met our inclusion criteria. Six themes emerged: (a lack of ABI-specific education for families and professionals, (b communication-related factors as a facilitator and/or barrier to transition, (c emotional focus, (d peer relationships, (e supports, and (f ABI sequelae in the classroom. Students’ and families’ personal motivations and abilities and the support they receive in their environment affect their experiences of transitioning back to school and the disrupted occupations they face.

  2. Identification and characterization of conserved and variable regions of lime witches' broom phytoplasma genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siampour, Majid; Izadpanah, Keramatollah; Marzachi, Cristina; Salehi Abarkoohi, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Several segments (∼20  kbp) of the lime witches' broom (LWB) phytoplasma genome (16SrII group) were sequenced and analysed. A 5.7  kbp segment (LWB-C) included conserved genes whose phylogenetic tree was consistent with that generated using 16S rRNA genes. Another 6.4  kbp LWB phytoplasma genome segment (LWB-NC) was structurally similar to the putative mobile unit or sequence variable mosaic genomic region of phytoplasmas, although it represented a new arrangement of genes or pseudogenes such as phage-related protein genes and tra5 insertion sequences. Sequence- and phylogenetic-based evidence suggested that LWB-NC is a genomic region which includes horizontally transferred genes and could be regarded as a hot region to incorporate more foreign genes into the genome of LWB phytoplasma. The presence of phylogenetically related fragments of retroelements was also verified in the LWB phytoplasma genome. Putative intragenomic retrotransposition or retrohoming of these elements might have been determinant in shaping and manipulating the LWB phytoplasma genome. Altogether, the results of this study suggested that the genome of LWB phytoplasma is colonized by a variety of genes that have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer events, which may have further affected the genome through intragenomic mobility and insertion at cognate or incognate sites. Some of these genes are expected to have been involved in the development of features specific to LWB phytoplasma.

  3. Waorani Grief and the Witch-Killer's Rage: Worldview, Emotion, and Anthropological Explanation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clayton Robarchek; Carole Robarchek

    2005-01-01

    This article analyzes a complex of grief, rage and homicide among the Ecuadorian Waorani, tracing the relationships among worldview, values and concepts of self, and envy, rage and homicide, especially witch-killing...

  4. Witches and Indian Women, Daughters of Saturn: Arts, Witchcraft and Cannibalism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yobenj Aucardo Chicangana-Bayona; Susana Inês González Sawczuk

    2009-01-01

    .... Through the support of visual sources such as paintings and engravings, mainly from the German Renaissance, the text demonstrates how the Indian women of the New World were associated to the witches...

  5. Evaluating the Characteristics of Reporter Ion Signal Acquired in the Orbitrap Analyzer for Isobaric Mass Tag Proteome Quantification Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christopher S; Zhu, Chenchen; Spicer, Victor; Krokhin, Oleg V; Morin, Gregg B

    2017-05-05

    Multiplexed quantification with isobaric chemical tags (e.g., TMT, iTRAQ) provides a robust and efficient means to comparatively examine proteome dynamics between several biological states using a mass spectrometer (MS). The quantitative nature of isobaric tags necessitates strict validation of the observed ion signals in the chosen MS detector before differential patterns are extracted between biological states. We present an in-depth analysis of isobaric tag data acquired on current generation Orbitrap MS hardware to illustrate pitfalls in acquisition settings that can negatively impact results. We establish, for the first time, the presence of a notch, a region of no observed values, in the reporter ion distributions from isobaric-labeled peptide mixtures acquired on these instruments. We determine that this notch is present in published data across a wide range of instruments of the same or different type and is isolated to the Orbitrap mass analyzer. We demonstrate that the impact of the notch can be minimized using manipulations of Orbitrap scan parameters and on-column injection amounts. Lastly, using a mixture of synthetic standard peptides we investigated the impact on identification rates and quantification precision. Together, these data highlight an important phenomenon that negatively impacts peptide identification and quantification in the Orbitrap analyzer as well as outlining guidelines to follow to ensure minimization of MS-induced artifacts in isobaric tag experiments resulting from the notch.

  6. [Infinite metamorphosis: witches, spirits and apuntes in Havana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Olívia Maria Gomes da

    2015-01-01

    This article offers an alternative reading of Hampa afro-cubana: los negros brujos, by the Cuban Fernando Ortiz y Fernandes, and discusses the need to make the different ideas expounded by the author more complex. For this reason, it disputes the interpretations of some commentators influenced by his work. The article suggests some clues with regard to what Ortiz y Fernandes understood as forces capable of acting and manifesting themselves in the "bodies" of persons affected by the activities of those accused of being involved with magical practices and objects. It examines the creation of witches - as described by Ortiz y Fernandes - as an epistemic phenomenon and discusses the arguments and the practices and knowledge required for this purpose.

  7. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma spartii', 'Candidatus Phytoplasma rhamni' and 'Candidatus Phytoplasma allocasuarinae', respectively associated with spartium witches'-broom, buckthorn witches'-broom and allocasuarina yellows diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcone, C; Gibb, K S; Streten, C; Schneider, B

    2004-07-01

    Spartium witches'-broom (SpaWB), buckthorn witches'-broom (BWB) and allocasuarina yellows (AlloY) are witches'-broom and yellows diseases of Spartium junceum (Spanish broom), Rhamnus catharticus (buckthorn) and Allocasuarina muelleriana (Slaty she-oak), respectively. These diseases are associated with distinct phytoplasmas. The SpaWB, BWB and AlloY phytoplasmas share <97.5 % 16S rDNA sequence similarity with each other and with other known phytoplasmas, including the closely related phytoplasmas of the apple proliferation group. Also, the SpaWB, BWB and AlloY phytoplasmas each have a different natural plant host. Based on their unique properties, it is proposed to designate the mentioned phytoplasmas as novel 'Candidatus' species under the names 'Candidatus Phytoplasma spartii', 'Candidatus Phytoplasma rhamni' and 'Candidatus Phytoplasma allocasuarinae', respectively.

  8. Gender and Transition From Pediatric to Adult Health Care Among Youth With Acquired Brain Injury: Experiences in a Transition Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Sally; Proulx, Meghann; Maxwell, Joanne; Hamdani, Yani; Bayley, Mark; Macarthur, Colin; Colantonio, Angela

    2016-02-01

    To explore gender and sex differences in experiences of transitioning to adult health care among young adults with acquired brain injury (ABI) who take part in a coordinated model of transitional care. Descriptive design using in-depth semistructured qualitative interviews. Interviews over the phone and in person. Participants (N=18) included 10 young adults with a diagnosis of ABI (4 women, 6 men; age range, 19-21y) and 9 parents (8 women, 1 man) from the Greater Toronto Area, Ontario, Canada. Not applicable. Semistructured interviews with participants. Our findings highlight several commonalities and differences relative to sex and gender among young adults with ABI who are transitioning from pediatric to adult care. Both young adult men and women experienced a similar transition process and similar organization, continuity, and availability of care. Sex differences were found in relational factors (eg, communication, family involvement, social support). Young adult men, and parents of the men, differed in their transition regarding relational factors (eg, communication, family involvement). Our findings show that young adult men and women with ABI who have taken part in a transition preparation program experience similarities in organization, continuity, and availability of care, but they experience differences in relational factors (eg, communication, family involvement). Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Acquiring experience in pathology predominantly from what you see, not from what you read: the HIPON e-learning platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccioni O

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Olga Riccioni,1,2 Charalambos Vrasidas,3 Luka Brcic,4 Goce Armenski,5 Sven Seiwerth,4 Annemieke Smeets,6 J Han JM van Krieken,6 Andreas C Lazaris1 11st Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, The National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece; 2School of Medicine, La Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy; 3Centre for the Advancement of Research and Development in Educational Technology LTD, Nicosia, Cyprus; 4Institute of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia; 5Faculty of Computer Science and Engineering, Saints Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje, FYROM/Republic of Macedonia; 6Department of Pathology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands Abstract: It is indisputable that nowadays one of the hardest and most important tasks in medicine and especially in medical education, is the conversion of the extensive amount of available data, into medical experience, after a proper analysis. A project under the title "ICT (Information and Communication Technology eModules on HistoPathology: a useful online tool for students, researchers and professionals – HIPON", co-financed by the Lifelong Learning Program of the Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA, The Commission of the European Union, has been launched at the beginning of 2013. HIPON's purpose is not to provide just another pathology website atlas, but to convey professional experience and thinking in pathology. HIPON has resulted in a well-structured and user-friendly, open resource, multi-language, e-learning platform which, taking advantage of modern image technology, offers medical students, researchers, and professionals a valuable teaching instrument so that they can acquire professional experience in pathology. The mid-term report of HIPON has been favorably evaluated by the EACEA experts who appreciated the potential of our teaching tool in providing the opportunity and the means

  10. New England's Other Witch-hunt: The Hartford Witch-hunt of the 1660s and Changing Patterns in Witchcraft Prosecution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Walter W.

    2003-01-01

    Classifies witchcraft prosecution into three periods in New England during the seventeenth century. Focuses on the witch-hunt in Hartford, Connecticut, the trial of Katherine Harrison, and the period of skepticism toward witchcraft prosecution. Addresses the role of Governor John Winthrop, Jr. in this skepticism and the legal procedures in…

  11. Complexity and accountability: the witches' brew of psychiatric genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas-Ayllon, Michael; Bartlett, Andrew; Featherstone, Katie

    2010-08-01

    This paper examines the role of complexity in descriptions of the aetiology of common psychiatric disorders. While scientists attest to the discovery of an underlying reality of complex inheritance--the so-called 'witches' brew' of genetic and non-genetic factors--we argue that 'complexity' also performs rhetorical work. In our analysis of scientific review papers (1999-2008), we find a relatively stable genre of accountability in which descriptions of complexity appear to neutralize past failures by incorporating different and sometimes competing methodological perspectives. We identify two temporal strategies: retrospective accounting, which reconstructs a history of psychiatric genetics that deals with the recent failures, citing earlier twin studies as proof of the heritability of common psychiatric disorders; and prospective accounting, which engages in the careful reconstruction of expectations by balancing methodological limitations with moderated optimism. Together, these strategies produce a simple-to-complex narrative that belies the ambivalent nature of complexity. We show that the rhetorical construction of complexity in scientific review papers is oriented to bridging disciplinary boundaries, marshalling new resources and reconstructing expectations that justify delays in gene discovery and risk prediction.

  12. Witch nose: an embarassing metaphor for nasal tip dermoid cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatlidede, Soner; Egemen, Onur; Ozkaya, Ozay; Erol, Onur

    2011-09-01

    Nasal dermoid cysts are one of the most frequent congenital pathologic lesions of the nasal area. These lesions may have intracranial extensions without any clinical evidence, which can be explained by the pathophysiologic development of the lesion, thought to be related to a delay or pause during the separation period of the dura and skin during embryogenesis. This factor is independent from the location and size of the lesion and may lead surgeons to misdiagnoses or inadequate treatments.In this article, 2 cases of nasal dermoid cysts localized at the tip of the nose are presented. Although these lesions can be seen anywhere from the root to the columella, nasal tip location is rare in previously published series. In the cases presented in this study, both patients are school-aged and are faced with social and psychologic problems, as their friends call them "witch nose," in reference to the lesion at the tip of the nose. Vertical tip incision for complete excision of these lesions was performed after accurate radiologic imaging of the brain and possible intracranial extension. No complications or recurrence was seen in either patient.Although the treatment of dermoid cysts is surgical, operative planning should be made after complete physical and radiologic examinations. As the lesion may lead to psychologic and social problems because of its appearance, especially in children, therapy should not be delayed.

  13. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma brasiliense', a new phytoplasma taxon associated with hibiscus witches' broom disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano, H G; Davis, R E; Dally, E L; Hogenhout, S; Pimentel, J P; Brioso, P S

    2001-05-01

    Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is a valuable ornamental species widely planted in Brazil. Many plants are affected by witches' broom disease, which is characterized by excessive axillary branching, abnormally small leaves, and deformed flowers, symptoms that are characteristic of diseases attributed to phytoplasmas. A phytoplasma was detected in diseased Hibiscus by amplification of rRNA operon sequences by PCRs, and was characterized by RFLP and nucleotide sequence analyses of 16S rDNA. The collective RFLP patterns of amplified 16S rDNA differed from the patterns described previously for other phytoplasmas. On the basis of the RFLP patterns, the hibiscus witches' broom phytoplasma was classified in a new 16S rRNA RFLP group, designated group 16SrXV. A phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences from this and other phytoplasmas identified the hibiscus witches' broom phytoplasma as a member of a distinct subclade (designated subclade xiv) of the class Mollicutes. A phylogenetic tree constructed on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences was consistent with the hypothesis that there was divergent evolution of hibiscus witches' broom phytoplasma and its closest relatives (members of 16S rRNA RFLP group 16SrII) from a common ancestor. On the basis of unique properties of the DNA from hibiscus witches' broom phytoplasma, it is proposed that it represents a new taxon, namely 'Candidatus Phytoplasma brasiliense'.

  14. "We Have a Great Task Ahead of Us!": Child-Hate in Roald Dahl's "The Witches"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, James M.

    2014-01-01

    The depictions of cruel witches in Roald Dahl's novel "The Witches" echo the cruel, abusive measures taken by adults in the historical treatment of children. The concept of child-hatred, described by Lloyd Demause and other critics, is an effective lens through which to view the hyperbolized hatred of children described in "The…

  15. Family members' needs and experiences of driving disruption over time following an acquired brain injury: an evolving issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Phyllis; Gustafsson, Louise; Liddle, Jacki; Fleming, Jennifer

    2017-07-01

    Family members often assume the role of driver for individuals who are not driving post-acquired brain injury (ABI). Given that return to driving can be unpredictable and uncertain, the impact of driving disruption on family members may vary at different stages post-injury. This study aims to understand the needs and experiences of family members over time during driving disruption following an ABI. A qualitative prospective longitudinal research design was used with semi-structured interviews at recruitment to study, 3 and 6 months later. Fourteen family members completed 41 interviews. The longitudinal data revealed four phases of driving disruption: (1) Wait and see, (2) Holding onto a quick fix, (3) No way out, and (4) Resolution and adjustment. The phases described a process of building tension and a need for support and resolution over time. Holding onto a quick fix is a pivotal phase whereby supports, such as engagement in realistic goal setting, are essential to facilitate family members' resolution of driving disruption issues. Family members who see no way out might not actively seek help and these points to a need for long-term and regular follow-ups. Future research can explore ways to support family members at these key times. Implications for rehabilitation Health professionals need to facilitate the process of fostering hope in family members to set realistic expectations of return to driving and the duration of driving disruption. It is necessary to follow-up with family members even years after ABI as the issue of driving disruption could escalate to be a crisis and family members might not actively seek help. Health professionals can consider both practical support for facilitating transport and emotional support when addressing the issue of driving disruption with family members.

  16. Emergence of community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection: the experience of a French hospital and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Ogielska

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: CDI can cause community-acquired diarrhoea, and CA-CDI may be more severe than HCA-CDI. Prospective studies of CDI involving people from the general community without risk factors are required to confirm this observation.

  17. [An outline medical history of Taiwan (I): the period of folklore medicine and witch doctor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C

    1997-01-01

    The paper makes a correlated analysis on the origin of health folklore between Chinese in mainland and Taiwan island. After quoting literatures written by authors living in the Qing dynasty in Taiwan, this paper analyses health condition among aboriginals of Taiwan during the witchcraft age. Along with the increasing immigration from China mainland to Taiwan island, health of folklore and gods from China mainland were introduced into Taiwan, hence the period of witch doctor in Taiwan, featuring the correlation of both. Though modern medicine in Taiwan is so advanced, yet there are still witch doctors elsewhere.

  18. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma omanense', associated with witches'-broom of Cassia italica (Mill.) Spreng. in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saady, Nadiya Abubakar; Khan, Akhtar Jamal; Calari, Alberto; Al-Subhi, Ali Masoud; Bertaccini, Assunta

    2008-02-01

    Samples from plants of Cassia italica exhibiting typical witches'-broom symptoms (Cassia witches'-broom; CWB) were examined for the presence of plant pathogenic phytoplasmas by PCR amplification using universal phytoplasma primers. All affected plants yielded positive results. RFLP analyses of rRNA gene products indicated that the phytoplasmas detected were different from those described previously. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that CWB represents a distinct lineage and shares a common ancestor with 'Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium'. Molecular comparison revealed that the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the four CWB strains (IM-1, IM-2, IM-3 and IM-4) identified in symptomatic C. italica samples were nearly identical (99.6-100 % similarity). The closest relatives were members of the pigeon pea witches'-broom phytoplasma ribosomal group (16SrIX; 95-97 % sequence similarity). On the basis of unique 16S rRNA gene sequences and biological properties, the phytoplasma associated with witches'-broom of C. italica in Oman represents a coherent but discrete novel phytoplasma, 'Candidatus Phytoplasma omanense', with GenBank/DDBJ/EMBL accession number EF666051 representing the reference strain.

  19. [Jan Wier: a heretical physician for the witches: historical truth and myths].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godderis, J

    2011-01-01

    Jan Wier was a remarkable person, well known to many as a leader of the fight against the persecution of witches. In a broader sense, he is regarded as one of the earlier defenders of human rights and as a acute observant of psychiatric disorders. To investigate whether these and other theories about Jan Wier are correct. The biography studied was : "Jan Wier; a heretical physician for the witches" written by Vera Hoorens, professor of social and cultural psychology. Hoorens places the complete works by Wier in the historical context in which they were written. Wier was a particularly influential opponent of the persecution of witches, but this was not his main aim. His ideas were not original, although his books on witches show an early understanding of later psychiatric insight. Nevertheless he did contribute to an improvement in the administration of justice. His ideas on pathological anger were innovative, because when describing this disorder he included causes, effects, prognosis, treatment and prevention. On the basis of a thorough study of the complete works of Jan Wier, Hoorens distinguishes the historical truth from the myths that have arisen around this important person.

  20. Acquired Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen; Halse, Karianne

    2013-01-01

    Acquired Techniques - a Leap into the Archive, at Aarhus School of Architecture. In collaboration with Karianne Halse, James Martin and Mika K. Friis. Following the footsteps of past travelers this is a journey into tools and techniques of the architectural process. The workshop will focus upon...

  1. Systemic Acquired Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Conrath, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    Upon infection with necrotizing pathogens many plants develop an enhanced resistance to further pathogen attack also in the uninoculated organs. This type of enhanced resistance is referred to as systemic acquired resistance (SAR). In the SAR state, plants are primed (sensitized) to more quickly and more effectively activate defense responses the second time they encounter pathogen attack. Since SAR depends on the ability to access past experience, acquired disease resistance is a paradigm fo...

  2. WITCH a Penning trap retardation spectrometer combination for precision studies of the weak interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Delauré, B J; Golovko, V V; Kozlov, V Yu; Phalet, T; Schuurmans, P; Severijns, N; Vereecke, B; Versyck, S; Beck, D; Quint, W; Ames, F; Reisinger, K; Forstner, O; Deutsch, J; Bollen, G; Schwarz, S

    2003-01-01

    The weak interaction trap for charged particles (WITCH) setup is being installed at the ISOLDE facility (CERN) to test the Standard Model of the electroweak interaction. This will be done by searching for scalar and tensor admixtures in nuclear $\\beta$-decay. The $\\beta$-neutrino angular correlation is an excellent probe to determine the possible strength of those non-Standard Model contributions. The WITCH setup combines the unique storage features of a Penning trap to produce a scattering free radioactive source with a retardation spectrometer to measure the recoil energy spectrum of the daughter nuclei after $\\beta$-decay with high precision. Physics beyond the Standard Model would lead to deviations from the expected spectral shape. (7 refs).

  3. Radiation therapy for Kaposi's sarcoma associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebara, Takeshi [Municipal Kanbara General Hospital, Fujikawa, Shizuoka (Japan); Karasawa, Katsuyuki; Maebayashi, Katsuya; Kurosaki, Hiromasa; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Kaizu, Toshihide; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Akagi, Kumiko; Masuda, Gota

    2000-12-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma is frequently found in association with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We report on radiotherapy for patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma at Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital. Between April 1991 and May 1997, radiotherapy was given to 11 lesions in eight men with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma to relieve their symptoms. The lesions involved the head and neck region, the legs, and the gastrointestinal tract. Radiotherapy was carried out with 4-MV photon through parallel opposed field or high energy electrons. Total doses ranged from 20 to 38 Gy, with a median of 30 Gy, delivered in 2- to 3-Gy fractions. Four patients were given other treatments prior to the radiotherapy. Acute reaction was evaluated according to the modified acute radiation morbidity scoring criteria of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). Radiotherapy had relieved the symptoms in all patients at completion of this therapy. Lesions that involved the hard palate and vocal cords had completely disappeared. The lesions that received radiotherapy were controlled without symptoms until the patients died. Patients who had the head and neck region treated exhibited severe acute mucosal reaction (at a dose of 30 Gy, there was grade 2 morbidity by modified RTOG criteria, in two patients, and grade 3 in three patients) although the radiation therapy was completed for these patients. Radiotherapy promises a favorable outcome for symptom relief in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. (author)

  4. Cinema advertising and the Sea Witch ‘Lost Island’ film (1965)

    OpenAIRE

    Farmer, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Cinema advertising films have for many decades constituted an important element of British cinema programmes, yet they remain relatively under-researched. This article examines the production, distribution and reception of one such film, a 90-second mini-epic called ‘Lost Island’, which was made in 1965 to promote Sea Witch hair dyes. As well as outlining the technological and experiential aspects of the cinema and cinemagoing that continued to make film an attractive medium for advertisers e...

  5. Using different methods to communicate: how adults with severe acquired communication difficulties make decisions about the communication methods they use and how they experience them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Helen; Carpenter, Christine

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore how adults with severe acquired communication difficulties experience and make decisions about the communication methods they use. The primary objectives were to explore their perceptions of different communication methods, how they choose communication methods to use in different situations and with different communication partners, and what facilitates their decision-making. A qualitative phenomenological approach was used. Data collection methods were face-to-face video-recorded interviews using each participant's choice of communication method and e-mail interviews. The methodological challenges of involving participants with severe acquired communication disorders in research were addressed in the study design. Seven participants, all men, were recruited from a long-term care setting in a rehabilitation hospital. The data analysis process was guided by Colaizzi's (1978) analytic framework. Four main themes were identified: communicating in the digital age – e-mail and social media, encountering frustrations in using communication technologies, role and identity changes and the influences of communication technology and seeking a functional interaction using communication technologies. Adults with acquired communication difficulties find digital communication, such as e-mail and social media, and mainstream technologies, such as iPads, beneficial in communicating with others. Current communication technologies present a number of challenges for adults with disabilities and are limited in their communicative functions to support desired interactions. The implications for AAC technology development and speech and language therapy service delivery are addressed.

  6. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma luffae', a novel taxon associated with witches' broom disease of loofah, Luffa aegyptica Mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert E; Zhao, Yan; Wei, Wei; Dally, Ellen L; Lee, Ing-Ming

    2017-08-01

    The phytoplasma associated with witches' broom disease of loofah [Luffa aegyptica Mill., syn. Luffa cylindrica (L.) M.J. Roem.] in Taiwan was classified in group 16SrVIII, subgroup A (16SrVIII-A), based on results from actual and in silico RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Nucleotide sequencing of PCR-amplified, cloned DNA segments revealed rrn interoperon sequence heterogeneity in the loofah witches' broom (LfWB) phytoplasma. Whereas the 16S-23S rRNA spacer region of rrnA contained a complete tRNA-Ile gene, the spacer of rrnB contained a nonfunctional remnant of a tRNA gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the rrnA and rrnB 16S rRNA genes revealed that the LfWB phytoplasma represented a distinct lineage within the phytoplasma clade, and the LfWB phytoplasma shared less than 97.5 % nucleotide sequence similarity of 16S rRNA genes with previously described 'CandidatusPhytoplasma' taxa. Based on unique properties of DNA, we propose recognition of loofah witches' broom phytoplasma strain LfWBR as representative of a novel taxon, 'CandidatusPhytoplasma luffae'.

  7. Mechanisms of bamboo witches' broom symptom development caused by endophytic/epiphytic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Eiji

    2010-04-01

    Aciculosporium take causes continuous shoot growth but maintains normal leaf-arrangement and branching patterns in the host plant, which eventually resulting in witches' broom disease of bamboo. An in situ hybridization technique with a species-specific oligonucleotide probe was recently used to demonstrate that endophytic mycelia of A. take is predominantly distributed in the intercellular spaces of the shoot apical meristem of the host. Endophytic hyphae in meristematic tissues, which may produce auxin, are responsible for continuous primordium initiation within the shoot apex. Here I examine another bamboo witches' broom causal fungus, Heteroepichloë sasae. Both species are biotrophic and belong to family Clavicipitaceae: however, H. sasae does not cause continuous shoot growth. Histological study showed that H. sasae mycelia were distributed superficially, even on shoot apical meristems. These observations suggest that when their stromata develop, endophytic A. take destroys shoot apical meristem and epiphytic H. sasae chokes the shoot apex of the host. Stromata formation consequently causes lateral bud outgrowth because of release from apical dominance. This process repeats and eventually results in the witches' broom symptoms.

  8. Experiences of young adults growing up with innate or early acquired HIV infection--a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydström, Lise-Lott; Ygge, Britt-Marie; Tingberg, Björn; Navèr, Lars; Eriksson, Lars E

    2013-06-01

    To explore the experience of young adults growing up and living with HIV in urban Sweden. HIV has become a widespread pandemic. Effective antiretroviral treatment has dramatically increased the survival rate of infected individuals, such that HIV infection is currently considered a chronic disease where treatment is available. Data concerning the experience of living with HIV since early childhood is scarce and more empirical knowledge is needed to direct the development of adequate care and interventions for this growing demographic. Exploratory qualitative study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten HIV-infected young adults over the period from January-August 2008. Transcripts of the interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The analysis revealed five categories illustrating the experiences of growing up and living with HIV in Sweden: (1) to protect oneself from the risk of being stigmatized; (2) to be in control; (3) losses in life, but HIV is not a big deal; (4) health care/healthcare providers; and (5) belief in the future. It is essential to offer a safe, trustworthy, and professional healthcare environment during the upbringing of HIV-infected children. Evidence-based interventions are needed to improve care and support, particularly about the handling of stigma and discrimination. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Searching for active mobile genetic elements in dsRNA fraction of Pinus sylvestris having witches broom abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochtovyy, A A; Baranov, O Yu; Rubel', I E; Razumova, O A; Padutov, V E; Khromov, A V; Makhotenko, A V; Tkachuk, A P; Makarov, V V; Gushchin, V A

    2017-06-01

    The most common type of coniferous mobile genetic elements are retrotransposons. Despite of their early positive impact on evolution of modern coniferous species they can have a significant negative impact for Forestry and breeding. Breaking genomic structural integrity mobile elements can cause phenotypic defects of plants. In this regard, the study of the diversity of coniferous mobile genetic elements is particularly interesting. In the present paper, we describe mobile genetic elements in dsRNA fraction of Pinus sylvestris having witches broom abnormalities. In result of assembled contigs analysis by RepeatMasker 70 mobile genetic elements were identified. A 68 of that were retroelements. Most of elements represented by Gypsy (16 contigs) and Copia (48 contigs). In 4 cases retroelements specific to Pinus taeda were identified. In most cases fragments of integrase (24), reverse transcriptase (22) and RNaseH (15) were identified. Results of the study may be of interest for coniferous breeding and genetic specialists. The raw data of these experiments have been deposited at NCBI under the accession number SAMN06185845.

  10. Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of MicroRNAs Involved in Witches'-Broom Phytoplasma Response in Ziziphus jujuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fenjuan; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Hongwei; Lu, Shanfa; Qiu, Deyou

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in responding to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. Jujube witches'-broom a phytoplasma disease of Ziziphus jujuba is prevalent in China and is a serious problem to the industry. However, the molecular mechanism of the disease is poorly understood. In this study, genome-wide identification and analysis of microRNAs in response to witches'-broom was performed. A total of 85 conserved miRNA unique sequences belonging to 32 miRNA families and 24 novel miRNA unique sequences, including their complementary miRNA* strands were identified from small RNA libraries derived from a uninfected and witches'-broom infected Z. jujuba plant. Differentially expressed miRNAs associated with Jujube witches'-broom disease were investigated between the two libraries, and 12 up-regulated miRNAs and 10 down- regulated miRNAs identified with more than 2 fold changes. Additionally, 40 target genes of 85 conserved miRNAs and 49 target genes of 24 novel miRNAs were predicted and their putative functions assigned. Using the modified 5'-RACE method, we confirmed that SPL and MYB were cleaved by miR156 and miR159, respectively. Our results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of witches'-broom disease in Z. jujuba.

  11. Acquisition and preliminary analysis of multi-channel seismic reflection data, acquired during the oceanographic cruises of the TOMO-ETNA experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Firetto Carlino

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The TOMO-ETNA experiment was performed in the framework of the FP7 “MED-SUV” (MEDiterranean SUpersite Volcanoes in order to gain a detailed geological and structural model of the continental and oceanic crust concerning Etna and Aeolian Islands volcanoes (Sicily, Italy, by means of active and passive seismic exploration methodologies. Among all data collected, some 1410 km of marine multi-channel seismic (MCS reflection profiles were acquired in the Ionian and Tyrrhenian Seas during two of the three oceanographic cruises of the TOMO-ETNA experiment, in July and November 2014, with the aim of shading light to deep, intermediate and shallow stratigraphy and crustal structure of the two above mentioned areas. The MCS sections, targeted to deep exploration, were acquired during the oceanographic cruise on board the R/V “Sarmiento de Gamboa”, using an active seismic source of 16 air-guns, for a total volume of 4340 cu. in., and a 3000 m long, 240-channels digital streamer as receiving system. High-resolution seismic profiles were instead collected through the R/V “Aegaeo”, using two smaller air-guns (overall 270 cu. in. volume and a 96 channels, 300 m long digital streamer. This paper provides a detailed description of the acquisition parameters and main processing steps adopted for the MCS data. Some processed lines are shown and preliminarily interpreted, to highlight the overall good quality and the high potential of the MCS sections collected during the TOMO-ETNA experiment.

  12. Perceptions and Experiences about Self-Disclosure of HIV Status among Adolescents with Perinatal Acquired HIV in Poor-Resourced Communities in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sphiwe Madiba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is limited research on the disclosure experiences of adolescents with perinatal acquired HIV (PAH. The study explores how adolescents with PAH experience living with HIV and examined their perceptions and experiences regarding disclosure and onward self-disclosure to friends and sexual partners. Methods. Thematic analysis was used to analyze in-depth interviews conducted with 37 adolescents. Findings. Adolescents received disclosure about their status at mean age of 12 years. They perceived disclosure as necessary and appreciated the truthful communication they received. Adolescents have learned to accept and live with HIV, and they desired to be healthy and normal like other people. After receiving disclosure, they found their treatment meaningful, and they adhered to medication. However, they also expressed a strong message that their HIV status was truly their secret and that self-disclosure to others will take the feeling of being normal away from them because they will be treated differently. Conclusion. Adolescents maintained secrecy in order to be accepted by their peers but also to protect themselves from stigma and isolation. Given that adolescents want to be informed of their HIV status but desire controlling self-disclosure of their HIV status, these should form the basis for development of disclosure interventions.

  13. Why did Johann Weyer write De praestigiis daemonum?: How Anti-Catholicism inspired the Landmark Plea for the Witches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Hoorens

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Johann Weyer (1515/1516-1588’s book De praestigiis daemonum, et incantationibus ac veneficiis (On devilish delusions and on enchantments and poisonings, first published in Basel in 1563, counts as a systematic attack on witch theories and witch trials. Vera Hoorens argues that Weyer wrote it not only to defend the witches but also and, perhaps even more, as an instrument to criticise the Catholic Church. This reinterpretation solves the problems that are associated with the traditional interpretation of De praestigiis daemonum, including the variety of its contents, Weyer’s seemingly enigmatic source use, and his having written the book before and not during the increase in witch trials. The article answers a numberof questions that are raised by the reinterpretation, including those surrounding Weyer’s religious persuasion, why contemporaries and historians almost unanimously viewed De praestigiis daemonum as a treatise against witch trials, and the extent to which he truly cared about the witches. Waarom schreef Jan Wier De praestigiis daemonum? Jan Wier (1515/1516-1588’s boek De praestigiis daemonum, et incantationibus ac veneficiis (Over duivelse begoochelingen en over betoveringen en gifmengerijen, waarvan de eerste editie in 1563 in Basel verscheen, geldt als een systematische aanval op heksentheorieën en heksenprocessen. Vera Hoorens betoogt dat Wier het niet enkel schreef om de heksen te verdedigen, maar ook, en misschien nog wel meer, als een instrument voor zijn kritiek op de Katholieke Kerk. Deze herinterpretatie lost de problemen op die geassocieerd zijn met de traditionele interpretatie van De praestigiis daemonum, namelijk de verscheidenheid van zijn inhoud, Wiers schijnbaar raadselachtig bronnengebruik, en het feit dat hij zijn boek schreef voordat en niet terwijl de heksenprocessen toenamen. Dit artikel beantwoordt een aantal vragen die de voorgestelde herinterpretatie oproept, zoals wat Wiers religieuze overtuiging was

  14. Molecular identification of a new phytoplasma associated with alfalfa witches'-broom in oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A J; Botti, S; Al-Subhi, A M; Gundersen-Rindal, D E; Bertaccini, A F

    2002-10-01

    ABSTRACT Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) plants showing witches'-broom symptoms typical of phytoplasmas were observed from Al-Batinah, Al-Sharqiya, Al-Bureimi, and interior regions of the Sultanate of Oman. Phytoplasmas were detected from all symptomatic samples by the specific amplification of their 16S-23S rRNA gene. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), utilizing phytoplasma-specific universal primer pairs, consistently amplified a product of expected lengths when DNA extract from symptomatic samples was used as template. Asymptomatic plant samples and the negative control yielded no amplification. Restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles of PCR-amplified 16S-23S rDNA of alfalfa using the P1/P7 primer pair identified phytoplasmas belonging to peanut witches'-broom group (16SrII or faba bean phyllody). Restriction enzyme profiles showed that the phytoplasmas detected in all 300 samples belonged to the same ribosomal group. Extensive comparative analyses on P1/P7 amplimers of 20 phytoplasmas with Tru9I, Tsp509I, HpaII, TaqI, and RsaI clearly indicated that this phytoplasma is different from all the other phytoplasmas employed belonging to subgroup 16SrII, except tomato big bud phytoplasma from Australia, and could be therefore classified in subgroup 16SrII-D. The alfalfa witches'-broom (AlfWB) phytoplasma P1/P7 PCR product was sequenced directly after cloning and yielded a 1,690-bp product. The homology search showed 99% similarity (1,667 of 1,690 base identity) with papaya yellow crinkle (PapayaYC) phytoplasma from New Zealand. A phylogenetic tree based on 16S plus spacer regions sequences of 35 phytoplasmas, mainly from the Southern Hemisphere, showed that AlfWB is a new phytoplasma species, with closest relationships to PapayaYC phytoplasmas from New Zealand and Chinese pigeon pea witches'-broom phytoplasmas from Taiwan but distinguishable from them considering the different associated plant hosts and the extreme geographical isolation.

  15. Genetic divergence in cocoa progenies for backcrossing program to witches' broom disease resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Macoto Yamada

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Backcrossing has been little used in cacao breeding, particularly due to the long time required to transfer genes and recover the genetic background of the recurrent parent. The objective of this study was to select individuals, resulting from the backcross CEPEC-42 x SIC-19, genetically related to the recurrent parent SIC-19 by using RAPD molecular markers, among those with resistance to witches' broom. Of the 31 plants that clustered with SIC-19, 18 from the replanted material remained free of the disease in the field, with good vegetative aspect and, therefore can be used for backcross to reach the desired objective.

  16. "Solid All the Way Through": Margaret Mahy's Ordinary Witches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Alison

    2004-01-01

    In "The Haunting," "The Changeover," and "The Tricksters," Margaret Mahy fuses supernatural iconography of witchcraft and magic with images of ordinary and domestic adolescence. This article argues that Mahy's "fantastic realism" illuminates aspects of female teenage experience through a blend of myth, fairy tale, folklore and history, as well as…

  17. Combined treatment with APCC (FEIBA®) and tranexamic acid in patients with haemophilia A with inhibitors and in patients with acquired haemophilia A--a two-centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmström, M; Tran, H T T; Holme, P A

    2012-07-01

    The management of bleeding in haemophilia patients with inhibitors can be challenging when using monotherapy with either activated prothrombin complex concentrate (APCC) or recombinant activated FVII (rFVIIa) fail. The antifibrinolytic agent tranexamic acid (TXA) increases clot stability and is used concomitantly with coagulation factor replacement to improve haemostasis in haemophilia patients without inhibitors in many countries in Europe. Combined treatment with TXA and rFVIIa is not contraindicated in haemophilia patients with inhibitors. However, the combined approach of TXA and APCC has not been investigated due to safety concerns of increased risk of thrombosis or disseminated intravasal coagulation (DIC). The aim of this study is to report our experience of concomitant use of APCC and TXA in haemophilia A patients with inhibitor and in patients with acquired haemophilia A with respect to safety and efficacy. Seven (n = 6) haemophilia A patients with inhibitors and one (n = 1) with acquired haemophilia A from Oslo (Norway) and Stockholm (Sweden) were included in the study. The APCC was given at doses consistent to the manufacturers' recommendation. TXA was administered concomitantly either 10 mg kg(-1) every 6-8 h intravenously or 20 mg kg(-1) every 6-8 h orally. Haemostatic response was assessed by thromboelastography (TEG) and thrombin generation assay (TGA) in three of the patients. A total number of three bleeding episodes and two minor and six major surgical procedures were performed under the coverage with APCC and TXA. Haemostatic outcome was rated excellent or good in 10 of 11 (91%) treatment episodes. One episode was rated with poor effect. No episodes of arterial, venous thrombosis or DIC occurred during or after the treatment. Data from TEG and TGA analysis showed no signs of hypercoagulability following the combined treatment. This report demonstrates that, in a limited number of patients, combined treatment with APCC and TXA seemed to be safe

  18. The Queensland experience of participation in a national drug use evaluation project, Community-Acquired Pneumonia Towards Improving Outcomes Nationally (CAPTION).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulver, Lisa K; Tett, Susan E; Coombes, Judith

    2009-08-03

    Multicentre drug use evaluations are described in the literature infrequently and usually publish only the results. The purpose of this paper is to describe the experience of Queensland hospitals participating in the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Towards Improving Outcomes Nationally (CAPTION) project, specifically evaluating the implementation of this project, detailing benefits and drawbacks of involvement in a national drug use evaluation program. Emergency departments from nine hospitals in Queensland, Australia, participated in CAPTION, a national quality improvement project, conducted in 37 Australian hospitals. CAPTION was aimed at optimising prescribing in the management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia according to the recommendations of the Australian Therapeutic Guidelines: Antibiotic 12th edition. The project involved data collection, and evaluation, feedback of results and a suite of targeted educational interventions including audit and feedback, group presentations and academic detailing.A baseline audit and two drug use evaluation cycles were conducted during the 2-year project. The implementation of the project was evaluated using feedback forms after each phase of the project (audit or intervention). At completion a group meeting with the hospital coordinators identified positive and negative elements of the project. Evaluation by hospitals of their participation in CAPTION demonstrated both benefits and drawbacks. The benefits were grouped into the impact on the hospital dynamic such as; improved interdisciplinary working relationships (e.g. between pharmacist and doctor), recognition of the educational/academic role of the pharmacist, creation of ED Pharmacist positions and enhanced involvement with the National Prescribing Service, and personal benefits. Personal benefits included academic detailing training for participants, improved communication skills and opportunities to present at conferences. The principal drawback of participation was the

  19. [Cloning and analysis of tuf and rp gene of the phytoplasma associated with jujube witches' -broom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenli; Mou, Haiqing; Zhao, Wenjun; Xu, Qicong; Tian, Guozhong; Liao, Xiaolan; Zhu, Shuifang

    2010-10-01

    Jujube witches' -broom (JWB) is an important plant disease caused by phytoplasma. The major objective of our research was to classify JWB in Beijing and Hebei districts and to provide reference for classification in subgroup level. By use of PCR, the elongation factor Tu (tuf gene) and ribosomal protein (rp) gene of phytoplasma associated with JWB in Beijing and Hebei districts were amplified separately with universal primer pairs fTufu/rTufu and rp(v)F1A/rp(v) R1A. Partial tuf gene and rp gene were sequenced and similarity analysed with other phytoplasmas. We obtained partial tuf gene sequence (824bp) and complete rp gene (1196bp) from the diseased sample. In tuf gene, JWB in Beijing shared most similarity (92.84%) with Flavescence dorée (FD) phytoplasma (Candidatus Phytoplasma vitis), however, shared a low similarity (57.29%) with JWB in Shaanxi district which had been already reported. The similarity analysis for sequences of rp gene showed a high identity (> 96%) with members of the 16SrV group phytoplasmas. It shared most identity (99.83%) with JWB strain Taishan and Hemp fiber witches' -broom phytoplasma (HFWB) of the 16SrV group. The JWB strains in Beijing and Hebei are members of 16Sr V; JWB in Beijing and Hebei share high similarity, and show a diversity with JWB in Shaanxi.

  20. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma balanitae' associated with witches' broom disease of Balanites triflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Nang Kyu Kyu; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Bertaccini, Assunta; Namba, Shigetou; Jung, Hee-Young

    2013-02-01

    A phytoplasma was identified in naturally infected wild Balanites triflora plants exhibiting typical witches' broom symptoms (Balanites witches' broom: BltWB) in Myanmar. The 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that BltWB phytoplasma had the highest similarity to that of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma ziziphi' and it was also closely related to that of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi'. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the BltWB phytoplasma clustered as a discrete subclade with Elm yellows phytoplasmas. RFLP analysis of the 16S rRNA gene including the 16S-23S spacer region differentiated the BltWB phytoplasma from 'Ca. P. ziziphi', 'Ca. P. ulmi' and 'Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii'. Analysis of additional ribosomal protein (rp) and translocase protein (secY) gene sequences and phylogenetic analysis of BltWB showed that this phytoplasma was clearly distinguished from those of other 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' taxa. Taking into consideration the unique plant host and the restricted geographical occurrence in addition to the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the BltWB phytoplasma is proposed to represent a novel taxon, 'Candidatus Phytoplasma balanitae'.

  1. A novel subgroup 16SrVII-D phytoplasma identified in association with Erigeron witches' broom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flôres, Daniela; Amaral Mello, Ana Paula de Oliveira; Pereira, Thays Benites Camargo; Rezende, Jorge Alberto Marques; Bedendo, Ivan Paulo

    2015-08-01

    Erigeron sp. plants showing symptoms of witches' broom and stunting were found near orchards of passion fruit in São Paulo state, Brazil. These symptoms were indicative of infection by phytoplasmas. Thus, the aim of this study was to detect and identify possible phytoplasmas associated with diseased plants. Total DNA was extracted from symptomatic and asymptomatic plants and used in nested PCR conducted with the primer pairs P1/Tint and R16F2n/16R2. Amplification of genomic fragments of 1.2 kb from the 16S rRNA gene confirmed the presence of phytoplasma in all symptomatic samples. The sequence identity scores between the 16S rRNA gene of the phytoplasma strain identified in the current study and those of previously reported 'Candidatus Phytoplasma fraxini'-related strains ranged from 98% to 99% indicating the phytoplasma to be a strain affiliated with 'Candidatus Phytoplasma fraxini'. The results from a phylogenetic analysis and virtual RFLP analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence with 17 restriction enzymes revealed that the phytoplasma strain belongs to the ash yellows phytoplasma group (16SrVII); the similarity coefficient of RFLP patterns further suggested that the phytoplasma represents a novel subgroup, designated 16SrVII-D. The representative of this new subgroup was named EboWB phytoplasma (Erigeron bonariensis Witches' Broom).

  2. Genes differentially expressed in Theobroma cacao associated with resistance to witches' broom disease caused by Crinipellis perniciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Gildemberg Amorim; Albuquerque, Paulo S B; Figueira, Antonio

    2007-05-01

    SUMMARY The basidiomycete Crinipellis perniciosa is the causal agent of witches' broom disease of Theobroma cacao (cocoa). Hypertrophic growth of infected buds ('brooms') is the most dramatic symptom, but the main economic losses derive from pod infection. To identify cocoa genes differentially expressed during the early stages of infection, two cDNA libraries were constructed using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) approach. Subtraction hybridization was conducted between cDNAs from infected shoot-tips of the susceptible genotype 'ICS 39' and the resistant 'CAB 214', in both directions. A total of 187 unique sequences were obtained, with 83 from the library enriched for the susceptible 'ICS 39' sequences, and 104 for the resistant 'CAB 214'. By homology search and ontology analyses, the identified sequences were mainly putatively categorized as belonging to 'signal transduction', 'response to biotic and abiotic stress', 'metabolism', 'RNA and DNA metabolism', 'protein metabolism' and 'cellular maintenance' classes. Quantitative reverse transcription amplification (RT-qPCR) of 23 transcripts identified as differentially expressed between genotypes revealed distinct kinetics of gene up-regulation at the asymptomatic stage of the disease. Expression induction in the susceptible 'ICS 39' in response to C. perniciosa was delayed and limited, while in 'CAB 214' there was a quicker and more intense reaction, with two peaks of gene induction at 48 and 120 h after inoculation, corresponding to morphological and biochemical changes previously described during colonization. Similar differences in gene induction were validated for another resistant genotype ('CAB 208') in an independent experiment. Validation of these genes corroborated similar hypothetical mechanisms of resistance described in other pathosystems.

  3. Recombinant porcine sequence factor VIII (rpFVIII) for acquired haemophilia A: practical clinical experience of its use in seven patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantino, M D; Cuker, A; Hardesty, B; Roberts, J C; Sholzberg, M

    2017-01-01

    A recombinant porcine factor VIII B-domain-deleted product (rpFVIII; OBIZUR, Baxalta Incorporated, Deerfield, IL 60015, USA) was recently approved for treatment of bleeding episodes in adults with acquired haemophilia A (AHA) in the United States. To date, no clinical experience outside the registration study has been reported. To describe early clinical experience using rpFVIII for AHA. A retrospective chart review of seven patients with AHA treated with rpFVIII at four institutions from November 2014 to October 2015. The time to diagnosis of AHA ranged from 5 days to 6 weeks. Six major and one other bleed were treated with rpFVIII following unsatisfactory bypassing agent (BPA) therapy. Good haemostatic efficacy was seen in five of seven cases. rpFVIII loading doses of 100 (n = 6) or 200 U kg-1 (n = 1) increased FVIII activity from <1 to 9% at baseline to 109-650% within 0.25-7 h in six of seven cases. Subsequent median doses ranged from 30 to 100 U kg-1 for 3-26 days. No rpFVIII-related adverse events were reported. Three patients survived with inhibitor eradication, one with persistent inhibitor, two died with inhibitors present and one was discharged and later died from unrelated causes. rpFVIII showed good haemostatic efficacy with no recurrences in most cases, with consumption substantially less than in the registration study. Treatment decisions were based on FVIII activity levels and clinical assessment. The ability to titrate rpFVIII dose using FVIII activity was considered advantageous compared with BPA therapy. Notable delays in diagnosis were observed. © 2016 The Authors. Haemophilia Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The Queensland experience of participation in a national drug use evaluation project, Community-acquired pneumonia – towards improving outcomes nationally (CAPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tett Susan E

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multicentre drug use evaluations are described in the literature infrequently and usually publish only the results. The purpose of this paper is to describe the experience of Queensland hospitals participating in the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Towards Improving Outcomes Nationally (CAPTION project, specifically evaluating the implementation of this project, detailing benefits and drawbacks of involvement in a national drug use evaluation program. Methods Emergency departments from nine hospitals in Queensland, Australia, participated in CAPTION, a national quality improvement project, conducted in 37 Australian hospitals. CAPTION was aimed at optimising prescribing in the management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia according to the recommendations of the Australian Therapeutic Guidelines: Antibiotic 12th edition. The project involved data collection, and evaluation, feedback of results and a suite of targeted educational interventions including audit and feedback, group presentations and academic detailing. A baseline audit and two drug use evaluation cycles were conducted during the 2-year project. The implementation of the project was evaluated using feedback forms after each phase of the project (audit or intervention. At completion a group meeting with the hospital coordinators identified positive and negative elements of the project. Results Evaluation by hospitals of their participation in CAPTION demonstrated both benefits and drawbacks. The benefits were grouped into the impact on the hospital dynamic such as; improved interdisciplinary working relationships (e.g. between pharmacist and doctor, recognition of the educational/academic role of the pharmacist, creation of ED Pharmacist positions and enhanced involvement with the National Prescribing Service, and personal benefits. Personal benefits included academic detailing training for participants, improved communication skills and opportunities to present at

  5. "Ready to Acquire"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yetton, Philip; Henningsson, Stefan; Bjørn-Andersen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the experiences of Danisco (a global food ingredients company) as it followed a growth-by-acquisition business strategy, focusing on how a new CIO built the IT resources to ensure the IT organization was "ready to acquire." We illustrate how these IT capabilities expedited...... the IT integration following two acquisitions, one of which involved Danisco expanding the scale of its business and the other extending the scope. Based on insights gained from Danisco, we provide lessons for CIOs to realize business benefits when managing post-acquisition IT integration....

  6. The Witch Navigator - A Low Cost GNSS Software Receiver for Advanced Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Jakubov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The developement of advanced GNSS signal processing algorithms such as multi-constellation, multi-frequency and multi-antenna navigation requires an easily reprogrammable software defined radio solution. Various receiver architectures for this purpose have been introduced. RF front-end with FPGA universal correlators on ExpressCard connected directly to PC was selected and manufactured. Such a~unique hardware combination provides the GNSS researchers and engineers with a~great convenience of writing the signal processing algorithms including tracking, acquisition and positioning in the Linux application programming interface and enables them to reconfigure the RF front-end easily by the PC program. With more of these ExpressCards connected to the PC, the number of the RF channels, correlators or antennas can be increased to further boost the computational power. This paper reveals the implementation aspects of the receiver, named the Witch Navigator, and~gives the key test results.

  7. Rendering justice in witch trials: the case of the val de Lièpvre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Maryse

    2011-01-01

    The borderland of the val de Lièpvre, with lands in Alsace and in the Duchy of Lorraine, and divided by religion and language, offers a rich collection of sources for the history of witchcraft persecution. The territory sharply reveals what was undoubtedly characteristic of witchcraft trials more widely. The crime of witchcraft was considered abominable before the Christian community and God, and its prosecution justified abandoning many of the safeguards and constraints in legal procedure, whether restrictions on the use of torture, the reliance on dubious testimony or even denial of advocacy to the witches. The action of the judges was nonetheless, as they understood it, the rendering of true justice, by punishing the culprits with a harshness that would expiate their crimes before the community and preserve them from damnation in the face of God's judgment.

  8. Justice at the margins: witches, poisoners, and social accountability in northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Tim; Reid, Kyla

    2015-01-01

    Recent responses to people alleged to be 'witches' or 'poisoners' among the Madi of northern Uganda are compared with those of the 1980s. The extreme violence of past incidents is set in the context of contemporary upheavals and, in effect, encouragement from Catholic and governmental attitudes and initiatives. Mob justice has subsequently become less common. From 2006, a democratic system for dealing with suspects was introduced, whereby those receiving the highest number of votes are expelled from the neighborhood or punished in other ways. These developments are assessed with reference to trends in supporting 'traditional' approaches to social accountability and social healing as alternatives to more conventional measures. Caution is required. Locally acceptable hybrid systems may emerge, but when things turn nasty, it is usually the weak and vulnerable that suffer.

  9. Ab initio simulations on the behavior of small ion clouds in the WITCH Penning trap system

    CERN Document Server

    Coeck, S; Herbane, M; Kozlov, V Yu; Kraev, I S; Tandecki, M; Wauters, F; Beck, M; Delahaye, P; Herlert, A; Sturm, S; Severijns, N

    2007-01-01

    Various ab initio simulations on the behavior of ion clouds consisting of a small number of positively charged ions stored in the WITCH double Penning trap system are described. A general description of the simulation code used is presented and the expected behavior of the particles in the first of the two Penning traps is discussed. Special attention is paid to the influence of this behavior on the operation of the experimental setup. The effect of electric excitations on the ion motions is described in detail. Also the transfer of the ions between the two traps and consequences for their motion in the second Penning trap are addressed. Scaled Coulomb force simulations are used to estimate the size of the ion cloud inside the Penning traps for larger numbers of particles.

  10. Single nucleotide polymorphisms from Theobroma cacao expressed sequence tags associated with witches' broom disease in cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, L S; Gramacho, K P; Carels, N; Novais, R; Gaiotto, F A; Lopes, U V; Gesteira, A S; Zaidan, H A; Cascardo, J C M; Pires, J L; Micheli, F

    2009-07-14

    In order to increase the efficiency of cacao tree resistance to witches' broom disease, which is caused by Moniliophthora perniciosa (Tricholomataceae), we looked for molecular markers that could help in the selection of resistant cacao genotypes. Among the different markers useful for developing marker-assisted selection, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) constitute the most common type of sequence difference between alleles and can be easily detected by in silico analysis from expressed sequence tag libraries. We report the first detection and analysis of SNPs from cacao-M. perniciosa interaction expressed sequence tags, using bioinformatics. Selection based on analysis of these SNPs should be useful for developing cacao varieties resistant to this devastating disease.

  11. Increased sodium and fluctuations in minerals in acid limes expressing witches' broom symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghaithi, Aisha G; Hanif, Muhammad Asif; Al-Busaidi, Walid M; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M

    2016-01-01

    Witches' broom disease of lime (WBDL), caused by 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia', is a very serious disease of acid limes. The disease destroyed more than one million lime trees in the Middle East. WBDL results in the production of small, clustered leaves in some branches of lime trees. Branches develop symptoms with time and become unproductive, until the whole tree collapses within 4-8 years of first symptom appearance. This study was conducted to investigate differences in minerals between symptomatic and asymptomatic leaves of infected lime trees. The study included one set of leaves from uninfected trees and two sets of infected leaves: symptomatic leaves and asymptomatic leaves obtained from randomly selected acid lime trees. Nested polymerase chain reaction detected phytoplasma in the symptomatic and asymptomatic leaves from the six infected trees, but not from the uninfected trees. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all phytoplasmas belong to the 16S rRNA group II-B. Mineral analysis revealed that the level of Na significantly increased by four times in the symptomatic leaves compared to the non-symptomatic leaves and to the uninfected leaves. In addition, symptom development resulted in a significant increase in the levels of P and K by 1.6 and 1.5 times, respectively, and a significant decrease in the levels of Ca and B by 1.2 and 1.8 times, respectively. There was no significant effect of WBDL on the levels of N, Cu, Zn, and Fe. The development of witches' broom disease symptoms was found to be associated with changes in some minerals. The study discusses factors and consequences of changes in the mineral content of acid limes infected by phytoplasma.

  12. Als letzte deutsche Hexe verurteilt und doch nicht hingerichtet! Condemned as the Last German Witch and Still Not Executed!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Liebig

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Wolfgang Petz hat die Geschichte der „letzten Allgäuer Hexe“ Anna Maria Schwägelin anhand von verschollen geglaubten Quellen rekonstruiert. Es finden sich wenige Arbeiten zur regionalen Geschichte, die auf der Basis solch exakten Arbeitens und vor einem so breiten sozialgeschichtlichen Hintergrund verfasst wurden. Am Beispiel des Einzelschicksals von Schwägelin bietet Petz zugleich eine umfassende Darstellung der Geschichte der Hexenverfolgung.Wolfgang Petz reconstructed the story of the “last witch of the Allgaeu,” Anna Maria Schwägelin, based on sources that had been deemed lost. There are few studies on regional history that have been constructed on the basis of such exacting work and in front of such a broad social-historical backdrop. By using the individual fate of Schwägelin as an example, Petz also offers a comprehensive portrayal of the history of the persecution of witches.

  13. When people with dementia are perceived as witches. Consequences for patients and nurse education in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkhonto, Flora; Hanssen, Ingrid

    2017-05-30

    To explore and describe the link between culture and dementia care with the focus on the influence of the belief in dementia as witchcraft and people with dementia as witches. In South Africa, especially in townships and rural areas, dementia is often perceived as connected to witchcraft rather than to disease. Persons labelled as witches-mostly older women-may be bullied, ostracised, beaten, stoned, burned, even killed. One strand of findings from a larger international study is presented with in-depth qualitative interviews of one close family member and seven nurses caring for patients with severe dementia in nursing homes in Tshwane in South Africa. A hermeneutic analytic approach was used. Two main themes are found, namely "Belief in witchcraft causing fear of persons with dementia" and "Need of knowledge and education." Fear of and violence towards people with dementia are based on the belief that they are witches. Some of the nurses had also held this belief until they started working with patients with dementia. There is a great need for education both among healthcare workers and the populace. The "witch" belief prevents seeking professional help. As nursing homes tend to be private and expensive, professional dementia care is virtually unattainable for the poor. Dementia needs a more prominent place in nursing curricula. Nurses as educators need to know the local culture and language to be accepted in the various communities. They need to visit families affected by dementia, give awareness talks in churches, schools and clinics and facilitate support groups for carers of people with dementia in the local language. Improved nurses' education in gerontology and geriatric care is needed. Trained specialist nurses may work as mediators and help eradicate the witchcraft beliefs connected to severe dementia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma tamaricis', a novel taxon discovered in witches'-broom-diseased salt cedar (Tamarix chinensis Lour.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Sun, Qingrong; Wei, Wei; Davis, Robert E; Wu, Wei; Liu, Qingzhong

    2009-10-01

    Salt cedar trees with pronounced witches'-broom symptoms were observed in their natural habitat in China. 16S rRNA gene sequences unique to phytoplasmas were detected in every DNA sample extracted from stem and leaf tissues of the symptomatic trees, revealing a direct association between phytoplasma infection and the salt cedar witches'-broom (SCWB) disease. Phylogenetic analysis of the SCWB phytoplasma 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the SCWB phytoplasma belonged to a subclade consisting of several mutually distinct 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' taxa including 'Ca. Phytoplasma prunorum', 'Ca. Phytoplasma mali', 'Ca. Phytoplasma pyri' and 'Ca. Phytoplasma spartii'. Pairwise sequence similarity scores calculated from an alignment of near full-length 16S rRNA genes revealed that SCWB phytoplasma shared 96.6 % or less sequence similarity with each previously described or proposed 'Ca. Phytoplasma' taxon, justifying the recognition of SCWB phytoplasma as a novel taxon, 'Candidatus Phytoplasma tamaricis'. The distinct virtual RFLP pattern derived from the SCWB phytoplasma 16S rRNA gene sequence, together with its lower-than-threshold similarity coefficient values with RFLP patterns of any of the 29 previously established groups, supported the recognition of a new 16Sr group, designated 16SrXXX, salt cedar witches'-broom phytoplasma group.

  15. Ten-year experience of recombinant activated factor VII use in surgical patients with congenital haemophilia with inhibitors or acquired haemophilia in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takedani, H; Shima, M; Horikoshi, Y; Koyama, T; Fukutake, K; Kuwahara, M; Ishiguro, N

    2015-05-01

    Patients with congenital haemophilia with inhibitors or acquired haemophilia are at risk of bleeding complications during surgery. In these patients, replacement therapy for the missing coagulation factor is ineffective, and a bypassing agent such as recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) is required to manage bleeding. To evaluate the safety and haemostatic efficacy of rFVIIa treatment in Japanese patients with congenital haemophilia with inhibitors to FVIII/FIX or acquired haemophilia undergoing surgery. Postmarketing surveillance data from May 2000 to March 2010 were analysed to assess the haemostatic efficacy of 38 procedures in 22 patients with congenital haemophilia A, 13 procedures in seven patients with congenital haemophilia B, and five procedures in five patients with acquired haemophilia. Postoperative bleeding control was judged to be effective (bleeding was stopped completely or reduced considerably) for 34/38 procedures (89%) in patients with congenital haemophilia A, 10/13 procedures (77%) in patients with congenital haemophilia B, and 4/5 procedures (80%) in patients with acquired haemophilia. Tranexamic acid was used concomitantly for 36/56 procedures (64%). Safety was analysed for 66 procedures in 37 patients. Adverse effects potentially related to rFVIIa treatment included mild superficial thrombophlebitis, mild decrease in platelet count, and mild elevation of the serum alanine transaminase level in one patient each. All adverse effects resolved without treatment. Administration of rFVIIa provided adequate haemostasis without serious adverse effects in the majority of cases. The efficacy and safety data in Japanese patients were similar to previously published data from other countries. © 2014 The Authors. Haemophilia Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Cacao Phylloplane: The First Battlefield against Moniliophthora perniciosa, Which Causes Witches' Broom Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, D S M; Gramacho, K P; Cardoso, T H S; Micheli, F; Alvim, F C; Pirovani, C P

    2017-07-01

    The phylloplane is the first contact surface between Theobroma cacao and the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, which causes witches' broom disease (WBD). We evaluated the index of short glandular trichomes (SGT) in the cacao phylloplane and the effect of irrigation on the disease index of cacao genotypes with or without resistance to WBD, and identified proteins present in the phylloplane. The resistant genotype CCN51 and susceptible Catongo presented a mean index of 1,600 and 700 SGT cm-2, respectively. The disease index in plants under drip irrigation was reduced by approximately 30% compared with plants under sprinkler irrigation prior to inoculation. Leaf water wash (LWW) of the cacao inhibited the germination of spores by up to 98%. Proteins from the LWW of CCN51 were analyzed by two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by tandem mass spectrometry. The gel showed 71 spots and identified a total of 42 proteins (28 from the plant and 14 from bacteria). Proteins related to defense and synthesis of defense metabolites and involved in nucleic acid metabolism were identified. The results support the hypothesis that the proteins and water-soluble compounds secreted to the cacao phylloplane participate in the defense against pathogens. They also suggest that SGT can contribute to the resistance of cacao.

  17. Apoplastic and intracellular plant sugars regulate developmental transitions in witches' broom disease of cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barau, Joan; Grandis, Adriana; Carvalho, Vinicius Miessler de Andrade; Teixeira, Gleidson Silva; Zaparoli, Gustavo Henrique Alcalá; do Rio, Maria Carolina Scatolin; Rincones, Johana; Buckeridge, Marcos Silveira; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães

    2015-03-01

    Witches' broom disease (WBD) of cacao differs from other typical hemibiotrophic plant diseases by its unusually long biotrophic phase. Plant carbon sources have been proposed to regulate WBD developmental transitions; however, nothing is known about their availability at the plant-fungus interface, the apoplastic fluid of cacao. Data are provided supporting a role for the dynamics of soluble carbon in the apoplastic fluid in prompting the end of the biotrophic phase of infection. Carbon depletion and the consequent fungal sensing of starvation were identified as key signalling factors at the apoplast. MpNEP2, a fungal effector of host necrosis, was found to be up-regulated in an autophagic-like response to carbon starvation in vitro. In addition, the in vivo artificial manipulation of carbon availability in the apoplastic fluid considerably modulated both its expression and plant necrosis rate. Strikingly, infected cacao tissues accumulated intracellular hexoses, and showed stunted photosynthesis and the up-regulation of senescence markers immediately prior to the transition to the necrotrophic phase. These opposite findings of carbon depletion and accumulation in different host cell compartments are discussed within the frame of WBD development. A model is suggested to explain phase transition as a synergic outcome of fungal-related factors released upon sensing of extracellular carbon starvation, and an early senescence of infected tissues probably triggered by intracellular sugar accumulation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. Survey of leafhopper species in almond orchards infected with almond witches'-broom phytoplasma in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakhil, Hala A; Hammad, Efat Abou-Fakhr; El-Mohtar, Choaa; Abou-Jawdah, Yusuf

    2011-01-01

    Leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae) account for more than 80% of all "Auchenorrhynchous" vectors that transmit phytoplasmas. The leafhopper populations in two almond witches'-broom phytoplasma (AlmWB) infected sites: Tanboureet (south of Lebanon) and Bourj El Yahoudieh (north of Lebanon) were surveyed using yellow sticky traps. The survey revealed that the most abundant species was Asymmetrasca decedens, which represented 82.4% of all the leafhoppers sampled. Potential phytoplasma vectors in members of the subfamilies Aphrodinae, Deltocephalinae, and Megophthalminae were present in very low numbers including: Aphrodes makarovi, Cicadulina bipunctella, Euscelidius mundus, Fieberiella macchiae, Allygus theryi, Circulifer haematoceps, Neoaliturus transversalis, and Megophthalmus scabripennis. Allygus theryi (Horváth) (Deltocephalinae) was reported for the first time in Lebanon. Nested PCR analysis and sequencing showed that Asymmetrasca decedens, Empoasca decipiens, Fieberiella macchiae, Euscelidius mundus, Thamnottetix seclusis, Balclutha sp., Lylatina inexpectata, Allygus sp., and Annoplotettix danutae were nine potential carriers of AlmWB phytoplasma. Although the detection of phytoplasmas in an insect does not prove a definite vector relationship, the technique is useful in narrowing the search for potential vectors. The importance of this information for management of AlmWB is discussed.

  19. Transcriptomic analysis of Paulownia infected by Paulownia witches'-broom Phytoplasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Hai-Qing; Lu, Jie; Zhu, Shui-Fang; Lin, Cai-Li; Tian, Guo-Zhong; Xu, Xia; Zhao, Wen-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are plant pathogenic bacteria that have no cell wall and are responsible for major crop losses throughout the world. Phytoplasma-infected plants show a variety of symptoms and the mechanisms they use to physiologically alter the host plants are of considerable interest, but poorly understood. In this study we undertook a detailed analysis of Paulownia infected by Paulownia witches'-broom (PaWB) Phytoplasma using high-throughput mRNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and digital gene expression (DGE). RNA-Seq analysis identified 74,831 unigenes, which were subsequently used as reference sequences for DGE analysis of diseased and healthy Paulownia in field grown and tissue cultured plants. Our study revealed that dramatic changes occurred in the gene expression profile of Paulownia after PaWB Phytoplasma infection. Genes encoding key enzymes in cytokinin biosynthesis, such as isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase and isopentenyltransferase, were significantly induced in the infected Paulownia. Genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis and degradation were largely up-regulated and genes related to photosynthesis were down-regulated after PaWB Phytoplasma infection. Our systematic analysis provides comprehensive transcriptomic data about plants infected by Phytoplasma. This information will help further our understanding of the detailed interaction mechanisms between plants and Phytoplasma.

  20. Saprotrophic proteomes of biotypes of the witches' broom pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Sandra; Griffith, Gareth W; Morphew, Russell M; Mur, Luis A J; Scott, Ian M

    2017-09-01

    Nine geographically diverse Moniliophthora perniciosa (witches' broom disease pathogen) isolates were cultured in vitro. They included six C-biotypes differing in virulence on cacao (Theobroma cacao), two S-biotypes (solanaceous hosts), and an L-biotype (liana hosts). Mycelial growth rates and morphologies differed considerably, but no characters were observed to correlate with virulence or biotype. In plant inoculations using basidiospores, one C-biotype caused symptoms on tomato (an S-biotype host), adding to evidence of limited host adaptation in these biotypes. Mycelial proteomes were analysed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and 619 gel spots were indexed on all replicate gels of at least one strain. Multivariate analysis of gel spots discriminated the L-biotype, but not the S-biotypes, from the remaining strains. The proteomic similarity of the S- and C-biotypes is consistent with their reported lack of phylogenetic distinction. Sequences from tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides from major 2-DE spots were matched with Moniliophthora genome and transcript sequences on NCBI and WBD Transcriptome Atlas databases. Protein-spot identifications indicated that M. perniciosa saprotrophic mycelial proteomes expressed functions potentially connected with a 'virulence life-style', including peroxiredoxin, heat-shock proteins, nitrilase, formate dehydrogenase, a prominent complement of aldo-keto reductases, mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase, and central metabolism enzymes with proposed pathogenesis functions. Copyright © 2017 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification of genes related to Paulownia witches' broom by AFLP and MSAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xibing; Fan, Guoqiang; Deng, Minjie; Zhao, Zhenli; Dong, Yanpeng

    2014-08-21

    DNA methylation is believed to play important roles in regulating gene expression in plant growth and development. Paulownia witches' broom (PaWB) infection has been reported to be related to gene expression changes in paulownia plantlets. To determine whether DNA methylation is associated with gene expression changes in response to phytoplasma, we investigated variations in genomic DNA sequence and methylation in PaWB plantlets treated with methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) techniques, respectively. The results indicated that PaWB seedings recovered a normal morphology after treatment with more than 15 mg·L(-1) MMS. PaWB infection did not cause changes of the paulownia DNA sequence at the AFLP level; However, DNA methylation levels and patterns were altered. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that three of the methylated genes were up-regulated and three were down-regulated in the MMS-treated PaWB plantlets that had regained healthy morphology. These six genes might be involved in transcriptional regulation, plant defense, signal transduction and energy. The possible roles of these genes in PaWB are discussed. The results showed that changes of DNA methylation altered gene expression levels, and that MSAP might help identify genes related to PaWB.

  2. Relationships Between Black Pod and Witches'-Broom Diseases in Theobroma cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevenin, J-M; Umaharan, R; Surujdeo-Maharaj, S; Latchman, B; Cilas, C; Butler, D R

    2005-11-01

    ABSTRACT Field observations were conducted from 1998 to 2001 at the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad, to evaluate 57 cacao clones for resistance to black pod (BP) and witches'-broom (WB) diseases (caused by Phytophthora sp. and Crinipellis perniciosa, respectively). Each month ripe pods were harvested and the number of healthy and diseased was recorded. The number of brooms on vegetative shoots was recorded three times a year on selected branches. Twenty-three clones showed less than 10% of infection for both BP and WB on pods. Among those, eight clones showed an absence of brooms on the observed branches: IMC 6, MAN 15/60 [BRA], PA 67 [PER], PA 195 [PER], PA 218 [PER], PA 296 [PER], PA 303 [PER], and POUND 32/A [POU]. Broad-sense heritability was estimated at 0.38 and 0.57 for WB disease on pods and shoots, respectively, and at 0.51 for BP disease. Genetic correlation between WB disease on pods and on shoots was low and estimated at 0.39, whereas the correlation between WB and BP diseases on pods was 0.48. To choose putative parents for breeding schemes, it is suggested that clones are first assessed for their level of resistance to WB on shoots, and the most promising individuals are screened for BP with a detached pods test. Further studies are needed to confirm whether the level of resistance to WB on pods can be predicted using an early test on seedlings.

  3. Anti-Microbial, Anti-Biofilm Activities and Cell Selectivity of the NRC-16 Peptide Derived from Witch Flounder, Glyptocephalus cynoglossus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Ho Seo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies had identified novel antimicrobial peptides derived from witch flounder. In this work, we extended the search for the activity of peptide that showed antibacterial activity on clinically isolated bacterial cells and bacterial biofilm. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was obtained from otitis media and cholelithiasis patients, while Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from otitis media patients. We found that synthetic peptide NRC-16 displays antimicrobial activity and is not sensitive to salt during its bactericidal activity. Interestingly, this peptide also led to significant inhibition of biofilm formation at a concentration of 4–16 μM. NRC-16 peptide is able to block biofilm formation at concentrations just above its minimum inhibitory concentration while conventional antibiotics did not inhibit the biofilm formation except ciprofloxacin and piperacillin. It did not cause significant lysis of human RBC, and is not cytotoxic to HaCaT cells and RAW264.7 cells, thereby indicating its selective antimicrobial activity. In addition, the peptide’s binding and permeation activities were assessed by tryptophan fluorescence, calcein leakage and circular dichroism using model mammalian membranes composed of phosphatidylcholine (PC, PC/cholesterol (CH and PC/sphingomyelin (SM. These experiments confirmed that NRC-16 does not interact with any of the liposomes but the control peptide melittin did. Taken together, we found that NRC-16 has potent antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities with less cytotoxicity, and thus can be considered for treatment of microbial infection in the future.

  4. "I really should've gone to the doctor": older adults and family caregivers describe their experiences with community-acquired pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohfeld Lynne

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Responding to acute illness symptoms can often be challenging for older adults. The primary objective of this study was to describe how community-dwelling older adults and their family members responded to symptoms of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP. Methods A qualitative study that used face-to-face semi-structured interviews to collect data from a purposeful sample of seniors aged 60+ and their family members living in a mid-sized Canadian city. Data analysis began with descriptive and interpretive coding, then advanced as the research team repeatedly compared emerging thematic categories to the raw data. Searches for disconfirming evidence and member checking through focus groups provided additional data and helped ensure rigour. Results Community-acquired pneumonia symptoms varied greatly among older adults, making decisions to seek care difficult for them and their family members. Both groups took varying amounts of time as they attempted to sort out what was wrong and then determine how best to respond. Even after they concluded something was wrong, older adults with confirmed pneumonia continued to wait for days, to over a week, before seeking medical care. Participants provided diverse reasons for this delay, including fear, social obligations (work, family, leisure, and accessibility barriers (time, place, systemic. Several older adults and family members regretted their delays in seeking help. Conclusion Treatment-seeking delay is a variable, multi-phased decision-making process that incorporates symptom assessment plus psychosocial and situational factors. Public health and health care professionals need to educate older adults about the potential causes and consequences of unnecessary waits. Such efforts may reduce the severity of community-acquired pneumonia upon presentation at clinics and hospitals, and that, in turn, could potentially improve health outcomes.

  5. Use of gentamicin for women with community-acquired uncomplicated acute pyelonephritis caused by gentamicin-susceptible or -resistant Escherichia coli: 10-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wie, Seong-Heon; Kim, Hyung Wook; Chang, U-Im

    2013-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of gentamicin as an initial empirical antimicrobial agent and to determine the effects of gentamicin resistance on clinical outcomes in women with uncomplicated acute pyelonephritis (APN). We analyzed data of 2,033 women with a diagnosis of APN admitted to Catholic University St. Vincent's Hospital. Of those, we enrolled 274 cases of community-acquired uncomplicated APN due to Escherichia coli who received gentamicin as initial antibiotics. Of these 274 patients, 47 patients had gentamicin-resistant (GM-R) E. coli APN, and 227 patients had gentamicin-susceptible (GM-S) E. coli APN. The early clinical response rates were 55.3% (26/47) versus 81.5% (185/227) at 72 hours; 61.7% (29/47) versus 96.9% (220/227) at 96 hours in the GM-R and GM-S groups, which was significantly higher in the GM-S group (pResistance of E. coli to gentamicin, bacteremia, and C-reactive protein level showed independent effects on early clinical failure. Aminoglycoside such as gentamicin can be an alternative antibiotic option for initial empirical therapy of community-acquired uncomplicated APN as the fluoroquinolone-sparing or broad-spectrum cephalosporin-sparing agents in an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, especially in areas where medical resources are limited or antibiotic resistance rate of the uropathogens is high.

  6. Susceptibility to antibiotics of aerobic bacteria isolated from community acquired secondary peritonitis in children: therapeutic guidelines might not always fit with and everyday experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnola, Elio; Bandettini, Roberto; Ginocchio, Francesca; Perotti, Maddalena; Masa, Daniela La; Ciucci, Antonella; Loy, Anna; Caviglia, Ilaria; Haupt, Riccardo; Guida, Edoardo; Pini Prato, Alessio; Mattioli, Girolamo; Buffa, Piero

    2013-08-01

    Appendicitis is a frequent clinical condition in normal children that may be complicated by community-acquired secondary peritonitis (CASP). We evaluated the potential efficacy of different drugs for initial treatment of this condition, as recommended by recent Consensus Conference and Guidelines for paediatric patients. Susceptibility to ampicillin-sulbactam, ertapenem, gentamycin, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, vancomycin, and teicoplanin was evaluated according to EUCST 2012 recommendations in aerobic bacteria isolated from peritoneal fluid in CASP diagnosed from 2005 to 2011 at 'Istituto Giannina Gaslini', Genoa, Italy. A total of 114 strains were analysed: 83 E. coli, 15 P. aeruginosa, 6 Enterococci, and 10 other Gram-negatives. Resistance to ampicillin-sulbactam was detected in 37% of strains, while ertapenem showed a potential resistance of 13% (all P. aeruginosa strains). However, the combination of these drugs with gentamicin would have been increased the efficacy of the treatment to 99 and 100%, respectively. Resistance to piperacillin-tazobactam was 3%, while no strain was resistant to meropenem. Our data suggest that monotherapy with ampicillin-sulbactam or ertapenem for community-acquired secondary peritonitis would present a non-negligible rate of failure, but the addition of gentamycin to these drugs could reset to zero this risk. On the contrary, monotherapy with piperacillin-tazobactam or meropenem is highly effective.

  7. Is methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus involved in community acquired skin and soft tissue infections?: Experience from a tertiary care centre in Mumbai

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    R S Phakade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To improve the empiric antimicrobial therapy of community-acquired (CA skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs, it is necessary to generate data on the current spectrum and susceptibility profile of associated bacteria. CA methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA MRSA is increasingly being reported in SSTIs in India and globally. Aims: The present study was undertaken to determine the bacterial profile of CA-SSTIs, to know the contribution of MRSA in these infections, to determine inducible clindamycin resistance in S. aureus and to compare the resistance patterns of isolates from hospital-acquired (HA SSTIs. Materials and Methods: Eight hundred and twenty patients with CA SSTIs were prospectively studied. Pus samples were cultured and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern determined. Inducible clindamycin resistance was detected by D-test. Laboratory records were analyzed retrospectively to generate data on HA SSTIs. Results: 619 isolates were recovered in CA-SSTIs, of which S. aureus (73% and Streptococci (12% were the most common. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (28% and Acinetobacter spp (18% were the predominant HA-SSTI pathogens. Susceptibility of CA S. aureus to antibiotics tested was, penicillin (6%, co-trimoxazole (20%, ciprofloxacin (37%, cefazolin (100%, erythromycin (84%, clindamycin (97%, gentamicin (94% and fusidic acid (95%. No MRSA was found in CA SSTIs whereas 45% of HA S. aureus strains were methicillin-resistant. HA strains demonstrated significantly higher resistance as compared to their CA counterparts (P<0.001. D test was positive in 22% of CA S. aureus tested. Conclusions: In CA SSTIs, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus is the predominant pathogen. Penicillinase-resistant penicillins, clindamycin and erythromycin in that order can be used as suitable antimicrobials for empiric therapy. D test should be carried out routinely. No CA MRSA was detected in the present series.

  8. Cumulative clinical experience from over a decade of use of levofloxacin in community-acquired pneumonia: critical appraisal and role in therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreddin AM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ayman M Noreddin1, Walid F Elkhatib2, Kenji M Cunnion3, George G Zhanel41Department of Pharmacy Practice, Hampton University, Hampton, VA, USA; 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Ain-Shams University, Cairo, Egypt; 3Department of Pediatrics, East Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA, USA; 4Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada Abstract: Levofloxacin is the synthetic L-isomer of the racemic fluoroquinolone, ofloxacin. It interferes with critical processes in the bacterial cell such as DNA replication, transcription, repair, and recombination by inhibiting bacterial topoisomerases. Levofloxacin has broad spectrum activity against several causative bacterial pathogens of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP. Oral levofloxacin is rapidly absorbed and is bioequivalent to the intravenous formulation such that patients can be conveniently transitioned between these formulations when moving from the inpatient to the outpatient setting. Furthermore, levofloxacin demonstrates excellent safety, and has good tissue penetration maintaining adequate concentrations at the site of infection. The efficacy and tolerability of levofloxacin 500 mg once daily for 10 days in patients with CAP are well established. Furthermore, a high-dose (750 mg and short-course (5 days of once-daily levofloxacin has been approved for use in the US in the treatment of CAP, acute bacterial sinusitis, acute pyelonephritis, and complicated urinary tract infections. The high-dose, short-course levofloxacin regimen maximizes its concentration-dependent antibacterial activity, decreases the potential for drug resistance, and has better patient compliance.Keywords: levofloxacin, community-acquired pneumonia, pharmacodynamics, resistance, pharmacokinetics, clinical use

  9. The attenuation surface for contrast sensitivity has the form of a witch's hat within the central visual field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Alex S; Meese, Tim S; Baker, Daniel H

    2012-10-25

    Over the full visual field, contrast sensitivity is fairly well described by a linear decline in log sensitivity as a function of eccentricity (expressed in grating cycles). However, many psychophysical studies of spatial visual function concentrate on the central ±4.5 deg (or so) of the visual field. As the details of the variation in sensitivity have not been well documented in this region we did so for small patches of target contrast at several spatial frequencies (0.7-4 c/deg), meridians (horizontal, vertical, and oblique), orientations (horizontal, vertical, and oblique), and eccentricities (0-18 cycles). To reduce the potential effects of stimulus uncertainty, circular markers surrounded the targets. Our analysis shows that the decline in binocular log sensitivity within the central visual field is bilinear: The initial decline is steep, whereas the later decline is shallow and much closer to the classical results. The bilinear decline was approximately symmetrical in the horizontal meridian and declined most steeply in the superior visual field. Further analyses showed our results to be scale-invariant and that this property could not be predicted from cone densities. We used the results from the cardinal meridians to radially interpolate an attenuation surface with the shape of a witch's hat that provided good predictions for the results from the oblique meridians. The witch's hat provides a convenient starting point from which to build models of contrast sensitivity, including those designed to investigate signal summation and neuronal convergence of the image contrast signal. Finally, we provide Matlab code for constructing the witch's hat.

  10. ICU-Acquired Weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Sarah E; Bunnell, Aaron E; Hough, Catherine L

    2016-11-01

    Survivorship after critical illness is an increasingly important health-care concern as ICU use continues to increase while ICU mortality is decreasing. Survivors of critical illness experience marked disability and impairments in physical and cognitive function that persist for years after their initial ICU stay. Newfound impairment is associated with increased health-care costs and use, reductions in health-related quality of life, and prolonged unemployment. Weakness, critical illness neuropathy and/or myopathy, and muscle atrophy are common in patients who are critically ill, with up to 80% of patients admitted to the ICU developing some form of neuromuscular dysfunction. ICU-acquired weakness (ICUAW) is associated with longer durations of mechanical ventilation and hospitalization, along with greater functional impairment for survivors. Although there is increasing recognition of ICUAW as a clinical entity, significant knowledge gaps exist concerning identifying patients at high risk for its development and understanding its role in long-term outcomes after critical illness. This review addresses the epidemiologic and pathophysiologic aspects of ICUAW; highlights the diagnostic challenges associated with its diagnosis in patients who are critically ill; and proposes, to our knowledge, a novel strategy for identifying ICUAW. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of novel microsatellites from Moniliophthora perniciosa, causal agent of the witches' broom disease of Theobroma cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jurema R Q; Figueira, Antonio; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Albuquerque, Paulo

    2008-07-01

    Moniliophthora perniciosa is the causal agent of the witches' broom disease of cacao. Based on available genomic sequences, we identified 30 new microsatellite loci, which were analysed using 50 isolates from four populations sampled over a wide geographical area in Brazil, including three populations from the Amazon, the fungal putative centre of diversity, plus one from Bahia. Nine loci were polymorphic, with an average of 2.9 alleles per locus. The level of polymorphism observed was low, but these markers may allow the evaluation of pathogen diversity and the establishment of molecular standards for isolate fingerprinting to support cacao breeding. © 2007 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. A genome survey of Moniliophthora perniciosa gives new insights into Witches' Broom Disease of cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondego, Jorge M C; Carazzolle, Marcelo F; Costa, Gustavo G L; Formighieri, Eduardo F; Parizzi, Lucas P; Rincones, Johana; Cotomacci, Carolina; Carraro, Dirce M; Cunha, Anderson F; Carrer, Helaine; Vidal, Ramon O; Estrela, Raíssa C; García, Odalys; Thomazella, Daniela P T; de Oliveira, Bruno V; Pires, Acássia Bl; Rio, Maria Carolina S; Araújo, Marcos Renato R; de Moraes, Marcos H; Castro, Luis A B; Gramacho, Karina P; Gonçalves, Marilda S; Neto, José P Moura; Neto, Aristóteles Góes; Barbosa, Luciana V; Guiltinan, Mark J; Bailey, Bryan A; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Cascardo, Julio Cm; Pereira, Gonçalo A G

    2008-11-18

    The basidiomycete fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease (WBD) in cacao (Theobroma cacao). It is a hemibiotrophic pathogen that colonizes the apoplast of cacao's meristematic tissues as a biotrophic pathogen, switching to a saprotrophic lifestyle during later stages of infection. M. perniciosa, together with the related species M. roreri, are pathogens of aerial parts of the plant, an uncommon characteristic in the order Agaricales. A genome survey (1.9x coverage) of M. perniciosa was analyzed to evaluate the overall gene content of this phytopathogen. Genes encoding proteins involved in retrotransposition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) resistance, drug efflux transport and cell wall degradation were identified. The great number of genes encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (1.15% of gene models) indicates that M. perniciosa has a great potential for detoxification, production of toxins and hormones; which may confer a high adaptive ability to the fungus. We have also discovered new genes encoding putative secreted polypeptides rich in cysteine, as well as genes related to methylotrophy and plant hormone biosynthesis (gibberellin and auxin). Analysis of gene families indicated that M. perniciosa have similar amounts of carboxylesterases and repertoires of plant cell wall degrading enzymes as other hemibiotrophic fungi. In addition, an approach for normalization of gene family data using incomplete genome data was developed and applied in M. perniciosa genome survey. This genome survey gives an overview of the M. perniciosa genome, and reveals that a significant portion is involved in stress adaptation and plant necrosis, two necessary characteristics for a hemibiotrophic fungus to fulfill its infection cycle. Our analysis provides new evidence revealing potential adaptive traits that may play major roles in the mechanisms of pathogenicity in the M. perniciosa/cacao pathosystem.

  13. A genome survey of Moniliophthora perniciosa gives new insights into Witches' Broom Disease of cacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondego, Jorge MC; Carazzolle, Marcelo F; Costa, Gustavo GL; Formighieri, Eduardo F; Parizzi, Lucas P; Rincones, Johana; Cotomacci, Carolina; Carraro, Dirce M; Cunha, Anderson F; Carrer, Helaine; Vidal, Ramon O; Estrela, Raíssa C; García, Odalys; Thomazella, Daniela PT; de Oliveira, Bruno V; Pires, Acássia BL; Rio, Maria Carolina S; Araújo, Marcos Renato R; de Moraes, Marcos H; Castro, Luis AB; Gramacho, Karina P; Gonçalves, Marilda S; Neto, José P Moura; Neto, Aristóteles Góes; Barbosa, Luciana V; Guiltinan, Mark J; Bailey, Bryan A; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Cascardo, Julio CM; Pereira, Gonçalo AG

    2008-01-01

    Background The basidiomycete fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease (WBD) in cacao (Theobroma cacao). It is a hemibiotrophic pathogen that colonizes the apoplast of cacao's meristematic tissues as a biotrophic pathogen, switching to a saprotrophic lifestyle during later stages of infection. M. perniciosa, together with the related species M. roreri, are pathogens of aerial parts of the plant, an uncommon characteristic in the order Agaricales. A genome survey (1.9× coverage) of M. perniciosa was analyzed to evaluate the overall gene content of this phytopathogen. Results Genes encoding proteins involved in retrotransposition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) resistance, drug efflux transport and cell wall degradation were identified. The great number of genes encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (1.15% of gene models) indicates that M. perniciosa has a great potential for detoxification, production of toxins and hormones; which may confer a high adaptive ability to the fungus. We have also discovered new genes encoding putative secreted polypeptides rich in cysteine, as well as genes related to methylotrophy and plant hormone biosynthesis (gibberellin and auxin). Analysis of gene families indicated that M. perniciosa have similar amounts of carboxylesterases and repertoires of plant cell wall degrading enzymes as other hemibiotrophic fungi. In addition, an approach for normalization of gene family data using incomplete genome data was developed and applied in M. perniciosa genome survey. Conclusion This genome survey gives an overview of the M. perniciosa genome, and reveals that a significant portion is involved in stress adaptation and plant necrosis, two necessary characteristics for a hemibiotrophic fungus to fulfill its infection cycle. Our analysis provides new evidence revealing potential adaptive traits that may play major roles in the mechanisms of pathogenicity in the M. perniciosa/cacao pathosystem. PMID:19019209

  14. A genome survey of Moniliophthora perniciosa gives new insights into Witches' Broom Disease of cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Bryan A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The basidiomycete fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease (WBD in cacao (Theobroma cacao. It is a hemibiotrophic pathogen that colonizes the apoplast of cacao's meristematic tissues as a biotrophic pathogen, switching to a saprotrophic lifestyle during later stages of infection. M. perniciosa, together with the related species M. roreri, are pathogens of aerial parts of the plant, an uncommon characteristic in the order Agaricales. A genome survey (1.9× coverage of M. perniciosa was analyzed to evaluate the overall gene content of this phytopathogen. Results Genes encoding proteins involved in retrotransposition, reactive oxygen species (ROS resistance, drug efflux transport and cell wall degradation were identified. The great number of genes encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (1.15% of gene models indicates that M. perniciosa has a great potential for detoxification, production of toxins and hormones; which may confer a high adaptive ability to the fungus. We have also discovered new genes encoding putative secreted polypeptides rich in cysteine, as well as genes related to methylotrophy and plant hormone biosynthesis (gibberellin and auxin. Analysis of gene families indicated that M. perniciosa have similar amounts of carboxylesterases and repertoires of plant cell wall degrading enzymes as other hemibiotrophic fungi. In addition, an approach for normalization of gene family data using incomplete genome data was developed and applied in M. perniciosa genome survey. Conclusion This genome survey gives an overview of the M. perniciosa genome, and reveals that a significant portion is involved in stress adaptation and plant necrosis, two necessary characteristics for a hemibiotrophic fungus to fulfill its infection cycle. Our analysis provides new evidence revealing potential adaptive traits that may play major roles in the mechanisms of pathogenicity in the M. perniciosa

  15. Emotional attention in acquired prosopagnosia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Nadia; Mayer, Eugene; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated whether emotionally expressive faces guide attention and modulate fMRI activity in fusiform gyrus in acquired prosopagnosia. Patient PS, a pure case of acquired prosopagnosia with intact right middle fusiform gyrus, performed two behavioral experiments and a functional imaging experiment to address these questions. In a visual search task involving face stimuli, PS was faster to select the target face when it was expressing fear or happiness as compared to when it was emotionally neutral. In a change detection task, PS detected significantly more changes when the changed face was fearful as compared to when it was neutral. Finally, an fMRI experiment showed enhanced activation to emotionally expressive faces and bodies in right fusiform gyrus. In addition, PS showed normal body-selective activation in right fusiform gyrus, partially overlapping the fusiform face area. Together these behavioral and neuroimaging results show that attention was preferentially allocated to emotional faces in patient PS, as observed in healthy subjects. We conclude that systems involved in the emotional guidance of attention by facial expression can function normally in acquired prosopagnosia, and can thus be dissociated from systems involved in face identification. PMID:19401380

  16. Infectious caused by community-acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA: three-years experience of an universitary hospital in Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Altieri

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available To date methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is one of the most common pathogens causing nosocomial infections(1. In Europe the proportion of MRSA is increasing sharply and the distribution varies from country to country. In recent years there has, in various parts of the world, the emergence of infection with strains of S. aureus methicillin-resistant community-acquired (CA-MRSA than those circulating in hospitals(2. These strains contain a gene that confers resistance to methicillin (mec A SSC mec IV which is usually associated with the gene for Leukocidin Panton Valentine (PVL toxin responsible for necrosis of skin and soft tissue (3. In 2006-2008, at the Laboratory of Bacteriology PolyclinicTor Vergata,were isolated a total of 738 strains of S. aureus from biological samples of different nature (oral, vaginal secretions, wound swab, secreted headset, etc ... of patients related to our surgeries.The identification and study of drug sensitivity of strains were performed with the automatic VITEK2 (bioMérieux. Of the 738 strains of S. aureus identified 212 (28.7% were resistant to methicillin (MRSA, with an increasing trend over the years: 46 isolates, respectively, in 2006, 76 in 2007 and 90 in 2008. The highest frequency of MRSA (varying between 85% and 95% was detected in wound swabs from the dispensary and diabetes (diabetic foot.

  17. "I don't know what I would have done." Women's experiences acquiring ulipristal acetate emergency contraception online from 2011 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicole K; Cleland, Kelly; Wagner, Brandon; Trussell, James

    2017-04-01

    This study describes women's reasons for seeking ulipristal acetate (UPA) for emergency contraception (EC) through the only authorized online retailer for UPA EC in the US. Women aged 14 to 59 years, living in states that allow prescription medications to be shipped from out-of-state, accessed the KwikMed online pharmacy between January 2011 and December 2015. After completing a medical eligibility screener, women answered optional multiple-choice questions. To obtain UPA through KwikMed, individuals must be female, 50 years of age or younger, not currently pregnant or breastfeeding and not attempting to order UPA more than once within 30 days or more than four times per year. Over the 5-year period, KwikMed provided 8019 prescriptions for UPA, and the number of women using this service more than tripled over time. Among women who responded to the survey questions (n=7133; response rate = 89%), most sought EC because of a condom failure (45.3%) or because they did not use regular contraception (41.2%). More than half (53.5%) of women reported that they chose UPA because of its effectiveness compared to levonorgestrel EC pills, and 58.9% preferred ordering UPA online because they found it easier than getting it from a doctor, clinic or pharmacy. This study documents the importance of providing confidential services for acquiring EC online. Benefits of online access include convenience, less embarrassment, avoiding situations in which a provider might refuse to provide EC because of their own ideological belief and more reliable availability for this time-sensitive contraceptive. Though physical, logistical and societal barriers can restrict women's access to EC, this study demonstrates that providing access to UPA online empowers women to obtain EC when they need it. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. US experience with recombinant factor VIIa for surgery and other invasive procedures in acquired haemophilia: analysis from the Hemostasis and Thrombosis Research Society Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, A D; Kessler, C M; Al-Mondhiry, H A B; Gut, R Z; Cooper, D L

    2016-01-01

    Acquired haemophilia (AH) is a rare disorder caused by autoantibodies against factor VIII. The Hemostasis & Thrombosis Research Society (HTRS) Registry was used to monitor the safety of recombinant FVII (rFVIIa). This study aims to report data from the HTRS Registry regarding safety and efficacy of rFVIIa for haemostatic management of surgeries and other invasive procedures in patients with AH. For each rFVIIa-treated procedure, the initial dose, total dose, average infused dose, number of doses and treatment duration were calculated. Efficacy was assessed on a 4-point scale. Of 166 registered patients with AH, 37 patients underwent 58 procedures [30 (51%) rFVIIa-treated]. The median (range) age of all patients undergoing procedures was 70 (13-93) years; for rFVIIa-treated patients, 74 (28-89) years. Approximately 67% (39/58) of all procedures were elective. Overall, the most common procedures were endoscopy (12) and central venous access device (10); rFVIIa was used preoperatively (11), postoperatively (13) and during six follow-up procedures during ongoing postoperative rFVIIa treatment. The median (range) initial dose was 90.0 (44-187) μg kg(-1) preoperatively and 106.0 (56-270) μg kg(-1) postoperatively. For rFVIIa-treated episodes with a reported outcome, 20 (91%) were rated excellent/good or no additional agents used and 2 (9%) were rated as poor/ineffective requiring a switch to another bypassing agent. No thromboembolic events were reported. Adequate haemostasis was provided for 91% of rFVIIa-treated procedures at doses largely conforming to the package insert. No safety concerns were reported. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Crisis del personaje. La bruja en la era tecnológica / Character Crisis. The witch in the technological age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Mª Sánchez Morillas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Entre las múltiples imágenes que del personaje femenino aparecen en los cuentos, la de la bruja es la menos apreciada en su evolución, sobre todo a raíz de la aparición de las películas de Walt Disney, donde se produce la erotización del personaje, efecto ampliado en el cómic Anime, a la vez que, y de forma paralela, en la narrativa infantil-juvenil se le concede los caracteres de ente humanizado. Por tanto, analizaremos la evolución histórica que sobre el personaje bruja se ha realizado en representaciones culturales literarias y audiovisuales desde la segunda década del siglo XX hasta nuestros días.Abstract: Among the multiple images of the female character appear in tales of the witch is the least appreciated in its evolution, especially following the emergence of the films of Walt Disney, which produces the eroticization of the character, in effect extended Anime comic, while, in parallel and in child and adolescent narrative is given characters being humanized. Therefore, we will analyze the historical evolution of the character witch was made in literary and audiovisual cultural performances during the second decade of the twentieth century to today.

  20. First high-statistics and high-resolution recoil-ion data from the WITCH retardation spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, P.; Breitenfeldt, M.; Porobić, T.; Wursten, E.; Ban, G.; Beck, M.; Couratin, C.; Fabian, X.; Fléchard, X.; Friedag, P.; Glück, F.; Herlert, A.; Knecht, A.; Kozlov, V. Y.; Liénard, E.; Soti, G.; Tandecki, M.; Traykov, E.; Van Gorp, S.; Weinheimer, Ch.; Zákoucký, D.; Severijns, N.

    2016-07-01

    The first high-statistics and high-resolution data set for the integrated recoil-ion energy spectrum following the β^+ decay of 35Ar has been collected with the WITCH retardation spectrometer located at CERN-ISOLDE. Over 25 million recoil-ion events were recorded on a large-area multichannel plate (MCP) detector with a time-stamp precision of 2ns and position resolution of 0.1mm due to the newly upgraded data acquisition based on the LPC Caen FASTER protocol. The number of recoil ions was measured for more than 15 different settings of the retardation potential, complemented by dedicated background and half-life measurements. Previously unidentified systematic effects, including an energy-dependent efficiency of the main MCP and a radiation-induced time-dependent background, have been identified and incorporated into the analysis. However, further understanding and treatment of the radiation-induced background requires additional dedicated measurements and remains the current limiting factor in extracting a beta-neutrino angular correlation coefficient for 35Ar decay using the WITCH spectrometer.

  1. First high-statistics and high-resolution recoil-ion data from the WITCH retardation spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finlay, P.; Breitenfeldt, M.; Porobic, T.; Wursten, E.; Couratin, C.; Soti, G.; Severijns, N. [KU Leuven University, Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, Leuven (Belgium); Ban, G.; Fabian, X.; Flechard, X.; Lienard, E. [Normandie Univ., ENSICAEN, UNICAEN, CNRS/IN2P3, LPC Caen, Caen (France); Beck, M.; Friedag, P.; Weinheimer, C. [Universitaet Muenster, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Muenster (Germany); Glueck, F.; Kozlov, V.Y. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Herlert, A. [FAIR, Darmstadt (Germany); Knecht, A. [KU Leuven University, Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, Leuven (Belgium); CERN, PH Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Tandecki, M. [TRIUMF, Vancouver BC (Canada); Traykov, E. [CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, GANIL, Caen (France); Van Gorp, S. [RIKEN, Atomic Physics Laboratory, Saitama (Japan); Zakoucky, D. [ASCR, Nuclear Physics Institute, Rez (Czech Republic)

    2016-07-15

    The first high-statistics and high-resolution data set for the integrated recoil-ion energy spectrum following the β{sup +} decay of {sup 35}Ar has been collected with the WITCH retardation spectrometer located at CERN-ISOLDE. Over 25 million recoil-ion events were recorded on a large-area multichannel plate (MCP) detector with a time-stamp precision of 2 ns and position resolution of 0.1 mm due to the newly upgraded data acquisition based on the LPC Caen FASTER protocol. The number of recoil ions was measured for more than 15 different settings of the retardation potential, complemented by dedicated background and half-life measurements. Previously unidentified systematic effects, including an energy-dependent efficiency of the main MCP and a radiation-induced time-dependent background, have been identified and incorporated into the analysis. However, further understanding and treatment of the radiation-induced background requires additional dedicated measurements and remains the current limiting factor in extracting a beta-neutrino angular correlation coefficient for {sup 35}Ar decay using the WITCH spectrometer. (orig.)

  2. Complete genome sequence of longan witches' broom-associated virus, a novel member of the family Potyviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jang-Kyun; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2017-05-13

    The complete genome sequence of a new virus isolated from a longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) plant showing witches' broom syndrome was determined. The viral genome is composed of a monopartite single-stranded RNA of 9,428 nucleotides excluding the 3' poly(A) tail and contains one large single open reading frame encoding a polyprotein of 3086 amino acids. BLAST searches of protein databases showed that the encoded polyprotein has a maximum amino acid sequence identity of 35% (with 85% coverage) to that of the isolate Minnesota of rose yellow mosaic virus (RoYMV; family Potyviridae; genus not assigned). Molecular and phylogenetic analysis of the genome and encoded protein sequences showed that the identified virus has the general features that are characteristic of members of the family Potyviridae although it has extremely low sequence similarity to known members of the family Potyviridae. The name longan witches' broom-associated virus (LWBaV) is proposed for this new virus, which may be considered a member of a new genus in the family Potyviridae.

  3. Structure and development of 'witches' broom' galls in reproductive organs of Byrsonima sericea (Malpighiaceae) and their effects on host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, A L A; Neufeld, P M; Santiago-Fernandes, L D R; Vieira, A C M

    2015-03-01

    Galls are anomalies in plant development of parasitic origin that affect the cellular differentiation or growth and represent a remarkable plant-parasite interaction. Byrsonima sericea DC. (Malpighiaceae) is a super host of several different types of gall in both vegetative and reproductive organs. The existence of galls in reproductive organs and their effects on the host plant are seldom described in the literature. In this paper, we present a novel study of galls in plants of the Neotropical region: the 'witches' broom' galls developed in floral structures of B. sericea. The unaffected inflorescences are characterised by a single indeterminate main axis with spirally arranged flower buds. The flower buds developed five unaffected brownish hairy sepals and five pairs of elliptical yellow elaiophores, five yellow fringed petals, 10 stamens and a pistil with superior tricarpellar and trilocular ovary. The affected inflorescences showed changes in architecture, with branches arising from the main axis and flower buds. The flower buds exhibited several morphological and anatomical changes. The sepals, petals and carpels converted into leaf-like structures after differentiation. Stamens exhibited degeneration of the sporogenous tissue and structures containing hyphae and spores. The gynoecium did not develop, forming a central meristematic region, from which emerges the new inflorescence. In this work, we discuss the several changes in development of reproductive structures caused by witches' broom galls and their effects on reproductive success of the host plants. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  4. Acquired immune demyelinating neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimachkie, Mazen M; Saperstein, David S

    2014-10-01

    Acquired immune demyelinating neuropathies refer to a group of disorders that share overlapping sensory, motor, and autonomic clinical, laboratory, and electrodiagnostic features. It is important to recognize acquired immune demyelinating neuropathies as they are generally responsive to immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory therapies. This article reviews recently developed early prognostic tools in Guillain-Barré syndrome and discusses the evolving understanding of chronic demyelinating phenotypes with differing treatment responsiveness. While weakness and numbness progress over 2 to 4 weeks in Guillain-Barré syndrome, they continue to evolve beyond 8 weeks in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy and over 4 to 8 weeks in subacute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Acquired immune demyelinating neuropathies present uncommonly as variants with predominance of ocular, bulbar, sensory, autonomic, or motor manifestations in addition to regional variants, such as paraparetic acquired immune demyelinating neuropathies. Establishing the correct diagnosis is important as these immune disorders differ in response to corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive therapies.

  5. Pneumonia - children - community acquired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchopneumonia - children; Community-acquired pneumonia - children; CAP - children ... Viruses are the most common cause of pneumonia in infants and children. Ways your child can get CAP include: Bacteria and viruses living in the nose, sinuses, or mouth may spread ...

  6. Acquired color vision deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Acquired color vision deficiency occurs as the result of ocular, neurologic, or systemic disease. A wide array of conditions may affect color vision, ranging from diseases of the ocular media through to pathology of the visual cortex. Traditionally, acquired color vision deficiency is considered a separate entity from congenital color vision deficiency, although emerging clinical and molecular genetic data would suggest a degree of overlap. We review the pathophysiology of acquired color vision deficiency, the data on its prevalence, theories for the preponderance of acquired S-mechanism (or tritan) deficiency, and discuss tests of color vision. We also briefly review the types of color vision deficiencies encountered in ocular disease, with an emphasis placed on larger or more detailed clinical investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Laboratory-acquired brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, C.; Knudsen, J.D.; Lebech, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9......Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9...

  8. Acquired hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webert, Kathryn E

    2012-10-01

    Acquired hemophilia A is a rare, autoimmune disorder that is caused by autoantibodies that act as inhibitors to factor VIII. It is characterized by severe, unexpected bleeding that may be life-threatening. The incidence of acquired hemophilia A is ~ 0.2 to 1.48 cases per 1 million individuals per year. Acquired hemophilia A has been associated with several clinical conditions including pregnancy, autoimmune or collagen vascular disorders, malignancies, drugs, respiratory disorders, and infections. However, in ~ 50% of cases, no disease association is determined. Acquired hemophilia A should be suspected when a patient with no previous personal or family history of bleeding, presents with bleeding and an unexplained prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and other common causes of a prolonged APTT are ruled out. The treatment of acquired hemophilia A has two main goals: (1) to treat and/or prevent bleeding complications and (2) to eradicate the inhibitor. The recommended agents to be used for the treatment or prevention of bleeding in patients with acquired hemophilia A are the bypassing agents. Patients should be treated initially with corticosteroids, either alone or in combination with cyclophosphamide, to eradicate the inhibitor. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Identification et validation des savoir-faire et des connaissances acquises dans la vie et les experiences de travail. Rapport comparatif France/Royaume-Uni = Identification and Accreditation of Skills and Knowledge Acquired through Life and Work Experience. Comparative Report of Practice in France and the United Kingdom. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perker, Henriette; And Others

    In France and the United Kingdom (UK), procedures have been devised to allow the skills and knowledge acquired through life and work experience to be identified and accredited. In France, achievements from social and working life are identified in two ways: the personal and occupational competencies of workers are evaluated through a "bilan…

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of a 16SrII-A Subgroup Phytoplasma Associated with Purple Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) Witches' Broom Disease in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Heng; Cho, Shu-Ting; Chen, Chung-Li; Yang, Jun-Yi; Kuo, Chih-Horng

    2015-11-25

    The bacterial genus "Candidatus Phytoplasma" contains a group of insect-transmitted plant pathogens in the class Mollicutes. Here, we report a draft genome assembly and annotation of strain NCHU2014, which belongs to the 16SrII-A subgroup within this genus and is associated with purple coneflower witches' broom disease in Taiwan. Copyright © 2015 Chang et al.

  11. Identification of candidate genes involved in Witches' broom disease resistance in a segregating mapping population of Theobroma cacao L. in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Royaert, Stefan; Jansen, J.; Silva, da Daniela Viana; Jesus Branco, de Samuel Martins; Livingstone, Donald S.; Mustiga, Guiliana; Marelli, Jean Philippe; Araújo, Ioná Santos; Corrêa, Ronan Xavier; Motamayor, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Background: Witches' broom disease (WBD) caused by the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa is responsible for considerable economic losses for cacao producers. One of the ways to combat WBD is to plant resistant cultivars. Resistance may be governed by a few genetic factors, mainly found in wild

  12. Stowing in longwall working on the basis of the experience acquired in the German coal mining industry; Versatz im Strebbau auf der Grundlage der Erfahrungen im deutschen Steinkohlenbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witthaus, Holger; Gutberlet, Karsten; Junker, Martin [RAG Mining Solutions GmbH, Herne (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Introduction of stowing in the German coal mining industry has a long tradition. Pneumatic stowing applications are known from the literature since at least 1924 and it is highly probable that simple stowing had been practised far earlier. Highly specific regulations apply to different deposits and extraction methods on the basis of vast experience in the international mining industry and the corresponding boundary conditions. The following contribution will concentrate solely on what advantage is achieved for longwall working in coal and will not cover other extraction methods and deposit prerequisites. The contribution initially describes the aims of introduction of stowing starting from the situation of longwall working with self-stowing, so-called caving, and its basic technical and economic features. Tested methods in the German coal mining industry are then described and the experience summarised. The methods, their mechanical effect and the planning possibilities are taken into account and the cost-effectiveness of previous applications summarised. It is clear that because of the special conditions in the German coal mining industry the use of stowing technology has no longer come into consideration since the mid-1990s, for technical, infrastructural and in particular, economic reasons. However, the conclusion cannot be applied to international mining and other deposit conditions. For this reason the contribution concludes with consideration of the potential for further optimisation of future applications - as currently being introduced at the highest technical level in China - with the developments in the German coal mining industry. (orig.)

  13. The crystal structure of necrosis- and ethylene-inducing protein 2 from the causal agent of cacao's Witches' Broom disease reveals key elements for its activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaparoli, Gustavo; Barsottini, Mario Ramos de Oliveira; de Oliveira, Juliana Ferreira; Dyszy, Fabio; Teixeira, Paulo José Pereira Lima; Barau, Joan Grande; Garcia, Odalys; Costa-Filho, Antonio José; Ambrosio, Andre Luis Berteli; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães; Dias, Sandra Martha Gomes

    2011-11-15

    The necrosis- and ethylene-inducing peptide 1 (NEP1)-like proteins (NLPs) are proteins secreted from bacteria, fungi and oomycetes, triggering immune responses and cell death in dicotyledonous plants. Genomic-scale studies of Moniliophthora perniciosa, the fungus that causes the Witches' Broom disease in cacao, which is a serious economic concern for South and Central American crops, have identified five members of this family (termed MpNEP1-5). Here, we show by RNA-seq that MpNEP2 is virtually the only NLP expressed during the fungus infection. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction results revealed that MpNEP2 has an expression pattern that positively correlates with the necrotic symptoms, with MpNEP2 reaching its highest level of expression at the advanced necrotic stage. To improve our understanding of MpNEP2's molecular mechanism of action, we determined the crystallographic structure of MpNEP2 at 1.8 Å resolution, unveiling some key structural features. The implications of a cation coordination found in the crystal structure were explored, and we show that MpNEP2, in contrast to another previously described member of the NLP family, NLP(Pya) from Pythium aphanidermatum, does not depend on an ion to accomplish its necrosis- and electrolyte leakage-promoting activities. Results of site-directed mutagenesis experiments confirmed the importance of a negatively charged cavity and an unforeseen hydrophobic β-hairpin loop for MpNEP2 activity, thus offering a platform for compound design with implications for disease control. Electron paramagnetic resonance and fluorescence assays with MpNEP2 performed in the presence of lipid vesicles of different compositions showed no sign of interaction between the protein and the lipids, implying that MpNEP2 likely requires other anchoring elements from the membrane to promote cytolysis or send death signals.

  14. Acquired vertical accommodative vergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Scharff, Ulrike; Kommerell, Guntram; Lagrèze, Wolf A

    2008-03-08

    Vertical accommodative vergence is an unusual synkinesis in which vertical vergence is modulated together with accommodation. It results from a supranuclear miswiring of the network normally conveying accommodative convergence. So far, it is unknown whether this condition is congenital or acquired. We identified an otherwise healthy girl who gradually developed vertical accommodative vergence between five to 13 years of age. Change of accommodation by 3 diopters induced a vertical vergence of 10 degrees. This observation proves that the miswiring responsible for vertical accommodative vergence must not necessarily be congenital, but can be acquired. The cause and the mechanism leading to vertical accommodative vergence are yet unknown.

  15. [Molecular detection and variability of jujube witches'-broom phytoplasmas from different cultivars in various regions of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qicong; Tian, Guozhong; Wang, Zhengliang; Kong, Fanhua; Li, Yong; Wang, He

    2009-11-01

    Jujube witches'-broom is an important disease in jujube cultivation areas, which causes serious losses in jujube fruit production. To understand the genetic variability and diversity of jujube witches'-broom phytoplasma population from the different cultivars and various regions of China. We collected 32 samples from 14 cultivars or wild sour jujubes in 7 regions of China and detected them with PCR with the primers R16mF2/R16mR1 for phytoplasma 16S rDNA, SR1/SR for 16S-23SrRNA space region (SR) and FD9f/r for secretion proteins (secY). The direct sequencing of PCR products and sequencing by cloned PCR products were used for sequence polymorphism and phylogenetic analyses by comparison to the databases of known conserved gene sequences. We detected phytoplasmas by PCR amplification of 16SrDNA from all the diseased jujube samples. All the phytoplasma isolates infected various jujube cultivars belonged to subgroup 16SrV-B of elm yellows group and had closer homology with Bischofia polycarpa witches'-broom and cherry lethal yellows phytoplasmas occurred in China than other 16SrV phytoplasmas in other countries. The sequence polymorphism at different extent in 16SrDNA, SR and secY gene and genetic diversity were revealed in phytoplasma strain population related to different habitats, among which the dominant strains were always detected by the direct sequencing of PCR products in all the diseased areas of China. The degree of variability on secY gene of collected phytoplasma strains was greater than that of 16SrDNA and SR sequences, and some base substitutions could not alter encoded amino acid, however certain single base deletions detected in a Shandong and a Beijing strains may have impact on the gene structure or function. Phytoplasma strains from different cultivars and regions show dramatic genetic diversity. Compared with direct sequencing of PCR products, the sequencing by cloning PCR products was more useful for the displaying of variants and phylogeny in

  16. [Cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene of Phytoplasma CWB1 strain associated with cactus witches' broom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, H; Li, F; Kong, B; Chen, H

    2001-12-01

    A 1.5 kb DNA fragment was amplified in DNA samples extracted from Opuntia salmiana porm showed witches'-broom symptom. The result indicates the existence of phytoplasma associated with this disease and this phytoplasma was designated as CWB1. The amplified fragment was ligated to pGEM-T easy vector and then transformed into JM109 strain of E. coli. Cloned DNA fragments were verified by PCR, restriction endonuclease (EcoRI) digestion and sequence analysis. The result revealed that the 16S rRNA gene of CWB1 consists of 1489 bp and shared 99.7% homology with Faba bean phyllody which belongs to phytoplasma 16S rII-C subgroup. So we can classify this strain into phytoplasma 16S rII-C subgroup.

  17. [Cloning, expression and characterization of tRNA-isopentenyltransferase genes (tRNA-ipt) from paulownia witches'-broom phytoplasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiaxu; Tian, Guozhong; Lin, Caili; Song, Chuansheng; Mu, Haiqing; Ren, Zhengguang; Guo, Song; Zhou, Tao; Fan, Zaifeng; Li, Huaifang

    2013-08-04

    To identify the tRNA-ipt gene of phytoplasmas and analyze the relationship between tRNA-ipt and synthesis of cytokinin as well as pathogenesis in phytoplasmas. The paulownia witches'-broom phytoplasma (PaWB) tRNA-ipt gene was expressed in E. coli and specific antibody was prepared. Then the growth curve and cytokinin contents of E. coli with PaWB tRNA-ipt were measured by photodensitometry and ELISA respectively. The length of tRNA-ipt genes from PaWB as well as mulberry dwarf, periwinkle virescence and Chinaberry witches'-broom phytoplasmas were 876 bp. All these genes encoded the proteins consisting of 291 amino acids. They contained and indentical motif (GPTASGKT) at N-terminal region related to the ATP or GTP binding sites. Four phytoplasma tRNA-IPTs shared the 99.1-99.5%, amino acid sequence indentity with each other, shared 95.4-99.3% sequence identity with the same group phytoplasmas, whereas the less than 70% identity with 16SrX apple proliferation and 16SrXII Australia grapevine yellows phytoplasmas. The expression of the tRNA-IPT protein and localization in the phloem in phytoplasma-infected paulownia were confirmed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence detection. The determination of growth curve suggested that the growth rate increase of E. coli was affected by the transformation of exogenous tRNA-ipt gene,which might be associated with the cytokinin accumulation. This protein was assumed to be involved in the cytokinin synthesis in phytoplasmas as well as other bacteria, which may play an important role in pathogenic processes of phytoplasmas and symptom development.

  18. Acquired methemoglobinemia in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Mutlu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determine the etiologic factors of acquired methemoglobinemia in infants younger than three months in our region. Material and Methods: This study was carried out retrospectively in infants with methemoglobinemia admitted to Karadeniz Technical University, Pediatric Clinic, during the period 2000-2009. Infants with methemoglobinemia were identified according to the medical records or ICD-10 code. Results: Nine infants with acquired methemoglobinemia (8 male, 1 female were included in the study. Seven cases were associated with the use of prilocaine for circumcision, one case with the use of prilocaine-lidocaine for local pain therapy, and one case with neonatal sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus.Conclusion: Prilocaine should not be used in infants less than three months of age because of the risk of methemoglobinemia. Ascorbic acid is an effective therapy if methylene blue is not obtained. It should not be forgotten that sepsis caused by S. aureus may cause methemoglobinemia in infants.

  19. Acquired cystic kidney disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choyke, P.L. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    2000-11-01

    Acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD), also known as acquired renal cystic disease (ARCD,) occurs in patients who are on dialysis for end-stage renal disease. It is generally accepted that ACKD develops as a consequence of sustained uremia and can first manifest even before dialysis is initiated while the patient is still in chronic renal failure. The role of immune suppression, particularly in transplant recipients, in the development of ACKD, is still under investigation. The prevalence of ACKD is directly related to the duration of dialysis and the risk of cancer is directly related to the presence of cysts. Herein we review the current understanding of the pathophysiology and imaging implications of ACKD. (orig.)

  20. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falguera, M; Ramírez, M F

    2015-11-01

    This article not only reviews the essential aspects of community-acquired pneumonia for daily clinical practice, but also highlights the controversial issues and provides the newest available information. Community-acquired pneumonia is considered in a broad sense, without excluding certain variants that, in recent years, a number of authors have managed to delineate, such as healthcare-associated pneumonia. The latter form is nothing more than the same disease that affects more frail patients, with a greater number of risk factors, both sharing an overall common approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  1. Acquired hypofibrinogenemia: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besser MW

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Martin W Besser,1 Stephen G MacDonald2 1Department of Haematology, 2Department of Specialist Haemostasis, The Pathology Partnership, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge, UK Abstract: Acquired hypofibrinogenemia is most frequently caused by hemodilution and consumption of clotting factors. The aggressive replacement of fibrinogen has become one of the core principles of modern management of massive hemorrhage. The best method for determining the patient’s fibrinogen level remains controversial, and particularly in acquired dysfibrinogenemia, could have major therapeutic implications depending on which quantification method is chosen. This review introduces the available laboratory and point-of-care methods and discusses the relative advantages and limitations. It also discusses current strategies for the correction of hypofibrinogenemia. Keywords: Clauss fibrinogen assay, fibrinogen antigen, viscoelastic testing, ­gravimetric fibrinogen assay, PT-derived fibrinogen, functional fibrinogen, direct oral anticoagulant, dysfibrinogenemia, afibrinogenemia

  2. Preschoolers Acquire General Knowledge by Sharing in Pretense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Shelbie L.; Friedman, Ori

    2012-01-01

    Children acquire general knowledge about many kinds of things, but there are few known means by which this knowledge is acquired. In this article, it is proposed that children acquire generic knowledge by sharing in pretend play. In Experiment 1, twenty-two 3- to 4-year-olds watched pretense in which a puppet represented a "nerp" (an unfamiliar…

  3. WAYS OF ACQUIRING FLYING PHOBIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Bettina; Vriends, Noortje; Margraf, Jürgen; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2016-02-01

    The few studies that have explored how flying phobia is acquired have produced contradictory results. We hypothesized that classical conditioning plays a role in acquiring flying phobia and investigated if vicarious (model) learning, informational learning through media, and experiencing stressful life events at the time of onset of phobia also play a role. Thirty patients with flying phobia and thirty healthy controls matched on age, sex, and education were interviewed with the Mini-DIPS, the short German version of the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule (DSM-IV diagnostic criteria) and the Fear-of-Flying History Interview. Fifty Percent of patients with flying phobia and 53% of healthy controls reported frightening events in the air. There was no significant difference between the two samples. Thus there were not more classical conditioning events for patients with flying phobia. There also was no significant difference between the two samples for vicarious (model) learning: 37% of flying phobia patients and 23% of healthy controls felt influenced by model learning. The influence of informational learning through media was significantly higher for the clinical sample (70%) than for the control group (37%). Patients with flying phobia experienced significantly more stressful life events in the period of their frightening flight experience (60%) than healthy controls (19%). Frightening experiences while flying are quite common, but not everybody develops a flying phobia. Stressful life events and other factors might enhance conditionability. Informational learning through negative media reports probably reinforces the development of flying phobia. Clinical implications are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Acquired hypertrichosis lanuginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Pramod

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired hypertirichosis lanuginose developed rapidly in a patient with no detectable malignancy. Soft, fine, downy hair growth was noticed on the face, ears, limbs and trunk. Bilaterally symmetrical vitiliginous macules were present on the ear and preauricular region. This case is reported because of its rarity, absence of any detectable malignancy and development of vitiligo, which to our knowledge has not been reported earlier.

  5. Genetic diversity among phytoplasmas infecting Opuntia species: virtual RFLP analysis identifies new subgroups in the peanut witches'-broom phytoplasma group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hong; Wei, Wei; Davis, Robert E; Chen, Hairu; Zhao, Yan

    2008-06-01

    Phytoplasmas were detected in cactus (Opuntia species) plants exhibiting witches'-broom disease symptoms in Yunnan Province, south-western China. Comparative and phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that an overwhelming majority of the cactus-infecting phytoplasmas under study belonged to the peanut witches'-broom phytoplasma group (16SrII). Genotyping through use of computer-simulated restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA genes revealed a remarkable genetic diversity among these cactus-infecting phytoplasma strains. Based on calculated coefficients of RFLP pattern similarities, seven new 16SrII subgroups were recognized, bringing the total of described group 16SrII subgroups to 12 worldwide. Geographical areas differed from one another in the extent of genetic diversity among cactus-infecting phytoplasma strains. The findings have implications for relationships between ecosystem distribution and the emergence of group 16SrII subgroup diversity.

  6. Acquired cerebral dyschromatopsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, G J; Lessell, S

    1977-01-01

    Color blindness developed in five patients apparently because of lesions in the posterior portions of both cerebral hemispheres. Three of them also had symptoms of prosopagnosia. The lesions were neoplastic in two and vascular in three of the patients. It would appear that bilateral, inferior, occipital lobe lesions may be responsible both for acquired cerebral dyschromatopsia and prosopagnosia. Evidence from experimental investigations in primates suggests that the areas of the cerebral hemispheres analogous to those involved in these patients, may be specialized for the processing of colored stimuli.

  7. Acquired epidermolysis bullosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricel Sucar Batista

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidermolysis bullosa is a group of diseases or skin disorders genetically transmitted and it is characterized by the appearance of bullae, ulcers and skin wounds. It usually appears at birth or in the first months of life. This is a case of a 72-year-old female patient who comes to the dermatology department with skin lesions of 6 months of evolution. A skin biopsy was performed, taking a sample for direct and indirect immunofluorescence. Acquired epidermolysis bullosa of unknown etiology was diagnosed. Treatment was started with low-dose colchicine to increase it later, according to the patient’s tolerance and disease progression.

  8. Multilocus sequences confirm the close genetic relationship of four phytoplasmas of peanut witches'-broom group 16SrII-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Piao, Chun-gen; Tian, Guo-zhong; Liu, Zhi-xin; Guo, Min-wei; Lin, Cai-li; Wang, Xi-zhuo

    2014-08-01

    Four witches'-broom diseases associated with Arachis hypogaea (peanut), Crotalaria pallida, Tephrosia purpurea, and Cleome viscosa were observed in Hainan Province, China during field surveys in 2004, 2005, and 2007. In previously reported studies, we identified these four phytoplasmas as members of subgroup 16SrII-A, and discovered that their 16S rRNA gene sequences were 99.9-100% identical to one another. In this study, we performed extensive phylogenetic analyses to elucidate relationships among them. We analyzed sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and rplV-rpsC, rpoB, gyrB, dnaK, dnaJ, recA, and secY combined sequence data from two strains each of the four phytoplasmas from Hainan province, as well as strains of peanut witches'-broom from Taiwan (PnWB-TW), "Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense", "Ca. Phytoplasma mali AT", aster yellows witches'-broom phytoplasma AYWB, and onion yellows phytoplasma OY-M. In the 16S rRNA phylogenetic tree, the eight Hainan strains form a clade with PnWB-TW. Analysis of the seven concatenated gene regions indicated that the four phytoplasmas collected from Hainan province cluster most closely with one another, but are closely related to PnWB-TW. The results of field survey and phylogenetic analysis indicated that Cr. pallida, T. purpurea, and Cl. viscosa may be natural plant hosts of peanut witches'-broom phytoplasma. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. [Acquired coagulant factor inhibitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, Keiji

    2015-02-01

    Acquired coagulation factor inhibitors are an autoimmune disease causing bleeding symptoms due to decreases in the corresponding factor (s) which result from the appearance of autoantibodies against coagulation factors (inhibitor). This disease is quite different from congenital coagulation factor deficiencies based on genetic abnormalities. In recent years, cases with this disease have been increasing, and most have anti-factor VIII autoantibodies. The breakdown of the immune control mechanism is speculated to cause this disease since it is common in the elderly, but the pathology and pathogenesis are presently unclear. We herein describe the pathology and pathogenesis of factor VIII and factor V inhibitors. Characterization of these inhibitors leads to further analysis of the coagulation process and the activation mechanisms of clotting factors. In the future, with the development of new clotting examination method (s), we anticipate that further novel findings will be obtained in this field through inhibitor analysis. In addition, detailed elucidation of the coagulation inhibitory mechanism possibly leading to hemostatic treatment strategies for acquired coagulation factor disorders will be developed.

  10. Learning-By-Being-Acquired

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Massimo G.; Moreira, Solon; Rabbiosi, Larissa

    In this paper we study post-acquisition integration in terms of R&D team reorganization—i.e., the creation of new teams with both inventors of the acquiring and acquired firms—and assess its impact on knowledge transfer in the period that follows the acquisition. Drawing on social identity and self......-categorization theories, we argue that R&D team reorganization increases the acquired inventors’ use of the prior stock of technological knowledge of the acquiring firm after the acquisition. Furthermore, this effect is enhanced if acquired inventors have higher innovation ability relative to their acquiring peers...

  11. [Acquired uterine arteriovenous malformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, L; Morcel, K; Bruneau, B; Moquet, P-Y; Bauville, E; Levêque, J; Lavoue, V

    2011-01-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformations (AVM) may be responsible for vaginal bleeding potentially life-threatening. They are most often acquired following uterine trauma (curettage, cesarean section, artificial delivery/uterus examination) in association with pregnancy or gestational trophoblastic disease. We report three cases of patients having uterine AVM after curettage. The diagnostic management is important to avoid differential diagnoses (intra-uterine retention, hemangioma, gestational trophoblastic disease). It is based on serum hCG measurement and Doppler ultrasound, then confirmed on dynamic angio-MRI, which tends to replace angiography as first-line. The therapeutic management in cases of symptomatic AVMs is mostly embolization which offers the possibility for childbearing. Current data on subsequent pregnancies is reassuring even if they remain limited. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Acquired Porphyria Cutanea Tarda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, Andrew; Danby, C. W. E.; Petermann, H.

    1965-01-01

    Currently, the porphyrias are classified in four main groups: congenital porphyria, acute intermittent porphyria, porphyria cutanea tarda hereditaria, and porphyria cutanea tarda symptomatica. The acquired form of porphyria (porphyria cutanea tarda symptomatica) occurs in older males and is nearly always associated with chronic alcoholism and hepatic cirrhosis. The main clinical changes are dermatological, with excessive skin fragility and photosensitivity resulting in erosions and bullae. Biochemically, high levels of uroporphyrin are found in the urine and stools. Treatment to date has been symptomatic and usually unsuccessful. A case of porphyria cutanea tarda symptomatica is presented showing dramatic improvement of both the skin lesions and porphyrin levels in urine and blood following repeated phlebotomy. Possible mechanisms of action of phlebotomy on porphyria cutanea tarda symptomatica are discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:14341652

  13. Learning-by-Being-Acquired

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Massimo Gaetano; Moreira, Solon; Rabbiosi, Larissa

    2016-01-01

    ’ use of the prior stock of technological knowledge of the acquiring firm after the acquisition. Furthermore, this effect is enhanced if the focal acquired inventor has high relative innovation ability but is weakened for acquired inventors with high ingroup collaborative strength. We construct a sample...

  14. Setup and calibration of a position sensitive microchannel plate detector and analysis of a test run optimizing the WITCH experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Friedag, Peter

    The standard model of particle physics only implies vectorial and axial-vectorial currents. Symmetry considerations allow for additional, exotic currents, too. Experimentally these are ruled out only to a percent level. The so-called $\

  15. Parallelization and improvements of the generalized born model with a simple sWitching function for modern graphics processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Evan J; Brooks, Charles L

    2016-04-15

    Two fundamental challenges of simulating biologically relevant systems are the rapid calculation of the energy of solvation and the trajectory length of a given simulation. The Generalized Born model with a Simple sWitching function (GBSW) addresses these issues by using an efficient approximation of Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) theory to calculate each solute atom's free energy of solvation, the gradient of this potential, and the subsequent forces of solvation without the need for explicit solvent molecules. This study presents a parallel refactoring of the original GBSW algorithm and its implementation on newly available, low cost graphics chips with thousands of processing cores. Depending on the system size and nonbonded force cutoffs, the new GBSW algorithm offers speed increases of between one and two orders of magnitude over previous implementations while maintaining similar levels of accuracy. We find that much of the algorithm scales linearly with an increase of system size, which makes this water model cost effective for solvating large systems. Additionally, we utilize our GPU-accelerated GBSW model to fold the model system chignolin, and in doing so we demonstrate that these speed enhancements now make accessible folding studies of peptides and potentially small proteins. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Proteomic analysis during of spore germination of Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease in cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Joise Hander; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Santos, Everton Cruz; da Silva Santiago, André; Santana, Juliano Oliveira; de Sousa, Aurizângela Oliveira; Alvim, Fátima Cerqueira; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2017-08-17

    Moniliophthora perniciosa is a phytopathogenic fungus responsible for witches' broom disease of cacao trees (Theobroma cacao L.). Understanding the molecular events during germination of the pathogen may enable the development of strategies for disease control in these economically important plants. In this study, we determined a comparative proteomic profile of M. perniciosa basidiospores during germination by two-dimensional SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. A total of 316 proteins were identified. Molecular changes during the development of the germinative tube were identified by a hierarchical clustering analysis based on the differential accumulation of proteins. Proteins associated with fungal filamentation, such as septin and kinesin, were detected only 4 h after germination (hag). A transcription factor related to biosynthesis of the secondary metabolite fumagillin, which can form hybrids with polyketides, was induced 2 hag, and polyketide synthase was observed 4 hag. The accumulation of ATP synthase, binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP), and catalase was validated by western blotting. In this study, we showed variations in protein expression during the early germination stages of fungus M. perniciosa. Proteins associated with fungal filamentation, and consequently with virulence, were detected in basidiospores 4 hag., for example, septin and kinesin. We discuss these results and propose a model of the germination of fungus M. perniciosa. This research can help elucidate the mechanisms underlying basic processes of host invasion and to develop strategies for control of the disease.

  17. Evaluation of anti-phytoplasma properties of surfactin and tetracycline towards lime witches' broom disease using real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Najmeh; Salehi Jouzani, Gholamreza; Mousivand, Maryam; Foroutan, A; Hagh Nazari, Ali; Abbasalizadeh, Saeed; Soheilivand, Saeed; Mardi, M

    2011-01-01

    The anti-phytoplasma activities of surfactin (derived from Iranian native Bacillus subtilis isolates) and tetracycline towards Candidatus "Phytoplasma aurantifolia", the agent of lime Witches' broom disease, were investigated. HPLC was used to quantify the surfactin production in four previously characterized native surfactin-producing strains, and the one producing the highest amount of surfactin (about 1,500 mg/l) was selected and cultivated following optimized production and extraction protocols. Different combinations of purified surfactin and commercial tetracycline were injected into artificially phytoplasmainfected Mexican lime seedlings using a syringe injection system. An absolute quantitative real-time PCR system was developed to monitor the phytoplasma population shifts in the lime phloem during 3 months following the injections. The results revealed that the injections of surfactin or tetracycline had a significant inhibitory effect on Candidatus "P. aurantifolia". However, the combined treatment with both surfactin and tetracycline (1:1) resulted in the highest inhibition due to a synergic effect, which suppressed the phytoplasma population from about 2×10(5) to less than 10 phytoplasma units/g plant tissue.

  18. Morphological changes of Paulownia seedlings infected phytoplasmas reveal the genes associated with witches' broom through AFLP and MSAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xibing; Fan, Guoqiang; Zhao, Zhenli; Deng, Minjie; Dong, Yanpeng

    2014-01-01

    Paulownia witches' broom (PaWB) caused by phytoplasma might result in devastating damage to the growth and wood production of Paulownia. To study the effect of phytoplasma on DNA sequence and to discover the genes related to PaWB occurrence, DNA polymorphisms and DNA methylation levels and patterns in PaWB seedlings, the ones treated with various concentration of methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) and healthy seedlings were investigated with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP). Our results indicated that PaWB seedlings recovered a normal morphology, similar to healthy seedlings, after treatment with more than 20 mg · L-1 MMS; Phytoplasma infection did not change the Paulownia genomic DNA sequence at AFLP level, but changed the global DNA methylation levels and patterns; Genes related to PaWB were discovered through MSAP and validated using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). These results implied that changes of DNA methylation levels and patterns were closely related to the morphological changes of seedlings infected with phytoplasmas.

  19. Population genetic analysis reveals a low level of genetic diversity of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia' causing witches' broom disease in lime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abadi, Shaikha Y; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M; Dickinson, Matthew; Al-Hammadi, Mohammed S; Al-Shariqi, Rashid; Al-Yahyai, Rashid A; Kazerooni, Elham A; Bertaccini, Assunta

    2016-01-01

    Witches' broom disease of lime (WBDL) is a serious phytoplasma disease of acid lime in Oman, the UAE and Iran. Despite efforts to study it, no systemic study attempted to characterize the relationship among the associated phytoplasma, 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia', from the three countries. This study utilized sequences of the 16S rRNA, imp and secA genes to characterize 57 strains collected from Oman (38), the UAE (9) and Iran (10). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that the 57 strains shared 98.5-100 % nucleotide similarity to each other and to strains of 'Ca. P. aurantifolia' available in GenBank. The level of genetic diversity was low based on the 16S rRNA (0-0.011), imp (0-0.002) and secA genes (0-0.015). The presence of low level of diversity among phytoplasma strains from Oman, the UAE and Iran can be explained by the movement of infected lime seedlings from one country to another through trading and exchange of infected plants. The study discusses implication of the findings on WBDL spread and management.

  20. Isolation and characterization of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter system genes from loofah witches' broom phytoplasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Lin; Ho, Kuo-Chieh

    2007-10-01

    A clone containing a 3903 bp EcoRI-restriction fragment was obtained from a lambda(ZAP) genomic library of loofah witches' broom (LfWB) phytoplasma by plaque hybridization using a PCR fragment as a probe. Sequence analysis revealed that this fragment contained three open reading frames (ORFs). The deduced amino acid sequences of ORF 1 and ORF 2 showed a high homology with the ATP-binding proteins of the ABC transporter system genes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and encoded proteins with a molecular mass of 36 and 30 kDa, respectively. Based on amino acid sequence similarity, secondary structure, hydrophilicity and a signal peptide sequence at the N-terminus, we predicted that ORF 3 might encode a specific solute-binding prolipoprotein of the ABC transporter system with a molecular mass of 62 kDa. The cleavage site of this prolipoprotein signal peptide was similar to those of gram-positive bacteria. In addition to nutrient uptake, ABC transporter systems of bacteria also play a role in signal transduction, drug-resistance and perhaps virulence. The possible implications of the system to the survival and the pathogenesis of phytoplasma were discussed.

  1. Production of calcium oxalate crystals by the basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease of Cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, Maria Carolina S do; de Oliveira, Bruno V; de Tomazella, Daniela P T; Silva, José A Fracassi da; Pereira, Gonçalo A G

    2008-04-01

    Oxalic acid has been shown as a virulence factor for some phytopathogenic fungi, removing calcium from pectin and favoring plant cell wall degradation. Recently, it was published that calcium oxalate accumulates in infected cacao tissues during the progression of Witches' Broom disease (WBD). In the present work we report that the hemibiotrophic basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of WBD, produces calcium oxalate crystals. These crystals were initially observed by polarized light microscopy of hyphae growing on a glass slide, apparently being secreted from the cells. The analysis was refined by Scanning electron microscopy and the compositon of the crystals was confirmed by energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry. The production of oxalate by M. perniciosa was reinforced by the identification of a putative gene coding for oxaloacetate acetylhydrolase, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of oxaloacetate to oxalate and acetate. This gene was shown to be expressed in the biotrophic-like mycelia, which in planta occupy the intercellular middle-lamella space, a region filled with pectin. Taken together, our results suggest that oxalate production by M. perniciosa may play a role in the WBD pathogenesis mechanism.

  2. Specific in situ visualization of the pathogenic endophytic fungus Aciculosporium take, the cause of witches' broom in bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Eiji

    2009-07-01

    The endophytic fungus Aciculosporium take (Ascomycota; Clavicipitaceae) causes continuous shoot growth in bamboo. The colonized shoot eventually results in witches' broom formation but maintains normal leaf arrangement and branching pattern. To analyze the mechanism of well-regulated symptom development, the location of the fungal endophytic hyphae in host tissues was visualized. A colorimetric in situ hybridization technique using a species-specific oligonucleotide probe targeting the 18S rRNA of A. take was used. In situ hybridization was performed on tissue sections of diseased shoots with or without external signs of fungal colonization. Specific signals were detected in intercellular spaces of the bamboo tissues. Most signals were detected in the shoot apical meristem and the leaf primordia. In addition, fewer signals were detected in the lateral buds, juvenile leaves, and stems. These results indicate that A. take grows endophytically, particularly in the shoot apical meristem of the host. The location of A. take hyphae suggests that the mechanism of symptom development can be explained by the action of exogenous fungal auxin, which continuously induces primordium initiation within the host.

  3. Differential gene expression between the biotrophic-like and saprotrophic mycelia of the witches' broom pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincones, Johana; Scarpari, Leandra M; Carazzolle, Marcelo F; Mondego, Jorge M C; Formighieri, Eduardo F; Barau, Joan G; Costa, Gustavo G L; Carraro, Dirce M; Brentani, Helena P; Vilas-Boas, Laurival A; de Oliveira, Bruno V; Sabha, Maricene; Dias, Robson; Cascardo, Júlio M; Azevedo, Ricardo A; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Pereira, Gonçalo A G

    2008-07-01

    Moniliophthora perniciosa is a hemibiotrophic fungus that causes witches' broom disease (WBD) in cacao. Marked dimorphism characterizes this fungus, showing a monokaryotic or biotrophic phase that causes disease symptoms and a later dikaryotic or saprotrophic phase. A combined strategy of DNA microarray, expressed sequence tag, and real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analyses was employed to analyze differences between these two fungal stages in vitro. In all, 1,131 putative genes were hybridized with cDNA from different phases, resulting in 189 differentially expressed genes, and 4,595 reads were clusterized, producing 1,534 unigenes. The analysis of these genes, which represent approximately 21% of the total genes, indicates that the biotrophic-like phase undergoes carbon and nitrogen catabolite repression that correlates to the expression of phytopathogenicity genes. Moreover, downregulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and the presence of a putative ngr1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae could help explain its lower growth rate. In contrast, the saprotrophic mycelium expresses genes related to the metabolism of hexoses, ammonia, and oxidative phosphorylation, which could explain its faster growth. Antifungal toxins were upregulated and could prevent the colonization by competing fungi. This work significantly contributes to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of WBD and, to our knowledge, is the first to analyze differential gene expression of the different phases of a hemibiotrophic fungus.

  4. Phytoplasma associated with witches'-broom disease of Ulmus minor MILL . in the Czech Republic: Electron microscopy and molecular characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrátil, M; Safárová, D; Válová, P; Fránová, J; Simková, M

    2009-01-01

    Visual inspections of elm trees in south Moravia in 1997-2007 revealed a rare occurrence of plants with smaller and cowl-forming leaves on some twigs, i.e. a feature resembling witches'-broom disease observed on the end of twigs. The presence of phytoplasma-like bodies was observed by transmission electron microscopy of phloem tissue. On the other hand, no phytoplasmas were found in asymptomatic trees. Nucleic acids extracted from these plants were used in nested-PCR assays with primers amplifying 16S rRNA sequences specific for phytoplasmas. Sequence analyses of the 16S-23S ribosomal operon (1852 bp) allowed for the classification of the detected phytoplasmas in the elm yellows group, but its position remained on the boundary of the 16SrV-A and 16SrV-C ribosomal subgroups. Sequence analyses of the ribosomal protein of the rpl22-rps3 and secY genes lead to further classification and revealed the phytoplasmas' affiliations to the 'Candidates Phytoplasma ulmi'. Some exceptions in unique oligonucleotide sequences defined for 'Ca. Phytoplasma ulmi' were found in the Czech isolate. This is the northernmost confirmed occurrence of phytoplasma on elm trees within Europe.

  5. Multigene characterization of a new 'Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi'-related strain associated with blackberry witches' broom in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fránová, Jana; de Sousa, Esmeraldina; Koloniuk, Igor; Mimoso, Céu; Matos, José; Cardoso, Fernando; Contaldo, Nicoletta; Paltrinieri, Samanta; Bertaccini, Assunta

    2016-01-13

    A new phytoplasma was identified in naturally infected blackberry plants exhibiting witches' broom symptoms in Portugal. The 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that it is related to 'Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi' (16SrV-E ribosomal subgroup) and RFLP analysis showed a unique profile following MseI endonuclease digestion of R16F2n/R2 amplicons that distinguished it from the strains belonging to previously established 16SrV phytoplasma subgroups. The in silico restriction analyses confirmed that the phytoplasma strain from blackberry is different from all the other strains reported in group 16SrV. Phylogeny of the 16S rRNA gene sequences, sequence analyses of 16S-23S, tuf, rplV-rpsC, rplF-rplR, rplO-SecY-map and uvrB-degV genetic loci, as well as the variability of unique oligonucleotide sequences defined for 'Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi' confirmed the uniqueness of this phytoplasma strain from Portugal for which a novel ribosomal subgroup, 16SrV-I, is proposed. The representative of this new subgroup was named blackPort phytoplasma (Portuguese blackberry phytoplasma).

  6. Transcriptomics and systems biology analysis in identification of specific pathways involved in cacao resistance and susceptibility to witches' broom disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Hora Junior, Braz Tavares; Poloni, Joice de Faria; Lopes, Maíza Alves; Dias, Cristiano Villela; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Schuster, Ivan; Sabau, Xavier; Cascardo, Júlio Cézar De Mattos; Mauro, Sônia Marli Zingaretti Di; Gesteira, Abelmon da Silva; Bonatto, Diego; Micheli, Fabienne

    2012-04-01

    This study reports on expression analysis associated with molecular systems biology of cacao-Moniliophthora perniciosa interaction. Gene expression data were obtained for two cacao genotypes (TSH1188, resistant; Catongo, susceptible) challenged or not with the fungus M. perniciosa and collected at three time points through disease. Using expression analysis, we identified 154 and 227 genes that are differentially expressed in TSH1188 and Catongo, respectively. The expression of some of these genes was confirmed by RT-qPCR. Physical protein-protein interaction (PPPI) networks of Arabidopsis thaliana orthologous proteins corresponding to resistant and susceptible interactions were obtained followed by cluster and gene ontology analyses. The integrated analysis of gene expression and systems biology allowed designing a general scheme of major mechanisms associated with witches' broom disease resistance/susceptibility. In this sense, the TSH1188 cultivar shows strong production of ROS and elicitors at the beginning of the interaction with M. perniciosa followed by resistance signal propagation and ROS detoxification. On the other hand, the Catongo genotype displays defense mechanisms that include the synthesis of some defense molecules but without success in regards to elimination of the fungus. This phase is followed by the activation of protein metabolism which is achieved with the production of proteasome associated with autophagy as a precursor mechanism of PCD. This work also identifies candidate genes for further functional studies and for genetic mapping and marker assisted selection.

  7. Peanut witches' broom (PnWB) phytoplasma-mediated leafy flower symptoms and abnormal vascular bundles development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chi-Te; Huang, Hsin-Mei; Hong, Syuan-Fei; Kuo-Huang, Ling-Long; Yang, Chiao-Yin; Lin, Yen-Yu; Lin, Chan-Pin; Lin, Shih-Shun

    2015-01-01

    The peanut witches' broom (PnWB) phytoplasma causes virescence symptoms such as phyllody (leafy flower) in infected peanuts. However, the obligate nature of phytoplasma limits the study of host-pathogen interactions, and the detailed anatomy of PnWB-infected plants has yet to be reported. Here, we demonstrate that 4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining can be used to track PnWB infection. The DAPI-stained phytoplasma cells were observed in phloem/internal phloem tissues, and changes in vascular bundle morphology, including increasing pith rays and thinner cell walls in the xylem, were found. We also discerned the cell types comprising PnWB in infected sieve tube members. These results suggest that the presence of PnWB in phloem tissue facilitates the transmission of phytoplasma via sap-feeding insect vectors. In addition, PnWB in sieve tube members and changes in vascular bundle morphology might strongly promote the ability of phytoplasmas to assimilate nutrients. These data will help further an understanding of the obligate life cycle and host-pathogen interactions of phytoplasma.

  8. Discovery of genes related to witches broom disease in Paulownia tomentosa × Paulownia fortunei by a De Novo assembled transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rongning; Dong, Yanpeng; Fan, Guoqiang; Zhao, Zhenli; Deng, Minjie; Cao, Xibing; Niu, Suyan

    2013-01-01

    In spite of its economic importance, very little molecular genetics and genomic research has been targeted at the family Paulownia spp. The little genetic information on this plant is a big obstacle to studying the mechanisms of its ability to resist Paulownia Witches' Broom (PaWB) disease. Analysis of the Paulownia transcriptome and its expression profile data are essential to extending the genetic resources on this species, thus will greatly improves our studies on Paulownia. In the current study, we performed the de novo assembly of a transcriptome on P. tomentosa × P. fortunei using the short-read sequencing technology (Illumina). 203,664 unigenes with a mean length of 1,328 bp was obtained. Of these unigenes, 32,976 (30% of all unigenes) containing complete structures were chosen. Eukaryotic clusters of orthologous groups, gene orthology, and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes annotations were performed of these unigenes. Genes related to PaWB disease resistance were analyzed in detail. To our knowledge, this is the first study to elucidate the genetic makeup of Paulownia. This transcriptome provides a quick way to understanding Paulownia, increases the number of gene sequences available for further functional genomics studies and provides clues to the identification of potential PaWB disease resistance genes. This study has provided a comprehensive insight into gene expression profiles at different states, which facilitates the study of each gene's roles in the developmental process and in PaWB disease resistance.

  9. Discovery of genes related to witches broom disease in Paulownia tomentosa × Paulownia fortunei by a De Novo assembled transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongning Liu

    Full Text Available In spite of its economic importance, very little molecular genetics and genomic research has been targeted at the family Paulownia spp. The little genetic information on this plant is a big obstacle to studying the mechanisms of its ability to resist Paulownia Witches' Broom (PaWB disease. Analysis of the Paulownia transcriptome and its expression profile data are essential to extending the genetic resources on this species, thus will greatly improves our studies on Paulownia. In the current study, we performed the de novo assembly of a transcriptome on P. tomentosa × P. fortunei using the short-read sequencing technology (Illumina. 203,664 unigenes with a mean length of 1,328 bp was obtained. Of these unigenes, 32,976 (30% of all unigenes containing complete structures were chosen. Eukaryotic clusters of orthologous groups, gene orthology, and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes annotations were performed of these unigenes. Genes related to PaWB disease resistance were analyzed in detail. To our knowledge, this is the first study to elucidate the genetic makeup of Paulownia. This transcriptome provides a quick way to understanding Paulownia, increases the number of gene sequences available for further functional genomics studies and provides clues to the identification of potential PaWB disease resistance genes. This study has provided a comprehensive insight into gene expression profiles at different states, which facilitates the study of each gene's roles in the developmental process and in PaWB disease resistance.

  10. Morphological changes of Paulownia seedlings infected phytoplasmas reveal the genes associated with witches' broom through AFLP and MSAP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xibing Cao

    Full Text Available Paulownia witches' broom (PaWB caused by phytoplasma might result in devastating damage to the growth and wood production of Paulownia. To study the effect of phytoplasma on DNA sequence and to discover the genes related to PaWB occurrence, DNA polymorphisms and DNA methylation levels and patterns in PaWB seedlings, the ones treated with various concentration of methyl methane sulfonate (MMS and healthy seedlings were investigated with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP. Our results indicated that PaWB seedlings recovered a normal morphology, similar to healthy seedlings, after treatment with more than 20 mg · L-1 MMS; Phytoplasma infection did not change the Paulownia genomic DNA sequence at AFLP level, but changed the global DNA methylation levels and patterns; Genes related to PaWB were discovered through MSAP and validated using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. These results implied that changes of DNA methylation levels and patterns were closely related to the morphological changes of seedlings infected with phytoplasmas.

  11. Pediatric acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodack, Marie I

    2010-10-01

    Although pediatric patients are sometimes included in studies about visual problems in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI), few studies deal solely with children. Unlike studies dealing with adult patients, in which mechanisms of brain injury are divided into cerebral vascular accident (CVA) and traumatic brain injury (TBI), studies on pediatric patients deal almost exclusively with traumatic brain injury, specifically caused by accidents. Here we report on the vision problems of 4 pediatric patients, ages 3 to 18 years, who were examined in the ophthalmology/optometry clinic at a children's hospital. All patients had an internally caused brain injury and after the initial insult manifested problems in at least one of the following areas: acuity, binocularity, motility (tracking or saccades), accommodation, visual fields, and visual perceptual skills. Pediatric patients can suffer from a variety of oculo-visual problems after the onset of head injury. These patients may or may not be symptomatic and can benefit from optometric intervention. Copyright © 2010 American Optometric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma: 1. Course during the 20 years of the epidemic. 2. The experience at the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán: 1986-2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Rivera, E Gabriela; Gómez-Roel, Xóchitl; Villasís-Keever, Angelina

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this presentation is the description of the epidemiologic evolution and changes in natural history of the human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) epidemic itself and its relation with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma (ARL). We have started with the description of the world's state of the HIV epidemic, its features since the first case report in the United States of America in 1981, through the peak of new diagnoses in 1993 until the event that changed the natural history of the disease: the era of the widespread use of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), introduced in 1995 in the world and in 1997 in our country. The widespread introduction of HAART led to dramatic reductions in AIDS related mortality and morbidity throughout the developed world with a marked fall in the incidence of the major opportunistic infections in AIDS. We describe the main risk factors for the development of ARL, and the prognostic factors for survival and response to treatment. There is no clear definition in the literature of the roll that has played the use of HAART in relation to survival and response to treatment in ARL, but there is evidence that the basal count of CD4 cells has increased with HAART, leading to a better survival and response in ARL. The debate regarding this issue is surely affected by factors such as degree of antiretroviral treatment compliance, antiretroviral therapy resistance and chemotherapy heterogeneity. Finally we present the preliminary results of the analysis of our experience in ARL from 1986 to 2003.

  13. Developmental and acquired dyslexias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Christine M

    2006-08-01

    Marshall (1984) highlighted potential parallels between children with developmental disorders of reading and adults who had acquired reading disorders. He advocated the use of a cognitive neuropsychological framework in the investigation of children with developmental abnormalities of cognition, including those with developmental dyslexias. Developmental phonological dyslexia has been extensively described and is a pervasive disorder. The relationship between reading difficulty and phonological difficulties evident in explicit oral phonological tasks continues to be a focus for debate. Clear cases of developmental deep dyslexia have now been described and the syndrome has also been described as characterising early reading development in Williams syndrome (WS), where there are also semantic errors in other domains, including naming and receptive vocabulary and there may be a generalised difficulty with the activation of fine grain semantic specifications. In the domain of number, highly selective reading disorders characterised by high rates of semantic errors have been documented, indicating that semantic reading errors can be domain-specific. They can occur to number words despite intact ability to read Arabic numbers and they can occur to Arabic numbers and number words despite intact ability to read words in other domains. Current models of reading written words do not allow for such material-specific dissociation. Developmental surface dyslexia has also been described in a range of countries, languages and orthographies. Descriptions of cases for whom there is no phonological impairment in reading have generated contrary evidence for theories suggesting that phonological impairment underlies all developmental dyslexia. As reading develops in Williams Syndrome, phonological reading skills may improve with over-reliance on these leading to surface dyslexia. Surface dyslexia has also been reported in cases of developmental amnesia in which there are semantic

  14. Learning-by-Being-Acquired

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Massimo Gaetano; Moreira, Solon; Rabbiosi, Larissa

    2016-01-01

    In horizontal acquisitions, the post-acquisition integration of the R&D function often damages the inventive labor force and results in lower innovative productivity of acquired inventors. In this paper we study post-acquisition integration in terms of R&D team reorganization-i.e., the creation......’ use of the prior stock of technological knowledge of the acquiring firm after the acquisition. Furthermore, this effect is enhanced if the focal acquired inventor has high relative innovation ability but is weakened for acquired inventors with high ingroup collaborative strength. We construct a sample...

  15. [Complete sequence of a full-length DNA and molecular characterization of one plasmid from chinaberry (Melia azedarach Z) witches'-broom phytoplasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chuansheng; Lin, Caili; Tian, Guozhong; Zhao, Wenjun; Zhu, Shuifang; Mou, Haiqing; Hu, Jiaxu; Wang, Xizhuo; Guo, Minwei

    2011-09-01

    To clone plasmid from chinaberry witches'-broom phytoplasma and analyse its molecular characterization. Fragments of one plasmid (pCWBFq) in chinaberry witches'-broom phytoplasma-Fuqing strain (CWBFq) were amplified with primer pairs which were designed according to plasmid sequences published on NCBI. Transmembrane domain and subcellular localization predictions of proteins encoded by the plasmid pCWBFq as well as phylogenetic analysis among the plasmid sequences were completed by using bioinformatic softwares. Southern blot analysis was performed to detect the plasmids existed in CWBFq and several other phytoplasmas with the pCWBFq repA probe. One complete plasmid was sequenced from CWBFq. pCWBFq comprised 4446 bp and had a nucleotide content of 73.5% A + T and encoded six proteins. Protein P2, P3, P4 and P5 of pCWBFq contained 3, 2, 1 and 2 tranmembrane domains respectively, and their predicted signal peptide values were 0.989, 0.505, 0.918 and 0.914 respectively. Homologous comparison showed that RepA homology between pCWBFq and other phytoplasmas was between 9.6% -85.6% , however, the homology of different SSB proteins was between 74.0% - 89.4%. Southern blotting with pCWBFq repA probe confirmed the existence of the plasmids in CWBFq. In addition, The hybridizations occurred with paulownia witches'-broom phytoplasma-Nanyang strain (PaWBNy), periwinkle virescence phytoplasma-Hainan stanin (PeVHn), chinaberry witches'-broom phytoplasma-Fuzhou strain (CWBFz) and mulberry dwarf phytoplasma - Puyang strain (MDPy), whereas, no hybridizarions occurred with jujube witches'-broom phytoplasma-Beijing strain (JWBBj), cherry lethal yellows phytoplasma-Xichang strain (CLYXc) and Bischofia polycarpa witches'-broom phytoplasma-Nanchang strain (BiWBNc). The plasmid encoded a replication associated protein (RepA) and a single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB), which were for the replication of plasmid. Four putative proteins encoded by the plasmid were predicted to contain

  16. Fungos, fazendeiros e cientistas em luta contra a vassoura-de-bruxa Fungi, farmers and scientists fighting witch's broom disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Fioravanti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo descreve as interações entre produtores de cacau e pesquisadores acadêmicos, agências de financiamento à pesquisa e atores não-humanos, como fungos em meio à propagação e tentativas de contenção da vassoura-de-bruxa, doença que abateu a lavoura cacaueira da Bahia. A análise deste caso, usando uma abordagem construtivista em sociologia da ciência, procura ilustrar como a produção de conhecimento é multifacetada, ocorre na interface de diferentes espaços institucionais e passa por momentos de resistência e conflitos à medida que incorpora novos atores e transita por tais espaços. Uma lista de discussão pela internet emergiu como meio capaz de aproximar diversos grupos de interessados e de promover a produção coletiva de conhecimento.This article describes the interaction between producers of cocoa and academic researchers, research funding agencies and non-human actors such as fungi along the spread and the attempts to contain the witch's broom disease in Bahia state, Brazil. The analysis of this case, using a constructivist approach in sociology of science, seeks to illustrate how the production of knowledge is multifaceted, occurs at the interface of different institutional spaces and passes through moments of resistance and conflict as it incorporates new actors and transits such spaces. A discussion list by internet emerged as a medium able to bring together diverse groups of stakeholders and promote the collective production of knowledge.

  17. Characterization of a protease produced by a Trichoderma harzianum isolate which controls cocoa plant witches' broom disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several Trichoderma strains have been reported to be effective in controlling plant diseases, and the action of fungal hydrolytic enzymes has been considered as the main mechanism involved in the antagonistic process. However, although Trichoderma strains were found to impair development of Crinipellis perniciosa, the causal agent of cocoa plant witches' broom disease, no fungal strain is available for effective control of this disease. We have then undertaken a program of construction of hydrolytic enzyme-overproducing Trichoderma strains aiming improvement of the fungal antagonistic capacity. The protease of an indian Trichoderma isolate showing antagonistic activity against C. perniciosa was purified to homogeneity and characterized for its kinetic properties and action on the phytopathogen cell wall. Results A protease produced by the Trichoderma harzianum isolate 1051 was purified to homogeneity by precipitation with ammonium sulfate followed by hydrophobic chromatography. The molecular mass of this protease as determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was about 18.8 kDa. Its N-terminal amino acid sequence shares no homology with any other protease. The purified enzyme substantially affected the cell wall of the phytopathogen C. perniciosa. Western-blotting analysis showed that the enzyme was present in the culture supernatant 24 h after the Trichoderma started to grow in casein-containing liquid medium. Conclusions The capacity of the Trichoderma harzianum protease to hydrolyze the cell wall of C. perniciosa indicates that this enzyme may be actually involved in the antagonistic process between the two fungi. This fact strongly suggest that hydrolytic enzyme over-producing transgenic fungi may show superior biocontrol capacity.

  18. Comparative analysis of the peanut witches'-broom phytoplasma genome reveals horizontal transfer of potential mobile units and effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wan-Chia; Chen, Ling-Ling; Lo, Wen-Sui; Lin, Chan-Pin; Kuo, Chih-Horng

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are a group of bacteria that are associated with hundreds of plant diseases. Due to their economical importance and the difficulties involved in the experimental study of these obligate pathogens, genome sequencing and comparative analysis have been utilized as powerful tools to understand phytoplasma biology. To date four complete phytoplasma genome sequences have been published. However, these four strains represent limited phylogenetic diversity. In this study, we report the shotgun sequencing and evolutionary analysis of a peanut witches'-broom (PnWB) phytoplasma genome. The availability of this genome provides the first representative of the 16SrII group and substantially improves the taxon sampling to investigate genome evolution. The draft genome assembly contains 13 chromosomal contigs with a total size of 562,473 bp, covering ∼90% of the chromosome. Additionally, a complete plasmid sequence is included. Comparisons among the five available phytoplasma genomes reveal the differentiations in gene content and metabolic capacity. Notably, phylogenetic inferences of the potential mobile units (PMUs) in these genomes indicate that horizontal transfer may have occurred between divergent phytoplasma lineages. Because many effectors are associated with PMUs, the horizontal transfer of these transposon-like elements can contribute to the adaptation and diversification of these pathogens. In summary, the findings from this study highlight the importance of improving taxon sampling when investigating genome evolution. Moreover, the currently available sequences are inadequate to fully characterize the pan-genome of phytoplasmas. Future genome sequencing efforts to expand phylogenetic diversity are essential in improving our understanding of phytoplasma evolution.

  19. A potential role for an extracellular methanol oxidase secreted by Moniliophthora perniciosa in Witches' broom disease in cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Bruno V; Teixeira, Gleidson S; Reis, Osvaldo; Barau, Joan G; Teixeira, Paulo José P L; do Rio, Maria Carolina S; Domingues, Romênia R; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Paes Leme, Adriana F; Rincones, Johana; Pereira, Gonçalo A G

    2012-11-01

    The hemibiotrophic basidiomycete fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of Witches' broom disease (WBD) in cacao, is able to grow on methanol as the sole carbon source. In plants, one of the main sources of methanol is the pectin present in the structure of cell walls. Pectin is composed of highly methylesterified chains of galacturonic acid. The hydrolysis between the methyl radicals and galacturonic acid in esterified pectin, mediated by a pectin methylesterase (PME), releases methanol, which may be decomposed by a methanol oxidase (MOX). The analysis of the M. pernciosa genome revealed putative mox and pme genes. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR performed with RNA from mycelia grown in the presence of methanol or pectin as the sole carbon source and with RNA from infected cacao seedlings in different stages of the progression of WBD indicate that the two genes are coregulated, suggesting that the fungus may be metabolizing the methanol released from pectin. Moreover, immunolocalization of homogalacturonan, the main pectic domain that constitutes the primary cell wall matrix, shows a reduction in the level of pectin methyl esterification in infected cacao seedlings. Although MOX has been classically classified as a peroxisomal enzyme, M. perniciosa presents an extracellular methanol oxidase. Its activity was detected in the fungus culture supernatants, and mass spectrometry analysis indicated the presence of this enzyme in the fungus secretome. Because M. pernciosa possesses all genes classically related to methanol metabolism, we propose a peroxisome-independent model for the utilization of methanol by this fungus, which begins with the extracellular oxidation of methanol derived from the demethylation of pectin and finishes in the cytosol. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium' associated with almond witches'-broom disease: from draft genome to genetic diversity among strain populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaglino, Fabio; Kube, Michael; Jawhari, Maan; Abou-Jawdah, Yusuf; Siewert, Christin; Choueiri, Elia; Sobh, Hana; Casati, Paola; Tedeschi, Rosemarie; Lova, Marina Molino; Alma, Alberto; Bianco, Piero Attilio

    2015-07-30

    Almond witches'-broom (AlmWB), a devastating disease of almond, peach and nectarine in Lebanon, is associated with 'Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium'. In the present study, we generated a draft genome sequence of 'Ca. P. phoenicium' strain SA213, representative of phytoplasma strain populations from different host plants, and determined the genetic diversity among phytoplasma strain populations by phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, groEL, tufB and inmp gene sequences. Sequence-based typing and phylogenetic analysis of the gene inmp, coding an integral membrane protein, distinguished AlmWB-associated phytoplasma strains originating from diverse host plants, whereas their 16S rRNA, tufB and groEL genes shared 100 % sequence identity. Moreover, dN/dS analysis indicated positive selection acting on inmp gene. Additionally, the analysis of 'Ca. P. phoenicium' draft genome revealed the presence of integral membrane proteins and effector-like proteins and potential candidates for interaction with hosts. One of the integral membrane proteins was predicted as BI-1, an inhibitor of apoptosis-promoting Bax factor. Bioinformatics analyses revealed the presence of putative BI-1 in draft and complete genomes of other 'Ca. Phytoplasma' species. The genetic diversity within 'Ca. P. phoenicium' strain populations in Lebanon suggested that AlmWB disease could be associated with phytoplasma strains derived from the adaptation of an original strain to diverse hosts. Moreover, the identification of a putative inhibitor of apoptosis-promoting Bax factor (BI-1) in 'Ca. P. phoenicium' draft genome and within genomes of other 'Ca. Phytoplasma' species suggested its potential role as a phytoplasma fitness-increasing factor by modification of the host-defense response.

  1. Characterization of a protease produced by a Trichoderma harzianum isolate which controls cocoa plant witches' broom disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Janice L; Felix, Carlos Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Background Several Trichoderma strains have been reported to be effective in controlling plant diseases, and the action of fungal hydrolytic enzymes has been considered as the main mechanism involved in the antagonistic process. However, although Trichoderma strains were found to impair development of Crinipellis perniciosa, the causal agent of cocoa plant witches' broom disease, no fungal strain is available for effective control of this disease. We have then undertaken a program of construction of hydrolytic enzyme-overproducing Trichoderma strains aiming improvement of the fungal antagonistic capacity. The protease of an indian Trichoderma isolate showing antagonistic activity against C. perniciosa was purified to homogeneity and characterized for its kinetic properties and action on the phytopathogen cell wall. Results A protease produced by the Trichoderma harzianum isolate 1051 was purified to homogeneity by precipitation with ammonium sulfate followed by hydrophobic chromatography. The molecular mass of this protease as determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was about 18.8 kDa. Its N-terminal amino acid sequence shares no homology with any other protease. The purified enzyme substantially affected the cell wall of the phytopathogen C. perniciosa. Western-blotting analysis showed that the enzyme was present in the culture supernatant 24 h after the Trichoderma started to grow in casein-containing liquid medium. Conclusions The capacity of the Trichoderma harzianum protease to hydrolyze the cell wall of C. perniciosa indicates that this enzyme may be actually involved in the antagonistic process between the two fungi. This fact strongly suggest that hydrolytic enzyme over-producing transgenic fungi may show superior biocontrol capacity. PMID:11835696

  2. Toward immunomodulation of witches broom disease of lime (WBDL) by targeting immunodominant membrane protein (IMP) of candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahryari, F; Safarnejad, M R; Shams-Bakhsh, M; Jouzani, G R Salehi

    2010-01-01

    The witches' broom disease of lime (WBDL) caused by Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia is the most devastating disease of acidian lime in southern part of Iran as it destroy thousands of trees yearly throughout these regions. Traditional methods such as eradication of infected trees and insect vector control have shown limited effect on this case. Therefore, alternative approaches such as plantibody-mediated resistance, have been considered. Throughout present study we prepared sufficient amount of antigen that is required for generation of specific monoclonal recombinant antibodies against Immunodominant membrane protein (IMP) which will be exploited for plantibody-mediated resistance approach. The gene encoding IMP protein was obtained by PCR amplification using specific primers and DNA extracted from the infected plants. Amplified fragment was then inserted into T/A cloning vector. Intact clones containing the right sequence was selected after digestion, PCR amplification and subsequent sequencing analysis. IMP encoding region having the right sequence was sub-cloned into pET28a bacterial expression vector. Large scale expression of His tagged recombinant protein was performed in the BL21-de3 strain of E. coli and purification under native conditions was carried out through immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) in a column containing Ni-NTA agarose beads. Successful expression and purification steps were confirmed by SDS-PAGE and western blotting analyses. The results obtained indicated the successful production of about 18 mg purified recombinant IMP protein with a low level of contamination in one liter cultured medium. Finally the purified protein was dialyzed in phosphate saline buffer and applied for immunization of mice.

  3. Community-acquired bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, Diederik; Brouwer, Matthijs; Hasbun, Rodrigo; Koedel, Uwe; Whitney, Cynthia G.; Wijdicks, Eelco

    2016-01-01

    Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges and subarachnoid space that can also involve the brain cortex and parenchyma. It can be acquired spontaneously in the community - community-acquired bacterial meningitis - or in the hospital as a complication of invasive procedures or head trauma

  4. Becoming a Woman through Wicca: Witches and Wiccans in Contemporary Teen Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Christine

    2008-01-01

    The article examines Cate Tiernan's "Wicca" series. This series and the "Circle of Three" books by Isobel Bird explore the experiences of teenage girls who embrace the pagan religion, Wicca. The texts reflect the growing interest in spirituality expressed by many young people and extend the literary representation of witchcraft. Tiernan produces…

  5. Clinical aspects of acquired aphasia and dysarthria in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.R. van Dongen (Hugo)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractFor the last decade, it has been a common clinical belief that the prognosis of acquired childhood aphasia is good. However, our own clinical experiences were rather conflicting on this point. As a consequence, we re-examined all the children (15) with an acquired aphasia who in a

  6. Structure-based drug design studies of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphosrylase, a key enzyme for the control of witches' broom disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junior, Manoelito C Santos; de Assis, Sandra Aparecida; Góes-Neto, Aristóteles; Duarte, Angelo Amâncio; Alves, Ricardo José; Junior, Moacyr Comar; Taranto, Alex Gutterres

    2013-03-05

    The witches' broom disease is a plague caused by Moniliophthora perniciosa in the Theobroma cacao, which has been reducing the cocoa production since 1989. This issue motivated a genome project that has showing several new molecular targets, which can be developed inhibitors in order to control the plague. Among the molecular targets obtained, the UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase (UNAcP) is a key enzyme to construct the fungal cell wall. The inhibition of this enzyme results in the fungal cell death. The results show that the molecular recognition of the enzyme with the substrates occurs mainly by hydrogen bonds between ligands and Arg116, Arg383, Gly381, and Lys408 amino acids; and few hydrophobic interactions with Tyr382 and Lys123 residues. Among the compounds analyzed, the NAG5 showed the best binding energy (-95.2 kcal/mol). The next steps for the control of witches' broom plague involve the synthesis and biological evaluation of these compounds, which are in progress.

  7. Diversity of endophytic fungal community of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) and biological control of Crinipellis perniciosa, causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, Marciano R; Silva-Ribeiro, Rute T; Pomella, Alan W V; Maki, Cristina S; Araújo, Welington L; Dos Santos, Deise R; Azevedo, João L

    2005-01-01

    The basidiomycete fungus Crinipellis perniciosa (Stahel) Singer is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease of Cacao (Theobromacacao L.) which is the main factor limiting cacao production in the Americas. Pod losses of up to 90% are experienced in affected areas as evidenced by the 50% drop in production in Bahia province, Brazil following the arrival of the C. perniciosa in the area in 1989. The disease has proven particularly difficult to control and many farmers in affected areas have given up cacao cultivation. In order to evaluate the potential of endophytes as a biological control agent of this phytopathogen, the endophytic fungal community of resistant and susceptible cacao plants as well as affected branches was studied between 2001 and 2002. The fungal community was identified by morphological traits and rDNA sequencing as belonging to the genera Acremonium, Blastomyces, Botryosphaeria, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Cordyceps, Diaporthe, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gibberella, Gliocladium, Lasiodiplodia, Monilochoetes, Nectria, Pestalotiopsis, Phomopsis, Pleurotus, Pseudofusarium, Rhizopycnis, Syncephalastrum, Trichoderma, Verticillium and Xylaria. These fungi were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo by their ability to inhibit C. perniciosa. Among these, some were identified as potential antagonists, but only one fungus (Gliocladium catenulatum) reduced the incidence of Witches' Broom Disease in cacao seedlings to 70%.

  8. Somatically acquired structural genetic differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magaard Koldby, Kristina; Nygaard, Marianne; Christensen, Kaare

    2016-01-01

    Structural genetic variants like copy number variants (CNVs) comprise a large part of human genetic variation and may be inherited as well as somatically acquired. Recent studies have reported the presence of somatically acquired structural variants in the human genome and it has been suggested...... with age.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 20 April 2016; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2016.34....

  9. Living with acquired dysarthria: the speaker's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshe, Margaret; Miller, Nick

    2011-01-01

    To explore the speaker's experience of living with acquired chronic dysarthria. Ten people with dysarthria and progressive neurological illness and one person with dysarthria following stroke were interviewed in depth about their experience of living with dysarthria. They covered a range of ages, time post-onset and dysarthria severity levels. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using Framework Method of Analysis. Acquired dysarthria can negatively impact on speakers' lives. Findings here suggest that the experience of living with dysarthria is highly individual. There were some common perspectives. Six key themes emerged from interviews: 'dysarthria as only part of the picture', 'communication has changed', 'people treat me differently', 'dysarthria resulting in negative emotions', 'barriers to communication' and 'life is different now. The impact of co-existing physical disability and the need to consider dysarthria in context was emphasised by all participants. Findings re-emphasise the need to consider the individual experience in clinical practice. The findings provide direction for assessment and intervention in the area.

  10. Prolonged acquired neutropenia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Yu, Hong-Ren; Huang, Eng-Yen; Wu, Chih-Chiang; Yang, Kuender D

    2009-12-15

    Acquired neutropenia is not uncommon in childhood. This study investigated the risk factors associated with developing prolonged acquired neutropenia. We reviewed 66,062 hospital admission medical records from the 5-year period January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2006 to identify neutropenic patients, with and without follow-up of their neutropenic course until December 31, 2007. After excluding patients with malignancy, collagen disease, bone marrow failure, prematurity, hereditary disease, congenital neutropenia, immunodeficiency, or status post-liver transplantation, 735 admissions with acquired neutropenia were included in our study. A total of 474 patients with 735 admissions had moderate or severe neutropenia during the 5-year period. Among the 252 acquired neutropenia patients who had follow-up for at least 1 month, 226 patients recovered within 3 months, while 26 patients remained neutropenic after 3 months. Of these 26 patients, 14 recovered after 1 year. An absolute neutrophil count of thrombocytosis (OR: 5.76, 95% CI: 1.78-18.58), and age thrombocytosis, and CMV infection. Neutropenic infants with CMV infection may require antiviral therapy to prevent prolonged acquired neutropenia. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Acquiring taste in home economics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbak Larsen, Christian

    that the pupils were encouraged to use their senses: listen to things frying, touch the meat to check if it was done and taste the food in the process of seasoning it. But while some children learned what the teachers expected: to produce well tasting food, others learned to cook very salty and hot food...... appreciated by the group of boys, and others again learned to stick with their idiosyncrasies when pressured by the teacher. Conclusions: Children were acquiring taste in the home economic lessons, but not only the kind of tastes that the teacher had planned for. This leads to reflections on the very complex...... process of taste acquiring and to a call for further research into taste acquiring in complex real life contexts as home economics lessons....

  12. And the Winner is - Acquired

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henkel, Joachim; Rønde, Thomas; Wagner, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    that then commercialize the innovation. To this end we analyze an innovation game between one incumbent and a large number of entrants. In the first stage, firms compete to develop innovations of high quality. They do so by choosing, at equal cost, the success probability of their R&D approach, where a lower probability...... accompanies higher value in case of success—that is, a more radical innovation. In the second stage, successful entrants bid to be acquired by the incumbent. We assume that entrants cannot survive on their own, so being acquired amounts to a prize in a contest. We identify an equilibrium in which...

  13. Acquiring Synaesthesia: Insights from Training Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eRothen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Synaesthesia denotes a condition of remarkable individual differences in experience characterized by specific additional experiences in response to normal sensory input. Synaesthesia seems to (i run in families which suggests a genetic component, (ii is associated with marked structural and functional neural differences, and (iii is usually reported to exist from early childhood. Hence, synaesthesia is generally regarded as a congenital phenomenon. However, most synaesthetic experiences are triggered by cultural artefacts (e.g., letters, musical sounds. Evidence exists to suggest that synaesthetic experiences are triggered by the conceptual representation of their inducer stimuli. Cases were identified for which the specific synaesthetic associations are related to prior experiences and large scale studies show that grapheme-colour associations in synaesthesia are not completely random. Hence, a learning component is inherently involved in the development of specific synaesthetic associations. Researchers have hypothesized that associative learning is the critical mechanism. Recently, it has become of scientific and public interest if synaesthetic experiences may be acquired by the means of associative training procedures and whether the gains of these trainings are associated with similar cognitive benefits as genuine synaesthetic experiences. In order to shed light on these issues and inform synaesthesia researchers and the general interested public alike, we provide a comprehensive literature review on developmental aspects of synaesthesia and specific training procedures in non-synaesthetes. Under the light of a clear working definition of synaesthesia, we come to the conclusion that synaesthesia can potentially be learned by the appropriate training.

  14. Acquired tracheo-oesophageal fistula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah C

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Acquired tracheo-oesophageal fistula is rare. The most common causes are tuberculosis and malignancy. Here we report a patient who had come with dysphagia and aspiration pneumonia with paratracheal lymphnodes on X-ray chest and was diagnosed to have a tracheo-bronchial fistula on barium studies. Transtumoral intubation by pull-through method was carried out.

  15. In vitro production of biotrophic-like cultures of Crinipellis perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease of Theobroma cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Bellato, Cláudia de M; Rincones, Johana; Azevedo, Ricardo A; Cascardo, Julio C M; Pereira, Gonçalo A G

    2006-03-01

    Witches' broom disease (WBD) of cacao, caused by the hemibiotrophic fungus, Crinipellis perniciosa, exhibits a succession of symptoms that are caused by the biotrophic phase of the fungus. However, the study of this biotrophic phase is limited by its exclusive growth inside the plant or in the presence of callus. Here we report for the first time a method for the growth and maintenance of the biotrophic-like phase of C. perniciosa on a defined medium with metabolites found in the diseased tissues. Our results suggest that glycerol is a key carbon source for this interaction. This is a crucial achievement toward understanding the biology of this fungus during the infectious phase of WBD.

  16. Production of hydrolytic enzymes by Trichoderma isolates with antagonistic activity against Crinipellis perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom of cocoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Janice Lisboa De

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Two isolates of Trichoderma, which reduce the incidence of witches'broom disease caused in cocoa by Crinipellis perniciosa, were evaluated for their potential to produce hydrolases in liquid medium. Very low or no hydrolytic activity was produced in the absence of any substrate. The activities of chitinase, N-acetylglucosaminidase, beta-1,3-glucanase, total cellulase, endoglucanase, aryl- beta-glucosidase, beta-glucosidase, protease and amylase increased dramatically within 72-120 h of growth in the presence of specific substrates. Except for N-acetylglucosaminidase and beta-glucosidase Trichoderma harzianum isolate 1051 produced the largest amounts of hydrolases. The possible involvement of these enzymes in the antagonistic interaction between Trichoderma and C. perniciosa is discussed.

  17. Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease of cacao: what's new from this old foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Rincones, Johana; Bailey, Bryan A; Aime, M Catherine; Griffith, Gareth W; Zhang, Dapeng; Pereira, Gonçalo A G

    2008-09-01

    Moniliophthora perniciosa (=Crinipellis perniciosa) causes one of the three main fungal diseases of Theobroma cacao (cacao), the source of chocolate. This pathogen causes Witches' broom disease (WBD) and has brought about severe economic losses in all of the cacao-growing regions to which it has spread with yield reductions that range from 50 to 90%. Cacao production in South America reflects the severity of this pathogen, as the yields in most of the infected regions have not returned to pre-outbreak levels, even with the introduction of resistant varieties. In this review we give a brief historical account and summarize the current state of knowledge focusing on developments in the areas of systematics, fungal physiology, biochemistry, genomics and gene expression in an attempt to highlight this disease. Moniliophthora perniciosa is a hemibiotrophic fungus with two distinct growth phases. The ability to culture a biotrophic-like phase in vitro along with new findings derived from the nearly complete genome and expression studies clearly show that these different fungal growth phases function under distinct metabolic parameters. These new findings have greatly improved our understanding of this fungal/host interaction and we may be at the crossroads of understanding how hemibiotrophic fungal plant pathogens cause disease in other crops. The first WDB symptoms appear to have been described in the diaries of Alexandre Rodrigues Ferreira (described as lagartão; meaning big lizard) from his observations of cacao trees in 1785 and 1787 in Amazonia, which is consistent with the generally accepted idea that M. perniciosa, like its main host T. cacao, evolved in this region. The disease subsequently arrived in Surinam in 1895. WBD moved rapidly, spreading to Guyana in 1906, Ecuador in 1918, Trinidad in 1928, Colombia in 1929 and Grenada in 1948. In each case, cacao production was catastrophically affected with yield reductions of 50-90%. After the arrival of M

  18. Witch-hunt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drucker Ernest

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Beginning two years ago, the US Dept of Health and Human Services began "special reviews" of all current research grants that involved harm reduction, sex and drugs, and continues its ban on funding of needle exchange. With Bush's second term, the campaign was extended to all US funded international programs that dealt with these issues and populations. And, most recently, the US has again undertaken to dominate the discourse within international organizations charged with drug control and AIDS policies – especially those of the UN. But the international harm reduction and human rights community is fighting back in several important ways, including "An Open Letter to the delegates of the Forty-eighth session of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND of the UN" prepared by a group of 334 well respected public health experts and human rights advocates, protesting U.S. pressure on the U.N. to withdraw its support from harm reduction. This editorial includes the letter and signatures as well as French, Spanish, and Russian versions of the letter as additional files.

  19. Whatever Happened to Witches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Adah

    1972-01-01

    Separating children out of the mainstream into special education classes has gained too much momentum. It is here suggested that special'' may be an iatrogenic disease, that is: caused by the presumed cure. (Author)

  20. System Acquires And Displays Signal-Propagation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckeeman, John C.; Remaklus, P. William

    1991-01-01

    Electronic system acquires, controls processing of, and displays data from experiments on propagation of phase-coherent radio signals at frequencies of 12, 20, and 30 GHz. Acquisition equipment coordinates flow of data from multiple input channels to computer. Software provides for multi-tasking and for interactive graphical displays, including easy-to-use windows and pulldown menus with mouse input. Offers outstanding accuracy; acquires and displays data and controls associated equipment, all in real time.

  1. Occupationally Acquired American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two occupationally acquired cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL: one accidental laboratory autoinoculation by contaminated needlestick while handling an ACL lesion sample, and one acquired during field studies on bird biology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays of patient lesions were positive for Leishmania, subgenus Viannia. One isolate was obtained by culture (from patient 2 biopsy samples and characterized as Leishmania (Viannia naiffi through an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA with species-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs and by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE. Patients were successfully treated with N-methyl-glucamine. These two cases highlight the potential risks of laboratory and field work and the need to comply with strict biosafety procedures in daily routines. The swab collection method, coupled with PCR detection, has greatly improved ACL laboratory diagnosis.

  2. Active citizenship and acquired neurological communication difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Catherine; Bennett, Amanda; Cairney, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    People with communication impairments may face barriers to civic participation, with resulting marginalisation of individuals who wish to be actively involved. The investigation aimed to explore the experience of civically engaged adults with acquired neurological communication difficulties. Six people with acquired neurological communication difficulties were interviewed. Discussion included the definition of active citizenship, their civic involvement, motivations, related barriers and facilitators. Qualitative analysis was undertaken, with data categorised, coded and examined for recurring themes. All participants were active in disability-related organisations and four undertook wider civic roles. Motivations included activity being out with the home and wanting to effect change for themselves and the populations they represented. Disability group meetings were more positive experiences than broader community activities, which were associated with fatigue and frustration, commonly resulting from communication difficulties and unmet support needs. All participants identified a need for professional and public educational about disability and communication and made recommendations on content, methods and priority groups. For these participants civic engagement had positive and negative dimensions. Speech and language therapists should promote reduction of the barriers that impede the active citizenship rights of people with communication support needs. Civic participation may be a relevant measure of outcome in communication impaired populations.

  3. [Acquired disorders of color vision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascu, Lidia; Balaş, Mihaela

    2002-01-01

    This article is a general view of acquired disorders of color vision. The revision of the best known methods and of the etiopathogenic classification is not very important in ophthalmology but on the other hand, the detection of the blue defect advertise and associated ocular pathology. There is a major interest in serious diseases as multiple sclerosis, AIDS, diabetes melitus, when the first ocular sign can be a defect in the color vision.

  4. Kritický rozbor českých překladů románu od C. S. Lewise: The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe

    OpenAIRE

    Bryndová, Barbora

    2011-01-01

    This MA thesis is concerned with the comparison of two Czech translations of C. S. Lewis' novel The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe. The thesis is divided into two parts: theoretical and practical. The first part concentrates on the description of the author's and translators' life as well as the background of creating the novel and its translations. One part deals with the film adaptations of the book. Then there are described individual techniques and methods of t...

  5. Occupationally acquired tuberculosis: what's known.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, K M; McDiarmid, M A

    1994-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) morbidity and mortality have increased substantially since the mid-1980s in areas with a high prevalence of medically underserved populations, human immunodeficiency virus, foreign-born persons, residents of long-term care facilities and crowded correctional institutions, and alcoholics and intravenous-drug abusers. The occupational risk has likewise increased for those exposed to these high-risk people in the course of their work. The magnitude of the occupational hazard is present unclear, although implications are disturbing. We used available data bases containing occupational exposure information, and telephone surveys, in an attempt to elucidate the magnitude of risk of occupationally acquired TB. We obtained up-to-date employee conversion rates at high-risk institutions, identified changing rates of TB infection and disease over time, documented high conversion rates following accidental exposures, and revealed a relative lack of reported TB disease and deaths. Numerous barriers to worker protection against TB are identified and recommendations are made to reduce the risk of occupationally acquired tuberculosis.

  6. Parent selection for cocoa resistance to witches'-broom Seleção de progenitores de cacaueiro quanto à resistência à vassoura-de-bruxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Dalva Vieira Midlej Silva

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify genotypes with high general combining ability for resistance to witches'-broom (Moniliophthora perniciosa in populations formed from a first cycle of recurrent selection. Highly productive and resistant clones from different origins were interbred using the North Carolina II design. The clones SCA 6, CSUL 7, RB 39, CEPEC 89, OC 67, BE 4, EEG 29 and ICS 98 were used as paternal parents, while the maternal ones were NA 33, CCN 10, IMC 67, P 4B, CCN 51, CEPEC 86, SGU 54 and ICS 9. Twenty days after germination, 56 seedlings of each cross (four replicates of 14 seedlings received the inoculation of a 1-mL suspension with 7.5x10(4 basidiospores mL-1. Symptoms were evaluated 60 days after inoculation. Significant differences were observed among paternal and among maternal parents, for resistance to witches'-broom assessed according to the proportion of progeny seedlings with the disease symptoms. Differences were also observed between groups of mothers or fathers previously defined as resistant, and groups previously defined as susceptible. It is possible to obtain a combination of genes that can increase the level of resistance to witches'-broom directly from the first cycle of recurrent selection.O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar genótipos com alta capacidade geral de combinação quanto à resistência à vassoura-de-bruxa (Moniliophthora perniciosa, em populações formadas a partir do primeiro ciclo de seleção recorrente. Clones altamente produtivos e resistentes à vassoura-de-bruxa, de diferentes procedências, foram intercruzados com uso do delineamento Carolina do Norte II. Como progenitores paternos, foram utilizados os clones SCA 6, CSUL 7, RB 39, CEPEC 89, OC 67, BE 4, EEG 29 e ICS 98 e, como maternos, NA 33, CCN 10, IMC 67, P 4B, CCN 51, CEPEC 86, SGU 54 e ICS 9. Vinte dias após a germinação, 56 plântulas de cada cruzamento (quatro repetições de 14 plântulas receberam inocula

  7. Lymphoma in acquired generalized lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rebecca J; Chan, Jean L; Jaffe, Elaine S; Cochran, Elaine; DePaoli, Alex M; Gautier, Jean-Francois; Goujard, Cecile; Vigouroux, Corinne; Gorden, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Acquired generalized lipodystrophy (AGL) is a rare disease thought to result from autoimmune destruction of adipose tissue. Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) has been reported in two AGL patients. We report five additional cases of lymphoma in AGL, and analyze the role of underlying autoimmunity and recombinant human leptin (metreleptin) replacement in lymphoma development. Three patients developed lymphoma during metreleptin treatment (two PTCL and one ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma), and two developed lymphomas (mycosis fungoides and Burkitt lymphoma) without metreleptin. AGL is associated with high risk for lymphoma, especially PTCL. Autoimmunity likely contributes to this risk. Lymphoma developed with or without metreleptin, suggesting metreleptin does not directly cause lymphoma development; a theoretical role of metreleptin in lymphoma progression remains possible. For most patients with AGL and severe metabolic complications, the proven benefits of metreleptin on metabolic disease will likely outweigh theoretical risks of metreleptin in lymphoma development or progression.

  8. Acquired Functional Asplenia in Sarcoidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Richard W.; McDaniel, Willie R.; Armstrong, Earl M.; Young, Roscoe C.; Higginbotham-Ford, Edith A.

    1985-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a recently identified cause of functional asplenia that can be diagnosed by radionuclide imaging. A 31-year-old woman with a five-year history of histologically compatible sarcoidosis was found to have nonvisualization of the spleen on technetium 99m sulfur colloid (radiopharmaceutical) liver-spleen scan. This scintigraphic finding was accompanied by poikilocytosis and Howell-Jolly bodies in the peripheral blood smear. A subsequent gallium 67 citrate scan reflected an abnormal increase in concentration of activity in the spleen, suggesting an active inflammatory process. Based upon this constellation of findings, it was concluded that acquired functional asplenia is the result of reticuloendothelial cell replacement via infiltration of the spleen by epithelioid cell granulomas of active sarcoidosis. This case also illustrates the reversibility of functional asplenia of sarcoidosis following adrenocorticosteroid therapy. Functional asplenia in sarcoidosis is now found to have a recognizable radionuclide imaging pattern. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:3908697

  9. « Effets-tableaux » et parergon dans Macbeth Meeting the Three Witches par Francesco Zuccarelli et par Henry Füssli d’après Macbeth Pictorialism and “ergon” in the paintings of Macbeth Meeting the Three Witches by Francesco Zuccarelli (1760 and Henry Fuseli (1793-1794 after Macbeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Padilla

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 18th century, Shakespeare’s Macbeth was a source of inspiration for many painters who tried to underscore the pictorial quality of the play, especially that of Act 1, scene 3. The paper compares the interpretations offered by Henry Fuseli and Francesco Zuccarelli who were both foreign artists belonging to the Royal Academy of London. Their paintings after Act 1, scene 3, of Macbeth offer a visual representation articulated around contrast and convergence: if Fuseli remains faithful to the pivotal emotional intent, seen as the “ergon” here, Zuccarelli almost ignores it, finding a greater interest in the landscape of the scene that fills most of his pictorial space. However, the two works fuse together within the etymology of the term “ergon”, that equates with “work” or “action”. They illustrate the idea of active witchcraft through natural phenomena controlled by the three witches.

  10. Acquired Resistance to Impulse Noise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henderson, Donald

    1997-01-01

    Previous experiments have shown that the mammalians auditory system can be made more resistant to the traumatic effects of noise exposure by having the subject exposed to a lower level, prophylactic noise...

  11. Functional and biophysical studies on four ceratoplatanins from the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, causal agent of the Witche's broom disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsottini, M.; Zaparoli, G.; Garcia, O.; Pereira, G.A.G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Oliveira, J.F.; Tiezzi, H.O.; Ambrosio, A.L.B.; Dias, S.M.G. [Laboratorio Nacional de Biociencias - LNBIO, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Ceratoplatanin (CP) is a secreted protein of 12.4 kDa initially identified in culture filtrates of the disease ascomycete Ceratocystis fimbriata f. sp. platani, etiological agent of the canker stain disease. CP is also the founding member of the namesake protein family, which contains fungal-secreted proteins involved in various stages of the host-fungus interaction and may act as phytotoxins or elicitors of defense response. Besides the low molecular weight, CPs have a high percentage of hydrophobic residues and share two conserved intramolecular disulfide bonds. It has been suggested that CPs have important physiological functions, including interaction with cell wall or cell membrane and manipulation of the host's defense system. Furthermore, a recent work showed that the ceratoplatanin from C. fimbriata has some degree of affinity for the saccharide 4-N-acetylglucosamine. However, its precise molecular function remains elusive. Five putative CPs have been identified in Moniliophthora perniciosa a basidiomycete fungus responsible for great economic losses in cocoa industry in the form of Witches' broom disease (WBD) , four of which had their crystal structures resolved by our group. In this work we report biophysical and functional studies on these MpCPs aiming at understanding their role and importance during the WBD progression. (author)

  12. Bruxas e índias filhas de Saturno: arte, bruxaria e canibalismo Witches and indian women, daughters of Saturn: arts, witchcraft and cannibalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yobenj Aucardo Chicangana-Bayona

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo indaga pela representação da mulher nas pinturas e gravuras sobre a bruxaria dos séculos XVI e XVII, procurando estabelecer uma tipologia iconográfica e percorrendo a construção de estigmas negativos imputados no corpo feminino e na sua degradação natural. O texto, apoiado em fontes visuais como pinturas e gravuras, principalmente da Renascença alemã, demonstra como as índias do Novo Mundo foram associadas com as bruxas da Europa e com o deus clássico Saturno, através do mito do canibalismo.The article inquires into the representation of women in the paintings and engravings about witchcraft in the XVI-XVII centuries, trying to establish an iconographic typology and covering the construction of negative stigmas attributed to the feminine body and its natural degradation. Through the support of visual sources such as paintings and engravings, mainly from the German Renaissance, the text demonstrates how the Indian women of the New World were associated to the witches of Europe and with the classic god Saturn, through the myth of cannibalism.

  13. Identification and characterization of a class III chitin synthase gene of Moniliophthora perniciosa, the fungus that causes witches' broom disease of cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Catiane S; Oliveira, Bruno M; Costa, Gustavo G L; Schriefer, Albert; Selbach-Schnadelbach, Alessandra; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula T; Pirovani, Carlos P; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Taranto, Alex G; Cascardo, Júlio Cézar de M; Góes-Neto, Aristóteles

    2009-08-01

    Chitin synthase (CHS) is a glucosyltransferase that converts UDP-N-acetylglucosamine into chitin, one of the main components of fungal cell wall. Class III chitin synthases act directly in the formation of the cell wall. They catalyze the conversion of the immediate precursor of chitin and are responsible for the majority of chitin synthesis in fungi. As such, they are highly specific molecular targets for drugs that can inhibit the growth and development of fungal pathogens. In this work, we have identified and characterized a chitin synthase gene of Moniliophthora perniciosa (Mopchs) by primer walking. The complete gene sequence is 3,443 bp, interrupted by 13 small introns, and comprises a cDNA with an ORF with 2,739 bp, whose terminal region was experimentally determined, encoding a protein with 913 aa that harbors all the motifs and domains typically found in class III chitin synthases. This is the first report on the characterization of a chitin synthase gene, its mature transcription product, and its putative protein in basidioma and secondary mycelium stages of M. perniciosa, a basidiomycotan fungus that causes witches' broom disease of cacao.

  14. Characterization of necrosis and ethylene-inducing proteins (NEP) in the basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom in Theobroma cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Odalys; Macedo, Joci A N; Tibúrcio, Ricardo; Zaparoli, Gustavo; Rincones, Johana; Bittencourt, Livia M C; Ceita, Geruza O; Micheli, Fabienne; Gesteira, Abelmon; Mariano, Andréa C; Schiavinato, Marlene A; Medrano, Francisco J; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Cascardo, Júlio C M

    2007-04-01

    The hemibiotrophic basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa causes witches' broom disease of Theobroma cacao. Analysis of the M. perniciosa draft genome led to the identification of three putative genes encoding necrosis and ethylene-inducing proteins (MpNEPs), which are apparently located on the same chromosome. MpNEP1 and 2 have highly similar sequences and are able to induce necrosis and ethylene emission in tobacco and cacao leaves. MpNEP1 is expressed in both biotrophic and saprotrophic mycelia, the protein behaves as an oligomer in solution and is very sensitive to temperature. MpNEP2 is expressed mainly in biotrophic mycelia, is present as a monomer in solution at low concentrations (<40 microM) and is able to recover necrosis activity after boiling. These differences indicate that similar NEPs can have distinct physical characteristics and suggest possible complementary roles during the disease development for both proteins. This is the first report of NEP1-like proteins in a basidiomycete.

  15. Crystal Structure of MpPR-1i, a SCP/TAPS protein from Moniliophthora perniciosa, the fungus that causes Witches' Broom Disease of Cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, Renata M; Luo, Zhipu; Darwiche, Rabih; Hudspeth, Elissa M; Schneiter, Roger; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Mondego, Jorge M C; Asojo, Oluwatoyin A

    2017-08-10

    The pathogenic fungi Moniliophthora perniciosa causes Witches' Broom Disease (WBD) of cacao. The structure of MpPR-1i, a protein expressed by M. perniciosa when it infects cacao, are presented. This is the first reported de novo structure determined by single-wavelength anomalous dispersion phasing upon soaking with selenourea. Each monomer has flexible loop regions linking the core alpha-beta-alpha sandwich topology that comprise ~50% of the structure, making it difficult to generate an accurate homology model of the protein. MpPR-1i is monomeric in solution but is packed as a high ~70% solvent content, crystallographic heptamer. The greatest conformational flexibility between monomers is found in loops exposed to the solvent channel that connect the two longest strands. MpPR-1i lacks the conserved CAP tetrad and is incapable of binding divalent cations. MpPR-1i has the ability to bind lipids, which may have roles in its infection of cacao. These lipids likely bind in the palmitate binding cavity as observed in tablysin-15, since MpPR-1i binds palmitate with comparable affinity as tablysin-15. Further studies are required to clarify the possible roles and underlying mechanisms of neutral lipid binding, as well as their effects on the pathogenesis of M. perniciosa so as to develop new interventions for WBD.

  16. Differentiation and classification of phytoplasmas in the pigeon pea witches'-broom group (16SrIX): an update based on multiple gene sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-M; Bottner-Parker, K D; Zhao, Y; Bertaccini, A; Davis, R E

    2012-09-01

    The pigeon pea witches'-broom phytoplasma group (16SrIX) comprises diverse strains that cause numerous diseases in leguminous trees and herbaceous crops, vegetables, a fruit, a nut tree and a forest tree. At least 14 strains have been reported worldwide. Comparative phylogenetic analyses of the highly conserved 16S rRNA gene and the moderately conserved rplV (rpl22)-rpsC (rps3) and secY genes indicated that the 16SrIX group consists of at least six distinct genetic lineages. Some of these lineages cannot be readily differentiated based on analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences alone. The relative genetic distances among these closely related lineages were better assessed by including more variable genes [e.g. ribosomal protein (rp) and secY genes]. The present study demonstrated that virtual RFLP analyses using rp and secY gene sequences allowed unambiguous identification of such lineages. A coding system is proposed to designate each distinct rp and secY subgroup in the 16SrIX group.

  17. The causal agents of witches' broom and frosty pod rot of cacao (chocolate, Theobroma cacao) form a new lineage of Marasmiaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aime, M C; Phillips-Mora, W

    2005-01-01

    The two most devastating diseases of cacao (Theobroma cacao)--the source of chocolate--in tropical America are caused by the fungi Crinipellis perniciosa (witches' broom disease) and Moniliophthora roreri (frosty pod rot or moniliasis disease). Despite the agricultural, socio-economic and environmental impact of these fungi, most aspects of their life cycles are unknown, and the phylogenetic relationships of M. roreri have yet to be conclusively established. In this paper, extensive phylogenetic analyses of five nuclear gene regions (28S rDNA, 18S rDNA, ITS, RPB1, and EF1-alpha) confirm that C. perniciosa and M. roreri are sister taxa that belong in the Marasmiaceae (euagarics). Furthermore, these taxa form part of a separate and distinct lineage within the family. This lineage includes the biotrophic fungi Moniliophthora perniciosa comb. nov. and M. roreri, as well as one undescribed endophytic species. The sister genera to Moniliophthora are Marasmius, Crinipellis and Chaetocalathus, which consist mainly of saprotrophic litter fungi.

  18. Acquired experience on organizing 3D S.UN.COP: international course to support nuclear license by user training in the areas of scaling, uncertainty, and 3D thermal-hydraulics/neutron-kinetics coupled codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petruzzi, Alessandro; D' Auria, Francesco [University of Pisa, San Piero a Grado (Italy). Nuclear Research Group San Piero a Grado (GRNSPG); Galetti, Regina, E-mail: regina@cnen.gov.b [National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bajs, Tomislav [University of Zagreb (Croatia). Fac. of Electrical Engineering and Computing. Dept. of Power Systems; Reventos, Francesc [Technical University of Catalonia, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Physics and Nuclear Engineering

    2011-07-01

    Thermal-hydraulic system computer codes are extensively used worldwide for analysis of nuclear facilities by utilities, regulatory bodies, nuclear power plant designers, vendors, and research organizations. Computer code user represents a source of uncertainty that may significantly affect the results of system code calculations. Code user training and qualification represent an effective means for reducing the variation of results caused by the application of the codes by different users. This paper describes the experience in applying a systematic approach to training code users who, upon completion of the training, should be able to perform calculations making the best possible use of the capabilities of best estimate codes. In addition, this paper presents the organization and the main features of the 3D S.UN.COP (scaling, uncertainty, and 3D coupled code calculations) seminars during which particular emphasis is given to practical applications in connection with the licensing process of best estimate plus uncertainty methodologies, showing the designer, utility and regulatory approaches. (author)

  19. The Acoustic Emission signal acquired by the microphones placed in the CABRI test device along the fourteen last R.I.A. experiments: an example of reproducible research in nuclear science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent Pantera, Oumar Traore [CEA, DEN, DER/SRES, Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2015-07-01

    , analyses and graphics representations were not straightforward to reproduce from the ancient studies since that, on one hand, people who were in charge of the original work left the laboratory and on the other hand because it is not easy when the time passes, even with our own work, to be able to remember the steps of data manipulations and the exact setup: - During the ancient experiments the use of analog data acquisition systems required to digitize tapes to be able to realize computer treatments. That had had for consequence to lose the initial dating. This one must be correctly edited to do temporal comparisons. - Analyses require functions for calculations whose parameters has to be well-known to reach the same results. We thus wished to manage our workflow in the idea that it can be easily reproducible on all the experiments. The object of the work presented in this article was to put in practice this strong bind between the data, treatments and generation of the document in order not to hesitate to do the iteration principle in action. We do not have to be afraid by the data driven analyses. According to the philosophy of the literate programming, the text of the technical document is woven with the computer code that produces all the printed output as tables, graphs for the study eliminating hence the unrealistic cut and paste. This difficulty is not specific to the nuclear domain. For many years, researchers have been worked out solutions to this mundane issue. And, presently, new technologies and high-level programming languages offer us actual answers. We will firstly present the tools applied in our laboratory to implement this workflow, then we will describe the global perception carried out to continue the study of the Acoustic Emission signals recorded by the two microphones during the fourteen last CABRI R.I.A. test.

  20. 17 CFR 210.8-06 - Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. 210.8-06 Section 210.8-06 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Statements of Smaller Reporting Companies § 210.8-06 Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. If...

  1. Diminished acquired equivalence yet good discrimination performance in older participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper eRobinson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We asked younger and older human participants to perform computer-based configural discriminations that were designed to detect acquired equivalence. Both groups solved the discriminations but only the younger participants demonstrated acquired equivalence. The discriminations involved learning the preferences (‘like’ [+] or ‘dislike’ [-] for sports (e.g., tennis [t] and hockey [h] of four fictitious people (e.g., Alice [A], Beth [B], Charlotte [C] & Dorothy [D]. In one experiment, the discrimination had the form: At+, Bt-, Ct+, Dt-, Ah-, Bh+, Ch-, Dh+. Notice that, e.g., Alice and Charlotte are ‘equivalent’ in liking tennis but disliking hockey. Acquired equivalence was assessed in ancillary components of the discrimination (e.g., by looking at the subsequent rate of ‘whole’ versus ‘partial’ reversal learning. Acquired equivalence is anticipated by a network whose hidden units are shared when inputs (e.g., A and C signal the same outcome (e.g., + when accompanied by the same input (t. One interpretation of these results is that there are age-related differences in the mechanisms of configural acquired equivalence.

  2. STADIUM FLIR: a software tool for FLIR92 and ACQUIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Glenn T.; Sanders, Thomas J.

    2000-07-01

    FLIR92 and ACQUIRE have become the standard simulation models used in virtually all Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) system design. Recently, a software program called STADIUM FLIR has been written for use with the U.S. Army's FLIR92 and ACQUIRE models. This software provides many performance and ease of use enhancements for the models. Some of these enhancements include graphical user interfaces for all model parameter entry, data extraction between FLIR92 and ACQUIRE as well as comprehensive plotting of output curves. All data extraction and plotting is automatic and seamless. STADIUM FLIR is based on AET's STADIUM technology which adds powerful Design of Experiments and statistical analysis capabilities to simulation environments. The results are presented both quantitatively and graphically. STADIUM FLIR provides comprehensive plotting capabilities for both raw data as well as `overlayed' statistical variability data. STADIUM FLIR provides the power to perform multiple FLIR92 and ACQUIRE simulations with inputs (even multiple targets) varying over user specified ranges. This paper will describe the software and how it enhances the power of FLIR92 and ACQUIRE.

  3. Acquired Inventors’ Productivity after Horizontal Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Massimo G.; Moreira, Solon; Rabbiosi, Larissa

    Effective integration of the R&D functions of the acquired and acquiring firms is essential for knowledge recombination after acquisition. However, prior research suggests that the post-acquisition integration process often damages the inventive labor force. We argue that an examination of the mu......Effective integration of the R&D functions of the acquired and acquiring firms is essential for knowledge recombination after acquisition. However, prior research suggests that the post-acquisition integration process often damages the inventive labor force. We argue that an examination...

  4. Acquired Dyslexia and Dysgraphia in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wengang; He, Shengxi; Weekes, Brendan Stuart

    2005-01-01

    Understanding how the mappings between orthography and phonology in alphabetic languages are learned, represented and processed has been enhanced by the cognitive neuropsychological investigation of patients with acquired reading and writing disorders. During the past decade, this methodology has been extended to understanding reading and writing in Chinese leading to new insights about language processing, dyslexia and dysgraphia. The aim of this paper is to review reports of patients who have acquired dyslexia and acquired dysgraphia in Chinese and describe the functional architecture of the reading and writing system. Our conclusion is that the unique features of Chinese script will determine the symptoms of acquired dyslexia and dysgraphia in Chinese. PMID:16410631

  5. Acquired Dyslexia and Dysgraphia in Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wengang Yin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how the mappings between orthography and phonology in alphabetic languages are learned, represented and processed has been enhanced by the cognitive neuropsychological investigation of patients with acquired reading and writing disorders. During the past decade, this methodology has been extended to understanding reading and writing in Chinese leading to new insights about language processing, dyslexia and dysgraphia. The aim of this paper is to review reports of patients who have acquired dyslexia and acquired dysgraphia in Chinese and describe the functional architecture of the reading and writing system. Our conclusion is that the unique features of Chinese script will determine the symptoms of acquired dyslexia and dysgraphia in Chinese.

  6. Multiplexers for acquiring data in molecular beam laser depletion experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, N. T.; Zomp, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Multiplexers are described for use with two- or four-channel signal averagers. The multiplexers in conjunction with a signal averager allow accurate comparisons of two or four repetitive signals even in the presence of considerable drift and noise. The multiplexers can be used in a variety of ways. As an example, their use with boxcar integrators is described and compared with signal averagers.

  7. Experience with Hospital- Acquired Infections in Pediatric Wards of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From January 1994 to December 1995, patients in the out -born (NNU) neonatal wards, lying in wards (C2/C3), general pediatrics wards (D2/D3) and the pediatric surgical ward (E4) of the Lagos University Hospital were prospectively monitored for nosocomial infections (NI) using the surveillance techniques of the Centers ...

  8. Quantitative proteome-level analysis of paulownia witches' broom disease with methyl methane sulfonate assistance reveals diverse metabolic changes during the infection and recovery processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Liu, Wenshan; Fan, Guoqiang; Zhai, Xiaoqiao; Zhao, Zhenli; Dong, Yanpeng; Deng, Minjie; Cao, Yabing

    2017-01-01

    Paulownia witches' broom (PaWB) disease caused by phytoplasma is a fatal disease that leads to considerable economic losses. Although there are a few reports describing studies of PaWB pathogenesis, the molecular mechanisms underlying phytoplasma pathogenicity in Paulownia trees remain uncharacterized. In this study, after building a transcriptome database containing 67,177 sequences, we used isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) to quantify and analyze the proteome-level changes among healthy P. fortunei (PF), PaWB-infected P. fortunei (PFI), and PaWB-infected P. fortunei treated with 20 mg L(-1) or 60 mg L(-1) methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) (PFI-20 and PFI-60, respectively). A total of 2,358 proteins were identified. We investigated the proteins profiles in PF vs. PFI (infected process) and PFI-20 vs. PFI-60 (recovered process), and further found that many of the MMS-response proteins mapped to "photosynthesis" and "ribosome" pathways. Based on our comparison scheme, 36 PaWB-related proteins were revealed. Among them, 32 proteins were classified into three functional groups: (1) carbohydrate and energy metabolism, (2) protein synthesis and degradation, and (3) stress resistance. We then investigated the PaWB-related proteins involved in the infected and recovered processes, and discovered that carbohydrate and energy metabolism was inhibited, and protein synthesis and degradation decreased, as the plant responded to PaWB. Our observations may be useful for characterizing the proteome-level changes that occur at different stages of PaWB disease. The data generated in this study may serve as a valuable resource for elucidating the pathogenesis of PaWB disease during phytoplasma infection and recovery stages.

  9. Discovery of microRNAs and transcript targets related to witches' broom disease in Paulownia fortunei by high-throughput sequencing and degradome approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Suyan; Fan, Guoqiang; Deng, Minjie; Zhao, Zhenli; Xu, Enkai; Cao, Lin

    2016-02-01

    Paulownia witches' broom (PaWB) caused by the phytoplasma is a devastating disease of Paulownia trees. It has caused heavy yield losses to Paulownia production worldwide. However, knowledge of the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression by microRNAs (miRNAs), especially miRNAs responsive to PaWB disease stress, is still rudimentary. In this study, to identify miRNAs and their transcript targets that are responsive to PaWB disease stress, six sequencing libraries were constructed from healthy (PF), PaWB-infected (PFI), and PaWB-infected, 20 mg L(-1) methyl methane sulfonate-treated (PFI20) P. fortunei seedlings. As a result, 95 conserved miRNAs belonging to 18 miRNA families, as well as 122 potential novel miRNAs, were identified. Most of them were found to be a response to PaWB disease-induced stress, and the expression levels of these miRNAs were validated by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. The study simultaneously identified 109 target genes from the P. fortunei for 14 conserved miRNA families and 24 novel miRNAs by degradome sequencing. Furthermore, the functions of the miRNA targets were annotated based on Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis. The results presented here provide the groundwork for further analysis of miRNAs and target genes responsive to the PaWB disease stress, and could be also useful for addressing new questions to better understand the mechanisms of plant infection by phytoplasma in the future.

  10. High-throughput transcriptome analysis of the leafy flower transition of Catharanthus roseus induced by peanut witches'-broom phytoplasma infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Yu Daisy; Tseng, Hsin-I; Lin, Chan-Pin; Lin, Yen-Yu; Huang, Yuan-Hung; Huang, Chien-Kang; Chang, Tean-Hsu; Lin, Shih-Shun

    2014-05-01

    Peanut witches'-broom (PnWB) phytoplasma are obligate bacteria that cause leafy flower symptoms in Catharanthus roseus. The PnWB-mediated leafy flower transitions were studied to understand the mechanisms underlying the pathogen-host interaction; however, our understanding is limited because of the lack of information on the C. roseus genome. In this study, the whole-transcriptome profiles from healthy flowers (HFs) and stage 4 (S4) PnWB-infected leafy flowers of C. roseus were investigated using next-generation sequencing (NGS). More than 60,000 contigs were generated using a de novo assembly approach, and 34.2% of the contigs (20,711 genes) were annotated as putative genes through name-calling, open reading frame determination and gene ontology analyses. Furthermore, a customized microarray based on this sequence information was designed and used to analyze samples further at various stages of PnWB infection. In the NGS profile, 87.8% of the genes showed expression levels that were consistent with those in the microarray profiles, suggesting that accurate gene expression levels can be detected using NGS. The data revealed that defense-related and flowering gene expression levels were altered in S4 PnWB-infected leafy flowers, indicating that the immunity and reproductive stages of C. roseus were compromised. The network analysis suggested that the expression levels of >1,000 candidate genes were highly associated with CrSVP1/2 and CrFT expression, which might be crucial in the leafy flower transition. In conclusion, this study provides a new perspective for understanding plant pathology and the mechanisms underlying the leafy flowering transition caused by host-pathogen interactions through analyzing bioinformatics data obtained using a powerful, rapid high-throughput technique.

  11. Identification of candidate genes involved in Witches' broom disease resistance in a segregating mapping population of Theobroma cacao L. in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royaert, Stefan; Jansen, Johannes; da Silva, Daniela Viana; de Jesus Branco, Samuel Martins; Livingstone, Donald S; Mustiga, Guiliana; Marelli, Jean-Philippe; Araújo, Ioná Santos; Corrêa, Ronan Xavier; Motamayor, Juan Carlos

    2016-02-11

    Witches' broom disease (WBD) caused by the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa is responsible for considerable economic losses for cacao producers. One of the ways to combat WBD is to plant resistant cultivars. Resistance may be governed by a few genetic factors, mainly found in wild germplasm. We developed a dense genetic linkage map with a length of 852.8 cM that contains 3,526 SNPs and is based on the MP01 mapping population, which counts 459 trees from a cross between the resistant 'TSH 1188' and the tolerant 'CCN 51' at the Mars Center for Cocoa Science in Barro Preto, Bahia, Brazil. Seven quantitative trait loci (QTL) that are associated with WBD were identified on five different chromosomes using a multi-trait QTL analysis for outbreeders. Phasing of the haplotypes at the major QTL region on chromosome IX on a diversity panel of genotypes clearly indicates that the major resistance locus comes from a well-known source of WBD resistance, the clone 'SCAVINA 6'. Various potential candidate genes identified within all QTL may be involved in different steps leading to disease resistance. Preliminary expression data indicate that at least three of these candidate genes may play a role during the first 12 h after infection, with clear differences between 'CCN 51' and 'TSH 1188'. We combined the information from a large mapping population with very distinct parents that segregate for WBD, a dense set of mapped markers, rigorous phenotyping capabilities and the availability of a sequenced genome to identify several genomic regions that are involved in WBD resistance. We also identified a novel source of resistance that most likely comes from the 'CCN 51' parent. Thanks to the large population size of the MP01 population, we were able to pick up QTL and markers with relatively small effects that can contribute to the creation and selection of more tolerant/resistant plant material.

  12. Molecular detection of 16SrI-B and 16SrII-D subgroups of phytoplasma associated with flat stem and witches' broom disease of Celosia argentea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhupriya; Yadav, Amit; Thorat, Vipool; Rao, G P

    2017-10-01

    Symptoms of stunting (shortening of internodes), twisting and flat stem (the fasciation of a stem), discoloration of petals, deformed flowers, and witches' broom were recorded on an ornamental plant, plumed cockscomb (Celosia argentea L., fam: Amaranthaceae). The survey conducted at Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) campus, New Delhi and Karnal region, Haryana, India, during September 2014 to March 2015 revealed disease incidence of 40 and 10%, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison and phylogenetic relationships of Celosia phytoplasma strains under study confirmed that they were associated with two different phytoplasma groups ('Candidatus Phytoplasma australasia' and 'Ca. P. asteris'). Virtual RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences allowed further classification of the Celosia phytoplasma strains into the 16SrI-B and 16SrII-D subgroups. Notably, the detection of 'Ca. P. asteris' phytoplasma was reported in seeds of C. argentea by nested PCR assays; however, no evidence of phytoplasma presence was detected in seedlings raised from these seeds. This observation is the first record of the association of 16SrI-B and 16SrII-D subgroups of phytoplasmas with flat stem and witches' broom disease of C. argentea anywhere from the world.

  13. Verizon acquired Vodafone: Analysis of market reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Pal Netra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent big tickets in telecom industry include Microsoft acquiring part of Nokia for US$ 7.2 billion, Verizon buying 45% stake in Vodafone for US$130 billion, Google acquiring Motorola for 12.5 billion, and Lenovo acquiring Motorola mobility from Google for US$ 3 billion. These buyouts are analyzed and commented by experts of the industry. This research paper is an attempt to analyze and collate their views with respect to Verizon and Vodafone deal. The analysis includes reasons for buyout, size of the deal, general comments in the media, what is in the deal for Verizon and Vodafone, impact on the eco-system, etc.

  14. Acquired factor VIII inhibitor (acquired hemophilia A) presenting as spontaneous blood-filled scrotum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rajanshu; Noack, Jill; Vemuri, Radhakrishna; Loehrke, Mark E

    2011-05-01

    Acquired hemophilia A, also known as acquired factor VIII deficiency, is an exceedingly rare bleeding diathesis that does not require any personal or family history of bleeding or clotting disorder. Because treatment is available, misdiagnosing or completely missing this diagnosis can be life threatening for patients. Clinicians should be aware that acquired forms of hemophilia do exist and are associated with high morbidity and mortality in elderly adults. We present a case of a 74-year-old man who was diagnosed with acquired factor VIII inhibitor during an admission for community-acquired pneumonia.

  15. How to acquire customers on the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D L; Novak, T P

    2000-01-01

    Most retailers on the Web spend more to acquire customers than they will ever get back in revenue from them. Many think that sky-high spending on marketing is necessary to stake out their share of Internet space. But is it really? How do retailers know how much to pay? Consider CDnow, which has developed a multifaceted customer-acquisition strategy that reflects a clear understanding of the economics of an on-line business. At the heart of its strategy is affiliate marketing, a concept the company pioneered. Under its BuyWeb program, anyone can put a link to CDnow on his or her Web site, and if a customer uses that link to arrive at CDnow and make a purchase, the referring site owner gets a percentage of the sale. CDnow pays no money if no sale is made, which makes the marketing program completely efficient. But CDnow didn't stop there. Being a Web store, it had complete data on the number of visitors to its site and what they bought, which it used to work out the lifetime value of an average customer. CDnow used that figure to determine how much to wager on the expensive and risky world of traditional advertising to reach a wider audience that wasn't already on-line. CDnow's experience, still a work in progress, contradicts John Wanamaker's oft-quoted lament: "I know half the money I spend on advertising is wasted, but I can never find out which half." As the CDnow example demonstrates, there is a way to find out which half really works.

  16. Seeing the eyes in acquired prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancaroglu, Raika; Hills, Charlotte S; Sekunova, Alla; Viswanathan, Jayalakshmi; Duchaine, Brad; Barton, Jason J S

    2016-08-01

    Case reports have suggested that perception of the eye region may be impaired more than that of other facial regions in acquired prosopagnosia. However, it is unclear how frequently this occurs, whether such impairments are specific to a certain anatomic subtype of prosopagnosia, and whether these impairments are related to changes in the scanning of faces. We studied a large cohort of 11 subjects with this rare disorder, who had a variety of occipitotemporal or anterior temporal lesions, both unilateral and bilateral. Lesions were characterized by functional and structural imaging. Subjects performed a perceptual discrimination test in which they had to discriminate changes in feature position, shape, or external contour. Test conditions were manipulated to stress focused or divided attention across the whole face. In a second experiment we recorded eye movements while subjects performed a face memory task. We found that greater impairment for eye processing was more typical of subjects with occipitotemporal lesions than those with anterior temporal lesions. This eye selectivity was evident for both eye position and shape, with no evidence of an upper/lower difference for external contour. A greater impairment for eye processing was more apparent under attentionally more demanding conditions. Despite these perceptual deficits, most subjects showed a normal tendency to scan the eyes more than the mouth. We conclude that occipitotemporal lesions are associated with a partially selective processing loss for eye information and that this deficit may be linked to loss of the right fusiform face area, which has been shown to have activity patterns that emphasize the eye region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Perceptions and knowledge about the acquired immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceptions and knowledge about the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among students in university residences. R.H. Friedland, S.K. Jankelowitz, M de Beer, C De Klerk, V. Khoury, T. Csizmadia, G.N. Padayachee, S. Levy ...

  18. Community acquired Staphylococcus aureus meningitis in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Keizerweerd, Gabriella D.; de Gans, Jan; Spanjaard, Lodewijk; van de Beek, Diederik

    2009-01-01

    We present 9 patients with community acquired Staphylococcus aureus meningitis. Foci of infection outside the central nervous system were present in 8 (89%) patients, mostly endocarditis and pneumonia. Cardiorespiratory complications occurred frequently and 6 patients died (67%). Identification and

  19. Enhancing Medicares Hospital Acquired Conditions Policy

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The current Medicare policy of non-payment to hospitals for Hospital Acquired Conditions (HAC) seeks to avoid payment for preventable complications identified within...

  20. Acquired pure red cell aplasia in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata R Dafale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired Pure Red Cell Aplasia (PRCA is a rare occurrence in children.This is a case of an eight year old girl child who developed acquired PRCA secondary to long term intake of sodium Valproate. This case is reported to review the causes of PRCA in children and to reconsider the use of drugs of longer duration in children and adults.

  1. Multilingualism and acquired neurogenic speech disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Acquired neurogenic communication disorders can affect language, speech, or both. Although neurogenic speech disorders have been researched for a considerable time, much of this work has been restricted to a few languages (mainly English, with German, French, Japanese and Chinese also represented). Further, the work has concentrated on monolingual speakers. In this account, I aim to outline the main acquired speech disorders, and give examples of research into multilingual aspects of this top...

  2. Training Pseudoword Reading in Acquired Dyslexia: A Phonological Complexity Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Ellyn A.; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Individuals with acquired phonological dyslexia experience difficulty associating written letters with corresponding sounds, especially in pseudowords. Previous studies have shown that reading can be improved in these individuals by training letter-sound correspondence, practicing phonological skills, or using combined approaches. However, generalization to untrained items is typically limited. Aims We investigated whether principles of phonological complexity can be applied to training letter-sound correspondence reading in acquired phonological dyslexia to improve generalization to untrained words. Based on previous work in other linguistic domains, we hypothesized that training phonologically “more complex” material (i.e., consonant clusters with small sonority differences) would result in generalization to phonologically “less complex” material (i.e., consonant clusters with larger sonority differences), but this generalization pattern would not be demonstrated when training the “less complex” material. Methods & Procedures We used a single-participant, multiple baseline design across participants and behaviors to examine phonological complexity as a training variable in five individuals. Based on participants' error data from a previous experiment, a “more complex” onset and a “less complex” onset were selected for training for each participant. Training order assignment was pseudo-randomized and counterbalanced across participants. Three participants were trained in the “more complex” condition and two in the “less complex” condition while tracking oral reading accuracy of both onsets. Outcomes & Results As predicted, participants trained in the “more complex” condition demonstrated improved pseudoword reading of the trained cluster and generalization to pseudowords with the untrained, “simple” onset, but not vice versa. Conclusions These findings suggest phonological complexity can be used to improve

  3. Training Pseudoword Reading in Acquired Dyslexia: A Phonological Complexity Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Ellyn A; Thompson, Cynthia K

    2015-02-01

    Individuals with acquired phonological dyslexia experience difficulty associating written letters with corresponding sounds, especially in pseudowords. Previous studies have shown that reading can be improved in these individuals by training letter-sound correspondence, practicing phonological skills, or using combined approaches. However, generalization to untrained items is typically limited. We investigated whether principles of phonological complexity can be applied to training letter-sound correspondence reading in acquired phonological dyslexia to improve generalization to untrained words. Based on previous work in other linguistic domains, we hypothesized that training phonologically "more complex" material (i.e., consonant clusters with small sonority differences) would result in generalization to phonologically "less complex" material (i.e., consonant clusters with larger sonority differences), but this generalization pattern would not be demonstrated when training the "less complex" material. We used a single-participant, multiple baseline design across participants and behaviors to examine phonological complexity as a training variable in five individuals. Based on participants' error data from a previous experiment, a "more complex" onset and a "less complex" onset were selected for training for each participant. Training order assignment was pseudo-randomized and counterbalanced across participants. Three participants were trained in the "more complex" condition and two in the "less complex" condition while tracking oral reading accuracy of both onsets. As predicted, participants trained in the "more complex" condition demonstrated improved pseudoword reading of the trained cluster and generalization to pseudowords with the untrained, "simple" onset, but not vice versa. These findings suggest phonological complexity can be used to improve generalization to untrained phonologically related words in acquired phonological dyslexia. These findings also

  4. Do Acquirer Capabilities Affect Acquisition Performance? Examining Strategic and Effectiveness Capabilities in Acquirers

    OpenAIRE

    Mudde, Paul A.; Brush, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines acquisition performance from the perspective of acquirer capabilities. It argues that the strategic capabilities underpinning a firm’s competitive strategy can be utilized to create economic value in acquisitions. Acquirers with strong cost leadership capabilities are expected to leverage these capabilities to reduce post-acquisition costs as they integrate acquisition targets. Acquirers with strong differentiation capabilities are expected to utilize their strategic capab...

  5. Marcadores microssatélites relacionados com a resistência à vassoura-de-bruxa do cacaueiro Microsatellite markers related to resistance of cocoa tree against witches'-broom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Mercês Ferreira Santos

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram caracterizar a resistência à vassoura-de-bruxa de plantas de cacau originadas do cruzamento entre TSH 1188 e CCN 51 (população segregante, por meio de dois métodos de inoculação em condições de campo, e identificar marcadores microssatélites específicos para grupos de plantas resistentes e suscetíveis. As plantas-controle avaliadas pelos métodos de inoculação natural e inoculação artificial em campo produziram os mesmos padrões de sintomas. As plantas da população segregante também coincidiram os padrões de sintomas em 90%, por esses dois métodos. O método de inoculação artificial em campo permite detectar falso-resistentes. Dos 18 pares de primers microssatélites amplificados, 15 foram polimórficos entre os genitores, e seis entre os grupos de plantas segregantes contrastantes quanto à resistência à vassoura-de-bruxa. Foram confirmadas três marcas previamente associadas a QTL (locos para características quantitativas relacionados com a resistência à vassoura-de-bruxa, comuns a outras populações. Também foram identificados três novos QTL para esta característica, típicos desta população, o que comprova sua utilidade para o melhoramento genético do cacaueiro.The objectives of this work were to evaluate cocoa tree resistance against witches'-broom, in plants originated from the crossing between TSH 1188 and CCN 51 (segregating population, by means of two methods of inoculation in field conditions, and to identify microsatellite markers specific for resistant and susceptible plants. The control plants bore identical symptoms as the plants of the segregating population in 90% of the cases under the two methods. The method of artificial inoculation in the field allows the detection of false resistance to the disease. Of the 18 pairs of microsatellite primers amplified, 15 were polymorphic between genitors and six were polymorphic between the two groups of plants evaluated

  6. And the Winner is – Acquired

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henkel, Joachim; Rønde, Thomas; Wagner, Marcus

    We analyze an innovation game between one incumbent and a large number of entrants. In the first stage, firms compete to develop innovations of high quality. They do so by choosing, at equal cost, the success probability of their R&D approach, where a lower probability goes along with a higher...... value in case of success—that is, a more radical innovation. In the second stage, successful entrants bid to be acquired by the incumbent. We assume that entrants cannot survive on their own, so being acquired amounts to a ‘prize’ in a contest. We identify an equilibrium in which the incumbent chooses...

  7. Researching Acquired Sensory Loss in Older Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon Dag; Winther, Ida Wentzel

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we explore a number of different methodological scenarios and challenges, and sketch out opportunities, as they are emerging within an ethnographically based exploration of acquired sensory loss (hearing and/or vision) amongst old people (ages 75+) in Denmark.......In this paper we explore a number of different methodological scenarios and challenges, and sketch out opportunities, as they are emerging within an ethnographically based exploration of acquired sensory loss (hearing and/or vision) amongst old people (ages 75+) in Denmark....

  8. Impaired holistic processing of unfamiliar individual faces in acquired prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramon, Meike; Busigny, Thomas; Rossion, Bruno

    2010-03-01

    Prosopagnosia is an impairment at individualizing faces that classically follows brain damage. Several studies have reported observations supporting an impairment of holistic/configural face processing in acquired prosopagnosia. However, this issue may require more compelling evidence as the cases reported were generally patients suffering from integrative visual agnosia, and the sensitivity of the paradigms used to measure holistic/configural face processing in normal individuals remains unclear. Here we tested a well-characterized case of acquired prosopagnosia (PS) with no object recognition impairment, in five behavioral experiments (whole/part and composite face paradigms with unfamiliar faces). In all experiments, for normal observers we found that processing of a given facial feature was affected by the location and identity of the other features in a whole face configuration. In contrast, the patient's results over these experiments indicate that she encodes local facial information independently of the other features embedded in the whole facial context. These observations and a survey of the literature indicate that abnormal holistic processing of the individual face may be a characteristic hallmark of prosopagnosia following brain damage, perhaps with various degrees of severity. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Acquired hemophilia a: a current review of autoantibody disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sborov, Douglas W; Rodgers, George M

    2012-01-01

    Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is a rare, potentially life-threatening hemorrhagic disorder that presents a complex clinical challenge. The immune-mediated production of autoantibodies, known as factor VIII inhibitors, often results in clinically significant soft tissue or post-procedural bleeding episodes in patients without a previous diagnosis of a bleeding disorder. Acquired antibodies against factor VIII are associated with an extensive list of conditions, including pregnancy, autoimmune disease, and malignancy. There is great potential for morbidity and mortality resulting from autoantibody development. Death is more frequent within the first few weeks after symptomatic manifestation, making prompt recognition and treatment vitally important. Treatment focuses on stabilization of initial bleeding and long-term eradication of the acquired inhibitor. As no randomized clinical trials have been conducted regarding treatment in this patient population, clinical expertise and experience continue to guide treatment recommendations. This report provides an algorithm for the diagnosis of AHA and outlines potential treatment recommendations, most notably concomitant use of recombinant factor VIIa (rF7a) and factor VIII inhibitor bypassing agent to control bleeding in patients not responsive to single-agent therapy, and use of rituximab and prednisone for inhibitor eradication therapy.

  10. [National consensus for management of community acquired pneumonia in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldías P, Fernando; Pérez C, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an acute respiratory infection that affects pulmonary parenchyma, and is caused by community acquired microorganisms. In Chile, pneumonia represents the main cause of death due to infectious diseases and is the third specific cause of mortality in adults. In 1999, an experts committee in representation of "Sociedad Chilena de Enfermedades Respiratorias", presented the first National Guidelines for the Treatment of Adult Community Acquired Pneumonia, mainly based in foreign experience and documents, and adapted it to our National Health System Organization. During the last decade, impressive epidemiological and technological changes have occurred, making the update of guidelines for treatment of NAC by several international scientific societies, necessary. These changes include: new respiratory pathogens that are being identified in CAP and affect adult patients (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila); the increasing senescent adult population that carries multiple co-morbidities; the emergence of antimicrobial resistance among respiratory pathogens associated to massive antibiotic prescription; the development by the pharmaceutical industry of new drugs that are effective for pneumonia treatment (macrolides, ketolides and respiratory fluorquinolones); and the development of new diagnostic techniques for detection of antigens, antibodies, and bacterial DNA by molecular biology, useful in respiratory infections. Based on these antecedents, an Advisory Committee of "Sociedad Chilena de Enfermedades Respiratorias" and "Sociedad Chilena de Infectología" has reviewed the national and international evidence about CAP management in adults in order to update clinical recommendations for our country.

  11. ACQUIRED CUTIS LAXA WITH RECURRENT URTICARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganaparthi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A 30 year old male patient presented with progressive laxity and wrinkling of skin over the face for past 10 years, patient also gives history of recurrent urticaria since 12 years. Skin biopsy using Verhoff Van Gieson stain suggestive of cutis laxa. We are reporting a rare case of acquired cutis laxa with recurrent urticaria

  12. Beliefs and perceptions about Acquired Immunodeficieny Syndrome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acquired Immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has assumed a disease of epidemic dimension both in Nigeria's rural and urban communities. Different people have varying knowledge and beliefs about this disease. This study was designed to assess the beliefs and perceptions of the people of Ihugh community in that ...

  13. Some Characteristics of Patients with Community Acquired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a dearth of studies relating the information from the history of patients with community-acquired pneumonia to the mortality of the disease. The relationship between age, sex, occupation, marital status, smoking history, alcohol use, concomitant COPD / bronchial asthma, source of referral and the mortality of patients ...

  14. What Does It Take To Acquire Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krashen, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    Discusses what it takes to acquire language, and suggests that second language acquisition can occur without living in the country where the language is spoken and without formal instruction. The crucial variables appear to be comprehensible input and having a good relationship with speakers of the language. Provides an example of a Mexican…

  15. Extranodal presentation in patients with acquired immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kaposi's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), including primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), and cervical cancer define the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). NHL is the second most common malignancy associated with HIV infection. The clinical presentation varies, and while patients ...

  16. In vivo mechanisms of acquired thymic tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, W; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Sayegh, M H

    1997-01-01

    Injection of antigen into the thymus of adult animals induces specific systemic tolerance, but the mechanisms of acquired thymic tolerance are not well understood. To investigate these mechanisms we used a model of intrathymic injection of ovalbumin (OVA) in BALB/c mice. We show an antigen-specif...

  17. How to acquire, retain or renew knowledge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obstetrics and gynaecology are vast subjects. Each contains 40 elements or so, many of which subdivide into separate topics. Medical students are expected to acquire knowledge of these in 6 weeks, 2 months or 3 months, and will be examined by someone who may have been rereading the information for 25 years.

  18. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Vykuntaraju K N; Sukanya, V; Shivananda

    2012-11-01

    A 7-year-old boy with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, receiving antiretroviral drugs for 2 years, presented with a recent onset of myoclonic jerks and cognitive deterioration. On examination, he manifested myoclonic jerks once every 10-15 seconds. His electroencephalogram indicated periodic complexes, and his cerebrospinal fluid tested positive for measles antibodies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility in community-acquired bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Bacterial isolates were obtained from adults suspected to have community-acquired pneumonia and who sought treatment at two city council clinics in Nairobi, Kenya. Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents was performed using a microdilution broth method, according to the criteria set ...

  20. Neutrophil Segmentation Index Anomaly in Acquired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neutrophil lobe count was conducted on the blood films of 262 patients with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Virus (AIDS) and 204 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) antibody-negative apparently healthy controls. The count for each group was evaluated for neutrophil segmentation index by standard method.

  1. Acquired methaemoglobinaemia in pregnancy. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, P J; Braatvedt, G D

    1985-01-05

    The first report of transient, presumably drug-induced, acquired methaemoglobinaemia in pregnancy is presented. The patient required no treatment and there was no fetal distress or intra-uterine growth retardation. A normal, full-term, female infant was born by normal vaginal delivery.

  2. Monitoring Agitated Behavior After acquired Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aadal, Lena; Mortensen, Jesper; Nielsen, Jørgen Feldbaek

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the onset, duration, intensity, and nursing shift variation of agitated behavior in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI) at a rehabilitation hospital. Design: Prospective descriptive study. Methods: A total of 11 patients with agitated behavior were included. Agitated...

  3. Acquired Demyelinating Syndromes and Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A. Ketelslegers (Immy)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Acquired inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) cause damage to myelin sheaths and typically result in white matter lesions due to inflammation, myelin loss and axonal pathology. Clinically, this may result in transient, relapsing or

  4. Intensive care unit-acquired weakness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horn, J.; Hermans, G.

    2017-01-01

    When critically ill, a severe weakness of the limbs and respiratory muscles often develops with a prolonged stay in the intensive care unit (ICU), a condition vaguely termed intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICUAW). Many of these patients have serious nerve and muscle injury. This syndrome is

  5. Immunomodulation in community-acquired pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remmelts, H.H.F.

    2013-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common disease with considerable morbidity and mortality, despite effective antibiotic treatment. In this thesis, we showed that the major causative microorganisms in CAP trigger distinct inflammatory response profiles in the host. While an inflammatory

  6. Mitral valve repair in acquired dextrocardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmistekawy, Elsayed; Chan, Vincent; Hynes, Mark; Mesana, Thierry

    2015-10-01

    Surgical correction of valvular heart disease in patients with dextrocardia is extremely rare. We report a surgical case of mitral valve repair in a patient with acquired dextrocardia. Successful mitral valve repair was performed through a right lateral thoracotomy. We describe our surgical strategy and summarize the literature. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Witches' brooms in Siberian stone pine as somatic mutations and initial genetic material for breeding of nut-bearing and ornamental cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Yamburov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For the raising of the Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour nut-bearing and ornamental cultivars, the most important traits are adense crown, slow growth and precocity. Generative mutations of this kind are eliminated by natural selection, therefore, somatic mutationrsearch is important. Among somatic mutations, the most promising one is the so-called 'witches' brooms' (WB where crown fragments demonstrate slowed growth and intensive branching. WB occasionally occurs in native populations. According to phytopathology textbooks, WB are caused by various pathogen species (viruses, mycoplasmas, fungi. The WB of this kind are characterized by a sickly look, full suppression of reproductive functions, a short life and a nidus patternof distribution. There are also WB of different types: with a high vitality and fertility, a long life and sporadic distribution. They occur very rarely(about 1 per 10 000 trees across the species' range. We investigated 18 trees with WB of this type. The size of WB ranged from 0.3 to 30 m, age varied from 30 to 300 years. Male cones were absent inall WB. Female cone initiation was normal if the WB was located in the top part of a crown. Scions from WB and a normal crown (NC of the same tree were grafted on identical rootstocks. On average,the height of 7-year-old WB grafts (WBG was 2 times lower, and the stem diameter was 2 times higher than in the NC grafts (NCG. It wasachieved due to the fundamental differences in the shoot system morphogenesis. Here are three principal differences in decreasing order of importance: (i WBGs were characterized by the absence or near absence of apical dominance. The NCG had no more than 3 orders of branching, and the length of the 1st order axis was on average 5times larger than the axis of the 3rd order. The WBG had 6-7 orders of branching, and the length of shoots of 5-6th orders averaged 80-90% of the length of the first orders. (ii At an

  8. Witchcraft Beliefs and Witch Hunts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, N.B.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an interdisciplinary explanation of the cross-cultural similarities and evolutionary patterns of witchcraft beliefs. It argues that human social dilemmas have led to the evolution of a fear system that is sensitive to signs of deceit and envy. This was adapted in the evolutionary

  9. Witches in the Atlantic World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslaw, Elaine

    2003-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that focuses on witchcraft in the Atlantic world. Describes each of the four sections of the lesson that encompasses learning about terms and religious views on witchcraft to the history of witchcraft in New England, in the United States, and the Salem (Massachusetts) witchcraft trials. (CMK)

  10. Salem Witch Trials. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Lara

    Based on Arthur Miller' play "The Crucible," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that in 17th-century New England, people were persecuted for allegedly practicing witchcraft; students of this period have looked into the allegations and offer alternatives to witchcraft to explain the people's behavior; and…

  11. The activity of TcCYS4 modified by variations in pH and temperature can affect symptoms of witches' broom disease of cocoa, caused by the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Ana Camila Oliveira; Souza, Cristiane Ferreira; Monzani, Paulo Sérgio; Garcia, Wanius; de Almeida, Alex Alan Furtado; Costa, Marcio Gilberto Cardoso; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2015-01-01

    The phytocystatins regulate various physiological processes in plants, including responses to biotic and abiotic stresses, mainly because they act as inhibitors of cysteine proteases. In this study, we have analyzed four cystatins from Theobroma cacao L. previously identified in ESTs libraries of the interaction with the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa and named TcCYS1, TcCYS2, TcCYS3 and TcCYS4. The recombinant cystatins were purified and subjected to the heat treatment, at different temperatures, and their thermostabilities were monitored using their ability to inhibit papain protease. TcCYS1 was sensitive to temperatures above 50°C, while TcCYS2, TcCYS3, and TcCYS4 were thermostable. TcCYS4 presented a decrease of inhibitory activity when it was treated at temperatures between 60 and 70°C, with the greater decrease occurring at 65°C. Analyses by native gel electrophoresis and size-exclusion chromatography showed that TcCYS4 forms oligomers at temperatures between 60 and 70°C, condition where reduction of inhibitory activity was observed. TcCYS4 oligomers remain stable for up to 20 days after heat treatment and are undone after treatment at 80°C. TcCYS4 presented approximately 90% of inhibitory activity at pH values between 5 and 9. This protein treated at temperatures above 45°C and pH 5 presented reduced inhibitory activity against papain, suggesting that the pH 5 enhances the formation of TcCYS4 oligomers. A variation in the titratable acidity was observed in tissues of T. cacao during the symptoms of witches' broom disease. Our findings suggest that the oligomerization of TcCYS4, favored by variations in pH, is an endergonic process. We speculate that this process can be involved in the development of the symptoms of witches' broom disease in cocoa.

  12. Origins and consequences of technology acquirement by independent-living seniors: towards an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, S T M; Luijkx, K G; Vrijhoef, H J M; Nieboer, M E; Aarts, S; van der Voort, C S; Rijnaard, M D; Wouters, E J M

    2017-08-22

    Living independently can be challenging for seniors. Technologies are expected to help older adults age in place, yet little empirical research is available on how seniors develop a need for technologies, how they acquire these technologies, and how these subsequently affect their lives. Aging is complex, dynamic and personal. But how does this translate to seniors' adoption and acceptance of technology? To better understand origins and consequences of technology acquirement by independent-living seniors, an explorative longitudinal qualitative field study was set up. Home visits were made to 33 community-dwelling seniors living in the Netherlands, on three occasions (2012-2014). Semi-structured interviews were conducted on the timeline of acquirements, and people and factors involved in acquirements. Additionally, participants were interviewed on experiences in using technologies since acquirement. Thematic analysis was employed to analyze interview transcripts, using a realist approach to better understand the contexts, mechanisms and outcomes of technology acquirements. Findings were accumulated in a new conceptual model: The Cycle of Technology Acquirement by Independent-Living Seniors (C-TAILS), which provides an integrative perspective on why and how technologies are acquired, and why these may or may not prove to be appropriate and effective, considering an independent-living senior's needs and circumstances at a given point in time. We found that externally driven and purely desire-driven acquirements led to a higher risk of suboptimal use and low levels of need satisfaction. Technology acquirement by independent-living seniors may be best characterized as a heterogeneous process with many different origins, pathways and consequences. Furthermore, technologies that are acquired in ways that are not congruent with seniors' personal needs and circumstances run a higher risk of proving to be ineffective or inappropriate. Yet, these needs and circumstances are

  13. Acquired portosystemic collaterals: anatomy and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Andrea Farias de Melo; Mota Junior, Americo, E-mail: andreafariasm@gmail.com [Instituto de Medicina Integral Professor Fernando Figueira de Pernambuco (IMIP), Recife, PE (Brazil); Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaete [Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias Junior, Jorge; Muglia, Valdair Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2016-07-15

    Portosystemic shunts are enlarged vessels that form collateral pathological pathways between the splanchnic circulation and the systemic circulation. Although their causes are multifactorial, portosystemic shunts all have one mechanism in common - increased portal venous pressure, which diverts the blood flow from the gastrointestinal tract to the systemic circulation. Congenital and acquired collateral pathways have both been described in the literature. The aim of this pictorial essay was to discuss the distinct anatomic and imaging features of portosystemic shunts, as well as to provide a robust method of differentiating between acquired portosystemic shunts and similar pathologies, through the use of illustrations and schematic drawings. Imaging of portosystemic shunts provides subclinical markers of increased portal venous pressure. Therefore, radiologists play a crucial role in the identification of portosystemic shunts. Early detection of portosystemic shunts can allow ample time to perform endovascular shunt operations, which can relieve portal hypertension and prevent acute or chronic complications in at-risk patient populations. (author)

  14. Postpartum Acquired Hemophilia. A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Antonia Cabezas Poblet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Periparturient hemorrhages are the leading cause of extremely serious maternal morbidity and maternal death in Cuba and the world. Acquired Hemophilia A is a rare bleeding disorder characterized by the presence of antibodies against circulating factor VIII (FVIII. We present the case of a 36 years old pregnant woman with term pregnancy and vaginal delivery that suffers from hemorrhagic manifestations in the immediate postpartum secondary to raffia hematoma, requiring blood transfusion. Then she presents a bruise in the right upper limb secondary to stroke that requires surgical repair. The postpartum torpid evolution characterized by sustained bleeding raffia and the surgically treated arm, makes us suspect of the presence of a blood disorder. We observed a decrease in the FVIII factor, which involves the diagnosis of acquired hemophilia and requires treatment with recombinant VIIa factor (FVIIar concentrate and cyclophosphamide. Posterior evolution was favorable. The patient was discharged without sequelae.

  15. Cellular memory of acquired stress resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qiaoning; Haroon, Suraiya; Bravo, Diego González; Will, Jessica L; Gasch, Audrey P

    2012-10-01

    Cellular memory of past experiences has been observed in several organisms and across a variety of experiences, including bacteria "remembering" prior nutritional status and amoeba "learning" to anticipate future environmental conditions. Here, we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae maintains a multifaceted memory of prior stress exposure. We previously demonstrated that yeast cells exposed to a mild dose of salt acquire subsequent tolerance to severe doses of H(2)O(2). We set out to characterize the retention of acquired tolerance and in the process uncovered two distinct aspects of cellular memory. First, we found that H(2)O(2) resistance persisted for four to five generations after cells were removed from the prior salt treatment and was transmitted to daughter cells that never directly experienced the pretreatment. Maintenance of this memory did not require nascent protein synthesis after the initial salt pretreatment, but rather required long-lived cytosolic catalase Ctt1p that was synthesized during salt exposure and then distributed to daughter cells during subsequent cell divisions. In addition to and separable from the memory of H(2)O(2) resistance, these cells also displayed a faster gene-expression response to subsequent stress at >1000 genes, representing transcriptional memory. The faster gene-expression response requires the nuclear pore component Nup42p and serves an important function by facilitating faster reacquisition of H(2)O(2) tolerance after a second cycle of salt exposure. Memory of prior stress exposure likely provides a significant advantage to microbial populations living in ever-changing environments.

  16. Community-acquired Clostridium difficile infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penit, A; Bemer, P; Besson, J; Cazet, L; Bourigault, C; Juvin, M-E; Fix, M-H; Bruley des Varannes, S; Boutoille, D; Batard, E; Lepelletier, D

    2016-05-01

    To describe the management and treatment of community-acquired C. difficile infections (CDI) and to evaluate family physicians' (FP) knowledge and practice. Observational study from December 2013 to June 2014. All community-acquired CDI case patients diagnosed in the community or at the University Hospital of Nantes were prospectively included. A questionnaire was mailed to 150 FPs of the area of Nantes. A total of 27 community-acquired CDI case patients were included (incidence: 7.7 case patients/100,000 inhabitants). Mean age was higher among case patients diagnosed at hospital (69years) compared with those diagnosed in the community (44years). Fifteen patients were treated at home (55%) and 22 received a first-line treatment with metronidazole. Only one patient did not receive any prior antibiotic treatment. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was mainly prescribed (68%) for respiratory and ENT infections (40%). Twenty-three patients were cured on Day 7 and three had complications (two deaths). Thirty-one of 47 FPs reported to have already managed CDI patients. Twenty-two FPs reported to usually treat patients with uncomplicated CDI at home, 21 to refer patients to a specialist, and three to hospital. Forty-one FPs reported to prescribe a CD toxin test only after recent antibiotic exposure and 30 when patients are at risk of CDI. The incidence and impact of community-acquired CDIs may be underestimated and the unjustified use of antibiotics may promote their emergence. FPs are not used to treat CDIs as more than 50% prefer referring patients to hospital or to a specialist. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms in enterococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbeck, Brian L.; Rice, Louis B.

    2012-01-01

    Enterococci have the potential for resistance to virtually all clinically useful antibiotics. Their emergence as important nosocomial pathogens has coincided with increased expression of antimicrobial resistance by members of the genus. The mechanisms underlying antibiotic resistance in enterococci may be intrinsic to the species or acquired through mutation of intrinsic genes or horizontal exchange of genetic material encoding resistance determinants. This paper reviews the antibiotic resistance mechanisms in Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis and discusses treatment options. PMID:23076243

  18. Acquiring Visual Classifiers from Human Imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The human mind can remarkably imagine objects that it has never seen, touched, or heard, all in vivid detail. Moti- vated by the desire to... vivid detail. In this paper, we seek to transfer the mental images of what a human can imagine into an object recognition sys- tem. We combine the...Acquiring Visual Classifiers from Human Imagination Carl Vondrick, Hamed Pirsiavash, Aude Oliva, Antonio Torralba Massachusetts Institute of

  19. Laterality of acquired cholesteatoma and handedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migirov, Lela

    2012-08-01

    To investigate a possible contribution of handedness to the development of unilateral acquired cholesteatoma. All patients with unilateral acquired cholesteatoma attending otorhinolaryngology clinic between August 2009 and February 2012 were asked about their handedness. The study group consisted of 237 right-handed and 31 left-handed (11.8%) patients who included 158 male (59%) and 79 female subjects with an age range of 6 to 81 years (mean, 38.6 yr). There were no ambidexters in the present cohort. Overall, unilateral cholesteatoma involved 146 right (54.5%) and 122 left ears (45.5%). Ten of 31 patients (32.3%) with left hand predominance were female subjects. In the unilateral disease, the right ears were affected more frequently in patients with right-hand dominance (59.5%), and the left ears were more frequently affected in the left-handed patients (83.9%); this difference was statistically significant (p handedness were not statistically significant (p = 0.098). The strong relationship has been observed between the patient's handedness, and laterality of the unilateral acquired cholesteatoma may have contribution in the multifactorial process of cholesteatoma formation.

  20. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: daniela.prayer@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Helmer, Hanns [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Dietrich, Wolfgang [Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Eppel, Wolfgang [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Langer, Martin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images.

  1. Ultrasound of Inherited vs. Acquired Demyelinating Polyneuropathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidman, Craig M.; Harms, Matthew B.; Pestronk, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We compared features of nerve enlargement in inherited and acquired demyelinating neuropathies using ultrasound. Methods We measured median and ulnar nerve cross-sectional areas in proximal and distal regions in 128 children and adults with inherited (Charcot-Marie Tooth-1 (CMT-1) (n=35)) and acquired (Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP) (n=55), Guillaine-Barre Syndrome (GBS) (n=21) and Multifocal Motor Neuropathy (MMN) (n=17)) demyelinating neuropathies. We classified nerve enlargement by degree and number of regions affected. We defined patterns of nerve enlargement as: none- no enlargement; mild-nerves enlarged but never more than twice normal; regional- nerves normal at at least one region and enlarged more than twice normal at atleast one region; diffuse- nerves enlarged at all four regions with atleast one region more than twice normal size. Results Nerve enlargement was commonly diffuse (89%) and generally more than twice normal size in CMT-1, but not (pdemyelinating polyneuropathy suggests an acquired etiology. Early treatment in CIDP may impede nerve enlargement. PMID:24101129

  2. Acquired Factor VIII Inhibitors: Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tay Za Kyaw

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Acquired hemophilia A is a rare, but devastating bleeding disorder caused by spontaneous development of autoantibodies directed against coagulation factor VIII. In 40%-50% of patients it is associated with such conditions as the postpartum period, malignancy, use of medications, and autoimmune diseases; however, its cause is unknown in most cases. Acquired hemophilia A should be suspected in patients that present with a coagulation abnormality, and a negative personal and family history of bleeding. Herein we report 3 patients with acquired hemophilia A that had different underlying pathologies, clinical presentations, and therapeutic responses. Factor VIII inhibitor formation in case 1 occurred 6 months after giving birth; underlying disorders were not identified in cases 2 or 3. The bleeding phenotype in these patients’ ranged from no bleeding tendency with isolated prolongation of APTT (activated partial thromboplastin time to severe intramuscular hematoma and hemarthrosis necessitating recombinant activated factor VII infusion and blood components transfusion. Variable responses to immunosuppressive treatment were also observed.

  3. Prevention of hospital-acquired legionellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yusen E; Stout, Janet E; Yu, Victor L

    2011-08-01

    The incidence of hospital-acquired legionellosis appears to be increasing. Presence of Legionella in the hospital drinking water is the only risk factor known with certainty to be predictive of risk for contracting Legionnaires' disease. Given the high frequency of infection by nonpneumophila and nonserogroup 1 species, both Legionella respiratory culture on selective media and urine antigen testing should be available in the hospital clinical microbiology laboratory. If the drinking water is contaminated by nonpneumophila or nonserogroup 1 species, Legionella culture on selective media must be available for patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia. The impact of PCR application for environmental water specimen remains to be elucidated. Its advantage is that it is a rapid test and its weakness is its low specificity. Copper-silver ionization disinfection and point-of-use (POU) filters have proved effective. Chlorine dioxide and monochloramine are under evaluation and their ultimate role remains to be elucidated. Routine Legionella cultures in concert with disinfectant levels are the best indicators for ensuring long-term efficacy. Percentage distal site positivity for Legionella in drinking water is accurate in predicting risk. Quantitative criteria (CFU/ml) have proven inaccurate and should be abandoned. Infection control professionals, not healthcare facility personnel or engineers, should play the leadership role in selecting and evaluating the specific disinfection modality. Proactive measures of routine environmental cultures for hospital water and disinfection modalities allow for effective prevention of this high-profile hospital-acquired infection.

  4. Acquired Credit Unions: Drivers of Takeover

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    R. Raymond Sant

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study acquired credit unions and analyze their financial performance up to six years prior to merger, on a quarterly basis. The primary focus is on balance sheet (asset liability management and profitability variables (return on assets. We find that acquired credit unions during the period 2008 (third quarter to 2014 (first quarter experienced negative return on assets for several quarters prior to their takeover. This was the result of a declining loan portfolio and increasing charge offs. In spite of decreasing lending activity, such credit unions continued to increase their deposits, i.e., adding to their cost base. Due to declining loans, their net interest margin as a proportion of deposits was also in decline. We argue that this is an indicator of poor management ability. Furthermore, our analysis finds that operating expenses were increasing over time, something that has been documented in previous literature also for smaller credit unions and is attributable to lack of economies of scale. The average asset size of the acquired credit unions in our sample is about $22 million just before acquisition. We attribute our findings to poor business strategy followed by such credit unions. We also conclude that signs of trouble are evident up to two years before merger on average and regulatory policy may have to become more proactive to manage the consolidation challenge faced by the credit union industry in general.

  5. Functionality predictors in acquired brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas Hoyas, E; Pedrero Pérez, E J; Águila Maturana, A M; García López-Alberca, S; González Alted, C

    2015-01-01

    Most individuals who have survived an acquired brain injury present consequences affecting the sensorimotor, cognitive, affective or behavioural components. These deficits affect the proper performance of daily living activities. The aim of this study is to identify functional differences between individuals with unilateral acquired brain injury using functional independence, capacity, and performance of daily activities. Descriptive cross-sectional design with a sample of 58 people, with right-sided injury (n=14 TBI; n=15 stroke) or left-sided injury (n = 14 TBI, n = 15 stroke), right handed, and with a mean age of 47 years and time since onset of 4 ± 3.65 years. The functional assessment/functional independence measure (FIM/FAM) and the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) were used for the study. The data showed significant differences (P<.000), and a large size effect (dr=0.78) in the cross-sectional estimates, and point to fewer restrictions for patients with a lesion on their right side. The major differences were in the variables 'speaking' and 'receiving spoken messages' (ICF variables), and 'Expression', 'Writing' and 'intelligible speech' (FIM/FAM variables). In the linear regression analysis, the results showed that only 4 FIM/FAM variables, taken together, predict 44% of the ICF variance, which measures the ability of the individual, and up to 52% of the ICF, which measures the individual's performance. Gait alone predicts a 28% of the variance. It seems that individuals with acquired brain injury in the left hemisphere display important differences regarding functional and communication variables. The motor aspects are an important prognostic factor in functional rehabilitation. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Sigmoid plate dehiscence: Congenital or acquired condition?

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    Liu, Zhaohui, E-mail: lzhtrhos@163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Tongren Hospital, No 1 Dong Jiao Min Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Li, Jing, E-mail: lijingxbh@yahoo.com.cn [Capital Medical University, Beijing Tongren Hospital, No 1 Dong Jiao Min Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Zhao, Pengfei, E-mail: zhaopengf05@163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Lv, Han, E-mail: chrislvhan@126.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Dong, Cheng, E-mail: derc007@sina.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Liu, Wenjuan, E-mail: wenjuanliu@163.com [Jining No. 1 People' s Hospital, No. 6 Health Street, Jining 272100 (China); Wang, Zhenchang, E-mail: cjr.wzhch@vip.163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • CT with multiplanar reformations can accurately display the sigmoid platet dehiscence. • The prevalence of sigmoid plate dehiscence was no significant difference among different age groups. • The size of sigmoid plate bony defects were not statistically different among different age groups. • The sigmoid plate dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition. - Abstract: Background and purpose: The imaging features of sigmoid plate dehiscence-induced pulsatile tinnitus have been presented. The origin of the sigmoid plate dehiscence, however, remains unclear. Our aim was to assess the prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence on computed tomography (CT) images in multiple age groups to determine whether this condition is more likely to be congenital or acquired. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed contrast-enhanced CT images of sigmoid plates of temporal bones in 504 patients. Each temporal bone was characterized as normal or dehiscent. Patients were then subcategorized into four age groups, and the prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates in each group were calculated and compared. Results: Overall, 80 patients had sigmoid plate dehiscence, nine of whom had it bilaterally. In successively older age groups, the prevalences of sigmoid plate dehiscence were 18.9%, 20.1%, 14.5%, and 12.7%, respectively. Respective average anteroposterior bony defect diameters were 3.7 ± 1.7, 3.0 ± 1.3, 3.1 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.1 mm. Respective average vertical bony defect diameters were 3.6 ± 2.3, 2.6 ± 1.2, 3.2 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.7 mm. The prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence were not statistically different among the four age groups. Conclusions: The similar radiologic prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates among the age groups suggest that the dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition.

  7. Acquired prosopagnosia without word recognition deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilo, Tirta; Wright, Victoria; Tree, Jeremy J; Duchaine, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    It has long been suggested that face recognition relies on specialized mechanisms that are not involved in visual recognition of other object categories, including those that require expert, fine-grained discrimination at the exemplar level such as written words. But according to the recently proposed many-to-many theory of object recognition (MTMT), visual recognition of faces and words are carried out by common mechanisms [Behrmann, M., & Plaut, D. C. ( 2013 ). Distributed circuits, not circumscribed centers, mediate visual recognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17, 210-219]. MTMT acknowledges that face and word recognition are lateralized, but posits that the mechanisms that predominantly carry out face recognition still contribute to word recognition and vice versa. MTMT makes a key prediction, namely that acquired prosopagnosics should exhibit some measure of word recognition deficits. We tested this prediction by assessing written word recognition in five acquired prosopagnosic patients. Four patients had lesions limited to the right hemisphere while one had bilateral lesions with more pronounced lesions in the right hemisphere. The patients completed a total of seven word recognition tasks: two lexical decision tasks and five reading aloud tasks totalling more than 1200 trials. The performances of the four older patients (3 female, age range 50-64 years) were compared to those of 12 older controls (8 female, age range 56-66 years), while the performances of the younger prosopagnosic (male, 31 years) were compared to those of 14 younger controls (9 female, age range 20-33 years). We analysed all results at the single-patient level using Crawford's t-test. Across seven tasks, four prosopagnosics performed as quickly and accurately as controls. Our results demonstrate that acquired prosopagnosia can exist without word recognition deficits. These findings are inconsistent with a key prediction of MTMT. They instead support the hypothesis that face

  8. Psychological issues in acquired facial trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Sousa Avinash

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The face is a vital component of one′s personality and body image. There are a vast number of variables that influence recovery and rehabilitation from acquired facial trauma many of which are psychological in nature. The present paper presents the various psychological issues one comes across in facial trauma patients. These may range from body image issues to post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms accompanied by anxiety and depression. Issues related to facial and body image affecting social life and general quality of life are vital and the plastic surgeon should be aware of such issues and competent to deal with them in patients and families.

  9. Mononeuritis multiplex in acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firosh Khan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mononeuritis multiplex involves inflammation of two or more nerves, typically in unrelated parts of the body. It has been well described in bleeding disorders like idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP and Hemophilia. Acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia (AAT is a bleeding diathesis characterized by thrombocytopenia but with reduced number of megakaryocytes in the bone marrow, as against ITP. Though AAT is a well described entity, peripheral nervous system manifestations have not been described so far. We report a young man who has presented with bleeding diathesis and mononeuritis multiplex due to AAT. The mechanism of development of mononeuritis multiplex and treatment options are discussed.

  10. Acquired Methemoglobinemia - A Sporadic Holi Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masavkar, Sanjeevani Satish; Mauskar, Anupama; Patwardhan, Gaurav; Bhat, Vasudeva; Manglani, Mamta V

    2017-06-15

    To study clinical profile and outcome in patients with methemoglobinemia following exposure to toxic colors during Holi festival. This retrospective study included 112 children (5 to 12 years) admitted with methemoglobinemia after playing Holi. Clinical and treatment details were reviewed. The common symptoms were giddiness, vomiting and headache. Treatment included thorough skin wash, intravenous fluid and methylene blue in 111 children. Age 7-9 and > 11 years, vomiting, giddiness, cyanosis, PaO2 < 80 mm Hg and oxygen saturation < 95% were associated with higher need for methylene blue. All children had a good outcome. Timely diagnosis and management of acquired methemoglobinemia can save lives.

  11. [Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in pediatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Moguel, J L; Ruiz Illezcas, R; Forsbach Sánchez, S; Carreño Alvarez, S; Picco Díaz, I

    1990-12-01

    The object of this study was to determine how many of the patients treated at the Pediatric Odontology Clinic, a branch of the Maxillo-Facial Surgery Service at the Veinte de Noviembre Regional Hospital, ISSSTE, are VIH-positive of show serious manifestations of Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). For such purpose, 100 pediatric patients suffering from different systemic or local diseases were evaluated, the most common being hematological alterations. Results evidenced the presence of VIH in the blood of five of the pediatric subjects, all suffering from Hemophilia.

  12. Asian elephants acquire inaccessible food by blowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Kaori; Irie, Naoko; Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, Mariko; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Many animals acquire otherwise inaccessible food with the aid of sticks and occasionally water. As an exception, some reports suggest that elephants manipulate breathing through their trunks to acquire inaccessible food. Here, we report on two female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Kamine Zoo, Japan, who regularly blew to drive food within their reach. We experimentally investigated this behaviour by placing foods in inaccessible places. The elephants blew the food until it came within accessible range. Once the food was within range, the elephants were increasingly less likely to blow as the distance to the food became shorter. One subject manipulated her blowing duration based on food distance: longer when the food was distant. These results suggest that the elephants used their breath to achieve goals: that is, they used it not only to retrieve the food but also to fine-tune the food position for easy grasping. We also observed individual differences in the elephants' aptitude for this technique, which altered the efficiency of food acquisition. Thus, we added a new example of spontaneous behaviour for achieving a goal in animals. The use of breath to drive food is probably unique to elephants, with their dexterous trunks and familiarity with manipulating the act of blowing, which is commonly employed for self-comfort and acoustic communication.

  13. Acquired pulmonary artery stenosis in four dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scansen, Brian A; Schober, Karsten E; Bonagura, John D; Smeak, Daniel D

    2008-04-15

    4 dogs with acquired pulmonary artery stenosis (PAS) were examined for various clinical signs. One was a mixed-breed dog with congenital valvular PAS that subsequently developed peripheral PAS, one was a Golden Retriever with pulmonary valve fibrosarcoma, one was a Pembroke Welsh Corgi in which the left pulmonary artery had inadvertently been ligated during surgery for correction of patent ductus arteriosus, and one was a Boston Terrier with a heart-base mass compressing the pulmonary arteries. All 4 dogs were evaluated with 2-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography to characterize the nature and severity of the stenoses; other diagnostic tests were also performed. The mixed-breed dog with valvular and peripheral PAS was euthanized, surgical resection of the pulmonic valve mass was performed in the Golden Retriever, corrective surgery was performed on the Pembroke Welsh Corgi with left pulmonary artery ligation, and the Boston Terrier with the heart-base mass was managed medically. Acquired PAS in dogs may manifest as a clinically silent heart murmur, syncope, or right-sided heart failure. The diagnosis is made on the basis of imaging findings, particularly results of 2-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography. Treatment may include surgical, interventional, or medical modalities and is targeted at resolving the inciting cause.

  14. Electrical Signaling, Photosynthesis and Systemic Acquired Acclimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Szechyńska-Hebda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrical signaling in higher plants is required for the appropriate intracellular and intercellular communication, stress responses, growth and development. In this review, we have focus on recent findings regarding the electrical signaling, as a major regulator of the systemic acquired acclimation (SAA and the systemic acquired resistance (SAR. The electric signaling on its own cannot confer the required specificity of information to trigger SAA and SAR, therefore, we have also discussed a number of other mechanisms and signaling systems that can operate in combination with electric signaling. We have emphasized the interrelation between ionic mechanism of electrical activity and regulation of photosynthesis, which is intrinsic to a proper induction of SAA and SAR. In a special way, we have summarized the role of non-photochemical quenching and its regulator PsbS. Further, redox status of the cell, calcium and hydraulic waves, hormonal circuits and stomatal aperture regulation have been considered as components of the signaling. Finally, a model of light-dependent mechanisms of electrical signaling propagation has been presented together with the systemic regulation of light-responsive genes encoding both, ion channels and proteins involved in regulation of their activity. Due to space limitations, we have not addressed many other important aspects of hormonal and ROS signaling, which were presented in a number of recent excellent reviews.

  15. Tokyo Medical College Test in acquired dyschromatopsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinckers, A

    1980-01-01

    In order to find a successor for the Hardy, Rand and Rittler (AOH-R-R) test the author made a comparison between the AOH-R-R and the Tokyo Medical College (TMC) tests in acquired dyschromatopsia. The diagnosis of the TMC type of a red-green defect is often in contradiction with the results of other color vision tests. In grading the severity of a red-green defect the TMC classification is shifted with regard to the AOH-R-R classification. A corrected grading in better agreement with the AOH-R-R classification is proposed. The TMC blue-yellow screening plates are more sensitive than the AOH-R-R blue-yellow screening plates. A TMC (supermild) blue-yellow defect in general corresponds to blue-yellow defects detected by FM 100 Hue and its derivatives. In the study of acquired dyschromatopsia, it is necessary to use a test battery. In our opinion the TMC can be used in such a test battery although it is not a real successor to the AOH-R-R. If ever the AOH-R-R is reprinted, the blue-yellow plates should be extended to a 'supermild' degree as are the TMC blue-yellow plates.

  16. Cardiomyopathy in Congenital and Acquired Generalized Lipodystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupsa, Beatrice C.; Sachdev, Vandana; Lungu, Andreea O.; Rosing, Douglas R.; Gorden, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Lipodystrophy is a rare disorder characterized by loss of adipose tissue and low leptin levels. This condition is characterized by severe dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, and steatohepatitis. Another phenotypic feature that occurs with considerable frequency in generalized lipodystrophy is cardiomyopathy. We report here the cardiac findings in a cohort of patients with generalized congenital and acquired lipodystrophy, and present a literature review of the cardiac findings in patients with generalized lipodystrophy. We studied 44 patients with generalized congenital and acquired lipodystrophy, most of them enrolled in a clinical trial of leptin therapy. Patients underwent electrocardiograms and transthoracic echocardiograms to evaluate their cardiac status. We followed these patients for an extended time period, some of them up to 8 years. Evaluation of our cohort of patients with generalized lipodystrophy shows that cardiomyopathy is a frequent finding in this population. Most of our patients had hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and only a small number had features of dilated cardiomyopathy. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was more frequent in patients with seipin mutation, a finding consistent with the literature. The underlying mechanism for cardiomyopathy in lipodystrophy is not clear. Extreme insulin resistance and the possibility of a “lipotoxic cardiomyopathy” should be entertained as possible explanations. PMID:20616664

  17. Acquired Inhibitors: A Special Case of Bleeding in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Stefanacci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This literature review is intended to familiarize physicians and healthcare providers of older adults with the potential causes of acute bleeding in older adults and to review diagnostic approaches that can produce prompt identification of acute bleeding and facilitate timely treatment. Adverse events from anticoagulant treatment and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID and aspirin use and abuse are among the most common causes of bleeding in older adults. Diagnoses infrequently considered—mild congenital hemophilia, acquired hemophilia, von Willebrand disease, and platelet dysfunction—can contribute to acute bleeding in older adults. The approach to management of bleeding varies. Management of acute bleeding in older adults can be challenging because these patients often have chronic comorbidity and have been prescribed long-term concomitant medications that can complicate diagnosis and treatment. Prompt recognition of acquired hemophilia, referral to an expert hematologist, and timely initiation of treatment could improve outcome in older patients who experience bleeding episodes resulting from this condition.

  18. Transfer of Juggling Skills Acquired in a Virtual Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Alex Patrick; Kragegaard, Christian Skriver; Kjæhr, Emil Bering

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores whether motoric skills acquired within a virtual training environment can be successfully transferred to the real world by comparing a virtual environment with a traditional learning environment. Specifically, a system for learning juggling with virtual balls was designed...... with a focus on approximating natural interaction. We propose a method of evaluating the acquisition and transfer of motoric skills through a virtual environment, which is compared to a traditional learning environment. Each environment was evaluated using various criteria ranging from improvement in skills...... to observations of performance. The findings suggest that a transfer of motoric skills and knowledge takes place for users of the virtual system with only little difference between the environments. They also suggest that a virtual environment can create a less frustrating learning experience....

  19. Acquired hemophilia A: Updated review of evidence and treatment guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse-Jarres, Rebecca; Kempton, Christine L; Baudo, Francesco; Collins, Peter W; Knoebl, Paul; Leissinger, Cindy A; Tiede, Andreas; Kessler, Craig M

    2017-07-01

    Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is a rare disease resulting from autoantibodies (inhibitors) against endogenous factor VIII (FVIII) that leads to bleeding, which is often spontaneous and severe. AHA tends to occur in elderly patients with comorbidities and is associated with high mortality risk from underlying comorbidities, bleeding, or treatment complications. Treatment, which consists of hemostatic management and eradication of the inhibitors, can be challenging to manage. Few data are available to guide the management of AHA-related bleeding and eradication of the disease-causing antibodies. Endorsed by the Hemostasis and Thrombosis Research Society of North America, an international panel of experts in AHA analyzed key questions, reviewed the literature, weighed the evidence and formed a consensus to update existing guidelines. AHA is likely underdiagnosed and misdiagnosed in real-world clinical practice. Recommendations for the management of AHA are summarized here based on the available data, integrated with the clinical experience of panel participants. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Anthracyclines and Acquired Long QT Syndrome. A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodríguez Armada

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acquired long QT syndrome results from secondary causes and can be caused by more than 100 non-antiarrhythmic drugs. Cardiac arrest due to Torsades de pointes induced by drugs causing prolonged QT syndrome is a rare but potentially fatal event, even in hospitals. The case of a 47-year-old patient diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma admitted to the hematology department of the Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima University General Hospital in Cienfuegos is presented. The patient had been previously treated with anthracyclines and developed episodes of palpitations and syncope later. The treatment included monitoring the patient, avoiding other QT prolonging agents and administrating magnesium sulfate and potassium chloride with a proper maintenance of the fluid and acid-base balance. The presentation of this case aims at motivating interest in new reports on the subject and establishing a direct causal relationship through the evidence provided by new experiences.

  1. Acquired Localized Cutis Laxa due to Increased Elastin Turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Rie Harboe; Maynard, Scott; Schjerling, Peter

    2016-01-01

    obtained skin biopsies from affected and unaffected skin areas of the patient and analyzed these with microscopy, polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and cell culture experiments. Skin from the affected area lacked elastin fibers in electron microscopy but had higher mRNA expression of elastin....... In conclusion, we report a case of acquired localized cutis laxa with a lack of elastic fibers in the skin of the patient's upper body. The lack of elastic fibers in the affected skin was combined with increased mRNA expression and protein levels of elastin. These findings indicate that elastin synthesis...... and total RNA. Levels of an apparent tropoelastin degradation product were higher in the affected area. Fibroblast cultures from the affected area were able to produce elastin and showed higher proliferation and survival after oxidative and UVB stress compared to fibroblasts from the unaffected area...

  2. Dendritic ion channelopathy in acquired epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poolos, Nicholas P.; Johnston, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Summary Ion channel dysfunction or “channelopathy” is a proven cause of epilepsy in the relatively uncommon genetic epilepsies with Mendelian inheritance. But numerous examples of acquired channelopathy in experimental animal models of epilepsy following brain injury have also been demonstrated. Our understanding of channelopathy has grown due to advances in electrophysiology techniques that have allowed the study of ion channels in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons in cortex and hippocampus. The apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons comprise the vast majority of neuronal surface membrane area, and thus the majority of the neuronal ion channel population. Investigation of dendritic ion channels has demonstrated remarkable plasticity in ion channel localization and biophysical properties in epilepsy, many of which produce hyperexcitability and may contribute to the development and maintenance of the epileptic state. Here we review recent advances in dendritic physiology and cell biology, and their relevance to epilepsy. PMID:23216577

  3. Acquired Localized Hypertrichosis Induced by Rivastigmine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Imbernón-Moya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertrichosis is the excessive hair growth in any area of the skin surface. Acquired localized hypertrichosis may be secondary to multiple causes and there is a secondary form due to several drugs, which is usually reversible with discontinuation of the causative agent. Rivastigmine is a reversible and competitive inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase used for symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer dementia and Parkinson’s disease. It has an adequate safety profile and cutaneous side effects are unusual. Irritant contact dermatitis, allergic dermatitis, baboon syndrome, and cutaneous rash due to rivastigmine have been reported. We report on a Caucasian 80-year-old male with personal history of Alzheimer’s disease. The patient started therapy with oral rivastigmine one month prior to clinical presentation of localized hypertrichosis on both forearms. Norgalanthamine has been shown to promote hair growth activity via the proliferation of dermal papilla. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can induce hair growth.

  4. Hospital Acquired Pneumonia: Issues in Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel A Mandell

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available In December 1992. a meeting was convened in Toronto to develop guidelines for the initial treatment of hospital acquired pneumonia. Issues considered related lo the patient. the possible drugs used for treatment, and the pathogen(s. From the perspective of the patient. the two major issues were the presence or absence of risk factors for specific microbial pathogens and the severity of illness upon clinical presentation, Criteria for defining severly ill patients were developed and are presented in this paper. Drug and pathogen related issues focused on selection of antimicrobial agents thal would provide coverage for the likely pathogens. Concern was also expressed regarding use of aminoglycosides as single-agent treatment of Gram-negative infections in the lung. and the issue of monotherapy versus combination therapy of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections was discussed. The use of various diagnostic tests was briefly reviewed. including the protected specimen brush and bronchoalveolar lavage. Treatment regimens are presented in tabular format.

  5. Identification of acquired antimicrobial resistance genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zankari, Ea; Hasman, Henrik; Cosentino, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    -novo-sequenced isolates.ResultsWhen testing the 1862 GenBank files, the method identified the resistance genes with an ID = 100% (100% identity) to the genes in ResFinder. Agreement between in silico predictions and phenotypic testing was found when the method was further tested on 23 isolates of five different bacterial......ObjectivesIdentification of antimicrobial resistance genes is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms and the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance. As the costs of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) continue to decline, it becomes increasingly available in routine diagnostic...... laboratories and is anticipated to substitute traditional methods for resistance gene identification. Thus, the current challenge is to extract the relevant information from the large amount of generated data.MethodsWe developed a web-based method, ResFinder that uses BLAST for identification of acquired...

  6. Acquired hemophilia A: emerging treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janbain M

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Maissaa Janbain,1 Cindy A Leissinger,1 Rebecca Kruse-Jarres2 1Louisiana Center for Bleeding and Clotting Disorders, Tulane University Medical Center, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2Washington Center for Bleeding Disorders, Blood Works NW, Seattle, WA, USA Abstract: Acquired hemophilia A is a rare autoimmune disorder caused by an autoantibody (inhibitor to factor VIII (FVIII that interferes with its coagulant function and predisposes to severe, potentially life-threatening hemorrhage. Disease management focuses on controlling bleeding, primarily with the use of bypassing therapy and recombinant porcine FVIII, and permanently eradicating the autoantibody using various immunosuppressants. Treatment challenges include delayed diagnosis, difficulty achieving hemostasis and durable remissions, and complications associated with the use of hemostatic and immunosuppressive therapy in a primarily older patient population. Keywords: autoantibodies, factor VIII, hemostasis, inhibitors, inhibitor eradication

  7. Acute acquired comitant esotropia of childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesgaard, Helena; Vinding, Troels

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To identify characteristics of pediatric patients who develop acute acquired comitant esotropia (AACE) with and without intracranial disease. METHODS: We reviewed the charts of 48 children consecutively referred to the hospital with AACE during a 13-year period. Inclusion criteria were a...... of literature, we identified seven cause-specific types of AACE. Intracranial disease was present in 6%, and four risk factors were identified to guide clinicians when to perform brain imaging. Findings suggest AACE of childhood to be differentiated from AACE of adulthood.......: In all, 48 cases were recorded. The mean age at onset was 4.7 years, being significantly higher among children with intracranial disease. Seven cause-specific types of AACE in childhood were identified: The acute accommodative (n = 15, 31%), decompensated monofixation syndrome or esophoria (n = 13, 27...

  8. Acquired dyschromatopsia among styrene-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobba, F; Galassi, C; Imbriani, M; Ghittori, S; Candela, S; Cavalleri, A

    1991-07-01

    We investigated the occurrence of color vision loss in 75 styrene-exposed workers and in 60 referents. Color vision was evaluated by adopting the Lanthony D 15 desaturated panel, a test specifically suited to detect mild acquired dyschromatopsia. The results of the test were expressed as Color Confusion Index. Styrene exposure was evaluated with both environmental and biological monitoring. Airborne levels of the solvent were 3.2 to 549.5 mg/m3. In styrene-exposed workers color vision was significantly impaired when compared with referents matched for age. A significative correlation was found between environmental and urinary levels of styrene and Color Confusion Index excluding the influence of age in multiple regression analysis, indicating the possibility of a dose-effect relationship. The findings suggest that styrene can induce an early appearance of a dose-dependent color vision loss.

  9. Time dysperception perspective for acquired brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica ePiras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Distortions of time perception are presented by a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we survey timing abilities in clinical populations with acquired brain injuries in key cerebral areas recently implicated in human studies of timing. We purposely analyzed the complex relationship between cognitive and contextual factors involved in time estimation, as to characterize the correlation between timed and other cognitive behaviors in each group. We assume that interval timing is a solid construct to study cognitive dysfunctions following brain injury, as timing performance is a sensitive metric of information processing, while temporal cognition has the potential of influencing a wide range of cognitive processes. Moreover, temporal performance is a sensitive assay of damage to the underlying neural substrate after a brain insult. Further research in neurological and psychiatric patients will definitively answer the question of whether time distortions are manifestations of cognitive and behavioral symptoms of brain damage and definitively clarify their mechanisms.

  10. Acquired left ventricular-right atrium shunts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinisalo, Juha P; Sreeram, Narayanswami; Jokinen, Eero; Qureshi, Shakeel A

    2011-04-01

    Left ventricular to right atrial (LV-RA) shunt is an unusual type of ventricular septal defect (VSD). This article concentrates on acquired LV-RA shunts, which may be due to complications of cardiac operation, endocarditis, trauma or myocardial infarction. A previous cardiac operation is its most common cause. The diagnosis of LV-RA communication is not easy, and it should be remembered in patients who do not recover normally. Diagnosis can be confirmed with ultrasound or magnetic resonance image (MRI). Surgical correction is usually the treatment of choice, but closing the communication percutaneously should be considered as an option. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Guidelines for prevention of hospital acquired infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Yatin; Gupta, Abhinav; Todi, Subhash; Myatra, Sn; Samaddar, D P; Patil, Vijaya; Bhattacharya, Pradip Kumar; Ramasubban, Suresh

    2014-03-01

    These guidelines, written for clinicians, contains evidence-based recommendations for the prevention of hospital acquired infections Hospital acquired infections are a major cause of mortality and morbidity and provide challenge to clinicians. Measures of infection control include identifying patients at risk of nosocomial infections, observing hand hygiene, following standard precautions to reduce transmission and strategies to reduce VAP, CR-BSI, CAUTI. Environmental factors and architectural lay out also need to be emphasized upon. Infection prevention in special subsets of patients - burns patients, include identifying sources of organism, identification of organisms, isolation if required, antibiotic prophylaxis to be used selectively, early removal of necrotic tissue, prevention of tetanus, early nutrition and surveillance. Immunodeficient and Transplant recipients are at a higher risk of opportunistic infections. The post tranplant timetable is divided into three time periods for determining risk of infections. Room ventilation, cleaning and decontamination, protective clothing with care regarding food requires special consideration. Monitoring and Surveillance are prioritized depending upon the needs. Designated infection control teams should supervise the process and help in collection and compilation of data. Antibiotic Stewardship Recommendations include constituting a team, close coordination between teams, audit, formulary restriction, de-escalation, optimizing dosing, active use of information technology among other measure. The recommendations in these guidelines are intended to support, and not replace, good clinical judgment. The recommendations are rated by a letter that indicates the strength of the recommendation and a Roman numeral that indicates the quality of evidence supporting the recommendation, so that readers can ascertain how best to apply the recommendations in their practice environments.

  12. Does Acquired Hypothyroidism Affect the Hearing Functions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Arduç

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: It is well known that congenital hypothyroidism can cause hearing loss. However, conflicting results were found in studies investigating hearing functions in acquired hypothyroidism. Therefore, we evaluated the audiometric findings in patients with acquired hypothyroidism. Material and Method: The study included 58 patients with hypothyroidism and age- and gender-matched 34 healthy controls. Twenty eight (48.27% patients had subclinical hypothyroidism, and 30 (51.73% had obvious hypothyroidism. All subjects had a normal otoscopic examination and tympanometry. Pure tone audiometry at 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, 6000, and 8000 Hertz (Hz was performed in both groups. Blood pressure measurements and the levels of plasma electrolytes, lipids and vitamin B12 were available in all subjects. Results: Hypothyroidism group and control group were similar with respect to systolic and diastolic blood pressures and plasma glucose, lipid, vitamin B12, calcium, sodium, potassium, and chloride levels. Significantly higher audiometric thresholds (dB at 250 (10 (0-45 vs. 5 (0-15, p<0.001 and 500 Hz (10 (0-40 vs. 10 (-5-15, p=0.003 were recorded in hypothyroid patients compared to that in healthy controls. Hearing thresholds at 250 and 500 Hz correlated positively with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, and negatively with free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine. Subclinical hypothyroid patients had a higher hearing threshold at 250 Hz than healthy controls (p=0.001. Discussion: Our study demonstrated that hearing ability decreases in hypothyroidism, even in subclinical hypothyroidism. The changes in TSH and thyroid hormone levels seem to be directly related to the hearing loss in this population of patients.

  13. Affective Priming with Associatively Acquired Valence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado, Luis; Pierna, Manuel; Saugar, Cristina

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments explored the effect of affectively congruent or incongruent primes on evaluation responses to positive or negative valenced targets (the "affective priming" effect). Experiment 1 replicated the basic affective priming effect with Spanish nouns: reaction time for evaluative responses (pleasant/unpleasant) were slower on…

  14. Mortality predictors in community-acquired pneumonia | Tanimowo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acquired pneumonia to themedicalwards of Ladoke Akintola University ofTeaching Hospital between Jan. 2003 andDec. 2005. The case notes of 65 patients admitted for community-acquired pneumoniawere studiedwith respect to their admission ...

  15. Management of bleeding in acquired hemophilia A : results from the European Acquired Haemophilia (EACH2) Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baudo, Francesco; Collins, Peter; Huth-Kuehne, Angela; Levesque, Herve; Marco, Pascual; Nemes, Laszlo; Pellegrini, Fabio; Tengborn, Lilian; Knoebl, Paul; Aspoeck, G.; Heistinger, M.; Knobl, P.; Makipernaa, A.; Andre, H; Aouba, A.; Bellucci, S.; Beurrier, P.; Borg, J.Y.; Darnige, L.; Devignes, J.; d'Oiron, R.; Gautier, P.; Gay, V.; Girault, S.; Gruel, Y.; Guerin, V.; Hezard, N.; Khellaf, M.; Koenig, M.; Levesque, H.; Lifermann, F; Marlu, R; Ninet, J.; Peynet, J.; Quemeneur, T.; Rothschild, C.; Schleinitz, N.; Sigaud, M.; Trouillier, S; Voisin, S.; Giebl, A.; Holstein, K.; Huth-Kuhne, A; Loreth, R.M.; Steigerwald, U.; Tiede, A.; Theodossiades, G.; Nemes, L.; Radvanyi, G.; Schlammadinger, A.; Barillari, G.; Pasca, S.; Baudo, F; Caimi, T.; Contino, L.; D'Angelo Armando, C.L.; Fattorini, A.; Di Minno, G.; Cerbone, A.M.; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; D'inca, M.; Falanga, A.; Maggioni, A.; Lerede, T.; Franchini, M.; Gaidano, G.; De Paoli, L.; Gamba, G.; Ghirardi, R; Girotto, M.; Tasca, D.; Grandone, E.; Tiscia, G.; Imberti, D.; Iorio, A.; Landolfi, R; Di Gennaro, L.; Novarese, L.; Mariani, G.; Lapecorella, M.; Marietta, M.; Pedrazzi, P.; Mazzucconi, M.G.; Santoro, C.; Morfini, M.; Linari, S.; Moratelli, S.; Paolini, R.; Piseddu, G.; Poggio, R.; Pogliani, E.; Carpenedo, M.; Remiddi, C.; Santagostino, E.; Mancuso, M.E.; Santoro, R.; Papaleo, G.; Schinco, P.; Borchiellini, A.; Valeri, F.; Scortechini, A.R.; Siragusa, S.; Sottilotta, G.; Squizzato, A.; Tagariello, G.; Sartori, R; Tagliaferri, A.R.; Di Perna, C.; Rivolta, G.F.; Testa, S.; Paoletti, O.; Toschi, V.; Zanon, E.; Brandolin, B.; Hamulyak, K.; Kamphuisen, P.; Laros-van Gorkom, B.; Leebeek, F.W.; Marten, N.; Novakova, I.; Schutgens, R.; van der Linden, P.W.; van Esser, J.; van der Meer, J.; Ypma, P.; Campos, M.; Aguilar, C.; Altisent, C.; Bermejo, N.; Del Campo, R.; Ferreiro Arguelles, M.; Gonzalez Bolos', R.; Gutierrez Pimentel, M.J.; Jimenez-Yuste, V.; Jose-Felix, L.; Marco, P.; Mingot, M.E.; Perez Garrido, R.; Perez Gonzale, N.Z.; Prieto Garcia, M.; Rodriguez-Huerta, A.M.; Sedano, C.; Tolosa Munoz, A.; Baghaei, F.; Tengborn, L.; Boehlen, F.; Korte, W.; Chowdary, P.; Collins, P.; Evans, G.; Pavord, S.; Rangarajan, S.; Wilde, J.

    2012-01-01

    Acquired hemophilia A is a rare bleeding disorder caused by autoantibodies to coagulation FVIII. Bleeding episodes at presentation are spontaneous and severe in most cases. Optimal hemostatic therapy is controversial, and available data are from observational and retrospective studies only. The

  16. Immunosuppression for acquired hemophilia A : results from the European Acquired Haemophilia Registry (EACH2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, Peter; Baudo, Francesco; Knoebl, Paul; Levesque, Herve; Nemes, Laszlo; Pellegrini, Fabio; Marco, Pascual; Tengborn, Lilian; Huth-Kuehne, Angela; Aspoeck, Gerold; Heistinger, Max; Knobl, Paul; Makipernaa, Anne; Andre, Helene; Aouba, A; Bellucci, Sylvia; Beurrier, Philippe; Borg, Jeanne Yvonne; Darnige, Luc; Devignes, Jean; dOiron, Roseline; Gautier, Philippe; Gay, Valerie; Girault, Stephane; Gruel, Yves; Guerin, Viviane; Hezard, Nathalie; Khellaf, Mehdi; Koenig, Martial; Levesque, Herve; Lifermann, Francois; Marlu, Raphael; Ninet, J.; Peynet, Jocelyne; Quemeneur, Thomas; Rothschild, Chantal; Schleinitz, Nicolas; Sigaud, Marianne; Trouillier, Sebastien; Voisin, Sophie; Giebl, Andreas; Holstein, Katharina; Huth-Kuhne, Angela; Loreth, Ralph M.; Steigerwald, Udo; Tiede, Andreas; Theodossiades, George; Nemes, Laszlo; Radvanyi, Gaspar; Schlammadinger, Agota; Barillari, Giovanni; Pasca, Samantha; Baudo, Francesco; Caimi, T.; Contino, L.; D'Angelo, Armando; Crippa, Luciano; Fattorini, Annalisa; Di Minno, Giovanni; Cerbone, Anna Maria; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; D'inca, Marco; Falanga, Anna; Maggioni, Anna; Lerede, Teresa; Franchini, Massimo; Gaidano, Gianluca; De Paoli, Lorenzo; Gamba, Gabriella; Ghirardi, Raffaele; Girotto, Mauro; Tasca, Delios; Grandone, Elvira; Tiscia, Giovanni; Imberti, Davide; Iorio, Alfonso; Landolfi, Raffaele; Di Gennaro, Leonardo; Novarese, Linda; Mariani, Guglielmo; Lapecorella, Mario; Marietta, Marco; Pedrazzi, Paola; Mazzucconi, Maria Gabriella; Santoro, Cristina; Morfini, Massimo; Linari, Silvia; Moratelli, Stefano; Paolini, Rossella; Piseddu, Gavino; Poggio, Renzo; Pogliani, Enrico; Carpenedo, Monica; Remiddi, Chiara; Santagostino, Elena; Mancuso, Maria Elisa; Santoro, Rita; Papaleo, Giuseppina; Schinco, Piercarla; Borchiellini, Alessandra; Valeri, Federica; Scortechini, Anna Rita; Siragusa, Sergio; Sottilotta, Gianluca; Squizzato, Alessandro; Tagariello, Giuseppe; Sartori, Roberto; Tagliaferri, Anna Rita; Di Perna, Caterina; Rivolta, Gianna Franca; Testa, Sophie; Paoletti, Oriana; Toschi, Vincenzo; Zanon, Ezio; Brandolin, Barbara; Hamulyak, Karly; Kamphuisen, Pieter; Laros-van Gorkom, Britta; Leebeek, Frank W.G.; Marten, Nijziel; Novakova, Irena; Schutgens, Roger; van der Linden, P.W.G; van Esser, Joost; van der Meer, J.; Ypma, Paula; Campos, Manuel; Aguilar, Carlos; Altisent, Carmen; Bermejo, Nuria; Del Campo, Raquel; Ferreiro Arguelles, M.; Gonzalez Boullosa, Rosario; Gutierrez Pimentel, Maria Jose; Jimenez-Yuste, Victor [No Value; Jose-Felix, Lucia; Marco, Pascual; Mingot, Maria Eva; Perez Garrido, Rosario; Perez Gonzale, Noelia z; Prieto Garcia, Manuel; Rodriguez-Huerta, Ana Maria; Maranon, HGUG [No Value; Sedano, Carmen; Tolosa Munoz, Alexandra; Baghaei, Fariba; Tengborn, Lilian; Boehlen, Francoise; Korte, Wolfgang; Chowdary, Pratima; Collins, Peter; Evans, Gillian; Pavord, Suzanne; Rangarajan, Savita; Wilde, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is an autoimmune disease caused by an autoantibody to factor VIII. Patients are at risk of severe and fatal hemorrhage until the inhibitor is eradicated, and guidelines recommend immunosuppression as soon as the diagnosis has been made. The optimal immunosuppressive

  17. Immunosuppression for acquired hemophilia A: results from the European Acquired Haemophilia Registry (EACH2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, Peter; Baudo, Francesco; Knoebl, Paul; Lévesque, Hervé; Nemes, László; Pellegrini, Fabio; Marco, Pascual; Tengborn, Lilian; Huth-Kühne, Angela; Aspoeck, Gerold; Heistinger, Max; Knöbl, Paul; Makipernaa, Anne; André, Hélène; Aouba, Achille; Bellucci, Sylvia; Beurrier, Philippe; Borg, Jeanne Yvonne; Darnige, Luc; Devignes, Jean; d'Oiron, Roseline; Gautier, Philippe; Gay, Valérie; Girault, Stéphane; Gruel, Yves; Guerin, Viviane; Hézard, Nathalie; Khellaf, Mehdi; Koenig, Martial; Lifermann, François; Marlu, Raphael; Ninet, Jacques; Peynet, Jocelyne; Quéméneur, Thomas; Rothschild, Chantal; Schleinitz, Nicolas; Sigaud, Marianne; Trouillier, Sébastien; Voisin, Sophie; Giebl, Andreas; Holstein, Katharina; Loreth, Ralph M.; Steigerwald, Udo; Tiede, Andreas; Theodossiades, George; Radvanyi, Gaspar; Schlammadinger, Agota; Barillari, Giovanni; Pasca, Samantha; Caimi, Teresa; Contino, Laura; D'Angelo Armando, Crippa Luciano; Fattorini, Annalisa; Di Minno, Giovanni; Cerbone, Anna Maria; Di Minno, Dario; D'incà, Marco; Falanga, Anna; Maggioni, Anna; Lerede, Teresa; Franchini, Massimo; Gaidano, Gianluca; de Paoli, Lorenzo; Gamba, Gabriella; Ghirardi, Raffaele; Girotto, Mauro; Tasca, Delios; Grandone, Elvira; Tiscia, Giovanni; Imberti, Davide; Iorio, Alfonso; Landolfi, Raffaele; Di Gennaro, Leonardo; Novarese, Linda; Mariani, Guglielmo; Lapecorella, Mario; Marietta, Marco; Pedrazzi, Paola; Mazzucconi, Maria Gabriella; Santoro, Cristina; Morfini, Massimo; Linari, Silvia; Moratelli, Stefano; Paolini, Rossella; Piseddu, Gavino; Poggio, Renzo; Pogliani, Enrico; Carpenedo, Monica; Remiddi, Chiara; Santagostino, Elena; Mancuso, Maria Elisa; Santoro, Rita; Papaleo, Giuseppina; Schinco, Piercarla; Borchiellini, Alessandra; Valeri, Federica; Scortechini, Anna Rita; Siragusa, Sergio; Sottilotta, Gianluca; Squizzato, Alessandro; Tagariello, Giuseppe; Sartori, Roberto; Tagliaferri, Anna Rita; Di Perna, Caterina; Rivolta, Gianna Franca; Testa, Sophie; Paoletti, Oriana; Toschi, Vincenzo; Zanon, Ezio; Brandolin, Barbara; Hamulyák, Karly; Kamphuisen, Pieter; Laros-van Gorkom, Britta; Leebeek, Frank W. G.; Marten, Nijziel; Novakova, Irena; Schutgens, Roger; van der Linden, P. W. G.; van Esser, Joost; van der Meer, J.; Ypma, Paula; Campos, Manuel; Aguilar, Carlos; Altisent, Carmen; Bermejo, Nuria; del Campo, Raquel; Ferreiro Argüelles, María; González Boullosa, Rosario; Gutiérrez Pimentel, María José; Jiménez-Yuste, Victor; Jose-Felix, Lucia; Mingot, Maria Eva; Perez Garrido, Rosario; Perez Gonzale, Noelia Z.; Prieto Garcia, Manuel; Rodriguez-Huerta, Ana María; Sedano, Carmen; Tolosa Munoz, Alexandra; Baghaei, Fariba; Boehlen, Françoise; Korte, Wolfgang; Chowdary, Pratima; Evans, Gillian; Pavord, Suzanne; Rangarajan, Savita; Wilde, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is an autoimmune disease caused by an autoantibody to factor VIII. Patients are at risk of severe and fatal hemorrhage until the inhibitor is eradicated, and guidelines recommend immunosuppression as soon as the diagnosis has been made. The optimal immunosuppressive

  18. Management of bleeding in acquired hemophilia A: results from the European Acquired Haemophilia (EACH2) Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baudo, Francesco; Collins, Peter; Huth-Kühne, Angela; Lévesque, Hervé; Marco, Pascual; Nemes, László; Pellegrini, Fabio; Tengborn, Lilian; Knoebl, Paul; Aspoeck, Gerold; Heistinger, Max; Knöbl, Paul; Makipernaa, Anne; André, Hélène; Aouba, Achille; Bellucci, Sylvia; Beurrier, Philippe; Borg, Jeanne Yvonne; Darnige, Luc; Devignes, Jean; d'Oiron, Roseline; Gautier, Philippe; Gay, Valérie; Girault, Stéphane; Gruel, Yves; Guerin, Viviane; Hézard, Nathalie; Khellaf, Mehdi; Koenig, Martial; Lifermann, François; Marlu, Raphael; Ninet, Jacques; Peynet, Jocelyne; Quéméneur, Thomas; Rothschild, Chantal; Schleinitz, Nicolas; Sigaud, Marianne; Trouillier, Sébastien; Voisin, Sophie; Giebl, Andreas; Holstein, Katharina; Loreth, Ralph M.; Steigerwald, Udo; Tiede, Andreas; Theodossiades, George; Radvanyi, Gaspar; Schlammadinger, Agota; Barillari, Giovanni; Pasca, Samantha; Caimi, Teresa; Contino, Laura; D'Angelo Armando, Crippa Luciano; Fattorini, Annalisa; Di Minno, Giovanni; Cerbone, Anna Maria; Di Minno, Dario; D'incà, Marco; Falanga, Anna; Maggioni, Anna; Lerede, Teresa; Franchini, Massimo; Gaidano, Gianluca; de Paoli, Lorenzo; Gamba, Gabriella; Ghirardi, Raffaele; Girotto, Mauro; Tasca, Delios; Grandone, Elvira; Tiscia, Giovanni; Imberti, Davide; Iorio, Alfonso; Landolfi, Raffaele; Di Gennaro, Leonardo; Novarese, Linda; Mariani, Guglielmo; Lapecorella, Mario; Marietta, Marco; Pedrazzi, Paola; Mazzucconi, Maria Gabriella; Santoro, Cristina; Morfini, Massimo; Linari, Silvia; Moratelli, Stefano; Paolini, Rossella; Piseddu, Gavino; Poggio, Renzo; Pogliani, Enrico; Carpenedo, Monica; Remiddi, Chiara; Santagostino, Elena; Mancuso, Maria Elisa; Santoro, Rita; Papaleo, Giuseppina; Schinco, Piercarla; Borchiellini, Alessandra; Valeri, Federica; Scortechini, Anna Rita; Siragusa, Sergio; Sottilotta, Gianluca; Squizzato, Alessandro; Tagariello, Giuseppe; Sartori, Roberto; Tagliaferri, Anna Rita; Di Perna, Caterina; Rivolta, Gianna Franca; Testa, Sophie; Paoletti, Oriana; Toschi, Vincenzo; Zanon, Ezio; Brandolin, Barbara; Hamulyák, Karly; Kamphuisen, Pieter; Laros-van Gorkom, Britta; Leebeek, Frank W. G.; Marten, Nijziel; Novakova, Irena; Schutgens, Roger; van der Linden, P. W. G.; van Esser, Joost; van der Meer, J.; Ypma, Paula; Campos, Manuel; Aguilar, Carlos; Altisent, Carmen; Bermejo, Nuria; del Campo, Raquel; Ferreiro Argüelles, María; González Boullosa, Rosario; Gutiérrez Pimentel, María José; Jiménez-Yuste, Victor; Jose-Felix, Lucia; Mingot, Maria Eva; Perez Garrido, Rosario; Perez Gonzale, Noelia Z.; Prieto Garcia, Manuel; Rodriguez-Huerta, Ana María; Sedano, Carmen; Tolosa Munoz, Alexandra; Baghaei, Fariba; Boehlen, Françoise; Korte, Wolfgang; Chowdary, Pratima; Evans, Gillian; Pavord, Suzanne; Rangarajan, Savita; Wilde, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Acquired hemophilia A is a rare bleeding disorder caused by autoantibodies to coagulation FVIII. Bleeding episodes at presentation are spontaneous and severe in most cases. Optimal hemostatic therapy is controversial, and available data are from observational and retrospective studies only. The

  19. 17 CFR 210.3-05 - Financial statements of businesses acquired or to be acquired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... acquired business have been reflected in the audited consolidated financial statements of the registrant... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial statements of... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION FORM AND CONTENT OF AND REQUIREMENTS FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS, SECURITIES...

  20. The 'patient journey' of adults with sudden-onset acquired hearing impairment: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchaiah, V K C; Stephens, D

    2012-05-01

    A previous study examined the 'patient journey' of adults with gradual-onset acquired hearing impairment. This study examined the same for adults with sudden-onset acquired hearing impairment, and assessed differences. Data were collected from 16 audiologists, using the Ida Institute template, and from four adults with sudden-onset acquired hearing impairment, through semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and presented using a process mapping model. A patient journey template for sudden-onset acquired hearing impairment was developed based on the professionals' and patients' perspectives. The main difference between these two groups' perspectives was seen in the self-evaluation phase: some stages within this phase were recognised by the patients but not by the professionals. The main difference between the current and the previous study was the absence of a pre-awareness phase in the journey described by patients with sudden-onset acquired hearing impairment, compared with that described by patients with gradual-onset acquired hearing impairment. Patient journey templates could be useful counselling tools for ear and hearing healthcare specialists. However, such templates should be used only as a baseline; it is important to take a detailed case history to understand each patient's unique experience, including the psychosocial impact of hearing impairment.

  1. 30 CFR 879.14 - Management of acquired land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management of acquired land. 879.14 Section 879... ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ACQUISITION, MANAGEMENT, AND DISPOSITION OF LANDS AND WATER § 879.14 Management of acquired land. Land acquired under this part may be used for any lawful purpose that is...

  2. Acquired Severe Disabilities and Complex Health Care Needs: Access to Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Sarah L.; Dymond, Stacy K.

    2016-01-01

    This case study examined one high school student's access to inclusive education and experiences in an inclusive English class after he acquired severe disabilities and complex health care needs from a nontraumatic brain injury. Multiple sources of data (i.e., interviews, field notes, and documents) were collected and analyzed to formulate…

  3. "Analyze, Acquire, Apply, and Write" as a New Learning Model in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jeong V.

    2015-01-01

    I have developed a new teaching and learning model called AAAW, which stand for Analyze, Acquire, Apply and Write. This model grows from action research and unique experience in teaching a biochemistry course to high school students who are talented in math and science. In this model, students first "Analyze" lab data to generate…

  4. Apple II direct memory access interface to acquire neutron scattering time of flight spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilloco, F.; Ippoliti, A.; Sacchetti, F.

    1990-07-01

    A data acquisition system designed to acquire time of flight spectra in neutron scattering experiments is described. The system is completely hardware, so that even employing a relatively slow clock (1 MHz) it is adequate to work at 300 kHz with no loss of information.

  5. Computer- and Suggestion-based Cognitive Rehabilitation following Acquired Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindeløv, Jonas Kristoffer

    This thesis is an empirical investigation into two cost-effective treatment options for patients with acquired brain injury. Based on an experiment and a review, I argue that in general computer-based cognitive rehabilitation, as it is currently practiced, has virtually no effect on untrained tas...

  6. Early Word Segmentation in Infants Acquiring Parisian French: Task-Dependent and Dialect-Specific Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzi, Thierry; Mersad, Karima; Sundara, Megha; Iakimova, Galina; Polka, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Six experiments explored Parisian French-learning infants' ability to segment bisyllabic words from fluent speech. The first goal was to assess whether bisyllabic word segmentation emerges later in infants acquiring European French compared to other languages. The second goal was to determine whether infants learning different dialects of the same…

  7. Exploring the Use of Cognitive Intervention for Children with Acquired Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missiuna, Cheryl; DeMatteo, Carol; Hanna, Steven; Mandich, Angela; Law, Mary; Mahoney, William; Scott, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Children with acquired brain injury (ABI) often experience cognitive, motor, and psychosocial deficits that affect participation in everyday activities. Cognitive Orientation to Daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) is an individualized treatment that teaches cognitive strategies necessary to support successful performance.…

  8. Expressive Electronic Journal Writing: Freedom of Communication for Survivors of Acquired Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraas, Michael; Balz, Magdalen A.

    2008-01-01

    In addition to the impaired ability to effectively communicate, adults with acquired brain injury (ABI) also experience high incidences of depression, social isolation, and decreased quality of life. Expressive writing programs have been shown to be effective in alleviating these concomitant impairments in other populations including incarcerated…

  9. A phytoplasma closely related to the pigeon pea witches'-broom phytoplasma (16Sr IX) is associated with citrus huanglongbing symptoms in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, D C; Wulff, N A; Martins, E C; Kitajima, E W; Bassanezi, R; Ayres, A J; Eveillard, S; Saillard, C; Bové, J M

    2008-09-01

    In February 2007, sweet orange trees with characteristic symptoms of huanglongbing (HLB) were encountered in a region of São Paulo state (SPs) hitherto free of HLB. These trees tested negative for the three liberibacter species associated with HLB. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product from symptomatic fruit columella DNA amplifications with universal primers fD1/rP1 was cloned and sequenced. The corresponding agent was found to have highest 16S rDNA sequence identity (99%) with the pigeon pea witches'-broom phytoplasma of group 16Sr IX. Sequences of PCR products obtained with phytoplasma 16S rDNA primer pairs fU5/rU3, fU5/P7 confirm these results. With two primers D7f2/D7r2 designed based on the 16S rDNA sequence of the cloned DNA fragment, positive amplifications were obtained from more than one hundred samples including symptomatic fruits and blotchy mottle leaves. Samples positive for phytoplasmas were negative for liberibacters, except for four samples, which were positive for both the phytoplasma and 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'. The phytoplasma was detected by electron microscopy in the sieve tubes of midribs from symptomatic leaves. These results show that a phytoplasma of group IX is associated with citrus HLB symptoms in northern, central, and southern SPs. This phytoplasma has very probably been transmitted to citrus from an external source of inoculum, but the putative insect vector is not yet known.

  10. Identification of a second family of genes in Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease in cacao, encoding necrosis-inducing proteins similar to cerato-platanins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaparoli, Gustavo; Cabrera, Odalys García; Medrano, Francisco Javier; Tiburcio, Ricardo; Lacerda, Gustavo; Pereira, Gonçalo Guimarães

    2009-01-01

    The hemibiotrophic basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa is the causal agent of witches' broom disease in cacao. This is a dimorphic species, with monokaryotic hyphae during the biotrophic phase, which is converted to dikaryotic mycelia during the saprophytic phase. The infection in pod is characterized by the formation of hypertrophic and hyperplasic tissues in the biotrophic phase, which is followed by necrosis and complete degradation of the organ. We found at least five sequences in the fungal genome encoding putative proteins similar to cerato-platanin (CP)-like proteins, a novel class of proteins initially found in the phytopathogen Ceratocystis fimbriata. One M. perniciosa CP gene (MpCP1) was expressed in vitro and proved to have necrosis-inducing ability in tobacco and cacao leaves. The protein is present in solution as dimers and is able to recover necrosis activity after heat treatment. Transcription analysis ex planta showed that MpCP1 is more expressed in biotrophic-like mycelia than saprotrophic mycelia. The necrosis profile presented is different from that caused by M. perniciosa necrosis and ethylene-inducing proteins (MpNEPs), another family of elicitors expressed by M. perniciosa. Remarkably, a mixture of MpCP1 with MpNEP2 led to a synergistic necrosis effect very similar to that found in naturally infected plants. This is the first report of a basidiomycete presenting both NEP1-like proteins (NLPs) and CPs in its genome.

  11. Music therapy for acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, Joke; Magee, Wendy L; Dileo, Cheryl; Wheeler, Barbara L; McGilloway, Emer

    2010-07-07

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) can result in impairments in motor function, language, cognition, sensory processing and emotional disturbances. This may severely reduce a survivor's quality of life. Music therapy has been used in rehabilitation to stimulate brain functions involved in movement, cognition, speech, emotions and sensory perceptions. A systematic review is needed to gauge the efficacy of music therapy as a rehabilitation intervention for people with ABI. To examine the effects of music therapy with standard care versus standard care alone or standard care combined with other therapies on gait, upper extremity function, communication, mood and emotions, social skills, pain, behavioral outcomes, activities of daily living and adverse events. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (February 2010), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2009), MEDLINE (July 2009), EMBASE (August 2009), CINAHL (March 2010), PsycINFO (July 2009), LILACS (August 2009), AMED (August 2009) and Science Citation Index (August 2009). We handsearched music therapy journals and conference proceedings, searched dissertation and specialist music databases, trials and research registers, reference lists, and contacted experts and music therapy associations. There was no language restriction. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials that compared music therapy interventions and standard care with standard care alone or combined with other therapies for people older than 16 years of age who had acquired brain damage of a non-degenerative nature and were participating in treatment programs offered in hospital, outpatient or community settings. Two review authors independently assessed methodological quality and extracted data. We present results using mean differences (using post-test scores) as all outcomes were measured with the same scale. We included seven studies (184 participants). The results suggest that rhythmic

  12. Community-acquired pneumonia; Ambulant erworbene Pneumonien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poetter-Lang, S.; Herold, C.J. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Allgemeines Krankenhaus, Wien (Austria)

    2017-01-15

    The diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is often not possible based only on the clinical symptoms and biochemical parameters. For every patient with the suspicion of CAP, a chest radiograph in two planes should be carried out. Additionally, a risk stratification for the decision between outpatient therapy or hospitalization is recommended. Based on the evaluation of the different radiological patterns as well as their extent and distribution, a rough allocation to so-called pathogen groups as well as a differentiation between viral and bacterial infections are possible; however, because different pathogens cause different patterns an accurate correlation is not feasible by relying purely on imaging. The radiological findings serve as proof or exclusion of pneumonia and can also be used to evaluate the extent of the disease (e.g. monolobular, multilobular, unilateral or bilateral). In cases of prolonged disease, suspicion of complications (e.g. pleural effusion or empyema, necrotizing pneumonia or abscess) or comorbid conditions (e.g. underlying pulmonary or mediastinal diseases) computed tomography is an important diagnostic tool in addition to chest radiography. Ultrasound is often used to diagnose pleural processes (e.g. parapneumonic effusion or pleural empyema). (orig.) [German] Anhand der klinischen Symptome und laborchemischen Befundkonstellation alleine ist es oft nicht moeglich, die Diagnose einer ambulant erworbenen Pneumonie (''community-acquired pneumonia'', CAP) zu stellen. Bei jedem Patienten mit Verdacht auf CAP sollte eine Roentgenthoraxaufnahme in 2 Ebenen angefertigt werden. Weiter muss eine Risikostratifizierung im Sinne der Entscheidung ambulante Therapie vs. Hospitalisierung erfolgen. Anhand der Analyse radiologischer Muster sowie deren Verteilung und Ausdehnung koennen eine grobe Zuordnung zu sogenannten Erregergruppen sowie eine Differenzierung zwischen viralen und bakteriellen Infektionen gelingen. Da

  13. Acquired ventricular septal defect due to infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi E Durden

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired intracardiac left-to-right shunts are rare occurrences. Chest trauma and myocardial infection are well-known causes of acquired ventricular septal defect (VSD. There have been several case reports describing left ventricle to right atrium shunt after infective endocarditis (IE. We present here a patient found to have an acquired VSD secondary to IE of the aortic and tricuspid valves in the setting of a known bicuspid aortic valve. This is the first case reported of acquired VSD in a pediatric patient in the setting of IE along with literature review of acquired left-to-right shunts.

  14. Biomarkers in Pediatric Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Nicola; Esposito, Susanna

    2017-02-19

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an infectious disease caused by bacteria, viruses, or a combination of these infectious agents. The severity of the clinical manifestations of CAP varies significantly. Consequently, both the differentiation of viral from bacterial CAP cases and the accurate assessment and prediction of disease severity are critical for effectively managing individuals with CAP. To solve questionable cases, several biomarkers indicating the etiology and severity of CAP have been studied. Unfortunately, only a few studies have examined the roles of these biomarkers in pediatric practice. The main aim of this paper is to detail current knowledge regarding the use of biomarkers to diagnose and treat CAP in children, analyzing the most recently published relevant studies. Despite several attempts, the etiologic diagnosis of pediatric CAP and the estimation of the potential outcome remain unsolved problems in most cases. Among traditional biomarkers, procalcitonin (PCT) appears to be the most effective for both selecting bacterial cases and evaluating the severity. However, a precise cut-off separating bacterial from viral and mild from severe cases has not been defined. The three-host protein assay based on C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), plasma interferon-γ protein-10 (IP-10), and micro-array-based whole genome expression arrays might offer more advantages in comparison with former biomarkers. However, further studies are needed before the routine use of those presently in development can be recommended.

  15. Community-acquired pneumonia among smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almirall, Jordi; Blanquer, José; Bello, Salvador

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have left absolutely no doubt that tobacco increases susceptibility to bacterial lung infection, even in passive smokers. This relationship also shows a dose-response effect, since the risk reduces spectacularly 10 years after giving up smoking, returning to the level of non-smokers. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the causative microorganism responsible for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) most frequently associated with smoking, particularly in invasive pneumococcal disease and septic shock. It is not clear how it acts on the progress of pneumonia, but there is evidence to suggest that the prognosis for pneumococcal pneumonia is worse. In CAP caused by Legionella pneumophila, it has also been observed that smoking is the most important risk factor, with the risk rising 121% for each pack of cigarettes smoked a day. Tobacco use may also favor diseases that are also known risk factors for CAP, such as periodontal disease and upper respiratory viral infections. By way of prevention, while giving up smoking should always be proposed, the use of the pneumococcal vaccine is also recommended, regardless of the presence of other comorbidities. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Hospital-acquired pneumonia in ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Marc; Bouadma, Lila; Bouhemad, Bélaïd; Brissaud, Olivier; Dauger, Stéphane; Gibot, Sébastien; Hraiech, Sami; Jung, Boris; Kipnis, Eric; Launey, Yoann; Luyt, Charles-Edouard; Margetis, Dimitri; Michel, Fabrice; Mokart, Djamel; Montravers, Philippe; Monsel, Antoine; Nseir, Saad; Pugin, Jérôme; Roquilly, Antoine; Velly, Lionel; Zahar, Jean-Ralph; Bruyère, Rémi; Chanques, Gérald

    2018-02-01

    The French Society of Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine and the French Society of Intensive Care edited guidelines focused on hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) in intensive care unit (ICU). The goal of 16 French-speaking experts was to produce a framework enabling an easier decision-making process for intensivists. The guidelines were related to 3 specific areas related to HAP (prevention, diagnosis and treatment) in 4 identified patient populations (COPD, neutropenia, postoperative and pediatric). The literature analysis and the formulation of the guidelines were conducted according to the Grade of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology. An extensive literature research over the last 10 years was conducted based on publications indexed in PubMed™ and Cochrane™ databases. HAP should be prevented by a standardized multimodal approach and the use of selective digestive decontamination in units where multidrug-resistant bacteria prevalence was below 20%. Diagnosis relies on clinical assessment and microbiological findings. Monotherapy, in the absence of risk factors for multidrug-resistant bacteria, non-fermenting Gram negative bacilli and/or increased mortality (septic shock, organ failure), is strongly recommended. After microbiological documentation, it is recommended to reduce the spectrum and to prefer monotherapy for the antibiotic therapy of HAP, including for non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli. Copyright © 2017 Société française d'anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Outpatient management of community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froes, Filipe; Pereira, João Gonçalves; Póvoa, Pedro

    2018-01-25

    The first guidelines on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) were published in 1993, but since then many of the challenges regarding the outpatient management of CAP persist. These include the difficulty in establishing the initial clinical diagnosis, its risk stratification, which will dictate the place of treatment, the empirical choice of antibiotics, the relative scarcity of novel antibiotics and the importance of knowing local microbiological susceptibility patterns. New molecular biology methods have changed the etiologic perspective of CAP, especially the contribution of virus. Lung ultrasound and biomarkers might aid diagnosis and severity stratification in the outpatient setting. Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem that reinforces the importance of novel antibiotics. And finally, prevention and the use of anti-pneumococcal vaccine are instrumental in reducing the burden of disease. Most of CAP cases are managed in the community; however, most research comes from hospitalized severe patients. New and awaited advances might contribute to aid diagnosis, cause and assessment of patients with CAP in the community. This knowledge might prove decisive in the execution of stewardship programmes that maintain current antibiotics, safeguard future ones and reinforce prevention.

  18. Hyperthyroidism caused by acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J-J; Zhou, J-J; Yuan, X-L; Li, C-Y; Sheng, H; Su, B; Sheng, C-J; Qu, S; Li, H

    2014-01-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an immune deficiency disease. The etiology of hyperthyroidism, which can also be immune-related, is usually divided into six classical categories, including hypophyseal, hypothalamic, thyroid, neoplastic, autoimmune and inflammatory hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism is a rare complication of highly active antimicrobial therapy (HAART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Hyperthyroidism caused directly by AIDS has not been previously reported. A 29-year-old man who complained of dyspnea and asthenia for 1 month, recurrent fever for more than 20 days, and breathlessness for 1 week was admitted to our hospital. The thyroid function test showed that the level of free thyroxine (FT4) was higher than normal and that the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was below normal. He was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. Additional investigations revealed a low serum albumin level and chest infection, along with diffuse lung fibrosis. Within 1 month, he experienced significant weight loss, no hand tremors, intolerance of heat, and perspiration proneness. We recommended an HIV examination; subsequently, AIDS was diagnosed based on the laboratory parameters. This is the first reported case of hyperthyroidism caused by AIDS. AIDS may cause hyperthyroidism by immunization regulation with complex, atypical, and easily ignored symptoms. Although hyperthyroidism is rare in patients with AIDS, clinicians should be aware of this potential interaction and should carefully monitor thyroid function in HIV-positive patients.

  19. Acquired 'theory of mind' impairments following stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happé, F; Brownell, H; Winner, E

    1999-04-01

    The ability to attribute thoughts and feelings to self and others ('theory of mind') has been hypothesised to have an innate neural basis and a dedicated cognitive mechanism. Evidence in favour of this proposal has come from autism; a brain-based developmental disorder which appears to be characterised by impaired theory of mind, despite sometimes good general reasoning skills/IQ. To date no case of specific acquired theory of mind impairment has been reported. The present study examined theory of mind in adults who had suffered right hemisphere stroke, a group known to show pragmatic and social difficulties. In one study using story materials and two using cartoons, patients' understanding of materials requiring attribution of mental states (e.g. ignorance, false belief) was significantly worse than their understanding of non-mental control materials. Data from healthy elderly subjects, and a small group of left hemisphere patients (who received the tasks in modified form), suggest that this impairment on mental state tasks is not a function of task difficulty. The findings support the notion of a dedicated cognitive system for theory of mind, and suggest a role for the healthy right hemisphere in the attribution of mental states.

  20. Acquired Hemophilia A successfully treated with rituximab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni D'Arena

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Acquired hemophilia A (AHA is a rare bleeding disorder due to the development of specific autoantibodies against factor VIII. The anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody Rituximab has been proven to be effective in  obtaining a long-term suppression of inhibitors of AHA,  besides other immunosuppressive standard treatments. Here we describe a case of idiopathic AHA in a 60-year old man successfully treated with rituximab. He showed a complete clinical response with  a normalization of clotting  parameters after 5 weekly courses of rituximab given at a dose of 375 mg/sqm. , but after stopping rituximab, an initial worsening of coagulation  parameters  induced the addition of 3 further courses. At present, the patient is in complete clinical and hematological remission after 200 days.  This case confirms that Rituximab may be a safe and useful tool to treat AHA and, a prolonged administration can overcome the initial resistance. However, the precise position of this drug in the therapeutic strategy (first or second-line, alone or in combination with other drugs remains to be established and warrants further investigation.

  1. Free Radicals Mediate Systemic Acquired Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Systemic acquired resistance (SAR is a form of resistance that protects plants against a broad spectrum of secondary infections. However, exploiting SAR for the protection of agriculturally important plants warrants a thorough investigation of the mutual interrelationships among the various signals that mediate SAR. Here, we show that nitric oxide (NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS serve as inducers of SAR in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, genetic mutations that either inhibit NO/ROS production or increase NO accumulation (e.g., a mutation in S-nitrosoglutathione reductase [GSNOR] abrogate SAR. Different ROS function additively to generate the fatty-acid-derived azelaic acid (AzA, which in turn induces production of the SAR inducer glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P. Notably, this NO/ROS→AzA→G3P-induced signaling functions in parallel with salicylic acid-derived signaling. We propose that the parallel operation of NO/ROS and SA pathways facilitates coordinated regulation in order to ensure optimal induction of SAR.

  2. Acquired prosopagnosia: structural basis and processing impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies-Thompson, Jodie; Pancaroglu, Raika; Barton, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive models propose a hierarchy of parallel processing stages in face perception, and functional neuroimaging shows a network of regions involved in face processing. Reflecting this, acquired prosopagnosia is not a single entity but a family of disorders with different anatomic lesions and different functional deficits. One classic distinction is between an apperceptive variant, in which there is impaired perception of facial structure, and an associative/amnestic variant, in which perception is relatively intact, with subsequent problems matching perception to facial memories, because of either disconnection or loss of those memories. These disorders also have to be distinguished from people-specific amnesia, a multimodal impairment, and prosop-anomia, in which familiarity with faces is preserved but access to names is disrupted. These different disorders can be conceived as specific deficits at different processing stages in cognitive models, and suggests that these functional stages may have distinct neuroanatomic substrates. It remains to be seen whether a similar anatomic and functional variability is present in developmental prosopagnosia.

  3. PROGNOSTIC IMPACT OF COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED AND HOSPITAL-ACQUIRED HYPONATREMIA IN PATIENTS WITH DECOMPENSATED HEART FAILURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Shchekochikhin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare prognostic impact of community-acquired and hospital-acquired hyponatremia in hospitalized patients with decompensated heart failure Material and methods. Data of 120 patients with decompensated heart failure were analyzed. Hyponatremia was defined as serum sodium concentration of 135 mmol/l or less. Several outcomes were analyzed: mortality, transfer to intensive care unit (ICU, resistance to loop diuretics and worsening renal function.Results. 13.0% of patients had community-acquired hyponatremia, 9.6% - hospital-acquired hyponatremia. Community-acquired hyponatremia was associated with increased mortality [odds ratio (OR=7.8], admission to ICU (OR=19.1 and resistance to loop diuretics (OR=4.8. Hospital-acquired hyponatremia was associated with worsening renal function (OR=12.4.Conclusion. Both, community-acquired and hospital hyponatremia have negative impact in hospitalized patients with decompensated heart failure.

  4. Dyslipidaemia in chronic acquired distal axonal polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabally, Yusuf A; Shah, Rahul S

    2011-08-01

    The link between hypertriglyceridaemia (HTG) and/or hypercholesterolaemia (HCL) and neuropathy is uncertain. We retrospectively reviewed records of 100 consecutive patients investigated for acquired chronic axonal distal polyneuropathy of unknown cause. Findings were compared with those of 102 consecutive controls. Patients with idiopathic neuropathy were subsequently compared with age- and gender-matched controls. There were more neuropathy patients than controls with HCL, defined as cholesterol levels >5 mmol/L (63 vs. 45.1%; p = 0.011). Neuropathy patients also had higher cholesterol levels than controls (p = 0.04). Cholesterol-lowering drug usage was similar in both groups. HTG (defined as >2 mmol/L) and triglyceride levels were comparable in both groups. HTG ranged from 2.1-4.2 mmol/L in neuropathy patients. A cause for neuropathy was identified in 59 patients. Thirty-one had impaired glucose metabolism. Forty-one had idiopathic neuropathy. No link was demonstrated between idiopathic neuropathy or painful idiopathic neuropathy, and HTG/HCL. Mean triglyceride and cholesterol levels in patients with idiopathic neuropathy were comparable to those of controls. HTG was significantly more common (p = 0.027), and triglyceride levels significantly higher (p = 0.005) in patients with neuropathy due to diabetes/impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)/alcoholism, than in patients with neuropathy of any other cause. These results suggest HCL >5 mmol/L may represent a cofactor contributing to presence of neuropathy irrespective of the underlying cause. They on the other hand do not support mild/moderate HTG as an independent cause of neuropathy. HTG is common in patients with neuropathy associated with diabetes/IGT/chronic alcoholism, where it may play a role in peripheral nerve damage. As previously reported, IGT was in our cohort frequent, present in one case in three, in the absence of another identifiable aetiology.

  5. Reprogramming of plants during systemic acquired resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin eGruner

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide microarray analyses revealed that during biological activation of systemic acquired resistance (SAR in Arabidopsis, the transcript levels of several hundred plant genes were consistently up- (SAR+ genes or down-regulated (SAR- genes in systemic, non-inoculated leaf tissue. This transcriptional reprogramming fully depended on the SAR regulator FLAVIN-DEPENDENT MONOOXYGENASE1 (FMO1. Functional gene categorization showed that genes associated with salicylic acid (SA-associated defenses, signal transduction, transport, and the secretory machinery are overrepresented in the group of SAR+ genes, and that the group of SAR- genes is enriched in genes activated via the jasmonate (JA / ethylene (ET-defense pathway, as well as in genes associated with cell wall remodelling and biosynthesis of constitutively produced secondary metabolites. This suggests that SAR-induced plants reallocate part of their physiological activity from vegetative growth towards SA-related defense activation. Alignment of the SAR expression data with other microarray information allowed us to define three clusters of SAR+ genes. Cluster I consists of genes tightly regulated by SA. Cluster II genes can be expressed independently of SA, and this group is moderately enriched in H2O2- and abscisic acid (ABA-responsive genes. The expression of the cluster III SAR+ genes is partly SA-dependent. We propose that SA-independent signaling events in early stages of SAR activation enable the biosynthesis of SA and thus initiate SA-dependent SAR signaling. Both SA-independent and SA-dependent events tightly co-operate to realize SAR. SAR+ genes function in the establishment of diverse resistance layers, in the direct execution of resistance against different (hemi-biotrophic pathogen types, in suppression of the JA- and ABA-signaling pathways, in redox homeostasis, and in the containment of defense response activation. Our data further indicated that SAR-mediated defense priming can

  6. Reprogramming of plants during systemic acquired resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, Katrin; Griebel, Thomas; Návarová, Hana; Attaran, Elham; Zeier, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide microarray analyses revealed that during biological activation of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in Arabidopsis, the transcript levels of several hundred plant genes were consistently up- (SAR(+) genes) or down-regulated (SAR(-) genes) in systemic, non-inoculated leaf tissue. This transcriptional reprogramming fully depended on the SAR regulator FLAVIN-DEPENDENT MONOOXYGENASE1 (FMO1). Functional gene categorization showed that genes associated with salicylic acid (SA)-associated defenses, signal transduction, transport, and the secretory machinery are overrepresented in the group of SAR(+) genes, and that the group of SAR(-) genes is enriched in genes activated via the jasmonate (JA)/ethylene (ET)-defense pathway, as well as in genes associated with cell wall remodeling and biosynthesis of constitutively produced secondary metabolites. This suggests that SAR-induced plants reallocate part of their physiological activity from vegetative growth towards SA-related defense activation. Alignment of the SAR expression data with other microarray information allowed us to define three clusters of SAR(+) genes. Cluster I consists of genes tightly regulated by SA. Cluster II genes can be expressed independently of SA, and this group is moderately enriched in H2O2- and abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive genes. The expression of the cluster III SAR(+) genes is partly SA-dependent. We propose that SA-independent signaling events in early stages of SAR activation enable the biosynthesis of SA and thus initiate SA-dependent SAR signaling. Both SA-independent and SA-dependent events tightly co-operate to realize SAR. SAR(+) genes function in the establishment of diverse resistance layers, in the direct execution of resistance against different (hemi-)biotrophic pathogen types, in suppression of the JA- and ABA-signaling pathways, in redox homeostasis, and in the containment of defense response activation. Our data further indicated that SAR-associated defense priming

  7. Mentoring - The knowledge acquired for future ideas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Zupančič

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mentoring is a tool which enables the transfer of knowledge: it is receiving more and more attention in work environments. Mentoring offers new knowledge and competences, new job opportunities to job seekers on the one hand, and reduces labour market imbalances in the demand and supply of professions on the other. Mentoring includes various forms of activities, connects younger and older employees, those experienced and the first job seekers. In the times of economic crisis, mentoring can enable a smoother transition of youth from education/training into the labour market, and might contribute to lower unemployment rates for young people. By respecting the responsibilities of all partners involved, Slovenia could develop its own system of knowledge transfer on the basis of the experiences of the successful countries which have already implemented mentoring schemes. This could help Slovenia broaden its existing stock of knowledge and experiences and improve its performance in the labour market.

  8. When words fail us: insights into language processing from developmental and acquired disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Dorothy V M; Nation, Kate; Patterson, Karalyn

    2014-01-01

    Acquired disorders of language represent loss of previously acquired skills, usually with relatively specific impairments. In children with developmental disorders of language, we may also see selective impairment in some skills; but in this case, the acquisition of language or literacy is affected from the outset. Because systems for processing spoken and written language change as they develop, we should beware of drawing too close a parallel between developmental and acquired disorders. Nevertheless, comparisons between the two may yield new insights. A key feature of connectionist models simulating acquired disorders is the interaction of components of language processing with each other and with other cognitive domains. This kind of model might help make sense of patterns of comorbidity in developmental disorders. Meanwhile, the study of developmental disorders emphasizes learning and change in underlying representations, allowing us to study how heterogeneity in cognitive profile may relate not just to neurobiology but also to experience. Children with persistent language difficulties pose challenges both to our efforts at intervention and to theories of learning of written and spoken language. Future attention to learning in individuals with developmental and acquired disorders could be of both theoretical and applied value.

  9. Allopurinol in the treatment of acquired reactive perforating collagenosis*

    OpenAIRE

    Tilz, Hemma; Becker, Jürgen Christian; Legat, Franz; Schettini, Antonio Pedro Mendes; Inzinger, Martin; Massone, Cesare

    2013-01-01

    Acquired reactive perforating collagenosis is a perforating dermatosis usually associated with different systemic diseases, mainly diabetes mellitus and/or chronic renal insufficiency. Different therapies have been tried but treatment is not standardized yet and remains a challenge. In the last few years, allopurinol has been reported as a good therapeutic option for acquired reactive perforating collagenosis. We describe the case of a 73-year-old man affected by acquired reactive perforating...

  10. Rare Case of Acquired Haemophilia and Lupus Anticoagulant

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Devika; Chatterjee, Tathagat; Sharma, Ajay; Ganguli, Prosenjit; Das, Satyaranjan; Sharma, Sanjeevan

    2012-01-01

    Acquired haemophilia or factor VIII (FVIII) deficiency, caused by FVIII inhibitor antibodies, is a very rare condition that commonly results in severe haemorrhagic complications. We report a case of acquired haemophilia presenting with multiple bluish patches affecting face, neck, upper & lower limbs, history of gum bleeding and left knee haemarthrosis. The patient was found to have acquired FVIII inhibitor and lupus anticoagulant (LAC). The simultaneous presence of LAC and FVIII inhibitor is...

  11. Interventions for preventing hospital-acquired legionnaires' disease

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Dejanira Alexandra de

    2014-01-01

    Background Legionnaires’ Disease (LD) has been recognized as a significant source of morbidity and mortality in many hospitals worldwide. Legionella in the hospital water distribution system has been epidemiologically linked to hospital-acquired LD. Despite the several disinfection methods available the optimal method to control hospital-acquired LD has not been established yet. Objectives To assess the efficacy of interventions for preventing hospital-acquired LD in hospitalized pat...

  12. Endemic mycoses: overlooked causes of community acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Chadi A; Knox, Kenneth S; Wheat, Lawrence J

    2012-06-01

    The endemic mycoses are important but often overlooked causes for community acquired pneumonia. Delays in recognition, diagnosis and proper treatment often lead to disastrous outcomes. This topic is not usually discussed in reviews and guidelines addressing the subject of community acquired pneumonia. In this review we discuss the three major endemic mycoses in North America that present as community acquired pneumonias; Coccidioidomycosis, Histoplasmosis and Blastomycosis. We discuss their epidemiology, clinical presentations, methods of diagnosis and current treatment strategies. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Studies of acquired sustained hypernatraemia occurring in a diabetic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newrick, P G; Braatvedt, G; Penney, M; Walters, G; Corrall, R J

    1992-01-01

    We describe studies undertaken in a diabetic patient with acquired sustained severe hypernatraemia. Arginine vasopressin levels and thirst scores were grossly subnormal in the presence of marked hypernatraemia but arginine vasopressin increased normally under the influence of negative pressure-induced hypovolaemia. Despite very low levels of arginine vasopressin, polyuria was not a feature suggesting acquired renal hyper-responsiveness. This patient is an additional case of acquired osmoregulatory dysfunction, whose features do not fall neatly into previously described categories.

  14. Connectionist neuropsychology: uncovering ultimate causes of acquired dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Woollams, Anna M.

    2014-01-01

    Acquired dyslexia offers a unique window on to the nature of the cognitive and neural architecture supporting skilled reading. This paper provides an integrative overview of recent empirical and computational work on acquired dyslexia within the context of the primary systems framework as implemented in connectionist neuropsychological models. This view proposes that damage to general visual, phonological or semantic processing abilities are the root causes of different forms of acquired dysl...

  15. Acquired hemophilia A in a patient associated with community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qiansong; Yu, Guohui; Ye, Yongqing

    2013-10-01

    Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is a rare disease induced by autoantibodies to factor VIII (FVIII) and may be correlated with pregnancy, underlying malignancies, autoimmune diseases or drug administration. An 81-year-old man who presented with cough, expectoration, hemoptysis and multiple ecchymoses was diagnosed with community-acquired pneumonia by computed tomography scan. Respiratory symptoms were ameliorated after the application of antibiotics. Despite repeated infusion of fresh frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate, his prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) maintained in the 75-110-s range and ecchymoses were not ameliorated. Then, he was transferred to the department of hematology. Based on a prolonged APTT, decreased level of FVIII and presence of antibodies against FVIII, the patient was diagnosed with AHA. Then the patient was treated with activated prothrombin complex concentrates, prednisone and intravenous immunoglobulin, resulting in a complete remission of the bleeding, recovering the FVIII level and negativity for FVIII antibody titers. Here, we investigate this novel case retrospectively and review the relevant literature.

  16. The case of Geely acquiring Volvo Car : A study on low brand equity acquiring high brand equity

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Xiaoshu; Shi, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Much previous research has studied high brand equity acquiring high brand equity or high brand equity acquiring low brand equity. However, very little research has been conducted to understand how that low brand equity acquiring high brand equity changes the low brand equity especially in China. This paper is on the case of Geely Group acquiring Volvo Car which was a typical acquisition of a high brand equity company by a low brand equity company. The aim of the paper is to verify whether thi...

  17. Intensive Care Unit-Acquired Weakness: Implications for Case Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Nina R; Stanton, Marietta P

    The purpose of this case study is to provide a specific example of the disease trajectory for one patient's experience with intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICUAW). This case study provides those in case management with an overview of some of the common signs and symptoms of ICUAW, as well as the possible prognosis and recovery from ICUAW. The events in this case study take place in the acute care setting including the intensive care unit of a mid-sized health center, a general medical-surgical (med-surg) unit, and a long-term acute care facility. ICUAW affects the clinical, functional, and financial outcomes of patients. If the patient survives, their quality of life and the quality of life of their family members could be severely impacted. Case management practice has a significant role in coordinating care for those diagnosed with ICUAW. Case managers can use knowledge about ICUAW to improve the patient's transition throughout the hospital stay, improve discharge recommendations, and improve the patient's short-term and long-term outcomes. This may reduce unnecessary utilization of health care resources.

  18. Acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura with a smoldering clinical course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Chiaki; Ogawa, Yoshiyuki; Yanagisawa, Kunio; Ishizaki, Takuma; Mihara, Masahiro; Hayakawa, Masaki; Matsumoto, Masanori; Nojima, Yoshihisa; Handa, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (aTTP) is caused by a deficiency of ADAMTS13 activity due to neutralizing auto-autoantibodies (inhibitors) against ADAMTS13. Patients with aTTP show a rapid and fatal clinical course, unless an effective therapeutic intervention such as plasma exchange therapy (PEX) is performed. There is, however, a small population of patients who show a smoldering clinical course, for which no effective treatment strategy has yet been established. We herein report a 77-year-old man, who had repeated episodes of cerebral infarction and persistent thrombocytopenia over several months, but was not correctly diagnosed as having aTTP at a local hospital. However, sudden progression to an unconsciousness state together with thrombocytopenia prompted his physician to make a clinical diagnosis of aTTP, and the patient was then referred to our hospital, where the diagnosis of aTTP was confirmed by analyzing ADAMTS13. An improvement of his clinical signs was achieved with PEX and steroid therapy, but the latter had to be discontinued due to the development of grade 3 liver dysfunction. Despite discontinuation of steroid therapy, his clinical condition remained stable, but with a persistently low level of ADAMTS13 activity associated with the presence of low-titer inhibitors. Our experience may raise awareness of the diagnosis and treatment of aTTP with a smoldering clinical course.

  19. Translation: treason, serendipity or acquired instinct?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick John O. Sullivan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2008v2n22p75 This article reviews Gregory Rabassa’s memoirs called “If this be treason”. It pays tribute to a brilliant translator and literary critic, who is one of the unsung heroes of Spanish and Portuguese Literature. His memoirs, enriched by years of experience and theoretical reflection, provide a profound and wonderfully readable meditation on the art of translation, without ever becoming pedantic. They are divided into three sections: a the translator, b the translated and, finally, c his verdict on the treason involved in the translation process. In this article, Aubert’s (1997 translation modalities are used to analyze Rabassa’s strategies when dealing with culture-specific items.

  20. 33 CFR 211.2 - Authority to acquire real estate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority to acquire real estate..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE REAL ESTATE ACTIVITIES OF THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS IN CONNECTION WITH CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Real Estate; General § 211.2 Authority to acquire real estate. (a) Congressional authority...

  1. Significance of acquired diverticular disease of the vermiform appendix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallenbach, Klaus; Hjorth, Sofie Vetli; Engel, Ulla

    2012-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of acquired diverticulum of the appendix (DA), including incipient forms and its possible significance as a marker of local/regional neoplasms.......To assess the prevalence of acquired diverticulum of the appendix (DA), including incipient forms and its possible significance as a marker of local/regional neoplasms....

  2. Pattern of acquired heart diseases among children seen in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-11

    Feb 11, 2015 ... Key words: Acquired heart disease, children, Nigeria, outcome, pattern, Sokoto ... people who acquire acute rheumatic fever (ARF) every year, .... cardiology clinic. An 11‑year‑old girl with RHD, who was on secondary prophylaxis for rheumatic fever, developed anaphylactic hypersensitivity reaction to ...

  3. Acquiring Knowledge of Derived Nominals and Derived Adjectives in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinellie, Sally A.; Kneile, Lynn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This research investigated children's ability to acquire semantic and syntactic knowledge of derived nominals and derived adjectives in the context of short passages. The study also investigated the relation of morphological awareness and the ability to acquire knowledge of derived words in context. Method: A total of 106 children in…

  4. A rare case of acquired lymphangioma circumscriptum of the penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adikari, S; Philippidou, M; Samuel, M

    2017-02-01

    Acquired lymphangioma circumscriptum is a rare occurrence on the penis. We report a case of a 47-year-old man who presented with a single lesion of acquired lymphangioma circumscriptum on the penis resembling genital warts. We report the case to increase awareness of this rare condition which may mimic sexually transmitted infections such as genital warts.

  5. Eye Complications of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Skoludek_R

    Eye Complications of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Part 1. Ocular surface and anterior segment manifestations. Wani MGa, Eye Department, Mutare Provincial Hospital, P O Box 2481, Mutare, Zimbabwe. Introduction. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is the leading cause of sickness and ...

  6. Community-acquired soft-tissue pyogenic abscesses in Mulago ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Clinical practice, for a long time, has dwelt on study and management of pyogenic abscesses without distinction between nosocomial and community-acquired types. This study aimed at identifying the bacteria isolated from community-acquired acute subcutaneous and soft tissue pyogenic abscesses.

  7. 34 CFR 7.4 - Option to acquire foreign rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Option to acquire foreign rights. 7.4 Section 7.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education EMPLOYEE INVENTIONS § 7.4 Option to acquire foreign rights. In any case where it is determined that all domestic rights should be assigned to the...

  8. Nosocomial and Community Acquired Infections in Korle Bu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Nosocomial or hospital acquired infection has been recognized as a serious public health problem in the last twenty years. In most hospitals in Africa-South of the Sahara, although the types of community acquired infections are known, neither the magnitude, nor the common types of nosocomial infections ...

  9. Sahlgren's saturation test for detecting and grading acquired dyschromatopsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisén, L; Kalm, H

    1981-08-01

    A new sorting test requires only two minutes for quantitative estimation of saturation thresholds for bluish pigment colors. The test is highly sensitive to and specific for differences between normal subjects and individuals with acquired color vision defects. When combined with Ishihara's pseudo-isochromatic plates, it discriminates between congenital and acquired dyschromatopsias and identifies subjects with combined defects.

  10. Free Reading: A Powerful Tool for Acquiring a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, J.; Ponniah, R. Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The paper claims that free reading is a crucial ingredient in acquiring a second or foreign language. It contributes to the development of all measures of language competence which include grammar, vocabulary, spelling, syntax, fluency and style. The review supports the claim that readers acquire language subconsciously when they receive…

  11. Effect of electrical muscle stimulation on prevention of ICU acquired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: ICU acquired muscle weakness (ICUAMW) is an acquired neuromuscular disorder associated with increased duration of mechanical ventilation and weaning suggesting a possible relation between the limb and respiratory neuromuscular involvement. There is no preventive tool and no specific treatment has ...

  12. The challenge of retaining customers acquired with free trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datta, H.; Foubert, B.; van Heerde, H.J.

    Many service firms acquire customers by offering free-trial promotions. A crucial challenge is to retain customers acquired with these free trials. To address this challenge, firms need to understand how free-trial customers differ from regular customers in terms of their decision making to retain

  13. PATHOGENETIC MECHANISMS OF CHRONIC ACQUIRED TOXOPLASMOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotsyna S.S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan that infects approximately one-third of the world’s population. Infection in human generally occurs through consuming food or drink contaminated with oocysts and tissue cysts from undercooked meat. Although latent infection with Toxoplasma gondii is among the most prevalent of human infections, it has been generally assumed that, except for congenital transmission, it is asymptomatic. Different conditions such as, number of parasite, virulence of the organism, genetic background, sex, and immunological status seem to affect the course of infection The demonstration that Toxoplasma infections can alter behavior, reproductive function in patients has led to a reconsideration of this assumption. During chronic acquired toxoplasmosis (САT identified the regularities of changes in the ratio of the immune system and the basal levels of sex hormones available informative methods, which made it possible to evaluate the severity of the flow chart and predict treatment outcome without resorting to complex research methods. Found that the host-parasite relationships and clinical manifestations of chronic toxoplasmosis depend largely on protective and adaptive responses and compensatory abilities of the human body. Material & methods. 112 patients attended in the 6 Department of Kharkiv Regional Infectious Diseases Hospital №22 (Department of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Diseases of Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, in Kharkiv, Ukraine were enrolled in the study. Forty four patients (39,3±4,6% were male and sixty eight (60,7±4,6% were female. The age of the patients was 18 till 72 years. Results & discussion. All of 112 CAT patients had subjective clinical symptoms in various combinations: increased fatigue 99,1 ± 0,9%, headache and tiredness 95,5 ± 1,9%, pain in the liver 88,4 ± 3,1%, bitter taste in the mouth 93,8 ± 2,2%, muscle pain 81,3 ± 3,7% and joint pain

  14. Music interventions for acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Wendy L; Clark, Imogen; Tamplin, Jeanette; Bradt, Joke

    2017-01-20

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) can result in impairments in motor function, language, cognition, and sensory processing, and in emotional disturbances, which can severely reduce a survivor's quality of life. Music interventions have been used in rehabilitation to stimulate brain functions involved in movement, cognition, speech, emotions, and sensory perceptions. An update of the systematic review published in 2010 was needed to gauge the efficacy of music interventions in rehabilitation for people with ABI. To assess the effects of music interventions for functional outcomes in people with ABI. We expanded the criteria of our existing review to: 1) examine the efficacy of music interventions in addressing recovery in people with ABI including gait, upper extremity function, communication, mood and emotions, cognitive functioning, social skills, pain, behavioural outcomes, activities of daily living, and adverse events; 2) compare the efficacy of music interventions and standard care with a) standard care alone, b) standard care and placebo treatments, or c) standard care and other therapies; 3) compare the efficacy of different types of music interventions (music therapy delivered by trained music therapists versus music interventions delivered by other professionals). We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (January 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2015, Issue 6), MEDLINE (1946 to June 2015), Embase (1980 to June 2015), CINAHL (1982 to June 2015), PsycINFO (1806 to June 2015), LILACS (1982 to January 2016), and AMED (1985 to June 2015). We handsearched music therapy journals and conference proceedings, searched dissertation and specialist music databases, trials and research registers, reference lists, and contacted relevant experts and music therapy associations to identify unpublished research. We imposed no language restriction. We performed the original search in 2009. We included all randomised controlled trials

  15. Myelofibrosis and acquired hemophilia A: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, Marie; Comio, Emilie; Gay, Valerie; Baroudi, Noureddine; Meyer, Pascal; Chuniaud-Louche, Christine; Hacini, Maya; Pica, Gian Matteo

    2016-05-07

    Myelofibrosis and acquired hemophilia A is a rare association. To the best of our knowledge only one case of myelofibrosis and acquired hemophilia A has been previously described. A 66-year-old Caucasian man diagnosed with myelofibrosis evolving in acute myeloid leukemia was referred to us for postoperative bleeding. Hemostatic studies showed prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time, decreased factor VIII coagulation, and a high factor VIII inhibitor titer; these findings led to a diagnosis of acquired hemophilia A for which he was treated with methylprednisolone and recombinant activated factor VII on admission. Due to a lack of response he was subsequently treated with rituximab combined with activated prothrombin complex concentrates. Furthermore, he received azacytidine to treat the underlying hematological malignancies. Immunosuppressive rituximab therapy resolved acquired hemophilia A with marked efficacy. Rapid and accurate diagnosis, effective hemostatic therapy, and timely treatment for underlying disease are important in the management of acquired hemophilia A secondary to hematological malignancy.

  16. Idiopathic pulmonary hypertension causing acquired von Willebrand disease and menorrhagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokkary, Nancy A; Dietrich, Jennifer E; Venkateswaran, Lakshmi

    2011-10-01

    Von Willebrand disease (VWD) maybe inherited or acquired; both etiologies can be associated with heavy menstrual bleeding. Pulmonary arterial hypertension may result in acquired VWD due to the destruction of high molecular weight von Willebrand multimers. We report a case of menorrhagia due to acquired VWD in a patient with idiopathic pulmonary hypertension. An adolescent female with known idiopathic pulmonary hypertension developed acquired VWD. Her primary disease necessitates the use of platelet inhibitors and intermittent anticoagulation. At menarche she also developed menorrhagia due to acquired VWD. She is currently controlled with stimate and progesterone-only therapy. VWD in a patient with idiopathic pulmonary hypertension causing menorrhagia. Although VWD and menorrhagia are commonly linked, the treatment and disease process in a patient with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension is incredibly complex. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Walking dreams in congenital and acquired paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurat, Marie-Thérèse; Agbakou, Maité; Attigui, Patricia; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2011-12-01

    To test if dreams contain remote or never-experienced motor skills, we collected during 6 weeks dream reports from 15 paraplegics and 15 healthy subjects. In 9/10 subjects with spinal cord injury and in 5/5 with congenital paraplegia, voluntary leg movements were reported during dream, including feelings of walking (46%), running (8.6%), dancing (8%), standing up (6.3%), bicycling (6.3%), and practicing sports (skiing, playing basketball, swimming). Paraplegia patients experienced walking dreams (38.2%) just as often as controls (28.7%). There was no correlation between the frequency of walking dreams and the duration of paraplegia. In contrast, patients were rarely paraplegic in dreams. Subjects who had never walked or stopped walking 4-64 years prior to this study still experience walking in their dreams, suggesting that a cerebral walking program, either genetic or more probably developed via mirror neurons (activated when observing others performing an action) is reactivated during sleep. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Language aptitude: Desirable trait or acquirable attribute?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Singleton

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The traditional definition of language aptitude sees it as “an individual’s initial state of readiness and capacity for learning a foreign language, and probable facility in doing so given the presence of motivation and opportunity” (Carroll, 1981, p. 86. This conception portrays language aptitude as a trait, in the sense of exhibiting stability over long periods of time and being immune to training. The trait view of language aptitude tends towards the notion that it is innate, and indeed language aptitude has often been associated with the popular notion of a “gift for languages” (cf. Rosenthal, 1996, p. 59. The view of language aptitude as an innate trait has, however, long been questioned (see e.g., Neufeld, 1978. Recently, this questioning has intensified (see Singleton, 2014, especially since the development of a widespread consensus that working memory needs to be recognized as an important component of language aptitude (see Wen, 2016. Working memory was also once thought of as a trait, but is now recognized as susceptible to the influence of experience and instruction (see e.g., Williams, 2012. The present paper will track the trajectory of the above theoretical discussion and will explore the implications of the stage it has now reached.

  19. Brief group music therapy for acquired brain injury: cognition and emotional needs

    OpenAIRE

    Pool, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Injuries to the brain are the leading cause of permanent disability and death. Survivors of\\ud acquired brain injury (ABI) experience cognitive impairments and emotional problems.\\ud These often persist into community rehabilitation and are among the most significant needs\\ud for those in chronic stages of rehabilitation. There is a dearth of research providing\\ud evidence of music therapy addressing cognitive deficits and emotional needs in a holistic\\ud approach. This research answers the q...

  20. Residual fMRI sensitivity for identity changes in acquired prosopagnosia

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Christopher J.; Giuseppe eIaria; Bradley C Duchaine; Barton, Jason J.S.

    2013-01-01

    While a network of cortical regions contribute to face processing, the lesions in acquired prosopagnosia are highly variable, and likely result in different combinations of spared and affected regions of this network. To assess the residual functional sensitivities of spared regions in prosopagnosia, we designed a rapid event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment that included pairs of faces with same or different identities and same or different expressions. By meas...

  1. Acquired epidermodysplasia verruciformis in an HIV-positive patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Carmen; Acharya, Sashi; Arumainayagam, Joseph T; Kasparis, Christos; Dhesi, I

    2016-10-01

    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare dermatological manifestation of the human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, which causes distinctive skin lesions in sun-exposed areas. Both inherited and acquired forms exist. Immunocompromised individuals, such as HIV patients, are at risk of acquired EV. EV poses challenges in its management and variable responses are seen in different individuals. In addition, EV carries a significant risk of skin malignancy with certain HPV types that require skin surveillance. A case of acquired EV in a HIV-positive patient is presented in this report. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Impacts of Mergers and Acquisitions on Acquirer Banks’ Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhan Ali Shah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of mergers and acquisitions (M & A on the operating performance of the acquirer banks in Pakistan. For this purpose, a sample of 18 transactions, involving acquirer banks, listed on the Karachi Stock Exchange, is used. The Financial Ratio Analysis (FRA is used to determine the effects of M & A. The significance of change in the operating performances is tested through a paired sample t-test. The results indicate deterioration in the performances of the acquirer banks in the post-merger period.

  3. Acquired hemophilia A: an underdiagnosed, severe bleeding disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdziarska, Joanna; Musiał, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Acquired hemophilia is a rare bleeding disorder caused by autoantibodies that inhibit coagulation factor VIII. In most cases, it manifests with severe, often life‑threatening bleeds. Acquired hemophilia may be idiopathic or secondary to another condition, most commonly other autoimmune disease or cancer. Treatment is directed to stop bleeding and eradicate inhibitory autoantibodies. Like in most life‑threatening conditions, early diagnosis and treatment are essential for good prognosis. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of acquired hemophilia are constantly improving owing to the increasing availability of laboratory diagnostic tests and growing awareness of physicians of various specialties.

  4. Kelp growth experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, W. J.

    1980-01-01

    Harvest yields obtainable from giant kelp plants that are adequately fertilized were investigated. The following topics are discussed: desirable characteristics in a candidate macroalga, and giant kelp as a candidate macroalga for ocean farming. Nutrient requirements, field experiments, and approaches to acquiring yield data are reviewed. (MHR)

  5. Amphibians acquire resistance to live and dead fungus overcoming fungal immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Taegan A; Sears, Brittany F; Venesky, Matthew D; Bessler, Scott M; Brown, Jenise M; Deutsch, Kaitlin; Halstead, Neal T; Lentz, Garrett; Tenouri, Nadia; Young, Suzanne; Civitello, David J; Ortega, Nicole; Fites, J Scott; Reinert, Laura K; Rollins-Smith, Louise A; Raffel, Thomas R; Rohr, Jason R

    2014-07-10

    Emerging fungal pathogens pose a greater threat to biodiversity than any other parasitic group, causing declines of many taxa, including bats, corals, bees, snakes and amphibians. Currently, there is little evidence that wild animals can acquire resistance to these pathogens. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a pathogenic fungus implicated in the recent global decline of amphibians. Here we demonstrate that three species of amphibians can acquire behavioural or immunological resistance to B. dendrobatidis. Frogs learned to avoid the fungus after just one B. dendrobatidis exposure and temperature-induced clearance. In subsequent experiments in which B. dendrobatidis avoidance was prevented, the number of previous exposures was a negative predictor of B. dendrobatidis burden on frogs and B. dendrobatidis-induced mortality, and was a positive predictor of lymphocyte abundance and proliferation. These results suggest that amphibians can acquire immunity to B. dendrobatidis that overcomes pathogen-induced immunosuppression and increases their survival. Importantly, exposure to dead fungus induced a similar magnitude of acquired resistance as exposure to live fungus. Exposure of frogs to B. dendrobatidis antigens might offer a practical way to protect pathogen-naive amphibians and facilitate the reintroduction of amphibians to locations in the wild where B. dendrobatidis persists. Moreover, given the conserved nature of vertebrate immune responses to fungi and the fact that many animals are capable of learning to avoid natural enemies, these results offer hope that other wild animal taxa threatened by invasive fungi might be rescued by management approaches based on herd immunity.

  6. A Social Exclusion Manipulation Interacts with Acquired Capability for Suicide to Predict Self-Aggressive Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Jennifer L; Rogers, Megan L; Silva, Caroline; Ribeiro, Jessica D; Teale, Nadia E; Joiner, Thomas E

    2017-03-13

    The interpersonal theory of suicide posits that individuals who simultaneously experience high levels of thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and acquired capability for suicide are at high risk for a lethal or near-lethal suicide attempt. Although supported by self-report studies, no study has examined facets of the theory experimentally. The present study aimed to examine the belongingness and capability components of the theory by testing whether experimentally manipulated social exclusion interacts with self-reported acquired capability to predict higher self-administered shock levels on a self-aggression paradigm. A sample of 253 students completed self-report measures and were then randomly assigned to a social exclusion manipulation condition (future alone, future belonging, no feedback). Participants then participated in the self-aggression paradigm. The positive association between acquired capability and self-aggression was strongest among participants in the future alone social exclusion condition. In those assigned to the future belonging or no feedback conditions, the association between acquired capability and self-aggression was non-significant. These findings provide modest experimental support for the interpersonal theory of suicide and highlight a potential mechanism through which social exclusion may impact suicide risk. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.

  7. Yeasts acquire resistance secondary to antifungal drug treatment by adaptive mutagenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Quinto-Alemany

    Full Text Available Acquisition of resistance secondary to treatment both by microorganisms and by tumor cells is a major public health concern. Several species of bacteria acquire resistance to various antibiotics through stress-induced responses that have an adaptive mutagenesis effect. So far, adaptive mutagenesis in yeast has only been described when the stress is nutrient deprivation. Here, we hypothesized that adaptive mutagenesis in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans as model organisms would also take place in response to antifungal agents (5-fluorocytosine or flucytosine, 5-FC, and caspofungin, CSP, giving rise to resistance secondary to treatment with these agents. We have developed a clinically relevant model where both yeasts acquire resistance when exposed to these agents. Stressful lifestyle associated mutation (SLAM experiments show that the adaptive mutation frequencies are 20 (S. cerevisiae -5-FC, 600 (C. albicans -5-FC or 1000 (S. cerevisiae--CSP fold higher than the spontaneous mutation frequency, the experimental data for C. albicans -5-FC being in agreement with the clinical data of acquisition of resistance secondary to treatment. The spectrum of mutations in the S. cerevisiae -5-FC model differs between spontaneous and acquired, indicating that the molecular mechanisms that generate them are different. Remarkably, in the acquired mutations, an ectopic intrachromosomal recombination with an 87% homologous gene takes place with a high frequency. In conclusion, we present here a clinically relevant adaptive mutation model that fulfils the conditions reported previously.

  8. Immunosuppression for acquired hemophilia A: results from the European Acquired Haemophilia Registry (EACH2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Peter; Baudo, Francesco; Knoebl, Paul; Lévesque, Hervé; Nemes, László; Pellegrini, Fabio; Marco, Pascual; Tengborn, Lilian; Huth-Kühne, Angela

    2012-07-05

    Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is an autoimmune disease caused by an autoantibody to factor VIII. Patients are at risk of severe and fatal hemorrhage until the inhibitor is eradicated, and guidelines recommend immunosuppression as soon as the diagnosis has been made. The optimal immunosuppressive regimen is unclear; therefore, data from 331 patients entered into the prospective EACH2 registry were analyzed. Steroids combined with cyclophosphamide resulted in more stable complete remission (70%), defined as inhibitor undetectable, factor VIII more than 70 IU/dL and immunosuppression stopped, than steroids alone (48%) or rituximab-based regimens (59%). Propensity score-matched analysis controlling for age, sex, factor VIII level, inhibitor titer, and underlying etiology confirmed that stable remission was more likely with steroids and cyclophosphamide than steroids alone (odds ratio = 3.25; 95% CI, 1.51-6.96; P < .003). The median time to complete remission was approximately 5 weeks for steroids with or without cyclophosphamide; rituximab-based regimens required approximately twice as long. Immunoglobulin administration did not improve outcome. Second-line therapy was successful in approximately 60% of cases that failed first-line therapy. Outcome was not affected by the choice of first-line therapy. The likelihood of achieving stable remission was not affected by underlying etiology but was influenced by the presenting inhibitor titer and FVIII level.

  9. An extra X does not prevent acquired hemophilia - Pregnancy-associated acquired hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barg, Assaf A; Livnat, Tami; Kenet, Gili

    2017-03-01

    Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is a severe bleeding disorder caused by autoantibodies against clotting factor VIII (FVIII). With an estimated annual incidence of 1.3 to 1.5 per million, AHA is a rare disease. An extremely rare form of AHA has been described among women in the peripartum period, and may present with peripartum hemorrhage. Notably, although hemorrhagic symptoms commonly present 1-4 months around delivery, they may occur up to 1 year after parturition. When caring for a mother with AHA it is important to note that Factor VIII inhibitor may be transferred via the placenta from the mother to the fetus. Hence the newborn may also be affected. It is important to increase the awareness of Gynecologists for clinical symptoms and laboratory signs of AHA in order to avoid delayed diagnosis. Treatment may involve use of bypass agents to control hemorrhage, despite the risk of thrombosis, while immunomodulation (with increasing role for Rituximab) may be required to eradicate the inhibiting antibodies. Our review will evaluate the epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical course and treatment of peripartum AHA, focusing upon mother and infant care. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Management of bleeding in acquired hemophilia A: results from the European Acquired Haemophilia (EACH2) Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudo, Francesco; Collins, Peter; Huth-Kühne, Angela; Lévesque, Hervé; Marco, Pascual; Nemes, László; Pellegrini, Fabio; Tengborn, Lilian; Knoebl, Paul

    2012-07-05

    Acquired hemophilia A is a rare bleeding disorder caused by autoantibodies to coagulation FVIII. Bleeding episodes at presentation are spontaneous and severe in most cases. Optimal hemostatic therapy is controversial, and available data are from observational and retrospective studies only. The EACH2 registry, a multicenter, pan-European, Web-based database, reports current patient management. The aim was to assess the control of first bleeding episodes treated with a bypassing agent (rFVIIa or aPCC), FVIII, or DDAVP among 501 registered patients. Of 482 patients with one or more bleeding episodes, 144 (30%) received no treatment for bleeding; 31 were treated with symptomatic therapy only. Among 307 patients treated with a first-line hemostatic agent, 174 (56.7%) received rFVIIa, 63 (20.5%) aPCC, 56 (18.2%) FVIII, and 14 (4.6%) DDAVP. Bleeding was controlled in 269 of 338 (79.6%) patients treated with a first-line hemostatic agent or ancillary therapy alone. Propensity score matching was applied to allow unbiased comparison between treatment groups. Bleeding control was significantly higher in patients treated with bypassing agents versus FVIII/DDAVP (93.3% vs 68.3%; P = .003). Bleeding control was similar between rFVIIa and aPCC (93.0%; P = 1). Thrombotic events were reported in 3.6% of treated patients with a similar incidence between rFVIIa (2.9%) and aPCC (4.8%).

  11. Acquired inhibitors of coagulation factors: part I-acquired hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Antonio; Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Tufano, Antonella; Di Minno, Matteo N D; Cerbone, Anna Maria; Franchini, Massimo

    2012-07-01

    Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is a rare, but often severe, bleeding disorder caused by autoantibodies against clotting factor VIII (FVIII). AHA occurs more frequently in the elderly and in association with several conditions, such as malignancies, autoimmune diseases, postpartum, or drug exposure; however, about half of the cases remain idiopathic. At variance with congenital hemophilia, where hemarthroses are the most common bleeding symptoms, hemorrhages in AHA involving soft tissues (muscle, skin) are more frequently reported. AHA is diagnosed in patients: with negative personal or family bleeding history; in which prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time is not corrected after mixing and incubating equal volumes of patient and normal plasma for ~2 hours at 37°C; FVIII levels are reduced; and a specific FVIII-inhibiting activity is detected. Prompt recognition and treatment of AHA are mandatory, as inadequate management and complications of the disease are associated with high mortality rates. Therapeutic approaches should aim to control acute bleeds, eradicate FVIII-autoantibody production, treat associated diseases, and when possible, eliminate them. Present knowledge about this often overlooked and challenging condition has significantly increased following establishment of recent national and international studies, as will also be reviewed in this article. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Acquired Auditory Verbal Agnosia and Seizures in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Judith A.; Ferry, Peggy C.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents a review of cases of children with acquired aphasia with convulsive disorder and discusses clinical features of three additional children in whom the specific syndrome of auditory verbal agnosia was identified. (Author/CL)

  13. Coexisting Acquired Digital Fibrokeratoma and Dupuytren′s Contracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Pavithran

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available A 38 year old male developed acquired digital fibrokeratomas on the right hand associated with Dupuytren′s contracture on the left hand. The possible relationship between these two fibrodysplastic conditions is considered.

  14. Ceftobiprole medocaril in the treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeren, Thomas W. L.

    2015-01-01

    Ceftobiprole medocaril is a fifth-generation cephalosporin approved in Europe as single-agent therapy for hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), excluding ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). It is rapidly converted to the active metabolite ceftobiprole following intravenous administration.

  15. Acquired alopecia, mental retardation, short stature, microcephaly, and optic atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennekam, R. C.; Renckens-Wennen, E. G.

    1990-01-01

    We report on a female patient who had acquired total alopecia, short stature, microcephaly, optic atrophy, severe myopia, and mental retardation. A survey of published reports failed to show an identical patient, despite various similar cases

  16. The Impact of Hospital-Acquired Conditions on Medicare..

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in The Impact of Hospital-Acquired Conditions on Medicare Program Payments, published in Volume 4, Issue 4 of the Medicare and...

  17. Examination of the Accuracy of Coding Hospital-Acquired...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A new study, Examination of the Accuracy of Coding Hospital-Acquired Pressure Ulcer Stages, published in Volume 4, Issue 1 of the Medicare and Medicaid Research...

  18. Communicative Language Teaching enable students to acquire communicative competence

    OpenAIRE

    J.R.Nirmala; E.sugantha Ezhil Mary

    2011-01-01

    English is the language of international affairs, cultures and economic systems. It is a language of wider communication. The main aim of the learners is to acquire the target language but it can be acquired easily only if the language is made use of in our daily affairs. In order to achieve that target communicative language teaching, it focuses on the language competency of the target language .Knowledge of the structure of the language is equally important in order to learn the language.

  19. Adult-Onset Acquired Partial Lipodystrophy Accompanied by Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Muto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lipodystrophy is a group of metabolic disorders, possibly caused by autoimmune disease. In this report, we describe a case of adult-onset acquired partial lipodystrophy accompanied by rheumatoid arthritis without a family history. Interestingly, immunohistochemical staining revealed dense infiltration of IL-27-producing cells as well as MMP-7- and MMP-28-expressing cells, both of which have been reported to facilitate the development of autoimmune disease. Our present case might suggest possible mechanisms for acquired partial lipodystrophy.

  20. Pulmonary infiltrates during community acquired Gram-negative bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjeldsøe-Nielsen, Hans; Gjeraa, Kirsten; Berthelsen, Birgitte G

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to describe the frequency of pulmonary infiltrates on chest X-ray (CXR) during community acquired Gram-negative bacteremia at a single centre in Denmark.......The primary aim of this study was to describe the frequency of pulmonary infiltrates on chest X-ray (CXR) during community acquired Gram-negative bacteremia at a single centre in Denmark....

  1. A methodology for acquiring qualitative knowledge for probabilistic graphical models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Uffe Bro; Madsen, Anders L.

    2004-01-01

    We present a practical and general methodology that simplifies the task of acquiring and formulating qualitative knowledge for constructing probabilistic graphical models (PGMs). The methodology efficiently captures and communicates expert knowledge, and has significantly eased the model developm......We present a practical and general methodology that simplifies the task of acquiring and formulating qualitative knowledge for constructing probabilistic graphical models (PGMs). The methodology efficiently captures and communicates expert knowledge, and has significantly eased the model...

  2. [Differential diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis and community-acquired pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deĭkina, O N; Mishin, V Iu; Demikhova, O V

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to enhance the efficiency of differential diagnosis of pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis. A hundred and fifty-nine adult patients were examined. These included 78 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 81 with community-acquired p neumonia. The clinical features of infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis (n = 48) and mild community-acquired pneumonia (n = 51) were compared. The course of caseous pneumonia (n = 30) was compared with that of moderate and severe community-acquired pneumonia (n = 30). Significant differences in the manifestations of the intoxication and bronchopulmonary syndrome were not found in patients with community-acquired pneumonia and infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis. Physical studies showed that in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, moist rale (54.9%) and crepitation (11.8%) were prevalent, but in those with infiltrative tuberculosis rale was absent in 60.4% of cases and the pattern of respiration was unchanged in 79.2%. Chest X-ray studies indicated that in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, lower lobar inflammatory changes were predominant in 62.8% of cases whereas in those with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis the process was mainly bilateral (43.8%) with the presence of destructive changes (83.3%) and bronchogenic dissemination (66.7%). In patients with caseous pneumonia, the intoxication syndrome was more significant than in those with severe community-acquired pneumonia. Chest X-ray studies demonstrated that in patients with caseous pneumonia, specific changes were bilateral with the involvement of 2 lobes or more, with destruction and bronchogenic dissemination while in those with community-acquired pneumonia, the pulmonary processes were predominantly bilateral (76.6%) at the lower lobar site (36.7%).

  3. Intensive care unit-acquired weakness in the burn population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubitt, Jonathan J; Davies, Menna; Lye, George; Evans, Janine; Combellack, Tom; Dickson, William; Nguyen, Dai Q

    2016-05-01

    Intensive care unit-acquired weakness is an evolving problem in the burn population. As patients are surviving injuries that previously would have been fatal, the focus of treatment is shifting from survival to long-term outcome. The rehabilitation of burn patients can be challenging; however, a certain subgroup of patients have worse outcomes than others. These patients may suffer from intensive care unit-acquired weakness, and their treatment, physiotherapy and expectations need to be adjusted accordingly. This study investigates the condition of intensive care unit-acquired weakness in our burn centre. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all the admissions to our burn centre between 2008 and 2012 and identified 22 patients who suffered from intensive care unit-acquired weakness. These patients were significantly younger with significantly larger burns than those without intensive care unit-acquired weakness. The known risk factors for intensive care unit-acquired weakness are commonplace in the burn population. The recovery of these patients is significantly affected by their weakness. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Rituximab for eradicating inhibitors in people with acquired haemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan; Zhou, Ruiqing; Duan, Xin; Long, Dan

    2016-07-08

    Acquired haemophilia A is a rare bleeding disorder caused by the development of specific autoantibodies against coagulation factor VIII. Rituximab may be an alternative approach to the treatment of acquired haemophilia by eradicating FVIII autoantibodies. To assess and summarise the efficacy and adverse effects of rituximab for treating people with acquired haemophilia A. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's trials registers, comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and conference proceedings.Date of last search of the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's trials registers: 01 March 2016. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of rituximab for people with acquired hemophilia A, with no restrictions on gender, age or ethnicity. No trials matching the selection criteria were eligible for inclusion. No trials matching the selection criteria were eligible for inclusion. No randomised clinical trials of rituximab for acquired hemophilia A were found. Thus, based on the highest quality of evidence, we are not able to draw any conclusions or make any recommendations on rituximab for eradicating inhibitors in people with acquired haemophilia A. Given that undertaking randomised controlled trials in this field is a complex task, the authors suggest that, while planning such trials, clinicians treating the disease continue to base their choices on alternative, lower quality sources of evidence. The authors plan, for a future update of this review, to appraise and incorporate any randomised controlled trials, as well as other high-quality non-randomised studies.

  5. Demographic and clinical data in acquired hemophilia A: results from the European Acquired Haemophilia Registry (EACH2)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ...; Knoebl, P; Marco, P; Baudo, F; Collins, P; Huth-Kuhne, A; Nemes, L; Pellegrini, F; Tengborn, L; Levesque, H; Aspoek, G; Heistinger, M; Knobl, P; Makipernaa, A; Ane, H; Aouba, A; Bellucci, Sylvia; Beurrier, P; Borg, J.Y; Darnige, L; Devignes, J; D'Oiron, R; Gautier, P; Gay, V; Girault, S; Gruel, Y; Guerin, V; Hezard, N; Khellaf, M; Koenig, M; Lifermann, F; Marlu, R; Ninet, Jacques; Peynet, J; Quemeneur, T; Rothschild, C; Schleinitz, N; Sigaud, M; Trouillier, S; Voisin, S; Giebl, A; Holstein, K; Loreth, R.M; Steigerwald, U; Tiede, A; Theodossiades, G; Radvanyi, G; Schlammadinger, A; Barillari, G; Pasca, S; Caimi, T; Contino, L; Di Minno, G; Cerbone, A.M; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; D'inca, M; Falanga, A; Maggioni, A; Lerede, T; Franchini, M; Gaidano, G; De Paoli, L; Gamba, G; Ghirardi, R; Girotto, M; Tasca, D; Grandone, E; Tiscia, G; Imberti, D; Iorio, A; Landolfi, R; Di Gennaro, L; Novarese, L; Mariani, G; Lapecorella, M; Marietta, M; Peazzi, P; Mazzucconi, M.G; Santoro, C; Morfini, M; Linari, S; Moratelli, S; Paolini, R; Piseddu, G; Poggio, R; Pogliani, E; Carpenedo, M; Remiddi, C; Santagostino, E; Mancuso, Maria Elisa; Santoro, R; Papaleo, G; Schinco, P; Borchiellini, A; Valeri, Federica; Scortechini, A.R; Siragusa, Sergio; Sottilotta, G; Squizzato, A; Sartori, R; Tagariello, G

    2012-01-01

    Background: Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is a rare autoimmune disease caused by autoantibodies against coagulation factor VIII and characterized by spontaneous hemorrhage in patients with no previous family or personal history of bleeding...

  6. Homophily and the Speed of Social Mobilization: The Effect of Acquired and Ascribed Traits

    CERN Document Server

    Alstott, Jeff; Velu, Chander

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale mobilization of individuals across social networks is becoming increasingly prevalent in society. However, little is known about what affects the speed of social mobilization. Here we use a framed field experiment to identify and measure properties of individuals and their relationships that predict mobilization speed. We ran a global social mobilization contest and recorded personal traits of the participants and those they recruited. We studied the effects of ascribed traits (gender, age) and acquired traits (geography, and information source) on the speed of mobilization. We found that homophily, a preference for interacting with other individuals with similar traits, had a mixed role in social mobilization. Homophily was present for acquired traits, in which mobilization speed was faster when the recuiter and recruit had the same trait compared to different traits. In contrast, we did not find support for homophily for the ascribed traits. Instead, those traits had other, non-homophily effects...

  7. Caregiver wellbeing: an examination of the coping-appraisel process of caring for individuals with an acquired brain injury

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-12-09

    Objective: Previous literature has demonstrated empirical support for a stress process model of caregiving (Chronister & Chan, 2006). This study examined whether a coping–appraisal stress model helps in our understanding of the experience of caregiving for people with an acquired brain injury.\\r\

  8. Too Afraid to Learn? Attitudes towards Statistics as a Barrier to Learning Statistics and to Acquiring Quantitative Skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slootmaeckers, Koen; Kerremans, Bart; Adriaensen, J.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative skills are important for studying and understanding social reality. Political science students, however, experience difficulties in acquiring and retaining such skills. Fear of statistics has often been listed among the major causes for this problem. This study aims at understanding the

  9. Mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somenath Sarkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoparathyroidism is a disorder of calcium and phosphorus metabolism due to decreased secretion of parathyroid hormone. Hypoparathyroidism can be hereditary and acquired. Acquired hypoparathyroidism usually occurs following neck surgery (thyroid surgery or parathyroid surgery. Along with systemic manifestations, hypoparathyroidism produces some skin manifestations. Lack of study regarding mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism prompted us to undertake this study. To evaluate the mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism. An observational study done in a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata by comprehensive history taking, through clinical examination and relevant laboratory investigations. Twenty-one patients were included in the study. The commonest form of acquired hypoparathyroidism was neck surgery (thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy operation. Mucocutaneous manifestations were present in 76.19% of patients. The most frequent mucocutaneous manifestation was found in the hairs like the loss of axillary hair (61.9%, loss of pubic hair (52.38%, coarsening of body hair (47.62%, and alopecia areata (9.52%. The nail changes noted were brittle and ridged nail, followed by onycholysis, onychosezia, and onychomedesis. The most common skin features were xerotic skin in 11 patients (52.38%, followed by pellagra-like skin pigmentation, pustular psoriasis and acne form eruption, bullous impetigo, etc. Mucosa was normal in all the cases excepting the one which showed oral candidiasis.

  10. Connectionist neuropsychology: uncovering ultimate causes of acquired dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollams, Anna M

    2014-01-01

    Acquired dyslexia offers a unique window on to the nature of the cognitive and neural architecture supporting skilled reading. This paper provides an integrative overview of recent empirical and computational work on acquired dyslexia within the context of the primary systems framework as implemented in connectionist neuropsychological models. This view proposes that damage to general visual, phonological or semantic processing abilities are the root causes of different forms of acquired dyslexia. Recent case-series behavioural evidence concerning pure alexia, phonological dyslexia and surface dyslexia that supports this perspective is presented. Lesion simulations of these findings within connectionist models of reading demonstrate the viability of this approach. The commitment of such models to learnt representations allows them to capture key aspects of performance in each type of acquired dyslexia, particularly the associated non-reading deficits, the role of relearning and the influence of individual differences in the premorbid state of the reading system. Identification of these factors not only advances our understanding of acquired dyslexia and the mechanisms of normal reading but they are also relevant to the complex interactions underpinning developmental reading disorders.

  11. Does gender influence susceptibility and consequences of acquired epilepsies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perucca, Piero; Camfield, Peter; Camfield, Carol

    2014-12-01

    Gender differences in the incidence and clinical course of acquired and "cryptogenic" epilepsy are reviewed based on a literature search. We emphasized incidence and population-based studies because they are best suited to assess the effect of gender on susceptibility and clinical evolution of these epilepsies and may control for potential confounding factors. However, such studies were only available for a few acquired etiologies. These included tumor, prenatal and perinatal brain insults, cerebrovascular disease, infection, trauma, neurodegenerative disease, and autoimmune disorders. None of these acquired causes has been consistently shown to affect women or men to a greater or lesser degree, although some of the literature is contradictory or inadequate. There is almost no literature that addresses the effect of gender on the clinical course of epilepsy associated with these acquired causes. In addition, most studies of acquired causes do not take into account the incidence of the cause in the population with or without associated epilepsy. In children, "cryptogenic" epilepsy (non-syndromic and without causative MRI lesion) does not appear to have a gender preference and gender does not seem to affect the likelihood of remission. As further population-based studies of the etiology and clinical course of epilepsy are undertaken, it may be worthwhile to more specifically define the role of gender. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Two cases of acquired hemophilia A in elderly patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Tomoe; Morishita, Eriko; Asakura, Hidesaku; Nakao, Shinji

    2010-01-01

    Acquired hemophilia A is a rare bleeding diathesis caused by autoantibodies against clotting factor VIII. The incidence of acquired hemophilia A increases with age. We report two cases of acquired hemophilia A in elderly patients and their clinical characteristics. Case 1: A 66-year-old man was referred to our hospital with massive subcutaneous and intramuscular hemorrhage. Prolonged APTT, low factor VIII activity and factor VIII inhibitor with high titer (42 BU/ml ) were observed, confirming the diagnosis of acquired hemophilia A. His hemorrhages disappeared soon after 50 mg/day oral prednisolone was administered. Although early steroid withdrawal lead to repeated prolongation of APTT, the addition of 20 mg/day oral prednisolone successfully decreased the inhibitor titer. The underlying disease was not identified. Case 2: An 85-year-old man with advanced gastric cancer was referred to our division because of severe bleeding. His factor VIII inhibitor titer was 64 BU/ml . Activated prothrombin complex concentrates were used to control the bleeding. Initially, he did not seem to respond to 20 mg/day oral prednisolone, but a further 12 weeks of 20 mg/day prednisolone finally achieved normalization of his hemostatic parameters. Subsequently, he successfully underwent surgery for cancer. The responses to immunosuppressive therapy were very different in the two cases, probably because of the difference in the underlying diseases. The immunosuppressive therapy of acquired hemophilia A should be strictly tailored to the patient's characteristics to minimize treatment-related adverse effects.

  13. Getting lost: Topographic skills in acquired and developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrow, Jeffrey C; Corrow, Sherryse L; Lee, Edison; Pancaroglu, Raika; Burles, Ford; Duchaine, Brad; Iaria, Giuseppe; Barton, Jason J S

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies report that acquired prosopagnosia is frequently associated with topographic disorientation. Whether this is associated with a specific anatomic subtype of prosopagnosia, how frequently it is seen with the developmental variant, and what specific topographic function is impaired to account for this problem are not known. We studied ten subjects with acquired prosopagnosia from either occipitotemporal or anterior temporal (AT) lesions and seven with developmental prosopagnosia. Subjects were given a battery of topographic tests, including house and scene recognition, the road map test, a test of cognitive map formation, and a standardized self-report questionnaire. House and/or scene recognition were frequently impaired after either occipitotemporal or AT lesions in acquired prosopagnosia. Subjects with occipitotemporal lesions were also impaired in cognitive map formation: an overlap analysis identified right fusiform and parahippocampal gyri as a likely correlate. Only one subject with acquired prosopagnosia had mild difficulty with directional orientation on the road map test. Only one subject with developmental prosopagnosia had difficulty with cognitive map formation, and none were impaired on the other tests. Scores for house and scene recognition correlated most strongly with the results of the questionnaire. We conclude that topographic disorientation in acquired prosopagnosia reflects impaired place recognition, with a contribution from poor cognitive map formation when there is occipitotemporal damage. Topographic impairments are less frequent in developmental prosopagnosia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Science As A Second Language: Acquiring Fluency through Science Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, R.; EcoVoices Expedition Team

    2013-05-01

    Science Enterprises are problems that students genuinely want to solve, questions that students genuinely want to answer, that naturally entail reading, writing, investigation, and discussion. Engaging students in personally-relevant science enterprises provides both a diagnostic opportunity and a context for providing students the comprehensible input they need. We can differentiate instruction by creating science enterprise zones that are set up for the incremental increase in challenge for the students. Comprehensible input makes reachable, those just-out-of-reach concepts in the mix of the familiar and the new. EcoVoices takes students on field research expeditions within an urban natural area, the San Gabriel River Discovery Center. This project engages students in science enterprises focused on understanding ecosystems, ecosystem services, and the dynamics of climate change. A sister program, EcoVoces, has been launched in Mexico, in collaboration with the Universidad Loyola del Pacífico. 1) The ED3U Science Inquiry Model, a learning cycle model that accounts for conceptual change: Explore { Diagnose, Design, Discuss } Use. 2) The ¿NQUIRY Wheel, a compass of scientific inquiry strategies; 3) Inquiry Science Expeditions, a way of laying out a science learning environment, emulating a field and lab research collaboratory; 4) The Science Educative Experience Scale, a diagnostic measure of the quality of the science learning experience; and 5) Mimedia de la Ciencia, participatory enactment of science concepts using techniques of mime and improvisational theater. BACKGROUND: Science has become a vehicle for teaching reading, writing, and other communication skills, across the curriculum. This new emphasis creates renewed motivation for Scientists and Science Educators to work collaboratively to explore the common ground between acquiring science understanding and language acquisition theory. Language Acquisition is an informal process that occurs in the midst of

  15. Rare case of acquired haemophilia and lupus anticoagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Devika; Chatterjee, Tathagat; Sharma, Ajay; Ganguli, Prosenjit; Das, Satyaranjan; Sharma, Sanjeevan

    2014-09-01

    Acquired haemophilia or factor VIII (FVIII) deficiency, caused by FVIII inhibitor antibodies, is a very rare condition that commonly results in severe haemorrhagic complications. We report a case of acquired haemophilia presenting with multiple bluish patches affecting face, neck, upper & lower limbs, history of gum bleeding and left knee haemarthrosis. The patient was found to have acquired FVIII inhibitor and lupus anticoagulant (LAC). The simultaneous presence of LAC and FVIII inhibitor is exceedingly rare. The differentiation between these two conditions is crucial, because both result in a prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time test, which does not correct when mixed with the plasma of a normal control; however, the clinical manifestations range from thrombosis in the presence of LAC to massive haemorrhage with FVIII inhibitors.

  16. Ocular components before and after acquired, nonaccommodative esotropia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frane, S L; Sholtz, R I; Lin, W K; Mutti, D O

    2000-12-01

    Acquired nonaccommodative esotropia describes the sudden onset of a constant, comitant strabismus of idiopathic origin in children >6 months of age. We present a case of acquired nonaccommodative esotropia at 20 months of age in a subject participating in the Berkeley Infant Biometry Study, a longitudinal study of emmetropization and ocular component development in infants between 3 months and 3 years of age. Ocular components for this child were normal before the onset of strabismus (within 2 SD's of the mean for orthotropic study participants) for refractive error, corneal power, lens radii, lens power, and ocular axial dimensions. Refractive error postsurgically was significantly more hyperopic and crystalline lens power lower than average at +2.38 D and 37.2 D, respectively. The lack of abnormal ocular parameters is consistent with the idiopathic etiology of acute onset esotropia. This case suggests that ocular component values may not be useful for assessing the risk of acquired nonaccommodative esotropia.

  17. REVIEW OF A CASE OF CHILD WITH ACQUIRED APHASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana FILIPOVA

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Achieved children speech disabilities are manifested at certain level of development of speech from the age of 3 to 12 years. The speech disabilities with children from the age of one to three years have developmental and acquired characteristics. It is well-known when and why the disabilities occurr at acquired aphasia or disphasia.The child with acquired aphasia or disphasia has early brain impairements and a relative improvement happens with adequate treatment and prompt rehabilitation treatment. It is more obvious with children than with adults.This fast and complete rehabilitation happens due to the plastic character of child’s brain and the possibilities for intro-hemisphere and inter-hemisphere reorganization of speech functions in childhood.

  18. Decay of acquired colostral antibodies to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigre, Håkan; Sørensen, Vibeke; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to estimate the decay of acquired colostral antibodies to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 in pigs. Data were obtained from pigs in an isolated cohort of 47 pigs born to five sows seropositive to A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2. The pigs were examined...... serologically at 18 different times from birth until an age of about 22 weeks, using an A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2-specific blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody concentration was expressed as an OD% derived from the optical density of the sample and the median from eight wells without serum......-life of acquired colostral antibodies was approximately 2 weeks, but there was a considerable variation between pigs (half-life ranged from 1-3 weeks). The duration until acquired colostral antibodies were no longer detectable ranged from 2 weeks to 2 months postpartum among the pigs in the study, mainly depending...

  19. Narratives of athletic identity after acquiring a permanent physical disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Marie-José; Smith, Brett; Strachan, Shaelyn M; Latimer, Amy E

    2014-04-01

    Individuals with acquired physical disabilities report lower levels of athletic identity. The objective of this study was to further explore why athletic identity may be lost or (re)developed after acquiring a physical disability. Seven women and four men (range = 28-60 years) participated in approximately 1-hour-long semistructured interviews; data were subjected to a narrative analysis. The structural analysis revealed three narrative types. The nonathlete narrative described physical changes in the body as reasons for diminished athletic identity. The athlete as a future self primarily focused on present sport behavior and performance goals such that behavior changes diminished athletic identity. The present self as athlete narrative type focused on the aspects of their present sport involvement, such as feedback from other athletes and skill development, which supported their athletic identity. Implications of these narrative types with respect to sport promotion among people with acquired physical disabilities are discussed.

  20. Diagnosis and Treatment of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Karymdzhanov

    2016-02-01

    The initial antibiotic therapy of community-acquired pneumonia is carried out empirically. In the treatment of severe community-acquired pneumonia in children from 2 months to 5 years, the drug of choice is amoxicillin orally. Macrolides are the drugs of choice for children aged 5 to 16 years. In severe pneumonia, drugs of choice are amoxicillin clavulanate, 2nd–4th generation cephalosporins. In general, the duration of antibiotic therapy in the community-acquired pneumonia caused by typical bacteria is 7–10 days, by atypical bacteria — 10–14 days. In the real clinical practice, the errors associated with the choice of drug, route of administration, dosage, regimen of application, length of treatment are frequent during antibacterial therapy.

  1. Acquired dysarthria in conversation: methods of resolving understandability problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Steven; Wilkinson, Ray

    2011-01-01

    People with acquired progressive dysarthria typically experience increased problems with intelligibility in everyday conversation as their disease progresses. Such problems are likely to impact on both the person with dysarthria and those with whom they interact. If this is the case then we may ask questions not just about the nature of these problems but how it is that such problems are dealt with by participants when they occur. To investigate ways through which problems resulting from dysarthria in everyday conversation are resolved by participants. Further, to examine some of the features of repair resolution, particularly where understanding of self-repair attempts themselves prove difficult. Video data of natural conversation from two dyads were selected for this paper. One dyad features a 58 year-old man with multiple sclerosis and moderate intelligibility problems, the other a 79 year-old woman with motor neurone disease with mild to moderate intelligibility problems. Both elected to be recorded in conversation with their spouses. The dyads were video-recorded at home with no researcher present. Using the methods of Conversation Analysis (CA) a collection of sequences was identified and transcribed. The sequences were analysed with reference to how the participants resolve problems in the understanding of dysarthric speech. It is shown how some problems resulting from dysarthria in conversation can be resolved relatively quickly, particularly where a specific element of a prior turn is highlighted by the recipient as problematic. In other instances, the recipient's understanding problem may be more global. These result in longer repair sequences in which problematic elements are addressed individually. Such a resolution method is ultimately successful but may also be characterised by additional understanding problems. These findings draw attention to an important distinction between intelligibility and understandability. It is concluded that problems

  2. A Neural Basis for the Acquired Capability for Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopikrishna Deshpande

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The high rate of fatal suicidal behavior in men is an urgent issue as highlighted in the public eye via news sources and media outlets. In this study, we have attempted to address this issue and understand the neural substrates underlying the gender differences in the rate of fatal suicidal behavior. The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS has proposed an explanation for the seemingly paradoxical relationship between gender and suicidal behavior, i.e. greater non-fatal suicide attempts by women but higher number of deaths by suicide in men. This theory states that possessing suicidal desire (due to conditions such as depression alone is not sufficient for a lethal suicide attempt. It is imperative for an individual to have acquired the capability for suicide (ACS along with suicidal desire in order to die by suicide. Therefore, higher levels of ACS in men may explain why men are more likely to die by suicide than women, despite being less likely to experience suicidal ideation or depression. In this study, we used activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis to investigate a potential ACS network that involves neural substrates underlying emotional stoicism, sensation seeking, pain tolerance, and fearlessness of death along with a potential depression network that involves neural substrates that underlie clinical depression. Brain regions commonly found in ACS and depression networks for males and females were further used as seeds to obtain regions functionally and structurally connected to them. We found that the male-specific networks were more widespread and diverse than the female-specific ones. Also, while the former involved motor regions such as the premotor cortex and cerebellum, the latter was dominated by limbic regions. This may support the fact that suicidal desire generally leads to fatal/decisive action in males while in females, it manifests as depression, ideation and generally non-fatal actions. The proposed

  3. Recurrent stroke as a presenting feature of acquired partial lipodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namburi R Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired partial lipodystrophy (PL (Barraquer-Simons syndrome is a rare condition with onset in childhood, and it is characterized by progressive loss of subcutaneous fat in a cephalocaudal fashion. This report describes a case of acquired PL in a 16-year-old girl, who had progressive loss of facial fat since 3 years. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, anticardiolipin antibody, primary hypothyroidism, diabetes, and dyslipidemia may antedate the development of complications such as cerebrovascular stroke and cardiovascular disease. The girl had developed recurrent left hemiparesis, and withdrawn from school due to poor performance.

  4. [Anti-inflammatory drugs and community-acquired pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirou, S; Voiriot, G

    2015-10-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used in ambulatory medicine for their analgesic and antipyretic properties and are often used as self-medication. Their use in community-acquired pneumonia is associated with an increased risk of loco-regional complications, especially pleural empyema. Appropriate therapeutic care and hospital admissions are often delayed because of initial improvement of symptoms with NSAIDs. Despite worrying observational data, a causal link remains to be established. Currently, there is no recommendation cautioning against the use of NSAIDs in the management of community-acquired pneumonia. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Sahlgren's Saturation Test for acquired dyschromatopsia: increased lightness enhances sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, B; Wikholm, M; Frisén, L

    1988-01-01

    Sahlgren's Saturation Test (SST) is a simple sorting test designed for the detection and grading of acquired color vision defects. Like other pigment-based color vision tests, the SST color samples have medium lightness, i.e., they belong to the intermediate part of the gray scale. We tested normal controls and subjects with congenital or acquired dyschromatopsia with five SST versions that differed only in the amount of lightness. The sensitivity of the test increased considerably with increasing lightness. Therefore, the lightness level of SST has now been changed from 30 to 10 Natural Color System units.

  6. Acquired craniomeningocele in an infant with craniosynostosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdani Shahrooz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Craniosynostosis can affect the skull in various ways. The most common forms are abnormal skull shape and beaten copper pattern, while Lückenschädel (or lacunar skull is one of the least common forms. Case presentation We report the case of a 3-month-old Caucasian boy with multiple suture craniosynostosis and with acquired craniomeningocele presenting as a bulging mass in the lateral occipital area. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with multiple suture craniosynostosis and acquired craniomeningocele.

  7. SUCCESSFUL LONG TERM ERADICATION OF FACTOR VIII INHIBITOR IN PATIENTS WITH ACQUIRED HAEMOPHILIA A IN SAUDI ARABIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galila F Zaher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Acquired haemophilia A is a serious and potentially fatal bleeding disorder. Diagnosis is difficult and maybe delayed due to its rarity. The high mortality rate and the complex nature of treatment necessitate patient management at a haemophilia centre, where the required expertise and resources are available. Prompt diagnosis is crucial and early initiation of therapy could be life saving. Management includes initial control of bleeding followed by an approach to eradicate the coagulation factor inhibitor. In this paper we describe our local experience with acquired haemophilia A, which resulted in the successful control of major bleeding at presentation and eradication of inhibitors.

  8. SUCCESSFUL LONG TERM ERADICATION OF FACTOR VIII INHIBITOR IN PATIENTS WITH ACQUIRED HAEMOPHILIA A IN SAUDI ARABIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galila F Zaher

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Acquired haemophilia A is a serious and potentially fatal bleeding disorder. Diagnosis is difficult and maybe delayed due to its rarity. The high mortality rate and the complex nature of treatment necessitate patient management at a haemophilia centre, where the required expertise and resources are available. Prompt diagnosis is crucial and early initiation of therapy could be life saving. Management includes initial control of bleeding followed by an approach to eradicate the coagulation factor inhibitor. In this paper we describe our local experience with acquired haemophilia A, which resulted in the successful control of major bleeding at presentation and eradication of inhibitors.

  9. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization with n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate for the Treatment of Acquired Uterine Vascular Malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picel, Andrew C., E-mail: apicel@ucsd.edu [University of California, San Diego, Department of Radiology (United States); Koo, Sonya J. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Roberts, Anne C. [University of California, San Diego, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2016-08-15

    PurposeThe purpose of the study was to evaluate the technique and outcomes of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for the treatment of acquired uterine arteriovenous malformations (AVMs).Materials and methodsA retrospective review identified five women treated for suspected acquired uterine AVMs with TAE at our institution. Four women (80 %) presented with heavy or intermittent vaginal bleeding after obstetric manipulation. One woman (20 %) was treated for an incidental AVM discovered on ultrasound after an uncomplicated cesarean section. Three women underwent one embolization procedure and two women required two procedures. Embolization material included NBCA in six procedures (80 %) and gelatin sponge in one procedure (20 %).ResultsEmbolization resulted in angiographic stasis of flow in all seven procedures. Four women (80 %) presented with vaginal bleeding which was improved after treatment. One woman returned 24 days after unilateral embolization with recurrent bleeding, which resolved after retreatment. One woman underwent two treatments for an asymptomatic lesion identified on ultrasound. There were no major complications. Three women (60 %) experienced mild postembolization pelvic pain that was controlled with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Three women (60 %) had pregnancies and deliveries after embolization.ConclusionsTAE is a safe alternative to surgical therapy for acquired uterine AVMs with the potential to maintain fertility. Experience from this case series suggests that NBCA provides predictable and effective occlusion.

  10. Acquiring English as a second language via print: the task for deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmeister, Robert J; Caldwell-Harris, Catherine L

    2014-08-01

    Only a minority of profoundly deaf children read at age-level. We contend this reflects cognitive and linguistic impediments from lack of exposure to a natural language in early childhood, as well as the inherent difficulty of learning English only through the written modality. Yet some deaf children do acquire English via print. The current paper describes a theoretical model of how children could, in principle, acquire a language via reading and writing. The model describes stages of learning which represent successive, conceptual insights necessary for second/foreign language learning via print. Our model highlights the logical difficulties present when one cannot practice a language outside of reading/writing, such as the necessity of translating to a first language, the need for explicit instruction, and difficulty that many deaf children experience in understanding figurative language. Our model explains why learning to read is often a protracted process for deaf children and why many fail to make progress after some initial success. Because language acquisition is thought to require social interaction, with meaning cued by extralinguistic context, the ability of some deaf individuals to acquire language through print represents an overlooked human achievement worthy of greater attention by cognitive scientists. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization with n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate for the Treatment of Acquired Uterine Vascular Malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picel, Andrew C; Koo, Sonya J; Roberts, Anne C

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the technique and outcomes of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for the treatment of acquired uterine arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). A retrospective review identified five women treated for suspected acquired uterine AVMs with TAE at our institution. Four women (80 %) presented with heavy or intermittent vaginal bleeding after obstetric manipulation. One woman (20 %) was treated for an incidental AVM discovered on ultrasound after an uncomplicated cesarean section. Three women underwent one embolization procedure and two women required two procedures. Embolization material included NBCA in six procedures (80 %) and gelatin sponge in one procedure (20 %). Embolization resulted in angiographic stasis of flow in all seven procedures. Four women (80 %) presented with vaginal bleeding which was improved after treatment. One woman returned 24 days after unilateral embolization with recurrent bleeding, which resolved after retreatment. One woman underwent two treatments for an asymptomatic lesion identified on ultrasound. There were no major complications. Three women (60 %) experienced mild postembolization pelvic pain that was controlled with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Three women (60 %) had pregnancies and deliveries after embolization. TAE is a safe alternative to surgical therapy for acquired uterine AVMs with the potential to maintain fertility. Experience from this case series suggests that NBCA provides predictable and effective occlusion.

  12. Perceived factors in return to work after acquired brain injury: A qualitative meta-synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frostad Liaset, Ingeborg; Lorås, Håvard

    2016-11-01

    A substantial proportion of survivors after brain injuries originating from trauma, tumour, or stroke may experience reduced ability to work due to a number of challenges. The purpose of this review is to summarize and highlight factors that have been perceived and reported as important in order to return to work after an acquired brain injury. A qualitative ethnographic meta-synthesis is used to interpret and develop concepts from studies retrieved from systematic searches in the electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, and ISI Web of Science. A total of 16 studies were included in the meta-synthesis. Four key concepts were identified as important for return to work after an acquired brain injury: empowerment, self-awareness, motivation, and facilitation. The results of the meta-synthesis indicate that personal development is experienced as essential in order to return to work after an acquired brain injury, involving identification of each individual's strengths and weaknesses. These personal factors intersect with an emphasis of the employer providing a certain degree of facilitation in the workplace. All of these aspects will affect one's motivation to return to work and can therefore be crucial to succeed.

  13. Residual fMRI sensitivity for identity changes in acquired prosopagnosia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Fox

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available While a network of cortical regions contribute to face processing, the lesions in acquired prosopagnosia are highly variable, and likely result in different combinations of spared and affected regions of this network. To assess the residual functional sensitivities of spared regions in prosopagnosia, we designed a rapid event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiment that included pairs of faces with same or different identities and same or different expressions. By measuring the release from adaptation to these facial changes we determined the residual sensitivity of face-selective regions-of-interest. We tested three patients with acquired prosopagnosia, and all three of these patients demonstrated residual sensitivity for facial identity changes in surviving fusiform and occipital face areas of either the right or left hemisphere, but not in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus. The patients also showed some residual capabilities for facial discrimination with normal performance on the Benton Facial Recognition Test, but impaired performance on more complex tasks of facial discrimination. We conclude that fMRI can demonstrate residual processing of facial identity in acquired prosopagnosia, that this adaptation can occur in the same structures that show similar processing in healthy subjects, and further, that this adaptation may be related to behavioral indices of face perception.

  14. Development of acquired hemophilia A during treatment of multiple myeloma with lenalidomide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saburi, Masuho; Ohtsuka, Eiichi; Itani, Kazuhito; Nagamatsu, Kentarou; Ikebe, Taichi; Miyazaki, Yasuhiko; Ogata, Masao; Saburi, Yoshio

    2015-05-01

    We describe a 67-year-old female demonstrating symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM) with anemia and bone lesions initially diagnosed in 2009. Although a partial response was achieved after bortezomib and dexamethasone treatment, MM recurred in 2012. Therefore, treatment with lenalidomide, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone was commenced. Coagulation tests conducted prior to the chemotherapy were normal. Lenalidomide was discontinued after 10 days due to exacerbation of renal dysfunction. Simultaneously, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) was prolonged to 89.5 seconds. The mixing test showed an inhibitor pattern, with factor VIII at 2% and factor VIII inhibitor at 4.85 BU/ml. A diagnosis of acquired hemophilia A was made, and treatment with prednisolone was started, after which APTT improved to 36.4 seconds and factor VIII inhibitor decreased to 1.09 BU/ml. The factor VIII inhibitor level again increased concomitantly with restarting lenalidomide, which was, therefore, discontinued, while immunosuppressive therapy was administered with the addition of cyclophosphamide. Factor VIII inhibitor gradually disappeared from the patient's blood over the next four months. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of lenalidomide as a possible cause of acquired hemophilia A. Our experience indicates that we need to pay attention to acquired hemophilia A after initiating lenalidomide therapy in patients with hematologic malignancies.

  15. Influence of violent video gaming on determinants of the acquired capability for suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teismann, Tobias; Förtsch, Eva-Maria A D; Baumgart, Patrick; Het, Serkan; Michalak, Johannes

    2014-01-30

    The interpersonal theory of suicidal behavior proposes that fearlessness of death and physical pain insensitivity is a necessary requisite for self-inflicted lethal self-harm. Repeated experiences with painful and provocative events are supposed to cause an incremental increase in acquired capability. The present study examined whether playing a first-person shooter-game in contrast to a first-person racing game increases pain tolerance, a dimension of the acquired capability construct, and risk-taking behavior, a risk factor for developing acquired capability. N=81 male participants were randomly assigned to either play an action-shooter or a racing game before engaging in a game on risk-taking behavior and performing a cold pressor task (CPT). Participants exhibited higher pain tolerance after playing an action shooter game than after playing a racing game. Furthermore, playing an action shooter was generally associated with heightened risk-taking behavior. Group-differences were not attributable to the effects of the different types of games on self-reported mood and arousal. Overall these results indicate that action-shooter gaming alters pain tolerance and risk-taking behavior. Therefore, it may well be that long-term consumption of violent video games increases a person's capability to enact lethal self-harm. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Seeing the sound after visual loss: functional MRI in acquired auditory-visual synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Zixin; Hsieh, Po-Jang; Milea, Dan

    2017-02-01

    Acquired auditory-visual synesthesia (AVS) is a rare neurological sign, in which specific auditory stimulation triggers visual experience. In this study, we used event-related fMRI to explore the brain regions correlated with acquired monocular sound-induced phosphenes, which occurred 2 months after unilateral visual loss due to an ischemic optic neuropathy. During the fMRI session, 1-s pure tones at various pitches were presented to the patient, who was asked to report occurrence of sound-induced phosphenes by pressing one of the two buttons (yes/no). The brain activation during phosphene-experienced trials was contrasted with non-phosphene trials and compared to results obtained in one healthy control subject who underwent the same fMRI protocol. Our results suggest, for the first time, that acquired AVS occurring after visual impairment is associated with bilateral activation of primary and secondary visual cortex, possibly due to cross-wiring between auditory and visual sensory modalities.

  17. The Man Who Mistook His Neuropsychologist For a Popstar: When Configural Processing Fails in Acquired Prosopagnosia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok eJansari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of an individual with acquired prosopagnosia who experiences extreme difficulties in recognising familiar faces in everyday life despite excellent object recognition skills. Formal testing indicates that he is also severely impaired at remembering pre-experimentally unfamiliar faces and that he takes an extremely long time to identify famous faces and to match unfamiliar faces. Nevertheless, he performs as accurately and quickly as controls at identifying inverted familiar and unfamiliar faces and can recognise famous faces from their external features. He also performs as accurately as controls at recognising famous faces when fracturing conceals the configural information in the face. He shows evidence of impaired global processing but normal local processing of Navon figures. This case appears to reflect the clearest example yet of an acquired prosopagnosic patient whose familiar face recognition deficit is caused by a severe configural processing deficit in the absence of any problems in featural processing. These preserved featural skills together with apparently intact visual imagery for faces allow him to identify a surprisingly large number of famous faces when unlimited time is available. The theoretical implications of this pattern of performance for understanding the nature of acquired prosopagnosia are discussed.

  18. Acquired Codes of Meaning in Data Visualization and Infographics: Beyond Perceptual Primitives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Lydia; Angus, Daniel; Wiles, Janet

    2016-01-01

    While information visualization frameworks and heuristics have traditionally been reluctant to include acquired codes of meaning, designers are making use of them in a wide variety of ways. Acquired codes leverage a user's experience to understand the meaning of a visualization. They range from figurative visualizations which rely on the reader's recognition of shapes, to conventional arrangements of graphic elements which represent particular subjects. In this study, we used content analysis to codify acquired meaning in visualization. We applied the content analysis to a set of infographics and data visualizations which are exemplars of innovative and effective design. 88% of the infographics and 71% of data visualizations in the sample contain at least one use of figurative visualization. Conventions on the arrangement of graphics are also widespread in the sample. In particular, a comparison of representations of time and other quantitative data showed that conventions can be specific to a subject. These results suggest that there is a need for information visualization research to expand its scope beyond perceptual channels, to include social and culturally constructed meaning. Our paper demonstrates a viable method for identifying figurative techniques and graphic conventions and integrating them into heuristics for visualization design.

  19. Witchcraft or mycotoxin? The Salem witch trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, A

    2000-01-01

    The Salem witchcraft trials of 1692 have been studied by many historians looking for the complex social, political, and psychological determinants behind the community-wide hysteria that led to a travesty of justice and the deaths of 20 innocent Puritans. Recently, ergot poisoning has been put forth by some as a previously unsuspected cause of the bizarre behaviors of the young adolescent girls who accused the townsfolk of witchcraft. In this essay the circumstances behind the ergot poisoning theory for this historical event are described. When the evidence is weighed carefully both pro and con, it seems unlikely that ergotism explains much of what went on in colonial Salem.

  20. Witches in the work of Hieronymus Bosch

    OpenAIRE

    Castell, Pau

    2016-01-01

    A cavall dels segles XV i XVI, la creença en la nova secta de les bruixes es va estendre per la zona del centre i el sud d’Europa, fet que va provocar intensos debats intel·lectuals alimentats per les noves reflexions demonològiques i va desencadenar una sèrie d’actuacions judicials per part de tribunals laics i eclesiàstics contra els suposats membres d’aquella confabulació diabòlica. Aquest fenomen va tenir també el seu reflex en la vessant artística, amb l’aparició i la difusió d’un...

  1. Witches howl on New Year's Eve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Liselotte

    1997-01-01

    This paper is about the therapeutic process and technique in psychotehrapy with deprived children. The need to monitor as a coherent whole both the broader environmental setting and the movements of the transference is illustrated by clinical material. It is concluded that a) the child's attack o...

  2. Childhood acquired heart diseases in Jos, north central Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only one case each of endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF) and Kawasaki Disease were seen during the period. Conclusions: The majority of childhood acquired heart diseases in our environment are still of infectious aeitology, with RHD remaining the most frequent, particularly in older children. Community-based screening ...

  3. Barriers to acquiring English reading and writing skills by Zulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reflects on an investigation into the barriers that hinder Zulu-speaking. English second language (L2) learners in the Foundation Phase from acquiring reading and writing skills. These barriers are categorised as contextual, language, school and intrinsic learner factors. A questionnaire based on these categories ...

  4. Etiology and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of community-acquired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Streptomycin showed the highest susceptibility to bacteria isolates while the least susceptibility was observed with augmentin. Rational use of antibiotics with regular antibiotics susceptibility surveillance studies is recommended to maintain high antibiotic therapeutic profile. Keywords: Community-acquired urinary tract ...

  5. A Corpus-Based Comparative Study of "Learn" and "Acquire"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bei

    2016-01-01

    As an important yet intricate linguistic feature in English language, synonymy poses a great challenge for second language learners. Using the 100 million-word British National Corpus (BNC) as data and the software Sketch Engine (SkE) as an analyzing tool, this article compares the usage of "learn" and "acquire" used in natural…

  6. Incidence of pulmonary mycoses in patients with acquired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidence of pulmonary mycoses in patients with acquired immunodeficiency diseases. ... Test and control samples were cultured on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and Potato Dextrose Agar and incubated at 37 C and room temperatures respectively with daily observation for growth for 2 weeks. Cultural and morphological ...

  7. Telerehabilitation, Virtual Therapists, and Acquired Neurologic Speech and Language Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Cherney, Leora R.; van Vuuren, Sarel

    2012-01-01

    Telerehabilitation (telererehab) offers cost effective services that potentially can improve access to care for those with acquired neurologic communication disorders. However, regulatory issues including licensure, reimbursement, and threats to privacy and confidentiality hinder the routine implementation of telerehab services into the clinical setting. Despite these barriers, rapid technological advances and a growing body of research regarding the use of telerehab applications support its ...

  8. Antibiotic Treatment Strategies for Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Douwe F.; Van Werkhoven, Cornelis H.; Van Elden, Leontine J R; Thijsen, Steven F T; Hoepelman, Andy I M; Kluytmans, Jan A J W; Boersma, Wim G.; Compaijen, Clara J.; Van Der Wall, Eva; Prins, Jan M.; Oosterheert, Jan J.; Bonten, Marc J M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The choice of empirical antibiotic treatment for patients with clinically suspected community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) who are admitted to non-intensive care unit (ICU) hospital wards is complicated by the limited availability of evidence. We compared strategies of empirical treatment

  9. etiology and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of community-acquired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sheyin et. al

    the infection. It occurs mostly in women and caused by. Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of urinary tract infection among ... Staphylococcus spp. (Prakash and Saxena, 2013). Community- acquired UTIs occur mostly in women and are mostly caused by Escherichia coli (Finkelstein et al., ...

  10. Treatment of pharyngocutaneous fistula acquired from incisions and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment of pharyngocutaneous fistula acquired from incisions and drainage of deep neck space abscess in a patient with occult third branchial anomaly. ... We did surgical exploration to excise and close the fistula but only succeeded at the second attempt. Conclusion: We conclude that branchial apparatus anomaly ...

  11. 'Atypical' bacteria are a common cause of community-acquired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To assess the proportion of cases of community· acquired pneumonia caused by 'atypical' bacteria, inclUding the recently discovered Chlamydia pneumoniae, and to compare the clinical, radiographic and laboratory features of patients with and without 'atypical' bacteria. Methods. A prospective serological ...

  12. Childhood acquired heart disease in Nigeria: an echocardiographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Acquired heart diseases (AHD) are not uncommon in children. The current multi-center study aims to provide a more representative data of AHD in Nigeria. Methods: Over 42 months, children referred for echocardiographic evaluation who had confirmed AHD in three centers in Nigeria were recruited. The data ...

  13. Acquiring Software Design Schemas: A Machine Learning Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harandi, Mehdi T.; Lee, Hing-Yan

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an approach based on machine learning that acquires software design schemas from design cases of existing applications. An overview of the technique, design representation, and acquisition system are presented. the paper also addresses issues associated with generalizing common features such as biases. The generalization process is illustrated using an example.

  14. Learning through Business Games: Acquiring Competences within Virtual Realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortmuller, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The didactic function of business games is often seen only in the development of sociocommunicative competences and general problem-solving strategies. An equally important aspect of business games lies in the acquirement of technical and problem-oriented knowledge, which is the focus of this article. Moreover, this knowledge dimension is further…

  15. Cutaneous myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis acquired in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veraldi, S; Francia, C; Persico, M C; La Vela, V

    2009-12-01

    The authors describe a case of cutaneous myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis in a 23-year-old Italian woman who contracted the infestation during a tour in Jamaica. The infestation was located on the back and was characterized clinically by a single inflammatory nodule. To our knowledge, this is the first case of cutaneous myiasis due to Dermatobia hominis acquired in Jamaica.

  16. Acquired extrahepatic portosystemic shunts in a young dog

    OpenAIRE

    Agg, Emma J.

    2006-01-01

    A young, male miniature poodle was presented with severe neurological problems. Laboratory tests and ultrasonograph examination were consistent with extrahepatic portosystemic shunts, resulting in hepatic encephalopathy. When surgical correction proved not to be a viable option, the dog was euthanized. Postmortem examination revealed multiple shunts likely acquired after severe hepatitis.

  17. Staphylococcus aureus strategies to evade the host acquired immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmann, Oliver; Medina, Eva

    2017-09-15

    Staphylococcus aureus poses a significant public-health problem. Infection caused by S. aureus can manifest as acute or long-lasting persistent diseases that are often refractory to antibiotic and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. To develop more effective strategies for preventing or treating these infections, it is crucial to understand why the immune response is incapable to eradicate the bacterium. When S. aureus first infect the host, there is a robust activation of the host innate immune responses. Generally, S. aureus can survive this initial interaction due to the expression of a wide array of virulence factors that interfere with the host innate immune defenses. After this initial interaction the acquired immune response is the arm of the host defenses that will try to clear the pathogen. However, S. aureus is capable of maintaining infection in the host even in the presence of a robust antigen-specific immune response. Thus, understanding the mechanisms underlying the ability of S. aureus to escape immune surveillance by the acquired immune response will help uncover potentially important targets for the development of immune-based adjunctive therapies and more efficient vaccines. There are several lines of evidence that lead us to believe that S. aureus can directly or indirectly disable the acquired immune response. This review will discuss the different immune evasion strategies used by S. aureus to modulate the different components of the acquired immune defenses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Idiopathic Acquired Hemophilia A with Undetectable Factor VIII Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas B. Abt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We present the case of a 73-year-old female, with no family or personal history of a bleeding disorder, who had a classic presentation for acquired hemophilia A. Factor VIII activity was low but detectable and a factor VIII inhibitor was undetectable. Methods. The patient’s plasma was comprehensively studied to determine the cause of the acquired coagulopathy. Using the Nijmegen modification of the Bethesda assay, no factor VIII autoantibody was measureable despite varying the incubation time from 1 to 3 hours. Results. The aPTT was prolonged at 46.8 seconds, which did not correct in the 4 : 1 mix but did with 1 : 1 mix. Using a one stage factor VIII activity assay, the FVIII activity was 16% and chromogenic FVIII activity was also 16%. The patient was treated with recombinant FVII and transfusion, significantly reducing bleeding. Long-term therapy was initiated with cyclophosphamide and prednisone with normalization of FVIII activity. Conclusions. Physicians can be presented with the challenging clinical picture of an acquired factor VIII inhibitor without a detectable inhibitor by the Bethesda assay. Standard therapy for an acquired hemophilia A should be considered.

  19. Excess mortality in women with hospital-acquired bloodstream infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibovici, L; Paul, M; Weinberger, M; Koenigsberger, H; Drucker, M; Samra, Z; Yahav, J; Pitlik, S D

    2001-08-01

    We examined the outcomes of bloodstream infection in men and in women and whether any sex-related differences were explained by underlying disorders, severity of disease, or clinical management. Using a prospectively collected database, we compared in-hospital mortality in men and women. We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to test whether sex-related differences could be due to potential confounders. Of 4250 patients with bloodstream infections, 1750 (41%) had hospital-acquired infections. The overall case fatality was 31% (625 of 2032) in women and 29% (631 of 2218, P = 0.1) in men. However, 43% (325/758) of the women with hospital-acquired infections died, compared with 33% (327/992) of the men (P = 0.0001). In a multivariate analysis, female sex was associated with greater mortality in patients with hospital-acquired infections (odds ratio = 1.7; 95% confidence interval: 1.1 to 2.6). The excess mortality in women was mainly seen in patients with major underlying disorders (fatality rate of 45% [234 of 525] in women vs. 32% in men [234 of 743, P = 0.0001). Mortality in women with hospital-acquired bloodstream infections is substantially greater than in men. The excess mortality was concentrated in women with severe underlying disorders, suggesting that sepsis might have accentuated differences in the outcome of underlying disorders in women.

  20. School Reentry for Children with Acquired Central Nervous Systems Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Joan; Porter, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Onset of acquired central nervous system (CNS) injury during the normal developmental process of childhood can have impact on cognitive, behavioral, and motor function. This alteration of function often necessitates special education programming, modifications, and accommodations in the education setting for successful school reentry. Special…

  1. Structural characterization and lipid composition of acquired cholesteatoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Maria; Svane-Knudsen, Viggo; Sørensen, Jens A

    2012-01-01

    , evaluation of Nile red and LAURDAN generalized polarization function images of the cholesteatoma show intercellular regions similar to normal skin stratum corneum in terms of lipid membrane packing and local water content. CONCLUSION: The investigations show the presence of an extremely thickened stratum...... is a suitable noninvasive tool for investigating the morphology and intrinsic physical properties of acquired cholesteatoma....

  2. The Sensitivity Status of Community-Acquired Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    for this discrepancy may be attributed to the high levels of antibiotic misuse and abuse, lack of proper policies on antibiotics use and the uncontrolled distribution of these agents in Nigeria. Table 1: Community acquired Staph. aureus isolates from various infectious sites. Specimens. Total number of samples. Staph aureus.

  3. Pathology of the thoracic wall: congenital and acquired

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Pena, Pilar; Barber, Ignasi [Hospital Materno-Infantil, Pediatric Radiology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    This review aims to cover the main congenital and acquired lesions that arise in the thoracic wall of infants and children. Imaging often plays an essential role in the evaluation of symptomatic and asymptomatic thoracic wall abnormalities. The use of appropriate imaging modalities for each condition will be addressed, as well as the range of benign and malignant conditions that can occur. (orig.)

  4. Multinational Exploration of Acquired R&D Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey of 54 Danish multinational corporations that haveacquired activities abroad. The role of the acquired R&D units was the focus of the survey,particularly with respect to the schism between basic and applied R&D, and the schismbetween autonomous and network...

  5. Patients' Hand Washing and Reducing Hospital-Acquired Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverstick, Stacy; Goodrich, Cara; Freeman, Regi; James, Shandra; Kullar, Rajkiran; Ahrens, Melissa

    2017-06-01

    Hand hygiene is important to prevent hospital-acquired infections. Patients' hand hygiene is just as important as hospital workers' hand hygiene. Hospital-acquired infection rates remain a concern across health centers. To improve patients' hand hygiene through the promotion and use of hand washing with soap and water, hand sanitizer, or both and improve patients' education to reduce hospital-acquired infections. In August 2013, patients in a cardiothoracic postsurgical step-down unit were provided with individual bottles of hand sanitizer. Nurses and nursing technicians provided hand hygiene education to each patient. Patients completed a 6-question survey before the intervention, at hospital discharge and 1, 2, and 3 months after the intervention. Hospital-acquired infection data were tracked monthly by infection prevention staff. Significant correlations were found between hand hygiene and rates of infection with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (P = .003) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (P = .01) after the intervention. After the implementation of hand hygiene interventions, rates of both infections declined significantly and patients reported more staff offering opportunities for and encouraging hand hygiene. This quality improvement project demonstrates that increased hand hygiene compliance by patients can influence infection rates in an adult cardiothoracic step-down unit. The decreased infection rates and increased compliance with hand hygiene among the patients may be attributed to the implementation of patient education and the increased accessibility and use of hand sanitizer. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  6. Intensive care unit-acquired weakness : Pathophysiology and diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, E.

    2017-01-01

    Many patients on the intensive care unit (ICU) develop generalized muscle weakness. This condition, called intensive care unit- acquired weakness (ICU-AW), is caused by dysfunction or damage of muscles, nerves, or both. ICU-AW is associated with increased short- and long-term morbidity and

  7. Aphasia, an acquired language disor | Schoeman | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aphasia, an acquired language disor. ... estimated one in every 272 South Africans, or 0.37% of the population, aphasia is a neurological condition described as “any disturbance in the comprehension or expression of language caused by a brain lesion”. ... Keywords: aphasia; language disorder; approach; Broca; Wernick ...

  8. versus healthcare-acquired bloodstream infections at Groote Schuur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing antibiotic resistance complicates treatment of infections, in some cases seriously diminishing the ... The considerable antibiotic resistance of healthcare-acquired pathogens highlights the importance of infection ..... culture submission practices over time may have an impact on these reported susceptibility results.

  9. Bacteriology of urinary tract infection among patients with acquired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteriology of urinary tract infection among patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Jos, Nigeria. GTA Jombo, DZ Egah, JA Ayeni, EB Banwat, JA Ayeni. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Medicine Vol. 14(4) October-December 2005: 422-424. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  10. Acquired tubercular bronchoesophageal fistula in a hemophiliac child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Bothra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Acquired bronchoesophageal fistula in children is usually a late diagnosis, due to the rarity of the condition. The diagnosis was further complicated by presence of multiple co-morbid conditions. We would like to emphasize the importance of tackling the co-morbid factors strategically along with the surgical aspects in this case report.

  11. Amazing Stories: Acquiring and Avoiding Inaccurate Information from Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, David N.; Hinze, Scott R.; Slaten, Daniel G.; Horton, William S.

    2014-01-01

    Authors of fiction need not provide accurate accounts of the world, which might generate concern about the kinds of information people can acquire from narratives. Research has demonstrated that readers liberally encode and rely upon the information provided in fictional stories. To date, materials used to demonstrate these effects have largely…

  12. An unusual ocular presentation of acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunachalam Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old male who presented with bilateral keratomalacia and on subsequent evaluation was found to be human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive is being reported. A MEDLINE search of the literature did not reveal any report of keratomalacia as the initial presenting feature of HIV/ acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

  13. Community-acquired Haemophilus influenzae meningitis in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, M. C.; van de Beek, D.; Heckenberg, S. G. B.; Spanjaard, L.; de Gans, J.

    2007-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is an uncommon cause of bacterial meningitis in adults. This report describes a prospective evaluation of 16 episodes of community-acquired H. influenzae meningitis in a nationwide study on bacterial meningitis. Predisposing conditions were present in eight (50%) of the 16

  14. Grief and Needs of Adults with Acquired Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Shirley A.; McKay, Robert C.; Nieuwoudt, Johan M.

    2010-01-01

    This report aims to illuminate the complex phenomenon of grief and the needs experienced throughout the time course of their impairments by adults with acquired visual impairments. The study applied a phenomenological research strategy using 10 case studies of South African adults, visually impaired within and beyond six years. Qualitative…

  15. New horizons in hospital acquired pneumonia in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewan, Victoria; Hellyer, Thomas; Newton, Julia; Simpson, John

    2017-05-01

    Approximately 1.5% of hospital patients develop hospital acquired pneumonia. Aspiration is the major risk factor for pneumonia and is associated with reduced ability to mechanically clear respiratory pathogens into the stomach. Currently non-invasive methods of diagnosing hospital acquired pneumonia are less robust than invasive methods, and lead to over-diagnosis. Accurate diagnosis is key to surveillance, prevention and treatment of HAP, and also to improving outcomes; newer imaging modalities such as phase contrast X-ray imaging and nanoparticle enhanced magnetic resonance imaging may help. Potential preventative strategies such as systematic swallowing assessment in non-stroke patients, and interventions such as improving oral hygiene need further, robust randomised controlled trials. Antibiotics are likely to continue to be the mainstay of treatment, and new antibiotics such as ceftobiprole are likely to have a role in treating hospital acquired pneumonia. Given the spread of antimicrobial resistance, alternative treatment strategies including bacteriophages, peptides and antibodies are under investigation. Reducing the incidence of hospital acquired pneumonia could decrease length of hospital stay, reduce inappropriate antibiotic use, and both improve functional outcomes and mortality in our increasingly aged population. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Management and Prognosis of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, D.F.

    2016-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis, different aspects of both management and prognosis of adults admitted with CAP have been addressed in separate parts. In the first part, we evaluated empirical antibiotic therapy and statins as

  17. The motivational needs of primary health care nurses to acquire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results indicated that PHC nurses needed acknowledgement, organisational responsibility, strategic planning and promotion, as well as support. Significant differences between gender were not found in relation to the need to acquire power. Keywords: Motivation, Primary health care, Leader, Power, Survey ...

  18. Hospital-acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae infections in a paediatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods. A retrospective case control chart review of children admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in Grey's Hospital between July 2003 and December 2010, who developed a hospital-acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae infection, was undertaken to describe the trend in HAI in a newly commissioned PICU and ...

  19. The sensitivity status of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community acquired Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from various infectious sites in two private laboratories in Kano-city, Nigeria. A total of 247 (11%) Staphylococcu aureus isolates were recovered from all infectious sites except cerebro-spinal fluid. The least Staphylococcus aureus isolates were found in urine ...

  20. Risk factors associated with acquiring superficial fungal infections in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    concern and is a common cause of skin disease among school children. Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with acquiring superficial fungal infections in school children in Ile-Ife, South West Nigeria as this ..... that showed that overcrowding promotes the spread of fungal infections.8,10.