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Sample records for wisconsin rapid infiltration

  1. Mixing zones studies of the waste water discharge from the Consolidated Paper Company into the Wisconsin River at Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, J. A.; Wu, D. S.; Ganatra, R.

    1973-01-01

    Effluent concentration distributions from the waste water discharge of the Kraft Division Mill, Consolidated Paper Company, into the Wisconsin River at Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin, is investigated. Effluent concentrations were determined from measurements of the temperature distribution, using temperature as a tracer. Measurements of the velocity distribution in the vicinity of the outfall were also made. Due to limitations in the extent of the field observations, the analysis and comparison of the measurements is limited to the region within about 300 feet from the outfall. Effects of outfall submergence, of buoyancy and momentum of the effluent and of the pattern and magnitude of river currents on these characteristics are considered.

  2. Computed tomographic demonstration of rapid changes in fatty infiltration of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashist, B.; Hecht, H.L.; Harely, W.D.

    1982-01-01

    Two alcoholic patients in whom computed tomography (CT) demonstrated reversal of fatty infiltration of the liver are described. The rapid reversibility of fatty infiltration can be useful in monitoring alcoholics with fatty livers. Focal fatty infiltration can mimic focal hepatic lesions and repeat scans can be utilized to assess changes in CT attenuation values when this condition is suspected

  3. Model evaluation of denitrification under rapid infiltration basin systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Maryam; Imhoff, Paul T; Andres, A Scott; Finsterle, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    Rapid Infiltration Basin Systems (RIBS) are used for disposing reclaimed wastewater into soil to achieve additional treatment before it recharges groundwater. Effluent from most new sequenced batch reactor wastewater treatment plants is completely nitrified, and denitrification (DNF) is the main reaction for N removal. To characterize effects of complex surface and subsurface flow patterns caused by non-uniform flooding on DNF, a coupled overland flow-vadose zone model is implemented in the multiphase flow and reactive transport simulator TOUGHREACT. DNF is simulated in two representative soils varying the application cycle, hydraulic loading rate, wastewater quality, water table depth, and subsurface heterogeneity. Simulations using the conventional specified flux boundary condition under-predict DNF by as much as 450% in sand and 230% in loamy sand compared to predictions from the coupled overland flow-vadose zone model, indicating that simulating coupled flow is critical for predicting DNF in cases where hydraulic loading rates are not sufficient to spread the wastewater over the whole basin. Smaller ratios of wetting to drying time and larger hydraulic loading rates result in greater water saturations, more anoxic conditions, and faster water transport in the vadose zone, leading to greater DNF. These results in combination with those from different water table depths explain why reported DNF varied with soil type and water table depth in previous field investigations. Across all simulations, cumulative percent DNF varies between 2 and 49%, indicating that NO₃ removal in RIBS may vary widely depending on operational procedures and subsurface conditions. These modeling results improve understanding of DNF in RIBS and suggest operational procedures that may improve NO₃ removal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A rapid screening-level method to optimize location of infiltration ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennemore, G G; Davis, A; Goss, L; Warrick, A W

    2001-01-01

    A rapid-screening technique was developed to identify lithologies that best disperse artificial recharge via surface infiltration and minimize effects on ground water chemistry. The technique prospectively evaluates basin infiltration rates and water chemistry influences by integrating geotechnical, hydraulic, and water quality data with column test data and numerical modeling. The technique was validated using field data collected from surface infiltration basins designed to recharge ground water pumped from the Pipeline pit gold mine in Nevada. Observed recharge rates at these infiltration sites correlated most significantly with depth to groundwater, with basins in coarse-grained lithologies performing better (0.45 to 0.85 m/day) than those with fine-grained layers ( 2000 mg/L) than coarse-grained soils (infiltration basins for a variety of lithologies. Sites for infiltration basins can be rapidly screened to include areas with greatest depth to groundwater and in coarsest alluvial sediments, and impact to ground water chemistry can be reliably predicted using computer modeling and column test results.

  5. Rapid evolution mitigates the ecological consequences of an invasive species (Bythotrephes longimanus) in lakes in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Michael K; Walsh, Matthew R

    2017-07-12

    Invasive species have extensive negative consequences for biodiversity and ecosystem health. Novel species also drive contemporary evolution in many native populations, which could mitigate or amplify their impacts on ecosystems. The predatory zooplankton Bythotrephes longimanus invaded lakes in Wisconsin, USA, in 2009. This invasion caused precipitous declines in zooplankton prey ( Daphnia pulicaria ), with cascading impacts on ecosystem services (water clarity). Here, we tested the link between Bythotrephes invasion, evolution in Daphnia and post-invasion ecological dynamics using 15 years of long-term data in conjunction with comparative experiments. Invasion by Bythotrephes is associated with rapid increases in the body size of Daphnia Laboratory experiments revealed that such shifts have a genetic component; third-generation laboratory-reared Daphnia from 'invaded' lakes are significantly larger and exhibit greater reproductive effort than individuals from 'uninvaded' lakes. This trajectory of evolution should accelerate Daphnia population growth and enhance population persistence. We tested this prediction by comparing analyses of long-term data with laboratory-based simulations, and show that rapid evolution in Daphnia is associated with increased population growth in invaded lakes. © 2017 The Authors.

  6. Land subsidence caused by a single water extraction well and rapid water infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Martinez-Noguez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays several parts of the world suffer from land subsidence. This setting of the earth surface occurs due to different factors such as earth quakes, mining activities, and gas, oil and water withdrawal. This research presents a numerical study of the influence of land subsidence caused by a single water extraction well and rapid water infiltration into structural soil discontinuities. The numerical simulation of the infiltration was based on a two-phase flow-model for porous media, and for the deformation a Mohr–Coulomb model was used. A two-layered system with a fault zone is presented. First a single water extraction well is simulated producing a cone-shaped (conical water level depletion, which can cause land subsidence. Land Subsidence can be further increased if a hydrological barrier as a result of a discontinuity, exists. After water extraction a water column is applied on the top boundary for one hours in order to represent a strong storm which produces rapid water infiltration through the discontinuity as well as soil deformation. Both events are analysed and compared in order to characterize deformation of both elements and to get a better understanding of the land subsidence and new fracture formations.

  7. Long-term reclaimed water application effects on phosphorus leaching potential in rapid infiltration basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Daniel R; Silveira, Maria L; O'Connor, George A; Wise, William R

    2011-09-01

    Rapid infiltration basins (RIBs) are effective tools for wastewater treatment and groundwater recharge, but continuous application of wastewater can increase soil P concentrations and subsequently impact groundwater quality. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate the effects of reclaimed water infiltration rate and "age" of RIBs on soil P concentrations at various depths, and (2) estimate the degree (percentage) of sorption equilibrium reached between effluent P and soil attained during reclaimed water application to different RIBs. The study was conducted in four contrasting cells of a RIB system with up to a 25 year history of secondary wastewater application. Soil samples were collected from 0 to 300 cm depth at 30 cm intervals and analyzed for water extractable phosphorus (WEP) and oxalate extractable P, Al, and Fe concentrations. Water extractable P and P saturation ratio (PSR) values were generally greater in the cells receiving reclaimed water compared to control soils, suggesting that reclaimed water P application can increase soil P concentrations and the risk of P movement to greater depths. Differences between treatment and control samples were more evident in cells with longer histories of reclaimed water application due to greater P loading. Data also indicated considerable spatial variability in WEP concentrations and PSR values, especially within cells from RIBs characterized by fast infiltration rates. This occurs because wastewater-P flows through surface soils much faster than the minimum time required for sorption equilibrium to occur. Studies should be conducted to investigate soil P saturation at deeper depths to assess possible groundwater contamination.

  8. Rapid Chemical Vapor Infiltration of Silicon Carbide Minicomposites at Atmospheric Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroski, Kenneth; Poges, Shannon; Monteleone, Chris; Grady, Joseph; Bhatt, Ram; Suib, Steven L

    2018-02-07

    The chemical vapor infiltration technique is one of the most popular for the fabrication of the matrix portion of a ceramic matrix composite. This work focuses on tailoring an atmospheric pressure deposition of silicon carbide onto carbon fiber tows using the methyltrichlorosilane (CH 3 SiCl 3 ) and H 2 deposition system at atmospheric pressure to create minicomposites faster than low pressure systems. Adjustment of the flow rate of H 2 bubbled through CH 3 SiCl 3 will improve the uniformity of the deposition as well as infiltrate the substrate more completely as the flow rate is decreased. Low pressure depositions conducted at 50 Torr deposit SiC at a rate of approximately 200 nm*h -1 , while the atmospheric pressure system presented has a deposition rate ranging from 750 nm*h -1 to 3.88 μm*h -1 . The minicomposites fabricated in this study had approximate total porosities of 3 and 6% for 10 and 25 SCCM infiltrations, respectively.

  9. Lost mold-rapid infiltration forming: Strength control in mesoscale 3Y-TZP ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolino, Nicholas E.

    The strength of nanoparticulate enabled microdevices and components is directly related to the interfacial control between particles and the flaws introduced as these particles come together to form the device or component. One new application for micro-scale or meso-scale (10's microm to 100's microm) devices is surgical instruments designed to enter the body, perform a host of surgeries within the body cavity, and be extracted with no external incisions to the patient. This new concept in surgery, called natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), requires smaller and more functional surgical tools. Conventional processing routes do not exist for making these instruments with the desired size, topology, precision, and strength. A process, called lost mold-rapid infiltration forming (LM-RIF), was developed to satisfy this need. A tetragonally stabilized zirconia polycrystalline material (3Y-TZP) is a candidate material for this process and application because of its high strength, chemical stability, high elastic modulus, and reasonably high toughness for a ceramic. Modern technical ceramics, like Y-TZP, are predicated on dense, fine grained microstructures and functional mesoscale devices must also adhere to this standard. Colloid and interfacial chemistry was used to disperse and concentrate the Y-TZP nanoparticles through a very steep, yet localized, potential energy barrier against the van der Waals attractive force. The interparticle interaction energies were modeled and compared to rheological data on the suspension. At high concentrations, the suspension was pseudoplastic, which is evidence that a structure was formed within the suspension that could be disrupted by a shearing force. The LM-RIF process exploits this rheological behavior to fill mold cavities created by photolithography. The premise of the LM-RIF process is to process the particulate material into a dense ceramic body while the unsintered mesoscale parts are supported en masse

  10. Field Test Evaluation of Conservation Retrofits of Low-Income, Single-Family Buildings in Wisconsin: Blower-Door-Directed Infiltration Reduction Procedure, Field Test Implementation and Results; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gettings, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    A blower-door-directed infiltration retrofit procedure was field tested on 18 homes in south central Wisconsin. The procedure, developed by the Wisconsin Energy Conservation Corporation, includes recommended retrofit techniques as well as criteria for estimating the amount of cost-effective work to be performed on a house. A recommended expenditure level and target air leakage reduction, in air changes per hour at 50 Pascal (ACH50), are determined from the initial leakage rate measured. The procedure produced an average 16% reduction in air leakage rate. For the 7 houses recommended for retrofit, 89% of the targeted reductions were accomplished with 76% of the recommended expenditures. The average cost of retrofits per house was reduced by a factor of four compared with previous programs. The average payback period for recommended retrofits was 4.4 years, based on predicted energy savings computed from achieved air leakage reductions. Although exceptions occurred, the procedure's 8 ACH50 minimum initial leakage rate for advising retrofits to be performed appeared a good choice, based on cost-effective air leakage reduction. Houses with initial rates of 7 ACH50 or below consistently required substantially higher costs to achieve significant air leakage reductions. No statistically significant average annual energy savings was detected as a result of the infiltration retrofits. Average measured savings were -27 therm per year, indicating an increase in energy use, with a 90% confidence interval of 36 therm. Measured savings for individual houses varied widely in both positive and negative directions, indicating that factors not considered affected the results. Large individual confidence intervals indicate a need to increase the accuracy of such measurements as well as understand the factors which may cause such disparity. Recommendations for the procedure include more extensive training of retrofit crews, checks for minimum air exchange rates to insure air quality

  11. A method for rapid testing of the photosynthesis-inhibiting activity of herbicides by leaf disk infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Bielecki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A method for rapid detection of photosynthesis inhibitors in low concentration (0.25-1.25 ppm was developed. The experiments were performed on disks cut from young bean leaves. The disks were infiltrated with solutions of the tested compounds and placed at the bottom of a crystallizer containing an acidic sodium carbonate solution and then illuminated. The toxicity of the tested substance was measured as the number of disks corning to the surface. It was found that linuron, monolinuron, metoksuron, atrazine and prometrine inhibited floating of the disks, whereas 2,4,5-T, MCPA and chlorpropham gave no effect. This confirms the specificity of the test which is appropriate for determining the phytotoxicity of typical photosynthesis inhibitors.

  12. Assessing potential impacts of a wastewater rapid infiltration basin system on groundwater quality: a delaware case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, A S; Sims, J Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Rapid infiltration basin systems (RIBS) are receiving increased interest for domestic wastewater disposal in rural areas. They rely on natural treatment processes to filter pollutants and use extremely high effluent loading rates, much greater than natural precipitation, applied to a small geographic area instead of disposal to surface water. Concerns exist today that adopting RIBS in areas with shallow groundwater and sandy soils may increase ground and surface water pollution. We conducted a field study of RIBS effects on N and P concentrations in soils and groundwater at Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware, where a RIBS designed and operated following USEPA guidance has been used for >25 yr. Site and wastewater characteristics (water table of 8 m, Fe- and Al-oxide coatings on soils, organic-rich effluent) were favorable for denitrification and P sorption; however, we found high P saturation, reduced soil P sorption capacity, and significant total P accumulation at depths >1.5 m, factors that could lead to dissolved P leaching. Very low soil inorganic N levels suggest that wastewater N was converted rapidly to NO-N and leached from the RIBS. Extensive groundwater monitoring supported these concerns and showed rapid offsite transport of N and P at concentrations similar to the effluent. Results suggest that high hydraulic loads and preferential flow led to flow velocities that were too large, and contact times between effluent and soils that were too short, for effective N and P attenuation processes. These findings indicate the need for better site characterization and facility designs to reduce and monitor contaminant loss from RIBS in similar settings. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  13. National Uranium Resource Evaluation. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey, Racine and Grand Rapids quadrangles, Michigan, Wisconsin and Illinois. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Racine and Grand Rapids quadrangles of southeastern Wisconsin, northeastern Illinois, and Michigan cover a land area of 8785 square miles, and an additional water surface area of 5215 square miles. In the northeast, thick Paleozoic deposits overlie a regional downwarp of the Precambrian basement called the Michigan Basin. These Paleozoic deposits shoal to only 500 feet in the southwest corner of the survey area. The entire region is covered by a mantle of Quaternary glacial material. A search of available literature revealed no economically feasible uranium deposits. A total of 83 uranium anomalies were detected and are discussed briefly. All appear to have cultural, and/or locally unsaturated associations, and none appear to contain significant measured quantities of uranium. Magnetic data appear to be in general agreement with existing structural interpretations of the area. There are local exceptions which suggest some lithologic and/or structural complexities in the basement material

  14. Effect of Potassium Chlorate on the Treatment of Domestic Sewage by Achieving Shortcut Nitrification in a Constructed Rapid Infiltration System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qinglin; Xu, Wenlai; Yan, Zhijiao; Qian, Lei

    2018-04-04

    A constructed rapid infiltration (CRI) system is a new type of sewage biofilm treatment technology, but due to its anaerobic zone it lacks the carbon sources and the conditions for nitrate retention, and its nitrogen removal performance is very poor. However, a shortcut nitrification–denitrification process presents distinctive advantages, as it saves oxygen, requires less organic matter, and requires less time for denitrification compared to conventional nitrogen removal methods. Thus, if the shortcut nitrification–denitrification process could be applied to the CRI system properly, a simpler, more economic, and efficient nitrogen removal method will be obtained. However, as its reaction process shows that the first and the most important step of achieving shortcut nitrification–denitrification is to achieve shortcut nitrification, in this study we explored the feasibility to achieve shortcut nitrification, which produces nitrite as the dominant nitrogen species in effluent, by the addition of potassium chlorate (KClO₃) to the influent. In an experimental CRI test system, the effects on nitrogen removal, nitrate inhibition, and nitrite accumulation were studied, and the advantages of achieving a shortcut nitrification–denitrification process were also analysed. The results showed that shortcut nitrification was successfully achieved and maintained in a CRI system by adding 5 mM KClO₃ to the influent at a constant pH of 8.4. Under these conditions, the nitrite accumulation percentage was increased, while a lower concentration of 3 mM KClO₃ had no obvious effect. The addition of 5mM KClO₃ in influent presumably inhibited the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), but inhibition of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) was so strong that it resulted in a maximum nitrite accumulation percentage of up to over 80%. As a result, nitrite became the dominant nitrogen product in the effluent. Moreover, if the shortcut

  15. Effect of Potassium Chlorate on the Treatment of Domestic Sewage by Achieving Shortcut Nitrification in a Constructed Rapid Infiltration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinglin Fang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A constructed rapid infiltration (CRI system is a new type of sewage biofilm treatment technology, but due to its anaerobic zone it lacks the carbon sources and the conditions for nitrate retention, and its nitrogen removal performance is very poor. However, a shortcut nitrification–denitrification process presents distinctive advantages, as it saves oxygen, requires less organic matter, and requires less time for denitrification compared to conventional nitrogen removal methods. Thus, if the shortcut nitrification–denitrification process could be applied to the CRI system properly, a simpler, more economic, and efficient nitrogen removal method will be obtained. However, as its reaction process shows that the first and the most important step of achieving shortcut nitrification–denitrification is to achieve shortcut nitrification, in this study we explored the feasibility to achieve shortcut nitrification, which produces nitrite as the dominant nitrogen species in effluent, by the addition of potassium chlorate (KClO3 to the influent. In an experimental CRI test system, the effects on nitrogen removal, nitrate inhibition, and nitrite accumulation were studied, and the advantages of achieving a shortcut nitrification–denitrification process were also analysed. The results showed that shortcut nitrification was successfully achieved and maintained in a CRI system by adding 5 mM KClO3 to the influent at a constant pH of 8.4. Under these conditions, the nitrite accumulation percentage was increased, while a lower concentration of 3 mM KClO3 had no obvious effect. The addition of 5mM KClO3 in influent presumably inhibited the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB, but inhibition of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB was so strong that it resulted in a maximum nitrite accumulation percentage of up to over 80%. As a result, nitrite became the dominant nitrogen product in the effluent. Moreover, if the

  16. Monitoring and modeling very large, rapid infiltration using geophysics during the 2014 Lower Colorado River pulse flow experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, J.; Macy, J. P.; Callegary, J. B.; Lopez, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    In March and April 2014, an unprecedented experiment released over 100x106 cubic meters (81,000 acre-feet) of water from Morelos Dam into the normally-dry lower Colorado River below Yuma, Arizona, USA. More than half of the water released from Morelos Dam infiltrated within the limitrophe reach, a 32-km stretch between the Northern U.S.-Mexico International Boundary and the Southern International Boundary, a distance of just 32 river-kilometers. To characterize the spatial and temporal extent of infiltration, scientists from the US Geological Survey, Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, Baja California, and Universidad Autónoma de Baja California carried out several geophysical surveys. Frequency-domain electromagnetic transects throughout the limitrophe reach showed that the subsurface comprised exclusively sandy material, with little finer-grained material to impede or otherwise influence infiltration. Direct current resistivity clearly imaged the rising water table near the stream channel. Both techniques provide valuable parameterization and calibration information for a surface-water/groundwater interaction model currently in development. Time-lapse gravity data were collected at 25 stations to expand the monitoring well network and provide storage-coefficient information for the groundwater model. Despite difficult field conditions, precise measurements of large gravity changes showed that changes in groundwater storage in the upper reach of the study area, where groundwater levels were highest, were constrained to the near vicinity of the river channel. Downstream near the Southern International Boundary, however, groundwater storage increased substantially over a large area, expanding into the regional aquifer that supplies irrigation water to surrounding agriculture.

  17. Protoplast isolation, transient transformation of leaf mesophyll protoplasts and improved Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc infiltration of Phaseolus vulgaris: tools for rapid gene expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjareddy, Kalpana; Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Blanco, Lourdes; Arellano, Elizabeth S; Lara, Miguel

    2016-06-24

    Phaseolus vulgaris is one of the most extensively studied model legumes in the world. The P. vulgaris genome sequence is available; therefore, the need for an efficient and rapid transformation system is more imperative than ever. The functional characterization of P. vulgaris genes is impeded chiefly due to the non-amenable nature of Phaseolus sp. to stable genetic transformation. Transient transformation systems are convenient and versatile alternatives for rapid gene functional characterization studies. Hence, the present work focuses on standardizing methodologies for protoplast isolation from multiple tissues and transient transformation protocols for rapid gene expression analysis in the recalcitrant grain legume P. vulgaris. Herein, we provide methodologies for the high-throughput isolation of leaf mesophyll-, flower petal-, hypocotyl-, root- and nodule-derived protoplasts from P. vulgaris. The highly efficient polyethylene glycol-mannitol magnesium (PEG-MMG)-mediated transformation of leaf mesophyll protoplasts was optimized using a GUS reporter gene. We used the P. vulgaris SNF1-related protein kinase 1 (PvSnRK1) gene as proof of concept to demonstrate rapid gene functional analysis. An RT-qPCR analysis of protoplasts that had been transformed with PvSnRK1-RNAi and PvSnRK1-OE vectors showed the significant downregulation and ectopic constitutive expression (overexpression), respectively, of the PvSnRK1 transcript. We also demonstrated an improved transient transformation approach, sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (SAAT), for the leaf disc infiltration of P. vulgaris. Interestingly, this method resulted in a 90 % transformation efficiency and transformed 60-85 % of the cells in a given area of the leaf surface. The constitutive expression of YFP further confirmed the amenability of the system to gene functional characterization studies. We present simple and efficient methodologies for protoplast isolation from multiple P

  18. Tornadoes Strike Northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    A series of tornadoes ripped through the Upper Midwest region of the United States in the evening of June 7, 2007. At least five different tornadoes touched down in Wisconsin, according to the Associated Press, one of which tore through the Bear Paw Resort in northern Wisconsin. Despite dropping as much as fifteen centimeters (six inches) of rain in some places and baseball-size hail in others, authorities were reporting no deaths attributable to the storm system, and only a smattering of injuries, but considerable property damage in some areas. When the MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra satellite observed the area on June 9, 2007, the track torn through the woods by one of the tornadoes stands out quite clearly. This photo-like image uses data collected by MODIS in the normal human vision range to give a familiar natural-looking appearance. The landscape is largely a checkerboard of farms, towns, roads, and cities. The pale land is predominantly farmland where crops have not fully grown in yet. Dark blue shows the winding path of rivers and lakes dotting the landscape. The large blue lake on the east (right) side of the image is Lake Michigan. Towns and cities, including the city of Green Bay, are gray. To the north side, farmland gives way to dark green as land use shifts from agriculture to the Menominee Indian Reservation and Nicolet National Forest. The diagonal slash through the dark green forested land shows the tornado track. Bare land was revealed where the tornado tore down trees or stripped vegetation off the branches. The high-resolution image provided above is at MODIS' full spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response System provides this image at additional resolutions.

  19. Empirical yield tables for Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerold T. Hahn; Joan M. Stelman

    1989-01-01

    Describes the tables derived from the 1983 Forest Survey of Wisconsin and presents ways the tables can be used. These tables are broken down according to Wisconsin`s five Forest Survey Units and 14 forest types.

  20. Wisconsin's forests, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Vern A. Everson; Ian K. Brown; Jane Cummings-Carlson; Sally E. Dahir; Edward A. Jepsen; Joe Kovach; Michael D. Labissoniere; Terry R. Mace; Eunice A. Padley; Richard B. Rideout; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Greg C. Liknes; Randall S. Morin; Mark D. Nelson; Barry T. (Ty) Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall

    2008-01-01

    The first full, annualized inventory of Wisconsin's forests was completed in 2004 after 6,478 forested plots were visited. There are more than 16.0 million acres of forest land in the Wisconsin, nearly half of the State's land area; 15.8 million acres meet the definition of timberland. The total area of both forest land and timberland continues an upward...

  1. Forests of Wisconsin, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Perry

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Wisconsin based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Data estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and...

  2. Wisconsin Gravity Data for the Wisconsin Rapids Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (7102 records) were compiled by Professor Ervin. This data base was received in April 1993. Principal gravity parameters include Free-Air...

  3. Learning from Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Jamie Owen

    2011-01-01

    Like thousands of other people from around the country and around the world, this author was heartened and inspired by the tenacity, immediacy, and creativity of the pushback by Wisconsin's public-sector unions against Governor Scott Walker's efforts to limit their collective bargaining rights. And like many others who made the trek to Madison to…

  4. University of Wisconsin - Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to know how to advance an innovative tech idea I want to know more about agricultural resources available in Wisconsin I want to learn how I can get training and support for my small business I want to learn how I can get ...

  5. Wisconsin's forest resources, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.H. Perry

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Wisconsin based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report...

  6. Wisconsin's forest resources, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, H. (Hobie) Perry; Gary J. Brand

    2006-01-01

    The annual forest inventory of Wisconsin continues, and this document reports 2001-05 moving averages for most variables and comparisons between 2000 and 2005 for growth, removals, and mortality. Summary resource tables can be generated through the Forest Inventory Mapmaker website at http://ncrs2.fs.fed.us/4801/fiadb/index. htm. Estimates from this inventory show a...

  7. Wisconsin's forest resources, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.H. Perry; V.A. Everson

    2007-01-01

    Figure 2 was revised by the author in August 2008. This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Wisconsin based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service from 2002-2006. These estimates, along with associated core tables postedon the Internet, are...

  8. Wisconsin's Forest Resources, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.H. Perry; V.A. Everson

    2008-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Wisconsin based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, are updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report.

  9. Wisconsin's forest resources, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.H. Perry

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Wisconsin based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this report...

  10. Infiltrated carbon foam composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rick D. (Inventor); Danford, Harry E. (Inventor); Plucinski, Janusz W. (Inventor); Merriman, Douglas J. (Inventor); Blacker, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An infiltrated carbon foam composite and method for making the composite is described. The infiltrated carbon foam composite may include a carbonized carbon aerogel in cells of a carbon foam body and a resin is infiltrated into the carbon foam body filling the cells of the carbon foam body and spaces around the carbonized carbon aerogel. The infiltrated carbon foam composites may be useful for mid-density ablative thermal protection systems.

  11. Wisconsin's forest resources in 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Perry

    2006-01-01

    Results of the 2000-2004 annual inventory of Wisconsin show about 16.0 million acres of forest land, more than 22.1 billion cubic feet of live volume on forest land, and nearly 593 million dry tons of all live aboveground tree biomass on timberland. Populations of jack pine budworm are increasing, and it remains a significant pest in Wisconsin forests. A complete...

  12. Infiltration SuDS Map

    OpenAIRE

    Dearden, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Infiltration SuDS are sustainable drainage systems (SuDS) that allow surface water to infiltrate to the ground. Examples include soakaways, infiltration basins, infiltration trenches and permeable pavements. Before planning to install Infiltration SuDS, the suitability of the ground should be assessed. The British Geological Survey has developed a bespoke Infiltration SuDS Map that enables a preliminary assessment of the suitability of the ground for infiltration SuDS. Th...

  13. Basement radon entry and stack driven moisture infiltration reduced by active soil depressurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.R. Boardman; Samuel V. Glass

    2015-01-01

    This case study presents measurements of radon and moisture infiltration from soil gases into the basement of an unoccupied research house in Madison, Wisconsin, over two full years. The basement floor and exterior walls were constructed with preservative-treated lumber and plywood. In addition to continuous radon monitoring, measurements included building air...

  14. Wisconsin's fourth forest inventory, 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Jr. Spencer; W. Brad Smith; Jerold T. Hahn; Gerhard K. Raile

    1988-01-01

    The fourth inventory of the timber resource of Wisconsin shows that growing-stock volume increased from 11.2 to 15.5 billion cubic feet between 1968 and 1983, and area of timberland increased from 14.5 to 14.8 million acres. Presented are analysis and statistics on forest area and timber volume, growth, mortality, removals, and projections.

  15. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-27

    Energy used by Wisconsin single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  16. Facial infiltrative lipomatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haloi, A.K.; Ditchfield, M.; Pennington, A.; Philips, R.

    2006-01-01

    Although there are multiple case reports and small series concerning facial infiltrative lipomatosis, there is no composite radiological description of the condition. Radiological evaluation of facial infiltrative lipomatosis using plain film, sonography, CT and MRI. We radiologically evaluated four patients with facial infiltrative lipomatosis. Initial plain radiographs of the face were acquired in all patients. Three children had an initial sonographic examination to evaluate the condition, followed by MRI. One child had a CT and then MRI. One child had abnormalities on plain radiographs. Sonographically, the lesions were seen as ill-defined heterogeneously hypoechoic areas with indistinct margins. On CT images, the lesions did not have a homogeneous fat density but showed some relatively more dense areas in deeper parts of the lesions. MRI provided better delineation of the exact extent of the process and characterization of facial infiltrative lipomatosis. Facial infiltrative lipomatosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis of vascular or lymphatic malformation when a child presents with unilateral facial swelling. MRI is the most useful single imaging modality to evaluate the condition, as it provides the best delineation of the exact extent of the process. (orig.)

  17. Urban Stormwater Infiltration Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geldof, Govert; Jacobsen, Per; Fujita, Shoichi

    1994-01-01

    In urban areas there are many problems with water management: combined sewer overflows, peak flows, man-induced droughts, consolidation of the soil, damage from frost penetration, etc. It is preferable to look at all these problems in relation to each other, according the concept of integrated...... water management. This paper focuses on the possibilities for urban stormwater infiltration. The results of three studies are presented. The first study concerns the flooding of the Shirako River in Tokyo. It is shown that with the help of stormwater infiltration the floods can be reduced remarkably....... The second study concerns combined sewer overflows and the discharge from treatment plants for catchments in Denmark and the Netherlands. When looking at the total yearly discharge from the combined sewer and the treatment plant, it is shown that infiltration is more effective than detention. The third study...

  18. Reversible fatty infiltration of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostel, F.; Hauger, W.

    1987-01-01

    Case studies show that acute pancreatitis occurring independently or combined with a preceding abuse of alcohol may be the cause of fatty infiltration of the liver. These fat areas can evolve in a very short time and provoke in the case of focal incidence diagnostic problems of differentiation against abscesses of metastases. Due to this fact and because of the rapid reversibility of the fatty infiltration under therapy, the safest method to clarify the situation consists of short-term CT controls. (orig.) [de

  19. Decline and infiltrated lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo Estrada, Horacio; Arboleda Casas, Felipe; Duarte, Monica; Triana Harker, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the decline and infiltrated lung in a patient of 45 years, with diagnosis of arthritis rheumatoid from the 43 years, asymptomatic, without treatment, married, of the 15 to the 35 years of 3 to 10 cigarettes daily, she refers of 7 months of evolution episodes of moderate dyspnoea with exercises and dry cough with occasional mucous expectoration between others

  20. Diffuse infiltrative cardiac tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulati, Gurpreet S; Kothari, Shyam S

    2011-01-01

    We present the cardiac magnetic resonance images of an unusual form of cardiac tuberculosis. Nodular masses in a sheet-like distribution were seen to infiltrate the outer myocardium and pericardium along most of the cardiac chambers. The lesions showed significant resolution on antitubercular therapy

  1. Advocacy and education in Wisconsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, M.

    1986-01-01

    Wisconsin's Radioactive Waste Review Board is required by law to advocate for and educate the public on the high-level nuclear waste issue. The goal of its education program is to empower people by giving them information and skills. Environmental advocacy and public activism are part of the State's Progressive political tradition. The Board seeks and uses public input while developing education programs, and helps local areas organize committees to develop their own programs

  2. Atmospheric mercury cycles in northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watras, C. J.; Morrison, K. A.; Rubsam, J. L.; Rodger, B.

    Total gaseous mercury (TGM) in the lower atmosphere of northern Wisconsin exhibits strong annual and diurnal cycles similar to those previously reported for other rural monitoring sites across mid-latitude North America. Annually, TGM was highest in late winter and then gradually declined until late summer. During 2002-04, the average TGM concentration was 1.4 ± 0.2 (SD) ng m -3, and the amplitude of the annual cycle was 0.4 ng m -3 (˜30% of the long-term mean). The diurnal cycle was characterized by increasing TGM concentrations during the morning followed by decreases during the afternoon and night. The diurnal amplitude was variable but it was largest in spring and summer, when daily TGM oscillations of 20-40% were not uncommon. Notably, we also observed a diurnal cycle for TGM indoors in a room ventilated through an open window. Even though TGM concentrations were an order of magnitude higher indoors, (presumably due to historical practices within the building: e.g. latex paint, fluorescent lamps, thermometers), the diurnal cycle was remarkably similar to that observed outdoors. The indoor cycle was not directly attributable to human activity, the metabolic activity of vegetation or diurnal atmospheric dynamics; but it was related to changes in temperature and oxidants in outdoor air that infiltrated the room. Although there was an obvious difference in the proximal source of indoor and outdoor TGM, similarities in behavior suggest that common TGM cycles may be driven largely by adsorption/desorption reactions involving solid surfaces, such as leaves, snow, dust and walls. Such behavior would imply a short residence time for Hg in the lower atmosphere and intense recycling - consistent with the "ping-pong ball" or "multi-hop" conceptual models proposed by others.

  3. Water Use in Wisconsin, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwald, Cheryl A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Wisconsin Water Science Center is responsible for presenting data collected or estimated for water withdrawals and diversions every 5 years to the National Water-Use Information Program (NWUIP). This program serves many purposes such as quantifying how much, where, and for what purpose water is used; tracking and documenting water-use trends and changes; and providing these data to other agencies to support hydrologic projects. In 2005, data at both the county and subbasin levels were compiled into the USGS national water-use database system; these data are published in a statewide summary report and a national circular. This publication, Water Use in Wisconsin, 2005, presents the water-use estimates for 2005; this publication also describes how these water-use data were determined (including assumptions used), limitations of using these data, and trends in water-use data presented to the NWUIP. Estimates of water use in Wisconsin indicate that about 8,608 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) were withdrawn during 2005. Of this amount, about 7,622 Mgal/d (89 percent) were from surface-water sources and about 986 Mgal/d (11 percent) were from ground-water sources. Surface water used for cooling at thermoelectric-power plants constituted the largest portion of daily use at 6,898 Mgal/d. Water provided by public-supply water utilities is the second largest use of water and totaled 552 Mgal/d. Public supply served approximately 71 percent of the estimated 2005 Wisconsin population of 5.54 million people; two counties - Milwaukee and Dane - accounted for more than one-third of the public-supply withdrawal. Industrial and irrigation were the next major water uses at 471 and 402 Mgal/d, respectively. Non-irrigational agricultural (livestock and aquaculture) accounted for approximately 155 Mgal/d and is similar to the combined withdrawal for the remaining water-use categories of domestic, commercial, and mining (131 Mgal/d). Data on water use

  4. Nursing Quality Assurance: The Wisconsin System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hover, Julie; Zimmer, Marie J.

    1978-01-01

    Evaluation model guidelines for hospital departments of nursing to use in their nursing quality assurance programs are presented as developed in Wisconsin. Four essential components of the Wisconsin outcome evaluation system are criteria, assessment, standards, and improvement of care. Sample tests and charts are included in the article. (MF)

  5. Survival of adult martens in Northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas P. McCann; Patrick A. Zollner; Jonathan H. Gilbert

    2010-01-01

    Low adult marten (Martes americana) survival may be one factor limiting their population growth >30 yr after their reintroduction in Wisconsin, USA. We estimated annual adult marten survival at 0.81 in northern Wisconsin, with lower survival during winter (0.87) than summer-fall (1.00). Fisher (Martes pennanti) and raptor kills...

  6. Characterizing Heterogeneity in Infiltration Rates During Managed Aquifer Recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawer, Chloe; Parsekian, Andrew; Pidlisecky, Adam; Knight, Rosemary

    2016-11-01

    Infiltration rate is the key parameter that describes how water moves from the surface into a groundwater aquifer during managed aquifer recharge (MAR). Characterization of infiltration rate heterogeneity in space and time is valuable information for MAR system operation. In this study, we utilized fiber optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS) observations and the phase shift of the diurnal temperature signal between two vertically co-located fiber optic cables to characterize infiltration rate spatially and temporally in a MAR basin. The FO-DTS measurements revealed spatial heterogeneity of infiltration rate: approximately 78% of the recharge water infiltrated through 50% of the pond bottom on average. We also introduced a metric for quantifying how the infiltration rate in a recharge pond changes over time, which enables FO-DTS to be used as a method for monitoring MAR and informing maintenance decisions. By monitoring this metric, we found high-spatial variability in how rapidly infiltration rate changed during the test period. We attributed this variability to biological pore clogging and found a relationship between high initial infiltration rate and the most rapid pore clogging. We found a strong relationship (R 2  = 0.8) between observed maximum infiltration rates and electrical resistivity measurements from electrical resistivity tomography data taken in the same basin when dry. This result shows that the combined acquisition of DTS and ERT data can improve the design and operation of a MAR pond significantly by providing the critical information needed about spatial variability in parameters controlling infiltration rates. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  7. Spatial and temporal infiltration dynamics during managed aquifer recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racz, Andrew J; Fisher, Andrew T; Schmidt, Calla M; Lockwood, Brian S; Los Huertos, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Natural groundwater recharge is inherently difficult to quantify and predict, largely because it comprises a series of processes that are spatially distributed and temporally variable. Infiltration ponds used for managed aquifer recharge (MAR) provide an opportunity to quantify recharge processes across multiple scales under semi-controlled conditions. We instrumented a 3-ha MAR infiltration pond to measure and compare infiltration patterns determined using whole-pond and point-specific methods. Whole-pond infiltration was determined by closing a transient water budget (accounting for inputs, outputs, and changes in storage), whereas point-specific infiltration rates were determined using heat as a tracer and time series analysis at eight locations in the base of the pond. Whole-pond infiltration, normalized for wetted area, rose rapidly to more than 1.0 m/d at the start of MAR operations (increasing as pond stage rose), was sustained at high rates for the next 40 d, and then decreased to less than 0.1 m/d by the end of the recharge season. Point-specific infiltration rates indicated high spatial and temporal variability, with the mean of measured values generally being lower than rates indicated by whole-pond calculations. Colocated measurements of head gradients within saturated soils below the pond were combined with infiltration rates to calculate soil hydraulic conductivity. Observations indicate a brief period of increasing saturated hydraulic conductivity, followed by a decrease of one to two orders of magnitude during the next 50 to 75 d. Locations indicating the most rapid infiltration shifted laterally during MAR operation, and we suggest that infiltration may function as a "variable source area" processes, conceptually similar to catchment runoff. © 2011, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  8. DEEP INFILTRATING ENDOMETRIOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ribič-Pucelj

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endometriosis is not considered a unified disease, but a disease encompassing three differ- ent forms differentiated by aetiology and pathogenesis: peritoneal endometriosis, ovarian endometriosis and deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE. The disease is classified as DIE when the lesions penetrate 5 mm or more into the retroperitoneal space. The estimated incidence of endometriosis in women of reproductive age ranges from 10–15 % and that of DIE from 3–10 %, the highest being in infertile women and in those with chronic pelvic pain. The leading symptoms of DIE are chronic pelvic pain which increases with age and correlates with the depth of infiltration and infertility. The most important diagnostic procedures are patient’s history and proper gynecological examination. The diagnosis is confirmed with laparoscopy. DIE can affect, beside reproductive organs, also bowel, bladder and ureters, therefore adi- tional diagnostic procedures must be performed preopertively to confirm or to exclude the involvement of the mentioned organs. Endometriosis is hormon dependent disease, there- fore several hormonal treatment regims are used to supress estrogen production but the symptoms recurr soon after caesation of the treatment. At the moment, surgical treatment with excision of all lesions, including those of bowel, bladder and ureters, is the method of choice but requires frequently interdisciplinary approach. Surgical treatment significantly reduces pain and improves fertility in inferile patients. Conclusions: DIE is not a rare form of endometriosis characterized by chronic pelvic pain and infertility. Medical treatment is not efficient. The method of choice is surgical treatment with excision of all lesions. It significantly reduces pelvic pain and enables high spontaneus and IVF preg- nacy rates.Therefore such patients should be treated at centres with experience in treatment of DIE and with possibility of interdisciplinary approach.

  9. Predicting Scour of Bedrock in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    This research evaluates the scour potential of rocks supporting Wisconsin DOT bridge foundations. Ten highway bridges were selected for this study, of which seven are supported by shallow foundations, and five were built on sandstone in rivers/stream...

  10. Wisconsin Inventors` Network Database final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-04

    The Wisconsin Innovation Service Center at UW-Whitewater received a DOE grant to create an Inventor`s Network Database to assist independent inventors and entrepreneurs with new product development. Since 1980, the Wisconsin Innovation Service Center (WISC) at the University of Wisconsin-Whitewater has assisted independent and small business inventors in estimating the marketability of their new product ideas and inventions. The purpose of the WISC as an economic development entity is to encourage inventors who appear to have commercially viable inventions, based on preliminary market research, to invest in the next stages of development, perhaps investigating prototype development, legal protection, or more in-depth market research. To address inventor`s information needs, WISC developed on electronic database with search capabilities by geographic region and by product category/industry. It targets both public and private resources capable of, and interested in, working with individual and small business inventors. At present, the project includes resources in Wisconsin only.

  11. Diffuse infiltrative lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niden, A.H.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1984-01-01

    The authors discuss their approach to the diagnosis and management of patients with DILD. Gallium scans play a central role in this process. Not only do they help them decide whom to biopsy, but also where to biopsy. The scans can be used for the early detection of disease in a high-risk population, for following the progression and regression of disease, for the regulation of medication, and for the evaluation of therapy. Bronchoalveolar lung lavage appears to be equally sensitive. However, patients are less willing to undergo repeated fiberoptic bronchoscopies than lung scans. Both tests may prove useful, one complementing the other. Gallium imaging has also been utilized by the authors in select patients with questionable diffuse lung infiltrates roentgenographically or with a normal chest roentgenogram, chronic respiratory symptoms, and abnormal pulmonary function studies. An abnormal gallium lung scan in these clinical situations helps them select which patients have a diffuse active pulmonary process meriting transbronchial biopsies. This has proven to be of particular value in the management of older patients

  12. Diffuse metastatic infiltration of a carcinoma into skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundt, W.; Braunschweig, R.; Reiser, M.

    1999-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is one of the most unusual sites of metastasis from any malignancy. We report a patient with rapidly progressive contractures due to metastatic infiltration of a carcinoma of unknown origin into the skeletal muscle. This 61-year-old man presented with a 1-month history of rapidly evolving, painful restriction of mobility of his right arm and his legs. Computed tomography showed diffuse metastatic nodules in all muscles, particularly in the hip abductors. Muscle biopsy revealed extensive infiltration of the muscle with carcinoma cells. (orig.)

  13. Diffuse metastatic infiltration of a carcinoma into skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hundt, W.; Braunschweig, R.; Reiser, M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    Skeletal muscle is one of the most unusual sites of metastasis from any malignancy. We report a patient with rapidly progressive contractures due to metastatic infiltration of a carcinoma of unknown origin into the skeletal muscle. This 61-year-old man presented with a 1-month history of rapidly evolving, painful restriction of mobility of his right arm and his legs. Computed tomography showed diffuse metastatic nodules in all muscles, particularly in the hip abductors. Muscle biopsy revealed extensive infiltration of the muscle with carcinoma cells. (orig.) With 4 figs., 21 refs.

  14. The soil apparent infiltrability observed with ponded infiltration experiment in a permanent grid of infiltration rings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votrubová, J.; Jelínková, V.; Němcová, R.; Tesař, Miroslav; Vogel, T.; Císlerová, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2010), s. 11898 ISSN 1607-7962. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2010. 02.05.2010-07.05.2010, Wienna] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1174 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : soil hydraulic conductivity * infiltration * infiltration ring Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  15. Infiltration Variability in Agricultural Soil Aggregates Caused by Air Slaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenkova, L.; Urik, M.

    2018-04-01

    This article reports on variation in infiltration rates of soil aggregates as a result of phenomenon known as air slaking. Air slaking is caused by the compression and subsequent escape of air captured inside soil aggregates during water saturation. Although it has been generally assumed that it occurs mostly when dry aggregates are rapidly wetted, the measurements used for this paper have proved that it takes place even if the wetting is gradual, not just immediate. It is a phenomenon that contributes to an infiltration variability of soils. In measuring the course of water flow through the soil, several small aggregates of five agricultural soils were exposed to distilled water at zero tension in order to characterize their hydraulic properties. Infiltration curves obtained for these aggregates demonstrate the effect of entrapped air on the increase and decrease of infiltration rates. The measurements were performed under various moisture conditions of the A-horizon aggregates using a simple device.

  16. Pollution from Urban Stormwater Infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Weyer, G.; Berry, C.

    1994-01-01

    Stormwater infiltration in urban areas gives cause for concern with regard to the risk of soil and groundwater pollution. Compared with conventional storm drainage, infiltration introduces different and widely unknown conditions governing the impacts and the fate of the pollutants......, and it is therefore difficult to assess the overall environmental impact. This paper gives a state of the art assessment of the water quality aspects of stormwater infiltration and proposes ways of managing the inherent problems. The major stormwater pollution sources are highlighted and the different processes...

  17. Anomalous behaviors during infiltration into heterogeneous porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarão Reis, F. D. A.; Bolster, D.; Voller, V. R.

    2018-03-01

    Flow and transport in heterogeneous porous media often exhibit anomalous behavior. A physical analog example is the uni-directional infiltration of a viscous liquid into a horizontal oriented Hele-Shaw cell containing through thickness flow obstacles; a system designed to mimic a gravel/sand medium with impervious inclusions. When there are no obstacles present or the obstacles form a multi-repeating pattern, the change of the length of infiltration F with time t tends to follow a Fickian like scaling, F ∼t1/2 . In the presence of obstacle fields laid out as Sierpinski carpet fractals, infiltration is anomalous, i.e., F ∼ tn, n ≠ 1/2. Here, we study infiltration into such Hele-Shaw cells. First we investigate infiltration into a square cell containing one fractal carpet and make the observation that it is possible to generate both sub (n 1/2) diffusive behaviors within identical heterogeneity configurations. We show that this can be explained in terms of a scaling analysis developed from results of random-walk simulations in fractal obstacles; a result indicating that the nature of the domain boundary controls the exponent n of the resulting anomalous transport. Further, we investigate infiltration into a rectangular cell containing several repeats of a given Sierpinski carpet. At very early times, before the liquid encounters any obstacles, the infiltration is Fickian. When the liquid encounters the first (smallest scale) obstacle the infiltration sharply transitions to sub-diffusive. Subsequently, around the time where the liquid has sampled all of the heterogeneity length scales in the system, there is a rapid transition back to Fickian behavior. An explanation for this second transition is obtained by developing a simplified infiltration model based on the definition of a representative averaged hydraulic conductivity.

  18. Eosinophilic infiltration in Korea: idiopathic?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Kyung Soo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    Eosinophilia is defined as the presence of more than 500 eosinophils/{mu}L in the peripheral blood, and may be accompanied by eosinophil infiltration in tissues. Focal eosinophilic infiltration in the lungs and liver is relatively common and is often associated with a parasitic infection, drug hypersensitivity, allergic diseases, collagen vascular diseased, and internal malignancies such as Hodgkin's disease, as well as cancer of the lung, stomach, pancreas or ovary. An eosinophilic abscess refers to a lesion of massive eosinophil infiltration and associated destroyed tissue, and an eosinophilic granuloma refers to a lesion consisting of central necrosis and mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates with numerous eosinophils, a number of neutrophils and lymphocytes, and a palisade of epithelioid histiocytes and/or giant cells.

  19. Eosinophilic infiltration in Korea: idiopathic?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Kyung Soo

    2006-01-01

    Eosinophilia is defined as the presence of more than 500 eosinophils/μL in the peripheral blood, and may be accompanied by eosinophil infiltration in tissues. Focal eosinophilic infiltration in the lungs and liver is relatively common and is often associated with a parasitic infection, drug hypersensitivity, allergic diseases, collagen vascular diseased, and internal malignancies such as Hodgkin's disease, as well as cancer of the lung, stomach, pancreas or ovary. An eosinophilic abscess refers to a lesion of massive eosinophil infiltration and associated destroyed tissue, and an eosinophilic granuloma refers to a lesion consisting of central necrosis and mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates with numerous eosinophils, a number of neutrophils and lymphocytes, and a palisade of epithelioid histiocytes and/or giant cells

  20. Undergraduate Research and Economic Development: A Systems Approach in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Galen, Dean; Schneider-Rebozo, Lissa; Havholm, Karen; Andrews, Kris

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents the state of Wisconsin and the University of Wisconsin System as an ongoing case study for best practices in systematic, intentional, statewide programming and initiatives connecting undergraduate research and economic development.

  1. Implementing high-speed rail in Wisconsin peer exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Wisconsin Department of Transportation Division of Transportation Investment Management hosted : a peer exchange on June 2 -4, 2009 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Representatives from four state DOTs and : two freight railroads joined representatives f...

  2. A MODFLOW Infiltration Device Package for Simulating Storm Water Infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppesen, Jan; Christensen, Steen

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a MODFLOW Infiltration Device (INFD) Package that can simulate infiltration devices and their two-way interaction with groundwater. The INFD Package relies on a water balance including inflow of storm water, leakage-like seepage through the device faces, overflow, and change in storage. The water balance for the device can be simulated in multiple INFD time steps within a single MODFLOW time step, and infiltration from the device can be routed through the unsaturated zone to the groundwater table. A benchmark test shows that the INFD Package's analytical solution for stage computes exact results for transient behavior. To achieve similar accuracy by the numerical solution of the MODFLOW Surface-Water Routing (SWR1) Process requires many small time steps. Furthermore, the INFD Package includes an improved representation of flow through the INFD sides that results in lower infiltration rates than simulated by SWR1. The INFD Package is also demonstrated in a transient simulation of a hypothetical catchment where two devices interact differently with groundwater. This simulation demonstrates that device and groundwater interaction depends on the thickness of the unsaturated zone because a shallow groundwater table (a likely result from storm water infiltration itself) may occupy retention volume, whereas a thick unsaturated zone may cause a phase shift and a change of amplitude in groundwater table response to a change of infiltration. We thus find that the INFD Package accommodates the simulation of infiltration devices and groundwater in an integrated manner on small as well as large spatial and temporal scales. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucks Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks on Twitter Bookmark

  4. Landslide triggering by rain infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.

    2000-01-01

    Landsliding in response to rainfall involves physical processes that operate on disparate timescales. Relationships between these timescales guide development of a mathematical model that uses reduced forms of Richards equation to evaluate effects of rainfall infiltration on landslide occurrence, timing, depth, and acceleration in diverse situations. The longest pertinent timescale is A/D0, where D0 is the maximum hydraulic diffusivity of the soil and A is the catchment area that potentially affects groundwater pressures at a prospective landslide slip surface location with areal coordinates x, y and depth H. Times greater than A/D0 are necessary for establishment of steady background water pressures that develop at (x, y, H) in response to rainfall averaged over periods that commonly range from days to many decades. These steady groundwater pressures influence the propensity for landsliding at (x, y, H), but they do not trigger slope failure. Failure results from rainfall over a typically shorter timescale H2/D0 associated with transient pore pressure transmission during and following storms. Commonly, this timescale ranges from minutes to months. The shortest timescale affecting landslide responses to rainfall is √(H/g), where g is the magnitude of gravitational acceleration. Postfailure landslide motion occurs on this timescale, which indicates that the thinnest landslides accelerate most quickly if all other factors are constant. Effects of hydrologic processes on landslide processes across these diverse timescales are encapsulated by a response function, R(t*) = √(t*/π) exp (-1/t*) - erfc (1/√t*), which depends only on normalized time, t*. Use of R(t*) in conjunction with topographic data, rainfall intensity and duration information, an infinite-slope failure criterion, and Newton's second law predicts the timing, depth, and acceleration of rainfall-triggered landslides. Data from contrasting landslides that exhibit rapid, shallow

  5. The University of Wisconsin OAO operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heacox, H. C.; Mcnall, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    The Wisconsin OAO operating system is presented which consists of two parts: a computer program called HARUSPEX, which makes possible reasonably efficient and convenient operation of the package and ground operations equipment which provides real-time status monitoring, commanding and a quick-look at the data.

  6. Wisconsin's forest statistics, 1987: an inventory update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith; Jerold T. Hahn

    1989-01-01

    The Wisconsin 1987 inventory update, derived by using tree growth models, reports 14.7 million acres of timberland, a decline of less than 1% since 1983. This bulletin presents findings from the inventory update in tables detailing timberland area, volume, and biomass.

  7. Operability and location of Wisconsin's timber resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerold T. Hahn; Mark H. Hansen

    1989-01-01

    Data collected during the 1983 Wisconsin Statewide forest inventory were used to examine operability of the timber resource based on seven operability components. Operability is the ease or difficulty of managing or harvesting timber because of physical conditions in the stand or on the site.

  8. Divided Wisconsin: Partisan Spatial Electoral Realignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaniewski, Kazimierz J.; Simmons, James R.

    2016-01-01

    When the Republican and Democratic presidential candidates head into the general election this fall, they will be courting votes from a statewide electorate that has dramatically shifted over time, mirroring the political polarization that is happening across the country. Over the last three decades, Wisconsin's political geography has evolved…

  9. The Legal Status of Homemakers in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melli, Marygold Shire

    This report focuses on laws in the state of Wisconsin as they relate to homemakers. Four areas are discussed, each in separate sections: marriage, widowhood, divorce, and wife abuse. The section on marriage includes information on property rights, disability and death of homemaker, federal Equal Credit Opportunity Act, domicile, interspousal…

  10. Wisconsin Educators Tackle Violence Head On.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Katherine A.

    1999-01-01

    In August 1999, Wisconsin school business officials and other school administrators met with police officers to discuss cooperative ventures to ensure school safety. Conference participants attended sessions on identifying troubled students, physical security measures, safety planning, dealing with bomb threats, and prevention and punishment. (MLH)

  11. Stakeholders' Perceptions of Parcelization in Wisconsin's Northwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark G. Rickenbach; Paul H. Gobster

    2003-01-01

    Parcelization, the process by which relatively large forest ownerships become subdivided into smaller ones, is often related to changes in ownership and can bring changes to the use of the land. Landowners, resource professionals, and others interested in Wisconsin's Northwoods were asked their views on parcelization in a series of stakeholder forums. We analyzed...

  12. Libraries in Wisconsin Institutions: Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, Elizabeth B.

    The Wisconsin Library Association Round Table of Hospitals and Institutional Librarians became concerned about adequate funding of institutional libraries; the right of institutionalized persons to read and to have educational, legal, and recreational materials; and the development of staff libraries for treatment, rehabilitation, and research…

  13. Wisconsin Public Schools at a Glance, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, 2016

    2016-01-01

    "Wisconsin Public Schools at a Glance" provides in a single page document statistical information on the following topics: (1) Total number of public schools (2015-16); (2) Student (2015-16); (3) Attendance & Graduation (2014-15);(4) Staff (2013-14); (5) School Funding; and (6) Student Performance (2014-15). [For the previous report…

  14. Wisconsin Public Schools at a Glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "Wisconsin Public Schools at a Glance" provides in a single page document statistical information on the following topics: (1) Total number of public schools (2014-15); (2) Staff (2013-14); (3) Students (2013-14);(4) Report Cards (2013-14); (5) Attendance and Graduation (2012-13); (6) Student Performance (2013-14); and (7) School Funding.

  15. Overview of chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Lowden, R.A.

    1993-06-01

    Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is developing into a commercially important method for the fabrication of continuous filament ceramic composites. Current efforts are focused on the development of an improved understanding of the various processes in CVI and its modeling. New approaches to CVI are being explored, including pressure pulse infiltration and microwave heating. Material development is also proceeding with emphasis on improving the oxidation resistance of the interfacial layer between the fiber and matrix. This paper briefly reviews these subjects, indicating the current state of the science and technology.

  16. Acoustic building infiltration measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Raman, Ganesh

    2018-04-10

    Systems and methods of detecting and identifying a leak from a container or building. Acoustic pressure and velocity are measured. Acoustic properties are acquired from the measured values. The acoustic properties are converted to infiltration/leakage information. Nearfield Acoustic Holography (NAH) may be one method to detect the leakages from a container by locating the noise sources.

  17. Bilateral pulmonary infiltrates in association with disseminated actinomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dontfraid, F; Ramphal, R

    1994-07-01

    The most common infectious cause of bilateral upper-lobe pulmonary disease is tuberculosis. However, we recently encountered a patient with bilateral apical infiltrates and multiple soft-tissue abscesses caused by Actinomyces odontolyticus. Other findings included fever, weight loss, and leukocytosis, and the patient's only known source of immunosuppression was a long history of alcoholism. There was no history of diabetes, steroid use, or other chronic underlying disease. The diagnosis was made by culture of drainage fluid from one abscess. Therapy with intravenous penicillin G led to rapid clinical improvement and reduction in the infiltrates. To our knowledge, the presentation of pulmonary infection, with bilateral apical infiltrates due to A. odontolyticus has not been previously reported in the medical literature.

  18. Effect of the settlement of sediments on water infiltration in two urban infiltration basins

    OpenAIRE

    LASSABATERE, Laurent; ANGULO JARAMILLO, R; GOUTALAND, David; LETELLIER, Laetitia; GAUDET, JP; WINIARSKI, Thierry; DELOLME, C

    2010-01-01

    The sealing of surfaces in urban areas makes storm water management compulsory. The suspended solids from surface runoff water accumulate in infiltration basins and may impact on water infiltration. This paper describes a study of the effect of the settlement of sedimentary layers on the water infiltration capacity of two urban infiltrations basins. In situ water infiltration experiments were performed (1) to quantify the effect of sediment on water infiltration at local scale and (2) to deri...

  19. Private drinking water quality in rural Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobeloch, Lynda; Gorski, Patrick; Christenson, Megan; Anderson, Henry

    2013-03-01

    Between July 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, Wisconsin health departments tested nearly 4,000 rural drinking water supplies for coliform bacteria, nitrate, fluoride, and 13 metals as part of a state-funded program that provides assistance to low-income families. The authors' review of laboratory findings found that 47% of these wells had an exceedance of one or more health-based water quality standards. Test results for iron and coliform bacteria exceeded safe limits in 21% and 18% of these wells, respectively. In addition, 10% of the water samples from these wells were high in nitrate and 11% had an elevated result for aluminum, arsenic, lead, manganese, or strontium. The high percentage of unsafe test results emphasizes the importance of water quality monitoring to the health of nearly one million families including 300,000 Wisconsin children whose drinking water comes from a privately owned well.

  20. SMES developments at the University of Wisconsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boom, R.W.; Abdelsalam, M.K.; Eyssa, Y.; Hilal, M.; Huang, X.; McIntosh, G.E.; Pfotenhauer, J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on a long term SMES program in the Applied Superconductivity Center (ASC) in progress at the University of Wisconsin since 1970. The present principal interest in SMES stems from the US DNA-SDI program to build an engineering test model (ETM) for utility and government use. This paper is a review of SMES design highlights and of some small scale SMES studies

  1. Symmetrical parahiliar infiltrated, cough and dyspnoea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo Estrada, Horacio; Escalante, Hector

    2004-01-01

    It is the case a patient to who is diagnosed symmetrical parahiliar infiltrated; initially she is diagnosed lymphoma Hodgkin, treaty with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, but the X rays of the thorax demonstrated parahiliars and paramediastinals infiltrated

  2. Wisconsin Earth and Space Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbrough, Larry (Technical Monitor); French, George

    2003-01-01

    The Wisconsin Earth and Space Science Education project successfilly met its objectives of creating a comprehensive online portfolio of science education curricular resources and providing a professional development program to increase educator competency with Earth and Space science content and teaching pedagogy. Overall, 97% of participants stated that their experience was either good or excellent. The favorable response of participant reactions to the professional development opportunities highlights the high quality of the professional development opportunity. The enthusiasm generated for using the curricular material in classroom settings was overwhelmingly positive at 92%. This enthusiasm carried over into actual classroom implementation of resources from the curricular portfolio, with 90% using the resources between 1-6 times during the school year. The project has had a positive impact on student learning in Wisconsin. Although direct measurement of student performance is not possible in a project of this kind, nearly 75% of participating teachers stated that they saw an increase in student performance in math and science as a result of using project resources. Additionally, nearly 75% of participants saw an increase in the enthusiasm of students towards math and science. Finally, some evidence exists that the professional development academies and curricular portfolio have been effective in changing educator behavior. More than half of all participants indicated that they have used more hands-on activities as a result of the Wisconsin Earth and Space Science Education project.

  3. Xanthomatous infiltration of ankle tendons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelman, C.G.; Disler, D.G.; Kremer, J.M.; Jennings, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    We present a case of type II hyperbetalipoproteinemia in a patient whose diagnosis had been previously unrecognized, and who had previously been misdiagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis and later gout. Radiographic and MR imaging features of the patient's ankles were pronounced but otherwise typical of xanthomatous infiltration. Radiologic assessment can be useful in permitting a specific diagnosis to be made in patients with periarticular and tendinous swelling. (orig.). With 4 figs

  4. Application of spreadsheet to estimate infiltration parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Zakwan, Mohammad; Muzzammil, Mohammad; Alam, Javed

    2016-01-01

    Infiltration is the process of flow of water into the ground through the soil surface. Soil water although contributes a negligible fraction of total water present on earth surface, but is of utmost importance for plant life. Estimation of infiltration rates is of paramount importance for estimation of effective rainfall, groundwater recharge, and designing of irrigation systems. Numerous infiltration models are in use for estimation of infiltration rates. The conventional graphical approach ...

  5. Bridge Scour Monitoring Methods at Three Sites in Wisconsin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walker, John F; Hughes, Peter E

    2005-01-01

    .... Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Transportation, the Marathon County Highway Department, and the Jefferson County Highway Department, performed routine monitoring...

  6. Two-step infiltration of aluminum melts into Al-Ti-B4C-CuO powder mixture pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Lee, Jung-Moo; Cho, Young-Hee; Kim, Su-Hyeon; Yu, Huashun

    2016-03-01

    Aluminum matrix composites with a high volume fraction of B4C and TiB2 were fabricated by a novel processing technique - a quick spontaneous infiltration process. The process combines a pressureless infiltration with the combustion reaction of Al-Ti-B4C-CuO in molten aluminum. The process is realized in a simple and economical way in which the whole process is performed in air in a few minutes. To verify the rapidity of the process, the infiltration kinetics was calculated based on the Washburn equation in which melt flows into a porous skeleton. However, there was a noticeable deviation from the calculated results with the experimental results. Considering the cross-sections of the samples at different processing times, a new infiltration model (two step infiltration) consisting of macro-infiltration and micro-infiltration is suggested. The calculated kinetics results in light of the proposed model agree well with the experimental results.

  7. Microwave assisted chemical vapor infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devlin, D.J.; Currier, R.P.; Barbero, R.S.; Espinoza, B.F.; Elliott, N.

    1991-01-01

    A microwave assisted process for production of continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites is described. A simple apparatus combining a chemical vapor infiltration reactor with a conventional 700 W multimode oven is described. Microwave induced inverted thermal gradients are exploited with the ultimate goal of reducing processing times on complex shapes. Thermal gradients in stacks of SiC (Nicalon) cloths have been measured using optical thermometry. Initial results on the ''inside out'' deposition of SiC via decomposition of methyltrichlorosilane in hydrogen are presented. Several key processing issues are identified and discussed. 5 refs

  8. Transformation of Medicago truncatula via infiltration of seedlings or flowering plants with Agrobacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trieu, A.T.; Burleigh, S.H.; Kardailsky, I.V.

    2000-01-01

    Two rapid and simple in planta transformation methods have been developed for the model legume Medicago truncatula. The first approach is based on a method developed for transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana and involves infiltration of flowering plants with a suspension of Agrobacterium....... The second method involves infiltration of young seedlings with Agrobacterium. In both cases a proportion of the progeny of the infiltrated plants is transformed. The transformation frequency ranges from 4.7 to 76% for the flower infiltration method, and from 2.9 to 27.6% for the seedling infiltration method....... Both procedures resulted in a mixture of independent transformants and sibling transformants. The transformants were genetically stable, and analysis of the T-2 generation indicates that the transgenes are inherited in a Mendelian fashion. These transformation systems will increase the utility of M...

  9. Flood-frequency characteristics of Wisconsin streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, John F.; Peppler, Marie C.; Danz, Mari E.; Hubbard, Laura E.

    2017-05-22

    Flood-frequency characteristics for 360 gaged sites on unregulated rural streams in Wisconsin are presented for percent annual exceedance probabilities ranging from 0.2 to 50 using a statewide skewness map developed for this report. Equations of the relations between flood-frequency and drainage-basin characteristics were developed by multiple-regression analyses. Flood-frequency characteristics for ungaged sites on unregulated, rural streams can be estimated by use of the equations presented in this report. The State was divided into eight areas of similar physiographic characteristics. The most significant basin characteristics are drainage area, soil saturated hydraulic conductivity, main-channel slope, and several land-use variables. The standard error of prediction for the equation for the 1-percent annual exceedance probability flood ranges from 56 to 70 percent for Wisconsin Streams; these values are larger than results presented in previous reports. The increase in the standard error of prediction is likely due to increased variability of the annual-peak discharges, resulting in increased variability in the magnitude of flood peaks at higher frequencies. For each of the unregulated rural streamflow-gaging stations, a weighted estimate based on the at-site log Pearson type III analysis and the multiple regression results was determined. The weighted estimate generally has a lower uncertainty than either the Log Pearson type III or multiple regression estimates. For regulated streams, a graphical method for estimating flood-frequency characteristics was developed from the relations of discharge and drainage area for selected annual exceedance probabilities. Graphs for the major regulated streams in Wisconsin are presented in the report.

  10. The Wisconsin Test of Adult Basic Education (WITABE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Tej N.; Cleary, T. Anne

    A description is given of "The Wisconsin Test of Adult Basic Education (WITABE)" which was developed specifically to measure the achievement of the individuals enrolled in the Rural Family Development (RGD) program at the University Extension, University of Wisconsin. The test is divided into three main parts or subtests: subtests 1 and…

  11. Wisconsin Maternity Leave and Fringe Benefits: Policies, Practices and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Jennifer

    The study examines the economic implications in Wisconsin of the 1972 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission guideline which requires employers to treat maternity leave as a temporary disability. First, the static cost of the maternity leave guideline to employers is estimated for the State of Wisconsin. Second, some examination of the economic…

  12. Environmental Education in Wisconsin: What the Textbooks Teach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanera, Michael

    1996-01-01

    This report contains a study done at the request of the Wisconsin Policy Research Institute, which studies public policy issues affecting the state of Wisconsin. Environmental education texts for Grades 6 through 10 were examined for scientific and economic accuracy, objectivity, and balance in accomplishing the following: 1) stating facts that…

  13. Wisconsin EE Mandates: The Bad News and the Good News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Jennie; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines Wisconsin teachers' perceived competencies in, attitudes toward, and amount of class time devoted to teaching about the environment. Discusses the effects of Wisconsin environmental education mandates concerning preservice preparation in environmental education and K-12 environmental education curriculum plans. Identifies areas where the…

  14. Archaeological Investigations at a Wisconsin Petroglyph Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Steinbring

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary test excavations at the Hensler Petroglyph Site in East Central Wisconsin, U.S.A. have disclosed the remains of aboriginal engravings below Aeolian sediments dated to ca. 15,000 years B.P. The stratified deposits lying adjacent to an engraved panel, containing 35 pecked images, have yielded animal-like cobbles, some covered with red ochre, apparently picked for some esoteric use. The site itself has unusual natural shapes in the rock formation, along with acoustical properties, lightning strikes, a magnetic anomaly, and geographic prominence. Collectively these factors are thought to have attracted the ancient rock artists to the site.

  15. Progress toward the Wisconsin Free Electron Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisognano, Joseph; Bosch, R.A.; Eisert, D.; Fisher, M.V.; Green, M.A.; Jacobs, K.; Kleman, K.J.; Kulpin, J.; Rogers, G.C.; Lawler, J.E.; Yavuz, D.; Legg, R.

    2011-01-01

    The University of Wisconsin-Madison/Synchrotron Radiation Center is advancing its design for a seeded VUV/soft X-ray Free Electron Laser facility called WiFEL. To support this vision of an ultimate light source, we are pursuing a program of strategic R and D addressing several crucial elements. This includes development of a high repetition rate, VHF superconducting RF electron gun, R and D on photocathode materials by ARPES studies, and evaluation of FEL facility architectures (e.g., recirculation, compressor scenarios, CSR dechirping, undulator technologies) with the specific goal of cost containment. Studies of high harmonic generation for laser seeding are also planned.

  16. Infiltrating giant cellular blue naevus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, A L; Monteiro, D A; De Pretto, O J

    2007-01-01

    Cellular blue naevi (CBN) measure 1-2 cm in diameter and affect the dermis, occasionally extending into the subcutaneous fat. The case of a 14-year-old boy with a giant CBN (GCBN) involving the right half of the face, the jugal mucosa and the lower eyelid with a tumour that had infiltrated the bone and the maxillary and ethmoidal sinuses is reported. Biopsies were taken from the skin, jugal mucosa and maxillary sinus. The following markers were used in the immunohistochemical evaluation: CD34, CD56, HMB-45, anti-S100, A-103, Melan A and MIB-1. The biopsy specimens showed a biphasic pattern affecting the lower dermis, subcutaneous fat, skeletal muscle, bone, jugal mucosa and maxillary sinus, but there was no histological evidence of malignancy. The tumour cells were CD34-, CD56-, HMB45+, anti-S100+ and A-103+. Melan A was focally expressed. No positive MIB-1 cells were identified. The present case shows that GCBN may infiltrate deeply, with no evidence of malignancy.

  17. Comparison of Home Retrofit Programs in Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Kerrie [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership; Hannigan, Eileen [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership

    2013-03-01

    To explore ways to reduce customer barriers and increase home retrofit completions, several different existing home retrofit models have been implemented in the state of Wisconsin. This study compared these programs' performance in terms of savings per home and program cost per home to assess the relative cost-effectiveness of each program design. However, given the many variations in these different programs, it is difficult to establish a fair comparison based on only a small number of metrics. Therefore, the overall purpose of the study is to document these programs' performance in a case study approach to look at general patterns of these metrics and other variables within the context of each program. This information can be used by energy efficiency program administrators and implementers to inform home retrofit program design. Six different program designs offered in Wisconsin for single-family energy efficiency improvements were included in the study. For each program, the research team provided information about the programs' approach and goals, characteristics, achievements and performance. The program models were then compared with performance results-program cost and energy savings-to help understand the overall strengths and weaknesses or challenges of each model.

  18. Comparison of Home Retrofit Programs in Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, K.; Hannigan, E.

    2013-03-01

    To explore ways to reduce customer barriers and increase home retrofit completions, several different existing home retrofit models have been implemented in the state of Wisconsin. This study compared these programs' performance in terms of savings per home and program cost per home to assess the relative cost-effectiveness of each program design. However, given the many variations in these different programs, it is difficult to establish a fair comparison based on only a small number of metrics. Therefore, the overall purpose of the study is to document these programs' performance in a case study approach to look at general patterns of these metrics and other variables within the context of each program. This information can be used by energy efficiency program administrators and implementers to inform home retrofit program design. Six different program designs offered in Wisconsin for single-family energy efficiency improvements were included in the study. For each program, the research team provided information about the programs' approach and goals, characteristics, achievements and performance. The program models were then compared with performance results -- program cost and energy savings -- to help understand the overall strengths and weaknesses or challenges of each model.

  19. Application of spreadsheet to estimate infiltration parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zakwan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Infiltration is the process of flow of water into the ground through the soil surface. Soil water although contributes a negligible fraction of total water present on earth surface, but is of utmost importance for plant life. Estimation of infiltration rates is of paramount importance for estimation of effective rainfall, groundwater recharge, and designing of irrigation systems. Numerous infiltration models are in use for estimation of infiltration rates. The conventional graphical approach for estimation of infiltration parameters often fails to estimate the infiltration parameters precisely. The generalised reduced gradient (GRG solver is reported to be a powerful tool for estimating parameters of nonlinear equations and it has, therefore, been implemented to estimate the infiltration parameters in the present paper. Field data of infiltration rate available in literature for sandy loam soils of Umuahia, Nigeria were used to evaluate the performance of GRG solver. A comparative study of graphical method and GRG solver shows that the performance of GRG solver is better than that of conventional graphical method for estimation of infiltration rates. Further, the performance of Kostiakov model has been found to be better than the Horton and Philip's model in most of the cases based on both the approaches of parameter estimation.

  20. Thematic issue on soil water infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infiltration is the term applied to the process of water entry into the soil, generally by downward flow through all or part of the soil surface. Understanding of infiltration concept and processes has greatly improved, over the past 30 years, and new insights have been given into modeling of non-un...

  1. Role of slope on infiltration: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbidelli, Renato; Saltalippi, Carla; Flammini, Alessia; Govindaraju, Rao S.

    2018-02-01

    Partitioning of rainfall at the soil-atmosphere interface is important for both surface and subsurface hydrology, and influences many events of major hydrologic interest such as runoff generation, aquifer recharge, and transport of pollutants in surface waters as well as the vadose zone. This partitioning is achieved through the process of infiltration that has been widely investigated at the local scale, and more recently also at the field scale, by models that were designed for horizontal surfaces. However, infiltration, overland flows, and deep flows in most real situations are generated by rainfall over sloping surfaces that bring in additional effects. Therefore, existing models for local infiltration into homogeneous and layered soils and those as for field-scale infiltration, have to be adapted to account for the effects of surface slope. Various studies have investigated the role of surface slope on infiltration based on a theoretical formulations for the dynamics of infiltration, extensions of the Green-Ampt approach, and from laboratory and field experiments. However, conflicting results have been reported in the scientific literature on the role of surface slope on infiltration. We summarize the salient points from previous studies and provide plausible reasons for discrepancies in conclusions of previous authors, thus leading to a critical assessment of the current state of our understanding on this subject. We offer suggestions for future efforts to advance our knowledge of infiltration over sloping surfaces.

  2. Modeling snowmelt infiltration in seasonally frozen ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhathoki, S.; Ireson, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    In cold regions, freezing and thawing of the soil govern soil hydraulic properties that shape the surface and subsurface hydrological processes. The partitioning of snowmelt into infiltration and runoff has also important implications for integrated water resource management and flood risk. However, there is an inadequate representation of the snowmelt infiltration into frozen soils in most land-surface and hydrological models, creating the need for improved models and methods. Here we apply, the Frozen Soil Infiltration Model, FroSIn, which is a novel algorithm for infiltration in frozen soils that can be implemented in physically based models of coupled flow and heat transport. In this study, we apply the model in a simple configuration to reproduce observations from field sites in the Canadian prairies, specifically St Denis and Brightwater Creek in Saskatchewan, Canada. We demonstrate the limitations of conventional approaches to simulate infiltration, which systematically over-predict runoff and under predict infiltration. The findings show that FroSIn enables models to predict more reasonable infiltration volumes in frozen soils, and also represent how infiltration-runoff partitioning is impacted by antecedent soil moisture.

  3. Fueling Wisconsin's economy with renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemmer, S.

    1995-01-01

    A dynamic macroeconomic model of the Wisconsin economy is used to estimate the economic impacts of displacing a portion of future investment in fossil fuel power plants (coal and natural gas) with renewable energy resources (biomass, wind, solar and hydro). The results show that renewable energy investments produce over three times more jobs, income and economic activity than the same amount of electricity generated from coal and natural gas power plants. Between 1995 and 2020, a 75% increase in renewable energy use generates approximately 65,000 more job-years of employment, $1.6 billion in higher disposable income and a $3.1 billion increase in gross regional product than conventional power plant investments. This includes the effects of a 0.3% average annual increase in electricity prices from renewable energy investments

  4. Survey of medical radium installations in Wisconsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapert, A.C.; Lea, W.L.

    1975-05-01

    A radiation protection survey was performed at 70 medical radium installations in the State of Wisconsin. The requirements of the State's Radiation Protection Code were used as survey criteria. Radiation measurements of radium storage containers, radium capsule leakage tests, and monitoring of work surfaces for contamination were performed. Film badge monitoring data of whole body and extremity doses are presented for 221 individuals at 17 hospitals. Whole body doses during single treatments ranged from 10 to 1360 mrems per individual. The estimate of 500 mrems per treatment was determined as the dose aggregate to hospital personnel. Whole body doses from film badges are compared with analogous TLD doses. Four physicians and six technicians at nine hospitals participated in a study for monitoring the extremities with TLD. Cumulative extremity doses ranged from 28 to 6628 mrems per participant during the study. (U.S.)

  5. Wisconsin torsatron/stellarator program, FY 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shohet, J.L.; Anderson, D.T.; Anderson, F.S.B.; Talmadge, J.N.

    1988-07-01

    This proposal documents recent activities within the University of Wisconsin-Madison Torsatron/Stellarator Laboratory and presents plans for future research activities for a three year period. Research efforts have focused on fundamental stellarator physics issues through experimental investigations on the Interchangeable Module Stellarator (IMS) and the Proto-Cleo Stellarator. Theoretical activities and studies of new configurations are being undertaken to support and broaden the experimental program. Experimental research at the Torsatron Stellarator Laboratory has been primarily concerned with effects induced through electron-cyclotron resonant frequency plasma production and heating in the IMS device. Plasma electric fields have been shown to play a major role in particle transport and confinement in IMS. ECRF heating at 6 kG has produced electron tail populations in agreement with Monte-Carlo models. Electric and magnetic fields have been shown to alter the particle flows to the IMS modular divertors. 48 refs

  6. Effect of Irrigation Water Type on Infiltration Rates of Sandy Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Omran, A.M.; Al-Matrood, S.M.; Choudhary, M.I.

    2004-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to test the effect of three water types (tap water, well water and sewage water) on the infiltration rate of three soils varying in texture (sand. loamy sand and sandy loam). A stationary rainfall simulator dispensing water at a rate of 45 mm h-1, connected to the different sources of water, was used to measure the infiltration rates. A total of 5 runs were carried out using each water quality. The volume of runoff against the time was recorded at each 5 minute interval. The infiltration rate was calculated as the difference between the water applied and the excesses water measured as surface runoff. Infiltration rate at first run were rapid in all the three soils and then progressively declined as the number of runs increased. The same trend was observed for each water quality tested. The reduction in infiltration rate with increasing number of runs for prewetted surface than for the initial dry surface was attributed to break down and settling of fine particles that took place earlier during prewetting. The infiltration curves for all the three soils when irrigared with different qualities of water was not distinguishable. The relationship between infiltration rate as function of time for the treatments applied were tested using Kostiakov equation I=bt-n. The infiltration data gave a coefficient of determination R2 >0.90 for all the treatments. The infiltration parameters B, and n varied strongly with respect to soil texture. Values of B decreased with changing soil textures, being highest for the sandy soil, and lowest for the sandy loamy soil, whereas n values showed the opposite trend. It was concluded that effect of soil texture on the infiltration rate was very pronounced while water qualities showed a little effect. (author)

  7. Geographic and racial variation in teen pregnancy rates in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layde, Molly M; Remington, Patrick L

    2013-08-01

    Despite recent declines in teen birth rates, teenage pregnancy remains an important public health problem in Wisconsin with significant social, economic, and health-related effects. Compare and contrast teen birth rate trends by race, ethnicity, and county in Wisconsin. Teen (ages 15-19 years) birth rates (per 1000 teenage females) in Wisconsin from 2001-2010 were compared by racelethnicity and county of residence using data from the Wisconsin Interactive Statistics on Health. Teen birth rates in Wisconsin have declined by 20% over the past decade, from 35.5/1000 teens in 2001 to 28.3/1000 teens in 2010-a relative decline of 20.3%. However, trends vary by race, with declines among blacks (-33%) and whites (-26%) and increases among American Indians (+21%) and Hispanics (+30%). Minority teen birth rates continue to be 3 to 5 times greater than birth rates among whites. Rates varied even more by county, with an over 14-fold difference between Ozaukee County (7.8/1000) and Menominee County (114.2). Despite recent declines, teen pregnancy continues to be an important public health problem in Wisconsin. Pregnancy prevention programs should be targeted toward the populations and counties with the highest rates.

  8. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Caused by Leukemic Infiltration of the Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Kuang Wu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory distress syndrome resulting from leukemic pulmonary infiltrates is seldom diagnosed antemortem. Two 60- and 80-year-old women presented with general malaise, progressive shortness of breath, and hyperleukocytosis, which progressed to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS after admission. Acute leukemia with pulmonary infection was initially diagnosed, but subsequent examinations including open lung biopsy revealed leukemic pulmonary infiltrates without infection. In one case, the clinical condition and chest radiography improved initially after combination therapy with chemotherapy for leukemia and aggressive pulmonary support. However, new pulmonary infiltration on chest radiography and hypoxemia recurred, which was consistent with acute lysis pneumopathy. Despite aggressive treatment, both patients died due to rapidly deteriorating condition. Leukemic pulmonary involvement should be considered in acute leukemia patients with non-infectious diffusive lung infiltration, especially in acute leukemia with a high blast count.

  9. Field Test Evaluation of Conservation Retrofits of Low-Income Single Family Buildings in Wisconsin: Summary Report; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ternes, M.P.

    2001-01-01

    During the winter of 1985-86, a retrofit field test was performed in 66 occupied, low-income, single-family homes in Madison, Wisconsin. The primary objectives of the field test were to (1) determine the measured energy savings and the relative benefits of a combination of envelope and mechanical equipment retrofits that were selected following a new audit-directed retrofit procedure, (2) determine the energy savings and benefits due to performing infiltration reduction work following a recently developed infiltration reduction procedure, and (3) study general occupant behavior and house thermal characteristics and their possible change following retrofit installation. This report provides an overview of the project and summarizes the findings which will be presented in detail in separate reports. Major findings from the field test include: (1) The audit-directed retrofit procedure produced an average savings of 207 therms/year/house. The procedure also more than doubled the overall cost-effectiveness of the low-income weatherization assistance program as compared with the priority system formerly used in Wisconsin. Wall insulation and condensing furnaces were the major retrofits (predicted annual energy savings greater than 100 therms/year) most often selected under the procedure. The respective average energy savings of the houses receiving wall insulation and condensing furnace. s was 14.6 and 14.3 therms/year for each$100 spent on them under the program. (2) The blower-door-guided infiltration reduction procedure reduced expenditures for infiltration reduction to about one-fourth of previous program costs (from$570/house to$106/house). The procedure also reduced the average air leakage rate in the treated houses by 16%, whereas, in a previous study, no significant reduction was found following the installation of typical infiltration reduction measures. (3) Twenty to 60% of the deviation between predicted and measured savings can be attributed to incorrect

  10. Model and calculations for net infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, S.W.; Long, A.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a conceptual model for calculating net infiltration is developed and implemented. It incorporates the following important factors: viability of climate for the next 10,000 years, areal viability of net infiltration, and important soil/plant factors that affect the soil water budget of desert soils. Model results are expressed in terms of occurrence probabilities for time periods. In addition the variability of net infiltration is demonstrated both for change with time and differences among three soil/hydrologic units present at the site modeled

  11. Prediction of snowmelt infiltration into frozen soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Y.X.; Gray, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    A numerical model is presented, based on the local volume averaging formulation of transport phenomena in porous media, for simulating meltwater infiltration into unsaturated, frozen soil. With the defined flow and freezing boundary conditions at the snow-soil interface, using the concept of a surface local averaging volume, the time variation in profiles of temperature, liquid/ice content, infiltration/percolation rates, and rate of phase change in upper soil layers are predicted. In addition to a parametric analysis, model estimates of infiltration are compared with quantities calculated from field measurements of soil moisture changes and temperature during snow cover ablation, showing a reasonable agreement

  12. CT imaging spectrum of infiltrative renal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, David H; De Alba, Luis; Migliaro, Matias; Previgliano, Carlos H; Sangster, Guillermo P

    2017-11-01

    Most renal lesions replace the renal parenchyma as a focal space-occupying mass with borders distinguishing the mass from normal parenchyma. However, some renal lesions exhibit interstitial infiltration-a process that permeates the renal parenchyma by using the normal renal architecture for growth. These infiltrative lesions frequently show nonspecific patterns that lead to little or no contour deformity and have ill-defined borders on CT, making detection and diagnosis challenging. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to describe the CT imaging findings of various conditions that may manifest as infiltrative renal lesions.

  13. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J

    2012-01-01

    This randomized split-mouth controlled clinical trial aimed at assessing the therapeutic effects of infiltration vs. sealing for controlling caries progression on proximal surfaces. Out of 90 adult students/patients assessed at university clinics and agreeing to participate, 39, each with 3...... differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant difference...

  14. Impact of climate variations on Managed Aquifer Recharge infiltration basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquero, Felix; Stefan, Catalin

    2017-04-01

    KEYWORDS: Managed Aquifer Recharge, field scale infiltration unit, climatic conditions, numerical model Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is a technique that is gaining more attention as a sustainable alternative for areas where water scarcity is increasing. Main concept relies on facilitating the vertical infiltration of a source of fresh water (river water, rainwater, reclaimed water, etc). The groundwater acts as storage of water for further use in the future, for example in times of water scarcity. In some MAR types the soil itself can be used even as a filter for the removal of specific organic and inorganic compounds. In order to promote the benefits of MAR in different zones of the globe with variable climate conditions, including the effects of climate change, a numerical model (HYDRUS 2D/3D) is being set up. Coupled with the model a field-scale rapid infiltration unit (4m x 5m x 1.5m) was constructed with the capacity to log different MAR key parameters in the soil (tension, water content, temperature and electrical conductivity) in space and time. These data will feed the model for its calibration using specific hydrogeological characteristics of the packing material and hydraulic characteristics of the infiltrated fluid. The unit is located in the city of Pirna (German), 200 m north from the Elbe River where the groundwater level varies seasonally between 6 and 9 m below the ground surface. Together with the field scale rapid infiltration unit, a set of multi-parametric sensors (measuring in time: water stage, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and temperature) in six monitoring wells, located on the basin surroundings, were installed. The purpose of these sensors is to estimate, via tracer experiments, the time that the infiltrated water needed to reach the groundwater and the flow speed in which it travelled once it reached the saturated zone. Once calibrated, the model will be able to estimate the flow behaviour under variable climate conditions

  15. Pituitary infiltration by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aral Ferihan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pituitary adenomas represent the most frequently observed type of sellar masses; however, the presence of a rapidly growing sellar tumor, diabetes insipidus, ophthalmoplegia and headaches in an older patient strongly suggests metastasis to the pituitary. Since the anterior pituitary has a great reserve capacity, metastasis to the pituitary and pituitary involvement in lymphoma are usually asymptomatic. Whereas diabetes insipidus is the most frequent symptom, patients can present with headaches, ophthalmoplegia and bilateral hemianopsia. Case presentation A 70-year-old woman with no previous history of malignancy presented with headaches, right oculomotor nerve palsy and diabetes insipidus. As magnetic resonance imaging revealed a sellar mass involving the pituitary gland and infundibular stalk, which also extended into the right cavernous sinus and sphenoid sinus, the patient underwent an immediate transsphenoidal decompression surgery. Her prolactin was 102.4 ng/ml, whereas her gonadotropic hormone levels were low. A low level of urine osmolality after overnight water deprivation, along with normal plasma osmolality suggested diabetes insipidus. Histological examination revealed that the mass had been the infiltration of a high grade B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma involving respiratory system epithelial cells. Paranasal sinus computed tomography scanning and magnetic resonance imaging of the thorax and abdomen were performed. Since magnetic resonance imaging did not reveal any abnormality, after paranasal sinus computed tomography was performed, we concluded that the primary lymphoma originated from the sphenoid sinus and infiltrated the pituitary. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy to the sellar area were planned, but the patient died and her family did not permit an autopsy. Conclusion Lymphoma infiltration to the pituitary is difficult to differentiate from pituitary adenoma, meningioma and other sellar lesions. To plan the

  16. Liquid infiltration through the boiling-point isotherm in a desiccating fractured rock matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, O.M.

    1994-01-01

    Over a long time interval, the integrity of the radioactive waste repository proposed at Yucca Mountain may be compromised by corrosion accelerated by intermittent wetting which could occur by episodic infiltration of meteoric water from above through the fracture network. A simple two-dimensional model is constructed for the infiltration of liquid water down a fracture in a permeable rock matrix, beyond the boiling-point isotherm. The water may derive from episodic infiltration or from the condensation of steam above a desiccating region. Boiling of the water in the fracture is maintained by heat transfer from a surrounding superheated matrix blocks. There are two intrinsic length scales in this situation, (1): l s = ρ l q o L/(k m β) which is such that the total heat flow over this lateral distance balances that needed for evaporation of the liquid water infiltration, and (2): The thermal diffusion distance l θ = (k m t) 1/2 which increases with time after the onset of infiltration. The primary results are: (a) for two-dimensional infiltration down an isolated fracture or fault, the depth of penetration below the (undisturbed) boiling point isotherm is given by 1/2 π 1/2 (l s l θ ) 1/2 , and so increases as t 1/4 . Immediately following the onset of infiltration, penetration is rapid, but quickly slows. This behavior continues until l θ (and D) become comparable with l s . (b) With continuing infiltration down an isolated fracture or cluster of fractures, when l θ >> l s the temperature distribution becomes steady and the penetration distance stabilizes at a value proportional to l s . (c) Effects such as three-dimensionality of the liquid flow paths and flow rates, matrix infiltration, etc., appear to reduce the penetration distance

  17. Dosimetric implications of the infiltrated injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castronovo, F.P.; McKusick, K.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Following inadvertent infiltration of a radiopharmaceutical, there is variable and uncertain uptake in target tissue. Concomitantly, there is also a concern for the radiation dose to the infiltrated site. This investigation determined the clearance and radiation burdens from various radiopharmaceutical infiltrates in a rat model. Nine separate sites were studied for: Tc-99m microspheres; Tc-99m MDP; Ga-67 citrate; and Tl-201 chloride. Following sc injection on the shaven posteriors of anesthetized adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, gamma camera and computer data were collected up to 24 hours. The resulting data were expressed semilogarithmically as the mean (N = 9) of the ''% retained at site'' as a f(time) after injection. Nonparticulate agents showed a tri-exponential release pattern from each site, whereas the microspheres remained for an extended period of time. Using these pharma-cokinetic curves, the % remaining at each site for various times, and rems/mCi per lcc infiltrate was determined

  18. Caesarean section wound infiltration with ropivacaine versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caesarean section wound infiltration with ropivacaine versus placebo: Survey of chronic pelvic pain after 4 years' follow-up. ... South African Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ...

  19. Quick test for infiltration of arable soils

    OpenAIRE

    Liebl, Boris; Spiegel, Ann-Kathrin

    2018-01-01

    The quick test makes the consequences of soil compaction on water infiltration and the yield of agricultural crops visible. It promotes an understanding of the effects of soil compaction and the importance of soil-conserving cultivation.

  20. Hemiparesy, disartry, adenopathy and pulmonary infiltrated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo Estrada, Horacio; Triana Harker, Ricardo; Castaneda del Gordo, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    Hemiparesy, disartry, adenopathy and pulmonary infiltrated, in-patient of 72 years, masculine sex who consults for pain in the right inferior member of 6 months of evolution, decrease of the force in the right and moderate disartry

  1. Ceramic composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinton, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Composites consisting of silicon carbide matrices reinforced with continuous ceramic fibers are being developed for high-temperature structural applications. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques are very effective in fabricating composites with high strengths and exceptional fracture toughness. Mechanical properties of infiltrated composites are controlled by the strength of the interfacial bond between the fibers and matrix. This paper describes two CVD techniques and reviews the models being developed to better understand and control the infiltration process

  2. Tunable Beam Diffraction in Infiltrated Microstructured Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosberg, Christian Romer; Bennet, Francis H.; Neshev, Dragomir N.

    We experimentally study beam propagation in two dimensional photonic lattices in microstructured optical fibers infiltrated with high index liquids. We demonstrate strongly tunable beam diffraction by dynamically varying the coupling between individual lattice sites.......We experimentally study beam propagation in two dimensional photonic lattices in microstructured optical fibers infiltrated with high index liquids. We demonstrate strongly tunable beam diffraction by dynamically varying the coupling between individual lattice sites....

  3. Reintroduction medicine: whooping cranes in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Dominique L; Hartup, Barry K

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents veterinary management strategies and diagnostic findings in the reintroduction of the endangered whooping crane (Grus americana). Between 2005 and 2010, 63 (27 male, 36 female) hatchling whooping cranes were assigned to a reintroduction project involving autumn release of costume-reared chicks in Wisconsin. Veterinary care included preventive measures and comprehensive pre-release evaluations to improve fitness and reduce translocation of potential disease agents to native habitats. A total of 44 clinically normal birds were released (70% of assigned individuals). Cases of morbidity were classified according to primary body system affected. Musculoskeletal disorders were described in 57 birds (90%); five birds were removed from the project prior to release (8%), all for abnormalities that prevented normal function. Fourteen birds died or were euthanized prior to release (22%); pre-release mortality was attributed to developmental abnormality, predation, trauma or infectious disease. Chronic respiratory aspergillosis, diagnosed in seven birds (11%), was the most common infectious disease of concern. Predation and trauma were primary causes of post-release mortality; no evidence of infectious disease of captive origin was detected in the study population by the end of 2010. The assessment of data accumulated by this project helped to outline successful health management strategies, as well as identify and mitigate ongoing risks to captive whooping cranes that impede reintroduction efforts and achieving management goals for species recovery. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Acculturation Processes of Hmong in Eastern Wisconsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kha Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines acculturation processes among Hmong who live in Eastern Wisconsin by using the East Asian Acculturation Measure (EAAM, which was developed by Barry (2001. The results indicated that in terms of Acculturation, Hmong ranked highest in integration, then separation, assimilation, and lastly marginalization. Questions on each dimension of integration, separation, assimilation, and marginalization were analyzed and positive correlations were found between the youngest of the generations, the length of residency in the United States, and the ability to speak, read, and write in English. In contrast, the older the age of the participant when they came to the United States had a positive correlation with separation. The ability to speak, read, and write in English had a positive correlation with assimilation, and the older the age of coming to the United States had a positive correlation with marginalization. Assimilation and separation had a positive correlation with marginalization, while integration had a negative correlation with marginalization and a positive correlation with assimilation, and separation had no correlation with marginalization. Results are discussed in regards to previous Hmong acculturation studies.

  5. Influence of Surface Biosolids Application on Infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Zartman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosolids from waste water treatment facilities applied to soils not only add plant nutrients, but also increase infiltration and decrease runoff and erosion. Wet biosolids from New York, NY, were surface applied at 0 to 90 Mg ha−1 dry weight to soils near El Paso, Tex. Simulated rainfall intensities of 16.4 cm hr−1 for 30 minutes applied to 0.5 m2 soil plots yielded initial infiltration rates of ~16 cm hr−1 for all plots. Biosolids applications extended the duration of the initially high infiltration rates. After 30 minutes, infiltration rates for bare soil were 3 cm hr−1 without and 10 cm hr−1 with 90 Mg biosolids ha−1. Applied biosolids, plant litter, surface gravel, and plant base contributed surface cover, which absorbed raindrop energy and reduced erosion. Biosolids increased cumulative infiltration on the vegetated, wet soils more than for the dry or bare soils. Biosolids increased cumulative infiltration from 2 to 6 cm on a bare gravelly soil and from 9.3 to 10.6 cm on a vegetated soil.

  6. Characterizing phosphorus dynamics in tile-drained agricultural fieldsof eastern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Allison; Ruark, Matthew; Stuntebeck, Todd D.; Komiskey, Matthew J.; Good, Laura W.; Drummy, Nancy; Cooley, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Artificial subsurface drainage provides an avenue for the rapid transfer of phosphorus (P) from agricultural fields to surface waters. This is of particular interest in eastern Wisconsin, where there is a concentrated population of dairy farms and high clay content soils prone to macropore development. Through collaboration with private landowners, surface and tile drainage was measured and analyzed for dissolved reactive P (DRP) and total P (TP) losses at four field sites in eastern Wisconsin between 2005 and 2009. These sites, which received frequent manure applications, represent a range of crop management practices which include: two chisel plowed corn fields (CP1, CP2), a no-till corn–soybean field (NT), and a grazed pasture (GP). Subsurface drainage was the dominant pathway of water loss at each site accounting for 66–96% of total water discharge. Average annual flow-weighted (FW) TP concentrations were 0.88, 0.57, 0.21, and 1.32 mg L−1 for sites CP1, CP2, NT, and GP, respectively. Low TP concentrations at the NT site were due to tile drain interception of groundwater flow where large volumes of tile drainage water diluted the FW-TP concentrations. Subsurface pathways contributed between 17% and 41% of the TP loss across sites. On a drainage event basis, total drainage explained between 36% and 72% of the event DRP loads across CP1, CP2, and GP; there was no relationship between event drainflow and event DRP load at the NT site. Manure applications did not consistently increase P concentrations in drainflow, but annual FW-P concentrations were greater in years receiving manure applications compared to years without manure application. Based on these field measures, P losses from tile drainage must be integrated into field level P budgets and P loss calculations on heavily manured soils, while also acknowledging the unique drainage patterns observed in eastern Wisconsin.

  7. Research on the infiltration processes of lawn soils of the Babao River in the Qilian Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, GuangWen; Feng, Qi; Zhang, FuPing; Cheng, AiFang

    2014-01-01

    Using a Guelph Permeameter, the soil water infiltration processes were analyzed in the Babao River of the Qilian Mountain in China. The results showed that the average soil initial infiltration and the steady infiltration rates in the upstream reaches of the Babao River are 1.93 and 0.99 cm/min, whereas those of the middle area are 0.48 cm/min and 0.21 cm/min, respectively. The infiltration processes can be divided into three stages: the rapidly changing stage (0-10 min), the slowly changing stage (10-30 min) and the stabilization stage (after 30 min). We used field data collected from lawn soils and evaluated the performances of the infiltration models of Philip, Kostiakov and Horton with the sum of squared error, the root mean square error, the coefficient of determination, the mean error, the model efficiency and Willmott's index of agreement. The results indicated that the Kostiakov model was most suitable for studying the infiltration process in the alpine lawn soils.

  8. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Wisconsin. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2006 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Wisconsin.

  9. Ammonia emissions from dairy production in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, L A; Flesch, T K; Powell, J M; Coblentz, W K; Jokela, W E; Martin, N P

    2009-05-01

    Ammonia gas is the only significant basic gas that neutralizes atmospheric acid gases produced from combustion of fossil fuels. This reaction produces an aerosol that is a component of atmospheric haze, is implicated in nitrogen (N) deposition, and may be a potential human health hazard. Because of the potential impact of NH3 emissions, environmentally and economically, the objective of this study was to obtain representative and accurate NH3 emissions data from large dairy farms (>800 cows) in Wisconsin. Ammonia concentrations and climatic measurements were made on 3 dairy farms during winter, summer, and autumn to calculate emissions using an inverse-dispersion analysis technique. These study farms were confinement systems utilizing freestall housing with nearby sand separators and lagoons for waste management. Emissions were calculated from the whole farm including the barns and any waste management components (lagoons and sand separators), and from these components alone when possible. During winter, the lagoons' NH3 emissions were very low and not measurable. During autumn and summer, whole-farm emissions were significantly larger than during winter, with about two-thirds of the total emissions originating from the waste management systems. The mean whole-farm NH3 emissions in winter, autumn, and summer were 1.5, 7.5, and 13.7% of feed N inputs emitted as NH3-N, respectively. Average annual emission comparisons on a unit basis between the 3 farms were similar at 7.0, 7.5, and 8.4% of input feed N emitted as NH3-N, with an annual average for all 3 farms of 7.6 +/- 1.5%. These winter, summer, autumn, and average annual NH3 emissions are considerably smaller than currently used estimates for dairy farms, and smaller than emissions from other types of animal-feeding operations.

  10. Soil macropores: Control on infiltration, hillslope and surface hydrology on a reclaimed surface-mined watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guebert, M.D.; Gardner, T.W.

    1992-01-01

    The hydrologic response of a surface-mined watershed in central Pennsylvania is controlled by rapid macropore flow within the unsaturated man-made topsoil. Newly reclaimed surface-mined watersheds in central Pennsylvania exhibit low steady-state infiltration rates (1--2 cm/hr) and produce runoff dominated by infiltration-excess overland flow. However, within four years after reclamation, infiltration rates on some mine surfaces approach premined rates (8 cm/hr). As infiltration rate increases, the volume of infiltrated water increases, but the total porosity of minesoil matrix remains constant. There is little change in the surface discharge volume, indicating that infiltrated water continues to contribute to the basin surface discharge by the processes of throughflow and return flow. Throughflow in the topsoil horizon occurs in rapid response to rainfall input, producing large volumes of water with throughflow rates closely related to rainfall rates and with throughflow peaks following rainfall peaks by only minutes. Increased return flow alters the shape of the surface runoff hydrograph by slightly lagging behind infiltration excess overland flow. These changes in the shape of the surface runoff hydrograph reduce the potential for severe gully erosion on the reclaimed site. In addition, throughflow water remains predominantly in the topsoil horizon, and therefore has limited contact with potentially acid-producing backfill. Better understanding of macropore flow processes in reclaimed minesoils will help investigators evaluate past strategies and develop new reclamation techniques that will minimize the short-term surface erosional effects of mining and reclamation, while optimizing the long-term effluent and groundwater quality

  11. Meningeal infiltration in recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, V.F.H.; Fan, Y.-F.

    2000-01-01

    Permeative infiltration of the meninges appears to be a distinct form of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The present report of eight patients with recurrent NPC illustrates meningeal infiltration following basal foramina extension. Seven of the eight patients (88%) showed jugular foramen involvement. Three patients had concomitant infiltration of the foramen magnum. There was one patient showing spread through the foramen lacerum. Only four (50%) of these patients had clinically detectable tumour in the nasopharynx, while the other half showed deep submucosal recurrence with endoscopically unremarkable findings. Permeative meningeal infiltration appears to be a distinct form of NPC recurrence. It is important to recognize this phenomenon so as to optimize the treatment options. The imaging studies were reviewed and the following features were recorded: local nasopharyngeal recurrence, the manner of intracranial spread and site of meningeal infiltration. Four patients had only MRI, two had only CT and two patients had both CT and MRI. The presence or absence of intracranial tumour before treatment was also recorded. Two observers reviewed the images and results were arrived at by consensus. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  12. Ebola Preparedness Planning and Collaboration by Two Health Systems in Wisconsin, September to December 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Kathryn Kraft; Keuler, Megan; Safdar, Nasia; Hunter, Paul

    2016-08-01

    We describe the collaborative approach used by 2 health systems in Wisconsin to plan and prepare for the threat of Ebola virus disease. This was a descriptive study of the preparedness planning, infection prevention, and collaboration with public health agencies undertaken by 2 health systems in Wisconsin between September and December 2014. The preparedness approach used by the 2 health systems relied successfully on their robust infrastructure for planning and infection prevention. In the setting of rapidly evolving guidance and unprecedented fear regarding Ebola, the 2 health systems enhanced their response through collaboration and coordination with each other and government public health agencies. Key lessons learned included the importance of a rigorous planning process, robust infection prevention practices, and coalitions between public and private health sectors. The potential threat of Ebola virus disease stimulated emergency preparedness in which acute care facilities played a leading role in the public health response. Leveraging the existing expertise of health systems is essential when faced with emerging infectious diseases. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:691-697).

  13. 77 FR 59921 - Wisconsin Public Service Corporation; Notice of Environmental Site Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 1940-000 Wisconsin; Project No. 1966-000 Wisconsin] Wisconsin Public Service Corporation; Notice of Environmental Site Review In anticipation of the filing of Notices of Intent (NOI) and Pre- Application Documents for the Grandfather Falls Hydroelectric Project No. 1966 and...

  14. 76 FR 57646 - Final Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria Applicable to Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... Final Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria Applicable to Wisconsin AGENCY... aquatic life water quality criteria applicable to Wisconsin? C. Why is the EPA not withdrawing Wisconsin's chronic endrin aquatic life use criterion for waters designated as Warm Water Sportfish and Warm Water...

  15. Of Needles and Haystacks: Building an Accurate Statewide Dropout Early Warning System in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Jared E.

    2015-01-01

    The state of Wisconsin has one of the highest four year graduation rates in the nation, but deep disparities among student subgroups remain. To address this the state has created the Wisconsin Dropout Early Warning System (DEWS), a predictive model of student dropout risk for students in grades six through nine. The Wisconsin DEWS is in use…

  16. Teaching Environmental Education to Wisconsin Teachers: A Review of University Course Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanera, Michael

    1997-01-01

    This report contains a study done at the request of the Wisconsin Policy Research Institute, which studies public policy issues affecting the state of Wisconsin. The purpose of this study was to examine the content of environmental education (EE) materials used in courses required for teacher certification in Wisconsin to see if the knowledge and…

  17. Infiltration and redistribution of water in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroosnijder, L.

    1976-01-01

    The flow of the liquid phase through a soil can be predicted from pressure gradients. Different ways of predicting infiltration for irrigation of a basin were compared: numerical approximation; semi-analytical and analytical. A partly empirical equation was developed for description of rate of infiltration, after examination of existing equations. Under certain conditions, infiltration was influenced by under or over pressure of the trapped gas phase and by swelling of clays. Complex models for redistribution were of little value in practice, since they could not be generalized and required too many physical data about the soil. A scheme was developed that grouped techniques for estimating physical properties of soil, according to cost and expertise required. A new experimental technique based on gamma transmission is described for estimating the physical properties of the soil. (Auth.)

  18. Copper infiltrated high speed steels based composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madej, M.; Lezanski, J.

    2003-01-01

    High hardness, mechanical strength, heat resistance and wear resistance of M3/2 high speed steel (HSS) make it an attractive material. Since technological and economical considerations are equally important, infiltration of high-speed steel skeleton with liquid cooper has proved to be a suitable technique whereby fully dense material is produced at low cost. Attempts have been made to describe the influence of the production process parameters and alloying additives, such as tungsten carbide on the microstructure and mechanical properties of copper infiltrated HSS based composites. The compositions of powder mixtures are 100% M3/2, M3/2+10% Wc, M3/2=30% WC. The powders were uniaxially cold compacted in a cylindrical die at 800 MPa. The green compacts were sintered in vacuum at 1150 o C for 60 minutes. Thereby obtained porous skeletons were subsequently infiltrated with cooper, by gravity method, in vacuum furnace at 1150 o C for 15 minutes. (author)

  19. Introduction to radioactive waste management issues in Wisconsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This brief focused on wastes from commercial production of electricity and various industrial, medical and research applications of radioactive materials. Only traditionally solid wastes are dealt with. It was organized into five parts. Part I presented an introduction to radioactivity - what it is and the biological hazards associated with it. Federal regulation of the management of radioactive wastes was discussed in Part II. Existing state laws and bills currently before the Wisconsin Legislature were described in Part III. Part IV gave background information on specific areas of potential inquiry related to radioactive wastes in Wisconsin. Part V summarized the issues identified in the brief. 2 figures, 7 tables

  20. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Relevance of Mast Cell Infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Daniel S; Seger, Shanon; Bussmann, Christian; Pierlot, Gabin M; Groenen, Peter M A; Stalder, Anna K; Straumann, Alex

    2018-05-17

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic-inflammatory disease characterized clinically by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and histopathologically by a prominent eosinophilic inflammation. Despite eosinophils having histologically a pre-dominant position, their role in the immunopathogenesis of the disease is still questionable. Several other inflammatory cells are involved and may play a critical role as well. The purpose of this study was to characterize the mast cell infiltration, and to correlate it with clinical state of EoE. Using immunohistochemistry and quantitative morphometry, we extensively investigated eosinophils and mast cells in esophageal biopsies from patients with active EoE and from patients with EoE in remission, and compared the findings with healthy individuals. In EoE, epithelium and lamina propria were similarly infiltrated with eosinophils. In contrast, mast cells infiltration was limited to the epithelium, displaying a localized immune response. Interestingly, whereas epithelial mast cells and eosinophils were high in active EoE, some patients in remission e.g. normalized epithelial eosinophils, showed remaining high numbers of mast cells. Patient clustering supported 2 groups of patients in clinical remission, differentiating based on presence or absence of epithelial mast cells. Active EoE is characterized - in addition to the well-known tissue eosinophilia by a marked epithelium-restricted mast cell infiltration. Of interest, in a subgroup of patients, mast cell infiltration persisted despite clinical remission. To elucidate the clinical consequence of persistent epithelial mast cells infiltration further studies are required following patients in clinical remission longitudinally. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Biblioteca y Centro de Estudios de la Universidad de Wisconsin - Kenosha - . Wisconsin – (EE.UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellmuth, George

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuing the line established by these same architects in previous University designs, the Library and Study Hall of the University of Wisconsin is another attempt at creating an exciting atmosphere, particularly conducive to the development of university life. It is to be noted, in this case, the arrangement of the library and study areas around a central common open space, sort of an inner courtyard used as a relaxation and sitting área, where all traffic corridors and promenades from the adjacent faculties come to meet, thus becoming the main reference point for the entire campus. The library with a current capacity for 245,000 volumes and 1,400 reading stalls is designed so it can be eventually enlarged permitting to almost double its book capacity and increasing the reading stalls to more than 2,000.

    Continuando la línea marcada por estos mismos arquitectos en anteriores proyectos de universidades, la biblioteca y el centro de estudios de la Universidad de Wisconsin procura definir atractivos espacios para el desarrollo de la vida universitaria. En este caso destaca la organización de los servicios de biblioteca y estudio en torno a un espacio comunitario central, a modo de plaza interior, destinado a sala de estar y recreo, y en donde confluyen las circulaciones que provienen de los locales adyacentes, convirtiéndolo en el principal punto de referencia del campus universitario. La biblioteca, que actualmente tiene capacidad para 245.000 volúmenes y 1.400 lectores, ha previsto una ampliación que le permitirá casi doblar el número de volúmenes y proporcionar espacio para más de 2.000 lectores.

  2. Analysis of Rainfall Infiltration Law in Unsaturated Soil Slope

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Gui-rong; Qian, Ya-jun; Wang, Zhang-chun; Zhao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    In the study of unsaturated soil slope stability under rainfall infiltration, it is worth continuing to explore how much rainfall infiltrates into the slope in a rain process, and the amount of rainfall infiltrating into slope is the important factor influencing the stability. Therefore, rainfall infiltration capacity is an important issue of unsaturated seepage analysis for slope. On the basis of previous studies, rainfall infiltration law of unsaturated soil slope is analyzed. Considering t...

  3. Statistical methods towards more efficient infiltration measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, T; Krebs, P

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive knowledge about the infiltration situation in a catchment is required for operation and maintenance. Due to the high expenditures, an optimisation of necessary measurement campaigns is essential. Methods based on multivariate statistics were developed to improve the information yield of measurements by identifying appropriate gauge locations. The methods have a high degree of freedom against data needs. They were successfully tested on real and artificial data. For suitable catchments, it is estimated that the optimisation potential amounts up to 30% accuracy improvement compared to nonoptimised gauge distributions. Beside this, a correlation between independent reach parameters and dependent infiltration rates could be identified, which is not dominated by the groundwater head.

  4. Movement of water infiltrated from a recharge basin to wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, David R; Izbicki, John A; Moran, Jean E; Meeth, Tanya; Nakagawa, Brandon; Metzger, Loren; Bonds, Chris; Singleton, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Local surface water and stormflow were infiltrated intermittently from a 40-ha basin between September 2003 and September 2007 to determine the feasibility of recharging alluvial aquifers pumped for public supply, near Stockton, California. Infiltration of water produced a pressure response that propagated through unconsolidated alluvial-fan deposits to 125 m below land surface (bls) in 5 d and through deeper, more consolidated alluvial deposits to 194 m bls in 25 d, resulting in increased water levels in nearby monitoring wells. The top of the saturated zone near the basin fluctuates seasonally from depths of about 15 to 20 m. Since the start of recharge, water infiltrated from the basin has reached depths as great as 165 m bls. On the basis of sulfur hexafluoride tracer test data, basin water moved downward through the saturated alluvial deposits until reaching more permeable zones about 110 m bls. Once reaching these permeable zones, water moved rapidly to nearby pumping wells at rates as high as 13 m/d. Flow to wells through highly permeable material was confirmed on the basis of flowmeter logging, and simulated numerically using a two-dimensional radial groundwater flow model. Arsenic concentrations increased slightly as a result of recharge from 2 to 6 µg/L immediately below the basin. Although few water-quality issues were identified during sample collection, high groundwater velocities and short travel times to nearby wells may have implications for groundwater management at this and at other sites in heterogeneous alluvial aquifers. Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Simulation of the regional groundwater-flow system of the Menominee Indian Reservation, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.; Dunning, Charles P.

    2015-01-01

    A regional, two-dimensional, steady-state groundwater-flow model was developed to simulate the groundwater-flow system and groundwater/surface-water interactions within the Menominee Indian Reservation. The model was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin, to contribute to the fundamental understanding of the region’s hydrogeology. The objectives of the regional model were to improve understanding of the groundwater-flow system, including groundwater/surface-water interactions, and to develop a tool suitable for evaluating the effects of potential regional water-management programs. The computer code GFLOW was used because of the ease with which the model can simulate groundwater/surface-water interactions, provide a framework for simulating regional groundwater-flow systems, and be refined in a stepwise fashion to incorporate new data and simulate groundwater-flow patterns at multiple scales. Simulations made with the regional model reproduce groundwater levels and stream base flows representative of recent conditions (1970–2013) and illustrate groundwater-flow patterns with maps of (1) the simulated water table and groundwater-flow directions, (2) probabilistic areas contributing recharge to high-capacity pumped wells, and (3) estimation of the extent of infiltrated wastewater from treatment lagoons.

  6. Plasmacytoma Infiltrating Leiomyoma in Multiple Myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-19

    REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01/19/2018 Poster 01/19/2018-01/21/2018 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Plasmacytoma...Infiltrating Leiomyoma in Multiple Myeloma Sb. GRANT NUMBER Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER Capt Eden, Rina Se. TASK NUMBER Sf

  7. Sewage Effluent Infiltrates Frozen Forest Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred Ray Harris

    1976-01-01

    Secondarily treated sewage effluent, applied at the rate of 1 and 2 inches per week, infiltrated a frozen Sparta sand soil forested with jack pine and scrub oak. Maximum frost depth in treated plots averaged 60 cm and in check plots averages 35 cm. Nitrogen was mobile with some accumulation. Phosphorus was absorbed.

  8. An Infiltration Exercise for Introductory Soil Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarick, K. A.; Ippolito, J. A.; Butters, G.; Sorge, G. M.

    2005-01-01

    One of the largest challenges in teaching introductory soil science is explaining the dynamics of soil infiltration. To aid students in understanding the concept and to further engage them in active learning in the soils laboratory course, we developed an exercise using Decagon Mini-Disk Infiltrometers with a tension head (h[subscript o]) of 2 cm.…

  9. Postoperative Analgesia using Bupivacaine Wound Infiltration with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Effective management of postcesarean section (CS) pain is important for the well‑being of mother and child; even in limited‑resource areas, there are drug options which can be explored to achieve this. Aim: This study aimed to compare the analgesic effects of a combination of bupivacaine wound infiltration with ...

  10. water infiltration, conductivity and runoff under fallow

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurements of runoff was done during the long rains of. 2003 and short rains of 2004. Infiltration was invariably higher under agroforestry systems (P<0.001) than sole cropping, particularly under Alnus and Calliandra systems. A similar pattern was observed for saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat), which was greater in ...

  11. Transient Point Infiltration In The Unsaturated Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buecker-Gittel, M.; Mohrlok, U.

    The risk assessment of leaking sewer pipes gets more and more important due to urban groundwater management and environmental as well as health safety. This requires the quantification and balancing of transport and transformation processes based on the water flow in the unsaturated zone. The water flow from a single sewer leakage could be described as a point infiltration with time varying hydraulic conditions externally and internally. External variations are caused by the discharge in the sewer pipe as well as the state of the leakage itself. Internal variations are the results of microbiological clogging effects associated with the transformation processes. Technical as well as small scale laboratory experiments were conducted in order to investigate the water transport from an transient point infiltration. From the technical scale experiment there was evidence that the water flow takes place under transient conditions when sewage infiltrates into an unsaturated soil. Whereas the small scale experiments investigated the hydraulics of the water transport and the associated so- lute and particle transport in unsaturated soils in detail. The small scale experiment was a two-dimensional representation of such a point infiltration source where the distributed water transport could be measured by several tensiometers in the soil as well as by a selective measurement of the discharge at the bottom of the experimental setup. Several series of experiments were conducted varying the boundary and initial con- ditions in order to derive the important parameters controlling the infiltration of pure water from the point source. The results showed that there is a significant difference between the infiltration rate in the point source and the discharge rate at the bottom, that could be explained by storage processes due to an outflow resistance at the bottom. This effect is overlayn by a decreasing water content decreases over time correlated with a decreasing infiltration

  12. Investigation plan for infiltration experiment in Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, A.; Lindgren, S.; Ikonen, A.

    2008-11-01

    A three-year field experiment to investigate potential changes in pH and redox conditions, and in buffering capacity as well as the hydrogeochemical processes related to groundwater infiltration is designed for implementation in the vicinity of ONKALO. The idea is to monitor the major infiltration flow path from the ground surface into the upper part of ONKALO at about 50 to 100 m depth depending on the observations made during the experiment. The geochemical evolution of the groundwater is strongly affected by infiltration from the surface. In natural conditions in Olkiluoto most of the geochemical reactions occur along the first few tens of metres of the flow path, in an interface between anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The dissolved aggressive agents, CO 2 and O 2 , of the infiltrating water are consumed and the hydrogeochemistry stabilises on neutral and anaerobic conditions due to weathering processes. As a consequence of this evolution, reaction fronts are formed in the flow channels between acid-neutral and aerobic-anaerobic interfaces. The construction of ONKALO may, however, increase the hydraulic gradient and flow into bedrock, which can move these fronts to deeper depths and decrease the buffering capacity of the rock fractures against surficial water infiltration. Detailed integration of hydrogeochemical (including microbiology), geological and hydrogeological studies is essential for a successful experiment. Accurate hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological data that will be collected during this experiment are used in coupled modelling exercises (P/O studies in site reports), which will be carried out to evaluate the movements of the reaction fronts and the buffering capacity of Olkiluoto bedrock against surficial water infiltration. Good quality information is also necessary for calibrating predictive calculations for the safety case estimating future evolution of the site. In addition to the geochemical targets, the experiment can be used in

  13. The Politics of Reforming School Finance in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Terry G.

    This paper is primarily concerned with identifying and explicating the environmental forces and political factors responsible for legislative enactment of major school finance changes in Wisconsin in 1973. Easton's political systems theory serves as a conceptual framework for the study. In addition, Lindblom's leadership model, Truman's interest…

  14. Trustee Essentials: A Handbook for Wisconsin Public Library Trustees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    This handbook for Trustees of the Wisconsin Public Library describes in detail the tasks involved in being a library trustee. The handbook comprises a number of "Trustee Essentials" that cover the basic essential information needed by Trustees, as well as sources of additional information. Contents include: The Trustee Job Description;…

  15. The changing veneer and plywood industry of Michigan and Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary R. Lindell; Lewis T. Hendricks

    1972-01-01

    Analyzes trends in the hardwood veneer and plywood industry of Michigan and Wisconsin between 1964 and 1969. In that period, red oak and hard maple replaced yellow birch as the major species used. Log supplies were adequate. Wall paneling was the major end market with doorskins next. Excess plywood producing capacity is a chronic problem.

  16. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Iron River Quadrangle, Michigan and Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frishman, D

    1982-09-01

    No area within the Iron River 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ Quadrangle, Michigan and Wisconsin, appears to be favorable for the existence of a minimum of 100 tons of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ at a grade of 0.01 percent or better.

  17. Timber resource of Wisconsin's Northwest Survey Unit, 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith

    1984-01-01

    The fourth inventory of the timber resource of the Northwest Wisconsin Survey Unit shows a 1.8% decline in commercial forest area and a 36% gain in growing-stock volume between 1968 and 1983. Presented are highlights and statistics on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, and biomass.

  18. Seasonal field metabolic rates of American martens in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan H. Gilbert; Patrick A Zollner; Adam K. Green; John L. Wright

    2009-01-01

    We report on FMR of free-living American martens (Martes americana) in autumn and winter in northern Wisconsin. Mean body mass was significantly higher in males (1099 ± 43 [S.E.] g) than females (737 ± 28 g), with no significant difference by season. Daily mass change rates of martens did not differ from zero, and mass change rate...

  19. Food Processing and Agriculture. Wisconsin Annual Farm Labor Report, 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin State Employment Service, Madison.

    A yearly report on the migrant farm worker situation in Wisconsin evaluates the year 1968 in relation to past years and makes projections for the future. Comparisons are made of trends in year-round employment practices, seasonal food processing, the cherry industry, and the cucumber industry. The report includes a discussion on the social aspects…

  20. Digital Learning Compass: Distance Education State Almanac 2017. Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Julia E.; Seaman, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This brief report uses data collected under the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Fall Enrollment survey to highlight distance education data in the state of Wisconsin. The sample for this analysis is comprised of all active, degree-granting…

  1. The Wisconsin experience with incentives for demand-side management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landgren, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    It has been noted that, within traditional regulatory frameworks for electric utilities, factors exist which discourage demand side management (DSM) and that there is a lack of positive incentives for DSM. Regulatory agencies should therefore make it possible for DSM measures to benefit from the same treatment as supply-side measures. The Wisconsin Public Service Commission (WPSC) has recognized this need and has adopted various measures accordingly. The need for efficiency incentives is described according to the particular experience of Wisconsin Electric concerning their recourse to a DSM incentive and according to new incentive models being tested in collaboration with other electricity suppliers in Wisconsin. The WPSC has concluded that the fact of considering the costs relating to DSM as expenses or capitalizing them within the rate base does not motivate the utility to promote DSM programs. The WPSC has thus decided to experiment with energy efficiency incentives in order to evaluate their eventual impact. The choice of the type of incentive had an objective of starting the process in an area where the lack of experience has created, from the regulatory point of view, a reticence on the part of utilities to engage in DSM programs. The WPSC has designed a variety of incentive models which have been adapted to each utility's own situation. Specific incentive programs developed for three Wisconsin utilities are reviewed

  2. Assessment of high penetration of solar photovoltaics in Wisconsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Kevin S.; Klein, Sanford A.; Reindl, Douglas T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an assessment of the large-scale implementation of distributed solar photovoltaics in Wisconsin with regard to its interaction with the utility grid, economics of varying levels of high penetration, and displaced emissions. These assessment factors are quantified using simulations with measured hourly solar radiation and weather data from the National Solar Radiation Database as primary inputs. Hourly utility load data for each electric utility in Wisconsin for a complete year were used in combination with the simulated PV output to quantify the impacts of high penetration of distributed PV on the aggregate Wisconsin electric utility load. As the penetration rate of distributed PV systems increases, both economic and environmental benefits experience diminishing returns. At penetration rates exceeding 15-20% of the aggregate utility load peak, less of the PV-energy is utilized and the contribution of the aggregate electricity generated from PV approaches a practical limit. The limit is not affected by costs, but rather by the time-distribution of available solar radiation and mismatch with the coincidence of aggregate utility electrical loads. The unsubsidized levelized cost of electricity from PV is more than four times greater than the current market price for electricity, based on time-of-use rates, in Wisconsin. At the present time, the investment in solar PV as a cost-effective means to reduce emissions from traditional electricity generation sources is not justified. (author)

  3. Public Schooling in Southeast Wisconsin: 2013-2014 [Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeado, Joe; Schmidt, Jeff; Hart, Rebecca; Henken, Rob

    2014-01-01

    This summary from the "Public Schooling in Southeast Wisconsin: 2013-2014" full report presents the school district performance in a pull-out format. Definitions are provided for the column heading: (1) Total Operations Spending, (2) Property Tax Revenue, (3) Total Enrollment; (4) One-Year Change in Enrollment, (5) Minority Enrollment,…

  4. Queer & Ally Youth Involvement in the Fair Wisconsin Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiegler, Sam

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the role and experience of queer youth and allies in the Fair Wisconsin campaign that fought against the marriage amendment to that state's constitution. It illustrates how LGBT and ally youth involvement can be incorporated into other organizations. Following an explanation of the campaign, are narratives of two…

  5. On Farmers’ Ground: Wisconsin Dairy Farm Nutrient Management Survey Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    This questionnaire was used during quarterly, face-to-face interviews with the fifty-four Wisconsin dairy farmers who participated in the ‘On Farmers’ Ground’ nutrient management research project. It was designed to systematically and consistently compile information on herd size and composition, l...

  6. Geology and ground-water resources of Outagamie County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeRoux, E.F.

    1957-01-01

    Outagamie County is in east-central Wisconsin. It has no serious groundwater problem at present, but the county is important as a recharge area for the principal aquifers supplying water to Brown County and industrial Green Bay to the east.

  7. Skill Needs and Training Strategies in the Wisconsin Printing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Center on Wisconsin Strategy.

    A study examined the emerging skill needs in the Wisconsin printing industry, a key industry that provided the largest increase (more than 13,000 new jobs) in manufacturing employment in the state in the past decade. Eighteen interviews were conducted with industry personnel and production managers, union representatives, technical college…

  8. Certification Manual for Wisconsin Public Librarians. Bulletin No. 94111.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Donald K.

    This manual contains the guidelines and procedures for public librarian certification and certification renewal in Wisconsin. Certification is not required for library personnel other than administrators, but nonadministrators may apply for certification at the level for which they are eligible. Requirements for voluntary library certification are…

  9. Wisconsin Certification Manual for Public Librarians. Bulletin No. 7075.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Div. of Library Services.

    Designed to be used as a guide for public librarians and boards of trustees in meeting the requirements of Wisconsin's public librarian certification law, this manual is divided into two major sections covering public librarian certification and certification renewal/continuing education requirements. The first section includes discussions of…

  10. Wisconsin Inventors' Network Database final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-04

    The Wisconsin Innovation Service Center at UW-Whitewater received a DOE grant to create an Inventor's Network Database to assist independent inventors and entrepreneurs with new product development. Since 1980, the Wisconsin Innovation Service Center (WISC) at the University of Wisconsin-Whitewater has assisted independent and small business inventors in estimating the marketability of their new product ideas and inventions. The purpose of the WISC as an economic development entity is to encourage inventors who appear to have commercially viable inventions, based on preliminary market research, to invest in the next stages of development, perhaps investigating prototype development, legal protection, or more in-depth market research. To address inventor's information needs, WISC developed on electronic database with search capabilities by geographic region and by product category/industry. It targets both public and private resources capable of, and interested in, working with individual and small business inventors. At present, the project includes resources in Wisconsin only.

  11. A simple analytical infiltration model for short-duration rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaiwen; Yang, Xiaohua; Liu, Xiaomang; Liu, Changming

    2017-12-01

    Many infiltration models have been proposed to simulate infiltration process. Different initial soil conditions and non-uniform initial water content can lead to infiltration simulation errors, especially for short-duration rainfall (SHR). Few infiltration models are specifically derived to eliminate the errors caused by the complex initial soil conditions. We present a simple analytical infiltration model for SHR infiltration simulation, i.e., Short-duration Infiltration Process model (SHIP model). The infiltration simulated by 5 models (i.e., SHIP (high) model, SHIP (middle) model, SHIP (low) model, Philip model and Parlange model) were compared based on numerical experiments and soil column experiments. In numerical experiments, SHIP (middle) and Parlange models had robust solutions for SHR infiltration simulation of 12 typical soils under different initial soil conditions. The absolute values of percent bias were less than 12% and the values of Nash and Sutcliffe efficiency were greater than 0.83. Additionally, in soil column experiments, infiltration rate fluctuated in a range because of non-uniform initial water content. SHIP (high) and SHIP (low) models can simulate an infiltration range, which successfully covered the fluctuation range of the observed infiltration rate. According to the robustness of solutions and the coverage of fluctuation range of infiltration rate, SHIP model can be integrated into hydrologic models to simulate SHR infiltration process and benefit the flood forecast.

  12. Pollution of soil and groundwater from infiltration of highly contaminated stormwater - a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, P.S.; Häfliger, M.; Ochs, M.

    1997-01-01

    and subsurface sediments and some even exceeded guidelines fixed to preserve the fertility of soil. However, the contamination decreased rapidly with depth. None of the measured metal concentrations in simulated soil solutions exceeded defined drinking water quality standards. Surprisingly, the surface......A surface and a sub-surface infiltration system that received runoff water from trafficked roads for several decades was dug up and the contamination with heavy metals, PAH and AOX was investigated. Most measured solid phase concentrations exceeded background concentrations in nearby surface soils...... contamination due to stormwater infiltration, but highlights that well absorbable contaminants readily available in urban stormwater runoff eventually build up in surface soils and sub-surface sediments to environmentally critical concentration levels. Thus, on the one hand stormwater infiltration systems may...

  13. Lyme disease in Wisconsin: epidemiologic, clinical, serologic, and entomologic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J P; Schell, W L; Amundson, T E; Godsey, M S; Spielman, A; Burgdorfer, W; Barbour, A G; LaVenture, M; Kaslow, R A

    1984-01-01

    In 1980-82, 80 individuals (71 Wisconsin residents) had confirmed Lyme disease (LD-c) reported; 39 additional patients had probable or possible LD. All cases of LD-c occurred during May-November; 73 percent occurred during June-July; 54 (68 percent) occurred in males. The mean age was 38.7 years (range, 7-77 years). Among LD-c patients, likely exposure to the presumed vector Ixodes dammini (ID) occurred in 22 different Wisconsin counties. Antibodies to the ID spirochete that causes LD occurred in 33 of 49 LD-c cases versus 0 of 18 in ill controls (p less than .001) and in 13 of 26 LD-c cases treated with penicillin or tetracycline versus 16 of 19 LD-c cases not treated. Early antibiotic therapy appears to blunt the antibody response to the ID spirochete. Regional tick surveys conducted in Wisconsin during each November in 1979-82 have demonstrated regions of greater density of ID. Utilizing comparable tick collection in these surveys, increases were noted in the percentage of deer with ID from 24 percent (31/128) in 1979 to 38 percent (58/152) in 1981, in the standardized mean value of ID/deer from 1.0 in 1979 to 2.2 in 1981, in the percentage of ID of the total ticks collected from 13 percent in 1979 to 71 percent in 1981, or in the ratio of ID to Dermacentor albipictus ticks from 0.14 in 1979 to 2.44 in 1981. However, a reduction in the density of ID/deer was noted generally throughout Wisconsin in 1982 when compared to 1981. LD is widespread in Wisconsin, with ecologic and clinical features similar to those occurring along the eastern seaboard.

  14. Informed Forces for Environmental Quality, Conference Proceedings (University of Wisconsin, Green Bay, Wisconsin, March 28-29, 1968).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Univ., Green Bay.

    To increase understanding of the dimensions of man's impact on his environment and the key issues involved in improving that environment through education and action was the goal of the environmental quality conference held at the University of Wisconsin, Green Bay, on March 28-29, 1968. Contained in this document are the conference…

  15. Perfluorinated compounds in infiltrated river rhine water and infiltrated rainwater in coastal dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschauzier, Christian; Haftka, Joris; Stuyfzand, Pieter J; de Voogt, Pim

    2010-10-01

    Different studies have shown that surface waters contain perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the low ng/L range. Surface waters are used to produce drinking water and PFCs have been shown to travel through the purification system and form a potential threat to human health. The specific physicochemical properties of PFCs cause them to be persistent and some of them to be bioaccumulative and toxic in the environment. This study investigates the evolvement of PFC concentrations in Rhine water and rainwater during dune water infiltration processes over a transect in the dune area of the western part of The Netherlands. The difference between infiltrated river water and rainwater in terms of PFC composition was investigated. Furthermore, isomer profiles were investigated. The compound perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS) was found at the highest concentrations of all PFCs investigated, up to 37 ng/L in infiltrated river water (71 ± 13% of ΣPFCs). This is in contrast with the predominant occurrence of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) reported in literature. The concentrations of PFBS found in infiltrated river Rhine water were significantly higher than those in infiltrated rainwater. For perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) the opposite was found: infiltrated rainwater contained more than infiltrated river water. The concentrations of PFOA, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), PFBS, PFOS, and PFHxS in infiltrated river water showed an increasing trend with decreasing age of the water. The relative contribution of the branched PFOA and PFOS isomers to total concentrations of PFOA and PFOS showed a decreasing trend with decreasing age of the water.

  16. Progression and variation of fatty infiltration of the thigh muscles in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, a muscle magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenzhu; Zheng, Yiming; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Zhaoxia; Xiao, Jiangxi; Yuan, Yun

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the progression and variation of fatty infiltration of the thigh muscles of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients. Muscle magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the degree of fatty infiltration of the thigh muscles of 171 boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (mean age, 6.09 ± 2.30 years). Fatty infiltration was assigned using a modified Mercuri's scale 0-5 (normal-severe). The gluteus maximus and adductor magnus were affected in patients less than two years old, followed by the biceps femoris. Quadriceps and semimembranosus were first affected at the age of five to six years; the sartorius, gracilis and adductor longus remained apparently unaffected until seven years of age. Fatty infiltration of all the thigh muscles developed rapidly after seven years of age. The standard deviation of the fatty infiltration scores ranged from 2.41 to 4.87 before five years old, and from 6.84 to 11.66 between six and ten years old. This study provides evidence of highly variable degrees of fatty infiltration in children of different ages with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and indicates that fatty infiltration progresses more quickly after seven years of age. These findings may be beneficial for the selection of therapeutic regimens and the analysis of future clinical trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sequential infiltration synthesis for advanced lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, Seth B.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Tseng, Yu-Chih; Peng, Qing

    2017-10-10

    A plasma etch resist material modified by an inorganic protective component via sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS) and methods of preparing the modified resist material. The modified resist material is characterized by an improved resistance to a plasma etching or related process relative to the unmodified resist material, thereby allowing formation of patterned features into a substrate material, which may be high-aspect ratio features. The SIS process forms the protective component within the bulk resist material through a plurality of alternating exposures to gas phase precursors which infiltrate the resist material. The plasma etch resist material may be initially patterned using photolithography, electron-beam lithography or a block copolymer self-assembly process.

  18. Passive Microwave Observation of Soil Water Infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; Schmugge, Thomas J.; Rawls, Walter J.; ONeill, Peggy E.; Parlange, Marc B.

    1997-01-01

    Infiltration is a time varying process of water entry into soil. Experiments were conducted here using truck based microwave radiometers to observe small plots during and following sprinkler irrigation. Experiments were conducted on a sandy loam soil in 1994 and a silt loam in 1995. Sandy loam soils typically have higher infiltration capabilities than clays. For the sandy loam the observed brightness temperature (TB) quickly reached a nominally constant value during irrigation. When the irrigation was stopped the TB began to increase as drainage took place. The irrigation rates in 1995 with the silt loam soil exceeded the saturated conductivity of the soil. During irrigation the TB values exhibited a pattern that suggests the occurrence of coherent reflection, a rarely observed phenomena under natural conditions. These results suggested the existence of a sharp dielectric boundary (wet over dry soil) that was increasing in depth with time.

  19. Pollutant removal in subsurface wastewater infiltration systems with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollutant removal in subsurface wastewater infiltration systems with/without intermittent ... Water SA. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ... wastewater infiltration systems (SWISs) with and without intermittent aeration, ...

  20. Diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma invading subarachnoid space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kase S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Satoru Kase1, Kazuhiko Yoshida1, Shigenobu Suzuki2, Koh-ichi Ohshima3, Shigeaki Ohno4, Susumu Ishida11Department of Ophthalmology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo; 2Department of Ophthalmic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo; 3Section of Ophthalmology, Okayama Medical Center, Okayama; 4Department of Ocular Inflammation and Immunology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, JapanAbstract: We report herein an unusual case of diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma involving the brain, which caused a patient’s death 27 months after enucleation. An eight-year-old boy complained of blurred vision in his right eye (OD in October 2006. Funduscopic examination showed optic disc swelling, dense whitish vitreous opacity, and an orange-colored subretinal elevated lesion adjacent to the optic disc. Fluorescein angiography revealed hyperfluorescence in the peripapillary region at an early-phase OD. Because the size of the subretinal lesion and vitreous opacity gradually increased, he was referred to us. His visual acuity was 20/1000 OD on June 20, 2007. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy showed a dense anterior vitreous opacity. Ophthalmoscopically, the subretinal orange-colored area spread out until reaching the mid peripheral region. A B-mode sonogram and computed tomography showed a thick homogeneous lesion without calcification. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging showed a markedly enhanced appearance of the underlying posterior retina. Enucleation of the right eye was performed nine months after the initial presentation. Histopathology demonstrated retinal detachment and a huge choroidal mass invading the optic nerve head. The tumor was consistent with diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma. The patient died due to brain involvement 27 months after enucleation. Ophthalmologists should be aware that diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma may show an unfavorable course if its diagnosis is delayed

  1. Horizontal infiltration and trace element measurements for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory investigations of horizontal infiltration were carried out on three Zaria soils (Samaru, Tudun Wada and the Kubanni river basin Fadama wet-land soils) in Nigeria, which are principally alfisols. Diffusivity was found to be -77.5 x 10 -2 cm 2 s-1, -8.4 x 10 -2 cm 2 s-1 and -117.0 x 10 -2 cm 2 s-1 respectively for the ...

  2. Corneal ring infiltration in contact lens wearers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Tabatabaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To report a case of atypical sterile ring infiltrates during wearing soft silicone hydrogel contact lens due to poor lens care. A 29-year-old woman presented with complaints of pain, redness, and morning discharge. She was wearing soft silicone hydrogel contact lens previously; her current symptoms began 1 week before presentation. On examination, best-corrected visual acuity was 20/40 in that eye. Slit-lamp examination revealed dense, ring-shaped infiltrate involving both the superficial and deep stromal layers with lucid interval to the limbus, edema of the epithelium, epithelial defect, and vascularization of the superior limbus. Cornea-specific in vivo laser confocal microscopy (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 2 Rostock Cornea Module, HRT 2-RCM, Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, Dossenheim, Germany revealed Langerhans cells and no sign of Acanthamoeba or fungal features, using lid scraping and anti-inflammatory drops; her vision completely recovered. We reported an atypical case of a sterile corneal ring infiltrate associated with soft contact lens wearing; smear, culture, and confocal microscopy confirmed a sterile inflammatory reaction.

  3. Pupil Nondiscrimination Guidelines. Implementing S.118.13 of the Wisconsin Statutes and PI 9 of the Wisconsin Administrative Code. Bullein No. 8327.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    The new S. 118.13, Wisconsin Statutes, bans pupil discrimination in any curricular, extracurricular, pupil services, recreational, or other program or activity in the State of Wisconsin on the basis of sex; race; national origin; ancestry; creed; pregnancy; marital or parental status; sexual orientation; or physical, mental, emotional, or learning…

  4. Management of white spots: resin infiltration technique and microabrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Hye Son

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report compared the effectiveness of resin infiltration technique (Icon, DMG with microabrasion (Opalustre, Ultradent Products, Inc. in management of white spot lesions. It demonstrates that although neither microabrasion nor resin infiltration technique can remove white spot lesions completely, resin infiltration technique seems to be more effective than microabrasion. Therefore resin infiltration technique can be chosen preferentially for management of white spot lesions and caution should be taken for case selection.

  5. 40 CFR 35.927-1 - Infiltration/inflow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Infiltration/inflow analysis. 35.927-1... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.927-1 Infiltration/inflow analysis. (a) The infiltration/inflow analysis shall demonstrate the nonexistence or...

  6. Evaluation of some infiltration models and hydraulic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghighi, F.; Gorji, M.; Shorafa, M.; Sarmadian, F.; Mohammadi, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    The evaluation of infiltration characteristics and some parameters of infiltration models such as sorptivity and final steady infiltration rate in soils are important in agriculture. The aim of this study was to evaluate some of the most common models used to estimate final soil infiltration rate. The equality of final infiltration rate with saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) was also tested. Moreover, values of the estimated sorptivity from the Philips model were compared to estimates by selected pedotransfer functions (PTFs). The infiltration experiments used the doublering method on soils with two different land uses in the Taleghan watershed of Tehran province, Iran, from September to October, 2007. The infiltration models of Kostiakov-Lewis, Philip two-term and Horton were fitted to observed infiltration data. Some parameters of the models and the coefficient of determination goodness of fit were estimated using MATLAB software. The results showed that, based on comparing measured and model-estimated infiltration rate using root mean squared error (RMSE), Hortons model gave the best prediction of final infiltration rate in the experimental area. Laboratory measured Ks values gave significant differences and higher values than estimated final infiltration rates from the selected models. The estimated final infiltration rate was not equal to laboratory measured Ks values in the study area. Moreover, the estimated sorptivity factor by Philips model was significantly different to those estimated by selected PTFs. It is suggested that the applicability of PTFs is limited to specific, similar conditions. (Author) 37 refs.

  7. Analysis of rainfall infiltration law in unsaturated soil slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gui-rong; Qian, Ya-jun; Wang, Zhang-chun; Zhao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    In the study of unsaturated soil slope stability under rainfall infiltration, it is worth continuing to explore how much rainfall infiltrates into the slope in a rain process, and the amount of rainfall infiltrating into slope is the important factor influencing the stability. Therefore, rainfall infiltration capacity is an important issue of unsaturated seepage analysis for slope. On the basis of previous studies, rainfall infiltration law of unsaturated soil slope is analyzed. Considering the characteristics of slope and rainfall, the key factors affecting rainfall infiltration of slope, including hydraulic properties, water storage capacity (θs - θr), soil types, rainfall intensities, and antecedent and subsequent infiltration rates on unsaturated soil slope, are discussed by using theory analysis and numerical simulation technology. Based on critical factors changing, this paper presents three calculation models of rainfall infiltrability for unsaturated slope, including (1) infiltration model considering rainfall intensity; (2) effective rainfall model considering antecedent rainfall; (3) infiltration model considering comprehensive factors. Based on the technology of system response, the relationship of rainfall and infiltration is described, and the prototype of regression model of rainfall infiltration is given, in order to determine the amount of rain penetration during a rain process.

  8. Adductor canal block with local infiltrative analgesia compared with local infiltrate analgesia for pain control after total knee arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Qiujuan; Dai, Weiwei; Zhao, Dongfeng; Wu, Ji; Huang, Chunshui; Zhao, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the efficiency and safety of the combined adductor canal block with peri-articular infiltration versus periarticular infiltration alone for pain control after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods: PubMed, Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify articles comparing the combined adductor canal block with peri-articular infiltration and periarticular infiltration alone for pain control after TK...

  9. Evaluation of nonpoint-source contamination, Wisconsin: water year 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, John F.; Graczyk, D.J.; Corsi, Steven R.; Wierl, J.A.; Owens, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the watershed-management evaluation monitoring program in Wisconsin is to evaluate the effectiveness of best-management practices (BMPs) for controlling nonpoint-source pollution in rural and urban watersheds. This progress report provides a summary of the data collected by the U.S Geological Survey for the program and a discussion of the results from several different detailed analyses conducted within this program.

  10. Analysis of water-level fluctuations in Wisconsin wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, G.L.; Zaporozec, A.

    1987-01-01

    More than 60 percent of the residents of Wisconsin use ground water as their primary water source. Water supplies presently are abundant, but ground-water levels continually fluctuate in response to natural factors and human-related stresses. A better understanding of the magnitude, duration, and frequency of past fluctuations, and the factors controlling these fluctuations may help anticipate future changes in ground-water levels.

  11. Geodemographic Features of Human Blastomycosis in Eastern Wisconsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E. Huber

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Blastomycosis is an endemic fungal infection. In rural northern Wisconsin, blastomycosis cases are associated with certain environmental features including close proximity to waterways. Other studies have associated blastomycosis with particular soil chemicals. However, blastomycosis also occurs in urban and suburban regions. We explored the geodemographic associations of blastomycosis cases in the more urban/suburban landscape of eastern Wisconsin. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 193 laboratory-identified blastomycosis cases in a single eastern Wisconsin health system, 2007–2015. Controls were 250 randomly selected cases of community-diagnosed pneumonia from a similar time period. Geographic features of home addresses were explored using Google Maps. Categorical variables were analyzed with chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests and continuous variables by two-sample t-tests. Stepwise regression followed by binary logistic regression was used for multivariable analysis. Results: Compared to pneumonia cases, blastomycosis cases were younger (47.7 vs. 55.3 years and more likely to be male (67.9% vs. 45.6%, nonwhite (23.2% vs. 9.7% and machinists, automobile workers/mechanics or construction workers (32.7% vs. 7.2%; P 0.5 acres (30.4% vs. 14.2%, P = 0.0002, be < 0.25 miles from an automobile repair facility or junkyard (35.9% vs. 19.4%, P = 0.0005, and be < 0.1 miles from a park, forest or farm field (54.9% vs. 39.6%, P = 0.002. Only the latter association remained on multivariable analysis. Conclusions: Eastern Wisconsin blastomycosis case subjects were younger, more often male and more likely to live near parks/forests/fields. Novel associations of blastomycosis cases with machinery- and automobile-related occupations and/or facilities should be further explored.

  12. Borreliosis in free-ranging black bears from Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmierczak, J J; Amundson, T E; Burgess, E C

    1988-04-01

    Blood, kidney and tick samples were obtained from 18 hunter-killed black bears (Ursus americanus) from three sites in northern Wisconsin. A Borrelia sp., morphologically and antigenically similar to Borrelia burgdorferi, was isolated from the blood of two of the animals, and from the kidney of a third. Ixodes dammini and Dermacentor variabilis were found on the bears. This is the first report of borreliosis in the Ursidae, and of the primary vector of Lyme disease, I. dammini, from this host.

  13. Cover Crop (Rye) and No-Till System in Wisconsin

    OpenAIRE

    Alföldi, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Erin Silva, University of Wisconsin, describes an organic no-till production technique using rye as cover crop to suppress weeds in the following production season. Using a roller-crimper, the overwintering rye is terminated at the time of cash crop planting, leaving a thick mat of plant residue on the soil surface. Soybeans are sown directly into the cover crop residue, allowing the cash crop to emerge through the terminated cover crop while suppressing weeds throughout the season. W...

  14. Determining climate change management priorities: A case study from Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeDee, Olivia E.; Ribic, Christine

    2015-01-01

    A burgeoning dialogue exists regarding how to allocate resources to maximize the likelihood of long-term biodiversity conservation within the context of climate change. To make effective decisions in natural resource management, an iterative, collaborative, and learning-based decision process may be more successful than a strictly consultative approach. One important, early step in a decision process is to identify priority species or systems. Although this promotes the conservation of select species or systems, it may inadvertently alter the future of non-target species and systems. We describe a process to screen terrestrial wildlife for potential sensitivity to climate change and then use the results to engage natural resource professionals in a process of identifying priorities for monitoring, research, and adaptation strategy implementation. We demonstrate this approach using a case study from Wisconsin. In Wisconsin, experts identified 23 out of 353 species with sufficient empirical research and management understanding to inform targeted action. Habitat management and management of hydrological conditions were the common strategies for targeted action. Although there may be an interest in adaptation strategy implementation for many species and systems, experts considered existing information inadequate to inform targeted action. According to experts, 40% of the vertebrate species in Wisconsin will require near-term intervention for climate adaptation. These results will inform state-wide conservation planning as well as regional efforts.

  15. Career satisfaction and retention risk among Wisconsin internists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giriyappa, Pradeep; Sullivan, Kandis K

    2009-09-01

    Physician career satisfaction has been studied extensively, but career satisfaction as it relates to retention is less well studied. The objective was to assess the relationship between career satisfaction and retention in primary care internal medicine physicians in Wisconsin. In this descriptive quantitative study, survey data was assessed for correlations between career satisfaction, risk to retention, and demographics. The survey included 1231 primary care internal medicine physicians in the Wisconsin Medical Directory (2007). Responses were measured by career satisfaction variables, and demographics and retention variables for the purpose of correlations and regression analysis. Survey responses included 573 physicians. An additional 85 physicians were disqualified. The final survey group included 1146 physicians for a response rate of 50%. A total of 116 physicians (20.2%) reported anticipating leaving their current position, 84 (14.7%) physicians reported anticipating leaving the career of medicine. Identified at risk for retention were 144 (25.1%) physicians. The lowest career satisfaction scores were reported in the areas of compensation (3.19) and practice (3.42) on a scale of 1 (very dissatisfied) to 5 (very satisfied). The highest correlations to retention were associated with practice, followed by compensation satisfaction. The level of significance for this study was identified as 0.05, and the P-value was 0.000. The study findings reveal a significant risk to the stability of continuity of care for patients, and may cost Wisconsin health care organizations more than $35 million in recruitment costs to replace departing physicians.

  16. Comparison of infiltration models in NIT Kurukshetra campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balraj; Sihag, Parveen; Singh, Karan

    2018-05-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to evaluate the performance of infiltration models used to calculate the infiltration rate of the soils. Ten different locations were chosen to measure the infiltration rate in NIT Kurukshetra. The instrument used for the experimentation was double ring infiltrometer. Some of the popular infiltration models like Horton's, Philip's, Modified Philip's and Green-Ampt were fitted with infiltration test data and performance of the models was determined using Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), coefficient of correlation (C.C) and Root mean square error (RMSE) criteria. The result suggests that Modified Philip's model is the most accurate model where values of C.C, NSE and RMSE vary from 0.9947-0.9999, 0.9877-0.9998 to 0.1402-0.6913 (mm/h), respectively. Thus, this model can be used to synthetically produce infiltration data in the absence of infiltration data under the same conditions.

  17. Simulation of the shallow groundwater-flow system in the Forest County Potawatomi Community, Forest County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienen, Michael N.; Saad, David A.; Juckem, Paul F.

    2013-01-01

    The shallow groundwater system in the Forest County Potawatomi Comminity, Forest County, Wisconsin, was simulated by expanding and recalibrating a previously calibrated regional model. The existing model was updated using newly collected water-level measurements, inclusion of surface-water features beyond the previous near-field boundary, and refinements to surface-water features. The updated model then was used to calculate the area contributing recharge for seven existing and three proposed pumping locations on lands of the Forest County Potawatomi Community. The existing wells were the subject of a 2004 source-water evaluation in which areas contributing recharge were calculated using the fixed-radius method. The motivation for the present (2012) project was to improve the level of detail of areas contributing recharge for the existing wells and to provide similar analysis for the proposed wells. Delineated 5- and 10-year areas contributing recharge for existing and proposed wells extend from the areas of pumping to delineate the area at the surface contributing recharge to the wells. Steady-state pumping was simulated for two scenarios: a base-pumping scenario using pumping rates that reflect what the Community currently (2012) pumps (or plans to in the case of proposed wells), and a high-pumping scenario in which the rate was set to the maximum expected from wells installed in this area, according to the Forest County Potawatomi Community Natural Resources Department. In general, the 10-year areas contributing recharge did not intersect surface-water bodies. The 5- and 10-year areas contributing recharge simulated at the maximum pumping rate at Bug Lake Road may intersect Bug Lake. At the casino near the Town of Carter, Wisconsin, the 10-year areas contributing recharge intersect infiltration ponds. At the Devils Lake and Lois Crow Drive wells, areas contributing recharge are near cultural features, including residences.

  18. Warmed local anesthetic reduces pain of infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, J A; McDougall, E P

    1996-01-01

    The effect of warming local anesthetic on the amount of pain experienced during local infiltration was tested by comparing equal volumes of 40 degrees C- and 21 degrees C-infiltrates in each of 26 subjects. Six subjects were patients undergoing excision of two benign asymptomatic nevi in separate locations, and 20 subjects were healthy adult volunteers who were injected in bilateral antebrachial sites. The warmed and room temperature solutions were randomized to each side, so that each subject received both temperature injections in random order. All subjects and the injector were blinded. The rate of injection was time-controlled (0.05 ml/sec). Following both injections, subjects were asked to rate the pain experienced at each site. In addition, the subject was asked if there was no difference, a slight difference, or a substantial difference between the two sites. A two-tailed paired t-test was used to analyze the mean difference in pain scores for all subjects. Paired analysis of the pain scores for each subject eliminated intersubject variance of pain tolerance. The mean difference in pain score between the room temperature and warmed solutions was +1.5 (p < 0.0001). Of the 21 subjects (81%) who found the warmed solution less painful, 11 (52%) found the difference to be significant, while 10 (48%) found the difference to be slight. Two subjects (8%) found no difference between the two, while 3 subjects (11%) found the colder solution slightly less painful. We conclude that warming local anesthetic to 40 degrees C prior to subcutaneous injection is a simple, inexpensive means of reducing the pain of local infiltration.

  19. Class Size Reduction or Rapid Formative Assessment?: A Comparison of Cost-Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Stuart S.

    2009-01-01

    The cost-effectiveness of class size reduction (CSR) was compared with the cost-effectiveness of rapid formative assessment, a promising alternative for raising student achievement. Drawing upon existing meta-analyses of the effects of student-teacher ratio, evaluations of CSR in Tennessee, California, and Wisconsin, and RAND cost estimates, CSR…

  20. Demonstration of an infiltration evaluation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, J.D.; Gee, G.W.; Kincaid, C.T.; Nichols, W.M.; Bresler, E.

    1990-07-01

    An Infiltration Evaluation Methodology (IEM) was developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide a consistent, well formulated approach for evaluating drainage through engineered covers at low-level radioactive waste (LLW) sites. The methodology is designed to help evaluate the ability of proposed waste site covers to minimize drainage for LLW site license applications and for sites associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) program. The objective of this methodology is to estimate the drainage through an engineered burial site cover system. The drainage estimate can be used as an input to a broader performance assessment methodology currently under development by the NRC. The methodology is designed to simulate, at the field scale, significant factors and hydrologic conditions which determine or influence estimates of infiltration, long-term moisture content profiles, and drainage from engineered covers and barriers. The IEM developed under this study acknowledges the uncertainty inherent in soil properties and quantifies the influence of such uncertainty on the estimates of drainage in engineered cover systems at waste disposal sites. 6 refs., 1 fig

  1. [Treatment of lymphangioma with OK-432 infiltration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, J; Cáceres, F; Vargas, P

    2012-10-01

    The management of lymphangioma using sclerotherapy has proven to be an effective therapeutic. Our aim was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of OK-432 (Picibanil) in patients with lymphagioma. The study was performed from November 2010 to July 2011. Fifteen patients of both genders were diagnosed with lymphangioma, 12 days to 12 years old. All patients were infiltrated with OK-432. The studied variables were: previous surgery, localization, type of lymphangioma, number of effective injections, reduction of mass valued as excellent (100% reduction), good (reduction > 50%) and bad (reduction < 50%), presence of recurrence and complications. 40% of pacients had prior surgery and 53.3% were located in the cervical-face region. The type of macrocystic lymphangioma was present in 40% of the series, mixed type in 46.6% and microcystic type in 13.4%. The number of effective infiltrations were 3. In 6 cases (40%) the result was excellent in 5 cases (33.4%) the result was good and in 4 cases (26.6%). We had 1 recurrence (6.6%) and we haven't had complications. Injection of OK-432 in macrocystic lymphangioma and mixed had a safe therapeutic modality with satisfactory results. So it is a valid alternative to conventional surgery.

  2. Investigation of infiltration and indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    A multitask study was performed in the State of New York to provide information for guiding home energy conservation programs while maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. During the study, the statistical distribution of radon concentrations inside 2,400 homes was determined. The relationships among radon levels, house characteristics, and sources were also investigated. The direct impact that two specific air infiltration reduction measures--caulking and weatherstripping of windows and doors, and installation of storm windows and storm doors--have on house air leakage was investigated in 60 homes. The effect of house age on the impact of weatherization was also evaluated. Indoor and outdoor measurements of NO 2 , CO, SO 2 , and respirable suspended particulates (RSP) were made for 400 homes to determine the effect of combustion sources on indoor air quality and to characterize the statistical distribution of the concentrations. Finally, the combustion source data were combined with the information on air infiltration reduction measures to estimate the potential impact of these measures on indoor air quality

  3. Leukemia kidney infiltration can cause secondary polycythemia by activating hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osumi, Tomoo; Awazu, Midori; Fujimura, Eriko; Yamazaki, Fumito; Hashiguchi, Akinori; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2013-06-01

    Secondary polycythemia with increased production of erythropoietin (EPO) is known to occur in kidney diseases such as hydronephrosis and cystic disease, but the mechanism remains unclear. We report an 18-year-old female with isolated renal relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia accompanied by polycythemia. At the relapse, she presented with bilateral nephromegaly, mild renal dysfunction, and erythrocytosis with increased serum EPO levels up to 52.1 mIU/mL (9.1-32.8). Renal biopsy demonstrated diffuse lymphoblastic infiltration. The expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, which is undetectable in normal kidney, was observed in the renal tubule epithelium compressed by lymphoblastic cells. These findings suggest that erythrocytosis was caused by renal ischemia due to leukemic infiltration. Polycythemia probably became apparent because of the lack of leukemic involvement of the bone marrow. With chemotherapy, the serum EPO level rapidly decreased to normal range accompanied by the normalization of kidney size and function. Renal leukemic infiltration may enhance EPO production, although not recognized in the majority of cases because of bone marrow involvement. Our case has clarified the mechanism of previously reported polycythemia associated with renal diseases as renal ischemia. Furthermore, we have added renal ischemia resulting from tumor infiltration to the list of causes of secondary polycythemia.

  4. Immune infiltrates as predictive markers of survival in pancreatic cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pia eProtti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease with dismal prognosis. The tumor microenvironment is composed by multiple cell types, molecular factors and extracellular matrix forming a strong desmoplastic reaction, which is a hallmark of the disease. A complex cross-talk between tumor cells and the stroma exists with reciprocal influence that dictates tumor progression and ultimately the clinical outcome. In this context, tumor infiltrating immune cells through secretion of chemokine and cytokines exert an important regulatory role. Here we review the correlation between the immune infiltrates, evaluated on tumor samples of pancreatic cancer patients underwent surgical resection, and disease free and/or overall survival after surgery. Specifically, we focus on tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, mast cells and macrophages that all contribute to a Th2-type inflammatory and immunosuppressive microenvironment. In these patients tumor immune infiltrates not only do not contribute to disease eradication but rather the features of Th2-type inflammation and immunosuppression is significantly associated with more rapid disease progression and reduced survival.

  5. Experimental and modelling studies of infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giudici, M.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation describes a study of infiltration in the unsaturated soil with the objective of estimating the recharge to a phreatic aquifer. The study area is at the border of the city of Milan (Northern Italy), which draws water for both domestic and industrial purposes from ground water resources located beneath the urban area. The rate of water pumping from the aquifer system has been varying during the XX century, depending upon the number of inhabitants and the development of industrial activities. This caused variations with time of the depth of the water table below the ground surface and in turn some emergencies: the two most prominent episodes correspond to the middle '70s, when the water table in the city centre was about 30 m below the undisturbed natural conditions, and to the last decade, when the water table has raised at a rate of approximately 1 m/year and caused infiltrations in deep constructions (garages and building foundations, the underground railways, etc.). We have developed four ground water flow models at different scales, which share some characteristics: they are based on quasi-3D approximation (horizontal flow in the aquifers and vertical flow in the aquitards), conservative finite-differences schemes for regular grid with square cells in the horizontal plane and are implemented with proprietary computer codes. Among the problems that were studied for the development of these models, I recall some numerical problems, related to the behaviour of the phreatic aquifer under conditions of strong exploitation. Model calibration and validation for ModMil has been performed with a two-stage process, i.e., using some of the available data for model calibration and the remaining data for model validation. The application of geophysical exploration techniques, in particular seismic and geo-electrical prospecting, has been very useful to complete the data and information on the hydro-geological structure obtained from stratigraphic logs

  6. Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin Energy Optimization Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troge, Michael [Little Bear Development Center, Oneida, WI (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Oneida Nation is located in Northeast Wisconsin. The reservation is approximately 96 square miles (8 miles x 12 miles), or 65,000 acres. The greater Green Bay area is east and adjacent to the reservation. A county line roughly splits the reservation in half; the west half is in Outagamie County and the east half is in Brown County. Land use is predominantly agriculture on the west 2/3 and suburban on the east 1/3 of the reservation. Nearly 5,000 tribally enrolled members live in the reservation with a total population of about 21,000. Tribal ownership is scattered across the reservation and is about 23,000 acres. Currently, the Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin (OTIW) community members and facilities receive the vast majority of electrical and natural gas services from two of the largest investor-owned utilities in the state, WE Energies and Wisconsin Public Service. All urban and suburban buildings have access to natural gas. About 15% of the population and five Tribal facilities are in rural locations and therefore use propane as a primary heating fuel. Wood and oil are also used as primary or supplemental heat sources for a small percent of the population. Very few renewable energy systems, used to generate electricity and heat, have been installed on the Oneida Reservation. This project was an effort to develop a reasonable renewable energy portfolio that will help Oneida to provide a leadership role in developing a clean energy economy. The Energy Optimization Model (EOM) is an exploration of energy opportunities available to the Tribe and it is intended to provide a decision framework to allow the Tribe to make the wisest choices in energy investment with an organizational desire to establish a renewable portfolio standard (RPS).

  7. Method of forming catalyst layer by single step infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdes, Kirk; Lee, Shiwoo; Dowd, Regis

    2018-05-01

    Provided herein is a method for electrocatalyst infiltration of a porous substrate, of particular use for preparation of a cathode for a solid oxide fuel cell. The method generally comprises preparing an electrocatalyst infiltrate solution comprising an electrocatalyst, surfactant, chelating agent, and a solvent; pretreating a porous mixed ionic-electric conductive substrate; and applying the electrocatalyst infiltration solution to the porous mixed ionic-electric conductive substrate.

  8. Light propagation in Liquid-infiltrated Microstructured Optical Fibres”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Per Dalgaard

    2008-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis is focussed on studying the possibilities of tuning and optimizing the performance of infiltrated waveguides in systems where nonlinear optical effects are exploited. Infiltrated systems where either nonlinear temporal or spatial effects come into play have been...... considered. First a general introduction to the basic principles used throughout the work is given. It is then shown how infiltrated waveguides can be used for manipulating dispersive and diffractive properties of light propagartion....

  9. Stormwater infiltration and the 'urban karst' - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneau, Jeremie; Fletcher, Tim D.; Costelloe, Justin F.; Burns, Matthew J.

    2017-09-01

    The covering of native soils with impervious surfaces (e.g. roofs, roads, and pavement) prevents infiltration of rainfall into the ground, resulting in increased surface runoff and decreased groundwater recharge. When this excess water is managed using stormwater drainage systems, flow and water quality regimes of urban streams are severely altered, leading to the degradation of their ecosystems. Urban streams restoration requires alternative approaches towards stormwater management, which aim to restore the flow regime towards pre-development conditions. The practice of stormwater infiltration-achieved using a range of stormwater source-control measures (SCMs)-is central to restoring baseflow. Despite this, little is known about what happens to the infiltrated water. Current knowledge about the impact of stormwater infiltration on flow regimes was reviewed. Infiltration systems were found to be efficient at attenuating high-flow hydrology (reducing peak magnitudes and frequencies) at a range of scales (parcel, streetscape, catchment). Several modelling studies predict a positive impact of stormwater infiltration on baseflow, and empirical evidence is emerging, but the fate of infiltrated stormwater remains unclear. It is not known how infiltrated water travels along the subsurface pathways that characterise the urban environment, in particular the 'urban karst', which results from networks of human-made subsurface pathways, e.g. stormwater and sanitary sewer pipes and associated high permeability trenches. Seepage of groundwater into and around such pipes is possible, meaning some infiltrated stormwater could travel along artificial pathways. The catchment-scale ability of infiltration systems to restore groundwater recharge and baseflow is thus ambiguous. Further understanding of the fate of infiltrated stormwater is required to ensure infiltration systems deliver optimal outcomes for waterway flow regimes.

  10. Wound infiltration with local anesthetic after abdominal surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Z.; Ahmad, R.; Haider, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out to compare the effect of analgesia with local wound infiltration with 20ml of 0.5% bupivacaine in post operative wounds with the control group having no infiltration. Patients were mobilized much earlier than in the control group while the demand of analgesics was considerably delayed in the study group. No any complications was noticed during local infiltration of wounds after abdominal surgery and is, therefore, applicable in routine surgery. (author)

  11. Infiltration in reclaimed mined land ameliorated with deep tillage treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, S.K.; Cowsert, P.T.

    1997-01-01

    Reclamation of mined land with heavy machinery can result in soil compaction, which increases soil bulk density and reduces porosity, water infiltrability, root elongation and crop productivity. This paper examines the effect on infiltration in reclaimed surface mined land of a deep tillage treatment, and the subsequent changes in infiltration after the amelioration. The experiment was conducted at the Horse Creek Mine near Conant, Ferry County, IL, USA

  12. Reactive Melt Infiltration Of Silicon Into Porous Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Donald R.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    1994-01-01

    Report describes study of synthesis of silicon carbide and related ceramics by reactive melt infiltration of silicon and silicon/molybdenum alloys into porous carbon preforms. Reactive melt infiltration has potential for making components in nearly net shape, performed in less time and at lower temperature. Object of study to determine effect of initial pore volume fraction, pore size, and infiltration material on quality of resultant product.

  13. 40 CFR 81.30 - Southeastern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.30 Section 81.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.30 Southeastern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Milwaukee Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Wisconsin) has been renamed the Southeastern...

  14. 78 FR 65875 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Removal of Gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ...] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Removal of Gasoline Vapor... Administrative Code, Chapter NR 420 Control of Organic Compound Emissions from Petroleum and Gasoline Sources... FROM PETROLEUM AND GASOLINE SOURCES. NR 420.01 as published in the (Wisconsin) Register, February, 1990...

  15. Wisconsin Women and the Law, Second Edition. The Governor's Commission on the Status of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governor's Commission on the Status of Women, Madison, WI.

    This handbook is written to inform Wisconsin citizens of women's rights and responsibilities under Wisconsin and federal law. It is intended for use as general legal resource material. It is not intended to take the place of an attorney in the solution of individual legal problems. Each of the 12 chapters treats a particular subject or topic.…

  16. 78 FR 44596 - Notice of Inventory Completion: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... address in this notice by August 23, 2013. ADDRESSES: Jennifer Kolb, Wisconsin Historical Museum, 30 North Carroll Street, Madison, WI 53703, telephone (608) 261-2461, email Jennifer.Kolb@wisconsinhistory.org... request to Jennifer Kolb, Wisconsin Historical Museum, 30 North Carroll Street, Madison, WI 53703...

  17. 78 FR 48900 - Notice of Inventory Completion: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    .... ADDRESSES: Jennifer Kolb, Wisconsin Historical Museum, 30 North Carroll Street, Madison, WI 53703, telephone (608) 261-2461, email Jennifer.Kolb@wisconsinhistory.org . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Notice is here... request to Jennifer Kolb, Wisconsin Historical Museum, 30 North Carroll Street, Madison, WI 53703...

  18. 75 FR 52369 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Wisconsin Historical Society, Museum Division, Madison, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... member Indian tribes (Bad River Band of the Lake Superior Tribe of Chippewa Indians of the Bad River... Alliance and the Wisconsin Inter-tribal Repatriation Committee indicated that the Bad River Band of the Lake Superior Tribe of Chippewa Indians of the Bad River Reservation, Wisconsin, and Red Cliff Band of...

  19. 75 FR 70026 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Wisconsin Historical Society, Museum Division, Madison, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... with representatives of the Bad River Band of the Lake Superior Tribe of Chippewa Indians of the Bad... Division, is responsible for notifying the Bad River Band of the Lake Superior Tribe of Chippewa Indians of the Bad River Reservation, Wisconsin; Forest County Potawatomi Community, Wisconsin; Lac Courte...

  20. Groundwater sampling methods using glass wool filtration to trace human enteric viruses in Madison, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human enteric viruses have been detected in the Madison, Wisconsin deep municipal well system. Earlier projects by the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey (WGNHS) have used glass wool filters to sample groundwater for these viruses directly from the deep municipal wells. Polymerase chain...

  1. Tree seed handling, processing, testing, and storage at Hayward State Nursery, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon Christians

    2008-01-01

    The Hayward State Nursery, Wisconsin grows more than 40 species from seeds. Up to 6000 bushels of raw unprocessed tree and shrub seeds are collected each year, and all seeds are collected in Wisconsin or adjacent states. All white spruce (Picea glauca) and some white pine seeds (Pinus strobus) are collected from orchards containing...

  2. Pollutant infiltration and ground water management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Following a short overview of hazard potentials for ground water in Germany, this book, which was compiled by the technical committee of DVWK on ground water use, discusses the natural scientific bases of pollutant movement to and in ground water. It points out whether and to what extent soil/ground water systems can be protected from harmful influences, and indicates relative strategies. Two zones are distinguished: the unsaturated zone, where local defence and remedial measures are frequently possible, and the saturated zone. From the protective function of geological systems, which is always pollutant-specific, criteria are derived for judging the systems generally, or at least regarding entire classes of pollutants. Finally, the impact of the infiltration of pollutants into ground water on its use as drinking water is pointed out and an estimate of the cost of remedial measures is given. (orig.) [de

  3. Research of Rainwater Infiltration in Eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudáková Gabriela

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Today precipitation water in the majority of built up and other sealed surface areas no longer reach the water circulation system via natural routes. This can lead to long-term changes to the soil and water resources, reduce the natural local regeneration of the groundwater and have effects on the chemical and biological conditions above and below the ground surface. Reasonable rainwater management leads to maintain or recover a sound and sustainable water cycle. The purpose of this paper is to present objectives and monitoring of a drainage project in Eastern Slovakia, in Kosice city. The paper focuses on percolation facilities in the research area of campus of Technical University and measurements connected with rainwater infiltration.

  4. Forested infiltration areas (FIA; principles, experiences, perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mezzalira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates the origin and the main features of a Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR measure known as Forested Infiltration Area (FIA, conceived by Veneto Agricoltura in 2007 and currently implemented at 7 pilot sites over the Vicenza Upper Plain in the Veneto region, with the financial and technical support of several public and private partners. In particular the outputs of the first recharge season (2013-2014 of two demonstrative FIA are presented and discussed (plants realized in 2013 by Consorzio di Bonifica Brenta within the framework of the Life Project AQUOR. The main peculiarities of the FIA measures are the multifunctionality guaranteed by the integration of hydraulic and biologic aspects, the high environmental compatibility and the friendly design and management.

  5. Water infiltration into exposed fractured rock surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, T.C.; Evans, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Fractured rock media are present at many existing and potential waste disposal sites, yet characterization data and physical relationships are not well developed for such media. This study focused on water infiltration characteristics of an exposed fractured rock as an approach for defining the upper boundary condition for unsaturated-zone water percolation and contaminant transport modeling. Two adjacent watersheds of 0.24 and 1.73 ha with slopes up to 45% were instrumented for measuring rainfall and runoff. Fracture density was measured from readily observable fracture traces on the surface. Three methods were employed to evaluate the rainfall-runoff relationship. The first method used the annual totals and indicated that only 22.5% of rainfall occurred as runoff for the 1990-1991 water year, which demonstrates a high water intake rate by the exposed fracture system. The second method employed total rainfall and runoff for individual storms in conjunction with the commonly used USDA Soil Conservation Service curve number method developed for wide ranges of soils and vegetation. Curve numbers between 75 and 85 were observed for summer and winter storms with dry antecedent runoff conditions, while values exceeded 90 for wet conditions. The third method used a mass-balance approach for four major storms, which indicated that water intake rates ranged from 2.0 to 7.3 mm h -1 , yielding fracture intake velocities ranging from 122 to 293 m h -1 . The three analyses show the complexity of the infiltration process for fractured rock. However, they contribute to a better understanding of the upper boundary condition for predicting contaminant transport through an unsaturated fractured rock medium. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  6. Immune Infiltration in Invasive Lobular Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmedt, Christine; Salgado, Roberto; Fornili, Marco; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Van den Eynden, Gert; Zoppoli, Gabriele; Rothé, Françoise; Buisseret, Laurence; Garaud, Soizic; Willard-Gallo, Karen; Brown, David; Bareche, Yacine; Rouas, Ghizlane; Galant, Christine; Bertucci, François; Loi, Sherene; Viale, Giuseppe; Di Leo, Angelo; Green, Andrew R; Ellis, Ian O; Rakha, Emad A; Larsimont, Denis; Biganzoli, Elia; Sotiriou, Christos

    2018-02-20

    Invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC) is the second most common histological subtype of breast cancer after invasive ductal cancer (IDC). Here, we aimed at evaluating the prevalence, levels, and composition of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and their association with clinico-pathological and outcome variables in ILC, and to compare them with IDC. We considered two patient series with TIL data: a multicentric retrospective series (n = 614) and the BIG 02-98 study (n = 149 ILC and 807 IDC). We compared immune subsets identified by immuno-histochemistry in the ILC (n = 159) and IDC (n = 468) patients from the Nottingham series, as well as the CIBERSORT immune profiling of the ILC (n = 98) and IDC (n = 388) METABRIC and The Cancer Genome Atlas patients. All ILC/IDC comparisons were done in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative tumors. All statistical tests were two-sided. TIL levels were statistically significantly lower in ILC compared with IDC (fold-change = 0.79, 95% confidence interval = 0.70 to 0.88, P lobular series, although they did not reach statistical significance in the latter. The Nottingham series revealed that the levels of intratumoral but not total CD8+ were statistically significantly lower in ILC compared with IDC. Comparison of the CIBERSORT profiles highlighted statistically significant differences in terms of immune composition. This study shows differences between the immune infiltrates of ER-positive/HER2-negative ILC and IDC in terms of prevalence, levels, localization, composition, and clinical associations.

  7. Survival after cystectomy in infiltrating bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandron, E.; Desrez, G.; Chatelain, C.

    1998-01-01

    We reviewed the results of infiltrating bladder cancer treated by radical cystectomy to evaluate cancer treated by radical cystectomy to evaluate survival. Between January 1989 and December 1992, a total of 58 consecutive cystectomies or anterior pelvic exenterations performed on 48 men and 10 women (mean age 63.2 years) in our department were retrospectively evaluated. Four patients were lost to follow-up and the mean follow-up was 72 months. Pathologic staging was as follows: stage pTO,A,1: 13.5%, stage pT2: 17.5%, stage pT3a: 12%, stage pT3b: stage pT4: 21%. The year probability of the overall survival was 60% for pT2-p T3a patients, 15% for pT3b patients, and 9% for pT4 patients, respectively. Overall, 53.5% of patients died of cancer, 7.5% of intercurrent disease, and 39% were alive. The cancer related death rate was 12% for pT2-pT3a patients, and 82% for pT3b-pT4 patients. The 5- year probability of specific survival was 80% for pT2-pT3a patients, 15% for pT3b patients and 9% for pT4 patients, respectively. Infiltrating bladder cancer still has a high mortality rate. Radical cystectomy may be considered to be a curative procedure for stages pT2 and pT3a. Adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy seem necessary at stages pT3 and pT4. Preoperative criteria need to be better defined to reduce understanding. (authors)

  8. Water infiltration into homogeneous soils: a new concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfredni, S.

    1977-10-01

    A new concept for the analytical description of the process of water infiltration into homogeneous soils is presented. The concept uses a new definition of a 'gravitational diffusivity' which permits the generalization of both cases, horizontal and vertical infiltration. The efficiency of the new concept in describing the infiltration process, for short and intermediate times, is proved through experimental data obtained during water infiltration into air-dry soil columns. Its advantages are discussed comparing soil water contents predicted by the numerical solution proposed by PHILLIP (1955, 1957) [pt

  9. [No Hodgkin Linfoma diagnosis with intra-atrial infiltration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcocer Gamba, Marco Antonio; León González, Salvador; Castro Montes, Eliodoro; Loarca Piña, Luis Martín; Lugo Gavidia, Leslie Marisol; García Hernández, Enrique; González Galindo, Ulises; Paredes Serrano, Miguel Isaías

    2012-09-01

    Cardiac tumors are rare entities in clinical practice, with an incidence of 0.05%. Approximately 75% are benign and 25% malignant. Among these, Lymphomas are uncommon, representing about 0.25%. The non-Hodgkin lymphomas can occur in extranodal tissues in 20% of the cases and 80% of these non-Hodgkin lymphomas are composed of diffuse B cells. The extranodal presentation is most frequent in young adults, with a high degree of malignancy and rapid growth. It can present with primary infiltration of various organs; cardiac involvement occurs in 20 to 28% of cases, usually located in the right chambers and with nonspecific symptoms, depending on the location and extent of the tumor. The diagnostic test in these cases is undoubtedly the biopsy of the lymph node or the affected tissue. We present the case of non-Hodgkin disease of diffuse large cells, with right intra-atrial involvement in a 23-year-old-female patient, who presented with progressive dyspnea. A transesophageal echocardiography was performed and an intra-atrial tumor mass was detected. A biopsy was performed, by femoral venous catheterization, allowing the establishment of the histopathological diagnosis and treatment. At a one year follow up, the patient shows complete remission.

  10. Impact of Rain Water Infiltration on the Stability of Earth Slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Farooq Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Slope failure occurs very often in natural and man-made slopes which are subjected to frequent changes in ground water level, rapid drawdown, rainfall and earthquakes. The current study discusses the significance of water infiltration, pore water pressure and degree of saturation that affect the stability of earth slopes. Rainwater infiltration not only mechanically reduces the shear strength of a slope material, but also chemically alters the mineral composition of the soil matrix. It results in the alteration of macro structures which in turn decreases the factor of safety. A few case studies are discussed in this paper to quantitatively observe the variation in factor of safety (FOS of various earth slopes by changing the degree of saturation. The results showed that most of the earth slopes get failed or become critical when the degree of saturation approaches to 50 % or more.

  11. A case of alcoholic hepatitis demonstrating focal fatty infiltration of the liver on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uesaka, Toshihiro; Kato, Masayoshi; Nagai, Tadayuki; Kametani, Tomio; Horigami, Tateyuki; Takimoto, Hiroaki; Tanino, Mikio

    1985-01-01

    Focal fatty infiltration of the liver is a newly recognized entity that may be confused with primary neoplasm or tumor metastasis on computed tomography. We report a 31-year-old woman with a history of chronic alcoholism. Physical examination revealed jaundice, marked hepatomegaly and ascites. Laboratory studies revealed mild elevation of bilirubin, AlP, GOT, γ-GTP and marked leukocytosis. Abdominal CT showed a large area of decreased density in the right lobe. The radionuclide scan demonstrated the area of diminished activity located in the central portion of the right lobe. Ultrasonography demonstrated high echoic mass shadows in the right lobe. The rapid disappearance of the low density area on CT was recognized. The liver biopsy specimen revealed fatty metamorphosis, alcoholic hyaline bodies, pericellular fibrosis and mild lobular disorganization. Focal fatty infiltration can mimic focal hepatic lesions and repeat CT scans are useful in diagnosis. (author)

  12. Nurses for Wisconsin: A Collaborative Initiative to Enhance the Nurse Educator Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Linda K; Adams, Jan L; Lundeen, Sally; May, Katharyn A; Smith, Rosemary; Wendt, L Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Wisconsin, like much of the nation, is currently suffering from a growing nursing shortage. The University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire College of Nursing and Health Sciences, in partnership with the University of Wisconsin-Madison, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, and University of Wisconsin Oshkosh nursing programs, took advantage of a University of Wisconsin System Incentive Grant for economic and workforce development to address this problem. With a $3.2 million award, the Nurses for Wisconsin goal is to increase the number of baccalaureate registered nurses by expanding the nursing education capacity within the University of Wisconsin System. Nurses for Wisconsin is accelerating the preparation of nursing faculty by supporting nurses to enroll in doctor of nursing practice or nursing doctor of philosophy programs with pre- and postdoctoral fellowship awards ranging from $21,500 to $90,000 and the recruitment of faculty with a loan repayment program of up to $50,000. In exchange for the financial support, fellows and faculty must make a 3-year commitment to teach in a UW System nursing program. Two conferences for program participants are also funded through the award. The first conference was held in October 2014. The second conference is scheduled for summer 2015. With the first year of the 2-year project completed, this article describes Nurses for Wisconsin from inception to implementation and midterm assessment with a focus on lessons learned. A follow-up article addressing final outcomes and next steps is planned. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Depth of Intestinal Wall Infiltration and Clinical Presentation of Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis: Evaluation of 553 Consecutive Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Roberto; Lisi, Giorgio; Pesci, Anna; Ceccaroni, Marcello; Zamboni, Giuseppe; Gentile, Irene; Rettore, Lorenzo; Ruffo, Giacomo

    2018-02-01

    Intestinal involvement in endometriosis was first described by Sampson in 1922. The reported incidence ranges between 3% and 37% in patients diagnosed with endometriosis. In literature, there are few studies that correlate the severity of endometriosis (in terms of intestinal infiltration) and its clinical presentation. The aim of this study was to review the correlation between the severity of symptoms, the depth of intestinal wall infiltration, and lymph node involvement in our tertiary referral center. We retrospectively analyzed 553 patients who had undergone intestinal resection for deep infiltrating endometriosis at our institution (Sacro Cuore Negrar Hospital) between 2004 and 2009. Based on intestinal wall infiltration, we divided patients into three groups (Group A: intestinal infiltration that reaches the muscle layer, Group B: infiltration to the submucosa, and Group C: endometriosis reaches the mucosa). Symptoms, intestinal stenosis, and positive lymph nodes were compared in the three groups with the chi-square test. No statistical correlation was found between symptoms and the intestinal wall infiltrations. The three groups were also compared on the basis of positive visceral lymph nodes and we did find a statistical difference (P = .05) in the lymph node count in the two main groups. There seems to be no statistically significant difference in symptoms between patients with different degrees of infiltration. Although visceral lymph node involvement has been occasionally described in literature, we found that it is related to submucosal infiltration.

  14. Evaluating the Infiltration Performance of Eight Dutch Permeable Pavements Using a New Full-Scale Infiltration Testing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris Boogaard

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Permeable pavements are a type of sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS technique that are used around the world to infiltrate and treat urban stormwater runoff and to minimize runoff volumes. Urban stormwater runoff contains significant concentrations of suspended sediments that can cause clogging and reduce the infiltration capacity and effectiveness of permeable pavements. It is important for stormwater managers to be able to determine when the level of clogging has reached an unacceptable level, so that they can schedule maintenance or replacement activities as required. Newly-installed permeable pavements in the Netherlands must demonstrate a minimum infiltration capacity of 194 mm/h (540 l/s/ha. Other commonly used permeable pavement guidelines in the Netherlands recommend that maintenance is undertaken on permeable pavements when the infiltration falls below 0.50 m/d (20.8 mm/h. This study used a newly-developed, full-scale infiltration test procedure to evaluate the infiltration performance of eight permeable pavements in five municipalities that had been in service for over seven years in the Netherlands. The determined infiltration capacities vary between 29 and 342 mm/h. Two of the eight pavements show an infiltration capacity higher than 194 mm/h, and all infiltration capacities are higher than 20.8 mm/h. According to the guidelines, this suggests that none of the pavements tested in this study would require immediate maintenance.

  15. Ecologic Niche Modeling of Blastomyces dermatitidis in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Kurt D.; Meece, Jennifer K.; Archer, John R.; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2008-01-01

    Background Blastomycosis is a potentially fatal mycosis that is acquired by inhaling infectious spores of Blastomyces dermatitidis present in the environment. The ecology of this pathogen is poorly understood, in part because it has been extremely difficult to identify the niche(s) it occupies based on culture isolation of the organism from environmental samples. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the ecology of blastomycosis by performing maximum entropy modeling of exposure sites from 156 cases of human and canine blastomycosis to provide a regional-scale perspective of the geographic and ecologic distribution of B. dermatitidis in Wisconsin. Based on analysis with climatic, topographic, surface reflectance and other environmental variables, we predicted that ecologic conditions favorable for maintaining the fungus in nature occur predominantly within northern counties and counties along the western shoreline of Lake Michigan. Areas of highest predicted occurrence were often in proximity to waterways, especially in northcentral Wisconsin, where incidence of infection is highest. Ecologic conditions suitable for B. dermatitidis are present in urban and rural environments, and may differ at the extremes of distribution of the species in the state. Conclusions/Significance Our results provide a framework for a more informed search for specific environmental factors modulating B. dermatitidis occurrence and transmission and will be useful for improving public health awareness of relative exposure risks. PMID:18446224

  16. ADA Compliance and Accessibility of Fitness Facilities in Western Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marquell J; Stoelzle, Hannah Y; Finco, Kristi L; Foss, Sadie E; Carstens, Katie

    2012-01-01

    The study expands the research on fitness facility accessibility by determining how compliant fitness facilities in rural western Wisconsin were with Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Comparisons were made with 4 other studies that were conducted in different geographical regions. The study also examined fitness professionals' disability knowledge and awareness. An ADA fitness facility compliance instrument and a fitness professional disability awareness survey were used. Direct observation and physical measurements were taken during on-site visits to 16 of 36 eligible fitness facilities in rural western Wisconsin. Ten fitness professionals from participating facilities completed an online survey. Frequencies were used to analyze the results. None of the participating facilities were in 100% compliance with ADA. Customer service desk (84%) and path of travel throughout the facility (72%) were the highest compliance areas. Telephone (6%) and locker rooms (32%) were the lowest compliance areas. No fitness professional was trained in wheelchair transfers and very few had received training in providing services to individuals with disabilities. Fitness facility accessibility remains a concern nationally. Continued efforts need to be made to raise the awareness of ADA compliance among fitness professionals across the United States, especially in rural areas where fitness facility availability is limited.

  17. Sequestration of Sr-90 Subsurface Contamination in the Hanford 100-N Area by Surface Infiltration of a Ca-Citrate-Phosphate Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szecsody, James E.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Oostrom, Martinus; Moore, R. C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Williams, Mark D.; Zhong, Lirong; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; McKinley, James P.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Covert, Matthew A.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Garcia, Ben J.

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a method to emplace apatite precipitate in the 100N vadose zone, which results in sorption and ultimately incorporation of Sr-90 into the apatite structure. The Ca-citrate-PO4 solution can be infiltrated into unsaturated sediments to result in apatite precipitate to provide effective treatment of Sr-90 contamination. Microbial redistribution during solution infiltration and a high rate of citrate biodegradation for river water microbes (water used for solution infiltration) results in a relatively even spatial distribution of the citrate biodegradation rate and ultimately apatite precipitate in the sediment. Manipulation of the Ca-citrate-PO4 solution infiltration strategy can be used to result in apatite precipitate in the lower half of the vadose zone (where most of the Sr-90 is located) and within low-K layers (which are hypothesized to have higher Sr-90 concentrations). The most effective infiltration strategy to precipitate apatite at depth (and with sufficient lateral spread) was to infiltrate a high concentration solution (6 mM Ca, 15 mM citrate, 60 mM PO4) at a rapid rate (near ponded conditions), followed by rapid, then slow water infiltration. Repeated infiltration events, with sufficient time between events to allow water drainage in the sediment profile can be used to buildup the mass of apatite precipitate at greater depth. Low-K heterogeneities were effectively treated, as the higher residual water content maintained in these zones resulted in higher apatite precipitate concentration. High-K zones did not receive sufficient treatment by infiltration, although an alternative strategy of air/surfactant (foam) was demonstrated effective for targeting high-K zones. The flow rate manipulation used in this study to treat specific depths and heterogeneities are not as easy to implement at field scale due to the lack of characterization of heterogeneities and difficulty tracking the wetting front over a large

  18. Characteristics of water infiltration in layered water repellent soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrophobic soil can influence soil water infiltration, but information regarding the impacts of different levels of hydrophobicity within a layered soil profile is limited. An infiltration study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of hydrophobicity and the position of the hyd...

  19. Water infiltration in an ultisol after cultivation of common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida do Nascimento dos Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Water infiltration in the soil is an important hydrological process that occurs at the interface of the soil-atmosphere system; thus, the soil management practice used has a strong influence on this process. The aim of this study was to evaluate water infiltration in the soil and compare equations for estimating the water infiltration rate in an Ultisol after harvesting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under simulated rainfall. Field tests with a rainfall simulator were carried out in three soil management systems: minimum tillage (MT, conventional tillage (CT, and no tillage (NT. In NT, four levels of plant residue on the soil surface were evaluated: 0, 3, 6, and 9 t ha-1. The models of Kostiakov-Lewis, Horton, and Philip were used to estimate the infiltration rate. In the MT system, the final infiltration rate was 54 mm h-1, whereas in the CT and NT systems with up to 3 t ha-1 of plant residue on the soil surface, the rate was near 17 mm h-1. In addition, the results indicated that in the NT system the infiltration rate increased with plant residue coverage greater than 6 t ha-1, i.e., there was a positive correlation between plant cover and the water infiltration rate. The Horton model was the most suitable in representing the water infiltration process in the soil. Therefore, this model can be recommended for estimation of this variable regardless of the soil tillage system used.

  20. A METHOD AND AN ELECTRODE PRODUCED BY INFILTRATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to electrodes having Gd and Pr -doped cerium oxide (CGPO)backbones infiltrated with Sr -doped LaCoO3 (LSC) and a method to manufacture them. Pr ions have been introduced into a prefabricated CGO backbone by infiltrating Pr nitrate solution followed by high temperatur...

  1. Unidirectional infiltration method to produce crown for dental prosthesis application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontes, F.H.D.; Taguchi, S.P.; Machado, J.P.B.; Santos, C.

    2009-01-01

    Alumina ceramics have been used in dental prosthesis because it is inert, presents higher corrosion and shear resistance when compared to metals, excellent aesthetic, and mechanical resistance. In this work it was produced an infrastructure material for applications in dental crowns, obtained by glass infiltration in alumina preform. Various oxides, among that, rare-earth oxide produced by Xenotime, were melted at 1450 deg C and heat treatment at 700 deg C to obtain the glass (REglass). The alumina was pre-sintered at 1100 deg C cut and machined to predetermine format (unidirectional indirect infiltration) and finally conducted to infiltration test. The alumina was characterized by porosity (Hg-porosity and density) and microstructure (SEM). The glass wettability in alumina was determined as function of temperature, and the contact angle presented a low value (θ<90 deg), showing that glass can be infiltrated spontaneously in alumina. The infiltration test was conducted at glass melting temperature, during 30, 60, 180, 360 minutes. After infiltration, the samples were cut in longitudinal section, ground and polished, and analyzed by XRD (crystalline phases), SEM (microstructure) and EDS (composition).The REglass presents higher infiltration height when compared to current processes (direct infiltration), and homogeneous microstructure, showing that it is a promising method used by prosthetics and dentists. (author)

  2. Interpretation of ponded infiltration data using numerical experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dohnal Michal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ponded infiltration experiment is a simple test used for in-situ determination of soil hydraulic properties, particularly saturated hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity. It is known that infiltration process in natural soils is strongly affected by presence of macropores, soil layering, initial and experimental conditions etc. As a result, infiltration record encompasses a complex of mutually compensating effects that are difficult to separate from each other. Determination of sorptivity and saturated hydraulic conductivity from such infiltration data is complicated. In the present study we use numerical simulation to examine the impact of selected experimental conditions and soil profile properties on the ponded infiltration experiment results, specifically in terms of the hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity evaluation. The effect of following factors was considered: depth of ponding, ring insertion depth, initial soil water content, presence of preferential pathways, hydraulic conductivity anisotropy, soil layering, surface layer retention capacity and hydraulic conductivity, and presence of soil pipes or stones under the infiltration ring. Results were compared with a large database of infiltration curves measured at the experimental site Liz (Bohemian Forest, Czech Republic. Reasonably good agreement between simulated and observed infiltration curves was achieved by combining several of factors tested. Moreover, the ring insertion effect was recognized as one of the major causes of uncertainty in the determination of soil hydraulic parameters.

  3. Surface stability analysis of dikes subject to overtopping and infiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karim, U. F.A.; Tran, Q.T.; Meij, R.

    2015-01-01

    The key contribution of this paper is the coupling of hydraulic loading conditions due to wave overtopping with slope stability of the surface layer of earthen flood protection embankments. Overtopping wave conditions impact overtopping discharges and infiltration time, and thereby the infiltration

  4. Seasonal variation of infiltration capacities of soils in western Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Johnson; Robert L. Beschta

    1981-01-01

    Infiltration capacities were 50 percent greater during fall than during summer for forest soils of western Oregon. These results contrast with those measured in other studies. In forested areas, investigators should be aware of potentially large seasonal changes in infiltration capacities. Such seasonal changes may exceed effects due to applied treatments (logging,...

  5. Interpretation of ponded infiltration data using numerical experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dohnal, M.; Vogel, T.; Dušek, J.; Votrubová, J.; Tesař, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 3 (2016), s. 289-299 ISSN 0042-790X Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : ponded infiltration experiment * two-parameter infiltration equation * three-dimensional axisymmetric dualcontinuum model * preferential flow Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 1.654, year: 2016

  6. Unidirectional infiltration method to produce crown for dental prosthesis application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontes, F.H.D.; Taguchi, S.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EEL/DEMAR/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Borges Junior, L.A. [Centro Universitario de Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Machado, J.P.B. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Santos, C. [ProtMat Materiais Avancados, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Alumina ceramics have been used in dental prosthesis because it is inert, presents higher corrosion and shear resistance when compared to metals, excellent aesthetic, and mechanical resistance. In this work it was produced an infrastructure material for applications in dental crowns, obtained by glass infiltration in alumina preform. Various oxides, among that, rare-earth oxide produced by Xenotime, were melted at 1450 deg C and heat treatment at 700 deg C to obtain the glass (REglass). The alumina was pre-sintered at 1100 deg C cut and machined to predetermine format (unidirectional indirect infiltration) and finally conducted to infiltration test. The alumina was characterized by porosity (Hg-porosity and density) and microstructure (SEM). The glass wettability in alumina was determined as function of temperature, and the contact angle presented a low value (θ<90 deg), showing that glass can be infiltrated spontaneously in alumina. The infiltration test was conducted at glass melting temperature, during 30, 60, 180, 360 minutes. After infiltration, the samples were cut in longitudinal section, ground and polished, and analyzed by XRD (crystalline phases), SEM (microstructure) and EDS (composition).The REglass presents higher infiltration height when compared to current processes (direct infiltration), and homogeneous microstructure, showing that it is a promising method used by prosthetics and dentists. (author)

  7. Analysis and integrated modelling of groundwater infiltration to sewer networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Balling, Jonas Dueholm; Larsen, Uffe Bay Bøgh

    2016-01-01

    Infiltration of groundwater to sewer systems is a problem for the capacity of the system as well as for treatment processes at waste water treatment plants. This paper quantifies the infiltration of groundwater to a sewer system in Frederikshavn Municipality, Denmark, by measurements of sewer flo...

  8. Modeling a ponded infiltration experiment at Yucca Mountain, NV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, D.B.; Guertal, W.R.; Flint, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is being evaluated as a potential site for a geologic repository for high level radioactive waste. As part of the site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, a field-scale ponded infiltration experiment was done to help characterize the hydraulic and infiltration properties of a layered dessert alluvium deposit. Calcium carbonate accumulation and cementation, heterogeneous layered profiles, high evapotranspiration, low precipitation, and rocky soil make the surface difficult to characterize.The effects of the strong morphological horizonation on the infiltration processes, the suitability of measured hydraulic properties, and the usefulness of ponded infiltration experiments in site characterization work were of interest. One-dimensional and two-dimensional radial flow numerical models were used to help interpret the results of the ponding experiment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of a ponded infiltration experiment done around borehole UE25 UZN number-sign 85 (N85) at Yucca Mountain, NV. The effects of morphological horizons on the infiltration processes, lateral flow, and measured soil hydaulic properties were studied. The evaluation was done by numerically modeling the results of a field ponded infiltration experiment. A comparison the experimental results and the modeled results was used to qualitatively indicate the degree to which infiltration processes and the hydaulic properties are understood. Results of the field characterization, soil characterization, borehole geophysics, and the ponding experiment are presented in a companion paper

  9. Soil infiltration characteristics in the Tarim River floodplain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overflow from rivers play an important role for ecological conservation in Tarim Basin, however, there was limited information on infiltration from overflow of the Tarim River. The objective of this study was to investigate steady infiltration rate for three types of land use (forest, shrub and bare...

  10. Relationship between Microcalcification and infiltration in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Tai Que; Jeon, Mal Soon; Kim, Yang Sook

    1990-01-01

    Microcalcification is one of the most common findings in breast cancer and most of cases with microcalcification only reveal non infiltrating type of cancer and better prognosis. We analysed 70 cases of breast cancer pathologically proved among 2,115 patients that underwent xermammography from 1983. 10.1 to 1989. 7. 30 and studied relationship between xerographic findings and nature of infiltration in breast cancer. The results were as follows: 1. Among 2,115 patients which were performed xeromammography, 70 cases were pathologically proved breast cancer and incident was 3.3%. 2. Incidence of breast cancer in terms of age was 0.2% in third decade. 1.2% in fourth decade, 4.4% in fifth decade, 14.3% in sixth decade, 15 % over seventh decade. Of total 70 patients, 51 cases were included over fifth decade. 3. Xeromammgraphy findings were classified microcalcification only, mass only, microcalcification with mass. Incidence of xerography findings such as microcalcification only (22%) was less than that of mass density (78%). 4. In 16 cases of microcalcification only. Incidence below 50 years (75%) were more than that over 50 (25%). 5. Infiltrating breast cancers (67%) were more than non-infiltrating breast cancer (33%) and number of non-infiltrating breast cancer with xerographic findings of microcalcification only (56%) was no more than that of infiltrating breast cancer (44%) but number of infiltrating breast cancer with mass (75%) was much more than non-infiltrating breast cancer (25%)

  11. Alveolar occupation infiltrations, eosinophilia in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hincapie Diaz, Gustavo Adolfo; Yama Mosquera, Erica; Guevara, Jairo

    2006-01-01

    A case of a patient of 25 years old is shown with the antecedent of no potable water consumption who entered for having pulmonary symptoms, fever, presence of alveolar occupation infiltrations and eosinophilia in peripheral blood treatment with antiparasitary started with a significant improvement of the symptoms, infiltrations and eosinophilia. It is considered eosinophilic pneumonia diagnostic by parasitary infection (Loefffers Syndrome)

  12. Alveolar occupation infiltrations, eosinophilia in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hincapie Diaz, Gustavo Adolfo; Yama Mosquera, Erica; Guevara, Jairo

    2006-01-01

    A case of a patient of 25 years old is shown with the antecedent of no potable water consumption who entered for having pulmonary symptoms. Fever, presence of alveolar occupation infiltrations and eosinophilia in peripheral blood a treatment with antiparasitary started with a significant improvement of the symptoms, infiltrations and eosinophilia. it is considered eosinophilic pneumonia diagnostic by parasitary infection (Loeffler's syndrome)

  13. Squamous cell carcinoma following radiation therapy for the infiltrative thymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Shinji; Kitao, Takeshi

    1992-01-01

    This report represents one case of infiltrative thymoma followed by squamous cell carcinoma of the lungs. A 69-year-old man suffered from infiltrative thymoma which reduced by the radiation therapy. Seven years later its replase and the onset of squamous cell carcinoma were found simultaneously. Infiltrative thymoma metastasized not only to the mediastinum but also to the liver and bronchus. Squamous cell carcinoma developed in the right upper lobe. In spite of chemotherapy against them, the patient died. There are many cases in which infiltrative thymoma is accompanied by squamous cell carcinoma of the lung simultaneously; however, secondary onset of squamous cell carcinoma after the radiation therapy of infiltrative thymoma is rare. Secondary carcinogenesis of this case was considered to be closely related with immunological abnormalities caused by thymoma, effects of radiation, smoking and so on. (author)

  14. Radiology and pathology correlation in common infiltrative cardiomyopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varzeshi, Neda; Hansen, Mark; Rezaee, Amir; Slaughter, Richard; Dixon, Natalie; Duhig, Edwina

    2012-01-01

    Infiltrative cardiomyopathies generally pose a diagnostic dilemma as current diagnostic tools are imprecise. Invasive endomyocardial biopsy is considered as the gold standard however it has some limitations. Recently cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is emerging as an excellent technique in diagnosing infiltrative cardiomyopathies and is increasingly being used. Characteristic pathologic and radiologic findings in most common infiltrative cardiomyopathies (amyloid, sarcoid and Fabry's) are discussed and correlated with relative CMR and histologic examples. There is fairly good correlation between the non-invasive radiologic and the invasive histologic findings in common infiltrative cardiomyopathies. Non-invasive CMR with its high sensitivity and specificity has an excellent role in establishing the diagnosis and improving the prognosis of common infiltrative cardiomyopathies.

  15. Quasilinear infiltration from an elliptical cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Warrick, Arthur W.

    2008-08-01

    We develop analytic solutions to the linearized steady-state Richards equation for head and total flowrate due to an elliptic cylinder cavity with a specified pressure head boundary condition. They are generalizations of the circular cylinder cavity solutions of Philip [Philip JR. Steady infiltration from circular cylindrical cavities. Soil Sci Soc Am J 1984;48:270-8]. The circular and strip sources are limiting cases of the elliptical cylinder solution, derived for both horizontally- and vertically-aligned ellipses. We give approximate rational polynomial expressions for total flowrate from an elliptical cylinder over a range of sizes and shapes. The exact elliptical solution is in terms of Mathieu functions, which themselves are generalizations of and computed from trigonometric and Bessel functions. The required Mathieu functions are computed from a matrix eigenvector problem, a modern approach that is straightforward to implement using available linear algebra libraries. Although less efficient and potentially less accurate than the iterative continued fraction approach, the matrix approach is simpler to understand and implement and is valid over a wider parameter range.

  16. Psoas Muscle Infiltration Masquerading Distant Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel A. Gharaibeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant metastasis to the psoas muscle is rare. We report a case that clinically mimicked psoas abscess that was subsequently proven to be from metastatic disease secondary to adenocarcinoma of the duodenum. A 62-year-old male presented with a seven-month history of right lower quadrant abdominal pain and progressive dysphagia. CT scan of abdomen-pelvis revealed a right psoas infiltration not amenable to surgical drainage. Patient was treated with two courses of oral antibiotics without improvement. Repeated CT scan showed ill-defined low-density area with inflammatory changes involving the right psoas muscle. Using CT guidance, a fine needle aspiration biopsy of the right psoas was performed that reported metastatic undifferentiated adenocarcinoma. Patient underwent upper endoscopy, which showed a duodenal mass that was biopsied which also reported poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. In this case, unresponsiveness to medical therapy or lack of improvement in imaging studies warrants consideration of differential diagnosis such as malignancy. Iliopsoas metastases have shown to mimic psoas abscess on their clinical presentation and in imaging studies. To facilitate early diagnosis and improve prognosis, patients who embody strong risk factors and symptoms compatible with underlying malignancies who present with psoas imaging concerning for abscess should have further investigations.

  17. Pulmonary infiltration with eosinophils in 14 dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcoran, B.M.; Thoday, K.L.; Henfrey, J.I.; Simpson, J.W.; Burnie, A.G.; Mooney, C.T.

    1991-01-01

    Pulmonary infiltration with eosinophils was diagnosed in 14 dogs, whose age ranged from three months to 13 years. The predominant clinical sign was coughing. Dyspnoea, tachypnoea and pruritus were also observed. An absolute circulating eosinophilia was seen in eight dogs and basophilia in five dogs. Thoracic radiographic changes were variable and were not diagnostic. Bronchoscopic evidence of mild to severe bronchitis was present in 12 dogs. Abnormal numbers of eosinophils were found in bronchoalveolar lavage samples and, or, bronchial washings in all 14 cases, but no significant bacteria were recovered. Respiratory compliance was measured in five dogs and was abnormal in three. Faecal examination for helminth parasites was carried out in four cases, a large ascarid burden being identified in one. Intradermal skin testing was carried out in three dogs but was negative in all cases. Complete remission of signs was achieved with prednisolone in 12 cases with six dogs requiring continuous or repeated treatment. Three dogs died as a direct consequence of progression of the disease

  18. Infiltrated TiC/Cu composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frage, N.; Froumin, N.; Rubinovich, L.; Dariel, M.P.

    2001-01-01

    One approach for the fabrication of ceramic-metal composites is based on the pressureless impregnation of a porous ceramic preform by a molten metal. Molten Cu does not react with TiC and the wetting angle is close to 90 o . Nonetheless, molten Cu readily impregnates partially sintered TiC preforms. A model that describes the dependence of the critical contact angle for spontaneous impregnation by molten metals in partially sintered preforms on the level of densification and on the morphology of the particles was developed. For high aspect ratios of the particles forming the preform, wetting angles close to 90 o still allow impregnation by the molten metal. The results of the model were confirmed by infiltration of partially sintered TiC preforms with molten Cu and by fabrication of the TiC/Cu composites with various ceramic-to metal ratios. Decreasing of the metal content in the composite from 50 vol.% to 10 vol.% leads to a hardness increase from 250 to 1800 HV, and to the decrease of the bending strength from 960 to 280 MPa. The resistivity of these TiC/Cu composites decreases from 142 ohm cm to 25 ohm cm. (author)

  19. Atrazine distribution measured in soil and leachate following infiltration conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neurath, Susan K; Sadeghi, Ali M; Shirmohammadi, Adel; Isensee, Allan R; Torrents, Alba

    2004-01-01

    Atrazine transport through packed 10 cm soil columns representative of the 0-10 cm soil horizon was observed by measuring the atrazine recovery in the total leachate volume, and upper and lower soil layers following infiltration of 7.5 cm water using a mechanical vacuum extractor (MVE). Measured recoveries were analyzed to understand the influence of infiltration rate and delay time on atrazine transport and distribution in the column. Four time periods (0.28, 0.8, 1.8, and 5.5 h) representing very high to moderate infiltration rates (26.8, 9.4, 4.2, and 1.4 cm/h) were used. Replicate soil columns were tested immediately and following a 2-d delay after atrazine application. Results indicate atrazine recovery in leachate was independent of infiltration rate, but significantly lower for infiltration following a 2-d delay. Atrazine distribution in the 0-1 and 9-10 cm soil layers was affected by both infiltration rate and delay. These results are in contrast with previous field and laboratory studies that suggest that atrazine recovery in the leachate increases with increasing infiltration rate. It appears that the difference in atrazine recovery measured using the MVE and other leaching experiments using intact soil cores from this field site and the rain simulation equipment probably illustrates the effect of infiltrating water interacting with the atrazine present on the soil surface. This work suggests that atrazine mobilization from the soil surface is also dependent on interactions of the infiltrating water with the soil surface, in addition to the rate of infiltration through the surface soil.

  20. The business of optimism. Wisconsin's Midwest Renewable Energy Fair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, J.

    2006-01-01

    The paper reports on the Wisconsin Midwest Renewable Energy Fair. The renewable energy business is said to be based on sound technology and sustainable development and is being largely embraced with enthusiasm. However, the keynote speaker, James Kunstler, warned that the transition from fossil fuels to renewables will be complicated and messy. The report mentions the views of several speakers but not all shared Kunstler's views. There were more than 100 workshops at the fair. Although big business was well represented, there were also home-made devices on show including a motorcycle powered by electricity. The importance of the fair is probably best judged by the way in which it generates enthusiasm for preserving the planet through the sustainable development of environmentally-friendly technology. (author)

  1. Carcinoma of the tongue in Norway and Wisconsin. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermund, H.

    1982-01-01

    The records of 503 patients with carcinoma of the tongue diagnosed between 1958 and 1972 were reviewed. The preponderance of tongue carcinoma among men was confirmed both in The Norwegian Radium Hospital (NRH) and the University of Wisconsin Hospitals (UW), but it was relatively more frequent among women in NRH and in UW than in southern Europe. More women had on presentation less advanced tumors at NRH than at UW. The incidence of tongue carcinoma in Norway increased steadily with age for both sexes. The sex ratio did not change in Norway such as in England, Canada and the United States. Tumor of the posterior one-third of the tongue was relatively infrequent in women both in NRH and UW, in agreement with reports from other countries. The length of survival was analysed and no significant sex difference was demonstrated. The younger patients had less advanced tumors and a better prognosis. (Auth.)

  2. Plasma resistivity measurements in the Wisconsin levitated octupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouchous, D.A.

    1980-11-01

    Resistivity measurements parallel to the magnetic field were made on gun injected plasmas ranging in density from 10 9 cm -3 to 10 1 parallelcm -3 in the Wisconsin levitated octupole with toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields. The 10 9 cm -3 plasma was collisionless with lambda/sub mfp/ > 100 mirror lengths, had T/sub e/ = 10 eV, T/sub i/ = 30 eV and was found to have anomalous resistivity scaling like eta = √T/sub e//n/sub e/ when E/sub parallel/ > E/su c/ is the Dreicer critical field. The 10 12 cm -3 plasma was collisional with lambda/sub mfp/ < mirror length, had T/sub e/ = T/sub i/ approx. = .2 eV and was found to have Spitzer resistivity when E/sub parallel/ < E/sub c/

  3. University of Wisconsin Oshkosh Anaerobic Dry Digestion Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koker, John [Univ. of Wisconsin, Oshkosh, WI (United States); Lizotte, Michael [Univ. of Wisconsin, Oshkosh, WI (United States)

    2017-02-08

    The University of Wisconsin Oshkosh Anaerobic Dry Digestion Facility is a demonstration project that supported the first commercial-scale use in the United States of high solids, static pile technology for anaerobic digestion of organic waste to generate biogas for use in generating electricity and heat. The research adds to the understanding of startup, operation and supply chain issues for anaerobic digester technology. Issues and performance were documented for equipment installation and modifications, feedstock availability and quality, weekly loading and unloading of digestion chambers, chemical composition of biogas produced, and energy production. This facility also demonstrated an urban industrial ecology approach to siting such facilities near sewage treatment plants (to capture and use excess biogas generated by the plants) and organic yard waste collection sites (a source of feedstock).

  4. [Is therapy with local infiltrations feasible in primary care consultations?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaña Loarte, J E; Pérez Franco, J; Sánchez Sánchez, G

    1999-01-01

    To study the feasibility of local infiltration in primary care consultations. Before-and-after intervention study. Two clinics at an urban health centre. Patients diagnosed with pathology of tender areas and treated with corticosteroid infiltration between May 1997 and May 1998. Corticoid infiltration plus local anaesthetic. Weekly check-up. Analysis of the variables: sex, age, diagnosis, time elapsed between indication and start of treatment, subjective assessment of pain before and after treatment (VRS scale), number of infiltrations per patient, side-effects. Evaluation of overall and individual effectiveness. 41 patients were infiltrated. Average age was 58. Most common pathologies were: rotary joint tendinitis (48.7%), anserine bursitis (24.4%), plantar fasciitis (7.3%). Average number of infiltrations per pathology: 1.3. Mean waiting time: 3.5 days. Comparison of pain by means of VRS (range 0-5) before and after treatment used the Wilcoxon test, with a statistically significant difference and p < 0.001 (z = -5.5109). For 35 patients (85.4%), pain was solved very well (values 0 and 1 on the VRS). For 3 patients (7.3%), improvement was moderate; and for 3 (7.3%) there was no improvement. 1. Treatment with local infiltration of corticosteroids is effective in dealing with pain, and is an alternative to treatment with NSAIDs. 2. It is feasible in primary care, and there are many advantages if the general practitioner employs this therapeutic technique.

  5. Controls on the variability of net infiltration to desert sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; McKinney, Tim S.; Zhdanov, Michael S.; Watt, Dennis E.

    2007-01-01

    As populations grow in arid climates and desert bedrock aquifers are increasingly targeted for future development, understanding and quantifying the spatial variability of net infiltration becomes critically important for accurately inventorying water resources and mapping contamination vulnerability. This paper presents a conceptual model of net infiltration to desert sandstone and then develops an empirical equation for its spatial quantification at the watershed scale using linear least squares inversion methods for evaluating controlling parameters (independent variables) based on estimated net infiltration rates (dependent variables). Net infiltration rates used for this regression analysis were calculated from environmental tracers in boreholes and more than 3000 linear meters of vadose zone excavations in an upland basin in southwestern Utah underlain by Navajo sandstone. Soil coarseness, distance to upgradient outcrop, and topographic slope were shown to be the primary physical parameters controlling the spatial variability of net infiltration. Although the method should be transferable to other desert sandstone settings for determining the relative spatial distribution of net infiltration, further study is needed to evaluate the effects of other potential parameters such as slope aspect, outcrop parameters, and climate on absolute net infiltration rates.

  6. Radiologic Imaging Findings of Bilateral Infiltrating Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia of the Breasts:A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Go, Hee Sun; Jeh, Su Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH), a rare benign lesion, shows the proliferation of the breast stromal tissue mimicking the low grade angiosarcoma (1-7). The most common mammographic and ultrasound finding of PASH is a circumscribed mass without calcification and it is difficult to distinguish from the phyllodes tumor and fibroadenoma (1-4, 8). Up to our knowledge, PASH presenting as rapid bilateral breast enlargement, as seen in our case, is very rare. In addition, several English medical literature were reported in this kind of manifestation of PASH (3, 4, 8). We described imaging findings of diffuse, infiltrating, and bilateral manifectation of PASH.

  7. Linkages To Engagement At University of Wisconsin-Parkside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, C. V.

    2007-12-01

    The University of Wisconsin-Parkside Department of Geosciences is a small but successful department within one of the smallest comprehensive universities in the University of Wisconsin system. Formerly a more traditional "rocks and petroleum" program, the Department was on the verge of extinction in 1999. Fortunately, a farsighted Dean intervened and proposed a change of direction for the department, filling in behind retirements with new leadership and a strong environmental focus. Several strategies have been key to resuscitating the Department to its current status, increasing majors, faculty, and SCH/FTE. First, we embraced our niche as the environmental resource, specifically offering urban or other developed settings for our focus on environmental quality. Secondly we revamped our majors' curriculum to enable our students to learn to integrate practical technological skills in sampling, analysis, instrumentation use, and civic engagement to produce positive outcomes at both physical and social levels. Thirdly, our Department has become a strong and active supporter of a teacher preparation program that is undergoing important curriculum and organizational changes. Our newest faculty addition is an atmospheric chemist with significant teaching responsibility in our campus' new Liberal Arts major for elementary school teachers. Geosciences faculty also vigorously support a certificate program in Community Based Learning, direct the campus minor in Environmental Studies, and have actively participated in campus initiatives such as First Year Experience, General Education reform, the campus' Teaching and Learning Center, and collaborative course offerings that link academic skills (math, reading, writing) courses to extra support in General Education science courses. In addition, the Department has taken campus leadership in participation in the national SENCER initiative, which links science education and civic engagement. Finally, we have also amended and

  8. On the role of infiltration and exfiltration in swash zone boundary layer dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintado-Patiño, José Carlos; Torres-Freyermuth, Alec; Puleo, Jack A.; Pokrajac, Dubravka

    2015-09-01

    Boundary layer dynamics are investigated using a 2-D numerical model that solves the Volume-Averaged Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations, with a VOF-tracking scheme and a k - ɛ turbulence closure. The model is validated with highly resolved data of dam break driven swash flows over gravel impermeable and permeable beds. The spatial gradients of the velocity, bed shear stress, and turbulence intensity terms are investigated with reference to bottom boundary layer (BL) dynamics. Numerical results show that the mean vorticity responds to flow divergence/convergence at the surface that result from accelerating/decelerating portions of the flow, bed shear stress, and sinking/injection of turbulence due to infiltration/exfiltration. Hence, the zero up-crossing of the vorticity is employed as a proxy of the BL thickness inside the shallow swash zone flows. During the uprush phase, the BL develops almost instantaneously with bore arrival and fluctuates below the surface due to flow instabilities and related horizontal straining. In contrast, during the backwash phase, the BL grows quasi-linearly with less influence of surface-induced forces. However, the infiltration produces a reduction of the maximum excursion and duration of the swash event. These effects have important implications for the BL development. The numerical results suggest that the BL growth rate deviates rapidly from a quasi-linear trend if the infiltration is dominant during the initial backwash phase and the flat plate boundary layer theory may no longer be applicable under these conditions.

  9. Effect of Roots on Infiltration Process around a Tree - an Application of Tension-TDR Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    -Lun Li, Sheng; Liang, Wei-Li

    2014-05-01

    The infiltration processe around a tree is usually complex because of preferential pathways around roots. In order to clarify the effect of tree roots on the infiltration process, we simultaneously measured volumetric water content (θ) and metric potential (ψ) with a high-density installation of Tensio-TDR probes, which could provid in situ soil-water characteristic curves in a small area around tree roots. A tension-TDR probe includes a coiled time domain reflectometry (TDR) probe around the porous cup of a standard tensiometer. The investigation was carried out around a Taiwanese cedar (Taiwania cryptomerioides) in a mixed coniferous forested stand. There were 24 soil moisture sensors and 12 Tensio-TDR probes installed in different depths of two soil profiles, respectively. The result suggested that the Tensio-TDR probe is better to determine the occurrence of preferential flow around tree roots than soil moisture sensors. Woody roots promoted the occurrence of lateral flows and caused rapid increases of θ in the deeper soil layers. Soil porosity was high in the area with fine roots where infiltration was dominated by vertical flows. We also compared the difference betweenthe field and laboratory soil-water characteristic curves, which were determined by the θ and ψ datasets from the field and the measurement using pressure plate method in a laboratory, respectively.

  10. High aspect ratio lead zirconate titanate tube structures: I. Template assisted fabrication - vacuum infiltration method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Kovaľ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Polycrystalline Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT microtubes are fabricated by a vacuum infiltration method. The method is based on repeated infiltration of precursor solution into macroporous silicon (Si templates at a sub-atmospheric pressure. The pyrolyzed PZT tubes of a 2-µm outer diameter, extending to over 30 µm in length were released from the template using a selective isotropic-pulsed XeF2 reactive ion etching of silicon. Free-standing microtubes, partially anchored at the bottom of the Si template, were then crystallized in pure oxygen atmosphere at 750 °C for 2 min using a rapid thermal annealer. The perovskite phase of the final PZT tubes was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. The XRD spectrum also revealed a small amount of the pyrochlore phase in the structure and signs of possible fluoride contamination caused most likely by the XeF2 etching process. The surface morphology was examined using scanning electron microscopy. It was demonstrated that the whole surface of the pore walls was conformally coated during the repeated infiltration of templates, resulting in straight tubes with closed tips formed on the opposite ends as replicas of the pore bottoms. These high aspect ratio ferroelectric structures are suggested as building units for developing miniaturized electronic devices, such as memory storage (DRAM trenched capacitors, piezoelectric scanners and actuators, and are of fundamental value for the theory of ferroelectricity in systems with low dimensionality.

  11. Xeroderma pigmentosum: Carcinome spinocellulaire infiltrant et délabrant du visage, chez une fillette de 3 ans et demi [Xeroderma pigmentosum: Squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating and disfiguring facial, in a girl of 3 years and a half

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laouali Salissou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of serious complications observed during the development of Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP are cancerous. These include skin, eyes, tongue, nervous system, etc. We report the case of a 3 1/2-year-old girl with squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating and disfiguring the face with rapid onset of death. RÉSUMÉ La plupart des complications graves observées au cours de l’évolution du Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP sont de nature cancéreuse. Celles-ci concernent notamment la peau, mais également les yeux, la langue, le système nerveux, etc. Nous rapportons le cas d’une fillette âgée de 3 ans et demie ayant présenté un carcinome épidermoïde infiltrant et délabrant du visage avec la survenue rapide de décès.

  12. High Performance Infiltrated Backbones for Cathode-Supported SOFC's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, Vanesa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2014-01-01

    The concept of using highly ionic conducting backbones with subsequent infiltration of electronically conducting particles has widely been used to develop alternative anode-supported SOFC's. In this work, the idea was to develop infiltrated backbones as an alternative design based on cathode......, microstructural characterization and electrochemical testing are discussed. Data on polarization resistance, Rp, are obtained from impedance spectra recorded on quasi-symmetrical cells (YSZ backbones/YSZ/LSM-YSZ (screen printed)). The backbones are infiltrated with LSM and compared to a standard LSM-YSZ screen...

  13. Inactivation of VHSV by infiltration and salt under experimental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Jørgensen, Claus; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    At the moment the only legal method in Denmark to sanitize wastewater from fish cutting plants is by infiltration. To evaluate the inactivation effect of infiltration on VHSV an experimental examination was initiated. A column packed with gravel as top- and bottom layer (total of 22 cm) and a mid...... be a valuable method to sanitize VHSV infected water. Changes in temperature, pH, earth types in the area used for infiltration etc. may change the virus reduction, though. As some of the fish cutting plants are also smoking rainbow trout fillets, the question arose whether a brine solution will inactivate VHSV...

  14. Changes in streamflow characteristics in Wisconsin as related to precipitation and land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebert, Warren A.; Garn, Herbert S.; Rose, William J.

    2016-01-19

    Streamflow characteristics were determined for 15 longterm streamflow-gaging stations for the periods 1915–2008, 1915–68, and 1969–2008 to identify trends. Stations selected represent flow characteristics for the major river basins in Wisconsin. Trends were statistically significant at the 95 percent confidence level at 13 of the 15 streamflow-gaging stations for various streamflow characteristics for 1915–2008. Most trends indicated increases in low flows for streams with agriculture as the dominant land use. The three most important findings are: increases in low flows and average flows in agricultural watersheds, decreases in flood peak discharge for many streams in both agricultural and forested watersheds, and climatic change occurred with increasing annual precipitation and changes in monthly occurrence of precipitation. When the 1915–68 period is compared to the 1969–2008 period, the annual 7-day low flow increased an average of 60 percent for nine streams in agricultural areas as compared to a 15 percent increase for the five forested streams. Average annual flow for the same periods increased 23 percent for the agriculture streams and 0.6 percent for the forested streams. The annual flood peak discharge for the same periods decreased 15 percent for agriculture streams and 8 percent for forested streams. The largest increase in the annual 7-day low flow was 117 percent, the largest increase in annual average flow was 41 percent, and the largest decrease in annual peak discharge was 51 percent. The trends in streamflow characteristics affect frequency characteristics, which are used for a variety of design and compliance purposes. The frequencies for the 1969–2008 period were compared to frequencies for the 1915–68 period. The 7-day, 10-year (Q7, 10) low flow increased 91 percent for nine agricultural streams, while the five forested streams had an increase of 18 percent. The 100-year flood peak discharge decreased an average of 15 percent

  15. Rapid Biolayer Interferometry Measurements of Urinary CXCL9 to Detect Cellular Infiltrates Noninvasively After Kidney Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Gandolfini

    2017-11-01

    Discussion: Together, our proof-of-principle results demonstrate that BLI-based urinary CXCL9 detection has potential as a point-of-care noninvasive biomarker to diagnose and guide therapy for ACR in kidney transplantation recipients.

  16. On-site infiltration of road runoff using pervious pavements with subjacent infiltration trenches as source control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fach, S; Dierkes, C

    2011-01-01

    The focus in this work was on subsoil infiltration of stormwater from parking lots. With regard to operation, reduced infiltration performance due to clogging and pollutants in seepage, which may contribute to contaminate groundwater, are of interest. The experimental investigation covered a pervious pavement with a subjacent infiltration trench draining an impervious area of 2 ha. In order to consider seasonal effects on the infiltration performance, the hydraulic conductivity was measured tri-monthly during monitoring with a mobile sprinkling unit. To assess natural deposits jointing, road bed, gravel of infiltration trenches and subsoil were analysed prior to commencement of monitoring for heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic and mineral oil type hydrocarbons. Furthermore, from 22 storm events, water samples of rainfall, surface runoff, seepage and ground water were analysed with regard to the above mentioned pollutants. The study showed that the material used for the joints had a major impact on the initial as well as the final infiltration rates. Due to its poor hydraulic conductivity, limestone gravel should not be used as jointing. Furthermore, it is recommended that materials for the infiltration facilities are ensured free of any contaminants prior to construction. Polycyclic aromatic and mineral oil type hydrocarbons were, with the exception of surface runoff, below detection limits. Heavy metal concentrations of groundwater were with the exception of lead (because of high background concentrations), below the permissible limits.

  17. Wisconsin State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    The Wisconsin State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Wisconsin. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Wisconsin. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Wisconsin.

  18. Evaluation of wood species and preservatives for Wisconsin transportation sign posts : [research brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WisDOT) administers approximately 11,800 miles of state highways. It uses preservative-treated wood posts for much of the signage along these highways because wood is relatively inexpensive, easy to install...

  19. 77 FR 48538 - Notice of Inventory Completion: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... Historical Society of Wisconsin at the address below by September 13, 2012. ADDRESSES: Jennifer Kolb... Indian tribe that believes it satisfies the criteria in 43 CFR 10.11(c)(1) should contact Jennifer Kolb...

  20. Determination of resilient modulus values for typical plastic soils in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    "The objectives of this research are to establish a resilient modulus test results database and to develop : correlations for estimating the resilient modulus of Wisconsin fine-grained soils from basic soil properties. A : laboratory testing program ...

  1. Phosphorus Loading and Compositional Characteristics in Eight-Mile Run Watershed, Wisconsin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James, William

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to describe and quantify biologically labile and refractory phosphorus runoff in Eight-Mile Run, a small watershed in west-central Wisconsin that is impacted by dairy...

  2. Wisconsin State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The Wisconsin State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Wisconsin. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Wisconsin. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Wisconsin

  3. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Wisconsin based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Wisconsin census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  4. Simulation of groundwater flow and interaction of groundwater and surface water on the Lac du Flambeau Reservation, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.; Fienen, Michael N.; Hunt, Randall J.

    2014-01-01

    The Lac du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa and Indian Health Service are interested in improving the understanding of groundwater flow and groundwater/surface-water interaction on the Lac du Flambeau Reservation (Reservation) in southwest Vilas County and southeast Iron County, Wisconsin, with particular interest in an understanding of the potential for contamination of groundwater supply wells and the fate of wastewater that is infiltrated from treatment lagoons on the Reservation. This report describes the construction, calibration, and application of a regional groundwater flow model used to simulate the shallow groundwater flow system of the Reservation and water-quality results for groundwater and surface-water samples collected near a system of waste-water-treatment lagoons. Groundwater flows through a permeable glacial aquifer that ranges in thickness from 60 to more than 200 feet (ft). Seepage and drainage lakes are common in the area and influence groundwater flow patterns on the Reservation. A two-dimensional, steady-state analytic element groundwater flow model was constructed using the program GFLOW. The model was calibrated by matching target water levels and stream base flows through the use of the parameter-estimation program, PEST. Simulated results illustrate that groundwater flow within most of the Reservation is toward the Bear River and the chain of lakes that feed the Bear River. Results of analyses of groundwater and surface-water samples collected downgradient from the wastewater infiltration lagoons show elevated levels of ammonia and dissolved phosphorus. In addition, wastewater indicator chemicals detected in three downgradient wells and a small downgradient stream indicate that infiltrated wastewater is moving southwest of the lagoons toward Moss Lake. Potential effects of extended wet and dry periods (within historical ranges) were evaluated by adjusting precipitation and groundwater recharge in the model and comparing the

  5. The evolution of Wisconsin's urban FIA program—yesterday today and tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew M. Stoltman; Richard B. Rideout

    2015-01-01

    In 2002, Wisconsin was part of two pilot projects in cooperation with the US Forest Service. The first was a street tree assessment, and the second was an urban FIA project. The data generated by these pilots changed the way that Wisconsin DNRs’ Urban Forestry Program conducts its business. Although there have been several urban FIA pilot projects throughout the U.S.,...

  6. Hazardous emissions, operating practices, and air regulations at industrial wood-fired facilities in Wisconsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    Since October of 1988 the State of Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources has regulated over four hundred substances as hazardous air pollutants. The rule regulates new as well as existing sources of air pollution in Wisconsin. Consequently, all permits to operate an air pollution source in Wisconsin must address the hazardous air emissions potential of the source. While widely perceived as a clean-burning fuel, wood is often burned in a manner which clearly results in significant emissions of very hazardous air pollutants. Research conducted on a 20 million BTU per hour wood-fired spreader stoker boiler in northern Wisconsin showed that this boiler has the potential to emit 0.022 pound of benzene and 0.012 pound of formaldehyde per ton (lb/ton) of wood fired. Recent stack tests at more than a dozen other small industrial wood-fired facilities in Wisconsin show a range of formaldehyde emissions of 0.0007--0.1950 lb/ton. Work at Birchwood Lumber ampersand Veneer showed that the benzene and formaldehyde emission rates under good firing conditions are an order of magnitude lower than the benzene and formaldehyde emission rates under poor firing conditions. This finding has supported Wisconsin's regulatory approach of encouraging wood-fired facilities to enhance the quality of the combustion process as a technique to minimize the hazardous air pollution potential of industrial wood combustion. The Wisconsin strategy is to define open-quotes good combustion technologyclose quotes through easily measurable combustion parameters rather than emission standards. This paper presents several techniques in use in Wisconsin to comply with open-quotes good combustion technologyclose quotes for industrial wood-fired furnaces. These techniques include fuel blending overfire air, furnace insulation, and proper grate design

  7. Comparison of infiltration capacity of permanent grassland and arable land during the 2011 growing season

    OpenAIRE

    Tomáš Mašíček; F. Toman; M. Vičanová

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare the rate of infiltration and cumulative infiltration in permanent grassland (PG) and in arable land over the course of the 2011 growing season. The measurement of water infiltration into soil was conducted via ponded infiltration method based on the use of two concentric cylinders in field conditions. Kostiakov equations were applied to evaluate the ponded infiltration. Based on field measurements, the dependence of infiltration rate (v) on time (t) was de...

  8. The effect of polyacrylamide (PAM) applications on infiltration, runoff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-11

    Apr 11, 2011 ... reduced surface runoff and soil losses, but increased infiltration rates. The effectiveness of ... Soil and water conservation is essential for sustaining food production and ...... Earth Surface Processes, 4:241-255. McIntyre DS ...

  9. The effect of polyacrylamide (PAM) applications on infiltration, runoff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) application to soils is an effective soil conservation practice for reducing runoff and soil losses caused by erosion. It also increases the infiltration rate of soils. The objective of this study was conducted to ...

  10. Calibration and validation of a general infiltration model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Surendra Kumar; Ranjan Kumar, Shashi; Singh, Vijay P.

    1999-08-01

    A general infiltration model proposed by Singh and Yu (1990) was calibrated and validated using a split sampling approach for 191 sets of infiltration data observed in the states of Minnesota and Georgia in the USA. Of the five model parameters, fc (the final infiltration rate), So (the available storage space) and exponent n were found to be more predictable than the other two parameters: m (exponent) and a (proportionality factor). A critical examination of the general model revealed that it is related to the Soil Conservation Service (1956) curve number (SCS-CN) method and its parameter So is equivalent to the potential maximum retention of the SCS-CN method and is, in turn, found to be a function of soil sorptivity and hydraulic conductivity. The general model was found to describe infiltration rate with time varying curve number.

  11. Fabrication and optical characterization of gold-infiltrated silica opals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenjiang; Sun Gang; Tang Fangqiong; Tam, W.Y.; Li Jensen; Chan, C T; Sheng Ping

    2005-01-01

    We report the fabrication of metal-infiltrated silica opals for optical studies. Highly mono-dispersed silica microspheres are fabricated and assembled by a force packing method to form opals with large domain sizes. The opals are then infiltrated with gold by an electroplating technique. The optical properties of the infiltrated opals in the visible range are studied and model calculations based on a multiple-scattering formalism are used to interpret the experimental results. The calculated position of the directional gap of the silica opal agrees very well with experimental observation. We found that the optical properties of the infiltrated sample can be explained using a model system in which the voids in the silica opal are partially filled with Au and the surface of the slab is covered with a thin layer of Au

  12. Temporal nonlinear beam dynamics in infiltrated photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennet, Francis; Rosberg, Christian Romer; Neshev, Dragomir N.

    Liquid-infiltrated photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) offer a new way of studying light propagation in periodic and discrete systems. A wide range of available fiber structures combined with the ease of infiltration opens up a range of novel experimental opportunities for optical detection and bio...... the evolution of the fiber output beam in the few micro or milliseconds after the beam is turned on. The characterization of the temporal behavior of the thermal nonlinear response provides important information about the nonlocality associated with heat diffusion inside the fiber, thus enabling studies of long...... and technological potential of liquid-infiltrated PCFs it is important to understand the temporal dynamics of nonlinear beam propagation in such structures. In this work we consider thermally induced spatial nonlinear effects in infiltrated photonic crystal fibers. We experimentally study the temporal dynamics...

  13. Simulation of Groundwater Mounding Beneath Hypothetical Stormwater Infiltration Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, Glen B.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater mounding occurs beneath stormwater management structures designed to infiltrate stormwater runoff. Concentrating recharge in a small area can cause groundwater mounding that affects the basements of nearby homes and other structures. Methods for quantitatively predicting the height and extent of groundwater mounding beneath and near stormwater Finite-difference groundwater-flow simulations of infiltration from hypothetical stormwater infiltration structures (which are typically constructed as basins or dry wells) were done for 10-acre and 1-acre developments. Aquifer and stormwater-runoff characteristics in the model were changed to determine which factors are most likely to have the greatest effect on simulating the maximum height and maximum extent of groundwater mounding. Aquifer characteristics that were changed include soil permeability, aquifer thickness, and specific yield. Stormwater-runoff variables that were changed include magnitude of design storm, percentage of impervious area, infiltration-structure depth (maximum depth of standing water), and infiltration-basin shape. Values used for all variables are representative of typical physical conditions and stormwater management designs in New Jersey but do not include all possible values. Results are considered to be a representative, but not all-inclusive, subset of likely results. Maximum heights of simulated groundwater mounds beneath stormwater infiltration structures are the most sensitive to (show the greatest change with changes to) soil permeability. The maximum height of the groundwater mound is higher when values of soil permeability, aquifer thickness, or specific yield are decreased or when basin depth is increased or the basin shape is square (and values of other variables are held constant). Changing soil permeability, aquifer thickness, specific yield, infiltration-structure depth, or infiltration-structure shape does not change the volume of water infiltrated, it changes the

  14. Implementations and interpretations of the talbot-ogden infiltration model

    KAUST Repository

    Seo, Mookwon; Cerwinsky, Derrick; Gahalaut, Krishan Pratap Singh; Douglas, Craig C.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between surface and subsurface hydrology flow systems is important for water supplies. Accurate, efficient numerical models are needed to estimate the movement of water through unsaturated soil. We investigate a water infiltration

  15. Microwave and RF assisted chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devlin, D.J.; Barbero, R.S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Work during this reporting period has focused on the development of a CVI technique for rapid production of carbon/carbon and alumina composite systems. The focus of the alumina effort is towards porous materials for membrane supports and hot gas filtration. Industrial interest in these applications include companies such as: Dow, Westinghouse, Amoco and DuPont. Applications for the carbon materials are numerous and include: brakes, sporting goods, biomedical materials, flaps and seals for thrust control, after burner nozzles, turbine engine flaps and rotors. This effort will focus on aircraft brakes. A collaboration is underway with Hitco a major producer of carbon/carbon materials.

  16. Topical anesthetic versus lidocaine infiltration in arteriovenous fistula cannulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha George

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: End stage renal disease (ESRD patients on maintenance hemodialysis undergo arterio-venous fistula (AVF cannulation prior to each hemodialysis session for blood access. Prior to cannulation lidocaine infiltration is done, which is often perceived as painful. Eutectic mixture of local anesthetic (EMLA has been found to significantly reduce pain associated with radial artery cannulation compared with lidocaine infiltration. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of EMLA compared to infiltration of lidocaine in hemodialysis patients for AVF cannulation. Materials and Methods: A single-centre, crossover study of patients with an AVF on regular maintenance hemodialysis was performed in the dialysis unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital. The site of AVF, number of attempts for AVF cannulation and cannula insertion time were recorded. The patients were asked about the acceptability of application of the anesthetic, delay between anesthetic and cannulation and to score the pain on cannulation. Results: Fifty patients were included in the study. With the visual analog scale, pain score on infiltration was 4.8. Pain score on cannulation after topical application was 2.9 and after infiltration, 2.0. The number of attempts for cannulation and the cannula insertion time were similar. Anesthesia was more stressful in the injectable group rather than the topical group (P < 0.001. Delay between anesthetic and cannulation was unacceptable in the topical group (P < 0.001. Patient compliance was better during infiltration compared to topical (P < 0.005. Mean pain score during infiltration of anesthetic was significantly higher than cannulation pain after either anesthetic, although pain on cannulation was higher in the topical group (P < 0.001. Conclusions: EMLA offers a suitable alternative to lidocaine infiltration for patients using AVF for blood access.

  17. Nutrient Release from Disturbance of Infiltration System Soils during Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel P. Treese; Shirley E. Clark; Katherine H. Baker

    2012-01-01

    Subsurface infiltration and surface bioretention systems composed of engineered and/or native soils are preferred tools for stormwater management. However, the disturbance of native soils, especially during the process of adding amendments to improve infiltration rates and pollutant removal, may result in releases of nutrients in the early life of these systems. This project investigated the nutrient release from two soils, one disturbed and one undisturbed. The disturbed soil was collected i...

  18. Cermet materials prepared by combustion synthesis and metal infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Joseph B.; Dunmead, Stephen D.; Halverson, Danny C.; Landingham, Richard L.

    1991-01-01

    Ceramic-metal composites (cermets) are made by a combination of self-propagating high temperature combustion synthesis and molten metal infiltration. Solid-gas, solid-solid and solid-liquid reactions of a powder compact produce a porous ceramic body which is infiltrated by molten metal to produce a composite body of higher density. AlN-Al and many other materials can be produced.

  19. Pulmonary infiltrates during community acquired Gram-negative bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjeldsøe-Nielsen, Hans; Gjeraa, Kirsten; Berthelsen, Birgitte G

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to describe the frequency of pulmonary infiltrates on chest X-ray (CXR) during community acquired Gram-negative bacteremia at a single centre in Denmark.......The primary aim of this study was to describe the frequency of pulmonary infiltrates on chest X-ray (CXR) during community acquired Gram-negative bacteremia at a single centre in Denmark....

  20. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Matlin, W.M.; Liaw, P.K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Processing equipment for the infiltration of fiber-reinforced composite tubes is being designed that incorporates improvements over the equipment used to infiltrate disks. A computer-controlled machine-man interface is being developed to allow for total control of all processing variables. Additionally, several improvements are being made to the furnace that will reduce the complexity and cost of the process. These improvements include the incorporation of free standing preforms, cast mandrels, and simpler graphite heating elements.

  1. Numerical simulation of vertical infiltration for leaching fluid in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinxuan; Shi Weijun; Zhang Weimin

    1998-01-01

    Based on the analysis of movement law of leaching fluid in breaking and leaching experiment in situ, the movement of leaching fluid can be divided into two main stages in the leaching process in situ: Vertical Infiltration in unsaturation zone and horizontal runoff in saturation zone. The corresponding mathematics models are sep up, and the process of vertical infiltration of leaching fluid is numerically simulated

  2. Model slope infiltration experiments for shallow landslides early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, E.; Greco, R.; Guida, A.; Olivares, L.; Picarelli, L.

    2009-04-01

    Occurrence of fast landslides has become more and more dangerous during the last decades, due to the increased density of settlements, industrial plants and infrastructures. Such problem is particularly worrying in Campania (Southern Italy), where the fast population growth led a diffuse building activity without planning: indeed, recent flowslides caused hundreds of victims and heavy damages to buildings, roads and other infrastructures. Large mountainous areas in Campania are mantled by loose pyroclastic granular soils up to a depth of a few meters from top soil surface. These soils have usually a grain size that falls in the domain of silty sands, including pumice interbeds (gravelly sands), with saturated hydraulic conductivities up to the order of 10-1 cm/min. Such deposits often cover steep slopes, which stability is guaranteed by the apparent cohesion due to suction under unsaturated conditions, that are the most common conditions for these slopes [Olivares and Picarelli, 2001]. Whereas rainfall infiltration causes soil to approach saturation, suction vanishes and slope failure may occur. Besides soil physical properties, landslide triggering is influenced by several factors, such as rainfall intensity, soil initial moisture and suction, slope inclination, boundary conditions. Whereas slope failure occurs with soil close to being saturated, landslide may develop in form of fast and destructive flowslide. Calibration of reliable mathematical models of such a complex phenomenon requires availability of experimental observations of the major variables of interest, such as soil moisture and suction, soil deformation and displacements, pore water pressure, during the entire process of infiltration until slope failure. Due to the sudden trigger and extremely rapid propagation of such type of landslides, such data sets are rarely available for natural slopes where flowslides occurred. As a consequence landslide risk assessment and early warning in Campania rely on

  3. Mechanisms of water infiltration into conical hydrophobic nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Zhao, Jianbing; Yin, Chun-Yang; Culligan, Patricia J; Chen, Xi

    2009-08-14

    Fluid channels with inclined solid walls (e.g. cone- and slit-shaped pores) have wide and promising applications in micro- and nano-engineering and science. In this paper, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the mechanisms of water infiltration (adsorption) into cone-shaped nanopores made of a hydrophobic graphene sheet. When the apex angle is relatively small, an external pressure is required to initiate infiltration and the pressure should keep increasing in order to further advance the water front inside the nanopore. By enlarging the apex angle, the pressure required for sustaining infiltration can be effectively lowered. When the apex angle is sufficiently large, under ambient condition water can spontaneously infiltrate to a certain depth of the nanopore, after which an external pressure is still required to infiltrate more water molecules. The unusual involvement of both spontaneous and pressure-assisted infiltration mechanisms in the case of blunt nanocones, as well as other unique nanofluid characteristics, is explained by the Young's relation enriched with the size effects of surface tension and contact angle in the nanoscale confinement.

  4. Linking denitrification and infiltration rates during managed groundwater recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Calla M; Fisher, Andrew T; Racz, Andrew J; Lockwood, Brian S; Huertos, Marc Los

    2011-11-15

    We quantify relations between rates of in situ denitrification and saturated infiltration through shallow, sandy soils during managed groundwater recharge. We used thermal methods to determine time series of point-specific flow rates, and chemical and isotopic methods to assess denitrification progress. Zero order denitrification rates between 3 and 300 μmol L(-1) d(-1) were measured during infiltration. Denitrification was not detected at times and locations where the infiltration rate exceeded a threshold of 0.7 ± 0.2 m d(-1). Pore water profiles of oxygen and nitrate concentration indicated a deepening of the redoxocline at high flow rates, which reduced the thickness of the zone favorable for denitrification. Denitrification rates were positively correlated with infiltration rates below the infiltration threshold, suggesting that for a given set of sediment characteristics, there is an optimal infiltration rate for achieving maximum nitrate load reduction and improvements to water supply during managed groundwater recharge. The extent to which results from this study may be extended to other managed and natural hydrologic settings remains to be determined, but the approach taken in this study should be broadly applicable, and provides a quantitative link between shallow hydrologic and biogeochemical processes.

  5. Pulmonary Blastomycosis in Vilas County, Wisconsin: Weather, Exposures and Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Baumgardner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Blastomycosis is a serious fungal infection contracted by inhalation of Blastomyces spores from the environment. Case occurrence in dogs in Vilas County, Wisconsin, has been associated with antecedent weather. We aimed to explore the effects of weather on the occurrence of human pulmonary blastomycosis in this area, and update exposure factors and symptoms since last published reports. Methods: Mandatory case reports were reviewed. Chi-square test was used for categorical data of exposures, comparing 1979–1996 (n=101 versus 1997–June 2013 (n=95. Linear regression was used to model local weather data (available 1990–2013; n=126; Southern Oscillation Index (SOI, North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI, and Wisconsin River water discharge (WRD from the adjacent county (all available for 1984–2013; n=174; and case counts of known onset by warm (April–September and cold (October–March 6-month periods. Results: Distribution of pulmonary blastomycosis cases did not vary by season. Environmental exposures for the 1997–June 2013 group (mean age 45, 59% male were: residence(76%, excavation (42% and gardening (31%, all similar to the 1979–1996 group. Fishing (23% vs. 37%; P=0.09 and hunting (15% vs. 26%; P=0.13 exposures were less common in 1997–June 2013, but not significantly different. Overall, 69% of cases recalled some prior soil-disturbing activities. Considering the 6-month warm/cold periods, 19% of variation is explained by a direct relationship with total precipitation from two periods prior (P=0.005. There was no association of case occurrence with SOI, NAOI or WRD. Estimated annual incidence of blastomycosis for 1997–June 2013 was 27/100,000 compared with 44/100,000 for 1984–1996. Several symptoms were significantly less frequent in 2002–June 2013 compared to earlier years. Conclusions: As with dogs, human pulmonary blastomycosis occurrence is partially determined by antecedent precipitation. It is unclear if

  6. Relating groundwater to seasonal wetlands in southeastern Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalbeck, J.D.; Reed, D.M.; Hunt, R.J.; Lambert, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, drier types of wetlands have been difficult to characterize and are not well researched. Nonetheless, they are considered to reflect the precipitation history with little, if any, regard for possible relation to groundwater. Two seasonal coastal wetland types (wet prairie, sedge meadow) were investigated during three growing seasons at three sites in the Lake Michigan Basin, Wisconsin, USA. The six seasonal wetlands were characterized using standard soil and vegetation techniques and groundwater measurements from the shallow and deep systems. They all met wetland hydrology criteria (e.g., water within 30 cm of land surface for 5% of the growing season) during the early portion of the growing season despite the lack of appreciable regional groundwater discharge into the wetland root zones. Although root-zone duration analyses did not fit a lognormal distribution previously noted in groundwater-dominated wetlands, they were able to discriminate between the plant communities and showed that wet prairie communities had shorter durations of continuous soil saturation than sedge meadow communities. These results demonstrate that the relative rates of groundwater outflows can be important for wetland hydrology and resulting wetland type. Thus, regional stresses to the shallow groundwater system such as pumping or low Great Lake levels can be expected to affect even drier wetland types. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

  7. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, recreation, and many others. For the State of Wisconsin, elevation data are critical for agriculture and precision farming, natural resources conservation, flood risk management, infrastructure and construction management, water supply and quality, and other business uses. Today, high-quality light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the sources for creating elevation models and other elevation datasets. Federal, State, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data, on a national basis, that are (on average) 30 years old and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data. The new 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other three-dimensional representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  8. Understanding Health Care Costs in a Wisconsin Acute Leukemia Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Steinert

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We investigated factors driving health care costs of patients with a diagnosis of acute myeloid and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods: Standard costs identified in insurance claims data obtained from the Wisconsin Health Information Organization were used in a sample of 837 acute leukemia patients from April 2009 to June 2011. The Andersen behavioral model of health care utilization guided selection of patient and community factors expected to influence health care costs. A generalized linear model fitting gamma-distributed data with log-link technique was used to analyze cost. Results: Type of treatment received and disease severity represented significant cost drivers, and patients receiving at least some of their treatment from academic medical centers experienced higher costs. Inpatient care and pharmacy costs of patients who received treatment from providers located in areas of higher poverty experienced lower costs, raising questions of potential treatment and medical practice disparities between provider locations. Directions of study findings were not consistent between different types of services received and underscore the complexity of investigating health care cost. Conclusions: While prevalence of acute leukemia in the United States is low compared to other diseases, its extreme high cost of treatment is not well understood and potentially influences treatment decisions. Acute leukemia health care costs may not follow expected patterns; further exploration of the relationship between cost and the treatment decision, and potential treatment disparities between providers in different socioeconomic locations, is needed.

  9. High power ICRH experiments on the Wisconsin levitated octupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, E.J.; Fortgang, C.M.; Twichell, J.C.; Dexter, R.N.; Sprott, J.C.; Barter, J.D.

    1980-12-01

    Preliminary ICRH experiments have begun on the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole. In order to study heating, energy confinement, and high β plasmas, a 1.8 to 3 MHz oscillator and antenna have been installed. The oscillator and antenna have been installed. The oscillator is capable of delivering 2 MW of RF power for 10 msec, and to date up to 0.5 MW has been coupled into the plasma. At a density of approx. 6 x 10 12 cm -3 , T/sub e/ reaches a maximum of 30 eV as measured by Langmuir probes and VUV spectroscopy. Charge exchange measurements of T/sub i/ show Maxwellian components at 95 and 190 eV, with an energy confinement time of approx. 1 msec. Electron energy confinement is limited by impurity radiation, and several methods of impurity control are being tested. Current experiments also include direct measurement of the RF electric field, antenna loading measurements, variation of the oscillator frequency, and ohmic heating of the electrons

  10. Dissemination research: the University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Patrick L; Moberg, D Paul; Booske, Bridget C; Ceraso, Marion; Friedsam, Donna; Kindig, David A

    2009-08-01

    Despite significant accomplishments in basic, clinical, and population health research, a wide gap persists between research discoveries (ie, what we know) and actual practice (ie, what we do). The University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute (Institute) researchers study the process and outcomes of disseminating evidence-based public health programs and policies into practice. This paper briefly describes the approach and experience of the Institute's programs in population health assessment, health policy, program evaluation, and education and training. An essential component of this dissemination research program is the active engagement of the practitioners and policymakers. Each of the Institute's programs conducts data collection, analysis, education, and dialogue with practitioners that is closely tied to the planning, implementation, and evaluation of programs and policies. Our approach involves a reciprocal exchange of knowledge with non-academic partners, such that research informs practice and practice informs research. Dissemination research serves an important role along the continuum of research and is increasingly recognized as an important way to improve population health by accelerating the translation of research into practice.

  11. Ion-cyclotron-resonance heating in the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortgang, C.M.; Sprott, J.C.; Strait, E.J.

    1983-06-01

    Ion-cyclotron-resonance heating has been investigated, both experimentally and theoretically, on the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole. Heating of both ions and electrons has been observed. Typically, a two-component ion energy distribution is produced (300 eV and 50 eV) with 500 kW of rf power coupled into a 5 x 10 12 cm -3 plasma. Power is coupled to the plasma with an antenna that also serves as the inductor of an oscillator tank circuit. The oscillator is tunable from 1 to 3 MHz and can be applied for periods up to 10 msec. The experiments were performed with hydrogen, gun-injected plasmas. Most of the theortical work presented deals with a calculation that predicts the plasma loading. A slab model is used, and the questions of accessibility, polarization, and damping of the radio-frequency electromagnetic fields are addressed. It is found that cold-plasma theory cannot account for the heating and, therefore, hot-plasma theory is invoked to explain the results. The loading measurements and theoretical predictions are found to be in reasonable agreement

  12. Factors influencing mercury concentrations in walleyes in northern Wisconsin lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, J.G.; Martini, R.E.; Sheffy, T.B.; Glass, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    The authors examined relations between mercury concentrations in walleyes Stizostedion vitreum and the characteristics of clear-water Wisconsin lakes, which spanned a broad range of pH values (5.0-8.1) and acid- neutralizing capacities (-9 to 1,017 mu eq/L). Total concentrations of mercury in axial muscle tissue of walleyes (total length, 25-56 cm) varied from 0.12 to 1.74 mu g/g wet weight. Concentrations were greatest in fish from the eight lakes with pH less than 7.0; concentrations in these fish equaled or exceeded 0.5 mu g/g in 88% of the samples analyzed and 1.0 mu g/g in 44%. In the five lakes with pH of 7.0 and above, concentrations exceeded 0.5 mu g/g in only 1 of 21 walleyes. Multiple regression revealed that lake pH and total length of fish accounted for 69% of the variation in mercury concentration in walleyes. Regression models with total length and either waterborne calcium or acid-neutralizing capacity as independent variables accounted for 67% of the variation in concentration.

  13. Wildfire risk in the wildland-urban interface: A simulation study in northwestern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massada, Avi Bar; Radeloff, Volker C.; Stewart, Susan I.; Hawbaker, Todd J.

    2009-01-01

    The rapid growth of housing in and near the wildland–urban interface (WUI) increases wildfirerisk to lives and structures. To reduce fire risk, it is necessary to identify WUI housing areas that are more susceptible to wildfire. This is challenging, because wildfire patterns depend on fire behavior and spread, which in turn depend on ignition locations, weather conditions, the spatial arrangement of fuels, and topography. The goal of our study was to assess wildfirerisk to a 60,000 ha WUI area in northwesternWisconsin while accounting for all of these factors. We conducted 6000 simulations with two dynamic fire models: Fire Area Simulator (FARSITE) and Minimum Travel Time (MTT) in order to map the spatial pattern of burn probabilities. Simulations were run under normal and extreme weather conditions to assess the effect of weather on fire spread, burn probability, and risk to structures. The resulting burn probability maps were intersected with maps of structure locations and land cover types. The simulations revealed clear hotspots of wildfire activity and a large range of wildfirerisk to structures in the study area. As expected, the extreme weather conditions yielded higher burn probabilities over the entire landscape, as well as to different land cover classes and individual structures. Moreover, the spatial pattern of risk was significantly different between extreme and normal weather conditions. The results highlight the fact that extreme weather conditions not only produce higher fire risk than normal weather conditions, but also change the fine-scale locations of high risk areas in the landscape, which is of great importance for fire management in WUI areas. In addition, the choice of weather data may limit the potential for comparisons of risk maps for different areas and for extrapolating risk maps to future scenarios where weather conditions are unknown. Our approach to modeling wildfirerisk to structures can aid fire risk reduction management

  14. Analysis of infiltration through mill tailings using a bromide tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, G.J.; Stephens, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    Infiltration of precipitation into tailings impoundments as a means of recharge to underlying materials is often considered insignificant, particularly in arid and semi-arid environments. A series of experiments was performed to investigate the behavior of infiltrated precipitation into tailing soils, by the use of a bromide tracer. A bromide tracer was applied to the surface of columns driven into the tailings to monitor downward advancement of tracer-laden water. Controlled laboratory experiments on the behavior of the bromide tracer under varying precipitation events and initial soil moisture contents were also conducted. Results indicate that a definite downward migration of infiltrated precipitation occurs, particularly with large magnitude precipitation events, and that, eventually, some fraction of the infiltrated precipitation may continue downward below the zone affected by evaporation. The use of an artificially applied bromide tracer to monitor depth of infiltration of precipitation is a simple, safe technique that can provide valuable information for long-term tailings management strategies at low cost

  15. Durability and Performance of High Performance Infiltration Cathodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Alfred Junio; Søgaard, Martin; Hjalmarsson, Per

    2013-01-01

    The performance and durability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes consisting of a porous Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO) infiltrated with nitrates corresponding to the nominal compositions La0.6Sr0.4Co1.05O3-δ (LSC), LaCoO3-δ (LC), and Co3O4 are discussed. At 600°C, the polarization resistance, Rp......, varied as: LSC (0.062Ωcm2)cathode was found to depend on the infiltrate firing temperature and is suggested to originate...... of the infiltrate but also from a better surface exchange property. A 450h test of an LSC-infiltrated CGO cathode showed an Rp with final degradation rate of only 11mΩcm2kh-1. An SOFC with an LSC-infiltrated CGO cathode tested for 1,500h at 700°C and 0.5Acm-2 (60% fuel, 20% air utilization) revealed no measurable...

  16. Sensitivity of MRI in detecting alveolar infiltrates. Experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biederer, J.; Busse, I.; Grimm, J.; Reuter, M.; Heller, M.; Muhle, C.; Freitag, S.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: An experimental study using porcine lung explants and a dedicated chest phantom to evaluate the signal intensity of artificial alveolar infiltrates with T 1 - and T 2 -weighted MRI sequences. Material and Methods: 10 porcine lung explants were intubated, transferred into the cavity of a MRI-compatible chest phantom and inflated by continuous evacuation of the artificial pleural space. All lungs were examined with MRI at 1.5 T before and after intra-tracheal instillation of either 100 or 200 ml gelatine-stabilised liquid to simulate alveolar infiltrates. MR-examination comprised gradient echo (2D- and 3D-GRE) and fast spin echo sequences (T 2 -TSE and T 2 -HASTE). The signal intensity of lung parenchyma was evaluated at representative cross sections using a standardised scheme. Control studies were acquired with helical CT. Results: The instilled liquid caused patchy confluent alveolar infiltrates resembling the findings in patients with pneumonia or ARDS. CT revealed typical ground-glass opacities. Before the application of the liquid, only T 2 -HASTE and T 2 -TSE displayed lung parenchyma signals with a signal/noise ratio of 3.62 and 1.39, respectively. After application of the liquid, both T 2 -weighted sequences showed clearly visible infiltrates with an increase in signal intensity of approx. 30% at 100 ml (p 2 -weighted sequences detects artificial alveolar infiltrates with high signal intensity and may be a highly sensitive tool to detect pneumonia in patients. (orig.) [de

  17. Characterization of infiltration rates from landfills: supporting groundwater modeling efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moo-Young, Horace; Johnson, Barnes; Johnson, Ann; Carson, David; Lew, Christine; Liu, Salley; Hancocks, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the literature to characterize infiltration rates from landfill liners to support groundwater modeling efforts. The focus of this investigation was on collecting studies that describe the performance of liners 'as installed' or 'as operated'. This document reviews the state of the science and practice on the infiltration rate through compacted clay liner (CCL) for 149 sites and geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) for 1 site. In addition, it reviews the leakage rate through geomembrane (GM) liners and composite liners for 259 sites. For compacted clay liners (CCL), there was limited information on infiltration rates (i.e., only 9 sites reported infiltration rates.), thus, it was difficult to develop a national distribution. The field hydraulic conductivities for natural clay liners range from 1 x 10(-9) cm s(-1) to 1 x 10(-4) cm s(-1), with an average of 6.5 x 10(-8) cm s(-1). There was limited information on geosynthetic clay liner. For composite lined and geomembrane systems, the leak detection system flow rates were utilized. The average monthly flow rate for composite liners ranged from 0-32 lphd for geomembrane and GCL systems to 0 to 1410 lphd for geomembrane and CCL systems. The increased infiltration for the geomembrane and CCL system may be attributed to consolidation water from the clay.

  18. CT of chronic infiltrative lung disease: Prevalence of mediastinal lymphadenopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimi, Hiroshi; Kang, Eun-Young; Kwong, S. [Univ. of British Columbia and Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Centre (Canada)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to determine the prevalence of mediastinal lymph node enlargement at CT in patients with diffuse infiltrative lung disease. The study was retrospective and included 175 consecutive patients with diffuse infiltrative lung diseases. Diagnoses included idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n = 61), usual interstitial pneumonia associated with collagen vascular disease (CVD) (n = 20), idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) (n = 22), extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) (n = 17), and sarcoidosis (n = 55). Fifty-eight age-matched patients with CT of the chest performed for unrelated conditions served as controls. The presence, number, and sites of enlarged nodes (short axis {ge}10 mm in diameter) were recorded. Enlarged mediastinal nodes were present in 118 of 175 patients (67%) with infiltrative lung disease and 3 of 58 controls (5%) (p < 0.001). The prevalence of enlarged nodes was 84% (46 of 55) in sarcoidosis, 67% (41 of 61) in IPF, 70% (14 of 20) in CVD, 53% (9 of 17) in EAA, and 36% (8 of 22) in BOOP. The mean number of enlarged nodes was higher in sarcoidosis (mean 3.2) than in the other infiltrative diseases (mean 1.2) (p < 0.001). Enlarged nodes were most commonly present in station 10R, followed by 7, 4R, and 5. Patients with infiltrative lung disease frequently have enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. However, in diseases other than sarcoid, usually only one or two nodes are enlarged and their maximal short axis diameter is <15 mm. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Laboratory testing on infiltration in single synthetic fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, Claudia; Pastore, Nicola; Li, Jiawei; Giasi, Concetta I.; Li, Ling

    2017-04-01

    An understanding of infiltration phenomena in unsaturated rock fractures is extremely important in many branches of engineering for numerous reasons. Sectors such as the oil, gas and water industries are regularly interacting with water seepage through rock fractures, yet the understanding of the mechanics and behaviour associated with this sort of flow is still incomplete. An apparatus has been set up to test infiltration in single synthetic fractures in both dry and wet conditions. To simulate the two fracture planes, concrete fractures have been moulded from 3D printed fractures with varying geometrical configurations, in order to analyse the influence of aperture and roughness on infiltration. Water flows through the single fractures by means of a hydraulic system composed by an upstream and a downstream reservoir, the latter being subdivided into five equal sections in order to measure the flow rate in each part to detect zones of preferential flow. The fractures have been set at various angles of inclination to investigate the effect of this parameter on infiltration dynamics. The results obtained identified that altering certain fracture parameters and conditions produces relevant effects on the infiltration process through the fractures. The main variables influencing the formation of preferential flow are: the inclination angle of the fracture, the saturation level of the fracture and the mismatch wavelength of the fracture.

  20. Tunable photoluminescence of porous silicon by liquid crystal infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Qinglan; Xiong Rui; Huang Yuanming

    2011-01-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) of porous silicon films has been investigated as a function of the amount of liquid crystal molecules that are infiltrated into the constricted geometry of the porous silicon films. A typical nematic liquid crystal 4-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl was employed in our experiment as the filler to modify the PL of porous silicon. It is found that the originally red PL of porous silicon films can be tuned to blue by simply adjusting the amount of liquid crystal molecules in the microchannels of the porous films. The chromaticity coordinates are calculated for the recorded PL spectra. The mechanism of the tunable PL is discussed. Our results have demonstrated that the luminescent properties of porous silicon films can be efficiently tuned by liquid crystal infiltration. - Highlights: → Liquid crystal infiltration can tune the photoluminescence of porous silicon. → Red emission of porous silicon can be switched to blue by the infiltration. → Chromaticity coordinates are calculated for the tuned emissions. → White emission is realized for porous silicon by liquid crystal infiltration.

  1. Trench infiltration for managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, V.M.; Watt, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    Managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock is increasingly being utilized to enhance resources and maintain sustainable groundwater development practices. One such target is the Navajo Sandstone, an extensive regional aquifer located throughout the Colorado Plateau of the western United States. Spreading-basin and bank-filtration projects along the sandstone outcrop's western edge in southwestern Utah have recently been implemented to meet growth-related water demands. This paper reports on a new cost-effective surface-infiltration technique utilizing trenches for enhancing managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock. A 48-day infiltration trench experiment on outcropping Navajo Sandstone was conducted to evaluate this alternative surface-spreading artificial recharge method. Final infiltration rates through the bottom of the trench were about 0.5 m/day. These infiltration rates were an order of magnitude higher than rates from a previous surface-spreading experiment at the same site. The higher rates were likely caused by a combination of factors including the removal of lower permeability soil and surficial caliche deposits, access to open vertical sandstone fractures, a reduction in physical clogging associated with silt and biofilm layers, minimizing viscosity effects by maintaining isothermal conditions, minimizing chemical clogging caused by carbonate mineral precipitation associated with algal photosynthesis, and diminished gas clogging associated with trapped air and biogenic gases. This pilot study illustrates the viability of trench infiltration for enhancing surface spreading of managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock. ?? 2010.

  2. Performance Improvement of an Inhomogeneous Cathode by Infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyed-Vakili, S. V.; Graves, Christopher R.; Babaei, A.

    2017-01-01

    The performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is considerably influenced by the microstructure and chemical composition of cathode materials. Porous La0.85Sr0.15FeO3– Ce0.9Gd0.1O2 composite electrodes were infiltrated by La0.6Sr0.4CoO3 and La0.6Sr0.4FeO3. The effects of infiltration loading...... performance of the electrodes. The electrochemical results revealed that the polarization resistance of the cathodes significantly was decreased by infiltration from 2.59 to 0.034 Ω cm2 measured at 670 °C. The best electrode performance was achieved at a calcination temperature of 770 °C. It was also found...

  3. CT appearance of focal fatty infiltration of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halvorsen, R.A.; Korobkin, M.; Ram, P.C.; Thompson, W.M.

    1982-01-01

    Focal fatty infiltration of the liver is an entity that may be confused with liver metastasis on computed tomography (CT). The imaging results and medical records of 16 patients with CT appearance suggestive of focal fatty liver were reviewed, three of whom had the simultaneous presence of metastitic liver disease. Focal fatty liver often has a distinctive appearance with CT, usually with a nonspherical shape, absence of mass effect, and density close to water. Liver metastases are usually round or oval, and unless cystic or necrotic, they have CT attenuation values closer to normal liver parenchyma than water. A radionuclide liver scan almost always resolves any confusion about the differential diagnosis of focal fatty liver: a well defined focus of photon deficiency is due to neoplasm rather than focal fatty infiltration. Sonography sometimes helps to confirm the CT impression, but may be misleading if the diagnosis of focal or diffuse fatty infiltration is not suspected before the examination

  4. Effect of rainfall infiltration into unsaturated soil using soil column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, A.; Mukhlisin, M.; Jaafar, O.

    2018-02-01

    Rainfall especially in tropical region caused infiltration to the soil slope. The infiltration may change pore water pressure or matric suction of the soil. The event of rainfall infiltration into soil is a complex mechanism. Therefore, the main objectives of this research paper is to study the influence of rainfall intensity and duration that changed pore water pressure to soil. There are two types of soils used in this study; forest soil and kaolin. Soil column apparatus is used for experiments. Rainfall were applied to the soil and result for 3, 6, 12, 24, 72, 120 and 168 hours were retrieved. Result shows that for the both types of soil, the negative pore water pressures were increased during wetting process and gradually decreased towards drying process. The results also show that pore water pressure at top part was increased greatly as the wetting process started compared to the middle and bottom part of the column.

  5. Improved infiltration of stem cells on electrospun nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabani, Iman; Haddadi-Asl, Vahid; Seyedjafari, Ehsan; Babaeijandaghi, Farshad; Soleimani, Masoud

    2009-01-01

    Nanofibrous scaffolds have been recently used in the field of tissue engineering because of their nano-size structure which promotes cell attachment, function, proliferation and infiltration. In this study, nanofibrous polyethersulfone (PES) scaffolds was prepared via electrospinning. The scaffolds were surface modified by plasma treatment and collagen grafting. The surface changes then investigated by contact angle measurements and FTIR-ATR. The results proved grafting of the collagen on nanofibers surface and increased hydrophilicity after plasma treatment and collagen grafting. The cell interaction study was done using stem cells because of their ability to differentiate to different kinds of cell lines. The cells had normal morphology on nanofibers and showed very high infiltration through collagen grafted PES nanofibers. This infiltration capability is very useful and needed to make 3D scaffolds in tissue engineering.

  6. Water infiltration in an aquifer recharge basin affected by temperature and air entrapment

    OpenAIRE

    Loizeau Sébastien; Rossier Yvan; Gaudet Jean-Paul; Refloch Aurore; Besnard Katia; Angulo-Jaramillo Rafael; Lassabatere Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Artificial basins are used to recharge groundwater and protect water pumping fields. In these basins, infiltration rates are monitored to detect any decrease in water infiltration in relation with clogging. However, miss-estimations of infiltration rate may result from neglecting the effects of water temperature change and air-entrapment. This study aims to investigate the effect of temperature and air entrapment on water infiltration at the basin scale by conducting successive infiltration c...

  7. The 2016 groundwater flow model for Dane County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsen, Michael J.; Bradbury, Kenneth R.; Hunt, Randall J.; Feinstein, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    A new groundwater flow model for Dane County, Wisconsin, replaces an earlier model developed in the 1990s by the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey (WGNHS) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). This modeling study was conducted cooperatively by the WGNHS and the USGS with funding from the Capital Area Regional Planning Commission (CARPC). Although the overall conceptual model of the groundwater system remains largely unchanged, the incorporation of newly acquired high-quality datasets, recent research findings, and improved modeling and calibration techniques have led to the development of a more detailed and sophisticated model representation of the groundwater system. The new model is three-dimensional and transient, and conceptualizes the county’s hydrogeology as a 12-layer system including all major unlithified and bedrock hydrostratigraphic units and two high-conductivity horizontal fracture zones. Beginning from the surface down, the model represents the unlithified deposits as two distinct model layers (1 and 2). A single layer (3) simulates the Ordovician sandstone and dolomite of the Sinnipee, Ancell, and Prairie du Chien Groups. Sandstone of the Jordan Formation (layer 4) and silty dolostone of the St. Lawrence Formation (layer 5) each comprise separate model layers. The underlying glauconitic sandstone of the Tunnel City Group makes up three distinct layers: an upper aquifer (layer 6), a fracture feature (layer 7), and a lower aquifer (layer 8). The fracture layer represents a network of horizontal bedding-plane fractures that serve as a preferential pathway for groundwater flow. The model simulates the sandstone of the Wonewoc Formation as an upper aquifer (layer 9) with a bedding-plane fracture feature (layer 10) at its base. The Eau Claire aquitard (layer 11) includes shale beds within the upper portion of the Eau Claire Formation. This layer, along with overlying bedrock units, is mostly absent in the preglacially eroded valleys along

  8. Birds of the St. Croix River valley: Minnesota and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faanes, Craig A.

    1981-01-01

    The St. Croix River Valley encompasses nearly 11,550 km2 in east-central Minnesota and northwestern Wisconsin. A wide range of habitats are available for birds including upland oak, lowland deciduous, maple-basswood, lowland and upland coniferous forests, natural basin wetlands, and grasslands. Situated in the north-central region of the United States, the valley is a biological 'crossroads' for many species. Because of the mixed affinities of plant communities, the valley includes the northern and southern range limits for a number of species. Also, because the valley lies near the forest-prairie transition zone, many typical western breeding species (e.g. pintail, western meadowlark, yellow-headed blackbird) breed in proximity to typical eastern species such as tufted titmouse, eastern meadowlark, and cardinal. From 1966 to 1980, I conducted extensive surveys of avian distribution and abundance in the St. Croix River Valley. I have supplemented the results of these surveys with published and unpublished observations contributed by many ornithologists. These additional data include compilations from Christmas Bird Counts sponsored by the National Audubon Society and from the Breeding Bird Survey coordinated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Three hundred fourteen species have been recorded in the study area; data are presented on the migration period, nesting season distribution, winter distribution, relative abundance, and habitat use of each species. Recognizing the uniqueness of the area, and its importance not only to wildlife but also to man, the U.S. Congress designated the St. Croix a National Scenic Riverway. This action provided a considerable degree of protection to lands along and directly adjacent to the river. Unfortunately, no similar legal measure exists to protect lands away from the river. With the exception of the northern quarter of the St. Croix River Valley, agricultural interests have made significant inroads into the habitat base. The

  9. Perfluoroalkyl substances in older male anglers in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Krista Y; Raymond, Michelle; Thompson, Brooke A; Anderson, Henry A

    2016-05-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are an emerging class of contaminants. Certain PFAS are regulated or voluntarily limited due to concern about environmental persistence and adverse health effects, including thyroid disease and to dyslipidemia. The major source of PFAS exposure in the general population is seafood. In this analysis we examine PFAS levels and their determinants, as well as associations between PFAS levels and self-reported health outcomes, in a group of older male anglers in Wisconsin with high fish consumption. A biomonitoring study of male anglers aged 50 and older living in Wisconsin collected detailed information on fish consumption, demographics and self-reported health outcomes, along with hair and blood samples for biomarker analysis. Sixteen different PFAS were extracted from serum samples. Regression models were used to identify factors (demographic characteristics and fish consumption habits) associated with PFAS biomarker levels in blood, as well as associations between PFAS and self-reported health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders. Seven PFAS were detected in at least 30% of participants and were used in subsequent analyses (PFDA, PFHpS, PFHxS, PFNA, PFOA, PFOS, PFuDA). The PFAS with the highest levels were PFOS, followed by PFOA, PFHxS and PFNA (medians of 19.0, 2.5, 1.8 and 1.4ng/mL). In general, increasing age was associated with higher PFAS levels, while increasing BMI were associated with lower PFAS levels. Greater alcohol consumption was associated with higher levels of PFHpS, PFHxS and PFOA. Associations with smoking and employment did not show a consistent pattern. Associations between fish consumption and PFAS were generally weak, with the exception of notably higher PFDA and PFHpS with both other locally-caught fish, and restaurant-purchased fish. Regarding associations with health outcomes, PFuDA, PFNA and PFDA were all associated with increased risk of pre-diabetes and/or diabetes. PFHpS was associated with a

  10. Cyclic sciatica caused by infiltrative endometriosis: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yekeler, Ensar; Kumbasar, Basak; Tunaci, Atadan; Barman, Ahmet; Tunaci, Mehtap [Department of Radiology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, 34390, Capa, Istanbul (Turkey); Bengisu, Ergin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Yavuz, Ekrem [Department of Pathology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, 34390, Capa, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2004-03-01

    Endometriosis, an important gynecological disorder of reproductive women, affects most commonly the ovaries and less frequently the gastrointestinal tract, chest, urinary tract, and soft tissues. Endometriosis classically appears on MRI as a mass with a large cystic component and variable signal intensities on T1- and T2-weighted images due to the presence of variable degradation of hemorrhagic products. Endometriosis in an atypical location, an infiltrative appearance and without cystic-hemorrhagic components has rarely been described. We report on a 33-year-old woman with cyclic sciatica due to histologically documented infiltrative endometriosis involving the area of the left sciatic notch. (orig.)

  11. Cyclic sciatica caused by infiltrative endometriosis: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yekeler, Ensar; Kumbasar, Basak; Tunaci, Atadan; Barman, Ahmet; Tunaci, Mehtap; Bengisu, Ergin; Yavuz, Ekrem

    2004-01-01

    Endometriosis, an important gynecological disorder of reproductive women, affects most commonly the ovaries and less frequently the gastrointestinal tract, chest, urinary tract, and soft tissues. Endometriosis classically appears on MRI as a mass with a large cystic component and variable signal intensities on T1- and T2-weighted images due to the presence of variable degradation of hemorrhagic products. Endometriosis in an atypical location, an infiltrative appearance and without cystic-hemorrhagic components has rarely been described. We report on a 33-year-old woman with cyclic sciatica due to histologically documented infiltrative endometriosis involving the area of the left sciatic notch. (orig.)

  12. High Performance Infiltrated Backbones for Cathode-Supported SOFC's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, Vanesa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2014-01-01

    A four-step infiltration method has been developed to infiltrate La0.75Sr0.25MnO3+δ (LSM25) nanoparticles into porous structures (YSZ or LSM-YSZ backbones). The pore size distribution in the backbones is obtained either by using PMMA and/or graphites as pore formers or by leaching treatment of sa...... of samples with Ni remained in the YSZ structure at high temperatures. All impregnated backbones, presented Rs comparable to a standard screen printed cathode, which proves that LSM nanoparticles forms a pathway for electron conduction....

  13. Nodular focal fatty infiltration of the liver: CT appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.E.; Silverman, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    Focal fatty infiltration of the liver is a well recognized entity generally characterized by a nonspherical, low-density area without significant mass effect. CT usually distinguishes this from focal liver processes such as abscess or metastasis by its sharply marginated, geographic pattern and lack of mass effect on hepatic and portal veins. Recently, the authors formed a CT scan of the liver in one patient in whom fatty infiltration appeared nodular or rounded. The clinical presentation and radiographic and pathologic features form the basis of this report

  14. Peri-optic nerve infiltration during leukaemic relapse: MRI diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madani, A.; Christophe, C. [Department of Imaging, Hopital Universitaire des Enfants Reine Fabiola, Brussels (Belgium); Ferster, A.; Dan, B. [Department of Paediatrics, Hopital Universitaire des Enfants Reine Fabiola, Brussels (Belgium)

    2000-01-01

    Background. A 10-year-old boy with a history of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), but without previous evidence of central nervous system involvement, presented with seizures 3 years after complete remission. Materials and methods. MRI showed bilateral enlargement of the optic nerves despite normal ophthalmological examination. Results. Only the third cerebrospinal fluid examination showed 2 % blasts without concomitant bone-marrow infiltration. Enlargement of the optic nerves was consistent with bilateral leukaemic peri-optic nerve infiltration. The appearances returned to normal after chemotherapy. Conclusion. The optic nerves are a potential site of relapse in patients with systemic and meningeal ALL, even in the absence of ophthalmological signs. (orig.)

  15. SIMULATION OF NET INFILTRATION FOR MODERN AND POTENTIAL FUTURE CLIMATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.A. Heveal

    2000-01-01

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) describes enhancements made to the infiltration model documented in Flint et al. (1996) and documents an analysis using the enhanced model to generate spatial and temporal distributions over a model domain encompassing the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada. Net infiltration is the component of infiltrated precipitation, snowmelt, or surface water run-on that has percolated below the zone of evapotranspiration as defined by the depth of the effective root zone, the average depth below the ground surface (at a given location) from which water is removed by evapotranspiration. The estimates of net infiltration are used for defining the upper boundary condition for the site-scale 3-dimensional Unsaturated-Zone Ground Water Flow and Transport (UZ flow and transport) Model (CRWMS M and O 2000a). The UZ flow and transport model is one of several process models abstracted by the Total System Performance Assessment model to evaluate expected performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in terms of radionuclide transport (CRWMS M and O 1998). The net-infiltration model is important for assessing potential repository-system performance because output from this model provides the upper boundary condition for the UZ flow and transport model that is used to generate flow fields for evaluating potential radionuclide transport through the unsaturated zone. Estimates of net infiltration are provided as raster-based, 2-dimensional grids of spatially distributed, time-averaged rates for three different climate stages estimated as likely conditions for the next 10,000 years beyond the present. Each climate stage is represented using a lower bound, a mean, and an upper bound climate and corresponding net-infiltration scenario for representing uncertainty in the characterization of daily climate conditions for each climate stage, as well as potential climate variability within each climate stage. The set of nine raster grid maps provide

  16. SIMULATION OF NET INFILTRATION FOR MODERN AND POTENTIAL FUTURE CLIMATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Heveal

    2000-06-16

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) describes enhancements made to the infiltration model documented in Flint et al. (1996) and documents an analysis using the enhanced model to generate spatial and temporal distributions over a model domain encompassing the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada. Net infiltration is the component of infiltrated precipitation, snowmelt, or surface water run-on that has percolated below the zone of evapotranspiration as defined by the depth of the effective root zone, the average depth below the ground surface (at a given location) from which water is removed by evapotranspiration. The estimates of net infiltration are used for defining the upper boundary condition for the site-scale 3-dimensional Unsaturated-Zone Ground Water Flow and Transport (UZ flow and transport) Model (CRWMS M&O 2000a). The UZ flow and transport model is one of several process models abstracted by the Total System Performance Assessment model to evaluate expected performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in terms of radionuclide transport (CRWMS M&O 1998). The net-infiltration model is important for assessing potential repository-system performance because output from this model provides the upper boundary condition for the UZ flow and transport model that is used to generate flow fields for evaluating potential radionuclide transport through the unsaturated zone. Estimates of net infiltration are provided as raster-based, 2-dimensional grids of spatially distributed, time-averaged rates for three different climate stages estimated as likely conditions for the next 10,000 years beyond the present. Each climate stage is represented using a lower bound, a mean, and an upper bound climate and corresponding net-infiltration scenario for representing uncertainty in the characterization of daily climate conditions for each climate stage, as well as potential climate variability within each climate stage. The set of nine raster grid maps provide spatially

  17. Antibiotic Therapy for Acute Infiltrate-Complicated Calculous Cholecystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Nesterenko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to summarize the results of treatment in 442 patients of various ages with acute calculous cholecystitis complicated by a compact perivesical infiltrate.Materials and methods. Bile from all the patients was bacteriologically studied. The implication of various antibiotics in limiting perivesical fat inflammation was determined.Results. The importance of decompressive treatments for complicated calculous cholecystitis has been ascertained. The advantages of microcholecystostomy have been revealed. There is evidence that it is expedient to use third-forth-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and dioxidine in the combined treatment of destructive calculous cholecystitis complicated by an infiltrate

  18. WATER INFILTRATION IN TWO CULTIVATED SOILS IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildegardis Bertol

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Infiltration is the passage of water through the soil surface, influenced by the soil type and cultivation and by the soil roughness, surface cover and water content. Infiltration absorbs most of the rainwater and is therefore crucial for planning mechanical conservation practices to manage runoff. This study determined water infiltration in two soil types under different types of management and cultivation, with simulated rainfall of varying intensity and duration applied at different times, and to adjust the empirical model of Horton to the infiltration data. The study was conducted in southern Brazil, on Dystric Nitisol (Nitossolo Bruno aluminoférrico húmico and Humic Cambisol (Cambissolo Húmico alumínico léptico soils to assess the following situations: simulated rains on the Nitisol from 2001 to 2012 in 31 treatments, differing in crop type, sowing direction, type of soil opener on the seeder, amount and type of crop residue and amount of liquid swine manure applied; on the Cambisol, rains were simlated from 2006 to 2012 and 18 treatments were evaluated, differing in crop, seeding direction and crop residue type. The constant of the water infiltration rate into the soil varies significantly with the soil type (30.2 mm h-1 in the Nitisol and 6.6 mm h-1 in the Cambisol, regardless of the management system, application time and rain intensity and duration. At the end of rainfalls, soil-water infiltration varies significantly with the management system, with the timing of application and rain intensity and duration, with values ranging from 13 to 59 mm h-1, in the two studied soils. The characteristics of the sowing operation in terms of relief, crop type and amount and type of crop residue influenced soil water infiltration: in the Nitisol, the values of contour and downhill seeding vary between 27 and 43 mm h-1, respectively, with crop residues of corn, wheat and soybean while in the Cambisol, the variation is between 2 and 36 mm h-1

  19. Urban climate effects on extreme temperatures in Madison, Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Jason; Kucharik, Christopher J.

    2015-09-01

    As climate change increases the frequency and intensity of extreme heat, cities and their urban heat island (UHI) effects are growing, as are the urban populations encountering them. These mutually reinforcing trends present a growing risk for urban populations. However, we have limited understanding of urban climates during extreme temperature episodes, when additional heat from the UHI may be most consequential. We observed a historically hot summer and historically cold winter using an array of up to 150 temperature and relative humidity sensors in and around Madison, Wisconsin, an urban area of population 402 000 surrounded by lakes and a rural landscape of agriculture, forests, wetlands, and grasslands. In the summer of 2012 (third hottest since 1869), Madison’s urban areas experienced up to twice as many hours ⩾32.2 °C (90 °F), mean July TMAX up to 1.8 °C higher, and mean July TMIN up to 5.3 °C higher than rural areas. During a record setting heat wave, dense urban areas spent over four consecutive nights above the National Weather Service nighttime heat stress threshold of 26.7 °C (80 °F), while rural areas fell below 26.7 °C nearly every night. In the winter of 2013-14 (coldest in 35 years), Madison’s most densely built urban areas experienced up to 40% fewer hours ⩽-17.8 °C (0 °F), mean January TMAX up to 1 °C higher, and mean January TMIN up to 3 °C higher than rural areas. Spatially, the UHI tended to be most intense in areas with higher population densities. Temporally, both daytime and nighttime UHIs tended to be slightly more intense during more-extreme heat days compared to average summer days. These results help us understand the climates for which cities must prepare in a warming, urbanizing world.

  20. Catalyzing Collaboration: Wisconsin's Agency-Initiated Basin Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genskow, Kenneth D.

    2009-03-01

    Experience with collaborative approaches to natural resource and environmental management has grown substantially over the past 20 years, and multi-interest, shared-resources initiatives have become prevalent in the United States and internationally. Although often viewed as “grass-roots” and locally initiated, governmental participants are crucial to the success of collaborative efforts, and important questions remain regarding their appropriate roles, including roles in partnership initiation. In the midst of growing governmental support for collaborative approaches in the mid-1990s, the primary natural resource and environmental management agency in Wisconsin (USA) attempted to generate a statewide system of self-sustaining, collaborative partnerships, organized around the state’s river basin boundaries. The agency expected the partnerships to enhance participation by stakeholders, leverage additional resources, and help move the agency toward more integrated and ecosystem-based resource management initiatives. Most of the basin partnerships did form and function, but ten years after this initiative, the agency has moved away from these partnerships and half have disbanded. Those that remain active have changed, but continue to work closely with agency staff. Those no longer functioning lacked clear focus, were dependent upon agency leadership, or could not overcome issues of scale. This article outlines the context for state support of collaborative initiatives and explores Wisconsin’s experience with basin partnerships by discussing their formation and reviewing governmental roles in partnerships’ emergence and change. Wisconsin’s experience suggests benefits from agency support and agency responsiveness to partnership opportunities, but cautions about expectations for initiating general-purpose partnerships.

  1. Initial results from the Wisconsin Spherically Convergent Ion Focus experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorson, T.A.; Durst, R.D.; Fonck, R.J.; Foucher, B.S.; Wainwright, L.P.

    1995-01-01

    The Spherically Convergent Ion Focus (SCIF) is an alternative plasma confinement scheme in which ions are electrostatically confined, accelerated, and concentrated at fusion-relevant energies. This concept has been recently promoted for various near-term applications including waste disposal, particle production, neutron radiography and tomography, plastic explosive detection, materials research, and medical isotope production. The Wisconsin SCIF experiments are designed to evaluate the practicality of the SCIF concept for given applications. In the experiment, a wire globe serves as a simple means of producing the trapping potential well and the ion source consists of a cold, uniform plasma at the edge. Hydrogen ions formed from the background neutral gas are typically accelerated to energies of 5--20 kV, and measured cathode grid currents approach the space-charge limit for concentric spheres. Core size measurements utilize spectrally-filtered CCD camera images of the visible emission from the core region, and the minimal observed core radius of 0.6 cm (HWHM) is within a factor of 2--3 of the theoretical convergence ratio for the device. Neutral particle interactions and potential asymmetries imposed by the grid lead to non-ideal convergence, as evidenced by measured potential asymmetries and core size dependence on cathode grid spacing. Floating probes with 30 kV isolation have allowed unique measurements of the density, electric potential and temperature in the converged core. The ratio of core to edge density is 10--20, which is in good agreement with scaling from radial flux conservation

  2. Atmospheric mercury in northern Wisconsin: sources and species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamborg, C.H.; Fitzgerald, W.F.; Vandal, G.M.; Rolfhus, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    The atmospheric chemistry, deposition and transport of mercury (Hg) in the Upper Great Lakes region is being investigated at a near-remote sampling location in northern Wisconsin. Intensive sampling over two years has been completed. A multi-phase collection strategy was used to gain insight into the processes controlling concentrations and chemical/physical speciation of atmospheric Hg. Additional chemical and physical atmospheric determinations were also made during these periods to aid in the interpretation of the Hg determinations. For example, correlations of Hg with ozone, sulfur dioxide and synopticscale meteorological features suggest a regionally discernible signal in Hg. Comparison to isosigma backward air parcel trajectories confirms this regionality and implicates the areas south, southeast and northwest of the size to be source for Hg. Particle-phase Hg (Hg p ) was found to be approximately 40% in an oxidized form, or operationally defined as reactive but was variable. Hg p and other particle constituents show significant correlation and similarity in behavior. These observations support the hypothesis that precipitation-phase Hg arises from the scavenging of atmospheric particulates bearing Hg. Observed concentrations of rain and particle-Hg fit the theoretical expectations for nucleation and below-cloud scavenging. Increases in the Hg/aerosol mass ratio appear to take place during transport. Enrichment of aerosols is taken as evidence of gas/particle conversion which could represent the step linking gas-phase Hg with rain. The refined budget indicates ca. 24% of total deposition is from summer particle dry deposition, and that this deposition also contributes ca. 24% of all reactive Hg deposition. Most deposition occurs during the summer months. 40 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs

  3. Enhancing soil infiltration reduces gaseous emissions and improves N uptake from applied dairy slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandral, R; Bittman, S; Kowalenko, G; Buckley, K; Chantigny, M H; Hunt, D E; Bounaix, F; Friesen, A

    2009-01-01

    Rapid infiltration of liquid manure into the soil reduces emissions of ammonia (NH(3)) into the atmosphere. This study was undertaken to assess the effects of two low-cost methods of assisting infiltration of applied dairy slurry on emissions of NH(3), nitrous oxide (N(2)O), and on crop N uptake. The two methods were removing of solids by settling-decantation to make the manure less viscous and mechanically aerating the soil. Ammonia emissions were measured with wind tunnels as percentage of applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) while emissions of N(2)O were measured with vented chambers. Mechanically aerating the soil before manure application significantly reduced emissions of NH(3) relative to the nonaerated soil in spring (38.6 to 20.3% of applied TAN), summer (41.1 to 26.4% of applied TAN) and fall (27.7 to 13.6% of applied TAN) trials. Decantation of manure had no effect on NH(3) emissions in spring, tended to increase emissions in summer and significantly decreased emissions in fall (30.3 to 11.1% of applied TAN). Combining the two abatement techniques reduced NH(3) emission by 82% in fall, under cool weather conditions typical of manure spreading. The two abatement techniques generally did not significantly affect N(2)O emissions. Uptake of applied N by Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was generally significantly greater with decanted than from whole manure but the effect of aeration was generally small and not significant. The study shows that low cost methods that assist manure infiltration into the soil may be used to greatly reduce ammonia loss without increasing N(2)O emissions, but efficacy of abatement methods is affected by weather conditions.

  4. Composite vascular grafts with high cell infiltration by co-electrospinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Zhikai, E-mail: tanzk@hnu.edu.cn; Wang, Hongjie; Gao, Xiangkai; Liu, Tong; Tan, Yongjun

    2016-10-01

    There is an increasing demand for functional small-diameter vascular grafts (diameter < 6 mm) to be used in clinical arterial replacement. An ideal vascular graft should have appropriate biomechanical properties and be biocompatible. Electrospinning has become a popular polymer processing technique for vascular tissue engineering, but the grafts fabricated by electrospinning often have relatively small pores and low porosity, which limit cell infiltration into scaffolds and hinder the regeneration and remodeling of grafts. In the present study, we aimed to develop an efficient method to prepare electrospun composite vascular grafts comprising natural and synthetic materials. We fabricated grafts made of polycaprolactone, gelatin, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) by co-electrospinning, and the scaffolds were further functionalized by immobilizing heparin on them. The PVA fibers degraded rapidly in vivo and generated electrospun scaffolds with high porosity, which significantly enhanced cell proliferation and infiltration. The mechanical properties of the grafts are suitable for use in artery replacement. Heparin functionalization of the grafts yielded a good antithrombogenic effect, which was demonstrated in platelet adhesion tests. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo results demonstrated that the heparin release from the grafts enhanced the growth of endothelial cells, which is important for the endothelium of implanted grafts. The results of this study indicate that our method is effective and controllable for the fabrication of vascular grafts that meet the clinical requirements for blood vessel transplantation. - Highlights: • This study indicate an effective method for the fabrication of vascular grafts that meet the clinical requirements. • Co-electrospinning were used to fabricate grafts made of polycaprolactone (PCL), gelatin (GT), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). • PVA was used to create large pores within the hybrid scaffolds, thereby enhancing cell infiltration

  5. Composite vascular grafts with high cell infiltration by co-electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Zhikai; Wang, Hongjie; Gao, Xiangkai; Liu, Tong; Tan, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for functional small-diameter vascular grafts (diameter < 6 mm) to be used in clinical arterial replacement. An ideal vascular graft should have appropriate biomechanical properties and be biocompatible. Electrospinning has become a popular polymer processing technique for vascular tissue engineering, but the grafts fabricated by electrospinning often have relatively small pores and low porosity, which limit cell infiltration into scaffolds and hinder the regeneration and remodeling of grafts. In the present study, we aimed to develop an efficient method to prepare electrospun composite vascular grafts comprising natural and synthetic materials. We fabricated grafts made of polycaprolactone, gelatin, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) by co-electrospinning, and the scaffolds were further functionalized by immobilizing heparin on them. The PVA fibers degraded rapidly in vivo and generated electrospun scaffolds with high porosity, which significantly enhanced cell proliferation and infiltration. The mechanical properties of the grafts are suitable for use in artery replacement. Heparin functionalization of the grafts yielded a good antithrombogenic effect, which was demonstrated in platelet adhesion tests. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo results demonstrated that the heparin release from the grafts enhanced the growth of endothelial cells, which is important for the endothelium of implanted grafts. The results of this study indicate that our method is effective and controllable for the fabrication of vascular grafts that meet the clinical requirements for blood vessel transplantation. - Highlights: • This study indicate an effective method for the fabrication of vascular grafts that meet the clinical requirements. • Co-electrospinning were used to fabricate grafts made of polycaprolactone (PCL), gelatin (GT), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). • PVA was used to create large pores within the hybrid scaffolds, thereby enhancing cell infiltration

  6. Ponded infiltration tests at the Box Canyon site: data report and preliminary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, Paul; Faybishenko, Boris; Freifeld, Barry; Jacobsen, Janet; Lee, Ki Ha; Salve, Rohit; Zawislanski, Peter

    1998-01-01

    We discuss the design and present the main results of a two-week ponded infiltration test conducted in 1996 at the Box Canyon site near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. To investigate liquid flow and chemical transport in fractured basalt, the following types of instruments were installed in boreholes: tensiometers, suction lysimeters, thermistors, time domain reflectrometry probes, and electrical resisitivity probes. These probes were installed using an innovative technology of borehole instrumentation and completion using polyurethane foam injection. The probes were attached to plastic packers that were inflated using the polyurethane foam, and then the space between packers was back-filled with the foam in order to ensure the isolation of the instruments at different depths. Polyurethane foam showed great promise in enabling rapid, cost-effective installation of sensors and probes in fractured rock. A ponded infiltration test was conducted from 8/27/96 to 9/9/96, by maintaining water to an average depth of 23 cm in a rectangular infiltration pond. Within the 7 x 8 m pond, nine local infiltrometers (0.25 m diameter) were-installed to determine local values of the water flux. A slug of conservative tracer (KM) was added to the pond on 9/2/96, yielding a tracer concentration in the pond of approximately 3 g/L. The water supply to the pond was halted for two days so that the tracer concentration in the pond water would remain essentially constant. Thereafter, the water supply was re-established to maintain a constant water level. Installation procedures and measurement results for each type of probe are presented, along with a description of the data acquisition system. The attachments include a description of the calibration and testing of instrumentation. The data files can be found at the FTP site zenitMnel/ or the Web site http://www- esd.lbl.gov/ERT/inel/inel.htrnl

  7. 75 FR 22589 - Preliminary Listing of an Additional Water to Wisconsin's 2008 List of Waters Under Section 303(d...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Wisconsin's 2008 List of Waters Under Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act AGENCY: Environmental Protection... 303(d)(2) requires that States submit and EPA approve or disapprove lists of waters for which existing... approved Wisconsin's listing of waters, associated pollutants, and associated priority rankings. EPA...

  8. Assessing the Workforce Development Needs of Healthcare Employers in Southeastern Wisconsin. Research Brief. Volume 98, Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Million, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Despite near-record unemployment rates in the region, southeast Wisconsin's healthcare sector faces a distinctive challenge: finding sufficient numbers of qualified and trained workers to fill current and future job openings. A May 2009 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee analysis found that one out of every four full-time job openings and one out…

  9. Ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the Climate Change Response Framework Project in northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Swanston; Maria Janowiak; Louis Iverson; Linda Parker; David Mladenoff; Leslie Brandt; Patricia Butler; Matt St. Pierre; Anantha Prasad; Stephen Matthews; Matthew Peters; Dale Higgins; Avery Dorland

    2011-01-01

    The forests of northern Wisconsin will likely experience dramatic changes over the next 100 years as a result of climate change. This assessment evaluates key forest ecosystem vulnerabilities to climate change across northern Wisconsin under a range of future climate scenarios. Warmer temperatures and shifting precipitation patterns are expected to influence ecosystem...

  10. Mercury accumulation in transplanted Hypogymnia physodes lichens downwind of Wisconsin chlor-alkali plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makholm, M.M.; Bennett, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Emissions of mercury from a chlor-alkali plant in central Wisconsin have raised concern about possible effects on biota in the area. Samples of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes, which no longer grows in the area, were transplanted from a site in northeastern Wisconsin and positioned on plastic stands at varying distances up to 1250 m from the plant and sampled for Hg quarterly for one year to test the hypothesis that Hg would be taken up by the lichens and would decline with distance. Average tissue concentrations were elevated when first sampled at three months and continued to increase at the nearest sites until the study ended after one year. Average concentrations after a year of exposure ranged from 4418 ppb at 250 m from the plant to 403 ppb at 1250 m from the plant. The decrease over distance followed a negative exponential pattern. Background concentrations at a control site in northern Wisconsin averaged 155 ppb.

  11. Creating a perfect storm to increase consumer demand for Wisconsin's Tobacco Quitline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffer, Megan A; Redmond, Lezli A; Kobinsky, Kate H; Keller, Paula A; McAfee, Tim; Fiore, Michael C

    2010-03-01

    Telephone quitlines are a clinically proven and cost-effective population-wide tobacco-dependence treatment, and this option is now available in all 50 states. Yet, only 1% of the smoking population accesses these services annually. This report describes a series of policy, programmatic, and communication initiatives recently implemented in Wisconsin that resulted in a dramatic increase in consumer demand for the Wisconsin Tobacco Quitline (WTQL). In 2007, the Wisconsin legislature voted to increase the state cigarette excise tax rate by $1.00, from $0.77/pack to $1.77/pack effective January 1, 2008. In preparation for the tax increase, the Wisconsin Tobacco Prevention and Control Program, the University of Wisconsin Center for Tobacco Research and Intervention, which manages the WTQL, and the state's quitline service provider, Free & Clear, Inc., collaborated to enhance quitline knowledge, availability, and services with the goal of increasing consumer demand for services. The enhancements included for the first time, a free 2-week supply of over-the-counter nicotine replacement medication for tobacco users who agreed to receive multi-session quitline counseling. A successful statewide earned media campaign intensified the impact of these activities, which were timed to coincide with temporal smoking-cessation behavioral patterns (i.e., New Year's resolutions). As a result, the WTQL fielded a record 27,000 calls during the first 3 months of 2008, reaching nearly 3% of adult Wisconsin smokers. This experience demonstrates that consumer demand for quitline services can be markedly enhanced through policy and communication initiatives to increase the population reach of this evidence-based treatment. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Endometriosis of the Vermiform Appendix within a Hernia Sac Infiltrating the Pubic Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Ziaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Appendicular endometriosis mimicking appendicitis is a rare finding. Inguinal tumor in the course of appendicular endometriosis located within an inguinal hernia sac and infiltrating the periosteum of the pubic bone has not yet been described. Case Report. This paper describes a case of a rapidly enlarging, solid, unmovable, very painful upon palpation inguinal tumor, in a 36-year-old nulliparous woman. During surgery, a hard (approximately 4 cm in diameter tumor infiltrating the periosteum of the right pubic bone and continuous with the inguinal hernia sac was dissected. The distal segment of the vermiform appendix was an element of the dissected tumor. Histological examination revealed endometriosis of the distal vermiform appendix. After 6 months of hormone treatment, she was referred for reoperation due to tumor recurrence. Once again histological examination of the resected tissue revealed endometriosis. There was no further recurrence of the disease with goserelin therapy. In addition to the case report, we present a review of the literature about endometriosis involving the vermiform appendix and the inguinal canal (Amyand’s hernia. Conclusion. This case expands the list of differential diagnoses of nodules found in the inguinal region of women.

  13. Evaluation of Surface Infiltration Testing Procedures in Permeable Pavement Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ASTM method (ASTM C1701) for measuring infiltration rate of in-place pervious concrete provides limited guidance on how to select testing locations, so research is needed to evaluate how testing sites should be selected and how results should be interpreted to assess surface ...

  14. Evaluation of infiltrations from Yeso reservoir, using no conventional techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grilli D-F, Alejandro; Espinoza F, Diana; Olavarria R, Jose M.; Pollastri J, Alberto; Aguirre D, Evelyn; Moya V, Pedro

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this work was to measure with the aid of natural isotope technique the speed flow of the water filtrating from Yeso reservoir. The hydrochemistry and temperature of water has also proved to be an excellent tracer and has allowed the identification of the infiltration zone of an important fraction of the seepage

  15. Buccal Infiltration versus Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Mandibular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-04

    Apr 4, 2018 ... the changes in the patients' heart rates were compared between the groups. The obtained data were evaluated statistically. ... The increase in the heart rate of the patients was significantly higher in the buccal infiltration ..... in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. J Neurosci 1992;12:2104‑11. 4. Tortamano IP ...

  16. Water Infiltration in Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite : Fast and Inconspicuous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Christian; Glaser, Tobias; Plogmeyer, Marcel; Sendner, Michael; Doering, Sebastian; Bakulin, Artem A.; Brzuska, Carlo; Scheer, Roland; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Kowalsky, Wolfgang; Pucci, Annemarie; Lovrincic, Robert

    2015-01-01

    While the susceptibility of CH3NH3PbI3 to water is well-documented, the influence of water on device performance is not well-understood. Herein, we use infrared spectroscopy to show that water infiltration into CH3NH3PbI3 occurs much faster and at a humidity much lower than previously thought. We

  17. Effect of age of permeable pavements on their infiltration function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, Floris; Lucke, Terry; Beecham, Simon

    This study describes field investigations designed to compare the infiltration capacities of 55 permeable pavement systems installed in the Netherlands and in Australia. The ages of the pavements varied from 1 to 12 years. Using infiltrometer testing, the performance of the pavements has been

  18. Hydrologic impact of urbanization with extensive stormwater infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locatelli, Luca; Mark, Ole; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel modeling analysis of a 40-year-long dataset to examine the impact of urbanization, with widespread stormwater infiltration, on groundwater levels and the water balance of a watershed. A dataset on the hydrologic impact of urbanization with extensive stormwater...

  19. Buccal Infiltration versus Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Mandibular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-04

    Apr 4, 2018 ... Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the success rates of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) and buccal infiltration anesthesia of mandibular second premolar with irreversible pulpitis and to evaluate the level of patient discomfort with these methods. Matherials and Methods: Forty patients, who.

  20. Infiltration and runoff losses under fallowing and conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fallowing and conservation agriculture are sustainable farming practices that can be used for soil and water conservation. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effects of different conservation agriculture practices on rainfall infiltration and soil and water losses across 4 sites, using simulated rainfall. The study ...

  1. Areal variation and chemical modification of weathered shale infiltration characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luxmoore, R.J.; Spalding, B.P.; Munro, I.M.

    1981-01-01

    Spatial variability of infiltration into a weathered shale subsoil was evaluated at a site proximal to one used for shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Double-ring infiltometers were installed at 48 locations on a 2- by 2-m grid after the removal of 1 to 2 m of soil (Litz-Sequoia association, Typic Hapludults). Infiltration rates were measured before and during the 0- to 20- and 239- to 259-day periods following treatment with solutions of NaOH, KOH, NaF, NaAlO 2 , and Na 2 SiO 3 at rates of 151 equivalents/m 2 . None of these chemical treatments significantly altered infiltration rate, indicating that chemical modification of soil exchange properties may be achieved without inducing hydrologic disturbance in these subsoils. A semivariogram analysis of infiltration data showed that areal variability was random; any spatial patterning must therefore occur at a smaller scale than 2 m

  2. Effects of termites on infiltration in crusted soil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mando, A.; Stroosnijder, L.; Brussaard, L.

    1996-01-01

    In northern Burkina Faso (West Africa), a study was undertaken to explore the possibilities of restoring the infiltration capacity of crusted soils through the stimulation of termite activity. Treatments consisted of the application of a mulch of a mixture of wood and straw without insecticides

  3. Effects of white grubs on soil water infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-López, A A; Rodríguez-Palacios, E; Alarcón-Gutiérrez, E; Geissert, D; Barois, I

    2015-04-01

    Water infiltration rates k were measured in mesocosms with soil and "white grubs" of Ancognatha falsa (Arrow) (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae). Three third instars of A. falsa and three adult earthworms Pontoscolex corethrurus were selected, weighted, and introduced into the mesocosms setting three treatments: soil + A. falsa, soil + P. corethrurus, and control (soil without any macroorganism). The experiment had a completely random design with four replicates per treatment (n = 4). The infiltration rates of soil matrix were assessed in each mesocosms with a minidisk tension infiltrometer. Six measurements were made along the experiment. Results showed that larvae of A. falsa promoted a higher water infiltration in the soil, compared to the control. On day 7, k values were similar among treatments, but k values after 28 days and up to 100 days were much higher in the A. falsa treatment (k = 0.00025 cm s(-1)) if compared to control (k = 0.00011 cm s(-1)) and P. corethrurus (k = 0.00008 cm s(-1)) treatments. The k values were significantly higher in the presence of larvae of A. falsa compared to the control and P. corethrurus treatments. The larvae of A. falsa are potential candidates for new assays on soil water infiltration with different tensions to evaluate the role of pores and holes created by the larvae on soils.

  4. Application of the rainfall infiltration breakthrough (RIB) model for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of the rainfall infiltration breakthrough (RIB) model for groundwater recharge estimation in west coastal South Africa. ... the data from Oudebosch with different rainfall and groundwater abstraction inputs are simulated to explore individual effects on water levels as well as recharge rate estimated on a daily basis.

  5. Shallow infiltration processes in arid watersheds at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flint, L.E.; Flint, A.L. Hevesi, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    A conceptual model of shallow infiltration processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was developed for use in hydrologic flow models to characterize net infiltration (the penetration of the wetting front below the zone influenced by evapotranspiration). The model categorizes the surface of the site into four infiltration zones. These zones were identified as ridgetops, sideslopes, terraces, and active channels on the basis of water-content changes with depth and time. The maximum depth of measured water-content change at a specific site is a function of surface storage capacity, the timing and magnitude of precipitation, evapotranspiration, and the degree of saturation of surficial materials overlying fractured bedrock. Measured water-content profiles for the four zones indicated that the potential for net infiltration is higher when evapotranspiration is low (i.e winter, cloudy periods), where surface concentration of water is likely to occur (i.e. depressions, channels), where surface storage capacity is low, and where fractured bedrock is close to the surface

  6. Sequential infiltration synthesis for enhancing multiple-patterning lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Seth B.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Tseng, Yu-Chih

    2017-06-20

    Simplified methods of multiple-patterning photolithography using sequential infiltration synthesis to modify the photoresist such that it withstands plasma etching better than unmodified resist and replaces one or more hard masks and/or a freezing step in MPL processes including litho-etch-litho-etch photolithography or litho-freeze-litho-etch photolithography.

  7. Implementations and interpretations of the talbot-ogden infiltration model

    KAUST Repository

    Seo, Mookwon

    2014-11-01

    The interaction between surface and subsurface hydrology flow systems is important for water supplies. Accurate, efficient numerical models are needed to estimate the movement of water through unsaturated soil. We investigate a water infiltration model and develop very fast serial and parallel implementations that are suitable for a computer with a graphical processing unit (GPU).

  8. Infiltration on mountain slopes: a comparison of three environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol P. Harden*; P. Delmas Scruggs

    2003-01-01

    Water is well established as a major driver of the geomorphic change that eventually reduces mountains to lower relief landscapes. Nonetheless, within the altitudinal limits of continuous vegetation in humid climates, water is also an essential factor in slope stability. In this paper, we present results from field experiments to determine infiltration rates at...

  9. Effect of high thermal expansion glass infiltration on mechanical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This work studies the effect on the mechanical properties of alumina-10 wt% zirconia (3 mol% yttria stabilized) composite by infiltrating glass of a higher thermal expansion (soda lime glass) on the surface at high temperature. The glass improved the strength of composite at room temperature as well as at high temperature.

  10. 40 CFR 35.2120 - Infiltration/Inflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... rainfall induced peak inflow rate results or will result in chronic operational problems during storm... during periods of high groundwater, the applicant shall build the project including sufficient capacity to transport and treat any existing infiltration. However, if the applicant believes any specific...

  11. Porcelain veneer post-bonding crack repair by resin infiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gresnigt, Marco; Magne, Michel; Magne, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Ceramic laminate veneer restorations are indicated in several clinical situations. Indirect restorations are usually chosen if the less-invasive options - bleaching, resin infiltration, or composite resin restorations - are not possible, or when it is too difficult to achieve an esthetically

  12. Three-dimensional micro structured nanocomposite beams by microfluidic infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebel, L L; Paez, O A; Therriault, D; Aïssa, B; El Khakani, M A

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) micro structured beams reinforced with a single-walled carbon nanotube (C-SWNT)/polymer nanocomposite were fabricated using an approach based on the infiltration of 3D microfluidic networks. The 3D microfluidic network was first fabricated by the direct-write assembly method, which consists of the robotized deposition of fugitive ink filaments on an epoxy substrate, forming thereby a 3D micro structured scaffold. After encapsulating the 3D micro-scaffold structure with an epoxy resin, the fugitive ink was liquefied and removed, resulting in a 3D network of interconnected microchannels. This microfluidic network was then infiltrated by a polymer loaded with C-SWNTs and subsequently cured. Prior to their incorporation in the polymer matrix, the UV-laser synthesized C-SWNTs were purified, functionalized and dispersed into the matrix using a three-roll mixing mill. The final samples consist of rectangular beams having a complex 3D skeleton structure of C-SWNT/polymer nanocomposite fibers, adapted to offer better performance under flexural solicitation. Dynamic mechanical analysis in flexion showed an increase of 12.5% in the storage modulus compared to the resin infiltrated beams. The nanocomposite infiltration of microfluidic networks demonstrated here opens new prospects for the achievement of 3D reinforced micro structures

  13. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes for the treatment of metastatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geukes Foppen, M H; Donia, M; Svane, I M

    2015-01-01

    five years, treatment with immunotherapy (anti CTLA-4, anti PD-1, or the combination of these antibodies) has shown very promising results and was able to improve survival in patients with metastatic melanoma. Adoptive cell therapy using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes is yet another, but highly...

  14. Effect of age of permeable pavements on their infiltration function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terry Lucke; ir. Floris Boogaard; Simon Beecham

    2013-01-01

    This study describes field investigations designed to compare the infiltration capacities of 55 permeable pavement systems installed in the Netherlands and in Australia. The ages of the pavements varied from 1 to 12 years. Using infiltrometer testing, the performance of the pavements has been

  15. Standardized assessment of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tramm, Trine; Di Caterino, Tina; Jylling, Anne-Marie B

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In breast cancer, there is a growing body of evidence that tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) may have clinical utility and may be able to direct clinical decisions for subgroups of patients. Clinical utility is, however, not sufficient for warranting the implementation of a new...

  16. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) from patients with glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhenjiang; Meng, Qingda; Bartek, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) may represent a viable source of T cells for the biological treatment of patients with gliomas. Glioma tissue was obtained from 16 patients, tumor cell lines were established, and TILs were expanded in 16/16 cases using a combination of IL-2/IL-15/IL-21...

  17. Use of thermal data to estimate infiltration, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeCain, Gary D.; Kurzmack, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Temperature and pressure monitoring in a vertical borehole in Pagany Wash, Yucca Mountain, Nevada, measured disruptions of the natural gradients associated with the February, 1998, El Nino precipitation events. The temperature and pressure disruptions indicated infiltration and percolation through the 12.1 m of Pagany Wash alluvium and deep percolation to greater than 35.2 m into the Yucca Mountain Tuff

  18. Remedial Investigation Badger Army Ammunition Plant, Baraboo, Wisconsin. Volume 2. Appendices D.2 Through F

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    FILES FOR COMPOUNDS OF POTENTIAL CONCERN Vol. 7 APPENDIX 0 - HUMAN HEALTH RISK CALCULATIONS Vol. 7 APPENDIX P - INVENTORY OF SITE SPECIES Vol. 7...Driing Mud 0" 0 3 am 01 99 5 .Annula space seal:- GnmuldBsuryoni 0 33 Lbs/gal mud weight ... Benuar-siid shiny 3 33 16. Driling addives used 13 yesLbs...CONSTRUCTION REPORT / 5 WISCONSIN STATE BOARD OF HEALTH WELL DRILLING DIVISION JUL 11 |W Note: Section 32 of the Wisconsin Well Drilling Sanitary Code

  19. Genomic signatures characterize leukocyte infiltration in myositis muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Leukocyte infiltration plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of myositis, and is highly associated with disease severity. Currently, there is a lack of: efficacious therapies for myositis; understanding of the molecular features important for disease pathogenesis; and potential molecular biomarkers for characterizing inflammatory myopathies to aid in clinical development. Methods In this study, we developed a simple model and predicted that 1) leukocyte-specific transcripts (including both protein-coding transcripts and microRNAs) should be coherently overexpressed in myositis muscle and 2) the level of over-expression of these transcripts should be correlated with leukocyte infiltration. We applied this model to assess immune cell infiltration in myositis by examining mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in muscle biopsies from 31 myositis patients and 5 normal controls. Results Several gene signatures, including a leukocyte index, type 1 interferon (IFN), MHC class I, and immunoglobulin signature, were developed to characterize myositis patients at the molecular level. The leukocyte index, consisting of genes predominantly associated with immune function, displayed strong concordance with pathological assessment of immune cell infiltration. This leukocyte index was subsequently utilized to differentiate transcriptional changes due to leukocyte infiltration from other alterations in myositis muscle. Results from this differentiation revealed biologically relevant differences in the relationship between the type 1 IFN pathway, miR-146a, and leukocyte infiltration within various myositis subtypes. Conclusions Results indicate that a likely interaction between miR-146a expression and the type 1 IFN pathway is confounded by the level of leukocyte infiltration into muscle tissue. Although the role of miR-146a in myositis remains uncertain, our results highlight the potential benefit of deconvoluting the source of

  20. Infiltration processing of metal matrix composites using coated ceramic particulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Patino, Carlos Alberto

    2001-07-01

    A new process was developed to fabricate particulate metal matrix composites (MMCs). The process involves three steps: (1) modifying the particulate surface by metal coating, (2) forming a particulate porous compact; and (3) introducing metal into the channel network by vacuum infiltration. MMCs with different reinforcements, volume fractions, and sizes can be produced by this technique. Powders of alumina and silicon carbide were successfully coated with nickel and copper in preparation for infiltration with molten aluminum. Electroless Ni and Cu deposition was used since it enhances the wettability of the reinforcements for composite fabrication. While Cu deposits were polycrystalline, traces of phosphorous co-deposited from the electroless bath gave an amorphous Ni-P coating. The effect of metal coating on wetting behavior was evaluated at 800°C on plain and metal-coated ceramic plates using a sessile drop technique. The metallic films eliminated the non-wetting behavior of the uncoated ceramics, leading to equilibrium contact angles in the order of 12° and below 58° for Ni and Cu coated ceramics, respectively. The spreading data indicated that local diffusion at the triple junction was the governing mechanism of the wetting process. Precipitation of intermetallic phases in the drop/ceramic interface delayed the formation of Al4C3. Infiltration with molten Al showed that the coated-particulates are suitable as reinforcing materials for fabricating MMCs, giving porosity-free components with a homogeneously distributed reinforcing phase. The coating promoted easy metal flow through the preform, compared to the non-infiltration behavior of the uncoated counterparts. Liquid state diffusion kinetics due to temperature dependent viscosity forces controlled the infiltration process. Microstructural analysis indicated the formation of intermetallic phases such as CuAl 2, in the case of Cu coating, and Ni2Al3 and NiAl 3 when Ni-coated powders were infiltrated. The

  1. Magnesium based composites fabricated by low pressure infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, P.; Micski, A.; Savage, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    Magnesiumbased fiber composites have been produced by so called low pressure infiltration. The initial material consist of 'saffil' pre-forms and two magnesium alloys, Mg-9Al-1Zn and WE 54 (approximate composition Mg-5Y-1.5Nd-2(Tb,Er,Dy,Gd)-0.5Zr), and pure magnesium. The preforms consists of 10-30 vol% of short fibers linked together by SiO 2 or Al 2 O 3 . Three different routes have been tested in the search for a good low pressure infiltration method. The experiments cover corrosion testing in NaCl-solution, sliding wear, abrasion and erosion testing. Of the tested infiltration methods the best results were obtained in a resistance heated evacuable furnace, in which the metal was molted in a steel crucible and the preform was conveyed into the melt under protective atmosphere. The infiltration takes place at atmospheric pressure and the cooling is performed in a sealed tube in air. The microscopy studies shows that low pressure infiltrated composites contain considerable amounts of porosity in distinction from those fabricated by squeeze casting. The corrosion test has shown that in the tested environment the alloy WE 54 has good corrosion resistance while Mg-9Al-1Zn and pure magnesium show low corrosion resistance. The influence of fibres in the matrix seems to be very small. Both magnesium and the alloy Mg-9Al-1Zn show for two body abrasion an almost linear improvement of abrasion resistance with increased fiber content. Pure magnesium shows decreasing erosion resistance with increasing fibre content. The Mg-9Al-1Zn-alloy appears to show a maximum in erosion resistance at 10 vol% fibers. In sliding wear the materials show an optimum initial and steady state wear resistance at a fiber content of about 10%. In general Al 2 O 3 -binder gives better wear resistance than SiO 2 -binder. Tensile testing was performed on low pressure infiltrated and squeeze cast composites with WE 54 matrix. It shows that the low pressure infiltrated composites are inferior to those

  2. Structure of Al-CF composites obtained by infiltration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dolata-Grosz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the composites obtained in infiltration processes 2D and 3D carbon preform by liquid Al alloy have been presented in thispaper. An aluminum alloy with silicon and manganese AlSi9Mn (trimal 37-TR37 was applied in the researches. As the reinforcementused carbon perform prepared with various protective barriers such as the nickel coating, the coating of silicon carbide and pyrolyticcarbon coating. Carbon preforms was prepared at the Institute for Lightweight Structures and Polymer Technology (ILK TU Dresden andat the Institute of Technology and Ceramic Systems (Fraunhofer-IKTS. The process of infiltration of carbon perform by liquid aluminiumalloy was carried out using a pressure-vacuum infiltration on the Degussa press and gas-pressure infiltration (GPI in an autoclavedesigned and built at the Department of Materials Technology at the Silesian University of Technology. The obtained composites werecharacterized by a regular shape, with no surface casting defects. The best connection of components was observed in AlSi9Mn/Cf(Nicomposite, obtained by gas-pressure infiltration method (GPI. On metallographic specimens, good interface between fibres and thealuminium matrix were observed. The obtained research results justify the application of nickel coatings on the fibres. During the failurecrack propagated across fiber. There was no presence of aluminum carbide on the fiber-matrix. It can be assumed that the composite willbe characterized by the good mechanical properties. However, this requires further experimental verification planned in the next stage of research, in the project realized within the DFG program: "3D textile reinforced aluminium matrix composites for complex loadingsituations in lightweight automobile and machine parts".

  3. Modelling of the chemical state in groundwater infiltration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zysset, A.

    1993-01-01

    Groundwater is replenished by water stemming either from precipitations, lakes or rivers. The area where such an infiltration occurs is characterized by a change in the environmental conditions, such as a decrease of the flow velocity and an increase in the solid surface marking the boundary of the flow field. With these changes new chemical processes may become relevant to the transport behavior of contaminants. Since the rates of chemical processes usually are a function of the concentrations of several species, an understanding of infiltration sites may require a multicomponent approach. The present study aims at formulating a mathematical model together with its numerical solution for groundwater infiltration sites. Such a model should improve the understanding of groundwater quality changes related to infiltrating contaminants. The groundwater quality is of vital interest to men because at many places most of the drinking water originates from groundwater. In the first part of the present study two partial models are formulated: one accounting for the transport in a one-dimensional, homogeneous and saturated porous medium, the other accounting for chemical reactions. This second model is initially stated for general kinetic systems. Then, it is specified for two systems, namely for a system governed only by reactions which are fast compared to the transport processes and for a system with biologically mediated redox reactions of dissolved substrates. In the second part of the study a numerical solution to the model is developed. For this purpose, the two partial models are coupled. The coupling is either iterative as in the case of a system with fast reactions or sequential as in all other cases. The numerical solutions of simple test cases are compared to analytical solutions. In the third part the model is evaluated using observations of infiltration sites reported in the literature. (author) figs., tabs., 155 refs

  4. Unconfined aquifer response to infiltration basins and shallow pump tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostendorf, David W.; DeGroot, Don J.; Hinlein, Erich S.

    2007-05-01

    SummaryWe measure and model the unsteady, axisymmetric response of an unconfined aquifer to delayed, arbitrary recharge. Water table drainage follows the initial elastic aquifer response, as modeled for uniform, instantaneous recharge by Zlotnik and Ledder [Zlotnik, V., Ledder, G., 1992. Groundwater flow in a compressible unconfined aquifer with uniform circular recharge. Water Resources Research 28(6), 1619-1630] and delayed drainage by Moench [Moench, A.F., 1995. Combining the Neuman and Boulton models for flow to a well in an unconfined aquifer. Ground Water 33(3), 378-384]. We extend their analyses with a convolution integral that models the delayed response of an aquifer to infiltration from a circular infiltration basin. The basin routes the hydrograph to the water table with a decay constant dependent on a Brooks and Corey [Brooks, R.H., Corey, A.T., 1966. Properties of porous media affecting fluid flow. Journal of the Irrigation and Drainage Division ASCE 92(2), 61-88] unsaturated permeability exponent. The resulting closed form model approaches Neuman's [Neuman, S.P., 1972. Theory of flow in unconfined aquifers considering delayed response of the water table. Water Resources Research 8(4), 1031-1045] partially penetrating pump test equation for a small source radius, instantaneous, uniform drainage and a shallow screen section. Irrigation pump data at a well characterized part of the Plymouth-Carver Aquifer in southeastern Massachusetts calibrate the small source model, while infiltration data from the closed drainage system of State Route 25 calibrate the infiltration basin model. The calibrated permeability, elasticity, specific yield, and permeability exponent are plausible and consistent for the pump and infiltration data sets.

  5. Physical studies of porphyrin-infiltrated opal crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabataityte, J. [Semiconductor Physics Institute, Gostauto 11, LT 01108 Vilnius (Lithuania)], E-mail: julija@pfi.lt; Simkiene, I.; Babonas, G.-J.; Reza, A. [Semiconductor Physics Institute, Gostauto 11, LT 01108 Vilnius (Lithuania); Baran, M.; Szymczak, R. [Institute of Physics, PAN, PL 02668, Warsaw (Poland); Vaisnoras, R.; Rasteniene, L. [Vilnius Pedagogical University, LT 08106, Vilnius (Lithuania); Golubev, V.; Kurdyukov, D. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute RAS, 194021, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2007-09-15

    Artificial opals made of silica spheres and infiltrated with aqueous solution of iron porphyrin (FeTPPS) possessing the absorption band in a visible spectral range were studied. The structural, optical and magnetic properties of composite structures were investigated. Bulk samples of opal structure were obtained by sedimentation technique from colloidal solution of SiO{sub 2} spheres of diameter 240 and 245 nm. The structure of the samples was examined by atomic force microscopy. The properties of photonic crystals were demonstrated by optical measurements in transmission and reflection modes. The stop band was observed in the region 510-550 nm. In samples annealed at 900 deg. C the width of the stop band increased to {approx} 70 nm. Aqueous solutions of FeTPPS of concentration {approx} 1.0 mM and various pH-values were used for infiltration. The infiltration has led to a change of photonic characteristics, position of the stop band and dependence on light incidence angle. The absorption bands typical of FeTPPS were observed in the vicinity of the stop band. The photonic properties of infiltrated opal structures were determined to depend on the acidity of aqueous solution, which was used in technological procedure. Magnetic properties of FeTPPS-infiltrated opal samples, which have been studied at 5-300 K in magnetic fields up to 5 T, were discussed. From magnetic measurements it followed that magnetic Fe-Fe interactions have practically vanished in hybrid samples and Fe centers should be treated as isolated ones.

  6. Physical studies of porphyrin-infiltrated opal crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabataityte, J.; Simkiene, I.; Babonas, G.-J.; Reza, A.; Baran, M.; Szymczak, R.; Vaisnoras, R.; Rasteniene, L.; Golubev, V.; Kurdyukov, D.

    2007-01-01

    Artificial opals made of silica spheres and infiltrated with aqueous solution of iron porphyrin (FeTPPS) possessing the absorption band in a visible spectral range were studied. The structural, optical and magnetic properties of composite structures were investigated. Bulk samples of opal structure were obtained by sedimentation technique from colloidal solution of SiO 2 spheres of diameter 240 and 245 nm. The structure of the samples was examined by atomic force microscopy. The properties of photonic crystals were demonstrated by optical measurements in transmission and reflection modes. The stop band was observed in the region 510-550 nm. In samples annealed at 900 deg. C the width of the stop band increased to ∼ 70 nm. Aqueous solutions of FeTPPS of concentration ∼ 1.0 mM and various pH-values were used for infiltration. The infiltration has led to a change of photonic characteristics, position of the stop band and dependence on light incidence angle. The absorption bands typical of FeTPPS were observed in the vicinity of the stop band. The photonic properties of infiltrated opal structures were determined to depend on the acidity of aqueous solution, which was used in technological procedure. Magnetic properties of FeTPPS-infiltrated opal samples, which have been studied at 5-300 K in magnetic fields up to 5 T, were discussed. From magnetic measurements it followed that magnetic Fe-Fe interactions have practically vanished in hybrid samples and Fe centers should be treated as isolated ones

  7. Seismic tomography Technology for the Water Infiltration Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descour, J.

    2001-01-01

    NSA Engineering, Inc., conducted seismic tomography surveys in Niche No.3 in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and Alcove No.8 in the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) cross drift as part of the Infiltration Experiment being conducted in Niche No.3. NSA Engineering is a direct support contractor to the Yucca Mountain Project. This report documents the work performed from August 14 through 30, 2000, prior to the beginning of the infiltration experiment. The objective of the seismic tomography survey was to investigate the flow path of water between access drifts and more specifically to (Kramer 2000): (1) Conduct a baseline seismic tomography survey prior to the infiltration experiment; (2) Produce 2-D and 3-D tomographic images of the rock volume between Alcove No.8 and Niche No.3; (3) Correlate tomography results with published structural and lithological features, and with other geophysical data such as ground penetrating radar (GPR); and (4) Results of this survey will form a baseline with which to compare subsequent changes to the rock mass. These changes may be as a result of the water infiltration tests that could be conducted in Alcove No.8 in 2001. The scope of this reported work is to use the velocity tomograms to: (a) assess the structures and lithologic features within the surveyed area and/or volume between the two access drifts; and (b) provide information on the structural state of the rock mass as inferred by the velocity signatures of the rock prior to the beginning of the infiltration experiment

  8. An Evaluation of Illicit Stimulants and Metabolites in Wastewa ter Effluent and the Wisconsin River Along the Central Wisconsin River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik S. Hendrickson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The goals of the study were to develop a method for extracting and quantifying illicit stimulants and metabolites, methamphetamine, amphetamine, cocaine, and benzoylecogonine from wastewater effluent and surface water grab samples, and evaluate Central Wisconsin wastewater treatment plant’s (WWTP removal efficiency of compounds of interest. The method created used HLB solid-phase extraction (SPE cartridges to extract substances of interest and High Performance Liquid Chromatography tandem Mass Spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS for quantification and qualification. All four wastewater effluent samples and three Wisconsin River samples had quantifiable concentrations of at least one analyte. Conclusions derived from the study were: The method created is effective for separating, quantifying, and identifying amphetamine, cocaine, and benzoylecognine from wastewater effluent and surface water grab samples, and each illicit stimulant and metabolite analyzed in this study were all quantified in wastewater effluent, indicating these compounds have the ability to survive WWTP.

  9. Evaluating the infiltration performance of eight Dutch permeable pavements using a new full-scale infiltration testing method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, Floris; Lucke, Terry; van de Giesen, Nick; van de Ven, Frans

    2014-01-01

    Permeable pavements are a type of sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS) technique that are used around the world to infiltrate and treat urban Stormwater runoff and to minimize runoff volumes. Urban stormwater runoff contains significant concentrations of suspended sediments that can cause

  10. Evaluating the Infiltration Performance of Eight Dutch Permeable Pavements Using a New Full-Scale Infiltration Testing Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, F.C.; Lucke, T.; Van de Giesen, N.C.; Van de Ven, F.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Permeable pavements are a type of sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS) technique that are used around the world to infiltrate and treat urban stormwater runoff and to minimize runoff volumes. Urban stormwater runoff contains significant concentrations of suspended sediments that can cause

  11. Observations on infiltration of silicon carbide compacts with an aluminium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthana, R.; Rohatgi, P. K.

    1992-01-01

    The melt infiltration of ceramic particulates permits an opportunity to observe such fundamental materials phenomena as nucleation, dynamic wetting and growth in constrained environments. Experimental observations are presented on the infiltration behavior and matrix microstructures that form when porous compacts of platelet-shaped single crystals of alpha- (hexagonal) silicon carbide are infiltrated with a liquid 2014 Al alloy. The infiltration process involved counter gravity infiltration of suitably tamped and preheated compacts of silicon carbide platelets under an external pressure in a special pressure chamber for a set period, then by solidification of the infiltrant metal in the interstices of the bed at atmospheric pressure.

  12. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the ...

  13. Nutrient transport and transformation beneath an infiltration basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, D.M.; Rolston, D.E.; Bradner, L.A.

    1998-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to examine nutrient transport and transformation beneath an infiltration basin used for the disposal of treated wastewater. Removal of nitrogen from infiltrating water by denitrification was negligible beneath the basin, probably because of subsurface aeration as a result of daily interruptions in basin loading. Retention of organic nitrogen in the upper 4.6 m of the unsaturated zone (water table depth of approximately 11 m) during basin loading resulted in concentrations of nitrate as much as 10 times that of the applied treated wastewater, following basin 'rest' periods of several weeks, which allowed time for mineralization and nitrification. Approximately 90% of the phosphorus in treated wastewater was removed within the upper 4.6 m of the subsurface, primarily by adsorption reactions, with abundant iron and aluminum oxyhydroxides occurring as soil coatings. A reduction in the flow rate of infiltrating water arriving at the water table may explain the accumulation of relatively coarse (>0.45 ??m), organic forms of nitrogen and phosphorus slightly below the water table. Mineralization and nitrification reactions at this second location of organic nitrogen accumulation contributed to concentrations of nitrate as much as three times that of the applied treated wastewater. Phosphorus, which accumulated below the water table, was immobilized by adsorption or precipitation reactions during basin rest periods.Field experiments were conducted to examine nutrient transport and transformation beneath an infiltration basin used for the disposal of treated wastewater. Removal of nitrogen from infiltrating water by denitrification was negligible beneath the basin, probably because of subsurface aeration as a result of daily interruptions in basin loading. Retention of organic nitrogen in the upper 4.6 m of the unsaturated zone (water table depth of approximately 11 m) during basin loading resulted in concentrations of nitrate as much as 10

  14. Vadose Zone Infiltration Rates from Sr isotope Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, K.; Maher, K.; DePaolo, D. J.; DePaolo, D. J.; Conrad, M.

    2001-12-01

    Predicting infiltration rates and recharge through the vadose zone in arid regions is difficult and hence developing methods for the measurement of infiltration rates is important. We have been investigating the use of Sr isotope measurements for determining infiltration at the 200 Area plateau on the Hanford reservation in central Washington. In this context, infiltration affects the transport of contaminants to the water table as well as recharge of the groundwater system. Using Sr isotopes for this purpose requires drill core and water samples from the vadose zone, although leaches of the cores can substitute for water samples. Complementary information, including some constraints on regional recharge, can also be obtained using water samples from groundwater monitoring wells. The VZ method is based on the fact that the Sr isotope ratio of soil water just below the surface is often set by dissolution of aeolian material including carbonate, and this ratio is different from the average value in the deeper underlying vadose zone rock matrix. As water infiltrates, the Sr isotopic composition of the water changes toward the rock values as a result of Sr released from the rocks by weathering reactions. The rate of change with depth of the Sr isotope ratio of the vadose zone water is a function ultimately of q/R; the ratio of the infiltration flux (q) to the bulk rock weathering rate (R). Where it is possible to evaluate R, q can be estimated. As data accumulate it may be possible to improve the calibration of the method. At Hanford the vadose zone rock material is mostly unconsolidated sand, silt, and gravel of broadly granitic composition, which constitute the Hanford and Ringold formations. Annual precipitation is about 160 mm/yr. Drilling and coring of a ca. 70m hole to the water table in 1999 as part of the Hanford groundwater monitoring program, in a relatively undisturbed area of the site, allowed us to generate a unique Sr isotope data set. The Sr isotope

  15. Relative contributions of transient and steady state infiltration during ephemeral streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Kyle W.; Ferré, Ty P.A.; Hoffmann, John P.; Fleming, John B.

    2006-01-01

    Simulations of infiltration during three ephemeral streamflow events in a coarse‐grained alluvial channel overlying a less permeable basin‐fill layer were conducted to determine the relative contribution of transient infiltration at the onset of streamflow to cumulative infiltration for the event. Water content, temperature, and piezometric measurements from 2.5‐m vertical profiles within the alluvial sediments were used to constrain a variably saturated water flow and heat transport model. Simulated and measured transient infiltration rates at the onset of streamflow were about two to three orders of magnitude greater than steady state infiltration rates. The duration of simulated transient infiltration ranged from 1.8 to 20 hours, compared with steady state flow periods of 231 to 307 hours. Cumulative infiltration during the transient period represented 10 to 26% of the total cumulative infiltration, with an average contribution of approximately 18%. Cumulative infiltration error for the simulated streamflow events ranged from 9 to 25%. Cumulative infiltration error for typical streamflow events of about 8 hours in duration in is about 90%. This analysis indicates that when estimating total cumulative infiltration in coarse‐grained ephemeral stream channels, consideration of the transient infiltration at the onset of streamflow will improve predictions of the total volume of infiltration that may become groundwater recharge.

  16. Legislation on Homelessness. Wisconsin Legislative Council Report No. 12 to the 1991 Legislature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Laura; Matthias, Mary

    The components of Wisconsin's 1991 Assembly Bill 680 that considers homelessness are discussed in this document. The Bill itself addresses: (1) surplus state lands; (2) transitional housing grants; (3) prevention of homelessness; (4) establishing a low-income housing income and franchise tax credit; (5) veterans lacking a permanent address; (6)…

  17. 78 FR 57501 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Amendments to Vehicle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... Definitions, NR 485.04 Motor vehicle emission limitations; exemptions, and NR 485.045 Repair cost limit for... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Amendments to Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance... Resources on June 7, 2012, concerning the state's vehicle inspection and maintenance (I/M) program in...

  18. 76 FR 26681 - Wisconsin: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Hazardous Waste Management Programs,'' Wisconsin's authorized hazardous waste program. EPA will incorporate... that are authorized and that the EPA will enforce under the Solid Waste Disposal Act, commonly referred...

  19. 78 FR 34966 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Removal of Gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Removal of Gasoline Vapor Recovery From Southeast... specifically installed at gasoline dispensing facilities (GDF) and capture the refueling fuel vapors at the gasoline pump nozzle. The system carries the vapors back to the underground storage tank at the GDF to...

  20. Research Evidence and School Board Deliberations: Lessons from Three Wisconsin School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asen, Robert; Gurke, Deb; Conners, Pamela; Solomon, Ryan; Gumm, Elsa

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the use of research evidence in school-board deliberations in three school districts in Wisconsin. In these settings, the circulation, meaning, and function of research depended importantly on the interests and backgrounds of advocates, the composition of audiences, and the values and contexts of decision-making. Board…

  1. Influence of forest management alternatives and land type on susceptibility to fire in northern Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson; Patrick A. Zollner; Brian R. Sturtevant; S. He Hong; David J. Mladenoff

    2004-01-01

    We used the LANDIS disturbance and succession model to study the effects of six alternative vegetation management scenarios on forest succession and the subsequent risk of canopy fire on a 2791 km2 landscape in northern Wisconsin, USA. The study area is a mix of fire-prone and fire-resistant land types. The alternatives vary the spatial...

  2. Mechanisms of Termite Spread in Wisconsin and Potential Consequences as a Result of Changing Climate Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. A. Arango; F. III Green; G.R. Esenther; D.A. Marschalek; M.E. Berres; K.F. Raffa

    2014-01-01

    Mature colonies of Reticulitermes spp. reproduce and spread mainly by secondary (rather than alate) reproductives throughout their geographical distribution, but especially near the northern boundaries of their range. Historically in Wisconsin, winged reproductives of the one established species, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar),...

  3. How Productive Are Southeastern Wisconsin Schools? Regional Report. Volume 3, Number 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jeffrey K.; Lemke, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Public schools can be considered a form of workforce development, and thus it is important to measure the "work product" of the schools. The Public Policy Forum's annual analysis of public schools in the 50 districts serving southeastern Wisconsin measured absenteeism as educational opportunities lost because children were not in class.…

  4. 76 FR 63852 - Proposed Establishment of the Wisconsin Ledge Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ..., University of Wisconsin Press, 1965, page 281). The western portion of the proposed boundary line extends... grapevine growth (``General Viticulture,'' by Albert J. Winkler, University of California Press, 1974, pages... River National Wildlife Refuges. Finally, the petition adds that Horicon Ledge Park, Ledge View County...

  5. Consumer adoption and grid impact models for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    This proposed study focuses on assessing the demand for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in Wisconsin and its economic : impacts on the States energy market and the electric grid. PHEVs are expected to provide a range of about 40 miles per ...

  6. 75 FR 10309 - Wisconsin Statewide Habitat Conservation Plan for Karner Blue Butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... implementation of the HCP, which has become the normal way of doing business in Wisconsin. Partners and other... management that incidentally takes butterflies could not proceed. Vegetation succession would follow and the... normal business hours (8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.) at the Ecological Services Field Office in New Franken and at...

  7. Convective cells and their relationship to vortex diffusion in the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhardt, A.B.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is two-fold: first, to present floating potential structure for different plasmas and operating parameters in the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole. Second, to show how the observed potential structure can be used, within the framework of vortex diffusion, to account for enhanced diffusion in the appropriate parameter regimes

  8. Hardwood Face Veneer and Plywood Mill Closures in Michigan and Wisconsin Since 1950

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis T. Hendricks

    1966-01-01

    In recent years there has been a great deal of concern about the closure of numberous hardwood face veneer and plywood mills in Michigan and Wisconsin. As part of an overall study of that industry in the northern Lake States region, the basic reasons leading to the closure of these mills were investigated. In the past 15 years, there have been eight known mill...

  9. 77 FR 38821 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin's Proposed Fee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ..., with the Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin (Tribe), the National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC), the... III gaming would be conducted inside the existing clubhouse until the new casino is built. The FEIS..., environmental justice, cumulative effects, indirect effects and mitigation. The BIA has afforded other...

  10. Restoring Wisconsin Art Therapy Association in Art Therapy History: Implications for Professional Definition and Inclusivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potash, Jordan; Burnie, Michele; Pearson, Rosemary; Ramirez, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    The Wisconsin Art Therapy Association (WATA), formally established in 1969, was the first incorporated organization of art therapists in the United States. Under the leadership of Wayne Ramirez, WATA lobbied the national association for an inclusive definition of art therapy that aimed to foster respect for psychiatric, educational, and community…

  11. Wisconsin timber industry--an assessment of timber product output and use, 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith; James W. Whipple

    1990-01-01

    Discusses recent Wisconsin forest industry trends; production and receipts of pulpwood, saw logs, and veneer logs; and production of other timber products in 1988. Reports on logging residue, on wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills, and on disposition of this mill residue.

  12. Creating Jobs through Energy Efficiency Using Wisconsin's Successful Focus on Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhtar, Masood; Corrigan, Edward; Reitter, Thomas

    2012-03-30

    The purpose of this project was to provide administrative and technical support for the completion of energy efficiency projects that reduce energy intensity and create or save Wisconsin industrial jobs. All projects have been completed. Details in the attached reports include project management, job development, and energy savings for each project.

  13. Waste Management in Universities and Colleges. Workshop Proceedings (Madison, Wisconsin, July 9-11, 1980).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Physical Plant Administrators of Universities and Colleges, Washington, DC.

    In response to a request from the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Region V of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored a workshop on waste management in universities and colleges. It consisted of four sessions: (1) managing general university waste and regulatory concerns; (2) chemical waste management; (3)…

  14. Valuable Work, Minimal Rewards: A Report on the Wisconsin Child Care Work Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Alice; And Others

    A 1994 state-wide survey examined the status of child care profession in Wisconsin. Surveyed were 326 family child care providers, 104 child care center directors, and 254 center teaching staff. Responses indicated that child care teaching staff have experienced a wage increase of just over 1 percent per year since 1988, and continue to earn low…

  15. Wisconsin System for Instructional Management: Terminal Operator Manual. Practical Paper No. 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, William C.; And Others

    The Wisconsin System for Instructional Management (WIS-SIM) is a computer managed instruction (CMI) system designed to improve instructional decision making in order to maximize the educational progress of each child while making efficient use of the available human, material, and financial resources within an organizational structure such as the…

  16. Research in the Doctoral Program in Second Language Acquisition at the University of Wisconsin-Madison

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Costa, Peter I.; Bernales, Carolina; Merrill, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Faculty and graduate students in the Doctoral Program in Second Language Acquisition (SLA) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison engage in a broad spectrum of research. From Professor Sally Magnan's research on study abroad and Professor Monika Chavez's work in foreign language policy through Professor Richard Young's examination of…

  17. A Descriptive Study of Wisconsin PK-12 Virtual Public School Program Operations and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banker, Margaret M.

    2012-01-01

    E-Learning as it pertains to public education is in its infancy in America. There is limited research on what operational design, development, and management attributes of virtual school programs foster student achievement. The Wisconsin Department of Instruction has not developed or adopted program standards for E-Learning programs. The purpose…

  18. Surface-water quality, Oneida Reservation and vicinity, Wisconsin, 1997-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Morgan A.; Scudder, Barbara C.; Richards, Kevin D.

    2000-01-01

    Streamwater samples were collected at 19 sites in the vicinity of the Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin Reservation. Samples were collected during 5 sampling periods in 1997-98. Field measurements were made and samples were analyzed for nutrients, suspended sediment, major ions, and pesticides.

  19. Wisconsin's Lake Superior Basin Water Quality Study. Supplement. Technical Report No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisnant, David M., Ed.

    During the period extending from May 1972 through April 1973, an investigation of the overall water quality conditions of streams flowing into Lake Superior from the entire state of Wisconsin was conducted. The goal of this publication was to provide much needed regional information on water quality, drainage basins, pollution sources and loads,…

  20. A comparison of Wisconsin neonatal intensive care units with national data on outcomes and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Erika W; Sadek-Badawi, Mona; Albanese, Aggie; Palta, Mari

    2008-11-01

    Improvements in neonatal care over the past 3 decades have increased survival of infants at lower birthweights and gestational ages. However, outcomes and practices vary considerably between hospitals. To describe maternal and infant characteristics, neonatal intensive care units (NICU) practices, morbidity, and mortality in Wisconsin NICUs, and to compare outcomes in Wisconsin to the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development network of large academic medical center NICUs. The Newborn Lung Project Statewide Cohort is a prospective observational study of all very low birthweight (< or =1500 grams) infants admitted during 2003 and 2004 to the 16 level III NICUs in Wisconsin. Anonymous data were collected for all admitted infants (N=1463). Major neonatal morbidities, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) were evaluated. The overall incidence of BPD was 24% (8%-56% between NICUs); IVH incidence was 23% (9%-41%); the incidence of NEC was 7% (0%-21%); and the incidence of grade III or higher ROP was 10% (0%-35%). The incidence rates of major neonatal morbidities in Wisconsin were similar to those of a national network of academic NICUs.

  1. Personality Characteristics and Level of Performance of Male County Extension Agents in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Dasharathrai Navnitrai

    The major purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between selected personality characteristics and attitudes of male extension agents in Wisconsin, and their level of job performance. The relationships between selected background factors and the level of agent's job performance were also studied. Subjects were 79 male county agents…

  2. 76 FR 14351 - Proposed Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria Applicable to Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... Proposed Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria Applicable to Wisconsin AGENCY... aquatic life water quality criteria for chronic and acute copper and nickel, and chronic endrin and...., Washington, DC 20460 or Francine Norling, Proposed Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality...

  3. The Sixties and the Cold War University: Madison, Wisconsin and the Development of the New Left

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The history of the sixties at the University of Wisconsin-Madison is both typical of other large universities in the United States and, at the same time, distinctive within the national and even international upheaval that marked the era. Madison's history shows how higher education transformed in the decades after World War II, influenced…

  4. Gay Men's Book Clubs versus Wisconsin's Public Libraries: Political Perceptions in the Absence of Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, John

    2010-01-01

    Because of an absence of dialogue, a tense relationship appears to exist between Wisconsin's gay men's book discussion groups and their local public libraries. Public library directors express interest in accommodating these groups if approached but face budget restrictions and local communities that may oppose these gatherings; gay men's book…

  5. Self Perceived Leadership Styles of Male and Female Superintendents in Wisconsin Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieckmann, Kelly Renée

    2016-01-01

    The number of female superintendents in Wisconsin public schools remains disproportionately low compared to males. With research supporting a connection between female leaders and transformational leadership, the question as to why more females do not enter the realm of leadership and how they see themselves as leaders remains unanswered. This…

  6. 76 FR 18261 - University of Wisconsin; Notice of Issuance of Renewed Facility License No. R-74

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... of Issuance of Renewed Facility License No. R-74 The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC, the Commission) has issued renewed Facility License No. R-74, held by the University of Wisconsin (the licensee... to 1.4% [Delta]k/k. The renewed Facility License No. R-74 will expire at midnight 20 years from its...

  7. Urban and community forests of the North Central East region: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2010-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry information for each state including human population characteristics and trends,...

  8. An Examination of Alternative Poverty Measures for the Wisconsin Equalization Aid Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, James G.

    1986-01-01

    Wisconsin's guaranteed tax base equalization formula has no direct adjustment for the additional costs of educating poverty level pupils. This paper establishes the need for an adjustment and examines three measures (based on varying poverty definitions) to determine which provides the most equitable funding formula for educating poor children. (9…

  9. 2 Dailies Battle for Readers and Advertisers in U. of Wisconsin Student-Newspaper War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschorn, Michael W.

    1987-01-01

    Two student newspapers at the University of Wisconsin at Madison are in fierce competition for readers and advertisers. A proposal of the Badger Herald, an 18-year-old conservative weekly, that the two merge their financial operations was rejected by the liberal Daily Cardinal and the newspaper war was on. (MLW)

  10. Using the index of biotic integrity (IBI) to measure environmental quality in warmwater streams of Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Lyons

    1992-01-01

    Describes an index based on attributes of fish assemblages that has proven effective in assessing biotic integrity and environmental health in intermediate-sized, warmwater (i.e., too warm for salmonids) streams and rivers of Wisconsin. Provides detailed guidelines for applying this index.

  11. 75 FR 32813 - St. Croix Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs St. Croix Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin...: This notice publishes the Secretary's certification of the amended St. Croix Chippewa Indians of... Country. The St. Croix Tribal Council of the adopted this amended Liquor Ordinance on December 3, 2009...

  12. Age Differences in Perseveration: Cognitive and Neuroanatomical Mediators of Performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Denise; Kennedy, Kristen M.; Rodrigue, Karen M.; Raz, Naftali

    2009-01-01

    Aging effects on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) are fairly well established but the mechanisms of the decline are not clearly understood. In this study, we examined the cognitive and neural mechanisms mediating age-related increases in perseveration on the WCST. MRI-based volumetry and measures of selected executive functions in…

  13. Using the Wisconsin-Ohio Reference Evaluation Program (WOREP) to Improve Training and Reference Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Eric; Rimland, Emily

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses a service quality study conducted in the Pennsylvania State University Libraries. The Wisconsin-Ohio Reference Evaluation Program survey was selected as a valid, standardized instrument. We present our results, highlighting the impact on reference training. A second survey a year later demonstrated that focusing on…

  14. Population Characteristics of Drunk Drivers Referred for Assessment in Two Wisconsin Counties 1981-1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnack, Anne M.

    1986-01-01

    Summarizes a study of Wisconsin's drunk driving law and evaluates the mandated alcohol assessment for convicted offenders. Findings indicated individuals operating while intoxicated remain young, male, unmarried, with high school educations. A substantial number of these persons were assessed with serious drinking problems. The strongest predictor…

  15. Putting Anti-Indian Violence in Context. The Case of the Great Lakes Chippewas of Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Barbara; Robyn, Linda

    2005-01-01

    The Chippewas of Northern Wisconsin continue to experience a peculiarly American form of apartheid, characterized by segregation, discrimination, cultural imperialism, and everyday violence. While the blatant stigmatization, disempowerment, and violence reached its modern day zenith in the spear fishing conflict of the 1980s and 1990s, ongoing…

  16. 77 FR 46952 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Regional Haze

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... July 31, 2018. Wisconsin submitted its regional haze plan on January 18, 2012, with a supplemental.... Response: In cases like this where a subject is addressed by both the general guidance in the draft... option at that time. Further, this approach does not require an election of one set of mass caps by July...

  17. Measurement of gas transport properties for chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, T.L.; Hablutzel, N. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    1996-12-01

    In the chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) process for fabricating ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), transport of gas phase reactant into the fiber preform is a critical step. The transport can be driven by pressure or by concentration. This report describes methods for measuring this for CVI preforms and partially infiltrated composites. Results are presented for Nicalon fiber cloth layup preforms and composites, Nextel fiber braid preforms and composites, and a Nicalon fiber 3-D weave composite. The results are consistent with a percolating network model for gas transport in CVI preforms and composites. This model predicts inherent variability in local pore characteristics and transport properties, and therefore, in local densification during processing; this may lead to production of gastight composites.

  18. Water Infiltration and Hydraulic Conductivity in Sandy Cambisols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bens, Oliver; Wahl, Niels Arne; Fischer, Holger

    2006-01-01

    from pure Scots pine stands towards pure European beech stands. The water infiltration capacity and hydraulic conductivity (K) of the investigated sandy-textured soils are low and very few macropores exist. Additionally these pores are marked by poor connectivity and therefore do not have any...... of the experimental soils. The results indicate clearly that soils play a crucial role for water retention and therefore, in overland flow prevention. There is a need to have more awareness on the intimate link between the land use and soil properties and their possible effects on flooding.......Soil hydrological properties like infiltration capacity and hydraulic conductivity have important consequences for hydrological properties of soils in river catchments and for flood risk prevention. They are dynamic properties due to varying land use management practices. The objective...

  19. Fatty infiltration of the liver: evaluation by proton spectroscopic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiken, J.P.; Lee, J.K.; Dixon, W.T.

    1985-01-01

    The reliability of proton spectroscopic imaging in evaluating fatty infiltration of the liver was investigated in 35 subjects (12 healthy volunteers and 23 patients with fatty livers). With this modified spin-echo technique, fatty liver could be separated from normal liver both visually and quantitatively. On the opposed image, normal liver had an intermediate signal intensity, greater than that of muscle, whereas fatty liver had a lower signal intensity, equal to or less than that of muscle. In normal livers, the lipid signal fraction was less than 10%, while in fatty livers it was greater than 10% and usually exceeded 20%. With this technique, nonuniform fatty infiltration of the liver can be differentiated from hepatic metastases, and the technique may prove useful in the differentiation of some hepatic disorders

  20. Model for solid oxide fuel cell cathodes prepared by infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Alfred Junio; Søgaard, Martin; Hendriksen, Peter Vang

    2017-01-01

    A 1-dimensional model of a cathode has been developed in order to understand and predict the performance of cathodes prepared by infiltration of La0.6Sr0.4Co1.05O3-δ (LSC) into porous backbones of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO). The model accounts for the mixed ionic and electronic conductivity of LSC......, ionic conductivity of CGO, gas transport in the porous cathode, and the oxygen reduction reaction at the surface of percolated LSC. Geometrical variations are applied to reflect a changing microstructure of LSC under varying firing temperatures. Using microstructural parameters obtained from detailed...... scanning electron microscopy and simulations of the measured polarization resistances, an expression for the area specific resistance (rp) associated with the oxygen exchange on the surface of the infiltrated LSC particles was extracted and compared with literature values. A series of microstructural...

  1. Control of water infiltration through SLB trench covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.K.; Ridky, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    A technique for control of water infiltration into waste burial trenches is described. Initial results show the procedure to be very promising. In essence, the technique combines engineered or positive control of run-off, along with a vegetative cover, and is named bioengineering management. To investigate control of infiltration, lysimeters are being used to make complete water balance measurements. The studies are underway at the Maxey Flats, Kentucky, low-level waste burial site. Where the original Maxey Flats site closure procedure is followed, it is necessary to pump large amounts of water out of the lysimeters to prevent the water table from rising closer than 2 meters from the surface. Using the fescue grass bioengineering management procedure, no pumping is required. Encouraged by the initial findings in the rather small-scale lysimeters, a large scale demonstration of the bioengineering management technique has been initiated in Beltsville, Maryland. 6 references, 14 figures

  2. Porcelain veneer post-bonding crack repair by resin infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresnigt, Marco; Magne, Michel; Magne, Pascal

    Ceramic laminate veneer restorations are indicated in several clinical situations. Indirect restorations are usually chosen if the less-invasive options - bleaching, resin infiltration, or composite resin restorations - are not possible, or when it is too difficult to achieve an esthetically pleasing result in the long term. Bonded indirect partial restorations are highly dependent on their adhesive interface, as these thin restorations have a relatively low cohesive strength. Therefore, preservation of sound enamel, conditioning of the restorations and of the substrate, and luting procedures are of paramount importance for a successful outcome. Even when utmost care is taken during every step of the procedure, failures such as fractures, chipping, or marginal discoloration and defects sometimes occur. Only very few of these cases of failure are presented or are a subject of interest. In this case presentation, a fracture repair is performed using an infiltration technique with a resin composite material.

  3. Preparation of TiC/Ni3Al Composites by Upward Melt Infiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    TiC/Ni3Al composites have been prepared using upward infiltration method. The densificstion was performed by both Ni3Al melt filling and TiC sintering during the infiltration. The dissolution of TiC in liquid Ni3Al has been evidenced by finding Ni3(Al,Ti)C after fast cooling in the TiC/Ni3Al composites. The dissolution may be responsible for the infiltration and sintering. Compared with downward infiltration, the upward infiltration brought about higher strength and fracture toughness and shorter infiltration time. TiC/20 vol. pct Ni3Al composite processed by upward infiltration had a flexural strength of 1476 Mpa with a statistic Weibull modulus of 20.2 and a fracture toughness of 20.4 Mpa(m). Better mechanical properties may be attributed to melt unidirectional movement in upward infiltration.

  4. A randomized, controlled trial comparing local infiltration analgesia with epidural infusion for total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Karen Vestergaard; Bak, Marie; Christensen, Birgitte Viebæk

    2010-01-01

    There have been few studies describing wound infiltration with additional intraarticular administration of multimodal analgesia for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). In this study, we assessed the efficacy of wound infiltration combined with intraarticular regional analgesia with epidural infusion...

  5. Determining the extent of groundwater interference on the performance of infiltration trenches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locatelli, Luca; Mark, Ole; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2015-01-01

    Infiltration trenches are widely used in stormwater management, but their capacity decreases when installed in areas with shallow groundwater where infiltration is limited by groundwater drainage. Here the hydrological performance of single infiltration trenches in areas with shallow water tables...... is quantified in terms of their capability to reduce peak flow, peak volume and annual stormwater runoff volume. To simulate the long term hydrological performance of infiltration trenches two different models are employed. The models continuously simulate infiltration rates from infiltration trenches using...... to quantify the impact of parameter variability for each scenario. Statistical analysis of the continuous long term model simulations was used to quantify the hydrological performance of infiltration trenches. Results show that infiltration trenches are affected by groundwater when there is an unsaturated...

  6. Description of the G-A Infiltration Model Using Chu and Chow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    conditions and divided the infiltration into two stages of before ponding and during ... been paid attention to for calculation of the excess rain in unsteady rainfall ..... Serrano S. E.(2001), Explicit Solution to Green and. Ampt Infiltration Equation.

  7. Bulk vs wedge shape layering techniques in V class cavities: marginal infiltration evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Giudice Roberto

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: Considering the limitation related to the technique used for the infiltration analysis in small V class cavities, the infiltration score is not influenced by the different stratification techniques.

  8. Compact fluorescent lighting in Wisconsin: elevated atmospheric emission and landfill deposition post-EISA implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, John D; Katers, John F

    2013-07-01

    The majority of states in the USA, including Wisconsin, have been affected by elevated air, soil and waterborne mercury levels. Health risks associated with mercury increase from the consumption of larger fish species, such as Walleye or Pike, which bio-accumulate mercury in muscle tissue. Federal legislation with the 2011 Mercury and Air Toxics Standards and the Wisconsin legislation on mercury, 2009 Wisconsin Act 44, continue to aim at lowering allowable levels of mercury emissions. Meanwhile, mercury-containing compact fluorescent lights (CFL) sales continue to grow as businesses and consumers move away from energy intensive incandescent light bulbs. An exchange in pollution media is occurring as airborne mercury emissions from coal-burning power plants, the largest anthropogenic source of mercury, are being reduced by lower energy demand and standards, while more universal solid waste containing mercury is generated each time a CFL is disposed. The treatment of CFLs as a 'universal waste' by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) led to the banning of non-household fluorescent bulbs from most municipal solid waste. Although the EPA encourages recycling of bulbs, industry currently recycles fluorescent lamps and CFLs at a rate of only 29%. Monitoring programs at the federal and state level have had only marginal success with industrial and business CFL recycling. The consumer recycling rate is even lower at only 2%. A projected increase in residential CFL use in Wisconsin owing to the ramifications of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 will lead to elevated atmospheric mercury and landfill deposition in Wisconsin.

  9. Optic nerve infiltration by acute lymphoblastic leukemia: MRI contribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Maria de Fatima; Braga, Flavio Tulio [Federal University of Sao Paulo, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Paulista School of Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rocha, Antonio Jose da [Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo, Servico de Diagnostico por Imagem, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Lederman, Henrique Manoel [Federal University of Sao Paulo, Division of Diagnostic Imaging in Pediatrics, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2005-08-01

    We describe the clinical presentation and imaging features of a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) that was complicated by optic nerve infiltration. The clinical and diagnostic characteristics of this complication must be recognized so that optimal therapy can be started to prevent blindness. MR imaging is useful in early detection and should be performed in any leukemic patient with ocular complaints, even during remission. (orig.)

  10. Optic nerve infiltration by acute lymphoblastic leukemia: MRI contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Maria de Fatima; Braga, Flavio Tulio; Rocha, Antonio Jose da; Lederman, Henrique Manoel

    2005-01-01

    We describe the clinical presentation and imaging features of a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) that was complicated by optic nerve infiltration. The clinical and diagnostic characteristics of this complication must be recognized so that optimal therapy can be started to prevent blindness. MR imaging is useful in early detection and should be performed in any leukemic patient with ocular complaints, even during remission. (orig.)

  11. Infiltration of surface mined land reclaimed by deep tillage treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, S.K.; Cowsert, P.

    1994-01-01

    Surface mining of coal leads to the drastic disturbance of soils. Compaction of replaced subsoil and topsoil resulting from hauling, grading, and leveling procedures produces a poor rooting medium for crop growth. Soil compaction results in high bulk density, low macroporosity, poor water infiltration capacity, and reduced elongation of plant roots. In the United States, Public Law 95-87 mandates that the rooting medium of mined soils have specific textural characteristics and be graded and shaped to a topography similar to premining conditions. Also, crop productivity levels equivalent to those prior to mining must be achieved, especially for prime farmland. Alleviation of compaction has been the major focus of reclamation, and recently new techniques to augment the rooting zone with deep-ripping and loosening equipment have come to the forefront. Several surface mine operators in the Illinois coal basin are using deep tillage equipment that is capable of loosening soils to greater depths than is possible with conventional farm tillage equipment. Information on the beneficial effects of these loosening procedures on soil hydrological properties, such as infiltration, runoff potential, erosion, and water retention, is extremely important for future mined land management. However, such information is lacking. In view of the current yield demonstration regulation for prime farmland and other unmined soils, it is important that as much information as possible be obtained concerning the effect of deep tillage on soil hydrologic properties. The objectives of this study are: (1) to compare infiltration rates and related soil physical properties of mined soils reclaimed by various deep tillage treatments and (2) to study the temporal variability of infiltration and related physical properties of the reclaimed mined soil after deep tillage treatment

  12. Characterization of inflammatory cell infiltrate in human dental pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, K F; Silva, J A; Silva, T A; Batista, A C; Alencar, A H G; Estrela, C

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate the microscopic characteristics and densities (per mm(2) ) of tryptase(+) mast cells, CD4(+) T helper lymphocytes, CD45RO(+) memory T lymphocytes, foxp3(+) T regulatory lymphocytes, CD20(+) B lymphocytes, CD68(+) macrophages, and CD31(+) blood vessels in human dental pulpitis (n=38) and healthy pulpal tissue (n=6). The pulps of 38 human teeth with a clinical diagnosis of irreversible pulpitis were removed by pulpectomy. The pulp tissue was immersed in 10% buffered formalin for evaluation using light microscopy. Tryptase, CD4, CD45RO, foxp3, CD20, CD68, and CD31 expressions were analysed using immunohistochemistry; other microscopic features, such as intensity of inflammatory infiltrate and collagen deposition, were evaluated using haematoxylin and eosin stain. Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis. The significance level was set at α=5%. Two microscopic patterns of pulpitis were found: group 1 (G1) (n=15) had an intense inflammatory infiltrate and mild collagen deposition; conversely, group 2 (G2) (n=23) had a scarce inflammatory infiltrate and intense collagen deposition. The numbers of CD68(+) macrophages (P=0.004) and CD20(+) B (P=0.068) lymphocytes and the density of blood vessels (P=0.002) were higher in G1 than in G2. However, a similar number of CD4(+) and CD45RO(+) T lymphocytes was found in both groups (P>0.05). When present, tryptase(+) mast cells were equally distributed in G1 and G2, whereas foxp3(+) T regulatory lymphocytes were detected in 59% and 14% of the samples of G1 and G2. Controls exhibited lower numbers of foxp3, tryptase, CD4, CD45RO, CD68 and CD20 positive cells than G1 and G2. Irreversible pulpitis had distinct microscopic features with important quantitative and qualitative differences in inflammatory cell infiltration. © 2010 International Endodontic Journal.

  13. USPIO-enhanced MR imaging of macrophage infiltration in native and transplanted kidneys: initial results in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauger, Olivier; Grenier, Nicolas [Service d' Imagerie Diagnostique et Therapeutique de l' Adulte, Groupe Hospitalier Pellegrin, Bordeaux Cedex (France); Laboratoire d' Imagerie Moleculaire et Fonctionnelle, ERT CNRS/Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Bordeaux (France); Deminere, Colette [Service d' Anatomo-pathologie, Groupe Hospitalier Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France); Lasseur, Catherine; Delmas, Yahsou; Merville, Pierre; Combe, Christian [Departement de Nephrologie, Groupe Hospitalier Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France)

    2007-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the detection and characterization of macrophage infiltration in native and transplanted kidneys using ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (USPIO). Among 21 patients initially enrolled, 12 scheduled for renal biopsy for acute or rapidly progressive renal failure (n = 7) or renal graft rejection (n = 5) completed the study. Three magnetic resonance (MR) sessions were performed with a 1.5-T system, before, immediately after and 72 h after i.v. injection of USPIO at doses of 1.7-2.6 mg of iron/kg. Signal intensity change was evaluated visually and calculated based on a region of interest (ROI) positioned on the kidney compartments. Histological examination showed cortical macrophage infiltration in four patients (>5 macrophages/mm{sup 2}), two in native kidneys (proliferative extracapillary glomerulonephritis) and two in transplants (acute rejection). These patients showed a 33 {+-} 18% mean cortical signal loss on T2*-weighted images. In the remaining eight patients, with <5 macrophages/mm{sup 2}, there was no cortical signal loss. However, in three of these, presenting with ischemic acute tubular necrosis, a strong (42 {+-} 18%) signal drop was found in the medulla exclusively. USPIO-enhanced MR imaging can demonstrate infiltration of the kidneys by macrophages both in native and transplanted kidneys and may help to differentiate between kidney diseases. (orig.)

  14. Assessing clogging development in infiltration-percolation systems for wastewater treatment by electrical resistivity and induced polarisation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapias, Josefina C.; Himi, Mahjoub; Lovera, Raúl; de la Rocha, Angelica; Foch, Montserrat; Salvadó, Humbert; Casas, Albert

    2013-04-01

    Infiltration-percolation is a low technology process used to treat primary and secondary effluents. It consists in the intermittent application of sewage on buried sand filters where the infiltrated water percolates through unsaturated porous medium. The advantages over conventional mechanical sanitation systems are: low energy requirements, operation and maintenance that may be conducted by unskilled staff, and low sludge production because their simplicity and low operation costs. Nevertheless, clogging is a major operational and maintenance issue associated with the use of infiltration-percolation systems for wastewater treatment, and can ultimately limit the lifetime of the system. The clogging development causes decrease of hydraulic conductivity, reduced oxygen supply and further leads to a rapid decrease of the treatment performance. For this reason it is essential to assess in advance the evolution of clogging process and detect potential failures in the system. The preliminary results of this research conducted at the Hostalets de Pierola wastewater treatment plant (near Barcelona, Spain) show that electrical resistivity and induced polarisation geophysical methods can be very useful for delineating the clogging expansion. Then, this non-destructive metodology can help take the preventive measures for enlarge the lifetime of the treatment system.

  15. Drugged Driving in Wisconsin: Oral Fluid Versus Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lorrine D; Smith, Katherine L; Savage, Theodore

    2017-07-01

    A pilot project was conducted in Dane County, Wisconsin, to evaluate the frequency of individuals driving under the influence of drugs (DUID). Evidentiary blood specimens, collected from subjects arrested for Operating While Intoxicated (OWI), were compared to oral fluid (OF) results obtained with the Alere DDS2®, a handheld screening device. The project objectives were to evaluate (i) the Alere DDS2® for use by police officers in the field, (ii) the frequency of individuals DUID and drugs combined with alcohol among OWI cases, (iii) the differences between detecting drugs in OF and in blood, and (iv) the effect of the laboratory drug testing cancellation policy (LCP) when the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) exceeds 0.100 g/100 mL. Following the arrest and collection of blood, subjects were asked to voluntarily participate in the project and provide an OF specimen. The OF was presumptively screened with the Alere DDS2® for six drug categories including (ng/mL) amphetamine (50), benzodiazepines (temazepam, 20), cocaine (benzoylecgonine, 30), methamphetamine (50), opioids (morphine, 40) and THC (delta-9-THC, 25). Results obtained with the OF screening instrument were not confirmed. A total of 104 subjects (22 female, 82 male), ages 18-72, were included in the project. Blood specimens were tested by gas chromatography-headspace (GCHS-FID) for volatiles, enzyme immunoassay (Siemens Viva-E Drug Testing System), and an alkaline basic drug screen with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis. To compensate for differences between the EIA and the Alere DDS2® drug categories, results from the enzyme immunoassay and the alkaline basic drug screen were combined for purposes of comparing OF to blood. Seventy-six of 104 (73%) subjects arrested for OWI were driving under the influence of alcohol; 71 of the 76 had a BAC exceeding 0.10 g/100 mL. Subjects with a BAC exceeding the LCP, screened positive for drugs in both OF (n = 29) and blood (n = 28). Overall, one

  16. Difficulties in the evaluation and measuring of soil water infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso

    2013-04-01

    Soil water infiltration is the most important hydrological parameter for the evaluation and diagnosis of the soil water balance and soil moisture regime. Those balances and regimes are the main regulating factors of the on site water supply to plants and other soil organisms and of other important processes like runoff, surface and mass erosion, drainage, etc, affecting sedimentation, flooding, soil and water pollution, water supply for different purposes (population, agriculture, industries, hydroelectricity), etc. Therefore the evaluation and measurement of water infiltration rates has become indispensable for the evaluation and modeling of the previously mentioned processes. Infiltration is one of the most difficult hydrological parameters to evaluate or measure accurately. Although the theoretical aspects of the process of soil water infiltration are well known since the middle of the past century, when several methods and models were already proposed for the evaluation of infiltration, still nowadays such evaluation is not frequently enough accurate for the purposes being used. This is partially due to deficiencies in the methodology being used for measuring infiltration, including some newly proposed methods and equipments, and in the use of non appropriate empirical models and approaches. In this contribution we present an analysis and discussion about the main difficulties found in the evaluation and measurement of soil water infiltration rates, and the more commonly committed errors, based on the past experiences of the author in the evaluation of soil water infiltration in many different soils and land conditions, and in their use for deducing soil water balances under variable and changing climates. It is concluded that there are not models or methods universally applicable to any soil and land condition, and that in many cases the results are significantly influenced by the way we use a particular method or instrument, and by the alterations in the soil

  17. Graphite fiber/copper composites prepared by spontaneous infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbao; Tao, Zechao; Li, Xiangfen; Yan, Xi; Liu, Zhanjun; Guo, Quangui

    2018-05-01

    The major bottleneck in developing graphite fiber reinforced copper (GF/Cu) composites is the poor wettability of Cu/graphite system. Alloying element of chromium (Cr) is introduced to improve the wettability of liquid copper on graphite. Sessile drop method experiments illustrate that the contact angle of liquid Cu-Cr (1.0 wt.%) alloy on graphite substrate decreases to 43° at 1300 °C. The improvement of wettability is related to the formation of chromium carbide layer at interface zone. Based on the wetting experiment, a spontaneous infiltration method for preparing GF/Cu composites is proposed. Unidirectional GF preforms are infiltrated by Cu-Cr alloys without external pressure in a tubular furnace. Results reveal that the GF preform can be fully infiltrated by Cu-Cr alloy (8 wt.%) spontaneously when fiber volume fraction is 40%. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of GF/Cu-Cr (8.0 wt.%) composites is 4.68 × 10-6/K along the longitudinal direction.

  18. Excitations in opal photonic crystals infiltrated with polarizable media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eradat, Nayer; Sivachenko, A. Y.; Raikh, Mikhail E.; Vardeny, Z. Valy; Zakhidov, Anvar A.; Li, S.; Baughman, Ray H.

    2002-12-01

    Photonic crystals (PC) are a class of artificial structures with a periodic dielectric function. PCs can be a laboratory for testing fundamental processes involving interactions of radiation with matter in novel conditions. We have studied the optical properties of opal PCs that are infiltrated with highly polarizable media such as j-aggregates of cyanine dyes. Opals are self-assembled structures of silica spheres. We report our studies on clarifying the relationship between a polaritonic gap and a photonic stop band (Bragg gap) when they resonantly coexist in the same structure. Infiltration of opal with polarizable molecules combines the polaritonic and Bragg diffractive effects. Both effects exist independently when the Bragg (at ω = ωB) and polaritonic (ω = ωT) resonances are well separated in frequency. A completely different situation occurs when ωT ~ωB. Such a condition was achieved in opals that were infiltrated with J-aggregates of cyanine dyes that have large Rabi frequency. Our measurements show some dramatic changes in the shape of the reflectivity plateaus, which are due to the interplay between the photonic band gap and the polaritonic gap. The experimental results on reflectivity and its dependence on the light propagation angle and concentration of the cyanie dyes are in agreement with the theoretical calculations.

  19. Numerical modeling of NI-monitored 3D infiltration experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohnal, Michal; Dusek, Jaromir; Snehota, Michal; Sacha, Jan; Vogel, Tomas; Votrubova, Jana

    2014-05-01

    It is well known that the temporal changes of saturated hydraulic conductivity caused by the occurrence of air phase discontinuities often play an important role in water flow and solute transport experiments. In the present study, a series of infiltration-outflow experiments was conducted to test several working hypotheses about the mechanism of air phase trapping. The experiments were performed on a porous sample with artificial internal structure, using three sandy materials with contrasting hydraulic properties. The sample was axially symmetric with continuous preferential pathways and separate porous matrix blocks (the sample was 3.4 cm in diameter and 8.8 cm high). The infiltration experiments were monitored by neutron imaging (NI). The NI data were then used to quantify the water content of the selected sample regions. The flow regime in the sample was studied using a three-dimensional model based on Richards' equation. The equation was solved by the finite element method. The results of the numerical simulations of the infiltration experiments were compared with the measured outflow rates and with the spatial distribution of water content determined by NI. The research was supported by the Czech Science Foundation Project No. 14-03691S.

  20. Behaviour of chromium(VI) in stormwater soil infiltration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederkvist, Karin; Ingvertsen, Simon T.; Jensen, Marina B.

    2013-01-01

    mm in 2 h) and extreme (100 mm in 3 h) rain events. The objectives were to understand the behaviour of the anionic and toxic Cr(VI) in soil at neutral pH and to asses treatment efficiency towards Cr(VI). During normal rain events Cr(VI) was largely retained (more than 50, even though pH was neutral......The ability of stormwater infiltration systems to retain Cr(VI) was tested by applying a synthetic stormwater runoff solution with a neutral pH and high Cr(VI) concentrations to four intact soil columns excavated from two roadside infiltration swales in Germany. Inlet flow rates mimicked normal (10......, while under extreme rain events approximately 20% of Cr(VI) was retained. In both cases effluent concentrations of Cr(VI) would exceed the threshold value of 3.4 mu g/L if the infiltrated water were introduced to freshwater environments. More knowledge on the composition of the stormwater runoff...

  1. Rainier Mesa CAU Infiltration Model using INFILv3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitt, Daniel G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwicklis, Edward M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-13

    The outline of this presentation are: (1) Model Inputs - DEM, Precipitation, Air temp, Soil props, Surface geology, Vegetation; (2) Model Pre-processing - Runoff Routing and sinks, Slope and Azimuth, Soil Ksat reduction with slope (to mitigate bathtub ring), Soil-Bedrock Interface permeabilities; (3) Model Calibration - ET using PEST, Chloride mass balance data, Streamflow using PEST; (4) Model Validation - Streamflow data not used for calibration; (5) Uncertainty Analysis; and (6) Results. Conclusions are: (1) Average annual infiltration rates =11 to 18 mm/year for RM domain; (2) Average annual infiltration rates = 7 to 11 mm/year for SM domain; (3) ET = 70% of precipitation for both domains; (4) Runoff = 8-9% for RM; and 22-24% for SM - Apparently high average runoff is caused by the truncation of the lowerelevation portions of watersheds where much of the infiltration of runoff waters would otherwise occur; (5) Model results are calibrated to measured ET, CMB data, and streamflow observations; (6) Model results are validated using streamflow observations discovered after model calibration was complete; (7) Use of soil Ksat reduction with slope to mitigate bathtub ring was successful (based on calibration results); and (8) Soil-bedrock K{_}interface is innovative approach.

  2. Field Study of Infiltration Capacity Reduction of Porous Mixture Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Sañudo-Fontaneda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Porous surfaces have been used all over the world in source control techniques to minimize flooding problems in car parks. Several studies highlighted the reduction in the infiltration capacity of porous mixture surfaces after several years of use. Therefore, it is necessary to design and develop a new methodology to quantify this reduction and to identify the hypothetical differences in permeability between zones within the same car park bay due to the influence of static loads in the parked vehicles. With this aim, nine different zones were selected in order to check this hypothesis (four points under the wheels of a standard vehicle and five points between wheels. This article presents the infiltration capacity reduction results, using the LCS permeameter, of Polymer-Modified Porous Concrete (9 bays and Porous Asphalt (9 bays surfaces in the University of Cantabria Campus parking area (Spain 5 years after their construction. Statistical analysis methodology was proposed for assessing the results. Significant differences were observed in permeability and reduction in infiltration capacity in the case of porous concrete surfaces, while no differences were found for porous asphalt depending on the measurement zone.

  3. Clonal expansion of renal cell carcinoma-infiltrating T lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sittig, Simone; Køllgaard, Tania; Grønbæk, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    T lymphocytes can mediate the destruction of cancer cells by virtue of their ability to recognize tumor-derived antigenic peptides that are presented on the cell surface in complex with HLA molecules and expand. Thus, the presence of clonally expanded T cells within neoplastic lesions is an indic......T lymphocytes can mediate the destruction of cancer cells by virtue of their ability to recognize tumor-derived antigenic peptides that are presented on the cell surface in complex with HLA molecules and expand. Thus, the presence of clonally expanded T cells within neoplastic lesions...... is an indication of ongoing HLA-restricted T cell-mediated immune responses. Multiple tumors, including renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), are often infiltrated by significant amounts of T cells, the so-called tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). In the present study, we analyzed RCC lesions (n = 13) for the presence...... of expanded T-cell clonotypes using T-cell receptor clonotype mapping. Surprisingly, we found that RCCs comprise relatively low numbers of distinct expanded T-cell clonotypes as compared with melanoma lesions. The numbers of different T-cell clonotypes detected among RCC-infiltrating lymphocytes were...

  4. Water erosion and soil water infiltration in different stages of corn development and tillage systems

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel F. de Carvalho; Eliete N. Eduardo; Wilk S. de Almeida; Lucas A. F. Santos; Teodorico Alves Sobrinho

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThis study evaluated soil and water losses, soil water infiltration and infiltration rate models in soil tillage systems and corn (Zea mays, L.) development stages under simulated rainfall. The treatments were: cultivation along contour lines, cultivation down the slope and exposed soil. Soil losses and infiltration in each treatment were quantified for rains applied using a portable simulator, at 0, 30, 60 and 75 days after planting. Infiltration rates were estimated using the models...

  5. Study on water infiltration in loess aerated zone at CIRP's field test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Zhongde; Zhao Yingjie; Ni Dongqi; Ma Binghui; Xu Zhaoyi; Tadao Tanaka; Masayuki Mukai

    2000-01-01

    Vertical joints and large pores existing uniquely in loess cause difference between loess and other homogenous soil media in water infiltration. Field test of water infiltration in loess aerated zone of and analysis with hydraulic theory of soil concludes that for the loess aerated zone of vertical joints existing in it makes little contribution to water infiltration under unsaturated condition, and large pores in the media would significantly retard water infiltration

  6. Determining the extent of groundwater interference on the performance of infiltration trenches

    OpenAIRE

    Locatelli, Luca; Mark, Ole; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Wong, Tony; Binning, Philip John

    2015-01-01

    Infiltration trenches are widely used in stormwater management, but their capacity decreases when installed in areas with shallow groundwater where infiltration is limited by groundwater drainage. Here the hydrological performance of single infiltration trenches in areas with shallow water tables is quantified in terms of their capability to reduce peak flow, peak volume and annual stormwater runoff volume. To simulate the long term hydrological performance of infiltration trenches two differ...

  7. Infiltrative lipoma compressing the spinal cord in 2 large-breed dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobert, Marc K; Brauer, Christina; Dziallas, Peter; Gerhauser, Ingo; Algermissen, Dorothee; Tipold, Andrea; Stein, Veronika M

    2013-01-01

    Two cases of infiltrative lipomas compressing the spinal cord and causing nonambulatory paraparesis in 2 large-breed dogs are reported. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed severe extradural spinal cord compression by inhomogenous masses that infiltrated the adjacent tissues and the muscles of the spine in both dogs. The presumptive clinical diagnoses were infiltrative lipomas, which were confirmed by histopathology. In rare cases infiltrative lipomas are able to compress the spinal cord by the agressive growth of invasive adipocytes causing neurological deficits.

  8. Catch crops impact on soil water infiltration in vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Bagarello, Vincenzo; Iovino, Massimo; Ferro, Vito; Keesstra, Saskia; Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús; García Diaz, Andrés; di Prima, Simone

    2017-04-01

    Infiltration is the key component of the hydrological cycle (Cerdà, 1999; Bagarello et al.,, 2014; Zema et al., 2016). Infiltration determines the partitioning of rainfall into runoff and subsurface flow (Cerdà, 1996; Bagarello et al., 2006; Wang et al., 2016). In the Mediterranean, agriculture resulted in the degradation of the soil structure, reduction of the organic matter and increase in the soil losses (Cerdà et al., 2009; Laudicina et al., 2015; Iovino et al., 2016; Willaarts et al., 2016). There is an urgent need to restore the agriculture soils to avoid floods, reduce the carbon emissions and avoid reservoir siltation (Aksakal et al., 2016; Ben Slimane et al., 2016; Yagüe et al., 2016). Catch Crops are widespread used due to their impact on the soil fertility (Mwango et al., 2016; Nishigaki et al., 2016 ; Nawaz et al., 2016). Catch crops also increase the amount of organic matter but little is known about the effect on soil infiltration. Two paired plots were selected in Les Alcusses (Moixent municipality) in Eastern Iberian Peninsula to compare the infiltration rates between a 8-years catch crop (Vicia sp) with a control (plough) soil. The measurements were carried out by means of ring infiltrometer in August 2014 and December 2014 under dry and wet conditions (Cerdà, 2001; Di Prima et al., 2016). The results show that the steady-state infiltration rates were 1.8 higher during the summer period, and that the catch crops did not increase the infiltration rates. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n 603498 (RECARE project) and the CGL2013- 47862-C2-1-R and CGL2016-75178-C2-2-R national research projects. References Aksakal, E. L., Sari, S., & Angin, I. (2016). Effects of vermicompost application on soil aggregation and certain physical properties. Land Degradation and Development, 27(4), 983-995. doi:10.1002/ldr.2350

  9. Modeling rainfall infiltration on hillslopes using Flux-concentration relation and time compression approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Chen, Li; Yu, Zhongbo

    2018-02-01

    Rainfall infiltration on hillslopes is an important issue in hydrology, which is related to many environmental problems, such as flood, soil erosion, and nutrient and contaminant transport. This study aimed to improve the quantification of infiltration on hillslopes under both steady and unsteady rainfalls. Starting from Darcy's law, an analytical integral infiltrability equation was derived for hillslope infiltration by use of the flux-concentration relation. Based on this equation, a simple scaling relation linking the infiltration times on hillslopes and horizontal planes was obtained which is applicable for both small and large times and can be used to simplify the solution procedure of hillslope infiltration. The infiltrability equation also improved the estimation of ponding time for infiltration under rainfall conditions. For infiltration after ponding, the time compression approximation (TCA) was applied together with the infiltrability equation. To improve the computational efficiency, the analytical integral infiltrability equation was approximated with a two-term power-like function by nonlinear regression. Procedures of applying this approach to both steady and unsteady rainfall conditions were proposed. To evaluate the performance of the new approach, it was compared with the Green-Ampt model for sloping surfaces by Chen and Young (2006) and Richards' equation. The proposed model outperformed the sloping Green-Ampt, and both ponding time and infiltration predictions agreed well with the solutions of Richards' equation for various soil textures, slope angles, initial water contents, and rainfall intensities for both steady and unsteady rainfalls.

  10. Water infiltration in an aquifer recharge basin affected by temperature and air entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loizeau Sébastien

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Artificial basins are used to recharge groundwater and protect water pumping fields. In these basins, infiltration rates are monitored to detect any decrease in water infiltration in relation with clogging. However, miss-estimations of infiltration rate may result from neglecting the effects of water temperature change and air-entrapment. This study aims to investigate the effect of temperature and air entrapment on water infiltration at the basin scale by conducting successive infiltration cycles in an experimental basin of 11869 m2 in a pumping field at Crepieux-Charmy (Lyon, France. A first experiment, conducted in summer 2011, showed a strong increase in infiltration rate; which was linked to a potential increase in ground water temperature or a potential dissolution of air entrapped at the beginning of the infiltration. A second experiment was conducted in summer, to inject cold water instead of warm water, and also revealed an increase in infiltration rate. This increase was linked to air dissolution in the soil. A final experiment was conducted in spring with no temperature contrast and no entrapped air (soil initially water-saturated, revealing a constant infiltration rate. Modeling and analysis of experiments revealed that air entrapment and cold water temperature in the soil could substantially reduce infiltration rate over the first infiltration cycles, with respective effects of similar magnitude. Clearly, both water temperature change and air entrapment must be considered for an accurate assessment of the infiltration rate in basins.

  11. Ponded infiltration in a grid of permanent single-ring infiltrometers: Spatial versus temporal variability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votrubová, J.; Dohnal, M.; Vogel, T.; Tesař, Miroslav; Jelínková, V.; Cislerova, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 3 (2017), s. 244-253 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-05665S Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : soil infiltrability * infiltration instability * infiltration modes * burrowing animals * preferential flow Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology OBOR OECD: Hydrology Impact factor: 1.654, year: 2016

  12. Mesure de la vitesse d'infiltration des eaux dans le sol : Cas des sols ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    C'est donc une infiltration superficielle qui ne peut pas modifier la composition des eaux de l'aquifère. Ces sols sont alors favorables à une telle agriculture. Mots clés: mesure, vitesse, infiltration, sols, pollutions, eau, Niari, Congo. English Title: Measuring the speed of the water infiltration into the soil: case of the soil of the ...

  13. Numerical analysis on infiltration-driven decarbonation during skarnification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, X.; Lee, C. T.; Dasgupta, R.

    2017-12-01

    Interaction of arc magmas with carbonate sequences on active margins leads to contact metamorphism and metasomatism by infiltrating magmatic fluids. This skarnification process releases CO2 to the metasomatic fluids, which transport carbon to shallow reservoirs and can affect the long-term carbon budget in the exogenic system [1]. In this study, we apply a self-consistent 1D finite difference model to an impure marble consisting of quartz and calcite, in a similar scheme as ref [2]. The Darcian flow is modeled with a fixed boundary condition of water influx, taking into account the reaction kinetics [3,4] and pore space compaction. The modeling results show that the reaction front lags the fluid infiltration front and propagates at the rate scaling with: = k × [infiltrating fluid flux] / [reactant amount], where k is a function of the reaction kinetics and rock rheology. The reaction front does not advance until one reactant is exhausted; thus a protolith assemblage of 50:50 quartz:calcite has the slowest-moving reaction front. The steady-state carbon flux scales with the distance of reaction front to comply with mass conservation, and thus yields a linear relationship with the infiltrating flux and is largely independent of the protolith quartz:calcite ratio. Assuming that the rate of global magma emplacement on the continental arcs is 3 km3/yr [5], the arc magmas exsolve 5 vol.% water as they crystallize, and 40% of such magmas intrude carbonate sequences, the total steady-state carbon flux due to skarnification is 0.2 Tmol/yr. By contrast, Mount Etna alone emits carbon up to 0.2 Tmol/yr, most of which is the product of magma-carbonate interaction [6]. We note that the infiltration of pure water produces a wollastonite marble; natural metasomatic fluid is saturated with silica and other components, which leads to greater decarbonation and the formation of calc-silicate skarn. Wallrock assimilation also adds to the carbon flux from arcs, so the simplified

  14. Vocal fold composition and early glottic carcinoma infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Qin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current imaging techniques provide only limited information pertaining to the extent of infiltration of laryngeal carcinomas into vocal fold tissue layers. Therefore, it is needed to seek the contribute to the body of knowledge surrounding examination and characterization in laryngeal carcinoma infiltration. Methods Excised larynges were collected from 30 male laryngectomy patients with an average age of 43.5 years (ranging 36 to 55 years and history of smoking (≥10 years exhibiting T1, T2, or subglottal (normal vocal fold carcinomas. Vocal folds were preserved via freezing or immersion in paraffin. The depth of the mucosa, submucosa, and muscular layers in both normal vocal folds and tumor tissues of afflicted vocal folds was measured. Results The average depths of the mucosa, submucosa, and muscular layers in normal vocal folds were 0.15 ± 0.06 mm, 2.30 ± 0.59 mm, and 2.87 ± 0.88 mm, respectively. Infiltration measurements of T1 tumors showed a depth of 1.62 ± 0.51 mm and 1.32 ± 0.49 mm in frozen sections and paraffin-embedded samples, respectively. Similarly, T2 tumors showed a depth of 2.87 ± 0.68 mm and 2.58 ± 0.67 mm in frozen sections and paraffin-embedded samples, respectively. T1 and T2 tumors occupied 24.8 ± 10 and 48.5 ± 15 percent of the normal vocal fold depth, respectively. Conclusion This data provides a baseline for estimating infiltration of laryngeal carcinomas in vocal fold tissue layers, of particular interest to surgeons. This information may be used to assess typical depths of infiltration, thus allowing for more appropriate selection of surgical procedures based on individual patient assessment.

  15. Modeling a ponded infiltration experiment at Yucca Mountain, NV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, D.B.; Guertal, W.R.; Flint, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    One-dimensional and two-dimensional radial flow numerical models were used to evaluate the results for a 60.5 h ponded infiltration experiment done around a 24 m deep, 0.15 m diameter, cased borehole at Yucca Mountain, NV. Nine distinct morphological horizons in the soil profile has been identified; physical and hydraulic properties had been measured for each horizon; and a porosity profile at the borehole had been measured. During the infiltration experiment, 10 cm of water was ponded in a 3.5 m diameter infiltrometer around the borehole, the volume of water applied was measured, and water content profiles were measured with a neutron moisture meter. The infiltrometer applied 86.9 cm of water during the first 60.5 h of infiltration, but only 52.8 cm of additional water was measured in the borehole profiles. Assuming a linear relationship between cumulative infiltration (I) and the square root of time (t 0.5 ), an experimental sorptivity of 11.5 cm h -1 was estimated for the first 4.5 h of infiltration. An assumed washout zone around the borehole casing accounted for the discrepancy between the measured water content profiles and the applied water. A uniform property, 1-D model with an applied flux upper boundary described by the sorptivity confirmed the probable washout zone, and indicated that significant lateral flow into the dry soil around the infiltrometer could occur. A 2-D radial flow model with the same properties and upper boundary demonstrated that significant lateral flow occurred. The upper boundary in this model caused the upper portion of the profile to drain. This suggested using a saturated upper boundary to keep the upper portion of the profile saturated. When the saturated upper boundary was used, the permeability of the soil was decreased from the measured value of 3.28 E-11 m 2 to 1.5E-12 m 2 so that the simulated wetting front at a similar depth as the observed wetting front after 60.5 h

  16. Bone marrow-derived microglia infiltrate into the paraventricular nucleus of chronic psychological stress-loaded mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Ataka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microglia of the central nervous system act as sentinels and rapidly react to infection or inflammation. The pathophysiological role of bone marrow-derived microglia is of particular interest because they affect neurodegenerative disorders and neuropathic pain. The hypothesis of the current study is that chronic psychological stress (chronic PS induces the infiltration of bone marrow-derived microglia into hypothalamus by means of chemokine axes in brain and bone marrow. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here we show that bone marrow-derived microglia specifically infiltrate the paraventricular nucleus (PVN of mice that received chronic PS. Bone marrow derived-microglia are CX3CR1(lowCCR2(+CXCR4(high, as distinct from CX3CR1(highCCR2(-CXCR4(low resident microglia, and express higher levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β but lower levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. Chronic PS stimulates the expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 in PVN neurons, reduces stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 in the bone marrow and increases the frequency of CXCR4(+ monocytes in peripheral circulation. And then a chemokine (C-C motif receptor 2 (CCR2 or a β3-adrenoceptor blockade prevents infiltration of bone marrow-derived microglia in the PVN. CONCLUSION: Chronic PS induces the infiltration of bone marrow-derived microglia into PVN, and it is conceivable that the MCP-1/CCR2 axis in PVN and the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in bone marrow are involved in this mechanism.

  17. Effects of Preform Density on Structure and Property of C/C-SiC Composites Fabricated by Gaseous Silicon Infiltration

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    CAO Yu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The 3-D needled C/C preforms with different densities deposited by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI method were used to fabricate C/C-SiC composites by gaseous silicon infiltration (GSI. The porosity and CVI C thickness of the preforms were studied, and the effects of preform density on the mechanical and thermal properties of C/C-SiC composites were analyzed. The results show that with the increase of preform density, the preform porosity decreases and the CVI C thickness increases from several hundred nanometers to several microns. For the C/C-SiC composites, as the preform density increases, the residual C content increases while the density and residual Si content decreases. The SiC content first keeps at a high level of about 40% (volume fraction, which then quickly reduces. Meanwhile, the mechanical properties increase to the highest values when the preform density is 1.085g/cm3, with the flexure strength up to 308.31MP and fracture toughness up to 11.36MPa·m1/2, which then decrease as the preform density further increases. The thermal conductivity and CTE of the composites, however, decrease with the increase of preform density. It is found that when the preform porosity is too high, sufficient infiltration channels lead to more residual Si, and thinner CVI C thickness results in the severe corrosion of the reinforcing fibers by Si and lower mechanical properties. When the preform porosity is relatively low, the contents of Si and SiC quickly reduce since the infiltration channels are rapidly blocked, resulting in the formation of large closed pores and not high mechanical properties.

  18. Engineered artificial antigen presenting cells facilitate direct and efficient expansion of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coukos George

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of a standardized platform for the rapid expansion of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs with anti-tumor function from patients with limited TIL numbers or tumor tissues challenges their clinical application. Methods To facilitate adoptive immunotherapy, we applied genetically-engineered K562 cell-based artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPCs for the direct and rapid expansion of TILs isolated from primary cancer specimens. Results TILs outgrown in IL-2 undergo rapid, CD28-independent expansion in response to aAPC stimulation that requires provision of exogenous IL-2 cytokine support. aAPCs induce numerical expansion of TILs that is statistically similar to an established rapid expansion method at a 100-fold lower feeder cell to TIL ratio, and greater than those achievable using anti-CD3/CD28 activation beads or extended IL-2 culture. aAPC-expanded TILs undergo numerical expansion of tumor antigen-specific cells, remain amenable to secondary aAPC-based expansion, and have low CD4/CD8 ratios and FOXP3+ CD4+ cell frequencies. TILs can also be expanded directly from fresh enzyme-digested tumor specimens when pulsed with aAPCs. These "young" TILs are tumor-reactive, positively skewed in CD8+ lymphocyte composition, CD28 and CD27 expression, and contain fewer FOXP3+ T cells compared to parallel IL-2 cultures. Conclusion Genetically-enhanced aAPCs represent a standardized, "off-the-shelf" platform for the direct ex vivo expansion of TILs of suitable number, phenotype and function for use in adoptive immunotherapy.

  19. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the University of Wisconsin Ice Island T3 Core Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1963 to 1972, 349 piston cores were collected from the Arctic Ocean using Ice Island T3 as a sampling platform and sent to the University of Wisconsin-Madison...

  20. Similar performance of Brasfield and Wisconsin scoring systems in young children with cystic fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleveland, Robert H.; Stamoulis, Catherine [Boston Children' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Sawicki, Gregory S. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Division of Respiratory Diseases, Department of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-10-15

    To assess the severity of lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF), scoring systems based on chest radiographs (CXRs), CT and MRI have been used extensively, although primarily in research settings rather than for clinical purposes. It has recently been shown that those based on CXRs (primarily the Brasfield and Wisconsin systems) are as sensitive and valid as those based on CT. The reproducibility and correlation of both systems to pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were recently investigated and were found to be statistically identical. However, the relative performance of these systems has not been specifically assessed in children younger than 5 years old with mild lung disease, a critical age range in which PFTs is rarely performed. To investigate and compare the performance of the Brasfield and Wisconsin systems in children 0-5 years old with predominantly mild lung disease. Fifty-five patients 0-5 years old with 105 CXRs were included in the study. Given that the goal was to compare system performance in mild disease, only the first two CXRs from each patient were included (all but five patients had two images). When only one image was available in the target age range, it only was included. Agreement between the Brasfield and Wisconsin systems was assessed using a 2X2 contingency table assuming binary classification of CF lung disease using CXR scoring systems (mild vs. non-mild). In the absence of PFTs or another external gold standard for comparison, the Wisconsin system was used as an arbitrary gold standard against which the Brasfield was compared. Correlation between the two systems was assessed via a concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) for repeated measures. Scores were rated as mild or non-mild based on published numerical cutoffs for each system. The systems agreed on 89/105 (85%) and disagreed on 16/105 (15%) of the CXRs. Agreement between the two systems was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Relative sensitivity and specificity of the

  1. Water-quality and lake-stage data for Wisconsin lakes, water years 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manteufel, S. Bridgett; Robertson, Dale M.

    2017-05-25

    IntroductionThe U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local and other agencies, collects data at selected lakes throughout Wisconsin. These data, accumulated over many years, provide a data base for developing an improved understanding of the water quality of lakes. To make these data available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series. The locations of water-quality and lake-stage stations in Wisconsin for water year 2012 are shown in figure 1. A water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30. It is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Thus, the period October 1, 2011 through September 30, 2012, is called “water year 2012.”The purpose of this report is to provide information about the chemical and physical characteristics of Wisconsin lakes. Data that have been collected at specific lakes, and information to aid in the interpretation of those data, are included in this report. Data collected include measurements of in-lake water quality and lake stage. Time series of Secchi depths, surface total phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentrations collected during non-frozen periods are included for all lakes. Graphs of vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance are included for sites where these parameters were measured. Descriptive information for each lake includes: location of the lake, area of the lake’s watershed, period for which data are available, revisions to previously published records, and pertinent remarks. Additional data, such as streamflow and water quality in tributary and outlet streams of some of the lakes, are published online at http://nwis.waterdata.usgs.gov/wi/nwis.Water-resources data, including stage and discharge data at most streamflow-gaging stations, are available online. The Wisconsin Water Science Center’s home page is at https://www.usgs.gov/centers/wisconsin-water-science-center. Information on

  2. Water-quality and lake-stage data for Wisconsin lakes, water year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manteufel, S. Bridgett; Robertson, Dale M.

    2017-05-25

    IntroductionThe U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local and other agencies, collects data at selected lakes throughout Wisconsin. These data, accumulated over many years, provide a database for developing an improved understanding of the water quality of lakes. To make these data available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series. The locations of water-quality and lake-stage stations in Wisconsin for water year 2014 are shown in figure 1. A water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30. It is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Thus, the periodOctober 1, 2013, through September 30, 2014, is called “water year 2014.”The purpose of this report is to provide information about the chemical and physical characteristics of Wisconsin lakes. Data that have been collected at specific lakes, and information to aid in the interpretation of those data, are included in this report. Data collected include measurements of in-lake water quality and lake stage. Time series of Secchi depths, surface total phosphorus, and chlorophyll a concentrations collected during nonfrozen periods are included for many lakes. Graphs of vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance are included for sites where these parameters were measured. Descriptive information for each lake includes the location of the lake, area of the lake’s watershed, period for which data are available, revisions to previously published records, and pertinent remarks. Additional data, such as streamflow and water quality in tributary and outlet streams of some of the lakes, are published online at http://nwis.waterdata.usgs.gov/wi/nwis.Water-resources data, including stage and discharge data at most streamflow-gaging stations, are available online. The Wisconsin Water Science Center’s home page is at https://www.usgs.gov/centers/wisconsin-water-science-center. Information

  3. Continuing the promise: Recruiting and preparing Hmong-American educators for Central Wisconsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie McClain-Ruelle

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The state of Wisconsin, and in the broader context, the middle states of the United States experienced a large influx of Hmong families starting in the early 1980’s and into the 1990’s. With this influx a large number of young, Southeast Asian children entered the PK-12 classrooms, often with the support of bilingual aides. While many of the children flourished within this newer context, they were mostly guided in their classrooms by white, Anglo educators. Although theseeducators work to meet the needs of all children, there were few to no Hmong educators working with these same children in the PK-12 setting. At the same time, a number of Hmong young adults were serving as bilingual aides in these classrooms. Project Forward, a federally funded Title VII grant, has worked to create a shift in these roles, preparing Hmong college students to become educators in the PK-12 settings. In 1999, Central Wisconsin enrolled approximately3,200 Hmong children in the PK-12 schools; at the same time, Central Wisconsin employed merely seven Hmong teachers in the classrooms. The goal of the grant program described in this paper is to prepare teachers of Southeast Asian background for early childhood, elementary, secondary and K-12 classrooms. The Central Wisconsin grant has supported a total of 35 Southeast Asian students in their pursuit of teaching careers. Fulfilling the goal of preparingteachers who can serve as role models for Southeast Asian children in our schools has met with successes and struggles. This article presents consideration of the central factors affectingrecruitment, retention and preparation of Hmong pre-service teachers in Central Wisconsin. The article includes a brief historical examination of the immigration of the Hmong population intothe United States, a consideration of the Hmong culture as it affects recruitment and retention of pre-service teachers and evidence related to successes and struggles experienced by Project

  4. The morphology of ceramic phases in B x C-SiC-Si infiltrated composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayun, S.; Frage, N.; Dariel, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    The present communication is concerned with the effect of the carbon source on the morphology of reaction bonded boron carbide (B 4 C). Molten silicon reacts strongly and rapidly with free carbon to form large, faceted, regular polygon-shaped SiC particles, usually embedded in residual silicon pools. In the absence of free carbon, the formation of SiC relies on carbon that originates from within the boron carbide particles. Examination of the reaction bonded boron carbide revealed a core-rim microstructure consisting of boron carbide particles surrounded by secondary boron carbide containing some dissolved silicon. This microstructure is generated as the outcome of a dissolution-precipitation process. In the course of the infiltration process molten Si dissolves some boron carbide until its saturation with B and C. Subsequently, precipitation of secondary boron carbide enriched with boron and silicon takes place. In parallel, elongated, strongly twinned, faceted SiC particles are generated by rapid growth along preferred crystallographic directions. This sequence of events is supported by X-ray diffraction and microcompositional analysis and well accounted for by the thermodynamic analysis of the ternary B-C-Si system. - Graphical abstract: Bright field TEM image of the rim area between two boron carbide grains

  5. Weather Correlations to Calculate Infiltration Rates for U. S. Commercial Building Energy Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lisa C; Quiles, Nelson Ojeda; Dols, W Stuart; Emmerich, Steven J

    2018-01-01

    As building envelope performance improves, a greater percentage of building energy loss will occur through envelope leakage. Although the energy impacts of infiltration on building energy use can be significant, current energy simulation software have limited ability to accurately account for envelope infiltration and the impacts of improved airtightness. This paper extends previous work by the National Institute of Standards and Technology that developed a set of EnergyPlus inputs for modeling infiltration in several commercial reference buildings using Chicago weather. The current work includes cities in seven additional climate zones and uses the updated versions of the prototype commercial building types developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U. S. Department of Energy. Comparisons were made between the predicted infiltration rates using three representations of the commercial building types: PNNL EnergyPlus models, CONTAM models, and EnergyPlus models using the infiltration inputs developed in this paper. The newly developed infiltration inputs in EnergyPlus yielded average annual increases of 3 % and 8 % in the HVAC electrical and gas use, respectively, over the original infiltration inputs in the PNNL EnergyPlus models. When analyzing the benefits of building envelope airtightening, greater HVAC energy savings were predicted using the newly developed infiltration inputs in EnergyPlus compared with using the original infiltration inputs. These results indicate that the effects of infiltration on HVAC energy use can be significant and that infiltration can and should be better accounted for in whole-building energy models.

  6. CLIMATIC FORECASTING OF NET INFILTRATION AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, USING ANALOGUE METEOROLOGICAL DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B. Faybishenko

    2005-01-01

    Net infiltration is a key hydrologic parameter that controls the rate of deep percolation through the unsaturated zone, the groundwater recharge, radionuclide transport, and seepage into the underground tunnels. Because net infiltration is largely affected by climatic conditions, future changes in climatic conditions will potentially alter net infiltration. The objectives of this presentation are to: (1) Present a conceptual model and a semi-empirical approach for regional, climatic forecasting of net infiltration, based on the precipitation and temperature data from analogue meteorological stations, and (2) Demonstrate the results of forecasting net infiltration for future climates--interglacial, monsoon and glacial--over the Yucca Mountain region for the period of 500,000 years. Calculations of the net infiltration were performed using a modified Budyko's water-balance model, for which potential evapotranspiration was evaluated from the temperature-based Thornthwaite formula. (Both Budyko's and Thornthwaite's formulae have been used broadly in hydrological studies.) The results of calculations were used for ranking net infiltration, along with the aridity and precipitation-effectiveness (P-E) indexes, for future climatic scenarios. Using this approach, we determined a general trend of increasing net infiltration from the present-day (interglacial) climate to monsoon, intermediate (glacial transition), and then to the glacial climate. Ranking of the aridity and P-E indexes is practically the same as that of net infiltration. The validation of the computed net infiltration rates yielded a good match with other field and modeling study results of groundwater recharge and net infiltration evaluation

  7. Error Analysis on the Estimation of Cumulative Infiltration in Soil Using Green and AMPT Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Askari

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Green and Ampt infiltration model is still useful for the infiltration process because of a clear physical basis of the model and of the existence of the model parameter values for a wide range of soil. The objective of thise study was to analyze error on the esimation of cumulative infiltration in sooil using Green and Ampt model and to design laboratory experiment in measuring cumulative infiltration. Parameter of the model was determined based on soil physical properties from laboratory experiment. Newton –Raphson method was esed to estimate wetting front during calculation using visual Basic for Application (VBA in MS Word. The result showed that  contributed the highest error in estimation of cumulative infiltration and was followed by K, H0, H1, and t respectively. It also showed that the calculated cumulative infiltration is always lower than both measured cumulative infiltration and volumetric soil water content.

  8. On the melt infiltration of copper coated silicon carbide with an aluminium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthana, R.; Rohatgi, P. K.

    1992-01-01

    Pressure-assisted infiltration of porous compacts of Cu coated and uncoated single crystals of platelet shaped alpha (hexagonal) SiC was used to study infiltration dynamics and particulate wettability with a 2014 Al alloy. The infiltration lengths were measured for a range of experimental variables which included infiltration pressure, infiltration time, and SiC size. A threshold pressure (P(th)) for flow initiation through compacts was identified from an analysis of infiltration data; P(th) decreased while penetration lengths increased with increasing SiC size (more fundamentally, due to changes in interparticle pore size) and with increasing infiltration times. Cu coated SiC led to lower P(th) and 60-80 percent larger penetration lengths compared to uncoated SiC under identical processing conditions.

  9. Damaging role of neutrophilic infiltration in a mouse model of progressive tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzo, Elena; Vilaplana, Cristina; Tapia, Gustavo; Diaz, Jorge; Garcia, Vanessa; Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis was studied using an experimental model based on the C3HeB/FeJ mouse strain, which mimics the liquefaction of caseous necrosis occurring during active disease in immunocompetent adults. Mice were intravenously infected with 2 × 10(4) Colony Forming Units of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and their histopathology, immune response, bacillary load, and survival were evaluated. The effects of the administration of drugs with anti-inflammatory activity were examined, and the C3H/HeN mouse strain was also included for comparative purposes. Massive intra-alveolar neutrophilic infiltration led to rapid granuloma growth and coalescence of lesions into superlesions. A central necrotic area appeared showing progressive cellular destruction, the alveoli cell walls being initially conserved (caseous necrosis) but finally destroyed (liquefactive necrosis). Increasing levels of pro-inflammatory mediators were detected in lungs. C3HeB/FeJ treated with anti-inflammatory drugs and C3H/HeN animals presented lower levels of pro-inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α, IL-17, IL-6 and CXCL5, a lower bacillary load, better histopathology, and increased survival compared with untreated C3HeB/FeJ. The observation of massive neutrophilic infiltration suggests that inflammation may be a key factor in progression towards active tuberculosis. On the basis of our findings, we consider that the C3HeB/FeJ mouse model would be useful for evaluating new therapeutic strategies against human tuberculosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Infiltrados corneales asociados al uso de lentes de contacto Corneal infiltrates associated with contact lens wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Padrón Álvarez

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 15 pacientes que usan lentes de contacto rígidas, permeables al gas (LCRPG y lentes de contacto blandas (LCB que presentaron infiltrados corneales. Se realizó estudio microbiológico de las lesiones y seguimiento clínico de estos casos. En 3 de los casos estudiados el cultivo fue positivo a estafilococo aureus, el resto de los estudios microbiológicos fueron negativos. Todos los pacientes respondieron rápidamente al retirar la lente de contacto y al tratamiento con antibióticos tópicos y ninguno tuvo afectación permanente de la agudeza visual. El diagnóstico exacto y el manejo apropiado de los infiltrados corneales en pacientes que usan lentes de contacto es de gran importancia por la posibilidad de infección o de secuela visual permanente.15 patients wearing gas permeable rigid contact lenses (GPRCL and soft contanct lenses (SCL that presented corneal infiltrates were studied. A microbiological study of the injuries and a clinical follow-up of these cases were conducted. In 3 of the studied cases the culture was positive to Staphyloccocus aureus. The rest of the mircobiological studies were negative. All the patients responded rapidly to the contact lens removal and to the treatment with topical antibiotics. None of them had permanent affection of visual acuity. The accurate diagnosis and the appropiate management of the corneal infiltrates in patients wearing contact lenses is very important due to the possibility of infection or of permanent visual sequela.

  11. Detection of lymphomatous infiltration in the bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, M. O.; Santos, A. O.; Costa, S.C.; Ramos, C.D.; Etchebehere, E.C.S.C.; Metze, I.L.; Barbosa, M.N.S.; Souza, C.A.; Camargo, E.E.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: The scintillographic follow-up of patients with lymphoma is obtained by making whole body research (WBR) with gallium-67. However, the abnormal accumulation of this pharmaceutical in the long bones is not an specific for lymphomatous infiltration and can be representative of hematopoietic expansion of bone marrow, as well. The differential diagnosis can be done using bone scintillography (BS) and bone marrow scintillography (BMS). We present a case where the diagnosis of lymphomatous infiltration indicated by the WBR with gallium-67, was confirmed by the BS and BMS. Male patient, 57 years old, with diagnosis of a high level malignant non-Hodgkin lymphoma, was submitted to the WBR with gallium-67 during the chemotherapy. The gallium-67 was high uptaked in the third distal of the right femur and in the proximal of the right tibia. One month after finishing the chemotherapy, a new WBR with gallium-67 shows the persistence of the high uptake in the same areas and the appearance of new ones in the third distal of the left femur. The study was complemented with BS and BMS. The BS revealed high uptake in focal areas, in the same regions where high uptake of gallium-67 has been detected in the study, after chemotherapy. The BMS showed absence of functioning bone marrow in these areas reducing the probability of medullar expansion. The absence of answering to the chemotherapy has been verified, changing the patient behavior and prognostic. The BMS with colloidal Tc-99m sulfur in this patient was useful for the differential diagnosis between medullar expansion and lymphomatous medullar infiltration

  12. Parallel germline infiltration of a lentivirus in two Malagasy lemurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément Gilbert

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Retroviruses normally infect the somatic cells of their host and are transmitted horizontally, i.e., in an exogenous way. Occasionally, however, some retroviruses can also infect and integrate into the genome of germ cells, which may allow for their vertical inheritance and fixation in a given species; a process known as endogenization. Lentiviruses, a group of mammalian retroviruses that includes HIV, are known to infect primates, ruminants, horses, and cats. Unlike many other retroviruses, these viruses have not been demonstrably successful at germline infiltration. Here, we report on the discovery of endogenous lentiviral insertions in seven species of Malagasy lemurs from two different genera -- Cheirogaleus and Microcebus. Combining molecular clock analyses and cross-species screening of orthologous insertions, we show that the presence of this endogenous lentivirus in six species of Microcebus is the result of one endogenization event that occurred about 4.2 million years ago. In addition, we demonstrate that this lentivirus independently infiltrated the germline of Cheirogaleus and that the two endogenization events occurred quasi-simultaneously. Using multiple proviral copies, we derive and characterize an apparently full length and intact consensus for this lentivirus. These results provide evidence that lentiviruses have repeatedly infiltrated the germline of prosimian species and that primates have been exposed to lentiviruses for a much longer time than what can be inferred based on sequence comparison of circulating lentiviruses. The study sets the stage for an unprecedented opportunity to reconstruct an ancestral primate lentivirus and thereby advance our knowledge of host-virus interactions.

  13. Brasfield and Wisconsin scoring systems have equal value as outcome assessment tools of cystic fibrosis lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleveland, Robert H.; Stamoulis, Catherine; Sawicki, Gregory; Kelliher, Emma; Wood, Christopher; Zurakowski, David; Lee, Edward [Boston Children' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Zucker, Evan J. [Tufts Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Several imaging-based scoring systems have been used as outcome measures in assessing the severity of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. It has been shown that chest radiography performs equally to computed tomography (CT). There is the opinion that of the two most commonly used chest radiograph (CXR) systems, the Brasfield system is less sensitive and reliable than the Wisconsin system. This report assesses the reproducibility and reliability of the two systems. Thirty patients with CXRs during a 5-year period were randomly selected. One hundred eighty-two studies had data for all CXRs and pulmonary function tests (PFTs), Forced Expiratory Volume in One Second (FEV-1) and Forced Vital Capacity (FVC). PFT values closest to the date of each CXR were recorded. Four radiologists scored each image twice by both the Brasfield and Wisconsin systems. Intra- and inter-rater reliability, correlation with PFTs and direct correlation of the two systems were calculated. Intra-rater agreement: r = 0.86-0.99 Brasfield, r = 0.78-0.96 Wisconsin. Inter-rater agreement: 0.76-0.90 Brasfield, r = 0.74-0.97 Wisconsin. Brasfield vs. FEV-1: r = 0.55, vs. FVC r = 0.61. Wisconsin vs. FEV-1: r = 0.57, vs. FVC r = 0.66. Correlation of the two systems: r = 0.86 (all P < 0.001). The Brasfield and Wisconsin systems performed very similarly providing equally reproducible, robust and reliable measures. (orig.)

  14. Gray wolf exposure to emerging vector-borne diseases in Wisconsin with comparison to domestic dogs and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Rocio F.; Wydeven, Adrian P.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    World-wide concern over emerging vector-borne diseases has increased in recent years for both animal and human health. In the United Sates, concern about vector-borne diseases in canines has focused on Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and heartworm which infect domestic and wild canids. Of these diseases, Lyme and anaplasmosis are also frequently diagnosed in humans. Gray wolves (Canis lupus) recolonized Wisconsin in the 1970s, and we evaluated their temporal and geographic patterns of exposure to these four vector-borne diseases in Wisconsin as the population expanded between 1985 and 2011. A high proportion of the Wisconsin wolves were exposed to the agents that cause Lyme (65.6%) and anaplasma (47.7%), and a smaller proportion to ehrlichiosis (5.7%) and infected with heartworm (9.2%). Wolf exposure to tick borne diseases was consistently higher in older animals. Wolf exposure was markedly higher than domestic dog (Canis familiaris) exposure for all 4 disease agents during 2001–2013. We found a cluster of wolf exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi in northwestern Wisconsin, which overlaps human and domestic dog clusters for the same pathogen. In addition, wolf exposure to Lyme disease in Wisconsin has increased, corresponding with the increasing human incidence of Lyme disease in a similar time period. Despite generally high prevalence of exposure none of these diseases appear to have slowed the growth of the Wisconsin wolf population.

  15. Gray Wolf Exposure to Emerging Vector-Borne Diseases in Wisconsin with Comparison to Domestic Dogs and Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio F Jara

    Full Text Available World-wide concern over emerging vector-borne diseases has increased in recent years for both animal and human health. In the United Sates, concern about vector-borne diseases in canines has focused on Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and heartworm which infect domestic and wild canids. Of these diseases, Lyme and anaplasmosis are also frequently diagnosed in humans. Gray wolves (Canis lupus recolonized Wisconsin in the 1970s, and we evaluated their temporal and geographic patterns of exposure to these four vector-borne diseases in Wisconsin as the population expanded between 1985 and 2011. A high proportion of the Wisconsin wolves were exposed to the agents that cause Lyme (65.6% and anaplasma (47.7%, and a smaller proportion to ehrlichiosis (5.7% and infected with heartworm (9.2%. Wolf exposure to tick borne diseases was consistently higher in older animals. Wolf exposure was markedly higher than domestic dog (Canis familiaris exposure for all 4 disease agents during 2001-2013. We found a cluster of wolf exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi in northwestern Wisconsin, which overlaps human and domestic dog clusters for the same pathogen. In addition, wolf exposure to Lyme disease in Wisconsin has increased, corresponding with the increasing human incidence of Lyme disease in a similar time period. Despite generally high prevalence of exposure none of these diseases appear to have slowed the growth of the Wisconsin wolf population.

  16. Advances in modeling of chemical vapor infiltration for tube fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, T.L. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Technology

    1998-04-01

    The forced flow/thermal gradient chemical vapor infiltration process (FCVI) can be used for fabrication of tube-shaped components of ceramic matrix composites. Recent experimental work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) includes process and materials development studies using a small tube reactor. Use of FCVI for this geometry involves significant changes in fixturing as compared to disk-shaped preforms previously fabricated. The authors have used their computer model of the CVI process to simulate tube densification and to identify process modifications that will decrease processing time. This report presents recent model developments and applications.

  17. Gene-specific sex effects on eosinophil infiltration in leishmaniasis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slapničková, Martina; Volkova, Valeriya; Čepičková, Marie; Kobets, Tetyana; Šíma, Matyáš; Svobodová, M.; Demant, P.; Lipoldová, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, podzim (2016), č. článku 59. ISSN 2042-6410 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-30186S; GA ČR GP13-41002P; GA MŠk LH12049; GA ČR GA16-22346S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Leishmania major * Mouse model * Eosinophii infiltration * Genetic control * QTL * Sex influence Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.635, year: 2016

  18. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; McLaughlin, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.; Probst, K.J.; Anderson, T.J. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Starr, T.L. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1997-12-01

    Silicon carbide-based heat exchanger tubes are of interest to energy production and conversion systems due to their excellent high temperature properties. Fiber-reinforced SiC is of particular importance for these applications since it is substantially tougher than monolithic SiC, and therefore more damage and thermal shock tolerant. This paper reviews a program to develop a scaled-up system for the chemical vapor infiltration of tubular shapes of fiber-reinforced SiC. The efforts include producing a unique furnace design, extensive process and system modeling, and experimental efforts to demonstrate tube fabrication.

  19. TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT NO. 1: CLIMATE AND INFILTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2004-05-01

    For the past 20 years, extensive field, laboratory, and modeling investigations have been performed at Yucca Mountain, which have led to the development of a number of conceptual models of infiltration and climate for the Yucca Mountain region around the repository site (Flint, A.L. et al. 2001; Wang and Bodvarsson 2003). Evaluating the amount of infiltrating water entering the subsurface is important, because this water may affect the percolation flux, which, in turn, controls seepage into the waste emplacement drifts and radionuclide transport from the repository to the water table. Forecasting of climatic data indicates that during the next 10,000 years at Yucca Mountain, the present-day climate should persist for 400 to 600 years, followed by a warmer and much wetter monsoon climate for 900 to 1,400 years, and by a cooler and wetter glacial-transition climate for the remaining 8,000 to 8,700 years. The analysis of climatic forecasting indicates that long-term climate conditions are generally predictable from a past climate sequence, while short-term climate conditions and weather predictions may be more variable and uncertain. The use of past climate sequences to bound future climate sequences involves several types of uncertainties, such as (1) uncertainty in the timing of future climate, (2) uncertainty in the methodology of climatic forecasting, and (3) uncertainty in the earth's future physical processes. Some of the uncertainties of the climatic forecasting are epistemic (reducible) and aleatoric (irreducible). Because of the size of the model domain, INFIL treats many flow processes in a simplified manner. For example, uptake of water by roots occurs according to the ''distributed model'', in which available water in each soil layer is withdrawn in proportion to the root density in that layer, multiplied by the total evapotranspirative demand. Runoff is calculated simply as the excess of precipitation over a sum of infiltration

  20. Infiltration liquid crystal in microstructured polymer optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Scott Wu; Wei, Lei; Bang, Ole

    2009-01-01

    7 is then infiltrated into about 6 cm of the length of mPOF by using capillary forces with the duration of 45 minutes. The transmission spectrum is measured by an optical spectrum analyzer with 1 nm resolution, and normalized to that of the unfilled fiber as shown by the solid line. The difference......POF is butt-coupled to a conventional single mode fiber (SMF) with the broadband light from a supercontinuum source. It is clear to see the colour of the guided modes is red, since some wavelengths are attenuated by the material loss of PMMA in visible region. A positive dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal E...