WorldWideScience

Sample records for wisconsin lakes electronic

  1. Water-quality and lake-stage data for Wisconsin lakes, water years 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manteufel, S. Bridgett; Robertson, Dale M.

    2017-05-25

    IntroductionThe U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local and other agencies, collects data at selected lakes throughout Wisconsin. These data, accumulated over many years, provide a data base for developing an improved understanding of the water quality of lakes. To make these data available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series. The locations of water-quality and lake-stage stations in Wisconsin for water year 2012 are shown in figure 1. A water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30. It is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Thus, the period October 1, 2011 through September 30, 2012, is called “water year 2012.”The purpose of this report is to provide information about the chemical and physical characteristics of Wisconsin lakes. Data that have been collected at specific lakes, and information to aid in the interpretation of those data, are included in this report. Data collected include measurements of in-lake water quality and lake stage. Time series of Secchi depths, surface total phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentrations collected during non-frozen periods are included for all lakes. Graphs of vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance are included for sites where these parameters were measured. Descriptive information for each lake includes: location of the lake, area of the lake’s watershed, period for which data are available, revisions to previously published records, and pertinent remarks. Additional data, such as streamflow and water quality in tributary and outlet streams of some of the lakes, are published online at http://nwis.waterdata.usgs.gov/wi/nwis.Water-resources data, including stage and discharge data at most streamflow-gaging stations, are available online. The Wisconsin Water Science Center’s home page is at https://www.usgs.gov/centers/wisconsin-water-science-center. Information on

  2. Water-quality and lake-stage data for Wisconsin lakes, water year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manteufel, S. Bridgett; Robertson, Dale M.

    2017-05-25

    IntroductionThe U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local and other agencies, collects data at selected lakes throughout Wisconsin. These data, accumulated over many years, provide a database for developing an improved understanding of the water quality of lakes. To make these data available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series. The locations of water-quality and lake-stage stations in Wisconsin for water year 2014 are shown in figure 1. A water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30. It is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Thus, the periodOctober 1, 2013, through September 30, 2014, is called “water year 2014.”The purpose of this report is to provide information about the chemical and physical characteristics of Wisconsin lakes. Data that have been collected at specific lakes, and information to aid in the interpretation of those data, are included in this report. Data collected include measurements of in-lake water quality and lake stage. Time series of Secchi depths, surface total phosphorus, and chlorophyll a concentrations collected during nonfrozen periods are included for many lakes. Graphs of vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance are included for sites where these parameters were measured. Descriptive information for each lake includes the location of the lake, area of the lake’s watershed, period for which data are available, revisions to previously published records, and pertinent remarks. Additional data, such as streamflow and water quality in tributary and outlet streams of some of the lakes, are published online at http://nwis.waterdata.usgs.gov/wi/nwis.Water-resources data, including stage and discharge data at most streamflow-gaging stations, are available online. The Wisconsin Water Science Center’s home page is at https://www.usgs.gov/centers/wisconsin-water-science-center. Information

  3. Progress toward the Wisconsin Free Electron Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisognano, Joseph; Bosch, R.A.; Eisert, D.; Fisher, M.V.; Green, M.A.; Jacobs, K.; Kleman, K.J.; Kulpin, J.; Rogers, G.C.; Lawler, J.E.; Yavuz, D.; Legg, R.

    2011-01-01

    The University of Wisconsin-Madison/Synchrotron Radiation Center is advancing its design for a seeded VUV/soft X-ray Free Electron Laser facility called WiFEL. To support this vision of an ultimate light source, we are pursuing a program of strategic R and D addressing several crucial elements. This includes development of a high repetition rate, VHF superconducting RF electron gun, R and D on photocathode materials by ARPES studies, and evaluation of FEL facility architectures (e.g., recirculation, compressor scenarios, CSR dechirping, undulator technologies) with the specific goal of cost containment. Studies of high harmonic generation for laser seeding are also planned.

  4. Factors influencing mercury concentrations in walleyes in northern Wisconsin lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, J.G.; Martini, R.E.; Sheffy, T.B.; Glass, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    The authors examined relations between mercury concentrations in walleyes Stizostedion vitreum and the characteristics of clear-water Wisconsin lakes, which spanned a broad range of pH values (5.0-8.1) and acid- neutralizing capacities (-9 to 1,017 mu eq/L). Total concentrations of mercury in axial muscle tissue of walleyes (total length, 25-56 cm) varied from 0.12 to 1.74 mu g/g wet weight. Concentrations were greatest in fish from the eight lakes with pH less than 7.0; concentrations in these fish equaled or exceeded 0.5 mu g/g in 88% of the samples analyzed and 1.0 mu g/g in 44%. In the five lakes with pH of 7.0 and above, concentrations exceeded 0.5 mu g/g in only 1 of 21 walleyes. Multiple regression revealed that lake pH and total length of fish accounted for 69% of the variation in mercury concentration in walleyes. Regression models with total length and either waterborne calcium or acid-neutralizing capacity as independent variables accounted for 67% of the variation in concentration.

  5. Hydrology, water quality, trophic status, and aquatic plants of Fowler Lake, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Fowler Lake Management District, completed a hydrologic and water-quality study of Fowler Lake in southeastern Wisconsin during calendar year 1984. Data on temperature, pH, specific conductance, and concentrations of dissolved oxygen, total phosphorus, dissolved orthophosphate phosphorus, and various nitrogen species were collected from January through November 1984. The water-quality data indicate that Fowler Lake can be classified as a mildly fertile lake with excellent water clarity as indicated by Secchi depth readings generally greater than 12 feet. Although phosphorus concentrations are generally less than 0.01 milligram per liter, the lake does produce dense stands of macrophytes during the open-water period. The lake is thermally stratified during the summer months, resulting in oxygen depletion in the deepest parts of the lake.

  6. A Citizen Science Program for Monitoring Lake Stages in Northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmann, A.; Drum, A.; Rubsam, J.; Watras, C. J.; Cellar-Rossler, A.

    2011-12-01

    Historical data indicate that surface water levels in northern Wisconsin are fluctuating more now than they did in the recent past. In the northern highland lake district of Vilas County, Wisconsin, concern about record low lake levels in 2008 spurred local citizens and lake associations to form a lake level monitoring network comprising citizen scientists. The network is administered by the North Lakeland Discovery Center (NLDC, a local NGO) and is supported by a grant from the Citizen Science Monitoring Program of the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR). With technical guidance from limnologists at neighboring UW-Madison Trout Lake Research Station, citizen scientists have installed geographic benchmarks and staff gauges on 26 area lakes. The project engages citizen and student science participants including homeowners, non-profit organization member-participants, and local schools. Each spring, staff gauges are installed and referenced to fixed benchmarks after ice off by NLDC and dedicated volunteers. Volunteers read and record staff gauges on a weekly basis during the ice-free season; and maintain log books recording lake levels to the nearest 0.5 cm. At the end of the season, before ice on, gauges are removed and log books are collected by the NLDC coordinator. Data is compiled and submitted to a database management system, coordinated within the Wisconsin Surface Water Integrated Monitoring System (SWIMS), a statewide information system managed by the WDNR in Madison. Furthermore, NLDC is collaborating with the SWIMS database manager to develop data entry screens based on records collected by citizen scientists. This program is the first of its kind in Wisconsin to utilize citizen scientists to collect lake level data. The retention rate for volunteers has been 100% over the three years since inception, and the program has expanded from four lakes in 2008 to twenty-six lakes in 2011. NLDC stresses the importance of long-term monitoring and the

  7. Wisconsin's Lake Superior Basin Water Quality Study. Supplement. Technical Report No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisnant, David M., Ed.

    During the period extending from May 1972 through April 1973, an investigation of the overall water quality conditions of streams flowing into Lake Superior from the entire state of Wisconsin was conducted. The goal of this publication was to provide much needed regional information on water quality, drainage basins, pollution sources and loads,…

  8. Projected shifts in fish species dominance in Wisconsin lakes under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Gretchen JA; Read, Jordan S.; Hansen, Jonathan F.; Winslow, Luke

    2016-01-01

    Temperate lakes may contain both coolwater fish species such as walleye (Sander vitreus) and warmwater fish species such as largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Recent declining walleye and increasing largemouth bass populations have raised questions regarding the future trajectories and management actions for these species. We developed a thermodynamic model of water temperatures driven by downscaled climate data and lake-specific characteristics to estimate daily water temperature profiles for 2148 lakes in Wisconsin, US, under contemporary (1989–2014) and future (2040–2064 and 2065–2089) conditions. We correlated contemporary walleye recruitment and largemouth bass relative abundance to modeled water temperature, lake morphometry, and lake productivity, and projected lake-specific changes in each species under future climate conditions. Walleye recruitment success was negatively related and largemouth bass abundance was positively related to water temperature degree days. Both species exhibited a threshold response at the same degree day value, albeit in opposite directions. Degree days were predicted to increase in the future, although the magnitude of increase varied among lakes, time periods, and global circulation models (GCMs). Under future conditions, we predicted a loss of walleye recruitment in 33–75% of lakes where recruitment is currently supported and a 27–60% increase in the number of lakes suitable for high largemouth bass abundance. The percentage of lakes capable of supporting abundant largemouth bass but failed walleye recruitment was predicted to increase from 58% in contemporary conditions to 86% by mid-century and to 91% of lakes by late century, based on median projections across GCMs. Conversely, the percentage of lakes with successful walleye recruitment and low largemouth bass abundance was predicted to decline from 9% of lakes in contemporary conditions to only 1% of lakes in both future periods. Importantly, we identify up

  9. Projected shifts in fish species dominance in Wisconsin lakes under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Gretchen J A; Read, Jordan S; Hansen, Jonathan F; Winslow, Luke A

    2017-04-01

    Temperate lakes may contain both coolwater fish species such as walleye (Sander vitreus) and warmwater fish species such as largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Recent declining walleye and increasing largemouth bass populations have raised questions regarding the future trajectories and management actions for these species. We developed a thermodynamic model of water temperatures driven by downscaled climate data and lake-specific characteristics to estimate daily water temperature profiles for 2148 lakes in Wisconsin, US, under contemporary (1989-2014) and future (2040-2064 and 2065-2089) conditions. We correlated contemporary walleye recruitment and largemouth bass relative abundance to modeled water temperature, lake morphometry, and lake productivity, and projected lake-specific changes in each species under future climate conditions. Walleye recruitment success was negatively related and largemouth bass abundance was positively related to water temperature degree days. Both species exhibited a threshold response at the same degree day value, albeit in opposite directions. Degree days were predicted to increase in the future, although the magnitude of increase varied among lakes, time periods, and global circulation models (GCMs). Under future conditions, we predicted a loss of walleye recruitment in 33-75% of lakes where recruitment is currently supported and a 27-60% increase in the number of lakes suitable for high largemouth bass abundance. The percentage of lakes capable of supporting abundant largemouth bass but failed walleye recruitment was predicted to increase from 58% in contemporary conditions to 86% by mid-century and to 91% of lakes by late century, based on median projections across GCMs. Conversely, the percentage of lakes with successful walleye recruitment and low largemouth bass abundance was predicted to decline from 9% of lakes in contemporary conditions to only 1% of lakes in both future periods. Importantly, we identify up to 85

  10. The Aquatic Macrophyte Seed Bank in Lake Onalaska, Wisconsin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McFarland, D

    1998-01-01

    .... americana have made a partial recovery. While the production of vegetative propagules may largely account for increases in populations of both species, the extent to which seed production may contribute to their expansion in the lake is unknown...

  11. Assessing Future Ecosystem Services: a Case Study of the Northern Highlands Lake District, Wisconsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry D. Peterson

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The Northern Highlands Lake District of Wisconsin is in transition from a sparsely settled region to a more densely populated one. Expected changes offer benefits to northern Wisconsin residents but also threaten to degrade the ecological services they rely on. Because the future of this region is uncertain, it is difficult to make decisions that will avoid potential risks and take advantage of potential opportunities. We adopt a scenario planning approach to cope with this problem of prediction. We use an ecological assessment framework developed by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment to determine key social and ecological driving forces in the Northern Highlands Lake District. From these, we describe three alternative scenarios to the year 2025 in which the projected use of ecological services is substantially different. The work reported in this paper demonstrates how scenarios can be developed for a region and provides a starting point for a participatory discussion of alternative futures for northern Wisconsin. Although the future is unknowable, we hope that the assessment process begun in this paper will help the people of the Northern Highlands Lake District choose the future path of their region.

  12. Beech Range Extension and Vegetation History: Pollen Stratigraphy of Two Wisconsin Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Sara L

    1987-12-01

    The pollen stratigraphy of two small lakes in eastern Wisconsin (Radtke Lake, Washington county, and Gass Lake, Manitowoc County) records the Holocene (past 10 000 yr) spread of beech (Fagus grandifolia: Fagaceae). Radiocarbon dates were obtained for the oldest stratigraphic levels at which beech pollen appeared consistently in amounts > 0.5% of terrestrial pollen. A spatially continuous pattern of beech expansion from the north was ruled out, because beech trees grew in Wisconsin by 6000 BP, 2000 yr before adjacent populations were established to the north. Alternative geographic patterns of speed (from the south or east) were spatially discontinuous, requiring seed dispersal distances of perhaps 25-130 km. That beechnuts could be dispersed across such distances suggests (1) the involvement of Blue Jays, Passenger Pigeons, or other vertebrates, and (2) a capacity for reaching climatically controlled range limits, given sufficient time despite such discontinuities in habitat. A lag 1000-2000 yr between the establishment of source populations in Michigan and Indiana and the appearance of beech in Wisconsin suggests that low-probability dispersal events were involved and that dispersal constraints limited the range of beech during this time, although climatic and edaphic explanations for the lag cannot be ruled out. Pollen data from the two sites reveal other features of vegetation history in eastern Wisconsin: an open Picea-Fraxinus woodland prior to 11 000 BP; sequence of Picea, Abies, Betula, and then Pinus forests between 11 000 and 7500 BP; the establishment of a coniferous/deciduous forest ecotone ("tension zone") ° 7000 BP in this region; and the presence of Quercus-dominanted deciduous forests from 7000 BP until 110 BP (time of Euro-American settlement), a period punctuated by a gradual decrease in Ulmus populations (° 4500 and 5700 BP at the two sites) and by an increase in mesophytic tree abundance at the expense of Quercus after 3500 BP. © 1987 by the

  13. CE–QUAL–W2 water-quality model and supporting LOADEST models for Lake St. Croix, Wisconsin and Minnesota, 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — A mechanistic, biophysical water-quality model (CE–QUAL–W2) was developed and calibrated for Lake St. Croix, Wisconsin and Minnesota. The Lake St. Croix CE–QUAL–W2...

  14. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey: Rice Lake Quadrangle, Wisconsin. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    Data obtained from a high sensitivity airborne radiometric and magnetic survey of the Rice Lake Quadrangle in Wisconsin are presented. All data are presented as corrected profiles of all radiometric variables, magnetic data, radar and barometric altimeter data, air temperature and airborne Bismuth contributions. Radiometric data presented are corrected for Compton Scatter, altitude dependence and atmospheric Bismuth. These data are also presented on microfiche, and digital magnetic tapes. In addition, anomaly maps and interpretation maps are presented relating known geology or soil distribution to the corrected radiometric/magnetic data

  15. Rapid evolution mitigates the ecological consequences of an invasive species (Bythotrephes longimanus) in lakes in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Michael K; Walsh, Matthew R

    2017-07-12

    Invasive species have extensive negative consequences for biodiversity and ecosystem health. Novel species also drive contemporary evolution in many native populations, which could mitigate or amplify their impacts on ecosystems. The predatory zooplankton Bythotrephes longimanus invaded lakes in Wisconsin, USA, in 2009. This invasion caused precipitous declines in zooplankton prey ( Daphnia pulicaria ), with cascading impacts on ecosystem services (water clarity). Here, we tested the link between Bythotrephes invasion, evolution in Daphnia and post-invasion ecological dynamics using 15 years of long-term data in conjunction with comparative experiments. Invasion by Bythotrephes is associated with rapid increases in the body size of Daphnia Laboratory experiments revealed that such shifts have a genetic component; third-generation laboratory-reared Daphnia from 'invaded' lakes are significantly larger and exhibit greater reproductive effort than individuals from 'uninvaded' lakes. This trajectory of evolution should accelerate Daphnia population growth and enhance population persistence. We tested this prediction by comparing analyses of long-term data with laboratory-based simulations, and show that rapid evolution in Daphnia is associated with increased population growth in invaded lakes. © 2017 The Authors.

  16. Influence of in ovo mercury exposure, lake acidity, and other factors on common loon egg and chick quality in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a field study in Wisconsin to characterize in ovo mercury (Hg) exposure in common loons (Gavia immer). Total Hg mass fractions ranged from 0.17 to 1.23 ìg/g wet weight (ww) in eggs collected from nests on lakes representing a wide range of pH (5.0 - 8.1) and ...

  17. Response of aquatic macrophytes to human land use perturbations in the watersheds of Wisconsin lakes, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, Laura L.; Bozek, Michael A.; Hauxwell, Jennifer A.; Wagner, Kelly; Knight, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Aquatic macrophyte communities were assessed in 53 lakes in Wisconsin, U.S.A. along environmental and land use development gradients to determine effects human land use perturbations have on aquatic macrophytes at the watershed and riparian development scales. Species richness and relative frequency were surveyed in lakes from two ecoregions: the Northern Lakes and Forests Ecoregion and the Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plain Ecoregion. Lakes were selected along a gradient of watershed development ranging from undeveloped (i.e., forested), to agricultural to urban development. Land uses occurring in the watershed and in perimeters of different width (0–100, 0–200, 0–500, and 0–1000 m from shore, in the watershed) were used to assess effects on macrophyte communities. Snorkel and SCUBA were used to survey aquatic macrophyte species in 18 quadrats of 0.25 m2 along 14 transects placed perpendicular to shore in each lake. Effects of watershed development (e.g., agriculture and/or urban) were tested at whole-lake (entire littoral zone) and near-shore (within 7 m of shore) scales using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and linear regression. Overall, species richness was negatively related to watershed development, while frequencies of individual species and groups differed in level of response to different land use perturbations. Effects of land use in the perimeters on macrophytes, with a few exceptions, did not provide higher correlations compared to land use at the watershed scale. In lakes with higher total watershed development levels, introduced species, particularly Myriophyllumspicatum, increased in abundance and native species, especially potamids, isoetids, and floating-leaved plants, declined in abundance. Correlations within the northern and southeastern ecoregions separately were not significant. Multivariate analyses suggested species composition is driven by environmental responses as well as human development pressures. Both water

  18. Water Quality and Hydrology of Silver Lake, Barron County, Wisconsin, With Special Emphasis on Responses of a Terminal Lake to Changes in Phosphorus Loading and Water Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Dale M.; Rose, William J.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.

    2009-01-01

    Silver Lake is typically an oligotrophic-to-mesotrophic, soft-water, terminal lake in northwestern Wisconsin. A terminal lake is a closed-basin lake with surface-water inflows but no surface-water outflows to other water bodies. After several years with above-normal precipitation, very high water levels caused flooding of several buildings near the lake and erosion of soil around much of the shoreline, which has been associated with a degradation in water quality (increased phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentrations and decreased water clarity). To gain a better understanding of what caused the very high water levels and degradation in water quality and collect information to better understand the lake and protect it from future degradation, the U.S. Geological Survey did a detailed study from 2004 to 2008. This report describes results of the study; specifically, lake-water quality, historical changes in water level, water and phosphorus budgets for the two years monitored in the study, results of model simulations that demonstrate how changes in phosphorus inputs affect lake-water quality, and the relative importance of changes in hydrology and changes in the watershed to the water quality of the lake. From 1987 to about 1996, water quality in Silver Lake was relatively stable. Since 1996, however, summer average total phosphorus concentrations increased from about 0.008 milligrams per liter (mg/L) to 0.018 mg/L in 2003, before decreasing to 0.011 mg/L in 2008. From 1996 to 2003, Secchi depths decreased from about 14 to 7.4 feet, before increasing to about 19 feet in 2008. Therefore, Silver Lake is typically classified as oligotrophic to mesotrophic; however, during 2002-4, the lake was classified as mesotrophic to eutrophic. Because productivity in Silver Lake is limited by phosphorus, phosphorus budgets for the lake were constructed for monitoring years 2005 and 2006. The average annual input of phosphorus was 216 pounds: 78 percent from tributary and

  19. Hydrology and water quality of Park Lake, south-central Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    Park Lake extends to the northeast from the village of Pardeeville in Columbia County (fig. 1). Local residents perceive water-quality problems in the lake that include excessive algae and aquatic plant growth. Algae and plant growth in a lake are controlled, in part, by the availability of phosphorus in the water. However, no measurements of phosphorus enter- ing the lake or of other factors that affect lake-water quality had been made, and available data on water quality were limited to 2 years of measurements at one site in the lake in 1986- 87. To obtain the data and in- formation needed to address the water-quality problems at Park Lake and to develop a management plan that would limit the input of phosphorus to the lake, the U.S. Geologi- cal Survey, in cooperation with the Park Lake Management District, studied the hydrology of the lake and collected data needed to determine sources and amount of phosphorus en- tering the lake. This Fact Sheet summarizes the results of that study. Data collected during the study were published in a separate report (Holmstrom and others, 1994, p. 70-85).

  20. Temporal variation in viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus antibodies in freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) indicates cyclic transmission in Lake Winnebago, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Rothering, Anna; Marcquenski, Susan; Koenigs, Ryan P.; Bruch, Ronald; Kamke, Kendall; Isermann, Daniel A.; Thurman, Andrew; Toohey-Kurth, Kathy; Goldberg, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is an emerging pathogen that causes mass mortality in multiple fish species. In 2007, the Great Lakes freshwater strain, type IVb, caused a large die-off of freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) in Lake Winnebago, Wisconsin, USA. To evaluate the persistence and transmission of VHSV, freshwater drum from Lake Winnebago were tested for antibodies to the virus using recently developed virus neutralization (VN) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assays. Samples were also tested by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (rRT-PCR) to detect viral RNA. Of 548 serum samples tested, 44 (8.03%) were positive by VN (titers ranging from 1:16 to 1:1,024) and 45 (8.21%) were positive by ELISA, including 7 fish positive by both assays. Antibody prevalence increased with age and was higher in one northwestern area of Lake Winnebago than in other areas. Of 3,864 tissues sampled from 551 fish, 1 spleen and 1 kidney sample from a single adult female fish collected in the spring of 2012 tested positive for VHSV by rRT-PCR, and serum from the same fish tested positive by VN and ELISA. These results suggest that VHSV persists and viral transmission may be active in Lake Winnebago even in years following outbreaks and that wild fish may survive VHSV infection and maintain detectable antibody titers while harboring viral RNA. Influxes of immunologically naive juvenile fish through recruitment may reduce herd immunity, allow VHSV to persist, and drive superannual cycles of transmission that may sporadically manifest as fish kills.

  1. Putting Anti-Indian Violence in Context. The Case of the Great Lakes Chippewas of Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Barbara; Robyn, Linda

    2005-01-01

    The Chippewas of Northern Wisconsin continue to experience a peculiarly American form of apartheid, characterized by segregation, discrimination, cultural imperialism, and everyday violence. While the blatant stigmatization, disempowerment, and violence reached its modern day zenith in the spear fishing conflict of the 1980s and 1990s, ongoing…

  2. National Water-Quality Assessment Program, western Lake Michigan drainages: Summaries of liaison committee meeting, Green Bay, Wisconsin, March 28-29, 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Charles A.

    1995-01-01

    The Western Lake Michigan Drainages (WMIC) study unit, under investigation since 1991, drains 20,000 square miles (mi2) in eastern Wisconsin and Upper Michigan (fig. 1). The major water-quality issues in the WMIC study unit are: (1) nonpoint-source contamination of surface and ground water by agricultural chemicals, (2) contamination in bottom sediments of rivers and harbors by toxic substances, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), other synthetic organic compounds, and trace elements, (3) nutrient enrichment of rivers and lakes resulting from nonpoint- and point-source discharges, and (4) acidification and mercury contamination of lakes in poorly buffered watersheds in the northwestern part of the study unit.

  3. Simulation of hydrodynamics, water quality, and lake sturgeon habitat volumes in Lake St. Croix, Wisconsin and Minnesota, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erik A.; Kiesling, Richard L.; Ziegeweid, Jeffrey R.; Elliott, Sarah M.; Magdalene, Suzanne

    2018-01-05

    Lake St. Croix is a naturally impounded, riverine lake that makes up the last 40 kilometers of the St. Croix River. Substantial land-use changes during the past 150 years, including increased agriculture and urban development, have reduced Lake St. Croix water-quality and increased nutrient loads delivered to Lake St. Croix. A recent (2012–13) total maximum daily load phosphorus-reduction plan set the goal to reduce total phosphorus loads to Lake St. Croix by 20 percent by 2020 and reduce Lake St. Croix algal bloom frequencies. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, developed a two-dimensional, carbon-based, laterally averaged, hydrodynamic and water-quality model, CE–QUAL–W2, that addresses the interaction between nutrient cycling, primary production, and trophic dynamics to predict responses in the distribution of water temperature, oxygen, and chlorophyll a. Distribution is evaluated in the context of habitat for lake sturgeon, including a combination of temperature and dissolved oxygen conditions termed oxy-thermal habitat.The Lake St. Croix CE–QUAL–W2 model successfully reproduced temperature and dissolved oxygen in the lake longitudinally (from upstream to downstream), vertically, and temporally over the seasons. The simulated water temperature profiles closely matched the measured water temperature profiles throughout the year, including the prediction of thermocline transition depths (often within 1 meter), the absolute temperature of the thermocline transitions (often within 1.0 degree Celsius), and profiles without a strong thermocline transition. Simulated dissolved oxygen profiles matched the trajectories of the measured dissolved oxygen concentrations at multiple depths over time, and the simulated concentrations matched the depth and slope of the measured concentrations.Additionally, trends in the measured water-quality data were captured by the model simulation, gaining some potential insights into the

  4. Water quality, hydrology, and the effects of changes in phosphorus loading to Pike Lake, Washington County, Wisconsin, with special emphasis on inlet-to-outlet short-circuiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, William J.; Robertson, Dale M.; Mergener, Elizabeth A.

    2004-01-01

    Pike Lake is a 459-acre, mesotrophic to eutrophic dimictic lake in southeastern Wisconsin. Because of concern over degrading water quality in the lake associated with further development in its watershed, a study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1998 to 2000 to describe the water quality and hydrology of the lake, quantify sources of phosphorus including the effects of short-circuiting of inflows, and determine how changes in phosphorus loading should affect the water quality of the lake. Measuring all significant water and phosphorus sources and estimating lesser sources was the method used to construct detailed water and phosphorus budgets. The Rubicon River, ungaged near-lake surface inflow, precipitation, and ground water provide 55, 20, 17, and 7 percent of the total inflow, respectively. Water leaves the lake through the Rubicon River outlet (87 percent) or by evaporation (13 percent). Total input of phosphorus to the lake was about 3,500 pounds in 1999 and 2,400 pounds in 2000. About 80 percent of the phosphorus was from the Rubicon River, about half of which came from the watershed and half from a waste-water treatment plant in Slinger, Wisconsin. Inlet-to-outlet short-circuiting of phosphorus is facilitated by a meandering segment of the Rubicon River channel through a marsh at the north end of the lake. It is estimated that 77 percent of phosphorus from the Rubicon River in monitoring year 1999 and 65 percent in monitoring year 2000 was short-circuited to the outlet without entering the main body of the lake.

  5. Simulating the effect of climate change on stream temperature in the Trout Lake Watershed, Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selbig, William R., E-mail: wrselbig@usgs.gov

    2015-07-15

    The potential for increases in stream temperature across many spatial and temporal scales as a result of climate change can pose a difficult challenge for environmental managers, especially when addressing thermal requirements for sensitive aquatic species. This study evaluates simulated changes to the thermal regime of three northern Wisconsin streams in response to a projected changing climate using a modeling framework and considers implications of thermal stresses to the fish community. The Stream Network Temperature Model (SNTEMP) was used in combination with a coupled groundwater and surface water flow model to assess forecasts in climate from six global circulation models and three emission scenarios. Model results suggest that annual average stream temperature will steadily increase approximately 1.1 to 3.2 °C (varying by stream) by the year 2100 with differences in magnitude between emission scenarios. Daily mean stream temperature during the months of July and August, a period when cold-water fish communities are most sensitive, showed excursions from optimal temperatures with increased frequency compared to current conditions. Projections of daily mean stream temperature, in some cases, were no longer in the range necessary to sustain a cold water fishery. - Highlights: • A stream temperature model was calibrated for three streams in northern Wisconsin. • The effect of climate change on stream temperature was simulated in each stream. • Annual average stream temperature was projected to rise from 1 to 3 °C by 2100. • Forecasts of stream temperature exceeded optimal ranges for brook trout.

  6. Relationships among walleye population characteristics and genetic diversity in northern Wisconsin Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, Matthew D.; Sloss, Brian L.; Isermann, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of genetic integrity is an important goal of fisheries management, yet little is known regarding the effects of management actions (e.g., stocking, harvest regulations) on the genetic diversity of many important fish species. Furthermore, relationships between population characteristics and genetic diversity remain poorly understood. We examined relationships among population demographics (abundance, recruitment, sex ratio, and mean age of the breeding population), stocking intensity, and genetic characteristics (heterozygosity, effective number of alleles, allelic richness, Wright's inbreeding coefficient, effective population size [Ne], mean d2 [a measure of inbreeding], mean relatedness, and pairwise population ΦST estimates) for 15 populations of Walleye Sander vitreus in northern Wisconsin. We also tested for potential demographic and genetic influences on Walleye body condition and early growth. Combinations of demographic variables explained 47.1–79.8% of the variation in genetic diversity. Skewed sex ratios contributed to a reduction in Ne and subsequent increases in genetic drift and relatedness among individuals within populations; these factors were correlated to reductions in allelic richness and early growth rate. Levels of inbreeding were negatively related to both age-0 abundance and mean age, suggesting Ne was influenced by recruitment and generational overlap. A negative relationship between the effective number of alleles and body condition suggests stocking affected underlying genetic diversity of recipient populations and the overall productivity of the population. These relationships may result from poor performance of stocked fish, outbreeding depression, or density-dependent factors. An isolation-by-distance pattern of genetic diversity was apparent in nonstocked populations, but was disrupted in stocked populations, suggesting that stocking affected genetic structure. Overall, demographic factors were related to genetic

  7. Mercury and other element exposure in tree swallows nesting at low pH and neutral pH lakes in northern Wisconsin USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custer, Thomas W.; Custer, Christine M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Dummer, Paul M.; Rossmann, Ronald; Kenow, Kevin P.; Meyer, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine whether tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) demonstrate similar responses to lake pH and mercury (Hg) contamination in northern Wisconsin as do common loons (Gavia immer). Similar to common loons, Hg concentrations in the blood of tree swallow nestlings were higher, Hg concentrations in eggs tended to be higher, and egg size tended to be smaller at low (<6.2) pH lakes. In contrast to common loons, tree swallow nestling production was not lower at low pH lakes. Based on modeling associations, Hg concentrations in tree swallow eggs and nestling blood can be used to predict Hg concentrations in common loons without the invasive or destructive sampling of loons. Mean concentrations of cadmium, manganese, and mercury in nestling livers were higher at low pH lakes than neutral pH lakes. Concentrations of cadmium, chromium, mercury, selenium, and zinc were not at toxic levels. - Highlights: ► Mercury concentrations in tree swallow nestling livers were higher in low than neutral pH lakes. ► Tree swallow eggs were smaller at low than neutral pH lakes. ► Tree swallow hatching success was not correlated with mercury concentrations in eggs. ► Mercury concentrations in tree swallows can be used to predict common loon exposure. - Mercury concentrations in tree swallows were higher at low pH lakes.

  8. Predicted effects of future climate warming on thermal habitat suitability for Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens, Rafinesque, 1817) in rivers in Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John D.; Stewart, Jana S.

    2015-01-01

    The Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens, Rafinesque, 1817) may be threatened by future climate warming. The purpose of this study was to identify river reaches in Wisconsin, USA, where they might be vulnerable to warming water temperatures. In Wisconsin, A. fulvescens is known from 2291 km of large-river habitat that has been fragmented into 48 discrete river-lake networks isolated by impassable dams. Although the exact temperature tolerances are uncertain, water temperatures above 28–30°C are potentially less suitable for this coolwater species. Predictions from 13 downscaled global climate models were input to a lotic water temperature model to estimate amounts of potential thermally less-suitable habitat at present and for 2046–2065. Currently, 341 km (14.9%) of the known habitat are estimated to regularly exceed 28°C for an entire day, but only 6 km (0.3%) to exceed 30°C. In 2046–2065, 685–2164 km (29.9–94.5%) are projected to exceed 28°C and 33–1056 km (1.4–46.1%) to exceed 30°C. Most river-lake networks have cooler segments, large tributaries, or lakes that might provide temporary escape from potentially less suitable temperatures, but 12 short networks in the Lower Fox and Middle Wisconsin rivers totaling 93.6 km are projected to have no potential thermal refugia. One possible adaptation to climate change could be to provide fish passage or translocation so that riverine Lake Sturgeon might have access to more thermally suitable habitats.

  9. Simulation of climate-change effects on streamflow, lake water budgets, and stream temperature using GSFLOW and SNTEMP, Trout Lake Watershed, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Randall J.; Walker, John F.; Selbig, William R.; Westenbroek, Stephen M.; Regan, R. Steve

    2013-01-01

    Although groundwater and surface water are considered a single resource, historically hydrologic simulations have not accounted for feedback loops between the groundwater system and other hydrologic processes. These feedbacks include timing and rates of evapotranspiration, surface runoff, soil-zone flow, and interactions with the groundwater system. Simulations that iteratively couple the surface-water and groundwater systems, however, are characterized by long run times and calibration challenges. In this study, calibrated, uncoupled transient surface-water and steady-state groundwater models were used to construct one coupled transient groundwater/surface-water model for the Trout Lake Watershed in north-central Wisconsin, USA. The computer code GSFLOW (Ground-water/Surface-water FLOW) was used to simulate the coupled hydrologic system; a surface-water model represented hydrologic processes in the atmosphere, at land surface, and within the soil-zone, and a groundwater-flow model represented the unsaturated zone, saturated zone, stream, and lake budgets. The coupled GSFLOW model was calibrated by using heads, streamflows, lake levels, actual evapotranspiration rates, solar radiation, and snowpack measurements collected during water years 1998–2007; calibration was performed by using advanced features present in the PEST parameter estimation software suite. Simulated streamflows from the calibrated GSFLOW model and other basin characteristics were used as input to the one-dimensional SNTEMP (Stream-Network TEMPerature) model to simulate daily stream temperature in selected tributaries in the watershed. The temperature model was calibrated to high-resolution stream temperature time-series data measured in 2002. The calibrated GSFLOW and SNTEMP models were then used to simulate effects of potential climate change for the period extending to the year 2100. An ensemble of climate models and emission scenarios was evaluated. Downscaled climate drivers for the period

  10. Hydrology, water quality, and response to changes in phosphorus loading of Minocqua and Kawaguesaga Lakes, Oneida County, Wisconsin, with special emphasis on effects of urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Herbert S.; Robertson, Dale M.; Rose, William J.; Saad, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Minocqua and Kawaguesaga Lakes are 1,318- and 690-acre interconnected lakes in the popular recreation area of north-central Wisconsin. The lakes are the lower end of a complex chain of lakes in Oneida and Vilas Counties, Wis. There is concern that increased stormwater runoff from rapidly growing residential/commercial developments and impervious surfaces from the urbanized areas of the Town of Minocqua and Woodruff, as well as increased effluent from septic systems around their heavily developed shoreline has increased nutrient loading to the lakes. Maintaining the quality of the lakes to sustain the tourist-based economy of the towns and the area was a concern raised by the Minocqua/Kawaguesaga Lakes Protection Association. Following several small studies, a detailed study during 2006 and 2007 was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minocqua/Kawaguesaga Lakes Protection Association through the Town of Minocqua to describe the hydrology and water quality of the lakes, quantify the sources of phosphorus including those associated with urban development and to better understand the present and future effects of phosphorus loading on the water quality of the lakes. The water quality of Minocqua and Kawaguesaga Lakes appears to have improved since 1963, when a new sewage-treatment plant was constructed and its discharge was bypassed around the lakes, resulting in a decrease in phosphorus loading to the lakes. Since the mid-1980s, the water quality of the lakes has changed little in response to fluctuations in phosphorus loading from the watershed. From 1986 to 2009, summer average concentrations of near-surface total phosphorus in the main East Basin of Minocqua Lake fluctuated from 0.009 mg/L to 0.027 mg/L but generally remained less than 0.022 mg/L, indicating that the lake is mesotrophic. Phosphorus concentrations from 1988 through 1996, however, were lower than the long-term average, possibly the result of an extended drought in the area

  11. Mid-Wisconsin to Holocene permafrost and landscape dynamics based on a drained lake basin core from the northern Seward Peninsula, northwest Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Josefine; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin M.; Anthony, Katey M. Walter; Bobrov, Anatoly; Wulf, Sabine; Wetterich, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Permafrost-related processes drive regional landscape dynamics in the Arctic terrestrial system. A better understanding of past periods indicative of permafrost degradation and aggradation is important for predicting the future response of Arctic landscapes to climate change. Here, we used a multi-proxy approach to analyse a ~ 4 m long sediment core from a drained thermokarst lake basin on the northern Seward Peninsula in western Arctic Alaska (USA). Sedimentological, biogeochemical, geochronological, micropalaeontological (ostracoda, testate amoebae) and tephra analyses were used to determine the long-term environmental Early-Wisconsin to Holocene history preserved in our core for central Beringia. Yedoma accumulation dominated throughout the Early to Late-Wisconsin but was interrupted by wetland formation from 44.5 to 41.5 ka BP. The latter was terminated by the deposition of 1 m of volcanic tephra, most likely originating from the South Killeak Maar eruption at about 42 ka BP. Yedoma deposition continued until 22.5 ka BP and was followed by a depositional hiatus in the sediment core between 22.5 and 0.23 ka BP. We interpret this hiatus as due to intense thermokarst activity in the areas surrounding the site, which served as a sediment source during the Late-Wisconsin to Holocene climate transition. The lake forming the modern basin on the upland initiated around 0.23 ka BP and drained catastrophically in spring 2005. The present study emphasises that Arctic lake systems and periglacial landscapes are highly dynamic and that permafrost formation as well as degradation in central Beringia was controlled by regional to global climate patterns as well as by local disturbances.

  12. Hydrology and water quality of Shell Lake, Washburn County, Wisconsin, with special emphasis on the effects of diversion and changes in water level on the water quality of a shallow terminal lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.; Robertson, Dale M.

    2013-01-01

    Shell Lake is a relatively shallow terminal lake (tributaries but no outlets) in northwestern Wisconsin that has experienced approximately 10 feet (ft) of water-level fluctuation over more than 70 years of record and extensive flooding of nearshore areas starting in the early 2000s. The City of Shell Lake (City) received a permit from the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources in 2002 to divert water from the lake to a nearby river in order to lower water levels and reduce flooding. Previous studies suggested that water-level fluctuations were driven by long-term cycles in precipitation, evaporation, and runoff, although questions about the lake’s connection with the groundwater system remained. The permit required that the City evaluate assumptions about lake/groundwater interactions made in previous studies and evaluate the effects of the water diversion on water levels in Shell Lake and other nearby lakes. Therefore, a cooperative study between the City and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was initiated to improve the understanding of the hydrogeology of the area and evaluate potential effects of the diversion on water levels in Shell Lake, the surrounding groundwater system, and nearby lakes. Concerns over deteriorating water quality in the lake, possibly associated with changes in water level, prompted an additional cooperative project between the City and the USGS to evaluate efeffects of changes in nutrient loading associated with changes in water levels on the water quality of Shell Lake. Numerical models were used to evaluate how the hydrology and water quality responded to diversion of water from the lake and historical changes in the watershed. The groundwater-flow model MODFLOW was used to simulate groundwater movement in the area around Shell Lake, including groundwater/surface-water interactions. Simulated results from the MODFLOW model indicate that groundwater flows generally northward in the area around Shell Lake, with flow locally converging

  13. The remote sensing of aquatic macrophytes Part 1: Color-infrared aerial photography as a tool for identification and mapping of littoral vegetation. Part 2: Aerial photography as a quantitative tool for the investigation of aquatic ecosystems. [Lake Wingra, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, T. D.; Adams, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    Research was initiated to use aerial photography as an investigative tool in studies that are part of an intensive aquatic ecosystem research effort at Lake Wingra, Madison, Wisconsin. It is anticipated that photographic techniques would supply information about the growth and distribution of littoral macrophytes with efficiency and accuracy greater than conventional methods.

  14. Water quality, hydrology, and simulated response to changes in phosphorus loading of Mercer Lake, Iron County, Wisconsin, with special emphasis on the effects of wastewater discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Dale M.; Garn, Herbert S.; Rose, William J.; Juckem, Paul F.; Reneau, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    Mercer Lake is a relatively shallow drainage lake in north-central Wisconsin. The area near the lake has gone through many changes over the past century, including urbanization and industrial development. To try to improve the water quality of the lake, actions have been taken, such as removal of the lumber mill and diversion of all effluent from the sewage treatment plant away from the lake; however, it is uncertain how these actions have affected water quality. Mercer Lake area residents and authorities would like to continue to try to improve the water quality of the lake; however, they would like to place their efforts in the actions that will have the most beneficial effects. To provide a better understanding of the factors affecting the water quality of Mercer Lake, a detailed study of the lake and its watershed was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in collaboration with the Mercer Lake Association. The purposes of the study were to describe the water quality of the lake and the composition of its sediments; quantify the sources of water and phosphorus loading to the lake, including sources associated with wastewater discharges; and evaluate the effects of past and future changes in phosphorus inputs on the water quality of the lake using eutrophication models (models that simulate changes in phosphorus and algae concentrations and water clarity in the lake). Based on analyses of sediment cores and monitoring data collected from the lake, the water quality of Mercer Lake appears to have degraded as a result of the activities in its watershed over the past 100 years. The water quality appears to have improved, however, since a sewage treatment plant was constructed in 1965 and its effluent was routed away from the lake in 1995. Since 2000, when a more consistent monitoring program began, the water quality of the lake appears to have changed very little. During the two monitoring years (MY) 2008-09, the average summer near-surface concentration of total

  15. Application of the Local Grid Refinement package to an inset model simulating the interactions of lakes, wells, and shallow groundwater, northwestern Waukesha County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, D.T.; Dunning, C.P.; Juckem, P.F.; Hunt, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater use from shallow, high-capacity wells is expected to increase across southeastern Wisconsin in the next decade (2010-2020), owing to residential and business growth and the need for shallow water to be blended with deeper water of lesser quality, containing, for example, excessive levels of radium. However, this increased pumping has the potential to affect surface-water features. A previously developed regional groundwater-flow model for southeastern Wisconsin was used as the starting point for a new model to characterize the hydrology of part of northwestern Waukesha County, with a particular focus on the relation between the shallow aquifer and several area lakes. An inset MODFLOW model was embedded in an updated version of the original regional model. Modifications made within the inset model domain include finer grid resolution; representation of Beaver, Pine, and North Lakes by use of the LAK3 package in MODFLOW; and representation of selected stream reaches with the SFR package. Additionally, the inset model is actively linked to the regional model by use of the recently released Local Grid Refinement package for MODFLOW-2005, which allows changes at the regional scale to propagate to the local scale and vice versa. The calibrated inset model was used to simulate the hydrologic system in the Chenequa area under various weather and pumping conditions. The simulated model results for base conditions show that groundwater is the largest inflow component for Beaver Lake (equal to 59 percent of total inflow). For Pine and North Lakes, it is still an important component (equal, respectively, to 16 and 5 percent of total inflow), but for both lakes it is less than the contribution from precipitation and surface water. Severe drought conditions (simulated in a rough way by reducing both precipitation and recharge rates for 5 years to two-thirds of base values) cause correspondingly severe reductions in lake stage and flows. The addition of a test well

  16. Holocene Record of Major and Trace Components in the Sediments of an Urban Impoundment on the Mississippi River: Lake Pepin, Minnesota and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Walter E.

    2009-01-01

    Lake Pepin is a natural impoundment formed by damming of the Mississippi River about 9,180 radiocarbon years ago (19,600 calendar years) by an alluvial fan deposited by the Chippewa River, a tributary of the Mississippi in Wisconsin. Unique among 26 Mississippi River impoundments, Lake Pepin has stratigraphically preserved Holocene materials, including pollutants, that have been transported down the Mississippi. This natural Holocene record can then be compared to changes that have occurred since European settlement (ca. AD 1830), and since enactment of clean air and water legislation. The most immediate response to settlement in the sediments of Lake Pepin was an increase in bulk-sediment accumulation rate. This was accompanied by gradual increases in concentrations of phosphorus (P), and organic carbon (OC), followed by dramatic increases in these elements beginning about 1940. The increase in P was far greater than any of the minor fluctuations in P that occurred throughout the Holocene, but the increase in OC was comparable to an increase in OC that occurred in the mid-Holocene. The concentrations of several metals (for example, cadmium [Cd], and lead [Pb]) also are elevated in recent sediments. Increased Cd concentrations lasted only about two decades during the industrial era between World War II and the enactment of clean water standards in the 1970s. Increased Pb emissions, on the other hand, occurred over more than 100 years, first from burning of coal and smelting of lead ores, and then, beginning in the 1930s, burning of leaded gasoline. Concentrations of Pb in the sediments of Lake Pepin decreased to about two times preindustrial levels within a decade of enactment of unleaded gasoline restrictions.

  17. Electronic Cigarette Exposure: Calls to Wisconsin Poison Control Centers, 2010–2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Debora; Tomasallo, Carrie D; Meiman, Jon G; Creswell, Paul D; Melstrom, Paul C; Gummin, David D; Patel, Disa J; Michaud, Nancy T; Sebero, Heather A; Anderson, Henry A

    2016-12-01

    E-cigarettes are battery-powered devices that deliver nicotine and flavorings by aerosol and have been marketed in the United States since 2007. Because e-cigarettes have increased in popularity, toxicity potential from device misuse and malfunction also has increased. National data indicate that during 2010–2014, exposure calls to US poison control centers increased only 0.3% for conventional cigarette exposures, whereas calls increased 41.7% for e-cigarette exposures. We characterized cigarette and e-cigarette exposure calls to the Wisconsin Poison Center January 1, 2010 through October 10, 2015. We compared cigarette and e-cigarette exposure calls by exposure year, demographic characteristics, caller site, exposure site, exposure route, exposure reason, medical outcome, management site, and level of care at a health care facility. During January 2010 to October 2015, a total of 98 e-cigarette exposure calls were reported, and annual exposure calls increased approximately 17-fold, from 2 to 35. During the same period, 671 single-exposure cigarette calls with stable annual call volumes were reported. E-cigarette exposure calls were associated with children aged ≤5 years (57/98, 58.2%) and adults aged ≥20 years (30/98, 30.6%). Cigarette exposure calls predominated among children aged ≤5 years (643/671, 95.8%). The frequency of e-cigarette exposure calls to the Wisconsin Poison Center has increased and is highest among children aged ≤5 years and adults. Strategies are warranted to prevent future poisonings from these devices, including nicotine warning labels and public advisories to keep e-cigarettes away from children.

  18. Tornadoes Strike Northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    A series of tornadoes ripped through the Upper Midwest region of the United States in the evening of June 7, 2007. At least five different tornadoes touched down in Wisconsin, according to the Associated Press, one of which tore through the Bear Paw Resort in northern Wisconsin. Despite dropping as much as fifteen centimeters (six inches) of rain in some places and baseball-size hail in others, authorities were reporting no deaths attributable to the storm system, and only a smattering of injuries, but considerable property damage in some areas. When the MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra satellite observed the area on June 9, 2007, the track torn through the woods by one of the tornadoes stands out quite clearly. This photo-like image uses data collected by MODIS in the normal human vision range to give a familiar natural-looking appearance. The landscape is largely a checkerboard of farms, towns, roads, and cities. The pale land is predominantly farmland where crops have not fully grown in yet. Dark blue shows the winding path of rivers and lakes dotting the landscape. The large blue lake on the east (right) side of the image is Lake Michigan. Towns and cities, including the city of Green Bay, are gray. To the north side, farmland gives way to dark green as land use shifts from agriculture to the Menominee Indian Reservation and Nicolet National Forest. The diagonal slash through the dark green forested land shows the tornado track. Bare land was revealed where the tornado tore down trees or stripped vegetation off the branches. The high-resolution image provided above is at MODIS' full spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response System provides this image at additional resolutions.

  19. 75 FR 52369 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Wisconsin Historical Society, Museum Division, Madison, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... member Indian tribes (Bad River Band of the Lake Superior Tribe of Chippewa Indians of the Bad River... Alliance and the Wisconsin Inter-tribal Repatriation Committee indicated that the Bad River Band of the Lake Superior Tribe of Chippewa Indians of the Bad River Reservation, Wisconsin, and Red Cliff Band of...

  20. 75 FR 70026 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Wisconsin Historical Society, Museum Division, Madison, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... with representatives of the Bad River Band of the Lake Superior Tribe of Chippewa Indians of the Bad... Division, is responsible for notifying the Bad River Band of the Lake Superior Tribe of Chippewa Indians of the Bad River Reservation, Wisconsin; Forest County Potawatomi Community, Wisconsin; Lac Courte...

  1. Distribution and Abundance of Eurasian Watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) and Curly-Leaf Pondweed (Potamogeton crispus L.) in Shawano Lake, Wisconsin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Owens, Chetta S; James, William F; Skogerboe, John G; Smart, R. M

    2007-01-01

    ... (Potamogeton crispus L.) and Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.). In addition to problems associated with invasive plant species, Shawano Lake has been experiencing declining water quality associated with phosphorus (P...

  2. Composite Biofilms grown in Acidic Mining Lakes and assessed by Electron Microscopy and Molecular Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luensdorf, Heinrich; Wenderoth, Dirk F.; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer

    2002-01-01

    Microbial consortia of composite biofilms, grown in surface water of acidicmining lakes near Lauchhammer, Germany, were investigated. The red-brown colored lake water was acidic (pH 2.5), had high concentrations of Fe(III), Al(III), and sulphate and low concentrations of dissolved organic matter. As a result the abundance of bacteria in the lake is with 10 4 cells mL -1 rather low. One input of organic material into the lake are autumnal leaves from trees, growing in the lakeside area. From aliquots of unfixed birch leave biofilms the 16S rRNA genes were amplified by PCR and community fingerprints were determined by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. Specific bands within the fingerprints were extracted from SSCP gels and sequenced for the taxonomical affiliation.These results were compared with those from the second type of biofilms which were grown on sterile substrata, floating submersed in surface waters of the lakes. By excising the bands from the gel and sequencing the individual bands bacterial taxa, common to both types of biofilms, were found but also some, which were only present in one type of biofilm. Ultrathin sectioned biofilms often showed bacteria associated with electron dense particles as main inorganic constituents. Elemental microanalysis by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) revealed them to contain iron, sulfur and oxygen as main elemental fractions and electron diffraction ring pattern analysis classified them to be schwertmannite. These bacteria and their interactions with each other as well as with the inorganic minerals formed in this lake generally is of great interest, in order to use these results for bioremediation applications

  3. Integrating landscape system and meta-ecosystem frameworks to advance the understanding of ecosystem function in heterogeneous landscapes: An analysis on the carbon fluxes in the Northern Highlands Lake District (NHLD) of Wisconsin and Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haile; Chen, Jiakuan

    2018-01-01

    The successful integration of ecosystem ecology with landscape ecology would be conducive to understanding how landscapes function. There have been several attempts at this, with two main approaches: (1) an ecosystem-based approach, such as the meta-ecosystem framework and (2) a landscape-based approach, such as the landscape system framework. These two frameworks are currently disconnected. To integrate these two frameworks, we introduce a protocol, and then demonstrate application of the protocol using a case study. The protocol includes four steps: 1) delineating landscape systems; 2) classifying landscape systems; 3) adjusting landscape systems to meta-ecosystems and 4) integrating landscape system and meta-ecosystem frameworks through meta-ecosystems. The case study is the analyzing of the carbon fluxes in the Northern Highlands Lake District (NHLD) of Wisconsin and Michigan using this protocol. The application of this protocol revealed that one could follow this protocol to construct a meta-ecosystem and analyze it using the integrative framework of landscape system and meta-ecosystem frameworks. That is, one could (1) appropriately describe and analyze the spatial heterogeneity of the meta-ecosystem; (2) understand the emergent properties arising from spatial coupling of local ecosystems in the meta-ecosystem. In conclusion, this protocol is a useful approach for integrating the meta-ecosystem framework and the landscape system framework, which advances the describing and analyzing of the spatial heterogeneity and ecosystem function of interconnected ecosystems.

  4. Preliminary Assessment of the Flow of Used Electronics, In Selected States: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is the largest growing municipal waste stream in the United States. The improper disposal of e-waste has environmental, economic, and social impacts, thus there is a need for sustainable stewardship of electronics. EPA/ORD has been working to improve ...

  5. Wisconsin Inventors` Network Database final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-04

    The Wisconsin Innovation Service Center at UW-Whitewater received a DOE grant to create an Inventor`s Network Database to assist independent inventors and entrepreneurs with new product development. Since 1980, the Wisconsin Innovation Service Center (WISC) at the University of Wisconsin-Whitewater has assisted independent and small business inventors in estimating the marketability of their new product ideas and inventions. The purpose of the WISC as an economic development entity is to encourage inventors who appear to have commercially viable inventions, based on preliminary market research, to invest in the next stages of development, perhaps investigating prototype development, legal protection, or more in-depth market research. To address inventor`s information needs, WISC developed on electronic database with search capabilities by geographic region and by product category/industry. It targets both public and private resources capable of, and interested in, working with individual and small business inventors. At present, the project includes resources in Wisconsin only.

  6. Empirical yield tables for Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerold T. Hahn; Joan M. Stelman

    1989-01-01

    Describes the tables derived from the 1983 Forest Survey of Wisconsin and presents ways the tables can be used. These tables are broken down according to Wisconsin`s five Forest Survey Units and 14 forest types.

  7. Using Electronic Health Records to Examine Disease Risk in Small Populations: Obesity Among American Indian Children, Wisconsin, 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomayko, Emily J; Weinert, Bethany A; Godfrey, Liz; Adams, Alexandra K; Hanrahan, Lawrence P

    2016-02-25

    Tribe-based or reservation-based data consistently show disproportionately high obesity rates among American Indian children, but little is known about the approximately 75% of American Indian children living off-reservation. We examined obesity among American Indian children seeking care off-reservation by using a database of de-identified electronic health records linked to community-level census variables. Data from electronic health records from American Indian children and a reference sample of non-Hispanic white children collected from 2007 through 2012 were abstracted to determine obesity prevalence. Related community-level and individual-level risk factors (eg, economic hardship, demographics) were examined using logistic regression. The obesity rate for American Indian children (n = 1,482) was double the rate among non-Hispanic white children (n = 81,042) (20.0% vs 10.6%, P American Indian children were less likely to have had a well-child visit (55.9% vs 67.1%, P American Indian records (18.3% vs 14.6%, P obesity risk among American Indian children (odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-2.1) independent of age, sex, economic hardship, insurance status, and geographic designation. An electronic health record data set demonstrated high obesity rates for nonreservation-based American Indian children, rates that had not been previously assessed. This low-cost method may be used for assessing health risk for other understudied populations and to plan and evaluate targeted interventions.

  8. Wisconsin's forests, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Vern A. Everson; Ian K. Brown; Jane Cummings-Carlson; Sally E. Dahir; Edward A. Jepsen; Joe Kovach; Michael D. Labissoniere; Terry R. Mace; Eunice A. Padley; Richard B. Rideout; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Greg C. Liknes; Randall S. Morin; Mark D. Nelson; Barry T. (Ty) Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall

    2008-01-01

    The first full, annualized inventory of Wisconsin's forests was completed in 2004 after 6,478 forested plots were visited. There are more than 16.0 million acres of forest land in the Wisconsin, nearly half of the State's land area; 15.8 million acres meet the definition of timberland. The total area of both forest land and timberland continues an upward...

  9. Forests of Wisconsin, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Perry

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Wisconsin based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Data estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and...

  10. Wisconsin Glaciation of the Sierra Nevada (79,000-15,000 yr B.P.) as Recorded by Rock Flour in Sediments of Owens Lake, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, James L.; Cummins, Kathleen

    2001-01-01

    Chemical analyses of the clay-sized fractions of 564 continuous sediment samples (200-yr resolution) from composite core OL90/92 allow quantification of an abundance of glacial rock flour. Rock flour produced during glacier advances is represented by clay-sized plagioclase, K-feldspar, and biotite in homogeneous internal composition. The abundance of rock flour is deemed proportional to the intensity of glacies advances. Age control for the composite section is provided by combining previously published radiocarbon dates on organics, U/Th dates on ostracode shells, and U/Th dates on saline minerals from nearby Searles Lake correlated to OL92 by pollen. The rock flour record displays three levels of variability: (1) a dominant one of about 20,000 yr related to summer insolation and precipitation; (2) an intermediate one of 3000-5000 yr, perhaps related to North Atlantic Heinrich events; and (3) a minor one of 1000-2000 yr, perhaps related to North Atlantic thermohaline-driven air-temperature variation.

  11. Pulpwood Production in the Lake States

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Blyth; Jerold T. Hahn

    1977-01-01

    This 31st annual report shows 1976 pulpwood production by county and species group in Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. Production in these three Lake States climbed to 4.7 million cords from 4.1 million cords in 1975

  12. Learning from Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Jamie Owen

    2011-01-01

    Like thousands of other people from around the country and around the world, this author was heartened and inspired by the tenacity, immediacy, and creativity of the pushback by Wisconsin's public-sector unions against Governor Scott Walker's efforts to limit their collective bargaining rights. And like many others who made the trek to Madison to…

  13. University of Wisconsin - Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to know how to advance an innovative tech idea I want to know more about agricultural resources available in Wisconsin I want to learn how I can get training and support for my small business I want to learn how I can get ...

  14. Wisconsin's forest resources, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.H. Perry

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Wisconsin based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report...

  15. Wisconsin's forest resources, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, H. (Hobie) Perry; Gary J. Brand

    2006-01-01

    The annual forest inventory of Wisconsin continues, and this document reports 2001-05 moving averages for most variables and comparisons between 2000 and 2005 for growth, removals, and mortality. Summary resource tables can be generated through the Forest Inventory Mapmaker website at http://ncrs2.fs.fed.us/4801/fiadb/index. htm. Estimates from this inventory show a...

  16. Wisconsin's forest resources, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.H. Perry; V.A. Everson

    2007-01-01

    Figure 2 was revised by the author in August 2008. This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Wisconsin based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service from 2002-2006. These estimates, along with associated core tables postedon the Internet, are...

  17. Wisconsin's Forest Resources, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.H. Perry; V.A. Everson

    2008-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Wisconsin based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, are updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report.

  18. Wisconsin's forest resources, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.H. Perry

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Wisconsin based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this report...

  19. Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The Great Lakes region, as defined here, includes the Great Lakes and their drainage basins in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. The region also includes the portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the 21 northernmost counties of Illinois that lie in the Mississippi River drainage basin, outside the floodplain of the river. The region spans about 9º of latitude and 20º of longitude and lies roughly halfway between the equator and the North Pole in a lowland corridor that extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean.The Great Lakes are the most prominent natural feature of the region (Fig. 1). They have a combined surface area of about 245,000 square kilometers and are among the largest, deepest lakes in the world. They are the largest single aggregation of fresh water on the planet (excluding the polar ice caps) and are the only glacial feature on Earth visible from the surface of the moon (The Nature Conservancy 1994a).The Great Lakes moderate the region’s climate, which presently ranges from subarctic in the north to humid continental warm in the south (Fig. 2), reflecting the movement of major weather masses from the north and south (U.S. Department of the Interior 1970; Eichenlaub 1979). The lakes act as heat sinks in summer and heat sources in winter and are major reservoirs that help humidify much of the region. They also create local precipitation belts in areas where air masses are pushed across the lakes by prevailing winds, pick up moisture from the lake surface, and then drop that moisture over land on the other side of the lake. The mean annual frost-free period—a general measure of the growing-season length for plants and some cold-blooded animals—varies from 60 days at higher elevations in the north to 160 days in lakeshore areas in the south. The climate influences the general distribution of wild plants and animals in the region and also influences the activities and distribution of the human

  20. 40 CFR 81.67 - Lake Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.67 Lake Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Menominee-Escanaba (Michigan)-Marinette (Wisconsin) Interstate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Lake Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Wisconsin) and revised to consist of the territorial area...

  1. Sanctuaries for lake trout in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jon G.; Eshenroder, Randy L.; Hartman, Wilbur L.

    1987-01-01

    Populations of lake trout, severely depleted in Lake Superior and virtually extirpated from the other Great Lakes because of sea lamprey predation and intense fishing, are now maintained by annual plantings of hatchery-reared fish in Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario and parts of Lake Superior. The extensive coastal areas of the Great Lakes and proximity to large populations resulted in fishing pressure on planted lake trout heavy enough to push annual mortality associated with sport and commercial fisheries well above the critical level needed to reestablish self-sustaining stocks. The interagency, international program for rehabilitating lake trout includes controlling sea lamprey abundance, stocking hatchery-reared lake trout, managing the catch, and establishing sanctuaries where harvest is prohibited. Three lake trout sanctuaries have been established in Lake Michigan: the Fox Island Sanctuary of 121, 500 ha, in the Chippewa-Ottawa Treaty fishing zone in the northern region of the lake; the Milwaukee Reef Sanctuary of 160, 000 ha in midlake, in boundary waters of Michigan and Wisconsin; and Julian's Reef Sanctuary of 6, 500 ha, in Illinois waters. In northern Lake Huron, Drummond Island Sanctuary of 55, 000 ha is two thirds in Indian treaty-ceded waters in Michigan and one third in Ontario waters of Canada. A second sanctuary, Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef Sanctuary, in central Lake Huron contains 168, 000 ha. Sanctuary status for the Canadian areas remains to be approved by the Provincial government. In Lake Superior, sanctuaries protect the spawning grounds of Gull Island Shoal (70, 000 ha) and Devils Island Shoal (44, 000 ha) in Wisconsin's Apostle Island area. These seven sanctuaries, established by the several States and agreed upon by the States, Indian tribes, the U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Province of Ontario, contribute toward solving an interjurisdictional fishery problem.

  2. Wisconsin's forest resources in 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Perry

    2006-01-01

    Results of the 2000-2004 annual inventory of Wisconsin show about 16.0 million acres of forest land, more than 22.1 billion cubic feet of live volume on forest land, and nearly 593 million dry tons of all live aboveground tree biomass on timberland. Populations of jack pine budworm are increasing, and it remains a significant pest in Wisconsin forests. A complete...

  3. Hardwood Face Veneer and Plywood Mill Closures in Michigan and Wisconsin Since 1950

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis T. Hendricks

    1966-01-01

    In recent years there has been a great deal of concern about the closure of numberous hardwood face veneer and plywood mills in Michigan and Wisconsin. As part of an overall study of that industry in the northern Lake States region, the basic reasons leading to the closure of these mills were investigated. In the past 15 years, there have been eight known mill...

  4. Whiting in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Satellites provide a view from space of changes on the Earth's surface. This series of images from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) aboard the Orbview-2 satellite shows the dramatic change in the color of Lake Michigan during the summer. The bright color that appears in late summer is probably caused by calcium carbonate-chalk-in the water. Lake Michigan always has a lot of calcium carbonate in it because the floor of the lake is limestone. During most of the year the calcium carbonate remains dissolved in the cold water, but at the end of summer the lake warms up, lowering the solubility of calcium carbonate. As a result, the calcium carbonate precipitates out of the water, forming clouds of very small solid particles that appear as bright swirls from above. The phenomenon is appropriately called a whiting event. A similar event occured in 1999, but appears to have started later and subsided earlier. It is also possible that a bloom of the algae Microcystis is responsible for the color change, but unlikely because of Lake Michigan's depth and size. Microcystis blooms have occured in other lakes in the region, however. On the shore of the lake it is possible to see the cities of Chicago, Illinois, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Both appear as clusters of gray-brown pixels. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  5. Electron Shuttling by Dissolved Humic Substances: Using Fluorescence Spectroscopy to Move Beyond the Laboratory to Natural Lakes, Streams and Groundwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    Humic substances are an important class of reactive chemical species in natural waters, and one important role is their capacity to as an electron acceptor and/or electron shuttle to ferric iron present as solid phase ferric oxides. Several lines of evidence point to quinone-like moieties being the main redox active moieties that can be used by microbes in respiration. Concomitantly, the humic fraction of dissolved organic mater (DOM) contains the dominant fluorophores in many natural waters. Examination of excitation emission matrices (EEMs) across redox gradients in diverse aquatic systems show that the EEMs are generally red-shifted under reducing conditions, such as anoxic bottom waters in lakes and hypoxic waters in riparian wetlands. Furthermore, there is striking similarity between the humic fluorophores that are resolved by statistical analysis and the fluorescence spectra of model quinone compounds, with the more reduced species having red-shifted fluorescence spectra. This apparent red-shift can be quantified based on the distribution of apparently "quinone-like", "semi-quinone-like" and "hydroquinone-like" fluorophores determined by the PARAFAC statistical analysis. Because fluorescence spectroscopy can be applied at ambient DOM concentrations for samples that have been maintained in an anoxic condition, fluorescence spectroscopy can provide insight into the role of humic electron shuttling in natural systems. Examples are presented demosntrating the changing EEMs in anoxic bottomwaters in a lake in the McMurdo Dry Valleys following a major flood event and the role of organic material in the mobilization of arsenic in shallow groundwater in South East Asia.

  6. Wisconsin torsatron/stellarator program, FY 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shohet, J.L.; Anderson, D.T.; Anderson, F.S.B.; Talmadge, J.N.

    1988-07-01

    This proposal documents recent activities within the University of Wisconsin-Madison Torsatron/Stellarator Laboratory and presents plans for future research activities for a three year period. Research efforts have focused on fundamental stellarator physics issues through experimental investigations on the Interchangeable Module Stellarator (IMS) and the Proto-Cleo Stellarator. Theoretical activities and studies of new configurations are being undertaken to support and broaden the experimental program. Experimental research at the Torsatron Stellarator Laboratory has been primarily concerned with effects induced through electron-cyclotron resonant frequency plasma production and heating in the IMS device. Plasma electric fields have been shown to play a major role in particle transport and confinement in IMS. ECRF heating at 6 kG has produced electron tail populations in agreement with Monte-Carlo models. Electric and magnetic fields have been shown to alter the particle flows to the IMS modular divertors. 48 refs

  7. Wisconsin's fourth forest inventory, 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Jr. Spencer; W. Brad Smith; Jerold T. Hahn; Gerhard K. Raile

    1988-01-01

    The fourth inventory of the timber resource of Wisconsin shows that growing-stock volume increased from 11.2 to 15.5 billion cubic feet between 1968 and 1983, and area of timberland increased from 14.5 to 14.8 million acres. Presented are analysis and statistics on forest area and timber volume, growth, mortality, removals, and projections.

  8. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-27

    Energy used by Wisconsin single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  9. Metabolism of nonparticulate phosphorus in an acid bog lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenings, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    In North Gate Lake, an acid bog lake located on the northern Michigan-Wisconsin border, U.S.A., the algal nutrient inorganic phosphate (FRP) is not detectable by chemical means. Organic phosphorus (FUP) represents 100% of the detectable filterable phosphorus. The availability and cycling of this organic fraction are of considerable interest in regard to the primary productivity of this system. To clarify these relationships, the cycling of nonparticulate forms of phosphorus found in the epilimnion of this lake was studied

  10. Metabolism of nonparticulate phosphorus in an acid bog lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenings, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    In North Gate Lake, an acid bog lake located on the northern Michigan-Wisconsin border, U.S.A., the algal nutrient inorganic phosphate (FRP) is not detectable by chemical means. Organic phosphorus (FUP) represents 100% of the detectable filterable phosphorus. The availability and cycling of this organic fraction are of considerable interest in regard to the primary productivity of this system. To clarify these relationships, the cycling of nonparticulate forms of phosphorus found in the epilimnion of this lake was studied.

  11. Wisconsin Inventors' Network Database final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-04

    The Wisconsin Innovation Service Center at UW-Whitewater received a DOE grant to create an Inventor's Network Database to assist independent inventors and entrepreneurs with new product development. Since 1980, the Wisconsin Innovation Service Center (WISC) at the University of Wisconsin-Whitewater has assisted independent and small business inventors in estimating the marketability of their new product ideas and inventions. The purpose of the WISC as an economic development entity is to encourage inventors who appear to have commercially viable inventions, based on preliminary market research, to invest in the next stages of development, perhaps investigating prototype development, legal protection, or more in-depth market research. To address inventor's information needs, WISC developed on electronic database with search capabilities by geographic region and by product category/industry. It targets both public and private resources capable of, and interested in, working with individual and small business inventors. At present, the project includes resources in Wisconsin only.

  12. Advocacy and education in Wisconsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, M.

    1986-01-01

    Wisconsin's Radioactive Waste Review Board is required by law to advocate for and educate the public on the high-level nuclear waste issue. The goal of its education program is to empower people by giving them information and skills. Environmental advocacy and public activism are part of the State's Progressive political tradition. The Board seeks and uses public input while developing education programs, and helps local areas organize committees to develop their own programs

  13. Electronic archival tags provide first glimpse of bathythermal habitat use by free-ranging adult lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Andrew S.; Hondorp, Darryl W.; Quinlan, Henry R.; Boase, James C.; Mohr, Lloyd C.

    2016-01-01

    Information on lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) depth and thermal habitat use during non-spawning periods is unavailable due to the difficulty of observing lake sturgeon away from shallow water spawning sites. In 2002 and 2003, lake sturgeon captured in commercial trap nets near Sarnia, Ontario were implanted with archival tags and released back into southern Lake Huron. Five of the 40 tagged individuals were recaptured and were at large for 32, 57, 286, 301, and 880 days. Temperatures and depths recorded by archival tags ranged from 0 to 23.5 ºC and 0.1 to 42.4 m, respectively. For the three lake sturgeon that were at large for over 200 days, temperatures occupied emulated seasonal fluctuations. Two of these fish occupied deeper waters during winter than summer while the other occupied similar depths during non-spawning periods. This study provides important insight into depth and thermal habitat use of lake sturgeon throughout the calendar year along with exploring the feasibility of using archival tags to obtain important physical habitat attributes during non-spawning periods.

  14. Water Use in Wisconsin, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwald, Cheryl A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Wisconsin Water Science Center is responsible for presenting data collected or estimated for water withdrawals and diversions every 5 years to the National Water-Use Information Program (NWUIP). This program serves many purposes such as quantifying how much, where, and for what purpose water is used; tracking and documenting water-use trends and changes; and providing these data to other agencies to support hydrologic projects. In 2005, data at both the county and subbasin levels were compiled into the USGS national water-use database system; these data are published in a statewide summary report and a national circular. This publication, Water Use in Wisconsin, 2005, presents the water-use estimates for 2005; this publication also describes how these water-use data were determined (including assumptions used), limitations of using these data, and trends in water-use data presented to the NWUIP. Estimates of water use in Wisconsin indicate that about 8,608 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) were withdrawn during 2005. Of this amount, about 7,622 Mgal/d (89 percent) were from surface-water sources and about 986 Mgal/d (11 percent) were from ground-water sources. Surface water used for cooling at thermoelectric-power plants constituted the largest portion of daily use at 6,898 Mgal/d. Water provided by public-supply water utilities is the second largest use of water and totaled 552 Mgal/d. Public supply served approximately 71 percent of the estimated 2005 Wisconsin population of 5.54 million people; two counties - Milwaukee and Dane - accounted for more than one-third of the public-supply withdrawal. Industrial and irrigation were the next major water uses at 471 and 402 Mgal/d, respectively. Non-irrigational agricultural (livestock and aquaculture) accounted for approximately 155 Mgal/d and is similar to the combined withdrawal for the remaining water-use categories of domestic, commercial, and mining (131 Mgal/d). Data on water use

  15. Nursing Quality Assurance: The Wisconsin System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hover, Julie; Zimmer, Marie J.

    1978-01-01

    Evaluation model guidelines for hospital departments of nursing to use in their nursing quality assurance programs are presented as developed in Wisconsin. Four essential components of the Wisconsin outcome evaluation system are criteria, assessment, standards, and improvement of care. Sample tests and charts are included in the article. (MF)

  16. Survival of adult martens in Northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas P. McCann; Patrick A. Zollner; Jonathan H. Gilbert

    2010-01-01

    Low adult marten (Martes americana) survival may be one factor limiting their population growth >30 yr after their reintroduction in Wisconsin, USA. We estimated annual adult marten survival at 0.81 in northern Wisconsin, with lower survival during winter (0.87) than summer-fall (1.00). Fisher (Martes pennanti) and raptor kills...

  17. Ecologic Niche Modeling of Blastomyces dermatitidis in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Kurt D.; Meece, Jennifer K.; Archer, John R.; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2008-01-01

    Background Blastomycosis is a potentially fatal mycosis that is acquired by inhaling infectious spores of Blastomyces dermatitidis present in the environment. The ecology of this pathogen is poorly understood, in part because it has been extremely difficult to identify the niche(s) it occupies based on culture isolation of the organism from environmental samples. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the ecology of blastomycosis by performing maximum entropy modeling of exposure sites from 156 cases of human and canine blastomycosis to provide a regional-scale perspective of the geographic and ecologic distribution of B. dermatitidis in Wisconsin. Based on analysis with climatic, topographic, surface reflectance and other environmental variables, we predicted that ecologic conditions favorable for maintaining the fungus in nature occur predominantly within northern counties and counties along the western shoreline of Lake Michigan. Areas of highest predicted occurrence were often in proximity to waterways, especially in northcentral Wisconsin, where incidence of infection is highest. Ecologic conditions suitable for B. dermatitidis are present in urban and rural environments, and may differ at the extremes of distribution of the species in the state. Conclusions/Significance Our results provide a framework for a more informed search for specific environmental factors modulating B. dermatitidis occurrence and transmission and will be useful for improving public health awareness of relative exposure risks. PMID:18446224

  18. Biological and ecological science for Wisconsin—A Great Lakes and Rivers State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-03-06

    Wisconsin and natural resources go hand-in-hand. Tourism, which generates $19 billion annually and sustains about 200,000 jobs, depends on an abundance of lakes, rivers, shorelines, and woodlands for fishing, hunting, boating, and other outdoor recreation. Rivers and floodplains in the Upper Mississippi Basin, including the Mississippi River, are part of a five-State corridor that generates more than $300 billion annually and sustains millions of manufacturing, tourism, transportation, and agricultural jobs. Wisconsin also is a Great Lakes State with more than 800 miles of shoreline, and the fisheries of lakes Superior and Michigan deliver $185 million annually and provide thousands of jobs.

  19. Scleroderris Canker in the Lake States - A Situation Report, 1968

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroll D. Skilling; James T. O' Brian

    1969-01-01

    The history of Scleroderris canker in the Lake States Region is reviewed. U.S.D.A. Forest Service studies on the distribution, degree of infection, rate of spread, and general biology of the disease organism are described. On National Forest land in Upper Michigan and northern Wisconsin, where the disease is most serious, 66 percent of the red pine plantations and 88...

  20. Forest resources within the Lake States ceded territories 1980 - 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra M. Kurtz; W. Keith Moser; Mark H. Hansen; Dale D. Gormanson; Mark A. Hatfield; Paul A. Sowers; Michael J. Dockry; Marla R. Emery; Christopher W. Woodall; Brian F. Walters; Grant M. Domke; Jonathan Gilbert; Alexandra. Wrobel

    2015-01-01

    The Lake States ceded territories are the portions of northern Michigan, northeastern Minnesota, and northern Wisconsin that were ceded by tribes of the Ojibwe to the government of the United States of America in the treaties of 1836, 1837, 1842, and 1854. The tribes retain rights to hunt, fish, and gather in the 1837, 1842, and 1854 treaty areas. This report...

  1. Paper birch (Wiigwaas) of the Lake States, 1980-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Keith Moser; Mark H. Hansen; Dale Gormanson; Jonathan Gilbert; Alexandra Wrobel; Marla R. Emery; Michael J. Dockry

    2015-01-01

    Data on paper birch (Betula papyrifera L.; wiigwaas in the Ojibwe language), collected by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the U.S. Forest Service on forested lands in the Great Lakes region (Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) from 1980 through 2010, are reported. Also presented are results and analysis of a supplemental inventory...

  2. Predicting Scour of Bedrock in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    This research evaluates the scour potential of rocks supporting Wisconsin DOT bridge foundations. Ten highway bridges were selected for this study, of which seven are supported by shallow foundations, and five were built on sandstone in rivers/stream...

  3. Groundwater Quantity and Quality Issues in a Water-Rich Region: Examples from Wisconsin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Luczaj

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The State of Wisconsin is located in an unusually water-rich portion of the world in the western part of the Great Lakes region of North America. This article presents an overview of the major groundwater quantity and quality concerns for this region in a geologic context. The water quantity concerns are most prominent in the central sand plain region and portions of a Paleozoic confined sandstone aquifer in eastern Wisconsin. Water quality concerns are more varied, with significant impacts from both naturally occurring inorganic contaminants and anthropogenic sources. Naturally occurring contaminants include radium, arsenic and associated heavy metals, fluoride, strontium, and others. Anthropogenic contaminants include nitrate, bacteria, viruses, as well as endocrine disrupting compounds. Groundwater quality in the region is highly dependent upon local geology and land use, but water bearing geologic units of all ages, Precambrian through Quaternary, are impacted by at least one kind of contaminant.

  4. Relating groundwater to seasonal wetlands in southeastern Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalbeck, J.D.; Reed, D.M.; Hunt, R.J.; Lambert, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, drier types of wetlands have been difficult to characterize and are not well researched. Nonetheless, they are considered to reflect the precipitation history with little, if any, regard for possible relation to groundwater. Two seasonal coastal wetland types (wet prairie, sedge meadow) were investigated during three growing seasons at three sites in the Lake Michigan Basin, Wisconsin, USA. The six seasonal wetlands were characterized using standard soil and vegetation techniques and groundwater measurements from the shallow and deep systems. They all met wetland hydrology criteria (e.g., water within 30 cm of land surface for 5% of the growing season) during the early portion of the growing season despite the lack of appreciable regional groundwater discharge into the wetland root zones. Although root-zone duration analyses did not fit a lognormal distribution previously noted in groundwater-dominated wetlands, they were able to discriminate between the plant communities and showed that wet prairie communities had shorter durations of continuous soil saturation than sedge meadow communities. These results demonstrate that the relative rates of groundwater outflows can be important for wetland hydrology and resulting wetland type. Thus, regional stresses to the shallow groundwater system such as pumping or low Great Lake levels can be expected to affect even drier wetland types. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

  5. Characterization of suspended solids and total phosphorus loadings from small watersheds in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danz, Mari E.; Corsi, Steven R.; Graczyk, David J.; Bannerman, Roger T.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the daily, monthly, and yearly distribution of contaminant loadings and streamflow can be critical for the successful implementation and evaluation of water-quality management practices. Loading data for solids (suspended sediment and total suspended solids) and total phosphorus and streamflow data for 23 watersheds were summarized for four ecoregions of Wisconsin: the Driftless Area Ecoregion, the Northern Lakes and Forests Ecoregion, the North Central Hardwoods Ecoregion, and the Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains Ecoregion. The Northern Lakes and Forests and the North Central Hardwoods Ecoregions were combined into one region for analysis due to a lack of sufficient data in each region. Urban watersheds, all located in the Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains, were analyzed separately from rural watersheds as the Rural Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains region and the Urban Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains region. Results provide information on the distribution of loadings and streamflow between base flow and stormflow, the timing of loadings and streamflow throughout the year, and information regarding the number of days in which the majority of the annual loading is transported. The average contribution to annual solids loading from stormflow periods for the Driftless Area Ecoregion was 84 percent, the Northern Lakes and Forests/North Central Hardwoods region was 71 percent, the Rural Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains region was 70 percent, and the Urban Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains region was 90 percent. The average contributions to annual total phosphorus loading from stormflow periods were 72, 49, 61, and 76 percent for each of the respective regions. The average contributions to annual streamflow from stormflow periods are 20, 23, 31, and 50 percent for each of the respective regions. In all regions, the most substantial loading contributions for solids were in the late winter (February through March), spring (April through May), and

  6. Combining lake and watershed characteristics with Landsat TM data for remote estimation of regional lake clarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Ian M.; Loftin, Cyndy; Sader, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    Water clarity is a reliable indicator of lake productivity and an ideal metric of regional water quality. Clarity is an indicator of other water quality variables including chlorophyll-a, total phosphorus and trophic status; however, unlike these metrics, clarity can be accurately and efficiently estimated remotely on a regional scale. Remote sensing is useful in regions containing a large number of lakes that are cost prohibitive to monitor regularly using traditional field methods. Field-assessed lakes generally are easily accessible and may represent a spatially irregular, non-random sample of a region. We developed a remote monitoring program for Maine lakes >8 ha (1511 lakes) to supplement existing field monitoring programs. We combined Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) brightness values for TM bands 1 (blue) and 3 (red) to estimate water clarity (secchi disk depth) during 1990–2010. Although similar procedures have been applied to Minnesota and Wisconsin lakes, neither state incorporates physical lake variables or watershed characteristics that potentially affect clarity into their models. Average lake depth consistently improved model fitness, and the proportion of wetland area in lake watersheds also explained variability in clarity in some cases. Nine regression models predicted water clarity (R2 = 0.69–0.90) during 1990–2010, with separate models for eastern (TM path 11; four models) and western Maine (TM path 12; five models that captured differences in topography and landscape disturbance. Average absolute difference between model-estimated and observed secchi depth ranged 0.65–1.03 m. Eutrophic and mesotrophic lakes consistently were estimated more accurately than oligotrophic lakes. Our results show that TM bands 1 and 3 can be used to estimate regional lake water clarity outside the Great Lakes Region and that the accuracy of estimates is improved with additional model variables that reflect

  7. Effects of inorganic electron acceptors on methanogenesis and methanotrophy and on the community structure of bacteria and archaea in sediments of a boreal lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissanen, Antti J.; Karvinen, Anu; Nykänen, Hannu; Peura, Sari; Tiirola, Marja; Mäki, Anita; Kankaala, Paula

    2016-04-01

    Lake sediments are globally significant sources of CH4 to the atmosphere, but the factors controlling the production and consumption of CH4 in these systems are understudied. Increasing availability of electron acceptors (EA) (other than CO2) in sediments can decrease or even suppress CH4 production by diverting the electron flow (from H2 and organic substances) from methanogenic to other anaerobic respiration pathways. However, whether these changes in microbial function extend down to changes in the structure of microbial communities is not known. Also anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) could be enhanced by increased availability of EAs (SO42-, NO3-, Fe3+ and Mn4+), but information on the role of this process in lake sediments is scarce. We studied the effects of inorganic EAs on the potential for CH4 production and consumption and on the structure of microbial communities in sediments of a boreal lake. Anoxic slurries of sediment samples collected from two depths (0 - 10 cm; 10 - 30 cm) of the profundal zone of a boreal, mesotrophic Lake Ätäskö, were amended with 1) CH4 or with CH4 and either 2) 10 mM Mn4+, 3) 10 mM Fe3+, 4) O2 or 5) CH2F2 (inhibitor of aerobic methane oxidation) and incubated at +10° C for up to 4 months. Furthermore, slurries from the 10 - 30 cm layer were amended with CH4 and either 6) 2 mM NO3- or 7) 2 mM SO42- and incubated at +4 ° C for up to 14 months. The processes were measured using 13C-labelling and by concentration measurements of CH4 and CO2. Effects of treatments 1-3 on microbial communities were also analysed by next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA, as well as methyl coenzyme-M reductase gene amplicons and mRNA transcripts. CH4 production (max. 83 nmol gdw-1d-1) took place in the anaerobic treatments but was generally decreased by the addition of NO3-, SO42-, Fe3+ and Mn4+. Although the structure of sediment archaeal community was resistant to Fe3+/Mn4+ - additions, slight changes in the structure of bacterial community

  8. Undergraduate Research and Economic Development: A Systems Approach in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Galen, Dean; Schneider-Rebozo, Lissa; Havholm, Karen; Andrews, Kris

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents the state of Wisconsin and the University of Wisconsin System as an ongoing case study for best practices in systematic, intentional, statewide programming and initiatives connecting undergraduate research and economic development.

  9. Implementing high-speed rail in Wisconsin peer exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Wisconsin Department of Transportation Division of Transportation Investment Management hosted : a peer exchange on June 2 -4, 2009 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Representatives from four state DOTs and : two freight railroads joined representatives f...

  10. LIMNOLOGY, LAKE BASINS, LAKE WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre GÂŞTESCU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Limnology is a border discipline between geography, hydrology and biology, and is also closely connected with other sciences, from it borrows research methods. Physical limnology (the geography of lakes, studies lake biotopes, and biological limnology (the biology of lakes, studies lake biocoenoses. The father of limnology is the Swiss scientist F.A. Forel, the author of a three-volume entitled Le Leman: monographie limnologique (1892-1904, which focuses on the geology physics, chemistry and biology of lakes. He was also author of the first textbook of limnology, Handbuch der Seenkunde: allgemeine Limnologie,(1901. Since both the lake biotope and its biohydrocoenosis make up a single whole, the lake and lakes, respectively, represent the most typical systems in nature. They could be called limnosystems (lacustrine ecosystems, a microcosm in itself, as the American biologist St.A. Forbes put it (1887.

  11. Mixed stock analysis of Lake Michigan's Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis commercial fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andvik, Ryan; Sloss, Brian L.; VanDeHey, Justin A.; Claramunt, Randall M.; Hansen, Scott P.; Isermann, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) support the primary commercial fishery in Lake Michigan. Discrete genetic stocks of lake whitefish have been identified and tagging data suggest stocks are mixed throughout much of the year. Our objectives were to determine if (1) differential stock harvest occurs in the commercial catch, (2) spatial differences in genetic composition of harvested fish were present, and (3) seasonal differences were present in the harvest by commercial fisheries that operate in management zones WI-2 and WFM-01 (Green Bay, Lake Michigan). Mixed stock analysis was conducted on 17 commercial harvest samples (n = 78–145/sample) collected from various ports lake-wide during 2009–2010. Results showed significant mixing with variability in stock composition across most samples. Samples consisted of two to four genetic stocks each accounting for ≥ 10% the catch. In 10 of 17 samples, the stock contributing the largest proportion made up differences existed in the proportional stock contribution at a single capture location. Samples from Wisconsin's primary commercial fishing management zone (WI-2) were composed predominately of fish from the Big Bay de Noc (Michigan) stock as opposed to the geographically proximate, North–Moonlight Bay (Wisconsin) stock. These findings have implications for management and allocation of fish to various quotas. Specifically, geographic location of harvest, the current means of allocating harvest quotas, is not the best predictor of genetic stock harvest.

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucks Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks on Twitter Bookmark

  13. Water quality and hydrology of the Lac Vieux Desert watershed, Gogebic County, Michigan, and Vilas County, Wisconsin, 2002-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, T.L.; Neff, B.P.; Ellis, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Lac Vieux Desert is a prominent 6.6 square-mile lake that straddles the Michigan-Wisconsin border and forms the headwaters of the Wisconsin River. For generations, the Lac Vieux Desert Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians have used Lac Vieux Desert and the surrounding area for growing and harvesting wild rice, and hunting and fishing. The Lac Vieux Desert Band is concerned about the impact of lake-stage regulation on hydrology and ecology, and the impact on water quality of development along and near the shore, and recreational watercraft use and sport fishing. In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey completed a water-resources investigation of the Lac Vieux Desert watershed in cooperation with the Lac Vieux Desert Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians.Water quality of Lac Vieux Desert is typical of many lakes in the northern United States. Trophic State Index calculations classify Lac Vieux Desert as a highly productive eutrophic lake. The pH of water in Lac Vieux Desert ranged from 6.5 to 9.5, and specific conductance ranged from 62 to 114 µs/cm. Chloride concentration was less than 1.5 mg/L, indicating little effect from septic-tank or road-salt input. Results indicate that the water can be classified as soft, with hardness concentrations reported as calcium carbonate ranging from 29 to 49 mg/L. Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, chloride, and other dissolved solids ranged from 47 to 77 mg/L. Alkalinity of Lac Vieux Desert ranged from 27 to 38 mg/L.Pervasive aquatic blooms, including a bloom noted during the September 2003 sampling, are apparently common in late summer. Biological productivity at Lac Vieux Desert does not appear to have changed appreciably between 1973 and 2004. In the current study, total phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 0.064 mg/L and dissolved nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen concentrations ranged from at, or below detection limit to 0.052 mg/L. Overabundance of nutrients in Lac Vieux Desert, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus

  14. Evaluating barnyard Best Management Practices in Wisconsin using upstream-downstream monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuntebeck, Todd D.

    1995-01-01

    The Nonpoint Source Water Pollution Abatement Program was created in 1978 by the Wisconsin Legislature. The goal of the program is to improve and protect the water quality of lakes, streams, wetlands, and ground water within selected priority watersheds by controlling sources of nonpoint pollution. For each selected watershed, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources drafts a management plan that guides the implementation of pollution-control strategies known as Best Management Practices (BMP's). This plan summarizes resource and land-use inventories, describes the results of pollution-source modeling, and suggests pollution reduction goals. The U.S. Geological Survey, through a cooperative effort with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, is monitoring water-quality improvements that result from the implementation of BMP's. The data collected are then compared to the watershed plans to assess progress and determine whether goals are being realized. This fact sheet describes the data-collection efforts, preliminary results, and planned data-analysis techniques of monitoring projects for pre-BMP conditions at two barnyards, one each on Otter Creek and Halfway Prairie Creek.

  15. The University of Wisconsin OAO operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heacox, H. C.; Mcnall, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    The Wisconsin OAO operating system is presented which consists of two parts: a computer program called HARUSPEX, which makes possible reasonably efficient and convenient operation of the package and ground operations equipment which provides real-time status monitoring, commanding and a quick-look at the data.

  16. Wisconsin's forest statistics, 1987: an inventory update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith; Jerold T. Hahn

    1989-01-01

    The Wisconsin 1987 inventory update, derived by using tree growth models, reports 14.7 million acres of timberland, a decline of less than 1% since 1983. This bulletin presents findings from the inventory update in tables detailing timberland area, volume, and biomass.

  17. Operability and location of Wisconsin's timber resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerold T. Hahn; Mark H. Hansen

    1989-01-01

    Data collected during the 1983 Wisconsin Statewide forest inventory were used to examine operability of the timber resource based on seven operability components. Operability is the ease or difficulty of managing or harvesting timber because of physical conditions in the stand or on the site.

  18. Divided Wisconsin: Partisan Spatial Electoral Realignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaniewski, Kazimierz J.; Simmons, James R.

    2016-01-01

    When the Republican and Democratic presidential candidates head into the general election this fall, they will be courting votes from a statewide electorate that has dramatically shifted over time, mirroring the political polarization that is happening across the country. Over the last three decades, Wisconsin's political geography has evolved…

  19. The Legal Status of Homemakers in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melli, Marygold Shire

    This report focuses on laws in the state of Wisconsin as they relate to homemakers. Four areas are discussed, each in separate sections: marriage, widowhood, divorce, and wife abuse. The section on marriage includes information on property rights, disability and death of homemaker, federal Equal Credit Opportunity Act, domicile, interspousal…

  20. Wisconsin Educators Tackle Violence Head On.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Katherine A.

    1999-01-01

    In August 1999, Wisconsin school business officials and other school administrators met with police officers to discuss cooperative ventures to ensure school safety. Conference participants attended sessions on identifying troubled students, physical security measures, safety planning, dealing with bomb threats, and prevention and punishment. (MLH)

  1. Stakeholders' Perceptions of Parcelization in Wisconsin's Northwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark G. Rickenbach; Paul H. Gobster

    2003-01-01

    Parcelization, the process by which relatively large forest ownerships become subdivided into smaller ones, is often related to changes in ownership and can bring changes to the use of the land. Landowners, resource professionals, and others interested in Wisconsin's Northwoods were asked their views on parcelization in a series of stakeholder forums. We analyzed...

  2. Libraries in Wisconsin Institutions: Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, Elizabeth B.

    The Wisconsin Library Association Round Table of Hospitals and Institutional Librarians became concerned about adequate funding of institutional libraries; the right of institutionalized persons to read and to have educational, legal, and recreational materials; and the development of staff libraries for treatment, rehabilitation, and research…

  3. Wisconsin Public Schools at a Glance, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, 2016

    2016-01-01

    "Wisconsin Public Schools at a Glance" provides in a single page document statistical information on the following topics: (1) Total number of public schools (2015-16); (2) Student (2015-16); (3) Attendance & Graduation (2014-15);(4) Staff (2013-14); (5) School Funding; and (6) Student Performance (2014-15). [For the previous report…

  4. Wisconsin Public Schools at a Glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "Wisconsin Public Schools at a Glance" provides in a single page document statistical information on the following topics: (1) Total number of public schools (2014-15); (2) Staff (2013-14); (3) Students (2013-14);(4) Report Cards (2013-14); (5) Attendance and Graduation (2012-13); (6) Student Performance (2013-14); and (7) School Funding.

  5. The influence of carbon exchange of a large lake on regional tracer-transport inversions: results from Lake Superior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasys, Victoria N; Desai, Ankur R; McKinley, Galen A; Bennington, Val; Michalak, Anna M; Andrews, Arlyn E

    2011-01-01

    Large lakes may constitute a significant component of regional surface-atmosphere fluxes, but few efforts have been made to quantify these fluxes. Tracer-transport inverse models that infer the CO 2 flux from the atmospheric concentration typically assume that the influence from large lakes is negligible. CO 2 observations from a tall tower in Wisconsin segregated by wind direction suggested a CO 2 signature from Lake Superior. To further investigate this difference, source-receptor influence functions derived using a mesoscale transport model were applied and results revealed that air masses sampled by the tower have a transit time over the lake, primarily in winter when the total lake influence on the tower can exceed 20% of the total influence of the regional domain. When the influence functions were convolved with air-lake fluxes estimated from a physical-biogeochemical lake model, the overall total contribution of lake fluxes to the tall tower CO 2 were mostly negligible, but potentially detectable in certain periods of fall and winter when lake carbon exchange can be strong and land carbon efflux weak. These findings suggest that large oligotrophic lakes would not significantly influence inverse models that incorporate tall tower CO 2 .

  6. Bacterial Abundance and Activity across Sites within Two Northern Wisconsin Sphagnum Bogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher; Graham; Graham

    1998-11-01

    Abstract Bacterial abundance, temperature, pH, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration were compared across surface sites within and between two northern Wisconsin Sphagnum peatlands over the summer seasons in 1995 and 1996. Sites of interest were the Sphagnum mat surface, the water-filled moat (lagg) at the bog margin, and the bog lake littoral zone. Significant differences in both bacterial populations and water chemistry were observed between sites. pH was highest in the lake and lowest in the mat at both bogs; the opposite was true for DOC. Large populations of bacteria were present in surface interstitial water from the mat; abundance in this site was consistently higher than in the moat or lake. Bacterial abundance also increased across sites of increasing DOC concentration and declining pH. Bacterial activities (rates of [3H]leucine incorporation) and growth in dilution cultures (with grazers removed) were also assessed in lake, moat, and mat sites. Results using these measures generally supported the trends observed in abundance, although high rates of [3H]leucine incorporation were recorded in the moat at one of the bogs. Our results indicate that bacterial populations in Sphagnum peatlands are not adversely affected by acidity, and that DOC may be more important than pH in determining bacterial abundance in these environments.

  7. Private drinking water quality in rural Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobeloch, Lynda; Gorski, Patrick; Christenson, Megan; Anderson, Henry

    2013-03-01

    Between July 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, Wisconsin health departments tested nearly 4,000 rural drinking water supplies for coliform bacteria, nitrate, fluoride, and 13 metals as part of a state-funded program that provides assistance to low-income families. The authors' review of laboratory findings found that 47% of these wells had an exceedance of one or more health-based water quality standards. Test results for iron and coliform bacteria exceeded safe limits in 21% and 18% of these wells, respectively. In addition, 10% of the water samples from these wells were high in nitrate and 11% had an elevated result for aluminum, arsenic, lead, manganese, or strontium. The high percentage of unsafe test results emphasizes the importance of water quality monitoring to the health of nearly one million families including 300,000 Wisconsin children whose drinking water comes from a privately owned well.

  8. SMES developments at the University of Wisconsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boom, R.W.; Abdelsalam, M.K.; Eyssa, Y.; Hilal, M.; Huang, X.; McIntosh, G.E.; Pfotenhauer, J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on a long term SMES program in the Applied Superconductivity Center (ASC) in progress at the University of Wisconsin since 1970. The present principal interest in SMES stems from the US DNA-SDI program to build an engineering test model (ETM) for utility and government use. This paper is a review of SMES design highlights and of some small scale SMES studies

  9. Effectiveness of a refuge for Lake Trout in Western Lake Superior II: Simulation of future performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akins, Andrea L; Hansen, Michael J.; Seider, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, Lake Superior supported one of the largest and most diverse Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush fisheries in the Laurentian Great Lakes, but Lake Trout stocks collapsed due to excessive fishery exploitation and predation by Sea Lampreys Petromyzon marinus. Lake Trout stocking, Sea Lamprey control, and fishery regulations, including a refuge encompassing Gull Island Shoal (Apostle Islands region), were used to enable recovery of Lake Trout stocks that used this historically important spawning shoal. Our objective was to determine whether future sustainability of Lake Trout stocks will depend on the presence of the Gull Island Shoal Refuge. We constructed a stochastic age-structured simulation model to assess the effect of maintaining the refuge as a harvest management tool versus removing the refuge. In general, median abundances of age-4, age-4 and older (age-4+), and age-8+ fish collapsed at lower instantaneous fishing mortality rates (F) when the refuge was removed than when the refuge was maintained. With the refuge in place, the F that resulted in collapse depended on the rate of movement into and out of the refuge. Too many fish stayed in the refuge when movement was low (0–2%), and too many fish became vulnerable to fishing when movement was high (≥22%); thus, the refuge was more effective at intermediate rates of movement (10–11%). With the refuge in place, extinction did not occur at any simulated level of F, whereas refuge removal led to extinction at all combinations of commercial F and recreational F. Our results indicate that the Lake Trout population would be sustained by the refuge at all simulated F-values, whereas removal of the refuge would risk population collapse at much lower F (0.700–0.744). Therefore, the Gull Island Shoal Refuge is needed to sustain the Lake Trout population in eastern Wisconsin waters of Lake Superior.

  10. Wisconsin Earth and Space Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbrough, Larry (Technical Monitor); French, George

    2003-01-01

    The Wisconsin Earth and Space Science Education project successfilly met its objectives of creating a comprehensive online portfolio of science education curricular resources and providing a professional development program to increase educator competency with Earth and Space science content and teaching pedagogy. Overall, 97% of participants stated that their experience was either good or excellent. The favorable response of participant reactions to the professional development opportunities highlights the high quality of the professional development opportunity. The enthusiasm generated for using the curricular material in classroom settings was overwhelmingly positive at 92%. This enthusiasm carried over into actual classroom implementation of resources from the curricular portfolio, with 90% using the resources between 1-6 times during the school year. The project has had a positive impact on student learning in Wisconsin. Although direct measurement of student performance is not possible in a project of this kind, nearly 75% of participating teachers stated that they saw an increase in student performance in math and science as a result of using project resources. Additionally, nearly 75% of participants saw an increase in the enthusiasm of students towards math and science. Finally, some evidence exists that the professional development academies and curricular portfolio have been effective in changing educator behavior. More than half of all participants indicated that they have used more hands-on activities as a result of the Wisconsin Earth and Space Science Education project.

  11. An outlook for sustainable forest bioenergy production in the Lake States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis R. Becker; Kenneth Skog; Allison Hellman; Kathleen E. Halvorsen; Terry Mace

    2009-01-01

    The Lake States region of Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan offers significant potential for bioenergy production. We examine the sustainability of regional forest biomass use in the context of existing thermal heating, electricity, and biofuels production, projected resource needs over the next decade including existing forest product market demand, and impacts on...

  12. Diet Overlap and Predation between Smallmouth Bass and Walleye in a North Temperate Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron P. Frey; Michael A. Bozek; Clayton J. Edwards; Steve P. Newman

    2003-01-01

    Walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) diets from Big Crooked Lake, Wisconsin were examined to assess the degree of diet overlap and predation occurring between these species in an attempt to deternine whether walleye influence smallmouth bass recruitment, which is consistently low...

  13. Evaluating regional water scarcity: Irrigated crop water budgets for groundwater management in the Wisconsin Central Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocco, M. A.; Kucharik, C. J.; Kraft, G.

    2013-12-01

    Regional water scarcity dilemmas between agricultural and aquatic land users pervade the humid northern lake states of Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan, where agricultural irrigation relies on groundwater drawn from shallow aquifers. As these aquifers have strong connectivity to surface waters, irrigation lowers water levels in lakes and wetlands and reduces stream discharges. Irrigation expansion has cultivated a 60-year water scarcity dilemma in The Wisconsin Central Sands, the largest irrigated region in the humid northern lake states, dedicated to potato, maize, and processing vegetable production. Irrigation has depleted Wisconsin Central Sands surface waters, lowering levels in some lakes by over 2 m and drying some coldwater trout streams. Aquatic ecosystems, property values, and recreational uses in some surface waters have been devastated. While the causal link between pumping and surface water stress is established, understanding crop-mediated processes, such as the timing and magnitude of groundwater consumption by evapotranspiration (ET) and groundwater recharge, will be useful in management of groundwater, irrigated cropping systems, and surface water health. Previous modeling and field efforts have compared irrigated crop water use to a natural reference condition on a net annual basis. As a result, we presently understand that for irrigated potatoes and maize, the average annual ET is greater and therefore, the average annual recharge is less than rainfed row crops, grasslands, and both coniferous and deciduous forests. However, we have a limited understanding of the magnitude and timing of ET and recharge from irrigated cropping systems on shorter time scales that proceed with the annual cropping cycle (i.e. planting, full canopy, harvest, residue cover). We seek to understand the spatiotemporal variability of crop water budgets and associated water scarcity in the Wisconsin Central Sands through detailed measurements of drainage (potential

  14. Bridge Scour Monitoring Methods at Three Sites in Wisconsin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walker, John F; Hughes, Peter E

    2005-01-01

    .... Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Transportation, the Marathon County Highway Department, and the Jefferson County Highway Department, performed routine monitoring...

  15. Lake Cadagno

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonolla, Mauro; Storelli, Nicola; Danza, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Lake Cadagno (26 ha) is a crenogenic meromictic lake located in the Swiss Alps at 1921 m asl with a maximum depth of 21 m. The presence of crystalline rocks and a dolomite vein rich in gypsum in the catchment area makes the lake a typical “sulphuretum ” dominated by coupled carbon and sulphur...... cycles. The chemocline lies at about 12 m depth, stabilized by density differences of salt-rich water supplied by sub-aquatic springs to the monimolimnion and of electrolyte-poor surface water feeding the mixolimnion. Steep sulphide and light gradients in the chemocline support the growth of a large...... in the chemocline. Small-celled PSB together with the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfocapsa thiozymogenes sp. form stable aggregates in the lake, which represent small microenvironments with an internal sulphur cycle. Eukaryotic primary producers in the anoxic zones are dominated by Cryptomonas phaseolus...

  16. Playa Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital dataset provides information about the spatial distribution of soil units associated with playa lakes. Specific soil types have been designated by the...

  17. Factors Affecting Physician Satisfaction and Wisconsin Medical Society Strategies to Drive Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Michele; Dexter, Donn; Nankivil, Nancy

    2015-08-01

    Physicians' dissatisfaction in their work is increasing, which is affecting the stability of health care in America. The Wisconsin Medical Society (Society) surveyed 1016 Wisconsin physicians to determine the source of their dissatisfaction. The survey results indicate Wisconsin physicians are satisfied when it comes to practice environment, work-life balance, and income. In addition, they are extremely satisfied when it comes to rating their ability to provide high quality care, and they have identified some benefits related to the adoption of electronic health records. However, they are feeling burned out, very unsatisfied with the amount of time spent in direct patient care compared to indirect patient care, and that they are spending too much time on administrative and data entry tasks. In terms of future workforce, many physicians are either unsure or would not recommend the profession to a prospective medical student. Electronic health records serve as both a satisfier and dissatisfier and as a potential driver for future physician satisfaction interventions. Changes at the institutional, organizational, and individual levels potentially could address the identified dissatisfiers and build upon the satisfiers. The Society identifies 12 strategies to improve upon the physician experience.

  18. Simulation of the Groundwater-Flow System in Pierce, Polk, and St. Croix Counties, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater is the sole source of residential water supply in Pierce, Polk, and St. Croix Counties, Wisconsin. A regional three-dimensional groundwater-flow model and three associated demonstration inset models were developed to simulate the groundwater-flow systems in the three-county area. The models were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the three county governments. The objectives of the regional model of Pierce, Polk, and St. Croix Counties were to improve understanding of the groundwaterflow system and to develop a tool suitable for evaluating the effects of potential water-management programs. The regional groundwater-flow model described in this report simulates the major hydrogeologic features of the modeled area, including bedrock and surficial aquifers, groundwater/surface-water interactions, and groundwater withdrawals from high-capacity wells. Results from the regional model indicate that about 82 percent of groundwater in the three counties is from recharge within the counties; 15 percent is from surface-water sources, consisting primarily of recirculated groundwater seepage in areas with abrupt surface-water-level changes, such as near waterfalls, dams, and the downgradient side of reservoirs and lakes; and 4 percent is from inflow across the county boundaries. Groundwater flow out of the counties is to streams (85 percent), outflow across county boundaries (14 percent), and pumping wells (1 percent). These results demonstrate that the primary source of groundwater withdrawn by pumping wells is water that recharges within the counties and would otherwise discharge to local streams and lakes. Under current conditions, the St. Croix and Mississippi Rivers are groundwater discharge locations (gaining reaches) and appear to function as 'fully penetrating' hydraulic boundaries such that groundwater does not cross between Wisconsin and Minnesota beneath them. Being hydraulic boundaries, however, they can change in response to

  19. Mixing zones studies of the waste water discharge from the Consolidated Paper Company into the Wisconsin River at Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, J. A.; Wu, D. S.; Ganatra, R.

    1973-01-01

    Effluent concentration distributions from the waste water discharge of the Kraft Division Mill, Consolidated Paper Company, into the Wisconsin River at Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin, is investigated. Effluent concentrations were determined from measurements of the temperature distribution, using temperature as a tracer. Measurements of the velocity distribution in the vicinity of the outfall were also made. Due to limitations in the extent of the field observations, the analysis and comparison of the measurements is limited to the region within about 300 feet from the outfall. Effects of outfall submergence, of buoyancy and momentum of the effluent and of the pattern and magnitude of river currents on these characteristics are considered.

  20. The 2016 groundwater flow model for Dane County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsen, Michael J.; Bradbury, Kenneth R.; Hunt, Randall J.; Feinstein, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    A new groundwater flow model for Dane County, Wisconsin, replaces an earlier model developed in the 1990s by the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey (WGNHS) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). This modeling study was conducted cooperatively by the WGNHS and the USGS with funding from the Capital Area Regional Planning Commission (CARPC). Although the overall conceptual model of the groundwater system remains largely unchanged, the incorporation of newly acquired high-quality datasets, recent research findings, and improved modeling and calibration techniques have led to the development of a more detailed and sophisticated model representation of the groundwater system. The new model is three-dimensional and transient, and conceptualizes the county’s hydrogeology as a 12-layer system including all major unlithified and bedrock hydrostratigraphic units and two high-conductivity horizontal fracture zones. Beginning from the surface down, the model represents the unlithified deposits as two distinct model layers (1 and 2). A single layer (3) simulates the Ordovician sandstone and dolomite of the Sinnipee, Ancell, and Prairie du Chien Groups. Sandstone of the Jordan Formation (layer 4) and silty dolostone of the St. Lawrence Formation (layer 5) each comprise separate model layers. The underlying glauconitic sandstone of the Tunnel City Group makes up three distinct layers: an upper aquifer (layer 6), a fracture feature (layer 7), and a lower aquifer (layer 8). The fracture layer represents a network of horizontal bedding-plane fractures that serve as a preferential pathway for groundwater flow. The model simulates the sandstone of the Wonewoc Formation as an upper aquifer (layer 9) with a bedding-plane fracture feature (layer 10) at its base. The Eau Claire aquitard (layer 11) includes shale beds within the upper portion of the Eau Claire Formation. This layer, along with overlying bedrock units, is mostly absent in the preglacially eroded valleys along

  1. Principles of lake sedimentology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janasson, L.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive outline on the basic sedimentological principles for lakes, and focuses on environmental aspects and matters related to lake management and control-on lake ecology rather than lake geology. This is a guide for those who plan, perform and evaluate lake sedimentological investigations. Contents abridged: Lake types and sediment types. Sedimentation in lakes and water dynamics. Lake bottom dynamics. Sediment dynamics and sediment age. Sediments in aquatic pollution control programmes. Subject index

  2. Flood-frequency characteristics of Wisconsin streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, John F.; Peppler, Marie C.; Danz, Mari E.; Hubbard, Laura E.

    2017-05-22

    Flood-frequency characteristics for 360 gaged sites on unregulated rural streams in Wisconsin are presented for percent annual exceedance probabilities ranging from 0.2 to 50 using a statewide skewness map developed for this report. Equations of the relations between flood-frequency and drainage-basin characteristics were developed by multiple-regression analyses. Flood-frequency characteristics for ungaged sites on unregulated, rural streams can be estimated by use of the equations presented in this report. The State was divided into eight areas of similar physiographic characteristics. The most significant basin characteristics are drainage area, soil saturated hydraulic conductivity, main-channel slope, and several land-use variables. The standard error of prediction for the equation for the 1-percent annual exceedance probability flood ranges from 56 to 70 percent for Wisconsin Streams; these values are larger than results presented in previous reports. The increase in the standard error of prediction is likely due to increased variability of the annual-peak discharges, resulting in increased variability in the magnitude of flood peaks at higher frequencies. For each of the unregulated rural streamflow-gaging stations, a weighted estimate based on the at-site log Pearson type III analysis and the multiple regression results was determined. The weighted estimate generally has a lower uncertainty than either the Log Pearson type III or multiple regression estimates. For regulated streams, a graphical method for estimating flood-frequency characteristics was developed from the relations of discharge and drainage area for selected annual exceedance probabilities. Graphs for the major regulated streams in Wisconsin are presented in the report.

  3. The Wisconsin Test of Adult Basic Education (WITABE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Tej N.; Cleary, T. Anne

    A description is given of "The Wisconsin Test of Adult Basic Education (WITABE)" which was developed specifically to measure the achievement of the individuals enrolled in the Rural Family Development (RGD) program at the University Extension, University of Wisconsin. The test is divided into three main parts or subtests: subtests 1 and…

  4. Wisconsin Maternity Leave and Fringe Benefits: Policies, Practices and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Jennifer

    The study examines the economic implications in Wisconsin of the 1972 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission guideline which requires employers to treat maternity leave as a temporary disability. First, the static cost of the maternity leave guideline to employers is estimated for the State of Wisconsin. Second, some examination of the economic…

  5. Environmental Education in Wisconsin: What the Textbooks Teach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanera, Michael

    1996-01-01

    This report contains a study done at the request of the Wisconsin Policy Research Institute, which studies public policy issues affecting the state of Wisconsin. Environmental education texts for Grades 6 through 10 were examined for scientific and economic accuracy, objectivity, and balance in accomplishing the following: 1) stating facts that…

  6. Wisconsin EE Mandates: The Bad News and the Good News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Jennie; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines Wisconsin teachers' perceived competencies in, attitudes toward, and amount of class time devoted to teaching about the environment. Discusses the effects of Wisconsin environmental education mandates concerning preservice preparation in environmental education and K-12 environmental education curriculum plans. Identifies areas where the…

  7. Archaeological Investigations at a Wisconsin Petroglyph Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Steinbring

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary test excavations at the Hensler Petroglyph Site in East Central Wisconsin, U.S.A. have disclosed the remains of aboriginal engravings below Aeolian sediments dated to ca. 15,000 years B.P. The stratified deposits lying adjacent to an engraved panel, containing 35 pecked images, have yielded animal-like cobbles, some covered with red ochre, apparently picked for some esoteric use. The site itself has unusual natural shapes in the rock formation, along with acoustical properties, lightning strikes, a magnetic anomaly, and geographic prominence. Collectively these factors are thought to have attracted the ancient rock artists to the site.

  8. Urban climate effects on extreme temperatures in Madison, Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Jason; Kucharik, Christopher J.

    2015-09-01

    As climate change increases the frequency and intensity of extreme heat, cities and their urban heat island (UHI) effects are growing, as are the urban populations encountering them. These mutually reinforcing trends present a growing risk for urban populations. However, we have limited understanding of urban climates during extreme temperature episodes, when additional heat from the UHI may be most consequential. We observed a historically hot summer and historically cold winter using an array of up to 150 temperature and relative humidity sensors in and around Madison, Wisconsin, an urban area of population 402 000 surrounded by lakes and a rural landscape of agriculture, forests, wetlands, and grasslands. In the summer of 2012 (third hottest since 1869), Madison’s urban areas experienced up to twice as many hours ⩾32.2 °C (90 °F), mean July TMAX up to 1.8 °C higher, and mean July TMIN up to 5.3 °C higher than rural areas. During a record setting heat wave, dense urban areas spent over four consecutive nights above the National Weather Service nighttime heat stress threshold of 26.7 °C (80 °F), while rural areas fell below 26.7 °C nearly every night. In the winter of 2013-14 (coldest in 35 years), Madison’s most densely built urban areas experienced up to 40% fewer hours ⩽-17.8 °C (0 °F), mean January TMAX up to 1 °C higher, and mean January TMIN up to 3 °C higher than rural areas. Spatially, the UHI tended to be most intense in areas with higher population densities. Temporally, both daytime and nighttime UHIs tended to be slightly more intense during more-extreme heat days compared to average summer days. These results help us understand the climates for which cities must prepare in a warming, urbanizing world.

  9. Atmospheric mercury in northern Wisconsin: sources and species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamborg, C.H.; Fitzgerald, W.F.; Vandal, G.M.; Rolfhus, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    The atmospheric chemistry, deposition and transport of mercury (Hg) in the Upper Great Lakes region is being investigated at a near-remote sampling location in northern Wisconsin. Intensive sampling over two years has been completed. A multi-phase collection strategy was used to gain insight into the processes controlling concentrations and chemical/physical speciation of atmospheric Hg. Additional chemical and physical atmospheric determinations were also made during these periods to aid in the interpretation of the Hg determinations. For example, correlations of Hg with ozone, sulfur dioxide and synopticscale meteorological features suggest a regionally discernible signal in Hg. Comparison to isosigma backward air parcel trajectories confirms this regionality and implicates the areas south, southeast and northwest of the size to be source for Hg. Particle-phase Hg (Hg p ) was found to be approximately 40% in an oxidized form, or operationally defined as reactive but was variable. Hg p and other particle constituents show significant correlation and similarity in behavior. These observations support the hypothesis that precipitation-phase Hg arises from the scavenging of atmospheric particulates bearing Hg. Observed concentrations of rain and particle-Hg fit the theoretical expectations for nucleation and below-cloud scavenging. Increases in the Hg/aerosol mass ratio appear to take place during transport. Enrichment of aerosols is taken as evidence of gas/particle conversion which could represent the step linking gas-phase Hg with rain. The refined budget indicates ca. 24% of total deposition is from summer particle dry deposition, and that this deposition also contributes ca. 24% of all reactive Hg deposition. Most deposition occurs during the summer months. 40 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs

  10. High power ICRH experiments on the Wisconsin levitated octupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, E.J.; Fortgang, C.M.; Twichell, J.C.; Dexter, R.N.; Sprott, J.C.; Barter, J.D.

    1980-12-01

    Preliminary ICRH experiments have begun on the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole. In order to study heating, energy confinement, and high β plasmas, a 1.8 to 3 MHz oscillator and antenna have been installed. The oscillator and antenna have been installed. The oscillator is capable of delivering 2 MW of RF power for 10 msec, and to date up to 0.5 MW has been coupled into the plasma. At a density of approx. 6 x 10 12 cm -3 , T/sub e/ reaches a maximum of 30 eV as measured by Langmuir probes and VUV spectroscopy. Charge exchange measurements of T/sub i/ show Maxwellian components at 95 and 190 eV, with an energy confinement time of approx. 1 msec. Electron energy confinement is limited by impurity radiation, and several methods of impurity control are being tested. Current experiments also include direct measurement of the RF electric field, antenna loading measurements, variation of the oscillator frequency, and ohmic heating of the electrons

  11. Comparison of Home Retrofit Programs in Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Kerrie [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership; Hannigan, Eileen [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership

    2013-03-01

    To explore ways to reduce customer barriers and increase home retrofit completions, several different existing home retrofit models have been implemented in the state of Wisconsin. This study compared these programs' performance in terms of savings per home and program cost per home to assess the relative cost-effectiveness of each program design. However, given the many variations in these different programs, it is difficult to establish a fair comparison based on only a small number of metrics. Therefore, the overall purpose of the study is to document these programs' performance in a case study approach to look at general patterns of these metrics and other variables within the context of each program. This information can be used by energy efficiency program administrators and implementers to inform home retrofit program design. Six different program designs offered in Wisconsin for single-family energy efficiency improvements were included in the study. For each program, the research team provided information about the programs' approach and goals, characteristics, achievements and performance. The program models were then compared with performance results-program cost and energy savings-to help understand the overall strengths and weaknesses or challenges of each model.

  12. Comparison of Home Retrofit Programs in Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, K.; Hannigan, E.

    2013-03-01

    To explore ways to reduce customer barriers and increase home retrofit completions, several different existing home retrofit models have been implemented in the state of Wisconsin. This study compared these programs' performance in terms of savings per home and program cost per home to assess the relative cost-effectiveness of each program design. However, given the many variations in these different programs, it is difficult to establish a fair comparison based on only a small number of metrics. Therefore, the overall purpose of the study is to document these programs' performance in a case study approach to look at general patterns of these metrics and other variables within the context of each program. This information can be used by energy efficiency program administrators and implementers to inform home retrofit program design. Six different program designs offered in Wisconsin for single-family energy efficiency improvements were included in the study. For each program, the research team provided information about the programs' approach and goals, characteristics, achievements and performance. The program models were then compared with performance results -- program cost and energy savings -- to help understand the overall strengths and weaknesses or challenges of each model.

  13. Flood of July 2016 in northern Wisconsin and the Bad River Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Dantoin, Eric D.; Tillison, Naomi; Watson, Kara M.; Waschbusch, Robert J.; Blount, James D.

    2017-06-06

    Heavy rain fell across northern Wisconsin and the Bad River Reservation on July 11, 2016, as a result of several rounds of thunderstorms. The storms caused major flooding in the Bad River Basin and nearby tributaries along the south shore of Lake Superior. Rainfall totals were 8–10 inches or more and most of the rain fell in an 8-hour period. A streamgage on the Bad River near Odanah, Wisconsin, rose from 300 cubic feet per second to a record peak streamflow of 40,000 cubic feet per second in only 15 hours. Following the storms and through September 2016, personnel from the U.S. Geological Survey and Bad River Tribe Natural Resources Department recovered and documented 108 high-water marks near the Bad River Reservation. Many of these high-water marks were used to create three flood-inundation maps for the Bad River, Beartrap Creek, and Denomie Creek for the Bad River Reservation in the vicinity of the community of Odanah.

  14. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Ashland NTMS Quadrangle, Wisconsin; Michigan; Minnesota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Results of a reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Ashland Quadrangle, Wisconsin; Michigan; Minnesota are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 312 groundwater and 383 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Groundwater data indicate that the most promising area for potential uranium mineralization occurs along the Douglas Thrust Fault in northern Douglas County, Wisconsin. The Douglas Fault brings Fond du Lac Formation sediments in contact with Chengwatana volcanics where carbonate-rich water derived from the mafic volcanics enter the arkosic Fond du Lac Formation. Another area of interest surrounds the Bad River Indian Reservation in northern Ashland and Iron Counties. The waters here are produced from red lithic sandstone and are also associated with the Douglas Fault. Water chemistry of these waters appears similar to the waters from the Douglas County area. The stream sediment data are inconclusive because of the extensive cover of glacial deposits. A moderately favorable area is present in a strip along Lake Superior in Douglas County, where sediments are derived from arkoses of the Fond du Lac Formation

  15. Estimation of natural historical flows for the Manitowish River near Manitowish Waters, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.; Reneau, Paul C.; Robertson, Dale M.

    2012-01-01

    The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources is charged with oversight of dam operations throughout Wisconsin and is considering modifications to the operating orders for the Rest Lake Dam in Vilas County, Wisconsin. State law requires that the operation orders be tied to natural low flows at the dam. Because the presence of the dam confounds measurement of natural flows, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, installed streamflow-gaging stations and developed two statistical methods to improve estimates of natural flows at the Rest Lake Dam. Two independent methods were used to estimate daily natural flow for the Manitowish River approximately 1 mile downstream of the Rest Lake Dam. The first method was an adjusted drainage-area ratio method, which used a regression analysis that related measured water yield (flow divided by watershed area) from short-term (2009–11) gaging stations upstream of the Manitowish Chain of Lakes to the water yield from two nearby long-term gaging stations in order to extend the flow record (1991–2011). In this approach, the computed flows into the Chain of Lakes at the upstream gaging stations were multiplied by a coefficient to account for the monthly hydrologic contributions (precipitation, evaporation, groundwater, and runoff) associated with the additional watershed area between the upstream gaging stations and the dam at the outlet of the Chain of Lakes (Rest Lake Dam). The second method used to estimate daily natural flow at the Rest Lake Dam was a water-budget approach, which used lake stage and dam outflow data provided by the dam operator. A water-budget model was constructed and then calibrated with an automated parameter-estimation program by matching simulated flow-duration statistics with measured flow-duration statistics at the upstream gaging stations. After calibration of the water-budget model, the model was used to compute natural flow at the dam from 1973 to

  16. Diatoms in Liyu Lake, Eastern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Chi Wang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study described the diatoms appeared in the sediments of Liyu Lake, a lowland natural lake situated at Hualen, eastern Taiwan. A total of 50 species was found in the sediments of this eutrophic lake. In them, 8 species were reported for the first time in Taiwan. They are: Cymbella thienemannii, Navicula absoluta, Navicula bacillum, Frustulia rhomboides var. crassinervia, Gyrosigma procerum, Nitzschia paleacea Epithemia smithii and Eunotia subarcuatioides. The ultrastructures of each species were described on the basis of observations under a scanning electron microscope. The ecological implications of the occurrence of these diatom species in this lake were inferred.

  17. Optical ages indicate the southwestern margin of the Green Bay Lobe in Wisconsin, USA, was at its maximum extent until about 18,500 years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attig, J.W.; Hanson, P.R.; Rawling, J.E.; Young, A.R.; Carson, E.C.

    2011-01-01

    Samples for optical dating were collected to estimate the time of sediment deposition in small ice-marginal lakes in the Baraboo Hills of Wisconsin. These lakes formed high in the Baraboo Hills when drainage was blocked by the Green Bay Lobe when it was at or very near its maximum extent. Therefore, these optical ages provide control for the timing of the thinning and recession of the Green Bay Lobe from its maximum position. Sediment that accumulated in four small ice-marginal lakes was sampled and dated. Difficulties with field sampling and estimating dose rates made the interpretation of optical ages derived from samples from two of the lake basins problematic. Samples from the other two lake basins-South Bluff and Feltz basins-responded well during laboratory analysis and showed reasonably good agreement between the multiple ages produced at each site. These ages averaged 18.2. ka (n= 6) and 18.6. ka (n= 6), respectively. The optical ages from these two lake basins where we could carefully select sediment samples provide firm evidence that the Green Bay Lobe stood at or very near its maximum extent until about 18.5. ka.The persistence of ice-marginal lakes in these basins high in the Baraboo Hills indicates that the ice of the Green Bay Lobe had not experienced significant thinning near its margin prior to about 18.5. ka. These ages are the first to directly constrain the timing of the maximum extent of the Green Bay Lobe and the onset of deglaciation in the area for which the Wisconsin Glaciation was named. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Family forest landowners' interest in forest carbon offset programs: Focus group findings from the Lake States, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristell A. Miller; Stephanie A. Snyder; Mike A. Kilgore; Mae A. Davenport

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, focus groups were organized with individuals owning 20+ acres in the Lake States region of the United States (Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) to discuss various issues related to forest carbon offsetting. Focus group participants consisted of landowners who had responded to an earlier mail-back survey (2010) on forest carbon offsets. Two focus groups were...

  19. Application of LANDSAT to the surveillance and control of lake eutrophication in the Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, R. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Preliminary results in Saginaw Bay show that processed LANDSAT data provides a synoptic view of turbidity and circulation patterns that no degree of ground monitoring can provide. Processed imagery was produced to show nine discrete categories of turbidity, as indicated by nine Secchi depths between 0.3 and 3.3 meters. Analysis of lakes near Madison, Wisconsin show that inland lake water can be categorized by LANDSAT as clear, tannin, algal, and red clay. LANDSAT's capability to inventory watershed land use was throughly demonstrated in the Ohio-Kentucky-Indiana regional planning area. Computer tabulations providing area covered by each of 16 land use categories were rapidly and economically produced for each of the 225 watersheds and nine counties.

  20. Fueling Wisconsin's economy with renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemmer, S.

    1995-01-01

    A dynamic macroeconomic model of the Wisconsin economy is used to estimate the economic impacts of displacing a portion of future investment in fossil fuel power plants (coal and natural gas) with renewable energy resources (biomass, wind, solar and hydro). The results show that renewable energy investments produce over three times more jobs, income and economic activity than the same amount of electricity generated from coal and natural gas power plants. Between 1995 and 2020, a 75% increase in renewable energy use generates approximately 65,000 more job-years of employment, $1.6 billion in higher disposable income and a $3.1 billion increase in gross regional product than conventional power plant investments. This includes the effects of a 0.3% average annual increase in electricity prices from renewable energy investments

  1. Survey of medical radium installations in Wisconsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapert, A.C.; Lea, W.L.

    1975-05-01

    A radiation protection survey was performed at 70 medical radium installations in the State of Wisconsin. The requirements of the State's Radiation Protection Code were used as survey criteria. Radiation measurements of radium storage containers, radium capsule leakage tests, and monitoring of work surfaces for contamination were performed. Film badge monitoring data of whole body and extremity doses are presented for 221 individuals at 17 hospitals. Whole body doses during single treatments ranged from 10 to 1360 mrems per individual. The estimate of 500 mrems per treatment was determined as the dose aggregate to hospital personnel. Whole body doses from film badges are compared with analogous TLD doses. Four physicians and six technicians at nine hospitals participated in a study for monitoring the extremities with TLD. Cumulative extremity doses ranged from 28 to 6628 mrems per participant during the study. (U.S.)

  2. Reaching Regional and Local Learners via a Great Lakes MOOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, M. E.; Ackerman, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Cooperative Institute of Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) took a regional approach to climate change education in a 4-week MOOC (Massive Open On-line Course) on the Changing Weather and Climate in the Great Lakes Region launched in February 2015. Featuring a different season each week, this Great Lakes MOOC includes lectures about seasonal weather conditions, observed changes, and societal impacts of regional climate change, as well as actions with co-benefits to slow future climate change. To better connect with learners, CIMSS facilitated 21 discussion groups at public libraries around Wisconsin each week. Participants discussed climate change impacts in their communities as well as strategies to mitigate climate change. Not surprisingly, initial survey results show library participants were more committed, engaged, climate literate, and community minded. This session will share lessons learned and survey results from the Great Lakes MOOC which remains open and accessible on Coursera through February 2016 at https://www.coursera.org/course/greatlakesclimate.

  3. Ion-cyclotron-resonance heating in the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortgang, C.M.; Sprott, J.C.; Strait, E.J.

    1983-06-01

    Ion-cyclotron-resonance heating has been investigated, both experimentally and theoretically, on the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole. Heating of both ions and electrons has been observed. Typically, a two-component ion energy distribution is produced (300 eV and 50 eV) with 500 kW of rf power coupled into a 5 x 10 12 cm -3 plasma. Power is coupled to the plasma with an antenna that also serves as the inductor of an oscillator tank circuit. The oscillator is tunable from 1 to 3 MHz and can be applied for periods up to 10 msec. The experiments were performed with hydrogen, gun-injected plasmas. Most of the theortical work presented deals with a calculation that predicts the plasma loading. A slab model is used, and the questions of accessibility, polarization, and damping of the radio-frequency electromagnetic fields are addressed. It is found that cold-plasma theory cannot account for the heating and, therefore, hot-plasma theory is invoked to explain the results. The loading measurements and theoretical predictions are found to be in reasonable agreement

  4. Suspended-sediment budget, flow distribution, and lake circulation for the Fox Chain of Lakes in Lake and McHenry Counties, Illinois, 1997-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, David L.; Holmes, Robert R.

    2000-01-01

    The Fox Chain of Lakes is a glacial lake system in McHenry and Lake Counties in northern Illinois and southern Wisconsin. Sedimentation and nutrient overloading have occurred in the lake system since the first dam was built (1907) in McHenry to raise water levels in the lake system. Using data collected from December 1, 1997, to June 1, 1999, suspended-sediment budgets were constructed for the most upstream lake in the system, Grass Lake, and for the lakes downstream from Grass Lake. A total of 64,900 tons of suspended sediment entered Grass Lake during the study, whereas a total of 70,600 tons of suspended sediment exited the lake, indicating a net scour of 5,700 tons of sediment. A total of 44,100 tons of suspended sediment was measured exiting the Fox Chain of Lakes at Johnsburg, whereas 85,600 tons entered the system downstream from Grass Lake. These suspended-sediment loads indicate a net deposition of 41,500 tons downstream from Grass Lake, which represents a trapping efficiency of 48.5 percent. A large amount of recreational boating takes place on the Fox Chain of Lakes during summer months, and suspended-sediment load was observed to rise from 110 tons per day to 339 tons per day during the 1999 Memorial Day weekend (May 26 ?31, 1999). Presumably, this rise was the result of the boating traffic because no other hydrologic event is known to have occurred that might have caused the rise. This study covers a relatively short period and may not represent the long-term processes of the Fox Chain of Lakes system, although the sediment transport was probably higher than an average year. The bed sediments found on the bottom of the lakes are composed of mainly fine particles in the silt-clay range. The Grass Lake sediments were characterized as black peat with an organic content of between 9 and 18 percent, and the median particle size ranged from 0.000811 to 0.0013976 inches. Other bed material samples were collected at streamflow-gaging stations on the

  5. High-power ion-cyclotron-resonance heating in the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortgang, C.M.

    1983-05-01

    Ion cyclotron resonance heating has been investigated, both experimentally and theoretically, on the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole. Heating of both ions and electrons has been observed. Typically, a two component ion energy distribution is produced (300 eV and 50 eV) with the application of 500 kW of rf power into a 5 x 10 12 cm -3 density plasma. Power is coupled to the plasma with an antenna that also serves as the inductor of an oscillator tank circuit. The oscillator is tunable from 1 to 3 MHz and can be applied for periods up to 10 msec. The experiments were performed with hydrogen, gun injected plasmas

  6. Bathymetry of Lake Michigan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Michigan has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  7. Bathymetry of Lake Ontario

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Ontario has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  8. Bathymetry of Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Superior has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  9. Great Lakes Bathymetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lakes Michigan, Erie, Saint Clair, Ontario and Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and...

  10. Bathymetry of Lake Huron

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  11. Anaerobic methane oxidation and aerobic methane production in an east African great lake (Lake Kivu)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roland, Fleur A.E.; Morana, Cédric; Darchambeau, François

    2018-01-01

    We investigated CH4 oxidation in the water column of Lake Kivu, a deep meromictic tropical lake with CH4-rich anoxic deep waters. Depth profiles of dissolved gases (CH4 and N2O) and a diversity of potential electron acceptors for anaerobic CH4 oxidation (NO3 −, SO4 2−, Fe and Mn oxides) were dete...

  12. Geographic and racial variation in teen pregnancy rates in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layde, Molly M; Remington, Patrick L

    2013-08-01

    Despite recent declines in teen birth rates, teenage pregnancy remains an important public health problem in Wisconsin with significant social, economic, and health-related effects. Compare and contrast teen birth rate trends by race, ethnicity, and county in Wisconsin. Teen (ages 15-19 years) birth rates (per 1000 teenage females) in Wisconsin from 2001-2010 were compared by racelethnicity and county of residence using data from the Wisconsin Interactive Statistics on Health. Teen birth rates in Wisconsin have declined by 20% over the past decade, from 35.5/1000 teens in 2001 to 28.3/1000 teens in 2010-a relative decline of 20.3%. However, trends vary by race, with declines among blacks (-33%) and whites (-26%) and increases among American Indians (+21%) and Hispanics (+30%). Minority teen birth rates continue to be 3 to 5 times greater than birth rates among whites. Rates varied even more by county, with an over 14-fold difference between Ozaukee County (7.8/1000) and Menominee County (114.2). Despite recent declines, teen pregnancy continues to be an important public health problem in Wisconsin. Pregnancy prevention programs should be targeted toward the populations and counties with the highest rates.

  13. Great Lakes Science Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Since 1927, Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) research has provided critical information for the sound management of Great Lakes fish populations and other important...

  14. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  15. Lake Cadagno

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonolla, Mauro; Storelli, Nicola; Danza, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    cycles. The chemocline lies at about 12 m depth, stabilized by density differences of salt-rich water supplied by sub-aquatic springs to the monimolimnion and of electrolyte-poor surface water feeding the mixolimnion. Steep sulphide and light gradients in the chemocline support the growth of a large...... in the chemocline. Small-celled PSB together with the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfocapsa thiozymogenes sp. form stable aggregates in the lake, which represent small microenvironments with an internal sulphur cycle. Eukaryotic primary producers in the anoxic zones are dominated by Cryptomonas phaseolus...

  16. Simulation of the shallow groundwater-flow system in the Forest County Potawatomi Community, Forest County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienen, Michael N.; Saad, David A.; Juckem, Paul F.

    2013-01-01

    The shallow groundwater system in the Forest County Potawatomi Comminity, Forest County, Wisconsin, was simulated by expanding and recalibrating a previously calibrated regional model. The existing model was updated using newly collected water-level measurements, inclusion of surface-water features beyond the previous near-field boundary, and refinements to surface-water features. The updated model then was used to calculate the area contributing recharge for seven existing and three proposed pumping locations on lands of the Forest County Potawatomi Community. The existing wells were the subject of a 2004 source-water evaluation in which areas contributing recharge were calculated using the fixed-radius method. The motivation for the present (2012) project was to improve the level of detail of areas contributing recharge for the existing wells and to provide similar analysis for the proposed wells. Delineated 5- and 10-year areas contributing recharge for existing and proposed wells extend from the areas of pumping to delineate the area at the surface contributing recharge to the wells. Steady-state pumping was simulated for two scenarios: a base-pumping scenario using pumping rates that reflect what the Community currently (2012) pumps (or plans to in the case of proposed wells), and a high-pumping scenario in which the rate was set to the maximum expected from wells installed in this area, according to the Forest County Potawatomi Community Natural Resources Department. In general, the 10-year areas contributing recharge did not intersect surface-water bodies. The 5- and 10-year areas contributing recharge simulated at the maximum pumping rate at Bug Lake Road may intersect Bug Lake. At the casino near the Town of Carter, Wisconsin, the 10-year areas contributing recharge intersect infiltration ponds. At the Devils Lake and Lois Crow Drive wells, areas contributing recharge are near cultural features, including residences.

  17. PCBs, liver lesions, and biomarker responses in adult walleye (Stizostedium vitreum vitreum) collected from Green Bay, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Mace G.; Anderson, Michael J.; Cacela, Dave; Lipton, Joshua; Teh, Swee J.; Hinton, David E.; Zelikoff, Judith T.; Dikkeboom, Audrey L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Holey, Mark; Denslow, Nancy

    2000-01-01

    Adult walleye were collected from several locations in the Lower Fox River and Green Bay, Wisconsin (the assessment area) and two relatively uncontaminated reference locations (Lake Winnebago and Patten Lake, Wisconsin) between July and October in 1996 and 1997. Whole body and liver samples collected in 1996 were analyzed for total PCBs, PCB congeners, and liver histological lesions. Follow-up sampling in 1997 included examination of liver histopathology, PCBs in liver samples, measurement of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, immunological evaluation of kidney and blood samples, measurement of plasma vitellogenin, and examination of tissues for parasites as well as bacterial and viral infections. Mean PCB concentrations in whole body and liver samples were elevated in assessment area walleye (4.6 to 8.6 and 3.6 to 6.4 mg/kg wet weight, respectively) compared to PCB concentrations in reference areas (0.04 mg/kg in walleye fillets from Lake Winnebago). A significant (p blood monocyte counts were 40% lower than those of reference area fish. The data did not show any clear distinctions in the prevalence of disease between reference and assessment area walleye. EROD activity was similar in assessment area and reference area walleye. Plasma vitellogenin was elevated in female walleye from eastern Green Bay, but was not detected in male fish from this location. The results of this investigation demonstrate significant elevation in hepatic preneoplastic lesions and hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas in assessment area walleye exposed to elevated concentrations of PCBs. These histopathological lesions are consistent with long-term exposure to tumor promoters such as PCBs, although quantitative association between tumors and PCBs was not observed at the level of the individual fish. Additional research would be needed to elucidate the causal mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis.

  18. Reintroduction medicine: whooping cranes in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Dominique L; Hartup, Barry K

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents veterinary management strategies and diagnostic findings in the reintroduction of the endangered whooping crane (Grus americana). Between 2005 and 2010, 63 (27 male, 36 female) hatchling whooping cranes were assigned to a reintroduction project involving autumn release of costume-reared chicks in Wisconsin. Veterinary care included preventive measures and comprehensive pre-release evaluations to improve fitness and reduce translocation of potential disease agents to native habitats. A total of 44 clinically normal birds were released (70% of assigned individuals). Cases of morbidity were classified according to primary body system affected. Musculoskeletal disorders were described in 57 birds (90%); five birds were removed from the project prior to release (8%), all for abnormalities that prevented normal function. Fourteen birds died or were euthanized prior to release (22%); pre-release mortality was attributed to developmental abnormality, predation, trauma or infectious disease. Chronic respiratory aspergillosis, diagnosed in seven birds (11%), was the most common infectious disease of concern. Predation and trauma were primary causes of post-release mortality; no evidence of infectious disease of captive origin was detected in the study population by the end of 2010. The assessment of data accumulated by this project helped to outline successful health management strategies, as well as identify and mitigate ongoing risks to captive whooping cranes that impede reintroduction efforts and achieving management goals for species recovery. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Acculturation Processes of Hmong in Eastern Wisconsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kha Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines acculturation processes among Hmong who live in Eastern Wisconsin by using the East Asian Acculturation Measure (EAAM, which was developed by Barry (2001. The results indicated that in terms of Acculturation, Hmong ranked highest in integration, then separation, assimilation, and lastly marginalization. Questions on each dimension of integration, separation, assimilation, and marginalization were analyzed and positive correlations were found between the youngest of the generations, the length of residency in the United States, and the ability to speak, read, and write in English. In contrast, the older the age of the participant when they came to the United States had a positive correlation with separation. The ability to speak, read, and write in English had a positive correlation with assimilation, and the older the age of coming to the United States had a positive correlation with marginalization. Assimilation and separation had a positive correlation with marginalization, while integration had a negative correlation with marginalization and a positive correlation with assimilation, and separation had no correlation with marginalization. Results are discussed in regards to previous Hmong acculturation studies.

  20. Analysis And Assessment Of Forest Cover Change For The State Of Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, C. H.; Nelson, M. D.; Stueve, K.; Gormanson, D.

    2010-12-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service is charged with documenting the status and trends of forest resources of the United States. Since the 1930s, FIA has implemented an intensive field campaign that collects measurements on plots distributed across all ownerships, historically completing analyses which include estimates of forest area, volume, mortality, growth, removals, and timber products output in various ways, such as by ownership, region, or State. Originally a periodic inventory, FIA has been measuring plots on an annual basis since the passage of the Agriculture Research, Extension and Education Reform Act of 1998 (Farm Bill). The resulting change in sampling design and intensity presents challenges to establishing baseline and measuring changes in forest area and biomass. A project jointly sponsored by the Forest Service and the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) titled “Integrating Landscape-scale Forest Measurements with Remote Sensing and Ecosystem Models to Improve Carbon Management Decisions” seeks to improve estimates of landscape- and continental-scale carbon dynamics and causes of change for North American forest land, and to use this information to support land management decisions. Specifically, we are developing and applying methods to scale up intensive biomass and carbon measurements from the field campaign to larger land management areas while simultaneously estimating change in the above-ground forest carbon stocks; the State of Wisconsin is being used as the testbed for this large-scale integration remote sensing with field measurements. Once defined, the temporal and spatial patterns of forest resources by watershed for Lake Superior and Lake Michigan outputs are being integrated into water quality assessments for the Great Lakes.

  1. Public perspectives of fire, fuels, and the Forest Service in the Great Lakes Region: a survey of citizen-agency communication and trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce A. Shindler; Eric Toman; Sarah M. McCaffrey

    2009-01-01

    Relative to the western United States, where fire and fuel management programs have received greater emphasis, few community-based studies have focused on the Great Lakes region. The present paper describes public opinion research from counties surrounding National Forests inWisconsin, Minnesota and Michigan. Survey data address citizen perspectives on (1) fuel...

  2. Turbidity in extreme western Lake Superior. [contamination of Duluth, Minnesota water intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydor, M.

    1975-01-01

    Data were obtained from ERTS images for western Lake Superior for 1972-74. Data examination showed that for easterly winds the turbidity originating along the Wisconsin shore and the resuspension areas are transported northward then out along a N.E. path where it disperses, and often, for large storms, contaminates the Duluth water intake. Contaminants such as dredging fines anywhere along these paths would likewise find their way to the intake areas in concentrations comparable to the relative red clay concentration.

  3. Thermal discharge residence by Lake Michigan Salmonids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romberg, G.P.; Prepejchal, W.

    1975-01-01

    Lake Michigan salmon and trout were tagged with a thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) temperature tag to estimate their thermal exposure and residence time at a warm water discharge. Fish were collected, tagged, and released at the Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Two Rivers, Wisconsin, in the fall of 1973 and 1974. Tags were recovered during the same season, primarily from fish recaptured at Point Beach. Average uniform temperature exposure and maximum possible discharge residence time were determined. Appropriate hourly intake and discharge temperatures were averaged to calculate mean temperature exposure for the case of maximum discharge residence. Lowest discharge temperature not included within the period of maximum residence was identified to serve as a possible indicator of avoidance temperature. Mean values for the above parameters were calculated for fish species for each tagging year and are reported with the accompanying range of intake and discharge temperatures

  4. Exposure to Elevated Carbon Monoxide Levels at an Indoor Ice Arena--Wisconsin, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Paul D; Meiman, Jon G; Nehls-Lowe, Henry; Vogt, Christy; Wozniak, Ryan J; Werner, Mark A; Anderson, Henry

    2015-11-20

    On December 13, 2014, the emergency management system in Lake Delton, Wisconsin, was notified when a male hockey player aged 20 years lost consciousness after participation in an indoor hockey tournament that included approximately 50 hockey players and 100 other attendees. Elevated levels of carbon monoxide (CO) (range = 45 ppm-165 ppm) were detected by the fire department inside the arena. The emergency management system encouraged all players and attendees to seek medical evaluation for possible CO poisoning. The Wisconsin Department of Health Services (WDHS) conducted an epidemiologic investigation to determine what caused the exposure and to recommend preventive strategies. Investigators abstracted medical records from area emergency departments (EDs) for patients who sought care for CO exposure during December 13-14, 2014, conducted a follow-up survey of ED patients approximately 2 months after the event, and conducted informant interviews. Ninety-two persons sought ED evaluation for possible CO exposure, all of whom were tested for CO poisoning. Seventy-four (80%) patients had blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels consistent with CO poisoning; 32 (43%) CO poisoning cases were among hockey players. On December 15, the CO emissions from the propane-fueled ice resurfacer were demonstrated to be 4.8% of total emissions when actively resurfacing and 2.3% when idling, both above the optimal range of 0.5%-1.0%. Incomplete fuel combustion by the ice resurfacer was the most likely source of elevated CO. CO poisonings in ice arenas can be prevented through regular maintenance of ice resurfacers, installation of CO detectors, and provision of adequate ventilation.

  5. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Wisconsin. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2006 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Wisconsin.

  6. Ammonia emissions from dairy production in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, L A; Flesch, T K; Powell, J M; Coblentz, W K; Jokela, W E; Martin, N P

    2009-05-01

    Ammonia gas is the only significant basic gas that neutralizes atmospheric acid gases produced from combustion of fossil fuels. This reaction produces an aerosol that is a component of atmospheric haze, is implicated in nitrogen (N) deposition, and may be a potential human health hazard. Because of the potential impact of NH3 emissions, environmentally and economically, the objective of this study was to obtain representative and accurate NH3 emissions data from large dairy farms (>800 cows) in Wisconsin. Ammonia concentrations and climatic measurements were made on 3 dairy farms during winter, summer, and autumn to calculate emissions using an inverse-dispersion analysis technique. These study farms were confinement systems utilizing freestall housing with nearby sand separators and lagoons for waste management. Emissions were calculated from the whole farm including the barns and any waste management components (lagoons and sand separators), and from these components alone when possible. During winter, the lagoons' NH3 emissions were very low and not measurable. During autumn and summer, whole-farm emissions were significantly larger than during winter, with about two-thirds of the total emissions originating from the waste management systems. The mean whole-farm NH3 emissions in winter, autumn, and summer were 1.5, 7.5, and 13.7% of feed N inputs emitted as NH3-N, respectively. Average annual emission comparisons on a unit basis between the 3 farms were similar at 7.0, 7.5, and 8.4% of input feed N emitted as NH3-N, with an annual average for all 3 farms of 7.6 +/- 1.5%. These winter, summer, autumn, and average annual NH3 emissions are considerably smaller than currently used estimates for dairy farms, and smaller than emissions from other types of animal-feeding operations.

  7. Atmospheric mercury cycles in northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watras, C. J.; Morrison, K. A.; Rubsam, J. L.; Rodger, B.

    Total gaseous mercury (TGM) in the lower atmosphere of northern Wisconsin exhibits strong annual and diurnal cycles similar to those previously reported for other rural monitoring sites across mid-latitude North America. Annually, TGM was highest in late winter and then gradually declined until late summer. During 2002-04, the average TGM concentration was 1.4 ± 0.2 (SD) ng m -3, and the amplitude of the annual cycle was 0.4 ng m -3 (˜30% of the long-term mean). The diurnal cycle was characterized by increasing TGM concentrations during the morning followed by decreases during the afternoon and night. The diurnal amplitude was variable but it was largest in spring and summer, when daily TGM oscillations of 20-40% were not uncommon. Notably, we also observed a diurnal cycle for TGM indoors in a room ventilated through an open window. Even though TGM concentrations were an order of magnitude higher indoors, (presumably due to historical practices within the building: e.g. latex paint, fluorescent lamps, thermometers), the diurnal cycle was remarkably similar to that observed outdoors. The indoor cycle was not directly attributable to human activity, the metabolic activity of vegetation or diurnal atmospheric dynamics; but it was related to changes in temperature and oxidants in outdoor air that infiltrated the room. Although there was an obvious difference in the proximal source of indoor and outdoor TGM, similarities in behavior suggest that common TGM cycles may be driven largely by adsorption/desorption reactions involving solid surfaces, such as leaves, snow, dust and walls. Such behavior would imply a short residence time for Hg in the lower atmosphere and intense recycling - consistent with the "ping-pong ball" or "multi-hop" conceptual models proposed by others.

  8. Limnology of Eifel maar lakes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scharf, Burkhard W; Björk, Sven

    1992-01-01

    ... & morphometry - Physical & chemical characteristics - Calcite precipitation & solution in Lake Laacher See - Investigations using sediment traps in Lake Gemundener Maar - Phytoplankton of Lake Weinfelder Maar...

  9. Serum PCB profiles in Native Americans from Wisconsin based on region, diet, age, and gender: Implications for epidemiology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, David J.; Dellinger, John A.; Needham, Larry L.; Hansen, Larry G.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Different PCB congeners and different mixtures of congeners have been demonstrated to have different biological actions. More complete characterization of congener profiles in exposure sources may assist in predicting health outcomes. Methods: Thirty-six (36) polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were measured by gas chromatography isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) in 314 serum samples from Native Americans in Wisconsin, Michigan and Minnesota. Five dietary groups were established based on the quantity and species of fish consumed and the waters from which the fish were caught. Multivariate statistical methods were able to resolve gender and dietary differences in PCB homologue and PCB congener patterns. Results: Females had higher proportions of lower chlorinated homologues, including a consistently higher proportion of pentaCB 118. The relative presence of the very labile and volatile PCB 18, above 1% of the total PCB in females from the minimal fish consumption and 'other' groups, suggests possible exposure to PCBs in the atmosphere. The dietary group consuming predatory fishes from Lakes Michigan and Superior had the highest serum concentrations of total PCB (mean of 3.1 ng/ml) and the most distinct congener profile. The two dietary groups least dependent on fishing or fishing mostly from inland lakes (non-Great Lakes) had the lowest total PCB concentrations, both with means of 1.4 ng/ml. Conclusions: These serum PCB concentrations were less than those found in earlier studies of fish consumers in the Great Lakes region and may reflect the decrease in PCBs in these lakes

  10. Shaping the Electronic Library--The UW-Madison Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Charles W., Ed.; Frazier, Ken; Pope, Nolan F.; Gorman, Peter C.; Dentinger, Sue; Boston, Jeanne; Phillips, Hugh; Daggett, Steven C.; Lundquist, Mitch; McClung, Mark; Riley, Curran; Allan, Craig; Waugh, David

    1998-01-01

    This special theme section describes the University of Wisconsin-Madison's experience building its Electronic Library. Highlights include integrating resources and services; the administrative framework; the public electronic library, including electronic publishing capability and access to World Wide Web-based and other electronic resources;…

  11. Inelastic electron scattering from surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, S.Y.; Mills, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    This report contains highlights of accomplishments of the past year, for the University of California, Irvine and the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee collaboration on surface excitations, and their interactions with low energy electrons. In addition, we present a summary of future research to be carried out in the coming grant year

  12. 77 FR 59921 - Wisconsin Public Service Corporation; Notice of Environmental Site Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 1940-000 Wisconsin; Project No. 1966-000 Wisconsin] Wisconsin Public Service Corporation; Notice of Environmental Site Review In anticipation of the filing of Notices of Intent (NOI) and Pre- Application Documents for the Grandfather Falls Hydroelectric Project No. 1966 and...

  13. 76 FR 57646 - Final Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria Applicable to Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... Final Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria Applicable to Wisconsin AGENCY... aquatic life water quality criteria applicable to Wisconsin? C. Why is the EPA not withdrawing Wisconsin's chronic endrin aquatic life use criterion for waters designated as Warm Water Sportfish and Warm Water...

  14. Of Needles and Haystacks: Building an Accurate Statewide Dropout Early Warning System in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Jared E.

    2015-01-01

    The state of Wisconsin has one of the highest four year graduation rates in the nation, but deep disparities among student subgroups remain. To address this the state has created the Wisconsin Dropout Early Warning System (DEWS), a predictive model of student dropout risk for students in grades six through nine. The Wisconsin DEWS is in use…

  15. Teaching Environmental Education to Wisconsin Teachers: A Review of University Course Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanera, Michael

    1997-01-01

    This report contains a study done at the request of the Wisconsin Policy Research Institute, which studies public policy issues affecting the state of Wisconsin. The purpose of this study was to examine the content of environmental education (EE) materials used in courses required for teacher certification in Wisconsin to see if the knowledge and…

  16. Bathymetry of Lake Erie and Lake Saint Clair

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Erie and Lake Saint Clair has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and...

  17. Introduction to radioactive waste management issues in Wisconsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This brief focused on wastes from commercial production of electricity and various industrial, medical and research applications of radioactive materials. Only traditionally solid wastes are dealt with. It was organized into five parts. Part I presented an introduction to radioactivity - what it is and the biological hazards associated with it. Federal regulation of the management of radioactive wastes was discussed in Part II. Existing state laws and bills currently before the Wisconsin Legislature were described in Part III. Part IV gave background information on specific areas of potential inquiry related to radioactive wastes in Wisconsin. Part V summarized the issues identified in the brief. 2 figures, 7 tables

  18. Biblioteca y Centro de Estudios de la Universidad de Wisconsin - Kenosha - . Wisconsin – (EE.UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellmuth, George

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuing the line established by these same architects in previous University designs, the Library and Study Hall of the University of Wisconsin is another attempt at creating an exciting atmosphere, particularly conducive to the development of university life. It is to be noted, in this case, the arrangement of the library and study areas around a central common open space, sort of an inner courtyard used as a relaxation and sitting área, where all traffic corridors and promenades from the adjacent faculties come to meet, thus becoming the main reference point for the entire campus. The library with a current capacity for 245,000 volumes and 1,400 reading stalls is designed so it can be eventually enlarged permitting to almost double its book capacity and increasing the reading stalls to more than 2,000.

    Continuando la línea marcada por estos mismos arquitectos en anteriores proyectos de universidades, la biblioteca y el centro de estudios de la Universidad de Wisconsin procura definir atractivos espacios para el desarrollo de la vida universitaria. En este caso destaca la organización de los servicios de biblioteca y estudio en torno a un espacio comunitario central, a modo de plaza interior, destinado a sala de estar y recreo, y en donde confluyen las circulaciones que provienen de los locales adyacentes, convirtiéndolo en el principal punto de referencia del campus universitario. La biblioteca, que actualmente tiene capacidad para 245.000 volúmenes y 1.400 lectores, ha previsto una ampliación que le permitirá casi doblar el número de volúmenes y proporcionar espacio para más de 2.000 lectores.

  19. Multidisciplinary Optimization of Oral Chemotherapy Delivery at the University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulkerin, Daniel L; Bergsbaken, Jason J; Fischer, Jessica A; Mulkerin, Mary J; Bohler, Aaron M; Mably, Mary S

    2016-10-01

    Use of oral chemotherapy is expanding and offers advantages while posing unique safety challenges. ASCO and the Oncology Nursing Society jointly published safety standards for administering chemotherapy that offer a framework for improving oral chemotherapy practice at the University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center. With the goal of improving safety, quality, and uniformity within our oral chemotherapy practice, we conducted a gap analysis comparing our practice against ASCO/Oncology Nursing Society guidelines. Areas for improvement were addressed by multidisciplinary workgroups that focused on education, workflows, and information technology. Recommendations and process changes included defining chemotherapy, standardizing patient and caregiver education, mandating the use of comprehensive electronic order sets, and standardizing documentation for dose modification. Revised processes allow pharmacists to review all orders for oral chemotherapy, and they support monitoring adherence and toxicity by using a library of scripted materials. Between August 2015 and January 2016, revised processes were implemented across the University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center clinics. The following are key performance indicators: 92.5% of oral chemotherapy orders (n = 1,216) were initiated within comprehensive electronic order sets (N = 1,315), 89.2% compliance with informed consent was achieved, 14.7% of orders (n = 193) required an average of 4.4 minutes review time by the pharmacist, and 100% compliance with first-cycle monitoring of adherence and toxicity was achieved. We closed significant gaps between institutional practice and published standards for our oral chemotherapy practice and experienced steady improvement and sustainable performance in key metrics. We created an electronic definition of oral chemotherapies that allowed us to leverage our electronic health records. We believe our tools are broadly applicable.

  20. Sedimentology, sequence-stratigraphy, and geochemical variations in the Mesoproterozoic Nonesuch Formation, northern Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury Stewart, Esther; Mauk, Jeffrey L.

    2017-01-01

    We use core descriptions and portable X-ray fluorescence analyses to identify lithofacies and stratigraphic surfaces for the Mesoproterozoic Nonesuch Formation within the Ashland syncline, Wisconsin. We group lithofacies into facies associations and construct a sequence stratigraphic framework based on lithofacies stacking and stratigraphic surfaces. The fluvial-alluvial facies association (upper Copper Harbor Conglomerate) is overlain across a transgressive surface by the fluctuating-profundal facies association (lower Nonesuch Formation). The fluctuating-profundal facies association comprises a retrogradational sequence set overlain across a maximum flooding surface by an aggradational-progradational sequence set comprising fluctuating-profundal, fluvial-lacustrine, and fluvial-alluvial facies associations (middle Nonesuch through lower Freda Formations). Lithogeochemistry supports sedimentologic and stratigraphic interpretations. Fe/S molar ratios reflect the oxidation state of the lithofacies; values are most depleted above the maximum flooding surface where lithofacies are chemically reduced and are greatest in the chemically oxidized lithofacies. Si/Al and Zr/Al molar ratios reflect the relative abundance of detrital heavy minerals vs. clay minerals; greater values correlate with larger grain size. Vertical facies association stacking records depositional environments that evolved from fluvial and alluvial, to balanced-fill lake, to overfilled lake, and returning to fluvial and alluvial. Elsewhere in the basin, where accommodation was greatest, some volume of fluvial-lacustrine facies is likely present below the transgressive stratigraphic surface. This succession of continental and lake-basin types indicates a predominant tectonic driver of basin evolution. Lithofacies distribution and geochemistry indicate deposition within an asymmetric half-graben bounded on the east by a west-dipping growth fault. While facies assemblages are lacustrine and continental

  1. The Politics of Reforming School Finance in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Terry G.

    This paper is primarily concerned with identifying and explicating the environmental forces and political factors responsible for legislative enactment of major school finance changes in Wisconsin in 1973. Easton's political systems theory serves as a conceptual framework for the study. In addition, Lindblom's leadership model, Truman's interest…

  2. Trustee Essentials: A Handbook for Wisconsin Public Library Trustees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    This handbook for Trustees of the Wisconsin Public Library describes in detail the tasks involved in being a library trustee. The handbook comprises a number of "Trustee Essentials" that cover the basic essential information needed by Trustees, as well as sources of additional information. Contents include: The Trustee Job Description;…

  3. The changing veneer and plywood industry of Michigan and Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary R. Lindell; Lewis T. Hendricks

    1972-01-01

    Analyzes trends in the hardwood veneer and plywood industry of Michigan and Wisconsin between 1964 and 1969. In that period, red oak and hard maple replaced yellow birch as the major species used. Log supplies were adequate. Wall paneling was the major end market with doorskins next. Excess plywood producing capacity is a chronic problem.

  4. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Iron River Quadrangle, Michigan and Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frishman, D

    1982-09-01

    No area within the Iron River 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ Quadrangle, Michigan and Wisconsin, appears to be favorable for the existence of a minimum of 100 tons of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ at a grade of 0.01 percent or better.

  5. Timber resource of Wisconsin's Northwest Survey Unit, 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith

    1984-01-01

    The fourth inventory of the timber resource of the Northwest Wisconsin Survey Unit shows a 1.8% decline in commercial forest area and a 36% gain in growing-stock volume between 1968 and 1983. Presented are highlights and statistics on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, and biomass.

  6. Seasonal field metabolic rates of American martens in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan H. Gilbert; Patrick A Zollner; Adam K. Green; John L. Wright

    2009-01-01

    We report on FMR of free-living American martens (Martes americana) in autumn and winter in northern Wisconsin. Mean body mass was significantly higher in males (1099 ± 43 [S.E.] g) than females (737 ± 28 g), with no significant difference by season. Daily mass change rates of martens did not differ from zero, and mass change rate...

  7. Food Processing and Agriculture. Wisconsin Annual Farm Labor Report, 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin State Employment Service, Madison.

    A yearly report on the migrant farm worker situation in Wisconsin evaluates the year 1968 in relation to past years and makes projections for the future. Comparisons are made of trends in year-round employment practices, seasonal food processing, the cherry industry, and the cucumber industry. The report includes a discussion on the social aspects…

  8. Digital Learning Compass: Distance Education State Almanac 2017. Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Julia E.; Seaman, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This brief report uses data collected under the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Fall Enrollment survey to highlight distance education data in the state of Wisconsin. The sample for this analysis is comprised of all active, degree-granting…

  9. The Wisconsin experience with incentives for demand-side management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landgren, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    It has been noted that, within traditional regulatory frameworks for electric utilities, factors exist which discourage demand side management (DSM) and that there is a lack of positive incentives for DSM. Regulatory agencies should therefore make it possible for DSM measures to benefit from the same treatment as supply-side measures. The Wisconsin Public Service Commission (WPSC) has recognized this need and has adopted various measures accordingly. The need for efficiency incentives is described according to the particular experience of Wisconsin Electric concerning their recourse to a DSM incentive and according to new incentive models being tested in collaboration with other electricity suppliers in Wisconsin. The WPSC has concluded that the fact of considering the costs relating to DSM as expenses or capitalizing them within the rate base does not motivate the utility to promote DSM programs. The WPSC has thus decided to experiment with energy efficiency incentives in order to evaluate their eventual impact. The choice of the type of incentive had an objective of starting the process in an area where the lack of experience has created, from the regulatory point of view, a reticence on the part of utilities to engage in DSM programs. The WPSC has designed a variety of incentive models which have been adapted to each utility's own situation. Specific incentive programs developed for three Wisconsin utilities are reviewed

  10. Assessment of high penetration of solar photovoltaics in Wisconsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Kevin S.; Klein, Sanford A.; Reindl, Douglas T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an assessment of the large-scale implementation of distributed solar photovoltaics in Wisconsin with regard to its interaction with the utility grid, economics of varying levels of high penetration, and displaced emissions. These assessment factors are quantified using simulations with measured hourly solar radiation and weather data from the National Solar Radiation Database as primary inputs. Hourly utility load data for each electric utility in Wisconsin for a complete year were used in combination with the simulated PV output to quantify the impacts of high penetration of distributed PV on the aggregate Wisconsin electric utility load. As the penetration rate of distributed PV systems increases, both economic and environmental benefits experience diminishing returns. At penetration rates exceeding 15-20% of the aggregate utility load peak, less of the PV-energy is utilized and the contribution of the aggregate electricity generated from PV approaches a practical limit. The limit is not affected by costs, but rather by the time-distribution of available solar radiation and mismatch with the coincidence of aggregate utility electrical loads. The unsubsidized levelized cost of electricity from PV is more than four times greater than the current market price for electricity, based on time-of-use rates, in Wisconsin. At the present time, the investment in solar PV as a cost-effective means to reduce emissions from traditional electricity generation sources is not justified. (author)

  11. Public Schooling in Southeast Wisconsin: 2013-2014 [Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeado, Joe; Schmidt, Jeff; Hart, Rebecca; Henken, Rob

    2014-01-01

    This summary from the "Public Schooling in Southeast Wisconsin: 2013-2014" full report presents the school district performance in a pull-out format. Definitions are provided for the column heading: (1) Total Operations Spending, (2) Property Tax Revenue, (3) Total Enrollment; (4) One-Year Change in Enrollment, (5) Minority Enrollment,…

  12. Queer & Ally Youth Involvement in the Fair Wisconsin Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiegler, Sam

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the role and experience of queer youth and allies in the Fair Wisconsin campaign that fought against the marriage amendment to that state's constitution. It illustrates how LGBT and ally youth involvement can be incorporated into other organizations. Following an explanation of the campaign, are narratives of two…

  13. On Farmers’ Ground: Wisconsin Dairy Farm Nutrient Management Survey Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    This questionnaire was used during quarterly, face-to-face interviews with the fifty-four Wisconsin dairy farmers who participated in the ‘On Farmers’ Ground’ nutrient management research project. It was designed to systematically and consistently compile information on herd size and composition, l...

  14. Geology and ground-water resources of Outagamie County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeRoux, E.F.

    1957-01-01

    Outagamie County is in east-central Wisconsin. It has no serious groundwater problem at present, but the county is important as a recharge area for the principal aquifers supplying water to Brown County and industrial Green Bay to the east.

  15. Skill Needs and Training Strategies in the Wisconsin Printing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Center on Wisconsin Strategy.

    A study examined the emerging skill needs in the Wisconsin printing industry, a key industry that provided the largest increase (more than 13,000 new jobs) in manufacturing employment in the state in the past decade. Eighteen interviews were conducted with industry personnel and production managers, union representatives, technical college…

  16. Certification Manual for Wisconsin Public Librarians. Bulletin No. 94111.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Donald K.

    This manual contains the guidelines and procedures for public librarian certification and certification renewal in Wisconsin. Certification is not required for library personnel other than administrators, but nonadministrators may apply for certification at the level for which they are eligible. Requirements for voluntary library certification are…

  17. Wisconsin Certification Manual for Public Librarians. Bulletin No. 7075.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Div. of Library Services.

    Designed to be used as a guide for public librarians and boards of trustees in meeting the requirements of Wisconsin's public librarian certification law, this manual is divided into two major sections covering public librarian certification and certification renewal/continuing education requirements. The first section includes discussions of…

  18. Lake or Pond WBID

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The VT DEC (Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation) manages an inventory of lake and pond information. The "Lakes and Ponds Inventory" stores the Water...

  19. National Lakes Assessment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Lakes Assessment (NLA) is a first-ever statistically-valid survey of the biological condition of lakes and reservoirs throughout the U.S. The U.S....

  20. DNR 24K Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Medium scale lake polygons derived from the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) polygons and MnDOT Basemap lake delineations. Integrated with the DNR 24K Streams...

  1. Lyme disease in Wisconsin: epidemiologic, clinical, serologic, and entomologic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J P; Schell, W L; Amundson, T E; Godsey, M S; Spielman, A; Burgdorfer, W; Barbour, A G; LaVenture, M; Kaslow, R A

    1984-01-01

    In 1980-82, 80 individuals (71 Wisconsin residents) had confirmed Lyme disease (LD-c) reported; 39 additional patients had probable or possible LD. All cases of LD-c occurred during May-November; 73 percent occurred during June-July; 54 (68 percent) occurred in males. The mean age was 38.7 years (range, 7-77 years). Among LD-c patients, likely exposure to the presumed vector Ixodes dammini (ID) occurred in 22 different Wisconsin counties. Antibodies to the ID spirochete that causes LD occurred in 33 of 49 LD-c cases versus 0 of 18 in ill controls (p less than .001) and in 13 of 26 LD-c cases treated with penicillin or tetracycline versus 16 of 19 LD-c cases not treated. Early antibiotic therapy appears to blunt the antibody response to the ID spirochete. Regional tick surveys conducted in Wisconsin during each November in 1979-82 have demonstrated regions of greater density of ID. Utilizing comparable tick collection in these surveys, increases were noted in the percentage of deer with ID from 24 percent (31/128) in 1979 to 38 percent (58/152) in 1981, in the standardized mean value of ID/deer from 1.0 in 1979 to 2.2 in 1981, in the percentage of ID of the total ticks collected from 13 percent in 1979 to 71 percent in 1981, or in the ratio of ID to Dermacentor albipictus ticks from 0.14 in 1979 to 2.44 in 1981. However, a reduction in the density of ID/deer was noted generally throughout Wisconsin in 1982 when compared to 1981. LD is widespread in Wisconsin, with ecologic and clinical features similar to those occurring along the eastern seaboard.

  2. Results of photochemical modeling sensitivity analyses in the Lake Michigan region: Current status of Lake Michigan Ozone Control Program (LMOP) modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolwick, P.D. [Lake Michigan Air Directors Consortium, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Kaleel, R.J. [Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, Springfield, IL (United States); Majewski, M.A. [Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The four states that border Lake Michigan are cooperatively applying a state-of-the-art nested photochemical grid model to assess the effects of potential emission control strategies on reducing elevated tropospheric ozone concentrations in the region to levels below the national ambient air quality standard. In order to provide an extensive database to support the application of the photochemical model, a substantial data collection effort known as the Lake Michigan Ozone Study (LMOS) was completed during the summer of 1991. The Lake Michigan Ozone Control Program (LMOP) was established by the States of Illinois, Wisconsin, Michigan, and Indiana to carry out the application of the modeling system developed from the LMOS, in terms of developing the attainment demonstrations required from this area by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.

  3. Informed Forces for Environmental Quality, Conference Proceedings (University of Wisconsin, Green Bay, Wisconsin, March 28-29, 1968).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Univ., Green Bay.

    To increase understanding of the dimensions of man's impact on his environment and the key issues involved in improving that environment through education and action was the goal of the environmental quality conference held at the University of Wisconsin, Green Bay, on March 28-29, 1968. Contained in this document are the conference…

  4. Organochlorine contaminants and reproductive success of double-crested cormorants from Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.; Hines, R.K.; Gutreuter, S.; Stromborg, K.L.; Allen, P. David; Melancon, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    In 1994 and 1995, nesting success of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) was measured at Cat Island, in southern Green Bay, Lake Michigan, Wisconsin, USA. Sample eggs at pipping and unhatched eggs were collected and analyzed for organochlorines (including total polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs] and DDE), hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) activity in embryos, and eggshell thickness. Of 1,570 eggs laid, 32% did not hatch and 0.4% had deformed embryos. Of 632 chicks monitored from hatching to 12 d of age, 9% were missing or found dead; no deformities were observed. The PCB concentrations in sample eggs from clutches with deformed embryos (mean = 10.2 μg/g wet weight) and dead embryos (11.4 μg/g) were not significantly higher than concentrations in sample eggs from nests where all eggs hatched (12.1 μg/g). A logistic regression of hatching success versus DDE, dieldrin, and PCB concentrations in sibling eggs identified DDE and not dieldrin or PCBs as a significant risk factor. A logistic regression of hatching success versus DDE and eggshell thickness implicated DDE and not eggshell thickness as a significant risk factor. Even though the insecticide DDT was banned in the early 1970s, we suggest that DDE concentrations in double-crested cormorant eggs in Green Bay are still having an effect on reproduction in this species.

  5. Watershed scale response to climate change--Trout Lake Basin, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, John F.; Hunt, Randall J.; Hay, Lauren E.; Markstrom, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    General Circulation Model simulations of future climate through 2099 project a wide range of possible scenarios. To determine the sensitivity and potential effect of long-term climate change on the freshwater resources of the United States, the U.S. Geological Survey Global Change study, "An integrated watershed scale response to global change in selected basins across the United States" was started in 2008. The long-term goal of this national study is to provide the foundation for hydrologically based climate change studies across the nation.

  6. Mercury Contamination in Tree Swallows Nesting at Northern Wisconsin Inland Lakes that Differ in Methylation Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) are a useful species to assess the bioavailability and effects of trace elements, including mercury, because they will nest in boxes in relatively close proximity to one another. Because tree swallows feed on the aerial stages of benthic aquat...

  7. La Farge Lake, Kickapoo River, Vernon County, Wisconsin, Final Environmental Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-02-18

    alternifolia (Wingstem), Asimina. triloba (Paw Paw), Aster vimineus, Buchloe dactylodes (Buffalo Grass), Carya glabra (Sweet Pg-ut), illinoensis (Pecan...black oak (Quercus velutina), white oak (Quercus alba), and hickory ( Carya cordiformes) generally occupy the drier uplands and slopes with south and

  8. Live/Dead Comparisons of Ostracodes in Temperate Lakes Reveal Evidence of Human Impact and Provides a Tool to Measure the Progress of Remediation Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spergel, J.; Kimball, K. C.; Fitzpatrick, S. A.; Michelson, A. V.; Leonard-Pingel, J.

    2015-12-01

    Lake ecosystems face a multitude of environmental threats including: eutrophication, overfishing, and heavy metal pollution. Tools to identify lakes impacted by human activity and quantify that impact are needed to combat their environmental degradation. One such promising tool has been the comparison between living communities and associated time-averaged death assemblages of mollusks in marine environments. Here we extend the reach of such live/dead comparisons using ostracodes in temperate lakes. We sampled six lakes in Wisconsin for living communities and associated death assemblages of ostracodes: two lakes impacted by human activity, two relatively "pristine" lakes, and two remediated lakes. We took sixteen grab samples of the upper centimeter of sediment in each lake, capturing simultaneously living benthic ostracodes and discarded valves of dead ostracodes. We found that impacted lakes had lower live/dead fidelity in taxonomic composition and rank-order abundance distributions and greater within-lake variation in death assemblages than "pristine" lakes. Additionally, the living communities in the impacted lakes tended to be lower in species richness and have lower evenness than "pristine" lakes. Remediated lakes displayed similar live/dead fidelity in taxonomic composition and rank-abundance distributions to "pristine" lakes and had lower within-lake variation in death assemblages than impacted lakes. Remediated lakes also contained living communities that tended to be richer and more even than impacted lakes. The lower live/dead fidelity of ostracodes in impacted lakes indicate live/dead ostracode comparisons can provide a tool to identify lake ecosystems impacted by humans. The similar results of remediated and "pristine" lakes indicate remediation efforts in these lakes have been successful in alleviating environmental impact detrimental to ostracode communities. This result indicates live/dead comparisons of ostracodes can be a useful tool to monitor

  9. Walleye recruitment success is less resilient to warming water temperatures in lakes with abundant largemouth bass populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Gretchen J. A.; Midway, Stephen R.; Wagner, Tyler

    2018-01-01

    Lakes respond heterogeneously to climate, with implications for fisheries management. We analyzed walleye (Sander vitreus) recruitment to age-0 in 359 lakes in Wisconsin, USA, to (i) quantify the relationship between annual water temperature degree days (DD) and walleye recruitment success and (ii) identify the influence of lake characteristics — area, conductivity, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) catch rates, and mean DD — on this relationship. The relationship between walleye recruitment and annual DD varied among lakes and was not distinguishable from zero overall (posterior mean = −0.11, 90% CI = −0.34, 0.15). DD effects on recruitment were negative in 198 lakes (55%) and positive in 161 (45%). The effect of annual DD was most negative in lakes with high largemouth bass densities, and, on average, the probability of recruitment was highest in large lakes with low largemouth bass densities. Conductivity and mean DD influenced neither recruitment nor the effect of annual DD. Walleye recruitment was most resilient to warming in lakes with few largemouth bass, suggesting that the effects of climate change depend on lake-specific food-web and habitat contexts.

  10. Pupil Nondiscrimination Guidelines. Implementing S.118.13 of the Wisconsin Statutes and PI 9 of the Wisconsin Administrative Code. Bullein No. 8327.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    The new S. 118.13, Wisconsin Statutes, bans pupil discrimination in any curricular, extracurricular, pupil services, recreational, or other program or activity in the State of Wisconsin on the basis of sex; race; national origin; ancestry; creed; pregnancy; marital or parental status; sexual orientation; or physical, mental, emotional, or learning…

  11. Evaluation of nonpoint-source contamination, Wisconsin: water year 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, John F.; Graczyk, D.J.; Corsi, Steven R.; Wierl, J.A.; Owens, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the watershed-management evaluation monitoring program in Wisconsin is to evaluate the effectiveness of best-management practices (BMPs) for controlling nonpoint-source pollution in rural and urban watersheds. This progress report provides a summary of the data collected by the U.S Geological Survey for the program and a discussion of the results from several different detailed analyses conducted within this program.

  12. Analysis of water-level fluctuations in Wisconsin wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, G.L.; Zaporozec, A.

    1987-01-01

    More than 60 percent of the residents of Wisconsin use ground water as their primary water source. Water supplies presently are abundant, but ground-water levels continually fluctuate in response to natural factors and human-related stresses. A better understanding of the magnitude, duration, and frequency of past fluctuations, and the factors controlling these fluctuations may help anticipate future changes in ground-water levels.

  13. Geodemographic Features of Human Blastomycosis in Eastern Wisconsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E. Huber

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Blastomycosis is an endemic fungal infection. In rural northern Wisconsin, blastomycosis cases are associated with certain environmental features including close proximity to waterways. Other studies have associated blastomycosis with particular soil chemicals. However, blastomycosis also occurs in urban and suburban regions. We explored the geodemographic associations of blastomycosis cases in the more urban/suburban landscape of eastern Wisconsin. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 193 laboratory-identified blastomycosis cases in a single eastern Wisconsin health system, 2007–2015. Controls were 250 randomly selected cases of community-diagnosed pneumonia from a similar time period. Geographic features of home addresses were explored using Google Maps. Categorical variables were analyzed with chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests and continuous variables by two-sample t-tests. Stepwise regression followed by binary logistic regression was used for multivariable analysis. Results: Compared to pneumonia cases, blastomycosis cases were younger (47.7 vs. 55.3 years and more likely to be male (67.9% vs. 45.6%, nonwhite (23.2% vs. 9.7% and machinists, automobile workers/mechanics or construction workers (32.7% vs. 7.2%; P 0.5 acres (30.4% vs. 14.2%, P = 0.0002, be < 0.25 miles from an automobile repair facility or junkyard (35.9% vs. 19.4%, P = 0.0005, and be < 0.1 miles from a park, forest or farm field (54.9% vs. 39.6%, P = 0.002. Only the latter association remained on multivariable analysis. Conclusions: Eastern Wisconsin blastomycosis case subjects were younger, more often male and more likely to live near parks/forests/fields. Novel associations of blastomycosis cases with machinery- and automobile-related occupations and/or facilities should be further explored.

  14. Borreliosis in free-ranging black bears from Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmierczak, J J; Amundson, T E; Burgess, E C

    1988-04-01

    Blood, kidney and tick samples were obtained from 18 hunter-killed black bears (Ursus americanus) from three sites in northern Wisconsin. A Borrelia sp., morphologically and antigenically similar to Borrelia burgdorferi, was isolated from the blood of two of the animals, and from the kidney of a third. Ixodes dammini and Dermacentor variabilis were found on the bears. This is the first report of borreliosis in the Ursidae, and of the primary vector of Lyme disease, I. dammini, from this host.

  15. Cover Crop (Rye) and No-Till System in Wisconsin

    OpenAIRE

    Alföldi, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Erin Silva, University of Wisconsin, describes an organic no-till production technique using rye as cover crop to suppress weeds in the following production season. Using a roller-crimper, the overwintering rye is terminated at the time of cash crop planting, leaving a thick mat of plant residue on the soil surface. Soybeans are sown directly into the cover crop residue, allowing the cash crop to emerge through the terminated cover crop while suppressing weeds throughout the season. W...

  16. Western Alaska ESI: LAKES (Lake Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing lakes and land masses used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Western Alaska. The...

  17. Determining climate change management priorities: A case study from Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeDee, Olivia E.; Ribic, Christine

    2015-01-01

    A burgeoning dialogue exists regarding how to allocate resources to maximize the likelihood of long-term biodiversity conservation within the context of climate change. To make effective decisions in natural resource management, an iterative, collaborative, and learning-based decision process may be more successful than a strictly consultative approach. One important, early step in a decision process is to identify priority species or systems. Although this promotes the conservation of select species or systems, it may inadvertently alter the future of non-target species and systems. We describe a process to screen terrestrial wildlife for potential sensitivity to climate change and then use the results to engage natural resource professionals in a process of identifying priorities for monitoring, research, and adaptation strategy implementation. We demonstrate this approach using a case study from Wisconsin. In Wisconsin, experts identified 23 out of 353 species with sufficient empirical research and management understanding to inform targeted action. Habitat management and management of hydrological conditions were the common strategies for targeted action. Although there may be an interest in adaptation strategy implementation for many species and systems, experts considered existing information inadequate to inform targeted action. According to experts, 40% of the vertebrate species in Wisconsin will require near-term intervention for climate adaptation. These results will inform state-wide conservation planning as well as regional efforts.

  18. Career satisfaction and retention risk among Wisconsin internists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giriyappa, Pradeep; Sullivan, Kandis K

    2009-09-01

    Physician career satisfaction has been studied extensively, but career satisfaction as it relates to retention is less well studied. The objective was to assess the relationship between career satisfaction and retention in primary care internal medicine physicians in Wisconsin. In this descriptive quantitative study, survey data was assessed for correlations between career satisfaction, risk to retention, and demographics. The survey included 1231 primary care internal medicine physicians in the Wisconsin Medical Directory (2007). Responses were measured by career satisfaction variables, and demographics and retention variables for the purpose of correlations and regression analysis. Survey responses included 573 physicians. An additional 85 physicians were disqualified. The final survey group included 1146 physicians for a response rate of 50%. A total of 116 physicians (20.2%) reported anticipating leaving their current position, 84 (14.7%) physicians reported anticipating leaving the career of medicine. Identified at risk for retention were 144 (25.1%) physicians. The lowest career satisfaction scores were reported in the areas of compensation (3.19) and practice (3.42) on a scale of 1 (very dissatisfied) to 5 (very satisfied). The highest correlations to retention were associated with practice, followed by compensation satisfaction. The level of significance for this study was identified as 0.05, and the P-value was 0.000. The study findings reveal a significant risk to the stability of continuity of care for patients, and may cost Wisconsin health care organizations more than $35 million in recruitment costs to replace departing physicians.

  19. Pollution at Lake Mariut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nour ElDin, H.; Halim, S. N.; Shalby, E.

    2004-01-01

    Lake Mariut, south Alexandria, Egypt suffered in the recent decades from intensive pollution as a result of a continuous discharge of huge amounts of agriculture wastewater that contains a large concentration of the washed pesticides and fertilizers in addition to domestic and industrial untreated wastewater. The over flow from the lake is discharged directly to the sea through El-Max pumping station via EI-Umum drain. Lake Mariout is surrounded by a huge number of different industrial activities and also the desert road is cutting the lake, this means that a huge number of various pollutants cycle through the air and settle down in the lake, by the time and during different seasons these pollutants after accumulation and different chemical interactions will release again from the lake to the surrounding area affecting the surrounding zone

  20. Simulation of groundwater flow and interaction of groundwater and surface water on the Lac du Flambeau Reservation, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.; Fienen, Michael N.; Hunt, Randall J.

    2014-01-01

    The Lac du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa and Indian Health Service are interested in improving the understanding of groundwater flow and groundwater/surface-water interaction on the Lac du Flambeau Reservation (Reservation) in southwest Vilas County and southeast Iron County, Wisconsin, with particular interest in an understanding of the potential for contamination of groundwater supply wells and the fate of wastewater that is infiltrated from treatment lagoons on the Reservation. This report describes the construction, calibration, and application of a regional groundwater flow model used to simulate the shallow groundwater flow system of the Reservation and water-quality results for groundwater and surface-water samples collected near a system of waste-water-treatment lagoons. Groundwater flows through a permeable glacial aquifer that ranges in thickness from 60 to more than 200 feet (ft). Seepage and drainage lakes are common in the area and influence groundwater flow patterns on the Reservation. A two-dimensional, steady-state analytic element groundwater flow model was constructed using the program GFLOW. The model was calibrated by matching target water levels and stream base flows through the use of the parameter-estimation program, PEST. Simulated results illustrate that groundwater flow within most of the Reservation is toward the Bear River and the chain of lakes that feed the Bear River. Results of analyses of groundwater and surface-water samples collected downgradient from the wastewater infiltration lagoons show elevated levels of ammonia and dissolved phosphorus. In addition, wastewater indicator chemicals detected in three downgradient wells and a small downgradient stream indicate that infiltrated wastewater is moving southwest of the lagoons toward Moss Lake. Potential effects of extended wet and dry periods (within historical ranges) were evaluated by adjusting precipitation and groundwater recharge in the model and comparing the

  1. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  2. The Key Lake project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Key Lake is located in the Athabasca sand stone basin, 640 kilometers north of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The three sources of ore at Key Lake contain 70 100 tonnes of uranium. Features of the Key Lake Project were described under the key headings: work force, mining, mill process, tailings storage, permanent camp, environmental features, worker health and safety, and economic benefits. Appendices covering the historical background, construction projects, comparisons of western world mines, mining statistics, Northern Saskatchewan surface lease, and Key Lake development and regulatory agencies were included

  3. STANFORD: Producing highly polarized electrons (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Electron spin polarization above 70% by photoemission from a specially prepared semiconductor has been achieved by T. Maruyama and E. Garwin of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), R. Prepost and G. Zapalac of Wisconsin, and J. Walker and S. Smith of Berkeley

  4. Limnology of Eifel maar lakes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scharf, Burkhard W; Björk, Sven

    1992-01-01

    ... : Species composition & seasonal periodicity - Qualitative & quantitative investigations on cladoceran zooplankton of oligotrophic maar lakes - Population dynamics of pelagic copepods in maar lakes - Population dynamics...

  5. Silica-scaled chrysophytes of Lake Baikal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Bessudova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The list of silica-scaled chrysophytes of Lake Baikal has been enlarged using electron microscopy. It has been supplemented with 12 species and 2 forms. Spiniferomonas takahashii has been observed for the first time in the water bodies of Russia. According to our data, the list of silica-scaled chrysophytes of Lake Baikal includes 25 species and intra-species taxa: Chrysosphaerella – 3, Paraphysomonas – 2, Clathromonas – 1, Spiniferomonas – 7, Mallomonas – 8 and Synura – 4. We have also analyzed their seasonal dynamics and observed algal species that are dominant in spring, summer and autumn.

  6. Lakes, Lagerstaetten, and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, E. G.; Park, L. E.

    2001-12-01

    The diversity of terrestrial systems is estimated to be greater than in the marine realm. However no hard data yet exists to substantiate this claim. Ancient lacustrine deposits may preserve an exceptionally diverse fossil fauna and aid in determining continental faunal diversities. Fossils preserved in lake deposits, especially those with exceptional preservation (i.e. Konservat Lagerstaetten), may represent a dependable method for determining species diversity changes in the terrestrial environment because of their faunal completeness. Important Konservat Lagerstaetten, such as the Green River Formation (US) and Messel (Germany), both Eocene in age, are found in lake sediments and show a remarkable faunal diversity for both vertebrates and invertebrates. To date information from nearly 25 lake lagerstaetten derived from different types of lake basins from the Carboniferous to the Miocene have been collected and described. Carboniferous sites derive from the cyclothems of Midcontinent of the US while many Cenozoic sites have been described from North and South America as well as Europe and Australia. Asian sites contain fossils from the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. With this data, insight into the evolutionary processes associated with lake systems can be examined. Do lakes act as unique evolutionary crucibles in contrast to marine systems? The speciation of cichlid fishes in present-day African lakes appears to be very high and is attributed to the diversity of environments found in large rift lakes. Is this true of all ancient lakes or just large rift lakes? The longevity of a lake system may be an important factor in allowing speciation and evolutionary processes to occur; marine systems are limited only in the existence of environments as controlled by tectonics and sea level changes, on the order of tens of millions of years. Rift lakes are normally the longest lived in the millions of years. Perhaps there are only certain types of lakes in which speciation of

  7. Dynamics of individual growth in a recovering population of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizio, Mary C.; Dorazio, Robert M.; Schram, Stephen T.

    2001-01-01

    In 1976, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources established a refuge for a nearly depleted population of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) at Gull Island Shoal, Lake Superior. The refuge was intended to reduce fishing mortality by protecting adult lake trout. We examined the growth dynamics of these lake trout during the period of recovery by comparing estimates of ndividual growth before and after the refuge was established. Our estimates are based on an annual mark-recapture survey conducted at the spawning area since 1969. We developed a model that allowed mean growth rates to differ among individuals of different sizes and that accommodated variation in growth rates of individuals of the same size. Likelihood ratio tests were used to determine if the mean growth increments of lake trout changed ater the refuge was established. Our results suggest that growth of mature lake trout (particularly wild fish) decreased significantly in the postrefuge period. This decreased growth may have been associated with a reduction in food availability. We also observed reductions in growth as wild fish grew older and larger, which suggests that the growth of these fish may be adequately approximated by a von Bertalanffy growth model if it becomes possible to obtain accurate ages.

  8. A Spatial-Temporal Comparison of Lake Mendota CO2 Fluxes and Collection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldocchi, A. K.; Reed, D. E.; Desai, A. R.; Loken, L. C.; Schramm, P.; Stanley, E. H.

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring of carbon fluxes at the lake/atmosphere interface can help us determine baselines from which to understand responses in both space and time that may result from our warming climate or increasing nutrient inputs. Since recent research has shown lakes to be hotspots of global carbon cycling, it is important to quantify carbon sink and source dynamics as well as to verify observations between multiple methods in the context of long-term data collection efforts. Here we evaluate a new method for measuring space and time variation in CO2 fluxes based on novel speedboat-based collection method of aquatic greenhouse gas concentrations and a flux computation and interpolation algorithm. Two-hundred and forty-nine consecutive days of spatial flux maps over the 2016 open ice period were compared to ongoing eddy covariance tower flux measurements on the shore of Lake Mendota, Wisconsin US using a flux footprint analysis. Spatial and temporal alignments of the fluxes from these two observational datasets revealed both similar trends from daily to seasonal timescales as well as biases between methods. For example, throughout the Spring carbon fluxes showed strong correlation although off by an order of magnitude. Isolating physical patterns of agreement between the two methods of the lake/atmosphere CO2 fluxes allows us to pinpoint where biology and physical drivers contribute to the global carbon cycle and help improve modelling of lakes and utilize lakes as leading indicators of climate change.

  9. Low frequency turbulence, particle and heat transport in the Wisconsin levitated octupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, H.R.

    1982-01-01

    Low frequency turbulence in the drift frequency range and its relation to the observed particle transport in the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole has been studied with a microwave scattering apparatus. The experimental parameters were T/sub e/ approx. T/sub i/ 13 cm -3 , 200 G < B/sub p-average/ < 1.25 kG. The effect of shear on the transport was studied by the addition of a small toroidal field. By matching experimentally measured density profiles to those given by numerical solutions of the transport equations, diffusion coefficients were obtained. Time dependent density fluctuation spectra were measured with an 8 mm microwave scattering diagnostic to correlate the drift wave portion of the spectrum with the observed diffusion. The density fluctuation spectrum of low frequency (1 kHz < ω < 6 MHz) turbulence was measured for several values of perpendicular wavenumber, k/sub perpendicular to/. Electron heat transport was studied by fitting experimentally measured electron temperature profiles to those predicted by numerical solutions of electron energy transport equation

  10. Ecology of Meromictic Lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulati, R.D.; Zadereev, E.S.; Degermendzhy, A.G.

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents recent advances in the research on meromictic lakes and a state-of-the art overview of this area. After an introduction to the terminology and geographic distribution of meromictic lakes, three concise chapters describe their physical, chemical and biological features. The

  11. Wisconsin 2008 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Lake Michigan coast of WI in 2008. The data...

  12. Wisconsin 2007 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Lake Superior coast of WI in 2007. The data...

  13. Wisconsin 2009 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Lake Superior coast of WI in 2009. The data...

  14. Lake Afdera: a threatened saline lake in Ethiopia | Getahun | SINET ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lake Afdera is a saline lake located in the Afar region, Northern Ethiopia. Because of its inaccessibility it is one of the least studied lakes of the country. It supports life including three species of fish of which two are endemic. Recently, reports are coming out that this lake is used for salt extraction. This paper gives some ...

  15. Lake trout in northern Lake Huron spawn on submerged drumlins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Stephen C.; Binder, Thomas; Wattrus, Nigel J.; Faust, Matthew D.; Janssen, John; Menzies, John; Marsden, J. Ellen; Ebener, Mark P.; Bronte, Charles R.; He, Ji X.; Tucker, Taaja R.; Hansen, Michael J.; Thompson, Henry T.; Muir, Andrew M.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations of spawning lake trout Salvelinus namaycush near Drummond Island in northern Lake Huron indicate that lake trout use drumlins, landforms created in subglacial environments by the action of ice sheets, as a primary spawning habitat. From these observations, we generated a hypothesis that may in part explain locations chosen by lake trout for spawning. Most salmonines spawn in streams where they rely on streamflows to sort and clean sediments to create good spawning habitat. Flows sufficient to sort larger sediment sizes are generally lacking in lakes, but some glacial bedforms contain large pockets of sorted sediments that can provide the interstitial spaces necessary for lake trout egg incubation, particularly if these bedforms are situated such that lake currents can penetrate these sediments. We hypothesize that sediment inclusions from glacial scavenging and sediment sorting that occurred during the creation of bedforms such as drumlins, end moraines, and eskers create suitable conditions for lake trout egg incubation, particularly where these bedforms interact with lake currents to remove fine sediments. Further, these bedforms may provide high-quality lake trout spawning habitat at many locations in the Great Lakes and may be especially important along the southern edge of the range of the species. A better understanding of the role of glacially-derived bedforms in the creation of lake trout spawning habitat may help develop powerful predictors of lake trout spawning locations, provide insight into the evolution of unique spawning behaviors by lake trout, and aid in lake trout restoration in the Great Lakes.

  16. Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin Energy Optimization Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troge, Michael [Little Bear Development Center, Oneida, WI (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Oneida Nation is located in Northeast Wisconsin. The reservation is approximately 96 square miles (8 miles x 12 miles), or 65,000 acres. The greater Green Bay area is east and adjacent to the reservation. A county line roughly splits the reservation in half; the west half is in Outagamie County and the east half is in Brown County. Land use is predominantly agriculture on the west 2/3 and suburban on the east 1/3 of the reservation. Nearly 5,000 tribally enrolled members live in the reservation with a total population of about 21,000. Tribal ownership is scattered across the reservation and is about 23,000 acres. Currently, the Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin (OTIW) community members and facilities receive the vast majority of electrical and natural gas services from two of the largest investor-owned utilities in the state, WE Energies and Wisconsin Public Service. All urban and suburban buildings have access to natural gas. About 15% of the population and five Tribal facilities are in rural locations and therefore use propane as a primary heating fuel. Wood and oil are also used as primary or supplemental heat sources for a small percent of the population. Very few renewable energy systems, used to generate electricity and heat, have been installed on the Oneida Reservation. This project was an effort to develop a reasonable renewable energy portfolio that will help Oneida to provide a leadership role in developing a clean energy economy. The Energy Optimization Model (EOM) is an exploration of energy opportunities available to the Tribe and it is intended to provide a decision framework to allow the Tribe to make the wisest choices in energy investment with an organizational desire to establish a renewable portfolio standard (RPS).

  17. 40 CFR 81.30 - Southeastern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.30 Section 81.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.30 Southeastern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Milwaukee Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Wisconsin) has been renamed the Southeastern...

  18. 78 FR 65875 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Removal of Gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ...] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Removal of Gasoline Vapor... Administrative Code, Chapter NR 420 Control of Organic Compound Emissions from Petroleum and Gasoline Sources... FROM PETROLEUM AND GASOLINE SOURCES. NR 420.01 as published in the (Wisconsin) Register, February, 1990...

  19. Wisconsin Women and the Law, Second Edition. The Governor's Commission on the Status of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governor's Commission on the Status of Women, Madison, WI.

    This handbook is written to inform Wisconsin citizens of women's rights and responsibilities under Wisconsin and federal law. It is intended for use as general legal resource material. It is not intended to take the place of an attorney in the solution of individual legal problems. Each of the 12 chapters treats a particular subject or topic.…

  20. 78 FR 44596 - Notice of Inventory Completion: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... address in this notice by August 23, 2013. ADDRESSES: Jennifer Kolb, Wisconsin Historical Museum, 30 North Carroll Street, Madison, WI 53703, telephone (608) 261-2461, email Jennifer.Kolb@wisconsinhistory.org... request to Jennifer Kolb, Wisconsin Historical Museum, 30 North Carroll Street, Madison, WI 53703...

  1. 78 FR 48900 - Notice of Inventory Completion: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    .... ADDRESSES: Jennifer Kolb, Wisconsin Historical Museum, 30 North Carroll Street, Madison, WI 53703, telephone (608) 261-2461, email Jennifer.Kolb@wisconsinhistory.org . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Notice is here... request to Jennifer Kolb, Wisconsin Historical Museum, 30 North Carroll Street, Madison, WI 53703...

  2. Groundwater sampling methods using glass wool filtration to trace human enteric viruses in Madison, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human enteric viruses have been detected in the Madison, Wisconsin deep municipal well system. Earlier projects by the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey (WGNHS) have used glass wool filters to sample groundwater for these viruses directly from the deep municipal wells. Polymerase chain...

  3. Tree seed handling, processing, testing, and storage at Hayward State Nursery, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon Christians

    2008-01-01

    The Hayward State Nursery, Wisconsin grows more than 40 species from seeds. Up to 6000 bushels of raw unprocessed tree and shrub seeds are collected each year, and all seeds are collected in Wisconsin or adjacent states. All white spruce (Picea glauca) and some white pine seeds (Pinus strobus) are collected from orchards containing...

  4. Regional groundwater-flow model of the Lake Michigan Basin in support of Great Lakes Basin water availability and use studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, D.T.; Hunt, R.J.; Reeves, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    A regional groundwater-flow model of the Lake Michigan Basin and surrounding areas has been developed in support of the Great Lakes Basin Pilot project under the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Availability and Use Program. The transient 2-million-cell model incorporates multiple aquifers and pumping centers that create water-level drawdown that extends into deep saline waters. The 20-layer model simulates the exchange between a dense surface-water network and heterogeneous glacial deposits overlying stratified bedrock of the Wisconsin/Kankakee Arches and Michigan Basin in the Lower and Upper Peninsulas of Michigan; eastern Wisconsin; northern Indiana; and northeastern Illinois. The model is used to quantify changes in the groundwater system in response to pumping and variations in recharge from 1864 to 2005. Model results quantify the sources of water to major pumping centers, illustrate the dynamics of the groundwater system, and yield measures of water availability useful for water-resources management in the region. This report is a complete description of the methods and datasets used to develop the regional model, the underlying conceptual model, and model inputs, including specified values of material properties and the assignment of external and internal boundary conditions. The report also documents the application of the SEAWAT-2000 program for variable-density flow; it details the approach, advanced methods, and results associated with calibration through nonlinear regression using the PEST program; presents the water-level, drawdown, and groundwater flows for various geographic subregions and aquifer systems; and provides analyses of the effects of pumping from shallow and deep wells on sources of water to wells, the migration of groundwater divides, and direct and indirect groundwater discharge to Lake Michigan. The report considers the role of unconfined conditions at the regional scale as well as the influence of salinity on groundwater flow

  5. Lake sturgeon population characteristics in Rainy Lake, Minnesota and Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, W.E.; Kallemeyn, L.W.; Willis, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    Rainy Lake contains a native population of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens that has been largely unstudied. The aims of this study were to document the population characteristics of lake sturgeon in Rainy Lake and to relate environmental factors to year-class strength for this population. Gill-netting efforts throughout the study resulted in the capture of 322 lake sturgeon, including 50 recaptures. Lake sturgeon in Rainy Lake was relatively plump and fast growing compared with a 32-population summary. Population samples were dominated by lake sturgeon between 110 and 150 cm total length. Age–structure analysis of the samples indicated few younger (<10 years) lake sturgeon, but the smallest gill net mesh size used for sampling was 102 mm (bar measure) and would not retain small sturgeon. Few lake sturgeon older than age 50 years were captured, and maximum age of sampled fish was 59 years. Few correlations existed between lake sturgeon year-class indices and both annual and monthly climate variables, except that mean June air temperature was positively correlated with year-class strength. Analysis of Rainy Lake water elevation and resulting lake sturgeon year-class strength indices across years yielded consistent but weak negative correlations between late April and early June, when spawning of lake sturgeon occurs. The baseline data collected in this study should allow Rainy Lake biologists to establish more specific research questions in the future.

  6. Nurses for Wisconsin: A Collaborative Initiative to Enhance the Nurse Educator Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Linda K; Adams, Jan L; Lundeen, Sally; May, Katharyn A; Smith, Rosemary; Wendt, L Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Wisconsin, like much of the nation, is currently suffering from a growing nursing shortage. The University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire College of Nursing and Health Sciences, in partnership with the University of Wisconsin-Madison, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, and University of Wisconsin Oshkosh nursing programs, took advantage of a University of Wisconsin System Incentive Grant for economic and workforce development to address this problem. With a $3.2 million award, the Nurses for Wisconsin goal is to increase the number of baccalaureate registered nurses by expanding the nursing education capacity within the University of Wisconsin System. Nurses for Wisconsin is accelerating the preparation of nursing faculty by supporting nurses to enroll in doctor of nursing practice or nursing doctor of philosophy programs with pre- and postdoctoral fellowship awards ranging from $21,500 to $90,000 and the recruitment of faculty with a loan repayment program of up to $50,000. In exchange for the financial support, fellows and faculty must make a 3-year commitment to teach in a UW System nursing program. Two conferences for program participants are also funded through the award. The first conference was held in October 2014. The second conference is scheduled for summer 2015. With the first year of the 2-year project completed, this article describes Nurses for Wisconsin from inception to implementation and midterm assessment with a focus on lessons learned. A follow-up article addressing final outcomes and next steps is planned. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Yellowstone Lake Nanoarchaeota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott eClingenpeel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerable Nanoarchaeota novelty and diversity were encountered in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park, where sampling targeted lake floor hydrothermal vent fluids, streamers and sediments associated with these vents, and in planktonic photic zones in three different regions of the lake. Significant homonucleotide repeats (HR were observed in pyrosequence reads and in near full-length Sanger sequences, averaging 112 HR per 1,349 bp clone and could confound diversity estimates derived from pyrosequencing, resulting in false nucleotide insertions or deletions (indels. However, Sanger sequencing of two different sets of PCR clones (110 bp, 1349 bp demonstrated that at least some of these indels are real. The majority of the Nanoarchaeota PCR amplicons were vent associated; however, curiously, one relatively small Nanoarchaeota OTU (70 pyrosequencing reads was only found in photic zone water samples obtained from a region of the lake furthest removed from the hydrothermal regions of the lake. Extensive pyrosequencing failed to demonstrate the presence of an Ignicoccus lineage in this lake, suggesting the Nanoarchaeota in this environment are associated with novel Archaea hosts. Defined phylogroups based on near full-length PCR clones document the significant Nanoarchaeota 16S rRNA gene diversity in this lake and firmly establish a terrestrial clade distinct from the marine Nanoarcheota as well as from other geographical locations.

  8. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, Devils Lake quadrangle, North Dakota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    During the months of June through October, 1980, Aero Service Division Western Geophysical Company of America conducted an airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey over eleven (11) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles located in the states of Minnesota and Wisconsin and seven (7) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles in North and South Dakota. This report discusses the results obtained over the Devil's Lake map area of North Dakota. The final data are presented in four different forms: on magnetic tape; on microfiche; in graphic form as profiles and histograms; and in map form as anomaly maps, flight path maps, and computer printer maps

  9. Ecology of playa lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukos, David A.; Smith, Loren M.

    1992-01-01

    Between 25,000 and 30,000 playa lakes are in the playa lakes region of the southern high plains (Fig. 1). Most playas are in west Texas (about 20,000), and fewer, in New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Colorado. The playa lakes region is one of the most intensively cultivated areas of North America. Dominant crops range from cotton in southern areas to cereal grains in the north. Therefore, most of the native short-grass prairie is gone, replaced by crops and, recently, grasses of the Conservation Reserve Program. Playas are the predominant wetlands and major wildlife habitat of the region.More than 115 bird species, including 20 species of waterfowl, and 10 mammal species have been documented in playas. Waterfowl nest in the area, producing up to 250,000 ducklings in wetter years. Dominant breeding and nesting species are mallards and blue-winged teals. During the very protracted breeding season, birds hatch from April through August. Several million shorebirds and waterfowl migrate through the area each spring and fall. More than 400,000 sandhill cranes migrate through and winter in the region, concentrating primarily on the larger saline lakes in the southern portion of the playa lakes region.The primary importance of the playa lakes region to waterfowl is as a wintering area. Wintering waterfowl populations in the playa lakes region range from 1 to 3 million birds, depending on fall precipitation patterns that determine the number of flooded playas. The most common wintering ducks are mallards, northern pintails, green-winged teals, and American wigeons. About 500,000 Canada geese and 100,000 lesser snow geese winter in the playa lakes region, and numbers of geese have increased annually since the early 1980’s. This chapter describes the physiography and ecology of playa lakes and their attributes that benefit waterfowl.

  10. ADA Compliance and Accessibility of Fitness Facilities in Western Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marquell J; Stoelzle, Hannah Y; Finco, Kristi L; Foss, Sadie E; Carstens, Katie

    2012-01-01

    The study expands the research on fitness facility accessibility by determining how compliant fitness facilities in rural western Wisconsin were with Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Comparisons were made with 4 other studies that were conducted in different geographical regions. The study also examined fitness professionals' disability knowledge and awareness. An ADA fitness facility compliance instrument and a fitness professional disability awareness survey were used. Direct observation and physical measurements were taken during on-site visits to 16 of 36 eligible fitness facilities in rural western Wisconsin. Ten fitness professionals from participating facilities completed an online survey. Frequencies were used to analyze the results. None of the participating facilities were in 100% compliance with ADA. Customer service desk (84%) and path of travel throughout the facility (72%) were the highest compliance areas. Telephone (6%) and locker rooms (32%) were the lowest compliance areas. No fitness professional was trained in wheelchair transfers and very few had received training in providing services to individuals with disabilities. Fitness facility accessibility remains a concern nationally. Continued efforts need to be made to raise the awareness of ADA compliance among fitness professionals across the United States, especially in rural areas where fitness facility availability is limited.

  11. Examining the utility of satellite-based wind sheltering estimates for lake hydrodynamic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Hoek, Jamon; Read, Jordan S.; Winslow, Luke A.; Montesano, Paul; Markfort, Corey D.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite-based measurements of vegetation canopy structure have been in common use for the last decade but have never been used to estimate canopy's impact on wind sheltering of individual lakes. Wind sheltering is caused by slower winds in the wake of topography and shoreline obstacles (e.g. forest canopy) and influences heat loss and the flux of wind-driven mixing energy into lakes, which control lake temperatures and indirectly structure lake ecosystem processes, including carbon cycling and thermal habitat partitioning. Lakeshore wind sheltering has often been parameterized by lake surface area but such empirical relationships are only based on forested lakeshores and overlook the contributions of local land cover and terrain to wind sheltering. This study is the first to examine the utility of satellite imagery-derived broad-scale estimates of wind sheltering across a diversity of land covers. Using 30 m spatial resolution ASTER GDEM2 elevation data, the mean sheltering height, hs, being the combination of local topographic rise and canopy height above the lake surface, is calculated within 100 m-wide buffers surrounding 76,000 lakes in the U.S. state of Wisconsin. Uncertainty of GDEM2-derived hs was compared to SRTM-, high-resolution G-LiHT lidar-, and ICESat-derived estimates of hs, respective influences of land cover type and buffer width on hsare examined; and the effect of including satellite-based hs on the accuracy of a statewide lake hydrodynamic model was discussed. Though GDEM2 hs uncertainty was comparable to or better than other satellite-based measures of hs, its higher spatial resolution and broader spatial coverage allowed more lakes to be included in modeling efforts. GDEM2 was shown to offer superior utility for estimating hs compared to other satellite-derived data, but was limited by its consistent underestimation of hs, inability to detect within-buffer hs variability, and differing accuracy across land cover types. Nonetheless

  12. Pollen Flora of Yuenyang Lake Nature Preserve, Taiwan (IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Fa Wang

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Yuenyang Lake is an acidic lake situated within a nature preserve in northern Taiwan. The pollen of nineteen taxa, belonging to five families, was collected from this nature preserve and investigated with light and scanning electron microscopy. The results of this investigation are supplementary work to the previous publications in this journal (Chen and Wang, 1999, 2001; Wang and Chen, 2001. A total of 4 pollen classes were identified on the basis of the aperture on the pollen wall: 3-colpate, 6-colpate, 3-colporate, and 4-7-colporate pollen. These results could be useful in the reconstruction of vegetation history around the Yuenyang Lake.

  13. Halls Lake 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Salt marsh habitats along the shoreline of Halls Lake are threatened by wave erosion, but the reconstruction of barrier islands to reduce this erosion will modify or...

  14. Lake Level Reconstructions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past lake levels, mostly related to changes in moisture balance (evaporation-precipitation). Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data...

  15. The Key Lake project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glattes, G.

    1985-01-01

    Aspects of project financing for the share of the Canadian subsidiary of Uranerzbergbau-GmbH, Bonn, in the uranium mining and milling facility at Key Lake, Saskatchewan, by a Canadian bank syndicate. (orig.) [de

  16. Great Lakes Ice Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Charts show ice extent and concentration three times weekly during the ice season, for all lakes except Ontario, from the 1973/74 ice season through the 2001/2002...

  17. Foy Lake paleodiatom data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Percent abundance of 109 diatom species collected from a Foy Lake (Montana, USA) sediment core that was sampled every ∼5–20 years, yielding a ∼7 kyr record over 800...

  18. Development of a macrophyte-based index of biotic integrity for Minnesota lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, M.W.; Hatch, L.K.; Vondracek, B.; Valley, R.D.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional approaches for managing aquatic resources have often failed to account for effects of anthropogenic disturbances on biota that are not directly reflected by chemical and physical proxies of environmental condition. The index of biotic integrity (IBI) is a potentially effective assessment method to integrate ecological, functional, and structural aspects of aquatic systems. A macrophyte-based IBI was developed for Minnesota lakes to assess the ability of aquatic plant communities to indicate environmental condition. The index was developed using quantitative point intercept vegetation surveys for 97 lakes that represent a range of limnological and watershed characteristics. We followed an approach similar to that used in Wisconsin to develop the aquatic macrophyte community index (AMCI). Regional adaptation of the AMCI required the identification of species representative of macrophyte communities in Minnesota. Metrics and scaling methods were also substantially modified to produce a more empirically robust index. Regression analyses indicated that IBI scores reflected statewide differences in lake trophic state (R2 = 0.57, F = 130.3, df = 1, 95, p indicated a unique response of the IBI to human-induced stress separate from a response to natural lake characteristics. The IBI was minimally affected by differences in sample point density as indicated by Monte Carlo analyses of reduced sampling effort. Our analysis indicates that a macrophyte IBI calibrated for Minnesota lakes could be useful for identifying differences in environmental condition attributed to human-induced stress gradients. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Dragon Lake, Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Nicknamed 'Dragon Lake,' this body of water is formed by the Bratskove Reservoir, built along the Angara river in southern Siberia, near the city of Bratsk. This image was acquired in winter, when the lake is frozen. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on December 19, 1999. This is a natural color composite image made using blue, green, and red wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  20. Lake Chad, Chad, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Hydrologic and ecologic changes in the Lake Chad Basin are shown in this Oct 1992 photograph. In space photo documentation, Lake Chad was at its greatest area extent (25,000 sq. km.) during Gemini 9 in June 1966 (see S66-38444). Its reduction during the severe droughts from 1968 to 1974 was first noted during Skylab (1973-1974). After the drought began again in 1982, the lake reached its minimum extent (1,450 sq. km.) in Space Shuttle photographs taken in 1984 and 1985. In this STS-52 photograph, Lake Chad has begun to recover. The area of the open water and interdunal impoundments in the southern basin (the Chari River Basin) is estimated to be 1,900 to 2100 sq. km. Note the green vegetation in the valley of the K'Yobe flow has wetted the northern lake basin for the first time in several years. There is evidence of biomass burning south of the K'Yobe Delta and in the vegetated interdunal areas near the dike in the center of the lake. Also note the dark 'Green Line' of the Sahel (the g

  1. Resilience and Restoration of Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Carpenter

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Lake water quality and ecosystem services are normally maintained by several feedbacks. Among these are nutrient retention and humic production by wetlands, nutrient retention and woody habitat production by riparian forests, food web structures that cha nnel phosphorus to consumers rather than phytoplankton, and biogeochemical mechanisms that inhibit phosphorus recycling from sediments. In degraded lakes, these resilience mechanisms are replaced by new ones that connect lakes to larger, regional economi c and social systems. New controls that maintain degraded lakes include runoff from agricultural and urban areas, absence of wetlands and riparian forests, and changes in lake food webs and biogeochemistry that channel phosphorus to blooms of nuisance al gae. Economic analyses show that degraded lakes are significantly less valuable than normal lakes. Because of this difference in value, the economic benefits of restoring lakes could be used to create incentives for lake restoration.

  2. Is Lake Chabot Eutrophic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, K.; Logan, J.; Esterlis, P.; Lew, A.; Nguyen, M.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction/Abstract: Lake Chabot is an integral part of the East Bay watershed that provides habitats for animals and recreation for humans year-round. Lake Chabot has been in danger of eutrophication due to excessive dumping of phosphorous and nitrogen into the water from the fertilizers of nearby golf courses and neighboring houses. If the lake turned out to be eutrophified, it could seriously impact what is currently the standby emergency water supply for many Castro Valley residents. Eutrophication is the excessive richness of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in a lake, usually as a result of runoff. This buildup of nutrients causes algal blooms. The algae uses up most of the oxygen in the water, and when it dies, it causes the lake to hypoxify. The fish in the lake can't breathe, and consequently suffocate. Other oxygen-dependant aquatic creatures die off as well. Needless to say, the eutrophication of a lake is bad news for the wildlife that lives in or around it. The level of eutrophication in our area in Northern California tends to increase during the late spring/early summer months, so our crew went out and took samples of Lake Chabot on June 2. We focused on the area of the lake where the water enters, known on the map as Honker Bay. We also took readings a ways down in deeper water for comparison's sake. Visually, the lake looked in bad shape. The water was a murky green that glimmered with particulate matter that swirled around the boat as we went by. In the Honker Bay region where we focused our testing, there were reeds bathed in algae that coated the surface of the lake in thick, swirling patterns. Surprisingly enough, however, our test results didn't reveal any extreme levels of phosphorous or nitrogen. They were slightly higher than usual, but not by any significant amount. The levels we found were high enough to stimulate plant and algae growth and promote eutrophication, but not enough to do any severe damage. After a briefing with a

  3. Habitat capacity for cougar recolonization in the Upper Great Lakes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Neil, Shawn T; Rahn, Kasey C; Bump, Joseph K

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that cougars (Puma concolor) are expanding their range into the midwestern United States. Confirmed reports of cougar in Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin have increased dramatically in frequency during the last five years, leading to speculation that cougars may re-establish in the Upper Great Lakes (UGL) region, USA. Recent work showed favorable cougar habitat in northeastern Minnesota, suggesting that the northern forested regions of Michigan and Wisconsin may have similar potential. Recolonization of cougars in the UGL states would have important ecological, social, and political impacts that will require effective management. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), we extended a cougar habitat model to Michigan and Wisconsin and incorporated primary prey densities to estimate the capacity of the region to support cougars. Results suggest that approximately 39% (>58,000 km2) of the study area could support cougars, and that there is potential for a population of approximately 500 or more animals. An exploratory validation of this habitat model revealed strong association with 58 verified cougar locations occurring in the study area between 2008 and 2013. Spatially explicit information derived from this study could potentially lead to estimation of a viable population, delineation of possible cougar-human conflict areas, and the targeting of site locations for current monitoring. Understanding predator-prey interactions, interspecific competition, and human-wildlife relationships is becoming increasingly critical as top carnivores continue to recolonize the UGL region.

  4. Habitat capacity for cougar recolonization in the Upper Great Lakes region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn T O Neil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent findings indicate that cougars (Puma concolor are expanding their range into the midwestern United States. Confirmed reports of cougar in Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin have increased dramatically in frequency during the last five years, leading to speculation that cougars may re-establish in the Upper Great Lakes (UGL region, USA. Recent work showed favorable cougar habitat in northeastern Minnesota, suggesting that the northern forested regions of Michigan and Wisconsin may have similar potential. Recolonization of cougars in the UGL states would have important ecological, social, and political impacts that will require effective management. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS, we extended a cougar habitat model to Michigan and Wisconsin and incorporated primary prey densities to estimate the capacity of the region to support cougars. Results suggest that approximately 39% (>58,000 km2 of the study area could support cougars, and that there is potential for a population of approximately 500 or more animals. An exploratory validation of this habitat model revealed strong association with 58 verified cougar locations occurring in the study area between 2008 and 2013. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Spatially explicit information derived from this study could potentially lead to estimation of a viable population, delineation of possible cougar-human conflict areas, and the targeting of site locations for current monitoring. Understanding predator-prey interactions, interspecific competition, and human-wildlife relationships is becoming increasingly critical as top carnivores continue to recolonize the UGL region.

  5. Glacial lake inventory and lake outburst potential in Uzbekistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Maxim A; Sabitov, Timur Y; Tomashevskaya, Irina G; Glazirin, Gleb E; Chernomorets, Sergey S; Savernyuk, Elena A; Tutubalina, Olga V; Petrakov, Dmitriy A; Sokolov, Leonid S; Dokukin, Mikhail D; Mountrakis, Giorgos; Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia; Stoffel, Markus

    2017-08-15

    Climate change has been shown to increase the number of mountain lakes across various mountain ranges in the World. In Central Asia, and in particular on the territory of Uzbekistan, a detailed assessment of glacier lakes and their evolution over time is, however lacking. For this reason we created the first detailed inventory of mountain lakes of Uzbekistan based on recent (2002-2014) satellite observations using WorldView-2, SPOT5, and IKONOS imagery with a spatial resolution from 2 to 10m. This record was complemented with data from field studies of the last 50years. The previous data were mostly in the form of inventories of lakes, available in Soviet archives, and primarily included localized in-situ data. The inventory of mountain lakes presented here, by contrast, includes an overview of all lakes of the territory of Uzbekistan. Lakes were considered if they were located at altitudes above 1500m and if lakes had an area exceeding 100m 2 . As in other mountain regions of the World, the ongoing increase of air temperatures has led to an increase in lake number and area. Moreover, the frequency and overall number of lake outburst events have been on the rise as well. Therefore, we also present the first outburst assessment with an updated version of well-known approaches considering local climate features and event histories. As a result, out of the 242 lakes identified on the territory of Uzbekistan, 15% are considered prone to outburst, 10% of these lakes have been assigned low outburst potential and the remainder of the lakes have an average level of outburst potential. We conclude that the distribution of lakes by elevation shows a significant influence on lake area and hazard potential. No significant differences, by contrast, exist between the distribution of lake area, outburst potential, and lake location with respect to glaciers by regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Water RATs (Resilience, Adaptability, and Transformability in Lake and Wetland Social-Ecological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance H. Gunderson

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The lakes in the northern highlands of Wisconsin, USA, the lakes and wetlands of Kristianstads Vattenrike in southern Sweden, and the Everglades of Florida, USA, provide cases that can be used to compare the linkages between ecological resilience and social dynamics. The erosion of ecological resilience in aquatic and wetland ecosystems is often a result of past management actions and is manifest as a real or perceived ecological crisis. Learning is a key ingredient in response to the loss of ecological resilience. Learning is facilitated through networks that operate in distinct arenas and are structured for dialogue, synthesis, and imaginative solutions to chart alternative futures. The networks also help counter maladaptive processes such as information control or manipulation, bureaucratic inertia, or corruption. The networks help create institutional arrangements that provide for more learning and flexibility and for the ability to change. Trust and leadership appear to be key elements for adaptability and transformability.

  7. The business of optimism. Wisconsin's Midwest Renewable Energy Fair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, J.

    2006-01-01

    The paper reports on the Wisconsin Midwest Renewable Energy Fair. The renewable energy business is said to be based on sound technology and sustainable development and is being largely embraced with enthusiasm. However, the keynote speaker, James Kunstler, warned that the transition from fossil fuels to renewables will be complicated and messy. The report mentions the views of several speakers but not all shared Kunstler's views. There were more than 100 workshops at the fair. Although big business was well represented, there were also home-made devices on show including a motorcycle powered by electricity. The importance of the fair is probably best judged by the way in which it generates enthusiasm for preserving the planet through the sustainable development of environmentally-friendly technology. (author)

  8. Carcinoma of the tongue in Norway and Wisconsin. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermund, H.

    1982-01-01

    The records of 503 patients with carcinoma of the tongue diagnosed between 1958 and 1972 were reviewed. The preponderance of tongue carcinoma among men was confirmed both in The Norwegian Radium Hospital (NRH) and the University of Wisconsin Hospitals (UW), but it was relatively more frequent among women in NRH and in UW than in southern Europe. More women had on presentation less advanced tumors at NRH than at UW. The incidence of tongue carcinoma in Norway increased steadily with age for both sexes. The sex ratio did not change in Norway such as in England, Canada and the United States. Tumor of the posterior one-third of the tongue was relatively infrequent in women both in NRH and UW, in agreement with reports from other countries. The length of survival was analysed and no significant sex difference was demonstrated. The younger patients had less advanced tumors and a better prognosis. (Auth.)

  9. Plasma resistivity measurements in the Wisconsin levitated octupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouchous, D.A.

    1980-11-01

    Resistivity measurements parallel to the magnetic field were made on gun injected plasmas ranging in density from 10 9 cm -3 to 10 1 parallelcm -3 in the Wisconsin levitated octupole with toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields. The 10 9 cm -3 plasma was collisionless with lambda/sub mfp/ > 100 mirror lengths, had T/sub e/ = 10 eV, T/sub i/ = 30 eV and was found to have anomalous resistivity scaling like eta = √T/sub e//n/sub e/ when E/sub parallel/ > E/su c/ is the Dreicer critical field. The 10 12 cm -3 plasma was collisional with lambda/sub mfp/ < mirror length, had T/sub e/ = T/sub i/ approx. = .2 eV and was found to have Spitzer resistivity when E/sub parallel/ < E/sub c/

  10. University of Wisconsin Oshkosh Anaerobic Dry Digestion Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koker, John [Univ. of Wisconsin, Oshkosh, WI (United States); Lizotte, Michael [Univ. of Wisconsin, Oshkosh, WI (United States)

    2017-02-08

    The University of Wisconsin Oshkosh Anaerobic Dry Digestion Facility is a demonstration project that supported the first commercial-scale use in the United States of high solids, static pile technology for anaerobic digestion of organic waste to generate biogas for use in generating electricity and heat. The research adds to the understanding of startup, operation and supply chain issues for anaerobic digester technology. Issues and performance were documented for equipment installation and modifications, feedstock availability and quality, weekly loading and unloading of digestion chambers, chemical composition of biogas produced, and energy production. This facility also demonstrated an urban industrial ecology approach to siting such facilities near sewage treatment plants (to capture and use excess biogas generated by the plants) and organic yard waste collection sites (a source of feedstock).

  11. Linkages To Engagement At University of Wisconsin-Parkside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, C. V.

    2007-12-01

    The University of Wisconsin-Parkside Department of Geosciences is a small but successful department within one of the smallest comprehensive universities in the University of Wisconsin system. Formerly a more traditional "rocks and petroleum" program, the Department was on the verge of extinction in 1999. Fortunately, a farsighted Dean intervened and proposed a change of direction for the department, filling in behind retirements with new leadership and a strong environmental focus. Several strategies have been key to resuscitating the Department to its current status, increasing majors, faculty, and SCH/FTE. First, we embraced our niche as the environmental resource, specifically offering urban or other developed settings for our focus on environmental quality. Secondly we revamped our majors' curriculum to enable our students to learn to integrate practical technological skills in sampling, analysis, instrumentation use, and civic engagement to produce positive outcomes at both physical and social levels. Thirdly, our Department has become a strong and active supporter of a teacher preparation program that is undergoing important curriculum and organizational changes. Our newest faculty addition is an atmospheric chemist with significant teaching responsibility in our campus' new Liberal Arts major for elementary school teachers. Geosciences faculty also vigorously support a certificate program in Community Based Learning, direct the campus minor in Environmental Studies, and have actively participated in campus initiatives such as First Year Experience, General Education reform, the campus' Teaching and Learning Center, and collaborative course offerings that link academic skills (math, reading, writing) courses to extra support in General Education science courses. In addition, the Department has taken campus leadership in participation in the national SENCER initiative, which links science education and civic engagement. Finally, we have also amended and

  12. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Tennessee Region 6 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  13. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Ohio Region 5 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  14. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in California Region 18 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  15. Spear Fishing in Wisconsin: Multicultural Education as Symbolic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New, William; Petronicolos, Loucas

    2001-01-01

    Describes how multicultural teacher education can preserve familiar institutional and ideological mechanisms that validate social inequalities, analyzing student discourse collected during activities concerning recent conflict between Native American groups and groups opposed to the exercise of their treaty rights to fish on nonreservation lakes.…

  16. Geology and environments of subglacial Lake Vostok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitchenkov, German L; Antonov, Anton V; Luneov, Pavel I; Lipenkov, Vladimir Ya

    2016-01-28

    The reconstruction of the geological (tectonic) structure and environments of subglacial Lake Vostok is based on geophysical surveys and the study of mineral particles found in cores of accreted ice and frozen lake water (sampled after the lake was unsealed). Seismic reflection and refraction investigations conducted in the southern part of Lake Vostok show very thin (200-300 m) sedimentary cover overlying a crystalline basement. Most of this thin veneer is thought to have been deposited during temperate-glacial conditions in Oligocene to Middle Miocene time (ca 34-14 Ma). The composition of the lake-bottom sediments can be deduced from mineral inclusions found in cores of accreted ice. Inclusions are represented by soft aggregates consisting mainly of clay-mica minerals and micrometre-sized quartz grains. Some of these inclusions contain subangular to semi-rounded rock clasts (siltstones and sandstones) ranging from 0.3 to 8 mm in size. In total, 31 zircon grains have been identified in two rock clasts and dated using SHRIMP-II. The ages of the studied zircons range from 0.6 to 2.0 Ga with two distinct clusters between 0.8 and 1.15 Ga and between 1.6 and 1.8 Ga. Rock clasts obviously came from the western lake shore, which is thus composed of terrigenous strata with an age of not older than 600 Ma. The sedimentary nature of the western lake shore is also confirmed by seismic refraction data showing seismic velocities there of 5.4-5.5 km s(-1) at the bedrock surface. After Lake Vostok was unsealed, its water (frozen and sampled next season) was also studied with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microprobe analysis. This study showed the existence of calcium carbonate and silica microparticles (10-20 μm across) in frozen water. © 2015 The Author(s).

  17. Real-estate lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickert, David A.; Spieker, Andrew Maute

    1971-01-01

    Since the dawn of civilization waterfront land has been an irresistible attraction to man. Throughout history he has sought out locations fronting on oceans, rivers, and lakes. Originally sought for proximity .to water supply and transportation, such locations are now sought more for their esthetic qualities and for recreation. Usable natural waterfront property is limited, however, and the more desirable sites in many of our urban areas have already been taken. The lack of available waterfront sites has led to the creation of many artificial bodies of water. The rapid suburbanization that has characterized urban growth in America since the end of World War II, together with increasing affluence and le-isure time, has created a ready market for waterfront property. Accordingly, lake-centered subdivisions and developments dot the suburban landscape in many of our major urban areas. Literally thousands of lakes surrounded by homes have materialized during this period of rapid growth. Recently, several "new town" communities have been planned around this lake-centered concept. A lake can be either an asset or a liaoility to a community. A clean, clear, attractively landscaped lake is a definite asset, whereas a weed-choked, foul-smelling mudhole is a distinct liability. The urban environment poses both problems and imaginative opportunities in the development of lakes. Creation of a lake causes changes in all aspects of the environment. Hydrologic systems and ecological patterns are usually most severely altered. The developer should be aware of the potential changes; it is not sufficient merely to build a dam across a stream or to dig a hole in the ground. Development of Gl a successful lake requires careful planning for site selection and design, followed by thorough and cc ntinual management. The purpose of this report is to describe the characteristics of real-estate lakes, to pinpoint potential pmblems, and to suggest possible planning and management guidelines

  18. Predicting lake trophic state by relating Secchi-disk transparency measurements to Landsat-satellite imagery for Michigan inland lakes, 2003-05 and 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, L.M.; Jodoin, R.S.; Minnerick, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Inland lakes are an important economic and environmental resource for Michigan. The U.S. Geological Survey and the Michigan Department of Natural Resources and Environment have been cooperatively monitoring the quality of selected lakes in Michigan through the Lake Water Quality Assessment program. Sampling for this program began in 2001; by 2010, 730 of Michigan’s 11,000 inland lakes are expected to have been sampled once. Volunteers coordinated by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources and Environment began sampling lakes in 1974 and continue to sample (in 2010) approximately 250 inland lakes each year through the Michigan Cooperative Lakes Monitoring Program. Despite these sampling efforts, it still is impossible to physically collect measurements for all Michigan inland lakes; however, Landsat-satellite imagery has been used successfully in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, and elsewhere to predict the trophic state of unsampled inland lakes greater than 20 acres by producing regression equations relating in-place Secchi-disk measurements to Landsat bands. This study tested three alternatives to methods previously used in Michigan to improve results for predicted statewide Trophic State Index (TSI) computed from Secchi-disk transparency (TSI (SDT)). The alternative methods were used on 14 Landsat-satellite scenes with statewide TSI (SDT) for two time periods (2003– 05 and 2007–08). Specifically, the methods were (1) satellitedata processing techniques to remove areas affected by clouds, cloud shadows, haze, shoreline, and dense vegetation for inland lakes greater than 20 acres in Michigan; (2) comparison of the previous method for producing a single open-water predicted TSI (SDT) value (which was based on an area of interest (AOI) and lake-average approach) to an alternative Gethist method for identifying open-water areas in inland lakes (which follows the initial satellite-data processing and targets the darkest pixels, representing the deepest water

  19. Contaminant profiles in Southeast Asian immigrants consuming fish from polluted waters in northeastern Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schantz, Susan L., E-mail: schantz@illinois.edu [Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Avenue, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Gardiner, Joseph C. [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University (United States); Aguiar, Andrea [Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 South Lincoln Avenue, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Tang, Xiaoqin; Gasior, Donna M. [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University (United States); Sweeney, Anne M. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Texas A and M University System Health Science Center USA (United States); Peck, Jennifer D. [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center (United States); Gillard, Douglas; Kostyniak, Paul J. [Toxicology Research Center, University at Buffalo (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Recent immigrants to the USA from Southeast Asia may be at higher risk of exposure to fish-borne contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE) and methylmercury (MeHg) because of their propensity to engage in subsistence fishing. Exposure to contaminants was assessed in men and women of Hmong descent living in Green Bay, Wisconsin, where the Fox River and lower Green Bay are contaminated with PCBs, and to a lesser extent with mercury. Serum samples from 142 people were analyzed for PCBs and p,p'-DDE by capillary column gas chromatography with electron capture detection (ECD). Whole blood was analyzed for total mercury by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry and atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. Lipid-adjusted total PCB concentrations ranged from 8.7 to 3,091 ng/g (full range of the data), with a geometric mean of 183.6 ng/g (estimated after eliminating one outlier). DDE ranged from 0.3 to 7,083 (full range of the data) with a geometric mean of 449.8 ng/g (estimated after eliminating two outliers). Men had higher PCB and DDE concentrations than women. Serum PCB concentrations were significantly correlated with fish consumption (r=0.43, p<0.0001), whereas DDE concentrations were not (r=0.09,p=0.29). Instead, serum DDE was strongly associated with the number of years spent in a Thai refugee camp before immigrating to the USA (r=0.60;p<0.0001). PCB congeners 138, 153, 118 and 180 accounted for a smaller percentage of the total PCBs than has been reported in other fish-eating populations, and several lightly chlorinated congeners were present in relatively large amounts. Mercury exposure was low in this population. In conclusion, Hmong immigrants in northeastern Wisconsin are at risk of elevated PCB exposure from consumption of locally caught fish. The pattern of exposure is somewhat different than patterns in other fish-eating populations, possibly due to use of Aroclor 1242 by the paper industry in

  20. Contaminant profiles in Southeast Asian immigrants consuming fish from polluted waters in northeastern Wisconsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schantz, Susan L.; Gardiner, Joseph C.; Aguiar, Andrea; Tang, Xiaoqin; Gasior, Donna M.; Sweeney, Anne M.; Peck, Jennifer D.; Gillard, Douglas; Kostyniak, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent immigrants to the USA from Southeast Asia may be at higher risk of exposure to fish-borne contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE) and methylmercury (MeHg) because of their propensity to engage in subsistence fishing. Exposure to contaminants was assessed in men and women of Hmong descent living in Green Bay, Wisconsin, where the Fox River and lower Green Bay are contaminated with PCBs, and to a lesser extent with mercury. Serum samples from 142 people were analyzed for PCBs and p,p'-DDE by capillary column gas chromatography with electron capture detection (ECD). Whole blood was analyzed for total mercury by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry and atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. Lipid-adjusted total PCB concentrations ranged from 8.7 to 3,091 ng/g (full range of the data), with a geometric mean of 183.6 ng/g (estimated after eliminating one outlier). DDE ranged from 0.3 to 7,083 (full range of the data) with a geometric mean of 449.8 ng/g (estimated after eliminating two outliers). Men had higher PCB and DDE concentrations than women. Serum PCB concentrations were significantly correlated with fish consumption (r=0.43, p<0.0001), whereas DDE concentrations were not (r=0.09,p=0.29). Instead, serum DDE was strongly associated with the number of years spent in a Thai refugee camp before immigrating to the USA (r=0.60;p<0.0001). PCB congeners 138, 153, 118 and 180 accounted for a smaller percentage of the total PCBs than has been reported in other fish-eating populations, and several lightly chlorinated congeners were present in relatively large amounts. Mercury exposure was low in this population. In conclusion, Hmong immigrants in northeastern Wisconsin are at risk of elevated PCB exposure from consumption of locally caught fish. The pattern of exposure is somewhat different than patterns in other fish-eating populations, possibly due to use of Aroclor 1242 by the paper industry in this region.

  1. Lake Michigan lake trout PCB model forecast post audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scenario forecasts for total PCBs in Lake Michigan (LM) lake trout were conducted using the linked LM2-Toxics and LM Food Chain models, supported by a suite of additional LM models. Efforts were conducted under the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study and the post audit represents th...

  2. Methane emissions from permafrost thaw lakes limited by lake drainage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Huissteden, J.; Berrittella, C.; Parmentier, F.J.W.; Mi, Y.; Maximov, T.C.; Dolman, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Thaw lakes in permafrost areas are sources of the strong greenhouse gas methane. They develop mostly in sedimentary lowlands with permafrost and a high excess ground ice volume, resulting in large areas covered with lakes and drained thaw-lake basins (DTLBs; refs,). Their expansion is enhanced by

  3. Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA) houses environmental data on a wide variety of constituents in water, biota, sediment, and air in the Great Lakes area.

  4. Functional microbiology of soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Banciu, H.L.; Muyzer, G.

    2015-01-01

    Soda lakes represent unique permanently haloalkaline system. Despite the harsh conditions, they are inhabited by abundant, mostly prokaryotic, microbial communities. This review summarizes results of studies of main functional groups of the soda lake prokaryotes responsible for carbon, nitrogen and

  5. Wisconsin State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    The Wisconsin State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Wisconsin. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Wisconsin. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Wisconsin.

  6. Evaluation of wood species and preservatives for Wisconsin transportation sign posts : [research brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WisDOT) administers approximately 11,800 miles of state highways. It uses preservative-treated wood posts for much of the signage along these highways because wood is relatively inexpensive, easy to install...

  7. 77 FR 48538 - Notice of Inventory Completion: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... Historical Society of Wisconsin at the address below by September 13, 2012. ADDRESSES: Jennifer Kolb... Indian tribe that believes it satisfies the criteria in 43 CFR 10.11(c)(1) should contact Jennifer Kolb...

  8. Determination of resilient modulus values for typical plastic soils in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    "The objectives of this research are to establish a resilient modulus test results database and to develop : correlations for estimating the resilient modulus of Wisconsin fine-grained soils from basic soil properties. A : laboratory testing program ...

  9. Phosphorus Loading and Compositional Characteristics in Eight-Mile Run Watershed, Wisconsin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James, William

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to describe and quantify biologically labile and refractory phosphorus runoff in Eight-Mile Run, a small watershed in west-central Wisconsin that is impacted by dairy...

  10. Wisconsin State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The Wisconsin State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Wisconsin. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Wisconsin. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Wisconsin

  11. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Wisconsin based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Wisconsin census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  12. Microplastic pollution in lakes and lake shoreline sediments - A case study on Lake Bolsena and Lake Chiusi (central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Elke Kerstin; Paglialonga, Lisa; Czech, Elisa; Tamminga, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Rivers and effluents have been identified as major pathways for microplastics of terrestrial sources. Moreover, lakes of different dimensions and even in remote locations contain microplastics in striking abundances. This study investigates concentrations of microplastic particles at two lakes in central Italy (Lake Bolsena, Lake Chiusi). A total number of six Manta Trawls have been carried out, two of them one day after heavy winds occurred on Lake Bolsena showing effects on particle distribution of fragments and fibers of varying size categories. Additionally, 36 sediment samples from lakeshores were analyzed for microplastic content. In the surface waters 2.68 to 3.36 particles/m(3) (Lake Chiusi) and 0.82 to 4.42 particles/m(3) (Lake Bolsena) were detected, respectively. Main differences between the lakes are attributed to lake characteristics such as surface and catchment area, depth and the presence of local wind patterns and tide range at Lake Bolsena. An event of heavy winds and moderate rainfall prior to one sampling led to an increase of concentrations at Lake Bolsena which is most probable related to lateral land-based and sewage effluent inputs. The abundances of microplastic particles in sediments vary from mean values of 112 (Lake Bolsena) to 234 particles/kg dry weight (Lake Chiusi). Lake Chiusi results reveal elevated fiber concentrations compared to those of Lake Bolsena what might be a result of higher organic content and a shift in grain size distribution towards the silt and clay fraction at the shallow and highly eutrophic Lake Chiusi. The distribution of particles along different beach levels revealed no significant differences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The evolution of Wisconsin's urban FIA program—yesterday today and tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew M. Stoltman; Richard B. Rideout

    2015-01-01

    In 2002, Wisconsin was part of two pilot projects in cooperation with the US Forest Service. The first was a street tree assessment, and the second was an urban FIA project. The data generated by these pilots changed the way that Wisconsin DNRs’ Urban Forestry Program conducts its business. Although there have been several urban FIA pilot projects throughout the U.S.,...

  14. Hazardous emissions, operating practices, and air regulations at industrial wood-fired facilities in Wisconsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    Since October of 1988 the State of Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources has regulated over four hundred substances as hazardous air pollutants. The rule regulates new as well as existing sources of air pollution in Wisconsin. Consequently, all permits to operate an air pollution source in Wisconsin must address the hazardous air emissions potential of the source. While widely perceived as a clean-burning fuel, wood is often burned in a manner which clearly results in significant emissions of very hazardous air pollutants. Research conducted on a 20 million BTU per hour wood-fired spreader stoker boiler in northern Wisconsin showed that this boiler has the potential to emit 0.022 pound of benzene and 0.012 pound of formaldehyde per ton (lb/ton) of wood fired. Recent stack tests at more than a dozen other small industrial wood-fired facilities in Wisconsin show a range of formaldehyde emissions of 0.0007--0.1950 lb/ton. Work at Birchwood Lumber ampersand Veneer showed that the benzene and formaldehyde emission rates under good firing conditions are an order of magnitude lower than the benzene and formaldehyde emission rates under poor firing conditions. This finding has supported Wisconsin's regulatory approach of encouraging wood-fired facilities to enhance the quality of the combustion process as a technique to minimize the hazardous air pollution potential of industrial wood combustion. The Wisconsin strategy is to define open-quotes good combustion technologyclose quotes through easily measurable combustion parameters rather than emission standards. This paper presents several techniques in use in Wisconsin to comply with open-quotes good combustion technologyclose quotes for industrial wood-fired furnaces. These techniques include fuel blending overfire air, furnace insulation, and proper grate design

  15. Genetic variation in bacterial kidney disease (BKD) susceptibility in Lake Michigan Chinook Salmon and its progenitor population from the Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Hard, Jeffrey J.; Neely, Kathleen G.; Park, Linda K.; Winton, James R.; Elliott, Diane G.

    2014-01-01

    Mass mortality events in wild fish due to infectious diseases are troubling, especially given the potential for long-term, population-level consequences. Evolutionary theory predicts that populations with sufficient genetic variation will adapt in response to pathogen pressure. Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were introduced into Lake Michigan in the late 1960s from a Washington State hatchery population. In the late 1980s, collapse of the forage base and nutritional stress in Lake Michigan were thought to contribute to die-offs of Chinook Salmon due to bacterial kidney disease (BKD). Previously, we demonstrated that Lake Michigan Chinook Salmon from a Wisconsin hatchery have greater survival following BKD challenge relative to their progenitor population. Here, we evaluated whether the phenotypic divergence of these populations in BKD susceptibility was due to selection rather than genetic drift. Comparison of the overall magnitude of quantitative trait to neutral marker divergence between the populations suggested selection had occurred but a direct test of quantitative trait divergence was not significant, preventing the rejection of the null hypothesis of differentiation through genetic drift. Estimates of phenotypic variation (VP), additive genetic variation (VA) and narrow-sense heritability (h2) were consistently higher in the Wisconsin relative to the Washington population. If selection had acted on the Wisconsin population there was no evidence of a concomitant loss of genetic variation in BKD susceptibility. The Renibacterium salmoninarum exposures were conducted at both 14°C and 9°C; the warmer temperature accelerated time to death in both populations and there was no evidence of phenotypic plasticity or a genotype-by-environment (G × E) interaction. High h2 estimates for BKD susceptibility in the Wisconsin population, combined with a lack of phenotypic plasticity, predicts that future adaptive gains in BKD resistance are still possible and

  16. Water quality of Lake Austin and Town Lake, Austin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Freeman L.; Wells, Frank C.; Shelby, Wanda J.; McPherson, Emma

    1988-01-01

    Lake Austin and Town Lake are located on the Colorado River in Travis County, central Texas, and serve as a source of water for municipal and industrial water supplies, electrical-power generation, and recreation for more than 500,000 people in the Austin metropolitan area. Lake Austin, located immediately downstream of Lake Travis, extends for more than 20 miles into the western edge of the city of Austin. Town Lake extends through the downtown area of the city of Austin for nearly 6 miles where the Colorado River is impounded by Longhorn Dam.

  17. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Great Lakes Region 4 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  18. Transient Tsunamis in Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couston, L.; Mei, C.; Alam, M.

    2013-12-01

    A large number of lakes are surrounded by steep and unstable mountains with slopes prone to failure. As a result, landslides are likely to occur and impact water sitting in closed reservoirs. These rare geological phenomena pose serious threats to dam reservoirs and nearshore facilities because they can generate unexpectedly large tsunami waves. In fact, the tallest wave experienced by contemporary humans occurred because of a landslide in the narrow bay of Lituya in 1958, and five years later, a deadly landslide tsunami overtopped Lake Vajont's dam, flooding and damaging villages along the lakefront and in the Piave valley. If unstable slopes and potential slides are detected ahead of time, inundation maps can be drawn to help people know the risks, and mitigate the destructive power of the ensuing waves. These maps give the maximum wave runup height along the lake's vertical and sloping boundaries, and can be obtained by numerical simulations. Keeping track of the moving shorelines along beaches is challenging in classical Eulerian formulations because the horizontal extent of the fluid domain can change over time. As a result, assuming a solid slide and nonbreaking waves, here we develop a nonlinear shallow-water model equation in the Lagrangian framework to address the problem of transient landslide-tsunamis. In this manner, the shorelines' three-dimensional motion is part of the solution. The model equation is hyperbolic and can be solved numerically by finite differences. Here, a 4th order Runge-Kutta method and a compact finite-difference scheme are implemented to integrate in time and spatially discretize the forced shallow-water equation in Lagrangian coordinates. The formulation is applied to different lake and slide geometries to better understand the effects of the lake's finite lengths and slide's forcing mechanism on the generated wavefield. Specifically, for a slide moving down a plane beach, we show that edge-waves trapped by the shoreline and free

  19. Technologies for lake restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut KLAPPER

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Lakes are suffering from different stress factors and need to be restored using different approaches. The eutrophication remains as the main water quality management problem for inland waters: both lakes and reservoirs. The way to curb the degradation is to stop the nutrient sources and to accelerate the restoration with help of in-lake technologies. Especially lakes with a long retention time need (eco- technological help to decrease the nutrient content in the free water. The microbial and other organic matter from sewage and other autochthonous biomasses, causes oxygen depletion, which has many adverse effects. In less developed countries big reservoirs function as sewage treatment plants. Natural aeration solves problems only partly and many pollutants tend to accumulate in the sediments. The acidification by acid rain and by pyrite oxidation has to be controlled by acid neutralizing technologies. Addition of alkaline chemicals is useful only for soft waters, and technologies for (microbial alkalinization of very acidic hardwater mining lakes are in development. The corrective measures differ from those in use for eutrophication control. The salinization and water shortage mostly occurs if more water is used than available. L. Aral, L. Tschad, the Dead Sea or L. Nasser belong to waters with most severe environmental problems on a global scale. Their hydrologic regime needs to be evaluated. The inflow of salt water at the bottom of some mining lakes adds to stability of stratification, and thus accumulation of hydrogen sulphide in the monimolimnion of the meromictic lakes. Destratification, which is the most used technology, is only restricted applicable because of the dangerous concentrations of the byproducts of biological degradation. The contamination of lakes with hazardous substances from industry and agriculture require different restoration technologies, including subhydric isolation and storage, addition of nutrients for better self

  20. Lakes on Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrol, Nathalie A

    2014-01-01

    On Earth, lakes provide favorable environments for the development of life and its preservation as fossils. They are extremely sensitive to climate fluctuations and to conditions within their watersheds. As such, lakes are unique markers of the impact of environmental changes. Past and current missions have now demonstrated that water once flowed at the surface of Mars early in its history. Evidence of ancient ponding has been uncovered at scales ranging from a few kilometers to possibly that of the Arctic ocean. Whether life existed on Mars is still unknown; upcoming missions may find critic

  1. Terrestrial CDOM in Lakes of Yamal Peninsula: Connection to Lake and Lake Catchment Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Dvornikov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyze interactions in lake and lake catchment systems of a continuous permafrost area. We assessed colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM absorption at 440 nm (a(440CDOM and absorption slope (S300–500 in lakes using field sampling and optical remote sensing data for an area of 350 km2 in Central Yamal, Siberia. Applying a CDOM algorithm (ratio of green and red band reflectance for two high spatial resolution multispectral GeoEye-1 and Worldview-2 satellite images, we were able to extrapolate the a(λCDOM data from 18 lakes sampled in the field to 356 lakes in the study area (model R2 = 0.79. Values of a(440CDOM in 356 lakes varied from 0.48 to 8.35 m−1 with a median of 1.43 m−1. This a(λCDOM dataset was used to relate lake CDOM to 17 lake and lake catchment parameters derived from optical and radar remote sensing data and from digital elevation model analysis in order to establish the parameters controlling CDOM in lakes on the Yamal Peninsula. Regression tree model and boosted regression tree analysis showed that the activity of cryogenic processes (thermocirques in the lake shores and lake water level were the two most important controls, explaining 48.4% and 28.4% of lake CDOM, respectively (R2 = 0.61. Activation of thermocirques led to a large input of terrestrial organic matter and sediments from catchments and thawed permafrost to lakes (n = 15, mean a(440CDOM = 5.3 m−1. Large lakes on the floodplain with a connection to Mordy-Yakha River received more CDOM (n = 7, mean a(440CDOM = 3.8 m−1 compared to lakes located on higher terraces.

  2. Plasma Science and Innovation Center at Washington, Wisconsin, and Utah State: Final Scientific Report for the University of Wisconsin-Madison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovinec, Carl R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-11-28

    The University of Wisconsin-Madison component of the Plasma Science and Innovation Center (PSI Center) contributed to modeling capabilities and algorithmic efficiency of the Non-Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics with Rotation (NIMROD) Code, which is widely used to model macroscopic dynamics of magnetically confined plasma. It also contributed to the understanding of direct-current (DC) injection of electrical current for initiating and sustaining plasma in three spherical torus experiments: the Helicity Injected Torus-II (HIT-II), the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment, and the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The effort was funded through the PSI Center's cooperative agreement with the University of Washington and Utah State University over the period of March 1, 2005 - August 31, 2016. In addition to the computational and physics accomplishments, the Wisconsin effort contributed to the professional education of four graduate students and two postdoctoral research associates. The modeling for HIT-II and Pegasus was directly supported by the cooperative agreement, and contributions to the NSTX modeling were in support of work by Dr. Bickford Hooper, who was funded through a separate grant. Our primary contribution to model development is the implementation of detailed closure relations for collisional plasma. Postdoctoral associate Adam Bayliss implemented the temperature-dependent effects of Braginskii's parallel collisional ion viscosity. As a graduate student, John O'Bryan added runtime options for Braginskii's models and Ji's K2 models of thermal conduction with magnetization effects and thermal equilibration. As a postdoctoral associate, O'Bryan added the magnetization effects for ion viscosity. Another area of model development completed through the PSI-Center is the implementation of Chodura's phenomenological resistivity model. Finally, we investigated and tested linear electron parallel viscosity, leveraged by support from

  3. Pulmonary Blastomycosis in Vilas County, Wisconsin: Weather, Exposures and Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Baumgardner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Blastomycosis is a serious fungal infection contracted by inhalation of Blastomyces spores from the environment. Case occurrence in dogs in Vilas County, Wisconsin, has been associated with antecedent weather. We aimed to explore the effects of weather on the occurrence of human pulmonary blastomycosis in this area, and update exposure factors and symptoms since last published reports. Methods: Mandatory case reports were reviewed. Chi-square test was used for categorical data of exposures, comparing 1979–1996 (n=101 versus 1997–June 2013 (n=95. Linear regression was used to model local weather data (available 1990–2013; n=126; Southern Oscillation Index (SOI, North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI, and Wisconsin River water discharge (WRD from the adjacent county (all available for 1984–2013; n=174; and case counts of known onset by warm (April–September and cold (October–March 6-month periods. Results: Distribution of pulmonary blastomycosis cases did not vary by season. Environmental exposures for the 1997–June 2013 group (mean age 45, 59% male were: residence(76%, excavation (42% and gardening (31%, all similar to the 1979–1996 group. Fishing (23% vs. 37%; P=0.09 and hunting (15% vs. 26%; P=0.13 exposures were less common in 1997–June 2013, but not significantly different. Overall, 69% of cases recalled some prior soil-disturbing activities. Considering the 6-month warm/cold periods, 19% of variation is explained by a direct relationship with total precipitation from two periods prior (P=0.005. There was no association of case occurrence with SOI, NAOI or WRD. Estimated annual incidence of blastomycosis for 1997–June 2013 was 27/100,000 compared with 44/100,000 for 1984–1996. Several symptoms were significantly less frequent in 2002–June 2013 compared to earlier years. Conclusions: As with dogs, human pulmonary blastomycosis occurrence is partially determined by antecedent precipitation. It is unclear if

  4. Parking Lot Runoff Quality and Treatment Efficiency of a Stormwater-Filtration Device, Madison, Wisconsin, 2005-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwatich, Judy A.; Bannerman, Roger T.

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the treatment efficiency of a stormwater-filtration device (SFD) for potential use at Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WisDOT) park-and-ride facilities, a SFD was installed at an employee parking lot in downtown Madison, Wisconsin. This type of parking lot was chosen for the test site because the constituent concentrations and particle-size distributions (PSDs) were expected to be similar to those of a typical park-and-ride lot operated by WisDOT. The objective of this particular installation was to reduce loads of total suspended solids (TSS) in stormwater runoff to Lake Monona. This study also was designed to provide a range of treatment efficiencies expected for a SFD. Samples from the inlet and outlet were analyzed for 33 organic and inorganic constituents, including 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Samples were also analyzed for physical properties, including PSD. Water-quality samples were collected for 51 runoff events from November 2005 to August 2007. Samples from all runoff events were analyzed for concentrations of suspended sediment (SS). Samples from 31 runoff events were analyzed for 15 constituents, samples from 15 runoff events were analyzed for PAHs, and samples from 36 events were analyzed for PSD. The treatment efficiency of the SFD was calculated using the summation of loads (SOL) and the efficiency ratio methods. Constituents for which the concentrations and (or) loads were decreased by the SFD include TSS, SS, volatile suspended solids, total phosphorous (TP), total copper, total zinc, and PAHs. The efficiency ratios for these constituents are 45, 37, 38, 55, 22, 5, and 46 percent, respectively. The SOLs for these constituents are 32, 37, 28, 36, 23, 8, and 48 percent, respectively. The SOL for chloride was -21 and the efficiency ratio was -18. Six chemical constituents or properties-dissolved phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand, dissolved zinc, total dissolved solids, dissolved chemical oxygen demand, and

  5. Poet Lake Crystal Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This September 19, 2016 letter from EPA approves the petition from Poet Biorefining-Lake Crystal, regarding non-grandfathered ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for renewable fuel (D-code 6) RINs under the RFS

  6. Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1984-02-01

    Feb 1, 1984 ... rings word opgesom terwyl sommige van die lesse wat by Kariba geleer is en 'n ... one area of the lake must have an effect, directly or indirectly, on other consumer organisms in the aquatic environment. Con- sidering ... are liable to attain their high density at the price of other taxa. ... be measured. Data on ...

  7. IN LAKE TANA, ETHIOPIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Turbidity showed depressed effect on biomass ... Key words/phrases: Biomass, duration of development, Lake Tana, large-turbid ... 36°45'-38°14'E and at an altitude of 1830 In, a.s.l. ... 30 cm mouth opening, 1.2 m cod end), which was ... times of the three copepods were measured under .... The greatest density values were.

  8. Lake whitefish diet, condition, and energy density in Lake Champlain and the lower four Great Lakes following dreissenid invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Seth J.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Lantry, Brian F.

    2013-01-01

    Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis support some of the most valuable commercial freshwater fisheries in North America. Recent growth and condition decreases in Lake Whitefish populations in the Great Lakes have been attributed to the invasion of the dreissenid mussels, zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha and quagga mussels D. bugensis, and the subsequent collapse of the amphipod, Diporeia, a once-abundant high energy prey source. Since 1993, Lake Champlain has also experienced the invasion and proliferation of zebra mussels, but in contrast to the Great Lakes, Diporeia were not historically abundant. We compared the diet, condition, and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain after the dreissenid mussel invasion to values for those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Lake Whitefish were collected using gill nets and bottom trawls, and their diets were quantified seasonally. Condition was estimated using Fulton's condition factor (K) and by determining energy density. In contrast to Lake Whitefish from some of the Great Lakes, those from Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish did not show a dietary shift towards dreissenid mussels, but instead fed primarily on fish eggs in spring, Mysis diluviana in summer, and gastropods and sphaeriids in fall and winter. Along with these dietary differences, the condition and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain were high compared with those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario after the dreissenid invasion, and were similar to Lake Whitefish from Lake Erie; fish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario consumed dreissenids, whereas fish from Lake Erie did not. Our comparisons of Lake Whitefish populations in Lake Champlain to those in the Great Lakes indicate that diet and condition of Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish were not negatively affected by the dreissenid mussel invasion.

  9. Water resources of Racine and Kenosha Counties, southeastern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, R.D.

    1970-01-01

    Urbanization and changes in regional development in Racine and Kenosha Counties are increasing the need for water-resources information useful for planning and management. The area is fortunate in having abundant supplies of generally good quality water available for present and projected future needs. Lake Michigan and ground-water reservoirs have great potential for increased development. Lake Michigan assures the urbanized area in the eastern part of the two counties of a nearly inexhaustible water supply. In 1967 the cities of Racine and Kenosha pumped an average of 32.6 mgd (million gallons per day) from the lake. Water from Lake Michigan is of the calcium magnesium bicarbonate type, but it is less hard than water from other sources. Discharge from Racine and Kenosha Counties into Lake Michigan is low and has little effect on the lake. The Root and Pike Rivers and a number of smaller streams contribute a mean flow of about 125 cfs (cubic feet per second) to the lake. Ground water, approximately 5 cfs, enters the lake as discharge from springs or as seeps. The Des Plaines, Root, and Pike Rivers drain areas of relatively impermeable silty clay that promotes rapid surface runoff and provides little sustained base flow. Sewage sometimes accounts for most of the base flow of the Root River. In contrast, the Fox River, which drains the western half of the area, has steady and dependable flow derived from the sand and gravel and the Niagara aquifers. Sewage-plant effluent released to the Fox River in 1964 was about 5 percent of the total flow. A 5-mile reach of the Root River loses about 30,000 gpd (gallons per day) per mile to the local ground-water reservoir and is a possible source of ground-water contamination. Thirty-five of the 43 lakes in the area are the visible parts of the groundwater table, and their stages fluctuate with changes in ground-water levels. The rest of the lakes are perched above the ground-water table. Flooding is a recurring but generally

  10. Microbiology of Lonar Lake and other soda lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Antony, Chakkiath; Kumaresan, Deepak; Hunger, Sindy; Drake, Harold L; Murrell, J Colin; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2013-01-01

    Soda lakes are saline and alkaline ecosystems that are believed to have existed throughout the geological record of Earth. They are widely distributed across the globe, but are highly abundant in terrestrial biomes such as deserts and steppes and in geologically interesting regions such as the East African Rift valley. The unusual geochemistry of these lakes supports the growth of an impressive array of microorganisms that are of ecological and economic importance. Haloalkaliphilic Bacteria and Archaea belonging to all major trophic groups have been described from many soda lakes, including lakes with exceptionally high levels of heavy metals. Lonar Lake is a soda lake that is centered at an unusual meteorite impact structure in the Deccan basalts in India and its key physicochemical and microbiological characteristics are highlighted in this article. The occurrence of diverse functional groups of microbes, such as methanogens, methanotrophs, phototrophs, denitrifiers, sulfur oxidizers, sulfate reducers and syntrophs in soda lakes, suggests that these habitats harbor complex microbial food webs that (a) interconnect various biological cycles via redox coupling and (b) impact on the production and consumption of greenhouse gases. Soda lake microorganisms harbor several biotechnologically relevant enzymes and biomolecules (for example, cellulases, amylases, ectoine) and there is the need to augment bioprospecting efforts in soda lake environments with new integrated approaches. Importantly, some saline and alkaline lake ecosystems around the world need to be protected from anthropogenic pressures that threaten their long-term existence. PMID:23178675

  11. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Erie: a case history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Floyd C.; Muth, Kenneth M.; Kenyon, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) once thrived in the deep waters of eastern Lake Erie. The impact of nearly 70 years of unregulated exploitation and over 100 years of progressively severe cultural eutrophication resulted in the elimination of lake trout stocks by 1950. Early attempts to restore lake trout by stocking were unsuccessful in establishing a self-sustaining population. In the early 1980s, New York's Department of Environmental Conservation, Pennsylvania's Fish and Boat Commission, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service entered into a cooperative program to rehabilitate lake trout in the eastern basin of Lake Erie. After 11 years of stocking selected strains of lake trout in U.S. waters, followed by effective sea lamprey control, lake trout appear to be successfully recolonizing their native habitat. Adult stocks have built up significantly and are expanding their range in the lake. Preliminary investigations suggest that lake trout reproductive habitat is still adequate for natural reproduction, but natural recruitment has not been documented. Future assessments will be directed toward evaluation of spawning success and tracking age-class cohorts as they move through the fishery.

  12. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, recreation, and many others. For the State of Wisconsin, elevation data are critical for agriculture and precision farming, natural resources conservation, flood risk management, infrastructure and construction management, water supply and quality, and other business uses. Today, high-quality light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the sources for creating elevation models and other elevation datasets. Federal, State, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data, on a national basis, that are (on average) 30 years old and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data. The new 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other three-dimensional representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features.

  13. Understanding Health Care Costs in a Wisconsin Acute Leukemia Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Steinert

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We investigated factors driving health care costs of patients with a diagnosis of acute myeloid and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods: Standard costs identified in insurance claims data obtained from the Wisconsin Health Information Organization were used in a sample of 837 acute leukemia patients from April 2009 to June 2011. The Andersen behavioral model of health care utilization guided selection of patient and community factors expected to influence health care costs. A generalized linear model fitting gamma-distributed data with log-link technique was used to analyze cost. Results: Type of treatment received and disease severity represented significant cost drivers, and patients receiving at least some of their treatment from academic medical centers experienced higher costs. Inpatient care and pharmacy costs of patients who received treatment from providers located in areas of higher poverty experienced lower costs, raising questions of potential treatment and medical practice disparities between provider locations. Directions of study findings were not consistent between different types of services received and underscore the complexity of investigating health care cost. Conclusions: While prevalence of acute leukemia in the United States is low compared to other diseases, its extreme high cost of treatment is not well understood and potentially influences treatment decisions. Acute leukemia health care costs may not follow expected patterns; further exploration of the relationship between cost and the treatment decision, and potential treatment disparities between providers in different socioeconomic locations, is needed.

  14. Dissemination research: the University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Patrick L; Moberg, D Paul; Booske, Bridget C; Ceraso, Marion; Friedsam, Donna; Kindig, David A

    2009-08-01

    Despite significant accomplishments in basic, clinical, and population health research, a wide gap persists between research discoveries (ie, what we know) and actual practice (ie, what we do). The University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute (Institute) researchers study the process and outcomes of disseminating evidence-based public health programs and policies into practice. This paper briefly describes the approach and experience of the Institute's programs in population health assessment, health policy, program evaluation, and education and training. An essential component of this dissemination research program is the active engagement of the practitioners and policymakers. Each of the Institute's programs conducts data collection, analysis, education, and dialogue with practitioners that is closely tied to the planning, implementation, and evaluation of programs and policies. Our approach involves a reciprocal exchange of knowledge with non-academic partners, such that research informs practice and practice informs research. Dissemination research serves an important role along the continuum of research and is increasingly recognized as an important way to improve population health by accelerating the translation of research into practice.

  15. Numerical dating of a Late Quaternary spit-shoreline complex at the northern end of Silver Lake playa, Mojave Desert, California: A comparison of the applicability of radiocarbon, luminescence, terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide, electron spin resonance, U-series and amino acid racemization methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, L.A.; Bright, Jordon; Finkel, R.C.; Jaiswal, M.K.; Kaufman, D.S.; Mahan, S.; Radtke, U.; Schneider, J.S.; Sharp, W.; Singhvi, A.K.; Warren, C.N.

    2007-01-01

    A Late Quaternary spit-shoreline complex on the northern shore of Pleistocene Lake Mojave of southeastern California, USA was studied with the goal of comparing accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon, luminescence, electron spin resonance (ESR), terrestrial cosmogenic radionuclide (TCN) surface exposure, amino acid racemization (AAR) and U-series dating methods. The pattern of ages obtained by the different methods illustrates the complexity of processes acting in the lakeshore environment and highlights the utility of a multi-method approach. TCN surface exposure ages (mostly ???20-30 ka) record the initial erosion of shoreline benches, whereas radiocarbon ages on shells (determined in this and previous studies) within the spit, supported by AAR data, record its construction at fluctuating lake levels from ???16 to 10 ka. Luminescence ages on spit sediment (???6-7 ka) and ESR ages on spit shells (???4 ka) are anomalously young relative to radiocarbon ages of shells within the same deposits. The significance of the surprisingly young luminescence ages is not clear. The younger ESR ages could be a consequence of post-mortem enrichment of U in the shells. High concentrations of detrital thorium in tufa coating spit gravels inhibited the use of single-sample U-series dating. Detailed comparisons such as this provide one of the few means of assessing the accuracy of Quaternary dating techniques. More such comparisons are needed. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

  16. Evolution of alkaline lakes - Lake Van case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman Meyer, Felix; Viehberg, Finn; Bahroun, Sonya; Wolf, Annabel; Immenhauser, Adrian; Kwiecien, Ola

    2017-04-01

    Lake Van in Eastern Anatolia (Turkey) is the largest terminal soda lake on Earth. The lake sedimentary profile covers ca. 600 ka (Stockhecke et al. 2014) Based on lithological changes, the presence of freshwater microfossils and close-to-freshwater pH value in the pore water, members of ICDP PALEOVAN concluded that Lake Van might have started as an open lake. Here we show paleontological and geochemical evidence in favour of this idea and constrain the time, when Lake Van likely transformed into a closed lake. Additionally we provide the first conceptual model of how this closure may have happened. Our archives of choice are inorganic and biogenic carbonates, separated by wet sieving. We identified microfossil assemblages (fraction > 125 µm) and performed high-resolution oxygen isotope (delta18O) and elemental (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca) analyses of the fraction plants growing in the photic zone as food supply. These two aspects point to an increasing salinity in a shallowing lake. The delta18O values of inorganic carbonates are relatively low during the initial phase of Lake Van and increase abruptly (ca. 7‰) after 530 ka BP. At approximately the same time combination of Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca data suggest first occurrence of aragonite. Again, these findings suggest geochemical changes of the lake water concurrent with transition documented by microfossils. Comparison between Lake Van and Lake Ohrid (Lacey et al. 2016) delta18O data, precludes regional climate change (e.g.: increased evaporation) as the main driver of observed changes. With no evidence for increased volcanic or tectonic activity (e.g.: tephra layers, deformation structures, slumping) in the Lake Van sedimentary profile around 530 ka, it seems unlikely that a pyroclastic flow blocked the outflow of the lake. Alternatively, a portion of inflow has been diverged which might have caused a change in the hydrological balance and lake level falling below its outlet. However, as no geomorphological data confirming this

  17. Effects of irrigation on streamflow in the Central Sand Plain of Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, E.P.; Stangland, H.G.

    1971-01-01

    Development of ground water for irrigation affects streamflow and water levels in the sand-plain area of central Wisconsin. Additional irrigation development may reduce opportunities for water-based recreation by degrading the streams as trout habitat and by lowering lake levels. This study was made to inventory present development of irrigation in the sand-plain area, assess potential future development, and estimate the effects of irrigation on streamflow and ground-water levels. The suitability of land and the availability of ground water for irrigation are dependent, to a large extent, upon the geology of the area. Rocks making up the ground-water reservoir include outwash, morainal deposits, and glacial lake deposits. These deposits are underlain by crystalline rocks and by sandstone, which act as the floor of the ground-water reservoir. Outwash, the main aquifer, supplies water to about 300 irrigation wells and maintains relatively stable flow in the streams draining the area. The saturated thickness of these deposits is more than 100 feet over much of the area and is as much as 180 feet in bedrock valleys. The saturated thickness of the outwash generally is great enough to provide sufficient water for large-scale irrigation in all but two areas --one near the town of Wisconsin Rapids and one near Dorro Couche Mound. Aquifer tests indicate that the permeability of the outwash is quite high, ranging from about 1,000 gpd per square foot to about 3,800 gpd per square foot, Specific capacities of irrigation wells in the area range from 14 to 157 gpm per foot of drawdown. Water use in the sand-plain area is mainly for irrigation and waterbased recreation. Irrigation development began in the area in the late 1940's, and by 1967 about 19,500 acre-feet of water were pumped to irrigate 34,000 acres of potatoes, snap beans, corn, cucumbers, and other crops. About 70 percent of the applied water was lost to evapotranspiration, and about 30 percent was returned to the

  18. Predicting Maximum Lake Depth from Surrounding Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake volume aids understanding of the physical and ecological dynamics of lakes, yet is often not readily available. The data needed to calculate lake volume (i.e. bathymetry) are usually only collected on a lake by lake basis and are difficult to obtain across broad regions. ...

  19. Lake-level frequency analysis for Devils Lake, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Gregg J.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    1996-01-01

    Two approaches were used to estimate future lake-level probabilities for Devils Lake. The first approach is based on an annual lake-volume model, and the second approach is based on a statistical water mass-balance model that generates seasonal lake volumes on the basis of seasonal precipitation, evaporation, and inflow. Autoregressive moving average models were used to model the annual mean lake volume and the difference between the annual maximum lake volume and the annual mean lake volume. Residuals from both models were determined to be uncorrelated with zero mean and constant variance. However, a nonlinear relation between the residuals of the two models was included in the final annual lakevolume model.Because of high autocorrelation in the annual lake levels of Devils Lake, the annual lake-volume model was verified using annual lake-level changes. The annual lake-volume model closely reproduced the statistics of the recorded lake-level changes for 1901-93 except for the skewness coefficient. However, the model output is less skewed than the data indicate because of some unrealistically large lake-level declines. The statistical water mass-balance model requires as inputs seasonal precipitation, evaporation, and inflow data for Devils Lake. Analysis of annual precipitation, evaporation, and inflow data for 1950-93 revealed no significant trends or long-range dependence so the input time series were assumed to be stationary and short-range dependent.Normality transformations were used to approximately maintain the marginal probability distributions; and a multivariate, periodic autoregressive model was used to reproduce the correlation structure. Each of the coefficients in the model is significantly different from zero at the 5-percent significance level. Coefficients relating spring inflow from one year to spring and fall inflows from the previous year had the largest effect on the lake-level frequency analysis.Inclusion of parameter uncertainty in the model

  20. Lake-wide distribution of Dreissena in Lake Michigan, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Guy W.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Holuszko, Jeffrey D.

    2001-01-01

    The Great Lakes Science Center has conducted lake-wide bottom trawl surveys of the fish community in Lake Michigan each fall since 1973. These systematic surveys are performed at depths of 9 to 110 m at each of seven index sites around Lake Michigan. Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) populations have expanded to all survey locations and at a level to sufficiently contribute to the bottom trawl catches. The quagga (Dreissena bugensis), recently reported in Lake Michigan, was likely in the catches though not recognized. Dreissena spp. biomass ranged from about 0.6 to 15 kg/ha at the various sites in 1999. Dreissenid mussels were found at depths of 9 to 82 m, with their peak biomass at 27 to 46 m. The colonization of these exotic mussels has ecological implications as well as potential ramifications on the ability to sample fish consistently and effectively with bottom trawls in Lake Michigan.

  1. The diversity of benthic mollusks of Lake Victoria and Lake Burigi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molluscan diversity, abundance and distribution in sediments of Lake Victoria and its satellite lake, Lake Burigi, were investigated. The survey was carried out in January and February 2002 for Lake Victoria and in March and April 2002 for Lake Burigi. Ten genera were recorded from four zones of Lake Victoria while only ...

  2. Water resources of the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore, northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The Apostle Islands National Lakeshore consists of 21 islands, part of the Bayfield Peninsula, and the adjacent waters of Lake Superior. Selected water resources of the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore were assessed to aid the National Park Service in developing and managing the Lakeshore and to provide a data base against which future changes can be compared. This summary of water-resources data, collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1979-84, provides a qualitative description of selected hydrologic components of the Lakeshore.

  3. Chlorophenol and alkylphenol concentrations in sediment and mussel tissues collected from selected locations in Kentucky Lake, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loganathan, B.; Brown, B.; Owen, D. [Murray State Univ., Murray, KY (United States); Sajwan, K. [Savannah State Univ., Savannah, GA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Kentucky (KY) Lake is one the major human-constructed lakes in the US. It serves as an ultimate repository of substances entering this watershed from portions of seven southeastern states, which include a sizeable fraction of the U.S. chemical processing, agricultural chemical products and electronics manufacturing industries. Although a few studies have examined the levels of chlorinated organics in the KY Lake and the lowermost Tennessee River, there have been no reports on the distribution on the levels of chlorophenols and alkylphenols in sediment and/or biological tissues from this region. In this study, sediment, and freshwater mussels were collected from selected locations in KY Lake and Lake Barkley and analyzed for CPs and APs. Furthermore, wood samples from abandoned docks, navigational towers and wood found in the lake bottom were also analyzed to examine the sources of CPs to the lakes.

  4. Elliot Lake progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findlay, W.; Scott, A.S.

    1980-01-01

    The intent of the Elliot Lake remedial program is to identify houses in Elliot Lake with annual average WL's in excess of 0.02, discover the routes of radon entry into identified houses and close enough of them to reduce the annual average WL to an acceptable level, and to demonstrate that the annual average WL is below 0.02 in houses where remedial work was not thought necessary as well as in houses where remedial work has been completed. The remedial program is organized into two subprograms, the survey program and the remedial action program. By December 31, 1979 more than 17000 survey measurements had been carried out, identifying 157 houses where remedial action was required and confirming that no action was needed in 413 houses. Remedial work had been completed on 98 houses

  5. Electricity generation by anaerobic bacteria and anoxic sediments from hypersaline soda lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L.G.; Oremland, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria and anoxic sediments from soda lakes produced electricity in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). No electricity was generated in the absence of bacterial metabolism. Arsenate respiring bacteria isolated from moderately hypersaline Mono Lake (Bacillus selenitireducens), and salt-saturated Searles Lake, CA (strain SLAS-1) oxidized lactate using arsenate as the electron acceptor. However, these cultures grew equally well without added arsenate using the MFC anode as their electron acceptor, and in the process oxidized lactate more efficiently. The decrease in electricity generation by consumption of added alternative electron acceptors (i.e. arsenate) which competed with the anode for available electrons proved to be a useful indicator of microbial activity and hence life in the fuel cells. Shaken sediment slurries from these two lakes also generated electricity, with or without added lactate. Hydrogen added to sediment slurries was consumed but did not stimulate electricity production. Finally, electricity was generated in statically incubated "intact" sediment cores from these lakes. More power was produced in sediment from Mono Lake than from Searles Lake, however microbial fuel cells could detect low levels of metabolism operating under moderate and extreme conditions of salt stress. ?? 2008 US Government.

  6. Angora Fire, Lake Tahoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    On the weekend of June 23, 2007, a wildfire broke out south of Lake Tahoe, which stretches across the California-Nevada border. By June 28, the Angora Fire had burned more than 200 homes and forced some 2,000 residents to evacuate, according to The Seattle Times and the Central Valley Business Times. On June 27, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the burn scar left by the Angora fire. The burn scar is dark gray, or charcoal. Water bodies, including the southern tip of Lake Tahoe and Fallen Leaf Lake, are pale silvery blue, the silver color a result of sunlight reflecting off the surface of the water. Vegetation ranges in color from dark to bright green. Streets are light gray, and the customary pattern of meandering residential streets and cul-de-sacs appears throughout the image, including the area that burned. The burn scar shows where the fire obliterated some of the residential areas just east of Fallen Leaf Lake. According to news reports, the U.S. Forest Service had expressed optimism about containing the fire within a week of the outbreak, but a few days after the fire started, it jumped a defense, forcing the evacuation of hundreds more residents. Strong winds that had been forecast for June 27, however, did not materialize, allowing firefighters to regain ground in controlling the blaze. On June 27, authorities hoped that the fire would be completely contained by July 3. According to estimates provided in the daily report from the National Interagency Fire Center, the fire had burned 3,100 acres (about 12.5 square kilometers) and was about 55 percent contained as of June 28. Some mandatory evacuations remained in effect. NASA image by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  7. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J. Iwan [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  8. Limnology of Lake Midmar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Breen, CM

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available goals. Those which seem important to us are: the identification of the limnological responses affecting water quality which are of universal application. Some such as phosphorus load are well known whereas others may still require to be identified... Figure 17 Pattern of release of total nitrogen and phosphorus from decomposing vegetation ............................. 56 Figure 18 Changes in the amounts of total phosphorus within the lake, the inflow and the outflow on a weekly basis....... 59...

  9. Birds of the St. Croix River valley: Minnesota and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faanes, Craig A.

    1981-01-01

    The St. Croix River Valley encompasses nearly 11,550 km2 in east-central Minnesota and northwestern Wisconsin. A wide range of habitats are available for birds including upland oak, lowland deciduous, maple-basswood, lowland and upland coniferous forests, natural basin wetlands, and grasslands. Situated in the north-central region of the United States, the valley is a biological 'crossroads' for many species. Because of the mixed affinities of plant communities, the valley includes the northern and southern range limits for a number of species. Also, because the valley lies near the forest-prairie transition zone, many typical western breeding species (e.g. pintail, western meadowlark, yellow-headed blackbird) breed in proximity to typical eastern species such as tufted titmouse, eastern meadowlark, and cardinal. From 1966 to 1980, I conducted extensive surveys of avian distribution and abundance in the St. Croix River Valley. I have supplemented the results of these surveys with published and unpublished observations contributed by many ornithologists. These additional data include compilations from Christmas Bird Counts sponsored by the National Audubon Society and from the Breeding Bird Survey coordinated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Three hundred fourteen species have been recorded in the study area; data are presented on the migration period, nesting season distribution, winter distribution, relative abundance, and habitat use of each species. Recognizing the uniqueness of the area, and its importance not only to wildlife but also to man, the U.S. Congress designated the St. Croix a National Scenic Riverway. This action provided a considerable degree of protection to lands along and directly adjacent to the river. Unfortunately, no similar legal measure exists to protect lands away from the river. With the exception of the northern quarter of the St. Croix River Valley, agricultural interests have made significant inroads into the habitat base. The

  10. Perfluoroalkyl substances in older male anglers in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Krista Y; Raymond, Michelle; Thompson, Brooke A; Anderson, Henry A

    2016-05-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are an emerging class of contaminants. Certain PFAS are regulated or voluntarily limited due to concern about environmental persistence and adverse health effects, including thyroid disease and to dyslipidemia. The major source of PFAS exposure in the general population is seafood. In this analysis we examine PFAS levels and their determinants, as well as associations between PFAS levels and self-reported health outcomes, in a group of older male anglers in Wisconsin with high fish consumption. A biomonitoring study of male anglers aged 50 and older living in Wisconsin collected detailed information on fish consumption, demographics and self-reported health outcomes, along with hair and blood samples for biomarker analysis. Sixteen different PFAS were extracted from serum samples. Regression models were used to identify factors (demographic characteristics and fish consumption habits) associated with PFAS biomarker levels in blood, as well as associations between PFAS and self-reported health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders. Seven PFAS were detected in at least 30% of participants and were used in subsequent analyses (PFDA, PFHpS, PFHxS, PFNA, PFOA, PFOS, PFuDA). The PFAS with the highest levels were PFOS, followed by PFOA, PFHxS and PFNA (medians of 19.0, 2.5, 1.8 and 1.4ng/mL). In general, increasing age was associated with higher PFAS levels, while increasing BMI were associated with lower PFAS levels. Greater alcohol consumption was associated with higher levels of PFHpS, PFHxS and PFOA. Associations with smoking and employment did not show a consistent pattern. Associations between fish consumption and PFAS were generally weak, with the exception of notably higher PFDA and PFHpS with both other locally-caught fish, and restaurant-purchased fish. Regarding associations with health outcomes, PFuDA, PFNA and PFDA were all associated with increased risk of pre-diabetes and/or diabetes. PFHpS was associated with a

  11. Catalyzing Collaboration: Wisconsin's Agency-Initiated Basin Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genskow, Kenneth D.

    2009-03-01

    Experience with collaborative approaches to natural resource and environmental management has grown substantially over the past 20 years, and multi-interest, shared-resources initiatives have become prevalent in the United States and internationally. Although often viewed as “grass-roots” and locally initiated, governmental participants are crucial to the success of collaborative efforts, and important questions remain regarding their appropriate roles, including roles in partnership initiation. In the midst of growing governmental support for collaborative approaches in the mid-1990s, the primary natural resource and environmental management agency in Wisconsin (USA) attempted to generate a statewide system of self-sustaining, collaborative partnerships, organized around the state’s river basin boundaries. The agency expected the partnerships to enhance participation by stakeholders, leverage additional resources, and help move the agency toward more integrated and ecosystem-based resource management initiatives. Most of the basin partnerships did form and function, but ten years after this initiative, the agency has moved away from these partnerships and half have disbanded. Those that remain active have changed, but continue to work closely with agency staff. Those no longer functioning lacked clear focus, were dependent upon agency leadership, or could not overcome issues of scale. This article outlines the context for state support of collaborative initiatives and explores Wisconsin’s experience with basin partnerships by discussing their formation and reviewing governmental roles in partnerships’ emergence and change. Wisconsin’s experience suggests benefits from agency support and agency responsiveness to partnership opportunities, but cautions about expectations for initiating general-purpose partnerships.

  12. Initial results from the Wisconsin Spherically Convergent Ion Focus experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorson, T.A.; Durst, R.D.; Fonck, R.J.; Foucher, B.S.; Wainwright, L.P.

    1995-01-01

    The Spherically Convergent Ion Focus (SCIF) is an alternative plasma confinement scheme in which ions are electrostatically confined, accelerated, and concentrated at fusion-relevant energies. This concept has been recently promoted for various near-term applications including waste disposal, particle production, neutron radiography and tomography, plastic explosive detection, materials research, and medical isotope production. The Wisconsin SCIF experiments are designed to evaluate the practicality of the SCIF concept for given applications. In the experiment, a wire globe serves as a simple means of producing the trapping potential well and the ion source consists of a cold, uniform plasma at the edge. Hydrogen ions formed from the background neutral gas are typically accelerated to energies of 5--20 kV, and measured cathode grid currents approach the space-charge limit for concentric spheres. Core size measurements utilize spectrally-filtered CCD camera images of the visible emission from the core region, and the minimal observed core radius of 0.6 cm (HWHM) is within a factor of 2--3 of the theoretical convergence ratio for the device. Neutral particle interactions and potential asymmetries imposed by the grid lead to non-ideal convergence, as evidenced by measured potential asymmetries and core size dependence on cathode grid spacing. Floating probes with 30 kV isolation have allowed unique measurements of the density, electric potential and temperature in the converged core. The ratio of core to edge density is 10--20, which is in good agreement with scaling from radial flux conservation

  13. Restoring life to acidified lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, M

    1986-05-01

    In 1983 EPRI initiated the lake acidification mitigation project (LAMP) in order to examine the long-term ecosystem effects of liming lakes, and to develop a model for calculating optimal liming doses. Investigations were carried out at lakes under 3 sets of conditions: reacidification, maintenance liming and preventive maintenance liming. The research so far has indicated that liming is a safe and effective technique.

  14. Radioecological characteristics of Lake Zarnowieckie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soszka, G.J.; Grzybowska, D.; Rostek, J.; Pietruszewski, A.; Wardaszko, T.; Kalinowska, A.; Tomczak, J.

    1986-01-01

    Results are presented of the radioecological studies carried out in Lake Zarnowieckie as a part of pre-operational investigations related to the construction of a nuclear power station at this lake. Concentrations of essential radionuclides were determined in water, bottom sediments and selected plants and animals. Analyses were made of the distribution and spreading of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the lake ecosystem and in the near-by meadows. 28 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs. (author)

  15. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Lakes Assessments - Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This layer shows only attaining lakes of the Integrated List. The Lakes Integrated List represents lake assessments in an integrated format for the Clean Water Act...

  16. Spatial Complexity, Resilience, and Policy Diversity: Fishing on Lake-rich Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Carpenter

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of and policies governing spatially coupled social-ecological mosaics are considered for the case of fisheries in a lake district. A microeconomic model of households addresses agent decisions at three hierarchic levels: (1 selection of the lake district from among a larger set of alternative places to live or visit, (2 selection of a base location within the lake district, and (3 selection of a portfolio of ecosystem services to use. Ecosystem services are represented by dynamics of fish production subject to multiple stable domains and trophic cascades. Policy calculations show that optimal policies will be highly heterogeneous in space and fluid in time. The diversity of possible outcomes is illustrated by simulations for a hypothetical lake district based loosely on the Northern Highlands of the State of Wisconsin. Lake districts are frequently managed as if lakes were independent, similar, endogenously regulating systems. Our findings contradict that view. One-size-fits-all (OSFA policies erode ecological and social resilience. If regulations are too stringent, social resilience declines because of the potential rewards of overharvesting. If regulations are too lax, ecological resilience is diminished by overharvesting in some lakes. In either case, local collapses of fish populations evoke spatial shifts of angling effort that can lead to serial collapses in neighboring fisheries and degraded fisheries in most or all of the lakes. Under OSFA management, the natural resources of the entire landscape become more vulnerable to transformation because of changes in, e.g., human population, the demand for resources, or fish harvesting technology. Multiplicity of management regimes can increase the ecological resilience, social resilience, and inclusive value of a spatially heterogeneous social-ecological system. Because of the complex interactions of mobile people and multistable ecosystems, management regimes must also be flexible

  17. Algae Bloom in a Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sanabria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the likelihood of an algae bloom in a particular lake located in upstate New York. The growth of algae in this lake is caused by a high concentration of phosphorous that diffuses to the surface of the lake. Our calculations, based on Fick's Law, are used to create a mathematical model of the driving force of diffusion for phosphorous. Empirical observations are also used to predict whether the concentration of phosphorous will diffuse to the surface of this lake within a specified time and under specified conditions.

  18. Submerged Grove in Lake Onogawa

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Soken; Ochiai, Masahiro

    1996-01-01

    Abstract : The first record by ultrasonic echo sounding on the distribution of the submerged standing trees on the bottom of Lake Onogawa is presented. Lake Onogawa is a dammed lake formed at the time of the eruption of the volcano Mt.Bandai in 1888. Since then the original vegetation of the dammed valley has remained submerged. Many submerged standing trees are distributed on the bottom within about 600m from the northeast end of the lake. The density of the trees in this area is sufficient ...

  19. 75 FR 22589 - Preliminary Listing of an Additional Water to Wisconsin's 2008 List of Waters Under Section 303(d...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Wisconsin's 2008 List of Waters Under Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act AGENCY: Environmental Protection... 303(d)(2) requires that States submit and EPA approve or disapprove lists of waters for which existing... approved Wisconsin's listing of waters, associated pollutants, and associated priority rankings. EPA...

  20. Assessing the Workforce Development Needs of Healthcare Employers in Southeastern Wisconsin. Research Brief. Volume 98, Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Million, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Despite near-record unemployment rates in the region, southeast Wisconsin's healthcare sector faces a distinctive challenge: finding sufficient numbers of qualified and trained workers to fill current and future job openings. A May 2009 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee analysis found that one out of every four full-time job openings and one out…

  1. Ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the Climate Change Response Framework Project in northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Swanston; Maria Janowiak; Louis Iverson; Linda Parker; David Mladenoff; Leslie Brandt; Patricia Butler; Matt St. Pierre; Anantha Prasad; Stephen Matthews; Matthew Peters; Dale Higgins; Avery Dorland

    2011-01-01

    The forests of northern Wisconsin will likely experience dramatic changes over the next 100 years as a result of climate change. This assessment evaluates key forest ecosystem vulnerabilities to climate change across northern Wisconsin under a range of future climate scenarios. Warmer temperatures and shifting precipitation patterns are expected to influence ecosystem...

  2. Mercury accumulation in transplanted Hypogymnia physodes lichens downwind of Wisconsin chlor-alkali plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makholm, M.M.; Bennett, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Emissions of mercury from a chlor-alkali plant in central Wisconsin have raised concern about possible effects on biota in the area. Samples of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes, which no longer grows in the area, were transplanted from a site in northeastern Wisconsin and positioned on plastic stands at varying distances up to 1250 m from the plant and sampled for Hg quarterly for one year to test the hypothesis that Hg would be taken up by the lichens and would decline with distance. Average tissue concentrations were elevated when first sampled at three months and continued to increase at the nearest sites until the study ended after one year. Average concentrations after a year of exposure ranged from 4418 ppb at 250 m from the plant to 403 ppb at 1250 m from the plant. The decrease over distance followed a negative exponential pattern. Background concentrations at a control site in northern Wisconsin averaged 155 ppb.

  3. Synthesis of tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) data for Beneficial Use Impairment (BUI) assessment at Wisconsin Areas of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Dummer, Paul

    2018-03-20

    Assessment of the “Bird or Animal Deformities or Reproductive Problems” Beneficial Use Impairment (BUI) can be accomplished by (1) comparing tissue concentrations to established background and Lowest Observable Effect Level (LOEL) for reproductive effects, or (2) directly measuring reproductive success at Areas of Concern (AOCs) and statistically comparing those rates to minimally impacted reference locations (non-AOCs). Results from recent tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) publications were used to evaluate this BUI based on both approaches. For both endpoints, a 95-percent confidence interval (CI) was used to test for significant differences. Additional information on BUIs, AOCs, and the program in general can be found in the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (2012).For the first metric, there are good background and reproductive effect threshold LOELs for tree swallow egg concentrations for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), and mercury, as well as, for some other organic and inorganic contaminants. For the second assessment, comparisons were made between AOC and non-AOC sites for reproductive success, which was measured as the daily probability of egg failure and the percentage of eggs laid that hatched. Multistate modeling was used to assess whether there was an association between the daily probability of egg failure and a suite of contaminants, including PCBs, but also whether there was an association with ecological variables, such as female age and date within season. Both of these ecological variables are known to affect hatching success in birds. The objective of this report is to synthesize the previously published information to assist in the assessment of the “Bird or Animal Deformities or Reproductive Problems” BUI at 16 sites within the 5 Wisconsin AOCs (table 1). The logic behind this interpretation is applicable to other AOCs as well.

  4. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, DODGE COUNTY, WISCONSIN (AND INCORPORATED AREAS) - Fox Lake Physical Map Revision

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk;...

  5. Fast ion transport in solids: electrolytes and electrodes. Program and abstracts. [Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, May 21-25, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Abstracts for the 47 invited papers and 111 contributed papers (presented in poster sessions) are given in this publication, along with the program schedule. Papers deal with both basic research and applications, the most important of the latter being electric batteries. (RWR)

  6. Lake Charles CCS Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leib, Thomas [Leucadia Energy, LLC, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Cole, Dan [Denbury Onshore, LLC, Plano, TX (United States)

    2015-06-30

    In late September 2014 development of the Lake Charles Clean Energy (LCCE) Plant was abandoned resulting in termination of Lake Charles Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Project which was a subset the LCCE Plant. As a result, the project was only funded through Phase 2A (Design) and did not enter Phase 2B (Construction) or Phase 2C (Operations). This report was prepared relying on information prepared and provided by engineering companies which were engaged by Leucadia Energy, LLC to prepare or review Front End Engineering and Design (FEED) for the Lake Charles Clean Energy Project, which includes the Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Project in Lake Charles, Louisiana. The Lake Charles Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Project was to be a large-scale industrial CCS project intended to demonstrate advanced technologies that capture and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from industrial sources into underground formations. The Scope of work was divided into two discrete sections; 1) Capture and Compression prepared by the Recipient Leucadia Energy, LLC, and 2) Transport and Sequestration prepared by sub-Recipient Denbury Onshore, LLC. Capture and Compression-The Lake Charles CCS Project Final Technical Report describes the systems and equipment that would be necessary to capture CO2 generated in a large industrial gasification process and sequester the CO2 into underground formations. The purpose of each system is defined along with a description of its equipment and operation. Criteria for selection of major equipment are provided and ancillary utilities necessary for safe and reliable operation in compliance with environmental regulations are described. Construction considerations are described including a general arrangement of the CCS process units within the overall gasification project. A cost estimate is provided, delineated by system area with cost breakdown showing equipment, piping and materials

  7. Creating a perfect storm to increase consumer demand for Wisconsin's Tobacco Quitline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffer, Megan A; Redmond, Lezli A; Kobinsky, Kate H; Keller, Paula A; McAfee, Tim; Fiore, Michael C

    2010-03-01

    Telephone quitlines are a clinically proven and cost-effective population-wide tobacco-dependence treatment, and this option is now available in all 50 states. Yet, only 1% of the smoking population accesses these services annually. This report describes a series of policy, programmatic, and communication initiatives recently implemented in Wisconsin that resulted in a dramatic increase in consumer demand for the Wisconsin Tobacco Quitline (WTQL). In 2007, the Wisconsin legislature voted to increase the state cigarette excise tax rate by $1.00, from $0.77/pack to $1.77/pack effective January 1, 2008. In preparation for the tax increase, the Wisconsin Tobacco Prevention and Control Program, the University of Wisconsin Center for Tobacco Research and Intervention, which manages the WTQL, and the state's quitline service provider, Free & Clear, Inc., collaborated to enhance quitline knowledge, availability, and services with the goal of increasing consumer demand for services. The enhancements included for the first time, a free 2-week supply of over-the-counter nicotine replacement medication for tobacco users who agreed to receive multi-session quitline counseling. A successful statewide earned media campaign intensified the impact of these activities, which were timed to coincide with temporal smoking-cessation behavioral patterns (i.e., New Year's resolutions). As a result, the WTQL fielded a record 27,000 calls during the first 3 months of 2008, reaching nearly 3% of adult Wisconsin smokers. This experience demonstrates that consumer demand for quitline services can be markedly enhanced through policy and communication initiatives to increase the population reach of this evidence-based treatment. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Holocene Lake-Level Fluctuations of Lake Aricota, Southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placzek, Christa; Quade, Jay; Betancourt, Julio L.

    2001-09-01

    Lacustrine deposits exposed around Lake Aricota, Peru (17° 22‧S), a 7.5-km2 lake dammed by debris flows, provide a middle to late Holocene record of lake-level fluctuations. Chronological context for shoreline deposits was obtained from radiocarbon dating of vascular plant remains and other datable material with minimal 14C reservoir effects (<350 yr). Diatomites associated with highstands several meters above the modern lake level indicate wet episodes. Maximum Holocene lake level was attained before 6100 14C yr B.P. and ended ∼2700 14C yr B.P. Moderately high lake levels occurred at 1700 and 1300 14C yr B.P. The highstand at Lake Aricota during the middle Holocene is coeval with a major lowstand at Lake Titicaca (16°S), which is only 130 km to the northeast and shares a similar climatology. Comparisons with other marine and terrestrial records highlight emerging contradictions over the nature of mid-Holocene climate in the central Andes.

  9. Remedial Investigation Badger Army Ammunition Plant, Baraboo, Wisconsin. Volume 2. Appendices D.2 Through F

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    FILES FOR COMPOUNDS OF POTENTIAL CONCERN Vol. 7 APPENDIX 0 - HUMAN HEALTH RISK CALCULATIONS Vol. 7 APPENDIX P - INVENTORY OF SITE SPECIES Vol. 7...Driing Mud 0" 0 3 am 01 99 5 .Annula space seal:- GnmuldBsuryoni 0 33 Lbs/gal mud weight ... Benuar-siid shiny 3 33 16. Driling addives used 13 yesLbs...CONSTRUCTION REPORT / 5 WISCONSIN STATE BOARD OF HEALTH WELL DRILLING DIVISION JUL 11 |W Note: Section 32 of the Wisconsin Well Drilling Sanitary Code

  10. Partners in flight bird conservation plan for the Upper Great Lakes Plain (Physiographic Area 16)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, M.G.; Butcher, G.; Fitzgerald, J.; Shieldcastle, J.

    2001-01-01

    1 November 2001. Conservation of bird habitats is a major focus of effort by Partners in Flight, an international coalition of agencies, citizens, and other groups dedicated to 'keeping common birds common'. USGS worked on a planning team to publish a bird conservation plan for the Upper Great Lakes Plain ecoregion (PIF 16), which includes large portions of southern Wisconsin, southern Michigan and parts of Minnesota, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. The conservation plan outlines specific habitat restoration and bird population objectives for the ecoregion over the next decade. The plan provides a context for on-the-ground conservation implementation by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, the US Forest Service, states, and conservation groups. Citation: Knutson, M. G., G. Butcher, J. Fitzgerald, and J. Shieldcastle. 2001. Partners in Flight Bird Conservation Plan for The Upper Great Lakes Plain (Physiographic Area 16). USGS Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center in cooperation with Partners in Flight, La Crosse, Wisconsin. Download from website: http://www.blm.gov/wildlife/pifplans.htm. The Upper Great Lakes Plain covers the southern half of Michigan, northwest Ohio, northern Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, and small portions of southwest Minnesota and northwest Iowa. Glacial moraines and dissected plateaus are characteristic of the topography. Broadleaf forests, oak savannahs, and a variety of prairie communities are the natural vegetation types. A oDriftless Areao was not glaciated during the late Pleistocene and emerged as a unique area of great biological diversity. Priority bird species for the area include the Henslow's Sparrow, Sedge Wren, Bobolink, Golden-winged Warbler, Cerulean Warbler, Black-billed Cuckoo, and Red-headed Woodpecker. There are many large urban centers in this area whose growth and sprawl will continue to consume land. The vast majority of the presettlement forest and

  11. DOE hearing on the draft area recommendation report for the Crystalline Repository Project, White Lake High School, White Lake, Wisconsin: Transcript of proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This document contains a transcript of the comments of 33 witnesses. Also included is a list of 18 exhibits. These meetings were held to hear public comments regarding the selection of a site for a second high-level nuclear waste repository

  12. An Evaluation of Illicit Stimulants and Metabolites in Wastewa ter Effluent and the Wisconsin River Along the Central Wisconsin River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik S. Hendrickson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The goals of the study were to develop a method for extracting and quantifying illicit stimulants and metabolites, methamphetamine, amphetamine, cocaine, and benzoylecogonine from wastewater effluent and surface water grab samples, and evaluate Central Wisconsin wastewater treatment plant’s (WWTP removal efficiency of compounds of interest. The method created used HLB solid-phase extraction (SPE cartridges to extract substances of interest and High Performance Liquid Chromatography tandem Mass Spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS for quantification and qualification. All four wastewater effluent samples and three Wisconsin River samples had quantifiable concentrations of at least one analyte. Conclusions derived from the study were: The method created is effective for separating, quantifying, and identifying amphetamine, cocaine, and benzoylecognine from wastewater effluent and surface water grab samples, and each illicit stimulant and metabolite analyzed in this study were all quantified in wastewater effluent, indicating these compounds have the ability to survive WWTP.

  13. Desulfuribacillus alkaliarsenatis gen. nov., sp. nov., a deep-lineage, obligately anaerobic, dissimilatory sulfur and arsenate-reducing, haloalkaliphilic representative of the order Bacillales from soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Tourova, T.P.; Sukhacheva, M.V.; Muyzer, G.

    2012-01-01

    An anaerobic enrichment culture inoculated with a sample of sediments from soda lakes of the Kulunda Steppe with elemental sulfur as electron acceptor and formate as electron donor at pH 10 and moderate salinity inoculated with sediments from soda lakes in Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia) resulted in

  14. Desulfuribacillus alkaliarsenatis gen. nov. sp. nov., a deep-lineage, obligately anaerobic, dissimilatory sulfur and arsenate-reducing, haloalkaliphilic representative of the order Bacillales from soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Tourova, T.P.; Sukhacheva, M.V.; Muyzer, G.

    2012-01-01

    An anaerobic enrichment culture inoculated with a sample of sediments from soda lakes of the Kulunda Steppe with elemental sulfur as electron acceptor and formate as electron donor at pH 10 and moderate salinity inoculated with sediments from soda lakes in Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia) resulted in

  15. PYRAMID LAKE RENEWEABLE ENERGY PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HIGH DESERT GEOCULTURE, LLC

    2009-06-06

    The Pyramid Lake Renewable Energy Plan covers these areas: energy potential (primarily focusing on geothermal resource potential, but also more generally addressing wind energy potential); renewable energy market potential; transmission system development; geothermal direct use potential; and business structures to accomplish the development objectives of the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe.

  16. Late Glacial-Holocene Pollen-Based Vegetation History from Pass Lake, Prince of Wales Island, Southeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Thomas A.; Rosenbaum, Joseph G.

    2009-01-01

    A radiocarbon-dated history of vegetation development since late Wisconsin deglaciation has been reconstructed from pollen evidence preserved in a sediment core from Pass Lake on Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska. The shallow lake is in the south-central part of the island and occupies a low pass that was filled by glacial ice of local origin during the late Wisconsin glaciation. The oldest pollen assemblages indicate that pine woodland (Pinus contorta) had developed in the area by ~13,715 cal yr B.P. An abrupt decline in the pine population, coinciding with expansion of alder (Alnus) and ferns (mostly Polypodiaceae) began ~12,875 yr B.P., and may have been a response to colder, drier climates during the Younger Dryas climatic interval. Mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) began to colonize central Prince of Wales Island by ~11,920 yr B.P. and was soon followed by Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis). Pollen of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) began to appear in Pass Lake sediments soon after 11,200 yr B.P. The abundance of western hemlock pollen in the Pass Lake core during most of the Holocene appears to be the result of wind transport from trees growing at lower altitudes on the island. The late Holocene pollen record from Pass Lake is incomplete because of one or more unconformities, but the available record suggests that a vegetation change occurred during the late Holocene. Increases in pollen percentages of pine, cedar (probably yellow cedar, Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), and heaths (Ericales) suggest an expansion of muskeg vegetation occurred in the area during the late Holocene. This vegetation change may be related to the onset of cooler, wetter climates that began as early as ~3,774 yr B.P. in the region. This vegetation history provides the first radiocarbon-dated Late Glacial-Holocene terrestrial paleoecological framework for Prince of Wales Island. An analysis of magnetic properties of core sediments from Pass Lake suggests that unconformities

  17. Seasonal stability of Cladophora-associated Salmonella in Lake Michigan watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byappanahalli, M.N.; Sawdey, R.; Ishii, S.; Shively, D.A.; Ferguson, J.A.; Whitman, R.L.; Sadowsky, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    The bacterial pathogens Shigella, Salmonella, Campylobacter, and shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) were recently found to be associated with Cladophora growing in southern Lake Michigan. Preliminary results indicated that the Salmonella strains associated with Cladophora were genetically identical to each other. However, because of the small sample size (n = 37 isolates) and a lack of information on spatial-temporal relationships, the nature of the association between Cladophora and Salmonella remained speculative. In this study, we investigated the population structure and genetic relatedness of a large number of Cladophora-borne Salmonella isolates from Lake Michigan (n = 133), as well as those isolated from stream and lake water (n = 31), aquatic plants (n = 8), and beach sands and sediments (n = 8) from adjacent watersheds. Salmonella isolates were collected during 2005-2007 between May and August from Lake Michigan beachsheds in Wisconsin, Illinois, and Indiana. The genetic relatedness of Salmonella isolates was examined by using the horizontal, fluorophore-enhanced rep-PCR (HFERP) DNA fingerprinting technique. While the Salmonella isolates associated with Cladophora exhibited a high degree of genetic relatedness (???92% similarity), the isolates were not all genetically identical. Spatial and temporal relationships were evident in the populations examined, with tight clustering of the isolates both by year and location. These findings suggest that the relationship between Salmonella and Cladophora is likely casual and is related to input sources (e.g. wastewater, runoff, birds) and the predominant Salmonella genotype surviving in the environment during a given season. Our studies indicate that Cladophora is likely an important reservoir for Salmonella and other enteric bacterial pathogens in Lake Michigan beachsheds, which in turn may influence nearshore water quality. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Seasonal stability of Cladophora-associated Salmonella in Lake Michigan watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N; Sawdey, Richard; Ishii, Satoshi; Shively, Dawn A; Ferguson, John A; Whitman, Richard L; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2009-02-01

    The bacterial pathogens Shigella, Salmonella, Campylobacter, and shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) were recently found to be associated with Cladophora growing in southern Lake Michigan. Preliminary results indicated that the Salmonella strains associated with Cladophora were genetically identical to each other. However, because of the small sample size (n=37 isolates) and a lack of information on spatial-temporal relationships, the nature of the association between Cladophora and Salmonella remained speculative. In this study, we investigated the population structure and genetic relatedness of a large number of Cladophora-borne Salmonella isolates from Lake Michigan (n=133), as well as those isolated from stream and lake water (n=31), aquatic plants (n=8), and beach sands and sediments (n=8) from adjacent watersheds. Salmonella isolates were collected during 2005-2007 between May and August from Lake Michigan beachsheds in Wisconsin, Illinois, and Indiana. The genetic relatedness of Salmonella isolates was examined by using the horizontal, fluorophore-enhanced rep-PCR (HFERP) DNA fingerprinting technique. While the Salmonella isolates associated with Cladophora exhibited a high degree of genetic relatedness (>or=92% similarity), the isolates were not all genetically identical. Spatial and temporal relationships were evident in the populations examined, with tight clustering of the isolates both by year and location. These findings suggest that the relationship between Salmonella and Cladophora is likely casual and is related to input sources (e.g. wastewater, runoff, birds) and the predominant Salmonella genotype surviving in the environment during a given season. Our studies indicate that Cladophora is likely an important reservoir for Salmonella and other enteric bacterial pathogens in Lake Michigan beachsheds, which in turn may influence nearshore water quality.

  19. Choking Lake Winnipeg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, J. M.; Little, L. J.; Dodgson, K. A.; MacDonald, R. J.; Graham, J.

    2009-12-01

    The problems of waterway eutrophication and coastal zone hypoxia are reaching epidemic proportions. Fresh water and coastal marine environments around the world are suffering unprecedented pollution loadings. We are developing an education program to address the dramatic need for public, community and K-12 education about the harsh impacts of elevated nutrient loads on fresh and marine water environments. The Lake Winnipeg watershed is adopted as the poster child of fresh water eutrophication in western North America. The watershed, one of the largest on the continent, is in rapid decline due to pollution, population pressures and water diversion. A concerted education program is needed to change personal and society actions that negatively impact the Winnipeg watershed; and the confluence of the watershed - Lake Winnipeg. But the education program goes beyond Lake Winnipeg. Negative impacts of nutrient loads are adversely affecting environments right to the oceans. Major dead zones that are expanding on our continental shelves due to nutrient overloading threaten to coalesce into extensive regions of marine life die-off. This presentation outlines the documentary education production process under development. We are building a series of Public Service Announcements (PSAs) for national television networks. The PSAs will direct educators, stakeholders and citizens to an associated website with educational video clips detailing the issues of eutrophication and hypoxia. The video clips or webisodes, present interviews with leading scientists. The discussions address the causes of the problems, and presents workable solutions to nutrient overloads from a variety of sources. The webisodes are accompanied by notes and advice to teachers on ways and means to use the webisodes in classrooms. The project is fully funed by a group of Canadian Community Foundations, with the understanding the work wil be available free to educators anywhere in the world. Our education

  20. Lake Carnegie, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Ephemeral Lake Carnegie, in Western Australia, fills with water only during periods of significant rainfall. In dry years, it is reduced to a muddy marsh. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on May 19, 1999. This is a false-color composite image made using shortwave infrared, infrared, and red wavelengths. The image has also been sharpened using the sensor's panchromatic band. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch. This image is part of the ongoing Landsat Earth as Art series.

  1. Methane oxidation in anoxic lake waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Guangyi; Zopfi, Jakob; Niemann, Helge; Lehmann, Moritz

    2017-04-01

    Freshwater habitats such as lakes are important sources of methante (CH4), however, most studies in lacustrine environments so far provided evidence for aerobic methane oxidation only, and little is known about the importance of anaerobic oxidation of CH4 (AOM) in anoxic lake waters. In marine environments, sulfate reduction coupled to AOM by archaea has been recognized as important sinks of CH4. More recently, the discorvery of anaerobic methane oxidizing denitrifying bacteria represents a novel and possible alternative AOM pathway, involving reactive nitrogen species (e.g., nitrate and nitrite) as electron acceptors in the absence of oxygen. We investigate anaerobic methane oxidation in the water column of two hydrochemically contrasting sites in Lake Lugano, Switzerland. The South Basin displays seasonal stratification, the development of a benthic nepheloid layer and anoxia during summer and fall. The North Basin is permanently stratified with anoxic conditions below 115m water depth. Both Basins accumulate seasonally (South Basin) or permanently (North Basin) large amounts of CH4 in the water column below the chemocline, providing ideal conditions for methanotrophic microorganisms. Previous work revealed a high potential for aerobic methane oxidation within the anoxic water column, but no evidence for true AOM. Here, we show depth distribution data of dissolved CH4, methane oxidation rates and nutrients at both sites. In addition, we performed high resolution phylogenetic analyses of microbial community structures and conducted radio-label incubation experiments with concentrated biomass from anoxic waters and potential alternative electron acceptor additions (nitrate, nitrite and sulfate). First results from the unamended experiments revealed maximum activity of methane oxidation below the redoxcline in both basins. While the incubation experiments neither provided clear evidence for NOx- nor sulfate-dependent AOM, the phylogenetic analysis revealed the

  2. L-Lake macroinvertebrate community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1996-06-01

    To characterize the present benthic macroinvertebrate community of L-Lake, Regions 5 and 7 of the reservoir were sampled in September 1995 at the same locations sampled in 1988 and 1989 during the L-Lake monitoring program. The macroinvertebrate community of 1995 is compared to that of 1988 and 1989. The species composition of L-Lake`s macroinvertebrate community has changed considerably since 1988-1989, due primarily to maturation of the reservoir ecosystem. L-Lake contains a reasonably diverse macroinvertebrate community that is capable of supporting higher trophic levels, including a diverse assemblage of fish species. The L-Lake macroinvertebrate community is similar to those of many other southeastern reservoirs, and there is no indication that the macroinvertebrate community is perturbed by chemical or physical stressors.

  3. L-Lake macroinvertebrate community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, W.L.

    1996-06-01

    To characterize the present benthic macroinvertebrate community of L-Lake, Regions 5 and 7 of the reservoir were sampled in September 1995 at the same locations sampled in 1988 and 1989 during the L-Lake monitoring program. The macroinvertebrate community of 1995 is compared to that of 1988 and 1989. The species composition of L-Lake's macroinvertebrate community has changed considerably since 1988-1989, due primarily to maturation of the reservoir ecosystem. L-Lake contains a reasonably diverse macroinvertebrate community that is capable of supporting higher trophic levels, including a diverse assemblage of fish species. The L-Lake macroinvertebrate community is similar to those of many other southeastern reservoirs, and there is no indication that the macroinvertebrate community is perturbed by chemical or physical stressors

  4. 2009 Bayfield County Lake Superior Lidar Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The LIDAR survey presents digital elevation data sets of a bald earth surface model and 2ft interval contours covering Bayfield County, Wisconsin. The LIDAR data was...

  5. Compilation of watershed models for tributaries to the Great Lakes, United States, as of 2010, and identification of watersheds for future modeling for the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, William F.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Soong, David T.; Sharpe, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    developed by the National Soil Erosion Research Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. During 2010, the USGS used the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) to create a hydrologic model for the Lake Michigan Basin to assess the probable effects of climate change on future groundwater and surface-water resources. The Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER) model and the Analysis of Flows In Networks of CHannels (AFINCH) program also were used to support USGS GLRI projects that required estimates of streamflows throughout the Great Lakes Basin. This information on existing watershed models, along with an assessment of geologic, soils, and land-use data across the Great Lakes Basin and the identification of problems that exist in selected tributary watersheds that could be addressed by a watershed model, was used to identify three watersheds in the Great Lakes Basin for future modeling by the USGS. These watersheds are the Kalamazoo River Basin in Michigan, the Tonawanda Creek Basin in New York, and the Bad River Basin in Wisconsin. These candidate watersheds have hydrogeologic, land-type, and soil characteristics that make them distinct from each other, but that are representative of other tributary watersheds within the Great Lakes Basin. These similarities in the characteristics among nearby watersheds will enhance the usefulness of a model by improving the likelihood that parameter values from a previously modeled watershed could reliably be used in the creation of a model of another watershed in the same region. The software program Hydrological Simulation Program–Fortran (HSPF) was selected to simulate the hydrologic, sedimentary, and water-quality processes in these selected watersheds. HSPF is a versatile, process-based, continuous-simulation model that has been used extensively by the scientific community, has the ongoing technical support of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and USGS, and provides a means to evaluate the

  6. Legislation on Homelessness. Wisconsin Legislative Council Report No. 12 to the 1991 Legislature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Laura; Matthias, Mary

    The components of Wisconsin's 1991 Assembly Bill 680 that considers homelessness are discussed in this document. The Bill itself addresses: (1) surplus state lands; (2) transitional housing grants; (3) prevention of homelessness; (4) establishing a low-income housing income and franchise tax credit; (5) veterans lacking a permanent address; (6)…

  7. 78 FR 57501 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Amendments to Vehicle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... Definitions, NR 485.04 Motor vehicle emission limitations; exemptions, and NR 485.045 Repair cost limit for... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Amendments to Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance... Resources on June 7, 2012, concerning the state's vehicle inspection and maintenance (I/M) program in...

  8. 76 FR 26681 - Wisconsin: Incorporation by Reference of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... of Approved State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Hazardous Waste Management Programs,'' Wisconsin's authorized hazardous waste program. EPA will incorporate... that are authorized and that the EPA will enforce under the Solid Waste Disposal Act, commonly referred...

  9. 78 FR 34966 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Removal of Gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Removal of Gasoline Vapor Recovery From Southeast... specifically installed at gasoline dispensing facilities (GDF) and capture the refueling fuel vapors at the gasoline pump nozzle. The system carries the vapors back to the underground storage tank at the GDF to...

  10. Research Evidence and School Board Deliberations: Lessons from Three Wisconsin School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asen, Robert; Gurke, Deb; Conners, Pamela; Solomon, Ryan; Gumm, Elsa

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the use of research evidence in school-board deliberations in three school districts in Wisconsin. In these settings, the circulation, meaning, and function of research depended importantly on the interests and backgrounds of advocates, the composition of audiences, and the values and contexts of decision-making. Board…

  11. Influence of forest management alternatives and land type on susceptibility to fire in northern Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson; Patrick A. Zollner; Brian R. Sturtevant; S. He Hong; David J. Mladenoff

    2004-01-01

    We used the LANDIS disturbance and succession model to study the effects of six alternative vegetation management scenarios on forest succession and the subsequent risk of canopy fire on a 2791 km2 landscape in northern Wisconsin, USA. The study area is a mix of fire-prone and fire-resistant land types. The alternatives vary the spatial...

  12. Mechanisms of Termite Spread in Wisconsin and Potential Consequences as a Result of Changing Climate Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. A. Arango; F. III Green; G.R. Esenther; D.A. Marschalek; M.E. Berres; K.F. Raffa

    2014-01-01

    Mature colonies of Reticulitermes spp. reproduce and spread mainly by secondary (rather than alate) reproductives throughout their geographical distribution, but especially near the northern boundaries of their range. Historically in Wisconsin, winged reproductives of the one established species, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar),...

  13. How Productive Are Southeastern Wisconsin Schools? Regional Report. Volume 3, Number 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jeffrey K.; Lemke, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Public schools can be considered a form of workforce development, and thus it is important to measure the "work product" of the schools. The Public Policy Forum's annual analysis of public schools in the 50 districts serving southeastern Wisconsin measured absenteeism as educational opportunities lost because children were not in class.…

  14. 76 FR 63852 - Proposed Establishment of the Wisconsin Ledge Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ..., University of Wisconsin Press, 1965, page 281). The western portion of the proposed boundary line extends... grapevine growth (``General Viticulture,'' by Albert J. Winkler, University of California Press, 1974, pages... River National Wildlife Refuges. Finally, the petition adds that Horicon Ledge Park, Ledge View County...

  15. Consumer adoption and grid impact models for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    This proposed study focuses on assessing the demand for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in Wisconsin and its economic : impacts on the States energy market and the electric grid. PHEVs are expected to provide a range of about 40 miles per ...

  16. 75 FR 10309 - Wisconsin Statewide Habitat Conservation Plan for Karner Blue Butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... implementation of the HCP, which has become the normal way of doing business in Wisconsin. Partners and other... management that incidentally takes butterflies could not proceed. Vegetation succession would follow and the... normal business hours (8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.) at the Ecological Services Field Office in New Franken and at...

  17. Convective cells and their relationship to vortex diffusion in the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhardt, A.B.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is two-fold: first, to present floating potential structure for different plasmas and operating parameters in the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole. Second, to show how the observed potential structure can be used, within the framework of vortex diffusion, to account for enhanced diffusion in the appropriate parameter regimes

  18. 77 FR 38821 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin's Proposed Fee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ..., with the Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin (Tribe), the National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC), the... III gaming would be conducted inside the existing clubhouse until the new casino is built. The FEIS..., environmental justice, cumulative effects, indirect effects and mitigation. The BIA has afforded other...

  19. Restoring Wisconsin Art Therapy Association in Art Therapy History: Implications for Professional Definition and Inclusivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potash, Jordan; Burnie, Michele; Pearson, Rosemary; Ramirez, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    The Wisconsin Art Therapy Association (WATA), formally established in 1969, was the first incorporated organization of art therapists in the United States. Under the leadership of Wayne Ramirez, WATA lobbied the national association for an inclusive definition of art therapy that aimed to foster respect for psychiatric, educational, and community…

  20. Wisconsin timber industry--an assessment of timber product output and use, 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith; James W. Whipple

    1990-01-01

    Discusses recent Wisconsin forest industry trends; production and receipts of pulpwood, saw logs, and veneer logs; and production of other timber products in 1988. Reports on logging residue, on wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills, and on disposition of this mill residue.

  1. Creating Jobs through Energy Efficiency Using Wisconsin's Successful Focus on Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhtar, Masood; Corrigan, Edward; Reitter, Thomas

    2012-03-30

    The purpose of this project was to provide administrative and technical support for the completion of energy efficiency projects that reduce energy intensity and create or save Wisconsin industrial jobs. All projects have been completed. Details in the attached reports include project management, job development, and energy savings for each project.

  2. Waste Management in Universities and Colleges. Workshop Proceedings (Madison, Wisconsin, July 9-11, 1980).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Physical Plant Administrators of Universities and Colleges, Washington, DC.

    In response to a request from the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Region V of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored a workshop on waste management in universities and colleges. It consisted of four sessions: (1) managing general university waste and regulatory concerns; (2) chemical waste management; (3)…

  3. Valuable Work, Minimal Rewards: A Report on the Wisconsin Child Care Work Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Alice; And Others

    A 1994 state-wide survey examined the status of child care profession in Wisconsin. Surveyed were 326 family child care providers, 104 child care center directors, and 254 center teaching staff. Responses indicated that child care teaching staff have experienced a wage increase of just over 1 percent per year since 1988, and continue to earn low…

  4. Wisconsin System for Instructional Management: Terminal Operator Manual. Practical Paper No. 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, William C.; And Others

    The Wisconsin System for Instructional Management (WIS-SIM) is a computer managed instruction (CMI) system designed to improve instructional decision making in order to maximize the educational progress of each child while making efficient use of the available human, material, and financial resources within an organizational structure such as the…

  5. Research in the Doctoral Program in Second Language Acquisition at the University of Wisconsin-Madison

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Costa, Peter I.; Bernales, Carolina; Merrill, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Faculty and graduate students in the Doctoral Program in Second Language Acquisition (SLA) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison engage in a broad spectrum of research. From Professor Sally Magnan's research on study abroad and Professor Monika Chavez's work in foreign language policy through Professor Richard Young's examination of…

  6. A Descriptive Study of Wisconsin PK-12 Virtual Public School Program Operations and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banker, Margaret M.

    2012-01-01

    E-Learning as it pertains to public education is in its infancy in America. There is limited research on what operational design, development, and management attributes of virtual school programs foster student achievement. The Wisconsin Department of Instruction has not developed or adopted program standards for E-Learning programs. The purpose…

  7. Surface-water quality, Oneida Reservation and vicinity, Wisconsin, 1997-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Morgan A.; Scudder, Barbara C.; Richards, Kevin D.

    2000-01-01

    Streamwater samples were collected at 19 sites in the vicinity of the Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin Reservation. Samples were collected during 5 sampling periods in 1997-98. Field measurements were made and samples were analyzed for nutrients, suspended sediment, major ions, and pesticides.

  8. A comparison of Wisconsin neonatal intensive care units with national data on outcomes and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Erika W; Sadek-Badawi, Mona; Albanese, Aggie; Palta, Mari

    2008-11-01

    Improvements in neonatal care over the past 3 decades have increased survival of infants at lower birthweights and gestational ages. However, outcomes and practices vary considerably between hospitals. To describe maternal and infant characteristics, neonatal intensive care units (NICU) practices, morbidity, and mortality in Wisconsin NICUs, and to compare outcomes in Wisconsin to the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development network of large academic medical center NICUs. The Newborn Lung Project Statewide Cohort is a prospective observational study of all very low birthweight (< or =1500 grams) infants admitted during 2003 and 2004 to the 16 level III NICUs in Wisconsin. Anonymous data were collected for all admitted infants (N=1463). Major neonatal morbidities, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) were evaluated. The overall incidence of BPD was 24% (8%-56% between NICUs); IVH incidence was 23% (9%-41%); the incidence of NEC was 7% (0%-21%); and the incidence of grade III or higher ROP was 10% (0%-35%). The incidence rates of major neonatal morbidities in Wisconsin were similar to those of a national network of academic NICUs.

  9. Personality Characteristics and Level of Performance of Male County Extension Agents in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Dasharathrai Navnitrai

    The major purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between selected personality characteristics and attitudes of male extension agents in Wisconsin, and their level of job performance. The relationships between selected background factors and the level of agent's job performance were also studied. Subjects were 79 male county agents…

  10. 76 FR 14351 - Proposed Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria Applicable to Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... Proposed Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria Applicable to Wisconsin AGENCY... aquatic life water quality criteria for chronic and acute copper and nickel, and chronic endrin and...., Washington, DC 20460 or Francine Norling, Proposed Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality...

  11. The Sixties and the Cold War University: Madison, Wisconsin and the Development of the New Left

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The history of the sixties at the University of Wisconsin-Madison is both typical of other large universities in the United States and, at the same time, distinctive within the national and even international upheaval that marked the era. Madison's history shows how higher education transformed in the decades after World War II, influenced…

  12. Gay Men's Book Clubs versus Wisconsin's Public Libraries: Political Perceptions in the Absence of Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, John

    2010-01-01

    Because of an absence of dialogue, a tense relationship appears to exist between Wisconsin's gay men's book discussion groups and their local public libraries. Public library directors express interest in accommodating these groups if approached but face budget restrictions and local communities that may oppose these gatherings; gay men's book…

  13. Self Perceived Leadership Styles of Male and Female Superintendents in Wisconsin Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieckmann, Kelly Renée

    2016-01-01

    The number of female superintendents in Wisconsin public schools remains disproportionately low compared to males. With research supporting a connection between female leaders and transformational leadership, the question as to why more females do not enter the realm of leadership and how they see themselves as leaders remains unanswered. This…

  14. 76 FR 18261 - University of Wisconsin; Notice of Issuance of Renewed Facility License No. R-74

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... of Issuance of Renewed Facility License No. R-74 The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC, the Commission) has issued renewed Facility License No. R-74, held by the University of Wisconsin (the licensee... to 1.4% [Delta]k/k. The renewed Facility License No. R-74 will expire at midnight 20 years from its...

  15. Urban and community forests of the North Central East region: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2010-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry information for each state including human population characteristics and trends,...

  16. An Examination of Alternative Poverty Measures for the Wisconsin Equalization Aid Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, James G.

    1986-01-01

    Wisconsin's guaranteed tax base equalization formula has no direct adjustment for the additional costs of educating poverty level pupils. This paper establishes the need for an adjustment and examines three measures (based on varying poverty definitions) to determine which provides the most equitable funding formula for educating poor children. (9…

  17. 2 Dailies Battle for Readers and Advertisers in U. of Wisconsin Student-Newspaper War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschorn, Michael W.

    1987-01-01

    Two student newspapers at the University of Wisconsin at Madison are in fierce competition for readers and advertisers. A proposal of the Badger Herald, an 18-year-old conservative weekly, that the two merge their financial operations was rejected by the liberal Daily Cardinal and the newspaper war was on. (MLW)

  18. Using the index of biotic integrity (IBI) to measure environmental quality in warmwater streams of Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Lyons

    1992-01-01

    Describes an index based on attributes of fish assemblages that has proven effective in assessing biotic integrity and environmental health in intermediate-sized, warmwater (i.e., too warm for salmonids) streams and rivers of Wisconsin. Provides detailed guidelines for applying this index.

  19. 75 FR 32813 - St. Croix Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs St. Croix Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin...: This notice publishes the Secretary's certification of the amended St. Croix Chippewa Indians of... Country. The St. Croix Tribal Council of the adopted this amended Liquor Ordinance on December 3, 2009...

  20. Age Differences in Perseveration: Cognitive and Neuroanatomical Mediators of Performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Denise; Kennedy, Kristen M.; Rodrigue, Karen M.; Raz, Naftali

    2009-01-01

    Aging effects on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) are fairly well established but the mechanisms of the decline are not clearly understood. In this study, we examined the cognitive and neural mechanisms mediating age-related increases in perseveration on the WCST. MRI-based volumetry and measures of selected executive functions in…

  1. Using the Wisconsin-Ohio Reference Evaluation Program (WOREP) to Improve Training and Reference Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Eric; Rimland, Emily

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses a service quality study conducted in the Pennsylvania State University Libraries. The Wisconsin-Ohio Reference Evaluation Program survey was selected as a valid, standardized instrument. We present our results, highlighting the impact on reference training. A second survey a year later demonstrated that focusing on…

  2. Population Characteristics of Drunk Drivers Referred for Assessment in Two Wisconsin Counties 1981-1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnack, Anne M.

    1986-01-01

    Summarizes a study of Wisconsin's drunk driving law and evaluates the mandated alcohol assessment for convicted offenders. Findings indicated individuals operating while intoxicated remain young, male, unmarried, with high school educations. A substantial number of these persons were assessed with serious drinking problems. The strongest predictor…

  3. 77 FR 46952 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Regional Haze

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... July 31, 2018. Wisconsin submitted its regional haze plan on January 18, 2012, with a supplemental.... Response: In cases like this where a subject is addressed by both the general guidance in the draft... option at that time. Further, this approach does not require an election of one set of mass caps by July...

  4. 75 FR 34934 - Safety Zone; Fireworks for the Virginia Lake Festival, Buggs Island Lake, Clarksville, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Fireworks for the Virginia Lake Festival, Buggs Island Lake, Clarksville, VA AGENCY... Fireworks for the Virginia Lake Festival event. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic movement... Virginia Lake Festival, Buggs Island Lake, Clarksville, VA (a) Regulated Area. The following area is a...

  5. Holocene lake-level fluctuations of Lake Aricota, Southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placzek, C.; Quade, Jay; Betancourt, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Lacustrine deposits exposed around Lake Aricota, Peru (17?? 22???S), a 7.5-km2 lake dammed by debris flows, provide a middle to late Holocene record of lake-level fluctuations. Chronological context for shoreline deposits was obtained from radiocarbon dating of vascular plant remains and other datable material with minimal 14C reservoir effects (Titicaca (16?? S), which is only 130 km to the northeast and shares a similar climatology. Comparisons with other marine and terrestrial records highlight emerging contradictions over the nature of mid-Holocene climate in the central Andes. ?? 2001 University of Washington.

  6. A Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON) for synthesising high-frequency sensor data for validation of deterministic ecological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Hamilton P; Carey, Cayelan C.; Arvola, Lauri; Arzberger, Peter; Brewer, Carol A.; Cole, Jon J; Gaiser, Evelyn; Hanson, Paul C.; Ibelings, Bas W; Jennings, Eleanor; Kratz, Tim K; Lin, Fang-Pang; McBride, Christopher G.; de Motta Marques, David; Muraoka, Kohji; Nishri, Ami; Qin, Boqiang; Read, Jordan S.; Rose, Kevin C.; Ryder, Elizabeth; Weathers, Kathleen C.; Zhu, Guangwei; Trolle, Dennis; Brookes, Justin D

    2014-01-01

    A Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON; www.gleon.org) has formed to provide a coordinated response to the need for scientific understanding of lake processes, utilising technological advances available from autonomous sensors. The organisation embraces a grassroots approach to engage researchers from varying disciplines, sites spanning geographic and ecological gradients, and novel sensor and cyberinfrastructure to synthesise high-frequency lake data at scales ranging from local to global. The high-frequency data provide a platform to rigorously validate process- based ecological models because model simulation time steps are better aligned with sensor measurements than with lower-frequency, manual samples. Two case studies from Trout Bog, Wisconsin, USA, and Lake Rotoehu, North Island, New Zealand, are presented to demonstrate that in the past, ecological model outputs (e.g., temperature, chlorophyll) have been relatively poorly validated based on a limited number of directly comparable measurements, both in time and space. The case studies demonstrate some of the difficulties of mapping sensor measurements directly to model state variable outputs as well as the opportunities to use deviations between sensor measurements and model simulations to better inform process understanding. Well-validated ecological models provide a mechanism to extrapolate high-frequency sensor data in space and time, thereby potentially creating a fully 3-dimensional simulation of key variables of interest.

  7. Occurrence of Escherichia coli and Enterococci in Cladophora (Chlorophyta) in Nearshore Water and Beach Sand of Lake Michigan†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Richard L.; Shively, Dawn A.; Pawlik, Heather; Nevers, Meredith B.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.

    2003-01-01

    Each summer, the nuisance green alga Cladophora (mostly Cladophora glomerata) amasses along Lake Michigan beaches, creating nearshore anoxia and unsightly, malodorous mats that can attract problem animals and detract from visitor enjoyment. Traditionally, elevated counts of Escherichia coli are presumed to indicate the presence of sewage, mostly derived from nearby point sources. The relationship between fecal indicator bacteria and Cladophora remains essentially unstudied. This investigation describes the local and regional density of Escherichia coli and enterococci in Cladophora mats along beaches in the four states (Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, and Michigan) bordering Lake Michigan. Samples of Cladophora strands collected from 10 beaches (n = 41) were assayed for concentrations of E. coli and enterococci during the summer of 2002. Both E. coli and enterococci were ubiquitous (up to 97% occurrence), with overall log mean densities (± standard errors) of 5.3 (± 4.8) and 4.8 (± 4.5) per g (dry weight). E. coli and enterococci were strongly correlated in southern Lake Michigan beaches (P Cladophora mats stored at 4°C; the residual bacteria in the dried alga readily grew upon rehydration. These findings suggest that Cladophora amassing along the beaches of Lake Michigan may be an important environmental source of indicator bacteria and call into question the reliability of E. coli and enterococci as indicators of water quality for freshwater recreational beaches. PMID:12902262

  8. Occurrence of Escherichia coli and enterococci in Cladophora (Chlorophyta) in nearshore water and beach sand of Lake Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Richard L; Shively, Dawn A; Pawlik, Heather; Nevers, Meredith B; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N

    2003-08-01

    Each summer, the nuisance green alga Cladophora (mostly Cladophora glomerata) amasses along Lake Michigan beaches, creating nearshore anoxia and unsightly, malodorous mats that can attract problem animals and detract from visitor enjoyment. Traditionally, elevated counts of Escherichia coli are presumed to indicate the presence of sewage, mostly derived from nearby point sources. The relationship between fecal indicator bacteria and Cladophora remains essentially unstudied. This investigation describes the local and regional density of Escherichia coli and enterococci in Cladophora mats along beaches in the four states (Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, and Michigan) bordering Lake Michigan. Samples of Cladophora strands collected from 10 beaches (n = 41) were assayed for concentrations of E. coli and enterococci during the summer of 2002. Both E. coli and enterococci were ubiquitous (up to 97% occurrence), with overall log mean densities (+/- standard errors) of 5.3 (+/- 4.8) and 4.8 (+/- 4.5) per g (dry weight). E. coli and enterococci were strongly correlated in southern Lake Michigan beaches (P Cladophora mats stored at 4 degrees C; the residual bacteria in the dried alga readily grew upon rehydration. These findings suggest that Cladophora amassing along the beaches of Lake Michigan may be an important environmental source of indicator bacteria and call into question the reliability of E. coli and enterococci as indicators of water quality for freshwater recreational beaches.

  9. Forest blowdown and lake acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, J.E.; Rush, R.M.; Peplies, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    The authors examine the role of forest blowdown in lake acidification. The approach combines geographic information systems (GIS) and digital remote sensing with traditional field methods. The methods of analysis consist of direct observation, interpretation of satellite imagery and aerial photographs, and statistical comparison of two geographical distributions-one representing forest blow-down and another representing lake chemistry. Spatial and temporal associations between surface water pH and landscape disturbance are strong and consistent in the Adirondack Mountains of New York. In 43 Adirondack Mountain watersheds, lake pH is associated with the percentage of the watershed area blown down and with hydrogen ion deposition (Spearman rank correlation coefficients of -0.67 and -0.73, respectively). Evidence of a temporal association is found at Big Moose Lake and Jerseyfield Lake in New York and the Lygners Vider Plateau of Sweden. They conclude that forest blowdown facilities the acidification of some lakes by altering hydrologic pathways so that waters (previously acidified by acid deposition and/or other sources) do not experience the neutralization normally available through contact with subsurface soils and bedrock. Increased pipeflow is suggested as a mechanism that may link the biogeochemical impacts of forest blowdown to lake chemistry

  10. Compact fluorescent lighting in Wisconsin: elevated atmospheric emission and landfill deposition post-EISA implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, John D; Katers, John F

    2013-07-01

    The majority of states in the USA, including Wisconsin, have been affected by elevated air, soil and waterborne mercury levels. Health risks associated with mercury increase from the consumption of larger fish species, such as Walleye or Pike, which bio-accumulate mercury in muscle tissue. Federal legislation with the 2011 Mercury and Air Toxics Standards and the Wisconsin legislation on mercury, 2009 Wisconsin Act 44, continue to aim at lowering allowable levels of mercury emissions. Meanwhile, mercury-containing compact fluorescent lights (CFL) sales continue to grow as businesses and consumers move away from energy intensive incandescent light bulbs. An exchange in pollution media is occurring as airborne mercury emissions from coal-burning power plants, the largest anthropogenic source of mercury, are being reduced by lower energy demand and standards, while more universal solid waste containing mercury is generated each time a CFL is disposed. The treatment of CFLs as a 'universal waste' by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) led to the banning of non-household fluorescent bulbs from most municipal solid waste. Although the EPA encourages recycling of bulbs, industry currently recycles fluorescent lamps and CFLs at a rate of only 29%. Monitoring programs at the federal and state level have had only marginal success with industrial and business CFL recycling. The consumer recycling rate is even lower at only 2%. A projected increase in residential CFL use in Wisconsin owing to the ramifications of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 will lead to elevated atmospheric mercury and landfill deposition in Wisconsin.

  11. The green alga, Cladophora, promotes Escherichia coli growth and contamination of recreational waters in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuvel, A.V.; McDermott, C.; Pillsbury, R.; Sandrin, T.; Kinzelman, J.; Ferguson, J.; Sadowsky, M.; Byappanahalli, M.; Whitman, R.; Kleinheinz, G.T.

    2010-01-01

    A linkage between Cladophora mats and exceedances of recreational water quality criteria has been suggested, but not directly studied. Th is study investigates the spatial and temporal association between Escherichia coli concentrations within and near Cladophora mats at two northwestern Lake Michigan beaches in Door County, Wisconsin. Escherichia coli concentrations in water underlying mats were significantly greater than surrounding water (p bacterial pathogens, however, could not be detected by microbiological culture methods either attached to mat biomass or in underlying water. Removal of Cladophora mats from beach areas may improve aesthetic and microbial water quality at affected beaches. These associations and potential natural growth of E. coli in bathing waters call into question the efficacy of using E. coli as a recreational water quality indicator of fecal contaminations. Copyright ?? 2010 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  12. The green alga, Cladophora, promotes Escherichia coli growth and contamination of recreational waters in Lake Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Heuvel, Amy; McDermott, Colleen; Pillsbury, Robert; Sandrin, Todd; Kinzelman, Julie; Ferguson, John; Sadowsky, Michael; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Whitman, Richard; Kleinheinz, Gregory T

    2010-01-01

    A linkage between Cladophora mats and exceedances of recreational water quality criteria has been suggested, but not directly studied. This study investigates the spatial and temporal association between Escherichia coli concentrations within and near Cladophora mats at two northwestern Lake Michigan beaches in Door County, Wisconsin. Escherichia coli concentrations in water underlying mats were significantly greater than surrounding water (p Cladophora mats had lower E. coli concentrations, but surpassed EPA swimming criteria the majority of sampling days. A significant positive association was found between E. coli concentrations attached to Cladophora and in underlying water (p Cladophora mats from beach areas may improve aesthetic and microbial water quality at affected beaches. These associations and potential natural growth of E. coli in bathing waters call into question the efficacy of using E. coli as a recreational water quality indicator of fecal contaminations.

  13. Drugged Driving in Wisconsin: Oral Fluid Versus Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lorrine D; Smith, Katherine L; Savage, Theodore

    2017-07-01

    A pilot project was conducted in Dane County, Wisconsin, to evaluate the frequency of individuals driving under the influence of drugs (DUID). Evidentiary blood specimens, collected from subjects arrested for Operating While Intoxicated (OWI), were compared to oral fluid (OF) results obtained with the Alere DDS2®, a handheld screening device. The project objectives were to evaluate (i) the Alere DDS2® for use by police officers in the field, (ii) the frequency of individuals DUID and drugs combined with alcohol among OWI cases, (iii) the differences between detecting drugs in OF and in blood, and (iv) the effect of the laboratory drug testing cancellation policy (LCP) when the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) exceeds 0.100 g/100 mL. Following the arrest and collection of blood, subjects were asked to voluntarily participate in the project and provide an OF specimen. The OF was presumptively screened with the Alere DDS2® for six drug categories including (ng/mL) amphetamine (50), benzodiazepines (temazepam, 20), cocaine (benzoylecgonine, 30), methamphetamine (50), opioids (morphine, 40) and THC (delta-9-THC, 25). Results obtained with the OF screening instrument were not confirmed. A total of 104 subjects (22 female, 82 male), ages 18-72, were included in the project. Blood specimens were tested by gas chromatography-headspace (GCHS-FID) for volatiles, enzyme immunoassay (Siemens Viva-E Drug Testing System), and an alkaline basic drug screen with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis. To compensate for differences between the EIA and the Alere DDS2® drug categories, results from the enzyme immunoassay and the alkaline basic drug screen were combined for purposes of comparing OF to blood. Seventy-six of 104 (73%) subjects arrested for OWI were driving under the influence of alcohol; 71 of the 76 had a BAC exceeding 0.10 g/100 mL. Subjects with a BAC exceeding the LCP, screened positive for drugs in both OF (n = 29) and blood (n = 28). Overall, one

  14. Microplastics in Taihu Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lei; Xue, Yingang; Li, Lingyun; Yang, Dongqi; Kolandhasamy, Prabhu; Li, Daoji; Shi, Huahong

    2016-09-01

    In comparison with marine environments, the occurrence of microplastics in freshwater environments is less understood. In the present study, we investigated microplastic pollution levels during 2015 in Taihu Lake, the third largest Chinese lake located in one of the most developed areas of China. The abundance of microplastics reached 0.01 × 10(6)-6.8 × 10(6) items/km(2) in plankton net samples, 3.4-25.8 items/L in surface water, 11.0-234.6 items/kg dw in sediments and 0.2-12.5 items/g ww in Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea). The average abundance of microplastics was the highest in plankton net samples from the southeast area of the lake and in the sediments from the northwest area of the lake. The northwest area of the lake was the most heavily contaminated area of the lake, as indicated by chlorophyll-α and total phosphorus. The microplastics were dominated by fiber, 100-1000 μm in size and cellophane in composition. To our best knowledge, the microplastic levels measured in plankton net samples collected from Taihu Lake were the highest found in freshwater lakes worldwide. The ratio of the microplastics in clams to each sediment sample ranged from 38 to 3810 and was negatively correlated to the microplastic level in sediments. In brief, our results strongly suggest that high levels of microplastics occurred not only in water but also in organisms in Taihu Lake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Lakes - USACE IENC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These inland electronic Navigational charts (IENCs) were developed from available data used in maintenance of Navigation channels. Users of these IENCs should be...

  16. Key Lake spill. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    On January 5, 1984 contaminated water overflowed a storage reservoir at the Key Lake uranium mill onto the ice on a neighboring lake, into a muskeg area and onto a road. Outflow continued for two days, partially undercutting a retaining dyke. This report concludes the spill was the result of poor operation by the Key Lake Mining Corp.. The environmental impact will be minimal after cleanup. Improvements can be made in the regulatory process, and it is necessary to prepare for possible future mishaps

  17. Could Methane Oxidation in Lakes Be Enhanced by Eutrophication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Grinsven, S.; Villanueva, L.; Harrison, J.; S Sinninghe Damsté, J.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change and eutrophication both affect aquatic ecosystems. Eutrophication is caused by high nutrient inputs, leading to algal blooms, oxygen depletion and disturbances of the natural balances in aquatic systems. Methane, a potent greenhouse gas produced biologically by anaerobic degradation of organic matter, is often released from the sediments of lakes and marine systems to overlying water and the atmosphere. Methane oxidation, a microbial methane consumption process, can limit methane emission from lakes and reservoirs by 50-80%. Here, we studied methane oxidation in a seasonally stratified reservoir: Lacamas Lake in Washington, USA. We found this lake has a large summer storage capacity of methane in its deep water layer, with a very active microbial community capable of oxidizing exceptionally high amounts of methane. The natural presence of terminal electron acceptors is, however, too low to support these high potential rates. Addition of eutrophication-related nutrients such as nitrate and sulfate increased the methane removal rates by 4 to 7-fold. The microbial community was studied using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and preliminary results indicate the presence of a relatively unknown facultative anaerobic methane oxidizer of the genus Methylomonas, capable of using nitrate as an electron donor. Experiments in which anoxic and oxic conditions were rapidly interchanged showed this facultative anaerobic methane oxidizer has an impressive flexibility towards large, rapid changes in environmental conditions and this feature might be key to the unexpectedly high methane removal rates in eutrophied and anoxic watersheds.

  18. 2010 Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Bathymetric Lidar: Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data contained in this file contain hydrographic and topographic data collected by the Fugro LADS Mk II system along the Lake Superior coast of Minnessota,...

  19. Pleistocene glaciers, lakes, and floods in north-central Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitt, Richard B.; Haugerud, Ralph A.; Kelsey, Harvey M.

    2017-01-01

    The Methow, Chelan, Wenatchee, and other terrane blocks accreted in late Mesozoic to Eocene times. Methow valley is excavated in an exotic terrane of folded Mesozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks faulted between crystalline blocks. Repeated floods of Columbia River Basalt about 16 Ma drowned a backarc basin to the southeast. Cirques, aretes, and U-shaped hanging troughs brand the Methow, Skagit, and Chelan headwaters. The Late Wisconsin Cordilleran icesheet beveled the alpine topography and deposited drift. Cordilleran ice flowed into the heads of Methow tributaries and overflowed from Skagit tributaries to greatly augment Chelan trough's glacier. Joined Okanogan and Methow ice flowed down Columbia valley and up lower Chelan trough. This tongue met the icesheet tongue flowing southeast down Chelan valley. Successively lower ice-marginal channels and kame terraces show that the icesheet withered away largely by downwasting. Immense late Wisconsin floods from glacial Lake Missoula occasionally swept the Chelan-Vantage reach of Columbia valley by different routes. The earliest debacles, nearly 19,000 cal yr BP (by radiocarbon methods), raged 335 m deep down the Columbia and built high Pangborn bar at Wenatchee. As Cordilleran ice blocked the northwest of Columbia valley, several giant floods descended Moses Coulee and backflooded up the Columbia. As advancing ice then blocked Moses Coulee, Grand Coulee to Quincy basin became the westmost floodway. From Quincy basin many Missoula floods backflowed 50 km upvalley past Wenatchee 18,000 to 15,500 years ago. Receding ice dammed glacial Lake Columbia centuries more--till it burst about 15,000 years ago. After Glacier Peak ashfall about 13,600 years ago, smaller great flood(s) swept down the Columbia from glacial Lake Kootenay in British Columbia. A cache of huge fluted Clovis points had been laid atop Pangborn bar (East Wenatchee) after the Glacier Peak ashfall. Clovis people came two and a half millennia after the last

  20. Jordan Lake Watershed Protection District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Polygon representing the area of the Jordan Lake Watershed Protection District. The Watershed Protection District (PDF) is a sensitive area of land that drains to...

  1. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NOAA-GLERL and its partners conduct innovative research on the dynamic environments and ecosystems of the Great Lakes and coastal regions to provide information for...

  2. Paleosecular variations from lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, S.P.; Banerjee, S.K.

    1979-01-01

    Data are presented on the secular variations of the magnetization of wet and dry lake sediments for 17 North American locations. The usefullness of this data in terms of the geomagnetic field is discussed

  3. Spatial distribution of seepage at a flow-through lake: Lake Hampen, Western Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kidmose, Jacob Baarstrøm; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard; Nilsson, Bertel

    2011-01-01

    recharge patiern of the lake and relating these to the geologic history of the lake. Recharge of the surrounding aquifer by lake water occurs off shore in a narrow zone, as measured from lake–groundwater gradients. A 33-m-deep d18O profi le at the recharge side shows a lake d18O plume at depths...... that corroborates the interpretation of lake water recharging off shore and moving down gradient. Inclusion of lake bed heterogeneity in the model improved the comparison of simulated and observed discharge to the lake. The apparent age of the discharging groundwater to the lake was determined by CFCs, resulting...

  4. Can small zooplankton mix lakes?

    OpenAIRE

    Simoncelli, S.; Thackeray, S.J.; Wain, D.J.

    2017-01-01

    The idea that living organisms may contribute to turbulence and mixing in lakes and oceans (biomixing) dates to the 1960s, but has attracted increasing attention in recent years. Recent modeling and experimental studies suggest that marine organisms can enhance turbulence as much as winds and tides in oceans, with an impact on mixing. However, other studies show opposite and contradictory results, precluding definitive conclusions regarding the potential importance of biomixing. For lakes, on...

  5. Lake Turkana National Parks Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Lake Turkana is the largest, most northerly and most saline of Africa's Rift Valley lakes and an outstanding laboratory for the study of plant and animal communities. The three National Parks are a stopover for migrant waterfowl and are major breeding grounds for the Nile crocodile and hippopotamus. The Koobi Fora deposits are rich in pre-human, mammalian, molluscan and other fossil remains and have contributed more to the understanding of Quaternary palaeoenvironments than any other site on ...

  6. Radiocarbon dating of lake sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Pocevičius, Matas

    2016-01-01

    Matas Pocevičius, Radiocarbon dating of lake sediments, bachelor thesis, Vilnius University, Faculty of Physics, Department of General Physics and Spectroscopy, physics, Vilnius, 45 p., 2016. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possibility of radiocarbon dating application for Tapeliai lake bottom sediments. The literature review discusses topics related to accelerator mass spectrometry, principles of radiocarbon formation, importance of nuclear fallout for 14C, possible applications of ...

  7. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the University of Wisconsin Ice Island T3 Core Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1963 to 1972, 349 piston cores were collected from the Arctic Ocean using Ice Island T3 as a sampling platform and sent to the University of Wisconsin-Madison...

  8. Similar performance of Brasfield and Wisconsin scoring systems in young children with cystic fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleveland, Robert H.; Stamoulis, Catherine [Boston Children' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Sawicki, Gregory S. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Division of Respiratory Diseases, Department of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-10-15

    To assess the severity of lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF), scoring systems based on chest radiographs (CXRs), CT and MRI have been used extensively, although primarily in research settings rather than for clinical purposes. It has recently been shown that those based on CXRs (primarily the Brasfield and Wisconsin systems) are as sensitive and valid as those based on CT. The reproducibility and correlation of both systems to pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were recently investigated and were found to be statistically identical. However, the relative performance of these systems has not been specifically assessed in children younger than 5 years old with mild lung disease, a critical age range in which PFTs is rarely performed. To investigate and compare the performance of the Brasfield and Wisconsin systems in children 0-5 years old with predominantly mild lung disease. Fifty-five patients 0-5 years old with 105 CXRs were included in the study. Given that the goal was to compare system performance in mild disease, only the first two CXRs from each patient were included (all but five patients had two images). When only one image was available in the target age range, it only was included. Agreement between the Brasfield and Wisconsin systems was assessed using a 2X2 contingency table assuming binary classification of CF lung disease using CXR scoring systems (mild vs. non-mild). In the absence of PFTs or another external gold standard for comparison, the Wisconsin system was used as an arbitrary gold standard against which the Brasfield was compared. Correlation between the two systems was assessed via a concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) for repeated measures. Scores were rated as mild or non-mild based on published numerical cutoffs for each system. The systems agreed on 89/105 (85%) and disagreed on 16/105 (15%) of the CXRs. Agreement between the two systems was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Relative sensitivity and specificity of the

  9. Continuing the promise: Recruiting and preparing Hmong-American educators for Central Wisconsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie McClain-Ruelle

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The state of Wisconsin, and in the broader context, the middle states of the United States experienced a large influx of Hmong families starting in the early 1980’s and into the 1990’s. With this influx a large number of young, Southeast Asian children entered the PK-12 classrooms, often with the support of bilingual aides. While many of the children flourished within this newer context, they were mostly guided in their classrooms by white, Anglo educators. Although theseeducators work to meet the needs of all children, there were few to no Hmong educators working with these same children in the PK-12 setting. At the same time, a number of Hmong young adults were serving as bilingual aides in these classrooms. Project Forward, a federally funded Title VII grant, has worked to create a shift in these roles, preparing Hmong college students to become educators in the PK-12 settings. In 1999, Central Wisconsin enrolled approximately3,200 Hmong children in the PK-12 schools; at the same time, Central Wisconsin employed merely seven Hmong teachers in the classrooms. The goal of the grant program described in this paper is to prepare teachers of Southeast Asian background for early childhood, elementary, secondary and K-12 classrooms. The Central Wisconsin grant has supported a total of 35 Southeast Asian students in their pursuit of teaching careers. Fulfilling the goal of preparingteachers who can serve as role models for Southeast Asian children in our schools has met with successes and struggles. This article presents consideration of the central factors affectingrecruitment, retention and preparation of Hmong pre-service teachers in Central Wisconsin. The article includes a brief historical examination of the immigration of the Hmong population intothe United States, a consideration of the Hmong culture as it affects recruitment and retention of pre-service teachers and evidence related to successes and struggles experienced by Project

  10. A preliminary magnetic study of Sawa lake sediments, Southern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, Nawrass

    2016-04-01

    A preliminary magnetic study combined with chemical analyses was carried out in Sawa Lake in Al-Muthanna province, southern Iraq, about 22 km south west of Samawa city (31°18'48.80"N, 45°0'25.25"E). The lake is about 4.74 km length, 1.75 km width and 5.5 m height, it is surrounded by a salt rim which is higher than the lake water by about 2.8 m and sea water by about 18.5 m (Naqash et al., 1977 in Hassan, 2007). The lake is an elongated closed basin with no surface water available to it, it may be fed by groundwater of the Euphrates and Dammam aquifers through system of joints and cracks. This study aims to investigate the concentrations of selected heavy metals as pollutants and magnetic susceptibility (MS) and other magnetic properties of sediment samples from fifty sites collected from the bottom of the lake, the study area lies in an industrial area. The results show spatial variations of MS with mean value of about 4.58 x 10-8 m3 kg-1. Scanning electron microscopy and magnetic mineralogy parameters indicate the dominance of soft magnetic phase like magnetite and presence of hard magnetic phase like hematite. Spatial variations of MS combined with the concentrations of heavy metals suggests the efficiency of magnetic methods as effective, inexpensive and non-time consuming method to outlining the heavy metal pollution. References: Hassan W.F., 2007. The Physio-chemical characteristic of Sawa lake water in Samawa city-Iraq. Marine Mesopotamica, 22(2), 167-179.

  11. Aquatic macrophyte richness in Danish lakes in relation to alkalinity, transparency, and lake area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Ole Skafte; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2000-01-01

    We examined the relationship between environmental factors and the richness of submerged macrophytes species in 73 Danish lakes, which are mainly small, shallow, and have mesotrophic to hypertrophic conditions. We found that mean species richness per lake was only 4.5 in acid lakes of low...... alkalinity but 12.3 in lakes of high alkalinity due to a greater occurrence of the species-rich group of elodeids. Mean species richness per lake also increased significantly with increasing Secchi depth. No significant relationship between species richness and lake surface area was observed among the entire...... group of lakes or a subset of eutrophic lakes, as the growth of submerged macrophytes in large lakes may be restricted by wave action in shallow water and light restriction in deep water. In contrast, macrophyte species richness increased with lake surface area in transparent lakes, presumably due...

  12. Effects of lake trout refuges on lake whitefish and cisco in the Apostle Islands Region of Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccarino-Crowe , Chiara M.; Taylor, William W.; Hansen, Michael J.; Seider, Michael J.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Lake trout refuges in the Apostle Islands region of Lake Superior are analogous to the concept of marine protected areas. These refuges, established specifically for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and closed to most forms of recreational and commercial fishing, were implicated as one of several management actions leading to successful rehabilitation of Lake Superior lake trout. To investigate the potential significance of Gull Island Shoal and Devils Island Shoal refuges for populations of not only lake trout but also other fish species, relative abundances of lake trout, lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), and cisco (Coregonus artedi) were compared between areas sampled inside versus outside of refuge boundaries. During 1982–2010, lake trout relative abundance was higher and increased faster inside the refuges, where lake trout fishing was prohibited, than outside the refuges. Over the same period, lake whitefish relative abundance increased faster inside than outside the refuges. Both evaluations provided clear evidence that refuges protected these species. In contrast, trends in relative abundance of cisco, a prey item of lake trout, did not differ significantly between areas inside and outside the refuges. This result did not suggest indirect or cascading refuge effects due to changes in predator levels. Overall, this study highlights the potential of species-specific refuges to benefit other fish species beyond those that were the refuges' original target. Improved understanding of refuge effects on multiple species of Great Lakes fishes can be valuable for developing rationales for refuge establishment and predicting associated fish community-level effects.

  13. Brasfield and Wisconsin scoring systems have equal value as outcome assessment tools of cystic fibrosis lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleveland, Robert H.; Stamoulis, Catherine; Sawicki, Gregory; Kelliher, Emma; Wood, Christopher; Zurakowski, David; Lee, Edward [Boston Children' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Zucker, Evan J. [Tufts Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Several imaging-based scoring systems have been used as outcome measures in assessing the severity of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. It has been shown that chest radiography performs equally to computed tomography (CT). There is the opinion that of the two most commonly used chest radiograph (CXR) systems, the Brasfield system is less sensitive and reliable than the Wisconsin system. This report assesses the reproducibility and reliability of the two systems. Thirty patients with CXRs during a 5-year period were randomly selected. One hundred eighty-two studies had data for all CXRs and pulmonary function tests (PFTs), Forced Expiratory Volume in One Second (FEV-1) and Forced Vital Capacity (FVC). PFT values closest to the date of each CXR were recorded. Four radiologists scored each image twice by both the Brasfield and Wisconsin systems. Intra- and inter-rater reliability, correlation with PFTs and direct correlation of the two systems were calculated. Intra-rater agreement: r = 0.86-0.99 Brasfield, r = 0.78-0.96 Wisconsin. Inter-rater agreement: 0.76-0.90 Brasfield, r = 0.74-0.97 Wisconsin. Brasfield vs. FEV-1: r = 0.55, vs. FVC r = 0.61. Wisconsin vs. FEV-1: r = 0.57, vs. FVC r = 0.66. Correlation of the two systems: r = 0.86 (all P < 0.001). The Brasfield and Wisconsin systems performed very similarly providing equally reproducible, robust and reliable measures. (orig.)

  14. Gray wolf exposure to emerging vector-borne diseases in Wisconsin with comparison to domestic dogs and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Rocio F.; Wydeven, Adrian P.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    World-wide concern over emerging vector-borne diseases has increased in recent years for both animal and human health. In the United Sates, concern about vector-borne diseases in canines has focused on Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and heartworm which infect domestic and wild canids. Of these diseases, Lyme and anaplasmosis are also frequently diagnosed in humans. Gray wolves (Canis lupus) recolonized Wisconsin in the 1970s, and we evaluated their temporal and geographic patterns of exposure to these four vector-borne diseases in Wisconsin as the population expanded between 1985 and 2011. A high proportion of the Wisconsin wolves were exposed to the agents that cause Lyme (65.6%) and anaplasma (47.7%), and a smaller proportion to ehrlichiosis (5.7%) and infected with heartworm (9.2%). Wolf exposure to tick borne diseases was consistently higher in older animals. Wolf exposure was markedly higher than domestic dog (Canis familiaris) exposure for all 4 disease agents during 2001–2013. We found a cluster of wolf exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi in northwestern Wisconsin, which overlaps human and domestic dog clusters for the same pathogen. In addition, wolf exposure to Lyme disease in Wisconsin has increased, corresponding with the increasing human incidence of Lyme disease in a similar time period. Despite generally high prevalence of exposure none of these diseases appear to have slowed the growth of the Wisconsin wolf population.

  15. Gray Wolf Exposure to Emerging Vector-Borne Diseases in Wisconsin with Comparison to Domestic Dogs and Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio F Jara

    Full Text Available World-wide concern over emerging vector-borne diseases has increased in recent years for both animal and human health. In the United Sates, concern about vector-borne diseases in canines has focused on Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and heartworm which infect domestic and wild canids. Of these diseases, Lyme and anaplasmosis are also frequently diagnosed in humans. Gray wolves (Canis lupus recolonized Wisconsin in the 1970s, and we evaluated their temporal and geographic patterns of exposure to these four vector-borne diseases in Wisconsin as the population expanded between 1985 and 2011. A high proportion of the Wisconsin wolves were exposed to the agents that cause Lyme (65.6% and anaplasma (47.7%, and a smaller proportion to ehrlichiosis (5.7% and infected with heartworm (9.2%. Wolf exposure to tick borne diseases was consistently higher in older animals. Wolf exposure was markedly higher than domestic dog (Canis familiaris exposure for all 4 disease agents during 2001-2013. We found a cluster of wolf exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi in northwestern Wisconsin, which overlaps human and domestic dog clusters for the same pathogen. In addition, wolf exposure to Lyme disease in Wisconsin has increased, corresponding with the increasing human incidence of Lyme disease in a similar time period. Despite generally high prevalence of exposure none of these diseases appear to have slowed the growth of the Wisconsin wolf population.

  16. Changes in Rongbuk lake and Imja lake in the Everest region of Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Doko, T.; Liu, C.; Ichinose, T.; Fukui, H.; Feng, Q.; Gou, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Himalaya holds the world record in terms of range and elevation. It is one of the most extensively glacierized regions in the world except the Polar Regions. The Himalaya is a region sensitive to climate change. Changes in the glacial regime are indicators of global climate changes. Since the second half of the last century, most Himalayan glaciers have melted due to climate change. These changes directly affected the changes of glacial lakes in the Himalayan region due to the glacier retreat. New glacial lakes are formed, and a number of them have expanded in the Everest region of the Himalayas. This paper focuses on the two glacial lakes which are Imja Lake, located at the southern slope, and Rongbuk Lake, located at the northern slope in the Mt. Everest region, Himalaya to present the spatio-temporal changes from 1976 to 2008. Topographical conditions between two lakes were different (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.05). Rongbuk Lake was located at 623 m higher than Imja Lake, and radiation of Rongbuk Lake was higher than the Imja Lake. Although size of Imja Lake was larger than the Rongbuk Lake in 2008, the growth speed of Rongbuk Lake was accelerating since 2000 and exceeds Imja Lake in 2000-2008. This trend of expansion of Rongbuk Lake is anticipated to be continued in the 21st century. Rongbuk Lake would be the biggest potential risk of glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) at the Everest region of Himalaya in the future.

  17. Spruce Lake Dam reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, G. [SGE Acres Ltd., Fredericton, NB (Canada); Barnard, J. [SGE Acres Ltd., St. John' s, NF (Canada); Vriezen, C. [City of Saint John, NF (Canada); Stephenson, M. [Jacques Whitford Environment Ltd., Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    2004-09-01

    Spruce Lake Dam was constructed in 1898 as part of the water supply system for Saint John, New Brunswick. The original dam was a 6 meter high, 140 meter long concrete gravity dam with an intake structure at its mid point and an overflow spillway at the left abutment. A rehabilitation project was launched in 2001 to bring the deteriorated dam into conformance with the dam safety guidelines of the Canadian Dam Association. The project criteria included minimal disruption to normal operation of water supply facilities and no negative effect on water quality. The project involved installation of a new low level outlet, removal of a gate house and water intake pipes, replacement of an access road culvert in the spillway channel, and raising the earth dam section by 1.8 meters to allow for increased water storage. The new raised section has an impervious core. The project also involved site and geotechnical investigations as well as hydrotechnical and environmental studies. This presentation described the final design of the remedial work and the environmental permitting procedures. Raising the operating level of the system proved successful as demonstrated by the fewer number of pumping days required after dam rehabilitation. The dam safety assessment under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act began in April 2001, and the rehabilitation was completed by the end of 2002. 1 tab., 8 figs.

  18. Spray Lakes reclamation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacaruk, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    When the level of the Spray Lakes (Alberta) reservoir was lowered by four metres, 208 ha of shoreline was exposed offering little to no wildlife benefit and only limited recreation potential. A reclamation plan for 128 ha of shoreline was therefore developed. A wild life-palatable, self-sustaining vegetation cover was established. Approximately 90 ha was scarified, and/or had tree stumps removed prior to seeding, while approximately 40 ha was seeded and fertilized only. The remaining 80 ha of shoreline was not revegetated due to limited access; these areas will be allowed to re-establish naturally from the forested edge. The species were selected based on their adaptation to alkaline soils, drought tolerance, persistence in a stand and rooting characteristics, as well as palatability to wildlife. Alfalfa, white clover and fall rye were seeded. In general, all areas of the reclamation plan are successfully revegetated. Areas which were recontoured are stable and non-eroding. Success was most significant in areas which had been scarified, then seeded and trackpacked. Areas that were seeded and fertilized only were less well established at the end of the first year, but showed improvement in the second and third years. The area will be monitored to ensure the reclaimed vegetation is self-sustaining

  19. Wisconsin health practice rebrands image with "life has its moments" campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Wisconsin's largest healthcare system has 41 clinics throughout the state and offers a variety of services, from women's health to oncology. Maintaining a consistent brand message in a large organization with so many product lines requires constant marketing to ensure consumer awareness. To that end, Marshfield Clinic recently launched an effort to revitalize its brand and spread its message, through television spots, print ads, and billboards.

  20. Losses due to weather phenomena in the bituminous concrete construction industry in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, H. A. J.

    1973-01-01

    The losses (costs) due to weather phenomena as they affect the bituminous concrete industry in Wisconsin were studied. The bituminous concrete industry's response to precipitation, in the form of rain, is identified through the use of a model, albeit crude, which identifies a typical industry decision-response mechanism. Using this mechanism, historical weather data and 1969 construction activity, dollar losses resulting from rain occurrences were developed.

  1. Risk analysis and guidelines for harvest activities in wisconsin oak timberlands to minimize oak wilt threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Juzwik; Jane Cummings-Carlson; Kyoko Scanlon

    2010-01-01

    Oaks (Quercus spp.) are an important species group in the forests of Wisconsin. The State’s timberland typed as oak-hickory forest was estimated at 2.9 million acres in 1996. Growing stock volume for red oak was estimated at 2.4 billion cubic feet, whereas select white oak volume was estimated to be 927 million cubic feet. Oak wilt, the oak disease...

  2. Wisconsin Partnerships to Educate and Engage Public Audiences on Climate Change Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, M. E.; Ackerman, S.; Rowley, P.; Crowley Conn, K.

    2011-12-01

    The complexity and scale of climate change-related challenges requires more than one strategy to share meaningful information with public audiences. This presentation will discuss a few initiatives to engage the public originating from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. First, a local partnership between the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) and the Aldo Leopold Nature Center (ALNC), an informal learning center with a new climate change "classroom" which recently acquired a Science on a Sphere (SOS) exhibit. Second, an informal education project funded by the NOAA Office of Education coordinated by CIMSS in partnership with the national SOS Network with the goal of helping museum docents share meaningful interpretation of real-time weather and climate data. CIMSS staff has been conducting weather and climate discussions on a Magic Planet display for several years. This "mini-SOS" is powered by a solar panel on the roof, modeling the essential Sun-Earth connection and the first principle of climate literacy. However, the convenient proximity of CIMSS and ALNC provides a perfect opportunity to test "SOS-scale" talking points posted on a weekly docent blog to the benefit of the entire SOS Network. Two other Wisconsin projects of note include the Wisconsin Initiative on Climate Change Impacts, a partnership between the University and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, and a pilot project between CIMSS and NOAA's National Weather Service to engage storm spotters in climate mitigation and stewardship. Ideally, the synergistic benefits and lessons learned from these collaborations can inform similar efforts in order to galvanize meaningful responses to climate change.

  3. University of Wisconsin, Nuclear Reactor Laboratory. Annual report, 1985-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashwell, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Operational activities for the reactor are described concerning nuclear engineering classes from the University of Wisconsin; reactor sharing program; utility personnel training; sample irradiations and neutron activation analysis; and changes in personnel, facility, and procedures. Results of surveillance tests are presented for operating statistics and fuel exposure; emergency shutdowns and inadvertent scrams; maintenance; radioactive waste disposal; radiation exposures; environmental surveys; and publications and presentations on work based on reactor use

  4. Solar project description for Zien Mechanical Contractors-I single family residence, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, D.

    1980-02-01

    The Zien Mechanical site is a single family residence located in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The home has two separate solar energy systems: an air system for space heating and cooling; a liquid system to preheat the potable hot water. The space heating and cooling system design and operation modes are described. The space heating system is designed to apply approximately 44 percent of the space heating requirements for the 1388 square foot residence. Engineering drawings are provided and the performance evaluation instrumentation is described.

  5. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  6. Improving Outreach and Surveillance Efforts Following a Large-Scale Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Paul D; Vogt, Christy M; Wozniak, Ryan J; Camponeschi, Jenny; Werner, Mark A; Meiman, Jonathan G

    In December 2014, the largest carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in Wisconsin's history occurred at an ice arena. Following this event, the Wisconsin Environmental Public Health Tracking (WI EPHT) Program sought to improve outreach and surveillance efforts. WI EPHT designed and distributed educational materials on CO poisoning prevention and surveyed stakeholders to gauge the effectiveness of outreach efforts. To enhance surveillance, WI EPHT utilized data from the Wisconsin Poison Center (WPC) to generate real-time alerts of anomalous numbers of CO-related calls. WI EPHT found that 42% of stakeholders reviewed the outreach materials, and 1 ice arena had installed a CO detector as a result. CO alerts were developed using WPC data and are now routinely used in statewide public health surveillance. WI EPHT staff improved CO poisoning prevention outreach and saw a positive response among stakeholders. This work demonstrates ways that health agencies can improve outreach and surveillance for CO poisoning. Improvements in these areas can bolster public health response and may prevent CO-related illness and injury.

  7. The burden of suicide and homicide of Wisconsin's children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffler, Thomas; Hargarten, Stephen W; Withers, Richard L

    2005-01-01

    To describe the epidemiology of violent deaths (suicides and homicides) of children and youth in Wisconsin. Linked data from death certificates, coroners or medical examiners, Uniform Crime Reports, police case reports and crime laboratories were analyzed using SPSS 11.5. Analyses from 2000 to 2002 describe suicides and homicides of children and youth under age 25. Rates are per 100,000 population per year. A total of 585 persons under age 25 in Wisconsin died from suicide or homicide during 2000--2002. Suicides outnumbered homicides 323 (55%) to 262 (45%). Firearms were involved in 59% (n=344) of cases. Fatality rates increased with advancing age, ranging from 2.0 in 0-13 year olds to 26.9 in youth age 21-24. There were over twice as many violent deaths compared to cancer and infectious disease deaths combined (n=253). Suicides and homicides are a significant burden on the children and youth of Wisconsin. An investment in reducing this burden requires comprehensive data and informed programs and policies. We recommend that physicians and public health community leaders collaborate with the criminal justice community and policy makers to develop, implement, and evaluate prevention programs and policies.

  8. The reproduction of lake trout in southern Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschmeyer, Paul H.

    1955-01-01

    The principal spawning grounds of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush namaycush) in United States waters of southern Lake Superior are on rocky shoals at depths of less than 20 fathoms. Most spawning occurs in October and early November. Of the mature fish collected on or near the spawning grounds, 60 to 69 percent were males. Among mature fish the average length of females was greater than that of males; few males less than 24 inches or females less than 26 inches in total length were caught. Recoveries of lake trout tagged on the spawning grounds showed that some males remained in the immediate area for a period of several weeks during the spawning season. Marked fish showed a tendency to return during later years to spawning grounds on which they had been tagged, even though many of them ranged long distances between spawning seasons.

  9. Aerosol Emissions from Great Lakes Harmful Algal Blooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Nathaniel W. [Department; Olson, Nicole E. [Department; Panas, Mark [Department; Axson, Jessica L. [Department; Tirella, Peter S. [Department; Kirpes, Rachel M. [Department; Craig, Rebecca L. [Department; Gunsch, Matthew J. [Department; China, Swarup [William; Laskin, Alexander [William; Ault, Andrew P. [Department; Department; Pratt, Kerri A. [Department; Department

    2017-12-20

    In freshwater lakes, harmful algal blooms (HABs) of Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) produce toxins that impact human health. However, little is known about the chemical species present in lake spray aerosol (LSA) produced from wave-breaking in freshwater HABs. In this study, a laboratory LSA generator produced aerosols from freshwater samples collected from Lake Michigan and Lake Erie during HAB and non-bloom conditions. Particles were analyzed for size and chemical composition by single particle mass spectrometry, electron microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy, with three distinct types of LSA identified with varying levels of organic carbon and biological material associated with calcium salts. LSA autofluorescence increases with blue-green algae concentration, showing that organic molecules of biological origin are incorporated in LSA from HABs. The number fraction of LSA with biological mass spectral markers also increases with particle diameter (greater than 0.5 μm), showing that HABs have size-dependent impacts on aerosol composition. The highest number fraction of LSA enriched in organic carbon were observed in particles less than 0.5 μm in diameter. Understanding the transfer of organic and biogenic material from freshwater to the atmosphere via LSA particles is crucial for determining health and climate effects due to HABs.

  10. Recent warming of lake Kivu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsev, Sergei; Aaberg, Arthur A; Crowe, Sean A; Hecky, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    Lake Kivu in East Africa has gained notoriety for its prodigious amounts of dissolved methane and dangers of limnic eruption. Being meromictic, it is also expected to accumulate heat due to rising regional air temperatures. To investigate the warming trend and distinguish between atmospheric and geothermal heating sources, we compiled historical temperature data, performed measurements with logging instruments, and simulated heat propagation. We also performed isotopic analyses of water from the lake's main basin and isolated Kabuno Bay. The results reveal that the lake surface is warming at the rate of 0.12°C per decade, which matches the warming rates in other East African lakes. Temperatures increase throughout the entire water column. Though warming is strongest near the surface, warming rates in the deep waters cannot be accounted for solely by propagation of atmospheric heat at presently assumed rates of vertical mixing. Unless the transport rates are significantly higher than presently believed, this indicates significant contributions from subterranean heat sources. Temperature time series in the deep monimolimnion suggest evidence of convection. The progressive deepening of the depth of temperature minimum in the water column is expected to accelerate the warming in deeper waters. The warming trend, however, is unlikely to strongly affect the physical stability of the lake, which depends primarily on salinity gradient.

  11. Recent warming of lake Kivu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Katsev

    Full Text Available Lake Kivu in East Africa has gained notoriety for its prodigious amounts of dissolved methane and dangers of limnic eruption. Being meromictic, it is also expected to accumulate heat due to rising regional air temperatures. To investigate the warming trend and distinguish between atmospheric and geothermal heating sources, we compiled historical temperature data, performed measurements with logging instruments, and simulated heat propagation. We also performed isotopic analyses of water from the lake's main basin and isolated Kabuno Bay. The results reveal that the lake surface is warming at the rate of 0.12°C per decade, which matches the warming rates in other East African lakes. Temperatures increase throughout the entire water column. Though warming is strongest near the surface, warming rates in the deep waters cannot be accounted for solely by propagation of atmospheric heat at presently assumed rates of vertical mixing. Unless the transport rates are significantly higher than presently believed, this indicates significant contributions from subterranean heat sources. Temperature time series in the deep monimolimnion suggest evidence of convection. The progressive deepening of the depth of temperature minimum in the water column is expected to accelerate the warming in deeper waters. The warming trend, however, is unlikely to strongly affect the physical stability of the lake, which depends primarily on salinity gradient.

  12. 33 CFR 162.134 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; traffic rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; traffic rules. 162.134 Section 162.134 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS § 162.134 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; traffic rules. (a) Detroit River. The...

  13. 33 CFR 162.132 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; communications rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; communications rules. 162.132 Section 162.132 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.132 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; communications rules. (a...

  14. 33 CFR 162.130 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; general rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; general rules. 162.130 Section 162.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS § 162.130 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; general rules. (a) Purpose. The...

  15. 33 CFR 162.138 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; speed rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; speed rules. 162.138 Section 162.138 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS § 162.138 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; speed rules. (a) Maximum speed limit for...

  16. 33 CFR 162.136 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds. 162.136 Section 162.136 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS § 162.136 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds. (a) In the Detroit...

  17. 33 CFR 162.140 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; miscellaneous rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; miscellaneous rules. 162.140 Section 162.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.140 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; miscellaneous rules. (a...

  18. Energy density of lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis in Lakes Huron and Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothoven, S.A.; Nalepa, T.F.; Madenjian, C.P.; Rediske, R.R.; Schneeberger, P.J.; He, J.X.

    2006-01-01

    We collected lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis off Alpena and Tawas City, Michigan, USA in Lake Huron and off Muskegon, Michigan USA in Lake Michigan during 2002–2004. We determined energy density and percent dry weight for lake whitefish from both lakes and lipid content for Lake Michigan fish. Energy density increased with increasing fish weight up to 800 g, and then remained relatively constant with further increases in fish weight. Energy density, adjusted for weight, was lower in Lake Huron than in Lake Michigan for both small (≤800 g) and large fish (>800 g). Energy density did not differ seasonally for small or large lake whitefish or between adult male and female fish. Energy density was strongly correlated with percent dry weight and percent lipid content. Based on data from commercially caught lake whitefish, body condition was lower in Lake Huron than Lake Michigan during 1981–2003, indicating that the dissimilarity in body condition between the lakes could be long standing. Energy density and lipid content in 2002–2004 in Lake Michigan were lower than data for comparable sized fish collected in 1969–1971. Differences in energy density between lakes were attributed to variation in diet and prey energy content as well as factors that affect feeding rates such as lake whitefish density and prey abundance.

  19. Preparation of aluminium lakes by electrocoagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Prapai Pradabkham

    2008-01-01

    Aluminium lakes have been prepared by electrocoagulation employing aluminium as electrodes. The electrocoagulation is conducted in an aqueous alcoholic solution and is completed within one hour. The dye content in the lake ranges approximately between 4-32%.

  20. Global Lake and River Ice Phenology Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Lake and River Ice Phenology Database contains freeze and thaw/breakup dates as well as other descriptive ice cover data for 865 lakes and rivers in the...

  1. Lake Tahoe Water Quality Improvement Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the Lake Tahoe watershed, EPA's protection efforts, water quality issues, effects of climate, change, Lake Tahoe Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL), EPA-sponsored projects, and list of partner agencies.

  2. Biota - 2011 Vegetation Inventory - Marsh Lake, MN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — 2011 Vegetation Classification for Marsh Lake, MN Vegetation Project Report, OMBIL Environmental Stewardship - Level 1 Inventory. Marsh Lake is located on the...

  3. Zooplankton communities in a large prealpine lake, Lake Constance: comparison between the Upper and the Lower Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard MAIER

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The zooplankton communities of two basins of a large lake, Lake Constance, were compared during the years 2002 and 2003. The two basins differ in morphology, physical and chemical conditions. The Upper Lake basin has a surface area of 470 km2, a mean depth of 100 and a maximum depth of 250 m; the Lower Lake basin has a surface area of 62 km2, a mean depth of only 13 and a maximum depth of 40 m. Nutrient, chlorophyll-a concentrations and mean temperatures are somewhat higher in the Lower than in the Upper Lake. Total abundance of rotifers (number per m2 lake surface was higher and rotifer development started earlier in the year in the Lower than in the Upper Lake. Total abundance of crustaceans was higher in the Upper Lake in the year 2002; in the year 2003 no difference in abundance could be detected between the lake basins, although in summer crustacean abundance was higher in the Lower than in the Upper Lake. Crustacean communities differed significantly between lake basins while there was no apparent difference in rotifer communities. In the Lower Lake small crustaceans, like Bosmina spp., Ceriodaphnia pulchella and Thermocyclops oithonoides prevailed. Abundance (number per m2 lake surface of predatory cladocerans, large daphnids and large copepods was much lower in the Lower than in the Upper Lake, in particular during the summer months. Ordination with nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS separated communities of both lakes along gradients that correlated with temperature and chlorophyll a concentration. Clutches of copepods were larger in the Lower than in the Upper Lake. No difference could be detected in clutch size of large daphnids between lake basins. Our results show that zooplankton communities in different basins of Lake Constance can be very different. They further suggest that the lack of large crustaceans in particular the lack of large predatory cladocerans in the Lower Lake can have negative effects on growth and

  4. 33 CFR 162.220 - Hoover Dam, Lake Mead, and Lake Mohave (Colorado River), Ariz.-Nev.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hoover Dam, Lake Mead, and Lake... REGULATIONS § 162.220 Hoover Dam, Lake Mead, and Lake Mohave (Colorado River), Ariz.-Nev. (a) Lake Mead and... the axis of Hoover Dam and that portion of Lake Mohave (Colorado River) extending 4,500 feet...

  5. Impacts of Mechanical Macrophyte Removal Devices on Sediment Scouring in Littoral Habitats: II. Experimental Operation in the Littoral Zone of Eau Galle Reservoir, Wisconsin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James, William F; Wright, David I; Barko, John W; Eakin, Harry L

    2006-01-01

    ... in Eau Galle Reservoir, Wisconsin. Mechanical macrophyte removal devices are an attractive, low-cost means of removing macrophytes in specific areas without herbicides or repeated mechanical harvesting...

  6. Effects of lakes and reservoirs on annual river nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment export in agricultural and forested landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Stephen M.; Robertson, Dale M.; Stanley, Emily H.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, effects of lakes and reservoirs on river nutrient export have been incorporated into landscape biogeochemical models. Because annual export varies with precipitation, there is a need to examine the biogeochemical role of lakes and reservoirs over time frames that incorporate interannual variability in precipitation. We examined long-term (~20 years) time series of river export (annual mass yield, Y, and flow-weighted mean annual concentration, C) for total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and total suspended sediment (TSS) from 54 catchments in Wisconsin, USA. Catchments were classified as small agricultural, large agricultural, and forested by use of a cluster analysis, and these varied in lentic coverage (percentage of catchment lake or reservoir water that was connected to river network). Mean annual export and interannual variability (CV) of export (for both Y and C) were higher in agricultural catchments relative to forested catchments for TP, TN, and TSS. In both agricultural and forested settings, mean and maximum annual TN yields were lower in the presence of lakes and reservoirs, suggesting lentic denitrification or N burial. There was also evidence of long-term lentic TP and TSS retention, especially when viewed in terms of maximum annual yield, suggesting sedimentation during high loading years. Lentic catchments had lower interannual variability in export. For TP and TSS, interannual variability in mass yield was often >50% higher than interannual variability in water yield, whereas TN variability more closely followed water (discharge) variability. Our results indicate that long-term mass export through rivers depends on interacting terrestrial, aquatic, and meteorological factors in which the presence of lakes and reservoirs can reduce the magnitude of export, stabilize interannual variability in export, as well as introduce export time lags.

  7. lakemorpho: Calculating lake morphometry metrics in R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollister, Jeffrey; Stachelek, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Metrics describing the shape and size of lakes, known as lake morphometry metrics, are important for any limnological study. In cases where a lake has long been the subject of study these data are often already collected and are openly available. Many other lakes have these data collected, but access is challenging as it is often stored on individual computers (or worse, in filing cabinets) and is available only to the primary investigators. The vast majority of lakes fall into a third category in which the data are not available. This makes broad scale modelling of lake ecology a challenge as some of the key information about in-lake processes are unavailable. While this valuable in situ information may be difficult to obtain, several national datasets exist that may be used to model and estimate lake morphometry. In particular, digital elevation models and hydrography have been shown to be predictive of several lake morphometry metrics. The R package lakemorpho has been developed to utilize these data and estimate the following morphometry metrics: surface area, shoreline length, major axis length, minor axis length, major and minor axis length ratio, shoreline development, maximum depth, mean depth, volume, maximum lake length, mean lake width, maximum lake width, and fetch. In this software tool article we describe the motivation behind developing lakemorpho , discuss the implementation in R, and describe the use of lakemorpho with an example of a typical use case.

  8. Study of pollution in Rawal lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Khan, M.I.A.; Nisar, M.; Kaleem, M.Y.

    1999-01-01

    It was intended to establish effects of pollution on quality of water of Rawal Lake, Islamabad. Six stations were located for collection of water. The data collected and analyzed so far indicated increasing pollution in the lake Increase in growth of hydrophytes in quite evident, leading towards process of eutrophication of the lake. (author)

  9. Decline of the world's saline lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh; Craig Miller; Sarah E. Null; R. Justin DeRose; Peter Wilcock; Maura Hahnenberger; Frank Howe; Johnnie Moore

    2017-01-01

    Many of the world’s saline lakes are shrinking at alarming rates, reducing waterbird habitat and economic benefits while threatening human health. Saline lakes are long-term basin-wide integrators of climatic conditions that shrink and grow with natural climatic variation. In contrast, water withdrawals for human use exert a sustained reduction in lake inflows and...

  10. A reactive nitrogen budget for Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reactive nitrogen budget for Lake Michigan was reviewed and updated, making use of recent estimates of watershed and atmospheric nitrogen loads. The updated total N load to Lake Michigan was approximately double the previous estimate from the Lake Michigan Mass Balance study ...

  11. An outlook for sustainable forest bioenergy production in the Lake States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Dennis R.; Skog, Kenneth; Hellman, Allison; Halvorsen, Kathleen E.; Mace, Terry

    2009-01-01

    The Lake States region of Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan offers significant potential for bioenergy production. We examine the sustainability of regional forest biomass use in the context of existing thermal heating, electricity, and biofuels production, projected resource needs over the next decade including existing forest product market demand, and impacts on price and feasibility. Assuming $36 per dry tonne at roadside, 4.1 million dry tonnes of forest biomass could be available region-wide. However, less is likely available due to localized environmental and forest cover type constraints, and landowner willingness to harvest timber. Total projected demand of 5.7 million dry tonnes, based on current and announced industry capacity, exceeds estimates of biomass availability, which suggests that anticipated growth in the forest-based bioeconomy may be constrained. Attaining projected demand will likely require a combination of higher cost feedstocks, integration of energy and non-energy uses, and careful management to meet environmental constraints. State distinctions in biomass harvest guidelines and the propensity for third-party forest certification will be critical in providing environmental safeguards. The cumulative effect of policy initiatives on biomass competition are discussed in the context of an emerging Lake States bioeconomy.

  12. Using tree swallows to monitor impacts of aquatic contamination in Great Lakes areas of concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patnode, K.A.; Bodenstein, B.; Hetzel, R.; Pearson, S.

    1995-01-01

    Tree swallows were used to evaluate movement and potential impacts of contaminants from sediments in Newton Creek (diesel range organics: DROs) and Sheboygan River (PCBs), tributaries to Lake Superior and Lake Michigan, respectively. Contaminated sites occurred along the course of each river, while reference sites were located upstream or on a nearby river. Productivity was monitored and eggs, day 1 nestlings, and day 12 nestlings were collected from each nest. Whole body or egg homogenates were analyzed for PCBs or DROs. EROD activity in livers from day 12 nestlings is being determined for both PCB and DRO exposures. In the Newton Creek study, hatching success was similar for DRO and reference sites. DROs were detected in gastrointestinal tracts of 1 nestling from the reference and 1 from the contaminated site. DROs were not detected in any egg samples. In the Sheboygan River study, hatching success rates differed between 1 reference and 1 contaminated river segment. PCB daily accumulation rates from day 1 to day 12 nestlings were computed for Sheboygan River. All nestlings at reference nests had negative rates due to growth dilution effects. Preliminary analyses indicate the average rate for nestlings from contaminated segments of the river was 220.3 ng/g/day. These 1995 findings will be combined with 1996 data to evaluate the effectiveness of tree swallows for monitoring ecosystem impacts of aquatic contaminants in Wisconsin

  13. Historical changes to Lake Washington and route of the Lake Washington Ship Canal, King County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzastowski, Michael J.

    1983-01-01

    Lake Washington, in the midst of the greater Seattle metropolitan area of the Puget Sound region (fig. 1), is an exceptional commercial, recreational, and esthetic resource for the region . In the past 130 years, Lake Washington has been changed from a " wild " lake in a wilderness setting to a regulated lake surrounded by a growing metropolis--a transformation that provides an unusual opportunity to study changes to a lake's shoreline and hydrologic characteristics -resulting from urbanization.

  14. First evidence of successful natural reproduction by planted lake trout in Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nester, Robert T.; Poe, Thomas P.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-two lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) swim-up fry, 24-27 mm long, were captured with emergent fry traps and a tow net in northwestern Lake Huron on a small nearshore reef off Alpena, Michigan, between May 10 and June 1, 1982. These catches represent the first evidence of successful production of swim-up fry by planted, hatchery-reared lake trout in Lake Huron since the lake trout rehabilitation program began in 1973.

  15. Horizontal drilling under Lake Erie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meller, R.

    2001-07-01

    Drilling oil wells under Lake Erie calls for horizontal drilling wells to be drilled from shore out into the pay-zone under the lake. The nature and characteristics of horizontal wells as compared to vertical wells are explored. Considerations that have to be taken into account in drilling horizontal wells are explained (the degree of curvature, drilling fluid quality, geosteering in the pay-zone, steering instrumentation, measurements while drilling (MWD), logging while drilling (LWD)). The concept and reasons for extended reach wells are outlined, along with characteristic features of multilateral wells.

  16. The Lake and the City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers relations between the city of Irkutsk and Lake Baikal in terms of cultural geography. Baikal is included in the UNESCO world heritage list. Unlike the majority of lakes also included in this list, Baikal’s coast is inhabited, especially its southern part. Similar situation is, for example, in the cluster “the city of Bergen – Geiranger village – Geirangerfjord” in Norway. The comparative analysis shows how Norway’s positive experience of the system “a city – a village – a natural phenomenon” could be used in order to make Irkutsk more attractive for tourists and citizens.

  17. Protecting the endangered lake salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soimakallio, H.; Oesch, P.

    1997-01-01

    In addition to the Ringed Seal, the labyrinthine Saimaa lake system created after the Ice Age also trapped a species of salmon, whose entire life cycle became adapted to fresh water. In order to improve the living conditions of this lake salmon which - like the ringed seal - is today classified as an endangered species, an intensive research programme has been launched. The partners include the Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, fishing and environmental authorities and - in collaboration with UPM-Kymmene Oy and Kuurnan Voima Oy - the IVO subsidiary Pamilo Oy

  18. LAKE BAIKAL: Underwater neutrino detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    A new underwater detector soon to be deployed in Lake Baikal in Siberia, the world's deepest lake with depths down to 1.7 kilometres, could help probe the deepest mysteries of physics. One of the big unsolved problems of astrophysics is the origin of very energetic cosmic rays. However there are many ideas on how particles could be accelerated by exotic concentrations of matter and provide the majority of the Galaxy's high energy particles. Clarification would come from new detectors picking up the energetic photons and neutrinos from these sources

  19. Protecting the endangered lake salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soimakallio, H.; Oesch, P. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    In addition to the Ringed Seal, the labyrinthine Saimaa lake system created after the Ice Age also trapped a species of salmon, whose entire life cycle became adapted to fresh water. In order to improve the living conditions of this lake salmon which - like the ringed seal - is today classified as an endangered species, an intensive research programme has been launched. The partners include the Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, fishing and environmental authorities and - in collaboration with UPM-Kymmene Oy and Kuurnan Voima Oy - the IVO subsidiary Pamilo Oy

  20. Post Audit of Lake Michigan Lake Trout PCB Model Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lake Michigan (LM) Mass Balance Study was conducted to measure and model polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other anthropogenic substances to gain a better understanding of the transport, fate, and effects of these substances within the system and to aid managers in the env...

  1. Feeding ecology of lake whitefish larvae in eastern Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; McKenna, James E.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Wallbridge, Tim; Chiavelli, Rich

    2009-01-01

    We examined the feeding ecology of larval lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in Chaumont Bay, Lake Ontario, during April and May 2004-2006. Larvae were collected with towed ichthyoplankton nets offshore and with larval seines along the shoreline. Larval feeding periodicity was examined from collections made at 4-h intervals over one 24-h period in 2005. Inter-annual variation in diet composition (% dry weight) was low, as was spatial variation among collection sites within the bay. Copepods (81.4%), primarily cyclopoids (59.1%), were the primary prey of larvae over the 3-year period. Cladocerans (8.1%; mainly daphnids, 6.7%) and chironomids (7.3%) were the other major prey consumed. Larvae did not exhibit a preference for any specific prey taxa. Food consumption of lake whitefish larvae was significantly lower at night (i.e., 2400 and 0400 h). Substantial variation in diet composition occurred over the 24-h diel study. For the 24-h period, copepods were the major prey consumed (50.4%) and their contribution in the diet ranged from 29.3% (0400 h) to 85.9% (1200 h). Chironomids made up 33.4% of the diel diet, ranging from 8.0% (0800 h) to 69.9% (0400 h). Diel variation in the diet composition of lake whitefish larvae may require samples taken at several intervals over a 24-h period to gain adequate representation of their feeding ecology.

  2. Isotope techniques in lake water studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourcy, L.

    1999-01-01

    Freshwater lakes are among the most easily exploitable freshwater resources. Lakes are also recognized as major sedimentological features in which stored material can be used to study recent climate and pollution evolution. To adequately preserve these important landscape features, and to use them as climatic archives, an improved understanding of processes controlling their hydrologic and bio-geochemical environments if necessary. This article briefly describes the IAEA activities related to the study of lakes in such areas as lake budget, lake dynamics, water contamination, and paleolimnological investigations

  3. Interannual and long-term changes in the trophic state of a multibasin lake: Effects of morphology, climate, winter aeration, and beaver activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Dale M.; Rose, William; Reneau, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Little St. Germain Lake (LSG), a relatively pristine multibasin lake in Wisconsin, USA, was examined to determine how morphologic (internal), climatic (external), anthropogenic (winter aeration), and natural (beaver activity) factors affect the trophic state (phosphorus, P; chlorophyll, CHL; and Secchi depth, SD) of each of its basins. Basins intercepting the main flow and external P sources had highest P and CHL and shallowest SD. Internal loading in shallow, polymictic basins caused P and CHL to increase and SD to decrease as summer progressed. Winter aeration used to eliminate winterkill increased summer internal P loading and decreased water quality, while reductions in upstream beaver impoundments had little effect on water quality. Variations in air temperature and precipitation affected each basin differently. Warmer air temperatures increased productivity throughout the lake and decreased clarity in less eutrophic basins. Increased precipitation increased P in the basins intercepting the main flow but had little effect on the isolated deep West Bay. These relations are used to project effects of future climatic changes on LSG and other temperate lakes.

  4. Decline of the world's saline lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A.; Miller, Craig; Null, Sarah E.; Derose, R. Justin; Wilcock, Peter; Hahnenberger, Maura; Howe, Frank; Moore, Johnnie

    2017-11-01

    Many of the world's saline lakes are shrinking at alarming rates, reducing waterbird habitat and economic benefits while threatening human health. Saline lakes are long-term basin-wide integrators of climatic conditions that shrink and grow with natural climatic variation. In contrast, water withdrawals for human use exert a sustained reduction in lake inflows and levels. Quantifying the relative contributions of natural variability and human impacts to lake inflows is needed to preserve these lakes. With a credible water balance, causes of lake decline from water diversions or climate variability can be identified and the inflow needed to maintain lake health can be defined. Without a water balance, natural variability can be an excuse for inaction. Here we describe the decline of several of the world's large saline lakes and use a water balance for Great Salt Lake (USA) to demonstrate that consumptive water use rather than long-term climate change has greatly reduced its size. The inflow needed to maintain bird habitat, support lake-related industries and prevent dust storms that threaten human health and agriculture can be identified and provides the information to evaluate the difficult tradeoffs between direct benefits of consumptive water use and ecosystem services provided by saline lakes.

  5. Ohio Lake Erie Commission Homepage

    Science.gov (United States)

    management of Lake Erie: including, water quality protection, fisheries management, wetlands restoration over 365 projects since 1993. Projects have focused on an array of issues critical to the effective quality of its waters and ecosystem, and to promote economic development of the region by ensuring the

  6. Schistosomiasis in Lake Malawi villages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henry; Bloch, Paul; Makaula, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Historically, open shorelines of Lake Malawi were free from schistosome, Schistosoma haematobium, transmission, but this changed in the mid-1980s, possibly as a result of over-fishing reducing density of molluscivore fishes. Very little information is available on schistosome infections among...

  7. Pollutant transformations over Lake Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkezweeny, A.J.; Arbuthnot, D.R.; Busness, K.M.; Easter, R.C.; Hales, J.M.; Lee, R.N.; Young, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    An aircraft, a chartered boat, and a constant altitude balloon were used to study pollutant transformations over Lake Michigan in a Lagrangian frame of reference. The experiments were conducted during the summer under strong atmospheric stability where diffusion and dry deposition of pollutants can be neglected

  8. The lakes of the Jordan Rift Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the proceedings of a workshop on the Lakes of the Jordan Rift Valley that was held in conjunction with the CRP on The Use of Isotope Techniques in Lake Dynamics Investigations. The paper presents a review of the geological, hydrogeological and physical limnological setting of the lakes in the Jordan Rift Valley, Lake Hula, Lake Kinneret and the Dead Sea. This is complemented by a description of the isotope hydrology of the system that includes the use of a wide range of isotopes: oxygen-18, deuterium, tritium, carbon-14, carbon-13, chlorine isotopes, boron-11 and helium-3/4. Environmental isotope aspects of the salt balances of the lakes, their palaeolimnology and biogeochemical tracers are also presented. The scope of application of isotopic tracers is very broad and provides a clear insight into many aspects of the physical, chemical and biological limnology of the Rift Valley Lakes. (author)

  9. Eutrophication potential of Payette Lake, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Paul F.

    1997-01-01

    Payette Lake was studied during water years 1995-96 to determine the 20.5-square-kilometer lake's assimilative capacity for nutrients and, thus, its eutrophication potential. The study included quantification of hydrologic and nutrient budgets, characterization of water quality in the limnetic and littoral zones, development of an empirical nutrient load/lake response model, and estimation of the limnological effects of a large-scale forest fire in the lake's 373-square-kilometer watershed during the autumn of 1994. Streamflow from the North Fork Payette River, the lake's primary tributary, delivered about 73 percent of the lake's inflow over the 2 years. Outflow from the lake, measured since 1908, was 128 and 148 percent of the long-term average in 1995 and 1996, respectively. The larger volumes of outflow reduced the long-term average water-

  10. Characterization of Two Microbial Isolates from Andean Lakes in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demergasso, C.; Blamey, J.; Escudero, L.; Chong, G.; Casamayor, E. O.; Cabrol, N. A.; Grin, E. A.; Hock, A.; Kiss, A.; Borics, G.

    2004-01-01

    We are currently investigating the biological population present in the highest and least explored perennial lakes on earth in the Bolivian and Chilean Andes, including several volcanic crater lakes of more than 6000 m elevation, in combination of microbiological and molecular biological methods. Our samples were collected in saline lakes of the Laguna Blanca Laguna Verde area in the Bolivian Altiplano and in the Licancabur volcano crater (27 deg. 47 min S/67 deg. 47 min. W) in the ongoing project studying high altitude lakes. The main goal of the project is to look for analogies with Martian paleolakes. These Bolivian lakes can be described as Andean lakes following the classification of Chong. We have attempted to isolate pure cultures and phylogenetically characterize prokaryotes that grew under laboratory conditions. Sediment samples taken from the Licancabur crater lake (LC), Laguna Verde (LV), and Laguna Blanca (LB) were analyzed and cultured using enriched liquid media under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. All cultures were incubated at room temperature (15 to 20 C) and under light exposure. For the reported isolates, 36 hours incubation were necessary for reaching optimal optical densities to consider them viable cultures. Ten serial dilutions starting from 1% inoculum were required to obtain a suitable enriched cell culture to transfer into solid media. Cultures on solid medium were necessary to verify the formation of colonies in order to isolate pure cultures. Different solid media were prepared using several combinations of both trace minerals and carbohydrates sources in order to fit their nutrient requirements. The microorganisms formed individual colonies on solid media enriched with tryptone, yeast extract and sodium chloride. Cells morphology was studied by optical and electronic microscopy. Rodshape morphologies were observed in most cases. Total bacterial genomic DNA was isolated from 50 ml late-exponential phase culture by using the CTAB

  11. Contaminant Monitoring Strategy for Henrys Lake, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John S. Irving; R. P. Breckenridge

    1992-12-01

    Henrys Lake, located in southeastern Idaho, is a large, shallow lake (6,600 acres, {approx} 17.1 feet maximum depth) located at 6,472 feet elevation in Fremont Co., Idaho at the headwaters of the Henrys Fork of the Snake River. The upper watershed is comprised of high mountains of the Targhee National Forest and the lakeshore is surrounded by extensive flats and wetlands, which are mostly privately owned. The lake has been dammed since 1922, and the upper 12 feet of the lake waters are allocated for downriver use. Henrys Lake is a naturally productive lake supporting a nationally recognized ''Blue Ribbon'' trout fishery. There is concern that increasing housing development and cattle grazing may accelerate eutrophication and result in winter and early spring fish kills. There has not been a recent thorough assessment of lake water quality. However, the Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) is currently conducting a study of water quality on Henrys Lake and tributary streams. Septic systems and lawn runoff from housing developments on the north, west, and southwest shores could potentially contribute to the nutrient enrichment of the lake. Many houses are on steep hillsides where runoff from lawns, driveways, etc. drain into wetland flats along the lake or directly into the lake. In addition, seepage from septic systems (drainfields) drain directly into the wetlands enter groundwater areas that seep into the lake. Cattle grazing along the lake margin, riparian areas, and uplands is likely accelerating erosion and nutrient enrichment. Also, cattle grazing along riparian areas likely adds to nutrient enrichment of the lake through subsurface flow and direct runoff. Stream bank and lakeshore erosion may also accelerate eutrophication by increasing the sedimentation of the lake. Approximately nine streams feed the lake (see map), but flows are often severely reduced or completely eliminated due to irrigation diversion. In addition, subsurface

  12. Geographic relatedness and predictability of Escherichia coli along a peninsular beach complex of Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevers, M.B.; Shively, D.A.; Kleinheinz, G.T.; McDermott, C.M.; Schuster, W.; Chomeau, V.; Whitman, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    To determine more accurately the real-time concentration of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in beach water, predictive modeling has been applied in several locations around the Great Lakes to individual or small groups of similar beaches. Using 24 beaches in Door County, Wisconsin, we attempted to expand predictive models to multiple beaches of complex geography. We examined the importance of geographic location and independent variables and the consequential limitations for potential beach or beach group models. An analysis of Escherichia coli populations over 4 yr revealed a geographic gradient to the beaches, with mean E. coli concentrations decreasing with increasing distance from the city of Sturgeon Bay. Beaches grouped strongly by water type (lake, bay, Sturgeon Bay) and proximity to one another, followed by presence of a storm or creek outfall or amount of shoreline enclosure. Predictive models developed for beach groups commonly included wave height and cumulative 48-h rainfall but generally explained little E. coli variation (adj. R2 = 0.19-0.36). Generally low concentrations of E. coli at the beaches influenced the effectiveness of model results presumably because of low signal-to-noise ratios and the rarity of elevated concentrations. Our results highlight the importance of the sensitivity of regressors and the need for careful methods evaluation. Despite the attractiveness of predictive models as an alternative beach monitoring approach, it is likely that FIB fluctuations at some beaches defy simple prediction approaches. Regional, multi-beach, and individual beach predictive models should be explored alongside other techniques for improving monitoring reliability at Great Lakes beaches. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  13. Life history of lake herring of Green Bay, Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stanford H.

    1956-01-01

    Although the lake herring has been an important contributor to the commercial fish production of Green Bay, little has been known about it. This study is based on field observations and data from about 6,500 lake herring collected over the period 1948 to 1952. Relatively nonselective commercial pound nets were a primary source of material for the study of age and growth. Commercial and experimental gill nets were used to obtain data on gear selectivity and vertical distribution. Scales were employed to investigate age and growth. Age group IV normally dominated commercial catches during the first half of the calendar year and age group III the last half. At these ages the fish averaged about 10.5 inches in length. The season's growth started in May, was most rapid in July, and terminated near the end of October. The sexes grew at the same rate. Selectivity of fishing gear was found to influence the estimation of growth. Geographical and annual differences in growth are shown. Factors that might contribute to discrepancies in calculated growth are evaluated. Possible real and apparent causes of growth compensation are given. The relation between length and weight is shown to vary with sex, season, year, and method of capture. Females were relatively more plentiful in commercial catches in February than in May through December. The percentage of females decreased with increase in age in pound-net catches but increased with age in gill-net samples. Within a year class the percentage of females decreased with increase in age. Most Green Bay lake herring mature during their second or third year of life. They are pelagic spawners with most intensive spawning over shallow areas. Spawning takes place between mid-November and mid-December, and eggs hatch in April and May. Lake herring ovaries contained from 3,500 to 11,200 eggs (averaged 6,375). Progress of spawning by age, sex, and length is given. Lake herring were distributed at all depths in Green Bay in early May, were

  14. Vitality of aquatic plants and microbial activity of sediment in an oligotrophic lake (Lake Bohinj, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana SIMČIČ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The vitality of eight macrophyte species and the microbial activity of sediment in an oligotrophic lake (Lake Bohinj, Slovenia were studied via the terminal electron transport system (ETS activity of mitochondria. The levels of ETS activity of vascular plants were as follows: Ranunculus circinatus, Myriohpyllum spicatum, Potamogeton alpinus, P. perfoliatus, P. lucens. Fontinalis antipyretica exhibited the highest ETS activity of the non-vascular plants, followed by charales Chara delicatula and C. aspera. High values enable R. circinatus, an amphibious species with rapid growth, to survive under conditions in which the water level changes throughout the season. M. spicatum, a species with broad ecological tolerance, also exhibited high ETS activity. The ETS activity of the microbial community in sediment was affected by temperature and/or the amount and origin of the organic matter. A positive correlation between the ETS activity of the sediment and that of M. spicatum and R. circinatus was measured, while negative correlations or no correlation were observed for mosses and macroalgae. The high ETS activity in sediment indicates rapid mineralization of organic matter and, in turn, sufficient nutrients for growth of macrophytes.

  15. Characterizing phosphorus dynamics in tile-drained agricultural fieldsof eastern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Allison; Ruark, Matthew; Stuntebeck, Todd D.; Komiskey, Matthew J.; Good, Laura W.; Drummy, Nancy; Cooley, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Artificial subsurface drainage provides an avenue for the rapid transfer of phosphorus (P) from agricultural fields to surface waters. This is of particular interest in eastern Wisconsin, where there is a concentrated population of dairy farms and high clay content soils prone to macropore development. Through collaboration with private landowners, surface and tile drainage was measured and analyzed for dissolved reactive P (DRP) and total P (TP) losses at four field sites in eastern Wisconsin between 2005 and 2009. These sites, which received frequent manure applications, represent a range of crop management practices which include: two chisel plowed corn fields (CP1, CP2), a no-till corn–soybean field (NT), and a grazed pasture (GP). Subsurface drainage was the dominant pathway of water loss at each site accounting for 66–96% of total water discharge. Average annual flow-weighted (FW) TP concentrations were 0.88, 0.57, 0.21, and 1.32 mg L−1 for sites CP1, CP2, NT, and GP, respectively. Low TP concentrations at the NT site were due to tile drain interception of groundwater flow where large volumes of tile drainage water diluted the FW-TP concentrations. Subsurface pathways contributed between 17% and 41% of the TP loss across sites. On a drainage event basis, total drainage explained between 36% and 72% of the event DRP loads across CP1, CP2, and GP; there was no relationship between event drainflow and event DRP load at the NT site. Manure applications did not consistently increase P concentrations in drainflow, but annual FW-P concentrations were greater in years receiving manure applications compared to years without manure application. Based on these field measures, P losses from tile drainage must be integrated into field level P budgets and P loss calculations on heavily manured soils, while also acknowledging the unique drainage patterns observed in eastern Wisconsin.

  16. Utility experiences in redevelopment of formerly used sites -- Wisconsin Electric's risk management and economic development activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borofka, B.P.

    1999-01-01

    Wisconsin Electric Power Company, which recently celebrated its 100th anniversary, has actively promoted the redevelopment of its former sites as well as those of its customers. Serving Milwaukee and southeast Wisconsin, Wisconsin Electric's (WE) sites include former power plants, landfills, right-of-ways, and manufactured gas plant sites. In setting an example for others, as well as seeking to maximize the economic value of these sites, WE has either redeveloped or promoted the redevelopment of these sites by others. Examples include the East Wells Power Plant (now home of the Milwaukee Repertory Theater), the Lakeside Power Plant Site (now the home of Harnischfeger Corporation's headquarters), and the Commerce Street Power Plant located on the Milwaukee River near downtown Milwaukee. In each case the company evaluated the potential environmental liabilities against the unrealized asset value derived from facility location, site size, architectural uniqueness, or other characteristics. At the Commerce Street Power Plant, walking distance to the downtown Milwaukee business district combined with river frontage, were significant site values leveraged against a $5 million asbestos and lead-based paint removal project done to prepare the plant for marketing. More recently, WE has used its experience in promoting the redevelopment of the Menomonee River Valley, the original core of Milwaukee's industrial community, and in advancing a more practical regulatory approach to redeveloping older sites. Finally, the company is working with a non-profit community health clinic, community groups and local foundations in linking these redevelopment activities with the economic and physical health of inner city residents

  17. Spatial and temporal genetic diversity of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis (Mitchill)) from Lake Huron and Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Wendylee; Ebener, Mark P.; Mohr, Lloyd; Hartman, Travis; Johnson, Jim; Roseman, Edward F.

    2013-01-01

    Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis (Mitchill)) are important commercially, culturally, and ecologically in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Stocks of lake whitefish in the Great Lakes have recovered from low levels of abundance in the 1960s. Reductions in abundance, loss of habitat and environmental degradation can be accompanied by losses of genetic diversity and overall fitness that may persist even as populations recover demographically. Therefore, it is important to be able to identify stocks that have reduced levels of genetic diversity. In this study, we investigated patterns of genetic diversity at microsatellite DNA loci in lake whitefish collected between 1927 and 1929 (historical period) and between 1997 and 2005 (contemporary period) from Lake Huron and Lake Erie. Genetic analysis of lake whitefish from Lakes Huron and Erie shows that the amount of population structuring varies from lake to lake. Greater genetic divergences among collections from Lake Huron may be the result of sampling scale, migration patterns and demographic processes. Fluctuations in abundance of lake whitefish populations may have resulted in periods of increased genetic drift that have resulted in changes in allele frequencies over time, but periodic genetic drift was not severe enough to result in a significant loss of genetic diversity. Migration among stocks may have decreased levels of genetic differentiation while not completely obscuring stock boundaries. Recent changes in spatial boundaries to stocks, the number of stocks and life history characteristics of stocks further demonstrate the potential of coregonids for a swift and varied response to environmental change and emphasise the importance of incorporating both spatial and temporal considerations into management plans to ensure that diversity is preserved.

  18. Estimation of the groundwater resources of the bedrock aquifers at the Kettle Moraine Springs State Fish Hatchery, Sheboygan County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Charles; Feinstein, Daniel T.; Buchwald, Cheryl A.; Hunt, Randall J.; Haserodt, Megan J.

    2017-10-12

    Groundwater resources information was needed to understand regional aquifer systems and water available to wells and springs for rearing important Lake Michigan fish species at the Kettle Moraine Springs State Fish Hatchery in Sheboygan County, Wisconsin. As a basis for estimating the groundwater resources available, an existing groundwater-flow model was refined, and new groundwater-flow models were developed for the Kettle Moraine Springs State Fish Hatchery area using the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) finite-difference code MODFLOW. This report describes the origin and construction of these groundwater-flow models and their use in testing conceptual models and simulating the hydrogeologic system.The study area is in the Eastern Ridges and Lowlands geographical province of Wisconsin, and the hatchery property is situated on the southeastern edge of the Kettle Moraine, a north-south trending topographic high of glacial origin. The bedrock units underlying the study area consist of Cambrian, Ordovician, and Silurian units of carbonate and siliciclastic lithology. In the Sheboygan County area, the sedimentary bedrock sequence reaches a thickness of as much as about 1,600 feet (ft).Two aquifer systems are present at the Kettle Moraine Springs State Fish Hatchery. A shallow system is made up of Silurian bedrock, consisting chiefly of dolomite, overlain by unconsolidated Quaternary-age glacial deposits. The glacial deposits of this aquifer system are the typical source of water to local springs, including the springs that have historically supplied the hatchery. The shallow aquifer system, therefore, consists of the unconsolidated glacial aquifer and the underlying bedrock Silurian aquifer. Most residential wells in the area draw from the Silurian aquifer. A deeper confined aquifer system is made up of Cambrian- and Ordovician-age bedrock units including sandstone formations. Because of its depth, very few wells are completed in the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system

  19. Sedimentation History Of Halfway Creek Marsh, Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife And Fish Refuge, Wisconsin, 1846-2006. Scientific Investigations Report 2007–5209

    Science.gov (United States)

    The history of overbank sedimentation in the vicinity of Halfway Creek Marsh near La Crosse, Wisconsin, was examined during 2005-06 by the U.S. Geological Survey and University of Wisconsin-Madison as part of a broader study of sediment and nutrient loadings to the Upper Mississi...

  20. Climate change science applications and needs in forest ecosystem management: a workshop organized as part of the northern Wisconsin Climate Change Response Framework Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie Brandt; Chris Swanston; Linda Parker; Maria Janowiak; Richard Birdsey; Louis Iverson; David Mladenoff; Patricia. Butler

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is leading to direct and indirect impacts on forest tree species and ecosystems in northern Wisconsin. Land managers will need to prepare for and respond to these impacts, so we designed a workshop to identify forest management approaches that can enhance the ability of ecosystems in northern Wisconsin to cope with climate change and address how National...