Schaeffer, David J.; Dellinger, John A.; Needham, Larry L.; Hansen, Larry G.
Background: Different PCB congeners and different mixtures of congeners have been demonstrated to have different biological actions. More complete characterization of congener profiles in exposure sources may assist in predicting health outcomes. Methods: Thirty-six (36) polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were measured by gas chromatography isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) in 314 serum samples from Native Americans in Wisconsin, Michigan and Minnesota. Five dietary groups were established based on the quantity and species of fish consumed and the waters from which the fish were caught. Multivariate statistical methods were able to resolve gender and dietary differences in PCB homologue and PCB congener patterns. Results: Females had higher proportions of lower chlorinated homologues, including a consistently higher proportion of pentaCB 118. The relative presence of the very labile and volatile PCB 18, above 1% of the total PCB in females from the minimal fish consumption and 'other' groups, suggests possible exposure to PCBs in the atmosphere. The dietary group consuming predatory fishes from Lakes Michigan and Superior had the highest serum concentrations of total PCB (mean of 3.1 ng/ml) and the most distinct congener profile. The two dietary groups least dependent on fishing or fishing mostly from inland lakes (non-Great Lakes) had the lowest total PCB concentrations, both with means of 1.4 ng/ml. Conclusions: These serum PCB concentrations were less than those found in earlier studies of fish consumers in the Great Lakes region and may reflect the decrease in PCBs in these lakes
Hirai, Flavio E; Tielsch, James M; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald
To investigate a 10-year change of quality of life and associated factors in a population with type 1 diabetes. The Medical Outcome Study Short Form-36 (SF-36) was administered in participants (n = 520) at the 1995-1996 and 2005-2007 examination phases of the Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy (WESDR). Physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) component summary scores were calculated. The associations between changes of quality of life and demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical factors were analyzed. PCS score decreased (p Change in visual acuity and diabetic retinopathy status did not have a significant impact in health-related quality of life scores. Our findings reinforce the necessity to make every attempt to decrease complications of diabetes in individuals with long-term type 1 diabetes in order to attenuate the diminished quality of life associated with those complications such as cardiovascular disease. Change in employment status, likely due to development of these complications, was also strongly associated with poorer quality of life and suggests the benefits of preventing or decreasing complications to keep people with type 1 diabetes in the workforce.
Klein, Barbara E K; Myers, Chelsea E; Howard, Kerri P; Klein, Ronald
Total serum and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol have been considered risk factors for severe vascular outcomes in persons with type 1 diabetes mellitus. To examine the long-term relationships between these 2 serum lipids and the incidence and prevalence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy and macular edema. Nine-hundred three persons with younger-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus who participated in the Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy. Serum total and high-density cholesterol and history of statin use during the course of 5 visits spanning approximately 30 years (April 10, 1984, to February 13, 2014). Prevalence and incidence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy and macular edema. A modest association was found for higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreased prevalence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (odds ratio per 10 mg/dL, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.82-0.93), adjusting for duration of diabetes mellitus, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, statin use, and end-stage renal disease. While adjusting for covariates, no associations of serum total or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and incident proliferative diabetic retinopathy or macular edema, nor of statin use with decreased incidence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy or macular edema, were identified. In the course of long-duration diabetes mellitus during a time of changing medical care, there appeared to be little effect of serum lipids or statins on the incidence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy and macular edema.
The publication is intended for readers with a professional background in radiation protection who are not experts in the field of epidemiology. The potentials and the limits of epidemiology are shown and concepts and terminology of radioepidemilogic studies as well as epidemiology in general are explained, in order to provide the necessary basis for understanding or performing evaluations of epidemiologic studies. (orig./VHE) [de
natural setting that the late Aldo Leopold , often called the "Father of Wildlife Management," wrote some of his famous works in the still-standing log...Protect endangered or threatened plants and animals and their ha>itats. e. Consider the Aldo Leopold Memorial Reserve. The Wisconsin Department of Natural...standing log cabin he built -- that the late 0 0 Aldo Leopold wrote some of his famous works. He also wrote about this very site and the immediate area
LeDee, Olivia E.; Ribic, Christine
A burgeoning dialogue exists regarding how to allocate resources to maximize the likelihood of long-term biodiversity conservation within the context of climate change. To make effective decisions in natural resource management, an iterative, collaborative, and learning-based decision process may be more successful than a strictly consultative approach. One important, early step in a decision process is to identify priority species or systems. Although this promotes the conservation of select species or systems, it may inadvertently alter the future of non-target species and systems. We describe a process to screen terrestrial wildlife for potential sensitivity to climate change and then use the results to engage natural resource professionals in a process of identifying priorities for monitoring, research, and adaptation strategy implementation. We demonstrate this approach using a case study from Wisconsin. In Wisconsin, experts identified 23 out of 353 species with sufficient empirical research and management understanding to inform targeted action. Habitat management and management of hydrological conditions were the common strategies for targeted action. Although there may be an interest in adaptation strategy implementation for many species and systems, experts considered existing information inadequate to inform targeted action. According to experts, 40% of the vertebrate species in Wisconsin will require near-term intervention for climate adaptation. These results will inform state-wide conservation planning as well as regional efforts.
Ruwald, Martin Huth
thesis demonstrated that the ICD-10 discharge diagnosis could reliably identify a cohort of patients admitted for syncope and that the discharge code carried a high number of unexplained cases despite use of numerous tests. The last studies showed that syncope is a common cause for hospital contact......The epidemiology and prognosis of ''fainting'' or syncope has puzzled physicians over the years. Is fainting dangerous? This is a question often asked by the patient--and the answer is ''it depends on a lot of things''. The diverse pathophysiology of syncope and the underlying comorbidites...... of the patients play an essential role. In epidemiology these factors have major impact on the outcome of the patients. Until recently, even the definition of syncope differed from one study to another which has made literature reviews difficult. Traditionally the data on epidemiology of syncope has been taken...
Hauser, Robert M.; Palloni, Alberto
Objective. This study attempts to explain the ubiquitous positive correlation between cognitive ability (IQ) and survival. Methods. A sample of 10,317 Wisconsin high school graduates of 1957 was followed until 2009, from ages 18 to 68 years. Mortality was analyzed using a Weibull survival model that includes gender, social background, Henmon–Nelson IQ, and rank in high school class. Results. Rank in high school class, a cumulative measure of responsible performance during high school, entirely mediates the relationship between adolescent IQ and survival. Its effect on survival is 3 times greater than that of IQ, and it accounts for about 10% of the female advantage in survival. Discussion. Cognitive functioning may improve survival by promoting responsible and timely patterns of behavior that are firmly in place by late adolescence. Prior research suggests that conscientiousness, one of the “Big Five” personality characteristics, plays a key role in this relationship. PMID:21743056
Hoopes, J. A.; Wu, D. S.; Ganatra, R.
Effluent concentration distributions from the waste water discharge of the Kraft Division Mill, Consolidated Paper Company, into the Wisconsin River at Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin, is investigated. Effluent concentrations were determined from measurements of the temperature distribution, using temperature as a tracer. Measurements of the velocity distribution in the vicinity of the outfall were also made. Due to limitations in the extent of the field observations, the analysis and comparison of the measurements is limited to the region within about 300 feet from the outfall. Effects of outfall submergence, of buoyancy and momentum of the effluent and of the pattern and magnitude of river currents on these characteristics are considered.
Dickas, Albert B., Ed.
This hydrologic study focuses on Wisconsin's Lake Superior Basin. Water is the most important natural resource in this area which includes Douglass, Bayfield, Ashland, and Iron counties. This study was undertaken to determine the character of this hydrologic base and to determine the effects and extent of man-influenced disturbances. It includes…
TABLE OF CONTRNTS (Continued) Item Page Aldo Leopold Shack EIS-43 Nonassessed Cultural Resources EIS-43...It was here, in and around his still standing cabin, that the late Aldo Leopold wrote some of his famous works. He also wrote about the immediate...the Fox-Wisconsin Portage Site (Wauona Trail); the Zona Gale House; the Old Indian Agency House; the Portage Canal; and the Aldo Leopold Shack. Four
Ground water, which provides all of the potable water used in the Eau Galle River watershed, is contained in sandstone aquifers that underlie the...I D..L 4. TITLE (d &abliaU.) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED LIMNOLOGICAL STUDIES AT EAU GALLE LAKE, WISCONSIN; Report I of a series Report 1...CC40ORM 40 i"Wee 0011 N 0600404 &Rd IdeOW10 6Y black anm~w) - Eau Galle Lake, one of four Corps of Engineers reservoirs surveyed during the Environmental
hypothesis' it was reduced to being an innocent disorder in the 1980s but is now again recognized as a potential risk factor for an accelerated loss of lung function. Whereas early studies in mainly occupational cohorts showed no effect of chronic mucus hypersecretion on decline in lung function...... with the presence of mucus. In asthma recent findings suggest that in epidemiology chronic mucus hypersecretion may indicate lack of control which leads to an accelerated loss of lung function and increased mortality in subjects with self-reported asthma....
Soares do Brito, Joaquim; Tirado, António; Fernandes, Pedro
The term spondylodiscitis aims to describe any spinal infection. Medical treatment is the gold standard; nevertheless, surgical treatment can be indicated. The aim of this work was to study the epidemiological profile in a group of patients with spondylodiscitis surgically treated in the same medical institution between 1997 and 2013. Eighty five patients with spondylodiscitis were surgically treated in this period. The authors analysed clinical data and image studies for each patient. We treated 51 male and 34 female patients with an average age of 48 years old (min: 6 - max: 80). The lumbar spine was more often affected and Mycobacterium tuberculosis the most frequent pathogen. The number of cases through the years has been grossly stable, with a slight increase of dyscitis due to Staphylococcus aureus and decrease of the dyscitis without pathogen identification. Paravertebral abscess was identified in 39 patients and 17 had also neurological impairment, mostly located in the thoracic spine and with tuberculous aetheology. Immunosuppression was documented in 10 patients. In this epidemiologic study we found a tuberculous infection, male gender and young age predominance. Despite a relative constant number of patients operated over the years, pyogenic infections due to Staphylococcus aureus seems to be uprising. Paravertebral abscess and neurological impairment are important dyscitis complications, especially in tuberculous cases. Spinal infections requiring surgical treatment are still an important clinical condition. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus represent the main pathogens with a growing incidence for the latest.
Alipour, Ahmad; Arefnasab, Zahra; Babamahmoodi, Abdolreza
Objective: Emotional intelligence (EI) is a set of competencies that enable us to engage in sophisticated information processing of emotions and emotion-relevant stimuli and to use this information as a guide for thinking and behavior. Prefrontal cortexes (PFC) of brain and related regions have an important role in emotion and emotional regulation. Accordingly, we conducted a study to investigate the relation between EI and performance in Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) (a neuropsychologic...
The North Cotentin is in France, the area where have been led until now, the biggest number of epidemiology studies on the effects of ionizing radiations on man, in order to assess the leukemia incidences and other cancer pathologies around nuclear facilities. The North Cotentin concentrates four nuclear installations.The objective of this file is to take stock of the situation in this field. In 1995 and 1998 have been published two sections of an epidemiology study about the incidence of leukemia in North Cotentin (J.F. Viel study for the period 1978-1992, Spira study for 1993-1997). The study of the Professor Spira does not bring to the fore a significant excess of leukemia for the period 1978-1997. The report of the professor Spira advocates several complementary epidemiology studies to precise or complete the data and lighten the causes of leukemia in North Cotentin. The studies of J.F.Viel shows that it does not exist a significant excess of cases in the studied area (25 cases for 22.8 expected cases, so a non significant difference) but notices an aggregate at the limit to be significant in the Beaumont-Hague canton (4 cases for 1.4 expected cases). J.F.Viel puts forward a relationship between the risk increase (of leukemia incidence) and some individual characteristics linked to the way of life of the studied persons: the North Cotentin beaches frequenting by the mothers or the children at least one time by month, the consumption of fish or shellfish having a local origin at least one time by week. This study suggests that it is the radioactivity, on the beaches on in fishes and shellfish that would be at the origin of the additional noticed leukemia. The authorities asked at the beginning of 1997, a scientific commission directed by the Professor Souleau to propose a new epidemiology study on the leukemia risk around La Hague. The report concludes that the leukemia incidence in the North Cotentin is in accordance with the expected incidence (25 observed
In traditional epidemiologic analyses, a single valued summary index, the standardized mortality ratio (SMR), is quite popular. The SMR is simply the ratio of the number of deaths observed in the study population to the number of deaths expected if the study population were subject to the age-specific rates of a standard population. SMRs for all causes or specific causes can be calculated. For such a simple analysis an exposed cohort is often characterized by an average organ or whole body dose or dose interval, and the necessary dose estimation effort is relatively minor. Modern statistical methods focus on the estimation of the cause-specific mortality rate λ for study populations exposed to ionizing radiations or toxic chemicals. The dependence of λ on factors other than demographic characteristics, such as race and sex, is usually described through a parametric model. Such factors, often called covariates or covariables, are incorporated in the mathematical expression for the hazard rate. The external gamma dose or the internal lung dose from inhaled uranium are good examples for covariates. This type of analysis permits the use of individual doses and gives a detailed and quantitative description of the mortality rate as a function of the covariables, but at the cost of a major dosimetric effort. The generation of the necessary dose information and also the calculational efforts become especially taxing for time-dependent covariates such as an internal, cumulative organ dose. 4 refs
Pigozzi, F; Santori, N; Di Salvo, V; Parisi, A; Di-Luigi, L
In the past 10 years, snowboarding has become a popular winter sport among young people, and the number of accidents has increased proportionately. The incidence of traumas from snowboarding is shown to be 4 to 6 for every 1000 medical examinations, which is similar to that of downhill skiing. However, other important statistical differences exist between the two sports. This study of 106 snowboarding-related injury cases analyzes the epidemiology of these injuries in Italy. Results found that 45.1% of injuries are located in the upper limbs and that significant advantages are obtained with the introduction of guards to protect the upper limbs during descent. Serious ligament injuries to the knee are more rare in snowboarding than in downhill skiing. In both sports, injuries are more common with rigid boots, which lead to a higher incidence of injury to the upper limbs. Finally, a high percentage of injury to beginners was found in this study. Training courses for those who are considering taking up the sport of snowboarding could significantly lower their risk of trauma.
Hu, Li; Zhang, Wen-sheng
To study the case of Wisconsin as the top ginseng state in United States which has come through four developing steps: beginning, stagnating, flourishing and now, downturn. The current situation of the ginseng industry in Wisconsin was briefly introduced, the federal and state management on ginseng cultivation and export, the organization of Ginseng Board of Wisconsin and their marketing style based on the field investigation and data collected from USDA and Wisconsin state. The advantages and disadvantages of Wisconsin ginseng industry were analyzed in order to provide some suggestions for Chinese medicine industry. Chinese ginseng industry should learn the organization system from Wisconsin.
The paper reviews some of the issues in a proposed epidemiological study of radiofrequency workers. First a few other epidemiological studies are discussed to illustrate some of the common problems such as inadequate definition of effects and/or exposure. Then technical problems in determining dosage and responses as well as study design are reviewed, and finally the administrative aspects of ethics, industrial relations and costs are considered
Highlights ? For precision medicine, genetic, clinical and environmental information is crucial. ? Biobank Japan project constructed a clinical database of 200,000 patients. ? This supplement reported the epidemiological studies in the Biobank Japan.
Full Text Available Heart failure (HF is a complex clinical syndrome that results from any structural or functional impairment of ventricular filling or ejection of blood. HF is one of the most important and severe end stages of many cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiological studies of HF have focused mainly on the prevalence, incidence, mortality, fatality, and distribution and temporal trends of these indicators among different populations. This review highlights important epidemiological studies of HF in China.
... Energy Regulatory Commission Wisconsin Electric Power Company, Wisconsin Gas LLC, Wisconsin Public Service Corporation: Complainants; ANR Pipeline Company: Respondent; Notice of Complaint April 6, 2010....206 (2009), Wisconsin Electric Power Company, Wisconsin Gas LLC, and Wisconsin Public Service...
Lea, Mark Keith
During this period of radical change in the field of information technology there is evidence of confusion about the role of school library media specialists in the implementation, and the administration of emerging information technologies in Wisconsin public schools. This study sought to answer the question what is the role of the school library…
Adolescents with dyslexia exhibit well-established impairments in executive abilities. The Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST) is an executive test that yields surprisingly inconsistent results with this population. The current study aimed to shed light on the contradictory findings in the literature regarding the performance levels by individuals…
Chikani, Vatsal; Reding, Douglas; Gunderson, Paul; McCarty, Catherine A.
Background: The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between psychosocial work characteristics and health functioning and cardiovascular disease risk factors among rural women of central Wisconsin and compare psychosocial work characteristics between farm and nonfarm women. Methods: Stratified sampling was used to select a…
Greve, Kevin W; Stickle, Timothy R; Love, Jeffrey M; Bianchini, Kevin J; Stanford, Matthew S
The present study represents the first large scale confirmatory factor analysis of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). The results generally support the three factor solutions reported in the exploratory factor analysis literature. However, only the first factor, which reflects general executive functioning, is statistically sound. The secondary factors, while likely reflecting meaningful cognitive abilities, are less stable except when all subjects complete all 128 cards. It is likely that having two discontinuation rules for the WCST has contributed to the varied factor analytic solutions reported in the literature and early discontinuation may result in some loss of useful information. Continued multivariate research will be necessary to better clarify the processes underlying WCST performance and their relationships to one another.
Carneiro, Janete C.G. Gaburo; Vasques, MOnica Heloisa B.; Fontinele, Ricardo S.; Sordi, Gian Maria A.
The utilization of epidemiologic methods and techniques has been object of practical experimentation and theoretical-methodological reflection in health planning and programming process. Occupational Epidemiology is the study of the causes and prevention of diseases and injuries from exposition and risks in the work environment. In this context, there is no intention to deplete such a complex theme but to deal with basic concepts of Occupational Epidemiology, presenting the main characteristics of the analysis methods used in epidemiology, as investigate the possible determinants of exposition (chemical, physical and biological agents). For this study, the social-demographic profile of the IPEN-CNEN/SP work force was used. The knowledge of this reference population composition is based on sex, age, educational level, marital status and different occupations, aiming to know the relation between the health aggravating factors and these variables. The methodology used refers to a non-experimental research based on a theoretical methodological practice. The work performed has an exploratory character, aiming a later survey of indicators in the health area in order to analyze possible correlations related to epidemiologic issues. (author)
Cytopathological Examination and Epidemiological Study of Cervicitis in Commercial Sex Workers (Csws) in Coal City (Enugu), Nigeria. ... was collected from the endocervix of about one hundred and eighteen (n=118) CSWs between November, 2014 and February, 2015 using the liquid-based cytology (LBC) method.
Rendahl, Craig S.
The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources and Department of Transportation (WDOT) are conducting a joint study to determine the effectiveness of applying optical sensing techniques to vehicular emission monitoring. Two field studies using Remote Sensing Technologies, Inc. remote sensing equipment was conducted in 1993 and 1994. This paper describes the data handling and data validation activities of these studies, including identification of data elements. Data handling was performed by the same people who conducted the 180,000 vehicle emissions tests. A contemporary commercial spreadsheet from Borland International, Inc. was used to import the raw data from the remote sensor. The data was reviewed with the spreadsheet then moved into a Borland relational database product. The relational database permitted structured queries against databases of vehicle inspection/maintenance (I/M) data from WDOT, National Insurance Crime Bureau, and EnviroTest. We determined effective cut points for vehicles of different ages which delineated high-polluting vehicles (gross emitters) from vehicles in compliance. The I/M data was also used to intercompare the remote sensing results with traditional testing results. Remote sensing test results were then compared for errors of commission and omission with respect to I/M test. Ultimately, this remote sensing database technique could serve as a means for identifying gross emitters who would be required to visit an I/M facility for an out-of-cycle emissions test.
Psoriasis is a prevalent chronic inflammatory disease whose exact aetiology is not fully understood, but both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in the onset and progression of the disease. At the skin level, psoriasis is characterized by localized or widespread thick raised...... silvery-white scaling and pruritic plaques and studies have shown that psoriasis negatively affects patients' quality of life, and depression occurs more often in patients with psoriasis. However, data have shown that psoriasis is a systemic disease which affects the joints, vasculature, and other tissues...... as well. Indeed, approximately one-third of patients with psoriasis develop psoriatic arthritis, and patients with severe psoriasis have a shortened life expectancy. Although our knowledge of the pathogenesis of psoriasis has advanced significantly in the past decade, as have the pharmacological treatment...
Epidemiologic studies of the late effects of ionizing radiation have utilized the entire spectrum of situations in which man has been exposed. These studies have provided insights into the dependence of human effects upon not only dose to target tissues but also other dimensions of exposure, host characteristics, and time following exposure. Over the past three decades studies have progressed from the mere identification of effects to their measurement. Because investigators of human effects have no control over the exposure situation, validity must be sought in the consistency of findings among independent studies and with accepted biologic principles. Because exposure may be confounded with factors that are hidden from view, bias may enter into any study of human exposure. Avoidance of bias and attainment of sufficient power to detect relationships that are real are methodologic challenges. Many methodologic issues, e.g., those associated with the definition and measurement of specific end-points, or with the selection of appropriate controls, permeate epidemiologic work in all fields. Others, especially those concerned with the measurement of exposure, the patterning of events in time after exposure, and the prediction of events beyond the scope of existing observations give radiation epidemiology its distinctive character
Abreu, Mery Natali Silva; Siqueira, Arminda Lucia; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira
Ordinal logistic regression models have been developed for analysis of epidemiological studies. However, the adequacy of such models for adjustment has so far received little attention. In this article, we reviewed the most important ordinal regression models and common approaches used to verify goodness-of-fit, using R or Stata programs. We performed formal and graphical analyses to compare ordinal models using data sets on health conditions from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II).
Banker, Margaret M.
E-Learning as it pertains to public education is in its infancy in America. There is limited research on what operational design, development, and management attributes of virtual school programs foster student achievement. The Wisconsin Department of Instruction has not developed or adopted program standards for E-Learning programs. The purpose…
Whisnant, David M., Ed.
During the period extending from May 1972 through April 1973, an investigation of the overall water quality conditions of streams flowing into Lake Superior from the entire state of Wisconsin was conducted. The goal of this publication was to provide much needed regional information on water quality, drainage basins, pollution sources and loads,…
The Central Sands region, located in Central Wisconsin, is a mosaic of cropland, managed grasslands and scattered woodlots of pine, oak, and aspen. Water issues have loomed over the region for years, but concerns heightened in 2012 when drought conditions spurred massive increases in groundwater pum...
There are great opportunities in the post-Chernobyl experience for significant epidemiologic research, perhaps even more in the area of disaster research than in the area of the human health effects of ionizing radiation. But the potential opportunity for learning the effects of radioiodine on the thyroid is very great and has aroused widespread national and international investigative interest. The opportunities for significant epidemiologic research are, however, severely limited currently by the worsening economic situation in Belarus and Ukraine, where the greatest exposure occurred, and by the lack of personnel trained in appropriate methods of study, the lack of modern equipment, the lack of supplies, the poor communication facilities, and the difficulties of accurate dose estimation. the disadvantages may or may not outweigh the obvious advantages of large numbers, the extensive direct thyroidal measurements made shortly after the accident in 1986, the magnitude of the releases of radioiodine, and the retention of the former Soviet system of universal medical care. Both the European Commission (EC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have been working actively to strengthen the infrastructure of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine. New scientific knowledge has yet to emerge from the extensive epidemiologic work but information of considerable public health significance has begun to accumulate. The bulk of the thyroid cancer has been shown to be valid by international pathology review; both EC and WHO representatives have declared the increase in thyroid cancer among children to have been caused in large part by Chernobyl. No increase in leukemia has been seen in the general population. The WHO pilot studies have shown no evidence of an increase in psychologic or neurologic complications among those exposed in utero. Ongoing epidemiologic work can be described by review of the inventory that the WHO has begun to maintain and publish. 20 refs., 7 tabs
Farah, Lynn G.; Fayyad, John A.; Eapen, Valsamma; Cassir,Youmna; Salamoun, Mariana M.; Tabet, Caroline C.; Mneimneh, Zeina N.; Karam, Elie G.
Objective: Epidemiological studies on psychiatric disorders are quite rare in the Arab World. This article reviews epidemiological studies on ADHD in all the Arab countries. Method: All epidemiological studies on ADHD conducted from 1966 through th present were reviewed. Samples were drawn from the general community, primary care clinical…
Soo Yong Choi; Hai Won Chung
Complete text of publication follows. Objectives: The aim of this study is to analyze the occupational exposure for external radiation and to evaluate radiation effects on Korean radiation workers. Methods: The National Dose Registry contains radiation exposure records for all monitored radiation workers since its creation in 1983. We are carrying out epidemiological survey for radiation workers. The items of information included personal identification, employment and dose data. The frequencies of various types of chromosome aberrations in radiation workers were compared with controls. The data were analyzed according to year, sex, age, duration of occupation, exposure dose, etc. using SPSS statistical package(version 15.0). The goodness-of-fit test for Poisson assumption and dispersion test for detecting heterogeneity for Poisson distribution were done with chromosomal aberrations among study subjects. Results: The total number of workers registered from 1983 to 2005 was 61,610. The number of workers steadily increased and the accumulated dose somewhat increased. The collective annual dose of radiation workers was 345.823 man Sv and the mean annual dose was 1.34mSv. The frequencies of chromosome aberrations in 102 workers were compared with those in 42 controls. The frequencies of all types of chromosome aberrations in the exposed subjects were higher than those in the control group. Poisson regression analysis showed that there was significant association of chromosome aberrations with radiation dose, duration of work, age and alcohol intake. We started to survey radiation workers in order to evaluate radiation effects, collected epidemiological data for 9,157 workers at present and analyzed their lifetime radiation exposure doses. Follow-up is carrying out using the Korean Mortality Data, Cancer Registry and individual investigation. Among study patients, 11 of 38 deaths were identified with cancer. Conclusions: The data on occupational doses shows that
Lachat, Carl; Hawwash, Dana; Ocké, Marga C; Berg, Christina; Forsum, Elisabet; Hörnell, Agneta; Larsson, Christel I; Sonestedt, Emily; Wirfält, Elisabet; Åkesson, Agneta; Kolsteren, Patrick; Byrnes, Graham; De Keyzer, Willem; Van Camp, John; Cade, Janet
Concerns have been raised about the quality of reporting in nutritional epidemiology. Research reporting guidelines such as the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement can improve quality of reporting in observational studies. Herein, we propose recommendations for reporting nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research by extending the STROBE statement into Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology - Nutrit...
Bakke, P S; Rönmark, E; Eagan, T
The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been extensively studied, especially in Western Europe and North America. Few of these data are directly comparable because of differences between the surveys regarding composition of study populations, diagnostic criteria...... of the disease and definitions of the risk factors. Few community studies have examined phenotypes of COPD and included other ways of characterising the disease beyond that of spirometry. The objective of the present Task Force report is to present recommendations for the performance of general population...... studies in COPD in order to facilitate comparable and valid estimates on COPD prevalence by various risk factors. Diagnostic criteria in epidemiological settings, and standardised methods to examine the disease and its potential risk factors are discussed. The paper also offers practical advice...
Full Text Available Objectives: Worldwide the urolithiasis is the third most frequent urological disease affecting both males and females. In literature there are not recent Italian epidemiological data about stone disease. The objective of this study is the evaluation of current epidemiology of urolithiasis in Italy using the Health Search/CSD Longitudinal Patient Database (HS database. Material and methods: An observational, descriptive, retrospective trial was conducted. Inclusion criteria were: family physician- assisted Italian living population member of HS database within 31 December 2012, both genders, age over 17 years, at least two years of clinical history recorded from the beginning the trial. Data were collected by HS database and elaborated by its software Millewin®. Results: In Italy prevalence of urolithiasis in 2012 was 4.14%, it was higher in males than in females (4.53% versus 3.78% with a positive relation with increasing age. The highest prevalence rate of urolithiasis was reported in the region Campania (6.08%. The general incidence was 2.23 *1000, with the highest incidence in the region Sicilia (3.15 *1000. Incidence was higher in group age 65-74 years (3.18 *1000. Conclusions: In Italy the incidence and prevalence of urolithiasis is increasing with particular distribution in relation to gender, age and regional position.
Webster, K.E.; Forbes, A.M.; Magnuson, J.L.
Effluent discharged from the coal-ash settling basin of the Columbia Generating Station (Wisconsin) modified water chemistry (increased trace metal concentrations, suspended solids and dissolved materials) and substrate quality (precipitation of chemical floc) in the receiving stream, the ash pit drain. To test the hypothesis that habitat avoidance could account for declines in macroinvertebrate density observed after discharge began, drift rates of two species were measured in laboratory streams containing combinations of reference and coal-ash-modified substrate and water. Contrary to the hypothesis, drift was uniformly lower in laboratory streams containing modified substrate and/or water compared to the reference condition for Gammarus pseudolimnaeus and Asellus racovitzai.
YALAVARTHY PREMILA DEVI; AND DAMYANTI
Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health related status or events in specified population and the application of this study is to control health problems. In occupational epidemiology, the emphasis is on studies of population with particulars type of environmental exposure. Epidemiological studies of occupational workers in tannery industries were contucted to estimate the impact of working condition on the health of the workers. Individual characteristics like...
Maynard, Nancy G.; Vicente, G. A.
In response to the need for improved observations of environmental factors to better understand the links between human health and the environment, NASA has established a new program to significantly improve the utilization of NASA's diverse array of data, information, and observations of the Earth for health applications. This initiative, lead by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has the following goals: (1) To encourage interdisciplinary research on the relationships between environmental parameters (e.g., rainfall, vegetation) and health, (2) Develop practical early warning systems, (3) Create a unique system for the exchange of Earth science and health data, (4) Provide an investigator field support system for customers and partners, (5) Facilitate a system for observation, identification, and surveillance of parameters relevant to environment and health issues. The NASA Environment and Health Program is conducting several interdisciplinary projects to examine applications of remote sensing data and information to a variety of health issues, including studies on malaria, Rift Valley Fever, St. Louis Encephalitis, Dengue Fever, Ebola, African Dust and health, meningitis, asthma, and filariasis. In addition, the NASA program is creating a user-friendly data system to help provide the public health community with easy and timely access to space-based environmental data for epidemiological studies. This NASA data system is being designed to bring land, atmosphere, water and ocean satellite data/products to users not familiar with satellite data/products, but who are knowledgeable in the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) environment. This paper discusses the most recent results of the interdisciplinary environment-health research projects and provides an analysis of the usefulness of the satellite data to epidemiological studies. In addition, there will be a summary of presently-available NASA Earth science data and a description of how it may be obtained.
Waschbusch, Robert J.
The Wisconsin Department of Transportation is required to control the quality of runoff from roadways under their control as part of the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System. One way to control roadway runoff is to use street sweeping to remove pollutants before they are entrained in runoff. This may be a good option because land is often unavailable or prohibitively expensive and structural best-management practices can also be expensive. This study collected stormwater runoff samples and dirt samples from the roadway surface from a section of Interstate Highway 894 near Milwaukee, Wisconsin during periods when a street sweeping program was and was not in effect. These data may be useful in evaluating street sweeping as a stormwater best management practice but this study did not perform this evaluation. Data collection methods, concentrations of sediment and other constituents in storm- water runoff, and street dirt masses are presented in this report. Replicate and comparison sample results indicate that when evaluating the effectiveness of best-management practices on highway runoff, suspended sediment results should be used rather than suspended solids, presumably because the particle sizes in highway runoff is large compared to those found in other types of stormwater runoff.
Sveum, Evan Charles
A study comparing University of Wisconsin-Stout freshmen and senior education majors' computing and Internet technology skills/knowledge and associated learning experiences was conducted. Instruments used in this study included the IC[superscript 3][R] Exam by Certiport, Inc. and the investigator's Computing and Internet Skills Learning…
Boice, J D; Blettner, M; Auvinen, A
During flight, pilots and cabin crew are exposed to increased levels of cosmic radiation which consists primarily of neutrons and gamma rays. Neutron dosimetry is not straightforward, but typical annual effective doses are estimated to range between two and five mSv. Higher dose rates are experienced at the highest altitudes and in the polar regions. Mean doses have been increasing over time as longer flights at higher altitudes have become more frequent. Because there are so few populations exposed to neutrons, studies of airline personnel are of particular interest. However, because the cumulative radiation exposure is so low, statistical power is a major concern. Further, finding an appropriate comparison group is problematic due to selection into these occupations and a number of biases are possible. For example, increased rates of breast cancer among flight attendants have been attributed to reproductive factors such as nulliparity and increased rates of melanoma among pilots have been attributed to excessive sun exposure during leisure time activities. Epidemiologic studies conducted over the last 20 y provide little consistent evidence linking cancer with radiation exposures from air travel.
SOLANLLY OCHOA ANGRINO
Full Text Available This study presents a review about the uses of Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in psychiatry disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism and aging. We searched more than 50 articles in MEDLINE, ProQuest and EBSCO databases from 1995 to 2005. 47 articles were selected and reported. The test was included in 61.7% of the studies related to assessment in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 19.5% in psychiatry disorders, 10.63% in autism, and 8.51% in aging. 100% of the articles showed quantitative analyses, 12.77% exposed variations in the application of the test (number of cards or virtual sceneries applications. Our findings suggest the needed to complement the quantitative analyses with qualitative analyses.
F. Cheraghali M. Taymori
Full Text Available Unintentional drug intoxication is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality in young children. In order to study the epidemiological pattern of childhood drug poisoning in Golestan province, all cases diagnosed with poisoning from 1997 to 2002 in the only pediatric hospital in province were recruited. During this period 563 cases of poisoned children were hospitalized in Taleqani hospital, of these 305 cases were due to drug poisoning. Opium was responsible for more than half of the poisoning cases, and 91% of deaths, among drug intoxicated children. Metoclopramide, benzodiazepines, tricyclic antidepressants and anticonvulsants were among the other frequent causes of poisoning. Neurological symptoms were the most prominent symptoms of poisoning and more than 80% of cases showed some neurological symptoms. Mortality rate among the cases was 3.6% and of total of 11 deaths, 10 were poisoned with opium. About 61% of cases were hospitalized between 24-48 hrs. Most of the poisoning cases in young children were unintentional and in many cases, their parents played a critical role in their intoxication. This role specially is crucial in infants and children under one year of age. Parents in Golestan province use opium widely for symptomatic treatment of routine illnesses in their young children and overdose of opium may cause severe intoxication and even death of the child.
... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Human epidemiological and exposure... Information § 159.170 Human epidemiological and exposure studies. Information must be submitted which concerns... that a correlation may exist between exposure to a pesticide and observed adverse effects in humans...
Full Text Available Background: Pitted keratolysis is a common dermatological condition. However, very few studies are available on the clinical characteristics and epidemiological features of this disorder from India and abroad. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients from rural area of Kolar at Sri R.L.J.H. and S.N.R. Hospital, presenting with clinically distinctive lesions of pitted keratolysis were included in the study. Cases were interviewed with particular emphasis on triggering factors and findings were recorded. Investigations like Gram′s stain, culture studies, Wood′s ultraviolet light examination, histopathology etc, was done in selected cases to ascertain the clinical diagnosis. Results: Age of the patients varied from 20 to 40 years in 52% with male preponderance in 82% of cases. Duration of the disease varied from 15 days to five years, most of the patients were bare-footed farmers (62% of cases. Hyperhidrosis and pruritus were most frequently observed symptoms in 70% and 60% of patients. Most of the patients presented with the characteristic pits which varied from 1 to 50 in number in 56 % of cases, located predominantly on the pressure bearing areas in 92% of cases and depth of the pits varied from 1 to 2 mm in 60% of cases. Associated skin conditions recorded in present study were fissuring of soles in 38%, psoriasis 10%, dermatophyte infections in 6%, planter warts 6% and Corynebacterial triad and corn in 2% of patients each. Discussion: Affection of bare-footed individuals, male preponderance, presence of hyperhidrosis and occurrence of lesions over pressure bearing areas of soles, observed in the present study were consistent with earlier studies on the subject. However, pruritus as commonest presenting symptom reported by 60% patients in the present study, has not been documented in the previous studies. Conclusion: Pitted keratolysis is fairly common in bare footed male farmers of rural India. The condition is predominantly seen over the
Lachat, C; Hawwash, D; Ocké, M C; Berg, C; Forsum, E; Hörnell, A; Larsson, C L; Sonestedt, E; Wirfält, E; Åkesson, A; Kolsteren, P; Byrnes, G; De Keyzer, W; Van Camp, J; Cade, J E; Slimani, N; Cevallos, M; Egger, M; Huybrechts, I
Concerns have been raised about the quality of reporting in nutritional epidemiology. Research reporting guidelines such as the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement can improve quality of reporting in observational studies. Herein, we propose recommendations for reporting nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research by extending the STROBE statement into Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology - Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut). Recommendations for the reporting of nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research were developed following a systematic and consultative process, co-ordinated by a multidisciplinary group of 21 experts. Consensus on reporting guidelines was reached through a three-round Delphi consultation process with 53 external experts. In total, 24 recommendations for nutritional epidemiology were added to the STROBE checklist. When used appropriately, reporting guidelines for nutritional epidemiology can contribute to improve reporting of observational studies with a focus on diet and health.
Full Text Available Concerns have been raised about the quality of reporting in nutritional epidemiology. Research reporting guidelines such as the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE statement can improve quality of reporting in observational studies. Herein, we propose recommendations for reporting nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research by extending the STROBE statement into Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology-Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut.Recommendations for the reporting of nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research were developed following a systematic and consultative process, coordinated by a multidisciplinary group of 21 experts. Consensus on reporting guidelines was reached through a three-round Delphi consultation process with 53 external experts. In total, 24 recommendations for nutritional epidemiology were added to the STROBE checklist.When used appropriately, reporting guidelines for nutritional epidemiology can contribute to improve reporting of observational studies with a focus on diet and health.
Lachat, Carl; Hawwash, Dana; Ocké, Marga C; Berg, Christina; Forsum, Elisabet; Hörnell, Agneta; Larsson, Christel; Sonestedt, Emily; Wirfält, Elisabet; Åkesson, Agneta; Kolsteren, Patrick; Byrnes, Graham; De Keyzer, Willem; Van Camp, John; Cade, Janet E; Slimani, Nadia; Cevallos, Myriam; Egger, Matthias; Huybrechts, Inge
Concerns have been raised about the quality of reporting in nutritional epidemiology. Research reporting guidelines such as the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement can improve quality of reporting in observational studies. Herein, we propose recommendations for reporting nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research by extending the STROBE statement into Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology-Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut). Recommendations for the reporting of nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research were developed following a systematic and consultative process, coordinated by a multidisciplinary group of 21 experts. Consensus on reporting guidelines was reached through a three-round Delphi consultation process with 53 external experts. In total, 24 recommendations for nutritional epidemiology were added to the STROBE checklist. When used appropriately, reporting guidelines for nutritional epidemiology can contribute to improve reporting of observational studies with a focus on diet and health.
In order to consider injury research and practice within one methodological dimension, implementation epidemiology requires first a shift in the public health approach to injury prevention from the traditional proximal risk factor paradigm to a more ecological understanding of injury causation, and then a further shift in the ...
In Algeria, the CRC wing and become the first digestive cancer in both sexes, outperforming stomach cancer. To enrich the Algerian cancer registries, we analyzed the profiles of patients with these cancers in Jijel Willaya. This was a retrospective and descriptive analysis of epidemiological, clinicopathological and biological ...
S. A. Shal'nova
Full Text Available Principles and fundamentals of proper presentation of observational epidemiological study results are focused. Principles of observational study publication developed by expert epidemiologists (STROBE statement are explained in detail.
Gallo, Valentina; Egger, Matthias; McCormack, Valerie; Farmer, Peter B; Ioannidis, John P A; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; Matullo, Giuseppe; Phillips, David H; Schoket, Bernadette; Stromberg, Ulf; Vermeulen, Roel; Wild, Christopher; Porta, Miquel; Vineis, Paolo
This article is being simultaneously published in 2011 in PLoS Medicine, Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, Preventive Medicine, Mutagenesis, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, European Journal of Epidemiology and European Journal of Clinical Investigation. Reproduced by permission of the authors. The authors jointly hold the copyright of this article. Advances in laboratory techniques have led to a rapidly increasing use of biomarkers in epidemiological studies. Biomarkers of in...
Johnson, Diep K Hoang; Staples, J Erin; Sotir, Mark J; Warshauer, David M; Davis, Jeffrey P
Powassan virus (POWV) is a tickborne Flavivirus that causes a rare but potentially life-threatening illness. The first reported case of POWV infection in a Wisconsin resident occurred in 2003. Enhanced surveillance and testing detected 2 additional cases. Patient specimens with a positive or equivocal immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody to an arbovirus were sent from commercial laboratories to the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene and forwarded to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for confirmatory testing. Patients with laboratory confirmed POWV infections were interviewed to obtain demographic, clinical, and epidemiologic information. POWV infections were confirmed in 3 adult Wisconsin residents in 2003, 2006, and 2007; illness onsets occurred during May and June. Two patients were hospitalized and all survived. One patient had a dual infection with POWV and Anaplasma phaghocytophilum. Specimens from all 3 patients were initially reported as positive for IgM antibody to either St Louis encephalitis or California serogroup viruses; POWV-specific antibody was detected during confirmatory testing at the CDC. Each patient had exposures to known or likely tick habitats in different counties within 30 days before illness onset. These are the first diagnosed human POWV infections in Wisconsin. Because all 3 patients were initially identified as having other arboviral infections using commercial screening kits, routine confirmatory testing is essential for proper diagnosis of most arboviral infections. Wisconsin residents should be educated regarding risks of acquiring and ways to prevent POWV infection and other tickborne diseases when spending time outdoors.
Charles H. Perry
This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Wisconsin based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Data estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and...
Full Text Available Mercury sensitization has been historically in question and may be related to recent increases of type I allergic diseases. To clarify the epidemiological factors of mercury sensitization, we investigated factors relating to mercury sensitization in 215 medical students. Their allergic symptoms, family histories and lifestyles were studied by questionnaire. Patch tests were performed with HgCI2 (0.05% aq. and NiS04 (5% aq.. Anti- Dermatophagoides and anti-Crypfomeria pollen IgE antibodies in sera were also measured. Urinary mercury concentrations were measured in 25 mercury sensitized and 44 non-sensitized subjects (controls. Hair mercury concentrations were also measured in 19 sensitized and 22 non-sensitized subjects. While the positive rate of nickel was 6.0% (13/215, that of mercury was high (13.0%; 28/215. The subjects' individual histories of allergic rhinitis, eczema, urticaria and allergic conjunctivitis were significantly associated with family histories of these conditions (P<0.01, P<0.005 and P<0.005, respectively, as reported in the literature. However, no allergen- specific antibody positivity or past history of allergic disease was associated with mercury sensitization. Mercury sensitized subjects had experienced eczema caused by cosmetics, shampoos, soaps and haircreams significantly more frequently (P<0.05. The history of mercurochrome usage was not associated with mercury sensitization. The number of teeth treated with metals in mercury sensitized subjects was significantly higher than that in the control group (6.8±4.3 vs 4.8±1; P<0.05. There were significant differences in urinary mercury concentrations (specific gravity adjusted levels between mercury sensitized subjects and non-sensitized subjects (2.0±0.9 and 1.3±0.6 (xg/L, respectively; P<0.001. There were also significant differences in hair mercury concentrations between mercury sensitized and non-sensitized subjects (2.0±0.9 and 1.2±0.5 μg/g, respectively; P<0
Kendall, G M; Muirhead, C R; Darby, S C; Doll, R; Arnold, L; O'Hagan, J A
This review gives a general account of how and why epidemiological studies of UK participants in the nuclear weapons test programme were set up. There is a short description of the circumstances in which the tests were planned and executed and a discussion of the general considerations involved in designing studies to show whether the health of test participants suffered as a result of the tests. The companion review article summarises the results of the epidemiological studies. (review)
Min, Hong Ki
Helminthic zoonoses are of significant importance to the public health and to the socioeconomic consequences especially in lost-meat, animal products and animal labor. For past several decades in Korea, it has been recognized that endoparasitic infections among domestic animals are extremely common and many of the helminth parasites of man have been acquired from, or are shared with domestic animals. However, there was no survey of a nationwide scale on the prevalence of animal helminthiasis; and control measures are also not satisfactory. Furthermore, because of the remarkable increase in the demand, number of domestic animals and pets is rapidly increasing in these days. Therefore, an extensive study on zoonotic helminths was carried out from July 1980 throughout August 1981 to understand the present status and parasite-host relationship from the epidemiological viewpoont. A total of 13,685 fecal specimens of cattles, sheeps, pigs, dogs and cats was collected from 26 localities in the country. The specimens were examined by formalin-ether centrifugal sedimentation technique. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Of 13,685 specimens examined, 9,808(71.7 %) were positive for helminth parasites. The positive rates were 99.0 % in cattles, 86.5 % on sheeps, 85.4 % in pigs, 35.4 % in dogs, 15.1 % in cats. 2. Single infection showed the highest rate (60.0 %), and double infection(27.5 %), triple(8.1 %), quadruple(2.8 %), quintuple(1.5 %) and hexad(0.1 %) were in decreasing order. 3. In the present study, 18 species zoonotic helminths were found: 11 nematodes, 6 trematodes and 1 cestode. 4. According to province, Cheju revealed the highest rate 84.8 %, then Kyungnam 77.5 %, Jeonnam 75.6 %, Jeonpuk 75.4 %, Kyonggi 75.2 %, Chungnam 71.7 %, Chungpuk 70.6 % and Kangwon 64.2 % were in decreasing order and Busan and Seoul showed 70.4 % and 58.1 %, respectively. 5. Rural area showed slightly higher rate (74.7 %) than urban area (68.5 %), and rates of mountainous area (70
This research evaluates the scour potential of rocks supporting Wisconsin DOT bridge foundations. Ten highway bridges were selected for this study, of which seven are supported by shallow foundations, and five were built on sandstone in rivers/stream...
Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.
The following curriculum units comprise this course book: (1) Germans in a New Home, (2) Contributions of the Germans in Wisconsin, (3) A Letter to Germany, (4) Germans Come to Kingston, (5) First a Soldier, Then a Man of the Church (about Heinrich von Rohr), (6) A Visiting German, and (7) Germans and Music. Each unit begins with a reading of…
In this article, we propose a general structure for designing a research protocol of an observational epidemiological study. We start by highlighting the importance of the research protocol, namely in accounting for some bias and guaranteeing methodologic rigor and study reproductability. Next, we reflect on some of the essential elements of a research protocol no matter its objective. We further present some specific issues to be included according to the type of study: cross-sectional, case-control and cohort.
Lane, Jennie F.; Floress, Kristin; Rickert, Melissa
Through a qualitative comparative case study, this investigation examined the process by which three school districts in Wisconsin, U.S.A., developed a school energy policy and complementary energy education plan. To guide the process, the researchers created an outline of recommended steps for the districts to follow. Although there were variations in the sequence and perceived ease of the steps, the Energy Task Force members involved in the process found the outline to be a supportive guide. Further analysis of the cases involved interviewing members of the Energy Task Forces to identify facilitating and obstructing factors. The study concluded that factors such as level of environmental literacy, along with aspects of the school culture and leadership, interacted to influence the successful drafting of school energy policies and education plans. In addition to introducing an outline of recommended steps that can be used by other school policy development teams interested in promoting energy efficiency, this study adds insights into the analysis of energy policy work within the context of a school setting. - Highlights: • School energy policy and complementary energy education plans can be successfully developed with guidelines for policy team membership. • Teacher agency, including environmental literacy, helps overcome barriers in developing school policy and energy education plans. • Administrative support of energy conservation is a key to the development of school energy policies and complementary energy education plans
Collection methods, data compilation, and lessons learned from a study of stream geomorphology associated with riparian cattle grazing along the Fever River, University of Wisconsin- Platteville Pioneer Farm, Wisconsin, 2004–11
Peppler, Marie C.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.
Stream geomorphic characteristics were monitored along a 0.8-mile reach of the Fever River in the Driftless Area of southwestern Wisconsin from 2004 to 2011 where cattle grazed in paddocks along the riverbank at the University of Wisconsin-Platteville’s Pioneer Farm. The study reach encompassed seven paddocks that covered a total of 30 acres on both sides of the river. Monitoring data included channel crosssection surveys, eroding bank measurements and photograph points, erosion-pin measurements, longitudinal profile surveys, measurements of the volume of soft sediment in the channel, and repeated time-lapse photographs. Characteristics were summarized into subreaches by use of a geographic information system. From 2004 to 2007, baseline monitoring was done to identify geomorphic conditions prior to evaluating the effects of management alternatives for riparian grazing. Subsequent to the full-scale baseline monitoring, additional data were collected from 2007 to 2011. Samples of eroding bank and in-channel soft sediment were collected and analyzed for dry bulk density in 2008 for use in a sediment budget. One of the pastures was excluded from cattle grazing in the fall of 2007; in 2009 channel cross sections, longitudinal profiles, erosion-pin measurements, photographs, and a soft sediment survey were again collected along the full 0.8-mile reach for a comparison to baseline monitoring data. Channel cross sections were surveyed a final time in 2011. Lessons learned from bank monitoring with erosion pins were most numerous and included the need for consistent tracking of each pin and whether there was deposition or erosion, timing of measurements and bank conditions during measurements (frozen, postflood), and awareness of pins loosening in place. Repeated freezing and thawing of banks and consequential mass wasting and jointing enhance fluvial erosion. Monitoring equipment in the paddocks was kept flush to the ground or located high on posts to avoid injuring the
ROELSGAARD, E; IVERSEN, E; BLOCHER, C
Up to the end of the nineteenth century the tubercle bacillus apparently had little opportunity of disseminating among the rather isolated tribes of tropical Africa. With the creation of large centres of trade and industry in the wake of European colonization, tuberculosis seems to have spread rapidly over the continent and is today found everywhere.In a number of tuberculosis prevalence surveys conducted by WHO during 1955-60, randomly selected population groups were tuberculin tested, X-rayed and had sputa examined by direct microscopy. The three methods of examination were applied independently of one another.Data collected during the surveys have been analysed with a view to discovering common epidemiological features of tuberculosis in tropical Africa, assessing the reliability of the diagnostic methods employed and discussing their usefulness in future tuberculosis control programmes.
The relationship between religion and health has been the subject of growing interest in epidemiological research. The aim of this paper is to review the data on relationship between health-related behaviors associated with religiosity and reduced mortality and morbidity. In this review beneficial effects of religiosity on specific physical and mental health diseases, focusing on coronary heart disease, cancer, depression, suicide, psychosis, and substance abuse are described. Religious beliefs and practices can represent powerful sources of comfort, hope, and meaning and they are associated with protective dietary habits and reduced risk of substance abuse. Religiosity can be also harmful as it is often entangled with neurotic and psychotic disorders. The current published data suggests that religiosity has a favorable effect on survival, although the methodological controversies including presence of biases typical for observational research indicate that results should be interpreted with caution.
In this article, the author shares a painting unit she introduced to her students. In this unit, her students painted pictures of barns and discussed the historical significance of barns in Wisconsin.
Hindall, S.M.; Borman, Ronald G.
This report describes the physical environment, availability, distribution, movement, quality, and use of water in the upper Wisconsin River basin as an aid in planning and water management. The report presents general information on the basin derived from data obtained from Federal, State, and local agencies, New field data were collected in areas where information was lacking. More detailed studies of problem areas may be required in the future, as water needs and related development increase.
Ding, C Y; Cao, Y; Yang, C; Sun, F; Zhan, S Y
Concerns have been raised about the reporting quality in nutritional epidemiology. Therefore, strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology-nutritional epidemiology (STROBE-nut) has been proposed by extending the STROBE statement to include additional recommendations on issues related to nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment, aiming to provide more specific guidelines on how to report observational research in the field. This paper presents a brief introduction to STROBE-nut and also an explanation of the key points in the additional items, with an example illustrating the application of the checklist.
Because of the concern of people, a study of mortality has previously been conducted in two Pennsylvania counties located near manufacturing and reprocessing plants of nuclear materials over the period 1950-1995. No excessive mortality has been identified in the population exposed counties in comparison to control counties. The current study is the continuation of the previous study of mortality over a period of eight additional years (up to 2004) and the addition of a study of cancer incidence over the period 1990-2004 and mortality for causes out of cancer from 1996 to 2004. Method: The population of each county of the study was compared to the population of three control counties selected according to socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, the same way as in the previous study. The demographic, mortality and incidence data for the different counties have been earned at the state of Pennsylvania. Results: over the period 1996-2004, mortality from cancer (10 457 deaths) in the two counties studied was comparable to that of six control counties (relative risk .97 [95% CI .94 -. 99]) and previous results. Similarly, the incidence of cancer was similar in the counties studied (39350 cases of cancer) and the control counties (relative risk .99 [95% CI .97-1.00]). The number of deaths unrelated to cancer was 36 565, very close to the expected number (relative risk .99 [95% CI 1.01-1.01]). Conclusion: Overall, no increase in cancer or non-cancer disease could be attributed to living in counties that had manufacturing and reprocessing plants of nuclear materials. (N.C.)
The measurement of radiofrequency (RF) exposure is important to the quality of epidemiological studies of the possible association of RF exposure with disease. The extent and type of exposure measurement in past epidemiological studies of RF, and the features of measurement that would be desirable for better studies in the future are summarised. Measurement characteristics that are discussed include quantification of radiation frequency and of intensity and timing of exposures, measurement (or good estimation) of exposures for individuals rather than only for groups, quality of measurement, and measurement of RF exposures experienced outside the study setting. Integration of exposure measurement into the design of epidemiological studies is needed for better assessments of possible RF effects. (author)
Fix, J.J.; Gilbert, E.S.
Efforts are underway to pool data from epidemiologic studies of nuclear workers to obtain more precise estimates of radiation risk than would be possible from any single study. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is coordinating combined analyses of data from studies in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. In the US, the Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) to provide investigators an opportunity to analyze data from several DOE laboratories. IARC investigators, in collaboration with those conducting the individual studies, have developed a dosimetry protocol for the international combined analyses
Fix, J.J.; Gilbert, E.S.
Efforts are underway to pool data from epidemiologic studies of nuclear workers to obtain more precise estimates of radiation risk than would be possible from any single study. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is coordinating combined analyses of data from studies in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. In the U.S., the Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) to provide investigators an opportunity to analyze data from several DOE laboratories. IARC investigators, in collaboration with those conducting the individual studies, have developed a dosimetry protocol for the international combined analyses. (author)
Kim, June H; Mooney, Stephen J
This article describes the epidemiological principles underlying four observational study designs commonly used to assess traffic safety: the case-control, case-crossover, culpability and quasi-induced exposure designs. We focus in particular on the specific challenges for preventing bias using each design. Whereas recruiting controls representative of the source population poses a special challenge in case-control traffic safety studies, case-crossover designs are prone to recall bias, and culpability and quasi-induced exposure studies can be undermined by difficulties assigning crash responsibility. Using causal diagrams and worked examples, we provide a simple way to teach traffic safety designs to epidemiologists and to encourage proper application of epidemiological principles among researchers designing traffic safety studies. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.
Louis R. Iverson; Stephen N. Matthews; Anantha M. Prasad; Matthew P. Peters; Gary W. Yohe
We used a risk matrix to assess risk from climate change for multiple forest species by discussing an example that depicts a range of risk for three tree species of northern Wisconsin. Risk is defined here as the product of the likelihood of an event occurring and the consequences or effects of that event. In the context of species habitats, likelihood is related to...
Palmini, Cathleen C.
Describes a survey of Wisconsin academic library support staff that explored the effects of computerization of libraries on work and job satisfaction. Highlights include length of employment; time spent at computer terminals; training; computer background; computers as timesavers; influence of automation on effectiveness; and job frustrations.…
Kounenou, Kalliope; Koutra, Aikaterini; Katsiadrami, Aristea; Diacogiannis, Georgios
In the present study, 805 Greek students participated by filling in self-report questionnaires studying depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale), general health status (General Health Questionnaire), general psychopathology (Symptom Checklist-90-R), and personal demographic features. Some of the more prevalent findings…
Calle Purón, M E; Gil Miguel, A; Lasheras Lozano, M L; Rey Calero, J; Domínguez Rojas, V
It has been done an epidemiologic study about dental caries prevalence in a school population in Madrid. We have studied 3,608 schoolchildren. Total caries prevalence was 53.4%, according other authors. Caries is more frequent between ten years children. We also observed low prevalence in the third year of the study.
Pernot, Eileen; Cardis, Elisabeth; Hall, Janet; Baatout, Sarah; El Saghire, Houssein; Mohammed Abderrafi Benotmane; Roel Quintens; Blanchardon, Eric; Bouffler, Simon; Gomolka, Maria; Guertler, Anne; Kreuzer, Michaela; Harms-Ringdahl, Mats; Jeggo, Penny; Laurier, Dominique; Lindholm, Carita; Mkacher, Radhia; Sabatier, Laure; Tapio, Soile; De Vathaire, Florent
Ionizing radiation is a known human carcinogen that can induce a variety of biological effects depending on the physical nature, duration, doses and dose-rates of exposure. However, the magnitude of health risks at low doses and dose-rates (below 100 mSv and/or 0.1 mSv min -1 ) remains controversial due to a lack of direct human evidence. It is anticipated that significant insights will emerge from the integration of epidemiological and biological research, made possible by molecular epidemiology studies incorporating biomarkers and bioassays. A number of these have been used to investigate exposure, effects and susceptibility to ionizing radiation, albeit often at higher doses and dose rates, with each reflecting time-limited cellular or physiological alterations. This review summarises the multidisciplinary work undertaken in the framework of the European project DoReMi (Low Dose Research towards Multidisciplinary Integration) to identify the most appropriate biomarkers for use in population studies. In addition to logistical and ethical considerations for conducting large-scale epidemiological studies, we discuss the relevance of their use for assessing the effects of low dose ionizing radiation exposure at the cellular and physiological level. We also propose a temporal classification of biomarkers that may be relevant for molecular epidemiology studies which need to take into account the time elapsed since exposure. Finally, the integration of biology with epidemiology requires careful planning and enhanced discussions between the epidemiology, biology and dosimetry communities in order to determine the most important questions to be addressed in light of pragmatic considerations including the appropriate population to be investigated (occupationally, environmentally or medically exposed), and study design. The consideration of the logistics of biological sample collection, processing and storing and the choice of biomarker or bioassay, as well as awareness of
Ruwald, Martin Huth
thesis demonstrated that the ICD-10 discharge diagnosis could reliably identify a cohort of patients admitted for syncope and that the discharge code carried a high number of unexplained cases despite use of numerous tests. The last studies showed that syncope is a common cause for hospital contact......The epidemiology and prognosis of ‘fainting’ or syncope has puzzled physicians over the years. Is fainting dangerous? This is a question often asked by the patient--and the answer is ‘it depends on a lot of things’. The diverse pathophysiology of syncope and the underlying comorbidites...... of the patients play an essential role. In epidemiology these factors have major impact on the outcome of the patients. Until recently, even the definition of syncope, differed from one study to another which has made literature reviews difficult. Traditionally the data on epidemiology of syncope has been taken...
Epidemiologic, physiologic, and social factors appear to be associated with an increased risk of asthma. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the most frequent risk factors of childhood asthma exacerbation and severity in our community. Methods: This cross sectional study involved 206 asthmatic children, 5 to ...
Plante, David T; Finn, Laurel A; Hagen, Erika W; Mignot, Emmanuel; Peppard, Paul E
To examine associations of depression with habitual sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and objective sleep propensity in a nonclinical population. Data from adults participating in the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study were utilized in analyses. There were 1,287 adults (3,324 observations) who were used in the analysis of subjective hypersomnolence measures; 1,155 adults (2,981 observations) were used in the analysis of objective sleep propensity assessed by the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT). Repeated-measures logistic regression estimated associations between presence of depression (defined as modified Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale ≥ 50 or use of antidepressant medications) and three primary hypersomnolence measures: subjective excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS] ≥ 11), self-reported sleep duration ≥ 9 h/d, and objective sleep propensity (MSLT mean sleep latency caffeine, tobacco, and alcohol use, sleep disordered breathing, as well as insomnia and sleep duration when appropriate, estimated odd ratios (95% confidence interval) for depression were: 1.56 (1.31,1.86) for ESS ≥ 11; 2.01 (1.49, 2.72) for habitual sleep time ≥ 9 h; and 0.76 (0.63-0.92) for MSLT mean sleep latency depression, with subjective sleepiness and excessive sleep duration associated with increased odds of depression, but objective sleep propensity as measured by the MSLT associated with decreased odds of depression. Further research is indicated to explain this paradox and the impact of different hypersomnolence measures on the course of mood disorders. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 467. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.
Nieto, F. Javier; Peppard, Paul E.; Young, Terry; Finn, Laurel; Hla, Khin Mae; Farré, Ramon
Rationale: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) has been associated with total and cardiovascular mortality, but an association with cancer mortality has not been studied. Results from in vitro and animal studies suggest that intermittent hypoxia promotes cancer tumor growth.
Background Basic stroke features are hardly known in sub-Saharan countries, and no data are available in Uganda. Objective To characterize patients presenting with clinical stroke to Mulago Hospital. Design Descriptive epidemiological study. Setting Mulago National referral Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. Participants ...
Background: Childhood asthma is a major public health problem in Egypt and worldwide. Epidemiologic, physiologic, and social factors appear to be associated with an increased risk of asthma. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the most frequent risk factors of childhood asthma exacerbation and severity in ...
Air pollution epidemiology studies of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) often use outdoor concentrations as exposure surrogates. These surrogates can induce exposure error since they do not account for (1) time spent indoors with ambient PM2.5 levels attenuated from outdoor...
Physical activity during pregnancy has been investigated for its potential benefits which includes weight control. Physical activity patterns of pregnant women in Tshwane, South Africa, were investigated using the EPIC–Norfolk Physical Activity Questionnaire (EPAQ-2) in an epidemiological cross-sectional study. Differences ...
Epidemiological Studies on Bovine Anaplasmosis. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... 350 cattle over 24 weeks were sampled for seroepidemiological survey and assessing endemic stability (100 from sporadic field cases and small holders randomly selected and 250 from intensive system farms).
This study whose objective was to determine epidemiological, clinical and biochemical characteristics of bovine anaplasmosis was carried out into two phases. The first phase was carried out in November 2005 to October 2006 . The prevalence of bovine anaplasmosis was determined using thin blood film and IFT and the ...
Visser, A.W. de; Ioan-Facsinay, A.; Mutsert, R. de; Widya, R.L.; Loef, M.; Roos, A. de; Cessie, S. le; Heijer, M. den; Rosendaal, F.R.; Kloppenburg, M.; Smit, J.W.A.; et al.,
INTRODUCTION: Obesity, usually characterized by the body mass index (BMI), is a risk factor for hand osteoarthritis (OA). We investigated whether adipose tissue and abdominal fat distribution are associated with hand OA. METHODS: The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study is a
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. In the early 1990's several dietary factors were suggested to protect against COPD, based on proposed biological mechanisms and a small number of epidemiological studies.
A study to assess the epidemiological factors responsible for the recent outbreaks of infectious bursal disease (IBD) in Accra and Kumasi, between October and December 2002 and January to April 2003, was conducted. Case report records at Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratories were examined for IBD cases.
Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.
This report presents the results of an assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of deploying a photovoltaics (PV) system on a brownfield site at the Refuse Hideaway Landfill in Middleton, Wisconsin. The site currently has a PV system in place and was assessed for further PV installations. The cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options were estimated. The economics of the potential systems were analyzed using an electric rate of $0.1333/kWh and incentives offered by the State of Wisconsin and by the serving utility, Madison Gas and Electric. According to the site production calculations, the most cost-effective system in terms of return on investment is the thin-film fixed-tilt technology. The report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of such a system.
Water bodies in the study-area were examined for their gastropod fauna using the scooping net and hand-picking techniques. The overall prevalence of S. haematobium in the study-area was 6.6% with Ocholonya having the highest infection rate of 13.8%. The differences in community infection rate were not statistically ...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oral white lesions that cannot be clinically or pathologically characterized by any specific disease are referred to as leukoplakia. Such lesions are well known for their propensity for malignant transformation to the extent of 10-20%.Exfoliative cytology is a simple and useful screening tool for detection of malignant or dysplastic changes in such lesions. AIMS: A clinicoepidemiological and cytological study of oral leukoplakia was undertaken to detect their malignant potential and value of cytology in diagnosis. METHODS: This 2 year duration multicentre study was undertaken on all patients presenting with oral white lesions to the out patient department of the two institutions. Those cases in which a specific cause (infective, systemic disease or specific disease entity for the white lesions were elicited were excluded from the study. The group with idiopathic white lesions was included in the study and was subjected to periodic exfoliative cytological study at three monthly intervals to detect any malignant change. Patients presenting less than two times for follow up were excluded from the final analysis of the study. RESULTS: Out of total 2920 patients studied, 89.53% showed benign, 9.93% showed dysplastic and, 0.72% showed malignant cells on exfoliative cytological study. All the dysplastic and malignant lesions were subjected to histopathological study by incisional biopsy. Among the dysplastic lesions 13.79% proved benign and the rest true dysplastic. Among the cytologically malignant group 4.76% showed dysplasia and the rest true malignant lesions. CONCLUSION: Persistent leukoplakia has a potential for malignant transformation and exfoliative cytology could be a simple method for early detection of dysplastic and malignant changes.
Hu, Gang; Lakka, Timo A; Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas
for more than 70% of total mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes. The associations of physical activity, physical fitness, and changes in the lifestyle with the risk of type 2 diabetes have been assessed by a number of prospective studies and clinical trials in the past decade. Several studies have...... also evaluated the joint associations of physical activity, body mass index, and glucose levels with the risk of type 2 diabetes. Prospective studies and clinical trials have shown that moderate or high levels of physical activity or physical fitness and changes in the lifestyle (dietary modification...... and increase in physical activity) can prevent type 2 diabetes. Our review of the scientific evidence confirms that 30 min/d of moderate- or high-level physical activity is an effective and safe way to prevent type 2 diabetes in all populations....
Detailed studies of hot ion plasmas (T/sub i/ > T/sub e/) in the poloidal field octupole show that the ambipolar electric field which is perpendicular to the flux surfaces is well explained by the observed properties of the microturbulence structures in the plasma. The turbulence structure has been measured by correlation techniques which are carefully described. In these experiments, signals were studied which are aperiodic in time and space, short lived compared to the decay times of the bulk plasma parameters, short ranged compared to the machine size, and are therefore classified as microturbulence structures. The resulting spatial and temporal correlation functions (CFs) are well fitted to a Gaussian function and the associated correlation lengths or times are the half width at half maximum of the CFs. The correlation length is measured to be the ion gyro radius for the hot hydrogen plasma and somewhat less for the helium plasma
Full Text Available Mycoplasma genitalium (Mg commonly causes nongonococcal urethritis and cervicitis. Mg is a fastidious bacterium that poses difficulty in time-consuming isolation and culture. Lack of specificity for serological tests also hampers clinical research of Mg. With development of molecular biology, polymerase chain reaction tests, which exhibit high sensitivities and specificities, became primary tools for foundational and clinical studies of Mg.
Mycoplasma genitalium (Mg) commonly causes nongonococcal urethritis and cervicitis. Mg is a fastidious bacterium that poses difficulty in time-consuming isolation and culture. Lack of specificity for serological tests also hampers clinical research of Mg. With development of molecular biology, polymerase chain reaction tests, which exhibit high sensitivities and specificities, became primary tools for foundational and clinical studies of Mg.
This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bateriuria in preschool children of different age and sex groups and to isolate the organisms responsible for asymptomatic bacteriuria and determine their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. A total of 475 children from 17 nurseries in Ahvaz city, Iran ...
Dawadimi region of Saudi Arabia. Methods: Data from the patients included in this retrospective study were collected from the Leishmaniasis Control Center of Ad-Dawadimi District of Saudi Arabia. A total of 370 patients with CL were recorded from ...
I.A. Hoppenbrouwers (Ilse)
textabstractThe objective of this thesis was to find new risk alleles for MS. This may finally result in a better understanding of the pathogenesis of MS. Knowledge of MS disease pathways can direct strategies for prevention, diagnosis and therapy. In our study, we included MS patients from a
Full Text Available Aim of the study was to clarify the prevalence and status of smoking among today’s teenagers according to the survey. Materials and methods. There was carried out the study of the prevalence of smoking among adolescents in the Dnipro (n = 2299 individuals. Results. According to the results of the survey, there were 20.8 % active smokers among adolescents, among them 89.1 % adolescents smoked every day, including 24.9 % boys and 14.6 % girls. On average, adolescents begin smoking regularly at the age of 14.4 ± 0.1 year. The average length of smoking in adolescents was to 3.4 ± 0.1. The average number of cigarettes adolescents smoked per day made up of 9.1 ± 0.3 units. Studying the type of tobacco products 48.6 % of adolescents were found to smoke light cigarettes. The average index of smoker was 109.1 ± 3.3 and was significantly higher in boys (125.5 ± 4.9 than in girls (91.9 ± 4.0 (p < 0.001. Study of the motivation to quit smoking found that only 20.3 % of teenagers are highly motivated to quit, whereas about 31.7 % of adolescents have no motivation to quit smoking. Conclusions. The study showed that the problem of tobacco use remains highly relevant: in the city every fifth teenager smokes. The findings necessitate widespread introduction of antismoking programs among adolescents, which should be directed first to reduce the intensity of smoking and increase motivation to quit smoking, promote healthy lifestyles, as well as thorough clinical examination of adolescent smokers with the aim of identifying risk groups for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Jeffrey A. Tice
Full Text Available Isoflavones, phytoestrogens in soy beans with estrogen-like properties, have been examined for their cancer protective effects. Mammographic density is a strong predictor of breast cancer. This review summarizes studies that have examined the association between isoflavones and breast density. Observational investigations in Hawaii and Singapore suggest slightly lower breast density among women of Asian descent with regular soy intake, but two larger studies from Japan and Singapore did not observe a protective effect. The findings from seven randomized trials with primarily Caucasian women indicate that soy or isoflavones do not modify mammographic density. Soy foods and isoflavone supplements within a nutritional range do not appear to modify breast cancer risk as assessed by mammographic density.
Full Text Available A wide range of population, 4% to 30%, suffers from tinnitus that is defined as perception of sound without apparent acoustic stimulus. We conducted the present study to determine the prevalence of tinnitus in Iranian population; Tehran province. This cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2009 to December 2009, recruiting 3207 individuals (age range, 7-98 who were residing in Tehran province, Iran. Participants were asked to fill two questionnaires; the validated Persian version of Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ and another one that was specifically designed for this study. Prevalence of tinnitus and its association factors were evaluated. 3207 participants enrolled into our study comprising 1429 (44.7% male and 1765 (55.3% female with mean age of 55.01±17.85. Of total of 3207 participants, 146 (4.6% had tinnitus consisting of 80 male (54.8% and 66 (45.2% female participants. It showed a rising trend with increasing age that was especially significant after the sixth decade of life (P=0.001. The analysis showed mean TQ global score of 35.96±25.52 that was significantly different between male and female participants (P=0.051 and had no significant correlation with increasing age (Spearman's r=0.1, P=0.10. The tinnitus intensity was moderate to very severe in 95 (56.1% of the participants. Its severity level was not significantly different between men and women (P=0.09. Tinnitus intensity had no significant association with increasing age (Spearman's r=0.1, P=0.31. Patients with higher TQ global score had higher tinnitus intensities (P=0.001. The annoyance level was significantly different between men and women (P=0.04 and its impact on the participants daily routine functions were significantly higher in men (P=0.003. Given the results of the study, demonstrating that prevalence of tinnitus in Iranian population (Tehran province was lower than the other countries and had a direct correlation with increasing age only after the sixth
Daniel, Jamie Owen
Like thousands of other people from around the country and around the world, this author was heartened and inspired by the tenacity, immediacy, and creativity of the pushback by Wisconsin's public-sector unions against Governor Scott Walker's efforts to limit their collective bargaining rights. And like many others who made the trek to Madison to…
This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Wisconsin based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report...
Charles, H. (Hobie) Perry; Gary J. Brand
The annual forest inventory of Wisconsin continues, and this document reports 2001-05 moving averages for most variables and comparisons between 2000 and 2005 for growth, removals, and mortality. Summary resource tables can be generated through the Forest Inventory Mapmaker website at http://ncrs2.fs.fed.us/4801/fiadb/index. htm. Estimates from this inventory show a...
C.H. Perry; V.A. Everson
Figure 2 was revised by the author in August 2008. This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Wisconsin based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service from 2002-2006. These estimates, along with associated core tables postedon the Internet, are...
C.H. Perry; V.A. Everson
This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Wisconsin based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, are updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report.
This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Wisconsin based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this report...
Logroscino, Giancarlo; Marin, Benoit; Piccininni, Marco; Arcuti, Simona; Chiò, Adriano; Hardiman, Orla; Rooney, James; Zoccolella, Stefano; Couratier, Philippe; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Beghi, Ettore
Despite concerns about the representativeness of patients from ALS tertiary centers as compared to the ALS general population, the extent of referral bias in clinical studies remains largely unknown. Using data from EURALS consortium we aimed to assess nature, extent and impact of referral bias. Four European ALS population-based registries located in Ireland, Piedmont, Puglia, Italy, and Limousin, France, covering 50 million person-years, participated. Demographic and clinic characteristics of ALS patients diagnosed in tertiary referral centers were contrasted with the whole ALS populations enrolled in registries in the same geographical areas. Patients referred to ALS centers were younger (with difference ranging from 1.1 years to 2.4 years), less likely to present a bulbar onset, with a higher proportion of familial antecedents and a longer survival (ranging from 11% to 15%) when compared to the entire ALS population in the same geographic area. A trend for referral bias is present in cohorts drawn from ALS referral centers. The magnitude of the possible referral bias in a particular tertiary center can be estimated through a comparison with ALS patients drawn from registry in the same geographic area. Studies based on clinical cohorts should be cautiously interpreted. The presence of a registry in the same area may improve the complete ascertainment in the referral center.
British Nuclear Fuels Limited has embarked on a study of the mortality data among those of its workforce who were employed prior to 1 January 1976. The study covers a total population of about 41000 current and ex-employees, but is initially concerned with a radiation worker cohort of 7500 at the Sellafield establishment where the highest radiation doses are received. Tracing of the health status of ex-employees has been undertaken using the services provided by the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (OPCS) and the Department of Health and Social Security (DHSS) and it is expected that ultimately the level of trace will be better than 97%. Mortality data not specifically related to radiation workers are included and relate to male deaths among serving staff and pensioners during the years 1962-1978. Those observed deaths (O) are compared on an age standardized basis with those expected (E) from the general population, the ratio O/E being about 1 for all cancers and less than 1 for non-cancer deaths. This pattern is consistent with the well known 'healthy worker' effect seen in industry. (author)
Hoffmann, Cassiano Ricardo; Traldi, Eduardo Franceschini; Posser, Alexandre
To evaluate the personal, fracture, treatment and complication characteristics among patients with pediatric femoral shaft fractures attended at the pediatric orthopedic service of the Joana de Gusmão Children's Hospital. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study on a population consisting of patients with femoral shaft fractures, aged between birth and 14 years and 11 months, who were divided into four age groups. Information was obtained from medical records and was transferred to a survey questionnaire to present personal, fracture, treatment and complication variables. The study population consisted of 96 patients. Their mean age was 6.8 years. The cases were predominantly among males, comprising closed fractures on the right side, in the middle third with a single line. Regarding fracture etiology, traffic accidents predominated overall in the sample. Most of the patients (74 to 77.1%) presented femoral fractures as their only injury. Conservative treatment predominated in the group younger than six years of age, and surgical treatment in the group aged 6 to 14 years and 11 months. The complications observed until bone union were: discrepancy, infection and movement limitation. The mean time taken for consolidation was 9.6 ± 2.4 weeks, varying with age. The features of these fractures were similar to those described in the literature and the treatment used showed good results. The Joana de Gusmão Children's Hospital has used the treatment proposed in the literature for pediatric femoral shaft fractures.
Pennington, Rachel; Cooper, Ashley; Edmond, Evan; Faulkner, Alastair; Reidy, Michael J; Davies, Peter S E
Quidditch is a fast growing, physically intense, mixed-gender full-contact sport. Originally adapted from Harry Potter novels, quidditch was first played in 2005 in the USA but is now played worldwide. It is essential to elucidate patterns of injury for the safety and growth of the sport of quidditch. It also provides a unique opportunity to study injury patterns in mixed-gender full-contact sport, an area of increasing importance with the developing culture of transition from single-gender to mixed-gender sports. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the types of injuries sustained while playing quidditch in terms of their incidence, anatomical distribution and severity, and gender distribution. An anonymous self-reporting questionnaire was distributed to all active quidditch players in the UK. Data collection included player demographics, type of injury, mechanism of injury, player position, experience and treatment required, relating to the previous 12 months. A total of 348 participants of 684 eligible athletes responded to the questionnaire representing a 50.87% response rate. There were 315 injuries reported by 180 athletes in total, with an overall incidence of 4.06 injuries per 1,000 hours. A statistically significantly different rate of concussion was observed with female athletes sustaining more concussion than males (p=0.006). The overall rate of concussion was 0.651/1000hrs in males and 1.163/1000hrs in females (0.877/1000 hours overall). This study provides the first quantitative description of injury rates in quidditch. The overall injury rates are no higher than those reported in other recreational contact sports. Female athletes were found to have a higher rate of concussion, which needs further investigation. These findings are relevant to players concerned about safety in quidditch and to governing bodies regarding governance of the sport. 3b.
Condò, R; Perugia, C; Maturo, P; Docimo, R
The Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) is a qualitative and quantitative defect of the enamel structure of the first permanent molars, which may vary from 1 to 4 with involvement of maxillary and jaw permanent incisors. AIM.: Aim of this study is that to evaluate, among 1500 paediatric patients chosen at random aged between 0 and 14 years, afferent by the Paediatric Dentistry of the Azienda Ospedialiera Policlinico Tor Vergata of Rome from 1996 to 2011, the incidents and the prevalence of the MIH distribution, and furthermore to ascertain the possible relationship with the data described in the literature. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION.: From the sample of 1500 paediatric patients, the number of those affections from MIH has turned out to be pairs to 110 (7.3%) aged between 4 and 15 years, and an average age equal to 9.7. The incidence of the hypoplastic defects is greater in the elements of the permanents series in which the functional class mainly interested is that of the first molars, with a percentage of 39.8%. Regarding the elements of the deciduous series affections from hypoplasia, they turn out to be in all in number of 20 represented in 80% of the cases from the seconds molars while in the remaining 20% of the cases the items involved are the central incisors. About the percentage of elements involved in the MIH: the molars, involved with a frequency of 56%, turn out to be more hit regarding incisors (44%). As reported in the literature, it can be asserted that the MIH can hit in equal measure both the male sex that feminine one. CONCLUSIONS.: MIH represents a condition quite frequent in the paediatric population. In managing this anomaly takes an essential role in the early diagnosis and in the differential one. The study done underlined the importance of a correct application of the therapeutic protocol which, starting from a careful diagnosis and articulating themselves in the execution of preventive treatments and in severe cases restorative and
CONDÒ, R.; PERUGIA, C.; MATURO, P.; DOCIMO, R.
SUMMARY The Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) is a qualitative and quantitative defect of the enamel structure of the first permanent molars, which may vary from 1 to 4 with involvement of maxillary and jaw permanent incisors. Aim. Aim of this study is that to evaluate, among 1500 paediatric patients chosen at random aged between 0 and 14 years, afferent by the Paediatric Dentistry of the Azienda Ospedialiera Policlinico Tor Vergata of Rome from 1996 to 2011, the incidents and the prevalence of the MIH distribution, and furthermore to ascertain the possible relationship with the data described in the literature. Results and discussion. From the sample of 1500 paediatric patients, the number of those affections from MIH has turned out to be pairs to 110 (7.3%) aged between 4 and 15 years, and an average age equal to 9.7. The incidence of the hypoplastic defects is greater in the elements of the permanents series in which the functional class mainly interested is that of the first molars, with a percentage of 39.8%. Regarding the elements of the deciduous series affections from hypoplasia, they turn out to be in all in number of 20 represented in 80% of the cases from the seconds molars while in the remaining 20% of the cases the items involved are the central incisors. About the percentage of elements involved in the MIH: the molars, involved with a frequency of 56%, turn out to be more hit regarding incisors (44%). As reported in the literature, it can be asserted that the MIH can hit in equal measure both the male sex that feminine one. Conclusions. MIH represents a condition quite frequent in the paediatric population. In managing this anomaly takes an essential role in the early diagnosis and in the differential one. The study done underlined the importance of a correct application of the therapeutic protocol which, starting from a careful diagnosis and articulating themselves in the execution of preventive treatments and in severe cases restorative and
Bourquia, A.; Chihabeddine, K.
Enuresis is a common symptom that leads to significant psychosocialsequalae. In this study we analyzed three surveys in three different urbanand suburban regions in Morocco in order to evaluate the epidemiologicalcharacteristics and profiles of the young patients who had enuresis and theattitudes of their parents towards this problem. There were 1520 children andadolescents in this analysis whose age ranged between 5 and 15 years. Theywere attending various outpatient surgical and medical clinics when theirparents were asked to answer a pre-prepared questionnaire. The prevalence ofenuresis was 35% with preponderance of males (54%). The cause could not bedefined (primary) in 91.5% of the patients with enuresis. There were familialfactors associated with enuresis that included history of enuresis in theparents or siblings in 56% of the cases and coercion attitude of the parentsin 23%. Enuresis was associated with impediment of learning in 23%andchastisement of children in 85.4% of the cases. Twenty-three percent ofpatients also had chronic disorders. The parents were concerned mostly whenthe children approached puberty or when enuresis was secondary to anotherproblem. Spontaneous improvement was the rule by adolescence, hence only 8.7%sought medical advice for enuresis. Treatment was conventional in 67% of thecases and confined to restriction of fluids and food items in 73% of thetreated patients. We conclude that enuresis is apparently higher in Moroccanchildren compared to reports in other countries. However, enuresis was notconsidered a major medical problem of concern to parents who rarely soughtmedical advice for it. (author)
Amerasinghe, Priyanie H; Alifrangis, Michael; van der Hoek, Wim
Malaria risk factor studies have traditionally used microscopy readings of blood slides as the measure of malaria infection in humans, although alternatives are available. There is the need for an assessment of how the use of these alternative diagnostic approaches will influence the efficiency...... was not statistically significant when microscopy was used, which can be explained by the lower prevalence of microscopy positivity in comparison to the prevalence of ELISA- and PCR-positivity. This study suggests that in low-transmission areas, such as Sri Lanka, smaller sample sizes can be used for epidemiological...... and PCR but it can also be a useful tool in malaria epidemiological studies. This study indicates that cross-sectional surveys are only efficient if they take place during peak transmission season. Cross sectional surveys currently implemented by the Sri Lankan government in response to local malaria...
Gallo, Valentina; Egger, Matthias; McCormack, Valerie; Farmer, Peter B; Ioannidis, John P A; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; Matullo, Giuseppe; Phillips, David H; Schoket, Bernadette; Stromberg, Ulf; Vermeulen, Roel; Wild, Christopher; Porta, Miquel; Vineis, Paolo
Advances in laboratory techniques have led to a rapidly increasing use of biomarkers in epidemiological studies. Biomarkers of internal dose, early biological change, susceptibility, and clinical outcomes are used as proxies for investigating the interactions between external and/or endogenous agents and the body components or processes. The need for improved reporting of scientific research led to influential statements of recommendations such as STrengthening Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement. The STROBE initiative established in 2004 aimed to provide guidance on how to report observational research. Its guidelines provide a user-friendly checklist of 22 items to be reported in epidemiological studies, with items specific to the three main study designs: cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies. The present STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology - Molecular Epidemiology (STROBE-ME) initiative builds on the STROBE Statement implementing 9 existing items of STROBE and providing 17 additional items to the 22 items of STROBE checklist. The additions relate to the use of biomarkers in epidemiological studies, concerning collection, handling and storage of biological samples; laboratory methods, validity and reliability of biomarkers; specificities of study design; and ethical considerations. The STROBE-ME recommendations are intended to complement the STROBE recommendations.
Gallo, Valentina; Egger, Matthias; McCormack, Valerie; Farmer, Peter B; Ioannidis, John P A; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; Matullo, Giuseppe; Phillips, David H; Schoket, Bernadette; Stromberg, Ulf; Vermeulen, Roel; Wild, Christopher; Porta, Miquel; Vineis, Paolo
Advances in laboratory techniques have led to a rapidly increasing use of biomarkers in epidemiological studies. Biomarkers of internal dose, early biological change susceptibility and clinical outcomes are used as proxies for investigating the interactions between external and/or endogenous agents and body components or processes. The need for improved reporting of scientific research led to influential statements of recommendations such as the STrengthening Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement. The STROBE initiative established in 2004 aimed to provide guidance on how to report observational research. Its guidelines provide a user-friendly checklist of 22 items to be reported in epidemiological studies, with items specific to the three main study designs: cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies. The present STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology -Molecular Epidemiology (STROBE-ME) initiative builds on the STROBE statement implementing 9 existing items of STROBE and providing 17 additional items to the 22 items of STROBE checklist. The additions relate to the use of biomarkers in epidemiological studies, concerning collection, handling and storage of biological samples; laboratory methods, validity and reliability of biomarkers; specificities of study design; and ethical considerations. The STROBE-ME recommendations are intended to complement the STROBE recommendations. Copyright © 2011 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Advances in laboratory techniques have led to a rapidly increasing use of biomarkers in epidemiological studies. Biomarkers of internal dose, early biological change, susceptibility and clinical outcomes are used as proxies for investigating the interactions between external and/or endogenous agents and the body components or processes. The need for improved reporting of scientific research led to influential statements of recommendations such as the STrenghtening Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement. The STROBE initiative established in 2004 aimed to provide guidance on how to report observational research. Its guidelines provide a user-friendly checklist of 22 items to be reported in epidemiological studies, with items specific to the three main study designs: cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies. The present STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology - Molecular Epidemiology (STROBE-ME) initiative builds on the STROBE Statement implementing 9 existing items of STROBE and providing 17 additional items to the 22 items of STROBE checklist. The additions relate to the use of biomarkers in epidemiological studies, concerning collection, handling and storage of biological samples; laboratory methods, validity and reliability of biomarkers; specificities of study design; and ethical considerations. The STROBE-ME recommendations are intended to complement the STROBE recommendations. Copyright © 2011 The American Health Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Advances in laboratory techniques have led to a rapidly increasing use of biomarkers in epidemiological studies. Biomarkers of internal dose, early biological change, susceptibility and clinical outcomes are used as proxies for investigating interactions between external and / or endogenous agents and body components or processes. The need for improved reporting of scientific research led to influential statements of recommendations such as the STrengthening Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement. The STROBE initiative established in 2004 aimed to provide guidance on how to report observational research. Its guidelines provide a user-friendly checklist of 22 items to be reported in epidemiological studies, with items specific to the three main study designs: cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies. The present STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology - Molecular Epidemiology (STROBE-ME) initiative builds on the STROBE statement implementing nine existing items of STROBE and providing 17 additional items to the 22 items of STROBE checklist. The additions relate to the use of biomarkers in epidemiological studies, concerning collection, handling and storage of biological samples; laboratory methods, validity and reliability of biomarkers; specificities of study design; and ethical considerations. The STROBE-ME recommendations are intended to complement the STROBE recommendations.
Advances in laboratory techniques have led to a rapidly increasing use of biomarkers in epidemiological studies. Biomarkers of internal dose, early biological change, susceptibility and clinical outcomes are used as proxies for investigating interactions between external and/or endogenous agents and body components or processes. The need for improved reporting of scientific research led to influential statements of recommendations such as the STrengthening Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement. The STROBE initiative established in 2004 aimed to provide guidance on how to report observational research. Its guidelines provide a user-friendly checklist of 22 items to be reported in epidemiological studies, with items specific to the three main study designs: cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies. The present STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology -Molecular Epidemiology (STROBE-ME) initiative builds on the STROBE statement implementing nine existing items of STROBE and providing 17 additional items to the 22 items of STROBE checklist. The additions relate to the use of biomarkers in epidemiological studies, concerning collection, handling and storage of biological samples; laboratory methods, validity and reliability of biomarkers; specificities of study design; and ethical considerations. The STROBE-ME recommendations are intended to complement the STROBE recommendations. © 2011 The Authors. European Journal of Clinical Investigation © 2011 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.
Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Chumak, Vadim; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Bouville, André
On 26 April 2016, thirty years will have elapsed since the occurrence of the Chernobyl accident, which has so far been the most severe in the history of the nuclear reactor industry. Numerous epidemiological studies were conducted to evaluate the possible health consequences of the accident. Since the credibility of the association between the radiation exposure and health outcome is highly dependent on the adequacy of the dosimetric quantities used in these studies, this paper makes an effort to overview the methods used to estimate individual doses and the associated uncertainties in the main analytical epidemiological studies (i.e. cohort or case-control) related to the Chernobyl accident. Based on the thorough analysis and comparison with other radiation studies, the authors conclude that individual doses for the Chernobyl analytical epidemiological studies have been calculated with a relatively high degree of reliability and well-characterized uncertainties, and that they compare favorably with many other non-Chernobyl studies. The major strengths of the Chernobyl studies are: (1) they are grounded on a large number of measurements, either performed on humans or made in the environment; and (2) extensive effort has been invested to evaluate the uncertainties associated with the dose estimates. Nevertheless, gaps in the methodology are identified and suggestions for the possible improvement of the current dose estimates are made.
During 1984 September 19 and 20, a meeting was held at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, Pinawa, Manitoba to discuss current epidemiological studies of populations exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation. Twelve representatives from three countries attended the meeting and eleven papers were extensively discussed. The majority of these papers described studies of populations occupationally exposed to radiation. The report contains summaries of the papers presented and of the discussions that took place
Arash Forouzan; Kambiz Masoumi; Hassan Motamed; Alireza Teimouri; Hassan Barzegari; Behzad Zohrevandi; Fatemeh Rasouli
Introduction: Traumatic brain injuries are among the most important causes of mortality and disability. Since there is a lot of controversy regarding discharge of head trauma patients, especially those with mild traumatic brain injuries, this study was designed aiming to evaluate traumatic brain injuries from an epidemiologic point of view. Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, patients with isolated head trauma, and all those who underwent computed tomography (CT) were includ...
Samina Yasmin; Suleman; Hanif Ullah, et al.
Scabies is a contagious disorder of skin caused by a mite called human itch mite, Sarcoptes scabiei. An epidemiological study of scabies was conducted from district Haripur to evaluate the prevalence and the important risk factors responsible for the spread of scabies. The study was conducted in General population from (February - April 2013).Surveys were carried out in general population comprising 200 families of district Haripur. Out of two hundred families in general population, 81 were s...
An epidemiologic study was carried out in the dry season on 250 male commercial motor bike riders from five different parks. 69% of the bike riders were in the (year) 31– 40 and 41–50 age range while 31% were in 21–30, 51– 60 and 61 – 70 age range. Half of the population studied were normotensive. Arterial ...
Air cargo is a key economic lifeline for the communities that have airports. Manufacturers, businesses, hospitals and : other community cornerstone employers depend on air cargo to successfully operate. While there is no doubt that air : cargo repres...
The study examines the economic implications in Wisconsin of the 1972 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission guideline which requires employers to treat maternity leave as a temporary disability. First, the static cost of the maternity leave guideline to employers is estimated for the State of Wisconsin. Second, some examination of the economic…
Shleien, B.; Ruttenber, A.J.; Sage, M.
The authors reviewed over 40 epidemiologic studies around nuclear power stations, fuel reprocessing plants, and weapons production facilities and testing sites in the United Kingdom, the United States, France, and Canada. They examined these studies for their potential to support a cause and effect relationship between cancer risk and radiation exposure. The extent to which an epidemiologic study supports a causal relation between radiation exposure and increased cancer risk can be evaluated using a set of criteria that have become known as Hill's postulates. In their review, epidemiologic studies yielded results that were biologically plausible and were supported by experimental data, but in almost all of the studies the methodologies were not adequate for evaluating causality. In the majority of cases, the methodologies did not permit examination of dose-response associations, making it impossible to support or refute causal relations. They suggest that investigators consider these issues when designing studies and employ dose reconstruction methodology to estimate radiation doses for specific individuals and population groups.86 references
Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Rovsing, Hans
STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional epidemiological survey of 4151 participants of the Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study. OBJECTIVE: To identify prevalences and individual risk factors for degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study has...... registered health parameters since 1976. In 1993, standardized, lateral radiographs of the lumbar spine were recorded. There were 1533 men and 2618 women. METHODS: Statistical correlations were made between degenerative spondylolisthesis, and physical, occupational, and general epidemiological data. RESULTS......: A total of 254 cases of lumbar slip were found (males 2.7%, females 8.4%). In females, no significant relationship between age at menopause or childbirths and the presence of degenerative spondylolisthesis were found. In women, relationships between body mass index (BMI) in 1976 and L4 olisthesis (P = 0...
Gallo, V.; Egger, M.; McCormack, V.; Farmer, P.B.; Ioannidis, J.P.; Kirsch-Volders, M.; Matullo, G.; Phillips, D.H.; Schoket, B.; Stromberg, U.; Vermeulen, R.; Wild, C.; Porta, M.; Vineis, P.
Advances in laboratory techniques have led to a rapidly increasing use of biomarkers in epidemiological studies. Biomarkers of internal dose, early biological change, susceptibility and clinical outcomes are used as proxies for investigating interactions between external and / or endogenous agents
Gustafsson, L H
Three studies on childhood accidents are presented. The aim was to study the importance of different factors regarding the accidents in question. The following factors have then been taken into consideration: the enviromental hazard, the accident proneness, the supervision and the education. Methodologically the investigations were carried out with an epidemiological technique. One is of a descriptive nature and the other two more analytically oriented. The studies are based on two different 1-year-materials consisting of accidents among children recorded in the emergency departments of Ostersund Hospital and the University Hospital in Uppsala. The results indicate that risk factors in the children's physical milieu played an important role in the occurrence of the accidents: clearly identifiable risk factors in the environment could be connected with 52% of the accidents, whereas some deficiency in supervision was noted in 20%. The investigators could identify a number of specific risk factors. Attempts were made to examine how frequency and type of childhood accidents vary with the population structure and social structure in well-defined housing areas, but the results were hard to evaluate because of methodological problems. The results are presented against the background of a detailed discussion on central methodological problems in epidemiological accident research. It is pointed out in particular that epidemiological methods have clear limitations in attempts at studying the low-frequency events that each individual type of accident in fact comprises. It is of great importance that in future research, side by side with the traditional epidemiological methods, other techniques are tested with the aim of obtaining maximal usable information from a detailed study of individual accidents and their backgrounds.
Frome, E.L.; Hudson, D.R.
Epidemiologic studies to evaluate the occupational risks associated with employment in the nuclear industry are currently being conducted by the Department of Energy. Data that have potential value in evaluating any long-term health effects of occupational exposure to low levels of radiation are obtained for each individual at a given facility. We propose a general data structure for statistical analysis that is used to define transformations from the data management system into the data analysis system. Statistical methods of interest in epidemiologic studies include contingency table analysis and survival analysis procedures that can be used to evaluate potential associations between occupational radiation exposure and mortality. The purposes of this paper are to discuss (1) the adequacy of this data structure for single- and multiple-facility analysis and (2) the statistical computing problems encountered in dealing with large populations over extended periods of time
Davey Smith, George; Hemani, Gibran
Observational epidemiological studies are prone to confounding, reverse causation and various biases and have generated findings that have proved to be unreliable indicators of the causal effects of modifiable exposures on disease outcomes. Mendelian randomization (MR) is a method that utilizes genetic variants that are robustly associated with such modifiable exposures to generate more reliable evidence regarding which interventions should produce health benefits. The approach is being widely applied, and various ways to strengthen inference given the known potential limitations of MR are now available. Developments of MR, including two-sample MR, bidirectional MR, network MR, two-step MR, factorial MR and multiphenotype MR, are outlined in this review. The integration of genetic information into population-based epidemiological studies presents translational opportunities, which capitalize on the investment in genomic discovery research. PMID:25064373
Nadin-Davis, Susan A; Velez, Jafet; Malaga, Carlos; Wandeler, Alexander I
The mongoose is the principal reservoir for rabies on the island of Puerto Rico. This report describes a molecular epidemiological study of representative rabies viruses recovered from the island in 1997. Two closely related but distinct variants circulating in regionally localised parts of the island were identified. The lack of a monophyletic relationship of these viruses suggests that two independent incursions of rabies onto the island have occurred. Both of these Puerto Rican variants were closely related to a variant, known as the north central skunk strain, currently circulating in North American skunk populations and all are members of the cosmopolitan rabies lineage spread during the colonial period. However, the Puerto Rican viruses are clearly distinct from those presently circulating in mongooses in Cuba and which are epidemiologically closely linked to the Mexican dog rabies virus. This study clearly establishes the distinct origins of the rabies viruses now circulating on these two Caribbean islands.
Voelz, G.L.; Wilkinson, G.S.; Acquavella, J.F.; Reyes, M.; McInroy, J.F.
Epidemiologic studies at Los Alamos are directed toward understanding potential health risks associated with activities pertaining to national energy and defense needs. Currently this research focuses on evaluating the effects of plutonium exposure in man. The major programs consist of (1) epidemiologic studies of the incidence of disease and mortality among plutonium and other workers at six Department of Energy (DOE) contractor facilities (Los Alamos, Rocky Flats, Mound, Savannah River, Hanford, and Oak Ridge), and (2) measurement of plutonium and other radionuclides in human tissues. Currently, investigations of mortality for Pantex workers and the surrounding general population are also being conducted for DOE in support of an Environment Impact Statement. This paper places emphasis on the activities of the national epidemiologic study of plutonium workers. The purpose of the plutonium workers study is to: (1) investigate whether adverse health effects are associated with exposures to plutonium, (2) explore whether adverse health effects are associated with exposure to transuranic elements, other radioisotopes, and hazardous substances that are found in nuclear facilities making routine use of plutonium, and (3) to describe in detail the nature of such health effects should they be discovered
In the the United States about 22% of all deaths are caused by cancer. Around 30% of cancer deaths are attributable to tobacco smoking. In marked contrast less than 3% of all cancer deaths can plausibly be attributed to radiation exposure. Studies of cancer risk following radiation exposure are scientifically valuable largely because of their potential for generating new information about cancer etiology. The most informative epidemiological studies have been based on irradiated populations with individual dosimetry and high levels of cancer risk among the more heavily exposed. But the interpretation of epidemiological data depends strongly upon information gained in experimental studies, not only of radiation carcinogenesis but also of analogous and easily quantified systems like in vitro cell killing, the induction of chromosome abnormalities both in vitro and in vivo, and the induction of pink stamen cell mutations in tradescantia. In epidemiology it is widely recognized that the most difficult problems of study design, data collection, analysis and interpretation are those that involve detecting so-called ''weak associations'' between causes and health effects. The difficulties increase rapidly as the excess risk decreases. Investigators of radiation as a cause of cancer have certain advantages over investigators in other areas. However, whe ground is unsafe and a cautious, skeptical and painstaking approach is advisable
Kieke, Amy L; Kieke, Burney A; Kopitzke, Sarah L; McClure, David L; Belongia, Edward A; VanWormer, Jeffrey J; Greenlee, Robert T
In this study, health event capture is broadly defined as the degree to which a group of people use a particular provider network as their primary source of health care services. The Marshfield Epidemiologic Study Area (MESA) is a valuable resource for population-based health research, but the completeness of health event capture has not been validated in recent years. Our objective was to determine the current level of outpatient and inpatient health event capture by Marshfield Clinic (MC) facilities and affiliated hospitals for people living within MESA. A stratified sample survey with strata defined by MESA region (Central or North) and age group (central and northern Wisconsin, USA. 2,485 individuals participated of the 4,313 sampled cohort members residing in MESA Central (N=61,041) and MESA North (N=25,906) on February 22, 2011. A health care utilization survey was mailed to a random sample stratified by age group and MESA region. Telephone interviews were attempted for nonrespondents. The survey requested information on sources of outpatient care and overnight hospital admissions. Population proportions representing health event capture metrics and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated with analytic weights applied to account for the survey design. Among those with an outpatient visit during the past 24 months, the most recent visit of an estimated 93% (95% CI, 91% - 94%) was at a MC facility. The most recent admission of an estimated 93% (95% CI, 90% - 96%) of those hospitalized in the past 24 months was at a hospital affiliated with MC. The proportion admitted to MC affiliated hospitals was higher for residents of MESA Central (97%) compared to MESA North (83%). A high proportion of outpatient visits and inpatient admissions in MESA Central and MESA North are accessible in the MC electronic health record. This pattern of high health event capture has been demonstrated since the inception of MESA in 1991. The results from this study
Liou, Saou-Hsing; Tsai, Candace S. J.; Pelclova, Daniela; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Schulte, Paul A.
The results of early animal studies of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and air pollution epidemiology suggest that it is important to assess the health of ENM workers. Initial epidemiological studies of workers’ exposure to ENMs (<100 nm) are reviewed and characterized for their study designs, findings, and limitations. Of the 15 studies, 11 were cross-sectional, 4 were longitudinal (1 was both cross-sectional and longitudinal in design), and 1 was a descriptive pilot study. Generally, the studies used biologic markers as the dependent variables. All 11 cross-sectional studies showed a positive relationship between various biomarkers and ENM exposures. Three of the four longitudinal studies showed a negative relationship; the fourth showed positive findings after a 1-year follow-up. Each study considered exposure to ENMs as the independent variable. Exposure was assessed by mass concentration in 10 studies and by particle count in six studies. Six of them assessed both mass and particle concentrations. Some of the studies had limited exposure data because of inadequate exposure assessment. Generally, exposure levels were not very high in comparison to those in human inhalation chamber studies, but there were some exceptions. Most studies involved a small sample size, from 2 to 258 exposed workers. These studies represent the first wave of epidemiological studies of ENM workers. They are limited by small numbers of participants, inconsistent (and in some cases inadequate) exposure assessments, generally low exposures, and short intervals between exposure and effect. Still, these studies are a foundation for future work; they provide insight into where ENM workers are experiencing potentially adverse effects that might be related to ENM exposures
Liou, Saou-Hsing, E-mail: email@example.com [National Health Research Institutes, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (China); Tsai, Candace S. J. [Colorado State University, Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Science (United States); Pelclova, Daniela [Charles University in Prague, Department of Occupational Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine (Czech Republic); Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Schulte, Paul A. [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (United States)
The results of early animal studies of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and air pollution epidemiology suggest that it is important to assess the health of ENM workers. Initial epidemiological studies of workers’ exposure to ENMs (<100 nm) are reviewed and characterized for their study designs, findings, and limitations. Of the 15 studies, 11 were cross-sectional, 4 were longitudinal (1 was both cross-sectional and longitudinal in design), and 1 was a descriptive pilot study. Generally, the studies used biologic markers as the dependent variables. All 11 cross-sectional studies showed a positive relationship between various biomarkers and ENM exposures. Three of the four longitudinal studies showed a negative relationship; the fourth showed positive findings after a 1-year follow-up. Each study considered exposure to ENMs as the independent variable. Exposure was assessed by mass concentration in 10 studies and by particle count in six studies. Six of them assessed both mass and particle concentrations. Some of the studies had limited exposure data because of inadequate exposure assessment. Generally, exposure levels were not very high in comparison to those in human inhalation chamber studies, but there were some exceptions. Most studies involved a small sample size, from 2 to 258 exposed workers. These studies represent the first wave of epidemiological studies of ENM workers. They are limited by small numbers of participants, inconsistent (and in some cases inadequate) exposure assessments, generally low exposures, and short intervals between exposure and effect. Still, these studies are a foundation for future work; they provide insight into where ENM workers are experiencing potentially adverse effects that might be related to ENM exposures.
Schairer, Cynthia; Mehta, Sanjay R.; Vinterbo, Staal A.; Hoenigl, Martin; Kalichman, Michael; Little, Susan
Background: Advances in viral sequence analysis make it possible to track the spread of infectious pathogens, such as HIV, within a population. When used to study HIV, these analyses (i.e., molecular epidemiology) potentially allow inference of the identity of individual research subjects. Current privacy standards are likely insufficient for this type of public health research. To address this challenge, it will be important to understand how stakeholders feel about the benefits and risks of...
The exposure of man to radiation and the resulting risk of carcinogenesis continues to be of concern to the public. In this context, there is often a tendency to carry out epidemiological studies concerning the induction of cancer in radiation workers and members of the public which are not supported by a statistically valid data base or whose results are misinterpreted or misused. To assist national authorities in evaluating radiological risks, the Nuclear Energy Agency has sponsored a critical review of the methodologies for, and the limitations of, these epidemiological studies, and of the precautions to be adopted in interpreting their results. Prepared by a consultant, Dr. Joan M. Davies, the review focuses on the problems encountered when carrying out epidemiological studies on groups of workers occupationally exposed to radiations, and using their results for radiological protection purposes. It is published under the responsibility of the Secretary General of the OECD, and does not necessarily reflect the views of Member Governments. The primary objective is to provide background material to be used by national authorities that have responsibilities in the field of radiological protection as well as by other persons interested in this subject
Alexander, C; Jones, B; Inverarity, D; Pollock, K G J
Giardiasis, caused by the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis (synonyms: G. lamblia, G. duodenalis), is one of the most frequent parasites to infect the Scottish population. Transmission of the infective cysts in faecal matter is commonly via food and/or water. Giardia is subdivided into assemblages, where clinical and epidemiological differences have been described between assemblages A and B. This snapshot descriptive epidemiological study examines 30 positive cases of Giardia of which 72% (n = 21) were shown to be assemblage A, 14% (n = 4) assemblage B and 10% (n = 3) mixed assemblages (A and B). There was a 2:3 female:male ratio of affected individuals with foreign travel recorded in 22 of these cases. The commonest symptom was diarrhoea which was reported in 80% of cases followed by tiredness. Five cases required hospitalization emphasizing the importance of gaining a greater understanding of how Giardia assemblages influence clinical outcomes to assist in formulating guidelines to manage potential Giardia outbreaks.
Davis, Daniel H.J.; Kreisel, Stefan H.; Muniz Terrera, Graciela; Hall, Andrew J.; Morandi, Alessandro; Boustani, Malaz; Neufeld, Karin J.; Lee, Hochang Benjamin; MacLullich, Alasdair M.J.; Brayne, Carol
Delirium is a serious and common acute neuropsychiatric syndrome that is associated with short- and long-term adverse health outcomes. However, relatively little delirium research has been conducted in unselected populations. Epidemiologic research in such populations has the potential to resolve several questions of clinical significance in delirium. Part 1 of this article explores the importance of population selection, case-ascertainment, attrition, and confounding. Part 2 examines a specific question in delirium epidemiology: What is the relationship between delirium and trajectories of cognitive decline? This section assesses previous work through two systematic reviews and proposes a design for investigating delirium in the context of longitudinal cohort studies. Such a design requires robust links between community and hospital settings. Practical considerations for case-ascertainment in the hospital, as well as the necessary quality control of these programs, are outlined. We argue that attention to these factors is important if delirium research is to benefit fully from a population perspective. PMID:23907068
Charles H. Perry; Vern A. Everson; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Sally E. Dahir; Andrea L. Diss-Torrance; Grant M Domke; Dale D. Gormanson; Sarah K. Herrick; Steven S. Hubbard; Terry R. Mace; Patrick D. Miles; Mark D. Nelson; Richard B. Rodeout; Luke T. Saunders; Kirk M. Stueve; Barry T. Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall
The second full annual inventory of Wisconsin's forests reports more than 16.7 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 1,400 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the oak/hickory forest-type group, which occupies slightly more than one quarter of the total forest land area; the maple/beech/birch forest-type group occupies an...
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Epidemiology and Other Health Studies Financial Assistance Program. 602.5 Section 602.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.5 Epidemiology and Other Health Studies...
Viana, M.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Ballester, F.; Llop, S.; Esplugues, A.; Fernández-Patier, R.; García dos Santos, S.; Herce, M. D.
Recent health studies evidence that epidemiological studies must be combined with accurate analyses of the physico-chemical properties of the particles, and vice versa, in order to determine the effects of atmospheric PM on human health. The present study focuses on the chemical characterisation of PM 10 and PM 2.5 aerosols, with the aim to characterise the exposure to this pollutant of the pregnant women in a cohort study in Valencia, Spain. PM sampling was carried out during five campaigns (1 month by trimester) between 2004 and 2005, when the women in the study were pregnant. Four sites were selected, representing a gradient of urban, metropolitan, suburban and rural environments. The study includes the determination of PM levels, major and trace elements, and 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The results evidenced a marked gradient regarding PM levels from urban to rural sites, which was also observed for anthropogenic PM components (OM+EC, NO 3-, Fe, SO 42-, NO 3-, NH 4+) but not for elements of mineral origin (Al 2O 3, Ca, K, Mg). PAH levels were similar or slightly higher that those reported for other Spanish sites but lower than in Europe. Findings show that the relationship between exposure to PM and adverse health effects cannot be determined only by the study of PM levels; other parameters such as chemical and physical properties of the aerosols must also be taken into account. Results also allow evaluating the adequacy of central monitor measurements as proxies for actual exposure to local emissions (e.g., vehicular emissions), which are known to vary considerably with distance to the source. The sampling strategy used in this study, devised jointly by PM monitoring and epidemiology specialists could be considered a guideline for the design of air quality monitoring studies aimed at epidemiological analysis.
Martínez Navarro, J Ferrán
The eradication of polio in Spain is one of the most important health milestones of the twentieth century, not only for public health but also for the effect it had on scientific knowledge in our country, in the medical field. Knowledge of international literature by our epidemiologists and virologists, was important, as reflected in the studies of outbreaks, virological studies and clinical studies. For public health represented, throughout the twentieth century, an effort geared to make decisions based on scientific knowledge. For epidemiology represented the application of new ways of working and, therefore, its modernization.
This overview of Canadian studies of the epidemiology of childhood leukemia included a historical review of early studies, a summary of recent work done in Ontario, and a description of other Canadian research. The paper is published as an extended summary only. In Ontario, a study was being done to determine whether the occurrence of childhood leukemia was associated with the exposure of fathers to ionizing radiation. A major theme of current Canadian research is the effect of other environmental agents, such as electromagnetic fields
Despite the great international interest in Chernobyl and the need for quantitative risk information on the carcinogenic effectiveness of the radio iodines, there has been relatively little epidemiological research on thyroid cancer following the Chernobyl accident. The reasons for this are many, diverse, and difficult to eliminate, although some progress is being made. Among them are the natural priority of public health concerns, a weak infrastructure for conducting studies in chronic disease epidemiology, and the difficulty of assigning thyroid dose estimates to individuals for study. In spite of the difficulties a number of significant studies have been begun or are planned, and several valuable reports have appeared. From the descriptive studies it is now known that the latent period for thyroid cancer in children exposed to radio iodines is not 5 to 10, but probably three years, that the magnitude of the increase in thyroid cancer among children is beyond anything previously experienced or expected, and that there is a strong correlation between thyroid cancer and environmental radiocesium contamination levels in the Gomel region of Belarus, and between thyroid cancer and average regional levels of I 131 dose to the thyroid in Ukraine. However, even today, there is very little hard scientific information on the relation of thyroid cancer in children and their exposure to the radio iodines in the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. This is information that only well-designed scientific epidemiological studies, based on firm dose estimates, could be expected to provide. With that purpose in mind, the US has planned with Belarus and Ukraine long-term cohort studies of many thousands of subjects with thyroid activity measurements
... Collection: Title: Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III (REDS-III). Type of Information Collection Request: New. Need and Use of Information Collection: The objective of the Recipient Epidemiology... Request: Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III (REDS-III) Request for Generic Clearance...
Bornkessel, C; Blettner, M; Breckenkamp, J
In the framework of an epidemiological study, dosemeters were used for the assessment of radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure. To check the correct dosemeter's performance in terms of consistency of recorded field values over the entire study period, a quality control strategy...... was developed. In this paper, the concept of quality control and its results is described. From the 20 dosemeters used, 19 were very stable and reproducible, with deviations of a maximum of +/-1 dB compared with their initial state. One device was found to be faulty and its measurement data had to be excluded...
R.A. Arango; D.A. Marschalek; F. Green III; K.F. Raffa; M.E. Berres
The objective of this study was to document current areas of subterranean termite activity in Wisconsin and to evaluate genetic characteristics of these northern, peripheral colonies. Here, amplified fragment-length polymorphism was used to characterize levels of inbreeding, expected heterozygosity, and percent polymorphism within colonies as well as genetic structure...
Ruwald, Martin Huth
The epidemiology and prognosis of ‘fainting’ or syncope has puzzled physicians over the years. Is fainting dangerous? This is a question often asked by the patient--and the answer is ‘it depends on a lot of things’. The diverse pathophysiology of syncope and the underlying comorbidites of the patients play an essential role. In epidemiology these factors have major impact on the outcome of the patients. Until recently, even the definition of syncope, differed from one study to another which has made literature reviews difficult. Traditionally the data on epidemiology of syncope has been taken from smaller studies from different clinical settings with wide differences in patient morbidity. Through the extensive Danish registries we examined the characteristics and prognosis of the patients hospitalized due to syncope in a nationwide study. The aims of the present thesis were to investigate: 1) the use, validity and accuracy of the ICD-10 diagnosis of syncope R55.9 in the National Patient Registry for the use of this diagnosis in the epidemiology of syncope, 2) diagnostics used and etiology of a random selection of patients who had a discharge diagnosis of R55.9, 3) the incidence, prevalence and cardiovascular factors associated with the risk of syncope, 4) the prognosis in healthy individuals discharged after syncope, and 5) the prognosis of patients after syncope and evaluation of the CHADS2 score as a tool for short and long-term risk prediction. The first studies of the present thesis demonstrated that the ICD-10 discharge diagnosis could reliably identify a cohort of patients admitted for syncope and that the discharge code carried a high number of unexplained cases despite use of numerous tests. The last studies showed that syncope is a common cause for hospital contact in Denmark and that the risk of syncope is tightly associated with cardiovascular comorbidities and use of pharmacotherapy. Furthermore in patients with no comorbidities (or healthy
Full Text Available In a cross-sectional epidemiological study of headache disorders in neurology clinic of Fatemieh hospital of Semnan (August 22-November 20.1996, information on types of headaches, quality, severity, location, duration, frequency, precipitating factors, age of onset, influence of menstruation and pregnancy, positive familial history, use of oral contraceptive pills and other epidemiological factors including socioeconomic and age/sex composition was collected. The presence of any types of headaches was ascertained by a clinical interview and examination using the operational diagnostic criteria of the International Headaches Society. The prevalence of migraine and tension type headache was also analysed in relation to variables of life style (physical activity and sleep pattern and associated signs and symptoms (nausea, vomiting, photophobia and phonophobia. In this study migraine and tension headache were also compared in variable aspects with each other. 1 Headache was more prevalent in women than men (F/M=3/1. 2 The most common types of headache included: tension type headache (41.4%, migraine (31.2% and unclassified headaches (17.2%. 3 Migraine and T.T.H were more prevalent in early adult life and middle ages. 4 In both migraine and tension type headache the time profiles (duration, frequency, age of onset, quality and location were like that noted in textbook and previous studies. 5 In both migraine and tension type headache the most conspicuous precipitating factor was stress and mental tension and frequent headaches were accompanied with psychiatric problems (e.g depression and or anxiety. 6 Nausea, vomiting, phonophobia and photophobia were the most common associated symptoms in both of them. 7 Positive familial history and aggravation of headache in perimenstual period were more commonly seen in patients with migraine than tension type headache. In conclusion using the operational diagnostic criteria of International Headache Society in
Vandenbroucke, Jan P; von Elm, Erik; Altman, Douglas G
Much medical research is observational. The reporting of observational studies is often of insufficient quality. Poor reporting hampers the assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of a study and the generalisability of its results. Taking into account empirical evidence and theoretical...... considerations, a group of methodologists, researchers, and editors developed the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) recommendations to improve the quality of reporting of observational studies. The STROBE Statement consists of a checklist of 22 items, which relate...... to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results and discussion sections of articles. Eighteen items are common to cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies and four are specific to each of the three study designs. The STROBE Statement provides guidance to authors about how...
Full Text Available Among 880 studied feet of 7-14 years old children 6.9% suffered mild and severe flat foot. 53.8% of the affected children were symptomatic. As 40.1% of the general population experiences symptoms, in a small proportion of affected persons, symptoms are due to flat foot. The prevalence of symptoms rises with increasing severity of the disorder. In this article, reviewing general aspects of flat food, prevalence and other epidemiological aspects of flat foot for the first time in Iran have been presented
Elm, E. von; Altman, D.G.; Egger, M.
Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) initiative developed rec...
Full Text Available Most genetic epidemiological study designs fall into one of two categories: family-based and population-based (case-control. However, recent advances in statistical genetics call for study designs that combine these two approaches. We describe the household contact study design as we have applied it in our several years of study of the epidemiology of tuberculosis. Though we highlight its applicability for genetic epidemiological studies of infectious diseases, there are many facets of this design that are appealing for modern genetic studies, including the simultaneous enrollment of related and unrelated individuals, closely and distantly related individuals, collection of extensive epidemiologic and phenotypic data, and evaluation of effects of shared environment and gene by environment interaction. These study design characteristics are particularly appealing for current sequencing studies.
Merchant Anwar T
Full Text Available Abstract Percentage of body fat is strongly associated with the risk of several chronic diseases but its accurate measurement is difficult. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA is a relatively simple, quick and non-invasive technique, to measure body composition. It measures body fat accurately in controlled clinical conditions but its performance in the field is inconsistent. In large epidemiologic studies simpler surrogate techniques such as body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio are frequently used instead of BIA to measure body fatness. We reviewed the rationale, theory, and technique of recently developed systems such as foot (or hand-to-foot BIA measurement, and the elements that could influence its results in large epidemiologic studies. BIA results are influenced by factors such as the environment, ethnicity, phase of menstrual cycle, and underlying medical conditions. We concluded that BIA measurements validated for specific ethnic groups, populations and conditions can accurately measure body fat in those populations, but not others and suggest that for large epdiemiological studies with diverse populations BIA may not be the appropriate choice for body composition measurement unless specific calibration equations are developed for different groups participating in the study.
Dehghan, Mahshid; Merchant, Anwar T
Percentage of body fat is strongly associated with the risk of several chronic diseases but its accurate measurement is difficult. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a relatively simple, quick and non-invasive technique, to measure body composition. It measures body fat accurately in controlled clinical conditions but its performance in the field is inconsistent. In large epidemiologic studies simpler surrogate techniques such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio are frequently used instead of BIA to measure body fatness. We reviewed the rationale, theory, and technique of recently developed systems such as foot (or hand)-to-foot BIA measurement, and the elements that could influence its results in large epidemiologic studies. BIA results are influenced by factors such as the environment, ethnicity, phase of menstrual cycle, and underlying medical conditions. We concluded that BIA measurements validated for specific ethnic groups, populations and conditions can accurately measure body fat in those populations, but not others and suggest that for large epdiemiological studies with diverse populations BIA may not be the appropriate choice for body composition measurement unless specific calibration equations are developed for different groups participating in the study. PMID:18778488
Mezghani Maalej, S; Rekik Meziou, M; Mahjoubi, F; Hammami, A
The authors had for aim to monitor Enterobacteriaceae resistance to colistin, during 6 years (2005-2010), and to study the epidemiology of Enterobacteriaceae resistant strains isolated in the Sfax region (Tunisia). This retrospective study was carried out in the microbiology laboratory, at the Habib Bourguiba teaching hospital in Sfax. All strains of colistin resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolated from patients were studied. One hundred and twenty one strains of colistin resistant Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from 93 patients. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most frequent species (60.2%), followed by Enterobacter cloacae (26.9%), and Escherichia coli (12.9%). Thirteen strains (E. cloacae) were heteroresistant to colistin. Eighty one isolates (87.1%) were resistant to third generation cephalosporins. The rate of resistance to colistin ranged from 0.09% for E. coli to 1.2% for K. pneumoniae, and 1.5% for E. cloacae. A progressively increasing colistin resistance was observed for K. pneumoniae. Most resistant strains were isolated from urine in the urology department. Previous exposure to colistin was reported in 59.2% of patients. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis typing revealed different clones. Colistin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae is a worrying phenomenon in Sfax. It is related to polyclonal diffusion. Continuous epidemiological monitoring and a rational use of colistin are necessary to limit the spreading of these colistin resistant strains and to maintain this antibiotic's effectiveness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Azita Zafar Mohtashami
Full Text Available Background : Phenylketonuria (PKU is a metabolic disease with autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance caused by a deficiency or absence of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase in the liver. Phenylketonuria incidence is 1 in 10,000 births. This study aimed to determine the epidemiological characteristics of phenylketonuria in Lorestan province. Materials and Methods: All 81 phenylketonuria patients known in Lorestan province up to winter 2014 were considered in this descriptive epidemiologic study. Based on the goals and variables of the study, a complete questionnaire was developed to collect data through interviews with parents and the records and they were analyzed by use of SPSS v.16 software with preparing tables and graphs and using chi-square and t-test. Results: Results showed that phenylketonuria prevalence is 4.3 out of 100,000 people in Lorestan province. Twenty of the patients (24.7% were identified through screening and 61 patients (75.3% through other methods. Forty-six of the samples (56.8% were female and 35 cases (43.2% were male. Nearly 75% of PKU patients had a positive history of consanguinity marriage in their parents. The prevalence of the disease was significantly different from other cities. Conclusion: Neonatal screening for phenylketonuria is necessary and should be done within 3-5 days of birth. In families with children suffering from PKU, prenatal diagnosis is necessary for other pregnancies.
Maziak, Wasim; Ben Taleb, Ziyad; Jawad, Mohammed; Afifi, Rima; Nakkash, Rima; Akl, Elie A; Ward, Kenneth D; Salloum, Ramzi G; Barnett, Tracey E; Primack, Brian A; Sherman, Scott; Cobb, Caroline O; Sutfin, Erin L; Eissenberg, Thomas
Numerous epidemiological accounts suggest that waterpipe smoking (aka hookah, shisha, narghile) has become a global phenomenon, especially among youth. The alarming spread of waterpipe and accumulating evidence of its addictive and harmful effects represent a new threat in the global fight to limit tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. In response to waterpipe's alarming trends, major public health and tobacco control organisations have started or are considering systematic collection of data about waterpipe smoking to monitor its trends and assess its harmful effects in different societies. Such plans require coordination and agreement on epidemiological measurement tools that reflect the uniqueness of this tobacco use method, and at the same time allow comparison of waterpipe trends across time and place, and with other tobacco use methods. We started a decade ago our work to develop standardised measures and definitions for the assessment of waterpipe smoking in epidemiological studies. In this communication, we try to expand and update these assessment tools in light of our increased knowledge and understanding of waterpipe use patterns, its context and marketing, as well as the need for evidence-guided policies and regulations to curb its spread. We have assembled for this purpose a group of leading waterpipe researchers worldwide, and worked through an iterative process to develop the suggested instruments and definitions based on what we know currently about the waterpipe epidemic. While the suggested measures are by no means comprehensive, we hope that they can provide the building blocks for standard and comparable surveillance of waterpipe smoking globally. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Boice, J.D. Jr.
This paper reports on epidemiologic studies which address the distribution and determinants of disease in human populations. Investigations of the possible adverse effects of living in radioactively contaminated environments are difficult to conduct, however, because human populations tend to be fairly mobile, cumulative exposures to individuals from environmental conditions are difficult to estimate, and the risks associated with such exposures tend to be small relative to background levels of disease. Such studies can be arbitrarily classified as geographic correlation surveys, analytic studies, and cluster evaluations. Geographic correlation studies (ecological surveys) relate disease in populations to area characteristics. Although exposure to individuals is unknown, these exploratory or hypothesis-generating studies can identify areas to target for further in-depth evaluation. Analytic investigations relate individual exposure information to disease occurrence. Unusual occurrences of disease in time and place (clusters) occasionally point to a common environmental factor; cluster evaluations have been most successful in identifying the source of infectious disease outbreaks
Kammerlander, Christian; Braito, Matthias; Kates, Stephen; Jeske, Christian; Roth, Tobias; Blauth, Michael; Dallapozza, Christian
The population is rapidly aging and remaining more active over the age of 65. An increasing number of sports related injuries in individuals 65 and older are thus anticipated. The aim of this study is to analyze the epidemiology of sports injuries in the age group aged 65 and older. Data from the medical records of adults aged 65 years and older who were treated for sports-related injuries at a level one trauma center between December 1994 and February 2008 was collected and statistically analyzed. A total of 2635 patients met our inclusion criteria. There were 1647 men (62.5%) and 988 women (37.5%) with a mean age of 70.9 years. The yearly number of injuries doubled during the study period (1996-2007). The most common mechanism of injury was a simple fall from standing height (69%). Nearly 75% of all injuries occurred during alpine skiing, cycling or mountain climbing. The median Injury Severity Score was 4. Minor injuries and wounds (40%) were recorded most commonly followed by fractures (27%), sprains, ligament injuries (19%) and injuries of muscles and tendons (6%). The most frequent diagnoses were minor injuries to the head and ligament injuries around the knee joint. Injuries to the upper extremities occurred in 33.7%, injuries to the lower extremities in 29.4% and injuries to the head occurred in 20% of the patients. Women sustained substantially more fractures than men. Adults aged 65 and older are remaining active in sports, which results in higher numbers of sports related injuries in this age group. Identification of type, mechanism and distribution of the injuries can help with the recognition of risk factors for injury. This may enable us to develop appropriate preventative measures to reduce the incidence, and morbidity of such injuries.
Li, Guilan; Yin, Songnian
Benzene is an organic solvent that has been used in industry for about 100 years throughout the world. Since 1973, a series of toxicological and molecular epidemiological studies on benzene were conducted by researchers at the Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine (CAPM) (1973-1986) and subsequently by a collaboration between the CAPM and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) in the United States that began in 1986, which was joined by investigators from the University of California at Berkeley, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and New York University. The findings demonstrated that the risk of leukemia and lymphoma among benzene-exposed workers was significantly increased, with elevated risks for leukemia present not only at higher exposure but also among workers exposed to under 10 ppm. Therefore, the benzene permissible level was decreased to 1.8 ppm (6 mg/m(3)) and benzene-induced leukemia is treated as an occupational cancer in China. The benzene permissible level is 1.0 in the United States and in several other developed countries and it has been suggested to be decreased to 0.5 ppm (ACGIH). A number of potential biomarkers are related to benzene exposure and poisoning. Some of these are benzene oxide-protein adducts, chromosome aberration of lymphocytes, and GPA mutations in erythrocytes, a decrease in B cell and CD4(-)T cell counts in peripheral blood, and altered expression of CXCL16, ZNF331, JUN, and PF4 in lymphocytes. Variation in multiple benzene metabolizing genes may be associated with risk of benzene hematotoxicity, including CYP2E1, MPO, NQO1, and GSTT1.
Chua, Jacqueline; Lim, Blanche; Fenwick, Eva K; Gan, Alfred Tau Liang; Tan, Ava Grace; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie Jin; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheng, Ching-Yu
To determine the prevalence, risk factors, and impact of undiagnosed visually significant cataract in an Asian population. The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases is a population-based study where 8,697 adults of Malay, Indian, and Chinese ethnicities aged > 40 years were invited for an eye examination, including lens photograph, to establish cataract diagnosis. Visually significant cataract was defined by Wisconsin Cataract Grading System and a best-corrected visual acuity educational attainment, in employment, and without a history of diabetes (all P<0.05). In those with undiagnosed visually significant cataract, half had bilateral visual impairment, which was significantly associated with 24.8% poorer visual functioning compared to those with unilateral visual impairment (P<0.001). Two-thirds of Singaporean adults with visually significant cataract were previously undiagnosed. Half of these cases had bilateral visual impairment and substantially reduced quality of life. Public health strategies targeting elderly patients, such as regular screening for visual impairment and timely referral to ophthalmologists in order to prevent progression to bilateral visual impairment when visual function is compromised are warranted.
The association between particulate matter and heart disease was noted in the mid-nineties of last century when the epidemiological evidence for an association between air pollution and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular disease accumulated and first hypotheses regarding the pathomechanism were formulated. Nowadays, epidemiological studies have demonstrated coherent associations between daily changes in concentrations of ambient particles and cardiovascular disease mortality, hospital admission, disease exacerbation in patients with cardiovascular disease and early physiological responses in healthy individuals consistent with a risk factor profile deterioration. In addition, evidence was found that annual average PM 2.5 exposures are associated with increased risks for mortality caused by ischemic heart disease and dysrhythmia. Thereby, evidence is suggesting not only a short-term exacerbation of cardiovascular disease by ambient particle concentrations but also a potential role of particles in defining patients' vulnerability to acute coronary events. While this concept is consistent with the current understanding of the factors defining patients' vulnerability, the mechanisms and the time-scales on which the particle-induced vulnerability might operate are unknown
Duman, Iltekin; Dincer, Umit; Taskaynatan, Mehmet Ali; Cakar, Engin; Tugcu, Ilknur; Dincer, Kemal
This is a retrospective epidemiological study. The objective is to determine the epidemiological characteristics including the patient demographics, etiological factors, duration of symptoms, treatment modalities applied and clinical outcome of the treatment in reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD). Medical records of the 168 patients managed in two tertiary hospitals with the diagnosis of RSD that was made according to both IASP criteria and three-phase bone scan were reviewed. The upper limb was affected 1.5 times as commonly as the lower limb. Of the 168 cases, 10.7% were non-traumatic. In 89.3% of the patients, RSD developed after a traumatic inciting event with a predominance of fracture. In 75.6% of the patients, RSD developed due to job-related injuries. The percentage of successful clinical outcome was 72%. The percentage of the patients that did not respond to therapy was 28%. The management period is long and this causes higher therapeutic costs in addition to loss of productive effort. However, response to therapy is good. On the other hand, in approximately one third of the patients, RSD does not improve despite all therapeutic interventions. In addition to compensation costs, this potentially debilitating feature causes RSD to appear as a socioeconomic problem.
Cortese, Samuele; Faraone, Stephen V.; Bernardi, Silvia; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos
Background A significant association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity has been reported. This study addresses unexplored aspects of this relationship. Aims To evaluate the association between adult obesity and: (a) persistent, remitted or lifetime ADHD; (b) number of childhood ADHD symptoms, controlling for socioeconomic status and mood, anxiety and substance use disorders. Method Face-to-face psychiatric interviews in 34 653 US adults from the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ⩾30. Results Persistent, lifetime or remitted ADHD were not associated with obesity after controlling for confounders. The number of childhood ADHD symptoms was significantly associated with adult obesity, even after adjustment, in women. Conclusions Childhood ADHD symptoms are associated with obesity in women even after comorbid psychiatric disorders are accounted for. This provides a rationale for longitudinal studies assessing the impact of the treatment of childhood ADHD symptoms on obesity in women. PMID:23661765
Myasthenia Gravis (MG) is a disorder affecting components of the neuromuscular junction. Epidemiological studies show rising incidence and prevalence rates. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and prevalence of MG in the Republic of Ireland. Data sources included patient lists from consultant neurologists and ophthalmologists, a neuroimmunology laboratory, general practitioners and the Myasthenia Gravis Association. A total of 1,715 cases were identified, of which 706 definite, probable or possible autoimmune and congenital MG cases were included. The overall prevalence rate from the data obtained is 15.38\\/100,000. The study demonstrated a female preponderance (female:male of 1.3: 1) and some geographical variation within Ireland. The average incidence rate for the years 2000 to 2009 was 11.3 per year; the rate for the current decade is 18 per year. The increasing number of diagnoses may be due to improved access to diagnostic investigations and increasing awareness of the clinical manifestations.
Full Text Available An epidemiological study was undertaken to study the incidence and distribution of orthopaedic manifestations of filariasis in an endemic area. A total of 207 cases were clinically examined and investigated. Patients were divided into three groups , viz., Group A: Orthopaedic manifestations with no history of filariasis . Group B: Orthopaedic manifestations with history of filariasis such as microfilaraemia or filarial fevers etc., Group C: Orthopaedic manifestations with chronic manifestations such as elephantiasis, hydrocele etc. To confirm filarial etiology, all the cases were examined for the presence of filarial antibody by indirect ELISA using wuchereda bancrofti microfilarial excretory- secretary antigen (wd Mf ESAg . A total of 61 of 102 patients of Group A, 14 of 21 patients of group B, and 73 of 84 patients of Group C were positive for filarial antibody. This study showed the prevalence of filarial antibody in about 71.4% of various orthopaedic manifestations.
Cortese, Samuele; Faraone, Stephen V; Bernardi, Silvia; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos
A significant association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity has been reported. This study addresses unexplored aspects of this relationship. To evaluate the association between adult obesity and: (a) persistent, remitted or lifetime ADHD; (b) number of childhood ADHD symptoms, controlling for socioeconomic status and mood, anxiety and substance use disorders. Face-to-face psychiatric interviews in 34 653 US adults from the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥30. Persistent, lifetime or remitted ADHD were not associated with obesity after controlling for confounders. The number of childhood ADHD symptoms was significantly associated with adult obesity, even after adjustment, in women. Childhood ADHD symptoms are associated with obesity in women even after comorbid psychiatric disorders are accounted for. This provides a rationale for longitudinal studies assessing the impact of the treatment of childhood ADHD symptoms on obesity in women.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, there is a growing concern over pesticides use, which has been linked to self-harm and suicide. However, there is paucity of research on the epidemiology of pesticides poisoning in Nepal. This study is aimed at assessing epidemiological features of pesticides poisoning among hospital-admitted cases in selected hospitals of Chitwan District of Nepal. Methods A hospital-based quantitative study was carried out in four major hospitals of Chitwan District. Information on all pesticides poisoning cases between April 1 and December 31, 2015, was recorded by using a Pesticides Exposure Record (PER form. Results A total of 439 acute pesticides poisoning cases from 12 districts including Chitwan and adjoining districts attended the hospitals during the 9-month-long study period. A majority of the poisoned subjects deliberately used pesticides (89.5% for attempted suicide. The total incidence rate was 62.67/100000 population per year. Higher annual incidence rates were found among young adults (111.66/100000 population, women (77.53/100000 population and individuals from Dalit ethnic groups (98.22/100000 population. Pesticides responsible for poisoning were mostly insecticides (58.0% and rodenticides (20.8%. The most used chemicals were organophosphates (37.3% and pyrethroids (36.7%. Of the total cases, 98.6% were hospitalized, with intensive care required for 41.3%. The case fatality rate among admitted cases was 3.8%. Conclusions This study has indicated that young adults, females and socially disadvantaged ethnic groups are at a higher risk of pesticides poisoning. Pesticides are mostly misused intentionally as an easy means for committing suicide. It is recommended that the supply of pesticides be properly regulated to prevent easy accessibility and misuse. A population-based study is warranted to reveal the actual problem of pesticides exposure and intoxication in the community.
Budinger, T.F.; Wong, P.; Yen, C.K.
This report presents details of the study design and methods for a retrospective epidemiological study on the health effects, if any, of stationary and alternating magnetic fields produced by man-made devices such as cyclotrons, controlled thermonuclear reactors (CTR), high voltage-high current transmission lines, magnetohydrodynamic devices (MHD), energy storage systems, and isotope separation facilities. The magnetic fields to which the workers can be exposed are as high as 10,000 gauss and the anticipated increase in magnetic fields associated with the environment and transmission lines near these devices is a few times the natural earth magnetic field. Thus the objectives include acquisition of low exposure data which can be used to evaluate any risks to the population incidentally exposed to environmental increases in magnetic fields, as well as an acquisition of high exposure data to be used in determining allowable exposure standards for the technical personnel working at CTR and MHD facilities. From the present status of knowledge on biological effects of magnetic fields, it is not possible to extrapolate or rationally conclude maximum permissible exposure levels for magnetic device workers and the population at large. There are no known previous studies of the effects of long-term exposure to magnetic fields involving large samples and matched controls. Thus this human epidemiological study was commenced in 1977 in parallel with experimental studies on biological and medical effects of magnetic fields being conducted by Dr. T. Tenforde and co-workers at LBL, by investigators at Battelle Northwest, and smaller projects at a number of laboratories around the world. The data base for the exposed population is comprised of approximately 1,000 cyclotron and bubble chamber workers.
Vahid Monsef Kasmaei
Full Text Available Introduction: Traumatic brain injuries (TBI are one of the most important causes of death in patients under the age of 25 years and is responsible for one third of total deaths caused by trauma. Therefore, knowing its epidemiologic pattern in different populations seems vital. Therefore, this study aims to examine the epidemiologic pattern of TBI in emergency department. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the profiles of 1000 patients affected by TBI were selected using simple random sampling. The examined variables in this study included demographic, season, mechanism of injury, accompanying injuries, level of consciousness, hospitalization duration, computed tomography (CT scan results, needing surgery, admission to intensive care unit, and outcome of the patient. In the end, independent risk factors for the death of patients were determined. Results: 1000 patients suffering from were studied (81.8% male; mean age 38.5±21.7 years. The frequency of their referral to hospital in spring (31.4% was more (p<0.01. 45.9% of the patients had a level of consciousness less than 9 based on the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS. Subdural (45.9% and epidural bleeding (23.7% were the most common findings in CT scans in this study (p<0.001. Finally, 233 (23.3% of the patients were dead. Over 60 years of age, falling and motorcycle accidents, intracranial hemorrhage accompanied by brain contusion, subdural bleeding, a GCS of less than 9, and the need to be admitted to intensive care unit were independent risk factors of death in TBI. Conclusion: Age Over 60 years, falling and motorcycle accidents, intracranial hemorrhage accompanied by brain contusion, subdural bleeding, a GCS of less than 9, and need to be admitted to intensive care unit were independent risk factors for the death in TBI patients.
Gyenwali, Deepak; Vaidya, Abhinav; Tiwari, Sundar; Khatiwada, Prakash; Lamsal, Daya Ram; Giri, Shrikrishana
Globally, there is a growing concern over pesticides use, which has been linked to self-harm and suicide. However, there is paucity of research on the epidemiology of pesticides poisoning in Nepal. This study is aimed at assessing epidemiological features of pesticides poisoning among hospital-admitted cases in selected hospitals of Chitwan District of Nepal. A hospital-based quantitative study was carried out in four major hospitals of Chitwan District. Information on all pesticides poisoning cases between April 1 and December 31, 2015, was recorded by using a Pesticides Exposure Record (PER) form. A total of 439 acute pesticides poisoning cases from 12 districts including Chitwan and adjoining districts attended the hospitals during the 9-month-long study period. A majority of the poisoned subjects deliberately used pesticides (89.5%) for attempted suicide. The total incidence rate was 62.67/100000 population per year. Higher annual incidence rates were found among young adults (111.66/100000 population), women (77.53/100000 population) and individuals from Dalit ethnic groups (98.22/100000 population). Pesticides responsible for poisoning were mostly insecticides (58.0%) and rodenticides (20.8%). The most used chemicals were organophosphates (37.3%) and pyrethroids (36.7%). Of the total cases, 98.6% were hospitalized, with intensive care required for 41.3%. The case fatality rate among admitted cases was 3.8%. This study has indicated that young adults, females and socially disadvantaged ethnic groups are at a higher risk of pesticides poisoning. Pesticides are mostly misused intentionally as an easy means for committing suicide. It is recommended that the supply of pesticides be properly regulated to prevent easy accessibility and misuse. A population-based study is warranted to reveal the actual problem of pesticides exposure and intoxication in the community.
Fan, P C; Chung, W C
The taeniasis in East Asia has a special epidemiological pattern: people eat meat and/or viscera of pigs and acquire infection of Taenia saginata-like tapeworms. However, cysticercosis is more often found in pigs than cattles. In order to elucidate the taxonomic status of this parasite, we have conducted extensive field surveys, experimental infections, and morphological as well as immunological studies since 1981. After obtaining sufficient information from our studies, we finally came to the conclusion that the T. saginata-like tapeworm in Asia is a new subspecies of T. saginata and was named as T. saginata asiatica. The classical T. saginata was renamed as T. saginata saginata. In this paper, we provide the history of T. s. asiatica in Asia.
Vogtmann, Emily; Goedert, James J
The human microbiome, which includes the collective genome of all bacteria, archaea, fungi, protists, and viruses found in and on the human body, is altered in many diseases and may substantially affect cancer risk. Previously detected associations of individual bacteria (e.g., Helicobacter pylori), periodontal disease, and inflammation with specific cancers have motivated studies considering the association between the human microbiome and cancer risk. This short review summarises microbiome research, focusing on published epidemiological associations with gastric, oesophageal, hepatobiliary, pancreatic, lung, colorectal, and other cancers. Large, prospective studies of the microbiome that employ multidisciplinary laboratory and analysis methods, as well as rigorous validation of case status, are likely to yield translational opportunities to reduce cancer morbidity and mortality by improving prevention, screening, and treatment.
Gallo, V.; Egger, M.; McCormack, V.; Farmer, P.B.; Ioannidis, J.P.; Kirsch-Volders, M.; Matullo, G.; Phillips, D.H.; Schoket, B.; Stromberg, U.; Vermeulen, R.; Wild, C.; Porta, M.; Vineis, P.
Advances in laboratory techniques have led to a rapidly increasing use of biomarkers in epidemiological studies. Biomarkers of internal dose, early biological change, susceptibility, and clinical outcomes are used as proxies for investigating the interactions between external and/or endogenous
Gallo, V.; Egger, M.; McCormack, V.; Farmer, P.B.; Ioannidis, J.P.; Kirsch-Volders, M.; Matullo, G.; Phillips, D.H.; Schoket, B.; Stromberg, U.; Vermeulen, R.; Wild, C.; Porta, M.; Vineis, P.
Eur J Clin Invest 2012; 42 (1): 1-16 SUMMARY POINTS: Advances in laboratory techniques have led to a rapidly increasing use of biomarkers in epidemiological studies. Biomarkers of internal dose, early biological change, susceptibility and clinical outcomes are used as proxies for investigating
Bártulos Iglesias, M; Marzo Sola, M E; Estrella Ruiz, L A; Bravo Anguiano, Y
Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating disease that causes severe disability in younger patients. Many epidemiology studies have confirmed a variable prevalence. The objective of this study was to analyse the prevalence of this disease in La Rioja (Spain), using such variables as age and sex; type of progression, initial form of the disease, EDSS and number of relapses; disease-modifying treatment and reasons for treatment withdrawal; personal and family history of cancer; and incidence and mortality. Analysis of patients in La Rioja diagnosed with MS (according to Poser criteria or the 2005 McDonald criteria) during a 10-year period (2001-2011). Data were collected from hospital records, multiple sclerosis associations, and personal records kept by neurologists. The MS prevalence rate in La Rioja is 65 patients/100 000 inhabitants with an incidence rate of 3.5 cases/100 000 residents per year. Relapsing-remitting MS is present in 67.6% of the patient total. Mean age of onset is 20-29 years (range, 12 to 70). Most EDSS scores were mostly ≤ 2. Untreated MS cases account for 47.6% of the total and the most commonly used therapy is interferon. We detected 4 haematological tumours and 7 families with multiple members affected by MS. Prevalence and incidence are similar to those found in other regions Spain. The average age at onset age for primary progressive MS is slightly higher than in other papers (40-49 years). In families with multiple patients, MS may be more aggressive. Disability in these patients remains very severe. We require more epidemiology studies with a variety of data gathering methods to support findings for prevalence obtained in different provinces. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Luiza, Andrea; Noronha de Góis, Diego; Santos, Jadson Alípio Santana de Sousa; Brito de Oliveira, Rosany Larissa; Ferreira da Silva, Luiz Carlos
Introduction The nonsyndromic orofacial cleft is the fourth most common birth defect, but in Brazil, data about the cleft epidemiology are not accurate. Objective This study aimed to describe the epidemiologic characteristics of oral cleft cases at Specialized Society Attending Cleft Patient in Sergipe State. Methods Data were obtained from patients' medical records in relation to the following characteristics: age; gender; race; origin; cleft type; additional malformations and/or complications; prenatal accomplishment; treatment applied. For diagnosis analysis, it was noted if mothers had received prenatal care and if they had ultrasonography performed and if the cleft was viewed in it. Results We observed a prevalence of male gender (54%). Age between 0 and 4 years old was most prevalent (53%), and pheoderma race was observed in 47%. Transincisive foramen cleft was found in 52.3% of the individuals. The prevalence of pre- and transincisive foramen cleft was higher in men (66.3 and 55.7%), women accounted for 65.0% of postincisive foramen, and atypical facial cleft (0.3%) occurred in one case. Associated malformations and complications were present in 12% of patients. Prenatal care was reported by 48% of the mothers. Conclusion In this study male gender was the most affected, and 0 to 4 years was the most frequent age group. Transincisive foramen cleft type was most frequently encountered. Prenatal care was reported by most mothers. So, this study found that early treatment is a reality in SEAFESE (Service Specializing in Cleft Care of Sergipe), and consequently the chances of successful integration of the child to society will be better.
Salo, Silja A S; Ilonen, Ilkka; Laaksonen, Sanna; Myllärniemi, Marjukka; Salo, Jarmo A; Rantanen, Tuomo
Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPeM) is a rare cancer of the mesothelial cells in the peritoneum with poor prognosis. Earlier reports from other countries indicate an incidence of 0.2-3 new cases per million per year. No previous studies have examined the national epidemiology of MPeM in Nordic countries. This study aimed to clarify the epidemiology of MPeM in Finland over a 12-year period. The data consisted of cancer notifications, laboratory notifications, and death certificate information in the Finnish Cancer Registry (FCR) and Statistics Finland (SF) of all MPeM patients from 2000 to 2012 in Finland. We also collected data on occupational disease compensations from the Workers' Compensation Center (WCC) of Finland. Any missing information was collected from the respective patient's file of every patient obtained from health institutions that had treated the patients. Between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2012, 90 new MPeM cases (56 males, 34 females) occurred in Finland. Median annual incidence was four new cases, which corresponded to 0.74 new cases per million per year. MPeM was deemed an occupational disease in 21 patients (23.3%). 71 patients (78.9%) of whom had a known cause of death, with a median survival of 4 months. The number of deaths linked to other disease than mesothelioma was 28/74 (37.8%). Our study indicates that MPeM in Finland is rare and fatal, which is in accordance with previous reports from other countries. MPeM is also a fatal disease, since most of the patients died due to MPeM. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
O'Donnell, T F
Fifteen Marine recruits with acute heat stroke were examined for (1) predisposing factors, (2) blood coagulation disturbances, (3) renal function abnormalities, and (4) blood composition alterations. Epidemiologic data identified the following risk factors; previous residence in a temperate climate, first phase of training, fatigue, and strenuous exercise in hot, humid conditions. Results of blood coagulation studies disclosed an increase in prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times, with a decrease in platelet count, probably indicating a transient, low-grade consumptive process. Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels and creatinine clearance were normal. Only mild elevations of SGOT, SGPT, and lactic dehydrogenase levels were noted, and in combination with clinical observations, they argued against significant muscle damage. No deaths or instances of renal failure occurred.
Bowler, R M; Ngo, L; Hartney, C; Lloyd, K; Tager, I; Midtling, J; Huel, G
The purpose of this survey was to assess the health status of community residents exposed to a 16-day release of Catacarb from a nearby refinery and to document the prevalence rates of symptoms and illnesses of this town. The health status of the exposed residents was compared to that of unexposed residents of a demographically similar control town. An epidemiologic study design was used and questionnaires were mailed to all households in both towns. Response rate was 43%. Household cluster effects, gender, education, and race were controlled in the analysis. Questionnaire health data reveal increased reporting of symptoms in the exposed, specifically headaches, respiratory, visual, gastrointestinal, and dermatologic with odds ratios ranging between 1.3 and 3. Exposure relationships with increased symptoms and worsening of illnesses was found.
Matsko, V.P. [Institute of Radiobiology, Academy Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)
The present paper is an analysis of the results of epidemiological studies in Belarus about the after-effects of the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station (ChAPS), based on published data at scientific institutes, organs and institutions of Ministry of Health. In the last years the affected population showed thereby more significant - as compared with republican indices - growth of incidence in the majority of diseases (first of all: digestion, urogenital, nervous, endocrine systems, diseases of ear, throat, nose both among adults and among children). Aggravation of health state continues in the participants of liquidation of the ChAPS accident consequences and the evacuees from the alienation zone which have obtained considerable radiation load to organism (rise of incidence of diseases of endocrine, cardiovascular, nervous system etc.). Considerable growth of thyroid cancer incidence is registered in Belarus children and adolescents, especially in the Gomel and Brest regions. This is conditioned by dose commitments on thyroid gland due to iodine radionuclides in first period after the accident, incorrect iodine prophylaxy, and goitre endemic. The rise of hereditary pathology is registered too. An expressed increase of oncological diseases is observed therewith mainly in the Gomel region, especially in the districts with high level of radiocontamination and, consequently, significant radiation load. First of all, this relates to the growth of incidence of cancer of lungs, mammary gland, bladder. The analysis of epidemiological studies performed in Belarus after the ChAPS catastrophe and comparison of them with data obtained in the pre-Chernobyl period testify to the aggravation of health state of Belarus population. The specialists unambiguously recognize the direct influence of radioactive pollution in the environment on rise of thyroid pathologies, hereditary and congenial diseases, and cancers of different localizations. There is no unique opinion
Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence
Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France.
Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence
Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France. PMID:24892287
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pontiac fever is usually described in epidemic settings. Detection of Pontiac fever is a marker of an environmental contamination by Legionella and should thereby call for prevention measures in order to prevent outbreak of Legionnaire's disease. The objective of this study is to propose an operational definition of Pontiac fever that is amenable to epidemiological surveillance and investigation in a non epidemic setting. Methods A population of 560 elderly subjects residing in 25 nursing homes was followed during 4 months in order to assess the daily incidence of symptoms associated, in the literature, with Pontiac fever. The water and aerosol of one to 8 showers by nursing home were characterized combining conventional bacterial culture of Legionella and the Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH technique that used oligonucleotides probes specific for Legionellaceae. A definition of Pontiac fever was devised based on clinical symptoms described in epidemic investigations and on their timing after the exposure event. The association between incidence of Pontiac fever and shower contamination levels was evaluated to test the relevance of this definition. Results The proposed definition of Pontiac fever associated the following criteria: occurrence of at least one symptom among headache, myalgia, fever and shivers, possibly associated with other 'minor' symptoms, within three days after a shower contaminated by Legionella, during a maximum of 8 days (minimum 2 days. 23 such cases occurred during the study (incidence rate: 0.125 cases per person-year [95% CI: 0.122–0.127]. A concentration of Legionella in water equal to or greater than 104.L-1 (FISH method was associated with a significant increase of incidence of Pontiac fever (p = 0.04. Conclusion Once validated in other settings, the proposed definition of Pontiac fever might be used to develop epidemiological surveillance and help draw attention on sources of
Tossa, Paul; Deloge-Abarkan, Magali; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Hartemann, Philippe; Mathieu, Laurence
Background Pontiac fever is usually described in epidemic settings. Detection of Pontiac fever is a marker of an environmental contamination by Legionella and should thereby call for prevention measures in order to prevent outbreak of Legionnaire's disease. The objective of this study is to propose an operational definition of Pontiac fever that is amenable to epidemiological surveillance and investigation in a non epidemic setting. Methods A population of 560 elderly subjects residing in 25 nursing homes was followed during 4 months in order to assess the daily incidence of symptoms associated, in the literature, with Pontiac fever. The water and aerosol of one to 8 showers by nursing home were characterized combining conventional bacterial culture of Legionella and the Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) technique that used oligonucleotides probes specific for Legionellaceae. A definition of Pontiac fever was devised based on clinical symptoms described in epidemic investigations and on their timing after the exposure event. The association between incidence of Pontiac fever and shower contamination levels was evaluated to test the relevance of this definition. Results The proposed definition of Pontiac fever associated the following criteria: occurrence of at least one symptom among headache, myalgia, fever and shivers, possibly associated with other 'minor' symptoms, within three days after a shower contaminated by Legionella, during a maximum of 8 days (minimum 2 days). 23 such cases occurred during the study (incidence rate: 0.125 cases per person-year [95% CI: 0.122–0.127]). A concentration of Legionella in water equal to or greater than 104.L-1 (FISH method) was associated with a significant increase of incidence of Pontiac fever (p = 0.04). Conclusion Once validated in other settings, the proposed definition of Pontiac fever might be used to develop epidemiological surveillance and help draw attention on sources of Legionella. PMID:16646972
A series of tornadoes ripped through the Upper Midwest region of the United States in the evening of June 7, 2007. At least five different tornadoes touched down in Wisconsin, according to the Associated Press, one of which tore through the Bear Paw Resort in northern Wisconsin. Despite dropping as much as fifteen centimeters (six inches) of rain in some places and baseball-size hail in others, authorities were reporting no deaths attributable to the storm system, and only a smattering of injuries, but considerable property damage in some areas. When the MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra satellite observed the area on June 9, 2007, the track torn through the woods by one of the tornadoes stands out quite clearly. This photo-like image uses data collected by MODIS in the normal human vision range to give a familiar natural-looking appearance. The landscape is largely a checkerboard of farms, towns, roads, and cities. The pale land is predominantly farmland where crops have not fully grown in yet. Dark blue shows the winding path of rivers and lakes dotting the landscape. The large blue lake on the east (right) side of the image is Lake Michigan. Towns and cities, including the city of Green Bay, are gray. To the north side, farmland gives way to dark green as land use shifts from agriculture to the Menominee Indian Reservation and Nicolet National Forest. The diagonal slash through the dark green forested land shows the tornado track. Bare land was revealed where the tornado tore down trees or stripped vegetation off the branches. The high-resolution image provided above is at MODIS' full spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response System provides this image at additional resolutions.
Bisognano, Joseph J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Bissen, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Bosch, R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Efremov, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Eisert, D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Fisher, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Green, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Jacobs, K. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Keil, R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Kleman, K. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Rogers, G. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Severson, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Yavuz, D. D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Legg, Robert A. [JLAB; Bachimanchi, Ramakrishna [JLAB; Hovater, J. Curtis [JLAB; Plawski, Tomasz [JLAB; Powers, Thomas J. [JLAB
The University of Wisconsin has completed fabrication and commissioning of a low frequency (199.6 MHz) superconducting electron gun based on a quarter wave resonator (QWR) cavity. Its concept was optimized to be the source for a CW free electron laser facility. The gun design includes active tuning and a high temperature superconducting solenoid. We will report on the status of the Wisconsin SRF electron gun program, including commissioning experience and first beam measurements.
Charles H. Perry
Results of the 2000-2004 annual inventory of Wisconsin show about 16.0 million acres of forest land, more than 22.1 billion cubic feet of live volume on forest land, and nearly 593 million dry tons of all live aboveground tree biomass on timberland. Populations of jack pine budworm are increasing, and it remains a significant pest in Wisconsin forests. A complete...
Full Text Available The burden of psychiatric disorders in the developed countries has been identified by the screening questionnaires and standard clinical interviews at a high level, but the epidemiological studies of psychiatric disorders in our country are brief and their numbers are few. Planning for providing essential mental health services to the people requires us to be knowledgeable about the present status of psychiatric disorders in the society. The objective of this research was to carry out the epidemiological study of the psychiatric disorders in the individuals 18 years and above in urban and rural areas of Hamadan province. 664 individuals selected through randomized clustered and systematic sampling methods among the existing families of Hamadan province and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS questionnaires completed by the clinical psychologist. The diagnosis of the disorders was based on DSM-IV classification criteria.The results of the study showed that the overall prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province was 11.28% (17.2% in women , 5.8% in men. The anxiety and mood disorders with 5.87 and 2.71% respectively had the highest prevalence in the province. The prevalence of psychotic disorders in this study was 0.60% , neuro- cognitive disorders 1.35% and dissociative disorders 0.75%. In the group of mood disorders, major depression with 2.56% and in the group of anxiety disorders, phobia with 2.56% had the higher prevalence. This study showed that 8.13% of studied individuals suffered from at least one of the psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province among the individuals in the age group of 66 years and above was 13.33%, individuals whose spouses had passed away 18.75%, urban residents of province 9.81%, illiterate individuals 12.80% and housewife individuals 12.31% was more than other individuals in the sample. Being aware of this matter reveals the responsibility of the
Atlantis, E; Baker, M
Obesity is a well-known cause of cardiovascular disease burden and premature death, but effects on psychological morbidity remain uncertain. This article reports findings following a systematic review of epidemiological studies to determine whether obesity causes depression. Multiple databases were searched for English-language studies of etiology of obesity (exposure variable, analyzed as an ordered category) on depression outcomes (dependent variables, continuous or categorical). Studies in children and in women during pregnancy or postpartum were excluded, as were nonrepresentative cross-sectional studies. Searches and identification of studies for inclusion were performed by EA, whereas a descriptive synthesis of important study characteristics was undertaken independently by us. We reviewed 24 out of approximately 4500 potentially relevant studies; 4 were prospective cohort studies and 20 were cross-sectional studies (10 from the United States). Effect measures reported in all prospective cohort studies were consistent and suggested that obesity may increase the odds of future depression outcomes (symptoms or nonclinical diagnosis of depression). Effect measures reported in most cross-sectional studies from the United States supported the hypothesized association between obesity and prevalence of depression outcomes for women but not men, in contrast most cross-sectional studies from populations other than the United States consistently failed to find such associations. Overall, there is a weak level of evidence supporting the hypothesis that obesity increases the incidence of depression outcomes. Few high-quality prospective cohort studies exist, and cross-sectional studies account for the vast body of published evidence, and therefore firm conclusions for causality cannot yet be drawn. Our finding warrants additional high-quality etiological research on this topic.
Pektas, Ayhan; Pektas, Bilgehan M; Kula, Serdar
The present study aims to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of paediatric pulmonary hypertension within the entire Turkish population over a period of 5 years using the registry of the National Health Insurance System. All individuals aged pulmonary hypertension and secondary pulmonary hypertension were identified. The overall annual incidence of idiopathic pulmonary hypertension during childhood was 11.7 cases/million, whereas the overall annual incidence of secondary pulmonary hypertension during childhood was 9.5 cases/million. There was a gradual and significant increase in the annual incidence of idiopathic pulmonary hypertension and that of secondary pulmonary hypertension during the 5-year study period (p=0.001 for both). In the years 2012 and 2013, idiopathic pulmonary hypertension was significantly more frequent in children aged pulmonary hypertension, whereas the female to male ratio was 1.1:1 for secondary pulmonary hypertension during childhood. The incidence of paediatric pulmonary hypertension in Turkey is higher than those reported for the Western populations. Moreover, no female dominance could be observed. These discrepancies may be attributed to the differences in the study design, study cohort, timing of the study, and the definitions adopted for pulmonary hypertension classification.
Allsworth, Jenifer E
Social media-based recruitment for epidemiologic studies has the potential to expand the demographic and geographic reach of investigators and identify potential participants more cost-effectively than traditional approaches. In fact, social media are particularly appealing for their ability to engage traditionally "hard-to-reach" populations, including young adults and low-income populations. Despite their great promise as a tool for epidemiologists, social media-based recruitment approaches do not currently compare favorably with gold-standard probability-based sampling approaches. Sparse data on the demographic characteristics of social media users, patterns of social media use, and appropriate sampling frames limit our ability to implement probability-based sampling strategies. In a well-conducted study, Harris et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2015;181(10):737-746) examined the cost-effectiveness of social media-based recruitment (advertisements and promotion) in the Contraceptive Use, Pregnancy Intention, and Decisions (CUPID) Study, a cohort study of 3,799 young adult Australian women, and the approximate representativeness of the CUPID cohort. Implications for social media-based recruitment strategies for cohort assembly, data accuracy, implementation, and human subjects concerns are discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Strom, D.J.; Beck, W.L.; Stansbury, P.S.; Tankersley, W.G.; Watson, J.E. Jr.
The objectives of the study are: (1) to determine the availability of dosimetry data and supporting documentation at multiple facilities; (2) to develop criteria and methods for optimally retrieving data; (3) to evaluate and document the quality and completeness of data and dosimetry programs; (4) to put dosimetry data (e.g., external, whole body counting, and bioassay data) from various facilities in a single format for epidemiologic analysis; and (5) to document all work for peer review. To achieve these objectives, a ''Dosimetry Records and Radiation Hazards Questionnaire'' was developed to send to the facilities under study. Responses to this questionnaire are used to develop data retrieval criteria and methods, and to retrieve data. Dose data are reformatted into Standard Intermediate Dosimetry Files for editing and characterization. Evaluations of dosimetry programs are performed concurrently. Results of these steps are brought together and analysis files created. Status of this work in the context of the Department of Energy 5-Rem Study is reported. The standard procedures are applicable to single- as well as multiple-facility studies
Yuan, Jian-Min; Sun, Canlan; Butler, Lesley M.
Experimental studies have consistently shown the inhibitory activities of tea extracts on tumorigenesis in multiple model systems. Epidemiologic studies, however, have produced inconclusive results in humans. A comprehensive review was conducted to assess the current knowledge on tea consumption and risk of cancers in humans. In general, consumption of black tea was not associated with lower risk of cancer. High intake of green tea was consistently associated with reduced risk of upper gastrointestinal tract cancers after sufficient control for confounders. Limited data support a protective effect of green tea on lung and hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake on prostate cancer risk, phase II clinical trials have demonstrated an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate pre-malignant lesions. Green tea may exert beneficial effects against mammary carcinogenesis in premenopausal women and recurrence of breast cancer. There is no sufficient evidence that supports a protective role of tea intake on the development of cancers of the colorectum, pancreas, urinary tract, glioma, lymphoma, and leukemia. Future prospective observational studies with biomarkers of exposure and phase III clinical trials are required to provide definitive evidence for the hypothesized beneficial effect of tea consumption on cancer formation in humans. PMID:21419224
In contrast to the consistent results of an inhibitory effect of green tea extracts and tea polyphenols on the development and growth of carcinogen-induced tumors in experimental animal models, results from human studies are mixed. Both observational and intervention studies have provided evidence in support of a protective role of green tea intake in the development of oral–digestive tract cancer or an inhibitory role of oral supplementation of green tea extract on a precancerous lesion of oral cavity. Evidence in support of green tea intake against the development of liver cancer risk is limited and inconsistent. An inverse association between green tea intake and lung cancer risk has been observed among never smokers but not among smokers. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake against the development of prostate cancer, several phase 2 clinical trials have shown an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate premalignant lesions to malignant tumors. Prospective epidemiologic studies so far have not provided evidence for a protective effect of green tea consumption on breast cancer development. Current data neither confirm nor refute a definitive cancer-preventive role of green tea intake. Large randomized intervention trials on the efficacy of green tea polyphenols or extracts are required before a recommendation for green tea consumption for cancer prevention should be made. PMID:24172305
Stranden, E.; Strand, T.; Magnus, K.; James, A.C.; Green, B.M.R.
The objectives and strategy of an epidemiological study on the effects of exposure to radon in Norwegian dwellings is presented. The study is a cooperation between the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene and the Norwegian Cancer Registry in Norway and the National Radiological Protection Board of the United Kingdom, with funding by the Norwegian Cancer Society. Measurements of radon are being made in 10,000 dwellings representing all Norwegian municipalities. The potential for detecting an effect of radon exposure by such a study in Norway is unique because: (1) Radon concentrations are high and there are large regional variations. (2) Data from the Norwegian Cancer Registry is of high quality: all cancers have been subject to compulsory reporting since 1955. These data can be broken down according to municipality, sex and age. (3) In 1964/1965 a large scale survey of smoking habits was carried out in Norway. These data can also be broken down according to municipality, sex and age, and by types of smoking and smoking rate. It is intended to examine the correlation between lung cancer incidence and geographical variation in radon levels after making allowance for smoking habits. Radon measurements were started in early 1987 and the results of the study are expected to be published in 1989. (author)
Herd, Pamela; Schaeffer, Nora Cate; DiLoreto, Kerryann; Jacques, Karen; Stevenson, John; Rey, Federico; Roan, Carol
To test the feasibility of collecting and integrating data on the gut microbiome into one of the most comprehensive longitudinal studies of aging and health, the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS). The long-term goal of this integration is to clarify the contribution of social conditions in shaping the composition of the gut microbiota late in life. Research on the microbiome, which is considered to be of parallel importance to human health as the human genome, has been hindered by human studies with nonrandomly selected samples and with limited data on social conditions over the life course. No existing population-based longitudinal study had collected fecal specimens. Consequently, we created an in-person protocol to collect stool specimens from a subgroup of WLS participants. We collected 429 stool specimens, yielding a 74% response rate and one of the largest human samples to date. The addition of data on the gut microbiome to the WLS-and to other population based longitudinal studies of aging-is feasible, under the right conditions, and can generate innovative research on the relationship between social conditions and the gut microbiome. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Lesinskiene, Sigita; Girdzijauskiene, Sigita; Gintiliene, Grazina; Butkiene, Dovile; Puras, Dainius; Goodman, Robert; Heiervang, Einar
From the public health perspective, epidemiological data of child mental health and psychosocial correlates were necessary and very lacking in Lithuanian society that has been undergoing rapid socio-economic change since the past decades. Together with determining the prevalence rates of disorders and assessing the needs for the services, this study has also shifted attention from the highly selective samples of children attending children and adolescent mental health services towards less severe cases of psychopathology as well as different attitudes of parents and teachers. The aim of the first epidemiological study in Lithuania was to identify the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the community sample of children. Child psychiatric disorders were investigated in a representative sample of 3309 children aged 7-16 years (1162 7-10-year-olds and 2147 11-16-year-olds), using a two-phase design with the Lithuanian version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in the first screening phase, and the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) in the second diagnostic phase. The estimated point prevalence of ICD-10 psychiatric disorders was 13.1% for the total sample (14.0% for the child sample and 12.1% for adolescent sample). The most common groups of disorders were Conduct disorders 6.6% (7.1% for child sample and 6.0% for adolescent sample), Anxiety disorders 5.0% (5.9% for child sample and 6.0% for adolescent sample), with Hyperkinesis being less common 2.0% (2.7% for child sample and 1.2% for adolescent sample). Potential risk factors were related to individual characteristics of the child (gender, poor general health, and stressful life experiences), and the family (single parenthood, foster care, unfavourable family climate, disciplining difficulties, worries related to TV or computer use). The overall prevalence of youth psychiatric disorders was relatively high in this representative Lithuanian sample compared to Western European
Loganovsky, K.N.; Nyagu, A.I.
Nakane and Ohta (1986) revealed very high (6 %) prevalence rate of schizophrenia in A-bomb survivors. The goal of this study was the epidemiological investigation of schizophrenia in the Chernobyl exclusion zone personnel on the base of 10-years follow up study and analysis of the psychiatric archives (1986-1996). As a result the register of schizophrenia spectrum disorders has been created, including 65 staff members. According to both ICD-9 and ICD-10 criteria there were 48 patients with schizophrenia. It has been revealed a statistically significant increase of the schizophrenia percentage amongst all psychoses in the Chernobyl exclusion zone personnel in comparison with the general Ukrainian population. It has been established that among 48 cases of schizophrenia there were 39 (81.2 %) of schizophrenia onset occurred in the zone. Since 1990 a significant increase (more than 4 times: 5.4 per 10,000 in the zone and 1.1 per 10,000 in Ukraine) in schizophrenia incidence has been taking place among the irradiated population of the exclusion zone in comparison with the general population. Our data testify to possibility of radiation-induced schizophrenia onset, which seem to be like stochastic effects of ionizing radiation. The mechanisms of these effects realization are the subject of further investigations. (author)
Caler, Kyle R; Vargas Garcia, Jose Ricardo; Nower, Lia
A few studies have examined gambling behavior and problem gambling among minorities and reported higher rates of both participation and gambling problems among particular minority groups in comparison to Whites who gamble. The present study utilized a representative, epidemiological sample of adults in New Jersey to explore gambling behavior, gambling problem severity, substance use, problem behavior, and mental health issues among minorities. Univariate analyses were conducted, comparing Whites (n = 1341) to respondents who identified as Hispanic (n = 394), Black (n = 261), or Asian/other (n = 177). Overall, the highest proportion of Hispanics were high-risk problem gamblers. Hispanic participants were also significantly more likely than other groups to use and abuse substances and to report mental health problems in the past month, behavioral addictions, and/or suicidal ideation in the past year. Primary predictors of White high risk problem gamblers were being young and male with friends or family who gambled, fair to poor health status, substance use, gambling once a week or more both online and in land-based venues, and engaging in a number of gambling activities. In contrast, gender was not a predictor of minority high risk problem gamblers, who were characterized primarily by having friends or family who gambled, gambling online only, having a behavioral addiction and playing instant scratch-offs and gaming machines. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Full Text Available Scabies is a contagious disorder of skin caused by a mite called human itch mite, Sarcoptes scabiei. An epidemiological study of scabies was conducted from district Haripur to evaluate the prevalence and the important risk factors responsible for the spread of scabies. The study was conducted in General population from (February - April 2013.Surveys were carried out in general population comprising 200 families of district Haripur. Out of two hundred families in general population, 81 were scabetic showing a prevalence rate of 40.5%.Considering an individual as a unit, 109cases were detected, out of these total samples of 1193 individuals, exhibiting a prevalence rate of 9.13%.The disease was significantly more common in females (10.4%than males(7.9%,in lower socio-economic classes (13.8% than the upper and middle classes (5.22%,7.16%, in those living in uncemented houses (23.6% than those living in cemented houses (7.5%,and in those having domestic animals at home(13.4%than those without domestic animals(8.08%. Family size was of no significance but prevalence was positively co-related with the level of crowding (average number of person per room in a house. No clear trend was indicated in the prevalence rate of scabies changing with educational level. The distribution of the number of cases per family followed a Poisson distribution, demonstrating that all the families surveyed were equally exposed to the risk of scabies.
Voelz, G.L.; Wilkinson, G.S.; Acquavella, J.F.; Tietjen, G.L.; Brackbill, R.M.; Reyes, M.; Wiggs, L.D.
Retrospective and prospective epidemiologic studies are being conducted as part of a national survey of plutonium workers at four Department of Energy facilities (Los Alamos, NM; Rocky Flats, CO; Mound Laboratory, OH; and Savannah River, SC). A preliminary analysis of mortality was done for all white males who have worked at the Rocky Flats Plant during the period 1952 to 1979. The 452 observed deaths were significantly fewer than the 831 expected for all causes. The 107 deaths due to all malignant neoplasms were also significantly fewer than the 167 expected from these diseases. Expected deaths were derived from age and calendar-specific death rates for US white males. Deaths reported for benign and unspecified neoplasms numbered eight versus an expected two, a significant elevation. These tumors, all intracranial, are the subject of a case-control study to be reported later. Subdividing the cohort on the basis of plutonium exposures and external radiation exposures results in similar overall findings. The benign and unspecified neoplasms, however, were not significantly high in the plutonium-exposed group
Kyle R. Caler
Full Text Available Abstract A few studies have examined gambling behavior and problem gambling among minorities and reported higher rates of both participation and gambling problems among particular minority groups in comparison to Whites who gamble. The present study utilized a representative, epidemiological sample of adults in New Jersey to explore gambling behavior, gambling problem severity, substance use, problem behavior, and mental health issues among minorities. Univariate analyses were conducted, comparing Whites (n = 1341 to respondents who identified as Hispanic (n = 394, Black (n = 261, or Asian/other (n = 177. Overall, the highest proportion of Hispanics were high-risk problem gamblers. Hispanic participants were also significantly more likely than other groups to use and abuse substances and to report mental health problems in the past month, behavioral addictions, and/or suicidal ideation in the past year. Primary predictors of White high risk problem gamblers were being young and male with friends or family who gambled, fair to poor health status, substance use, gambling once a week or more both online and in land-based venues, and engaging in a number of gambling activities. In contrast, gender was not a predictor of minority high risk problem gamblers, who were characterized primarily by having friends or family who gambled, gambling online only, having a behavioral addiction and playing instant scratch-offs and gaming machines. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Chamorro-Muñoz, María Isabel; García-Martín, Guillermina; Pérez-Errazquin, Francisco; Romero-Acebal, Manuel; García-Rodríguez, Antonio; Gutiérrez-Bedmar, Mario
Studies concerning mortality in epilepsy have been performed primarily in Northern-Central Europe and US. The aim of this study was to provide information about mortality in people with epilepsy in Southern European countries. We studied a Spanish prevalence and incidence cohort of 2309 patients aged ≥14 years with epilepsy who were treated in an outpatient epilepsy clinic between 2000 and 2013. The deceased were identified through Civil Registries. Causes of death were determined using death certificates, forensic autopsies, hospital reports, family practitioners, and care-givers' records. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated. In a total of 15,865 person-years of follow-up, 152 patients died, resulting in an SMR of 2.11 (95% CI 1.79-2.47), which was higher for those aged 14-24. There was also a high rate of death for symptomatic epilepsies, progressive causes (SMR=6.12, CI 3.50-9.94), and remote causes (SMR=2.62, CI 2.12-3.21). High SMRs were found for all kinds of epilepsy and for respiratory and tumoural causes. Patients who died of epilepsy itself were 12.5%. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy incidence was 0.44:1000. Death from status epilepticus incidence was 20:100,000. SMRs for external causes were of no statistical significance. This is the first epidemiological study to examine rate of mortality in epilepsy in a Southern European country. The identified mortality pattern is similar to the one provided by researchers from developed countries. The similarities between our results concerning epilepsy-related deaths and those provided by population-based studies are the result of the scarcely selected character of our study cohort. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
J.L.P. Kuijpens (Hans)
textabstractThe studies described in this thesis concentrate OIl epidemiological and pathogenetic aspects of postpartum thyroid dysfunction (PPTD) and related topics, and on epidemiological and treatment aspects of thyroid cancer. The studies were petfonned in the southeastern part of the
The Sequencing Strategies for Population and Cancer Epidemiology Studies (SeqSPACE) Webinar Series provides an opportunity for our grantees and other interested individuals to share lessons learned and practical information regarding the application of next generation sequencing to cancer epidemiology studies.
Suchandan Sikder*, AKM Anisur Rahman1, Mohammad Rayhan Faruque, Mohammad Abdul Alim2, Shubhagata Das2, Aungshuman Das Gupta3, Bhajan Chandra Das, Mohammad Inkeyas Uddin4 and Mohammad Abdul Matin Prodhan
Full Text Available An epidemiological survey was conducted to identify probable risk factors and prevalence of brucellosis in commercial and backyard dairy cows at Chittagong, Bangladesh. A total of 500 milk samples were collected (250 commercial and 250 backyards for Milk Ring Test (MRT. The MRT positive cows were subjected to sera collection and Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and indirect ELISA were done for confirmatory diagnosis. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle was 5% (7.6% in commercial and 2.4% in backyard. Significantly higher (P<0.05 prevalence was found in the zero grazing (5.74%, pregnant cows (7.53% and cows with history of retained placenta (7.89% or abortion (5.88% or both (11.76% than non-pregnant (2.68% and without any reproductive disorder (4.44%. A total of 420 farm attendants and owners were interviewed where 93.55 and 99.08% commercial and backyard personnel were found to have no knowledge of brucellosis and 9.67 and 87.77% consumed raw milk and yogurt respectively were highly vulnerable to zoonotic brucellosis. The results showed that brucellosis is widely distributed locally, underscoring the need for further studies including biovar determination.
Mohammad M. Khater
Full Text Available Purpose. This work aims to study the problems encountered with and the different epidemiological features of patients with fungal keratitis. Patients and Methods. All cases with keratitis attending the Outpatient Clinic of Ophthalmology Department at Tanta University Hospital during three years from the first of January 2011 to the end of December 2013 were selected and carefully examined and cases with mycotic keratitis were further examined and investigated. Results. From 66303 attendants during this period with different complaints, there were 361 cases (0.54% with mycotic keratitis and 473 cases (0.71% of nonmycotic origin. Mycotic keratitis is common between 40 and 60 years, more in farmers (64%, families with large number and large crowding index, rural than urban residence, and patients with outdoor water sources and insanitary sewage disposal. Positive fungal cultures were obtained in 84.5% and were negative in 15.5% of cases in spite of their typical clinical findings for diagnosis and their improvement with antifungal therapy. Conclusion. Mycotic keratitis is more frequent in farmers, rural areas, outdoor water supply, insanitary sewage disposal, and patients preceded with organic trauma. Atypical clinical findings were found in some cases and not all cases improved with specific antifungal therapy.
Sicilia, A; Ainamo, J; Noguerol, B; Cobo, J; Lucas, V; Bascones, A
The purpose of the present study was to determine the representativeness of partial examination in the assessment of the average severity and the prevalence of periodontal disease. 343 subjects aged 7, 12 and 15-19 years were examined for the presence or absence of gingival bleeding after gentle probing, supra or subgingival calculus and pocket depths of 4-5 mm., or 6 mm. and over, of each tooth. Three sets of average severity and prevalence scores were prepared: based on the full mouth examination, on observations made from the index teeth of the P.D.I., and on the six teeth utilized for the C.P.I.T.N. in this age group. Partial indices tended to underestimate the real prevalence of the different signs, and slightly overestimate severity, being these observations statistically significant. Average severity scores were obtained more accurately with the six Ramfjord teeth, while real prevalence rates were better determined with the C.P.I.T.N. teeth. From an epidemiological point of view, the real significance of the differences observed should be further determined.
Full Text Available Oral cancer, which occurs in the mouth, lips, and tongue, is a multifactorial disease whose etiology involves environment, genetic, and epigenetic factors. Tobacco use and alcohol consumption are regarded as the primary risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, and betel use, other chemicals, radiation, environmental, and genetics are reported as relevant risk factors for oral carcinogenesis. The human papillomavirus infection is an independent risk factor. Traditional epidemiology studies have revealed that environmental carcinogens are risk factors for OSCC. Molecular epidemiology studies have revealed that the susceptibility to OSCC is influenced by both environmental and genetic risk factors. However, the details and mechanisms of risk factors involved in OSCC are unclear. Advanced methods and techniques used in human genome studies provide great opportunities for researchers to explore and identify (a the details of such risk factors and (b genetic susceptibility involved in OSCC. Human genome epidemiology is a new branch of epidemiology, which leads the epidemiology study from the molecular epidemiology era into the era of genome-wide association study. In the era of precision medicine, molecular epidemiology studies should focus on biomarkers for cancer genomics and their potential utility in clinical practice. Here, we briefly reviewed several molecular epidemiology studies of OSCC, focusing on biomarkers as valuable utility in risk assessment, clinical screening, diagnosis, and prognosis prediction of OSCC in the era of precision medicine.
Pereira, Duarte; Garrett, Carolina
The etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains in a certain part unknown. Both genetic susceptibility and environmental factors are sometimes considered to be putative contributors to its origin. Recent epidemiologic studies have focused on the possible role of environmental risk factors present during adult life or aging, once pure genetic forms of PD are rare. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible environmental and familial risk factors for PD. We performed a hospital based case-control study using 88 PD patients with neurologist confirmed diagnostic, and 176 sex, age, and residence similar controls. Several possible risk factors were evaluated related to life style, past history, family history, occupational history and other exposures to potential neurotoxin agents. Statistical differences, using a 95% confidence interval, were observed in positive family history of PD (p = 0,002), occupation category (p = 0,001), rural living (p = 0,037), living/working near a industry (p = 0,017), exposure to pesticides, herbicides and in-secticides (p coffee consumption (p = 0,036) and tea consumption (p = 0,001). Sex and age adjusted logistic regression showed as potential risk factors, a positive family history of PD (odds ratio [OR] = 9,996; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2,19-45,597), blue collar occupations (OR = 3,967; 95% CI = 1,670-9,426), exposure to pesticides, herbicides and insecticides (OR = 2,619 ; 95% CI = 1,170-5,862). An inverse relationship was found between tea consumption and the risk of PD (OR = 0,356; 95% CI = 0,174-0,727). The results of the study show that both familial and environmental factors may contribute to the development of PD. Like other studies suggest, PD is of unknown, but presumably multifactorial etiology.
Iwanaga, Takashi; Tohda, Yuji
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has generated great interest since the 1990s and many physicians worldwide have based their clinical practice on this idea. Its underlying concepts include a diverse array of findings from clinical epidemiological research. In western countries, many clinical databases of clinical epidemiology are in circulation. Clinical epidemiological research using these data in western countries constitutes the majority worldwide. However, because race, lifestyle, culture, etc., differ among western countries and Japan, it is difficult to apply the results of clinical epidemiological research obtained in Japan to western countries. Unfortunately, there is no large-scale database for respiratory diseases prevalent in Japan. Many specialists agree with the opinion that it is necessary to collect medical information specific to the Japanese population and analyze the clinical data. KiHAC (Kinki Hokuriku Airway Disease Conference) was established in September 2001 with the aim of generating evidence through clinical epidemiological research for airway diseases by targeting physicians practicing respiratory medicine, pediatrics, and otorhinolaryngology, primarily in the Kinki and Hokuriku regions located in the central to western parts of Japan. As a part of the KiHAC, clinical research societies will attempt to cooperate with each other to make joint research possible and to share and utilize information, in addition to further promoting clinical research in the field of respiratory medicine. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kim, Keun-Suh; Park, Ki Jun; Lee, Jaekoo; Kang, Byung Yong
To present an epidemiological study of injuries found among South Korea's National level Judo athletes as a foundation for future injury prevention and skill enhancement in this group. This study is a prospective study on a 4-year injury assessment held from January 2010 to December 2013 at the training centre in South Korea for National Level athletes. Athlete's weight class, gender, injury location and injury grade (grade I=1-3 treatment days, grade II=4-7 treatment days, and grade III ≥8 treatment days) were analysed. There were a total of 782 injuries recorded during this period, equalling to four injuries per athlete annually. Almost half of these injuries (47%) were grade I injuries. Injury occurrence was the highest in the Lower body (44.2%). This was then followed by injuries in the upper body (29.8%), trunk (20.3%) and head and neck (5.6%). Men and women showed similar, non-significantly different trends in the proportion of body parts injured. Women experienced more grade III injuries than males (p=0.0228). Comparison between women in different weight classes also showed that heavyweights incurred more grade III injuries than lightweights (p=0.0087). Lightweights had a higher rate of injury than heavyweights in males and females, although this was statistically significant only among males (p<0.001). Many body regions are prone to injury in the elite judo population. Women, especially those in the heavyweight classification, were more prone to severe injuries. Lightweights experienced more injuries than heavyweights among male athletes. Specifically, further studies are needed to confirm these findings and to address the impact of rapid weight loss practices on injury risk to implement effective preventive measures. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Pérez, José A Hermida; Palmes, M de la Paz Pérez; Ferrer, Juan Francisco Loro; Urdangarain, Otto Ochoa; Nuñez, Abdel Buduen
To investigate epidemiologic, etiopathogenic and clinical factors associated with emergency renal colic (RC). METHODS ANDS RESULTS: We performed a prospective cross-sectional multicenter case-control study of 146 patients treated for RC at emergency departments. Data collected included age, sex, localization/severity of pain, symptoms, personal/family medical history, urine analysis, etiopathogenic factors, chemical composition of the lithiasis, and x-ray studies. Comparative statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 12.2 software. RC was more frequent in men; maximum incidence was between 31-50 years for both sex, with 36.3% in men and 21.23% in women; 60.27% of patients rated pain as severe; 140 RC patients (95.89%) had urologic antecedents vs. 15 (10.27%) controls without RC (ppain; 23.28% of RC patients had family history for urinary lithiasis vs. 6.16% controls (pLithiasis was observed by KUB x-ray in 42.10% of RC patients vs. 57.89% controls, most frequent calculi composition was calcium oxalate monohydrate and dehydrate (61,2%). The incidence of urinary lithiasis and RC in our health care area shows a male predominance. The characteristic pain of RC is severe and appears suddenly. It starts in the back (lumbar region), below the ribs, radiating towards the groin and external genitals (testicles in man or major lips in woman) on the same side. Nausea and vomiting are frequent. Family history of urinary lithiasis and low water intake are risk factors that need to be investigated. Occupations associated with a sedentary life style or with a hot, dry workplace show a higher incidence of lithiasis. A hot, dry climate favours the formation of urinary lithiasis and the highest incidence of lithiasis is in the summer, during the months of July and August. The most frequent component of urolithiasis in our study, as well as in other studies, was calcium oxalate monohydrate and dihydrate.
Nower, Lia; Eyrich-Garg, Karin M; Pollio, David E; North, Carol S
The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of gambling disorder and comorbid psychiatric disorders in a homeless population and identify features related to potential subtypes. At baseline, participants were administered a structured interview including socio-demographic sections of the National Comorbidity Study (NCS) interview; seven diagnostic sections of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS); the alcohol and drug abuse sections of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Substance Abuse Module (CIDI-SAM); and the Homeless Supplement to the DIS. At nine months post-baseline assessment, participants were administered additional NCS family history questions and the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). Participants were an epidemiologic sample of 275 predominately African-American homeless individuals, grouped as lifetime non-gamblers (n = 60), recreational gamblers (n = 152), and problem gamblers (n = 63), recruited on the street and through homeless shelters. Results indicate that lifetime rates of sub-clinical problem (46.2%) and disordered (12.0%) gambling were significantly higher than in the general population. Problem gamblers were more likely than non-problem gamblers to meet diagnostic criteria for antisocial personality disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, bipolar disorder, and any psychiatric disorder, and more likely than non-gamblers to use illicit drugs or meet criteria for abuse/dependence for nicotine, alcohol, or any substance. This study provides evidence that problem gambling is a significant public health issue among the African-American homeless population. Homeless services should include assessment for problem gambling along with psychiatric disorders and referrals to resources and treatment programs. Future studies should explore the relationship of the onset and course of problem gambling and other psychiatric disorders with homelessness as well as racial differences in gambling patterns and problem severity
Nakamura, Kenichi; McGregor, D.H.; Kato, Hiroo; Wakabayashi, Toshiro.
A case-control study was made on female breast cancer cases and their matched controls in the Life Span Study sample. The index cases were detected during 1958-69 among the 251 breast cancer cases ascertained originally by McGregor et al. The purpose of this study was to define the epidemiologic risk factors of breast cancer among Japanese women, to test for radiation effects in the presence of other risk factors, and to search for interactions. The survey was conducted by interview at home visits for those residing in the Hiroshima and Nagasaki areas, and by mail survey for others. The interview was carried out by several trained interviewers. Information concerning suspected risk factors of breast cancer, such as familial history, education, age at menarche and menopause, marital history, reproductive history, history of breast feeding, etc., was collected for both index cases and controls. Out of 183 original pairs, analysis was made on 164 pairs with available information for both the index and control, using the method of matched samples described by Mantel and Haenszel. There was enhancement of risk for those exposed to high radiation dose (100 rad or more). Although most major results were similar to those of previous studies, a significant increase of risk was observed among those under one of the following conditions: actual duration of marriage was less than 10 years; number of pregnancies was two or less; and age at delivery of first live born child was 27 or over. These factors had a mutual interrelationship and cases with two or more of these risk factors showed higher risk than those with one. Additive interrelationship was demonstrated between radiation dose and these marital or reproductive risk factors in elevating the relative risk of breast cancer. (author)
Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Coggon, David; Ntani, Georgia; Walker-Bone, Karen; Palmer, Keith T.; Felli, Vanda E.; Harari, Raul; Barrero, Lope H.; Felknor, Sarah A.; Gimeno, David; Cattrell, Anna; Bonzini, Matteo; Solidaki, Eleni; Merisalu, Eda; Habib, Rima R.; Sadeghian, Farideh; Kadir, M. Masood; Warnakulasuriya, Sudath S. P.; Matsudaira, Ko; Nyantumbu, Busisiwe; Sim, Malcolm R.; Harcombe, Helen; Cox, Ken; Sarquis, Leila M. M.; Marziale, Maria H.; Harari, Florencia; Freire, Rocio; Harari, Natalia; Monroy, Magda V.; Quintana, Leonardo A.; Rojas, Marianela; Harris, E. Clare; Serra, Consol; Martinez, J. Miguel; Delclos, George; Benavides, Fernando G.; Carugno, Michele; Ferrario, Marco M.; Pesatori, Angela C.; Chatzi, Leda; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Oha, Kristel; Freimann, Tiina; Sadeghian, Ali; Peiris-John, Roshini J.; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Wickremasinghe, A. Rajitha; Yoshimura, Noriko; Kelsall, Helen L.; Hoe, Victor C. W.; Urquhart, Donna M.; Derrett, Sarah; McBride, David; Herbison, Peter; Gray, Andrew; Vega, Eduardo J. Salazar
Somatising tendency, defined as a predisposition to worry about common somatic symptoms, is importantly associated with various aspects of health and health-related behaviour, including musculoskeletal pain and associated disability. To explore its epidemiological characteristics, and how it can be specified most efficiently, we analysed data from an international longitudinal study. A baseline questionnaire, which included questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory about seven common symptoms, was completed by 12,072 participants aged 20–59 from 46 occupational groups in 18 countries (response rate 70%). The seven symptoms were all mutually associated (odds ratios for pairwise associations 3.4 to 9.3), and each contributed to a measure of somatising tendency that exhibited an exposure-response relationship both with multi-site pain (prevalence rate ratios up to six), and also with sickness absence for non-musculoskeletal reasons. In most participants, the level of somatising tendency was little changed when reassessed after a mean interval of 14 months (75% having a change of 0 or 1 in their symptom count), although the specific symptoms reported at follow-up often differed from those at baseline. Somatising tendency was more common in women than men, especially at older ages, and varied markedly across the 46 occupational groups studied, with higher rates in South and Central America. It was weakly associated with smoking, but not with level of education. Our study supports the use of questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory as a method for measuring somatising tendency, and suggests that in adults of working age, it is a fairly stable trait. PMID:27128094
Full Text Available Injuries, especially traffic accidents are so important causes of death, disability, hospital expenses, economic damages to the society which World Health Organization selected them as the main subjects for investigation and research. We have done an epidemiologic study about trauma in Guilan, a province in north of Iran. This is a descriptive study carried out on patients with traumatic injuries, admitted in Poursina Teaching Hospital, during September 2005 to July 2006. Data were collected prospectively using a data collection form including demographic information, mechanism of trauma, anatomical site of injuries, according to AIS90 and severity of head trauma according to glasgow coma scale (GCS. Data were processed by SPSS 11.5 and are shown in tables and figures. Overall 3598 patients admitted. Mean age was 31.85 ± 17.76 years with male to female ratio about 3.5:1. Most of patients were 25-44 years old (33.9%. Traffic accidents were the leading cause of injuries (73.84% and then fall (15.7%. Motorcycle was the most common mode of transport in our patients (47.07% after that car (24.3%. Occurrence of traffic accidents increased through evening. Forty six percent of patients transported to hospital by people or came themselves (46.42%. Head and neck were the most common injured part of body (82.4 %, however about in 81.66% of patients were mild and then limb and pelvis (34.7%. Finally about 2.8% of them died. A trauma especially traffic accidents are an important public health issue in Guilan, we recommend conducting other studies focusing on risk factors in details, and considering injury prevention in local decision making.
Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Coggon, David; Ntani, Georgia; Walker-Bone, Karen; Palmer, Keith T; Felli, Vanda E; Harari, Raul; Barrero, Lope H; Felknor, Sarah A; Gimeno, David; Cattrell, Anna; Bonzini, Matteo; Solidaki, Eleni; Merisalu, Eda; Habib, Rima R; Sadeghian, Farideh; Kadir, M Masood; Warnakulasuriya, Sudath S P; Matsudaira, Ko; Nyantumbu, Busisiwe; Sim, Malcolm R; Harcombe, Helen; Cox, Ken; Sarquis, Leila M M; Marziale, Maria H; Harari, Florencia; Freire, Rocio; Harari, Natalia; Monroy, Magda V; Quintana, Leonardo A; Rojas, Marianela; Harris, E Clare; Serra, Consol; Martinez, J Miguel; Delclos, George; Benavides, Fernando G; Carugno, Michele; Ferrario, Marco M; Pesatori, Angela C; Chatzi, Leda; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Oha, Kristel; Freimann, Tiina; Sadeghian, Ali; Peiris-John, Roshini J; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Wickremasinghe, A Rajitha; Yoshimura, Noriko; Kelsall, Helen L; Hoe, Victor C W; Urquhart, Donna M; Derrett, Sarah; McBride, David; Herbison, Peter; Gray, Andrew; Vega, Eduardo J Salazar
Somatising tendency, defined as a predisposition to worry about common somatic symptoms, is importantly associated with various aspects of health and health-related behaviour, including musculoskeletal pain and associated disability. To explore its epidemiological characteristics, and how it can be specified most efficiently, we analysed data from an international longitudinal study. A baseline questionnaire, which included questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory about seven common symptoms, was completed by 12,072 participants aged 20-59 from 46 occupational groups in 18 countries (response rate 70%). The seven symptoms were all mutually associated (odds ratios for pairwise associations 3.4 to 9.3), and each contributed to a measure of somatising tendency that exhibited an exposure-response relationship both with multi-site pain (prevalence rate ratios up to six), and also with sickness absence for non-musculoskeletal reasons. In most participants, the level of somatising tendency was little changed when reassessed after a mean interval of 14 months (75% having a change of 0 or 1 in their symptom count), although the specific symptoms reported at follow-up often differed from those at baseline. Somatising tendency was more common in women than men, especially at older ages, and varied markedly across the 46 occupational groups studied, with higher rates in South and Central America. It was weakly associated with smoking, but not with level of education. Our study supports the use of questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory as a method for measuring somatising tendency, and suggests that in adults of working age, it is a fairly stable trait.
Full Text Available Somatising tendency, defined as a predisposition to worry about common somatic symptoms, is importantly associated with various aspects of health and health-related behaviour, including musculoskeletal pain and associated disability. To explore its epidemiological characteristics, and how it can be specified most efficiently, we analysed data from an international longitudinal study. A baseline questionnaire, which included questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory about seven common symptoms, was completed by 12,072 participants aged 20-59 from 46 occupational groups in 18 countries (response rate 70%. The seven symptoms were all mutually associated (odds ratios for pairwise associations 3.4 to 9.3, and each contributed to a measure of somatising tendency that exhibited an exposure-response relationship both with multi-site pain (prevalence rate ratios up to six, and also with sickness absence for non-musculoskeletal reasons. In most participants, the level of somatising tendency was little changed when reassessed after a mean interval of 14 months (75% having a change of 0 or 1 in their symptom count, although the specific symptoms reported at follow-up often differed from those at baseline. Somatising tendency was more common in women than men, especially at older ages, and varied markedly across the 46 occupational groups studied, with higher rates in South and Central America. It was weakly associated with smoking, but not with level of education. Our study supports the use of questions from the Brief Symptom Inventory as a method for measuring somatising tendency, and suggests that in adults of working age, it is a fairly stable trait.
Results of epidemiological studies by Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) on A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki over 60 years are described as they are conceivably useful for present health risk assessment, future measures and health problems in Fukushima. The studies conducted in the two Cities on total of about 120,000 people of survivors and unexposed control group have given following findings. Incidence of leukemia is increased several years after A-bomb exposure, and of diseases like thyroidal ones, cataract and solid cancers, at 10-20 years later. Individual dose assessment of these morbid people is established (DS02, Dosimetry published in 2003), which reveals the quantitative relationship between dose and incidence. This relationship is used as a reference to make up an international standard for protection of radiation hazard. Mean of excess relative risk (ERR) on linear non-threshold (LNT) hypothesis of solid cancers is around 0.4/Gy at age of 70 y for people exposed at age 30 y although there is a significant age and sex difference in ERR. As well as survivors, studies are performed on exposed fetuses and second generations from the exposed people, which show the increased incidence of newborn microcephaly from mothers exposed with high dose but overall health abnormality is not seen in offspring from exposed parents. Radiation exposure is mainly instantaneous in the two Cities and is mostly derived from neutron and gamma-ray, which are somehow different from that in Fukushima due to Nuclear Power Plant Accident. The latter involves long term external and internal exposures with alpha-, beta- and gamma-ray hereafter. The difference should be well recognized for risk assessment in Fukushima; exempli gratia (e.g.), at the same dose, instantaneous exposure is mentioned more risky than long term one. (T.T.)
Full Text Available Introduction: Traumatic brain injuries are among the most important causes of mortality and disability. Since there is a lot of controversy regarding discharge of head trauma patients, especially those with mild traumatic brain injuries, this study was designed aiming to evaluate traumatic brain injuries from an epidemiologic point of view. Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, patients with isolated head trauma, and all those who underwent computed tomography (CT were included using convenience sampling. Demographic data and final diagnosis of the patients were extracted from their medical profile, and were analyzed using SPSS 21 and appropriate statistical tests. Results: 786 patients with the mean age of 24 ± 16.8 years (range: 0.5 – 75 were evaluated (67.8% male. 42 patients (5.3% had abnormal CT scan and were hospitalized. 7 of them (16.7% of hospitalized, 3.3% of low-risk, and 0.9% of all patients were in the group categorized as low-risk regarding probability of brain injuries. 12 (1.5% participants needed surgery, 2 of which (0.9% were initially categorized as low-risk. Vomiting was significantly more in patients with abnormal CT scan (45.2% compared to those who had normal CT scan (19.6% (p = 0.0001. No significant difference was detected between the 2 groups in other symptoms. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that by making decisions based on clinical findings alone, there is a probability of about 3.3% error in management of head trauma patients. In addition, 0.9% of the patients initially categorized as low-risk, needed surgical intervention in the end.
Robinson, Lucy J; Gray, John M; Ferrier, I Nicol; Gallagher, Peter
Euthymic patients with bipolar disorder (BD) show executive impairment. Assisting cognitive function with non-pharmacological strategies has not been widely explored in BD. In schizophrenia, concomitant verbalisation (self-monitoring) during executive tests improved performance. The present pilot study assesses the effects of self-monitoring whilst completing the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in BD patients. Thirty-six euthymic BD patients and 42 healthy controls participated. Twenty patients with BD and 20 controls received standard administration and 16 patients and 22 controls used self-monitoring during the test. ANCOVA revealed a significant "group by administration" interaction. Patients who received the standard administration were significantly worse than healthy controls (trials administered: p = .012, η p (2) = 0.17; trials to first category: p = .046, η p (2) = 0.11; failure to maintain set: p = .003, η p (2) = 0.23). BD patients who self-monitored performed significantly better than patients receiving the standard administration (trials to first category: p = .020, η p (2) = 0.17) and showed no significant differences in performance compared to controls. Self-monitoring deserves further investigation as a tool that may be helpful for patients with BD. Further exploration of the utility, generalisability, and stability of the effects of self-monitoring is needed.
Kehila, Mehdi; Harabi, Souad; Mhiri, Raoudha; Touhami, Omar; Abouda, Hassine Saber; Khlifi, Abdeljalil; Hsairi, Mohamed; Chelli, Dalenda; Derbel, Mohamed; Kebaili, Sahbi; Boujelbane, Nadia; Chaabene, Kais; Chanoufi, Mohamed Badis
To describe for the first time the epidemiologic and clinico-pathologic characteristics of vulvar cancer in Tunisia. Two parts are distinguished in this study: Part1: Multicentric retrospective study about the characteristics of all cancer cases diagnosed during a 17-years period (January 1998-December 2014) in three departments of Gynecology and Obstetrics: one in south Tunisia and two in the capital. Part 2: To determine the Incidence trend of invasive vulvar cancer in North Tunisia 1994-2009, on the basis of North Cancer Registry of Tunisia. A total of 76 cases of vulvar cancer were recorded. The median age at diagnosis was 65.4years and 86.9% of patients were more than 55years old. The symptomatology was dominated by vulvar pruritus in 48.7%. The average size of the tumor was 3.96cm. Stage III was the most frequent (53.7%) followed by stage II (28.3%). Only 10.4% of tumors were at stage I. The most common histologic type of vulvar malignancy was squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (94.7%). Standardized incidence varied from 1.2/100 000 (1994) to 0.5/100 000 (2009). There was significant decrease of Standardized incidence (APC of -8.8% per year, 95% CI: -5.5%, -9.0%-pTunisia is a rare disease, occurs mostly in elderly women, and is diagnosed at advanced stages. Our findings emphasize that a greater effort should be made to facilitate early diagnosis, as treatment in earlier stages is less extensive and potentially curative. Copyright © 2017 National Cancer Institute, Cairo University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yin, Amy X; Sugimoto, Dai; Martin, Daniel J; Stracciolini, Andrea
The purpose of this study was to analyze characteristics of dance injuries evaluated by sports medicine physicians. A cross-sectional epidemiological study of a 5% random probability sample of patients presenting for sports medicine evaluation between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2009. Sports medicine clinic of a tertiary-level pediatric medical center. A total of 181 pediatric dancers (171 female and 10 male; 14.8 ± 2.0 years of age) with 222 injuries. Injury diagnoses, location, type, and treatment. Forty-six injury diagnoses were recorded in this random sample of pediatric dancers, with the most common being tendonitis/tendinopathy, patellofemoral pain syndrome, apophysitis, ankle impingement syndrome, and hip labral tear. Most of the injuries occurred in the lower extremities, with knee and ankle injuries being the most common. Injury classification by type revealed that joints were the body structure most likely to be injured, followed by soft tissues, skeletal elements, and growth plates. The most frequent joint injury was patellofemoral pain syndrome. The most frequent soft tissue injury was tendonitis/tendinopathy. The most common skeletal injury was a pars stress reaction/spondylolysis. The most common physeal injury was apophysitis. Dancers were treated mainly with physical therapy, surgery, or physical therapy, in addition to orthotics. Pediatric dancers experienced significant, and occasionally rare, injuries that may have long-term health consequences. Although injuries occurred mostly in the lower extremities and involved mainly joints, the most common specific diagnosis was tendonitis/tendinopathy. There is still much to learn about the management of dancers, and there is a need for further research into injury prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chebil, Ahmed; Jeddidi, Lina; Chaker, Nibrass; Kort, Fedra; Bouladi, Mejda; Largueche, Leila; Limaiem, Rym; Mghaieth, Fatma; El Matri, Leila
To study the epidemiological profile and the degree of severity of hyperopia in Tunisia primary school and to assess its effect on school performance. A cross-sectional, descriptive survey was conducted among 6-14 aged Tunisian children attending primary urban and rural schools. A total of 6192 children were selected using stratified random cluster sampling. Cycloplegic refractive error was measured among all children with uncorrected visual acuity less than 9/10 or signs of astheniopia. Hyperopia was defined as spherical equivalent (SE) 2.0 diopters (D). We have also searched a possible relation between degree of severity of hyperopia and school performance. The prevalence of hyperopia was 2.61%. The spherical equivalent mean was + 3.73 ± 0.94 D. The mean age was 9.67 ± 0.44 years. This prevalence was 2.77% in boys and 2.47% in girls. 3.13% of students were living in urban areas and 1.42% in rural areas. The hyperopia rate decreased significantly with age (p = 0.021), but it was not significantly related to gender (p=0.54). The difference in the prevalence of hyperopia between urban and rural areas was not statistically significant (p = 0.067). There was no significant association between the degree of severity of hyperopia and school performance (p=0.41). In our study, the prevalence of hyperopia among schoolage children in Tunisia was 2.61%.The identification of this refractive error and its correction as soon as possible would ensure these children better visual comfort and a better education.
Full Text Available Until present no data was available inArmeniain respect of incidence of low energy fractures that are typical of osteoporotic locations which consequently did not allow to evaluate the scope of this problem across the country.Purpose of the study – to identify the incidence of low energy fractures in proximal femur, in distal forearm, in proximal humerus and in distal tibia across population ofArmenia aged 50 years and older.Materials and methods. An observing population study was performed in two regions of Armenia during 2011-2013 where the frequency of selected locations in cases of moderate trauma was identified. During 2011-2012 the information was collected based on traumatology service records adding in 2013 other sources including primary level of healthcare due to observed infrequent applications for medical help in cases of trauma. Results. In 2013 the incidence of proximal femur fractures in men was reported as 136 cases per 100 000 of population aged 50 years and older, in women – 201 cases per 100 000. At the same time only 57.7% of patients with proximal femur fractures were admitted to hospital. Distal forearm fractures incidence in men and women was observed correspondingly 56/100 000 and 176/100 000 cases, proximal humerus fractures – 39/100 000 and 86/100 000 cases and distal tibia fractures – 39/100 000 and 86/100 000 cases. The predicted annual number of proximal femur fracture in Armenia amounts to 2067 cases, distal forearm fractures – 1205, proximal humerus fractures – 640.Conclusion. Epidemiological data that was collected for the first time on low energy fractures incidence confirmed the acute osteoporosis issue inArmenia and revealed the problems in organization of medical care for the group of senior patients with injuries.
Laurier, Dominique; Vacquier, Blandine; Leuraud, Klervi; Tirmarche, Margot
Full text: Studies of miners played a major role in the classification of radon gas and its decay products as a certain lung carcinogen for humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in 1987. A comprehensive review of epidemiological results from miners' studies was published in the BEIR VI report in 1999. Since then, many results have been published. The present paper reviews the results related to cancer risks associated to alpha emitters obtained from miners' studies since 1999. More than 40 articles or reports are reviewed. Data from eleven cohorts were considered in the BEIR VI report. Since 1999, six of these cohorts have been enlarged or extended. Additional data, not available at the time of the BEIR VI report, have also been collected, such as additional data about mines exposures (gamma rays, inhalation of uranium ore dust), smoking behaviour, information about morbidity or histology of the cancers. Some revision of dosimetric estimates also occurred. New cohorts have developed in Germany, in the Czech Republic and in China. Also, some collaborative research programs were launched, especially in Europe and are presently supported in the frame of the Alpha-risk project. This involvement of the available data provided the basis for many research works. Most of the studies aimed at a better quantification of the relation between radon exposure and lung cancer risk. Globally, the results confirm the existence of a significant association, compatible with a linear relationship. A decrease of the magnitude of the association is consistently found with time since exposure. A modifying effect of age at exposure is also repeatedly observed. The existence of an inverse exposure-rate effect, suggested by some studies, is not confirmed at low levels of exposure. It was also confirmed that a radon associated lung cancer risk persists after taking into account smoking. Some studies provided results on diseases other than lung cancer. Especially, several
Verhoeven, D.T.H.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Poppel, G. van; Verhagen, H.; Brandt, P.A. van den
This paper gives an overview of the epidemiological data concerning the cancer-preventive effect of brassica vegetables, including cabbage, kale, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower. The protective effect of brassicas against cancer may be due to their relatively high content of
Between April 1999 and March 2000 an epidemiological survey was conducted for prevalence and distribution of dracunculiasis in fifteen communities in Ikwo Local government area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. A total of 4568 persons were examined out of which 640 (14.0%), had active cases of guinea worm. The disease ...
The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer-induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and from animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy.
The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer-induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and from animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations, and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy
The present review provides an understanding of our current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation in man, and surveys the epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Discussion centers on the contributions of quantitative epidemiology to present knowledge, the reliability of the dose-incidence data, and those relevant epidemiological studies that provide the most useful information for risk estimation of cancer induction in man. Reference is made to dose-incidence relationships from laboratory animal experiments where they may obtain, for problems and difficulties in extrapolation from data obtained at high doses to low doses, and from animal data to the human situation. The paper describes the methods of application of such epidemiological data for estimation of excess risk of radiation-induced cancer in exposed human populations and discusses the strengths and limitations of epidemiology in guiding radiation protection philosophy and public health policy
Siddiqui, N I; Kamrul-Hasan, M; Hossain, M A; Chanda, P K; Bakar, M A; Rahman, M; Kader, M A
Ramadan fasting is one of the five pillars of Islam and is obligatory for all healthy adult and adolescent Muslims. A significant number of patients with diabetes observe fasting during Ramadan. The objectives of this Ramadan Perspective Epidemiology and Education in Diabetes (RAPEED) study were to find out the current knowledge, attitude, and practices about Ramadan fasting among people with diabetes in Bangladesh. This retrospective cross-sectional study recruited 648 subjects with diabetes mellitus attending the Endocrinology outpatient department of a tertiary level hospital of Bangladesh within two months of the end of Ramadan in 2016. Socio-demographic data, data related to diabetes treatment, complications and co-morbidities; changes in lifestyle and diabetes treatment during Ramadan and frequency of hypoglycemia were collected from all. The mean age of the study population was 50.32±12.1 years and the majority (98.6%) had type 2 diabetes and 63.9% were overweight or obese. The majority (89.35%) of the patients fasted in Ramadan and among them, more than half of the fasters received physicians' advice for Ramadan fasting (60.6%) and changed diabetes medication (69.90%) during Ramadan. Although the amount of total food consumption was unchanged in more than one half (60.6%) of the fasters, majority of them reduced sugar-sweet intake (75.5%), increased fluid drinking (75.8%) and decreased physical activity (75.8%) during the month. A large portion (37.48%) of them did not check blood glucose and more than half (54.06%) of fasters failed to visit their physicians during Ramadan. Among them 14.85% experienced mild to moderate episodes of hypoglycemia and none had severe hypoglycemia and the most (61.6%) episodes of hypoglycemia occurred in the late evening. Hypoglycemic episodes were more frequent among insulin users, patients who had received fasting advice from physicians and in those who had adjusted diabetes drugs before Ramadan fasting. Safe Ramadan
Environmental epidemiology studies can be an effective means to assess impacts on human health from exposure to environmental stressors. Exposure scenarios are often extremely complex and proper assessment is critical for interpreting epidemiological study results. Biomarkers are...
Best, Kate E
The epidemiology of congenital small intestinal atresia (SIA) has not been well studied. This study describes the presence of additional anomalies, pregnancy outcomes, total prevalence and association with maternal age in SIA cases in Europe.
Full Text Available BackgroundRecognition of objects and their context relies heavily on the integrated functioning of global and local visual processing. In a realistic setting such as work, this processing becomes a sustained activity, implying a consequent interaction with executive functions.MotivationThere have been many studies of either global-local attention or executive functions; however it is relatively novel to combine these processes to study a more ecological form of attention. We aim to explore the phenomenon of global-local processing during a task requiring sustained attention and working memory.MethodsWe develop and test a novel protocol for global-local dissociation, with task structure including phases of divided ('rule search' and selective ('rule found' attention, based on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task.We test it in a laboratory study with 25 participants, and report on behaviour measures (physiological data was also gathered, but not reported here. We develop novel stimuli with more naturalistic levels of information and noise, based primarily on face photographs, with consequently more ecological validity.ResultsWe report behavioural results indicating that sustained difficulty when participants test their hypotheses impacts matching-task performance, and diminishes the global precedence effect. Results also show a dissociation between subjectively experienced difficulty and objective dimension of performance, and establish the internal validity of the protocol.ContributionWe contribute an advance in the state of the art for testing global-local attention processes in concert with complex cognition. With three results we establish a connection between global-local dissociation and aspects of complex cognition. Our protocol also improves ecological validity and opens options for testing additional interactions in future work.
The highest consumption levels of alcohol are found in the developed world, mostly the Northern Hemisphere. After a slight decrease at the beginning of the 1990s, alcohol use in the European Region increased with an average adult per capita consumption amounting to 12.5 litres of pure alcohol per capita for the year 2009. In France, adult consumption was 12.7 litres of pure alcohol per capita for the year 2009, and it is estimated that 1.5 to 2 million of adults are alcohol-dependent (4-5% of the adult population) and 5 million are excessive drinkers. The harmful use of alcohol is one of the world's leading health risks. Alcohol is the direct cause of more than 30 diseases and a causal factor in more than 60 major types of diseases and injuries, resulting in approximately 2.5 million deaths each year. Approximately 4% of all deaths worldwide and 4.5% (7.4% for men and 1.4% for women) of the global burden of disease and injury are attributable to alcohol. In 2004 in the EU, 15.2% of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in men and 3.9% of all DALYs in women were lost due to alcohol. While the impact of alcohol consumption and dependence on mortality and disease is substantial, there are also many psychosocial consequences, including violence, family problems, child neglect and abuse, absenteeism and lost productivity in the workplace. This means that alcohol consumption and dependence have sizable impacts on many people other than the drinker. These effects add up to a staggering number of alcohol-attributable social costs, which can be estimated at € 155.8 billion a year in Europe. Despite all these consequences, many individuals with alcohol use disorders remain untreated although effective treatments exist. From 37 community-based psychiatric epidemiology studies that used standardized diagnostic instruments and included data on the percentage of individuals receiving care for alcohol abuse or dependence, the median rate of untreated cases of these
von Elm, Erik; Altman, Douglas G; Egger, Matthias; Pocock, Stuart J; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Vandenbroucke, Jan P
Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study’s generalizability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three main study designs: cohort, case-contro...
This report describes the hydrogeology of the dolomite aquifer of Silurian age and its relation to springs in a study area in southwestern Sheboygan County, Wisconsin. The study was conducted at the Kettle Moraine Springs fish hatchery in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.
Full Text Available Introduction. Comprehensive epidemiological data regarding factors associated with traumatic dental injuries are scarce. Objective. The aim of the present study was to assess the frequency and analyze the factors associated with traumatic dental injuries in Serbian children. Methods. Research included children and adolescents with traumatic dental injury aged 0-19 year during the period from 2003 to 2010, in four University Dental Centres in Serbia: Belgrade, Nis, Novi Sad and Kragujevac. Patient history, demographic, clinical and radiographic data were obtained from dental trauma forms. Results. Total of 2,194 patients (748 girls, 1,446 boys (χ2=222.1; p<0.01 with 3,077 injured teeth in permanent and 953 in primary dentition were observed. Most of patients were aged 7 to 12 years (n=1,191. The most frequent injuries in primary and permanent dentition were dislocations (87.4% and teeth fractures (50.8%, respectively (χ2=706.1; p<0.01. The most frequent mechanism of injury was fall in children aged 0 to 12 years, while the collisions were most frequent in adolescents (53.9%. The most frequent injuries in adolescents were inflicted outdoor (66.8%, while the injuries in children aged 0 to 3 years occurred at home (68.2%, (χ2=360.8; p<0.01. The most frequent injuries in girls were accidental (48.3%, and in boys these were sport injuries (20.4% and violence (10.4% (χ2=79.9; p<0.01. The most frequent cause of injury in children aged 0 to 3 years was accidental (75.6%, while in adolescents it was sport (34.1% (χ2=1102.7; p<0.01. Conclusion. Dental injuries in preschool children most frequently resulted from fall at home. Schoolchildren most frequently injured teeth outdoor during play. Violence and sport injuries were most frequent cause of injury in adolescents. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172026
Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Energy used by Wisconsin single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.
John S. Jr. Spencer; W. Brad Smith; Jerold T. Hahn; Gerhard K. Raile
The fourth inventory of the timber resource of Wisconsin shows that growing-stock volume increased from 11.2 to 15.5 billion cubic feet between 1968 and 1983, and area of timberland increased from 14.5 to 14.8 million acres. Presented are analysis and statistics on forest area and timber volume, growth, mortality, removals, and projections.
John S. Vissage; Gery J. Brand; Manfred E. Mielke
Results of the 2001 annual inventory of Wisconsin show about 15.8 million acres of forest land, more than 21.6 billion cubic feet of live volume on forest land, and nearly 584 million dry tons of all live aboveground tree biomass on timberland. Gypsy moth, forest tent caterpillar, twolined chestnut borer, bronze birch borer, ash yellows, and white pine blister rust...
Million, Laura; Henken, Rob; Dickman, Anneliese
In metro Milwaukee, as a part of the WIRED Initiative, the Regional Workforce Alliance (RWA)--a collaboration of organizations representing workforce development, economic development and education across southeast Wisconsin--has established the framework for pursuing the local talent dividend goal and a regional strategy for increasing…
This copiously illustrated document is designed to be a field quide to birds of prey that are common to Wisconsin, as well as to some that enter the state occasionally. An introduction discusses birds of prey with regard to migration patterns, the relationship between common names and the attitudes of people toward certain birds, and natural signs…
Bouville, A.; Beebe, G.W.; Anspaugh, L.
Epidemiological studies of populations are of two general forms, monitoring or formal, and serve several possible purposes. Monitoring studies inform members of potentially affected population groups of the nature and magnitude of the risks that might have been imposed on them. Formal epidemiological studies can increase scientific knowledge about the quantitative risk that attends exposure. Risks of human health due to radiation exposure are most appropriately estimated by means of formal epidemiological studies. Dosimetric data are essential for any epidemiological study, but the detail and accuracy needed depend on the purposes to be served. If the need is for a monitoring study, then general information about doses will suffice. However, a formal study that is expected to contribute to scientific information about quantitative radiation risk requires careful individual dose estimation. This paper is devoted to the discussion of dosimetric data needed for formal epidemiological studies of populations exposed as a result of nuclear power operations. The recommendations made by the National Research Council have largely been followed. The examples used in this paper are relevant to the Chernobyl accident, which caused a large number of people to be exposed at relatively high doses and provided an opportunity for formal epidemiological studies to be initiated. The studies that are singled out are those of thyroid cancer among children who resided in Belarus and in Ukraine at the time of the accident, and those of leukemia among workers involved in the mitigation of the accident and in clean-up operations
Balbir S Deswal
Full Text Available Background: The WHO Global Burden of Disease study estimates that mental and addictive disorders are among the most burdensome in the world, and their burden will increase over the next decades. The mental and behavioral disorders account for about 12% of the global burden of disease. However, these estimates and projections are based largely on literature review rather than cross-national epidemiological surveys. In India, little is known about the extent, severity and unmet need of treatment mental disorders. Thus, there was a need to carry out rigorously implemented general population surveys that estimate the prevalence of mental disorders among urban population at Pune, Maharashtra. The study attempted to address unmet need and to form a basis for formulating the mental health need of the community. Objective: The study was undertaken to estimate the lifetime prevalence and 12 month prevalence of specific mental disorders in urban population, socio-demographic correlates of mental disorders and to assess the service utilization in individuals with mental disorders. Materials and Methods: The study was undertaken among adults aged 18 years and above living in house hold and in geographical area of Pune , Maharashtra. A minimum sample of 3000 completed interviews was planned using representative probabilities to population size (PPS sampling method which ensured equal probability for every eligible member. Data listing was obtained from Census Office from recent census of 2001 data. The face to face interviews were undertaken in homes using fully structured interview schedule of World Mental Health Survey Initiative duly revised Version of WHO- Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0 by trained investigators. Clinical reappraisal was carried out using Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN among ten percent of diagnosed cases selected randomly. Data were entered into DDE (Blaize Software and analyzed using
This presentation, Epidemiologic Studies of the Effects of Toxic Exposures on Brain and Behavior: Neuropsychological Assessment, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Neurodevelopment.
epidemiological community-based cross- sectional study. Setting. All nine provinces of Zimbabwe. Palticipants. From April 1989 to December 1991 serum samples were collected tram 1 461 males and 1 933 females in the age group 10 - 61 ...
Okunseri, Christopher; Okunseri, Elaye; Garcia, Raul I; Gonzalez, Cesar; Visotcky, Alexis; Szabo, Aniko
In September 2006, Wisconsin Medicaid changed its policy to allow nondentists to become certified Medicaid providers and to bill for sealants in public health settings. This study examined changes in patterns of dental sealant utilization in first molars of Wisconsin Medicaid enrollees associated with a policy change. The Electronic Data Systems of Medicaid Evaluation and Decision Support for Wisconsin from 2001 to 2009. Retrospective claims data analysis of Wisconsin Dental Medicaid for children aged 6-16 years. A total of 479,847 children followed up for 1,441,300 person-years with 64,546 visits were analyzed. The rate of visits for sealants by dentists increased significantly from 3 percent per year prepolicy to 11 percent per year postpolicy, and that of nondentists increased from 18 percent per year to 20 percent after the policy change, but this was not significant. Non-Hispanic blacks had the lowest visit rates for sealant application by dentists and nondentists pre- and postpolicy periods. The Wisconsin Medicaid policy change was associated with increased rates of visits for dental sealant placement by dentists. The rate of visits with sealant placements by nondentists increased at the same rate pre- and postpolicy change. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Following a brief presentation of the fundamentals of epidemiological studies, the problems associated with such studies are discussed. Epidemiological investigations on survivors of the atomic bomb explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and also on the population of Kerala, a state in south west India with a high natural radiation load, are then discussed. Consideration was given to the question whether the Down-Syndrom is a valid indicator for proving a causal relationship between radiation dose and genetic effects. (MG) [de
Ernst, Theresa; Kessler, Martin; Lautscham, Esther; Willimzig, Lisanne; Neiger, Reto
To provide an overview of the epidemiology of canine multicentric lymphoma in Germany. A total of 411 dogs with multicentric malignant lymphoma were retrospectively analysed regarding breed, age, sex, weight and the number of animals dogs with hypercalcaemic lymphoma and B-/T-immunophenotype, and compared to two reference populations (total own clinic population, n = 52 142; dogs with health insurance in Germany, n = 123 423). In total, 298 (72.5%) of the 411 dogs belonged to 86 different breeds, while 113 (27.5%) dogs were mixed breed. In comparison to both reference populations, a breed predisposition for the American Pitbull Terrier (odds ratio [OR] 5.2 and 18.5), American Staffordshire Terrier (OR 3.3 and 4.6), Briard (OR 5.6 and 9.5), Bullmastiff (OR 7.8 and 5.0), Irish Setter (OR 3.3 and 4.1) and Rottweiler (OR 2.8 and 3.6) was found. Golden Retrievers (n = 22, OR 1.3 and 0.9) and Bernese Mountain Dogs (n = 22, OR 2.4 and 2.0) were frequently affected in absolute numbers, but when compared to the reference populations an OR < 3 was detected. Mean body weight was 30.2 ± 13.7 kg; only 75 (18%) dogs weighed < 15 kg. Amongst the small dogs (< 15 kg), there was a large number of West Highland White Terriers (n = 12). Mean age of the dogs with lymphoma was 7.9 ± 2.7 years. Dogs weighing ≥ 15 kg were significantly (p < 0.001) younger (7.6 ± 2.4 years) compared to dogs weighing < 15 kg (9.3 ± 3.2 years). Dogs with a B-cell immunophenotype (8.5 ± 2.6 years) were significantly older compared to dogs with a T-cell immunophenotype (6.4 ± 1.8 years) (p < 0.001). There was no gender predisposition (54% male, 46% female). Hypercalcaemia as an indicator of T-cell lymphoma was present in 44 (11.4%) of the dogs. A T-cell and B-cell immunophenotype was found in 20.6% and 79.4% of the dogs, respectively. This study confirms previous data about breed predispositions for canine malignant multicentric
Full Text Available Anna Horváth,1 Nóra Páll,2 Katalin Molnár,1 Tamás Kováts,3 György Surján,3 Tamás Vicsek,4,5 Péter Pollner2,4 13rd Department of Internal Medicine, Semmelweis University, 2Regional Science Center, Faculty of Science, Eötvös Loránd University, 3National Healthcare Service Center, 4MTA-ELTE Statistical and Biological Physics Research Group, 5Department of Biological Physics, Eötvös Loránd University Budapest, HungaryObjective: Relapsing polychondritis (RP is a rare autoimmune inflammatory disease that attacks mainly cartilaginous structures or causes serious damage in proteoglycan-rich structures (the eyes, heart, blood vessels, inner ear. This study shows results regarding the epidemiology, progression, and associations of this highly variable disease by collecting all cases from a 124-million-person-year Central European nationwide cohort.Methods: We used the Hungarian Health Care Database to identify all persons with possible RP infection. We followed patients who had International Classification of Diseases 10th edition code M94.1 at least once in their inpatient or outpatient records between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2013 in Hungary. We classified these patients into disease severity groups by their drug consumption patterns between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2013. We analyzed the regional distribution of RP incidences as well. Overall maps of comorbidity are presented with network layouts.Results: We identified 256 patients with RP among cumulatively 11.5 million registered inhabitants. We classified these patients into four severity classes as "extremely mild" (n=144, "mild" (n=22, "moderate" (n=41, and "severe" (n=4. Two additional groups were defined for patients without available drug data as "suspected only" (n=23 and "confirmed but unknown treatment" (n=22. The age and sex distributions of patients were similar to worldwide statistics. Indeed, the overall survival was good (95% confidence interval for 5
Stark, J.R.; Andrews, W.J.; Fallon, J.D.; Fong, A.L.; Goldstein, R.M.; Hanson, P.E.; Kroening, S.E.; Lee, K.E.
The Upper Mississippi River Basin is diverse in ways that can control the areal distribution and flow of water and the distribution and concentration of constituents that affect water quality. A review of the environmental setting of the Upper Mississippi River Basin study unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program is intended to put water quality in perspective with the geology, soils, climate, hydrology, ecology and historical uses of the land and provides a basis for the sampling design of the study.
Megan M. Friggens; Stephen N. Matthews
Species distribution models for 147 bird species have been derived using climate, elevation, and distribution of current tree species as potential predictors (Matthews et al. 2011). In this case study, a risk matrix was developed for two bird species (fig. A2-5), with projected change in bird habitat (the x axis) based on models of changing suitable habitat resulting...
Keene, J. S.; And Others
A longitudinal study of university football players who played on Tartan Turf and/or natural grass was conducted to determine the types and severity of injuries occuring on the different field surfaces. Overall injury rates on Tartan Turf were found to be significantly lower than those sustained on natural grass. (JD)
Cutchin, Malcolm P
Growth during the past decade in what can be broadly referred to as social and environmental epidemiologic research has been an important contributor to an emerging understanding of environment and health relationships. While the incorporation of geographic information systems as well as concepts such as "neighborhoods" might be viewed as evidence of social epidemiology moving closer to health geography, I argue that the two fields are not well aligned. Health geography has much more to contribute to studies of environment and health, and attention by social epidemiologists to those potential contributions could help rectify this misalignment. This paper suggests a number of geographic perspectives on health and environment that could create useful connections between geography and public health, via social epidemiology. To illustrate this potential, I use an ongoing study of a Texas community exposed to a large petrochemical complex-an inquiry constructed in the mode of social epidemiology - as a case in point. I apply several perspectives and concepts from geography to the case study. Cultural ecology, discourse materialized, political ecology, and territoriality are used to assess the Texas City situation and suggest important types of understandings that can enhance the social epidemiology approach to environment and health. I conclude with a discussion of the prospects for a social epidemiology infused with this type of geographic thought and analysis.
Hindall, S.M.; Flint, R.F.
Sediment in Wisconsin streams causes economic and engineering problems in water management and reduces the value of water for nearly all uses. Sediment produces problems such as reduced reservoir capacity, navigation hazards, increased cost of water treatment, property damage, temporary loss of farmland, destruction of feeding and nesting grounds of fish, and destruction of wildlife habitat. Sediment in water also reduces the aesthetic value of surface waters and is detrimental to the State's tourist and recreation industry.
Zeeh, Friederike; Nathues, Heiko; Frey, Joachim; Muellner, Petra; Fellström, Claes
Brachyspira (B.) spp. are intestinal spirochaetes isolated from pigs, other mammals, birds and humans. In pigs, seven Brachyspira spp. have been described, i.e. B. hyodysenteriae, B. pilosicoli, B. intermedia, B. murdochii, B. innocens, B. suanatina and B. hampsonii. Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is especially relevant in pigs as it causes swine dysentery and hence considerable economic losses to the pig industry. Furthermore, reduced susceptibility of B. hyodysenteriae to antimicrobials is of increasing concern. The epidemiology of B. hyodysenteriae infections is only partially understood, but different methods for detection, identification and typing have supported recent improvements in knowledge and understanding. In the last years, molecular methods have been increasingly used. Molecular epidemiology links molecular biology with epidemiology, offering unique opportunities to advance the study of diseases. This review is based on papers published in the field of epidemiology and molecular epidemiology of B. hyodysenteriae in pigs. Electronic databases were screened for potentially relevant papers using title and abstract and finally, Barcellos et al. papers were systemically selected and assessed. The review summarises briefly the current knowledge on B. hyodysenteriae epidemiology and elaborates on molecular typing techniques available. Results of the studies are compared and gaps in the knowledge are addressed. Finally, potential areas for future research are proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several thousand human genome epidemiology association studies are published every year investigating the relationship between common genetic variants and diverse phenotypes. Transparent reporting of study methods and results allows readers to better assess the validity of study findings. Here, we document reporting practices of human genome epidemiology studies. Methods Articles were randomly selected from a continuously updated database of human genome epidemiology association studies to be representative of genetic epidemiology literature. The main analysis evaluated 315 articles published in 2001–2003. For a comparative update, we evaluated 28 more recent articles published in 2006, focusing on issues that were poorly reported in 2001–2003. Results During both time periods, most studies comprised relatively small study populations and examined one or more genetic variants within a single gene. Articles were inconsistent in reporting the data needed to assess selection bias and the methods used to minimize misclassification (of the genotype, outcome, and environmental exposure or to identify population stratification. Statistical power, the use of unrelated study participants, and the use of replicate samples were reported more often in articles published during 2006 when compared with the earlier sample. Conclusion We conclude that many items needed to assess error and bias in human genome epidemiology association studies are not consistently reported. Although some improvements were seen over time, reporting guidelines and online supplemental material may help enhance the transparency of this literature.
Alicja M. Baczynska
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recruitment rates of older people in epidemiological studies, although relatively higher than in clinical trials, have declined in recent years. This study aimed to explore motivating factors and concerns among older participants in an intensive epidemiological study (Hertfordshire Sarcopenia Study - HSS and identify those that could aid future recruitment to epidemiological studies and clinical trials. Methods Participants of the HSS fasted overnight and travelled several hours each way to the research facility at an English hospital for extensive diet/lifestyle questionnaires and investigations to assess muscle including blood tests and a muscle biopsy. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 13 participants (ten women at the research facility in May–October 2015. The interviews were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, coded and analysed thematically by three researchers. Results We identified personal motives for participation (potential health benefit for self and family; curiosity; comparing own fitness to others; socialising. Altruistic motives (benefit for other people; belief in importance of research were also important. Participants voiced a number of external motives related to the study uniqueness, organisation and safety record; family support; and just ‘being asked’. Anxiety about the biopsy and travel distance were the only concerns and were alleviated by smooth and efficient running of the study. Conclusions Personal and altruistic reasons were important motivators for these older people to participate in demanding, intensive research. They valued belonging to a birth cohort with previous research experience, but personal contact with the research team before and after consent provided reassurance, aided recruitment to HSS and could be readily replicated by other researchers. Any fears or concerns related to certain aspects of a demanding, intensive study should ideally be explored at an early visit
Hawwash, Dana; Ocké, Marga C.; Berg, Christina; Forsum, Elisabet; Sonestedt, Emily; Wirfält, Elisabet; Åkesson, Agneta; Kolsteren, Patrick; Byrnes, Graham; De Keyzer, Willem; Van Camp, John; Slimani, Nadia; Cevallos, Myriam; Egger, Matthias; Huybrechts, Inge
Background Concerns have been raised about the quality of reporting in nutritional epidemiology. Research reporting guidelines such as the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement can improve quality of reporting in observational studies. Herein, we propose recommendations for reporting nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research by extending the STROBE statement into Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology—Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut). Methods and Findings Recommendations for the reporting of nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research were developed following a systematic and consultative process, coordinated by a multidisciplinary group of 21 experts. Consensus on reporting guidelines was reached through a three-round Delphi consultation process with 53 external experts. In total, 24 recommendations for nutritional epidemiology were added to the STROBE checklist. Conclusion When used appropriately, reporting guidelines for nutritional epidemiology can contribute to improve reporting of observational studies with a focus on diet and health. PMID:27270749
Gustavo Goncalves Arliani
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aims to establish a national methodological model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries and to describe the numerous relevant studies previously published on this topic. INTRODUCTION: The risk of injury in professional soccer is high. However, previous studies of injury risk in Brazil and other countries have been characterized by large variations in study design and data collection methods as well as definitions of injury, standardized diagnostic criteria, and recovery times. METHODS: A system developed by the Union of European Football for epidemiological studies on professional soccer players is being used as a starting point to create a methodological model for the Brazilian Football Association. To describe the existing studies on professional soccer player injuries, we developed a search strategy to identify relevant epidemiological studies. We included the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and Medline databases in our study. RESULTS: We considered 60 studies from Medline and 16 studies from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences in the final analysis. Twelve studies were selected for final inclusion in this review: seven from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and five from Medline. We identified a lack of uniformity in the study design, data collection methods, injury definitions, standardized diagnostic criteria, and the definition of recovery time. Based on the information contained within these articles, we developed a model for epidemiological studies for the Brazilian Football Association. CONCLUSIONS: There is no uniform model for epidemiological studies of professional soccer injuries. Here, we propose a novel model to be applied for epidemiological studies of professional soccer player injuries in Brazil and throughout the world.
Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Runco, Jose Luiz; Cohen, Moisés
This study aims to establish a national methodological model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries and to describe the numerous relevant studies previously published on this topic. The risk of injury in professional soccer is high. However, previous studies of injury risk in Brazil and other countries have been characterized by large variations in study design and data collection methods as well as definitions of injury, standardized diagnostic criteria, and recovery times. A system developed by the Union of European Football for epidemiological studies on professional soccer players is being used as a starting point to create a methodological model for the Brazilian Football Association. To describe the existing studies on professional soccer player injuries, we developed a search strategy to identify relevant epidemiological studies. We included the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and Medline databases in our study. We considered 60 studies from Medline and 16 studies from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences in the final analysis. Twelve studies were selected for final inclusion in this review: seven from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and five from Medline. We identified a lack of uniformity in the study design, data collection methods, injury definitions, standardized diagnostic criteria, and the definition of recovery time. Based on the information contained within these articles, we developed a model for epidemiological studies for the Brazilian Football Association. There is no uniform model for epidemiological studies of professional soccer injuries. Here, we propose a novel model to be applied for epidemiological studies of professional soccer player injuries in Brazil and throughout the world.
Chua, Jacqueline; Koh, Jia Yu; Tan, Ava Grace; Zhao, Wanting; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie Jin; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheng, Ching-Yu
To determine the prevalence of age-related cataract and its ancestral and socioeconomic risk factors in a multi-ethnic Asian population. Population-based, cross-sectional study. A total of 10 033 adults (3353 Chinese, 3280 Malays, and 3400 Indians) aged >40 years in the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study. Study participants were invited for a structured interview and received a standardized comprehensive eye examination. Digital lens photographs were taken from eyes of each participant and graded for nuclear, cortical, and posterior subcapsular (PSC) cataract, following the Wisconsin Cataract Grading System. Prevalence data were compared with the Blue Mountains Eye Study (BMES) in Australia. Information on medical and lifestyle factors was collected using questionnaires and blood samples. To increase the precision of racial definition, genetic ancestry was derived from genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism markers using principal component analysis. Regression models were used to investigate the association of cataract with socioeconomic factors (education and income) and genetic ancestry. Age-related cataract. A total of 8750 participants (94.0%) had gradable lens photographs. The age-standardized prevalence of cataract surgery in Chinese (16.0%), Malays (10.6%), and Indians (20.2%) was higher than in white subjects (4.1%). We found the age-standardized cataract prevalence in Chinese (30.4%), Malays (37.8%), and Indians (33.1%) was higher than in whites (18.5%). Cataract was 1.5 to 2 times more common in Asians and began 10 years earlier than in white subjects. Malays had significantly higher age-standardized prevalence of nuclear, cortical, and PSC cataract than Chinese (PChinese and Indians but not Malays. The presence of visual impairment associated with cataract was higher in people aged ≥60 years and Malays. We showed that people of different Asian ethnicities had a higher prevalence and earlier age of onset of cataract than Europeans. People
von Elm, Erik; Altman, Douglas G; Egger, Matthias; Pocock, Stuart J; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Vandenbroucke, Jan P
Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three main study designs: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. We convened a 2-day workshop in September, 2004, with methodologists, researchers, and journal editors to draft a checklist of items. This list was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group and in e-mail discussions with the larger group of STROBE contributors, taking into account empirical evidence and methodological considerations. The workshop and the subsequent iterative process of consultation and revision resulted in a checklist of 22 items (the STROBE statement) that relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of articles. 18 items are common to all three study designs and four are specific for cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional studies. A detailed explanation and elaboration document is published separately and is freely available on the websites of PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, and Epidemiology. We hope that the STROBE statement will contribute to improving the quality of reporting of observational studies.
von Elm, Erik; Altman, Douglas G; Egger, Matthias; Pocock, Stuart J; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Vandenbroucke, Jan P
Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three main study designs: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. We convened a 2-day workshop in September, 2004, with methodologists, researchers, and journal editors to draft a che-cklist of items. This list was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group and in e-mail discussions with the larger group of STROBE contributors, taking into account empirical evidence and methodological considerations. The workshop and the subsequent iterative process of consultation and revision resulted in a checklist of 22 items (the STROBE statement) that relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of articles. 18 items are common to all three study designs and four are specific for cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional studies. A detailed explanation and elaboration document is published separately and is freely available on the websites of PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, and Epidemiology. We hope that the STROBE statement will contribute to improving the quality of reporting of observational studies.
Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three main study designs: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. We convened a 2-day workshop in September 2004, with methodologists, researchers, and journal editors to draft a checklist of items. This list was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group and in e-mail discussions with the larger group of STROBE contributors, taking into account empirical evidence and methodological considerations. The workshop and the subsequent iterative process of consultation and revision resulted in a checklist of 22 items (the STROBE Statement) that relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of articles. 18 items are common to all three study designs and four are specific for cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional studies. A detailed Explanation and Elaboration document is published separately and is freely available on the Web sites of PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, and Epidemiology. We hope that the STROBE Statement will contribute to improving the quality of reporting of observational studies. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Erik von Elm
Full Text Available Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE Initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three main study designs: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. We convened a 2-day workshop in September 2004, with methodologists, researchers, and journal editors to draft a checklist of items. This list was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group and in e-mail discussions with the larger group of STROBE contributors, taking into account empirical evidence and methodological considerations. The workshop and the subsequent iterative process of consultation and revision resulted in a checklist of 22 items (the STROBE Statement that relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of articles. 18 items are common to all three study designs and four are specific for cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional studies. A detailed Explanation and Elaboration document is published separately and is freely available on the Web sites of PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, and Epidemiology. We hope that the STROBE Statement will contribute to improving the quality of reporting of observational studies.
Ramírez-Ramos, Alberto; Gilman, Robert H; Watanabe-Yamamoto, José; Rosas-Aguirre, Angel
We present the results of our investigations in the epidemiology of H. pylori infection in Peru during the last two decades. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Lima is decreasing in people of middle and high socioeconomic status and continues stationary in people of low socioeconomic status. This decrease is similar in Peruvian and Japanese population in this city, and is associated to the decrease of the gastrointestinal diseases related to this bacterium: peptic ulcer and stomach adenocarcinoma. The infection is slightly greater in males and is acquired in early ages of life. Via oro-fecal and water contamination are probably the most important transmission ways. In our country, so far, there is no evidence to assure that some races have higher pre-disposition to acquire the infection. There are no differences in the infection by H. pylori among coast, mountain or jungle populations; and people who live in high altitudes have more atrophic chronic gastritis secondary to H. pylori infection than people who live at sea level.
Crawford, Dana C; Goodloe, Robert; Farber-Eger, Eric; Boston, Jonathan; Pendergrass, Sarah A; Haines, Jonathan L; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Bush, William S
Present-day limited resources demand DNA and phenotyping alternatives to the traditional prospective population-based epidemiologic collections. To accelerate genomic discovery with an emphasis on diverse populations, we--as part of the Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE) study--accessed all non-European American samples (n = 15,863) available in BioVU, the Vanderbilt University biorepository linked to de-identified electronic medical records, for genomic studies as part of the larger Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) I study. Given previous studies have cautioned against the secondary use of clinically collected data compared with epidemiologically collected data, we present here a characterization of EAGLE BioVU, including the billing and diagnostic (ICD-9) code distributions for adult and pediatric patients as well as comparisons made for select health metrics (body mass index, glucose, HbA1c, HDL-C, LDL-C, and triglycerides) with the population-based National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) linked to DNA samples (NHANES III, n = 7,159; NHANES 1999-2002, n = 7,839). Overall, the distributions of billing and diagnostic codes suggest this clinical sample is a mixture of healthy and sick patients like that expected for a contemporary American population. Little bias is observed among health metrics, suggesting this clinical collection is suitable for genomic studies along with traditional epidemiologic cohorts. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Angelova, Radostina A.; Naydenov, Kiril; Hägerhed-Engman, Linda
, but the obtained response rate was different: 78.8% in DBH and 34.5% in ALLHOME. The differences in the obtained response rate and the reasons for these differences were analyzed on the basis of the Hofstede’s cultural dimensions’ indexes, which clearly show the distinction in the national cultural behaviour...... of people in Sweden and Bulgaria. It was found that national culture could strongly influence the response behaviour of people in epidemiological studies and Hofstede’s indexes can be useful tool when designing and performing epidemiological studies, and in particular – questionnaire surveys.......The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of national cultural differences on the response rate, obtained in questionnaire based epidemiological studies on allergy and asthma, performed in Sweden (DBH) and Bulgaria (ALLHOME). The two studies used one and the same methodology...
Cheng, W F; Shen, Z A; Zhao, D X; Li, D W; Shang, Y R
Objective: To analyze the current status of epidemiological study of burns in China, and to explore the related strategies. Methods: Retrospective or cross-sectional scientific articles in Chinese or English on epidemiological study of burns in China published from January 2005 to December 2015 were systemically retrieved from 4 databases. The databases include PubMed, Embase, China Biology Medicine disc, and Chinese Journals Full - text Database . From the results retrieved, data with regard to publication year, journal distribution, number of institutions participated in the study, affiliation of the first author and its location, and admission time span and age of patients in all the scientific articles were collected. Furthermore, the definition of age range and the grouping method of age of pediatric patients in English articles on epidemiological study of pediatric burns of China were recorded. Data were processed with descriptive statistical analysis. Results: A total of 256 scientific articles conforming to the study criteria were retrieved, among which 214 (83.59%) articles were in Chinese, and 42 (16.41%) articles were in English; 242 (94.53%) articles were retrospective studies, and 14 (5.47%) articles were cross-sectional studies. During the 11 years, the number of the relevant articles was fluctuant on the whole. The scientific articles were published in 130 journals, with 42 English articles in source journals for SCIENCE CITATION INDEX EXPANDED - JOURNAL LIST, accounting for 16.41%, and 116 Chinese articles in Source Journal for Chinese Scientific and Technical Papers, accounting for 45.31%. Totally 215 (83.98%) articles were single-center studies, and 29 (11.33%) articles were multicenter studies which were conducted by three or more centers. The number of affiliations of the first author of articles was 161 in total. The top 10 institutions regarding the article publishing number published 58 articles, accounting for 22.66%. Scientific articles on
Liu, Xiao-Juan; Zhu, Ting-Ting; Zeng, Rong; Chang, Li; Li, Feng-Yi; Li, Wen-Sheng; Jiang, Yong-Mei
To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of intolerance to 14 foods in children and the relationship between food intolerance and disease of various systems. Serum samples of 2434 children with diseases were collected for food intolerance testing between January 2009 and October 2012. Allergen-specific IgG antibodies to 14 foods were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The children's intolerance to different foods and its relationship with age, sex and disease of various systems were analyzed. Among these children, positive rates of intolerance to milk and eggs were as high as 74.16% and 66.47% respectively, while positive rates of intolerance to chicken and pork were relatively low (0.29% and 0.21% respectively). The overall positive rates of food intolerance were 12.579% and 12.470% in males and females respectively. For infants, the highest intolerance rate was to milk; for preschool and school-age children, the highest intolerance rates were to milk and eggs respectively; for children in adolescence, the highest intolerance rate was to eggs. Among children with food intolerance involving single system, those with developmental abnormality or immune system disease had the highest overall positive rate of food intolerance. Children with double-system diseases had an overall positive rate of food intolerance as high as 13.393%. Among the children involving various systems, the positive rate of intolerance to milk and eggs were higher than other food. Factors influencing food intolerance in children include food categories and age. There may be a relationship between food intolerance and disease of various systems, and this is significant to the growth and development of children.
Mabikwa, Onkabetse V; Greenwood, Darren C; Baxter, Paul D; Fleming, Sarah J
One aspect to consider when reporting results of observational studies in epidemiology is how quantitative risk factors are analysed. The STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) guidelines recommend that researchers describe how they handle quantitative variables when analysing data. For categorised quantitative variables, the authors are required to provide reasons and justifications informing their practice. We investigated and assessed the practices and reporting of categorised quantitative variables in epidemiology. The assessment was based on five medical journals that publish epidemiological research. Observational studies published between April and June 2015 and investigating the relationships between quantitative exposures (or risk factors) and the outcomes were considered for assessment. A standard form was used to collect the data, and the reporting patterns amongst eligible studies were quantified and described. Out of 61 articles assessed for eligibility, 23 observational studies were included in the assessment. Categorisation of quantitative exposures occurred in 61% of these studies and reasons informing the practice were rarely provided. Only one article explained the choice of categorisation in the analysis. Transformation of quantitative exposures into four or five groups was common and dominant amongst studies using equally spaced categories. Dichotomisation was not popular; the practice featured in one article. Overall, the majority (86%) of the studies preferred ordered or arbitrary group categories. Other criterions used to decide categorical boundaries were based on established guidelines such as consensus statements and WHO standards. Categorisation of continuous variables remains a dominant practice in epidemiological studies. The reasons informing the practice of categorisation within published work are limited and remain unknown in most articles. The existing STROBE guidelines could provide stronger
Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Center on Wisconsin Strategy.
A study examined the emerging skill needs in the Wisconsin printing industry, a key industry that provided the largest increase (more than 13,000 new jobs) in manufacturing employment in the state in the past decade. Eighteen interviews were conducted with industry personnel and production managers, union representatives, technical college…
Genetic epidemiology examines the role of genetic factors in determining health and disease in families and in populations to help addressing health problems in a responsible manner. This paper uses a case study of genetic epidemiology in Taizhou, China, to explore ways in which anthropology can contribute to the validation of studies in genetic epidemiology. It does so, first, by identifying potential overgeneralizations of data, often due to mismatching scale and, second, by examining it's embedding in political, historical and local contexts. The example of the longitudinal cohort study in Taizhou illustrates dimensions of such 'political scaling'. Political scaling is a notion used here to refer to the effects of scaling biases in relation to the justification of research in terms of relevance, reach and research ethics. The justification of a project on genetic epidemiology involves presenting a maximum of benefits and a minimum of burden for the population. To facilitate the delineation of political scaling, an analytical distinction between donating and benefiting communities was made using the notions of 'scaling of relevance', 'scaling of reach' and 'scaling of ethics'. Political scaling results at least partly from factors external to research. By situating political scaling in the context of historical, political and local discourses, anthropologists can play a complementary role in genetic epidemiology.
Keiding, Niels; Louis, Thomas A.
that maps results to an intended population. In contrast, recent analytical epidemiology has shifted the focus away from survey-type representativity to internal validity in the sample. Against this background, it is a good time for statisticians to take stock of our role and position regarding surveys......, observational research in epidemiology and clinical studies. The central issue is whether conditional effects in the sample (the study population) may be transported to desired target populations. Success depends on compatibility of causal structures in study and target populations, and will require subject...
Buchwald, Cheryl A.
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Wisconsin Water Science Center is responsible for presenting data collected or estimated for water withdrawals and diversions every 5 years to the National Water-Use Information Program (NWUIP). This program serves many purposes such as quantifying how much, where, and for what purpose water is used; tracking and documenting water-use trends and changes; and providing these data to other agencies to support hydrologic projects. In 2005, data at both the county and subbasin levels were compiled into the USGS national water-use database system; these data are published in a statewide summary report and a national circular. This publication, Water Use in Wisconsin, 2005, presents the water-use estimates for 2005; this publication also describes how these water-use data were determined (including assumptions used), limitations of using these data, and trends in water-use data presented to the NWUIP. Estimates of water use in Wisconsin indicate that about 8,608 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) were withdrawn during 2005. Of this amount, about 7,622 Mgal/d (89 percent) were from surface-water sources and about 986 Mgal/d (11 percent) were from ground-water sources. Surface water used for cooling at thermoelectric-power plants constituted the largest portion of daily use at 6,898 Mgal/d. Water provided by public-supply water utilities is the second largest use of water and totaled 552 Mgal/d. Public supply served approximately 71 percent of the estimated 2005 Wisconsin population of 5.54 million people; two counties - Milwaukee and Dane - accounted for more than one-third of the public-supply withdrawal. Industrial and irrigation were the next major water uses at 471 and 402 Mgal/d, respectively. Non-irrigational agricultural (livestock and aquaculture) accounted for approximately 155 Mgal/d and is similar to the combined withdrawal for the remaining water-use categories of domestic, commercial, and mining (131 Mgal/d). Data on water use
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Despite science and technology development and their application in various industries, accidents continue to occur in many workplaces. This study was designed and carried out with the aim of epidemiological survey of accident among workers of a tunneling industry.Methods: This study was conducted on 144 out of a total of 440 employees of a tunneling project who were at risk of occupational accidents. 48 workers with a history of occupational accident over the past two years were selected as case group and 96 workers of the same project were selected as control group. The data were collected through a designed checklist and analyzed using logistic regression, chi-square and independent t tests.Results: A significant association was observed between accident rate and different age groups (p<0.05. There was a significant relationship (p=0.016 in the case of sport activities between case and control groups, and significant relationships were observed between two groups regarding education (p=0.057 and smoking (p=0.06, but there was no significant relationships between accident occurrence with marital status, residence in workplace, job related education, job experience, chronic diseases and obesity.Conclusion: The results of this study clarify the necessity of the use of epidemiological data in preventive and control measures in workplaces. Therefore, Developing programs for determination of physical and mental capacity of workers are essential to employ them in jobs commensurate with their abilities, especially in older workers.
Acquavella, John; Doe, John; Tomenson, John; Chester, Graham; Cowell, John; Bloemen, Louis
Epidemiologic studies frequently show associations between self-reported use of specific pesticides and human cancers. These findings have engendered debate largely on methodologic grounds. However, biologic plausibility is a more fundamental issue that has received only superficial attention. The purpose of this commentary is to review briefly the toxicology and exposure data that are developed as part of the pesticide regulatory process and to discuss the applicability of this data to epidemiologic research. The authors also provide a generic example of how worker pesticide exposures might be estimated and compared to relevant toxicologic dose levels. This example provides guidance for better characterization of exposure and for consideration of biologic plausibility in epidemiologic studies of pesticides.
By 2035, the number of elderly residents in Wisconsin is expected to nearly double, and one in four drivers on Wisconsin roads will be elderly. According to national statistics, the elderly are more likely to be involved in crashes on a per-mile basi...
Carle, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Bulow; Knudsen, Nils
Objective: Few population-based studies have described the epidemiology of subtypes of hyperthyroidism. Design: A prospective population-based study, monitoring two well-defined Danish cohorts in Aalborg with moderate iodine deficiency (nZ311 102) and Copenhagen with only mild iodine deficiency (n...
Yang, C.; Pinart, M.; Kolsteren, P.; Camp, J. van; Cock, N. de; Nimptsch, K.; Pischon, T.; Laird, E.; Perozzi, G.; Canali, R.; Hoge, A.; Stelmach-Mardas, M.; Dragsted, L.O.; Palombi, S.M.; Dobre, I.; Bouwman, J.; Clarys, P.; Minervini, F.; Angelis, M. de; Gobbetti, M.; Tafforeau, J.; Coltell, O.; Corella, D.; Ruyck, H. de; Walton, J.; Kehoe, L.; Matthys, C.; Baets, B. de; Tré, G. de; Bronselaer, A.; Rivellese, A.; Giacco, R.; Lombardo, R.; Clercq, S. de; Hulstaert, N.; Lachat, C.
Pooled analysis of secondary data increases the power of research and enables scientific discovery in nutritional epidemiology. Information on study characteristics that determine data quality is needed to enable correct reuse and interpretation of data. This study aims to define essential quality
This article reviews the significance of the microbiome in cancer epidemiology, mechanistic and technical challenges in the field, and characterization of the microbiome in different tumor types to identify biomarkers of risk, progression, and prognosis. Publications on the microbiome and cancer epidemiology were reviewed to analyze sample collection and processing, microbiome taxa characterization by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, and microbiome metabolite characterization (metabotyping) by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The analysis identified methodology types, research design, sample types, and issues in integrating data from different platforms. Aerodigestive cancer epidemiology studies conducted by different groups demonstrated the significance of microbiome information in developing approaches to improve health. Challenges exist in sample preparation and processing (eg, standardization of methods for collection and analysis). These challenges relate to technology, data integration from “omics” studies, inherent bias in primer selection during 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, the need for large consortia with well-characterized biospecimens, cause and effect issues, resilience of microbiota to exposure events (requires longitudinal studies), and expanding studies for fungal and viral diversity (most studies used bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing for microbiota characterization). Despite these challenges, microbiome and cancer epidemiology studies are significant and may facilitate cancer risk assessment, diagnosis, and prognosis. In the future, clinical trials likely will use microbiota modifications to improve the efficacy of existing treatments. PMID:27121074
Petrie, Joshua G; Gordon, Aubree
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases recently published a strategic plan for the development of a universal influenza vaccine. This plan focuses on improving understanding of influenza infection, the development of influenza immunity, and rational design of new vaccines. Epidemiological studies such as prospective, longitudinal cohort studies are essential to the completion of these objectives. In this review, we discuss the contributions of epidemiological studies to our current knowledge of vaccines and correlates of immunity, and how they can contribute to the development and evaluation of the next generation of influenza vaccines. These studies have been critical in monitoring the effectiveness of current influenza vaccines, identifying issues such as low vaccine effectiveness, reduced effectiveness among those who receive repeated vaccination, and issues related to egg adaptation during the manufacturing process. Epidemiological studies have also identified population-level correlates of protection that can inform the design and development of next generation influenza vaccines. Going forward, there is an enduring need for epidemiological studies to continue advancing knowledge of correlates of protection and the development of immunity, to evaluate and monitor the effectiveness of next generation influenza vaccines, and to inform recommendations for their use.
This article reviews the significance of the microbiome in cancer epidemiology, mechanistic and technical challenges in the field, and characterization of the microbiome in different tumor types to identify biomarkers of risk, progression, and prognosis. Publications on the microbiome and cancer epidemiology were reviewed to analyze sample collection and processing, microbiome taxa characterization by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, and microbiome metabolite characterization (metabotyping) by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The analysis identified methodology types, research design, sample types, and issues in integrating data from different platforms. Aerodigestive cancer epidemiology studies conducted by different groups demonstrated the significance of microbiome information in developing approaches to improve health. Challenges exist in sample preparation and processing (eg, standardization of methods for collection and analysis). These challenges relate to technology, data integration from "omics" studies, inherent bias in primer selection during 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, the need for large consortia with well-characterized biospecimens, cause and effect issues, resilience of microbiota to exposure events (requires longitudinal studies), and expanding studies for fungal and viral diversity (most studies used bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing for microbiota characterization). Despite these challenges, microbiome and cancer epidemiology studies are significant and may facilitate cancer risk assessment, diagnosis, and prognosis. In the future, clinical trials likely will use microbiota modifications to improve the efficacy of existing treatments.
Elm, E. von; Altman, D.G.; Egger, M.
Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) initiative developed......, researchers, and journal editors to draft a che-cklist of items. This list was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group and in e-mail discussions with the larger group of STROBE contributors, taking into account empirical evidence and methodological considerations. The workshop...... and the subsequent iterative process of consultation and revision resulted in a checklist of 22 items (the STROBE statement) that relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of articles. 18 items are common to all three study designs and four are specific for cohort, case...
Howe, G.R.; Friedenreich, C.M.; Howe, P.D.
Current risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer are based on epidemiologic studies of humans exposed to high doses of radiation. A critical feature of such studies is the selection of an appropriate control group. This report presents a detailed examination of the principles underlying the selection and use of control groups in such epidemiologic studies. It is concluded that the cohort study is the preferred design, because of the rarity of exposure to high levels of radiation in the general population and because the cohort design is less susceptible to bias. This report also assesses potential bias in current risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer due to inappropriate choice and use of control groups. Detailed summaries are presented for those epidemiologic studies on which the BEIR IV risk estimates are based. It is concluded that confounding is by far the major potential concern. Bias is probably negligible in risk estimates for breast cancer. For lung cancer, risk estimates may be underestimated by about 30 percent for males and 10 percent for females due to confounding of smoking and radiation exposure. For leukemia and cancers of the thyroid and bone, the absence of established non-radiation risk factors with a high prevalence in the population under study suggests that there is unlikely to be any substantial confounding radiation risk estimates. Finally, lifetime excess mortality risks have been estimated for several of the cancers of interest following exposure to radiation based on Canadian age-, sex- and cause-specific mortality rates. It is concluded that errors in measurement exposure, uncertainty in extrapolating the results of high dose studies to low doses and low dose rates, and sampling variation in the epidemiologic studies contribute far more to uncertainty in current risk estimates than do any biases in the epidemiologic studies introduced by inappropriate selection and use of control groups. (161 refs., 19 tabs.)
Tapert, A.C.; Lea, W.L.
A radiation protection survey was performed at 70 medical radium installations in the State of Wisconsin. The requirements of the State's Radiation Protection Code were used as survey criteria. Radiation measurements of radium storage containers, radium capsule leakage tests, and monitoring of work surfaces for contamination were performed. Film badge monitoring data of whole body and extremity doses are presented for 221 individuals at 17 hospitals. Whole body doses during single treatments ranged from 10 to 1360 mrems per individual. The estimate of 500 mrems per treatment was determined as the dose aggregate to hospital personnel. Whole body doses from film badges are compared with analogous TLD doses. Four physicians and six technicians at nine hospitals participated in a study for monitoring the extremities with TLD. Cumulative extremity doses ranged from 28 to 6628 mrems per participant during the study. (U.S.)
Full Text Available Introduction: Road accidents are associated with numerous problems each of which needs to be addressed separately . Accidents, therefore, can be studied in terms of agent, host and environmental factors and epidemiologically classified into time, place and person distribution . Objectives: 1.To assess the prevalence of RTAs coming to hospital and 2.To know the epidemiological factors related to RTAs and associated prevalence in hospital based study. Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted at SMSR, Gr Noida, in 2012. The study group consisted of all the RTA victims reporting to casualty in the last one year. The victims of the accidents were interviewed on a pretested semi structured performa. Results: In that one year period total number of reported accident cases was 144. The age groups of the study subjects were between 13-65 years. Out of total study subjects, only 16 were female. Again out of the total accident cases 45% were attended by police and of all injured, 45.8% were driver by occupation (7% without driving license. Among these drivers, 11% were not attentive during driving because of various reasons. Ambulance services had reached in 46.5% cases. Fracture was the most common type (60% of injury among all types of injuries. Among the applicable population only 33% wore helmet or seat belts. Conclusions: Only half of the total accident cases were attended by police and again only half of them received ambulance services. One third injuries were because of not wearing seat belt and helmets.
Tirmarche, M.; Baysson, H.; Telle-Lamberton, M.
Objective: At the end of 2000, certain diseases including leukemia were reported among soldiers who participated in the Balkan and in the Gulf wars. Depleted uranium used during these conflicts was considered as a possible cause. Its radiotoxicity is close to that of natural uranium. This paper reviews the epidemiological knowledge of uranium, the means of exposure and the associated risk of cancer. Methods: The only available epidemiological data concerns nuclear workers exposed to uranium. A review of the international literature is proposed by distinguishing between uranium miners and other workers of the nuclear industry. French studies are described in details. Results: In ionizing radiation epidemiology, contamination by uranium is often cited as a risk factor, but the dose-effect relationship is rarely studied. Retrospective assessment of individual exposure is generally insufficient. Moreover, it is difficult to distinguish between uranium radiotoxicity, its chemical toxicity and the radiotoxicity of its progeny. A causal relation between lung cancer and radon exposure, a gas derived from the decay of uranium, has been demonstrated in epidemiological studies of miners. Among other nuclear workers exposed to uranium, there is a mortality deficit from all causes (healthy worker effect). No cancer site appears systematically in excess compared to the national population; very few studies describe a dose-response relationship. Conclusion: Only studies with a precise reconstruction of doses and sufficient numbers of workers will allow a better assessment of risks associated with uranium exposure at levels encountered in industry or during conflicts using depleted uranium weapons. (author)
Raschenberger, Julia; Lamina, Claudia; Haun, Margot; Kollerits, Barbara; Coassin, Stefan; Boes, Eva; Kedenko, Ludmilla; Köttgen, Anna; Kronenberg, Florian
Measurement of telomere length is widely used in epidemiologic studies. Insufficient standardization of the measurements processes has, however, complicated the comparison of results between studies. We aimed to investigate whether DNA extraction methods have an influence on measured values of relative telomere length (RTL) and whether this has consequences for epidemiological studies. We performed four experiments with RTL measurement in quadruplicate by qPCR using DNA extracted with different methods: 1) a standardized validation experiment including three extraction methods (magnetic-particle-method EZ1, salting-out-method INV, phenol-chloroform-isoamyl-alcohol PCI) each in the same 20 samples demonstrated pronounced differences in RTL with lowest values with EZ1 followed by INV and PCI-isolated DNA; 2) a comparison of 307 samples from an epidemiological study showing EZ1-measurements 40% lower than INV-measurements; 3) a matching-approach of two similar non-diseased control groups including 143 pairs of subjects revealed significantly shorter RTL in EZ1 than INV-extracted DNA (0.844 ± 0.157 vs. 1.357 ± 0.242); 4) an association analysis of RTL with prevalent cardiovascular disease detected a stronger association with INV than with EZ1-extracted DNA. In summary, DNA extraction methods have a pronounced influence on the measured RTL-values. This might result in spurious or lost associations in epidemiological studies under certain circumstances.
An epidemiological study published in late 2007 described an increased risk of leukaemia in children under 5 living within 5 kilometres of German nuclear power plants. A great deal of research has been carried out on this subject since the early 1980's. The aim of this report was to provide a synthesis and critical analysis of results related to the risk of leukaemia in children and young adults aged under 25 living close to nuclear facilities. The report is structured in three sections: - a reminder of the main characteristics of childhood leukaemia and a description of the methods used to conduct epidemiological studies; - the most exhaustive review possible of epidemiological studies published in the international literature describing the frequency of leukaemia close to nuclear facilities in different countries around the world. A critical analysis is made of the published results. Some results from studies not focused on nuclear facilities are also presented. The methodological limitations associated with descriptive studies are explained and discussed; - the last section discusses the possible causes of childhood leukaemia and the main hypotheses explored to explain certain clusters of cases observed locally close to some nuclear sites. Appendices at the end of the document provide additional explanations of the concepts and methods used in epidemiology and statistics, and of the classification of malignant hemopathies. (authors)
Caini, S.; Huang, Q.S.; Ciblak, M.A.; Kusznierz, G.; Owen, R.; Wangchuk, S.; Henriques, C.M.P.; Njouom, R.; Fasce, R.A.; Yu, H.J.; Feng, L.Z.; Zambon, M.; Clara, A.W.; Kosasih, H.; Puzelli, S.; Kadjo, H.A.; Emukule, G.; Heraud, J.M.; Ang, L.W.; Venter, M.; Mironenko, A.; Brammer, L.; Mai, L.T.Q.; Schellevis, F.G.; Plotkin, S.; Paget, J.
Introduction: Literature on influenza focuses on influenza A, despite influenza B having a large public health impact. The Global Influenza B Study aims to collect information on global epidemiology and burden of disease of influenza B since 2000. Methods: Twenty-six countries in the Southern (n=5)
Caini, S.; Huang, Q.S.; Ciblak, M.A.; Kusznierz, G.; Owen, R.; Wangchuk, S.; Henriques, C.M.; Njouom, R.; Fasce, R.A.; Yu, H.; Feng, L.; Zambon, M.; Clara, A.W.; Kosasih, H.; Puzelli, S.; Kadjo, H.A.; Emukule, G.; Heraud, J.M.; Ang, L.W.; Venter, M.; Mironenko, A.; Brammer, L.; Mai, T.Q. le; Schellevis, F.; Plotkin, S.; Paget, J.
INTRODUCTION: Literature on influenza focuses on influenza A, despite influenza B having a large public health impact. The Global Influenza B Study aims to collect information on global epidemiology and burden of disease of influenza B since 2000. METHODS: Twenty-six countries in the Southern (n =
Caini, S.; Sue Huang, Q.; Ciblak, M.A.; Kusznierz, G.; Owen, R.; Wangchuk, S.; Henriques, C.M.P.; Njouom, R.; Fasce, R.A.; Yu, H.; Feng, L.; Zambon, M.; Clara, A.W.; Kosasih, H.; Puzelli, S.; Kasjo, H.A.; Emukule, G.; Hereaud, J.M.; Ang, L.W.; Venter, M.; Mironenko, A.; Brammer, L.; Mai, L.T.Q.; Schellevis, F.; Plotkin, S.; Paget, J.
Introduction: Literature on influenza focuses on influenza A, despite influenza B having a large public health impact. The Global Influenza B Study aims to collect information on global epidemiology and burden of disease of influenza B since 2000. Methods Twenty-six countries in the Southern (n = 5)
Fox, D.A.; Grandjean, P.; Groot, D. de; Paule, M.G.
To date, only a small number of commercial chemicals have been tested and documented as developmental neurotoxicants. Moreover, an increasing number of epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies suggest an association between toxicant or drug exposure during the perinatal period and the
Sonne-Holm, Stig; Jacobsen, J
Epidemiological studies show an increased prevalence of osteoarthritis of the knee and hand with increased body mass index [BMI]. Osteoarthritis of the hip joint is not related to BMI. The connection between obesity and osteoarthritis cannot exclusively be explained by genetic factors or by the a...
Folletti, I.; Zock, J.P.; Moscato, G.; Siracusa, A.
Objective: This article presents a systematic review of epidemiological studies linking cleaning work and risk of asthma and rhinitis. Methods: Published reports were identified from PubMed covering the years from 1976 through June 30, 2012. In total, we identified 24 papers for inclusion in the
Berti, G.O.; Hesse, D.; Bonifácio, C.C.; Raggio, D.P.; Bönecker, M.J.S.
Monitoring traumatic dental injury (TDI) in primary teeth through epidemiological cross-sectional surveys provides descriptive information relevant to the development of public policies focused on the prevention of such injuries for the target population. The aim of this study was to assess the
Lande, van de H.L.
The epidemiology of spear rot, an infectious disease of unknown etiology, was studied over 10 years at three government-owned oil palm plantations in Suriname. As with other and similar diseases, amarelecimento fatal in Brazil and pudrición del cogollo in Latin America, which too show rot
Giesendorf, B A; Goossens, H; Niesters, H G; Van Belkum, A; Koeken, A; Endtz, H P; Stegeman, H; Quint, W G
The applicability of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-mediated DNA typing, with primers complementary to dispersed repetitive DNA sequences and arbitrarily chosen DNA motifs, to study the epidemiology of campylobacter infection was evaluated. With a single PCR reaction and simple gel electrophoresis,
Beekhuizen, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/34472641X; Vermeulen, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; van Eijsden, M.; van Strien, R.; Bürgi, A.; Loomans, E.; Guxens, M.; Kromhout, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074385224; Huss, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/331385880
Radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) from mobile phone base stations can be reliably modelled for outdoor locations, using 3D radio wave propagation models that consider antenna characteristics and building geometry. For exposure assessment in epidemiological studies, however, it is
The current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of radiation in man is considered. The discussion is restricted to dose-incidence data in humans, particularly to certain of those epidemiological studies of human populations that are used most frequently for risk estimation for low-dose radiation carcinogenesis in man. Emphasis is placed solely on those surveys concerned with nuclear explosions and medical exposures
McGivern, Mark R.; Best, Kate E.; Rankin, Judith; Wellesley, Diana; Greenlees, Ruth; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; de Walle, Hermien; Barisic, Ingeborg; Beres, Judit; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Calzolari, Elisa; Doray, Berenice; Draper, Elizabeth S.; Garne, Ester; Gatt, Miriam; Haeusler, Martin; Khoshnood, Babak; Klungsoyr, Kari; Latos-Bielenska, Anna; O'Mahony, Mary; Braz, Paula; McDonnell, Bob; Mullaney, Carmel; Nelen, Vera; Queisser-Luft, Anette; Randrianaivo, Hanitra; Rissmann, Anke; Rounding, Catherine; Sipek, Antonin; Thompson, Rosie; Tucker, David; Wertelecki, Wladimir; Martos, Carmen
Introduction Published prevalence rates of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) vary. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of CDH using data from high-quality, population-based registers belonging to the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT). Methods Cases of CDH delivered
East and Central African Journal of Surgery 1997: Vol. 3, No.1 pp.33-41. The Epidemiology of District Surgery in Malawi: a Two Year. Study of Surgical Rates and Indices in Rural Africa. Paul M Fenton, DTM&H, FFARCS(I). Formerly Professor and Head, Department of Anaesthesia, College of Medicine, Malawi. 1986-2001.
I. Dielemans (Ida); J.R. Vingerling (Hans); A. Hofman (Albert); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); P.T.V.M. de Jong (Paulus)
textabstractThe reproducibility of intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement with the Goldmann applanation tonometer was investigated as part of a population-based epidemiological study. Sixty-two subjects were examined in a first measurement session. The IOP was measured three times consecutively in
Nguyen-Chau, T.C.; Witter, D.J.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Truong, N.B.; Creugers, N.H.J.
BACKGROUND: Before strategies or protocols for oral health care can be advised at population level, epidemiological information on tooth decay patterns and its effects on oral function are indispensable. The aim of this study was to investigate influences of socio-demographic variables on the
Many students are daily exposed to many stressors and are therefore prone to depression without knowing it. The main objectives of this study include finding out the depressive level of the students and the predictors for their depression. The study was carried on 262 students from Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife.
Kasanmoentalib, E. Soemirien; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van de Beek, Diederik
Bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening disease that continues to inflict a heavy toll. We reviewed recent advances in vaccination, randomized studies on treatment, and genetic association studies in bacterial meningitis. The incidence of bacterial meningitis has decreased after implementation of
Vettore Mario Vianna
Full Text Available The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate analytical studies on periodontal disease as a possible risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes. A literature search of the MEDLINE, SciELO, and LILACS bibliographic databases and CAPES thesis database was conducted up to December 2005, covering epidemiological studies of periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Of the 964 papers identified, 36 analytical studies met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-six epidemiological studies reported associations between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes. There was a clear heterogeneity between studies concerning measurement of periodontal disease and selection of type of adverse pregnancy outcome. Therefore no meta-analysis was performed. Most studies did not control for confounders, thus raising serious doubts about their conclusions. The methodological limitations of most studies did not allow conclusions concerning the effects of periodontal disease on adverse pregnancy outcomes. Larger and methodologically rigorous analytical studies using reliable outcomes and exposure measures are recommended.
Charrondiere, U.R.; Vignat, J.; Moller, A.; Ireland, J.; Becker, W.; Church, S.; Farran, A.; Holden, J.; Klemm, C.; Linardou, A.; Mueller, D.; Staveren, van W.A.
Food composition databases (FCDB), as well as standardized calculation procedures are required for international studies on nutrition and disease to calculate nutrient intakes across countries. Comparisons of national FCDBs have shown that major improvements are needed in standardization and
Thun, M; Henley, J; Apicella, L
This article reviews the epidemiologic studies of the association of ischemic heart disease risk and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure from a spouse who smokes. Seventeen studies (nine cohort, eight case-control) comprising more than 485,000 lifelong nonsmokers and 7,345 coronary heart disease (CHD) events were included in a meta-analysis. Together, these studies include 36% more CHD events and 58% more study subjects than were available for review by the U. S. Occupational Safety an...
Ågren, Joakim; Schäfer, Marc Oliver
American foulbrood (AFB), caused by Paenibacillus larvae, is a devastating disease in honeybees. In most countries, the disease is controlled through compulsory burning of symptomatic colonies causing major economic losses in apiculture. The pathogen is endemic to honeybees world-wide and is readily transmitted via the movement of hive equipment or bees. Molecular epidemiology of AFB currently largely relies on placing isolates in one of four ERIC-genotypes. However, a more powerful alternative is multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) using whole-genome sequencing (WGS), which allows for high-resolution studies of disease outbreaks. To evaluate WGS as a tool for AFB-epidemiology, we applied core genome MLST (cgMLST) on isolates from a recent outbreak of AFB in Sweden. The high resolution of the cgMLST allowed different bacterial clones involved in the disease outbreak to be identified and to trace the source of infection. The source was found to be a beekeeper who had sold bees to two other beekeepers, proving the epidemiological link between them. No such conclusion could have been made using conventional MLST or ERIC-typing. This is the first time that WGS has been used to study the epidemiology of AFB. The results show that the technique is very powerful for high-resolution tracing of AFB-outbreaks. PMID:29140998
Full Text Available American foulbrood (AFB, caused by Paenibacillus larvae, is a devastating disease in honeybees. In most countries, the disease is controlled through compulsory burning of symptomatic colonies causing major economic losses in apiculture. The pathogen is endemic to honeybees world-wide and is readily transmitted via the movement of hive equipment or bees. Molecular epidemiology of AFB currently largely relies on placing isolates in one of four ERIC-genotypes. However, a more powerful alternative is multi-locus sequence typing (MLST using whole-genome sequencing (WGS, which allows for high-resolution studies of disease outbreaks. To evaluate WGS as a tool for AFB-epidemiology, we applied core genome MLST (cgMLST on isolates from a recent outbreak of AFB in Sweden. The high resolution of the cgMLST allowed different bacterial clones involved in the disease outbreak to be identified and to trace the source of infection. The source was found to be a beekeeper who had sold bees to two other beekeepers, proving the epidemiological link between them. No such conclusion could have been made using conventional MLST or ERIC-typing. This is the first time that WGS has been used to study the epidemiology of AFB. The results show that the technique is very powerful for high-resolution tracing of AFB-outbreaks.
Ruslin, M.; Wolff, J.; Boffano, P.; Brand, H.S.; Forouzanfar, T.
Aim: The aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate the incidence and associated factors of dental trauma in patients with maxillofacial fractures at the VU Medical Center in Amsterdam. Material and methods: Data from 707 patients who were treated surgically for maxillofacial fractures
Ruslin, M.; Wolff, J.; Boffano, P.; Brand, H.S.; Forouzanfar, T.
Aim The aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate the incidence and associated factors of dental trauma in patients with maxillofacial fractures at the VU Medical Center in Amsterdam. Material and methods Data from 707 patients who were treated surgically for maxillofacial fractures were
Amerasinghe, Priyanie H; Alifrangis, Michael; van der Hoek, Wim
research studies using PCR instead of microscopy to estimate parasite prevalence. This efficiency gain has to be weighed against the higher cost and complexity of the PCR. PCR cannot replace microscopy as the standard diagnostic procedure at the field level. ELISA is not directly comparable with microscopy...
Marsh, G M
IN a previous paper a method was presented for verifying the completeness of occupational study populations independently of company-held records. The basis for the verification scheme was the Employers Quarterly Report on Earnings (Internal Revenue Service Form 941) that is submitted to the IRS each quarter of every year for all employees on a company payroll. In employing the verification scheme two approaches can be taken in determining how many and which quarterly reports are selected: (1) If the work force is large and/or many years are surveyed, a probability sample of years and quarters within years can be selected, allowing inferences to be made with respect to the entire study population. (2) If the number of survey years and/or the size of the work force is sufficiently small, copies of all quarterly returns for each survey year can be requested thus allowing a comprehensive check for completeness to be conducted. Te verification method described in the previous paper concentrated primarily on the first-mentioned approach. The second approach is herein being dealt with as well as a computerized method for verifying the completeness of study populations. In addition a new computerized method is described that utilizes the quarterly reports as an unbiased data base for checking the accuracy of certain work history data as developed from company records. An application of the computerized methods is given using data from a recent historical-prospective study of chemical production workers.
Bergman, Jorieke E. H.; Loane, Maria; Vrijheid, Martine; Pierini, Anna; Nijman, Rien J. M.; Addor, Marie-Claude; Barisic, Ingeborg; Beres, Judit; Braz, Paula; Budd, Judith; Delaney, Virginia; Gatt, Miriam; Khoshnood, Babak; Klungsoyr, Kari; Martos, Carmen; Mullaney, Carmel; Nelen, Vera; Neville, Amanda J.; O'Mahony, Mary; Queisser-Luft, Annette; Randrianaivo, Hanitra; Rissmann, Anke; Rounding, Catherine; Tucker, David; Wellesley, Diana; Zymak-Zakutnia, Natalya; Bakker, Marian K.; de Walle, Hermien E. K.
Hypospadias is a common congenital malformation. The prevalence of hypospadias has a large geographical variation, and recent studies have reported both increasing and decreasing temporal trends. It is unclear whether hypospadias prevalence is associated with maternal age. To analyze the prevalence
predilection sites. Location. Number of. Cases. Percentage. Infected. Foot. Knee. Ankle. Shin. Calf. Thigh. Toe. Wrist. Sole. Upper arm. Groin. Palm. Umbilicus ... groups in the communities studied. Occupation. Boiling Sedimentation. Filtration. No Treatment. Student/Pupils. Teachers. Civil Servants. Traders. Farmers. Total.
of the study period. PBGD mutations were detected by standard exon and splice site sequencing procedures.The biochemical diagnosis of an acute porphyria attack was based on a PBG/creatinine ratio of ≥5.0 mmol/mol (reference interval 0.0–0.8 mmol/mol). Demographic distribution and prevalence: Region of Denmark...
Hands may be the most important means by which enteric pathogens are transmitted. Skin hygiene particularly of the hands, has been accepted as a primary mechanism to control the spread of infectious agents. Therefore the present study was undertaken to evaluate the number and type of enteric bacterial pathogens ...
Gastrointestinal nematodes are one of the major causes of productivity losses in small ruminants in sub-Saharan Africa. A study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence, worm burden of abomasal nematodes and associated faecal egg counts (FEC) of small ruminants slaughtered from November, 2011 to October, 2012.
Objectives: to determine the pattern of extremity injuries presenting in a major trauma centre in Midwestern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study performed at the trauma unit of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, involving individuals who sustained upper and lower extremity injuries between ...
Results: Asthma research in Ghana has focused mainly on children between the ages of 5-16 years with one published study that included adults. Different markers for the disease have been used such as cliniciandiagnosed asthma, exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) as well as questionnaire-derived symptoms of ...
A study to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of gastrointestinal helminths in horses was conducted from October 2009 to May. 2010 in three districts of the Arsi-Bale highlands of Oromiya region. A total of 2683 fecal samples for the coproscopic examination and 80 pooled samples for recovery of parasitic ...
R. Noordam (Raymond)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ With the increasing number of patients using antidepressants, the number of patients at risk to develop antidepressant-associated adverse drug reactions is also increasing. However, there were not much studies conducted on antidepressant safety in older adults,
Stenager, E; Gerner-Smidt, P; Kock-Jensen, C
In a prospective study involving a total of 87 ventriculostomies, ventriculostomy-related infections (based upon a bacteriological definition) developed in 15 patients (17.2 per cent). Intraventricular haemorrhage was related to a higher infection rate. Infection was most frequent within the first...
This study carried out at El-Dakahilia governorate on 2448 sheep located in six flocks, varied ages and with history of nervous manifestation. The Prevalence of nervous manifestations was 4.9% (105 /2448). The case fatality rate and mortality rate were 77.14 % and 3.3 % respectively. The percent of Listeria monocytogenes ...
Gan, W; Chen, S; Tao, B
To investigate the incidence of pesticide poisoning with mixed preparation and risk factors contributing to it. Twenty-five administrative villages were studied in three townships of Jiangsu and Shandong Provinces with cluster sampling. The sampled villages were divided into study group (12 villages) and control group (13 villages) with approximately equal number of people each. Pesticide sprayers in the study group applied mixed preparation containing organophosphorous and dimethrin and those in the control group applied single organophosphorous preparation. All the sprayers in sampled villages were interviewed with a same questionnaire about their situation of pesticide spraying during the observation period. Cases of pesticide poisoning were ascertained by seniors physicians in occupational diseases after group discussion. Incidence of pesticide poisoning was higher in 2 179 sprayers of the study group (10.10 %) than that in 2 615 of the control group (2.29%), with a highly statistically difference (chi(2) = 12.46, P poisoning with mixed preparation were smoking or taking food during spraying, leaking or breakdown of sprayers, without washing their whole body as soon as possible after spraying, poor personal protection, spraying for a long time, spraying by women and spraying pesticide on cotton. If toxicity of mixed preparation of single pesticide showed a synergistic or additional effect, risk of poisoning by spraying mixed preparation increased. Health education and technical training should be strengthened for pesticide sprayers.
Berg, S.W. van den
Aim and methods This thesis aimed to study the role of a wide range of dietary factors on the development of overweight from a population perspective. First, we estimated the energy gap, i.e. the excess daily energy intake over the daily energy expenditure, responsible for excess weight gain
Tacconelli, Evelina; Cataldo, Maria A; Paul, M; Leibovici, L; Kluytmans, Jan; Schröder, Wiebke; Foschi, Federico; De Angelis, Giulia; De Waure, Chiara; Cadeddu, Chiara; Mutters, Nico T; Gastmeier, Petra; Cookson, Barry
OBJECTIVES: To explore the accuracy of application of the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) tool in epidemiological studies focused on the evaluation of the role of antibiotics in selecting resistance, and to derive and test an extension of STROBE to
Thompson, Simon; Kaptoge, Stephen; White, Ian
Meta-analysis of individual participant time-to-event data from multiple prospective epidemiological studies enables detailed investigation of exposure-risk relationships, but involves a number of analytical challenges.......Meta-analysis of individual participant time-to-event data from multiple prospective epidemiological studies enables detailed investigation of exposure-risk relationships, but involves a number of analytical challenges....
Stenager, E N; Wermuth, L; Stenager, Egon
The purpose of this study was to estimate the risk of suicide for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) in Denmark compared with that in the background population. The study involved 458 patients with a PD diagnosis, 226 men and 232 women. The follow-up period to either death or end of follow......-up on December 31, 1990 was 0 to 17 years, mean 5.7 years. Deaths in the follow-up period amounted to 254, 135 men and 119 women. Two women committed suicide. The number of expected suicides was 1.06 for men and 0.55 for women, a total of 1.62. Neither for men nor for women was the difference between expected...... and observed suicides statistically significant....
Malavolta, Eduardo Angeli; Gracitelli, Mauro Emilio Conforto; Assunção, Jorge Henrique; Pinto, Gustavo de Mello Ribeiro; Silveira, Arthur Zorzi Freire da; Ferreira Neto, Arnaldo Amado
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To describe shoulder disorders in patients evaluated by two shoulder and elbow surgeons. METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed patients evaluated by two authors, excluding acute fractures and dislocations and patients with symptoms not involving the shoulder. Age and sex distribution was determined for the different diagnoses. RESULTS: We evaluated 1001 patients. Mean age was 51.43±15.15 years and 51.0% were female. Disorders of the rotator cuff occurred in 64...
Høeg, Tracy Beth; Ellervik, Christina; Buch, Helena; La Cour, Morten; Klemp, Kristian; Kvetny, Jan; Erngaard, Ditte; Moldow, Birgitte
To examine the frequency and causes of visual impairment (VI) in a select population of Danish adults. A total of 3843 adults aged 20-94 years from the Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) were included in the population-based, cross-sectional ophthalmological study, Danish Rural Eye Study (DRES). All DRES participants received a comprehensive general health examination preceding their eye examination, including measurement of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) for each eye, bilateral 45° retinal fundus photographs and further ophthalmological examination where indicated. Overall, 3826 of 3843 participants (99.6%) had bilateral visual acuity measurements. The overall frequency of VI (BCVA 50 years and 3.7% (95% CI 2.1-6.5%; n = 11) in participants >80 years. The primary causes of VI in the better-seeing eye were age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in 46.7% (7/15) and cataract in 26.7% (4/15). A total of 43.3% (n = 115) of participants >80 years were pseudophakic in one or both eyes. The frequency of diabetes (HbA1c ≥ 48 mmol/mol or self-reported diagnosis) was 5.9% (n = 227), including 1.3% (n = 51) newly diagnosed in the GESUS. Of participants determined to have VI due to exudative AMD, 50% had received anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment. We report a relatively low frequency of VI among Danish adults over 59 years of age compared with that observed 10-15 years ago, which is both consistent with other recent Scandinavian studies and reflective of our relatively healthy and mobile population sample.
Savitz, D A; Dole, N; Williams, J; Thorp, J M; McDonald, T; Carter, A C; Eucker, B
We describe the study design and patterns of participation for a cohort study of preterm delivery, focused on genital tract infections, nutrition, tobacco use, illicit drugs and psychosocial stress. Women are recruited at 24-29 weeks' gestation from prenatal clinics at a teaching hospital and a county health department. We recruited 57% of the first 1843 eligible women; 29% refused and 8% could not be contacted. White women were somewhat more likely to participate than African-American women (61% vs. 54% respectively). More notable differences were found comparing teaching hospital and health department clinics (71% vs. 47% participation respectively), with the health department clinic having a greater proportion refuse (24% vs. 33%) and more women who could not be contacted (4% vs. 11%). Participation was affected only minimally by day or timing of recruitment, but inability to contact diminished substantially as the study continued (13-0%). Refusals were largely unrelated to patient attributes. Lower education predicted inability to contact. Risk of preterm delivery was 14% among recruited women, 10% among women who refused, and 15% among women whom we were not able to contact, demonstrating that, overall, risk status was not lower among recruited women.
Thiago de Santana SANTOS
Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of pyogenic granuloma and compare the data obtained with those of other reports in the worldliterature. Methods: The study material was surveyed from the records of patients with diagnosis of oral pyogenic granuloma, at the Oral Pathology Laboratory of the School of Dentistry of the University of Pernambuco, in the period from January 1992 to March 2007 (15 years. The following indicators were analyzed: gender, age group, race, anatomic location, diameter of lesions and presence of symptomatology.Results: Among the 5007 records in the laboratory, 3.81% corresponded to lesions diagnosed as oral pyogenic granuloma, in which 19.9% of the patients were in the second decade of life, 40.1% were white, the gingiva was the most affected location (77.9% and lesion of smaller diameter (0.1 to 2 cm were those most observed at the initial diagnosis. Conclusion: The clinical-pathological characteristics of oral pyogenic granuloma in the studied population are similar to those of other studies in the literature
Reetika Dawar, Ruchi Girotra, Seema Quadri, Firdaus Imdadi, Leena Mendiratta, Hena Rani, Avdesh Bansal, Raman Sardana
Full Text Available Objective: To isolate and speciate Nocardia species from clinical samples and to study their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern to different antimicrobials. Various risk factors associated with nocardiosis were also studied. Methods: 32 clinical specimens with clinical history of pneumonia, abscesses, or disseminated infections were collected over a period of 6 years (2009-2014 from Inpatient and Outpatient departments and processed for Nocardia cultures and sensitivity. Results: Twelve cases of nocardiosis were reported out of 32 clinically suspected cases. The mean age of presentation in our study was 57.9 years. Pneumonia was the most common clinical presentation followed by primary cutaneous disease and one case of disseminated disease. 8/ 10 patients with nocardiosis were immunocompromised with history of organ transplantation, use of immunosuppressive agents or steroids. Based on biochemical reactions 5 of the isolates were identified as N. asteroides, 3 N. brasiliensis, 2 N. farcinica and 1 each were N. transvalensis, & N. nova. All were sensitive to linezolid followed by cotrimoxazole (91.6% Conclusions: With increasing number of immunocompromised patients and an increased incidence of nocardiosis, diagnosis of Nocardia infections should always be kept in mind as it can present with nonspecific symptoms and can mimic confused with other diseases. Linezolid, Cotrimoxazole, imipenem and minocycline were found to be very effective, in vitro, against most Nocardia species. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2016;6(2: 60-64
Saddichha, Sahoo; Fliers, Joelle M; Frankish, Jim; Somers, Julian; Schuetz, Christian G; Krausz, Michael R
Incarceration and homelessness are closely related yet studied rarely. This article aimed to study the incarcerated homeless and identify specific vulnerabilities, which rendered them different from the nonincarcerated homeless. It also aimed to describe the homeless population and its significant involvement with the criminal justice and enforcement system. Data were derived from the British Columbia Health of the Homeless Study (BCHOHS), carried out in three cities in British Columbia, Canada: the large urban center Vancouver (n = 250), Victoria (n = 150) and Prince George (n = 100). Measures included socio-demographic information, the Maudsley Addiction Profile (MAP), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) Plus. Incarcerated homeless were more often male (66.6%), were in foster care (56.4%) and had greater substance use especially of crack cocaine (69.6%) and crystal methamphetamine (78.7%). They also had greater scores on emotional and sexual abuse domains of CTQ, indicating greater abuse. A higher prevalence of depression (57%) and psychotic disorders (55.3%) was also observed. Risk factors identified which had a positive predictor value were male gender (p Homeless individuals may be traumatized at an early age, put into foster care, rendered homeless, initiated into substance use and re-traumatized on repeated occasions in adult life, rendering them vulnerable to incarceration and mental illness. © The Author(s) 2014.
Baum, Sharon; Astman, Nadav; Berco, Efraim; Solomon, Michal; Trau, Henri; Barzilai, Aviv
Pemphigus vulgaris (PV), an autoimmune blistering disease involving the skin and mucosa, is traditionally considered to be prevalent among Jews, particularly those of Ashkenazi origin. Israel, where the Ashkenazi and non-Ashkenazi Jewish population live alongside a large Arab minority, is a particularly interesting place for epidemiological studies of PV. To characterise the epidemiological and clinical parameters of PV patients from a single tertiary medical centre in Israel. Data was retrieved retrospectively from the medical records of newly diagnosed PV patients referred to the Sheba Medical Center between 1980 and 2009. A total of 290 PV patients were diagnosed during the study period. The mean age at diagnosis was 49.7 years (range: 10-92 years) and a female predominance was identified (1.54:1; p<0.001). Among the Jewish patients, the ratio of Ashkenazi to non-Ashkenazi was 1.23:1, which was not statistically significant in comparison to the ratio of the general Jewish population in Israel (p = 0.289). We describe the comorbidities found among the patients. Disease severity at diagnosis was not found to be related to the epidemiological parameters examined. Studies from different countries reveal variations in the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the disease. The epidemiology of PV in Israel, a Middle-Eastern country with a Western lifestyle and a diverse ethnic population, shows some characteristics that represent an "admixture" between European and Middle-Eastern or Asian countries. The associated comorbidities of PV emphasize the need for dermatologists to keep a high index of suspicion and actively evaluate patients to determine their presence.
Juvva Gowtham Kumar
Full Text Available Background: Hypoglycemia is one among the leading causes for Emergency Department (ED visits and is the most common and easily preventable endocrine emergency. This study is aimed at assessing the incidence and elucidating the underlying causes of hypoglycemia. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, observational study which included patients registering in ED with a finger prick blood glucose ≤60 mg/dl at the time of arrival. All patients aged above 15 years with the above inclusion criteria during the period of August 2010 to July 2013 were selected. The study group was categorized based on diabetic status into diabetic and nondiabetic groups. Results: A total of 1196 hypoglycemic episodes encountered at the ED during the study period were included, and of which 772 with complete data were analyzed. Underlying causes for hypoglycemia in the diabetic group (535 mainly included medication related 320 (59.81%, infections 108 (20.19%, and chronic kidney disease 61 (11.40%. Common underlying causes of hypoglycemia in nondiabetic group (237, 30.69% included infections 107 (45.15%, acute/chronic liver disease 42 (17.72%, and malignancies 22 (9.28%. Among diabetic subjects on antidiabetic medications (n = 320, distribution over 24 h duration clearly reported two peaks at 8th and 21st h. The incidence of hypoglycemia and death per 1000 ED visits were 16.41 and 0.73 in 2011, 16.19 and 0.78 in 2012, 17.20 and 1.22 in 2013 with an average of 16.51 and 0.91, respectively. Conclusion: Bimodal distribution with peaks in incidences of hypoglycemic attacks at 8th and 21st h based on hourly distribution in a day can be correlated with the times just before next meal. None of the patients should leave ED without proper evaluation of the etiology of hypoglycemia and the problem should be addressed at each individual level. Increasing incidence of death over the years is alarming, and further studies are needed to conclude the root cause.
Heidi L. Tessmer
Full Text Available To estimate and predict the transmission dynamics of respiratory viruses, the estimation of the basic reproduction number, R0, is essential. Recently, approximate Bayesian computation methods have been used as likelihood free methods to estimate epidemiological model parameters, particularly R0. In this paper, we explore various machine learning approaches, the multi-layer perceptron, convolutional neural network, and long-short term memory, to learn and estimate the parameters. Further, we compare the accuracy of the estimates and time requirements for machine learning and the approximate Bayesian computation methods on both simulated and real-world epidemiological data from outbreaks of influenza A(H1N1pdm09, mumps, and measles. We find that the machine learning approaches can be verified and tested faster than the approximate Bayesian computation method, but that the approximate Bayesian computation method is more robust across different datasets.
Kwenti, Tebit Emmanuel; Kwenti, Tayong Dizzle Bita; Latz, Andreas; Njunda, Longdoh Anna; Nkuo-Akenji, Theresa
In the wake of a decline in global malaria, it is imperative to describe the epidemiology of malaria in a country to inform control policies. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiological and clinical profile of paediatric malaria in five epidemiological strata of malaria in Cameroon including: the Sudano-sahelian (SS) strata, the High inland plateau (HIP) strata, the South Cameroonian Equatorial forest (SCEF) strata, the High western plateau (HWP) strata, and the Coastal (C) strata. This study involved 1609 febrile children (≤15 years) recruited using reference hospitals in the five epidemiological strata. Baseline characteristics were determined; blood glucose level was measured by a glucometer, malaria parasitaemia was assessed by Giemsa microscopy, and complete blood count was performed using an automated hematology analyser. Severe malaria was assessed and categorized based on WHO criteria. An overall prevalence of 15.0% (95% CI: 13.3-16.9) for malaria was observed in this study. Malaria prevalence was significantly higher in children between 60 and 119 months (p malaria (SM) attack in this study was 29.3%; SM was significantly higher in children below 60 months (p malaria anaemia and impaired consciousness. The majority (73.2%) of SM cases were in group 1 of the WHO classification of severe malaria (i.e. the most severe form). The malaria case-fatality rate was 5.8%; this was higher in Ngaoundere (HIP strata) (p = 0.034). In this study, malaria prevalence decreased steadily northward, from the C strata in the South to the SS strata in the North of Cameroon, meanwhile the mortality rate associated with malaria increased in the same direction. On the contrary, the rate of severe malaria attack was similar across the different epidemiological strata. Immunoepidemiological studies will be required to shed more light on the observed trends.
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to get the first-hand knowledge about the seroprevalence of Porcine parvovirus (PPV in Punjab and a diagnosis of PPV from abortion cases of swine using gross, histopathological, and immunohistopathological techniques to observe the tissue tropism of the virus strain. Materials and Methods: Tissue samples from the reproductive tract of pig (n=32, placental tissue (n=10, and aborted fetuses (n=18 were collected from Postmortem Hall of the Department of Veterinary Pathology, GADVASU, field outbreaks and from butcher houses in and around Ludhiana. These samples were processed for histopathological and immunohistochemical (IHC studies. For seroprevalence study, 90 serum samples of different sex and age were collected from 15 swine farms of Punjab and were subjected to indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay using commercial kit. Results: Overall, seroprevalence of PPV was found to be 41.1%. Sex and age related difference in the prevalence was noted. In abortion cases grossly congested and emphysematous lungs, congested internal organs with fluid in abdominal cavity and congestion in brain, changes were noted in fetuses, while diffuse hemorrhages and edema was observed in placental tissue. Histopathologically, the most frequent fetal lesions in aborted fetuses were noted in lungs, liver, and brain. IHC staining revealed PPV antigens in sections of heart, liver, lung, spleen, brain, lymph node of fetuses, placenta, and uterus of sow. Gross, histopathological, and IHC examination of the samples confirmed 5 fetus, 2 placenta and 3 female reproductive samples positive for parvovirus infection. Conclusions: Seroprevalence results may serve as a support either in prevention or control of the disease. IHC is the sensitive technique for diagnosis of PPV associated with the reproductive tract of swine and was found to supplement the gross and histopathological alterations, respectively, associated with the disease.
Gonçalves, Daniela A G; Bigal, Marcelo E; Jales, Luciana C F; Camparis, Cinara M; Speciali, José G
A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of migraine, episodic tension-type headaches (ETTH), and chronic daily headaches (CDH), as well as the presence of symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in the adult population. The potential comorbidity of headache syndromes and TMD has been established mostly based on clinic-based studies. A representative sample of 1230 inhabitants (51.5% women) was interviewed by a validated phone survey. TMD symptoms were assessed through 5 questions, as recommended by the American Academy of Orofacial Pain, in an attempt to classify possible TMD. Primary headaches were diagnosed based on the International Classification of Headache Disorders. When at least 1 TMD symptom was reported, any headache happened in 56.5% vs 31.9% (P headache as the reference, the prevalence of at least 1 TMD symptom was increased in ETTH (prevalence ratio = 1.48, 95% confidence interval = 1.20-1.79), migraine (2.10, 1.80-2.47) and CDH (2.41, 1.84-3.17). At least 2 TMD symptoms also happened more frequently in migraine (4.4, 3.0-6.3), CDH (3.4; 1.5-7.6), and ETTH (2.1; 1.3-3.2), relative to individuals with no headaches. Finally, 3 or more TMD symptoms were also more common in migraine (6.2; 3.8-10.2) than in no headaches. Differences were significant for ETTH (2.7 1.5-4.8), and were numerically but not significant for CDH (2.3; 0.66-8.04). Temporomandibular disorder symptoms are more common in migraine, ETTH, and CDH relative to individuals without headache. Magnitude of association is higher for migraine. Future studies should clarify the nature of the relationship.
Full Text Available Although clinical criteria, laboratory diagnosis and treatment are well established, scanty attention has been paid to prevalence and pattern of viral warts in India. HIV is widely prevalent and its influence on the number and morphology of viral warts has not yet been studied in our setup. Hence, this study was undertaken. One hindered and forty four cases of viral warts were studied between September 2000 and June 2002 at the department of Dermatology and STD, JIPMER, Pondicherry. These included 81childeren and 63 adults. In Children, viral warts were most commonly seen in the age group of 10to14 years (41.9%, whereas in adults, the most commonly seen in the age 14to20 years (46.03%. The average age at presentation was 11.5 years. The male to female ratio was 2.2 to 1 in children and 1.8 to 1 in adults. Family history of warts was observed in 27.7% of the cases. In children, multiple site involvement (62.9% was more common than single site involvement. The most commonly involved site was hand in children as also in adults. In adults, single site involvement (66.6%was more common than multiple site involvement. The most common type of wart seen in both children and adults was the common wart. Twenty percent of the cases showed koebnerization. Four cases were found to be seropositive for HIV infection, who were adult with genital warts, but florid manifestations were not seen.
Konikoff, Tom; Avraham, Tehila; Ophir, Ella; Bornstein, Jacob
Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is characterized by severe intractable nausea and vomiting in pregnancy leading to electrolyte imbalance, ketonuria, and weight loss. The cause is unknown. This study sought to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of HG in the Western Galilee in two ethnic populations and to estimate its economic burden. Data on ethnicity, age, gestational age, number of pregnancies, and length of hospitalization were collected from the medical files of all women with HG admitted to the Galilee Medical Center in 2010-2013. Findings were compared between Arabs and Jews. Prevalence was assessed relative to total number of births. Economic burden was assessed by cost of hospitalization and work days lost. The cohort included 184 women, 124 Arabic (67.4 %) and 60 Jewish (32.6 %). There were 13,630 births at the medical center during the study period, for a calculated prevalence of HG of 1.2 %. There was no difference in the relative proportions of Arabs and Jews between the cohort and the total women giving birth at our center. Mean patient age was 27.2 years, gestational age 9.3 weeks, parity 2.35. Mean age was significantly higher in the Jewish group. There were no significant between-group differences in the other clinical parameters. Mean number of hospitalization days was 2.24 days, and of additional rest days prescribed, 4.62. The calculated annual cost of HG was 452,943.42 NIS (120,144.14 USD), crudely extrapolated to a nationwide cost of 15-20 million NIS (5,300,000 USD). The prevalence and characteristics of HG are similar in the Arabic and Jewish populations of northern Israel. Mean gestational age at admission for HG was lower in our study than earlier ones, probably owing to the universal health care provided by law in Israel. HG prevalence was twice that reported previously in southern Israel but still within the range observed in other world regions. The socioeconomic differences between Arabs and Jews in the Galilee are smaller
Vandenbroucke, JP; von Elm, E; Altman, DG; Gotzsche, PC; Mulrow, CD; Pocock, SJ; Poole, C; Schlesselman, JJ; Egger, M
Much medical research is observational. The reporting of observational studies is often of insufficient quality. Poor reporting hampers the assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of a study and the generalisability of its results. Taking into account empirical evidence and theoretical considerations, a group of methodologists, researchers, and editors developed the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) recommendations to improve the quality of repor...
De Blasio, Francesco; Dicpinigaitis, Peter V; Rubin, Bruce K; De Danieli, Gianluca; Lanata, Luigi; Zanasi, Alessando
Background Cough is one of the most frequent symptoms in children and is the most common symptom for which children visit a health care provider. Methods This is an observational study on acute cough associated with upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in children. The study evaluates the epidemiology and impact of cough on quality of sleep and children's activities, and the outcome of cough with antitussive treatments in pediatric routine clinical practice. Study assessments were perform...
Epidemiologic studies on workers who have been exposed to ionizing radiation have allowed to demonstrate certain cancer risks associated with elevated, often retrospectively reconstituted exposures. Present studies on still active workers or workers having worked for the last 15 years are indispensable to define the risk associated with low irradiation doses; they must, however, take into account confounding factors that may play a role in the etiology of the cancer studied
Vazirianzadeh B.* PhD,
Full Text Available Aims Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a prevalent parasitological disease with diverse clinical manifestations in Iran. Therefore, the present retrospective study carried out to describe the demographic features of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ramshir, Iran. Materials & Methods This descriptive study was performed on 136 cutaneous leishmaniasis patients whose data were recorded in the Ramshir health center during 2006-9. Demographic information of patients including age, sex, habitat and sites of lesions, month and years of incidence were recorded. The data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software. Findings Totally 79 patients (58.1% resided in urban areas and the born to 9 years (49.3% was recognized as the most infected age group. Hands (41.2% had the highest rates of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions followed by face (36.0% and foot (22.8%. The maximum number of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions was reported in March. Conclusion As cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ramshir seemed to be an endemic rural type, the appropriate preventing measures regarding to the rural cutaneous leishmaniasis should be considered to decrease incidence of the disease in the region.
Full Text Available Introduction: The physical effects of the arthropod bites on human skin receive less attention, especially in the rural areas where the per capita income is less. Ours is a rural-based hospital, the vicinity having more of plants, trees, and forests; we undertook the study to find out the relation of insect bite dermatitis in a rural area. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in the Dermatology outpatient department of our institute on 100 subjects of insect bite dermatitis who were questioned retrospectively about the sequence of events besides their environmental and living conditions. They were examined thoroughly and the relevant clinical findings were noted, also taking into account the prior treatment taken by them, if any. Results and Conclusions: It was found that insect bite dermatitis has no age or gender preponderance, and the protective factors for the same are use of full sleeve clothes and keeping the doors and windows closed at night. On the contrary, the risk factors are residence in areas of heavy insect infestation, use of perfumes and colognes, warm weather in spring and summer and the lack of protective measures. However, there was no direct association of atopy with increased risk of developing insect bite dermatitis.
Bhatt, Nikita; Deady, Sandra; Gillis, Amy; Bertuzzi, Alexia; Fabre, Aurelie; Heffernan, Eric; Gillham, Charles; O'Toole, Gary; Ridgway, Paul F
Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) account for 1% of adult and 7% of pediatric malignancies. Histopathology and classification of these rare tumors requires further refinements. The aim of this paper is to describe the current incidence and survival of STS from 1994 to 2012 in Ireland and compare these with comparably coded international published reports. This is a retrospective, population study based on the data from the National Cancer Registry of Ireland (NCRI). Incidence and relative survival rates for STS in Ireland were generated. Incidence of STS based on gender, age and anatomical location was examined. Annual mean incidence rate (European Age Standardized) in Ireland between 1994 and 2012 was 4.48 ± 0.15 per 100,000 person-years. The overall relative 5-year survival rate of STS for the period 1994-2011 in Ireland was 56%, which was similar to that reported in the U.K. but lower than in most of Europe and U.S.A. Survival rate fluctuated over the period examined, declining slightly in females but showing an increase in males. STS incidence trends in Ireland were comparable to international reports. Survival trends of STS were significantly different between Ireland and other European countries, requiring further study to understand causation. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Nadin-Davis, S A; Torres, G; Ribas, M De Los Angeles; Guzman, M; De La Paz, R Cruz; Morales, M; Wandeler, A I
To investigate the emergence and current situation of terrestrial rabies in Cuba, a collection of rabies virus specimens was employed for genetic characterization. These data supported the monophyletic nature of all terrestrial rabies viruses presently circulating in Cuba but additionally delineated several distinct variants exhibiting limited spatial distribution which may reflect the history of rabies spread on the island. The strain of rabies currently circulating in Cuba, which emerged on the island in the early 20th century, has very close evolutionary ties to the Mexican dog type and is a member of the cosmopolitan lineage widely distributed during the colonial period. The Cuban rabies viruses, which circulate predominantly within the mongoose population, are phylogenetically distant from viruses circulating in mongooses in other parts of the world. These studies illustrate, at a global level, the adaptation of multiple strains of rabies to mongoose species which should be regarded as important wildlife hosts for rabies re-emergence. Given the recent emergence of human cases due to bat contact in Cuba, this study also included a single insectivorous bat specimen which was found to most closely resemble the rabies viruses known to circulate in Mexican vampire bats.
Goldberg, Stuart H.; McRill, Connie M.; Bruno, Christopher R.; Ten Have, Tom; Lehman, Erik
Domestic violence is an important cause of orbital fractures in women. Physicians who treat patients with orbital fractures may not suspect this mechanism of injury. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between domestic violence and orbital fractures. A medical center-based case-control study with matching on age and site of admission was done. Medical center databases were searched using ICD-9 codes to identify all cases of orbital fractures encountered during a three-year period. Medical records of female patients age 13 and older were reviewed along with those of age, gender and site of admission matched controls. A stratified exact test was employed to test the association between domestic violence and orbital fracture. Among 41 adult female cases with orbital fractures treated at our medical center, three (7.3%) reported domestic violence compared to zero among the matched controls (p = 0.037). We believe that domestic violence may be under-reported in both orbital fracture cases and controls. This may result in an underestimate of the orbital fracture versus domestic violence association. Domestic violence is a serious women's health and societal problem. Domestic violence may have a variety of presentations, including illnesses and injuries. Orbital fracture is an identifiable manifestation of domestic violence. Domestic violence is more likely to be detected in adult female hospital patients with orbital fracture than in matched controls with any other diagnosis. Physicians who treat patients with orbital fractures should be familiar with this mechanism of injury.
Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) account for 1% of adult and 7% of pediatric malignancies. Histopathology and classification of these rare tumors requires further refinements. The aim of this paper is to describe the current incidence and survival of STS from 1994 to 2012 in Ireland and compare these with comparably coded international published reports. This is a retrospective, population study based on the data from the National Cancer Registry of Ireland (NCRI). Incidence and relative survival rates for STS in Ireland were generated. Incidence of STS based on gender, age and anatomical location was examined. Annual mean incidence rate (European Age Standardized) in Ireland between 1994 and 2012 was 4.48 ± 0.15 per 100,000 person-years. The overall relative 5-year survival rate of STS for the period 1994-2011 in Ireland was 56%, which was similar to that reported in the U.K. but lower than in most of Europe and U.S.A. Survival rate fluctuated over the period examined, declining slightly in females but showing an increase in males. STS incidence trends in Ireland were comparable to international reports. Survival trends of STS were significantly different between Ireland and other European countries, requiring further study to understand causation.
Full Text Available Aim: To assess the various epidemiological parameters that influence the causation of trauma as well as the consequent morbidity and mortality in the pediatric age group. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of 791 patients of less than 12 years age, was carried out over a period of 1 year (August 2009 to July 2010, and pediatric trauma trends, with regards to the following parameters were assessed: Age group, sex, mode of trauma, type of injury, place where the trauma occurred and the overall mortality as well as mortality. Results: Overall trauma was most common in the school-going age group (6-12 years, with male children outnumbering females in the ratio of 1.9:1. It was observed that orthopedic injuries were the most frequent (37.8% type of injuries, whereas fall from height (39.4%, road traffic accident (27.8% and burns (15.2% were the next most common modes of trauma. Home was found out to be the place where maximum trauma occurred (51.8%. Maximum injuries happened unintentionally (98.4%. Overall mortality was found out to be 6.4% (n = 51. Conclusions: By knowing the epidemiology of pediatric trauma, we conclude that majority of pediatric injuries are preventable and pediatric epidemiological trends differ from those in adults. Therefore, preventive strategies should be made in pediatric patients on the basis of these epidemiological trends.
Boufettal, H; Coullin, P; Mahdaoui, S; Noun, M; Hermas, S; Samouh, N
Complete hydatidiform moles (CHM) are a real public health problem, especially in the "southern countries" and Asia, because of their impact on the female reproduction and the risk to progression to either invasive mole or choriocarcinoma. We collected the cases of CHM referred to our department over a period of ten years (2000 to 2009). We will present our results, emphasize the modalities of diagnosis, treatment and evolution, with a review of literature. During this study, we identified 254 cases of CHM, and recorded 57,987 births and 1627 abortions. Their incidence was 0.43% of pregnancies. The mean age of our patients is 25 years old (16 to 55). Relative risk observed was much increased among women under 20 years old (×6.8) and those over 40 years old (×15). Both of nulliparous and primiparous patients represented 52.3% of the cohort. Eighty-five percent of patients belonged to an agricultural environment associated with a low socio-economic status. Uterine bleeding was the most common symptom accounting for 93.7%. Toxic syndrome was present in 18.5% of patients. Physical examination showed a highly increased uterine size in 85% of cases associated with lateral uterine mass in 25% of cases. The diagnosis was suspected using ultrasonography in all cases associated with an elevated level of plasmatic β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (βhCG). All cases were confirmed histologically. Treatment used was endo-uterine aspiration in all cases. Recurrence of CHM was documented in 25 patients or 9.4%. Neoplasic progression was observed for 6.3% of cases. All of them have evolved into remission with chemotherapy. CHM continue to be a public health problem in Morocco, their incidence is among the highest ones. In fact, this studied population corresponds to the lowest socio-economic status and generally described as population at risk. It is subject to drastic weather's conditions causing loss of fresh products. Extreme ages and degree of parity are also risk factors
Full Text Available To balance the protection of geo-privacy and the accuracy of spatial patterns, we developed a geo-spatial tool (GeoMasker intended to mask the residential locations of patients or cases in a geographic information system (GIS. To elucidate the effects of geo-masking parameters, we applied 2010 dengue epidemic data from Taiwan testing the tool’s performance in an empirical situation. The similarity of pre- and post-spatial patterns was measured by D statistics under a 95% confidence interval. In the empirical study, different magnitudes of anonymisation (estimated Kanonymity ≥10 and 100 were achieved and different degrees of agreement on the pre- and post-patterns were evaluated. The application is beneficial for public health workers and researchers when processing data with individuals’ spatial information.
Roth, D; Bean, G J
The social problem of homelessness is of increasing concern to mental health professionals. In a large-scale study of homelessness in Ohio, data were collected in face-to-face interviews with 979 homeless people in 19 counties. The median length of homelessness was 60 days. Almost half the respondents cited economic factors, such as unemployment or problems paying rent, as the major reason for their homelessness. Thirty percent had been hospitalized at least once for mental health reasons, and 31 percent showed symptoms serious enough to require mental health services. Findings are also presented in relation to a typology of the homeless--street people, shelter people, and resource people--and urban and rural respondents are compared. These and other findings support the principal conclusions that homelessness is clearly a multidimensional problem and that service strategies must reflect the multiple needs and varying characteristics of homeless people.
Mori, T.; Maruyama, T.; Kato, Y.; Takahashi, S.
The authors conducted a follow-up study on 243 Thorotrast-administered war-wounded ex-servicemen in 1975, after a lapse of 30 to 38 years from Thorotrast injections, and found 18 cases of malignant hepatic tumor, 15 cases of other malignant tumors, 2 cases of blood diseases, and 9 cases of liver cirrhosis in 224 cases who had been given Thorotrast intravascularly. The incidence of hepatic and other malignant tumors, blood diseases, and liver cirrhosis was significantly higher than in the controls. The total number of deaths in the Thorotrast-administered cases was also significantly higher than in the controls. In the remaining 19 cases who had been given Thorotrast by a route other than intravascularly, no fatal case related to Thorotrast administration was discovered. In the living cases, however, one sarcoma was observed to have developed at the site of the Thorotrast injection
Leavy Justine E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have investigated the association between male pattern baldness and disease such as prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease. Limitations in the lack of standardized instruments to measure male pattern baldness have resulted in researchers measuring balding patterns in a variety of ways. This paper examines the accuracy and reliability of assessment of balding patterns by both trained observers and men themselves, using the Hamilton-Norwood classification system. Methods An observational study was carried out in Western Australia with 105 male volunteers aged between 30 and 70 years. Participants completed a short questionnaire and selected a picture that best represented their balding pattern. Two trained data collectors also independently assessed the participant's balding pattern using the same system and the men's self assessment was compared with the trained observer's assessment. In a substudy, observers assessed the balding pattern in a photo of the man aged 35 years while the man independently rated his balding at that age. Results Observers were very reliable in their assessment of balding pattern (85% exact agreement, κ = 0.83. Compared to trained observers, men were moderately accurate in their self-assessment of their balding status (48–55% exact agreement, κ = 0.39–0.46. For the substudy the exact agreement between the men and the observers was 67% and the agreement within balding groups was 87%. Conclusions We recommend that male balding patterns be assessed by trained personnel using the Hamilton-Norwood classification system. Where the use of trained personnel is not feasible, men's self assessment both currently and retrospectively has been shown to be adequate.
Full Text Available Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virusinfected women account for almost half the number of cases of HIV worldwide. Despite reduction in HIV prevalence among the population, the percentage of Indian women contracting the disease seems to have increased. The social implications are also different in females. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted from September 2009 to July 2011 at tertiary care hospitals attached to the Kasturba Medical College Mangalore, on a group of 200 HIV-positive patients. Patients above 18 years of age diagnosed with HIV as per National AIDS Control Organisation guidelines were included in the study. Clinical profile among women and men was compared with respect to clinical presentation, disease detection, CD4 count and response of family and society. Results: Clinical presentation was similar among both men and women. Eighty-one percent men had promiscual sexual exposure, 19% of women had so. Males were identified to be HIV-positive earlier than their spouse (tested later, time lag being 27.6 weeks. After detection of positivity 77% of females felt being less cared for by the in-laws. CD4 count less than 50 was detected in more number of females as compared to men (11% females and 1% males. Death of spouse was seen more often in females (among 35% of women and 11% of men. Conclusion: Most of the females were likely to acquire infection from their spouse. Females tend to seek and get medical attention at the late stage of disease as compared to men. HIV in females has different social implications which includes discrimination within the family.
Liou, Saou-Hsing; Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Wang, Shu-Li; Li, Lih-Ann; Chiang, Hung-Che; Li, Wan-Fen; Lin, Pin-Pin; Lai, Ching-Huang; Lee, Hui-Ling; Lin, Ming-Hsiu; Hsu, Jin-Huei; Chen, Chiou-Rong; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Liao, Hui-Yi; Chung, Yu-Teh
The aim of this study was to establish and identify the health effect markers of workers with potential exposure to nanoparticles (20-100 nm) during manufacturing and/or application of nanomaterials. For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 227 workers who handled nanomaterials and 137 workers for comparison who did not from 14 plants in Taiwan. A questionnaire was used to collect data on exposure status, demographics, and potential confounders. The health effect markers were measured in the medical laboratory. Control banding from the Nanotool Risk Level Matrix was used to categorize the exposure risk levels of the workers. The results showed that the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD) in risk level 1 (RL1) and risk level 2 (RL2) workers was significantly ( p RL1 > RL2). Another antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), was significantly lower only in RL1 workers than in the control workers. The cardiovascular markers, fibrinogen and ICAM (intercellular adhesion molecule), were significantly higher in RL2 workers than in controls and a significant dose-response with an increasing trend was found for these two cardiovascular markers. Another cardiovascular marker, interleukin-6, was significantly increased among RL1 workers, but not among RL2 workers. The accuracy rate for remembering 7-digits and reciting them backwards was significantly lower in RL2 workers (OR = 0.48) than in controls and a significantly reversed gradient was also found for the correct rate of backward memory (OR = 0.90 for RL1, OR = 0.48 for RL2, p Depression of antioxidant enzymes and increased expression of cardiovascular markers were found among workers handling nanomaterials. Antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD and GPX, and cardiovascular markers, such as fibrinogen, ICAM, and interluekin-6, are possible biomarkers for medical surveillance of workers handling engineered nanomaterials.
Liou, Saou-Hsing, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Wang, Shu-Li; Li, Lih-Ann; Chiang, Hung-Che; Li, Wan-Fen; Lin, Pin-Pin [National Health Research Institutes, Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, Taiwan (China); Lai, Ching-Huang [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Public Health, Taiwan (China); Lee, Hui-Ling [Fu Jen Catholic University, Department of Chemistry, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ming-Hsiu; Hsu, Jin-Huei; Chen, Chiou-Rong [Council of Labor Affairs, Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Taiwan (China); Shih, Tung-Sheng [College of Public Health, China Medical University and Hospital, Institute of Environmental Health, Taiwan (China); Liao, Hui-Yi; Chung, Yu-Teh [National Health Research Institutes, Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, Taiwan (China)
The aim of this study was to establish and identify the health effect markers of workers with potential exposure to nanoparticles (20-100 nm) during manufacturing and/or application of nanomaterials. For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 227 workers who handled nanomaterials and 137 workers for comparison who did not from 14 plants in Taiwan. A questionnaire was used to collect data on exposure status, demographics, and potential confounders. The health effect markers were measured in the medical laboratory. Control banding from the Nanotool Risk Level Matrix was used to categorize the exposure risk levels of the workers. The results showed that the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD) in risk level 1 (RL1) and risk level 2 (RL2) workers was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than in control workers. A significantly decreasing gradient was found for SOD (control > RL1 > RL2). Another antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), was significantly lower only in RL1 workers than in the control workers. The cardiovascular markers, fibrinogen and ICAM (intercellular adhesion molecule), were significantly higher in RL2 workers than in controls and a significant dose-response with an increasing trend was found for these two cardiovascular markers. Another cardiovascular marker, interleukin-6, was significantly increased among RL1 workers, but not among RL2 workers. The accuracy rate for remembering 7-digits and reciting them backwards was significantly lower in RL2 workers (OR = 0.48) than in controls and a significantly reversed gradient was also found for the correct rate of backward memory (OR = 0.90 for RL1, OR = 0.48 for RL2, p < 0.05 in test for trend). Depression of antioxidant enzymes and increased expression of cardiovascular markers were found among workers handling nanomaterials. Antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD and GPX, and cardiovascular markers, such as fibrinogen, ICAM, and interluekin-6, are possible biomarkers for medical surveillance of
Liou, Saou-Hsing; Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Wang, Shu-Li; Li, Lih-Ann; Chiang, Hung-Che; Li, Wan-Fen; Lin, Pin-Pin; Lai, Ching-Huang; Lee, Hui-Ling; Lin, Ming-Hsiu; Hsu, Jin-Huei; Chen, Chiou-Rong; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Liao, Hui-Yi; Chung, Yu-Teh
The aim of this study was to establish and identify the health effect markers of workers with potential exposure to nanoparticles (20–100 nm) during manufacturing and/or application of nanomaterials. For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 227 workers who handled nanomaterials and 137 workers for comparison who did not from 14 plants in Taiwan. A questionnaire was used to collect data on exposure status, demographics, and potential confounders. The health effect markers were measured in the medical laboratory. Control banding from the Nanotool Risk Level Matrix was used to categorize the exposure risk levels of the workers. The results showed that the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD) in risk level 1 (RL1) and risk level 2 (RL2) workers was significantly (p RL1 > RL2). Another antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), was significantly lower only in RL1 workers than in the control workers. The cardiovascular markers, fibrinogen and ICAM (intercellular adhesion molecule), were significantly higher in RL2 workers than in controls and a significant dose–response with an increasing trend was found for these two cardiovascular markers. Another cardiovascular marker, interleukin-6, was significantly increased among RL1 workers, but not among RL2 workers. The accuracy rate for remembering 7-digits and reciting them backwards was significantly lower in RL2 workers (OR = 0.48) than in controls and a significantly reversed gradient was also found for the correct rate of backward memory (OR = 0.90 for RL1, OR = 0.48 for RL2, p < 0.05 in test for trend). Depression of antioxidant enzymes and increased expression of cardiovascular markers were found among workers handling nanomaterials. Antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD and GPX, and cardiovascular markers, such as fibrinogen, ICAM, and interluekin-6, are possible biomarkers for medical surveillance of workers handling engineered nanomaterials.
Medani, A. M. H.
The objectives of this study were to map the prevalence of goiter in Sudan and to study the etiological factors involved. A further objective was to explore the use of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) level in the assessment of endemic goiter. The survey took place in the period from June to November 2006. The survey covered nine cities including Nyala and Elfasher (Western part), Wau (in the South), Atbara and Dongula (in the north), Dmazine (South East), Port Sudan (Eastern part), Kosti and Khartoum (in the Centre ). Khartoum was divided into three different cities Khartoum, Khartoum North and Omdurman. The study included 6181 male and female schoolchildren at the age 6-12 years old. All the children were clinically examined for the presence of goiter using WHO palpation method. Blood samples were randomly collected from 360 children (30-37) from each selected city irrespective of their thyroid status or gender. Serum samples were analyzed for the concentration of T 4 , T 3 , TSH, and Tg. Casual urine samples were also collected from the same selected subjects. Urine samples were analyzed for iodine and thiocyanate concentrations. Water samples were collected from each school and analyzed for the concentration of Ca, Mg, Cl, F and total Hardness. The results indicated that the overall total goiter rate was 40.62%. The highest goiter rate was found in Kosti town (77.67%) and the lowest in Omdurman Khartoum state (12.22%). The overall median urinary iodine excretion (UIE) was 6.55 μg/dl. Iodine deficiency was detected in 70.28% of the children and there were great variations in the median UIE from region to anther started from as low as 2.70μg/d1 in Kosti town 46.40 μg/d1 in Port Sudan city (at the cost of the Red Sed). The overall median concentration of urinary thiocyanate was 0.37 mg/d1. There were also variations in the median levels of urinary thiocyanate from city to another and slightly exceeded the cut off point (0.0.46 mg/d1) in pupils from Wau and Nyala cities
Epidemiological studies undertaken in many radiation exposed cohorts have played an important role in the quantification of radiation risk. Follow up of nearly 100,000 A-bomb survivors by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), constitutes the most comprehensive human epidemiological study. The study population covered both sexes, different age groups and dose ranges from a few mSv to 2-3 Sv. Among nearly 90,000 cohorts, as on 1990, 54% are alive. Among these, 35,000 are those exposed as children at the age<20 years. Nearly 20 % of the mortalities (8,040) were due to cancer. It was estimated from the analysis of these data that among the cancers observed in LSS cohorts, 425±45 cases (335 solid cancers+90 leukaemias) were attributable to radiation exposure. Assuming a value of two for DDREF, ICRP 60, 1991 estimated a cancer risk of 5% per Sv for low dose and low dose rate exposure conditions. There have been a number of efforts to study the human populations exposed to low level radiations. Epidemiological studies on nuclear workers from USA, UK and Canada constituting 95,673 workers spanning 2,124,526 person years was reported by Cardis et al. (1995). Total number of deaths were 15,825, of which 3,976 were cancer mortalities. The excess relative risk for all cancers excluding leukaemia is -0.07 per Sv (-0.4- +0.3) and for leukaemia (excluding CLL) is 2.18 (0.1-5.7). Epidemiological studies in high background radiation areas (HBRA) of Yangjiang, China and coastal Kerala showed no detectable increase in the incidence of cancers or of any genetic disorders. Epidemiological studies in human populations exposed to elevated background radiation for several generations did not show any increase in the genetic disorders. Recent information on the background incidence of monogenic disorders in human populations and the recoverability factor of induced genetic changes suggests a risk much lower than the earlier ICRP estimates. Many other epidemiological studies of
The purpose of this guide is to describe each series of records that pertains to the epidemiologic studies conducted by the Epidemiology Section of the Occupational Medicine Group (ESH-2) at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in Los Alamos, New Mexico. The records described in this guide relate to occupational studies performed by the Epidemiology Section, including those pertaining to workers at LANL, Mound Plant, Oak Ridge Reservation, Pantex Plant, Rocky Flats Plant, and Savannah River Site. Also included are descriptions of other health-related records generated or collected by the Epidemiology Section and a small set of records collected by the Industrial Hygiene and Safety Group. This guide is not designed to describe the universe of records generated by LANL which may be used for epidemiologic studies of the LANL work force. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of its work as the support services contractor for DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project, HAI`s role in the project, the history of LANL the history and functions of LANL`s Health Division and Epidemiology Section, and the various epidemiologic studies performed by the Epidemiology Section. It provides information on the methodology that HAI used to inventory and describe records housed in the offices of the LANL Epidemiology Section in Technical Area 59 and at the LANL Records Center. Other topics include the methodology used to produce the guide, the arrangement of the detailed record series descriptions, and information concerning access to records repositories.
Bergman, Jorieke E H; Loane, Maria; Vrijheid, Martine; Pierini, Anna; Nijman, Rien J M; Addor, Marie-Claude; Barisic, Ingeborg; Béres, Judit; Braz, Paula; Budd, Judith; Delaney, Virginia; Gatt, Miriam; Khoshnood, Babak; Klungsøyr, Kari; Martos, Carmen; Mullaney, Carmel; Nelen, Vera; Neville, Amanda J; O'Mahony, Mary; Queisser-Luft, Annette; Randrianaivo, Hanitra; Rissmann, Anke; Rounding, Catherine; Tucker, David; Wellesley, Diana; Zymak-Zakutnia, Natalya; Bakker, Marian K; de Walle, Hermien E K
Hypospadias is a common congenital malformation. The prevalence of hypospadias has a large geographical variation, and recent studies have reported both increasing and decreasing temporal trends. It is unclear whether hypospadias prevalence is associated with maternal age. To analyze the prevalence and trends of total hypospadias, isolated hypospadias, hypospadias with multiple congenital anomalies, hypospadias with a known cause, and hypospadias severity subtypes in Europe over a 10-year period and to investigate whether maternal age is associated with hypospadias. We included all children with hypospadias born from 2001 to 2010 who were registered in 23 EUROCAT registries. Information on the total number of births and maternal age distribution for the registry population was also provided. We analyzed the total prevalence of hypospadias and relative risks by maternal age. From 2001 to 2010, 10,929 hypospadias cases were registered in 5,871,855 births, yielding a total prevalence of 18.61 per 10,000 births. Prevalence varied considerably between different registries, probably due to differences in ascertainment of hypospadias cases. No significant temporal trends were observed with the exceptions of an increasing trend for anterior and posterior hypospadias and a decreasing trend for unspecified hypospadias. After adjusting for registry effects, maternal age was not significantly associated with hypospadias. Total hypospadias prevalence was stable in 23 EUROCAT registries from 2001 to 2010 and was not significantly influenced by maternal age.
Luciano, Alexandre de Paiva; Lara, Luiz Carlos Ribeiro
This is a retrospective study showing the incidence, type and extent of injuries occurring in the foot and/or ankle as a result of recreational sports practice. We treated 131 patients, of which 123 were male and 8 female, with a history of trauma and pain in the foot and/or ankle after the practicing recreational sports. The average age of the male patients was 24.53 years. The evaluation was done through a research protocol, which contained the variables age, sex, diagnosis, and type of recreational sport. The sports were classified according to the American Medical Association, which divides them into contact and non-contact sports. 82.4% of the sample practiced contact sports, while 17.6% practiced sports classified as non-contact. The sprained ankle was the most frequent type of injury, especially those of grade I and II. Soccer was the sport responsible for the highest incidence of injuries and among its various forms the indoor soccer presented the highest frequency of injuries (35%). In the non-contact sports, the highest incidence was found in running. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series.
Champredon, D; Cameron, C E; Smieja, M; Dushoff, J
Despite the availability of inexpensive antimicrobial treatment, syphilis remains prevalent worldwide, affecting millions of individuals. Furthermore, syphilis infection is suspected of increasing both susceptibility to, and tendency to transmit, HIV. Development of a syphilis vaccine would be a potentially promising step towards control, but the value of dedicating resources to vaccine development should be evaluated in the context of the anticipated benefits. Here, we use a detailed mathematical model to explore the potential impact of rolling out a hypothetical syphilis vaccine on morbidity from both syphilis and HIV and compare it to the impact of expanded 'screen and treat' programmes using existing treatments. Our results suggest that an efficacious vaccine has the potential to sharply reduce syphilis prevalence under a wide range of scenarios, while expanded treatment interventions are likely to be substantially less effective. Our modelled interventions in our simulated study populations are expected to have little effect on HIV, and in some scenarios lead to small increases in HIV incidence, suggesting that interventions against syphilis should be accompanied with interventions against other sexually transmitted infections to prevent the possibility that lower morbidity or lower perceived risk from syphilis could lead to increases in other sexually transmitted diseases.
Yunir, Em; Waspadji, Sarwono; Rahajeng, Ekowati
To recognize the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose level (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in general population of Depok Area, West Java. the study was conducted in a population with age > or = 25 years, in Depok Area, West Java, which was selected by using two stage random sampling. Data were collected by using the Step Wise Approach of WHO. Subjects without previous diabetes history were categorized as diabetes if their fasting blood glucose level > or = 126 mg/dL, and or the 2-hour-after 75 gram glucose load > or = 200 mg/dL. While pre-diabetes was defined as IFG when the fasting blood glucose > or = 100 mg/dL to or = 200 mg/dL (ADA 2003). of 1200 participants, there were 975 participants who fulfilled the invitation and there were 969 eligible participants to be evaluated. Among the participants aged > or = 25 years, there were 40 (4.13%) subjects with isolated IFG and 234 (24.25%) subjects with isolated IGT, 55 subjects (5.68%) with mixed IFG/IGT. the prevalence of isolated impaired fasting blood glucose in population with age > or = 25 years is 4.13%; while the prevalence of isolated impaired glucose tolerance is 24.25%. Mixed IFG/IGT is 5.68%. The total prevalence of pre-diabetic patients is 33.96%.
Ramos, M J; González-Fajardo, J A; Vaquero-Puerta, C; Vallina-Victorero, M; Vicente-Santiago, M; Vaquero-Lorenzo, F; Alvarez-Salgado, A; Alvarez-Fernandez, J
The aim of this paper was to determine the prevalence of extracraneal carotid artery disease in patients with intermittent claudication, to describe classic cardiovascular risk factors in those with hemodynamically significant stenosis and to try to define subgroups at high risk, improving therefore the performance of non invasive testing. A prospective descriptive study was conducted, with 146 patients reporting an intermittent claudication of the lower limbs and without a previous cerebrovascular event or carotid surgery. An ultrasonography examination was done. Risk factors were registed (smoking, dislipemia, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus), also ischemic cardiopathy and myocardial revascularization procedures. Univariate and multivariate analysis was made to define the variables associated with hemodynamically significant stenosis. Prevalence of hemodynamically significant stenosis was 23.2%. Smoking, dislipemia, arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus were not significantly associated with carotid stenosis; 24.2% of patients affected of ischemic cardiopathy present a severe stenosis, and myocardial revascularization was a risk factor for carotid stenosis. Patients with claudication and ischemic miocardiopathy, especially when myocardial revascularization is needed, must be explored with carotid ultrasonography. In this patients, probably of hemodynamically significant carotid stenosis that requires treatment is more frequent.
Louer, Amy L; Simon, Denise N; Switkowski, Karen M; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily
A high proportion of children have overweight and obesity in the United States and other countries. Accurate assessment of anthropometry is essential to understand health effects of child growth and adiposity. Gold standard methods of measuring adiposity, such as dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), may not be feasible in large field studies. Research staff can, however, complete anthropometric measurements, such as body circumferences and skinfold measurements, using inexpensive portable equipment. In this protocol we detail how to obtain manual anthropometric measurements from children, including standing and sitting height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, mid-upper arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, and subscapular skinfold thickness, and procedures to assess the quality of these measurements. To demonstrate accuracy of these measurements, among 1,110 school-aged children in the pre-birth cohort Project Viva we calculated Spearman correlation coefficients comparing manual anthropometric measurements with a gold standard measure of body fat, DXA fat mass 1 . To address reliability, we evaluate intra-rater technical error of measurement at a quality control session conducted on adult female volunteers.
Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease in the world and a real public health concern for many years in New Caledonia. A cross-sectional survey was carried out on domestic and wild animals from New Caledonia in April 2009. Blood samples were collected from 30 cattle, 29 deers, (Cervus timorensis russa, 25 horses, 51 dogs, and 8 cats and were tested for 23 serovars of pathogenic Leptospira species by the microscopic agglutination test. From the total number of 143 samples, 84 (58.7% were found to be positive towards one or several serovars of pathogenic leptospires. According to the species, the positive sera were obtained from 43% of 30 cattle, 72% of 29 Rusa deer, 80% of 25 horses, and 43% of 51 dogs, and fromall of the 8 cats tested. This study shows the broad dispersion and the high prevalence of the different serogroups of pathogenic Leptospira species tested, particularly among deer and horses. The disease is endemic in domestic animals and concerns all the species.
9.2 Summary in Danish (dansk resume) Det yderste lag af huden, overhuden, fungerer som en selvfornyende barriere, som beskytter vores indre kropslige miljø mod vandtab og samtidig beskytter os mod ydre miljømæssige påvirkninger. Detergenter findes i mange af vores dagligdagsprodukter og er samtidig...... kendt forat kunne irritere huden. Ved kontakt med detergenter, vil nogle individer være mere modtagelige overfor at udvikle en hudirritation end andre. Dette gælder særligt personer med børneeksem. Mutationer i det gen, der koder for hudproteinet filaggrin, er for nylig blevet identificeret som værende...... faktor for udviklingen af håndeksem i voksenalderen. I det kliniskeksperimentelle studie undersøgte vi, om personer med filaggrin mutationer havde en voldsommere hudreaktion på en detergent, hvilket kunne forklare ovenstående adfærdsændring. Undersøgelsen omfattede 67 personer, som blev opdelt i fire...
Full Text Available A reliable method for spectrophotometric determination of urinary malondialdehyde (MDA, according to the thiobarbituric acid (TBA assay, is described. To account for matrix interference and differences in individual urine composition, standard addition procedure was applied. The method is adequately selective (LoQ = 0.09 μM in the presence of 0.1 M creatinine and 0.5 M urea and reliable (within-day and between-day variability of less than 5 %. The mean level of urinary MDA was 1.52 ± 0.73 µM that is in good agreement with spectrofluorometric determination (1.20 ± 0.56 μM; p = 0.085 as well as with previous studies that used HPLC. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that MDA is stabile in urine at room temperature for 24 h and when stored at –20 °C for 6 months. The described method enables simple, rapid and cost-effective determination of urinary MDA as a relevant and non-invasive marker of “whole-body” oxidative stress. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Faraut, Brice; Andrillon, Thomas; Vecchierini, Marie-Françoise; Leger, Damien
Sleep specialists have proposed measures to counteract the negative short- and long-term consequences of sleep debt, and some have suggested the nap as a potential and powerful "public health tool". Here, we address this countermeasure aspect of napping viewed as an action against sleep deprivation rather than an action associated with poor health. We review the physiological functions that have been associated positively with napping in both public health and clinical settings (sleep-related accidents, work and school, and cardiovascular risk) and in laboratory-based studies with potential public health issues (cognitive performance, stress, immune function and pain sensitivity). We also discuss the circumstances in which napping-depending on several factors, including nap duration, frequency, and age-could be a potential public health tool and a countermeasure for sleep loss in terms of reducing accidents and cardiovascular events and improving sleep-restriction-sensitive working performance. However, the impact of napping and the nature of the sleep stage(s) involved still need to be evaluated, especially from the perspective of coping strategies in populations with chronic sleep debt, such as night and shift workers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mudry, M; Meylan, M; Regula, G; Steiner, A; Zanoni, R; Zanolari, P
In the context of the ongoing eradication campaign for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in cattle in Switzerland, the role of South American camelids (SAC) as a possible virus reservoir needed to be evaluated. To assess and characterize the prevalence of pestivirus infections in SAC in Switzerland. Serum samples collected from 348 animals (40 herds) in 2008 and from 248 animals (39 herds) in 2000 were examined for antibodies against pestiviruses and for the presence of BVDV viral RNA. Cross-sectional study using stratified, representative herd sampling. An indirect BVDV-ELISA was used to analyze serum samples for pestivirus antibodies, and positive samples underwent a serum neutralization test (SNT). Real-time RT-PCR to detect pestiviral RNA was carried out in all animals from herds with at least 1 seropositive animal. In 2008, the overall prevalence of animals positive for antibodies (ELISA) and pestiviral RNA or was 5.75 and 0%, respectively. In 2000, the corresponding prevalences were 3.63 and 0%, respectively. The seroprevalences (SNT) for BVDV, border disease virus or undetermined pestiviruses were estimated to be 0, 1.73, and 4.02% in 2008, and 0.40, 1.21, and 2.02% in 2000, respectively. At the present time, SAC appear to represent a negligible risk of re-infection for the BVDV eradication program in cattle in Switzerland. Copyright © 2010 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Full Text Available Background: In order to search for effective control and prevention measures, the status of metal pollution in Ningbo, China was investigated. Methods: Nine of the most common contaminating metals including lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn, chromium (Cr, nickel (Ni, zinc (Zn, and mercury (Hg in samples of vegetables, rice, soil, irrigation water, and human hair were detected using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. Three different districts including industrial, suburban and rural areas in Ningbo were studied through a stratified random sample method. Results: (1 Among all of the detected vegetable samples, Cd exceeded the standard limit rates in industrial, suburban and rural areas as high as 43.9%, 27.5% and 5.0%, respectively; indicating the severity of Cd pollution in Ningbo. (2 The pollution index (PI of Cd and Zn in soil (1.069, 1.584, respectively suggests that soil is slightly polluted by Cd and Zn. Among all samples, metal contamination levels in soil were all relatively high. (3 A positive correlation was found between the concentrations of Pb, Cd and Cu in vegetables and soil; Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni in vegetables and irrigation water, as well as, Cu and Ni in rice and irrigation water; and, (4 Higher Pb and Cd concentrations were found in student scalp hair in both industrial and suburban areas compared to rural areas. (5 Hg and Pb that are found in human scalp hair may be more easily absorbed from food than any of the other metals. Conclusions: In general, certain harmful metal pollutions were detected in both industrial and suburban areas of Ningbo in China.
Razak, M; Nasiruddin, J
Forty-one patients with 42 joint infections were admitted to the hospital between June 1989 and June 1994. An overview on the behaviour of septic arthritis in both children and adults, at presentation and after various types of treatment was done. There were 32 knees, 7 hips, 2 elbows and 1 shoulder. Duration of symptoms, type of organism, type of joint drainage, presence of preexisting joint problems and presence of osteomyelitis are among the important factors with prognostic significance. Seventy three percent of patients with less than 7 days duration of symptoms had satisfactory results. Whereas when the duration of symptoms exceeded 7 days, 75% of the patients had unsatisfactory outcome. All cases with poor outcome had positive cultures. Staphylococcus aureus was responsible for 77% of the culture-positive cases. All Staphylococcus aureus in this study were penicillin-resistant but sensitive to cloxacillin. There were 3 instances where Staphylococcus became resistant to cloxacillin following recurrence of septic arthritis. However, they were still sensitive to third generation cephalosporin. Staphylococcus aureus was capable of producing poor results even when the case was treated early. Other organisms were gram-negative bacilli which infect patients with suppressed immune system, that is, intravenous drug abuser, systemic steroid therapy and diabetes mellitus. Open arthrotomy was the method of drainage used in all hip sepsis. This method was also the most reliable method of joint drainage in other joints compared to aspiration method when frank pus was already present. Most immuno-compromised patients recovered badly from septic arthritis. Associated adjacent osteomyelitis, preexisting chronic arthritis and recent intra-articular fractures were also noted to adversely affect the functional outcome.
Kirkness, J P; McGinley, B M; Sgambati, F P; Patil, S P; Smith, P L; Schwartz, A R; Schneider, H
Existing physiological databases have not been sufficiently detailed to provide relevant and important information for characterizing the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea. Critical collapsing pressure (P(CRIT)) is a standard method for determining upper airway patency during sleep, however is labor intensive and prohibits large-scale studies. Based on previously published data indicating R(US) does not significantly vary between groups, our aim was to develop an approach to estimate the P(CRIT) from airflow at atmospheric pressure (V(atm)). In a dataset of 126 subjects, where P(CRIT) and R(US) were measured using standard techniques. We then determined the minimum sample size required to estimate the R(US) mean and variance by utilizing a bootstrap procedure (30 times for n=3 to 126). We first estimated the minimum number of subjects needed for obtaining a group for a two-tailed (z=1.96) standard error for R(US) in the population. Then in 75 individuals, quantitative estimates of airflow were obtained at atmospheric pressure. Using the estimated R(US) and atmospheric, we determined an estimated P(CRIT) (ЄP(CRIT)). Bland-Altman plots were generated to determine the agreement between the measured P(CRIT) and ЄP(CRIT). For the entire population the mean ± SEM R(US) was 23 ± 1 cmH(2)O/L/s (± 95% CI: 21, 25). ~40 subjects represent the minimum sample required to estimate the population variance within ± 2 SEM. In the subsample with atmospheric flow measurements, a linear regression model (ЄP(CRIT) [cmH(2)O] = V(@PN) [L/s]x-23[cmH(2)O/L/s]), ЄP(CRIT) ranged from 0 to -9.6 cmH(2)O. In the Bland-Altman analysis there was no mean difference between the measured P(CRIT) and ЄP(CRIT) (-0.01 cmH(2)O; p=0.8) with upper and lower limits of agreement at ± 2.3 cmH(2)O. The variance of upstream resistance approaches a constant value in groups with approximately 40 subjects. Utilizing a fixed up-stream resistance to estimate P(CRIT) from the airflow at
Kishi, R; Miyake, H
The question whether occupational exposure of parents to chemicals, electromagnetism and radiation causes malignant disease in their offspring has gained much interest. The findings to date, however, have been conflicting perhaps due to differences in the methods employed in these studies. A review was made on 16 case-control epidemiological studies. In 11 studies significant relation was observed between malignant tumor (leukemia, brain tumor and others) and occupational exposure to hydrocarbons, spray paint or other chemicals, ionizing radiation and electromagnetism. Conversely, no association was observed in five studies, in which different populations, different techniques, and different control groups were employed. The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of occupational exposure of the parents to chemicals and other agents in the development of malignant tumors in their offspring in relation to the employed epidemiological methodology.
Burns, Carol J.; McIntosh, Laura J.; Mink, Pamela J.; Jurek, Anne M.; Li, Abby A.
Assessment of whether pesticide exposure is associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children can best be addressed with a systematic review of both the human and animal peer-reviewed literature. This review analyzed epidemiologic studies testing the hypothesis that exposure to pesticides during pregnancy and/or early childhood is associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children. Studies that directly queried pesticide exposure (e.g., via questionnaire or interview) or measured pesticide or metabolite levels in biological specimens from study participants (e.g., blood, urine, etc.) or their immediate environment (e.g., personal air monitoring, home dust samples, etc.) were eligible for inclusion. Consistency, strength of association, and dose response were key elements of the framework utilized for evaluating epidemiologic studies. As a whole, the epidemiologic studies did not strongly implicate any particular pesticide as being causally related to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants and children. A few associations were unique for a health outcome and specific pesticide, and alternative hypotheses could not be ruled out. Our survey of the in vivo peer-reviewed published mammalian literature focused on effects of the specific active ingredient of pesticides on functional neurodevelopmental endpoints (i.e., behavior, neuropharmacology and neuropathology). In most cases, effects were noted at dose levels within the same order of magnitude or higher compared to the point of departure used for chronic risk assessments in the United States. Thus, although the published animal studies may have characterized potential neurodevelopmental outcomes using endpoints not required by guideline studies, the effects were generally observed at or above effect levels measured in repeated-dose toxicology studies submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Suggestions for improved exposure assessment in epidemiology studies and more effective
Lobo, Clarisse; Angulo, Ivan L; Aparicio, Lidia R; Drelichman, Guillermo I; Zanichelli, Maria A; Cancado, Rodolfo
The retrospective epidemiological study of Latin Americans with transfusional hemosiderosis is the first regional patient registry to gather data regarding the burden of transfusional hemosiderosis and patterns of care in these patients. Retrospective and cross-sectional data were collected on patients ≥2 years with selected chronic anemias and minimum 20 transfusions. In the 960 patients analyzed, sickle-cell disease (48·3%) and thalassemias (24·0%) were the most frequent underlying diagnoses. The registry enrolled 355 pediatric patients (187 with sickle-cell disease/94 with thalassemia). Serum ferritin was the most frequent method used to detect iron overload. Complications from transfusional hemosiderosis were reported in ~80% of patients; hepatic (65·3%), endocrine (27·5%), and cardiac (18·2%) being the most frequent. These data indicate that hemoglobinopathies and complications due to transfusional hemosiderosis are a significant clinical problem in the Latin American population with iron overload. Chelation therapy is used insufficiently and has a high rate of discontinuation.
"The aging of baby boomers poses significant challenges to Wisconsins existing transportation infrastructure and specialized transit : programs. From 2010 to 2035, the number of elderly Wisconsinites is projected to grow by 90 percent, an increase...
James E. Blyth; E. Michael Bailey; W. Brad Smith
Discusses and analyzes the 1981 Wisconsin fuelwood production from roundwood and primary wood-using mill residue. Analyzes production by geographic area, type of producer, species, landowner class, type of land, and tree source.
Tourassi, Georgia; Yoon, Hong-Jun; Xu, Songhua; Han, Xuesong
The World Wide Web has emerged as a powerful data source for epidemiological studies related to infectious disease surveillance. However, its potential for cancer-related epidemiological discoveries is largely unexplored. Using advanced web crawling and tailored information extraction procedures, the authors automatically collected and analyzed the text content of 79 394 online obituary articles published between 1998 and 2014. The collected data included 51 911 cancer (27 330 breast; 9470 lung; 6496 pancreatic; 6342 ovarian; 2273 colon) and 27 483 non-cancer cases. With the derived information, the authors replicated a case-control study design to investigate the association between parity (i.e., childbearing) and cancer risk. Age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for each cancer type and compared to those reported in large-scale epidemiological studies. Parity was found to be associated with a significantly reduced risk of breast cancer (OR = 0.78, 95% CI, 0.75-0.82), pancreatic cancer (OR = 0.78, 95% CI, 0.72-0.83), colon cancer (OR = 0.67, 95% CI, 0.60-0.74), and ovarian cancer (OR = 0.58, 95% CI, 0.54-0.62). Marginal association was found for lung cancer risk (OR = 0.87, 95% CI, 0.81-0.92). The linear trend between increased parity and reduced cancer risk was dramatically more pronounced for breast and ovarian cancer than the other cancers included in the analysis. This large web-mining study on parity and cancer risk produced findings very similar to those reported with traditional observational studies. It may be used as a promising strategy to generate study hypotheses for guiding and prioritizing future epidemiological studies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Mirabello, Lisa; Clarke, Megan A; Nelson, Chase W; Dean, Michael; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Yeager, Meredith; Cullen, Michael; Boland, Joseph F; Schiffman, Mark; Burk, Robert D
Of the ~60 human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes that infect the cervicovaginal epithelium, only 12-13 "high-risk" types are well-established as causing cervical cancer, with HPV16 accounting for over half of all cases worldwide. While HPV16 is the most important carcinogenic type, variants of HPV16 can differ in their carcinogenicity by 10-fold or more in epidemiologic studies. Strong genotype-phenotype associations embedded in the small 8-kb HPV16 genome motivate molecular studies to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms. Understanding the mechanisms of HPV genomic findings is complicated by the linkage of HPV genome variants. A panel of experts in various disciplines gathered on 21 November 2016 to discuss the interdisciplinary science of HPV oncogenesis. Here, we summarize the discussion of the complexity of the viral-host interaction and highlight important next steps for selected applied basic laboratory studies guided by epidemiological genomic findings.
In order to solve public health problems posed by the epidemiology of risk factors centered on the individual and neglecting the causal processes linking the risk factors with the health outcomes, Mervyn Susser proposed a multilevel epidemiology called eco-epidemiology, addressing the interdependence of individuals and their connection with molecular, individual, societal, environmental levels of organization participating in the causal disease processes. The aim of this epidemiology is to integrate more than a level of organization in design, analysis and interpretation of health problems. After presenting the main criticisms of risk-factor epidemiology focused on the individual, we will try to show how eco-epidemiology and its development could help to understand the need for a broader and integrative epidemiology, in which studies designed to identify risk factors would be balanced by studies designed to answer other questions equally vital to public health. © 2016 médecine/sciences – Inserm.
Onur Burak Dursun
Full Text Available Childhood psychiatric disorders are estimated to influence about 9 to 21% of relevant age group and interest in this disorders are increasing all over the world. The growing need to child and adolescent mental health leads the task of establishing proposals and policies in this field to become a priority for governments. The first step of such proposals should be determination of prevalence of child and adolescent mental disorders in that country. However, several major methodological problems make it hard to provide accurate prevalence estimates from epidemiological studies. Most common problems are within the fields of sampling, case definition, case ascertainment and data analyses. Such issues increases the costs of studies and hinder to reach large sample sizes. To minimize these problems, investigators have to be careful on choosing the appropriate methodology and diagnostic tools in their studies. Although there are many interviews and questionnaires for screening and diagnosing in child and adolescent psychiatry, only a few of them are suitable for epidemiological research. In parallel with the improvement in all fields of child and adolescent mental health in our country, some of the major screening and diagnosing tools used in prevalence studies in literature have already been translated and validated in Turkish. Most important of this tools for screening purposes are Child Behavior Checklist and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and for diagnosing purposes are Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version and Development and Well-Being Assessment. The aims of this article are to review the methodological problems of epidemiologic studies in child and adolescent psychiatry and to briefly discuss suitable diagnostic tools for extended sampled epidemiologic studies in our country.
Zagdańska, Marta; Kiejna, Andrzej
The aim of this study was to identify risk factors and estimate prevalence of depressive episodes among Wroclaw's universities students. Polish adaptation of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was implemented to gather epidemiological data from 370 students of public universities in Wroclaw. Proportional stratified sampling was performed to obtain distinct, independent strata representing sex, year of study and educational profiles. Randomisation was ensured by recruitment procedures. Prevalence of depressive episodes among students in Wroclaw is high - 14.7% throughout life, 9.8% within 12 months prior to the interview. High prevalence of severe and moderate depressive episodes seems to be worrisome (respectively 5.1% and 6.6% throughout life, 3.8% and 3.9% within 12 months prior to the study). Year of study, profile and lack of partner relationship remain risk factor for depression. High prevalence of depressive episodes indicates the need for prevention and therapy based on epidemiological data and tailored to the students' needs. Depression among students requires further epidemiological studies.
Montserrat, I; March, F; de Simón, M; Llovet, T; Ferrer, M D; Coll, P; Prats, G
The use of molecular epidemiology techniques has provided better knowledge as to the clonal organization of bacterian populations and thus allows better follow up of epidemics. An alimentary toxiinfection in a Barcelona school produced by Staphylococcus aureus was analyzed by the combination of epidemiologic, phenotype and genotype markers with the aim of determining the source of the alimentary contamination. Nine strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated in 6 food manipulators and 3 patients were studied with the following markers: biotype, antibiotype, phagotype, plasmid profile, polymorphism of the size of the restriction fragments of total DNA and ribotype. Epidemiologic study of the strains analyzed showed that both the phenotype markers and the plasmid profile are thecniques of little discriminatory value. The only clearly discriminatory technique used was ribotyping which defined 3 clones in the 9 strains of Staphylococcus aureus studied. Molecular study of isolated strains of Staphylococcus aureus was able to identify the causal origin of the alimentary toxiinfection in one of the 6 food manipulators studied.
Epidemiological research has good possibilities in Denmark due to the fact that all people have a personal PIN code and due to our many National health registers. In gynaecology the National Register of Patients, the Birth Registry, IVF-registry, Cancer Registry and latest the National Prescription...... Database offer unique possibilities of linking exposure data with many clinical outcomes. Danish epidemiology has contributed with morbidity analyses on children concieved by in vitro fertilisation, pharmacoepidemiological studies on short and long term effects of oral contraceptives and hormone therapy...
Database offer unique possibilities of linking exposure data with many clinical outcomes. Danish epidemiology has contributed with morbidity analyses on children concieved by in vitro fertilisation, pharmacoepidemiological studies on short and long term effects of oral contraceptives and hormone therapy......Epidemiological research has good possibilities in Denmark due to the fact that all people have a personal PIN code and due to our many National health registers. In gynaecology the National Register of Patients, the Birth Registry, IVF-registry, Cancer Registry and latest the National Prescription...
Over 100 years have passed since Harting and Hesse first described an unusual pattern of thoracic malignancy in the underground metal miners of Schneeberg. It is now known that these miners had primary cancer of the lung, caused by exposure to radon progeny released into the air of the mines from the ore. The early case series of Harting and Hesse, based on the Schneeberg miners, and of Pirchan and Sikl, based on the Joachamisthal mines, have been followed by epidemiologic studies of more formal design of uranium and other underground miners exposed to radon throughout the world. These studies have confirmed the causal association of radon and its progeny with lung cancer and provided quantification of the risk of lung cancer in relation to exposure to radon progeny. These studies have also provided insights concerning the effect of radon progeny on smokers and on nonsmokers. The findings of the epidemiologic studies have provided a clear imperative for reducing exposures of miners to radon progeny. Consequently, exposures of underground uranium miners to radon progeny have been lowered substantially over the last 50 years in countries reporting exposures of underground miners. The epidemiologic studies have also documented the substantial burden of radon-caused lung cancers among miners of uranium and other ores. While the causal link of radon with lung cancer in underground miners is now established and unquestioned, the risk of radon in indoor air remains a highly controversial issue. During the last few decades, there has been increasing recognition that radon is ubiquitous in indoor environments, in some instances at concentrations as high as measured in underground mines. As a foundation for risk management, the epidemiologic evidence from underground miners has been the primary basis for estimating the risk of indoor radon
Kaushal, Mukul; Chouhan, Devendra K; Sharma, Gaurav; Kanojia, Rajendra K
Floating knee injury has been considered as one of the severe orthopedic injury, and is often associated with major systemic trauma involving other organs. To identify the incidence of floating knee injury, severity of injury and associated orthopaedic and non-orthopaedic injury. Epidemiologic study conducted from 1 Jan 2014 to 31 Dec 2014. A total of 136 cases with floating knee injury were registered. Modified Fraser classification showed 58 patients had type 1, 74 had type 2 and 4 had type 3 floating knees. 119(87.5%) patients had open fractures and Gustilo-Anderson type IIIA(29.4%) being the commonest. No Mortality was found. 16 (11.76%) of floating knees had to undergo amputation of afflicted limb. Statics of such data would be helpful in planning and preparing ourselves as healthcare professionals to prevent high mortality and morbidity/disability in floating knee injury. Retrospective Epidemiological. Level 4 (Case Study).
Neitzke, H. P.; Osterhoff, J.; Peklo, K.; Voigt, H.
To investigate a supposed relationship between exposure by mobile phone base stations and well-being, an epidemiological cross sectional study is carried out within the German Mobile Telecommunication Research Program. In a parallel project, a method for the classification of electromagnetic exposure due to mobile phone base stations has been developed. This is based on the results of measurements of high frequency immissions in the interior of more than 1100 rooms and at outdoor locations, the calculation of the emissions of mobile phone antennas under free space propagation conditions and empirically determined transmission factors for the propagation of electromagnetic waves in different types of residential areas for passage of walls and windows. Standard tests (correlation-test, kappa-test, Bland-Altman-Plot, analysis of sensitivity and specificity) show that the method for computational exposure assessment developed in this project is applicable for a first classification of exposures due to mobile phone base stations in epidemiological studies. (authors)
Bouville, A.; Anspaugh, L.; Beebe, G.W.
Formal epidemiologic studies are intended to increase scientific knowledge about the quantitative risk that is associated with radiation exposure. Dosimetric data are needed for such studies. What dosimetric data are desirable? Doses are needed for a large number of people with a large gradation of radiation exposures in order to ensure a sufficient power for the epidemiological study. The characteristics of the desirable doses are, in some respects, different from those calculated for radiation protection purposes. The desirable data are: absorbed doses to the individual organs or tissues of interest, instead of effective doses; absorbed doses delivered over limited time periods, instead of committed doses; doses specific to the individuals that are subjects in the epidemiological studies, instead of average doses over population groups; and very accurate and precise doses. What dosimetric data are feasible? Most of the characteristics of the desirable dosimetric data are usually achievable. However, uncertainties can be fairly large and estimated with a large degree of subjectivity. Also, for practical reasons, it may not be feasible to estimate individual doses for all subjects
Cordle, F; Miller, S A
The increasing use of nonnutritive sweeteners and the widely publicized 1969 ban on cyclamate led to additional investigations in rodents of the carcinogenic potential of saccharin. Preliminary results of a long-term feeding study indicated formation of bladder tumors in rodents, and collective experimental evidence has demonstrated that high doses of the synthetic sweetener saccharin can cause bladder cancer in rodents. Based on the results of that and other rodent studies indicating an increased risk of bladder cancer associated with saccharin, the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration announced the agency's intention to propose a ban on saccharin. This intention was made known in April 1977 under the Delaney Clause of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The clause essentially states that no additive shall be deemed safe if it is found to induce cancer in man or animals, or if it is found, after tests appropriate for the evaluation of the safety of food additives, to induce cancer in man or animals. Also in 1977, a group of epidemiologists began to assess the available epidemiologic information to determine the potential human risk. This report describes the assessment of several human epidemiologic studies available then and the results of more recent epidemiologic studies.
The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Cassell, Anna; Edwards, Duncan Alexander; Harshfield, Amelia; Rhodes, Kirsty; Brimicombe, David; Payne, Rupert; Griffin, Simon James
Background: Multimorbidity places a substantial burden on patients and the healthcare system but few contemporary data are available. Aim: To describe the epidemiology of multimorbidity in adults in England and quantify associations between multimorbidity and health service utilisation. Design: Retrospective cohort study Setting: A random sample of 403,985 adult patients (≥18 years) in England who were registered with a general practice on 1 January 2012 and included in the Clini...
Collins, Michael A.; Neafsey, Edward J.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Gray, Mary O.; Parks, Dale A.; Das, Dipak K.; Korthuis, Ronald J.
In contrast to many years of important research and clinical attention to the pathological effects of alcohol (ethanol) abuse, the past several decades have seen the publication of a number of peer-reviewed studies indicating beneficial effects of light-moderate, non-binge consumption of varied alcoholic beverages, as well as experimental demonstrations that moderate alcohol exposure can initiate typically cytoprotective mechanisms. A considerable body of epidemiology associates moderate alco...
GUO, Zhihong; LI, Wei; PENG, Mao; DUO, Hong; SHEN, Xiuying; FU, Yong; IRIE, Takao; GAN, Tiantian; KIRINO, Yumi; NASU, Tetsuo; HORII, Yoichiro; NONAKA, Nariaki
ABSTRACT An epidemiological study and control trial were conducted to assess taeniid infection in farm dogs in Qinghai Province, China. To improve egg detection by fecal examination, a deworming step with praziquantel was incorporated into the sampling methodology. As a result, a marked increase in the number of egg-positive samples was observed in samples collected at 24 hr after deworming. Then, the fecal examination and barcoding of egg DNA were performed to assess the prevalence of taenii...
an estimated prevalence for leptospira-induced abortions , a better understanding of the horse population in which these incidents occur can be...EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF LEPTOSPIRA-INDUCED ABORTION IN MARES IN CENTRAL KENTUCKY (1990-2004) 6. AUTHOR(S) CAPT HALL DAVID C 7. PERFORMING... ABORTION IN MARES IN CENTRAL KENTUCKY (1990-2004) THESIS A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of
Lozier, Matthew; Turcios-Ruiz, Reina Maria; Noonan, Gary; Ordunez, Pedro
SYNOPSIS Over the last two decades, experts have reported a rising number of deaths caused by chronic kidney disease (CKD) along the Pacific coast of Central America, from southern Mexico to Costa Rica. However, this specific disease is not associated with traditional causes of CKD, such as aging, diabetes, or hypertension. Rather, this disease is a chronic interstitial nephritis termed chronic kidney disease of nontraditional etiology (CKDnT). According to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) mortality database, there are elevated rates of deaths related to kidney disease in many of these countries, with the highest rates being reported in El Salvador and Nicaragua. This condition has been identified in certain agricultural communities, predominantly among male farmworkers. Since CKD surveillance systems in Central America are under development or nonexistent, experts and governmental bodies have recommended creating standardized case definitions for surveillance purposes to monitor and characterize this epidemiological situation. A group of experts from Central American ministries of health, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and PAHO held a workshop in Guatemala to discuss CKDnT epidemiologic case definitions. In this paper, we propose that CKD in general be identified by the standard definition internationally accepted and that a suspect case of CKDnT be defined as a person age diseases, and other well-known causes of CKD. A probable case of CKDnT is defined as a suspect case with the same findings confirmed three or more months later.
Page, Matthew J.; Higgins, Julian P. T.; Clayton, Gemma; Sterne, Jonathan A. C.; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Savović, Jelena
Objective To synthesise evidence on the average bias and heterogeneity associated with reported methodological features of randomized trials. Design Systematic review of meta-epidemiological studies. Methods We retrieved eligible studies included in a recent AHRQ-EPC review on this topic (latest search September 2012), and searched Ovid MEDLINE and Ovid EMBASE for studies indexed from Jan 2012-May 2015. Data were extracted by one author and verified by another. We combined estimates of average bias (e.g. ratio of odds ratios (ROR) or difference in standardised mean differences (dSMD)) in meta-analyses using the random-effects model. Analyses were stratified by type of outcome (“mortality” versus “other objective” versus “subjective”). Direction of effect was standardised so that ROR ROR 0.93, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99; 7 studies) and allocation concealment (ROR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.97; 7 studies). For these characteristics, the average bias appeared to be larger in trials of subjective outcomes compared with other objective outcomes. Also, intervention effects for subjective outcomes appear to be exaggerated in trials with lack of/unclear blinding of participants (versus blinding) (dSMD -0.37, 95% CI -0.77 to 0.04; 2 studies), lack of/unclear blinding of outcome assessors (ROR 0.64, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.96; 1 study) and lack of/unclear double blinding (ROR 0.77, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.93; 1 study). The influence of other characteristics (e.g. unblinded trial personnel, attrition) is unclear. Conclusions Certain characteristics of randomized trials may exaggerate intervention effect estimates. The average bias appears to be greatest in trials of subjective outcomes. More research on several characteristics, particularly attrition and selective reporting, is needed. PMID:27398997
Young, H.L.; Skinner, Earl L.
This report describes the physical environment, availability, distribution, movement, quality, and use of water in the upper Wisconsin River basin as an aid in planning and water management. The report presents general information on the basin derived from data obtained from Federal, State, and local agencies, New field data were collected in areas where information was lacking. More detailed studies of problem areas may be required in the future, as water needs and related development increase.
Ana R Quiñones
Full Text Available Objectives: Optimal depression screening necessitates measurement tools that are valid across varied populations and in the presence of comorbidities. Methods: This study assessed the test properties of two versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale against psychiatric diagnoses established by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview among a clinical sample of US Veterans deployed during Operations Enduring Freedom, Iraqi Freedom, and New Dawn. Participants (N = 359 recruited from two Department of Veterans Affairs hospitals completed a clinical interview, structured diagnostic interview, and self-reported measures. Results: Based on diagnostic interview and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition criteria, 29.5% of the sample met diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder and 26.5% met diagnostic criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder. Both Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-20 and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-10 scales performed well and almost identically against the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-major depressive disorder in identifying Veterans with major depressive disorder (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-20 area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve 91%; Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-10 area under the ROC curve 90%. Overall, higher cut points for the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scales performed better in correctly identifying true positives and true negatives for major depressive disorder (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-20 cut point 18+ sensitivity 92% specificity 72%; Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-10 cut point 10+ sensitivity 92% specificity 69%. Conclusions: The specificity of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scales was poor among Veterans with co-occurring post-traumatic stress disorder (13% and 16%. Veterans with post
Davies, J.M.; Inskip, H.
The exposure of man to radiation and the resulting risk of carcinogenesis continue to be of concern to the public. In this context, there is often a tendency to carry out epidemiological studies concerning the induction of cancer in radiation workers and members of the public which are not supported by a statistically valid data base or whose result are misinterpreted or misused. To assist national authorities in evaluating radiological risks, the Nuclear Energy Agency has sponsored a critical review of the methodologies for, and the limitations of, these epidemiological studies, and of the precautions to be adopted in interpreting their results. Prepared by two consultants, Dr. Joan M. Davies and Dr. Hazel Inskip, the review focuses on the problems encountered when carrying out epidemiological studies on groups of the general population exposed to radiation, and using their results for radiological protection purposes. The primary objective is to provide background material for national authorities who have responsibilities in the field of radiological protection, as well as to other persons interested in this subject. It is published under the responsibility of the Secretary General of the OECD, and does not necessarily reflect the views of Member Governments
Pons-Bonals, Alicia; Pons-Bonals, Leticia; Hidalgo-Martínez, Sandra Margarita; Sosa-Ferreyra, Carlos Francisco
One of the most common congenital disorders that affects the facial structures is the cleft lip palate (CLP). The aim of this study was to generate the clinical-epidemiological profile of CLP patients from Hospital de Especialidades del Niño y la Mujer (HENM) Dr. Felipe Nuñez Lara, from the Ministry of Health, Queretaro, Mexico, from 2011 to 2014, who received treatment from the Cleft Lip Palate Clinic in order to provide interdisciplinary treatments for CLP patients based on the information from the pediatric records. Retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study using univariate analysis frequencies for qualitative variables; central statistical and dispersion for quantitative variables and clinical profile. One hundred records were reviewed, from which 15 were discarded for being syndromic cases. Epidemiological, clinical, and socio-demographic variables were studied. The epidemiological profile (variables associated with mother's pregnancy, patient's health at birth, nutritional and psychomotor development; family medical records, addictions, and socioeconomic factors) and clinical profile (disease classification by sex, structure, and side; surgeries classification and order in which they took place) of the treated population were registered. The results showed the need to standardize the data registration on medical records to improve the monitoring and treatment of patients and emphasize actions to maintain low incidence of CLP in Queretaro. Copyright © 2017 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
People have been exposed every time and everywhere to natural radiation and ''intuitively'' know the safety of this radiation exposure. On the other hand the theory of no threshold value on radiological carcinogenesis is known widely, and many people feel danger with even a smallest dose of radiation exposure. The safety of natural radiation exposure can be used for the risk communication with the public. For this communication, the safety of natural radiation exposure should be proved ''scientifically''. Safety is often discussed scientifically as the risks of the mortality from many practices, and the absolute risks of safe practices on the public are 1E-5 to 1E-6. The risks based on the difference of natural radiation exposure on carcinogenesis have been analyzed by epidemiological studies. Much of the epidemiological studies have been focused on the relationship between radiation doses and cancer mortalities, and their results have been described as relative risks or correlation factors. In respect to the safety, however, absolute risks are necessary for the discussion. Cancer mortalities depend not only on radiation exposure, but also on ethnic groups, sexes, ages, social classes, foods, smoking, environmental chemicals, medical radiation, etc. In order to control these confounding factors, the data are collected from restricted groups or/and localities, but any these ecological studies can not perfectly compensate the confounding factors. So positive or negative values of relative risks or the meaningful correlation factors can not be confirmed that their values are derived originally from the difference of their exposure doses. The absolute risks on these epidemiological studies are also affected by many factors containing radiation exposure. The absolute risk or the upper value of the confidence limit obtained from the epidemiological study which is well regulated confounding factors is possible to be a maximum risk on the difference of the exposure doses
Pinggera Gerd K
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence of the important role that small, isolated populations could play in finding genes involved in the etiology of diseases. For historical and political reasons, South Tyrol, the northern most Italian region, includes several villages of small dimensions which remained isolated over the centuries. Methods The MICROS study is a population-based survey on three small, isolated villages, characterized by: old settlement; small number of founders; high endogamy rates; slow/null population expansion. During the stage-1 (2002/03 genealogical data, screening questionnaires, clinical measurements, blood and urine samples, and DNA were collected for 1175 adult volunteers. Stage-2, concerning trait diagnoses, linkage analysis and association studies, is ongoing. The selection of the traits is being driven by expert clinicians. Preliminary, descriptive statistics were obtained. Power simulations for finding linkage on a quantitative trait locus (QTL were undertaken. Results Starting from participants, genealogies were reconstructed for 50,037 subjects, going back to the early 1600s. Within the last five generations, subjects were clustered in one pedigree of 7049 subjects plus 178 smaller pedigrees (3 to 85 subjects each. A significant probability of familial clustering was assessed for many traits, especially among the cardiovascular, neurological and respiratory traits. Simulations showed that the MICROS pedigree has a substantial power to detect a LOD score ≥ 3 when the QTL specific heritability is ≥ 20%. Conclusion The MICROS study is an extensive, ongoing, two-stage survey aimed at characterizing the genetic epidemiology of Mendelian and complex diseases. Our approach, involving different scientific disciplines, is an advantageous strategy to define and to study population isolates. The isolation of the Alpine populations, together with the extensive data collected so far, make the MICROS study a
Horn-Ross, P L; Barnes, S; Lee, M; Coward, L; Mandel, J E; Koo, J; John, E M; Smith, M
Phytoestrogens (weak estrogens found in plants or derived from plant precursors by human metabolism) have been hypothesized to reduce the risk of a number of cancers. However, epidemiologic studies addressing this issue are hampered by the lack of a comprehensive phytoestrogen database for quantifying exposure. The purpose of this research was to develop such a database for use with food-frequency questionnaires in large epidemiologic studies. The database is based on consumption patterns derived from semistructured interviews with 118 African-American, Latina, and white women residing in California's San Francisco Bay Area. HPLC-mass spectrometry was used to determine the content of seven specific phytoestrogenic compounds (i.e. the isoflavones: genistein, daidzein, biochanin A, and formononetin; the coumestan: coumestrol; and the plant lignans: matairesinol and secoisolariciresinol) in each of 112 food items/groups. Traditional soy-based foods were found to contain high levels of genistein and daidzein, as expected, as well as substantial amounts of coumestrol. A wide variety of "hidden" sources of soy (that is, soy protein isolate, soy concentrate, or soy flour added to foods) was observed. Several other foods (such as various types of sprouts and dried fruits, garbanzo beans, asparagus, garlic, and licorice) were also found to be substantial contributors of one or more of the phytoestrogens analyzed. Databases, such as the one described here, are important in assessing the relationship between phytoestrogen exposure and cancer risk in epidemiologic studies. Agencies, such as the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), that routinely provide data on food composition, on which epidemiologic investigations into dietary health effects are based, should consider instituting programs for the analysis of phytochemicals, including the phytoestrogens.
... when solid waste is generated from use of the UWNR, it is transferred to the University of Wisconsin.... In the years that solid waste was generated, less than 400 milliCuries of solid waste was transferred...; University of Wisconsin Nuclear Reactor Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S...
Stack, Austin G
Epidemiologic studies of physical activity among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are lacking. The aim of this study was to describe the patterns of physical activity among new dialysis patients in the United States.
Wouters, F.R.; Jon-And, C.; Frithiof, L.; Soeder, P.Oe.; Lavstedt, S.
The aims of the study were to adapt a computerized system to epidemiologic conditions, for rapid full-mouth measurements of alveolar bone levels from X5-magnified periapical radiographs and to analyze the variations in measurement due to different system components. Full-mouth measurements of interproximal alveolar bone height in percentage of root and tooth lengths were completed within av average time of 15 min. per set of radiographs. An analysis of variance showed that the examiner variation in measurement of a linear scale distance was 0.02 mm. The measurement accuracy was different for different distances. Each distance (d) measured with this system should therefore be calibrated with the equation Y = -0.007 - 0.014 (log 3d - 1.50) where Y is the estimate of measurement accuracy. The present computerized system enabled rapid recordings and demonstrated good measurement precision and accuracy. These are valuable features in epidemiologic investigations. 31 refs.
Marra, M.L.; Zullo, F.; De Felice, B.; Nappi, L.; Guida, M.; Trifuoggi, M.; Nappi, C.; Di Spiezio Sardo, A.; Zizolfi, B.; Capece, G.; Visconti, F.; Troisi, J.; Ciccone, C.; Guida, M.
This study aims to address the clinical, statistical and Epidemiological Relationship Between Birth Defects and Environmental Pollution, in the Campania Region and in Salerno. Objectives: We examined four groups of subjects as follows: a sample of pregnant women living in Salerno, a sample of pregnant women living in highly polluted areas, a sample of controls, pregnant women and residents out of the Campania Region, considered in unpolluted areas (Foggia) and in the Salerno area. Methodologies: a toxicological and genetic analysis was conducted on patients examined. Conclusions: there is an epidemiological link between environmental pollution and reproductive health in the Salerno area. Experimentally there are the first evidences of endocrine disruptors by the PCB. It has been inferred an overexpression of the mir-191 as a marker of pollution by dioxin-like compounds. Socially, correct information of populations at risk is necessary and a possible preventive and ongoing medical care must be ensured. PMID:23905062
Full Text Available Results from numerous linkage and association studies have greatly deepened scientists’ understanding of the genetic basis of many human diseases, yet some important questions remain unanswered. For example, although a large number of disease-associated loci have been identified from genome-wide association studies (GWAS in the past 10 years, it is challenging to interpret these results as most disease-associated markers have no clear functional roles in disease etiology, and all the identified genomic factors only explain a small portion of disease heritability. With the help of next-generation sequencing (NGS, diverse types of genomic and epigenetic variations can be detected with high accuracy. More importantly, instead of using linkage disequilibrium to detect association signals based on a set of pre-set probes, NGS allows researchers to directly study all the variants in each individual, therefore promises opportunities for identifying functional variants and a more comprehensive dissection of disease heritability. Although the current scale of NGS studies is still limited due to the high cost, the success of several recent studies suggests the great potential for applying NGS in genomic epidemiology, especially as the cost of sequencing continues to drop. In this review, we discuss several pioneer applications of NGS, summarize scientific discoveries for rare and complex diseases, and compare various study designs including targeted sequencing and whole-genome sequencing using population-based and family-based cohorts. Finally, we highlight recent advancements in statistical methods proposed for sequencing analysis, including group-based association tests, meta-analysis techniques, and annotation tools for variant prioritization.
Bousquet, P.-J.; Burbach, G.; Heinzerling, L. M.; Edenharter, G.; Bachert, C.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Bonini, S.; Bousquet-Rouanet, L.; Demoly, P.; Bresciani, M.; Bruno, A.; Gjomarkaj, M.; Canonica, G. W.; Darsow, U.; Durham, S.; Fokkens, W. J.; Giavi, S.; Gramiccioni, C.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Haahtela, T.; Kowalski, M. L.; Magyar, P.; Muraközi, G.; Orosz, M.; Röhnelt, C.; Stingl, G.; Todo-Bom, A.; von Mutius, E.; Wiesner, A.; Wöhrl, S.; Bousquet, J.; Zuberbier, T.
Background: The number of allergens to be tested in order to identify sensitized patients is important in order to have the most cost-effective approach in epidemiological studies. Objective: To define the minimal number and the type of skin prick test (SPT) allergens required to identify a patient
Samieirad, Sahand; Aboutorabzade, Mohammad-Reza; Tohidi, Elahe; Shaban, Baratollah; Khalife, Hussein; Salami, Hamid-Reza
Background The epidemiology of facial injuries varies based on lifestyle, cultural background and socioeconomic status in different countries and geographic zones. This study evaluated the epidemiology of maxillofacial fractures and treatment plans in hospitalized patients in Northeast of Iran (2015-2016). Material and Methods In this retrospective study, the medical records of 502 hospitalized patients were evaluated in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery in Kamyab Hospital in Mashhad, Iran. The type and cause of fractures and treatment plans were recorded in a checklist. Data were analyzed with Mann–Whitney test, chi-squared test and Fisher’s exact test, using SPSS 21. Results The majority of patients were male (80.3%). Most subjects were in 20-30-year age range (43.2%). The fractures were mostly caused by accidents, particularly motorcycle accidents (MCAs), and the most common site of involvement was the body of the mandible. There was a significant association between the type of treatment and age. In fact, the age range of 16-59 years underwent open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) more than other age ranges (P=0.001). Also, there was a significant association between gender and fractures (P=0.002). Conclusions It was concluded that patient age and gender and trauma significantly affected the prevalence of maxillofacial traumas, fracture types and treatment plans. This information would be useful for making better health policy strategies. Key words:Epidemiology, treatment, facial injuries, maxillofacial fractures, trauma. PMID:28809369
Hoffmann, M; Gebauer, S; Nüchter, M; Baber, R; Ried, J; von Bergen, M; Kiess, W
Endocrine disruptive chemicals (EDCs) cause adverse health effects through interaction with endocrine systems. They are classified by chemical structure, effects on specific endocrine systems, bioaccumulation, persistence in the environment, or clinically observable effects. For research of the complex mechanisms of action in the human body, only in vitro model systems have so far been available, that have insufficient high-throughput capacity, which makes risk evaluation more difficult. In addition, in industrial nations, living people are often exposed to mixtures of substances, with various effects. The clinical importance of epigenetic changes caused by the action of EDCs during vulnerable phases of development is currently unclear. Epidemiological studies are criticized because reproducibility is not always guaranteed. Nevertheless, they remain the method of choice for the development and analysis of suitable model systems. Positive associations, in spite of sometimes conflicting results, are key in the selection of factors that can then be analysed in model systems in an unbiased way. This article depicts the mainly positive epidemiological findings for EDC-caused effects in the fields of growth and metabolism, neurocognitive development and sexual development and reproduction. As a result, there is a need for closer linkage between epidemiological studies and mechanistic research into model systems, especially focusing on the interaction of different EDCs and the consequences of prenatal and early life exposure.
Barasona, José A.; Mulero-Pázmány, Margarita; Acevedo, Pelayo; Negro, Juan J.; Torres, María J.; Gortázar, Christian; Vicente, Joaquín
Complex ecological and epidemiological systems require multidisciplinary and innovative research. Low cost unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) can provide information on the spatial pattern of hosts’ distribution and abundance, which is crucial as regards modelling the determinants of disease transmission and persistence on a fine spatial scale. In this context we have studied the spatial epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in the ungulate community of Doñana National Park (South-western Spain) by modelling species host (red deer, fallow deer and cattle) abundance at fine spatial scale. The use of UAS high-resolution images has allowed us to collect data to model the environmental determinants of host abundance, and in a further step to evaluate their relationships with the spatial risk of TB throughout the ungulate community. We discuss the ecological, epidemiological and logistic conditions under which UAS may contribute to study the wildlife/livestock sanitary interface, where the spatial aggregation of hosts becomes crucial. These findings are relevant for planning and implementing research, fundamentally when managing disease in multi-host systems, and focusing on risky areas. Therefore, managers should prioritize the implementation of control strategies to reduce disease of conservation, economic and social relevance. PMID:25551673
Mohammad Hossien Feiz Haddad
Full Text Available Objective: To examine the prevalence process and epidemiological characteristics of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL during 2001–2011. Methods: This was a cross-sectional epidemiologic study examining 2 637 patients with CL in Susangerd county during 2001–2011. The data of all patients who referred to the Prevention Unit of Susangerd Health Center were registered in CL epidemiologic data summary forms. The data and parameters included age, gender, occupation, season, residence (urban, rural, and lesion location. Results: Out of 2 637 patients, 1 174 cases (44.5% were females and 1463 patients (55.5% were males. The maximum rate of infection was recorded in under 10-year-old age group (45.32% and its minimum rate was seen among those aged over 60 years (0.87%. Among them, 1 557 patients (59.0% were living in urban and 1 080 (41.0% were in rural areas. The maximum and minimum occupational frequency distributions were seen in students (49.9% and farmers (0.6%, respectively. The study showed that the maximum and minimum frequencies were observed in winter (52.33% and summer (7.62% correspondingly. The most lesion frequencies from lesion location point of view were related to hands (37.5%, faces (30.0%, feet (26.3% and other organs (6.2% and the number of lesions ranged from 1–5 and sized varied from 0.5–5.5 cm Conclusions: Epidemiological parameters such as age, gender, occupation, season, residence (urban, rural and lesion location in endemic regions have had significant effects on the prevalence of CL in Susangerd county and the findings can be effective for assessing disease prevention programs. In addition, CL might become a serious dermatological health problem in the near future due to a great population movement to the neighboring country Iraq with a high incidence to an endemic area.
Prigitano, Anna; Cavanna, Caterina; Passera, Marco; Ossi, Cristina; Sala, Eugenio; Lombardi, Gianluigi; Grancini, Anna; De Luca, Concetta; Bramati, Simone; Gelmi, Marina; Tejada, Milvana; Grande, Romualdo; Farina, Claudio; Lallitto, Fabiola; Tortorano, Anna Maria
The aim of this study was to monitor recent changes in the epidemiology of candidemia and in the antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida isolates in one Italian region (Lombardy) in 2014-2015 in comparison with two other studies performed in the same area in 1997-1999 and in 2009. A laboratory-based surveillance was conducted in 11 microbiology laboratories. Identification of Candida isolates from 868 episodes and antifungal susceptibility testing (YeastOne) was performed locally. A progressive increase in the rate of candidemia up to 1.27/1000 admissions and 1.59/10,000 patient days was documented. In all the three surveys, Candida albicans remains the most frequently isolated species, ranging from 52 to 59 % of the etiology of BSIs. The epidemiological shift to the more resistant C. glabrata, observed between 1997-1999 and 2009 surveys, was not confirmed by our more recent data. The pattern of etiology of BSIs occurred in 2014-2015 overlaps that of the 90s. Acquired antifungal resistance is a rare event. No isolate had an amphoterin B minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC, mg/L) value higher than the epidemiological cutoff. All the echinocandin MIC distributions are typical for wild-type organisms except for those of two C. glabrata isolates. Fluconazole resistance declined from 24.9 % in the 2009 survey to 5.4 % in the recent one. Data from regional surveys may highlight the influence of therapeutic practices on the epidemiology of Candida BSIs and may optimize empirical therapies.
Robertson, Dale M.; Goddard, Gerald L.; Helsel, D.R.; MacKinnon, Kevin L.
A comprehensive rehabilitation plan was developed and implemented to shift Delavan Lake, Wisconsin, from a hypereutrophic to a mesotrophic condition. The plan was threefold: (1) reduce external phosphorus (P) loading by applying Best Management Practices in the watershed, enhance an existing wetland, and short-circuit the inflows through the lake, (2) reduce internal P loading by treating the sediments with alum and removing carp, and (3) rehabilitate the fishery by removing carp and bigmouth buffalo and adding piscivores (biomanipulation). The first and second parts of the plan met with only limited success. With only minor reductions in internal and external P loading, P concentrations in the lake returned to near pre-treatment concentrations. The intensive biomanipulation and resulting trophic cascade (increased piscivores, decreased planktivores, increased large zooplankton populations, and reduced phytoplankton populations) eliminated most of the original problems in the lake (blue-green algal blooms and limited water clarity). However, now there is extensive macrophyte growth and abundant filamentous algae. Without significantly reducing the sources of the problems (high P loading) in Delavan Lake, the increased water clarity may not last. With an improved understanding of the individual components of this rehabilitation program, better future management plans can be developed for Delavan Lake and other lakes and reservoirs with similar eutrophication problems.
Megan E. Huber
Full Text Available Purpose: Blastomycosis is an endemic fungal infection. In rural northern Wisconsin, blastomycosis cases are associated with certain environmental features including close proximity to waterways. Other studies have associated blastomycosis with particular soil chemicals. However, blastomycosis also occurs in urban and suburban regions. We explored the geodemographic associations of blastomycosis cases in the more urban/suburban landscape of eastern Wisconsin. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 193 laboratory-identified blastomycosis cases in a single eastern Wisconsin health system, 2007–2015. Controls were 250 randomly selected cases of community-diagnosed pneumonia from a similar time period. Geographic features of home addresses were explored using Google Maps. Categorical variables were analyzed with chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests and continuous variables by two-sample t-tests. Stepwise regression followed by binary logistic regression was used for multivariable analysis. Results: Compared to pneumonia cases, blastomycosis cases were younger (47.7 vs. 55.3 years and more likely to be male (67.9% vs. 45.6%, nonwhite (23.2% vs. 9.7% and machinists, automobile workers/mechanics or construction workers (32.7% vs. 7.2%; P 0.5 acres (30.4% vs. 14.2%, P = 0.0002, be < 0.25 miles from an automobile repair facility or junkyard (35.9% vs. 19.4%, P = 0.0005, and be < 0.1 miles from a park, forest or farm field (54.9% vs. 39.6%, P = 0.002. Only the latter association remained on multivariable analysis. Conclusions: Eastern Wisconsin blastomycosis case subjects were younger, more often male and more likely to live near parks/forests/fields. Novel associations of blastomycosis cases with machinery- and automobile-related occupations and/or facilities should be further explored.
Full Text Available SYNOPSIS Over the last two decades, experts have reported a rising number of deaths caused by chronic kidney disease (CKD along the Pacific coast of Central America, from southern Mexico to Costa Rica. However, this specific disease is not associated with traditional causes of CKD, such as aging, diabetes, or hypertension. Rather, this disease is a chronic interstitial nephritis termed chronic kidney disease of nontraditional etiology (CKDnT. According to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO mortality database, there are elevated rates of deaths related to kidney disease in many of these countries, with the highest rates being reported in El Salvador and Nicaragua. This condition has been identified in certain agricultural communities, predominantly among male farmworkers. Since CKD surveillance systems in Central America are under development or nonexistent, experts and governmental bodies have recommended creating standardized case definitions for surveillance purposes to monitor and characterize this epidemiological situation. A group of experts from Central American ministries of health, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, and PAHO held a workshop in Guatemala to discuss CKDnT epidemiologic case definitions. In this paper, we propose that CKD in general be identified by the standard definition internationally accepted and that a suspect case of CKDnT be defined as a person age < 60 years with CKD, without type 1 diabetes mellitus, hypertensive diseases, and other well-known causes of CKD. A probable case of CKDnT is defined as a suspect case with the same findings confirmed three or more months later.
Full Text Available Introduction: Intentional and unintentional poisoning are among the most common reasons for referrals to emergency department (ED. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate epidemiologic features and effective risk factors of intentional and unintentional poisoning in children. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was carried out in ED of Loghman Hakim Hospital, greatest referral poison center of Iran, Tehran during March to August 2014. Demographic data, medical history, history of psychiatric disease in child, the cause of poisoning, parents’ educational level, household monthly income, location of residence, history of addiction or divorce in family, and the poisoning intentionality were gathered. Data were analyzed using SPSS 18 and appropriate statistical tests based on the purpose of study. Results: 414 participants with the mean age of 4.2 ± 3.43 years were included (57.5% male. Children in the 0-4 year(s age range had the most frequency with 281 (67.9% cases. 29 (7% cases were intentional (62% female, 76% in the 10-14 years old group. Methadone with 123 (29.7% cases was the most frequent toxic agent in general and in unintentional cases. 10-14 years of age (p = 0.001, and the history of psychiatric disease in children (p <0.001, had a direct correlation with probability of intentional poisoning. While, history of addiction in the family showed an indirect correlation with this probability (p = 0.045. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, most cases of poisoning in the children were unintentional methadone intoxication in boys in the 0-4 age range with a history of a psychiatric disease, and those who had a history of addiction in the family. In addition, the most powerful risk factor for the children’s intentional poisoning was their history of psychiatric disease. The history of addiction in the child’s family had indirect correlation with intentional intoxications.
Koss, Catherine A; Dunne, Eileen F; Warner, Lee
Although systematic reviews of epidemiologic studies have been conducted for condom use and the risk of several sexually transmitted diseases, there have been no such reviews for condom use and syphilis. A systematic literature review of epidemiologic studies published from 1972 to 2008 was conducted to evaluate study methods and measures of association reported for condom use and risk of syphilis. All 12 included studies had significant methodologic limitations. Nine (75%) studies were cross-sectional. Although 11 (92%) studies assessed consistent condom use, no studies assessed correct use or condom use problems, nor did any document exposure to a partner infected with syphilis. Ten studies had insufficient information to distinguish prevalent from incident infections. Two studies that assessed both incident infection and consistent condom use suggested a reduced risk of syphilis with consistent condom use; 1 study was statistically significant. Significant methodologic limitations exist for all reviewed studies of syphilis and condom use. Among the 2 most rigorously designed studies, both suggested a reduced risk of syphilis with consistent condom use. Additional studies incorporating rigorous methods are needed to further assess the effect of condom use on risk of syphilis.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies considered the relation between long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM and total mortality, as well as mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Our aim was to provide a comprehensive review of European epidemiological studies on the issue. Methods We searched the Medline database for epidemiological studies on air pollution and health outcomes published between January 2002 and December 2007. We also examined the reference lists of individual papers and reviews. Two independent reviewers classified the studies according to type of air pollutant, duration of exposure and health outcome considered. Among European investigations that examined long-term PM exposure we found 4 cohort studies (considering total and cardiopulmonary mortality, 1 case-control study (considering mortality from myocardial infarction, and 4 ecologic studies (2 studies considering total and cardiopulmonary mortality and 2 studies focused on cardiovascular mortality. Results Measurement indicators of PM exposure used in European studies, including PM10, PM2.5, total suspended particulate and black smoke, were heterogeneous. This notwithstanding, in all analytic studies total mortality was directly associated with long-term exposure to PM. The excesses in mortality were mainly due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes. Three out of 4 ecologic studies found significant direct associations between PM indexes and mortality. Conclusion European studies on long-term exposure to PM indicate a direct association with mortality, particularly from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases.
Land Walker H
Full Text Available Abstract Background When investigating covariate interactions and group associations with standard regression analyses, the relationship between the response variable and exposure may be difficult to characterize. When the relationship is nonlinear, linear modeling techniques do not capture the nonlinear information content. Statistical learning (SL techniques with kernels are capable of addressing nonlinear problems without making parametric assumptions. However, these techniques do not produce findings relevant for epidemiologic interpretations. A simulated case-control study was used to contrast the information embedding characteristics and separation boundaries produced by a specific SL technique with logistic regression (LR modeling representing a parametric approach. The SL technique was comprised of a kernel mapping in combination with a perceptron neural network. Because the LR model has an important epidemiologic interpretation, the SL method was modified to produce the analogous interpretation and generate odds ratios for comparison. Results The SL approach is capable of generating odds ratios for main effects and risk factor interactions that better capture nonlinear relationships between exposure variables and outcome in comparison with LR. Conclusions The integration of SL methods in epidemiology may improve both the understanding and interpretation of complex exposure/disease relationships.
Heine, John J; Land, Walker H; Egan, Kathleen M
When investigating covariate interactions and group associations with standard regression analyses, the relationship between the response variable and exposure may be difficult to characterize. When the relationship is nonlinear, linear modeling techniques do not capture the nonlinear information content. Statistical learning (SL) techniques with kernels are capable of addressing nonlinear problems without making parametric assumptions. However, these techniques do not produce findings relevant for epidemiologic interpretations. A simulated case-control study was used to contrast the information embedding characteristics and separation boundaries produced by a specific SL technique with logistic regression (LR) modeling representing a parametric approach. The SL technique was comprised of a kernel mapping in combination with a perceptron neural network. Because the LR model has an important epidemiologic interpretation, the SL method was modified to produce the analogous interpretation and generate odds ratios for comparison. The SL approach is capable of generating odds ratios for main effects and risk factor interactions that better capture nonlinear relationships between exposure variables and outcome in comparison with LR. The integration of SL methods in epidemiology may improve both the understanding and interpretation of complex exposure/disease relationships.
Gabriel, Sherine E; Michaud, Kaleb
Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of disease in human populations. Over the past decade there has been considerable progress in our understanding of the fundamental descriptive epidemiology (levels of disease frequency: incidence and prevalence, comorbidity, mortality, trends over time, geographic distributions, and clinical characteristics) of the rheumatic diseases. This progress is reviewed for the following major rheumatic diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (RA), juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, osteoarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, giant cell arteritis, polymyalgia rheumatica, gout, Sjögren's syndrome, and ankylosing spondylitis. These findings demonstrate the dynamic nature of the incidence and prevalence of these conditions – a reflection of the impact of genetic and environmental factors. The past decade has also brought new insights regarding the comorbidity associated with rheumatic diseases. Strong evidence now shows that persons with RA are at a high risk for developing several comorbid disorders, that these conditions may have atypical features and thus may be difficult to diagnose, and that persons with RA experience poorer outcomes after comorbidity compared with the general population. Taken together, these findings underscore the complexity of the rheumatic diseases and highlight the key role of epidemiological research in understanding these intriguing conditions. PMID:19519924
Since vaccinologists are themselves ignorant of vaccine mechanisms, how can we expect epidemiologists to understand the mechanisms? So most epidemiological studies ignore mechanism of adverse event causation. If you ignore mechanism, you cannot design the study with appropriate controls. So the results of such epidemiological studies have to be discarded due to confounding. Proven mechanism involved in cow's milk contaminated vaccines causing folate receptor antibody related autism is des...
Grosche, Bernd; Jung, Thomas; Weiss, Wolfgang
The results of the KiKK-study were presented in December 2007, followed by scientific publications in January 2008. The results caused a long-lasting debate, and the study was evaluated by different groups. Amongst these, the evaluation given by the SSK is of special importance. Now, BfS presents its final evaluation: The findings of the KiKK-study cannot be explained on the basis of current knowledge, but they give cause for further research activities. Scientific disciplines outside radiation biology and radiation epidemiology have to be involved. (orig.)
Laurier, D.; Martin, J.M.; Hubert, Ph.
Since 1970, numerous studies have been interested in high level of natural radiations areas (H.L.N.R.A.) or high background radiation areas (H.B.R.A.). An international conference stands every four years, and the last one was at Munich (Germany). The aim of this note is to make a review of epidemiologic studies made with the populations living in H.L.N.R.A. and to present a synthesis of achieved results. The cytogenetic studies are equally mentioned but not detailed. (N.C.)
Mayya, Y. S.; Mishra, R.; Prajith, R.; Gole, A. C.; Sapra, B. K.; Chougaonkar, M. P.; Nair, R. R. K.; Ramola, R. C.; Karunakara, N.; Koya, P. K. M.
The International Commission on Radiological Protection dose limits for radiation protection have been based on linearly extrapolating the high-dose risk coefficients obtained from the Japanese A bomb survivor data to low doses. The validity of these extrapolations has been questioned from time to time. To overcome this, epidemiological studies have been undertaken across the world on populations chronically exposed to low-radiation levels. In the past decade, the results of these studies have yielded widely differing, and sometimes, contradictory, conclusions. While recent residential radon studies have shown statistically significant radon risks at low doses, high-level natural radiation (HLNR) studies in China and India have not shown any low-dose risks. Similar is the case of a congenital malformation study conducted among the HLNR area populations in Kerala (India)). It is thus necessary to make efforts at overcoming the uncertainties in epidemiological studies. In the context of HLNR studies, assigning radon and thoron doses has largely been an area of considerable uncertainty. Conventionally, dosimetry is carried out using radon concentration measurements, and doses have been assigned using assumed equilibrium factors for the progeny species. Gas-based dose assignment is somewhat inadequate due to variations in equilibrium factors and possibly due to significant thoron. In this context, passive, deposition-based progeny dosimetry appears to be a promising alternative method to assess inhalation doses directly. It has been deployed in various parts of India, including HBRAs and countries in Europe. This presentation discusses the method, the results obtained and their relevance to dose assignment in Indian epidemiological studies. (authors)
Dunn Kate M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have identified important causal and prognostic factors for back pain, but these frequently only identify a proportion of the variance, and new factors add little to these models. Recently, interest has increased in studying diseases over the life course, stimulated by the 1997 book by Kuh and Ben-Shlomo, a move accompanied by important conceptual and methodological developments. This has resulted in improvements in the understanding of other conditions like cardiovascular and respiratory disease. This paper aims to examine how conceptual frameworks from life course epidemiology could enhance back pain research. Discussion Life course concepts can be divided into three categories. Concept 1: patterns over time, risk chains and accumulation. Simple 'chains of risk' have been studied - e.g. depression leading to back pain - but studies involving more risk factors in the chain are infrequent. Also, we have not examined how risk accumulation influences outcome, e.g. whether multiple episodes or duration of depression, throughout the life course, better predicts back pain. One-year back pain trajectories have been described, and show advantages for studying back pain, but there are few descriptions of longer-term patterns with associated transitions and turning points. Concept 2: influences and determinants of pathways. Analyses in back pain studies commonly adjust associations for potential confounders, but specific analysis of factors modifying risk, or related to the resilience or susceptibility to back pain, are rarely studied. Concept 3: timing of risk. Studies of critical or sensitive periods - crucial times of life which influence health later in life - are scarce in back pain research. Such analyses could help identify factors that influence the experience of pain throughout the life course. Summary Back pain researchers could usefully develop hypotheses and models of how risks from different stages
Full Text Available Makalah ini pertama kali menjelaskan perlu adanya profesi kesehatan masyarakat dalam rangka pembangunan kesehatan. Lalu dijelaskan apa profesi itu dan standar keberadaan profesi, atas dasar mana dapat ditetapkan bahwa pelayanan epidemiologi merupakan salah satu profesi. Dalam rangka pembinaan profesi kesehatan masyarakat, IAKMI dan APTKMI telah membentuk Majelis Kolegium Kesehatan Masyarakat Indonesia (MKKMI yang terdiri atas 8 kolegium antara lain Kolegium Epidemiologi, yang telah menyusun Standar Profesi Epidemiologi yang terdiri atas beberapa standar. Masing-masing standar dijelaskan mulai dari kurikulum, standar pelayanan epidmiologi, profil epidemiolog kesehatan, peran epidemiolog kesehatan, fungsi epidemiolog kesehatan, standar kompetensi epidemiologi, dan standar pendidikan profesi epidemiologi.
Trentini, Bruno; Steindel, Mário; Marlow, Mariel A
Brazil has implemented systematic control methods for leishmaniasis for the past 30 years, despite an increase in cases and continued spread of the disease to new regions. A lack high quality evidence from epidemiological observational studies impedes the development of novel control methods to prevent disease transmission among the population. Here, we have evaluated the quality of observational studies on leishmaniasis conducted in Brazil to highlight this issue. For this systematic review, all publications on leishmaniasis conducted in Brazil from January 1st, 2002 to December 31st, 2012 were screened via Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist to select observational studies involving human subjects. The 283 included studies, representing only 14.1% of articles screened, were then further evaluated for quality of epidemiological methods and study design based on the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology) checklists. Over half of these studies were descriptive or case reports (53.4%, 151), followed by cross-sectional (20.8%, n = 59), case-control (8.5%, n = 24), and cohort (6.0%, n = 17). Study design was not stated in 46.6% (n = 181) and incorrectly stated in 17.5% (n = 24). Comparison groups were utilized in just 39.6% (n = 112) of the publications, and only 13.4% (n = 38) employed healthy controls. Majority of studies were performed at the city-level (62.9%, n = 178), in contrast with two (0.7%) studies performed at the national-level. Coauthorship networks showed the number of author collaborations rapidly decreased after three collaborations, with 70.9% (n = 659/929) of coauthors publishing only one article during the study period. A review of epidemiological research in Brazil revealed a major lack of quality and evidence. While certain indicators suggested research methods may have improved in the last two years, an emphasis on observational research which employs
Full Text Available Brazil has implemented systematic control methods for leishmaniasis for the past 30 years, despite an increase in cases and continued spread of the disease to new regions. A lack high quality evidence from epidemiological observational studies impedes the development of novel control methods to prevent disease transmission among the population. Here, we have evaluated the quality of observational studies on leishmaniasis conducted in Brazil to highlight this issue.For this systematic review, all publications on leishmaniasis conducted in Brazil from January 1st, 2002 to December 31st, 2012 were screened via Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA checklist to select observational studies involving human subjects. The 283 included studies, representing only 14.1% of articles screened, were then further evaluated for quality of epidemiological methods and study design based on the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology checklists. Over half of these studies were descriptive or case reports (53.4%, 151, followed by cross-sectional (20.8%, n = 59, case-control (8.5%, n = 24, and cohort (6.0%, n = 17. Study design was not stated in 46.6% (n = 181 and incorrectly stated in 17.5% (n = 24. Comparison groups were utilized in just 39.6% (n = 112 of the publications, and only 13.4% (n = 38 employed healthy controls. Majority of studies were performed at the city-level (62.9%, n = 178, in contrast with two (0.7% studies performed at the national-level. Coauthorship networks showed the number of author collaborations rapidly decreased after three collaborations, with 70.9% (n = 659/929 of coauthors publishing only one article during the study period.A review of epidemiological research in Brazil revealed a major lack of quality and evidence. While certain indicators suggested research methods may have improved in the last two years, an emphasis on observational research which employs
Full Text Available Incineration is a common technology for waste disposal, and there is public concern for the health impact deriving from incinerators. Poor exposure assessment has been claimed as one of the main causes of inconsistency in the epidemiological literature. We reviewed 41 studies on incinerators published between 1984 and January 2013 and classified them on the basis of exposure assessment approach. Moreover, we performed a simulation study to explore how the different exposure metrics may influence the exposure levels used in epidemiological studies. 19 studies used linear distance as a measure of exposure to incinerators, 11 studies atmospheric dispersion models, and the remaining 11 studies a qualitative variable such as presence/absence of the source. All reviewed studies utilized residence as a proxy for population exposure, although residence location was evaluated with different precision (e.g., municipality, census block, or exact address. Only one study reconstructed temporal variability in exposure. Our simulation study showed a notable degree of exposure misclassification caused by the use of distance compared to dispersion modelling. We suggest that future studies (i make full use of pollution dispersion models; (ii localize population on a fine-scale; and (iii explicitly account for the presence of potential environmental and socioeconomic confounding.
Matthew J Page
Full Text Available To synthesise evidence on the average bias and heterogeneity associated with reported methodological features of randomized trials.Systematic review of meta-epidemiological studies.We retrieved eligible studies included in a recent AHRQ-EPC review on this topic (latest search September 2012, and searched Ovid MEDLINE and Ovid EMBASE for studies indexed from Jan 2012-May 2015. Data were extracted by one author and verified by another. We combined estimates of average bias (e.g. ratio of odds ratios (ROR or difference in standardised mean differences (dSMD in meta-analyses using the random-effects model. Analyses were stratified by type of outcome ("mortality" versus "other objective" versus "subjective". Direction of effect was standardised so that ROR < 1 and dSMD < 0 denotes a larger intervention effect estimate in trials with an inadequate or unclear (versus adequate characteristic.We included 24 studies. The available evidence suggests that intervention effect estimates may be exaggerated in trials with inadequate/unclear (versus adequate sequence generation (ROR 0.93, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99; 7 studies and allocation concealment (ROR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.97; 7 studies. For these characteristics, the average bias appeared to be larger in trials of subjective outcomes compared with other objective outcomes. Also, intervention effects for subjective outcomes appear to be exaggerated in trials with lack of/unclear blinding of participants (versus blinding (dSMD -0.37, 95% CI -0.77 to 0.04; 2 studies, lack of/unclear blinding of outcome assessors (ROR 0.64, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.96; 1 study and lack of/unclear double blinding (ROR 0.77, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.93; 1 study. The influence of other characteristics (e.g. unblinded trial personnel, attrition is unclear.Certain characteristics of randomized trials may exaggerate intervention effect estimates. The average bias appears to be greatest in trials of subjective outcomes. More research on several
Menegaux, Florence; Lamy, Pierre-Jean; Rébillard, Xavier; Trétarre, Brigitte; Anger, Antoinette; Randrianasolo, Hasina; Mulot, Claire; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Iborra, François; Bringer, Jean-Pierre; Leizour, Benoit; Thuret, Rodolphe
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in male in most Western countries, including France. Despite a significant morbidity and mortality to a lesser extent, the etiology of prostate cancer remains largely unknown. Indeed, the only well-established risk factors to date are age, ethnicity and a family history of prostate cancer. We present, here, the rationale and design of the EPIdemiological study of Prostate CAncer (EPICAP), a population-based case–control study specifically designed to investigate the role of environmental and genetic factors in prostate cancer. The EPICAP study will particularly focused on the role of circadian disruption, chronic inflammation, hormonal and metabolic factors in the occurrence of prostate cancer. EPICAP is a population-based case–control study conducted in the département of Hérault in France. Eligible cases are all cases of prostate cancers newly diagnosed in 2012-2013 in men less than 75 years old and residing in the département of Hérault at the time of diagnosis. Controls are men of the same age as the cases and living in the département of Hérault, recruited in the general population. The sample will include a total of 1000 incident cases of prostate cancer and 1000 population-based controls over a 3-year period (2012-2014). The cases and controls are face-to-face interviewed using a standardized computed assisted questionnaire. The questions focus primarily on usual socio-demographic characteristics, personal and family medical history, lifestyle, leisure activities, residential and occupational history. Anthropometric measures and biological samples are also collected for cases and controls. The EPICAP study aims to answer key questions in prostate cancer etiology: (1) role of circadian disruption through the study of working hours, chronotype and duration/quality of sleep, (2) role of chronic inflammation and anti-inflammatory drugs, (3) role of hormonal and metabolic factors through a detailed questionnaire
Vehicles are major sources of air pollutant emissions, and individuals living near large roads endure high exposures and health risks associated with traffic-related air pollutants. Air pollution epidemiology, health risk, environmental justice, and transportation planning studi...
Aromatic amines and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are structurally related classes of carcinogens that are formed during the combustion of tobacco or during the high-temperature cooking of meats. Both classes of procarcinogens undergo metabolic activation by N-hydroxylation of the exocyclic amine group, to produce a common proposed intermediate, the arylnitrenium ion, which is the critical metabolite implicated in toxicity and DNA damage. However, the biochemistry and chemical properties of these compounds are distinct and different biomarkers of aromatic amines and HAAs have been developed for human biomonitoring studies. Hemoglobin adducts have been extensively used as biomarkers to monitor occupational and environmental exposures to a number of aromatic amines; however, HAAs do not form hemoglobin adducts at appreciable levels and other biomarkers have been sought. A number of epidemiologic studies that have investigated dietary consumption of well-done meat in relation to various tumor sites reported a positive association between cancer risk and well-done meat consumption, although some studies have shown no associations between well-done meat and cancer risk. A major limiting factor in most epidemiological studies is the uncertainty in quantitative estimates of chronic exposure to HAAs and, thus, the association of HAAs formed in cooked meat and cancer risk has been difficult to establish. There is a critical need to establish long-term biomarkers of HAAs that can be implemented in molecular epidemioIogy studies. In this review article, we highlight and contrast the biochemistry of several prototypical carcinogenic aromatic amines and HAAs to which humans are chronically exposed. The biochemical properties and the impact of polymorphisms of the major xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes on the biological effects of these chemicals are examined. Lastly, the analytical approaches that have been successfully employed to biomonitor aromatic amines and HAAs, and
Nandasena, Yatagama Lokuge S; Wickremasinghe, Ananda R; Sathiakumar, Nalini
Air pollution is increasingly documented as a threat to public health in most developing countries. Evaluation of current air quality levels, regulatory standards and scientific literature on outdoor and indoor air pollution, and health effects are important to identify the burden, develop and implement interventions and to fill knowledge gaps in Sri Lanka. PUBMED and Medline databases, local journals and conference proceedings were searched for epidemiologic studies pertaining to air pollution and health effects in Sri Lanka. All the studies pertaining to air pollution and health effects were considered. Sixteen studies investigated the association between exposure to ambient or indoor air pollution (IAP) and various health outcomes ranging from respiratory symptoms, low birth weight and lung cancers. Of the sixteen, three used a case control design. Half of the studies collected exposure data only through questionnaires. There were positive associations between air pollution and adverse health effects in all studies. Methodological limitations in most of the studies resulted in poor quantification of risk estimates. A limited number of epidemiological studies in Sri Lanka have investigated the health effects of air pollution. Based on findings of studies and reported air quality levels, air pollution may be considered a neglected public health problem in Sri Lanka.
The Wisconsin Department of Transportation Division of Transportation Investment Management hosted : a peer exchange on June 2 -4, 2009 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Representatives from four state DOTs and : two freight railroads joined representatives f...
Jensen, Olaf; Laursen, Lise Hedegaard
papers in PubMed, Cochrane, EMBASE, Google Scholar and Web of Science databases that were published on or before January 1st 2000. Results: i) The fatal injury incidence rates in the USA are significantly higher than for all other industries; ii) The incidence rates of lost time injuries have been...... reduced over the last decenia, which is probably due to the implemented preventive programs; iii) the prevalence rates of musculoskeletal disorders are similar to the general working populations. Conclusion: The few epidemiological studies do not allow for firm conclusions and call for more studies...
de la Maza, F J; Cueto, M V
An epidemiological study on oral health was conducted on 200 mapuche natives, aged from 14 to 30 years in order to correlate their oral health level with their oral health habits, scholar level, age and sex. DMFT index and the simplified Oral Hygiene Index were evaluated in the sample of studied patients. It was found a 18.15 DMFT score, higher than the national level in our country, and the simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) was 1.7, showing deficient oral hygiene habits. A direct relationship between a low scholar level and a high caries index and a high OHI-S index was found.
Báguena Cervellera, María José
Studies into the polio virus began in Valencia in 1959 with the work undertaken by the microbiologist Vicente Sanchis-Bayarri Vaillant. After his education at the Rochester University and at the Pasteur Institute, Sanchis-Bayarri Vaillant established a laboratory of cell cultures at the Faculty of Medicine in Valencia, where he developed a new diagnostic technique for the poliomyelitis virus. In addition, epidemiological studies were carried out both prior to and post the 1963 vaccination campaign, which proved that Sabin's oral vaccine was both effective and safe for use.
Escosteguy, Claudia Caminha; Pereira, Alessandra Gonçalves Lisbôa; Medronho, Roberto de Andrade
This study proposes a reflection on the uses and future prospects of hospital-based health surveillance based on the account of a pioneering experience in hospital epidemiology, the epidemiology service at the Hospital Federal dos Servidores do Estado - HFSE, which served as the basis for the creation of epidemiologic surveillance units in municipal and state hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The epidemiology service has combined epidemiological surveillance, continuing education, in-service training, research, and health service evaluation since 1986. The service is part of the national epidemiological surveillance network and was responsible for the notification of 55,747 cases between 1986 and 2016, most of which were the result of active search. The integration of various levels of health surveillance and health care makes classical control activities more agile and provides instruments for measuring. The important role played by the service in human resources training is evident in the training of 1,835 medical interns and 78 residents up to 2016. In addition, this experience has served as the basis for the implantation of several other hospital epidemiological surveillance units. Current challenges include the promotion of effective communication and coordination among the other health surveillance committees.
Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre; Kleinerman, Ruth
Full text: Bio dosimetry measurements can be used potentially to improve radiation epidemiologic studies by providing a means to corroborate analytical or model-based dose estimates, to assess bias in models and their dose estimates, and reduce uncertainty in individual or group-average doses. Radiation epidemiologic studies typically rely on accurate estimation of doses to the whole body or to specific organs for numerous individuals in order to derive reliable estimates of risk of cancer or other medical conditions. However, dose estimates whether based on analytical dose reconstruction (i.e., models) or personnel monitoring measurements, e.g., film-badges, are associated with considerable and varying degrees of uncertainty. Uncertainty is a product of many factors; persons were exposed many years or decades earlier and usually only inadequate data or measurements are available. While bio dosimetry has begun to play a more significant role in long-term health risk studies, its use is still limited in that context, primarily due sometimes to inadequate limits of detection, inter-individual variability of the signal measured, and high per-sample cost. Presently, the most suitable bio dosimetry methods for epidemiologic studies are chromosome aberration frequencies from fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of peripheral blood lymphocytes and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements made on tooth enamel, with detection limits of approximately 0.3 to 0.5 Gy, and as low as 0.03 Gy for FISH and EPR, respectively. Presently, both methods are invasive and require obtaining either blood or teeth. Though both FISH and EPR have been used in a variety of large long-term health risk studies including those of a-bomb survivors and various occupational and environmental exposures, only recently has considerable thought been given to how these data can be used in epidemiologic studies in any but rudimentary ways. Key issues to consider are the representativeness of
Full Text Available Data on incidence, prevalence and mortality of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF are sparse and vary across studies. The true incidence and prevalence of the disease are unknown. In general, the overall prevalence and incidence reported in European and Asian countries are lower than those reported in American studies. In recent years, the epidemiological approach to IPF has been difficult for many reasons. First, the diagnostic criteria of the disease have changed over time. Secondly, the coding system used for IPF in administrative databases, the most common data source used to study this aspect of the disease, has been modified in the past few years. Finally, the study design, the methodology and the population selected in each of the studies are very different. All these aspects make comparisons among studies very difficult or impossible. In this review, we list the main issues that might arise when comparing different studies and that should be taken into consideration when describing the state of epidemiological knowledge concerning this pathology.
Full Text Available Continuing the line established by these same architects in previous University designs, the Library and Study Hall of the University of Wisconsin is another attempt at creating an exciting atmosphere, particularly conducive to the development of university life. It is to be noted, in this case, the arrangement of the library and study areas around a central common open space, sort of an inner courtyard used as a relaxation and sitting área, where all traffic corridors and promenades from the adjacent faculties come to meet, thus becoming the main reference point for the entire campus.
The library with a current capacity for 245,000 volumes and 1,400 reading stalls is designed so it can be eventually enlarged permitting to almost double its book capacity and increasing the reading stalls to more than 2,000.
Continuando la línea marcada por estos mismos arquitectos en anteriores proyectos de universidades, la biblioteca y el centro de estudios de la Universidad de Wisconsin procura definir atractivos espacios para el desarrollo de la vida universitaria. En este caso destaca la organización de los servicios de biblioteca y estudio en torno a un espacio comunitario central, a modo de plaza interior, destinado a sala de estar y recreo, y en donde confluyen las circulaciones que provienen de los locales adyacentes, convirtiéndolo en el principal punto de referencia del campus universitario. La biblioteca, que actualmente tiene capacidad para 245.000 volúmenes y 1.400 lectores, ha previsto una ampliación que le permitirá casi doblar el número de volúmenes y proporcionar espacio para más de 2.000 lectores.
Full Text Available Although many epidemiological studies defining child sexual abuse prevalence rates in many countries of the world are now available, Italy presents a lack of data regarding this specific issue. Only recently some attempts to define the epidemiology of this public health problem have been tried. Between 2003 and 2010, the Department of Public Health at University of Milan was in charge of one of the more important study of this kind in Italy, involving almost 3000 students aged 18 attending secondary schools in the City of Milan who filled out an anonymous questionnaire aiming at detecting their previous experiences of sexual victimization during childhood and adolescence. After this first edition, the study was replicated among students attending secondary schools in the city of Varese, in the area of Piedmont and in Basilicata (area of Lauria, using the same investigational model and questionnaire. This paper presents the main data collected through four different epidemiological studies using the same methodology and survey tool. Considering at least one of the five different forms of child sexual abuse surveyed (being exposed to pornography, being touched on private parts, being forced to masturbate an older person, being forced to perform oral sex, or being penetrated, the prevalence rate among our samples ranges between a minimum of 12.5% (Varese and a maximum of 34.1% (Lauria. In Lauria the research reveals a higher prevalence rate of child sexual abuse, especially among the male population, for all typologies of abuse but being touched in their private parts. In all other geographical areas and for all typologies of abuse, there is always a higher prevalence among girls, with the only exception of abuse such as being exposed to pornographic materials.
Dirce Maria Lobo Marchioni
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Diet and nutrition are environmental factors in health/disease relationships. From the epidemiological viewpoint, diet represents a complex set of highly correlated exposures. Our objective was to identify patterns of food intake in a group of individuals living in São Paulo, and to develop objective dietary measurements for epidemiological purposes. DESIGN AND LOCAL: Exploratory factor analysis of data in a case-control study in seven teaching hospitals in São Paulo. METHODS: The participants were 517 patients (260 oral cancer cases and 257 controls admitted to the study hospitals between November 1998 and March 2001. The weekly intake frequencies for dairy products, cereals, meat, processed meat, vegetables, pulses, fruits and sweets were assessed by means of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis, based on the intake of the eight food groups, using principal component analysis as an extraction method followed by varimax rotation. RESULTS: Factor analysis identified three patterns that accounted for 55% of the total variability within the sample. The first pattern ("prudent" was characterized by vegetable, fruit and meat intake; the second ("traditional" by cereals (mainly rice and pulses (mainly beans; and the third ("snacks" by dairy products and processed meat. CONCLUSION: This study identified food intake patterns through an a posteriori approach. Such analysis may be useful for nutritional intervention programs and, after computing scores for each individual according to the patterns identified, for establishing a relationship between diet and other epidemiological measurements of interest.
Ncube, France; Ncube, Esper Jacobeth; Voyi, Kuku
The ultimate aim of this review was to summarise the epidemiological evidence on the association between municipal solid waste management operations and health risks to populations residing near landfills and incinerators, waste workers and recyclers. To accomplish this, the sub-aims of this review article were to (1) examine the health risks posed by municipal solid waste management activities, (2) determine the strengths and gaps of available literature on health risks from municipal waste management operations and (3) suggest possible research needs for future studies. The article reviewed epidemiological literature on public health concerns of municipal solid waste handling published in the period 1995-2014. The PubMed and MEDLINE computerised literature searches were employed to identify the relevant papers using the keywords solid waste, waste management, health risks, recycling, landfills and incinerators. Additionally, all references of potential papers were examined to determine more articles that met the inclusion criteria. A total of 379 papers were identified, but after intensive screening only 72 met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Of these studies, 33 were on adverse health effects in communities living near waste dumpsites or incinerators, 24 on municipal solid waste workers and 15 on informal waste recyclers. Reviewed studies were unable to demonstrate a causal or non-causal relationship due to various limitations. In light of the above findings, our review concludes that overall epidemiological evidence in reviewed articles is inadequate mainly due to methodological limitations and future research needs to develop tools capable of demonstrating causal or non-causal relationships between specific waste management operations and adverse health endpoints.
Molina, E.; Meneses, E.
The Impact Pathway methodology, developed in the frame of Extern E project for estimating of the external costs or externalities of the energy use, has as one of their main steps the health impact evaluation. This evaluation is carried out through exposure-response functions. In previous estimates of the external costs of power generation in Cuba, functions obtained in international studies were used. The main objective of this work was to carry out a summarized critical analysis of those national analytic epidemiological studies that, according the exposed methodology, consider the main aspects specialized with views to the possible preliminary proposal of functions exposure-response (FER) based own in epidemiologic evidences. In agreement with the analysis, the results show that the great majority of the studies are not useful for the FER establishment, at least in their present form. A minority studies exists that contributes limited evidence and their reanalysis could increase their contribution to the propose purpose. Finally the main problems found in the studies are enumerated revision object
A thermonuclear bomb explosion over any city in the world would have a devastating effect on the population and environment. For those who survive, with or without injuries, life would become primitive with little or no uncontaminated food or water, and with inadequate housing, fuel, and medical care, resulting in a breakdown of family and interpersonal relationships. This theoretic study of the potential outcome of a thermonuclear bomb-burst over Nashville, Tennessee, discusses epidemiologically the wide range of medical and psychologic effects from the direct trauma of blast and fire, widespread epidemics of otherwise controlled disease, long-term chronic illness, genetic damage, and catastrophic environmental havoc
Diana T. Masih
Full Text Available An epidemiological study for histoplasmosis coccidioidomycosis and cryptococcosis made in five areas of the province of Córdoba is presented. The data obtained showed a global positivity of 41.1% for histoplasmin 26.7% for coccidioidin and 14.1% for cryptococcin. In some areas, the Rio III basin and Traslasierra, the histoplasmosis infection indexes were much higher, 53,3% and 73.1% respectively. The index of positive skin tests with Cryptococcus antigen in Traslasierra was also very high: 31.9%.
Christensen, Jette; Gardner, Ian A.
Correct classification of the true status of herds is an important component of epidemiologic studies and animal disease-control programs. We review theoretical aspects of herd-level testing through consideration of test performance (herd-level sensitivity, specificity and predictive values......), the factors affecting these estimates, and available software for calculations. We present new aspects and considerations concerning the effect of precision and bias in estimation of individual-test performance on herd-test performance and suggest methods (pooled testing, targeted sampling of subpopulations...... with higher prevalence, and use of combinations of tests) to improve herd-level sensitivity when the expected within-herd prevalence is low....
Samieirad, Sahand; Tohidi, Elahe; Shahidi-Payam, Akbar; Abedini, Ali
Background The epidemiology of facial injuries varies in different countries and geographic zones. Population concentration, lifestyle, cultural background, and socioeconomic status can affect the prevalence of maxillofacial injuries. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the maxillofacial fractures epidemiology and treatment plans in hospitalized patients (2012-2014) which would be useful for better policy making strategies. Material and Methods In this retrospective study, the medical records of 386 hospitalized patients were evaluated from the department of maxillofacial surgery at Bahonar Hospital of Kerman, Iran. The type and cause of fractures and treatment plans were recorded in a checklist. For data analysis, ANOVA, t-test, Chi-square, and Fisher’s exact test were performed, using SPSS version 21. Results The majority of patients were male (76.5%). Most subjects were within the age range of 20-30 years. Fractures were mostly caused by accidents, particularly motorcycle accidents (MCAs), and the most common site of involvement was the mandible (parasymphysis). There was a significant association between the type of treatment and age. In fact, the age group of 16-59 years under went open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) more than other age groups (P=0.02). Also, a significant association was observed between gender and the occurrence of fractures (P=0.01). Conclusions Considering the geographic and cultural indices of the evaluated population, it can be concluded that patients age and gender and trauma causes significantly affect the prevalence of maxillofacial traumas and fracture kinds and treatment plans. Key words:Epidemiology, treatment, facial injuries, face fractures, maxillofacial trauma, trauma. PMID:26116845
Mahomed, Nasreen; Fancourt, Nicholas; de Campo, John; de Campo, Margaret; Akano, Aliu; Cherian, Thomas; Cohen, Olivia G; Greenberg, David; Lacey, Stephen; Kohli, Neera; Lederman, Henrique M; Madhi, Shabir A; Manduku, Veronica; McCollum, Eric D; Park, Kate; Ribo-Aristizabal, Jose Luis; Bar-Zeev, Naor; O'Brien, Katherine L; Mulholland, Kim
Childhood pneumonia is among the leading infectious causes of mortality in children younger than 5 years of age globally. Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the leading infectious cause of childhood bacterial pneumonia. The diagnosis of childhood pneumonia remains a critical epidemiological task for monitoring vaccine and treatment program effectiveness. The chest radiograph remains the most readily available and common imaging modality to assess childhood pneumonia. In 1997, the World Health Organization Radiology Working Group was established to provide a consensus method for the standardized definition for the interpretation of pediatric frontal chest radiographs, for use in bacterial vaccine efficacy trials in children. The definition was not designed for use in individual patient clinical management because of its emphasis on specificity at the expense of sensitivity. These definitions and endpoint conclusions were published in 2001 and an analysis of observer variation for these conclusions using a reference library of chest radiographs was published in 2005. In response to the technical needs identified through subsequent meetings, the World Health Organization Chest Radiography in Epidemiological Studies (CRES) project was initiated and is designed to be a continuation of the World Health Organization Radiology Working Group. The aims of the World Health Organization CRES project are to clarify the definitions used in the World Health Organization defined standardized interpretation of pediatric chest radiographs in bacterial vaccine impact and pneumonia epidemiological studies, reinforce the focus on reproducible chest radiograph readings, provide training and support with World Health Organization defined standardized interpretation of chest radiographs and develop guidelines and tools for investigators and site staff to assist in obtaining high-quality chest radiographs.
Mahomed, Nasreen; Fancourt, Nicholas; De Campo, John; De Campo, Margaret; Akano, Aliu; Cherian, Thomas; Cohen, Olivia G.; Greenberg, David; Lacey, Stephen; Kohli, Neera; Lederman, Henrique M.; Madhi, Shabir A.; Manduku, Veronica; McCollum, Eric D.; Park, Kate; Ribo-Aristizabal, Jose Luis; Bar-Zeev, Naor; O'Brien, Katherine L.; Mulholland, Kim
Childhood pneumonia is among the leading infectious causes of mortality in children younger than 5 years of age globally. Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the leading infectious cause of childhood bacterial pneumonia. The diagnosis of childhood pneumonia remains a critical epidemiological task for monitoring vaccine and treatment program effectiveness. The chest radiograph remains the most readily available and common imaging modality to assess childhood pneumonia. In 1997, the World Health Organization Radiology Working Group was established to provide a consensus method for the standardized definition for the interpretation of pediatric frontal chest radiographs, for use in bacterial vaccine efficacy trials in children. The definition was not designed for use in individual patient clinical management because of its emphasis on specificity at the expense of sensitivity. These definitions and endpoint conclusions were published in 2001 and an analysis of observer variation for these conclusions using a reference library of chest radiographs was published in 2005. In response to the technical needs identified through subsequent meetings, the World Health Organization Chest Radiography in Epidemiological Studies (CRES) project was initiated and is designed to be a continuation of the World Health Organization Radiology Working Group. The aims of the World Health Organization CRES project are to clarify the definitions used in the World Health Organization defined standardized interpretation of pediatric chest radiographs in bacterial vaccine impact and pneumonia epidemiological studies, reinforce the focus on reproducible chest radiograph readings, provide training and support with World Health Organization defined standardized interpretation of chest radiographs and develop guidelines and tools for investigators and site staff to assist in obtaining high-quality chest radiographs. (orig.)
Mahomed, Nasreen [University of the Witwatersrand, Department of Radiology, Johannesburg (South Africa); University of the Witwatersrand, Medical Research Council: Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Johannesburg (South Africa); Fancourt, Nicholas [Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (United States); Murdoch Children' s Research Institute, Melbourne (Australia); De Campo, John; De Campo, Margaret [Murdoch Children' s Research Institute, Melbourne (Australia); Melbourne University, Melbourne (Australia); Akano, Aliu [Department of Radiology National Hospital, Abuja (Nigeria); Medical Research Council, Gambia (South Africa); Cherian, Thomas [World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland); Cohen, Olivia G. [Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (United States); World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland); Greenberg, David [Soroka University Medical Center, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Lacey, Stephen [Murdoch Children' s Research Institute, Melbourne (Australia); Kohli, Neera [King George Medical University, Lucknow (India); Lederman, Henrique M. [Paulista School of Medicine, Hospital Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Madhi, Shabir A. [University of the Witwatersrand, Medical Research Council: Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Johannesburg (South Africa); University of the Witwatersrand, Department of Science and Technology/National Research Foundation: Vaccine Preventable Diseases, Johannesburg (South Africa); Manduku, Veronica [Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), Nairobi (Kenya); McCollum, Eric D. [Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Eudowood Division of Pediatric Respiratory Sciences, Baltimore (United States); Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (United States); Park, Kate [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Oxford (United Kingdom); Ribo-Aristizabal, Jose Luis [Hospital Sant Joan de Deu, Barcelona (Spain); Bar-Zeev, Naor [University of Malawi, Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme, College of Medicine, Blantyre (Malawi); University of Liverpool, Centre for Global Vaccine Research, Liverpool (United Kingdom); O' Brien, Katherine L. [Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (United States); Mulholland, Kim [Murdoch Children' s Research Institute, Melbourne (Australia); London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (United Kingdom)
Childhood pneumonia is among the leading infectious causes of mortality in children younger than 5 years of age globally. Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the leading infectious cause of childhood bacterial pneumonia. The diagnosis of childhood pneumonia remains a critical epidemiological task for monitoring vaccine and treatment program effectiveness. The chest radiograph remains the most readily available and common imaging modality to assess childhood pneumonia. In 1997, the World Health Organization Radiology Working Group was established to provide a consensus method for the standardized definition for the interpretation of pediatric frontal chest radiographs, for use in bacterial vaccine efficacy trials in children. The definition was not designed for use in individual patient clinical management because of its emphasis on specificity at the expense of sensitivity. These definitions and endpoint conclusions were published in 2001 and an analysis of observer variation for these conclusions using a reference library of chest radiographs was published in 2005. In response to the technical needs identified through subsequent meetings, the World Health Organization Chest Radiography in Epidemiological Studies (CRES) project was initiated and is designed to be a continuation of the World Health Organization Radiology Working Group. The aims of the World Health Organization CRES project are to clarify the definitions used in the World Health Organization defined standardized interpretation of pediatric chest radiographs in bacterial vaccine impact and pneumonia epidemiological studies, reinforce the focus on reproducible chest radiograph readings, provide training and support with World Health Organization defined standardized interpretation of chest radiographs and develop guidelines and tools for investigators and site staff to assist in obtaining high-quality chest radiographs. (orig.)
Flores, Byron J; Pérez-Sánchez, Tania; Fuertes, Héctor; Sheleby-Elías, Jessica; Múzquiz, José Luis; Jirón, William; Duttmann, Christianne; Halaihel, Nabil
Leptospirosis is one of the most extended zoonosis worldwide and humans become infected most commonly through contact with the urine of carrier animals, either directly or via contaminated water or soil. The aim in this study was to analyse the epidemiological behaviour of Leptospira spp., from domestic animals around the sites of human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua, from 2007 through 2013. We report the results of a cross-sectional epidemiological study with a non-probability sampling of blood (n=3050) and urine (n=299) from Domestic Animals (DA) around the sites of human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua. We analysed data obtained through Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), in-vitro culture, real time PCR and sequencing of lfb1 locus. Frequencies of 30.31% (95% CI: 28.66-31.95) and 15.38% (95% CI: 11.12-19.64) were obtained from serological test and from in-vitro culture, respectively. Although similar frequencies from serology test (P≥0.05) were found in DA species, in-vitro culture frequencies were significantly higher from bovine, equine and sheep (P<0.05) in comparison with swine and canine species. Ten serogroups of pathogenic Leptospira spp. were encountered, with the highest presence of Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup 34.65% (95% CI: 29.35-39.94). We identified 7 samples homologous to L. interrogans species Pyrogenes serovar and 3 samples as L. noguchii Louisiana or Panama serovars by analysis of lfb1 sequences. We were able to establish a temporal and spatial correlation from DA and cumulative incidence of human cases. Therefore an effective epidemiological surveillance should be implemented with a specific control program toward DA in order to reduce human leptospirosis incidence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Moukaddem, Afaf; Chaaya, Monique; Slim, Zeinab F N; Jaffa, Miran; Sibai, Abla Mehio; Uthman, Imad
To investigate the epidemiology of fibromyalgia (FM) and assess its risk factors. Using data from the 2009 Community Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) study conducted in Lebanon, a population-based case control study was performed. The sample included 34 FM patients, frequency matched with 136 controls free from any musculoskeletal complaints and randomly sampled from the population. The controls were frequency matched with cases by age and gender. The 34 female FM cases were prevalent cases which existed for a long period of time and all those who consulted a doctor were previously misdiagnosed. Family history of joint problems (OR = 4.93, 95% CI: 1.56-15.58) and working status (OR = 2.69, 95% CI: 1.04-6.93) were significant risk factors for FM, after adjusting for body mass index, distress level, smoking status and residence location. This was the first study to address the epidemiology of FM in Lebanon and the region. The chronic nature of FM that is characterized by frequent bouts of intense disabling pain and symptoms constitutes a significant health and economic burden. Clustering of cases in coastal areas was partially explained by other factors such as body mass index, distress level, smoking and work status. The high burden of FM found in our study calls for further investigation of potential risk factors of this condition. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the incidence, epidemiology and demography of acute animal bites referred to Abdanan health centers in the years 2009 to 2013. Methods: This study was a descriptive analytical research. Questionnaires for each case of acute animal bite was completed. Data about age, gender, kind of animal, residency, site of bite, etc taken from Abdanan health centers were analyzed. Data were analyzed in SPSS by using descriptive statistics. Results: Total number of exposed persons to acute animal bites was reported 67 in 2009 and 69 in 2013. The average incidence rate was 1.2 per 1 000 population. Bites were frequent among the age group of 20-30 years. Most of the cases were self-employment. Around 83.8% of cases were bitten by dogs. Of total 309 studied patients, 73.8% were male. Feet (71.5% and hands (22.7% were the most common body part affected. About 53.1% of cases were in rural population. Conclusions: Dogs seems to play a very important role in the epidemiology of rabies in Abdanan, Iran. No cases of human rabies were observed in our study. This may be because of increasing public awareness and the upgrading of health and treatment centers, all of which in study region provide post-exposure anti-rabies treatment including vaccination, immunoglobulin and wound washing.
Mallozzi, Maddalena; Leone, Chiara; Manurita, Francesca; Bellati, Filippo; Caserta, Donatella
Background: Although exposure to endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs) has been suggested as a contributing factor to a range of women’s health disorders including infertility, polycystic ovaries and the early onset of puberty, considerable challenges remain in attributing cause and effect on gynaecological cancer. Until recently, there were relatively few epidemiological studies examining the relationship between EDCs and endometrial cancer, however, in the last years the number of these studies has increased. Methods: A systematic MEDLINE (PubMed) search was performed and relevant articles published in the last 23 years (from 1992 to 2016) were selected. Results: Human studies and animal experiments are confirming a carcinogenic effect due to the EDC exposure and its carcinogenesis process result to be complex, multifactorial and long standing, thus, it is extremely difficult to obtain the epidemiological proof of a carcinogenic effect of EDCs for the high number of confusing factors. Conclusions: The carcinogenic effects of endocrine disruptors are plausible, although additional studies are needed to clarify their mechanisms and responsible entities. Neverthless, to reduce endocrine disruptors (ED) exposure is mandatory to implement necessary measures to limit exposure, particularly during those periods of life most vulnerable to the impact of oncogenic environmental causes, such as embryonic period and puberty. PMID:28327540
Full Text Available Objective: To study the epidemiological correlates of physical disability among students in an educational institute of Kanpur. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Study Setting: Dr. Ambedkar Institute of technology for Handicapped, UP., Kanpur. Study Subjects : Physically disabled diploma students in the age group 15 years and above of Dr. Ambedkar Institute of Technology for Handicapped UP, Kanpur were taken as study subjects. Data was collected on pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. StatisticalAnalysis : Analysis was done using percentages. Results: Physically disabled students predominantly belonged to age-group of 18-20 years (47.62%, birth order third (28.10%, Hindu religion (95.24%, OBC Caste (47.14% and social class V (51.90%. Poliomyelitis was the most common probable cause of disability in majority of students (77. 14% and right lower limb was the most common site (36.67% affected.
Laurier, D.; Jacob, S.; Bernier, M. O.; Leuraud, K.; Metz, C.; Samson, E.; Laloi, P.
The existence of an increased risk of childhood leukaemia near nuclear installations is a recurrent issue. A review of the related epidemiological literature is presented here. Results for 198 nuclear sites throughout 10 countries were included in the review. In addition to local studies, 25 multi-site studies have been published for eight countries. A large variability was noticed in the quality of the data as well as in the definition of the study population and in the methods of analysis. Many studies present important limits that make the results difficult to interpret. The review confirms that some clusters of childhood leukaemia cases exist locally. However, results based on multi-site studies around nuclear installations do not indicate an increased risk globally. Many studies were launched to investigate possible origins of the observed clusters around specific sites, but up to now, none of the proposed hypotheses have explained them. (authors)
Xing, Weijia; Liao, Qiaohong; Viboud, Cécile; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Junling; Wu, Joseph T; Chang, Zhaorui; Liu, Fengfeng; Fang, Vicky J; Zheng, Yingdong; Cowling, Benjamin J; Varma, Jay K; Farrar, Jeremy J; Leung, Gabriel M; Yu, Hongjie
Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a common childhood illness caused by enteroviruses. Increasingly, the disease has a substantial burden throughout east and southeast Asia. To better inform vaccine and other interventions, we characterised the epidemiology of hand, foot, and mouth disease in China on the basis of enhanced surveillance. We extracted epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory data from cases of hand, foot, and mouth disease reported to the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention between Jan 1, 2008, and Dec 31, 2012. We then compiled climatic, geographical, and demographic information. All analyses were stratified by age, disease severity, laboratory confirmation status, and enterovirus serotype. The surveillance registry included 7,200,092 probable cases of hand, foot, and mouth disease (annual incidence, 1·2 per 1000 person-years from 2010-12), of which 267,942 (3·7%) were laboratory confirmed and 2457 (0·03%) were fatal. Incidence and mortality were highest in children aged 12-23 months (38·2 cases per 1000 person-years and 1·5 deaths per 100,000 person-years in 2012). Median duration from onset to diagnosis was 1·5 days (IQR 0·5-2·5) and median duration from onset to death was 3·5 days (2·5-4·5). The absolute number of patients with cardiopulmonary or neurological complications was 82,486 (case-severity rate 1·1%), and 2457 of 82486 patients with severe disease died (fatality rate 3·0%); 1617 of 1737 laboratory confirmed deaths (93%) were associated with enterovirus 71. Every year in June, hand, foot, and mouth disease peaked in north China, whereas southern China had semiannual outbreaks in May and September-October. Geographical differences in seasonal patterns were weakly associated with climate and demographic factors (variance explained 8-23% and 3-19%, respectively). This is the largest population-based study up to now of the epidemiology of hand, foot, and mouth disease. Future mitigation policies should take into
Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg is an essential dietary element for humans involved in key biological processes. A growing body of evidence from epidemiological studies, randomized controlled trials (RCTs and meta-analyses have indicated inverse associations between Mg intake and cardiovascular diseases (CVD. The present review aims to summarize recent scientific evidence on the topic, with a focus on data from epidemiological studies assessing the associations between Mg intake and major cardiovascular (CV risk factors and CVD. We also aimed to review current literature on circulating Mg and CVD, as well as potential biological processes underlying these observations. We concluded that high Mg intake is associated with lower risk of major CV risk factors (mainly metabolic syndrome, diabetes and hypertension, stroke and total CVD. Higher levels of circulating Mg are associated with lower risk of CVD, mainly ischemic heart disease and coronary heart disease. Further, RCTs and prospective studies would help to clarify whether Mg intake and Mg circulating levels may also protect against other CVDs and CVD death.
Robie, D.M.; Fry, S.A.
The availability of computers with increasing capabilities has made feasibile epidemiologic studies involving large populations such as those utilized to evaluate the health effects of occupational exposure to radiation. However, the storage and retrieval of data from the large numbers of hard-copy personnel, health physics, employment medical, historical or anecdotal documents that are the bases of such studies pose major logistics problems to investigators. The potential value of such records to epidemiologic studies depends, not only on their accuracy and completeness, but also on ease of accessibility. To address the latter problem, we are using a stand-alone user-oriented electronic filing system that records, stores, and secures hard-copy documents micrographically. This system is controlled by a computer that provides retrieval of a document image and printed copy (if desired) in less than 30 seconds from a maximum of eight fields. One thousand documents are randomly filmed and indexed on computer storage diskettes in two hours. Manual sorting and filing of the same number of documents takes over a day. At present two thousand documents can be recorded on each microfilm roll and 85,000 documents indexed on each diskette. Simultaneous searching for documents can be done using up to ten terminals while indexing is being done at the main terminal. The micrographics system provides the space-saving and security advantages of microfilm with the speed of computerized data retrieval
Ratih D. Yudhani
Full Text Available GLOBOCAN data in 2012 showed colorectal cancer was the third leading cancer worldwide. In Indonesia, based on WHO data in 2014, colorectal cancer was the second common cancer ini men and third cancer in women. Epidemiological studies showed that diabetes mellitus have a correlation with the incidence of cancer and increase colorectal cancer risk by 30%. Some of epidemiological study showed that metformin therapy in diabetes patient reduce the risk of cancer incidence. It supported by experimental study which showed that metformin inhibit the growth and proliferation of cancer cells by influence the AMPK/mTOR pathway as a main role. The method was literature review based on publication at Pubmed, Scopus, and Google Scholar with keywords “metformin, colorectal cancer”, “metformin, colon cancer”, without index factor limitation in free journal and paid journal. The aim of this review is to give a new insight of metformin activity as anti-cancer and its potential for both preventif and adjuvant cancer therapy, especially for colorectal cancer.
Epidemiological studies are currently being made among a large number of occupationally exposed persons in order to detect any possible radiation-induced increase of mortality rates due to leukemia or cancer. In workers at nuclear facilities, no mortality increase due to leukemia or cancer could be observed, and the number of deaths induced by specific tumors or leukemia is too small yet to offer a basis for concrete conclusions. However, there is an observable, significant increase in the incidence of some tumors, although the number of cases still is small. No typical pattern of radiation-induced type of tumors could be stated so far. Among radiologists who started working in radiological departments early in their life, enhanced incidence of cancer of the skin, lung tumors and leukemia has been observed, which is related to their considerably high radiation dose accumulated over their working life. The data obtained so far for workers at nuclear facilities show an overall low mortality rate. These epidemiological studies are of great significance with regard to current research and activities for determining risk factors for occupational radiation exposure. The data available so far differ obviously from those obtained by the studies with A-bomb survivors in Japan. (orig./HP) [de
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A common method for conducting a quantitative systematic review (QSR for observational studies related to nutritional epidemiology is the “highest versus lowest intake” method (HLM, in which only the information concerning the effect size (ES of the highest category of a food item is collected on the basis of its lowest category. However, in the interval collapsing method (ICM, a method suggested to enable a maximum utilization of all available information, the ES information is collected by collapsing all categories into a single category. This study aimed to compare the ES and summary effect size (SES between the HLM and ICM. METHODS: A QSR for evaluating the citrus fruit intake and risk of pancreatic cancer and calculating the SES by using the HLM was selected. The ES and SES were estimated by performing a meta-analysis using the fixed-effect model. The directionality and statistical significance of the ES and SES were used as criteria for determining the concordance between the HLM and ICM outcomes. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in the directionality of SES extracted by using the HLM or ICM. The application of the ICM, which uses a broader information base, yielded more-consistent ES and SES, and narrower confidence intervals than the HLM. CONCLUSIONS: The ICM is advantageous over the HLM owing to its higher statistical accuracy in extracting information for QSR on nutritional epidemiology. The application of the ICM should hence be recommended for future studies.
The health effects of low-level ionizing radiation are yet unclear. As pointed out by Upton in his review (Upton, 1989), low-level ionizing radiation seems to have different biological effects from what high-level radiation has. If so, the hazard identification of ionizing radiation should he conducted separately for low- and high-level ionizing radiation; the hazard identification of low-level radiation is yet to be completed. What makes hazard identification of ionizing radiation difficult, particularly in the case of carcinogenic effect, is the difficulty in distinguishing radiation-induced cancer from other cancers with respect to clinicopathological features and molecular biological characteristics. Actually, it is suspected that radiation-induced carcinogenesis involves mechanisms not specific for radiation, such as oxidative stress. Excess risk per dose in medium-high dose ranges can be extrapolated to a low-dose range if dose-response can be described by the linear-non-threshold model. The cancer risk data of atomic-bomb survivors describes leukemia risk with a linear-quadratic (LQ) model and solid-cancer risk with linear non-threshold (LNT) model. The LQ model for leukemia and the LNT model for solid cancer correspond to the two-hit model and the one-hit model, respectively. Although the one-hit model is an unlikely dose-response for carcinogenesis, there is no convincing epidemiological evidence supporting the LQ model or non-threshold model for solid cancer. It should be pointed out, however, even if the true dose response is non-linear various noises involved in epidemiological data may mask the truth. In this paper, the potential contribution of epidemiological studies on nuclear workers and residents in high background radiation areas will be discussed. (author)