Sample records for wisconsin dairy producers

  1. On Farmers’ Ground: Wisconsin Dairy Farm Nutrient Management Survey Questionnaire (United States)

    This questionnaire was used during quarterly, face-to-face interviews with the fifty-four Wisconsin dairy farmers who participated in the ‘On Farmers’ Ground’ nutrient management research project. It was designed to systematically and consistently compile information on herd size and composition, l...

  2. Exploring relationships between Dairy Herd Improvement monitors of performance and the Transition Cow Index in Wisconsin dairy herds. (United States)

    Schultz, K K; Bennett, T B; Nordlund, K V; Döpfer, D; Cook, N B


    Transition cow management has been tracked via the Transition Cow Index (TCI; AgSource Cooperative Services, Verona, WI) since 2006. Transition Cow Index was developed to measure the difference between actual and predicted milk yield at first test day to evaluate the relative success of the transition period program. This project aimed to assess TCI in relation to all commonly used Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) metrics available through AgSource Cooperative Services. Regression analysis was used to isolate variables that were relevant to TCI, and then principal components analysis and network analysis were used to determine the relative strength and relatedness among variables. Finally, cluster analysis was used to segregate herds based on similarity of relevant variables. The DHI data were obtained from 2,131 Wisconsin dairy herds with test-day mean ≥30 cows, which were tested ≥10 times throughout the 2014 calendar year. The original list of 940 DHI variables was reduced through expert-driven selection and regression analysis to 23 variables. The K-means cluster analysis produced 5 distinct clusters. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the 23 variables per cluster grouping. Using principal components analysis, cluster analysis, and network analysis, 4 parameters were isolated as most relevant to TCI; these were energy-corrected milk, 3 measures of intramammary infection (dry cow cure rate, linear somatic cell count score in primiparous cows, and new infection rate), peak ratio, and days in milk at peak milk production. These variables together with cow and newborn calf survival measures form a group of metrics that can be used to assist in the evaluation of overall transition period performance. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Costs of Producing Biogas at Dairy Farms in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebrezgabher, S.A.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.


    By 2020, Dutch dairy chains envisage to be self-sufficient with regard to energy used by dairy farms and dairy processors. This would require dairy farms to produce 25 PJ per year, possibly by a combination of wind, solar and biogas. This paper focuses on biogas. To evaluate the project’s viability

  4. Radioactivity monitoring of Irish dairy produce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelleher, K.


    Full text: The RPII has been carrying out monitoring of milk and dairy produce since 1986. Milk samples are routinely analysed for radiocaesium and strontium-90 as part of the RPII's environmental monitoring programme to determine the doses received to the Irish population from milk consumption. The method the RPII utilises for determining the Sr-90 activity in milk is by measuring the Cerenkov radiation produced by its daughter 90 Y isolated from interfering nuclides such as uranium, thorium, radium and their decay products as well as isotopes of caesium, potassium and strontium by extraction with 10% di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate (HDEHP) in toluene. The chemical yield of 90 Y is determined by the acidmetric titration of yttrium nitrate carrier with titriplex III. The levels of Sr-90 and dose to the Irish population from milk consumption have been negligible when compared to other radioactive sources in the Irish environment. Other dairy products are analysed for radiocaesium on a routine basis for commercial customers to ensure the levels of radioactivity in the dairy products fall within EC regulations governing the export/import of dairy produce. The export of milk and milk produce from Ireland is a very important industry, 80% of dairy products produced in Ireland are exported and these exports are worth Euro 2.2 billion annually to the Irish economy. The dairy products are analysed by gamma spectroscopy and include full and skim milk powders, butter, casein, cheese, cream, whey and lactose. The levels of radiocaesium in these products are typically below 5 Bk/kg and fall well within the limit of 370 Bq/kg laid down by the European Community in Council Regulation 737/90. Although the levels of these radionuclides are relatively low the RPII recognises the importance of analysing these samples for radioactivity to inform the public, ensure consumer confidence and, more importantly, to maintain a level of expertise in the RPII in these analytical techniques so that

  5. Effect of feeding strategies and cropping systems on greenhouse gas emission from Wisconsin certified organic dairy farms. (United States)

    Liang, D; Sun, F; Wattiaux, M A; Cabrera, V E; Hedtcke, J L; Silva, E M


    Organic agriculture continues to expand in the United States, both in total hectares and market share. However, management practices used by dairy organic producers, and their resulting environmental impacts, vary across farms. This study used a partial life cycle assessment approach to estimate the effect of different feeding strategies and associated crop production on greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from Wisconsin certified organic dairy farms. Field and livestock-driven emissions were calculated using 2 data sets. One was a 20-yr data set from the Wisconsin Integrated Cropping System Trial documenting management inputs, crop and pasture yields, and soil characteristics, used to estimate field-level emissions from land associated with feed production (row crop and pasture), including N 2 O and soil carbon sequestration. The other was a data set summarizing organic farm management in Wisconsin, which was used to estimate replacement heifer emission (CO 2 equivalents), enteric methane (CH 4 ), and manure management (N 2 O and CH 4 ). Three combinations of corn grain (CG) and soybean (SB) as concentrate (all corn = 100% CG; baseline = 75% CG + 25% SB; half corn = 50% CG + 50% SB) were assigned to each of 4 representative management strategies as determined by survey data. Overall, GHG emissions associated with crop production was 1,297 ± 136 kg of CO 2 equivalents/t of ECM without accounting for soil carbon changes (ΔSC), and GHG emission with ΔSC was 1,457 ± 111 kg of CO 2 equivalents/t of ECM, with greater reliance on pasture resulting in less ΔSC. Higher levels of milk production were a major driver associated with reduction in GHG emission per metric tonne of ECM. Emissions per metric tonne of ECM increased with increasing proportion of SB in the ration; however, including SB in the crop rotation decreased N 2 O emission per metric tonne of ECM from cropland due to lower applications of organically approved N fertility inputs. More SB at the expense of CG


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassahun Melesse


    Full Text Available A survey was conducted in 2012 to assess the impact of dairy technologies on the livelihood of dairying households in Ada’a and Lume districts of central Ethiopia. A total of 108 dairy farms were interviewed using structured questionnaire. Dairying has significant contribution as a sustainable source of income to the dairy producing households. It contributed about 62% and 66% of the total monthly income in Ada’a and Lume districts, respectively. Dairying was the first income source for about 80% and 62% of the dairy producing households in Ada’a and Lume districts, respectively. On the other hand, 92.9 % and 88.9 % of the respondents in Ada’a and Lume districts respectively explained that dairy technology adoption has significantly increased their household income. About 56% and 32% of households in Ada’a and Lume districts were found to save money from dairying in a traditional form of saving. Adoption of dairy technologies has also an impact on the consumption of milk and milk products as all family members in about 77.5% and 87.1% of households in Ada’a and Lume districts, respectively could consume more milk.

  7. Characterization of Kentucky dairy producer decision-making behavior. (United States)

    Russell, R A; Bewley, J M


    To address dairy clientele needs, industry professionals need to understand how dairy producers make decisions. A survey was distributed to all licensed Kentucky milk producers (n=1,074) to better understand factors that influence dairy producer decisions. A total of 236 surveys were returned; 7 were omitted because they were incomplete, leaving 229 for subsequent analyses (21% response rate). The survey consisted of questions about dairy operational success criteria, decision evaluation criteria, information sources, and technology adoption. The mean response to each survey question was calculated after assigning the following numeric values to producer response categories: 1 = not important, 3 = important, 5 = very important. The most important source of influence or information in decision making was advice from consultants, nutritionists, and veterinarians (3.70±1.23), followed by consultation with business partners and family members (3.68±1.29), and intuition and gut feeling (3.10±1.45). Producers with large herds (≥200 cows) relied more heavily on information from consultants, nutritionists, and veterinarians and on employee input than did producers with small herds (1 to 49 cows). Producers with small herds did not use effect on employee morale as a criterion to evaluate decisions as much as those with larger herds did. In regard to adoption of automated monitoring technologies, producers indicated that modest adoption rates were a result of (1) not being familiar with technologies that are available (55%), (2) undesirable cost to benefit ratios (42%), and (3) too much information provided without knowing what to do with it (36%). As herd size increased, the percentage of producers selecting poor technical support and training and compatibility issues as reasons for slow adoption of automated technologies increased. This insight into dairy producer decision making should help industry professionals address dairy producer issues and concerns. Copyright

  8. producing dairy cows fed conventional forages, wheat straw

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chewing activity, metabolic profile and performance of high- producing dairy cows fed conventional forages, wheat straw or rice straw. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... Twelve lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated (n = 4) 3 × 3 Latin square design experiment with three periods of 21 days. Cows were ...

  9. Costs of Producing Biogas at Dairy Farms in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomie A. Gebrezgabher


    Full Text Available By 2020, Dutch dairy chains envisage to be self-sufficient with regard to energy used by dairy farms and dairy processors. This would require dairy farms to produce 25 PJ per year, possibly by a combination of wind, solar and biogas. This paper focuses on biogas. To evaluate the project’s viability we estimated the expected technical and financial performance of 4 types of business models, i.e. “CHP-farm”, “CHP-large”, “green gas” and “central upgrading of green gas”. Data stem from among others 23 biogas plants in the Netherlands. Anticipating that CHP-models and green gas models occur with a likelihood of 40% and 60% respectively, the total number of biogas plants would amount to 232 (1% of dairy farms, including a total of 5 million tons of manure per year (14% of all cattle manure in the Netherlands and annual government subsidies of Euro 295 million. Aggregated annual profits are expected to be positive, but over the project’s total life time there is an expected deficit of Euro 262. For this to change costs of feedstocks or digestate disposal costs would for instance have to go down. Also fully switching to green gas models dampens the deficit. Results are used in current stakeholders debates on the organization of an “energy neutral dairy chain” in the Netherlands. Further analyses incorporating uncertainty around key technical and economic parameters including financial impacts of CO2-reductions are underway.

  10. Feeding strategies on certified organic dairy farms in Wisconsin and their effect on milk production and income over feed costs. (United States)

    Hardie, C A; Wattiaux, M; Dutreuil, M; Gildersleeve, R; Keuler, N S; Cabrera, V E


    The purposes of this study were (1) to analyze and categorize certified organic Wisconsin dairy farms based on general farm characteristics and feeding strategies during the course of 2010, and (2) to evaluate herd milk production and income over feed costs (IOFC). An on-site survey containing sections on farm demographics, feeding, grazing, and economics was conducted on 69 farms (12.6% survey response rate). A nonhierarchical clustering method using 9 variables related to general farm characteristics, feed supplementation, and grazing was applied to partition the farms into clusters. A scree plot was used to determine the most appropriate number of clusters. Dry matter intake was approximated based on farmer-reported total amounts of feed consumed (feed offered less refusals). Milk production was evaluated using reported milk rolling herd averages (RHA). Income over feed costs was calculated as milk sales minus feed expenses. The farms in clusters 1 (n=8) and 3 (n=32), the large and small high-input farms, respectively, included more feed ingredients in their lactating cow diets and relied more heavily on concentrates than farms in other clusters. Cows on these farms were predominantly Holstein. Clusters 1 and 3 had the highest RHA (6,878 and 7,457 kg/cow per year, respectively) and IOFC ($10.17 and $8.59/lactating cow per day, respectively). The farms in cluster 2 (n=5) were completely seasonal, extremely low-input farms that relied much more heavily on pasture as a source of feed, with 4 out of the 5 farms having all of their operated land in pasture. Farms in cluster 2 relied on fewer feeds during both the grazing and nongrazing seasons compared with farms in the other clusters. These farms had the lowest RHA and IOFC at 3,632 kg/cow per year and $5.76/lactating cow per day, respectively. Cluster 4 (n=24), the partly seasonal, moderate-input, pasture-based cluster, ranked third for RHA and IOFC (5,417 kg/cow per year and $5.92/lactating cow per day

  11. Importance in dairy technology of bacteriocins produced by dairy starter cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedia Şimşek


    Full Text Available Bacteriocins produced by Lactic acid bacteria (LAB and propionic acid bacteria (PAB are heterogeneous group of peptide inhibitors which include lantibiotics (class I, e. g. nisin, small heat-stable peptides (class II, e. g. pediocin PA-1 and large heat-labile proteins (class III, e. g. helveticin J. Many bacteriocins belonging to the first two groups can be successfully used to inhibit undesirable microorganisms in foods, but only nisin is produced industrially and is used as a food preservative. LAB and PAB develops easily in milk and milk products. LAB and PAB growth in dairy products can cause microbial interference to spoilage and pathogenic bacteria through several metabolits, specially bacteriocins. The review deals with the description of milk-borne bacteriocins and their application in milk and milk products either to extend the shelf life or to inhibit milk pathogens.

  12. Utilization of bacteriocin-producing bacteria in dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matěj Patrovský


    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria have been used since ancient times for food preparation and for bio-conservation by fermentation. Selected strains are capable of producing antimicrobial peptides - bacteriocins, which can be natural preservatives, especially in products with short shelf lives. The present study is focused on inhibitory effects of the bacteriocin-producing bacteria strains Enterococcus faecium, Pediococccus acidilactici and Lactobacillus plantarum against Listeria innocua as an indicator microorganism. Freeze-dried preparations of bacterial strains producing particular bacteriocins were tested by agar well-diffusion assay and by the traditional spread plate method. Plantaricin exhibited the highest anti-listerial effect among the tested bacteriocins. Pediocin also demonstrated a distinct inhibitory effect, but enterocin appeared to be heat labile and its efficiency was also suppressed under cold storage conditions. Plantaricin reduced Listeria innocua counts by 1 log in dairy spread made from cheese and quark. The formation of bacteriocins by various Lactobacillus plantarum strains were substantially influenced by the cultivation conditions of the mother culture and by the microbial preparation process before freeze-drying. Bacteriocins introduced into foodstuffs via protective cultures in situ offer new perspectives on enhancing food quality and safety.

  13. Feeding strategies and manure management for cost-effective mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farms in Wisconsin. (United States)

    Dutreuil, M; Wattiaux, M; Hardie, C A; Cabrera, V E


    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dairy farms are a major concern. Our objectives were to assess the effect of mitigation strategies on GHG emissions and net return to management on 3 distinct farm production systems of Wisconsin. A survey was conducted on 27 conventional farms, 30 grazing farms, and 69 organic farms. The data collected were used to characterize 3 feeding systems scaled to the average farm (85 cows and 127ha). The Integrated Farm System Model was used to simulate the economic and environmental impacts of altering feeding and manure management in those 3 farms. Results showed that incorporation of grazing practices for lactating cows in the conventional farm led to a 27.6% decrease in total GHG emissions [-0.16kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2eq)/kg of energy corrected milk (ECM)] and a 29.3% increase in net return to management (+$7,005/yr) when milk production was assumed constant. For the grazing and organic farms, decreasing the forage-to-concentrate ratio in the diet decreased GHG emissions when milk production was increased by 5 or 10%. The 5% increase in milk production was not sufficient to maintain the net return; however, the 10% increase in milk production increased net return in the organic farm but not on the grazing farm. A 13.7% decrease in GHG emissions (-0.08kg of CO2eq/kg of ECM) was observed on the conventional farm when incorporating manure the day of application and adding a 12-mo covered storage unit. However, those same changes led to a 6.1% (+0.04kg of CO2eq/kg of ECM) and a 6.9% (+0.06kg of CO2eq/kg of ECM) increase in GHG emissions in the grazing and the organic farms, respectively. For the 3 farms, manure management changes led to a decrease in net return to management. Simulation results suggested that the same feeding and manure management mitigation strategies led to different outcomes depending on the farm system, and furthermore, effective mitigation strategies were used to reduce GHG emissions while maintaining

  14. degradable protein sources on performance of high-producing dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of protein nutrition by metabolizable protein and urea fermentation potential. J. Dairy Sci. 58, 611. CASPER, D.P. & SCHINGOETE, D.J., 1984. Evaluation of urea and dried whey in diets of cows during early lactation. J. Dairy Sci. 67 (Suppl. I) 120, (Abstr.). CASTLE, M.E. & WATSON, J.N., 1984. Silage and milk.

  15. Economic effect of reducing nitrogen and phosphorus mass balance on Wisconsin and Québec dairy farms. (United States)

    Pellerin, D; Charbonneau, E; Fadul-Pacheco, L; Soucy, O; Wattiaux, M A


    Our objective was to explore the trade-offs between economic performance (farm net income, FNI) and environmental outcomes (whole-farm P and N balances) of dairy farms in Wisconsin (WI; United States) and Québec (QC; Canada). An Excel-based linear program model (N-CyCLES; nutrient cycling: crops, livestock, environment, and soil) was developed to optimize feeding, cropping, and manure management as a single unit of management. In addition to FNI, P and N balances model outputs included (1) the mix of up to 9 home-grown and 17 purchased feeds for up to 5 animal groups, (2) the mix of up to 5 crop rotations in up to 5 land units and c) the mix of up to 7 fertilizers (solid and liquid manure and 5 commercial fertilizers) to allocate in each land unit. The model was parameterized with NRC nutritional guidelines and regional nutrient management planning rules. Simulations were conducted on a typical WI farm of 107 cows and 151 ha of cropland and, a Southern QC farm of 87 cows and 142 ha of cropland and all results were expressed per kg of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). In absence of constraints on P and N balances, maximum FNI was 0.12 and 0.11 $/kg of FPCM for WI and QC, respectively, with P and N balances of 1.05 and 14.29 g/kg of FPCM in WI but 0.60 and 15.70 g/kg of FPCM in QC. The achievable reduction (balance at maximum FNI minus balance when the simulation objective was to minimize P or N balance) was 0.31 and 0.54 g of P/kg of FPCM (29 and 89% reduction), but 2.37 and 3.31 g of N/kg of FPCM (17 and 24% reduction) in WI and QC, respectively. Among other factors, differences in animal unit per hectare and reliance on biological N fixation may have contributed to lower achievable reductions of whole-farm balances in WI compared with QC. Subsequent simulations to maximize FNI under increasing constraints on nutrient balances revealed that it was possible to reduce P balance, N balance, and both together by up to 33% without a substantial effect on FNI

  16. The high-producing dairy cow and its reproductive performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobson, H; Smith, Rf; Royal, Md


    There is evidence that the reproductive performance of dairy cows has declined as milk yields have increased over the last 40 years. Identifying the precise cause(s) of this problem may provide focused solutions. Intensive genetic selection for very high yields has reduced fertility, due mainly...

  17. Circulating Metabolic Profile of High Producing Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasghar CHALMEH


    Full Text Available Assessing the metabolic profile based on the concept that the laboratory measurement of certain circulating components is a tool to evaluate metabolic status of dairy cows. Veterinarian also can evaluate the energy input-output relationships by assessing the metabolic profile to prevent and control of negative energy balance, metabolic disorders and nutritional insufficiencies. In the present study, 25 multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided to 5 equal groups containing early, mid and late lactation, and far-off and close-up dry. Blood samples were collected from all cows through jugular venipuncture and sera were evaluated for glucose, insulin, β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA, cholesterol, triglyceride (TG, high, low and very low density lipoproteins (HDL, LDL and VLDL. Insulin levels in mid lactation and close-up dry cows were significantly higher than other groups (P<0.05 and the lowest insulin concentration was detected in far-off dry group. Serum concentrations of NEFA and BHBA in early and mid-lactation and close-up dry cows were significantly higher than late lactation and far-off dry animals (P<0.05. Baseline levels of cholesterol in mid and late lactation were significantly higher than other groups. The level of LDL in mid lactation cows was higher than others significantly, and its value in far-off dry cows was significantly lower than other group (P<0.05. It may be concluded that the detected changes among different groups induce commonly by negative energy balance, lactogenesis and fetal growth in each state. The presented metabolic profile can be considered as a tool to assess the energy balance in dairy cows at different physiologic states. It can be used to evaluate the metabolic situations of herd and manage the metabolic and production disorders.

  18. Short communication: Determination of Salmonella clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) diversity on dairy farms in Wisconsin and Minnesota. (United States)

    Wehnes, C A; Rehberger, T G; Barrangou, R; Smith, A H


    Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica is a foodborne pathogen able to cause disease in both humans and animals. Diverse serovars of this pathogen exist, some of which are host specific, causing a range of clinical symptoms from asymptomatic infection through morbidity and mortality. According to a 2007 survey by the USDA National Animal Health Monitoring System, fecal shedding of Salmonella from healthy cows occurs on 39.7% of dairy farms in the United States. Certain serovars are frequently isolated from dairy farms and the majority of isolates from the National Animal Health Monitoring System study were represented by 5 serovars; however, genotypic diversity was not examined. The objective of this study was to determine the diversity of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) loci in Salmonella collected from 8 dairy farms with a previous history of salmonellosis. None of the cows or calves sampled on 2 of the 8 dairy farms were shedding Salmonella, although Salmonella was detected in a cow bedding sample on 1 of these farms. Salmonella populations were discrete on each farm, according to CRISPR typing, with the exception of an Anatum var. 15+ type on farms 5 and 6 and the Montevideo type on farms 1 and 2. One to 4 distinct CRISPR genotypes were identified per farm. The CRISPR typing differed within serovars, as Montevideo, Anatum var. 15+, and Muenster serovars had no overlap of spacer content, even on the same farm, reflecting between- and within-serovar genetic diversity. The dynamic nature of Salmonella populations was shown in a farm that was sampled longitudinally over 13.5 mo. Changes in serovar from 3,19:-:z27 to Montevideo was observed between the first sampling time and 8 mo later, with concomitant change in CRISPR alleles. The results indicate that Salmonella strains present in smaller dairy herds (<500 head) are specific to that farm and new Salmonella strains may emerge over time. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science

  19. Methods and means for producing improved dairy products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hup, Gerhard; Nauta, Arjen; Kemperman, Robèr Antoine; Kok, Jan; Kuipers, Oscar


    Bacteriocins produced by "food-grade" lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are successfully used as food preservatives. However, they are often characterised by a narrow inhibitory spectrum, acting mainly on closely related bacteria. In order to specifically prevent the growth of spoilage Clostridia, we set


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahem Khoshbakht


    Full Text Available Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs are enzymes that hydrolyze the β-lactam ring, and ESBL-producing E. coli has rapidly spread worldwide with pose a serious hazard for humans. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ESBL producing E. coli and molecular evaluation of four ESBL-associated genes among E. coli strains isolated from milk and cheese in southern Iran. Antibiotic susceptibility test was carried out for a total of 150 isolates of E. coli, previously collected from dairy products. ESBL production was screened using a double-disc synergy test (DDST and presence of four ESBL genes (PER, VEB, TEM and CTX-M was tested using PCR. Among 150 E. coli strains 57 (38% isolates were identified as ESBL-producing strains. All ESBL positive isolates could be typed for one or more genes and the most prevalent ESBL-associated gene was CTX-M (80.7%. The PER gene was not present among isolates. Isolates showed high susceptibility to imipe¬nem and cefoxitin. The results showed the high prevalence of ESBL producing E. coli strains among dairy products and high occurrence of CTX-M-associated ESBL activity among isolates indicating the hazards of increasing the strains with antibiotic resistance which can transfer to human trough the dairy food products.

  1. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae in bulk tank milk from German dairy farms. (United States)

    Odenthal, Sabrina; Akineden, Ömer; Usleber, Ewald


    Although the dairy farm environment is a known source of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria, surveillance data on ESBL in the milk production chain are still scarce. This study aimed at estimating the dimensions of the problem for public health and animal welfare by surveying ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in raw bulk tank milk in Germany. Samples from 866 dairy farms, comprising about 1% of the total number of dairy farms in Germany, were first screened for presence of cefotaxime-resistant bacteria by selective enrichment. Suspect colonies were identified phenotypically and further characterized by biochemical and molecular methods, including analysis of resistance genes and clonal diversity in ESBL-producing isolates. Bulk tank milk from 82 (9.5%) farms yielded Enterobacteriaceae with confirmed ESBL-production. The most frequent ESBL-producing species was Escherichia coli (75.6%), followed by Citrobacter spp. (9.6%), Enterobacter cloacae (6.1%), and Klebsiella oxytoca (3.7%), a few isolates belonged to other species within the genera Hafnia, Raoutella and Serratia. The majority of isolates (95.1%) harbored the β-lactamase blaCTX-M gene, which has gained increased importance among ESBL-producing strains worldwide; the CTX-M group 1 was found to be the dominating (88.4%) phylogenetic group. All ESBL-positive Escherichia coli isolates were clonally heterogeneous, as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The results from this survey demonstrate that ESBL-producing bacteria are distributed widely in the dairy farm environment in Germany. Therefore, raw milk is a potential source of exposure for the consumer, which is of increasing importance considering the trend of farmer-to-consumer direct marketing. Furthermore, dairy farm staff have an increased likelihood of exposure to ESBL-producing bacteria. Finally, ESBL-producing bacteria may also be transferred via waste milk to calves, thus further spreading antibiotic resistance in the

  2. ADSA Foundation Scholar Award: Possibilities and challenges of exopolysaccharide-producing lactic cultures in dairy foods. (United States)

    Hassan, A N


    Exopolysaccharides (EPS) from lactic acid bacteria are a diverse group of polysaccharides exhibiting various functional properties. Two forms of EPS are produced by lactic acid bacteria: capsular and unattached. Capsular EPS does not cause ropiness nor does production of unattached EPS ensure ropiness. The functions of EPS in dairy products are not completely understood. This is for 2 main reasons: the major variations among exopolysaccharides even from the same group of micro-organisms, which makes it difficult to apply information from one EPS to others, and the lack of availability of techniques with the ability to observe the microstructure and distribution of the highly hydrated EPS in fermented dairy products. The introduction of relatively new microscopic techniques such as confocal scanning laser microscopy and cryo-scanning electron microscopy made it possible to directly observe the distribution of fully hydrated EPS in dairy products. Recently, EPS produced by nonropy strains have drawn the attention of the dairy industry. This is because of the ability of some nonropy strains to produce large capsular and unattached EPS that would improve the texture of dairy products without causing the undesirable slippery mouthfeel produced by the ropy strains. Factors affecting functions of EPS are their molecular characteristics and ability to interact with milk proteins. Studying the interaction between EPS and milk proteins is complex because EPS are gradually produced during fermentation, unlike polysaccharides added directly to milk to stabilize the fermented product. The concentration and possibly molecular characteristics of EPS and protein characteristics such as charge and hydrophobicity change during fermentation. Consequently, the interaction of EPS with proteins might also change during fermentation. Exopolysaccharides provide functions that benefit reduced-fat cheeses. They bind water and increase the moisture in the nonfat portion, interfere with

  3. Participatory Policy Making by Dairy Producers to Reduce Anti-Microbial use on Farms. (United States)

    van Dijk, L; Hayton, A; Main, D C J; Booth, A; King, A; Barrett, D C; Buller, H J; Reyher, K K


    Pressures for more responsible use of anti-microbial (AM) medicines in food animals are likely to increase from policymakers and the food industry, including retailers. To address this challenge, participatory approaches to welfare interventions and disease prevention may also be necessary alongside more conventional regulatory measures. This article describes the process of enabling groups of dairy producers to use a participatory policy making approach to develop an AM stewardship policy. The policy includes measures agreed to by all producers for more responsible use of AMs, whilst maintaining or improving dairy herd health and welfare. This process provided a unique opportunity for collaboration and dialogue between producers, veterinarians, industry and researchers. Its participatory nature encouraged comprehensive learning for all involved. This integration of science with producers' knowledge and experience led to credible and practical recommendations designed to deliver real and lasting change in AM use. The multidisciplinary nature of this research marks a significant contribution to embedding social science skills and approaches into the veterinary sphere. As an initial step in creating better understanding of how participatory approaches with farmers can be applied in a UK context and more widely, this work serves as a pilot for promoting more responsible use of veterinary medicines in other livestock species. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. An evaluation of dairy producer emergency preparedness and farm security education. (United States)

    Moore, D A; Payne, M


    Dairy producer education on securing the milk and meat supply is important to reduce the food system's vulnerability to contamination, and reduce the likelihood for disease transmission onto and within the farm. The purpose of this project was to develop and test a producer-audience curriculum on emergency preparedness and biosecurity awareness. Forty-three attendees from 3 organizations responded to pre- and posttests and a course evaluation. After the program, most of the participants found the program relevant (95%), that it provided practical solutions to biosecurity (97%), were very likely to assess their farms for biosecurity and security (70%), and would suggest the program to other producers (98%). Participants who strongly agreed that the program was relevant and provided practical solutions to biosecurity were very likely to assess their farms. Awareness and knowledge are the first steps toward changing attitudes and behavior and can be accomplished with directed, relevant, practical educational programs.

  5. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from dairy products - Genetic diversity and virulence gene profiles. (United States)

    Douëllou, T; Delannoy, S; Ganet, S; Mariani-Kurkdjian, P; Fach, P; Loukiadis, E; Montel, Mc; Thevenot-Sergentet, D


    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are widely recognized as pathogens causing food borne disease. Here we evaluate the genetic diversity of 197 strains, mainly STEC, from serotypes O157:H7, O26:H11, O103:H2, O111:H8 and O145:28 and compared strains recovered in dairy products against strains from human, meat and environment cases. For this purpose, we characterized a set of reference-collection STEC isolates from dairy products by PFGE DNA fingerprinting and a subset of these by virulence-gene profiling. PFGE profiles of restricted STEC total DNA showed high genomic variability (0.9976 on Simpson's discriminatory index), enabling all dairy isolates to be differentiated. High-throughput real-time PCR screening of STEC virulence genes were applied on the O157:H7 and O26:H11 STEC isolates from dairy products and human cases. The virulence gene profiles of dairy and human STEC strains were similar. Nevertheless, frequency-wise, stx1 was more prevalent among dairy O26:H11 isolates than in human cases ones (87% vs. 44%) while stx2 was more prevalent among O26:H11 human isolates (23% vs. 81%). For O157:H7 isolates, stx1 (0% vs. 39%), nleF (40% vs 94%) and Z6065 (40% vs 100%) were more prevalent among human than dairy strains. Our data point to differences between human and dairy strains but these differences were not sufficient to associate PFGE and virulence gene profiles to a putative lower pathogenicity of dairy strains based on their lower incidence in disease. Further comparison of whole-genome expression and virulence gene profiles should be investigated in cheese and intestinal tract samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Studies on hepatic lipidosis and coinciding health and fertility problems of high-producing dairy cows using the "Utrecht fatty liver model of dairy cows". A review. (United States)

    Geelen, M J H; Wensing, T


    Fatty liver or hepatic lipidosis is a major metabolic disorder of high-producing dairy cows that occurs rather frequently in early lactation and is associated with decreased health, production and fertility. A background section of the review explores reasons why high-producing dairy cows are prone to develop fatty liver post partum. Hepatic lipidosis and coinciding health and fertility problems seriously endanger profitability and longevity of the dairy cow. Results from a great number of earlier epidemiological and clinical studies made it clear that a different approach was needed for elucidation of pathogenesis and etiology of this complex of health problems. There was a need for an adequate animal model in which hepatic lipidosis and production, health and fertility problems could be provoked under controlled conditions. It was hypothesized that overconditioning ante partum and feed restriction post partum might induce lipolysis in adipose tissue and triacylglycerol accumulation in the liver following calving. This consideration formed the basis for the experiments, which resulted in the "Utrecht fatty liver model of dairy cows". In this model, post partum triacylglycerol-lipidosis as well as the whole complex of health and fertility problems are induced under well-controlled conditions. The experimental protocol based on this hypothesis produced in all cases (10 feeding trials with over 150 dairy cattle) the intended result, i.e. all experimental cows developed post partum higher hepatic triacylglycerol concentrations than did control cows. The model was evaluated in biochemical, clinical pathology, immunological, clinical and fertility terms. It turned out that in this model, post partum triacylglycerol-lipidosis as well as the whole complex of health and fertility problems were induced under well-controlled conditions.

  7. Sorghum as a forage in Wisconsin (United States)

    Growing moderate quality forages that meet, but do not exceed, requirements of dairy replacement heifers is not a common practice in Wisconsin; however, this forage management option would have a positive impact on the dairy industry. It is typical for heifers to gain excessive bodyweight when they ...

  8. Biofilm-forming capacity in biogenic amine-producing bacteria isolated from dairy products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eDiaz


    Full Text Available Biofilms on the surface of food industry equipment are reservoirs of potentially food-contaminating bacteria - both spoilage and pathogenic. However, the capacity of biogenic amine (BA-producers to form biofilms has remained largely unexamined. BAs are low molecular weight, biologically active compounds that in food can reach concentrations high enough to be a toxicological hazard. Fermented foods, especially some types of cheese, accumulate the highest BA concentrations of all. The present work examines the biofilm-forming capacity of 56 BA-producing strains belonging to three genera and 10 species (12 Enterococcus faecalis, 6 Enterococcus faecium, 6 Enterococcus durans, 1 Enterococcus hirae, 12 Lactococcus lactis, 7 Lactobacillus vaginalis, 2 Lactobacillus curvatus, 2 Lactobacillus brevis, 1 Lactobacillus reuteri and 7 Lactobacillus parabuchneri, all isolated from dairy products. Strains of all the tested species - except for L. vaginalis - were able to produce biofilms on polystyrene and adhered to stainless steel. However, the biomass produced in biofilms was strain-dependent. These results suggest that biofilms may provide a route via which fermented foods can become contaminated by BA-producing microorganisms.

  9. Occurrence of foodborne pathogens and characterization of Staphylococcus aureus in cheese produced on farm-dairies. (United States)

    Rosengren, Asa; Fabricius, Ane; Guss, Bengt; Sylvén, Susanne; Lindqvist, Roland


    The objective of this study was to address knowledge gaps identified in an earlier risk assessment of Staphylococcus aureus and raw milk cheese. A survey of fresh and short-time ripened cheeses produced on farm-dairies in Sweden was conducted to investigate the occurrence and levels of S. aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, to characterize S. aureus isolates with special emphasis on enterotoxin genes, antibiotic resistance, bio-typing and genetic variation, and to collect information related to production practices. In general, the hygienic quality of farm-dairy cheeses appeared to be of an acceptable microbiological quality, e.g. L. monocytogenes and staphylococcal enterotoxin were not detected in cheese samples. However, E. coli and enterotoxigenic S. aureus were frequently found in raw milk cheeses and sometimes at levels that are of concern, especially in fresh cheese. Interestingly, levels in raw milk fresh cheese were significantly lower when starter cultures were used. Up to five S. aureus colonies per cheese, if possible, were characterized and about 70% of isolates carried one or more enterotoxin genes, most common were sec and sea. The Ovine biotype (73%) was most common among isolates from goat milk cheese and the Human biotype (60%) from cow milk cheese. Of all isolates, 39% showed decreased susceptibility to penicillin, but the proportion of isolates from cows' cheese (66%) compared to isolates from goats' cheese (27%) was significantly higher. S. aureus isolates with different properties were detected in cheese from the same farm and, sometimes even the same cheese. Isolates with the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)-pattern were detected on geographically distant dairies. This indicates that multiple sources and routes of contamination are important. To improve the safety of these products efforts to raise awareness of the importance of hygiene barriers and raw milk quality as well as improved process control can be

  10. Milk producers' awareness of milk-borne zoonoses in selected smallholder and commercial dairy farms of Zimbabwe. (United States)

    Mosalagae, Diphetogo; Pfukenyi, Davies Mubika; Matope, Gift


    A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted to assess milk producers' awareness of milk-borne zoonoses in selected smallholder and commercial dairy farms of Zimbabwe. The questionnaire was designed to obtain information on dairy breeds, milk production, dairy farmers' knowledge and awareness of zoonoses with particular emphasis on milk-borne zoonoses and farmers' behavioural practices that may lead to increased risk of milk-borne zoonoses transmission. A total of 119 dairy farmers were interviewed, and 41.5% were aware of milk-borne zoonoses with a significantly (Pzoonoses transmission were; consumption of raw milk (68.1%), sale of raw milk to the local public (25.2%), lack of cooling facilities by smallholder farmers (98%), and no routine testing (84.9%) and medical check-ups (89.1%) for milk-borne zoonoses. General hygienic and disease control practices need to be integrated in the milk production process particularly at the smallholder level. Awareness, teaching and training programmes for smallholder dairy farmers can improve disease control in animals and reduce the public health risk of milk-borne zoonoses.

  11. Antimicrobial-producing wild lactococci isolated from artisanal and non-dairy origins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayad, E.H.E.; Verheul, A.; Wouters, J.T.M.; Smit, G.


    Wild lactococcal strains with diverse properties isolated from dairy and non-dairy origins and characterised by their flavour-forming abilities were tested for antagonistic activities to assess their potential for use as new starter cultures. Thirty-two of seventy-nine strains examined inhibited the

  12. Alfalfa Protein Concentrate as a Less Ruminally Degradable Protein Source for High-Producing Dairy Cows

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    C.D. Lu


    Full Text Available Ten multiparous Holstein cows were used in a 105-day continuous feeding trial to compare soybean meal (SBM and alfalfa protein concentrate (APC as supplemental protein sources for high-producing dairy cows. Dairy cows with an average milk production of 35.2 kg/day were paired and randomly assigned to one of the treatments. A double reversal design was employed With 35 days per period. The comparison between treatments was made during the last 21 days of each period. Experimental diets, containing 60% corn silage and 10% alfalfa hay, were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isoenergetic (crude protein. 15.6%; net energy tor lactation, 1.60 Mcal/kg DM. Fifty percent of dietary nitrogen was provided by test proteins. Animals were fed four times daily. Chromie oxide boluses, 50 g/day were used to estimate digestion coefficients. Ruminal protein degradability in viva (% and in situ(%were 56.8, 68.3 and 47.3. 35.3 for SBM and APC, respectively. Dry matter intake (kg/day was 19.1 and 18.6 for cows fed SBM and APC. respectively. Rummal parameters cows fed SBM vs APC were, pH. 6.6 vs 6.7, ammonia nitrogen(mg/dI 10.8 vs 6.2(p less than 0.01; total volatile fatty acids (mM, 86.3 VS 84.6(P LESS THAN 0.05, acetate (% , 50.8 vs 64.9 (p less than 0.01; propionate dry matter , 65.3 vs 61.8; crude protein . 67.6 vs 61.1 (P less than 0.05 neutral detergent fiber , 51.1 vs 52.5 ; acid detergent fiber, 47.7 vs 49.0 . A slightly higher (P more than 0.05 amount of milk was produced by cows fed APC(28.6+_ 3.5 vs 28.2+- 3.8 kg/day. Each additional gramof undergradable intake protein provided by APC continued to a 5- gram increase in 4% fat-corrected milk production.

  13. The Biodiversity of the Microbiota Producing Heat-Resistant Enzymes Responsible for Spoilage in Processed Bovine Milk and Dairy Products (United States)

    Machado, Solimar G.; Baglinière, François; Marchand, Sophie; Van Coillie, Els; Vanetti, Maria C. D.; De Block, Jan; Heyndrickx, Marc


    Raw bovine milk is highly nutritious as well as pH-neutral, providing the ideal conditions for microbial growth. The microbiota of raw milk is diverse and originates from several sources of contamination including the external udder surface, milking equipment, air, water, feed, grass, feces, and soil. Many bacterial and fungal species can be found in raw milk. The autochthonous microbiota of raw milk immediately after milking generally comprises lactic acid bacteria such as Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, and Leuconostoc species, which are technologically important for the dairy industry, although they do occasionally cause spoilage of dairy products. Differences in milking practices and storage conditions on each continent, country and region result in variable microbial population structures in raw milk. Raw milk is usually stored at cold temperatures, e.g., about 4°C before processing to reduce the growth of most bacteria. However, psychrotrophic bacteria can proliferate and contribute to spoilage of ultra-high temperature (UHT) treated and sterilized milk and other dairy products with a long shelf life due to their ability to produce extracellular heat resistant enzymes such as peptidases and lipases. Worldwide, species of Pseudomonas, with the ability to produce these spoilage enzymes, are the most common contaminants isolated from cold raw milk although other genera such as Serratia are also reported as important milk spoilers, while for others more research is needed on the heat resistance of the spoilage enzymes produced. The residual activity of extracellular enzymes after high heat treatment may lead to technological problems (off flavors, physico-chemical instability) during the shelf life of milk and dairy products. This review covers the contamination patterns of cold raw milk in several parts of the world, the growth potential of psychrotrophic bacteria, their ability to produce extracellular heat-resistant enzymes and the consequences for

  14. The Biodiversity of the Microbiota Producing Heat-Resistant Enzymes Responsible for Spoilage in Processed Bovine Milk and Dairy Products. (United States)

    Machado, Solimar G; Baglinière, François; Marchand, Sophie; Van Coillie, Els; Vanetti, Maria C D; De Block, Jan; Heyndrickx, Marc


    Raw bovine milk is highly nutritious as well as pH-neutral, providing the ideal conditions for microbial growth. The microbiota of raw milk is diverse and originates from several sources of contamination including the external udder surface, milking equipment, air, water, feed, grass, feces, and soil. Many bacterial and fungal species can be found in raw milk. The autochthonous microbiota of raw milk immediately after milking generally comprises lactic acid bacteria such as Lactococcus , Lactobacillus , Streptococcus , and Leuconostoc species, which are technologically important for the dairy industry, although they do occasionally cause spoilage of dairy products. Differences in milking practices and storage conditions on each continent, country and region result in variable microbial population structures in raw milk. Raw milk is usually stored at cold temperatures, e.g., about 4°C before processing to reduce the growth of most bacteria. However, psychrotrophic bacteria can proliferate and contribute to spoilage of ultra-high temperature (UHT) treated and sterilized milk and other dairy products with a long shelf life due to their ability to produce extracellular heat resistant enzymes such as peptidases and lipases. Worldwide, species of Pseudomonas , with the ability to produce these spoilage enzymes, are the most common contaminants isolated from cold raw milk although other genera such as Serratia are also reported as important milk spoilers, while for others more research is needed on the heat resistance of the spoilage enzymes produced. The residual activity of extracellular enzymes after high heat treatment may lead to technological problems (off flavors, physico-chemical instability) during the shelf life of milk and dairy products. This review covers the contamination patterns of cold raw milk in several parts of the world, the growth potential of psychrotrophic bacteria, their ability to produce extracellular heat-resistant enzymes and the consequences

  15. Quality and microbiological safety of fermented bovine dairy produced in Federal District, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Lima dos Reis


    Full Text Available Considering the growing importance of fermented dairy products in the domestic market and the scarcity of data in the Federal District (DF, it was evaluated the quality and microbiological safety of these products in the DF and its adaptation to current standards. The study was conducted in five dairy being collected 105 samples of fermented dairy products corresponding to 21 lots (n = 5 per lot, with 65 samples of yogurt, 20 of curd and 20 of fermented dairy drink. All samples were submitted to a count of aerobic mesophilic, psychrotrophic, coliforms at 35 ° C, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus coagulase positive, Salmonella spp., molds, yeasts and viable lactic acid bacteria (BAL. The total lots analyzed, 62% were considered acceptable under the Regulatory Instructions n ° 46/2007 and n ° 16/2005. In order of quality, fermented dairy drink was the one with lots more apt to consumption (75% followed by yoghurt (61.5% and, lastly, curd (50%. For samples units, the results showed that: 17% of yoghurt samples, 15% of curd and 20% of fermented dairy drink showed scores above the allowed CT; 11% of yoghurt samples and 30% of fermented dairy drink showed BAL counts below specific minimum limits; and 61% samples of yogurt and curd were 30% of curd was with yeasts and molds counts above permitted. No samples showed the development of E. coli or Salmonella spp. Despite the absence of microbiological hazards in the samples analyzed, the study indicates problems in the production of these products in the DF that may be related to deficiencies in hygienic of the processes, most rigor in the quality controls of dairy and oversight of industries is needed.

  16. Characterization of new biosurfactant produced by Trichosporon montevideense CLOA 72 isolated from dairy industry effluents. (United States)

    Monteiro, Andrea S; Coutinho, Joana O P A; Júnior, Ary C; Rosa, Carlos A; Siqueira, Ezequias P; Santos, Vera L


    The yeast strain CLOA 72 isolated from the effluent of a dairy industry in Brazil and identified as Trichosporon montevideense, was able to grow and produce a glycolipid biosurfactant when cultured on a mineral medium (MM) with sunflower oil as the carbon source. Biosurfactant production was partially growth-associated and maximal emulsification activity was observed at 144 h of cultivation (78.92%). The biosurfactant purified by precipitation with ethanol showed 78.66% emulsifying activity when used in concentrations above 4.5 mg/ml and was able to reduce the surface tension of water to values below 44.9 mN/m. The critical micellar concentration (CMC) was found to be 2.2 mg/ml. The highest emulsifying activity (E(24)) has been observed with vegetable oils, toluene, kerosene, isooctane, cyclohexane, hexane, diesel oil and hexadecane as compared to mineral oil and oleic acid. The biosurfactant also showed good stability during exposure to 100 degrees C for different periods of time (10 to 60 min), to high salinity (30% of NaCl, KCl and NaHCO(3)), and to a wide range of pH values (1-10). The biosurfactant purified by gel filtration chromatography is a glycolipid, with lipid portion containing 16.03% (9Z)-octadec-9-enoic acid, 14.92% hexadecanoic acid, and 9.63% (E) octadec-9-enoic acid and the carbohydrate portion containing mannose (35.29%), xylose (41.99%), arabinose (17.47%), and glucose (5.25%).

  17. 75 FR 18828 - Wisconsin Electric Power Company, Wisconsin Gas LLC, Wisconsin Public Service Corporation... (United States)


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Wisconsin Electric Power Company, Wisconsin Gas LLC, Wisconsin Public Service Corporation: Complainants; ANR Pipeline Company: Respondent; Notice of Complaint April 6, 2010....206 (2009), Wisconsin Electric Power Company, Wisconsin Gas LLC, and Wisconsin Public Service...

  18. Melatonin treatment at dry-off improves reproductive performance postpartum in high-producing dairy cows under heat stress conditions. (United States)

    Garcia-Ispierto, I; Abdelfatah, A; López-Gatius, F


    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of melatonin treatment during the early dry-off period on subsequent reproductive performance and milk production in high-producing dairy cows under heat stress conditions. In experiment I, addressing the pharmacokinetics of melatonin treatment in lactating dairy cows, doses of untreated, 3, 6, 9 or 12 implants/animal (18-mg melatonin each implant) were given as subcutaneous implants on gestation day 120-20 multiparous lactating dairy cows (four cows/dose group). Experiment II was performed during the warm season on 25 heifers and 114 high milk-producing Holstein-Friesian cows. Animals were randomly assigned to a control (C) or melatonin group (M). Animals in the M group received nine implants (heifers) or 12 (cows) of melatonin on day 220 of gestation. In experiment I, cows in the 12 implants group showed a higher maximum melatonin concentration (Cmax ) and area under the concentration curve from treatment day 0 to day 49 (AUC0-49d ) than those in the remaining groups, among which there were no significant differences in this variable. In experiment II, the likelihood of repeat breeding syndrome (pregnancy loss (first trimester) were 0.36 and 0.19 times lower in treated than control animals, respectively. Plasma prolactin levels decreased significantly (p = 0.01) after melatonin treatment and recovered during the postpartum compared to control cows. No significant effects on milk production were observed in the subsequent lactation. Significant differences in days open between groups (means 123 ± 71.9 and 103 ± 43, respectively, for C and M; p = 0.02) were registered. In conclusion, melatonin treatment in the early dry-off period improves the reproductive performance of dairy cattle, reducing the number of days open, repeat breeding syndrome and pregnancy loss. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Heat treated soybeans in the nutrition of high producing dairy cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this research was to study the effect of rations containing full-fat extruded soybeans or fat-extracted heat treated soybean meal, in the nutrition of dairy cows during the period of middle lactation. The study was carried out with two groups of 15 Holstein cows. The animal's health was controlled on the ...

  20. Metabolomic biomarkers identify differences in milk produced by Holstein cows and other minor dairy animals. (United States)

    Yang, Yongxin; Zheng, Nan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yangdong; Han, Rongwei; Yang, Jinhui; Zhao, Shengguo; Li, Songli; Guo, Tongjun; Zang, Changjiang; Wang, Jiaqi


    Several milk metabolites are associated with breeds or species of dairy animals. A better understanding of milk metabolites from different dairy animals would advance their use in evaluating milk traits and detecting milk adulteration. The objective of this study was to characterize the milk metabolite profiles of Chinese Holstein, Jersey, yak, buffalo, goat, camel, and horse and identify any differences using non-targeted metabolomic approaches. Milk samples were tested using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance and differences in milk metabolites between Holstein and the other dairy animals were assessed using orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis. Differential metabolites were identified and some metabolites, such as choline and succinic acid, were used to distinguish Holstein milk from that of the other studied animals. Metabolic pathway analysis of different metabolites revealed that glycerophospholipid metabolism as well as valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis were shared in the other ruminant animals (Jersey, buffalo, yak, and goat), and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids was shared in the non-ruminant animals (camel and horse). These results can be useful for gaining a better understanding of the differences in milk synthesis between Holstein and the other dairy animals. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Research on some factors influencing acid and exopolysaccharide produced by dairy propionibacterium strains isolated from traditional homemade Turkish cheeses. (United States)

    Darilmaz, Derya Onal; Gumustekin, Yesim


    In this study, a total of 32 isolated strains and 5 reference strains of dairy propionibacteria were analyzed for acid and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production in skim milk and yeast extract-lactate broth (YEL) media in order to investigate the physiological background and preservative role of acid and EPS. The effects of final culture pH and optical density on acid and EPS production were also determined. On average, all strains produced more acid and reached lower final pH values in skim milk than in YEL medium. While the correlations obtained between the acid produced by propionibacterium strains and their final culture pH in skim milk medium were significant (P Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii and P. freudenreichii subsp. freudenreichii strains produced higher amounts of propionic and acetic acids than did Propionibacterium jensenii in YEL medium. The acid produced by these strains may be used as a preservative in the food industry for replacement or reduction of the increasing use of chemical additives. The EPS production by propionibacterium strains during growth in YEL medium was 72 to 168 mg/liter, while in skim milk it was 94 to 359 mg/liter. The monomer compositions of the EPSs formed by the six selected dairy propionibacteria strains were analyzed. The EPSs may have applications as food grade additives and viscosity-stabilizing agents.

  2. Invited review: Role of physically effective fiber and estimation of dietary fiber adequacy in high-producing dairy cattle. (United States)

    Zebeli, Q; Aschenbach, J R; Tafaj, M; Boguhn, J; Ametaj, B N; Drochner, W


    Highly fermentable diets require the inclusion of adequate amounts of fiber to reduce the risk of subacute rumen acidosis (SARA). To assess the adequacy of dietary fiber in dairy cattle, the concept of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) has received increasing attention because it amalgamates information on both chemical fiber content and particle size (PS) of the feedstuffs. The nutritional effects of dietary PS and peNDF are complex and involve feed intake behavior (absolute intake and sorting behavior), ruminal mat formation, rumination and salivation, and ruminal motility. Other effects include fermentation characteristics, digesta passage, and nutrient intake and absorption. Moreover, peNDF requirements depend on the fermentability of the starch source (i.e., starch type and endosperm structure). To date, the incomplete understanding of these complex interactions has prevented the establishment of peNDF as a routine method to determine dietary fiber adequacy so far. Therefore, this review is intended to analyze the quantitative effects of and interactions among forage PS, peNDF, and diet fermentability with regard to rumen metabolism and prevention of SARA, and aims to give an overview of the latest achievements in the estimation of dietary fiber adequacy in high-producing dairy cattle. Recently developed models that synthesize the effects of both peNDF and fermentable starch on rumen metabolism appear to provide an appropriate basis for estimation of dietary fiber adequacy in high-producing dairy cows. Data suggest that a period lasting more than 5 to 6h/d during which ruminal pH is 1.18mm (i.e., peNDF(>1.18)) or 18.5% peNDF inclusive particles >8mm (i.e., peNDF(>8)) in the diet (DM basis) are required. However, inclusion of a concentration of peNDF(>8) in the diet beyond 14.9% of diet DM may lower DM intake level. As such, more research is warranted to develop efficient feeding strategies that encourage inclusion of energy-dense diets

  3. Screening and characterization of bacteriocins produced by some Strains of Lactobacillus spp isolated from Iranian Dairy products

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    S Mirdamadi


    Full Text Available In this study, the inhibitory effects of bacteriocins of lactobacilli which were isolated from Iranian traditional dairy products was determined against known gram positive, gram negative and yeast by well diffusion technique. Among 8 isolates with higher capability of bacteriocin production, 2 isolates were selected for further investigations. The bacteriocins were purified by iso-propanol and ammonium sulfate precipitation following by dialysis and chromatography technique. The molecular weight of bacteriocins was determined as 45 to 66/2 KDa. by SDS-page electrophoresis. According to the results, the produced bacteriocins had more inhibition effect on Micrococcus luteus PTCC1169, Staphylococcus epidermidis PTCC1435 as well as Bacillus cereus PTCC1247 and with lesser degree of extent on Listeria monocytogenes PTCC 1301. Results also revealed that, Micrococcus luteus  was the most sensitive bacterium among indicator bacteria, while Candid albicans PTCC 5027 identified as the most resistance organism. This research showed that, bacteriocins produced by lactobacilli isolated from traditional dairy products have high potency to be used against microbial pathogens and could be applied as bio-preservative in food products.

  4. Experimental effect of ozone upon the microbial flora of commercially produced dairy fermented products. (United States)

    Alexopoulos, A; Plessas, S; Kourkoutas, Y; Stefanis, C; Vavias, S; Voidarou, C; Mantzourani, I; Bezirtzoglou, E


    Ozone was used to control spoilage microorganisms during the manufacturing of dairy products. Ozone stream was applied onto the surface of freshly filled yoghurt cups just before storage for curd development in order to prevent cross contamination from spoilage airborne microorganisms. Accordingly, brine solution was bubbled with ozone for various periods of time and used for ripening of white (feta type) cheese. Both products were subjected to a continuous monitoring of microbial load and also tested for their sensorial properties. In ozonated yoghurt samples there was a reduction in mould counts of approximately 0.6Logcfu/g (25.1%) by the end of the monitoring period in relation to the control samples. In white cheese ripened with ozonated brine (1.3mg/L O 3 , NaCl 5%) it seems that ozone treatment during the two months of observation reduced some of the mould load but without offering any advantages over the use of traditional brine (NaCl 7%). However, some sensorial alterations were observed, probably due to the organic load in the brine which deactivates ozone in early stages of application. It is concluded that, if the factors of time and concentration of ozone are configured properly, ozonation could be a promising approach safeguarding the production of some dairy products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterisation of the bacterial microbiota of the vagina of dairy cows and isolation of pediocin-producing Pediococcus acidilactici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yvonne


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uterine infections in dairy cows lower profitability of dairy operations. Infections of the reproductive tract are related to the overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria during the first three weeks after parturition. However, alterations in the vaginal microbiota composition in the first weeks after parturition remain poorly documented. Results In this study, bacteria isolated from the vagina of healthy pregnant, and infected postpartum cows were characterised by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis and partial 16S ribosomal RNA (rDNA gene sequencing. Populations of bacilli and lactic acid bacteria of the genera Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, and Pediococcus were present in both healthy and infected cows. Infected cows had a significant increase in the vaginal enteric bacteria population which consisted mainly of Escherichia coli. Three E. coli isolates harboured the gene coding for Shiga-like-toxin (SLT I or II. Several isolates of the Pediococcus acidilactici were found to produce the bacteriocin pediocin AcH/PA-1. Quantitative PCR analyses of vaginal mucus samples collected from ten metritic cows before and after parturition confirmed the presence of the Lactobacillus group (Lactobacillus spp., Pediococcus spp., Leuconostoc spp., and Weissella spp.; Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli, and bacilli. The presence of the pediocin AcH/PA-1 structural gene and SLT genes were also confirmed with qPCR. Conclusions In conclusion, overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria, particularly E. coli, after parturition likely contributes to the development of metritis. Our microbiota analysis extends the information related to the composition of commensal bacteria in the bovine female reproductive tract and may facilitate the development of novel intervention strategies for prevention of uterine infections in dairy cows.

  6. Characterisation of the bacterial microbiota of the vagina of dairy cows and isolation of pediocin-producing Pediococcus acidilactici. (United States)

    Wang, Yvonne; Ametaj, Burim N; Ambrose, Divakar J; Gänzle, Michael G


    Uterine infections in dairy cows lower profitability of dairy operations. Infections of the reproductive tract are related to the overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria during the first three weeks after parturition. However, alterations in the vaginal microbiota composition in the first weeks after parturition remain poorly documented. In this study, bacteria isolated from the vagina of healthy pregnant, and infected postpartum cows were characterised by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and partial 16S ribosomal RNA (rDNA) gene sequencing. Populations of bacilli and lactic acid bacteria of the genera Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, and Pediococcus were present in both healthy and infected cows. Infected cows had a significant increase in the vaginal enteric bacteria population which consisted mainly of Escherichia coli. Three E. coli isolates harboured the gene coding for Shiga-like-toxin (SLT) I or II. Several isolates of the Pediococcus acidilactici were found to produce the bacteriocin pediocin AcH/PA-1. Quantitative PCR analyses of vaginal mucus samples collected from ten metritic cows before and after parturition confirmed the presence of the Lactobacillus group (Lactobacillus spp., Pediococcus spp., Leuconostoc spp., and Weissella spp.); Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli, and bacilli. The presence of the pediocin AcH/PA-1 structural gene and SLT genes were also confirmed with qPCR. In conclusion, overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria, particularly E. coli, after parturition likely contributes to the development of metritis. Our microbiota analysis extends the information related to the composition of commensal bacteria in the bovine female reproductive tract and may facilitate the development of novel intervention strategies for prevention of uterine infections in dairy cows.

  7. Effects of Prepartum Monensin Feeding on Energy Metabolism and Reproductive Performance of Postpartum High-Producing Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Changizi Mohammadi, Abbas Rowshan Ghasrodashti1, Amin Tamadon2,3 and Mohammad Amin Behzadi4*


    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the effects of monensin in preparturient diet on postpartum milk production, energy metabolism, and reproductive performance of Holstein dairy cows. Forty Holstein dairy cows on close-up period were randomly divided into monensin treated (300 mg/day in close-up ration, top dress and control groups. Body condition score (BCS was estimated three weeks before and three weeks after calving. Milk production and milk fat percentage were recorded in both groups within 3 weeks postpartum. Blood samples were collected from five randomly selected cows of each group three weeks after calving. Serum concentrations of insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I, insulin, glucose, and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA were measured. Calving to the first observed estrus interval and calving to conception interval were compared between two groups. The results of the experiment showed that loss of BCS (P=0.3, increase of milk production (P=0.9, and milk fat percentage (P>0.05 were not significantly different between two groups during the period of study. In addition, mean serum glucose concentration (P=0.001 and serum insulin concentration (P=0.01 in monensin group were significantly higher than control cows in the first week postpartum. Moreover, serum BHBA concentration did not significantly change in monensin group. Serum IGF-I concentration in monensin group was significantly higher than control group in three weeks postpartum (P<0.01. The present study indicated that monensin treatment decreased calving to the first observed estrus interval (P=0.05 and calving to conception interval (P=0.002. In conclusion, supplementing the close-up ration can increase postpartum serum IGF-I concentration and prevent the increase of serum BHBA concentration. These may result in enhancement reproductive performance of high-producing dairy cows.

  8. Identification and partial characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional dairy products produced by herders in the western Tianshan Mountains of China. (United States)

    Zuo, F L; Feng, X J; Chen, L L; Chen, S W


    Thirty strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from herders' traditional dairy products collected from Xinjiang, China. The species Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Enterococcus, Pediococcus and Leuconostoc were identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing analysis and conventional observation. The strains' fermentation characteristics, including milk acidification, proteolysis, autolysis, antimicrobial activity and diacetyl production, were assayed and compared. Strains NL24 and NL31 showed the highest proteolytic activity-2·75 and 2·08 mmol Phe l(-1) milk, respectively. Strains C, NL41, SW2, Z3-11, NL42 and Z2-91 had high autolytic activity. In addition, most of the wild strains produced diacetyl, half of them to high levels. This study provides a clue to LAB biodiversity in traditional dairy foods produced by herders in the western Tianshan Mountains. High-performing strains should be further evaluated for practical application in value-added fermented dairy products. Our results reveal a certain variety of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in traditional dairy products from Xinjiang. Some of the LAB strains, such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus NL24 and Lactobacillus paracasei SW2, possess excellent functional properties and have the potential for application in indigenous fermented dairy products. Performance of the newly isolated strains in cheese or yogurt manufacturing was further evaluated. Application of the high-performing strains to enrich the flavour of fermented dairy products is highly desirable and holds great commercial potential. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Molecular screening of bovine raw milk for the presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC on dairy farms

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    Tatiane Vendramin


    Full Text Available Milkborne transmission of Shiga toxin- producing Escherichia coli (STEC has raised considerable concern due to recent outbreaks worldwide and poses a threat to public health. The aim of this study was to develop a sensitive and specific multiplex PCR assay to detect the presence of STEC in bovine raw milk. To identify E. coli (ATCC 25922 contamination, the gene uspA was used, and PCR sensitivity and specificity were accessed by testing diluted samples ranging from 2 to 2.0 × 10(6 CFU/mL. To detect STEC, the stx1 and stx2 genes were selected as targets. After reaction standardization, the multiplex assay was tested in raw milk collected from 101 cows on dairy farms. PCR assay for E. coli detection had a specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 79% (P<0.0001, with a lower detection limit of 2 CFU/mL. Multiplex PCR assay had 100% sensitivity for E. coli positive raw milk samples, and 31.1% were contaminated with STEC, 28.3% of stx2, and 1.9% of stx1. The multiplex PCR assay described in the present study can be employed to identify and screen E. coli harboring stx1 and stx2 genes in raw milk on dairy farms and in industries.

  10. Antimicrobial resistance of coagulase-negative staphylococci and lactic acid bacteria from industrially produced dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevijo Zdolec


    Full Text Available In this research, the susceptibility to clindamycin, tetracycline, amikacin, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, enrofloxacine, vancomycin, trimethoprim + sulphametoxazol, tobramycin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, penicillin and trimethoprim was tested in coagulase-negative staphylococci (n=78 and lactic acid bacteria (n=30 by means of disk diffusion test and E-test. The isolates were collected from soft and hard cheeses, butter and brine. All isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci were susceptible to clindamycin, amikacin, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, enrofloxacine, vancomycin, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin according to CLSI breakpoints. A total of 30 staphylococci isolates (38.46 % were resistant to erythromycin, 18 to penicillin (23.07 %, 4 to tetracycline (5.12 %, and one isolate to trimethoprim, tobramicin and trimethoprim + sulphametoxazol (1.28 %. Among 78 tested staphylococci, 35 of them were resistant to at least one antimicrobial substance (44.87 %. The rate of resistant isolates of different soft cheese types ranged from 22 to 70 %, while resistant staphylococci were absent in hard cheese and brine. The growth of lactic acid bacteria was not influenced by trimethoprim + sulphametoxazol (n=29, vancomycin (n=29, trimethoprim (n=28, amikacin (n=10 and tobramycin (n=10. The results show that significant part of apathogenic microbiota in different dairy products is phenotypically resistant to antimicrobial agents.

  11. Integration of micro dairy producers in the central corridor of department of Boyacá (Colombia

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    Jorge Armando Fonseca Carreño


    Full Text Available In Boyacá, the agro-industrial sector is composed of a high percentage of micro companies located mainly in the central region where the majority of economic activities occur. These agro-industrial activities are centered on dairy processing and the processing of fruits destined for local, regional and in some cases national markets. The micro companies that were used as the study object are situated in the Industrial Corridor, and are characterized by 50 to 200 million active workers and volumes of variable production, with limited and heterogeneous levels of commercial capacity, technological development, organizational culture, financial and market management. The sector suffers from outdated technology and the slow adoption of development strategy resulting in disinvestment, job losses and limited economic diversity. This paper analyzes the agro-industrial system of the department of Boyacá through the methodology of the UNIDO, which includes a description, analysis and interpretation of its current nature and composition, and likewise, through benchmarking and with diagnostic tools designed and validated, characterize the systems within agro-industrial mi­cro companies. An assessment of the competiti­ve state of the micro companies in their different components (administrative, technical/ productive, financial, etc. was procured. The results obtained allowed for the determination of unemployment levels and the ability to contrast them with the best business practices in each of the systems analyzed and with other micro companies through an individual, and later a sectorial diagnostic. The paper proposes strategies that micro companies of low performance levels can use to leverage their administrative and productive structures. With the results obtained, an integration model for agro-industrial companies that allows them to increase their level of competitiveness was designed.

  12. Prevalence and risk factors for extended-spectrum β-lactamase or AmpC-producing Escherichia coli in organic dairy herds in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santman-Berends, I.M.G.A.; Gonggrijp, M.A.; Hage, J.J.; Heuvelink, A.E.; Velthuis, A.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; van Schaik, G.

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase and AmpC-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL/AmpC) are an emerging problem and are hypothesized to be associated with antimicrobial use (AMU), and more specifically with the use of third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins. Whether ESBL/AmpC also occur in organic dairy

  13. Prevalence and risk factors for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase or AmpC-producing Escherichia coli in organic dairy herds in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santman - Berends, Inge; Gonggrijp, M A; Heuvelink, A E; Velthuis, A; Lam, T J G M; van Schaik, Gerdien; Hage, J. J.


    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase and AmpC-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL/AmpC) are an emerging problem and are hypothesized to be associated with antimicrobial use (AMU), and more specifically with the use of third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins. Whether ESBL/AmpC also occur in organic dairy

  14. Phosphorus Loading and Compositional Characteristics in Eight-Mile Run Watershed, Wisconsin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James, William


    The purpose of this research was to describe and quantify biologically labile and refractory phosphorus runoff in Eight-Mile Run, a small watershed in west-central Wisconsin that is impacted by dairy...

  15. Comparison of online, hands-on, and a combined approach for teaching cautery disbudding technique to dairy producers. (United States)

    Winder, Charlotte B; LeBlanc, Stephen J; Haley, Derek B; Lissemore, Kerry D; Godkin, M Ann; Duffield, Todd F


    The use of pain control for disbudding and dehorning is important from both an animal and industry perspective. Best practices include the use of local anesthetic, commonly given as a cornual nerve block (CNB), and a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The proportion is decreasing, but many dairy producers do not use local anesthesia, perhaps in part due to lack of knowledge of the CNB technique. Although this skill is typically learned in person from a veterinarian, alternative methods may be useful. The objective of this trial was to determine if there were differences in the efficacy of online training (n = 23), hands-on training (n = 20), and a combined approach (n = 23) for teaching producers to successfully administer a CNB and disbud a calf. The primary outcome was block efficacy, defined as a lack of established pain behaviors during iron application. Secondary outcomes were background knowledge (assessed by a written quiz), CNB and disbudding technique (evaluated by rubric scoring), time taken, and self-confidence before and after evaluation. Associations between training group and outcome were assessed with logistic regression, ordered logistic regression, and Cox-proportional hazard models, with a random effect for workshop. Block efficacy was not different between training groups, with 91% successful in both combined and online groups, and 75% in the hands-on trained group. Online learners had poorer technical scores than hands-on trainees. The combined group was not different from hands-on. Time to block completion tended to be longer for the online group (62 ± 11 s), whereas time to disbudding completion was not different between hands-on (41 ± 5 s) or combined trainees (41 ± 5 s). The combined group had the highest pre-evaluation confidence score, and remained higher after evaluation than online but was not different than hands-on. Although we saw some statistical differences between groups, absolute differences were small and block efficacy was

  16. Fuelwood production and sources in Wisconsin, 1981. (United States)

    James E. Blyth; E. Michael Bailey; W. Brad Smith


    Discusses and analyzes the 1981 Wisconsin fuelwood production from roundwood and primary wood-using mill residue. Analyzes production by geographic area, type of producer, species, landowner class, type of land, and tree source.

  17. An empirical method to measure the relative efficiency of dairy producers using deterministic frontier analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram RostamPour


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to measure the relative efficiencies of various cow husbandries. The proposed model of this paper uses distribution free analysis to measure the performance of different units responsible for taking care of cows. We gather the necessary information of all units including number of cows, amount of internet usage, number of subunits for taking care of cows, amount of forage produced in each province for grazing livestock and average hour per person training courses as independent variables and consider the amount of produced milk as dependent variable. The necessary information are collected from all available units located in different provinces of Iran and the production function is estimated using a linear programming model. The results indicate that the capital city of Iran, Tehran, holds the highest technical efficiency, the lowest efficiency belongs to province of Ilam and other provinces mostly performs poorly.

  18. Genotypic and Phylogenic Analysis of Lactobacilli Producing Bacteriocin Isolated from Traditional Dairy Products and Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frazaneh Tafvizi


    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are a group of Gram-positive, non-spore forming, cocci or rod shaped, catalase negative organisms, considered as Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS organisms. These bacteria are used for thousands of years for production of fermented foods because of their ability to produce desirable changes in taste, flavor and texture. Different antimicrobial molecules such as bacteriocins produced by these bacteria that can inhibit food pathogens, so enhancing the shelf life and improving the safety of food products. Because of important role of LAB to improving the human health, molecular identification and phylogenic analysis of these bacteria based on 16S rRNA sequencing play the critical role in investigation of local sources of LAB in Iran. Materials & Methods: 5 isolates were selected from 20 isolates for molecular identification. These strains produced the high level of bacteriocin. Total genomic DNA was extracted by lysosyme extraction protocol. PCR-mediated amplification was carried out by degenerate primers. Sequencing was performed after purification of PCR product. Results: Isolates were deposited as novel strains of Lactobacillus casei and Entrococcus facium in GenBank. Conclusion: Because of high potential of local probiotic bacteria in Iran, these strains may be useful and could be used in the food industry.

  19. Comparison of dairy desserts produced with a potentially probiotic mixed culture and dispersions obtained from Gracilaria birdiae and Gracilaria domingensis seaweeds used as thickening agents. (United States)

    Tavares Estevam, Adriana Carneiro; de Almeida, Michele Correia; de Oliveira, Tiago Almeida; Florentino, Eliane Rolim; Alonso Buriti, Flávia Carolina; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo


    Dairy desserts have emerged as interesting options for the incorporation of probiotics, bioactive ingredients and alternative sources of thickeners. This shows an opportunity to investigate the use of Gracilaria seaweeds in the formulation of potentially probiotic dairy desserts. This study aimed to compare the effects of dispersions obtained from Gracilaria domingensis and Gracilaria birdiae used as thickening agents on texture properties of dairy desserts fermented with SAB 440-A, composed of the starter Streptococcus thermophilus and the potential probiotics Bifidobacterium animalis and Lactobacillus acidophilus, and also to study their physicochemical characteristics, microbial viability and sensory acceptability. No significant differences between desserts with G. birdiae or G. domingensis dispersions regarding total solids, ash and fat content, as well as pH, titratable acidity, the viability of the microorganisms of the mixed culture and sensory acceptability were verified (P > 0.05). Nonetheless, the dessert with G. domingensis dispersion showed higher dietary fibre content and significantly increased firmness than the one produced with G. birdiae (P < 0.05). Moreover, B. animalis was able to maintain higher populations, above 7 log cfu g -1 during 21 days of storage of desserts, in the presence of either G. birdiae or G. domingensis dispersions, despite the fact that L. acidophilus has shown low viability in the final products. Therefore, the G. domingensis dispersion is suitable to be used as a thickening agent to produce dairy desserts with enhanced firmness and good sensory acceptability, it being also advisable to use only B. animalis as a probiotic for this product.

  20. Determination of neomycin residues in pasteurized milks produced in some dairy processing establishments in East-Azarbaijan Province, Iran

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    M.H Movassagh


    Full Text Available Antibiotic residues in milk have a potential hazard for the consumer and may cause allergic reactions, interference in the intestinal flora that result in development of resistant populations of bacteria, thereby rendering antibiotic treatment ineffective. The aim of this study was to determine neomycin residues in pasteurized milk in East-Azarbaijan province. For this, a total of 200 samples of pasteurized milk produced by five dairy processing establishments of East Azarbaijan province was randomly collected. The samples were obtained over the spring and autumn (100 samples for each season of 2010. First, antibiotic residues were determined by Copan milk test. Afterwards, the competitive ELISA assay was used for the determination of neomycin concentration in positive samples. Of all samples, neomycin residues were observed in 9 and 13 samples and the mean neomycin residues amount were 43.20 ± 8.10 and 26.63±2.08 µg/L in spring and autumn, respectively. According to the limit of neomycin (1500 µg/l in cow raw milk in Iran, despite all the remaining drugs in pasteurized milk, in any of the samples exceeded level of neomycin was not observed.Based on the results, continuousmonitoringofantibiotic residues inmilk samples is recommended.

  1. Progesterone supplementation during the time of pregnancy recognition after artificial insemination improves conception rates in high-producing dairy cows. (United States)

    Garcia-Ispierto, I; López-Helguera, I; Serrano-Pérez, B; Paso, V; Tuono, T; Ramon, A; Mur-Novales, R; Tutusaus, J; López-Gatius, F


    This study examines the possible effects of progesterone (P4) supplementation during the time of pregnancy recognition, from Days 15 to 17 post-artificial insemination (AI), on reproductive performance in high-producing dairy cows. Cows in their 15th day post-AI were alternately assigned to a control, no-treatment group (C: n = 257) or treatment group (P4: n = 287) on a weekly rotational basis according to the chronologic order of their gynecologic visit. On the basis of the odds ratio, the interaction treatment × previous placenta retention had a significant effect (P = 0.02) on conception rate. Thus, cows in P4 that had not suffered a retained placenta were 1.6 times more likely to conceive 28 to 34 days post-AI than the remaining cows. In nonpregnant cows, treatment had no effect on subsequent return to estrus or AI interval and neither were any effects of treatment observed on twin pregnancy and early fetal loss rates. The results of this study demonstrate the efficacy of P4 supplementations during the time of pregnancy recognition after AI in cows without a clinical history of placenta retention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Metabolic profiles in five high-producing Swedish dairy herds with a history of abomasal displacement and ketosis

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    Stengärde Lena


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body condition score and blood profiles have been used to monitor management and herd health in dairy cows. The aim of this study was to examine BCS and extended metabolic profiles, reflecting both energy metabolism and liver status around calving in high-producing herds with a high incidence of abomasal displacement and ketosis and to evaluate if such profiles can be used at herd level to pinpoint specific herd problems. Methods Body condition score and metabolic profiles around calving in five high-producing herds with high incidences of abomasal displacement and ketosis were assessed using linear mixed models (94 cows, 326 examinations. Cows were examined and blood sampled every three weeks from four weeks ante partum (ap to nine weeks postpartum (pp. Blood parameters studied were glucose, fructosamine, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, insulin, β-hydroxybutyrate, aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, haptoglobin and cholesterol. Results All herds had overconditioned dry cows that lost body condition substantially the first 4–6 weeks pp. Two herds had elevated levels of NEFA ap and three herds had elevated levels pp. One herd had low levels of insulin ap and low levels of cholesterol pp. Haptoglobin was detected pp in all herds and its usefulness is discussed. Conclusion NEFA was the parameter that most closely reflected the body condition losses while these losses were not seen in glucose and fructosamine levels. Insulin and cholesterol were potentially useful in herd profiles but need further investigation. Increased glutamate dehydrogenase suggested liver cell damage in all herds.

  3. Metabolic profiles in five high-producing Swedish dairy herds with a history of abomasal displacement and ketosis (United States)

    Stengärde, Lena; Tråvén, Madeleine; Emanuelson, Ulf; Holtenius, Kjell; Hultgren, Jan; Niskanen, Rauni


    Background Body condition score and blood profiles have been used to monitor management and herd health in dairy cows. The aim of this study was to examine BCS and extended metabolic profiles, reflecting both energy metabolism and liver status around calving in high-producing herds with a high incidence of abomasal displacement and ketosis and to evaluate if such profiles can be used at herd level to pinpoint specific herd problems. Methods Body condition score and metabolic profiles around calving in five high-producing herds with high incidences of abomasal displacement and ketosis were assessed using linear mixed models (94 cows, 326 examinations). Cows were examined and blood sampled every three weeks from four weeks ante partum (ap) to nine weeks postpartum (pp). Blood parameters studied were glucose, fructosamine, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin, β-hydroxybutyrate, aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, haptoglobin and cholesterol. Results All herds had overconditioned dry cows that lost body condition substantially the first 4–6 weeks pp. Two herds had elevated levels of NEFA ap and three herds had elevated levels pp. One herd had low levels of insulin ap and low levels of cholesterol pp. Haptoglobin was detected pp in all herds and its usefulness is discussed. Conclusion NEFA was the parameter that most closely reflected the body condition losses while these losses were not seen in glucose and fructosamine levels. Insulin and cholesterol were potentially useful in herd profiles but need further investigation. Increased glutamate dehydrogenase suggested liver cell damage in all herds. PMID:18687108

  4. Analysis of Food Safety and Security Challenges in Emerging African Food Producing Areas through a One Health Lens: The Dairy Chains in Mali. (United States)

    Cheng, Rachel; Mantovani, Alberto; Frazzoli, Chiara


    Challenges posed by changes in livestock production in emerging food producing areas and demographic development and climate change require new approaches and responsibilities in the management of food chains. The increasingly recognized role of primary food producers requires the support of the scientific community to instruct effective approaches based on scientific data, tools, and expertise. Mali is an emerging food producing area, and this review covers (i) the dairy farming scenario and its environment, (ii) the role of dairy production in food security, including the greatly different animal rearing systems in the Sahel and tropical regions, (iii) risk management pillars as modern infrastructures, effective farmer organizations, and institutional systems to guarantee animal health and safety of products, and (iv) feasible interventions based on good practices and risk assessment at the farm level (e.g., sustainable use of fertilizers, feeds, veterinary drugs, and pesticides) to protect consumers from food safety hazards. Social innovation based on the empowerment of the primary food producers emerges as crucial for sustainable and safe food production. Sustainable policies should be supported by the mobilization of stakeholders of One Health, which is a science-based approach to linking human health and nutrition with the health and management of food producing animals and environmental safety. In the context of the complex, multifaceted scenario of Mali dairy production, this article presents how a cost-effective animal health and food safety scheme could be established in the dairy production chain. Because milk is a major commodity in this country, benefits could be derived in food security, public health, the resilience of the farming system, animal husbandry, and international trade.

  5. Sediment yields of Wisconsin streams (United States)

    Hindall, S.M.; Flint, R.F.


    Sediment in Wisconsin streams causes economic and engineering problems in water management and reduces the value of water for nearly all uses. Sediment produces problems such as reduced reservoir capacity, navigation hazards, increased cost of water treatment, property damage, temporary loss of farmland, destruction of feeding and nesting grounds of fish, and destruction of wildlife habitat. Sediment in water also reduces the aesthetic value of surface waters and is detrimental to the State's tourist and recreation industry.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The paper aimed to present the evolution of milk production and dairy products in the USA during the period 2004-2006, based on USDA Statistics. The USA is a top produce of milk and dairy products in the world. Milk production accounted for 181,798 Millions Pounds in the year 2006. Its continuously increase during the last years has been positively influenced by the increasing number of dairy cows and average milk yield . The top states are California, Wisconsin, New York, Idaho and Pennsylvania, which all together achieve about 54 % of the country milk production. Over 99.37 % of Milk Production is marketed. Considering all milk marketings, Million USD 23,422 cash receiptscould be obtained from a dairy farm in the year 2006. The average return per Cwt was about USD 13 in 2006 . Milk is processed by about 1,000 manufacturing plants in a large variety of dairy products. Cheese production was about 9.5 Billion Pounds in the last analyzed years. The US also produces important amounts of butter , yogurt, ice cream etc. About 8.3 % of the US dairy products are exported, the most markets being Japan, Mexico and Canada.

  7. Forests of Wisconsin, 2013 (United States)

    Charles H. Perry


    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Wisconsin based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Data estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and...

  8. Action cameras and the Roter interaction analysis system to assess veterinarian-producer interactions in a dairy setting. (United States)

    Ritter, Caroline; Barkema, Herman W; Adams, Cindy L


    Herd health and production management (HH&PM) are critical aspects of production animal veterinary practice; therefore, dairy veterinarians need to effectively deliver these services. However, limited research that can inform veterinary education has been conducted to characterise these farm visits. The aim of the present study was to assess the applicability of action cameras (eg, GoPro cameras) worn by veterinarians to provide on-farm recordings, and the suitability of these recordings for comprehensive communication analyses. Seven veterinarians each recorded three dairy HH&PM visits. Recordings were analysed using the Roter interaction analysis system (RIAS), which has been used to evaluate medical conversations in human and companion animal contexts, and provided insights regarding the importance of effective clinical communication. However, the RIAS has never been used in a production animal environment. Results of this pilot study indicate that on-farm recordings were suitable for RIAS coding. Dairy practitioners use a substantial amount of talk allocated to relationship-building and farmer education but that communication patterns of the same veterinarian vary considerably between farm visits. Consecutive studies using this method will provide observational data for research purposes and promise to aid in the improvement of veterinary education through identification of communication priorities and gaps in dairy advisory discussions. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Identifying cost-minimizing strategies for guaranteeing target dairy income over feed cost via use of the Livestock Gross Margin dairy insurance program. (United States)

    Valvekar, M; Cabrera, V E; Gould, B W


    Milk and feed price volatility are the major source of dairy farm risk. Since August 2008 a new federally reinsured insurance program has been available to many US dairy farmers to help minimize the negative effects of adverse price movements. This insurance program is referred to as Livestock Gross Margin Insurance for Dairy Cattle. Given the flexibility in contract design, the dairy farmer has to make 3 critical decisions when purchasing this insurance: 1) the percentage of monthly milk production to be covered, 3) declared feed equivalents used to produce this milk, and 3) the level of gross margin not covered by insurance (i.e., deductible). The objective of this analysis was to provide an optimal strategy of how a dairy farmer could incorporate this insurance program to help manage the variability in net farm income. In this analysis we assumed that a risk-neutral dairy farmer wants to design an insurance contract such that a target guaranteed income over feed cost is obtained at least cost. We undertook this analysis for a representative Wisconsin dairy farm (herd size: 120 cows) producing 8,873 kg (19,545 lb) of milk/cow per year. Wisconsin statistical data indicates that dairy farms of similar size must require an income over feed cost of at least $110/Mg ($5/cwt) of milk to be profitable during the coverage period. Therefore, using data for the July 2009 insurance contract to insure $110/Mg of milk, the least cost contract was found to have a premium of $1.22/Mg ($0.055/cwt) of milk produced insuring approximately 52% of the production with variable monthly production covered during the period of September 2009 to June 2010. This premium represented 1.10% of the desired IOFC. We compared the above optimal strategy with an alternative nonoptimal strategy, defined as a contract insuring the same proportion of milk as the optimal (52%) but with a constant amount insured across all contract months. The premium was found to be almost twice the level obtained

  10. Mean-reversion in income over feed cost margins: evidence and implications for managing margin risk by US dairy producers. (United States)

    Bozic, M; Newton, J; Thraen, C S; Gould, B W


    With the increased volatility of feed prices, dairy farm managers are no longer concerned with managing only milk price volatility, but are considering the adoption of risk management programs that address income over feed cost (IOFC) margin risk. Successful margin risk management should be founded on an understanding of the behavior of IOFC margins. To that end, we have constructed forward IOFC margins using Class III milk, corn, and soybean meal futures prices. We focus on the characteristics of the term structure of forward IOFC margins, that is, the sequence of forward margins for consecutive calendar months, all observed on the same trading day. What is apparent from the shapes of these term structures is that both in times when margins were exceptionally high and in times when they were disastrously low, market participants expected that a reversal back to average margin levels would not come quickly, but rather would take up to 9 mo. Slopes of the forward margin term structure before and after most of the major swings in IOFC indicate these shocks were mostly unanticipated, whereas the time needed for recovery to normal margin levels was successfully predicted. This suggests that IOFC margins may exhibit slow mean-reverting, rather than predictable cyclical behavior, as is often suggested in the popular press. This finding can be exploited to design a successful catastrophic risk management program by initiating protection at 9 to 12 mo before futures contract maturity. As a case study, we analyzed risk management strategies for managing IOFC margins that used Livestock Gross Margin for Dairy Cattle insurance contracts and created 2 farm profiles. The first one represents dairy farms that grow most of their feed, whereas the second profile is designed to capture the risk exposure of dairy farms that purchase all their dairy herd, dry cow, and heifer feed. Our case study of this program encompasses the 2009 period, which was characterized by exceptionally

  11. Postpartum resumption of cyclic ovarian function, first estrus and re-conception and their relation to energy metabolism in high-producing dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huszenicza Gyula


    Full Text Available In the last few decades a continuous increase was observed in average milk production of dairy cows all over the world. Simultaneously, however, a dramatic decrease was seen in reproductive performance. This tendency is attributed to the increased incidence of bacterial complications in uterine involution, as well as to the high occurrence of ovarian malfunctions in the postpartum period. The aim of this paper is to review the physiology and pathology of the latter, really complex phenomenon. The nutritional basis of this process, that the requirements of high-producing dairy cows shift abruptly after parturition as the daily milk yield rapidly increases and the ensuing negative energy balance (NEB will extend 10-12 weeks. In the context of the high genetic merit dairy cow, the pp NEB is the difference between the dietary intake of utilizable energy and the expenditure of energy for body mass maintenance and milk synthesis. In principle, it is a physiological phenomenon, which may, however, result in more or less severe disorders in both the metabolism and reproduction and so it may lead to great economic losses in modern dairy practice [112]. In the first 3-4 weeks after calving the NEB is highly correlated with both milk yield and the interval to first ovulation. Because the number of ovulatory estrous cycles preceding the insemination (AI has been shown to influence the conception rate, the length of the pp interval to first ovulation provides an important parameter for assessing the effect of NEB on reproductive performance Š19, 20¹.

  12. Die Deutschen in Wisconsin (Germans in Wisconsin). (United States)

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    The following curriculum units comprise this course book: (1) Germans in a New Home, (2) Contributions of the Germans in Wisconsin, (3) A Letter to Germany, (4) Germans Come to Kingston, (5) First a Soldier, Then a Man of the Church (about Heinrich von Rohr), (6) A Visiting German, and (7) Germans and Music. Each unit begins with a reading of…

  13. Economic and genetic performance of various combinations of in vitro-produced embryo transfers and artificial insemination in a dairy herd. (United States)

    Kaniyamattam, Karun; Block, Jeremy; Hansen, Peter J; De Vries, Albert


    The objective of this study was to find the optimal proportions of pregnancies from an in vitro-produced embryo transfer (IVP-ET) system and artificial insemination (AI) so that profitability is maximized over a range of prices for embryos and surplus dairy heifer calves. An existing stochastic, dynamic dairy model with genetic merits of 12 traits was adapted for scenarios where 0 to 100% of the eligible females in the herd were impregnated, in increments of 10%, using IVP-ET (ET0 to ET100, 11 scenarios). Oocytes were collected from the top donors selected for the trait lifetime net merit (NM$) and fertilized with sexed semen to produce IVP embryos. Due to their greater conception rates, first ranked were eligible heifer recipients based on lowest number of unsuccessful inseminations or embryo transfers, and then on age. Next, eligible cow recipients were ranked based on the greatest average estimated breeding values (EBV) of the traits cow conception rate and daughter pregnancy rate. Animals that were not recipients of IVP embryos received conventional semen through AI, except that the top 50% of heifers ranked for EBV of NM$ were inseminated with sexed semen for the first 2 AI. The economically optimal proportions of IVP-ET were determined using sensitivity analysis performed for 24 price sets involving 6 different selling prices of surplus dairy heifer calves at approximately 105 d of age and 4 different prices of IVP embryos. The model was run for 15 yr after the start of the IVP-ET program for each scenario. The mean ± standard error of true breeding values of NM$ of all cows in the herd in yr 15 was greater by $603 ± 2 per cow per year for ET100 when compared with ET0. The optimal proportion of IVP-ET ranged from ET100 (for surplus dairy heifer calves sold for ≥$300 along with an additional premium based on their EBV of NM$ and a ≤$100 embryo price) to as low as ET0 (surplus dairy heifer calves sold at $300 with a $200 embryo price). For the default

  14. Barns of Wisconsin (United States)

    Watson-Newlin, Karen


    In this article, the author shares a painting unit she introduced to her students. In this unit, her students painted pictures of barns and discussed the historical significance of barns in Wisconsin.

  15. Assessment of feed resources, feeding practices and coping strategies to feed scarcity by smallholder urban dairy producers in Jimma town, Ethiopia. (United States)

    Duguma, Belay; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules


    Smallholder dairy production is increasingly becoming popular in Jimma town. However, feed shortage is a major constraint to dairy production. The objectives of this study was to assess feed resources, feeding practices and farmers' perceived causes of feed shortage and coping strategies to feed scarcity in smallholder dairy producers in Jimma town, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. A total of 54 randomly selected dairy farmers were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire and through direct observations. Twenty major feed types used by dairy farmers were identified and categorized into five classes: natural pasture grazing, green feeds, hay, concentrate (commercial mix and agro-industrial by-products) and non-conventional feed resources. Green feeds-fresh or succulent grasses and legumes (mean rank = 0.361), concentrate (0.256), hay (0.198), non-conventional feeds (0.115) and natural pasture grazing (0.070) were ranked as the main feed resources in that order of importance. Green feed (94.4 % of the respondents) was found to be the main basal diet of dairy cattle. Overall, wheat bran (85.2 % of the respondents), commercial concentrate (55.6 %), noug (Guizotia abyssinica) cake (20.4 %), cotton seed cake (7.4 %) and molasses (7.4 %) were the main concentrate supplements used (P > 0.05). Local brew waste (attela) (77.8 % of the respondents), bean and pea hulls (42.6 %) enset (Ensete ventricosum) leaf and pseudo-stem (37 %), sugarcane tops (33.3 %), banana leaf and stem/stover (16.7 %) and papaya stem (16.7 %) were the dominant non-conventional feed resources in the surveyed area (P > 0.05). About 79.6, 7.4, 1.9 and 11.1 % of the farmers used zero-, semi-zero-, and the combination of zero- and semi-zero- and free-grazing systems, respectively. Most farmers (90.7 %) offered concentrate supplements to milking cows. However, supplementation did not consider milk yield, physiological status and condition of cows. All the farmers (100

  16. Determination of lead and cadmium contaminations in UF-Cheese and yoghurt produced in Esfahan and GolpayeganPegah Dairy Processing Establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Jaberi


    Full Text Available Milk is a complicated liquid that contains necessary components for the growth of mammalian neonate. Milk can get polluted by heavy metals such as lead and cadmium. In this study, the concentrations of lead and cadmium were measured in 12 yoghurt and 12 UF cheese samples produced in each of the Isfahan and Golpayegan-Pegah Dairy Processing Establishments. The samples were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry by furnace according to AOAC instruction. According to the results, lead concentrations (Mean ± SD in yoghurt and UF cheese samples produced in Isfahan and Golpayegan-Pegah were estimated at 54.96 ± 35.21, 61.65 ± 19.62, 105.38 ± 59.09, 141.94 ± 63.44 μg/Kg, respectively. In the case of cadmium, the concentrations were determined as 19.03 ± 1.23, 16.84 ± 8.08, 53.79 ± 19.29, 37.67 ± 22.58 μg/Kg, respectively. Results revealed a significant difference (P≥0.05 in lead and cadmium concentrations among the cheese samples of the two Dairy Processing Establishments. However, lead and cadmium concentrations in all samples were within the international approved limit (200 ppb.

  17. Water Footprint of Milk Produced and Processed in South Africa: Implications for Policy-Makers and Stakeholders along the Dairy Value Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enoch Owusu-Sekyere


    Full Text Available The current water scarcity situation in South Africa is a threat to sustainable development. The present paper has assessed the water footprint of milk produced and processed in South Africa using the procedures outlined in the water footprint assessment manual. The results show that 1352 m3 of water is required to produce one tonne of milk with 4% fat and 3.3% protein in South Africa. The water used in producing feed for lactating cows alone accounts for 86.35% of the total water footprint of milk. The water footprint of feed ration for lactating cows is about 85% higher than that of non-lactating cows. Green water footprint accounts for more than 86% of the total water footprint of feed ration for lactating cows. Green and blue water footprints are the highest contributors to the total water footprint milk production in South Africa. Water used for feed production for both lactating and non-lactating cows accounts for about 99% of the total water footprint of milk production in South Africa. Particular attention should be given to feed crops with low water footprints and high contribution to dry matter to provide balanced ration with low water footprint. Water users, managers and livestock producers should pay attention to green and blue water consumption activities along the milk value chain and design strategies to minimize them. Corn, sorghum and lucerne production under irrigation in the greater Orange River basin is sustainable, whereas oats production for silage in the same catchment area is not sustainable. Our findings provide the rationale for dairy producers and water users in the dairy industry to get an understanding of the degree of sustainability of their input and output combinations, production choices, and policy interventions, in terms of water use.

  18. Effect of barn airspace temperature on composition and technological parameters of bulk milk produced by dairy cows of Czech Fleckvieh and Holstein breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Polák


    Full Text Available On two farms (A and B, samples of bulk milk produced by dairy cows of the Holstein (H and Czech Fleckvieh (CF breeds were collected every week on the same day within the time interval of 36 weeks. The aim of this sampling was to determine the effect of barn airspace temperature on milk compositon and its technological parameters. The following average values of all bulk milk samples (n = 72 were recorded: barn airspace temperature (BAT 12.08 °C; rennet coagulation time (RCT 211 sec.; curd quality class (CQC 1.53; titratable acidity (TA 7.16 °SH; protein content (P 3.46 %; fat content (F 4.09 %; lactose content (L 4.79 %; and solids non fat (SNF 8.86 %. As compared with H, dairy cows of CF breed produced milk with statistically significantly higher (P < 0.01 contents of P (+0.27 % and SNF (+0.26 %. The remaining differences were statistically insignificant (P > 0.05: BAT (−2 °C; RCT (−4 sec.; CQC (0 class; TA (+0.11 °SH; F (+0.05 % and L (−0.03 %. As far as the effect of temperature was concerned, calculated correlation coefficients and plotted graphs indicated a marked effect of BAT on RCT; F and P. This effect was in all cases markedly negative: at lower BAT, F and P values were higher and RCT longer while at higher temperatures they were lower and shorter. These trends were similar in both breeds regardless to differences in average values of aforementioned parameters.

  19. Learning from Wisconsin (United States)

    Daniel, Jamie Owen


    Like thousands of other people from around the country and around the world, this author was heartened and inspired by the tenacity, immediacy, and creativity of the pushback by Wisconsin's public-sector unions against Governor Scott Walker's efforts to limit their collective bargaining rights. And like many others who made the trek to Madison to…

  20. Wisconsin's forest resources, 2010 (United States)

    C.H. Perry


    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Wisconsin based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report...

  1. Wisconsin's forest resources, 2005 (United States)

    Charles, H. (Hobie) Perry; Gary J. Brand


    The annual forest inventory of Wisconsin continues, and this document reports 2001-05 moving averages for most variables and comparisons between 2000 and 2005 for growth, removals, and mortality. Summary resource tables can be generated through the Forest Inventory Mapmaker website at htm. Estimates from this inventory show a...

  2. Wisconsin's forest resources, 2006 (United States)

    C.H. Perry; V.A. Everson


    Figure 2 was revised by the author in August 2008. This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Wisconsin based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service from 2002-2006. These estimates, along with associated core tables postedon the Internet, are...

  3. Wisconsin's Forest Resources, 2007 (United States)

    C.H. Perry; V.A. Everson


    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Wisconsin based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, are updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report.

  4. Wisconsin's forest resources, 2009 (United States)

    C.H. Perry


    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Wisconsin based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this report...

  5. Establishment of a ruminal protein degradation data base for dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diets for high-producing dairy cattle. UDP values were obtained using sheep, growing cattle and lactating dairy cows eating less feed than normally consumed by high- producing dairy cattle. ... producing dairy cows consuming large amounts of feed, may ... Holstein cows with an average dry-matter intake of 20,8. (:!

  6. Value-Added Dairy Products from Grass-Based Dairy Farms: A Case Study in Vermont (United States)

    Wang, Qingbin; Parsons, Robert; Colby, Jennifer; Castle, Jeffrey


    On-farm processing of value-added dairy products can be a way for small dairy farms to diversify production and increase revenue. This article examines characteristics of three groups of Vermont farmers who have grass-based dairy farms--those producing value-added dairy products, those interested in such products, and those not interested in such…

  7. Wisconsin's Forests 2009 (United States)

    Charles H. Perry; Vern A. Everson; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Sally E. Dahir; Andrea L. Diss-Torrance; Grant M Domke; Dale D. Gormanson; Sarah K. Herrick; Steven S. Hubbard; Terry R. Mace; Patrick D. Miles; Mark D. Nelson; Richard B. Rodeout; Luke T. Saunders; Kirk M. Stueve; Barry T. Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall


    The second full annual inventory of Wisconsin's forests reports more than 16.7 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 1,400 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the oak/hickory forest-type group, which occupies slightly more than one quarter of the total forest land area; the maple/beech/birch forest-type group occupies an...

  8. Comparison of enriched palmitic acid and calcium salts of palm fatty acids distillate fat supplements on milk production and metabolic profiles of high-producing dairy cows. (United States)

    Rico, D E; Ying, Y; Harvatine, K J


    A variable response to fat supplementation has been reported in dairy cows, which may be due to cow production level, environmental conditions, or diet characteristics. In the present experiment, the effect of a high palmitic acid supplement was investigated relative to a conventional Ca salts of palm fatty acids (Ca-FA) supplement in 16 high-producing Holstein cows (46.6±12.4kg of milk/d) arranged in a crossover design with 14-d periods. The experiment was conducted in a non-heat-stress season with 29.5% neutral detergent fiber diets. Treatments were (1) high palmitic acid (PA) supplement fed as free FA [1.9% of dry matter (DM); 84.8% C16:0] and (2) Ca-FA supplement (2.3% of DM; 47.7% C16:0, 35.9% C18:1, and 8.4% C18:2). The PA supplement tended to increase DM intake, and increased the yields of milk and energy-corrected milk. Additionally, PA increased the yields of milk fat, protein, and lactose, whereas milk concentrations of these components were not affected. The yields of milk de novo and 16-C FA were increased by PA compared with Ca-FA (7 and 20%, respectively), whereas the yield of preformed FA was higher in Ca-FA. A reduction in milk fat concentration of de novo and 16-C FA and a marginal elevation in trans-10 C18:1 in Ca-FA is indicative of altered ruminal biohydrogenation and increased risk of milk fat depression. No effect of treatment on plasma insulin was observed. A treatment by time interaction was detected for plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), which tended to be higher in Ca-FA than in PA before feeding. Overall, the palmitic acid supplement improved production performance in high-producing cows while posing a lower risk for milk fat depression compared with a supplement higher in unsaturated FA. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of the maturity and biological parameters of compost produced from dairy manure and rice chaff by excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy. (United States)

    Tian, Wei; Li, Lingzhi; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Zhenhua; Yu, Guanghui; Shen, Qirong; Shen, Biao


    The assessment of maturity and biological parameters is important in the composting process. In this study, excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy was applied to evaluate the maturity and biological parameters of compost produced from the co-composting of dairy and rice chaff. The results from a Pearson correlation analysis between traditional physico-chemical maturity indices and fluorescence regional integration (FRI) parameters showed that among the FRI parameters, P(V,n)/P(III,n) and P(V,n) were suitable for the assessment of compost maturity. Moreover, the FRI parameters could be used to evaluate biological parameters including the germination index (GI) and ribotype evolution which indicate the bacterial community structure and dynamics. P(IV,n) was the most suitable indicator for revealing the community structure and dynamics during the composting process. Fluorescence spectroscopy combined with the FRI analysis could be used as a sensitive and efficient tool for assessing compost maturity and biological parameters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk produced in dairy farms in São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Fagundes


    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus in milk produced in 37 farms located in the regions of Ribeirão Preto and São Carlos, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Two-hundred and eight samples of milk from individual cows showing subclinical mastitis, and 37 samples of bulk tank milk were analyzed. S. aureus strains were detected in 18 (7.3% milk samples: 14 (6.7% from samples of individual cows, and 4 (10.8% from bulk tank milk. Two individual milk samples (14.3% and two bulk milk samples contained enterotoxigenic S. aureus. PFGE analysis revealed the genetic heterogeneity of the strains isolated from raw milk, which presented to 13 S. aureus patterns. Results confirmed the potential transmission of staphylococcal food poisoning to consumers via milk of cows affected by subclinical mastitis, mainly when raw milk is ingested.

  11. Dairy Propionibacteria: Versatile Probiotics. (United States)

    Rabah, Houem; Rosa do Carmo, Fillipe Luiz; Jan, Gwénaël


    Dairy propionibacteria are used as cheese ripening starters, as biopreservative and as beneficial additives, in the food industry. The main species, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, is known as GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe, USA, FDA). In addition to another dairy species, Propionibacterium acidipropionici, they are included in QPS (Qualified Presumption of Safety) list. Additional to their well-known technological application, dairy propionibacteria increasingly attract attention for their promising probiotic properties. The purpose of this review is to summarize the probiotic characteristics of dairy propionibacteria reported by the updated literature. Indeed, they meet the selection criteria for probiotic bacteria, such as the ability to endure digestive stressing conditions and to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells. This is a prerequisite to bacterial persistence within the gut. The reported beneficial effects are ranked according to property's type: microbiota modulation, immunomodulation, and cancer modulation. The proposed molecular mechanisms are discussed. Dairy propionibacteria are described as producers of nutraceuticals and beneficial metabolites that are responsible for their versatile probiotic attributes include short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), conjugated fatty acids, surface proteins, and 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphtoic acid (DHNA). These metabolites possess beneficial properties and their production depends on the strain and on the growth medium. The choice of the fermented food matrix may thus determine the probiotic properties of the ingested product. This review approaches dairy propionibacteria, with an interest in both technological abilities and probiotic attributes.

  12. Dairy development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leegwater, P.; Hoorweg, J.C.


    The growth of the dairy sector as it has occurred in Kilifi and Malindi Districts is one of the few examples of successful agricultural development in the coastal region in the past decades. Between 1985 and 1997 dairy cattle have more than doubled in number. Three livestock systems are described:

  13. Tornadoes Strike Northern Wisconsin (United States)


    A series of tornadoes ripped through the Upper Midwest region of the United States in the evening of June 7, 2007. At least five different tornadoes touched down in Wisconsin, according to the Associated Press, one of which tore through the Bear Paw Resort in northern Wisconsin. Despite dropping as much as fifteen centimeters (six inches) of rain in some places and baseball-size hail in others, authorities were reporting no deaths attributable to the storm system, and only a smattering of injuries, but considerable property damage in some areas. When the MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra satellite observed the area on June 9, 2007, the track torn through the woods by one of the tornadoes stands out quite clearly. This photo-like image uses data collected by MODIS in the normal human vision range to give a familiar natural-looking appearance. The landscape is largely a checkerboard of farms, towns, roads, and cities. The pale land is predominantly farmland where crops have not fully grown in yet. Dark blue shows the winding path of rivers and lakes dotting the landscape. The large blue lake on the east (right) side of the image is Lake Michigan. Towns and cities, including the city of Green Bay, are gray. To the north side, farmland gives way to dark green as land use shifts from agriculture to the Menominee Indian Reservation and Nicolet National Forest. The diagonal slash through the dark green forested land shows the tornado track. Bare land was revealed where the tornado tore down trees or stripped vegetation off the branches. The high-resolution image provided above is at MODIS' full spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response System provides this image at additional resolutions.

  14. Wisconsin SRF Electron Gun Commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisognano, Joseph J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Bissen, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Bosch, R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Efremov, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Eisert, D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Fisher, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Green, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Jacobs, K. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Keil, R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Kleman, K. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Rogers, G. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Severson, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Yavuz, D. D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Legg, Robert A. [JLAB; Bachimanchi, Ramakrishna [JLAB; Hovater, J. Curtis [JLAB; Plawski, Tomasz [JLAB; Powers, Thomas J. [JLAB


    The University of Wisconsin has completed fabrication and commissioning of a low frequency (199.6 MHz) superconducting electron gun based on a quarter wave resonator (QWR) cavity. Its concept was optimized to be the source for a CW free electron laser facility. The gun design includes active tuning and a high temperature superconducting solenoid. We will report on the status of the Wisconsin SRF electron gun program, including commissioning experience and first beam measurements.

  15. Wisconsin's forest resources in 2004 (United States)

    Charles H. Perry


    Results of the 2000-2004 annual inventory of Wisconsin show about 16.0 million acres of forest land, more than 22.1 billion cubic feet of live volume on forest land, and nearly 593 million dry tons of all live aboveground tree biomass on timberland. Populations of jack pine budworm are increasing, and it remains a significant pest in Wisconsin forests. A complete...

  16. Dairy chemistry and physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walstra, P.; Jenness, R.


    Milk and products made from it affect the lives of a large proportion of the world’s population. Many dairy products are consumed at times and in places far removed from the point at which the milk was produced. This is made possible by the chemical and physical treatments and fractionations applied

  17. Vitamin D status of dairy cattle: Outcomes of current practices in the dairy industry (United States)

    The need for vitamin D supplementation of dairy cattle has been known for the better part of the last century and is well-appreciated by dairy producers and nutritionists. Whether current recommendations and practices for supplemental vitamin D are meeting the needs of dairy cattle, however, is not...

  18. Effects of cumulative stressful and acute variation episodes of farm climate conditions on late embryo/early fetal loss in high producing dairy cows (United States)

    Santolaria, Pilar; López-Gatius, Fernando; García-Ispierto, Irina; Bech-Sàbat, Gregori; Angulo, Eduardo; Carretero, Teresa; Sánchez-Nadal, Jóse Antonio; Yániz, Jesus


    The aim of this study was to determine possible relationships between farm climate conditions, recorded from day 0 to day 40 post-artificial insemination (AI), and late embryo/early fetal loss in high producing dairy cows. Pregnancy was diagnosed by rectal ultrasonography between 28 and 34 days post-AI. Fetal loss was registered when a further 80- to 86-day diagnosis proved negative. Climate variables such as air temperature and relative humidity (RH) were monitored in the cubicles area for each 30-min period. Temperature-humidity indices (THI); cumulative stressful values and episodes of acute change (defined as the mean daily value 1.2 times higher or lower than the mean daily values of the 10 previous days) of the climate variables were calculated. The data were derived from 759 cows in one herd. A total of 692 pregnancies (91.2%) carried singletons and 67 (8.8%) carried twins. No triplets were recorded. Pregnancy loss was recorded in 6.7% (51/759) of pregnancies: 5.6% (39/692) in single and 17.9% (12/67) in twin pregnancies. Using logistic regression procedures, a one-unit increase in the daily cumulative number of hours for the THI values higher than 85 during days 11-20 of gestation caused a 1.57-fold increase in the pregnancy loss, whereas the likelihood of fetal loss increased by a factor of 1.16 for each additional episode of acute variation for the maximum THI values during gestation days 0-40. THI values higher than 85 and episodes of acute variation for the maximum THI values were only recorded during the warm and cool periods, respectively. The presence of twins led to a 3.98-fold increase in pregnancy loss. In conclusion, our findings show that cumulative stressful and episodes of acute variation of climatic conditions can compromise the success of gestation during both the cool and warm periods of the year. Twin pregnancy was confirmed as a main factor associated with pregnancy loss.

  19. Longitudinal study of two Irish dairy herds: Low numbers of of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 and O26 super-shedders identified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Patricia Murphy


    Full Text Available A 12-month longitudinal study was undertaken on two dairy herds to ascertain the Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC O157 and O26 shedding status of the animals and its impact (if any on raw milk. Cattle are a recognised reservoir for these organisms with associated public health and environmental implications. Animals shedding E. coli O157 at >10,000 CFU/g of faeces have been deemed super-shedders. There is a gap in the knowledge regarding super-shedding of other STEC serogroups. A cohort of 40 lactating cows from herds previously identified as positive for VTEC in a national surveillance project were sampled every second month between August, 2013 and July, 2014. Metadata on any potential super-shedders was documented including e.g. age of the animal, number of lactations and days in lactation, nutritional condition, somatic cell count and content of protein in milk to assess if any were associated with risk factors for super-shedding. Recto-anal mucosal swabs, raw milk, milk filters and water samples were procured for each herd. The swabs were examined for E. coli O157 and O26 using a quantitative real time PCR method. Counts (CFU swab-1 were obtained from a standard calibration curve that related real-time PCR cycle threshold (Ct values against the initial concentration of O157 or O26 in the samples. Results from Farm A: 305 animals were analysed; 15 E. coli O157 (5% were recovered, 13 were denoted STEC encoding either stx1 and/or stx2 virulence genes and 5 (2% STEC O26 were recovered. One super-shedder was identified shedding STEC O26 (stx1&2. Farm B: 224 animals were analysed; eight E. coli O157 (3.5% were recovered (seven were STEC and 9 (4% STEC O26 were recovered. Three super-shedders were identified, one was shedding STEC O157 (stx2 and two STEC O26 (stx2. Three encoded the adhering and effacement gene (eae and one isolate additionally encoded the haemolysin gene (hlyA. The results of this study show, low numbers of super

  20. [Preliminary analysis of ginseng industry in Wisconsin]. (United States)

    Hu, Li; Zhang, Wen-sheng


    To study the case of Wisconsin as the top ginseng state in United States which has come through four developing steps: beginning, stagnating, flourishing and now, downturn. The current situation of the ginseng industry in Wisconsin was briefly introduced, the federal and state management on ginseng cultivation and export, the organization of Ginseng Board of Wisconsin and their marketing style based on the field investigation and data collected from USDA and Wisconsin state. The advantages and disadvantages of Wisconsin ginseng industry were analyzed in order to provide some suggestions for Chinese medicine industry. Chinese ginseng industry should learn the organization system from Wisconsin.

  1. Using Bacteriocins in Milk and Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Güneş Altuntaş


    Full Text Available Bacteriocins produced by bacteria are ribosomally synthesed and antimicrobial peptides. Lots of strains of bacteria can produce bacteriocin. There are lots of researchs on using bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB which are known as safe (GRAS in foods. With this respect bacteriocin experiments have been generally in meat and dairy products where can become spoilage easily. It is allowed to use nisin in cheese a dairy product, and with cheese the experiments about using nisin, pediocin, lacticin, variacin etc. are going on the other dairy products. In this review some experiments on using bacteriocins and their results on milk and dairy products are reported.

  2. Green cheese: partial life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions and energy intensity of integrated dairy production and bioenergy systems. (United States)

    Aguirre-Villegas, H A; Passos-Fonseca, T H; Reinemann, D J; Armentano, L E; Wattiaux, M A; Cabrera, V E; Norman, J M; Larson, R


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of integrating dairy and bioenergy systems on land use, net energy intensity (NEI), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A reference dairy farm system representative of Wisconsin was compared with a system that produces dairy and bioenergy products. This integrated system investigates the effects at the farm level when the cow diet and manure management practices are varied. The diets evaluated were supplemented with varying amounts of dry distillers grains with solubles and soybean meal and were balanced with different types of forages. The manure-management scenarios included manure land application, which is the most common manure disposal method in Wisconsin, and manure anaerobic digestion (AD) to produce biogas. A partial life cycle assessment from cradle to farm gate was conducted, where the system boundaries were expanded to include the production of biofuels in the analysis and the environmental burdens between milk and bioenergy products were partitioned by system expansion. Milk was considered the primary product and the functional unit, with ethanol, biodiesel, and biogas considered co-products. The production of the co-products was scaled according to milk production to meet the dietary requirements of each selected dairy ration. Results indicated that land use was 1.6 m2, NEI was 3.86 MJ, and GHG emissions were 1.02 kg of CO2-equivalents per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) for the reference system. Within the integrated dairy and bioenergy system, diet scenarios that maximize dry distillers grains with solubles and implement AD had the largest reduction of GHG emissions and NEI, but the greatest increase in land use compared with the reference system. Average land use ranged from 1.68 to 2.01 m2/kg of FPCM; NEI ranged from -5.62 to -0.73 MJ/kg of FPCM; and GHG emissions ranged from 0.63 to 0.77 kg of CO2-equivalents/kg of FPCM. The AD contributed 65% of the NEI and 77% of the GHG

  3. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Energy used by Wisconsin single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  4. Wisconsin's fourth forest inventory, 1983. (United States)

    John S. Jr. Spencer; W. Brad Smith; Jerold T. Hahn; Gerhard K. Raile


    The fourth inventory of the timber resource of Wisconsin shows that growing-stock volume increased from 11.2 to 15.5 billion cubic feet between 1968 and 1983, and area of timberland increased from 14.5 to 14.8 million acres. Presented are analysis and statistics on forest area and timber volume, growth, mortality, removals, and projections.

  5. Wisconsin's forest resources in 2001. (United States)

    John S. Vissage; Gery J. Brand; Manfred E. Mielke


    Results of the 2001 annual inventory of Wisconsin show about 15.8 million acres of forest land, more than 21.6 billion cubic feet of live volume on forest land, and nearly 584 million dry tons of all live aboveground tree biomass on timberland. Gypsy moth, forest tent caterpillar, twolined chestnut borer, bronze birch borer, ash yellows, and white pine blister rust...

  6. Educational Attainment in Southeast Wisconsin (United States)

    Million, Laura; Henken, Rob; Dickman, Anneliese


    In metro Milwaukee, as a part of the WIRED Initiative, the Regional Workforce Alliance (RWA)--a collaboration of organizations representing workforce development, economic development and education across southeast Wisconsin--has established the framework for pursuing the local talent dividend goal and a regional strategy for increasing…

  7. Birds of Prey of Wisconsin. (United States)

    Hamerstrom, Frances

    This copiously illustrated document is designed to be a field quide to birds of prey that are common to Wisconsin, as well as to some that enter the state occasionally. An introduction discusses birds of prey with regard to migration patterns, the relationship between common names and the attitudes of people toward certain birds, and natural signs…



    S. Karthiyayini; A. Sivabharathy; C. Sreehari; M. Sreepoorani; V. Vinjth


    Pollution caused by dairy effluents is a serious problem throughout the world. The major source of waste water is from dairy industry. The effluent from dairy processing unit affects the environment. As a solution our aim is to produce bio-gas from diary wastewater. There are various treatment technologies, among them anaerobic treatment technology is simple and encouraged due to the following advantages such as low cost of construction, pH stability, low maintenance and repair. The biogas is...

  9. A meta-analysis of the effects of feeding yeast culture produced by anaerobic fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on milk production of lactating dairy cows. (United States)

    Poppy, G D; Rabiee, A R; Lean, I J; Sanchez, W K; Dorton, K L; Morley, P S


    The purpose of this study was to use meta-analytic methods to estimate the effect of a commercially available yeast culture product on milk production and other production measures in lactating dairy cows using a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Sixty-one research publications (published journal articles, published abstracts, and technical reports) were identified through a review of literature provided by the manufacturer and a search of published literature using 6 search engines. Thirty-six separate studies with 69 comparisons met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. The fixed-effect meta-analysis showed substantial heterogeneity for milk yield, energy-corrected milk, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, milk fat yield, and milk protein yield. Sub-group analysis of the data showed much less heterogeneity in peer-reviewed studies versus non-peer-reviewed abstracts and technical reports, and tended to show higher, but not significantly different, treatment effects. A random-effects meta-analysis showed estimated raw mean differences between treated and untreated cattle reported in peer-reviewed publications of 1.18 kg/d [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55 to 1.81], 1.61 kg/d (95% CI: 0.92 to 2.29), and 1.65 kg/d (95% CI: 0.97 to 2.34) for milk yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, and energy-corrected milk, respectively. Milk fat yield and milk protein yield for peer-reviewed studies showed an increase in the raw mean difference of 0.06 kg/d (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.10) and 0.03 kg/d (95% CI: 0.00 to 0.05), respectively. Estimated raw mean dry matter intake of the peer-reviewed studies during early lactation (yeast culture product provides significant improvement in several important milk production outcomes as evaluated in production settings typical for commercial dairies in North America. Utilizing meta-analytic methods to study the complete breadth of information relating to a specific treatment by studying multiple overcomes of all eligible studies can

  10. Water resources of Wisconsin: lower Wisconsin River basin (United States)

    Hindall, S.M.; Borman, Ronald G.


    This report describes the physical environment, availability, distribution, movement, quality, and use of water in the upper Wisconsin River basin as an aid in planning and water management. The report presents general information on the basin derived from data obtained from Federal, State, and local agencies, New field data were collected in areas where information was lacking. More detailed studies of problem areas may be required in the future, as water needs and related development increase.

  11. 7 CFR 58.627 - Milk and dairy products. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk and dairy products. 58.627 Section 58.627... Material § 58.627 Milk and dairy products. To produce ice cream and related products the raw milk and cream..., GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General...

  12. 21 CFR 1210.11 - Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. 1210.11... UNDER THE FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.11 Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. The sanitary conditions of any dairy farm producing milk or cream to be shipped or transported into...

  13. Tracking Zoonotic Pathogens in Dairy Production Chains (United States)

    Dairy farming is a highly productive system producing ample amounts of high-quality milk and meat from fewer cows on less land on fewer, but larger, farms. Despite this consolidation and modernization zoonotic pathogenic bacteria and protozoans remain problems on the modern dairy farm. Although past...

  14. Dairy-impacted wastewater is a source of iodinated disinfection byproducts in the environment (United States)

    Hladik, Michelle; Hubbard, Laura E.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Focazio, Michael J.


    Iodinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are among the most toxic DBPs, but they are not typically measured in treated water. Iodinated DBPs can be toxic to humans, and they also have the potential to affect aquatic communities. Because of the specific use of iodine and iodine-containing compounds in dairies, such livestock operations can be a potential source of iodinated DBPs in corresponding receiving water bodies. DBPs [trihalomethanes (THMs), including iodinated THMs] were measured within dairy processing facilities (milking and cheese manufacturing) and surface waters that receive dairy-impacted effluents [either directly from the dairy or through wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs)] in three areas of the United States (California, New York, and Wisconsin). Iodo-THMs comprised 15−29% of the total THMs in surface water near WWTP effluents that were impacted by dairy waste and 0−100% of the total THMs in samples from dairy processing facilities.

  15. Investigation of the optimal percentage of green seaweed that may be co-digested with dairy slurry to produce gaseous biofuel. (United States)

    Allen, Eoin; Wall, David M; Herrmann, Christiane; Murphy, Jerry D


    Ulva lactuca, a green seaweed, accumulates on beaches and shallow estuaries subject to eutrophication. As a residue, and a macro-algae, it is a source of sustainable third generation biofuel. Production of biomethane from mono-digestion of U. lactuca, however is problematic due to high levels of sulphur and low ratios of carbon to nitrogen. Fresh and dried U. lactuca were continuously co-digested with dairy slurry at ratios of 25%, 50% and 75% (by volatile solid content) in 6 number 5L reactors for 9months. The reactors digesting a mix with 75% U. lactuca struggled to reach stable conditions. Volatile fatty acid levels of 14,000mgl(-1) were experienced. The levels of ammonia increased with percentage U. lactuca in the mix. Optimum conditions were observed with a mix of 25% fresh U. lactuca and 75% slurry. A yield of 170LCH4kg(-1)VS was achieved at an organic loading rate of 2.5kgVSm(-3)d(-1). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Heterogeneity in Induction Level, Infection Ability, and Morphology of Shiga Toxin-Encoding Phages (Stx Phages) from Dairy and Human Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O26:H11 Isolates (United States)

    Bonanno, Ludivine; Petit, Marie-Agnès; Loukiadis, Estelle; Michel, Valérie


    Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) bacteria are foodborne pathogens responsible for diarrhea and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Shiga toxin, the main STEC virulence factor, is encoded by the stx gene located in the genome of a bacteriophage inserted into the bacterial chromosome. The O26:H11 serotype is considered to be the second-most-significant HUS-causing serotype worldwide after O157:H7. STEC O26:H11 bacteria and their stx-negative counterparts have been detected in dairy products. They may convert from the one form to the other by loss or acquisition of Stx phages, potentially confounding food microbiological diagnostic methods based on stx gene detection. Here we investigated the diversity and mobility of Stx phages from human and dairy STEC O26:H11 strains. Evaluation of their rate of in vitro induction, occurring either spontaneously or in the presence of mitomycin C, showed that the Stx2 phages were more inducible overall than Stx1 phages. However, no correlation was found between the Stx phage levels produced and the origin of the strains tested or the phage insertion sites. Morphological analysis by electron microscopy showed that Stx phages from STEC O26:H11 displayed various shapes that were unrelated to Stx1 or Stx2 types. Finally, the levels of sensitivity of stx-negative E. coli O26:H11 to six Stx phages differed among the 17 strains tested and our attempts to convert them into STEC were unsuccessful, indicating that their lysogenization was a rare event. PMID:26826235

  17. 7 CFR 1430.510 - New producers. (United States)


    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Market Loss Assistance Program § 1430... in 1999 or 2000 and not affiliated with other eligible producers may receive payments from sums made...

  18. Water Use in Wisconsin, 2005 (United States)

    Buchwald, Cheryl A.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Wisconsin Water Science Center is responsible for presenting data collected or estimated for water withdrawals and diversions every 5 years to the National Water-Use Information Program (NWUIP). This program serves many purposes such as quantifying how much, where, and for what purpose water is used; tracking and documenting water-use trends and changes; and providing these data to other agencies to support hydrologic projects. In 2005, data at both the county and subbasin levels were compiled into the USGS national water-use database system; these data are published in a statewide summary report and a national circular. This publication, Water Use in Wisconsin, 2005, presents the water-use estimates for 2005; this publication also describes how these water-use data were determined (including assumptions used), limitations of using these data, and trends in water-use data presented to the NWUIP. Estimates of water use in Wisconsin indicate that about 8,608 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) were withdrawn during 2005. Of this amount, about 7,622 Mgal/d (89 percent) were from surface-water sources and about 986 Mgal/d (11 percent) were from ground-water sources. Surface water used for cooling at thermoelectric-power plants constituted the largest portion of daily use at 6,898 Mgal/d. Water provided by public-supply water utilities is the second largest use of water and totaled 552 Mgal/d. Public supply served approximately 71 percent of the estimated 2005 Wisconsin population of 5.54 million people; two counties - Milwaukee and Dane - accounted for more than one-third of the public-supply withdrawal. Industrial and irrigation were the next major water uses at 471 and 402 Mgal/d, respectively. Non-irrigational agricultural (livestock and aquaculture) accounted for approximately 155 Mgal/d and is similar to the combined withdrawal for the remaining water-use categories of domestic, commercial, and mining (131 Mgal/d). Data on water use

  19. Improving mobility for Wisconsin's elderly : brief. (United States)


    By 2035, the number of elderly residents in Wisconsin is expected to nearly double, and one in four drivers on Wisconsin roads will be elderly. According to national statistics, the elderly are more likely to be involved in crashes on a per-mile basi...

  20. A tale of two dairies. (United States)

    Estabrook, Barry


    Milk has always been susceptible to price fluctuations. Farmers are used to putting away money during good times to see themselves through lean times. Recently, however, the cycles have become more violent, with lows falling lower and highs rising not quite so high and the intervals between peaks and valleys shrinking. In 1970, when milk was bringing farmers the same amount that it is today, there were nearly 650,000 dairy farms in the United States. Now there are fewer than one tenth as many, only about 54,000. The largest 1 percent of dairy farms (a figure than includes only enormous factory farms with over 2,000 cows) produced nearly one quarter of the milk we consume. Recently, dairy farmers banded together to propose a radical solution to the dairy crisis. In order to survive, they concluded, American dairy farmers would have to join together to control the supply of milk, an approach along lines similar to the one taken in Canada.

  1. Addressing elderly mobility issues in Wisconsin. (United States)


    "The aging of baby boomers poses significant challenges to Wisconsins existing transportation infrastructure and specialized transit : programs. From 2010 to 2035, the number of elderly Wisconsinites is projected to grow by 90 percent, an increase...

  2. Predicting Scour of Bedrock in Wisconsin (United States)


    This research evaluates the scour potential of rocks supporting Wisconsin DOT bridge foundations. Ten highway bridges were selected for this study, of which seven are supported by shallow foundations, and five were built on sandstone in rivers/stream...

  3. Economic considerations of breeding for polled dairy cows versus dehorning in the United States (United States)

    Dairy producers today face labor, equipment, and medical costs associated with dehorning heifers. Further, complications requiring veterinary intervention occur with some probability. The objective of this work is to develop preliminary cost estimates of selecting for polled dairy heifers. Stochasti...

  4. Heat treatment of colostrum on commercial dairy farms decreases colostrum microbial counts while maintaining colostrum immunoglobulin G concentrations (United States)

    This study was conducted on six commercial dairy farms in Minnesota and Wisconsin to describe the effect of heat-treatment of colostrum, at 60o58 C for 60 minutes, on colostrum bacteria counts and immunoglobulin G concentrations. First milking colostrum was collected each day, pooled, divided into t...

  5. Assessing the effects of weekly preweaning health scores on dairy calf mortality and productivity parameters: cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahendran, Sophie; Booth, Richard; Beekhuis, Lies; Manning, Alex; Blackmore, Tania; Vanhoudt, A.; Bell, Nicholas


    A longitudinal cohort study was conducted to follow the health of 787 calves from one UK dairy farm over a two-and-a-half-year period. Weekly health scores were gathered using a modified version of the Wisconsin Calf Scoring system (which did not record ear position) until calves were eight weeks of

  6. Exporting: an avenue for dairy cooperatives


    Spatz, Karen J.; Brainich, Eric


    One avenue of growth for U.S. dairy cooperatives is exporting. Long- term market development is one ingredient for success in international sales. Given possible trade liberalization, cooperatives should evaluate their position in the global marketplace and develop a plan to ensure growth and stability for members. The first part of this report evaluates world dairy market conditions. It looks at trends in world trade and cost of production and policies of major milk-producing countries. Vari...

  7. Dairy farming and dairy industry in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beldman, A.; Berkum, van S.; Kortstee, H.; Zijlstra, J.


    Iran is a country with a long dairy tradition. Dairy production has increased to a level of about 9bn kg of milk per year. The ambition in the sector is to further increase production and to improve the quality of the milk to be able to export. Based on the analysis of available data and on a field

  8. Grazing intensity affects the environmental impact of dairy systems. (United States)

    Aguirre-Villegas, H A; Passos-Fonseca, T H; Reinemann, D J; Larson, R


    Dairy products are major components of the human diet but are also important contributors to global environmental impacts. This study evaluated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, net energy intensity (NEI), and land use of confined dairy systems with increasing levels of pasture in the diet. A Wisconsin farm was modeled to represent practices adopted by dairy operations in a humid continental climate typical in the Great Lakes region and other climates that have large differences in seasonal temperatures. Five grazing scenarios (all of which contained some portion of confinement) were modeled based on different concentrations of dry matter intake from pasture and feed supplementation from corn grain, corn silage, and soybean meal. Scenarios that incorporate grazing consisted of 5 mo of pasture feeding from May to September and 7 mo of confined feeding from October to April. Environmental impacts were compared within the 5 scenarios that incorporate grazing and across 2 entirely confined scenarios with and without on-farm electricity production through anaerobic digestion (AD). To conduct a fair comparison, all scenarios were evaluated based on the same total amount of milk produced per day where resource inputs were adjusted according to the characteristics of each scenario. A cradle-to-farm gate life cycle assessment evaluated the environmental burdens that were partitioned by allocation between milk and meat and by system expansion when biogas-based electricity was produced. Overall, results for all scenarios were comparable. Enteric methane was the greatest contributor to GHG emissions, and the production of crops was the most energy-intense process. For the confined scenario without AD, GHG emissions were 0.87 kg of CO 2 equivalents, NEI was 1.59 MJ, and land use was 1.59 m 2 /kg of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). Anaerobic digestion significantly reduced emissions to 0.28 kg of CO 2 equivalents/kg of FPCM and reduced NEI to -1.26 MJ/kg of FPCM, indicating

  9. Authenticity assessment of dairy products. (United States)

    de la Fuente, Miguel Angel; Juárez, Manuela


    The authenticity of dairy products has become a focal point, attracting the attention of scientists, producers, consumers, and policymakers. Among many others, some of the practices not allowed in milk and milk products are the substitution of part of the fat or proteins, admixtures of milk of different species, additions of low-cost dairy products (mainly whey derivatives), or mislabeling of products protected by denomination of origin. A range of analytical methods to detect frauds have been developed, modified, and continually reassessed to be one step ahead of manufacturers who pursue these illegal activities. Traditional procedures to assess the authenticity of dairy products include chromatographic, electrophoretic, and immunoenzymatic methods. New approaches such as capillary electrophoresis, polymerase chain reaction, and isotope ratio mass spectrometry have also emerged alongside the latest developments in the former procedures. This work intends to provide an updated and extensive overview since 1991 on the principal applications of all these techniques together with their advantages and disadvantages for detecting the authenticity of dairy products. The scope and limits of different tools are also discussed.

  10. 75 FR 56597 - University of Wisconsin; University of Wisconsin Nuclear Reactor Environmental Assessment and... (United States)


    ... when solid waste is generated from use of the UWNR, it is transferred to the University of Wisconsin.... In the years that solid waste was generated, less than 400 milliCuries of solid waste was transferred...; University of Wisconsin Nuclear Reactor Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S...

  11. Simulated Performance of the Wisconsin Superconducting Electron Gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Bosch, K.J. Kleman, R.A. Legg


    The Wisconsin superconducting electron gun is modeled with multiparticle tracking simulations using the ASTRA and GPT codes. To specify the construction of the emittance-compensation solenoid, we studied the dependence of the output bunch's emittance upon the solenoid's strength and field errors. We also evaluated the dependence of the output bunch's emittance upon the bunch's initial emittance and the size of the laser spot on the photocathode. The results suggest that a 200-pC bunch with an emittance of about one mm-mrad can be produced for a free-electron laser.

  12. Evaluation of food safety management systems in Serbian dairy industry


    Tomašević, Igor; Šmigić, Nada; Đekić, Ilija; Zarić, Vlade; Tomić, Nikola; Miocinovic, Jelena; Rajkovic, Andreja


    This paper reports incentives, costs, difficulties and benefits of food safety management systems implementation in the Serbian dairy industry. The survey involved 27 food business operators with the national milk and dairy market share of 65 %. Almost two thirds of the assessed dairy producers (70.4 %) claimed that they had a fully operational and certified HACCP system in place, while 29.6 % implemented HACCP, but had no third party certification. ISO 22000 was implemented and certified in ...

  13. Rehabilitation of Delavan Lake, Wisconsin (United States)

    Robertson, Dale M.; Goddard, Gerald L.; Helsel, D.R.; MacKinnon, Kevin L.


    A comprehensive rehabilitation plan was developed and implemented to shift Delavan Lake, Wisconsin, from a hypereutrophic to a mesotrophic condition. The plan was threefold: (1) reduce external phosphorus (P) loading by applying Best Management Practices in the watershed, enhance an existing wetland, and short-circuit the inflows through the lake, (2) reduce internal P loading by treating the sediments with alum and removing carp, and (3) rehabilitate the fishery by removing carp and bigmouth buffalo and adding piscivores (biomanipulation). The first and second parts of the plan met with only limited success. With only minor reductions in internal and external P loading, P concentrations in the lake returned to near pre-treatment concentrations. The intensive biomanipulation and resulting trophic cascade (increased piscivores, decreased planktivores, increased large zooplankton populations, and reduced phytoplankton populations) eliminated most of the original problems in the lake (blue-green algal blooms and limited water clarity). However, now there is extensive macrophyte growth and abundant filamentous algae. Without significantly reducing the sources of the problems (high P loading) in Delavan Lake, the increased water clarity may not last. With an improved understanding of the individual components of this rehabilitation program, better future management plans can be developed for Delavan Lake and other lakes and reservoirs with similar eutrophication problems.

  14. Spoilage microorganisms in milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Skelin


    Full Text Available Spoilage microorganisms cause changes of primary characteristics and properties of milk and dairy products. The product defects depends on the specific species and number of microorganisms involved in pre- and post- technological processing. Most often, these changes are related to single undesirable sensory characteristic, smell, flavour or conistency. However, in the case of heavier microbial contamination all these undesirable characteristics can occur simultaneously. Besides, even small changes caused by presence of spoilage microorganisms lead to decreased quality of milk and various dairy products. Despite of the importance for the overall quality, the control of spoilage microorganisms for dairy industry is not obligated and therefore, only a few producers control them. Therefore, the present study describes the undesirable effect of spoilage microorganisms on quality of raw, pasteurized and sterilized milk, fermented milk, butter, sour cream and cheeses with the intention to emphasize the importance and significance of their control in the dairy industry.

  15. Ectomycorrhizal characterization of an American chestnut (Castanea dentata)-dominated community in Western Wisconsin (United States)

    Jonathan M. Palmer; Daniel L. Lindner; Thomas J. Volk


    Circa 1900, a farmer from the eastern US planted 11 American chestnut (Castanea dentata) seeds on a newly established farm near West Salem in western Wisconsin. These trees were very successful, producing a large stand of over 6,000 trees. Since this area is well outside the natural range of chestnut, these trees remained free from chestnut blight...

  16. Tickborne Powassan virus infections among Wisconsin residents. (United States)

    Johnson, Diep K Hoang; Staples, J Erin; Sotir, Mark J; Warshauer, David M; Davis, Jeffrey P


    Powassan virus (POWV) is a tickborne Flavivirus that causes a rare but potentially life-threatening illness. The first reported case of POWV infection in a Wisconsin resident occurred in 2003. Enhanced surveillance and testing detected 2 additional cases. Patient specimens with a positive or equivocal immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody to an arbovirus were sent from commercial laboratories to the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene and forwarded to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for confirmatory testing. Patients with laboratory confirmed POWV infections were interviewed to obtain demographic, clinical, and epidemiologic information. POWV infections were confirmed in 3 adult Wisconsin residents in 2003, 2006, and 2007; illness onsets occurred during May and June. Two patients were hospitalized and all survived. One patient had a dual infection with POWV and Anaplasma phaghocytophilum. Specimens from all 3 patients were initially reported as positive for IgM antibody to either St Louis encephalitis or California serogroup viruses; POWV-specific antibody was detected during confirmatory testing at the CDC. Each patient had exposures to known or likely tick habitats in different counties within 30 days before illness onset. These are the first diagnosed human POWV infections in Wisconsin. Because all 3 patients were initially identified as having other arboviral infections using commercial screening kits, routine confirmatory testing is essential for proper diagnosis of most arboviral infections. Wisconsin residents should be educated regarding risks of acquiring and ways to prevent POWV infection and other tickborne diseases when spending time outdoors.

  17. Implementing high-speed rail in Wisconsin peer exchange. (United States)


    The Wisconsin Department of Transportation Division of Transportation Investment Management hosted : a peer exchange on June 2 -4, 2009 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Representatives from four state DOTs and : two freight railroads joined representatives f...

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of bovine tuberculosis in dairy cattle in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghebremariam, Michael K; Rutten, V P M G; Vernooij, J C M; Uqbazghi, K; Tesfaalem, T; Butsuamlak, T; Idris, A M; Nielen, M; Michel, A L


    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in dairy cattle in the three major milk producing regions of Eritrea was assessed by subjecting 15,354 dairy cattle, 50 % of Eritrea's dairy cattle population, to the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test (SICTT). Skin test results

  19. Assessment on Peri-Urban Dairy Production System and Evaluation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional survey and raw milk laboratory analysis were conducted with the objectives of determining peri-urban dairy production system and quality of cow's raw milk of Shambu, Fincha and Kombolcha towns of Horro Guduru Wollega zone. Ninty peri-urban householder dairy producers were selected randomly with ...

  20. Sprouted barley for dairy cows: Is it worth it (United States)

    Sprouted grains have gained renewed interest among grazing dairy farmers in response to high grain prices, grain scarcity (in the organic dairy sector) and challenges in producing high-quality forages. This interest has been spurred by high-profile advertising by companies selling the systems, as we...

  1. Performance of Crossbred Dairy Cows Suitable for Smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    of F1 crossbred cows to produce and develop improved dairy cattle breed at on station and back up the on farm ... Adequate information was generated through selection to maintain superior genotype for further ... The crossbred dairy technology was verified and demonstrated in the central highlands and was found to be.

  2. Probiotic fermented dairy products


    Adnan Tamime; Rajka Božanić; Irena Rogelj


    Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  3. Probiotic fermented dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Tamime


    Full Text Available Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  4. Dairy cow handling facilities and the perception of Beef Quality Assurance on Colorado dairies. (United States)

    Adams, A E; Olea-Popelka, F J; Grandin, T; Woerner, D R; Roman-Muniz, I N


    A survey was conducted on Colorado dairies to assess attitudes and practices regarding Dairy Beef Quality Assurance (DBQA). The objectives were to (1) assess the need for a new handling facility that would allow all injections to be administered via DBQA standards; (2) establish if Colorado dairy producers are concerned with DBQA; and (3) assess differences in responses between dairy owners and herdsmen. Of the 95 dairies contacted, 20 (21%) agreed to participate, with a median herd size of 1,178. When asked to rank the following 7 traits--efficiency, animal safety, human safety, ease of animal handling, ease of operation, inject per Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) procedures, and cost--in order of priority when designing a new handling facility, human and animal safety were ranked highest in priority (first or second) by the majority of participants, with ease of animal handling and efficiency ranked next. Interestingly, the administration of injections per BQA standards was ranked sixth or seventh by most participants. Respondents estimated the average annual income from the sale of cull cows to be 4.6% of all dairy income, with 50% receiving at least one carcass discount or condemnation in the past 12 mo. Although almost all of the participating dairy farmers stated that the preferred injection site for medications was the neck region, a significant number admitted to using alternate injection sites. In contrast, no difference was found between responses regarding the preferred and actual location for intravenous injections. Although most participating producers are aware of BQA injection guidelines, they perceive efficiency as more important, which could result in injections being administered in locations not promoted by BQA. Dairy owners and herdsmen disagreed in whether or not workers had been injured in the animal handling area in the last 12 mo. Handling facilities that allow for an efficient and safe way to administer drugs according to BQA guidelines and

  5. Improving smallholder livelihoods: Dairy production in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Ulicky


    Full Text Available Tanzania is primarily an agro-based economy, characterized by subsistence agricultural production that employs more than 80% of the population and contributes up to 45% of the GDP (2005. This country is endowed with a cattle population of 21.3 M, composed mainly of indigenous Zebu breeds and about 680 000 improved dairy animals. About 70% of the milk produced comes from the traditional sector (indigenous cattle kept in rural areas, while the remaining 30% comes from improved cattle, mainly kept by smallholder producers. In Northern Tanzania and particularly in Hai district of Kilimanjaro Region, some dairy farmers organize themselves into small producer groups for the purpose of milk collecting, marketing and general promotion of the dairy sector in their community. Nronga Women Dairy Cooperative Society (NWDCS Limited is one of such organizations dedicated to improve the well-being of the Nronga village community through promoting small-scale dairy farming and its flow-on benefits. Milk flows out of the village, and services for investment and dairy production flow into the village, ensuring a sustainable financial circulation necessary for poverty reduction, rural development and better life for the rural community. In 2001 NWDCS introduced a school milk feeding program that has attracted Australian donors since 2005. Guided by Global Development Group, a multi-faceted project, integrating micro-enterprises, business, education and child health/nutrition, was proposed and initiated by building a dairy plant in Hai District headquarters, the Boma plant. In March 2013, the Australian High Commission to East Africa approved Direct Aid Program funding of AUD 30 000 towards the NWDCS - Biogas Pilot Project in Tanzania, which included the renovation of zero-grazing cow shade units, the construction of 6-m3 biodigester plants on each farm, and encouragement of the use of bioslurry for pasture production and home gardens.

  6. Dairy Free Kids


    Dairy Free Kids


    I am a Mom of two young boys both of whom have a dairy intolerance. My older boy is 4 and my younger boy is 1. It has been a long journey from finding out my child has a dairy intolerance through to realisation of exactly what that means day to day for him to reaching a stage where it is second nature for all of us. For my older child it was all new, a big learning curve. By the time son number two started showing similar symptoms it was simple to take him off dairy and keep him off dairy.

  7. Dairy intensification, mothers and children: an exploration of infant and young child feeding practices among rural dairy farmers in Kenya. (United States)

    Wyatt, Amanda J; Yount, Kathryn M; Null, Clair; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Webb Girard, Aimee


    Agricultural strategies such as dairy intensification have potential to improve human nutrition through increased household food security. Increasing dairy productivity could also adversely affect infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices because of increased maternal stress, demands on maternal time, and beliefs about the timing and appropriate types of complementary foods. Yet, few studies have looked rigorously at how interventions can affect young children (0-60 months). The study explores, within the context of rural dairy farming in Kenya, the relationship between level of household dairy production and selected IYCF practices using a mixed-methods approach. Six focus group discussions with women involved in dairy farming investigated their attitudes towards breastfeeding, introduction of complementary foods and child diets. Ninety-two households involved in three levels of dairy production with at least one child 0-60 months participated in a household survey. Quantitative results indicated that women from higher dairy producing households were more likely to introduce cow's milk to infants before they reached 6 months than women from households not producing any dairy. Themes from the focus group discussions demonstrated that women were familiar with exclusive breastfeeding recommendations, but indicated a preference for mixed feeding of infants. Evidence from this study can inform nutrition education programmes targeted to farmers participating in dairy interventions in rural, low-income settings to minimise potential harm to the nutritional status of children. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Prevalence of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli stx1, stx2, eaeA, and rfbE genes and survival of E. coli O157:H7 in manure from organic and low-input conventional dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franz, E.; Klerks, M.M.; Vos, de O.J.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.


    Manure samples were collected from 16 organic (ORG) and 9 low-input conventional (LIC) Dutch dairy farms during August and September 2004 to determine the prevalence of the STEC virulence genes stx(1) (encoding Shiga toxin 1), stx(2) (encoding Shiga toxin 2), and eaeA (encoding intimin), as well as

  9. The Legal Status of Homemakers in Wisconsin. (United States)

    Melli, Marygold Shire

    This report focuses on laws in the state of Wisconsin as they relate to homemakers. Four areas are discussed, each in separate sections: marriage, widowhood, divorce, and wife abuse. The section on marriage includes information on property rights, disability and death of homemaker, federal Equal Credit Opportunity Act, domicile, interspousal…

  10. Divided Wisconsin: Partisan Spatial Electoral Realignment (United States)

    Zaniewski, Kazimierz J.; Simmons, James R.


    When the Republican and Democratic presidential candidates head into the general election this fall, they will be courting votes from a statewide electorate that has dramatically shifted over time, mirroring the political polarization that is happening across the country. Over the last three decades, Wisconsin's political geography has evolved…

  11. Wisconsin Public Schools at a Glance, 2016 (United States)

    Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, 2016


    "Wisconsin Public Schools at a Glance" provides in a single page document statistical information on the following topics: (1) Total number of public schools (2015-16); (2) Student (2015-16); (3) Attendance & Graduation (2014-15);(4) Staff (2013-14); (5) School Funding; and (6) Student Performance (2014-15). [For the previous report…

  12. Wisconsin Public Schools at a Glance (United States)

    Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, 2014


    "Wisconsin Public Schools at a Glance" provides in a single page document statistical information on the following topics: (1) Total number of public schools (2014-15); (2) Staff (2013-14); (3) Students (2013-14);(4) Report Cards (2013-14); (5) Attendance and Graduation (2012-13); (6) Student Performance (2013-14); and (7) School Funding.

  13. The University of Wisconsin OAO operating system (United States)

    Heacox, H. C.; Mcnall, J. F.


    The Wisconsin OAO operating system is presented which consists of two parts: a computer program called HARUSPEX, which makes possible reasonably efficient and convenient operation of the package and ground operations equipment which provides real-time status monitoring, commanding and a quick-look at the data.

  14. Genetic Analysis of Termite Colonies in Wisconsin (United States)

    R.A. Arango; D.A. Marschalek; F. Green III; K.F. Raffa; M.E. Berres


    The objective of this study was to document current areas of subterranean termite activity in Wisconsin and to evaluate genetic characteristics of these northern, peripheral colonies. Here, amplified fragment-length polymorphism was used to characterize levels of inbreeding, expected heterozygosity, and percent polymorphism within colonies as well as genetic structure...

  15. Stakeholders' Perceptions of Parcelization in Wisconsin's Northwoods (United States)

    Mark G. Rickenbach; Paul H. Gobster


    Parcelization, the process by which relatively large forest ownerships become subdivided into smaller ones, is often related to changes in ownership and can bring changes to the use of the land. Landowners, resource professionals, and others interested in Wisconsin's Northwoods were asked their views on parcelization in a series of stakeholder forums. We analyzed...

  16. Dairy Wise, A Whole-Farm Dairy Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schils, R.L.M.; Haan, de M.H.A.; Hemmer, J.G.A.; Pol, van den A.; Boer, de J.A.; Evers, A.G.; Holshof, G.; Middelkoop, van J.C.; Zom, R.L.G.


    A whole-farm dairy model was developed and evaluated. The DairyWise model is an empirical model that simulated technical, environmental, and financial processes on a dairy farm. The central component is the FeedSupply model that balanced the herd requirements, as generated by the DairyHerd model,

  17. DairyBISS Baseline report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buizer, N.N.; Berhanu, Tinsae; Murutse, Girmay; Vugt, van S.M.


    This baseline report of the Dairy Business Information Service and Support (DairyBISS) project presents the findings of a baseline survey among 103 commercial farms and 31 firms and advisors working in the dairy value chain. Additional results from the survey among commercial dairy farms are

  18. Private drinking water quality in rural Wisconsin. (United States)

    Knobeloch, Lynda; Gorski, Patrick; Christenson, Megan; Anderson, Henry


    Between July 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, Wisconsin health departments tested nearly 4,000 rural drinking water supplies for coliform bacteria, nitrate, fluoride, and 13 metals as part of a state-funded program that provides assistance to low-income families. The authors' review of laboratory findings found that 47% of these wells had an exceedance of one or more health-based water quality standards. Test results for iron and coliform bacteria exceeded safe limits in 21% and 18% of these wells, respectively. In addition, 10% of the water samples from these wells were high in nitrate and 11% had an elevated result for aluminum, arsenic, lead, manganese, or strontium. The high percentage of unsafe test results emphasizes the importance of water quality monitoring to the health of nearly one million families including 300,000 Wisconsin children whose drinking water comes from a privately owned well.

  19. University of Wisconsin Oshkosh Anaerobic Dry Digestion Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koker, John [Univ. of Wisconsin, Oshkosh, WI (United States); Lizotte, Michael [Univ. of Wisconsin, Oshkosh, WI (United States)


    The University of Wisconsin Oshkosh Anaerobic Dry Digestion Facility is a demonstration project that supported the first commercial-scale use in the United States of high solids, static pile technology for anaerobic digestion of organic waste to generate biogas for use in generating electricity and heat. The research adds to the understanding of startup, operation and supply chain issues for anaerobic digester technology. Issues and performance were documented for equipment installation and modifications, feedstock availability and quality, weekly loading and unloading of digestion chambers, chemical composition of biogas produced, and energy production. This facility also demonstrated an urban industrial ecology approach to siting such facilities near sewage treatment plants (to capture and use excess biogas generated by the plants) and organic yard waste collection sites (a source of feedstock).

  20. Wisconsin Earth and Space Science Education (United States)

    Bilbrough, Larry (Technical Monitor); French, George


    The Wisconsin Earth and Space Science Education project successfilly met its objectives of creating a comprehensive online portfolio of science education curricular resources and providing a professional development program to increase educator competency with Earth and Space science content and teaching pedagogy. Overall, 97% of participants stated that their experience was either good or excellent. The favorable response of participant reactions to the professional development opportunities highlights the high quality of the professional development opportunity. The enthusiasm generated for using the curricular material in classroom settings was overwhelmingly positive at 92%. This enthusiasm carried over into actual classroom implementation of resources from the curricular portfolio, with 90% using the resources between 1-6 times during the school year. The project has had a positive impact on student learning in Wisconsin. Although direct measurement of student performance is not possible in a project of this kind, nearly 75% of participating teachers stated that they saw an increase in student performance in math and science as a result of using project resources. Additionally, nearly 75% of participants saw an increase in the enthusiasm of students towards math and science. Finally, some evidence exists that the professional development academies and curricular portfolio have been effective in changing educator behavior. More than half of all participants indicated that they have used more hands-on activities as a result of the Wisconsin Earth and Space Science Education project.

  1. Dairy goat nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ronchi


    Full Text Available Good goat nutrition is fundamental to the success and sustainability of dairy goat farming in terms of economics, goat health, high quality products, and minimizing environmental impact.

  2. Traditional Indonesian dairy foods. (United States)

    Surono, Ingrid S


    Indonesia is the largest archipelago blessed with one of the richest mega-biodiversities and also home to one of the most diverse cuisines and traditional fermented foods. There are 3 types of traditional dairy foods, namely the butter-like product minyak samin; yogurt-like product dadih; and cheese-like products dali or bagot in horbo, dangke, litsusu, and cologanti, which reflect the culture of dairy product consumption in Indonesia.

  3. Testing new dairy cattle for disease can boost herd health, cut costs


    Moore, Dale A; Adaska, J M; Higginbotham, G E; Castillo, Alejandro R Dr.; Collar, Carol; Sischo, William M


    Dairy producers seldom test or examine incoming cattle, although these important biosecurity practices are recommended. This pilot project examined risk management decisions that producers make when faced with test-positive animals in purchased groups of dairy cattle, in order to provide information on disease risks and conditions that could affect animal health and performance. New arrivals to seven herds at dairy farms in four California counties were examined and tested for a range of cond...

  4. Characterizing phosphorus dynamics in tile-drained agricultural fieldsof eastern Wisconsin (United States)

    Madison, Allison; Ruark, Matthew; Stuntebeck, Todd D.; Komiskey, Matthew J.; Good, Laura W; Drummy, Nancy; Cooley, Eric


    Artificial subsurface drainage provides an avenue for the rapid transfer of phosphorus (P) from agricultural fields to surface waters. This is of particular interest in eastern Wisconsin, where there is a concentrated population of dairy farms and high clay content soils prone to macropore development. Through collaboration with private landowners, surface and tile drainage was measured and analyzed for dissolved reactive P (DRP) and total P (TP) losses at four field sites in eastern Wisconsin between 2005 and 2009. These sites, which received frequent manure applications, represent a range of crop management practices which include: two chisel plowed corn fields (CP1, CP2), a no-till corn–soybean field (NT), and a grazed pasture (GP). Subsurface drainage was the dominant pathway of water loss at each site accounting for 66–96% of total water discharge. Average annual flow-weighted (FW) TP concentrations were 0.88, 0.57, 0.21, and 1.32 mg L−1 for sites CP1, CP2, NT, and GP, respectively. Low TP concentrations at the NT site were due to tile drain interception of groundwater flow where large volumes of tile drainage water diluted the FW-TP concentrations. Subsurface pathways contributed between 17% and 41% of the TP loss across sites. On a drainage event basis, total drainage explained between 36% and 72% of the event DRP loads across CP1, CP2, and GP; there was no relationship between event drainflow and event DRP load at the NT site. Manure applications did not consistently increase P concentrations in drainflow, but annual FW-P concentrations were greater in years receiving manure applications compared to years without manure application. Based on these field measures, P losses from tile drainage must be integrated into field level P budgets and P loss calculations on heavily manured soils, while also acknowledging the unique drainage patterns observed in eastern Wisconsin.

  5. Therapeutic potential of dairy bioactive peptides: A contemporary perspective. (United States)

    Sultan, Saira; Huma, Nuzhat; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Aleem, Muhammad; Abbas, Munawar


    Dairy products are associated with numerous health benefits. These are a good source of nutrients such as carbohydrates, protein (bioactive peptides), lipids, minerals, and vitamins, which are essential for growth, development, and maintenance of the human body. Accordingly, dairy bioactive peptides are one of the targeted compounds present in different dairy products. Dairy bioactive compounds can be classified as antihypertensive, anti-oxidative, immmunomodulant, anti-mutagenic, antimicrobial, opoid, anti-thrombotic, anti-obesity, and mineral-binding agents, depending upon biological functions. These bioactive peptides can easily be produced by enzymatic hydrolysis, and during fermentation and gastrointestinal digestion. For this reason, fermented dairy products, such as yogurt, cheese, and sour milk, are gaining popularity worldwide, and are considered excellent source of dairy peptides. Furthermore, fermented and non-fermented dairy products are associated with lower risks of hypertension, coagulopathy, stroke, and cancer insurgences. The current review article is an attempt to disseminate general information about dairy peptides and their health claims to scientists, allied stakeholders, and, certainly, readers.

  6. Epidemiology of subclinical ketosis in early lactation dairy cattle. (United States)

    McArt, J A A; Nydam, D V; Oetzel, G R


    The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows in early lactation and determine the association of (1) days in milk (DIM) at onset of SCK, and (2) blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentration at onset of SCK with development of displaced abomasum (DA) and removal from herd in the first 30 DIM, conception to first service, days to conception within 150 DIM, and early lactation milk yield. Cows from 4 freestall dairy herds (2 in New York and 2 in Wisconsin) were each tested 6 times for SCK from 3 to 16 DIM using the Precision Xtra meter (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL). Subclinical ketosis was defined as a BHBA concentration of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L. Mixed-effects multivariable Poisson regression was used to assess DA, removal from herd, and conception to first service. Semiparametric proportional hazards models were used to evaluate days to conception, and repeated-measures ANOVA was used to evaluate milk yield in the first 30 DIM. A total of 741 of 1,717 (43.2%) eligible cows had a least one BHBA test of 1.2 to 2.9 mmol/L. Peak incidence of SCK occurred at 5 DIM, when 22.3% of cows had their first SCK-positive test. Peak prevalence of SCK occurred at 5 DIM, when 28.9% of cows had a SCK-positive test. Median time from first positive SCK test until BHBA test <1.2 mmol/L was 5d. Cows first testing SCK positive from 3 to 5 DIM were 6.1 times more likely [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.3 to 16.0] to develop a DA than cows first testing SCK positive at 6 DIM or later. Cows first testing SCK positive from 3 to 7 DIM were 4.5 times more likely (95% CI = 1.7 to 11.7) to be removed from the herd, were 0.7 times as likely (95% CI = 0.6 to 0.8) to conceive to first service, and produced 2.2 kg less milk per day for the first 30 DIM than cows first testing positive at 8 DIM or later. Each 0.1 mmol/L increase in BHBA at first SCK-positive test increased the risk of developing a DA by a factor of 1.1 (95% CI = 1.0 to 1

  7. Planning of dairy farm and dairy plant based ecotourism (United States)

    Sarnyoto, A. S.; Tama, I. P.; Tantrika, C. F. M.


    One of a dairy production company producing pasteurized milk and yoghurt drink, whose brand has widely known in East Java, has a factory plant in Batu City, one of tourism destinations in Indonesia. Behind the factory plant, there is a vacant land with an estimated total area of 2.3 ha and a vacant cowshed which had not been used for cattle ranching. Because of that, the company planned to develop the vacant land as a dairy farm and plant based ecotourism. In addition, dairy farm and dairy plant based tourism attractions are still rarely found in Batu. Thus, the first aim of this study was to analyse the potencies of the company that related to future plans of ecotourism built. The second aim was to set up the strategies that can be done in order to actualize the ecotourism project. The next aim was to plan the ecotourism, especially the facilities planning and the facilities arrangement on the vacant land. Strategic management approach was used to analyse the potencies and to determine the strategies. To select the proper facilities, tourists were asked to give appraisal by using questionnaire. Appraisal result was mapped onto four quadrants spatial map to see advantages and shortcomings of each facility along with choosing the right facilities to be built. Those facilities and tourist activities were compared with ecotourism criteria to make sure that the facilities were appropriate to provide not only entertainment but also ecotourism function. To arrange the chosen facilities, the step in Systematic Layout Planning were conducted to generate a propose layout of facilities arrangement. Based on potencies analysis, in Internal-External matrix, the company current position was on quadrant 2 (grow and build), with the most appropriate strategy was intensive or integrative. The proposed strategies were to build the new infrastructure, to renovate cowshed, and to add new tourism facilities on the land. There were 11 selected facilities based on MDS. Moreover, based

  8. Elements of Instruction VTAE Workshop (Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin, March 7-9, 1989). Final Report. (United States)

    Lee, Howard D.

    This document describes a 3-day Wisconsin workshop on essential elements of instruction in vocational, technical, and adult education (VTAE). The workshop's content was based on the Univesity of California at Los Angeles' Teaching Model, which resulted from the work of Madeline Hunter. A three-page narrative describes some aspects of the model,…

  9. Dairy farmers’ values and how their values affect their decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Gunnar Hansen


    Full Text Available Values affect humans’ perception of situations and problems and guide our actions. The objective of this study was to explore the values of dairy farmers, and whether their values influenced their decisions to maintain dairy farming or to buy consultancy services. During late fall 2007 we visited and interviewed 90 farmers. First we did a qualitative analysis of the data and then we merged the interview data with the existing database of financial data from the year 2007 to do statistical analyses. We also checked whether the farmers still produced milk in 2013, six years after the interviews.  Most farmers had terminal values like keeping up the tradition and to have an interesting work. Value combinations with instrumental values such as to earn money and to produce milk were common. Realizing that many farmers prioritize terminal values over instrumental values has important consequences for dairy companies, dairy consultants and politicians.

  10. A 100-Year Review: Metabolic modifiers in dairy cattle nutrition. (United States)

    McGuffey, R K


    The first issue of the Journal of Dairy Science in 1917 opened with the text of the speech by Raymond A. Pearson, president of the Iowa State College of Agriculture, at the dedication of the new dairy building at the University of Nebraska (J. Dairy Sci. 1:4-18, 1917). Fittingly, this was the birth of a new research facility and more importantly, the beginning of a new journal devoted to the sciences of milk production and manufacture of products from milk. Metabolic modifiers of dairy cow metabolism enhance, change, or interfere with normal metabolic processes in the ruminant digestive tract or alter postabsorption partitioning of nutrients among body tissues. Papers on metabolic modifiers became more frequent in the journal around 1950. Dairy farming changed radically between 1955 and 1965. Changes in housing and feeding moved more cows outside, and cows and heifers in all stages of lactation, including the dry period, were fed as a single group. Rations became wetter with the shift to corn silage as the major forage in many rations. Liberal grain feeding met the requirements of high-producing cows and increased production per cow but introduced new challenges; for example, managing and feeding cows as a group. These changes led to the introduction of new strategies that identified and expanded the use of metabolic modifiers. Research was directed at characterizing the new problems for the dairy cow created by group feeding. Metabolic modifiers went beyond feeding the cow and included environmental and housing factors and additives to reduce the incidence and severity of many new conditions and pathologies. New collaborations began among dairy cattle specialties that broadened our understanding of the workings of the cow. The Journal of Dairy Science then and now plays an enormously important role in dissemination of the findings of dairy scientists worldwide that address existing and new technologies. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association

  11. Quality of Wisconsin stormwater, 1989-94 (United States)

    Bannerman, Roger T.; Legg, Andrew D.; Greb, Steven R.


    Water-quality data were compiled from four urban stormwater monitoring projects conducted in Wisconsin between 1989 and 1994. These projects included monitoring in both storm-sewer pipes and urban streams. A total of 147 constitu ents were analyzed for in stormwater sampled from 10 storm-sewer pipes and four urban streams. Land uses represented by the storm-sewer watersheds included residential, commercial, industrial, and mixed. For about one-half the con stituents, at least 10 percent of the event mean con centrations exceeded the laboratory's minimum reporting limit. Detection frequencies were greater than 75 percent for many of the heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in both the storm sewer and stream samples, whereas detec tion frequencies were about 20 percent or greater for many of the pesticides in both types of sam ples. Stormwater concentrations for conventional constituents, such as suspended solids, chloride, total phosphorus, and fecal coliform bacteria were greater than minimum reporting limits almost 100 percent of the time. Concentrations of many of the constituents were high enough to say that stormwater in the storm sewers and urban streams might be contrib uting to the degradation of the streams. In this report, constituents defined as potential contami nants are those for which the laboratory minimum report limit was exceeded for at least 10 percent of the sampled storm events, and for which at least one event mean concentration exceeded an estab lished water-quality standard. Storm-sewer sam ples had event mean concentrations of lead, copper, zinc, cadmium, and silver that frequently exceeded Wisconsin's acute toxicity criteria for cold water fisheries. Wisconsin's human cancer criteria was exceeded almost 100 percent of the time for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in stormwater samples from storm sewers and streams. Maximum concentrations of diazinon found in storm sewers exceeded recommended levels of diazinon. Storm

  12. Periparturient effects of feeding a low dietary cation-anion difference diet on acid-base, calcium, and phosphorus homeostasis and on intravenous glucose tolerance test in high-producing dairy cows. (United States)

    Grünberg, W; Donkin, S S; Constable, P D


    Feeding rations with low dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) to dairy cows during late gestation is a common strategy to prevent periparturient hypocalcemia. Although the efficacy of low-DCAD rations in reducing the incidence of clinical hypocalcemia is well documented, potentially deleterious effects have not been explored in detail. The objective of the study presented here was to determine the effect of fully compensated metabolic acidosis on calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, insulin responsiveness, and insulin sensitivity as well as on protein metabolism. Twenty multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups and fed a low-DCAD ration (DCAD = -9 mEq/100g, group L) or a control ration (DCAD = +11 mEq/100g, group C) for the last 3 wk before the expected calving date. Blood and urine samples were obtained periodically between 14 d before to 14 d after calving. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests and 24-h volumetric urine collection were conducted before calving as well as 7 and 14 d postpartum. Cows fed the low-DCAD ration had lower urine pH and higher net acid excretion, but unchanged blood pH and bicarbonate concentration before calving. Protein-corrected plasma Ca concentration 1 d postpartum was higher in cows on the low-DCAD diet when compared with control animals. Urinary Ca and P excretion was positively associated with urine net acid excretion and negatively associated with urine pH. Whereas metabolic acidosis resulted in a 6-fold increase in urinary Ca excretion, the effect on renal P excretion was negligible. A more pronounced decline of plasma protein and globulin concentration in the periparturient period was observed in cows on the low-DCAD diets resulting in significantly lower total protein and globulin concentrations after calving in cows on low-DCAD diets. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests conducted before and after calving did not reveal group differences in insulin response or insulin sensitivity. Our

  13. Mixing zones studies of the waste water discharge from the Consolidated Paper Company into the Wisconsin River at Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin (United States)

    Hoopes, J. A.; Wu, D. S.; Ganatra, R.


    Effluent concentration distributions from the waste water discharge of the Kraft Division Mill, Consolidated Paper Company, into the Wisconsin River at Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin, is investigated. Effluent concentrations were determined from measurements of the temperature distribution, using temperature as a tracer. Measurements of the velocity distribution in the vicinity of the outfall were also made. Due to limitations in the extent of the field observations, the analysis and comparison of the measurements is limited to the region within about 300 feet from the outfall. Effects of outfall submergence, of buoyancy and momentum of the effluent and of the pattern and magnitude of river currents on these characteristics are considered.

  14. Flood-frequency characteristics of Wisconsin streams (United States)

    Walker, John F.; Peppler, Marie C.; Danz, Mari E.; Hubbard, Laura E.


    Flood-frequency characteristics for 360 gaged sites on unregulated rural streams in Wisconsin are presented for percent annual exceedance probabilities ranging from 0.2 to 50 using a statewide skewness map developed for this report. Equations of the relations between flood-frequency and drainage-basin characteristics were developed by multiple-regression analyses. Flood-frequency characteristics for ungaged sites on unregulated, rural streams can be estimated by use of the equations presented in this report. The State was divided into eight areas of similar physiographic characteristics. The most significant basin characteristics are drainage area, soil saturated hydraulic conductivity, main-channel slope, and several land-use variables. The standard error of prediction for the equation for the 1-percent annual exceedance probability flood ranges from 56 to 70 percent for Wisconsin Streams; these values are larger than results presented in previous reports. The increase in the standard error of prediction is likely due to increased variability of the annual-peak discharges, resulting in increased variability in the magnitude of flood peaks at higher frequencies. For each of the unregulated rural streamflow-gaging stations, a weighted estimate based on the at-site log Pearson type III analysis and the multiple regression results was determined. The weighted estimate generally has a lower uncertainty than either the Log Pearson type III or multiple regression estimates. For regulated streams, a graphical method for estimating flood-frequency characteristics was developed from the relations of discharge and drainage area for selected annual exceedance probabilities. Graphs for the major regulated streams in Wisconsin are presented in the report.

  15. Archaeological Investigations at a Wisconsin Petroglyph Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Steinbring


    Full Text Available Preliminary test excavations at the Hensler Petroglyph Site in East Central Wisconsin, U.S.A. have disclosed the remains of aboriginal engravings below Aeolian sediments dated to ca. 15,000 years B.P. The stratified deposits lying adjacent to an engraved panel, containing 35 pecked images, have yielded animal-like cobbles, some covered with red ochre, apparently picked for some esoteric use. The site itself has unusual natural shapes in the rock formation, along with acoustical properties, lightning strikes, a magnetic anomaly, and geographic prominence. Collectively these factors are thought to have attracted the ancient rock artists to the site.

  16. Influence of antibiotic selection on genetic composition of Escherichia coli populations from conventional and organic dairy farms. (United States)

    Walk, Seth T; Mladonicky, Janice M; Middleton, Jaclyn A; Heidt, Anthony J; Cunningham, Julie R; Bartlett, Paul; Sato, Kenji; Whittam, Thomas S


    The widespread agricultural use of antimicrobials has long been considered a crucial influence on the prevalence of resistant genes and bacterial strains. It has been suggested that antibiotic applications in agricultural settings are a driving force for the development of antimicrobial resistance, and epidemiologic evidence supports the view that there is a direct link between resistant human pathogens, retail produce, farm animals, and farm environments. Despite such concerns, little is understood about the population processes underlying the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance and the reversibility of resistance when antibiotic selective pressure is removed. In this study, hierarchical log-linear modeling was used to assess the association between farm type (conventional versus organic), age of cattle (calf versus cow), bacterial phenotype (resistant versus susceptible), and the genetic composition of Escherichia coli populations (E. coli Reference Collection [ECOR] phylogroup A, B1, B2, or D) among 678 susceptible and resistant strains from a previously published study of 60 matched dairy farms (30 conventional and 30 organic) in Wisconsin. The analysis provides evidence for clonal resistance (ampicillin resistance) and genetic hitchhiking (tetracycline resistance [Tet(r)]), estimated the rate of compositional change from conventional farming to organic farming (mean, 8 years; range, 3 to 15 years), and discovered a significant association between low multidrug resistance, organic farms, and strains of the numerically dominant phylogroup B1. These data suggest that organic farming practices not only change the frequency of resistant strains but also impact the overall population genetic composition of the resident E. coli flora. In addition, the results support the hypothesis that the current prevalence of Tet(r) loci on dairy farms has little to do with the use of this antibiotic.

  17. Wisconsin EE Mandates: The Bad News and the Good News. (United States)

    Lane, Jennie; And Others


    Examines Wisconsin teachers' perceived competencies in, attitudes toward, and amount of class time devoted to teaching about the environment. Discusses the effects of Wisconsin environmental education mandates concerning preservice preparation in environmental education and K-12 environmental education curriculum plans. Identifies areas where the…

  18. Wisconsin Maternity Leave and Fringe Benefits: Policies, Practices and Problems. (United States)

    Gerner, Jennifer

    The study examines the economic implications in Wisconsin of the 1972 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission guideline which requires employers to treat maternity leave as a temporary disability. First, the static cost of the maternity leave guideline to employers is estimated for the State of Wisconsin. Second, some examination of the economic…

  19. Dairy products and plasma cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Ohlsson


    to produce dairy products with more beneficial effects on plasma lipid profile.

  20. Biodiversity of dairy Propionibacterium isolated from dairy farms in Minas Gerais, Brazil. (United States)

    de Freitas, Rosangela; Chuat, Victoria; Madec, Marie-Noelle; Nero, Luis Augusto; Thierry, Anne; Valence, Florence; de Carvalho, Antonio Fernandes


    Dairy propionibacteria are used as ripening cultures for the production of Swiss-type cheeses, and some strains have potential for use as probiotics. This study investigated the biodiversity of wild dairy Propionibacteria isolates in dairy farms that produce Swiss-type cheeses in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. RAPD and PFGE were used for molecular typing of strains and MLST was applied for phylogenetic analysis of strains of Propionibacterium freudenreichii. The results showed considerable genetic diversity of the wild dairy propionibacteria, since three of the main species were observed to be randomly distributed among the samples collected from different farms in different biotopes (raw milk, sillage, soil and pasture). Isolates from different farms showed distinct genetic profiles, suggesting that each location represented a specific niche. Furthermore, the STs identified for the strains of P. freudenreichii by MLST were not related to any specific origin. The environment of dairy farms and milk production proved to be a reservoir for Propionibacterium strains, which are important for future use as possible starter cultures or probiotics, as well as in the study of prevention of cheese defects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Dairy farmer use of price risk management tools. (United States)

    Wolf, C A


    Volatility in milk and feed prices can adversely affect dairy farm profitability. Many risk management tools are available for use by US dairy farmers. This research uses surveys of Michigan dairy farmers to examine the extent to which price risk management tools have been used, the farm and operator characteristics that explain the use of these tools, and reasons farmers have not used these tools. A 1999 survey was used to benchmark the degree to which dairy producers had used milk and feed price risk management instruments to compare with 2011 use rates. The surveys collected information about the farm characteristics such as herd size, farmland operated, business organization, and solvency position. Farm operator characteristics collected include age, education, and experience. Dairy farmer use of both milk and feed price risk management tools increased between 1999 and 2011. In 2011, herd size was positively related to the use of milk price risk management tools, whereas farms organized as a sole proprietorship were less likely to use them. Also in 2011, herd size and land operated were positively related to feed price risk management tools, whereas operator age was negatively related. Reasons why farmers had not used price risk management tools included basis risk, cost, lack of management time, cooperative membership, and lack of understanding. Conclusions include the need for educational programming on price risk management tools and a broader exploration of dairy farm risk management programs. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dairy wastewater treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 4, 2009 ... organic sources into methane via anaerobic process. Whey is considered as highly pollutant effluent with res- pect to COD level (60-80 g/l) (Mc-Hugh et al., 2006;. Gannoun et al., 2008). There are number of biological treatment processes to treat dairy wastewater such as activated sludge system, anaerobic ...

  3. ‘Milk is Milk’: Organic Dairy Adoption Decisions and Bounded Rationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline C. Brock


    Full Text Available Bounded rationality is an especially appropriate framework for organic dairy adoption decisions as it recognizes internal and external constraints which are critical in understanding complex farm decision making. Farmers use of, and access to, information is examined using interview data gathered from organic, conventional, managed graziers, and Amish dairy farmers in Southwestern Wisconsin at a time when organic milk prices offered a 50% premium over conventional prices. Focusing on certain aspects and impressions of organic dairy, such as the sentiment that “milk is milk”, may lead to information satisficing where farmers do not take full advantage of the information available to them. Organic farmer interviews reveal the challenges they faced with bounded rationality constraints and how they countered these challenges with the help of social networks, as well as how situational factors such as economic and health crises may have motivated them to adopt organic dairy. The interview data from organic and conventional farmers alike also reveals how many conventional dairy farmers utilized information strategies which did not fully consider the pros and cons of the organic system. A bounded rationality framework could enlighten policy makers and educators as they tailor sustainable agricultural policy design and information dissemination strategies to serve the diversity of farmers on the landscape.

  4. Applying Learning Theory to Safety and Health Training for Hispanic Immigrant Dairy Workers. (United States)

    Juárez-Carrillo, Patricia M; Liebman, Amy K; Reyes, Iris Anne C; Ninco Sánchez, Yurany V; Keifer, Matthew C


    We designed a safety and health curriculum for dairy immigrant workers aiming to increase knowledge, encourage safe behavior, and reduce worker communication inequalities to prevent occupational injury and diseases. The design is largely based on the Taxonomy of Significant Learning and incorporated behavioral and adult learning theories and principles of occupational hazard control. Trainings were implemented with 836 Spanish-speaking workers from 67 farms in Wisconsin. Sixty-seven percent of workers reported never being trained before in dairy safety, 65% of these worked in dairy for 5 or fewers years, and 26% of workers reported being ever injured while working on dairy. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the trainings suggest that our curriculum successfully increased worker knowledge and promoted contemplation of safe practices. The overall knowledge gain of 25% was statistically significant ( p behavior, and mentioned their intention to communicate safety concerns to farmers. To our knowledge, this is the first Taxonomy of Significant Learning application to occupational safety and health education. Our curriculum can support dairy farmers' compliance with Occupational Safety and Health Administration's annual training requirements by providing our basic safety and health training to workers at early job stages.

  5. Dairy cow disability weights. (United States)

    McConnel, Craig S; McNeil, Ashleigh A; Hadrich, Joleen C; Lombard, Jason E; Garry, Franklyn B; Heller, Jane


    Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies. National and international dairy health and management authorities were contacted through professional organizations, dairy industry publications and conferences, and industry contacts. Estimates of minimum, most likely, and maximum disability weights were derived for 12 common dairy cow diseases. Survey participants were asked to estimate the impact of each disease on overall health and milk production. Diseases were classified from 1 (minimal adverse effects) to 10 (death). The data was modelled using BetaPERT distributions to demonstrate the variation in these dynamic disease processes, and to identify the most likely aggregated disability weights for each disease classification. A single disability weight was assigned to each disease using the average of the combined medians for the minimum, most likely, and maximum severity scores. A total of 96 respondents provided estimates of disability weights. The final disability weight values resulted in the following order from least to most severe: retained placenta, diarrhea, ketosis, metritis, mastitis, milk fever, lame (hoof only), calving trauma, left displaced abomasum, pneumonia, musculoskeletal injury (leg, hip, back), and right displaced abomasum. The peaks of the probability density functions indicated that for certain disease states such as retained placenta there was a relatively narrow range of

  6. 7 CFR 1150.112 - Dairy products. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Dairy products. 1150.112 Section 1150.112 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.112 Dairy products. Dairy products means products manufactured for human...

  7. Wisconsin River at Portage, Wisconsin; Feasibility Study for Flood Control Plant of Study. (United States)


    natural setting that the late Aldo Leopold , often called the "Father of Wildlife Management," wrote some of his famous works in the still-standing log...Protect endangered or threatened plants and animals and their ha>itats. e. Consider the Aldo Leopold Memorial Reserve. The Wisconsin Department of Natural...standing log cabin he built -- that the late 0 0 Aldo Leopold wrote some of his famous works. He also wrote about this very site and the immediate area

  8. An evaluation of the bedrock aquifer system in northeastern Wisconsin (United States)

    Emmons, P.J.


    Ground water is a major source of water in northeastern Wisconsin. The lower Fox River valley, located between Lake Winnebago and Green Bay in northeastern Wisconsin, is the second largest population center in Wisconsin. By 1957, ground-water withdrawals had lowered the potentiometric surface of the aquifer system as much as 440 feet below prepumping levels. With the exception of the city of Green Bay, which converted from ground water to surface water (Lake Michigan) for their municipal water supply in 1957, ground-water withdrawals have continually increased.

  9. Survey of medical radium installations in Wisconsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapert, A.C.; Lea, W.L.


    A radiation protection survey was performed at 70 medical radium installations in the State of Wisconsin. The requirements of the State's Radiation Protection Code were used as survey criteria. Radiation measurements of radium storage containers, radium capsule leakage tests, and monitoring of work surfaces for contamination were performed. Film badge monitoring data of whole body and extremity doses are presented for 221 individuals at 17 hospitals. Whole body doses during single treatments ranged from 10 to 1360 mrems per individual. The estimate of 500 mrems per treatment was determined as the dose aggregate to hospital personnel. Whole body doses from film badges are compared with analogous TLD doses. Four physicians and six technicians at nine hospitals participated in a study for monitoring the extremities with TLD. Cumulative extremity doses ranged from 28 to 6628 mrems per participant during the study. (U.S.)

  10. US hydropower resource assessment for Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.


    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Wisconsin.

  11. Modeling greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farms. (United States)

    Rotz, C Alan


    Dairy farms have been identified as an important source of greenhouse gas emissions. Within the farm, important emissions include enteric CH 4 from the animals, CH 4 and N 2 O from manure in housing facilities during long-term storage and during field application, and N 2 O from nitrification and denitrification processes in the soil used to produce feed crops and pasture. Models using a wide range in level of detail have been developed to represent or predict these emissions. They include constant emission factors, variable process-related emission factors, empirical or statistical models, mechanistic process simulations, and life cycle assessment. To fully represent farm emissions, models representing the various emission sources must be integrated to capture the combined effects and interactions of all important components. Farm models have been developed using relationships across the full scale of detail, from constant emission factors to detailed mechanistic simulations. Simpler models, based upon emission factors and empirical relationships, tend to provide better tools for decision support, whereas more complex farm simulations provide better tools for research and education. To look beyond the farm boundaries, life cycle assessment provides an environmental accounting tool for quantifying and evaluating emissions over the full cycle, from producing the resources used on the farm through processing, distribution, consumption, and waste handling of the milk and dairy products produced. Models are useful for improving our understanding of farm processes and their interacting effects on greenhouse gas emissions. Through better understanding, they assist in the development and evaluation of mitigation strategies for reducing emissions and improving overall sustainability of dairy farms. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article

  12. Updating progress in cancer control in Wisconsin. (United States)

    Treml, Kimberly B; McElroy, Jane A; Kaufman, Stephanie K; Remington, Patrick L; Wegner, Mark V


    In 1989, experts in cancer prevention, early detection, and treatment met in Madison to set the public health agenda for cancer control. Part of the plan defined target percent change in cancer mortality rates to be met by the year 2000. During the 1990s, public health and health care professionals developed programs and policies to reach these goals. The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate Wisconsin's progress in reducing cancer mortality and success in meeting the year 2000 objectives. Wisconsin mortality data for 1984-1986 and 1999-2001 were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC Wonder. Percent change was calculated between the 2 time periods and compared to the 2000 target percent change for all-site cancer and site specific cancer mortality. All-site cancer mortality decreased by 7% from 1984-1986 to 1999-2001 with a greater than 16% decline in age groups <65 years. Mortality from breast, colorectal, and cervical cancer each decreased by at least 25%. Lung cancer and malignant melanoma mortality rates increased by 5% and 17%, respectively. Among additionally analyzed cancers, mortality decreased in prostate, stomach, and childhood cancers and increased in liver cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The results of the state's cancer control effort are mixed. The year 2000 objectives were met for breast and colorectal cancer. Progress was made in reducing mortality from cervical cancer and from all sites combined, but the other year 2000 objectives were not met. Mortality rates increased for lung cancer and malignant melanoma during the 15-year period.

  13. Probiotic Delivery through Fermentation: Dairy vs. Non-Dairy Beverages


    Chaminda Senaka Ranadheera; Janak K. Vidanarachchi; Ramon Silva Rocha; Adriano G. Cruz; Said Ajlouni


    Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host, mainly through the process of replacing or including beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Fermented dairy foods such as yogurt, fermented milk and cheese are the major vehicle in delivering probiotics, and probiotic delivery have been traditionally associated with these fermented dairy foods. Additionally, many other non-dairy probiotic products and non-food form ...

  14. Short communication: dairy consumption among middle-aged and elderly adults in Switzerland. (United States)

    Chollet, Magali; Gille, Doreen; Piccinali, Patrizia; Bütikofer, Ueli; Schmid, Alexandra; Stoffers, Helena; Altintzoglou, Themistoklis; Walther, Barbara


    Different studies have shown that people are aware of the benefits of dairy products, but a sizeable part of the world's population still does not consume the recommended amount of dairy produce. The aims of the present research were to determine which dairy products are consumed by the middle-aged and elderly (50-81yr old) living in Switzerland and to explore why some of this population segment are actually reducing their consumption of dairy products. On average, older Swiss adults consumed 2.6 portions of dairy products per day, which is slightly less than the recommended 3 to 4 portions a day. Additionally, about one-quarter of the respondents indicated that they have reduced their milk or dairy consumption. The main reasons given for this decision were to reduce fat or cholesterol. A reported difficulty in digesting some dairy products may be a further reason for limiting dairy intake, particularly cheese. It follows that a need for the propagation of appropriate nutritional information about dairy products to the middle-aged and elderly exists. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fate of Nitrogen on California Dairies as Measured by Regulatory Reporting (United States)

    Parsons, T.; Lee, E.; Harter, T.


    California is the largest dairy producer in the Unites States, generating over 20% of U.S. milk and cheese. Many California dairy herds live in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in the Central Valley. Surrounding these CAFOs, dairies also manage a significant amount of forage land where animal waste is recycled. Through expansion and more efficient production, the milk and manure output of the Central Valley dairies increased nearly exponentially for five decades, until animal numbers levelled off in the 2000s. Due to this expansion, specifically in the Central Valley, the dairy industry poses significant concerns in regard to nitrate contamination and salinization of groundwater. In 2007, new regulations were placed upon the California dairy industry, pertaining to nonpoint source emissions to groundwater. We have digitized and are currently analyzing these annual dairy reports submitted by individual operators to the regulatory agency (Regional Water Boards) to assess the fate of nutrients on dairies in the Central Valley. We are able to assess data completeness and consistency, annual trends over the first eight years of the program, and evaluate the reporting program. Our analysis can be used to determine potential groundwater nitrate impacts based on field nitrogen mass balance. Preliminary results indicate that increased regulation and efforts made by dairy operations have decreased the presence of excess nutrients on dairy lands, although improvements need to be made to the reporting process in order to further this progress.

  16. Variation in phosphorus content of milk from dairy cattle as affected by differences in milk composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.; Ellis, J.L.; Blok, M.C.; Brandsma, G.G.; Bannink, A.; Dijkstra, J.


    In view of environmental concerns with regard to phosphorus (P) pollution and the expected global P scarcity, there is increasing interest in improving P utilization in dairy cattle. In high-producing dairy cows, P requirements for milk production comprise a significant fraction of total dietary P

  17. Energy-neutral dairy chain in the Netherlands: An economic feasibility analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebrezgabher, S.A.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.


    The Dutch dairy chain is aiming to achieve energy-neutral production by bringing the whole chain from dairy farm to factory ultimately to be self sufficient in energy in year 2020, through a combination of wind, solar and biogas. This paper investigated the economic feasibility of producing green

  18. Sustainable dairy manure-based biogas? : A perspective from the combined biogas and agricultural production system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, Dieu Linh; Davis, Christopher Bryan; Nonhebel, Sanderine


    Dairy manure-based biogas, an emerging source of renewable energy, is a result of a recycling process which often leads to the thought that manure production is the beginning of this biogas supply chain by energy producers. However, dairy manure is only a byproduct of an agricultural system whose

  19. Economic and environmental issues associated with confinement and pasture-based dairy systems (United States)

    Milk is produced in a continuum of dairy systems from full confinement to full pasture grazing. Climate, available feeds, and milk price: feed cost ratio influence the preferred system. All dairy systems have an environmental impact and inputs to maximise profit may lead to pollution levels unacce...

  20. Smart Dairy Farming through Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonsri Vate-U-LanAssumption University, Bangkok, Thailand


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to report a smart dairy farming in Ontario, Canada, which is a case study for future of food production, and ways that advancements related to the Internet of Things (IoT. It is impacting upon agricultural practice in the form of smart farming. Smart farming is the practice of intelligent agricultural management based upon technological data gathering farm practice for the purpose of increased levels of quality, production, and environmental protection. This paper will illustrate one example whereby partnerships among the academic world, government agencies and local food producing communities in Canada are adapting innovative thinking and smart technologies to address the need to implement the more effective agricultural practice. Food from Thought is a Canadian research project, based upon high-tech information systems to produce enough food for a growing human population while sustaining the Earth’s ecosystems. The paper will outline how one dairy farmer in Ontario has been able to apply smart farming technologies to increase milk production while maintaining the health of his cattle and preserving the environment. The review of applications of smart farming in Ontario such as digital tracking for a cow, genomic testing, digitally signaled birth, sensor driven crop management and data driven dairy production also details in this article.

  1. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter


    , unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While......, a number of potential risks are discussed, including detrimental genetic trends for non-measured welfare traits, the increased chance of spreading unfavourable mutations, reduced sharing of information arising from concerns over patents, and an increased monopoly within dairy cattle breeding that may make...... negative effects on animal welfare and to invest in breeding for increased animal welfare. Researchers are encouraged to further investigate the long-term effects of various breeding schemes that rely on genomic breeding values....

  2. Milk and dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechen, A.; Heine, K.; Bundesanstalt fuer Milchforschung, Kiel


    Gammaspectroscopic measurements are taken as an example to describe the monitoring programme of the FRG for monitoring of milk and dairy products. A table shows the number of milk samples taken every year in the FRG in the general environment, and in the vicinity of nuclear installations, together with the radioactivity data obtained by gammaspectroscopy. Due to the decreasing radioactivity as a result of the nuclear weapons tests fallout, the number of samples taken in the general environment has been cut down to half over the period under review. The monitoring capacity set free by this decision has been used during this period for enhanced monitoring of milk and dairy products in regions where nuclear installations such as nuclear power plants have been operating. The nuclides of interest are Sr-90, Cs-137, J-131. (orig./DG) [de

  3. Application of Bacteriocins and Protective Cultures in Dairy Food Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia C. G. Silva


    Full Text Available In the last years, consumers are becoming increasingly aware of the human health risk posed by the use of chemical preservatives in foods. In contrast, the increasing demand by the dairy industry to extend shelf-life and prevent spoilage of dairy products has appeal for new preservatives and new methods of conservation. Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides, which can be considered as safe since they can be easily degraded by proteolytic enzymes of the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. Also, most bacteriocin producers belong to lactic acid bacteria (LAB, a group that occurs naturally in foods and have a long history of safe use in dairy industry. Since they pose no health risk concerns, bacteriocins, either purified or excreted by bacteriocin producing strains, are a great alternative to the use of chemical preservatives in dairy products. Bacteriocins can be applied to dairy foods on a purified/crude form or as a bacteriocin-producing LAB as a part of fermentation process or as adjuvant culture. A number of applications of bacteriocins and bacteriocin-producing LAB have been reported to successful control pathogens in milk, yogurt, and cheeses. One of the more recent trends consists in the incorporation of bacteriocins, directly as purified or semi-purified form or in incorporation of bacteriocin-producing LAB into bioactive films and coatings, applied directly onto the food surfaces and packaging. This review is focused on recent developments and applications of bacteriocins and bacteriocin-producing LAB for reducing the microbiological spoilage and improve safety of dairy products.

  4. University of Wisconsin Antarctic Soils Database, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The University of Wisconsin Antarctic Soils Database contains data collected by Dr. James G. Bockheim and his colleagues from 1975 through 1987. Data include site...

  5. Dairy cow nutrition


    Tame, Mike


    This review pulls together the results of over 40 research projects and brings us up to date with the latest in thinking on dairy cow nutrition, incorporates the findings of a wide range of organic trials and draws some clear recommendations on appropriate strategies for forage type and management, supplementary feeding, ration formulation and farming systems. It raises important issues around sustainability versus optimum production and highlights future research priorities.

  6. Lichens promote flowering Opuntia fragilis in west-central Wisconsin (United States)

    Bennett, J.P.; Bornar, C.R.; Harrington, C.A.


    Clumps of the cactus Opuntia fragilis growing in association with mats of the lichens Cladina mitis, Cladina rangiferina and a spikemoss, Selaginella rupestris, were discovered in an agricultural field in Pepin County, Wisconsin, that had been abandoned for over 50 y. The association appeared to be beneficial to the cactus, which flowered almost exclusively in the presence of lichens. Of 294 cactus clumps examined in 2001, 127 grew in the presence of lichen mats and, of these, 24 flowered, producing 91 flowers, while none of the cacti growing in the absence of lichens flowered. In 2002, 19 out of 265 cactus clumps flowered, all but one in the presence of lichens. All sizes of cacti in the presence of lichens flowered and the probability of flowering increased with cactus size. In addition, the cacti that flowered had cladodes that were on average 19% heavier than those of cacti that did not flower. The presence of lichens lowered summer soil temperatures 2a??4 C compared to soil temperatures in the absence of lichens. Cooler soil temperatures conserve soil moisture better, which may enhance flowering in these cacti.

  7. Analyzing the Sources of Technical Efficiency among Heterogeneous Dairy Farms: A Quantile Regression Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Chidmi


    Full Text Available Abstract. An unbalanced panel data including 1,151 farm observations from 2004 to 2008 was used to analyze the determinants of technical efficiency (TE for dairy farms in the State of Wisconsin. To account for farm heterogeneity in our analysis we implemented a two-step framework using a stochastic production frontier and a quantile regression analysis. Our results show that the determinants of TE affect in very specific ways farmers with different levels of TE. This outcome is of significant importance from an empirical point of view. Farmers could use this knowledge to find alternatives to improve their specific level of performance. Additionally, policy makers could use this information to improve the effectiveness of their policies by targeting specific agricultural services and aid to group of farmers with similar levels of TE. Key Words : technical efficiency, dairy farms

  8. U.S. Dairy Forage Research Center (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Vision: Leading the world in integrated dairy forage systems research. Mission: Providing dairy industry solutions for food security, environmental sustainability,...


    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Vision: Leading the world in integrated dairy forage systems research. Mission: Providing dairy industry solutions for food security, environmental sustainability,...

  10. Geographic and racial variation in teen pregnancy rates in Wisconsin. (United States)

    Layde, Molly M; Remington, Patrick L


    Despite recent declines in teen birth rates, teenage pregnancy remains an important public health problem in Wisconsin with significant social, economic, and health-related effects. Compare and contrast teen birth rate trends by race, ethnicity, and county in Wisconsin. Teen (ages 15-19 years) birth rates (per 1000 teenage females) in Wisconsin from 2001-2010 were compared by racelethnicity and county of residence using data from the Wisconsin Interactive Statistics on Health. Teen birth rates in Wisconsin have declined by 20% over the past decade, from 35.5/1000 teens in 2001 to 28.3/1000 teens in 2010-a relative decline of 20.3%. However, trends vary by race, with declines among blacks (-33%) and whites (-26%) and increases among American Indians (+21%) and Hispanics (+30%). Minority teen birth rates continue to be 3 to 5 times greater than birth rates among whites. Rates varied even more by county, with an over 14-fold difference between Ozaukee County (7.8/1000) and Menominee County (114.2). Despite recent declines, teen pregnancy continues to be an important public health problem in Wisconsin. Pregnancy prevention programs should be targeted toward the populations and counties with the highest rates.

  11. Protein efficiency in intensive dairy production: a Swedish example. (United States)

    Swensson, Christian; Lindmark-Månsson, Helena; Smedman, Annika; Henriksson, Maria; Modin Edman, Anna-Karin


    Animal agriculture has been criticised in terms of its sustainability from several perspectives. Ruminants such as dairy cows can transform inedible, low-quality protein in roughage and by-products from the food industry into the high-quality protein found in milk and meat. Evaluation of the protein conversion efficiency of dairy production from a sustainability and resource perspective must be based on the proportion of the animal feed edible to humans. A relevant metric is thus edible feed protein conversion ratio (eFPCR), i.e. human-edible protein output in cow's milk per unit human-edible protein input in feed. In this study, eFPCR was calculated for five regionally adapted and realistic feed rations fed to Swedish dairy cows producing different annual milk yields typical for high-yielding, intensive dairy production. All scenarios except one showed a protein efficiency ratio of >1 for human-edible protein. Thus, depending on the composition of their diet, most Swedish dairy cows can convert human-inedible protein into edible, high-value protein. However, higher milk yield led to a decrease in eFPCR, regardless of diet. Dairy cows in high-yielding, intensive production systems such as those used in Sweden have the capacity to convert low-value inedible protein into high-value edible protein. However, a minor part of the dairy cow diet is edible for humans and this fraction must be minimised to justify dairy production. These results are in line with previous findings on protein conversion efficiency and add scientific input to the debate on sustainable food systems and sustainable diets. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Caring Dairy: A Sustainable Dairy Farming Initiative in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calker, van K.J.; Hooch Antink, R.H.J.; Beldman, A.C.G.; Mauser, A.


    Interest in the concept of sustainability in dairy farming has grown as a result of the continuous pressure on farm incomes, occurrence of animal diseases with a major impact on the image of dairy farming, concerns about animal welfare, and environmental problems caused by agriculture. There are,

  13. Cultural lag: A new challenge for mastitis control on dairy farms in the United States. (United States)

    Erskine, R J; Martinez, R O; Contreras, G A


    Recent changes in the US dairy industry include increases in herd size and the proportion of milk that is produced by large herds. These changes have been accompanied by an increased reliance on hired employees and an increasing role of immigrant labor to perform critical tasks such as milking cows. Thus, there is a growing need for training and education programs for dairy employees because many employees lack previous dairy experience and employee turnover rates are problematic on many farms. Although extension programs have played an important role in the education and support of dairy producers and allied professionals in attaining improved milk quality, dairy employees have limited access to educational programs. Additionally, metrics to assess employee learning are not validated and the ability to sustain work-related behavioral change has not been well described. In this article, we propose a model that may further our understanding of communication and cultural barriers between dairy managers and employees, based on a demonstration project in 12 Michigan dairy herds. As part of this demonstration, a pilot survey was tested to assess the management culture on dairy farms. Results from this survey found that only 23% of employees across all herds were able to meet with farm management on a regular basis, 36% of employees did not know somatic cell count goals for the farm for which they worked, and 71% of employees stated they primarily received training on milking protocols by other employees or that they learned on their own. Latino employees were more likely to not know farm goals or receive primary training on milking protocols from other employees or on their own compared with their English-speaking counterparts. The survey information, along with input from focus group discussions with participating dairy producers, veterinarians, and employees, suggests that extension needs to build capacity for on-farm training and education for employees to support

  14. Padrão tecnológico em unidades de produção familiar de leite no Rio Grande do Sul relacionado com diferentes tipologias Tecnologies the domestic dairy producers in Rio Grande do Sul relations among the distinctive tipologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saionara Araujo Wagner


    Full Text Available Os diferentes tipos de produtores familiares de leite, moderno convencionaL, em transição e tradicional, desenvolvem em suas unidades produtivas atividades diversificadas, o que lhes têm garantido a permanência na atividade, apesar da baixa remuneração da sua principal matéria-prima, o leite. A utilização de diferentes tipologias possibilitou a análise e avaliação de unidades produtivas envolvidas neste estudo, com o objetivo de identificar diferenças no padrão tecnológico, inserção no mercado, organização sistêmica da propriedade, identificação com a racionalidade de produção entre os diferentes tipos, dentro do mesmo estrato de produtores. A metodologia utilizada baseou-se na revisão de bibliografia, aplicação de questionário semi-estruturado e análise das variáveis que correspondem à problemática proposta. O produtor que está passando do tipo tradicional para o tipo moderno convencional, aqui denominado. Em transição, corresponde a 55% dos entrevistados, e é um produtor de faixa etária média de 35 anos, que vem realizando investimentos em máquinas e equipamentos de forma coletiva, fez investimentos em infra-estrutura na última década, diferentemente do tipo Moderno que investiu na atividade na década de 80 e do tipo Tradicional que não o fez. As principais conclusões produzidas por esta pesquisa são as de que a diversificação das atividades, presente em todos os tipos estudados, confere aos produtores de leite no Rio Grande do Sul, a permanência na atividade e as transformações tecnológicas e de mercado os desafiaram a fazerem investimentos, na última década, a fim de aumentarem a produtividade e qualidade do leite, observação que pode ser confirmada pelo elevado número de produtores entrevistados classificados como do tipo em transição.Dairy producers in small farms and different types (modern conventional, transitional and traditional develop other activities besides milk, what can

  15. A survey of Italian compost dairy barns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Leso


    Full Text Available Compost-bedded pack barns (CBPB, generally known as compost dairy barns, are alternative housing systems for dairy cows. In these barns, the whole surface of the resting area is covered with a deepbedded pack that is frequently stirred in order to incorporate fresh manure into the pack and to enhance the evaporation of water. Experiences with CBPB for dairy cows are reported in literature from the US, Israel, the Netherlands and Austria. Potential advantages of these housing systems regard animal welfare and manure management. Since 2006, this housing system has been widely applied in Italy. However, there is still little scientific knowledge available about Italian CBPB. This study aims to describe the housing system, assess producers’ satisfaction and measure performance of dairy cows housed in CBPB. Ten commercial dairy farms in northern Italy were involved in the study. All pens in each farm were surveyed to determine the total available surface area, bedded area and pack depth. A questionnaire was submitted to each farm manager in order to investigate management practices, labour requirement, amount of bedding materials used and producers’ satisfaction. The temperature of the bedded pack was measured in summer and in winter. Data from the Italian Dairy Association were collected for each herd over a period of one year (from September 2011 to September 2012. In the barns involved in the study, the average total available area was 10.9 m2/cow and the average pack area was 6.7 m2/cow. The bedded pack was aerated 1.4 times per day.The most commonly used bedding material in these farms was dry sawdust. The consumption of bedding materials was 8.1 m3/cow per year. A tendency towards inverse correlation was found between the space per cow and the amount of bedding needed per cow (R2=0.395; P=0.051. Operations related to pack management required 4.1 hours of labour per cow per year. A direct relationship was found between the bedded area space

  16. High-power ion-cyclotron-resonance heating in the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortgang, C.M.


    Ion cyclotron resonance heating has been investigated, both experimentally and theoretically, on the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole. Heating of both ions and electrons has been observed. Typically, a two component ion energy distribution is produced (300 eV and 50 eV) with the application of 500 kW of rf power into a 5 x 10 12 cm -3 density plasma. Power is coupled to the plasma with an antenna that also serves as the inductor of an oscillator tank circuit. The oscillator is tunable from 1 to 3 MHz and can be applied for periods up to 10 msec. The experiments were performed with hydrogen, gun injected plasmas

  17. Entrepreneurship of Dutch dairy farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergevoet, R.H.M.


    Several developments in the Netherlands as well as in the other countries within the EU are forcing dairy farmers to reconsider their involvement in dairy production. Farmers are being called to account more for the entrepreneurial element of their farming behaviour. Up till now it was unclear how

  18. Dairy Proteins and Energy Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Line Quist

    High protein diets affect energy balance beneficially through decreased hunger, enhanced satiety and increased energy expenditure. Dairy products are a major source of protein. Dairy proteins are comprised of two classes, casein (80%) and whey proteins (20%), which are both of high quality......, but casein is absorbed slowly and whey is absorbed rapidly. The present PhD study investigated the effects of total dairy proteins, whey, and casein, on energy balance and the mechanisms behind any differences in the effects of the specific proteins. The results do not support the hypothesis that dairy...... proteins, whey or casein are more beneficial than other protein sources in the regulation of energy balance, and suggest that dairy proteins, whey or casein seem to play only a minor role, if any, in the prevention and treatment of obesity....

  19. The Dairy - Business Plan


    Wilson, Natalie


    The Bachelor thesis in question has been composed to help the founders of a small start-up company, in the holiday rental industry, succeed in running a sustainable business. The purpose was to create a practical plan for setting up and running the Dairy, a two-bedroom holiday rental in the rural Devon countryside. The business plan discussed the location and facilities of the holiday rental along with a comprehensive account of its competitors. The Dairy’s marketing activity and risk asses...

  20. Evaluation of food safety management systems in Serbian dairy industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Tomašević


    Full Text Available This paper reports incentives, costs, difficulties and benefits of food safety management systems implementation in the Serbian dairy industry. The survey involved 27 food business operators with the national milk and dairy market share of 65 %. Almost two thirds of the assessed dairy producers (70.4 % claimed that they had a fully operational and certified HACCP system in place, while 29.6 % implemented HACCP, but had no third party certification. ISO 22000 was implemented and certified in 29.6 % of the companies, while only 11.1 % had implemented and certified IFS standard. The most important incentive for implementing food safety management systems for Serbian dairy producers was to increase and improve safety and quality of dairy products. The cost of product investigation/analysis and hiring external consultants were related to the initial set-up of food safety management system with the greatest importance. Serbian dairy industry was not greatly concerned by the financial side of implementing food safety management systems due to the fact that majority of prerequisite programmes were in place and regularly used by almost 100 % of the producers surveyed. The presence of competency gap between the generic knowledge for manufacturing food products and the knowledge necessary to develop and implement food safety management systems was confirmed, despite the fact that 58.8 % of Serbian dairy managers had university level of education. Our study brings about the innovation emphasizing the attitudes and the motivation of the food production staff as the most important barrier for the development and implementation of HACCP. The most important identified benefit was increased safety of dairy products with the mean rank scores of 6.85. The increased customer confidence and working discipline of staff employed in food processing were also found as important benefits of implementing/operating HACCP. The study shows that the level of HACCP

  1. A necropsy-based descriptive study of dairy cow deaths on a Colorado dairy. (United States)

    McConnel, C S; Garry, F B; Lombard, J E; Kidd, J A; Hill, A E; Gould, D H


    Increasing levels of dairy cow mortality pose a challenge to the US dairy industry. The industry's current understanding of dairy cow mortality is reliant upon descriptions largely based on producer or veterinary assumptions regarding cause of death without the benefit of detailed postmortem evaluations. A thorough necropsy is a superior tool for establishing a cause of death, except for cases involving euthanasia for traumatic accidents or severe locomotor disorders. Information provided from a necropsy examination would be most valuable if it were categorized and combined with cow health information in a complete postmortem evaluation designed to guide future management decisions. The objective of this study was to describe dairy cow deaths on a Colorado dairy over a 1-yr period and explore classification systems for necropsy findings that might inform management actions aimed at reducing dairy cow mortality. Throughout the study period a thorough necropsy examination was performed on every cow that died. Based upon this examination each death was characterized by a proximate cause (i.e., the most likely immediate cause of the death). Each proximate cause of death was then categorized using 3 alternate schemes founded on generalized etiologic principles and influenced by previous clinical history and treatments. These schemes included the broad categories commonly used for classifying findings within a review of literature related to dairy cow mortality, a diagnostic scheme used within the problem-oriented veterinary medical record, and an analysis focusing on the primary physiologic system derangement for each death. A total of 2,067 cows were enrolled during the study period of which 1,468 cows freshened, 507 cows were sold, and 94 cows died, resulting in a mortality risk of 6.4 deaths per 100 lactations at risk. The distribution of deaths by parity was significantly different from the herd distribution at the end of study with the largest percentage of death

  2. Impact of Wisconsin Medicaid Policy Change on Dental Sealant Utilization. (United States)

    Okunseri, Christopher; Okunseri, Elaye; Garcia, Raul I; Gonzalez, Cesar; Visotcky, Alexis; Szabo, Aniko


    In September 2006, Wisconsin Medicaid changed its policy to allow nondentists to become certified Medicaid providers and to bill for sealants in public health settings. This study examined changes in patterns of dental sealant utilization in first molars of Wisconsin Medicaid enrollees associated with a policy change. The Electronic Data Systems of Medicaid Evaluation and Decision Support for Wisconsin from 2001 to 2009. Retrospective claims data analysis of Wisconsin Dental Medicaid for children aged 6-16 years. A total of 479,847 children followed up for 1,441,300 person-years with 64,546 visits were analyzed. The rate of visits for sealants by dentists increased significantly from 3 percent per year prepolicy to 11 percent per year postpolicy, and that of nondentists increased from 18 percent per year to 20 percent after the policy change, but this was not significant. Non-Hispanic blacks had the lowest visit rates for sealant application by dentists and nondentists pre- and postpolicy periods. The Wisconsin Medicaid policy change was associated with increased rates of visits for dental sealant placement by dentists. The rate of visits with sealant placements by nondentists increased at the same rate pre- and postpolicy change. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  3. Wisconsin Healthy Birth Outcomes: minority health program challenges and contributions. (United States)

    Cruz, Evelyn; Guhleman, Patricia; Onheiber, Patrice Mocny


    For at least 20 years, the probability that an infant born in Wisconsin would die during the first year of life has been approximately three times greater for infants born to African American women than for those born to White women. Over the same period of time, other states have made improvements in African American infant mortality, whereas Wisconsin's ranking has fallen to last place. Various state and local efforts have been made to address the issue; however, it is only in the last 2 to 3 years that Wisconsin's high rate of African American infant mortality has become an agreed-upon health priority. This article discusses the factors that have converged to bring African American infant mortality to the forefront of Wisconsin public health policy and programs. Particular attention is given to the role of Wisconsin's Minority Health Program in relation to public health leadership and coalition building. Key actions currently underway to implement effective, evidence-based solutions are also described.

  4. Muskellunge growth potential in northern Wisconsin: implications for trophy management (United States)

    Faust, Matthew D.; Isermann, Daniel A.; Luehring, Mark A.; Hansen, Michael J.


    The growth potential of Muskellunge Esox masquinongy was evaluated by back-calculating growth histories from cleithra removed from 305 fish collected during 1995–2011 to determine whether it was consistent with trophy management goals in northern Wisconsin. Female Muskellunge had a larger mean asymptotic length (49.8 in) than did males (43.4 in). Minimum ultimate size of female Muskellunge (45.0 in) equaled the 45.0-in minimum length limit, but was less than the 50.0-in minimum length limit used on Wisconsin's trophy waters, while the minimum ultimate size of male Muskellunge (34.0 in) was less than the statewide minimum length limit. Minimum reproductive sizes for both sexes were less than Wisconsin's trophy minimum length limits. Mean growth potential of female Muskellunge in northern Wisconsin appears to be sufficient for meeting trophy management objectives and angler expectations. Muskellunge in northern Wisconsin had similar growth potential to those in Ontario populations, but lower growth potential than Minnesota's populations, perhaps because of genetic and environmental differences.

  5. Antagonism in the carbon footprint between beef and dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 22, 2014 ... In addition, when differences in productivity are accounted for, pasture systems require more resources (land, feed, water, etc.) per unit of milk produced and the carbon footprint is greater than that of intensive systems. This raises the question as to why the carbon footprint of intensive dairy cow production ...

  6. Performance of Crossbred Dairy Cows Suitable for Smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Kaliti National Artificial Insemination Center (NAIC) and imported WWS bulls to produce improved dairy cattle breed at on station and to back up the on farm crossbreeding for synthetic breed generation and development. Materials and Methods. Study area. The study was carried out at Holetta Agricultural Research Center ...

  7. Studies on the replacement policies in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendonk, van J.A.M.


    In The Netherlands dairy farmers replace on average 25-30% of their cows each year. The decision to replace instead of to keep a cow is based mainly on economic considerations rather than because a cow is no longer able to produce.

    The investigations described in this thesis were

  8. Organic Dairy Production Systems in Pennsylvania: A Case Study Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotz, C.A.; Kamphuis, G.H.; Karsten, H.D.; Weaver, R.D.


    The current market demand and price for organic milk is encouraging dairy producers, particularly those on smaller farms, to consider organic production as a means for improving the economic viability of their operations. Organic production systems vary widely in scale, in practices, and across

  9. Evaluation of fodder production systems for organic dairy farms (United States)

    Sprouted grains have gained renewed interest among organic dairy farmers in response to high grain prices, grain scarcity, limited supplementation options and challenges in producing high-quality forages. This interest has been spurred by high-profile sales pitches and farmer testimonials. Little sc...

  10. Imagining the ideal dairy farm. (United States)

    Cardoso, Clarissa S; Hötzel, Maria José; Weary, Daniel M; Robbins, Jesse A; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G


    Practices in agriculture can have negative effects on the environment, rural communities, food safety, and animal welfare. Although disagreements are possible about specific issues and potential solutions, it is widely recognized that public input is needed in the development of socially sustainable agriculture systems. The aim of this study was to assess the views of people not affiliated with the dairy industry on what they perceived to be the ideal dairy farm and their associated reasons. Through an online survey, participants were invited to respond to the following open-ended question: "What do you consider to be an ideal dairy farm and why are these characteristics important to you?" Although participants referenced social, economic, and ecological aspects of dairy farming, animal welfare was the primary issue raised. Concern was expressed directly about the quality of life for the animals, and the indirect effect of animal welfare on milk quality. Thus participants appeared to hold an ethic for dairy farming that included concern for the animal, as well as economic, social, and environmental aspects of the dairy system. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Wisconsin. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2006 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Wisconsin.

  12. Feed and manure use in low-N-input and high-N-input dairy cattle production systems (United States)

    Powell, J. Mark


    In most parts of Sub-Saharan Africa fertilizers and feeds are costly, not readily available and used sparingly in agricultural production. In many parts of Western Europe, North America, and Oceania fertilizers and feeds are relatively inexpensive, readily available and used abundantly to maximize profitable agricultural production. A case study, dairy systems approach was used to illustrate how differences in feed and manure management in a low-N-input dairy cattle system (Niger, West Africa) and a high-N-input dairy production system (Wisconsin, USA) impact agricultural production and environmental N loss. In Niger, an additional daily feed N intake of 114 g per dairy animal unit (AU, 1000 kg live weight) could increase annual milk production from 560 to 1320 kg AU-1, and the additional manure N could greatly increase millet production. In Wisconsin, reductions in daily feed N intake of 100 g AU-1 would not greatly impact milk production but decrease urinary N excretion by 25% and ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from manure by 18% to 30%. In Niger, compared to the practice of housing livestock and applying dung only onto fields, corralling cattle or sheep on cropland (to capture urinary N) increased millet yields by 25% to 95%. The additional millet grain due to dung applications or corralling would satisfy the annual food grain requirements of 2-5 persons; the additional forage would provide 120-300 more days of feed for a typical head of cattle; and 850 to 1600 kg ha-1 more biomass would be available for soil conservation. In Wisconsin, compared to application of barn manure only, corralling heifers in fields increased forage production by only 8% to 11%. The application of barn manure or corralling increased forage production by 20% to 70%. This additional forage would provide 350-580 more days of feed for a typical dairy heifer. Study results demonstrate how different approaches to feed and manure management in low-N-input and high-N-input dairy cattle

  13. Identificación Molecular de Bacterias Productoras de Polihidroxialcanoatos en Subproductos de Lácteos y Caña de Azúcar / Molecular Identification of Polyhydroxyalkanoate-Producing Bacteria Isolated from Dairy and Sugarcane Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Cardona Echavarría


    Full Text Available Los polihidroxialcanoatos (PHAs son bioplásticostermoestables sintetizados por algunas bacterias, que losacumulan como reservas de carbono en forma de inclusiones citoplasmáticas. Estos compuestos se constituyen en una opción para la sustitución de polímeros sintéticos no biodegradables. En este trabajo se evaluó la presencia de bacterias productoras de PHAs en lactosueros derivados de la producción de quesos, y en melaza, cachaza y bagazo de caña de azúcar. El aislamiento bacteriano se realizó en medio mínimo de sales suplementadocon glucosa al 2% y 1 μL mL-1 de rojo Nilo (0,1%. Las colonias que presentaron fluorescencia a 340 nm en este medio, se evaluaron nuevamente mediante microscopía de fluorescenciacon azul Nilo. Aquellas cepas que resultaron positivas para ambaspruebas fueron consideradas como potenciales productoras de PHAs e identificadas por secuenciación de la región 16S del ADN ribosomal. Seguidamente se evaluó, en algunas de éstas, la presencia del gen phaC mediante PCR con cebadores específicos. Se detectaron 38 cepas productoras de PHAs, representando 18morfotipos bacterianos. Fueron identificadas en los sustratosde lactosuero cepas pertenecientes a los géneros Lactococcus, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter y Enterococcus; mientras que en los subproductos de caña de azúcar se encontraron cepas de los géneros Bacillus, Enterobacter, Pantoea, Klebsiellay Gluconobacter. El gen phaC se detectó por PCR en 16 bacterias que presentaron los arreglos genéticos I y IV. Este trabajo abre la posibilidad de emplear las bacterias obtenidas en procesos alternativos, ambientalmente sostenibles y generadores de valoragregado, para la disposición final de subproductos y residuos agroindustriales. / Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are thermostable bioplastics produced by bacteria and stored as inclusion bodies to serve as a reserve carbon source. These compounds are a goodalternative to non-biodegradable synthetic plastics

  14. Of Needles and Haystacks: Building an Accurate Statewide Dropout Early Warning System in Wisconsin (United States)

    Knowles, Jared E.


    The state of Wisconsin has one of the highest four year graduation rates in the nation, but deep disparities among student subgroups remain. To address this the state has created the Wisconsin Dropout Early Warning System (DEWS), a predictive model of student dropout risk for students in grades six through nine. The Wisconsin DEWS is in use…

  15. 77 FR 71587 - Wisconsin Public Service Corporation; Notices of Intent To File License Applications, Filing of... (United States)


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Wisconsin Public Service Corporation; Notices of Intent To File License.... d. Submitted By: Wisconsin Public Service Corporation. e. Name of Projects: Tomahawk Hydroelectric..., Vice President, Energy Supply Operations, Wisconsin Public Service Corporation, P.O. Box 19001, 700...

  16. 76 FR 48841 - Wisconsin Public Service Corporation; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and... (United States)


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Wisconsin Public Service Corporation; Notice of Application for Amendment of..., 2011. d. Applicant: Wisconsin Public Service Corporation. e. Name of Project: High Falls Project. f.... 791a-825r. h. Applicant Contact: James Nuthals, Wisconsin Public Service Corporation, 700 North Adams...

  17. Introduction to radioactive waste management issues in Wisconsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This brief focused on wastes from commercial production of electricity and various industrial, medical and research applications of radioactive materials. Only traditionally solid wastes are dealt with. It was organized into five parts. Part I presented an introduction to radioactivity - what it is and the biological hazards associated with it. Federal regulation of the management of radioactive wastes was discussed in Part II. Existing state laws and bills currently before the Wisconsin Legislature were described in Part III. Part IV gave background information on specific areas of potential inquiry related to radioactive wastes in Wisconsin. Part V summarized the issues identified in the brief. 2 figures, 7 tables

  18. Probiotic Delivery through Fermentation: Dairy vs. Non-Dairy Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaminda Senaka Ranadheera


    Full Text Available Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host, mainly through the process of replacing or including beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Fermented dairy foods such as yogurt, fermented milk and cheese are the major vehicle in delivering probiotics, and probiotic delivery have been traditionally associated with these fermented dairy foods. Additionally, many other non-dairy probiotic products and non-food form such as capsules, pills and tablets are also available and some of these non-food forms are highly popular among the consumers. Certain non-dairy probiotic foods, especially beverages that are non-fermented products, can also play an important role in probiotic delivery. There is an increasing demand for non-dairy probiotic foods (both fermented and non-fermented including fruit and vegetable juices, soy and certain cereal products due to vegetarianism, lactose intolerance and dairy allergies, as well as interest in low cholesterol foods. In this context, this review mainly focus on the different types of probiotic food products including beverages with special reference to their viability followed by a brief account on the applicability of using fermented and non-fermented beverage products in probiotic delivery.

  19. Investigation of gastrointestinal parasites of dairy cattle around Taiwan. (United States)

    Huang, Chiu-Chen; Wang, Lian-Chen; Pan, Chien-Hung; Yang, Cheng-Hsiung; Lai, Cheng-Hung


    Parasitic nematodes are one of the most important causes of production losses in most cattle-producing countries of the world. The aim of the present study is to make a through estimate of helminth and protozoan infection prevalence in dairy cattle around Taiwan. Coprological techniques, including direct fecal smear, simple flotation, and simple sedimentation, were used to detect gastrointestinal helminths and protozoan in dairy cattle. A total of 1259 rectal fecal samples were collected from Holstein dairy cattle at 94 farms in 13 counties in Taiwan. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infection was 86.9%. The infection rates of protozoa, nematodes, trematodes, and cestodes were 81.3%, 7.9%, 1.6%, and 0.6%, respectively. Among all parasites, Buxtonella sulcata (61.7%) was the most predominant one, followed with Cryptosporidium spp. (32.6%) and Eimeria spp. (11.8%). There were significant differences in the prevalence of protozoa and nematodes between different age groups and distributional area groups. The present study demonstrated that gastrointestinal parasitic infections occur frequently in dairy cattle around Taiwan, especially protozoan infections. The results indicated that a superior management system and regular anthelmintic treatment should be used for the control of parasitic infections in dairy cattle farms. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Factors for consumer choice of dairy products in Iran. (United States)

    Rahnama, Hassan; Rajabpour, Shayan


    Little is known about consumers' behavior especially their choice behavior toward purchasing and consuming dairy products in developing countries. Hence, the aim of the present work is understanding the factors that affect on consumers' choice behavior toward dairy products in Iran. The study applies the theory of consumption values, which includes the functional values (taste, price, health, and body weight), social value, emotional value, conditional value and epistemic value. The sample were 1420 people (men and women). The data was collected using face to face survey in summer and fall 2015. Chi-square, confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modelling is used to assess data collected. The results indicate that functional values, social value, emotional value and epistemic value have a positive impact on choosing dairy products and conditional value didn't have a positive impact. It was concluded that the main influential factors for consumers' choice behavior toward dairy products included consumers experience positive emotion (e.g. enjoyment, pleasure, comfort and feeling relaxed) and functional value-health. This study emphasized the proper pricing of dairy products by producers and sellers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Direct uses of hot water (geothermal) in dairying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barmettler, E.R.; Rose, W.R. Jr.


    Digital computer simulation was used to investigate the peak, steady energy utilization of a geothermal energy-supported dairy. A digital computer program was also written to assess the lifetime economics of the dairy operation. A dynamic simulation program was written to design water storage tanks under diurnal transient loading. The geothermal site specified is the artesian spring named Hobo Wells near Susanville, California. The dairy configuration studies are unique, but consist of conventional processing equipment. In the dairy, cattle waste would be used to generate methane and carbon dioxide by anaerobic digestion. Some carbon dioxide would be removed from the gas stream with a pressurized water scrubber to raise the heating value. The product gas would be combusted in a spark ignition engine connected to an electric generator. The electrical power produced would be used for operation of fans, pumps, lights and other equipment in the dairy. An absorption chiller using a geothermal water driven generator would provide milk chilling. Space heating would be done with forced air hot water unit heaters.

  2. Biblioteca y Centro de Estudios de la Universidad de Wisconsin - Kenosha - . Wisconsin – (EE.UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellmuth, George


    Full Text Available Continuing the line established by these same architects in previous University designs, the Library and Study Hall of the University of Wisconsin is another attempt at creating an exciting atmosphere, particularly conducive to the development of university life. It is to be noted, in this case, the arrangement of the library and study areas around a central common open space, sort of an inner courtyard used as a relaxation and sitting área, where all traffic corridors and promenades from the adjacent faculties come to meet, thus becoming the main reference point for the entire campus. The library with a current capacity for 245,000 volumes and 1,400 reading stalls is designed so it can be eventually enlarged permitting to almost double its book capacity and increasing the reading stalls to more than 2,000.

    Continuando la línea marcada por estos mismos arquitectos en anteriores proyectos de universidades, la biblioteca y el centro de estudios de la Universidad de Wisconsin procura definir atractivos espacios para el desarrollo de la vida universitaria. En este caso destaca la organización de los servicios de biblioteca y estudio en torno a un espacio comunitario central, a modo de plaza interior, destinado a sala de estar y recreo, y en donde confluyen las circulaciones que provienen de los locales adyacentes, convirtiéndolo en el principal punto de referencia del campus universitario. La biblioteca, que actualmente tiene capacidad para 245.000 volúmenes y 1.400 lectores, ha previsto una ampliación que le permitirá casi doblar el número de volúmenes y proporcionar espacio para más de 2.000 lectores.

  3. Implications of the Structural Change in Dairy Products Trade on Milk Price Paid to Producers in Chile Implicancias del Cambio Estructural en el Mercado de Productos Lácteos Sobre el Precio de Leche Pagado a Productor en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Engler


    Full Text Available Since 1990 row milk production has exhibited a rapid increase from 890 million liters in 1990 to 1,818 million in 2006. The excess production has allowed for the expansion of the export sector, converting Chile in a net exporter in 2001. A relevant question in this new market scenario is how this structural change can affect milk prices paid to producers in Chile. The consequences of this structural change were explored in this study using a Vector Error Correction (VEC model and cointegration analysis. The results indicated that the domestic, CIF (Cost, Insurance, Freight and FOB (Free On Board prices were cointegrated, implying that changes in the import and export prices are transmitted to the domestic market affecting the milk price paid to producers. Prior to 2001, the import price (CIF was the relevant reference dictating the movements of the domestic price. After 2001, the export price (FOB became the reference, whereas the CIF price was no longer significant. The parameters of the VEC model suggest that the cointegrating relation between CIF and domestic prices for the first period under analysis (1990-2000 was clearer than that between FOB and domestic prices for the second period (2001-2007/3. The price elasticity for the FOB-domestic price vector had a large confidence interval, which is why it is difficult to draw strong conclusions regarding the impact of future FOB fluctuations on the milk price paid to producers in Chile after 2001.Desde 1990 la producción de leche ha experimentado un rápido incremento, pasando de 890 millones de litros en 1990 a 1.818 millones de litros en 2006. El exceso de producción de leche ha permitido la expansión comercial, transformando a Chile en exportador neto a partir del año 2001. En este nuevo escenario de mercado, una pregunta relevante es cómo este cambio estructural puede afectar el precio de leche pagado a productor. En este estudio se aborda esta interrogante, utilizando un Modelo de

  4. The impact of collaborative strategies on disaster risk reduction in Zimbabwe dairy supply chains in 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Chari


    Full Text Available Disasters are on the increase globally with accompanying devastating effects on dairy supply chains. The devastating effects, caused by disasters on economies in various countries such as United States of America, Japan, Kenya, Uganda, Mozambique and Zimbabwe call for urgent sustainable mitigating measures in disaster risk reduction. These countries have experienced notable natural and man-made disasters in the past. The disasters negatively impacted the economies of both developed and developing countries, causing misery to people as hunger and poverty drastically increased. Zimbabwe’s dairy industry was not spared from these devastating effects as it was vulnerable to disasters such as droughts and cyclones. Disasters adversely affected supply chains in the country as evidenced by the closure of some dairy firms between the years 2000 and 2014. This article is set against the backdrop of declining output across all agricultural sectors in Zimbabwe, evident particularly in the dairy farming sector which has witnessed inadequate supply of raw milk and dairy products by local producers. The article assesses the impact of dairy organisations’ partnerships with government departments and non-governmental organisations in reducing disaster risks on the dairy supply chain cost efficiency. It also aims to show how partnerships can reduce disaster risks and weighs the benefits of reduced supply chain costs in improving the affordability of milk and milk products to the general public. The study employs a mixed-methods approach comprising structured questionnaires, administered to a sample of 92 respondents out of a randomly sampled population of 122 participants from dairy farming clusters across the country, with an 85% response rate. Key informants in the form of 18 dairy officers were purposively sampled for interviews throughout the dairy farming regions. The research findings will help government in the formulation of public policies for the

  5. Hydrogeologic controls on water quality at a university dairy farm (United States)

    McKay, L. D.; Hunter, R. W.; Lee, J.


    Dairy farms typically produce large quantities of manure and other waste products which are often stored or treated in lagoons and then applied to local fields as fertilizer. Contamination of nearby streams by dairy farm wastes through surface runnoff, drainage tile discharge, direct release of wastes or inundation of waste storage facilities during seasonal flooding have long been recognized as major environmental concerns. However, much less attention has been paid to fate and transport of dairy wastes in the subsurface and their potential impact on water quality in aquifers or in groundwater discharge to streams. One of the challenges in evaluating the environmental impact of dairy operations is that there are relatively few field research sites where all of the potential pathways for waterborne transport of dairy wastes are monitored and quantititatively evaluated. There are even fewer sites where extensive baseline water quality monitoring programs were established prior to operation of the dairy. This is essential to distinguish between environmental impacts from dairy operations and other nearby sources, such as beef production and human sewage from septic fields. This talk describes the development of a an integrated hydrogeologic/hydrologic site assessment and groundwater/surface water quality monitoring program at the University of Tennessee - Little River Dairy Farm, located near Townsend, TN. The dairy is currently under construction and the first cows are expected to arrive in late 2010. Hydrologic/hydrogeologic investigations of streams and groundwater at the site have been underway for more than 3 years, and these are expected to provide background data for assessing impacts of dairy wastes and for testing the effectiveness of different management practises. The lower half of the ~180 ha site consists of low-relief fields used for row crops, which are underlain by 4 - 8 m of alluvial deposits (mainly interbedded silt and fine-grained sands) on top of

  6. Detection of antibiotic residues and association of cefquinome residues with the occurrence of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria in waste milk samples from dairy farms in England and Wales in 2011. (United States)

    Randall, Luke; Heinrich, Katharina; Horton, Robert; Brunton, Lucy; Sharman, Matthew; Bailey-Horne, Victoria; Sharma, Meenaxi; McLaren, Ian; Coldham, Nick; Teale, Chris; Jones, Jeff


    Waste milk samples from 103 farms in England and Wales were examined for the presence of β-lactam antibiotics and ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Approximately 10 months after the initial sampling, further waste milk, environmental and faecal samples from farms shown to be positive for CTX-M Escherichia coli were investigated further. Isolates with an ESBL phenotype were tested by PCR for the presence of blaCTX-M, blaOXA, blaSHV and blaTEM genes. Isolates positive for blaCTX-M were sequenced to determine CTX-M type. Representative isolates were further examined by PFGE, plasmid replicon typing and serotyping. Of particular interest, 21.4% of waste milk samples contained residues of the cephalosporin cefquinome, which was significantly associated with CTX-M bacteria. Such bacteria occurred in 5.8% of the waste milk samples (including 3.9% CTX-M E. coli). CTX-M types identified were 1, 14, 14b and 15, but none of the E. coli were serotype O25, the serotype of the human pandemic strain. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Managing variations in dairy cow nutrient supply under grazing. (United States)

    Peyraud, J L; Delagarde, R


    Grazed pasture, which is the cheapest source of nutrients for dairy cows, should form the basis of profitable and low-input animal production systems. Management of high-producing dairy cows at pasture is thus a major challenge in most countries. The objective of the present paper is to review the factors that can affect nutrient supply for grazing dairy cows in order to point out areas with scope for improvement on managing variations in nutrient supply to achieve high animal performance while maintaining efficient pasture utilisation per hectare (ha). Reviewing the range in animal requirements, intake capacity and pasture nutritive values shows that high-producing cows cannot satisfy their energy requirements from grazing alone and favourable to unfavourable situations for grazing dairy cows may be classified according to pasture quality and availability. Predictive models also enable calculation of supplementation levels required to meet energy requirements in all situations. Solutions to maintain acceptable level of production per cow and high output per ha are discussed. Strategies of concentrate supplementation and increasing use of legumes in mixed swards are the most promising. It is concluded that although high-producing cow cannot express their potential milk production at grazing, there is scope to improve animal performance at grazing given recent developments in our understanding of factors influencing forage intake and digestion of grazed forages.

  8. Glacial Lake Lind, Wisconsin and Minnesota (United States)

    Johnson, M.D.; Addis, K.L.; Ferber, L.R.; Hemstad, C.B.; Meyer, G.N.; Komai, L.T.


    Glacial Lake Lind developed in the pre-late Wisconsinan St. Croix River valley, Minnesota and Wisconsin, and lasted more than 1000 yr during the retreat of the Superior lobe at the end of the Wisconsinan glaciation. Lake Lind sediment consists primarily of red varved silt and clay, but also includes mud-flow deposits, nearshore silt (penecontemporaneously deformed in places), nearshore rippled sand, and deltaic sand. Lake Lind varved red clay is not part of glacial Lake Grantsburg, as suggested by earlier authors, because the red varves are separated from overlying glacial Lake Grantsburg silt and clay by a unit of deltaic and fluvial sand. Furthermore, varve correlations indicate that the base of the red varves is younger to the north, showing that the basin expanded as the Superior lobe retreated and was not a lake basin dammed to the southwest by the advancing Grantsburg sublobe. Varve correlations indicate that the Superior lobe retreated at a rate of about 200 m/yr. Uniform winter-clay thickness throughout most of the varve couplets suggests thermal stratification in the lake with clay trapped in the epilimnion; some clay would exit the lake at the outlet prior to winter freeze. Zones of thicker winter-clay layers, in places associated with mud-flow layers, indicate outlet incision, lake-level fall, and shoreline erosion and resuspension of lake clay. The most likely outlet for glacial Lake Lind was in the southwest part of the lake near the present site of Minneapolis, Minnesota. Nearshore sediment indicates that the lake level of glacial Lake Lind was around 280 m. The elevation of the base of the Lake Lind sediments indicates water depth was 20 to 55 m. Evidence in the southern part of the lake basin suggests that the Superior lobe readvanced at least once during the early stages of glacial Lake Lind. Lake Lind ended not by drainage but by being filled in by prograding deltas and outwash plains composed of sand derived from the retreating Superior lobe. It

  9. Short communication: planning considerations for on-farm dairy processing enterprises. (United States)

    Smith, S M; Chaney, E A; Bewley, J M


    Across the world, more dairy producers are considering on-farm dairy processing to add value to the milk produced on their farms. Dairy producers may bottle milk or process their milk into cheese, ice cream, butter, yogurt, or cream. The primary objective of this research was to establish a series of sound factors or indicators of success for those considering on-farm processing. A survey was employed to collect opinions and advice from managers of on-farm processing enterprises. Surveys were distributed online (n=120), with 31 surveys returned, accounting for a 25.8% response rate. Most (64%) respondents had been involved in on-farm dairy processing for less than 10 yr. Sixty-one percent of respondents attained a positive cash flow in 1 to 3 yr. The primary products manufactured were cheese (69%), milk (59%), ice cream (31%), yogurt (25%), and butter (21%). Factors influencing the decision to start an on-farm dairy processing enterprise included commodity milk prices (61%), desire to work with the public (41%), an opportunity to promote the dairy industry (39%), a desire to maintain or expand a small family operation (29%), and product differentiation (16%). Respondents cited dealing with regulations (26%), product marketing (19%), manufacturing technicalities (19%), and securing funding (17%) as the most difficult parts of starting the business. Open-ended responses provided by the respondents of this survey were also documented to give future dairy producers advice. The most common advice to future on-farm processors was to work on realistic business plans, develop and follow realistic budgets, and observe and use market surveys within the industry. These results provide a useful array of information for future on-farm dairy processing enterprises. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The carbon footprint of dairy production systems through partial life cycle assessment. (United States)

    Rotz, C A; Montes, F; Chianese, D S


    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and their potential effect on the environment has become an important national and international issue. Dairy production, along with all other types of animal agriculture, is a recognized source of GHG emissions, but little information exists on the net emissions from dairy farms. Component models for predicting all important sources and sinks of CH(4), N(2)O, and CO(2) from primary and secondary sources in dairy production were integrated in a software tool called the Dairy Greenhouse Gas model, or DairyGHG. This tool calculates the carbon footprint of a dairy production system as the net exchange of all GHG in CO(2) equivalent units per unit of energy-corrected milk produced. Primary emission sources include enteric fermentation, manure, cropland used in feed production, and the combustion of fuel in machinery used to produce feed and handle manure. Secondary emissions are those occurring during the production of resources used on the farm, which can include fuel, electricity, machinery, fertilizer, pesticides, plastic, and purchased replacement animals. A long-term C balance is assumed for the production system, which does not account for potential depletion or sequestration of soil carbon. An evaluation of dairy farms of various sizes and production strategies gave carbon footprints of 0.37 to 0.69kg of CO(2) equivalent units/kg of energy-corrected milk, depending upon milk production level and the feeding and manure handling strategies used. In a comparison with previous studies, DairyGHG predicted C footprints similar to those reported when similar assumptions were made for feeding strategy, milk production, allocation method between milk and animal coproducts, and sources of CO(2) and secondary emissions. DairyGHG provides a relatively simple tool for evaluating management effects on net GHG emissions and the overall carbon footprint of dairy production systems.

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions in milk and dairy product chains: Improving the carbon footprint of dairy products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flysjoe, A.M.


    powder and whey based products (excluding emissions from LUC). The large variation in the product group 'milk powder and whey based products' is a consequence of the allocation model for raw milk, where lactose is assumed to have no value and protein is valued at 1.4 times that of fat. Products with a high lactose content then result in a low CF, while products with a high protein content get a high CF. Hence, the choice of method for co-product handling is fundamental for the CF of dairy products. In addition, it is critical to define the functional unit - more specifically, to account for nutritional values or to differentiate between what is 'produced' and what is actually 'consumed', as there can be differences in product losses at consumer level between different products. Finally, small improvements at farm level can result in relatively large reductions in the CF of dairy products (compared to other life cycle stages), since emissions before farm gate are the largest source of the GHG. The large emissions related to raw milk from the farm also emphasizes the importance of reducing product losses throughout the entire value chain - from cow to consumer. (Author)

  12. Characterisation of dairy soiled water in a survey of 60 Irish dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minogue D.


    Full Text Available Dairy farming in Ireland generates an effluent known as dairy soiled water (DSW, which consists of a relatively dilute mixture of cow faeces, urine, spilt milk and detergents that is typically applied to grassland. However, relatively little is known about the volumes generated, nutrient content and management factors that influence volume and concentration. Sixty dairy farms that had a separate storage tank for storing DSW were selected for this study. The spatial distribution of the farms reflected the spatial distribution of dairy cows across the 26 counties of the Republic of Ireland, with each farm representing between 10,000 and 20,000 dairy cows. Samples were analysed for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, ammonium N (NH4-N, total nitrogen (TN, potassium (K, phosphorus (molybdate-reactive and total (MRP and TP and dry matter (DM content. Management characteristics and parlour properties were quantified. Factors influencing volume and concentration of DSW were determined using mixed model multiple regression analysis. On average, 9784 l (standard error 209 l of DSW, including rainfall, was produced cow−1 year−1 and this contained significant quantities of total N, P and K (587, 80 and 568 mg l−1, respectively. A typical Irish dairy farm stocked at 1.9 cows ha−1 could therefore supply approximately 13, 2 and 12 kg ha−1 of total N, P and K, respectively, across the farm, annually to meet some of the nutrient requirements for herbage production and potentially replace some of the synthetic fertilizer use. Seventy one percent of samples were within the regulated concentration limits of soiled water for BOD (<2500 mg l−1, rising to 87% during the closed period for slurry spreading (mid October to mid-late January, while 81% were within the concentration limits for DM (<1% DM, rising to 94% during the closed period. The efficiency of a milking parlour (cows per unit, time taken plays a key role in determining the volume of DSW generated

  13. Dairy development in the Philippines : Visions for the future: uniformity and/or diversity, community and/or commodity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiere, J.B.


    Although milk has been produced and processed in the Philippines for a long time, the country does not have a strong dairy tradition. Climate and ecology are not very favourable for high yields. Moreover, policies have been erratic and the country has not used the momentum towards dairy development

  14. Digital Learning Compass: Distance Education State Almanac 2017. Wisconsin (United States)

    Seaman, Julia E.; Seaman, Jeff


    This brief report uses data collected under the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Fall Enrollment survey to highlight distance education data in the state of Wisconsin. The sample for this analysis is comprised of all active, degree-granting…

  15. Dragonflies are biocontrol agents in Wisconsin cranberry marshes (United States)

    Dragonflies (Order Odonata) are abundant predators that emerge in large hatch events each summer in Wisconsin cranberry marshes. They seem to be a potential group of biocontrol agents for pest management that may be influenced by the diversity found on the marsh. In fact, our evidence shows that dra...

  16. Southeastern Wisconsin Workplace Communication Project Curriculum Development Guide. (United States)

    Frederick, Catherine; Huss-Lederman, Susan; Johnson, Jewelie

    The Southeastern Wisconsin Workplace Communication Project is a workplace English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) resource and outreach program involving a partnership of businesses and adult educators in a rural area that has experienced an increase in new speakers of English in the manufacturing workforce. The guide provides workplace educators and…


    Spatial synchrony in population dynamics is a topic of increasing interest in basic and applied ecology. We used data from 18 years of frog and toad calling surveys conducted throughout Wisconsin to determine the level of intraspecific synchrony among survey sites, and the relat...

  18. Quaternary Glacial Mapping in Western Wisconsin Using Soil Survey Information (United States)

    Oehlke, Betsy M.; Dolliver, Holly A. S.


    The majority of soils in the western Wisconsin have developed from glacial sediments deposited during the Quaternary Period (2.6 million years before present). In many regions, multiple advances and retreats have left a complex landscape of diverse glacial sediments and landforms. The soils that have developed on these deposits reflect the nature…

  19. The Wisconsin experience with incentives for demand-side management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landgren, D.A.


    It has been noted that, within traditional regulatory frameworks for electric utilities, factors exist which discourage demand side management (DSM) and that there is a lack of positive incentives for DSM. Regulatory agencies should therefore make it possible for DSM measures to benefit from the same treatment as supply-side measures. The Wisconsin Public Service Commission (WPSC) has recognized this need and has adopted various measures accordingly. The need for efficiency incentives is described according to the particular experience of Wisconsin Electric concerning their recourse to a DSM incentive and according to new incentive models being tested in collaboration with other electricity suppliers in Wisconsin. The WPSC has concluded that the fact of considering the costs relating to DSM as expenses or capitalizing them within the rate base does not motivate the utility to promote DSM programs. The WPSC has thus decided to experiment with energy efficiency incentives in order to evaluate their eventual impact. The choice of the type of incentive had an objective of starting the process in an area where the lack of experience has created, from the regulatory point of view, a reticence on the part of utilities to engage in DSM programs. The WPSC has designed a variety of incentive models which have been adapted to each utility's own situation. Specific incentive programs developed for three Wisconsin utilities are reviewed

  20. Wisconsin's Infants and Toddlers. Publication #2015-17 (United States)

    Murphey, David; Cooper, Mae


    Wisconsin's infants and toddlers (defined as children less than three years old) are more than 200,000 in number. Seventy-one percent are white/non-Hispanic, and the largest minority group is Hispanic, at 12 percent. Black, Asian American, and American Indian infants and toddlers make up smaller percentages. To help states target policies related…

  1. 77 FR 16674 - Establishment of the Wisconsin Ledge Viticultural Area (United States)


    .... All of the comments expressed support for the proposed Wisconsin Ledge viticultural area. TTB... label reference on a wine that indicates or implies an origin other than the wine's true place of origin... or other term identified as being viticulturally significant in part 9 of the TTB regulations, at...

  2. Skill Needs and Training Strategies in the Wisconsin Printing Industry. (United States)

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Center on Wisconsin Strategy.

    A study examined the emerging skill needs in the Wisconsin printing industry, a key industry that provided the largest increase (more than 13,000 new jobs) in manufacturing employment in the state in the past decade. Eighteen interviews were conducted with industry personnel and production managers, union representatives, technical college…

  3. 7 CFR 1001.10 - Producer-handler. (United States)


    ...-handler's own enterprise and at its own risk. (f) Any producer-handler with Class I route dispositions and...) Provides proof satisfactory to the market administrator that the care and management of the dairy animals...

  4. Feeding Dairy Cows to Increase Performance on Rhodes Grass Ley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irungu, K.R.G.; Mbugua, P.N.


    Majority of dairy farmers in Kenya produce milk from cows fed on roughage. The cow performance follows seasonal variability in quality and quantity of roughage. The objective of the current study was to increase cow performance and maintain productivity of a rhodes grass (chloris gayana) ley. Twenty-four Freisian cows in their second to third lactation were strip grazed on fertilized irrigated Rhodes grass at a stocking rate of 0.034 ha per cow. Four dietary groups of six cows were allocated to one of our diets. one group got no dairy meal while the other three groups were supplemented at a 1kg of dairy meal per 10, 5 and 2.5 kg of 4% fat corrected milk dairy. this amount to 0, 386, 750 and 1542 kg dairy meal (89.4%, DM, 93.7 OM, 16.8, CP and CF) during the lactation. during the 43 - week lactation, records on pasture nutrient yield, nutrient intake, milk yield, liveweight, reproduction and subsequent calf birth weight were collected. The Rhodes grass ley produced 20.7 (ranging from 16.7 to 28.7) t of dry matter (DM) per hectare and cows harvested 16.0 (12.0 to 24.0) t during the 43 weeks.The Rhodes grass contained 32.1, 87.7, 10.8, and 32.3% DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) respectively. Mean stubble of 4.7 (3.9 to 6.0) t DM per hectare was left at pasture. Feeding dairy meals significantly increased (P 0.05) affect batter fat content (3.78 to 3.96%). It maintained (P > 0.05) cow liveweight and increased (P < 0.05) calf birth weight from 32.7 to 37.2 kg. Feeding dairy meal did not affect oestrus cycling. Extreme supplementation, 1542 kg dairy meal, decreased (P < 0.05) fertility. Insemination per conception and calving interval increased (P < 0.05) from 1.5 to 3.5 and 522 days. The findings in the current study show that pasture yield can be increased by over 590% dry matter from 3.5 t obtained from natural pasture containing Kikuyu and Star grasses. The Rhodes grass yield can be increased to 232% of national average yield of 1300

  5. Dairy farmers' attitudes and intentions towards improving dairy cow foot health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnis, M.R.N.; Hogeveen, H.; Garforth, C.J.; Stassen, E.N.


    Dairy cow foot health is a subject of concern because it is considered to be the most important welfare problem in dairy farming and causes economic losses for the farmer. In order to improve dairy cow foot health it is important to take into account the attitude and intention of dairy farmers. In

  6. Periodical Publishing in Wisconsin. Proceedings of the Conference on Periodical Publishing in Wisconsin (Madison, WI, May 11-12, 1978). (United States)

    Danky, James P., Ed.; And Others

    The papers contained in this compilation were drawn from the proceedings of a 1978 conference on periodical publishing in Wisconsin. Papers in the first section of the collection deal with the basics of publishing and cover such topics as selecting articles, starting a new publication, mailing procedures, aesthetics and layout, and printing…

  7. Informed Forces for Environmental Quality, Conference Proceedings (University of Wisconsin, Green Bay, Wisconsin, March 28-29, 1968). (United States)

    Wisconsin Univ., Green Bay.

    To increase understanding of the dimensions of man's impact on his environment and the key issues involved in improving that environment through education and action was the goal of the environmental quality conference held at the University of Wisconsin, Green Bay, on March 28-29, 1968. Contained in this document are the conference…

  8. Profitability of labour factor in the typical dairy farms in the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Parzonko


    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article was to analyse the productivity and profitability of labour factor and to present asset endowments of the typical dairy farms distinguished within IFCN (International Farm Comparison Network. Among analysed 103 typical dairy farms from 34 countries, the highest net dairy farm profit characterised large farms from USA, Australia and New Zealand. Those farms generated also significantly higher profit per working hour then the potential wages that could be earned outside the farm. The highest assets value per 100 kg of produced milk characterised European farms (especially with low production scale.

  9. Milk and Dairy Products in Romania Before and After EU Accession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Nistor


    Full Text Available The paper provides an analysis and documentation in the dairy supply. The dairy sector is of great importance to the European Union (EU in a variety of ways. Its most striking feature is that milk is produced in every single EU Member State without exception. Milk production is on the second place in Romania’s agriculture after meat production. Romanian milk and dairy production and consumption registered significant changes over the last years and it is foreseen to be emphasizing in the next period. The most important event which influences the production and consumption is the integration of Romania in European Union.

  10. Applying nutrition and physiology to improve reproduction in dairy cattle. (United States)

    Santos, J E P; Bisinotto, R S; Ribeiro, E S; Lima, F S; Greco, L F; Staples, C R; Thatcher, W W


    The establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in lactating dairy cows is a complex biological event that is influenced by a multitude of factors, from the reproductive biology of the cow to managerial aspects of the dairy farm. It is often mentioned in the scientific literature that fertility in dairy cows has declined concurrent with major advances in milk production. Some of this decline is attributed to the negative genetic correlation between milk production and reproduction. In the United States, yearly production per cow has increased steadily at a rate of 1.3% in the last decade and it is likely that this trend will continue in the years to come. At this rate, the average cow in the United States will be producing over 14 tons of milk per year in 2050 and technologies will have to be developed to allow these cows to reproduce to maintain the sustainability of dairy production. Despite high production, it is not uncommon for dairy herds with rolling herd averages for milk yield above 11,000 kg to overcome the challenges of reproduction and obtain satisfactory reproductive performance. Among other things, those herds have been able to mitigate some of the mechanisms that suppress reproduction in dairy cows such as extended postpartum anovulatory period, poor estrous detection, low pregnancy per insemination and, to a lesser extent, the high pregnancy loss. The success of those farms comes from an integrated approach to fertility that includes adequate cow comfort, elaborated transition cow management and nutrition, aggressive postpartum health monitoring program with preventative and curative measures to mitigate the negative effects of diseases on reproduction, and a sound reproductive program that includes manipulation of the ovarian cycle to allow for increased insemination rate. More recently, introduction of fertility traits in selection programs have created new opportunities for improved reproduction without neglecting economically important production

  11. 78 FR 7387 - Continuation of 2008 Farm Bill-Dairy Forward Pricing Program (United States)


    ... producers and cooperative associations in accordance with the terms of a forward contract and not have to... Farm Bill), through September 30, 2013. This document provides notice that producers and cooperative associations of producers may enter into forward price contracts under the Dairy Forward Pricing Program...

  12. Metabolomics to Explore Impact of Dairy Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zheng


    Full Text Available Dairy products are an important component in the Western diet and represent a valuable source of nutrients for humans. However, a reliable dairy intake assessment in nutrition research is crucial to correctly elucidate the link between dairy intake and human health. Metabolomics is considered a potential tool for assessment of dietary intake instead of traditional methods, such as food frequency questionnaires, food records, and 24-h recalls. Metabolomics has been successfully applied to discriminate between consumption of different dairy products under different experimental conditions. Moreover, potential metabolites related to dairy intake were identified, although these metabolites need to be further validated in other intervention studies before they can be used as valid biomarkers of dairy consumption. Therefore, this review provides an overview of metabolomics for assessment of dairy intake in order to better clarify the role of dairy products in human nutrition and health.

  13. 7 CFR 1131.10 - Producer-handler. (United States)


    ... and management of the producer-handler and are operated as the producer-handler's own enterprise and... as the producer-handler's own enterprise and at its sole risk. (3) The producer-handler neither... care and management of the dairy animals and the other resources and facilities designated in paragraph...

  14. The effect of fermentation temperature on the functional dairy product quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanurić Katarina G.


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the possibility of fermented dairy beverage production by the application of kombucha cultivated on thyme tea in combination with a probiotic starter and to evaluate the quality of the new functional product. Fermented dairy beverages are produced from milk with 1.6% milk fat at three fermentation temperatures: 37°C, 40ºC and 43ºC.Chemical quality, rheological properties and products of added starter cultures metabolism were determined in the fermented dairy beverages after production and after10 days of storage. Produced fermented dairy beverages have reduced milk fat content and good textural characteristics. Besides the highly valuable milk components, they contain numerous compounds which have pronounced therapeutic properties. These products could be used as functional food in the diet of different populations for health improvement.

  15. Dairy cow monitoring by RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Stankovski


    Full Text Available Dairy cows identification and monitoring on small cattle farms are usually based on the utilization of barcode technology. This kind of identification technology is unsuitable for dairy cows milking and feeding process automation. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology is a better solution in this case. This paper describes the research and implementation of the milking cycle´s automated monitoring with the use of RFID tags conducted on a small cattle farm in the Republic of Serbia. This solution is based on RFID system which consists of two parts. First part includes control box, two Ultra High Frequency (UHF RFID readers operating at frequency of 915 MHz and RFID tags glued onto the dairy cow ear labels. Second part includes software modules for acquisition and collecting data from RFID tags to build up an archive due to supervision and analysis of the milking cycle. Reading accuracy of RFID system in the observed period was 99.8 % in average. A group of dairy cows having a settled milking cycle within an interval of 12h ± 5 % had a 1.5 % better yield and a 0.08 better quality in comparison with a group of dairy cows having a milking cycle variance higher than 20 %. RFID system implemented in described way can be easily integrated into a new or existing farm management system in order to have better production results which depend on several factors including settled milking cycles.

  16. Trends in dairy and non-dairy probiotic products - a review


    Vijaya Kumar, Bathal; Vijayendra, Sistla Venkata Naga; Reddy, Obulam Vijaya Sarathi


    Health awareness has grown to a greater extent among consumers and they are looking for healthy probiotic counterparts. Keeping in this view, the present review focuses recent developments in dairy and non-dairy probiotic products. All over the world, dairy probiotics are being commercialized in many different forms. However, the allergy and lactose intolerance are the major set-backs to dairy probiotics. Whereas, flavor and refreshing nature are the major advantages of non-dairy drinks, espe...

  17. Bacteriological quality of bovine milk produced by smallholder dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cette étude a été réalisée dansles petites exploitations laitières de Debre Zeit en Ethiopie, pour déterminer les nombre total de germes aerobiques (TAPC) et de coliformes dans 178 échantillons de lait cru et 100 échantillons de lait pasteurisé et le nombre le plus probable (NPP) de coliformes dans 77 échantillons de les ...

  18. Milk microbiological profile of four dairy farms from São Paulo State, Brazil


    Adna Crisleia Rodrigues Monção; Juliana Rodrigues Pozzi Arcaro; Thiago Pereira Motta; Lívia Castelani; Thamires Martins; Adriana Frizzarin; Heloisa de Azevedo; Cláudia Rodrigues Pozzi


    The concern in milk quality, milk production, and in animals’ welfare is in constant increase. Mastitis is recognized as the main disease affecting dairy animals because of changing in milk composition and reduction in milk production. In Brazil, the highest incidence of mastitis is related to infectious agents. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of pathogenic microorganisms in milk produced by 60 cows from four dairy farms (15 cows/farm) located at Sao Paulo state, Brazil. Milk sa...

  19. An update of the milk market in Vietnam : Lactose-free dairy opportunity


    Nguyen, Nhi


    The dairy industry in Vietnam is a dynamic sector that shows continuous growth during the past ten years. Opportunities are now so vast for foreign milk producers to enter this market with their lactose free brands especially when lactose intolerance awareness is in-creasing gradually among Vietnamese people. The thesis provides an update of the dairy market in Vietnam, including current condition, major players, and factors influencing consumer behaviors in order to find out if there is a de...

  20. Identification of toxigenic Aspergillus species from diet dairy goat using a polyphasic approach


    Silva, Janaina Lara da; Aparecido, Christiane Ceriani; Hansen, Daiane; Pereira, Tacila Alves Muniz; Felicio, Joana D'arc; Gonçalez, Edlayne


    Some species of filamentous fungi that infest agricultural commodities are able to produce mycotoxins, contaminating feed and animal products. The aim of this research was to identify the mycoflora present in the feed and forage for dairy goat and to isolate and characterize the Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus strains based on a morphological and molecular characterization and mycotoxigenic ability. The goat dairy diets were collected monthly from 11 goat milk farms, totaling 129 and 10...

  1. Impact on Human Health of Microorganisms Present in Fermented Dairy Products: An Overview


    Fernández, María; Hudson, John Andrew; Korpela, Riitta; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G.


    Fermented dairy products provide nutrients in our diet, some of which are produced by the action of microorganisms during fermentation. These products can be populated by a diverse microbiota that impacts the organoleptic and physicochemical characteristics foods as well as human health. Acidification is carried out by starter lactic acid bacteria (LAB) whereas other LAB, moulds, and yeasts become dominant during ripening and contribute to the development of aroma and texture in dairy product...

  2. Digesters and demographics: identifying support for anaerobic digesters on dairy farms. (United States)

    Sanders, D J; Roberts, M C; Ernst, S C; Thraen, C S


    The dairy industry in the United States is amidst a long-running trend toward fewer, larger dairy farms. This development has created a backlash in some communities over concerns such as odor, waste management, and environmental degradation. Separately, anaerobic digestion has advanced as a waste management technology that potentially offers solutions to some of these issues, providing odor control and a combustible biogas among other things. These digesters require significant capital investments. Voluntary consumer premiums for the renewable energy produced have been used in some instances as a means to move adoption of such systems toward financial feasibility. This project employed a survey to measure Ohio consumers' willingness to pay a premium for renewable energy produced by anaerobic digesters on dairy farms. Cluster analysis was used to segment consumers by willingness to pay, age, education, income, self-identified political inclination, and a composite variable that served as a proxy for respondents' environmental stewardship. Four distinctive groups emerged from the data. Older, less educated respondents were found to have the least amount of support for digesters on dairy farms, whereas politically liberal, environmentally proactive respondents demonstrated the strongest support. Well-educated, affluent respondents and young respondents fell between these 2 groups. Most large dairy farms are generally met with fairly negative responses from their local communities; in contrast, this research finds some popular support for anaerobic digestion technology. Going forward, establishing a positive link between support for anaerobic digesters and for their use on large dairies could open up a new route for less-contested large dairy farm developments. Evaluation of community demographics could become an important part of finding an optimal location for a large dairy farm. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  3. Major advances in applied dairy cattle nutrition. (United States)

    Eastridge, M L


    Milk yield per cow continues to increase with a slower rate of increase in dry matter intake; thus, efficiency of ruminal fermentation and digestibility of the dietary components are key factors in improving the efficiency of feed use. Over the past 25 yr, at least 2,567 articles relating to ruminant or dairy nutrition have been published in the Journal of Dairy Science. These studies have provided important advancements in improving feed efficiency and animal health by improving quality of feeds, increasing feedstuff and overall diet digestibility, better defining interactions among feedstuffs in diets, identifying alternative feed ingredients, better defining nutrient requirements, and improving efficiency of ruminal fermentation. The publications are vital in continuing to make advancements in providing adequate nutrition to dairy cattle and for facilitating exchange of knowledge among scientists. Forages have been studied more extensively than any other type of feed. Cereal grains continue to be the primary contributors of starch to diets, and thus are very important in meeting the energy needs of dairy cattle. Processing of cereal grains has improved their use. Feeding by-products contributes valuable nutrients to diets and allows feedstuffs to be used that would otherwise be handled as wastes in landfills. Many of these by-products provide a considerable amount of protein, nonforage fiber, fat, and minerals (sometimes a detriment as in the case of P) to diets. The primary feeding system today is the total mixed ration, with still considerable use of the pasture system. Major improvements have occurred in the use of protein, carbohydrates, and fats in diets. Although advancements have been made in feeding practices to minimize the risk of metabolic diseases, the periparturient period continues to present some of the greatest challenges in animal health. Computers are a must today for diet formulation and evaluation, but fewer software programs are developed by

  4. Factors Affecting SSR in Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Heravi Mosavi


    Full Text Available Introduction Secondary sex ratio (SSR is the proportion of males to females at birth. It has been shown in many different mammalian species, many factors are associated with SSR. Changes in secondary sex ratio in dairy cows is considered economically important and the ability to change it could affect the revenues and profitability of a dairy farm. Thus, sperm or embryo sexing techniques in recent years has attracted more attention. Most breed of dairy cattle are more likely to have female calf is born to use them as replacement heifers and in order to maintain their productive herd number. On the contrary, when the goal is the production of meat, bull calves due to higher growth rates and production efficiency, are more convenient and more economically efficient. The aim of present study was to investigate some key factors affecting SSR in Iranian Holstein cows. According to Fisher, the sex ratio in the population under the control of natural selection is not always the same. There is overwhelming evidence to support the theory that shows Fisher Primary and secondary sex ratio sex ratio can deviate from this balance and natural selection caused a change in this ratio can be in certain circumstances. For example, the secondary sex ratio of 52:48 has been reported in dairy cows. Studies on mammalian species suggest that several factors, including latitude of the location, the dominant regional climate model, time and frequency of mating to ovulation, diet, age of parents, physical score, breed and produced eggs from ovarian left or right can have a significant effect on the secondary sex ratio. Weather conditions may modify the internal environment and the effect on physiological mechanisms or through the impact on the frequency and type of foods available to parents, the secondary sex ratio is impressive. The impact on the quantity and quality of parent's access to food sources in many species of mammals, the sex ratio has been fixed. Previous

  5. Dairy beverages and energy balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Gilbert, Jo-Anne


    to exist. We have found that high versus low calcium intakes from dairy products had no effect on 24-h energy expenditure or substrate oxidation rates, but fecal fat excretion increased approximately 2.5-fold on the high-calcium diets. In a meta-analysis of intervention studies we found that increasing...... dairy calcium intake by 1200mg/day resulted in increased fecal fat excretion by 5.2 (1.6-8.8) g/day. Newer research shows that humans possess taste receptors for calcium in the gastrointestinal tract and that signaling may be linked to appetite regulation. A new line of evidence suggests...... that an inadequate calcium intake during an energy restricted weight loss program may trigger hunger and impair compliance to the diet. These mechanisms may be part of the explanation for the protective effects of dairy products with regard to obesity and metabolic syndrome....

  6. Continuous lactation in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Torben Gosvig; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Andersen, Jens Bech


    function may be achievable in continuously milked high-yielding dairy cows as a result of the genetic selection for lactation performance and hence longevity of mammary epithelial cells. The milk production and mammary nutrient uptake in response to omission of the dry period for cows with an expected peak...... milk yield higher than 45 kg/d were studied in 28 Holstein dairy cows managed without bovine somatotropin. Performance and metabolic parameters were followed in late gestation and in the following early lactation. Fourteen cows were milked continuously throughout late gestation, and another 14 dairy...... cows experienced a 7-wk prepartum dry period. Continuous milking during the prepartum period reduced milk production in the following early lactation period by >20%. The reduced milk production could not be readily ascribed to inefficiency of the mechanisms responsible for nutrient uptake...

  7. Major advances associated with hormone and growth factor regulation of mammary growth and lactation in dairy cows. (United States)

    Akers, R M


    In recent years, the number of researchers interested in mammary development and mammary function in dairy animals has declined. More importantly this cadre of workers has come to rely more than ever on scientists focused on and funded by breast cancer interests to provide fundamental mechanistic and basic cellular insights. Philosophically and practically this is a risky path to better understand, manipulate, and control a national resource as important as the dairy cow. The efficiency, resourcefulness, and dedication of dairy scientists have mirrored the actions of many dairy producers but there are limits. Many of the applications of research, use of bovine somatotropin, management of transition cows, estrus synchronization techniques, and so on, are based on decades-old scientific principles. Specific to dairy, do rodents or breast cancer cell lines adequately represent the dairy cow? Will these results inspire the next series of lactation-related dairy improvements? These are key unanswered questions. Study of the classic mammogenic and lactogenic hormones has served dairy scientists well. But there is an exciting, and bewildering universe of growth factors, transcription factors, receptors, intracellular signaling intermediates, and extracellular molecules that must ultimately interact to determine the size of the mature udder and the functional capacity of mammary gland in the lactating cow. We can only hope that enough scientific, fiscal, and resource scraps fall from the biomedical research banquet table to allow dairy-focused mammary gland research to continue.

  8. Dairy Chains: Consumer Foodways and Agricultural Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Wessell


    Full Text Available Food is significant as an agent of social change as well as being the subject of activism. The focus of this paper is on nature’s “perfect food”, milk, in the 1950s, a period of social transition that offers fertile space for reconstructing food activism and giving it a history. Australia’s dairy industry is the country’s largest processed food industry and the fourth largest of the nation’s rural industries. Milk is a fruitful site to consider the relationship between people and their food, production and consumption, the intimate way we bring our food into our bodies and the experience of farmers with personal connections to the ecosystems in which they live. Dense networks connect farm producers and consumers. The dairy industry will be considered as a site of production and consumption where considerable political activity was concentrated in the 1950s. These themes are illuminated in the paper by briefly considering two groups of women caught up in very different family labour systems defined by their relationship to milk – housewives active in the state associations campaigning around milk prices and quality and farm women. The transformation of rural life, home and food culture during this period impacted on both groups of women, it was from their work that they expressed a position and identified, and both engaged in complex processes of negotiation that, I argue, have generated and sustained other movements.

  9. An Assessment of Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Facilities in Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Ferguson


    Full Text Available A survey of 715 Holstein dairy farms in Pennsylvania was used to construct demographics for the average Holstein dairy farm. The average Holstein dairy farm was composed of 69 lactating cows; 11 nonlactating, pregnant cows; 44 heifers; and 18 calves. Milk production averaged 27.3 kg (60.0 lb. Crop area averaged 73.6 ha. Milk production, crop area and type, average county yields, and herd animal groups were used to construct a typical feeding program for these farms. Typical rations were constructed for six feeding groups (three milk production groups, one nonlactating group, two heifer groups to meet milk production, pregnancy, and growth requirements. Rations were constructed based on three forage qualities (excellent, average, and poor typically observed on Pennsylvania dairy farms. Data for animal description (milk production, body weight, growth, and pregnancy status and ration components and amounts consumed for each animal group were input into the excretion model of the Dairy Nutrient Planner computer program (DNP. Excretion of fecal N and dry matter (DM, urinary N, and total P and K were produced for each animal group and used to assess potential volatile losses of N. Work at the Marshak Dairy, New Bolton Center, indicates the majority of urinary N is rapidly lost as ammonia from dairy facilities. Based on this observation, the losses of N as ammonia were estimated to be 4.63, 4.62, and 4.28�tonne/year for the farm with excellent, average, and poor quality forages, respectively. Volatile losses of N may be reduced most by controlling levels of urea in urine. Urinary N may be reduced through dietary manipulation of protein and carbohydrate sources. Conversion of urea to ammonia may be reduced by altering the pH of barn floors and gutters. Entrapment of ammonia may be accomplished by acidification of manure slurry. Atmospheric ammonia contributes to acid rain, eutrophication of estuaries and lakes, and particulate air pollution

  10. The impact of the local dairy cattle farm toward the river water quality in Gunungpati Subdistrict Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Widiastuti


    Full Text Available People’s awareness on the living environment nowadays is not yet comes up to the dairy-farmer community. In fact, the dairy-farm subsector contributes load pollution in the form of waste. The waste that is produced by a dairy-farm can be in the form of solid waste and liquid waste. There is still no cultivation effort toward the wastes in a traditional dairy-farmyet, thus most of the wastes are disposed to the closest river, so that in the surrounding dairy farm area is frequently found pollution toward the water quality. The aim of this study is to identify the effect of environment pollution that is caused by local dairy farm in Gunungpati Sub-district, especially toward the river water and residents’ well. The result of this study in Nangkasawit Village before and after the dairy farm was build was still under the quality standard for the third rate water quality. In Plalangan Village, the water quality was also under the quality standard, except for COD concentration. In the Sumurejo Village there was an upturn tendency on the observation value, but the water quality was under the quality standard, except for Fe concentration. Based on the Biodiversity Index before and after the dairy farm was established in Nangkasawit, Plalangan, and Sumurejo were 2.22, 1.49, 2.11, 1.90, 1.78, and 1.88, respectively. It means that Nangkasawit showed no pollution before the dairy farm was established, while there was a medium pollution after the dairy farm establishment.  In Plalangan, the water was clear, but it was light polluted after the dairy farm was established. In Sumurejo, before and after the dairy farm establishment the water was light category pollution.

  11. Dairy products and cardiovascular disease. (United States)

    Tholstrup, Tine


    Although it has often been postulated that the consumption of dairy products is associated with a high risk of coronary heart disease, study results have been conflicting. This review summarizes recent observational and human intervention trial findings on dairy products and cardiovascular disease. Results from more recent observational studies on dairy products and milk disagree. This may be because of the very different methods used combined with several methodological problems. A somewhat surprising beneficial association between the intake of dairy products and the metabolic syndrome was observed in some studies, although not in a single study of elderly women. Milk may have the same cholesterol-raising properties as butter, whereas cheese does not seem to increase plasma cholesterol. Some milk products fermented by specific bacterial strains have been shown to have rather moderate cholesterol-reducing properties. There is also good evidence that certain fermented products (especially by Lactobacillus helveticus) have a mildly decreasing effect on hypertension, probably because of bioactive peptides. When guiding principles such as balance, variety and moderation are stressed, there is no strong evidence that dairy products increase the risk of coronary heart disease in healthy men of all ages or young and middle-aged healthy women. Human studies should investigate the role of dairy products with respect to sex and age by including classic and novel risk markers of coronary heart disease. Specific fermented milks may be beneficial in the future prevention of hypertension. The beneficially neutral effect of cheese on coronary heart disease risk factors should be elucidated further.

  12. Psychrotrophic bacteria and their negative effects on milk and dairy products quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šimun Zamberlin


    Full Text Available The characteristics of bacterial populations in raw milk at the time of processing has a significant influence on shelf-life, organoleptic quality, spoilage and yields of raw milk, processed milk as well as on the other dairy products. Unfortunately, cold and extended storage of raw milk, as a common practice in dairy sector today, favour the growth of psychrotrophic bacteria. Therefore, their count in the refrigerated milk is more than the ideal limit of 10 % of the mesophilic count. Psychrotrophic bacteria are generally able to form extracellular or intracellular thermo-resistant enzymes (proteases, lipases, phospolipases which can contribute to milk and dairy products spoilage. In addition, besides exhibiting spoilage features, some species belonging to the psychrotrops are considered as emerging pathogens that carry innate resistance to antibiotics or produce toxins. In sense of quality, psychrotrophic bacteria have become major problem for today’s dairy industry as leading cause in spoilage of cold-storage milk and dairy products. This review article focuses on the impact of psychrotrops on quality problems associated with raw milk as well as on th final dairy products. Means of controlling the dominant psychrotrophic species responsible for undesirable activities in milk and dairy products were also discussed.

  13. Exploring the Determinants of Consumer Behavior in West Bank, Towards Domestic and Imported Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Maitah


    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate factors influencing the purchasing behavior of Palestinian customers towards domestic and imported dairy products (Israeli and foreign. The secondary data were obtained from the competent authorities. On the other hand, primary data were gathered by utilizing personal interviews and questionnaires. 450 questionnaires were distributed to all governorates of the West Bank. It has been concluded from statistical results that middle-income households concern mainly about quality, image and product validity period. In contrast, low-income households consider mainly product price. The consumer was satisfied with Israeli products that meet his needs. On the other hand, local consumer highly considered price and personal knowledge when purchasing local dairy products. Advertising negatively affected the consumer purchasing behavior of Israeli and foreign dairy products, in contrast it positively affected his behavior when purchasing local dairy products. Period of validity was the most influential factor on the purchasing decision for domestic and imported dairy products. It has been found that consumer expenditures on Israeli dairy products were the highest followed by local and foreign products. Recommendations are as follows: i producers should develop products that could meet the needs and desires of consumers, ii draw effective marketing policies, depending on technologists specialized in dairy industry, iii take into account consumer awareness when developing advertising strategy, and iv quality control should be adjusted in accordance with product specifications and standards.

  14. Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Dairy Farming and their effect on San Joaquin Valley Air Quality (United States)

    Blake, D. R.; Yang, M.; Meinardi, S.; Krauter, C.; Rowland, F. S.


    The San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District of California issued a report identifying dairies as a main source of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). A dairy study funded by the California Air Resources Board commenced shortly after the report was issued. Our University of California Irvine group teamed with California State University Fresno to determine the major sources of VOCs from various dairy operations and from a variety of dairy types. This study identified ethanol and methanol as two gases produced in major quantities throughout the dairies in the San Joaquin valley as by-products of yeast fermentation of silage. Three different types of sampling protocols were employed in order to determine the degree of enhancement of the target oxygenates in the valley air shed. Their sources, emission profiles, and emission rates were determined from whole air samples collected at various locations at the six dairies studied. An assessment of the impact of dairy emissions in the valley was achieved by using data obtained on low altitude NASA DC-8 flights through the valley, and from ground level samples collected though out the valley in a grid like design. Our data suggest that a significant amount of O3 production in the valley may come from methanol, ethanol, and acetaldehyde (a photochemical by-product ethanol oxidation). Our findings indicate that improvement to valley air quality may be obtained by focusing on instituting new silage containment practices and regulations.

  15. Lactic acid bacteria in dairy food: surface characterization and interactions with food matrix components. (United States)

    Burgain, J; Scher, J; Francius, G; Borges, F; Corgneau, M; Revol-Junelles, A M; Cailliez-Grimal, C; Gaiani, C


    This review gives an overview of the importance of interactions occurring in dairy matrices between Lactic Acid Bacteria and milk components. Dairy products are important sources of biological active compounds of particular relevance to human health. These compounds include immunoglobulins, whey proteins and peptides, polar lipids, and lactic acid bacteria including probiotics. A better understanding of interactions between bioactive components and their delivery matrix may successfully improve their transport to their target site of action. Pioneering research on probiotic lactic acid bacteria has mainly focused on their host effects. However, very little is known about their interaction with dairy ingredients. Such knowledge could contribute to designing new and more efficient dairy food, and to better understand relationships between milk constituents. The purpose of this review is first to provide an overview of the current knowledge about the biomolecules produced on bacterial surface and the composition of the dairy matter. In order to understand how bacteria interact with dairy molecules, adhesion mechanisms are subsequently reviewed with a special focus on the environmental conditions affecting bacterial adhesion. Methods dedicated to investigate the bacterial surface and to decipher interactions between bacteria and abiotic dairy components are also detailed. Finally, relevant industrial implications of these interactions are presented and discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Antimicrobial resistance patterns of bovine Salmonella enterica isolates submitted to the Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory: 2006-2015. (United States)

    Valenzuela, J R; Sethi, A K; Aulik, N A; Poulsen, K P


    Salmonellosis on the dairy continues to have a significant effect on animal health and productivity and in the United States. Additionally, Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica causes an estimated 1.2 million cases of human illness annually. Contributing to the morbidity and mortality in both human and domestic animal species is emergence of antimicrobial resistance by Salmonella species and increased incidence of multidrug-resistant isolates. This study describes serotype distribution and the antimicrobial resistance patterns for various Salmonella serotypes isolated from bovine samples submitted to the Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (WVDL) over the past 10 yr. Salmonella serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing data were obtained from the laboratory information management system at WVDL. Data from accessions were limited to bovine samples submitted to the WVDL between January 2006 and June 2015 and those that had both a definitive serotype and complete results for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 4,976 isolates were identified. Salmonella enterica ser. Dublin was the most prevalent serotype identified among bovine samples submitted to the WVDL, accounting for a total of 1,153 isolates (23% of total isolates) over the study period. Along with Dublin, Salmonella enterica ser. Cerro (795, 16%), Newport (720, 14%), Montevideo (421, 8%), Kentucky (419, 8%), and Typhimurium (202, 4%) comprised the top 6 most commonly isolated serotypes during that time. Overall, resistance of bovine Salmonella isolates in the study population remained stable, although decreases in resistance were noted for gentamicin, neomycin, and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole during the study period. All isolates remained susceptible to enrofloxacin. These data show that antimicrobial susceptibility for bovine Salmonella has changed in the population served by WVDL in the past 10 yr. This information is important for understanding Salmonella disease ecology in

  17. Consumption of milk and dairy products: Facts and figures. (United States)

    Zingone, Fabiana; Bucci, Cristina; Iovino, Paola; Ciacci, Carolina


    Consumption of milk has been declining sharply in recent decades, particularly in developed countries. One of the reasons for this decline is the diagnosis or perception of lactose intolerance. The aim of this study was to investigate average consumption of milk and dairy products in the Campania region of Italy, one of the main producers of dairy products in the country. Individuals aged 18 to 75 y and living in Campania were invited to answer an online questionnaire regarding their average consumption of milk and dairy products. The questionnaire was posted on the public access hospital site, as well as on several Facebook pages of friends and hospital personnel. The study found that 22.2% (260 of 1173) of responders from Campania do not drink milk, and 18.1% (213 of 1173) drink lactose-free milk, mainly because of gastrointestinal symptoms. The vast majority of the sample population chose to avoid consuming milk without undergoing the breath test for lactose intolerance or consulting a doctor. Women and underweight people drink more lactose-free milk than milk containing lactose. The population sample does not avoid dairy products; rather, they seem to be consumed quite frequently. The data support the need for mandatory implementation of a nutritional campaign to increase understanding regarding, for example, unnecessary avoidance of milk and excessive consumption of cheese. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Water quality and resource management in the dairy industry. (United States)

    Boguniewicz-Zablocka, Joanna; Klosok-Bazan, Iwona; Naddeo, Vincenzo


    Food industry is one of the most important and fastest growing sectors of economy in Poland. This sector is also characterized by high demand for the resources, particularly for water. Polish food industrial plants consumed 793 hm 3 of water in 2014. Dairy branch had a combined 35% share of the above consumption. As shown by the data obtained from the Polish Central Statistical Office, the majority of dairy plants use its own source of water, so this branch is also important water producer in Poland. Water used for dairy industry should meet the requirements of at least drinking water quality, so the factories need to treat the water. This paper analyses the correlations between selected technical process, equipment profiles and water quality, and consumption in two types of dairy factories (DF). The first one DF-1 processes approx. 50,000 L of milk, and the second, DF-2 processes approx. 330,000 L of milk per day. The water taken from the wells needs to be pre-treated because of iron and manganese concentration and due to specific requirements in various industrial processes. As a result of this work, we have managed to propose technological solutions in the context of water consumption rationalization. The proposed solutions aim at improving water and wastewater management by reducing the amount of consumed water by industry.

  19. Geodemographic Features of Human Blastomycosis in Eastern Wisconsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E. Huber


    Full Text Available Purpose: Blastomycosis is an endemic fungal infection. In rural northern Wisconsin, blastomycosis cases are associated with certain environmental features including close proximity to waterways. Other studies have associated blastomycosis with particular soil chemicals. However, blastomycosis also occurs in urban and suburban regions. We explored the geodemographic associations of blastomycosis cases in the more urban/suburban landscape of eastern Wisconsin. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 193 laboratory-identified blastomycosis cases in a single eastern Wisconsin health system, 2007–2015. Controls were 250 randomly selected cases of community-diagnosed pneumonia from a similar time period. Geographic features of home addresses were explored using Google Maps. Categorical variables were analyzed with chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests and continuous variables by two-sample t-tests. Stepwise regression followed by binary logistic regression was used for multivariable analysis. Results: Compared to pneumonia cases, blastomycosis cases were younger (47.7 vs. 55.3 years and more likely to be male (67.9% vs. 45.6%, nonwhite (23.2% vs. 9.7% and machinists, automobile workers/mechanics or construction workers (32.7% vs. 7.2%; P 0.5 acres (30.4% vs. 14.2%, P = 0.0002, be < 0.25 miles from an automobile repair facility or junkyard (35.9% vs. 19.4%, P = 0.0005, and be < 0.1 miles from a park, forest or farm field (54.9% vs. 39.6%, P = 0.002. Only the latter association remained on multivariable analysis. Conclusions: Eastern Wisconsin blastomycosis case subjects were younger, more often male and more likely to live near parks/forests/fields. Novel associations of blastomycosis cases with machinery- and automobile-related occupations and/or facilities should be further explored.

  20. Borreliosis in free-ranging black bears from Wisconsin. (United States)

    Kazmierczak, J J; Amundson, T E; Burgess, E C


    Blood, kidney and tick samples were obtained from 18 hunter-killed black bears (Ursus americanus) from three sites in northern Wisconsin. A Borrelia sp., morphologically and antigenically similar to Borrelia burgdorferi, was isolated from the blood of two of the animals, and from the kidney of a third. Ixodes dammini and Dermacentor variabilis were found on the bears. This is the first report of borreliosis in the Ursidae, and of the primary vector of Lyme disease, I. dammini, from this host.

  1. Evaluation of nonpoint-source contamination, Wisconsin: water year 1999 (United States)

    Walker, John F.; Graczyk, D.J.; Corsi, Steven R.; Wierl, J.A.; Owens, D.W.


    The objective of the watershed-management evaluation monitoring program in Wisconsin is to evaluate the effectiveness of best-management practices (BMPs) for controlling nonpoint-source pollution in rural and urban watersheds. This progress report provides a summary of the data collected by the U.S Geological Survey for the program and a discussion of the results from several different detailed analyses conducted within this program.

  2. Analysis of water-level fluctuations in Wisconsin wells (United States)

    Patterson, G.L.; Zaporozec, A.


    More than 60 percent of the residents of Wisconsin use ground water as their primary water source. Water supplies presently are abundant, but ground-water levels continually fluctuate in response to natural factors and human-related stresses. A better understanding of the magnitude, duration, and frequency of past fluctuations, and the factors controlling these fluctuations may help anticipate future changes in ground-water levels.

  3. Water resources of Wisconsin--Lake Superior basin (United States)

    Young, H.L.; Skinner, Earl L.


    This report describes the physical environment, availability, distribution, movement, quality, and use of water in the upper Wisconsin River basin as an aid in planning and water management. The report presents general information on the basin derived from data obtained from Federal, State, and local agencies, New field data were collected in areas where information was lacking. More detailed studies of problem areas may be required in the future, as water needs and related development increase.

  4. Draft genome sequences of six listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from dairy products from a processing plant in Southern Italy


    Chiara, M.; D'Erchia, A.M.; Manzari, C.; Minotto, A.; Montagna, C.; Addante, N.; Santagada, G.; Latorre, L.; Pesole, G.; Horner, D.S.; Parisi, A.


    Here we announce the draft genome sequences of 6 Listeria monocytogenes strains from ricotta cheese produced in a dairy processing plant located in southern Italy and potentially involved in a multistate outbreak of listeriosis in the United States.

  5. Development and Diversity of Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc Bacteriophages in Dairies Using Undefined Mesophilic DL-Starter Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhammed, Musemma Kedir

    Bacteriophages (phages) attacking strains of Lactococcus (Lc.) lactis and Leuconostoc species, used as starter cultures in mesophilic dairy productions, produce huge problems through waste of ingredients, increased processing time, reduced product quality, consistency and safety, and occasionally...

  6. Determining climate change management priorities: A case study from Wisconsin (United States)

    LeDee, Olivia E.; Ribic, Christine


    A burgeoning dialogue exists regarding how to allocate resources to maximize the likelihood of long-term biodiversity conservation within the context of climate change. To make effective decisions in natural resource management, an iterative, collaborative, and learning-based decision process may be more successful than a strictly consultative approach. One important, early step in a decision process is to identify priority species or systems. Although this promotes the conservation of select species or systems, it may inadvertently alter the future of non-target species and systems. We describe a process to screen terrestrial wildlife for potential sensitivity to climate change and then use the results to engage natural resource professionals in a process of identifying priorities for monitoring, research, and adaptation strategy implementation. We demonstrate this approach using a case study from Wisconsin. In Wisconsin, experts identified 23 out of 353 species with sufficient empirical research and management understanding to inform targeted action. Habitat management and management of hydrological conditions were the common strategies for targeted action. Although there may be an interest in adaptation strategy implementation for many species and systems, experts considered existing information inadequate to inform targeted action. According to experts, 40% of the vertebrate species in Wisconsin will require near-term intervention for climate adaptation. These results will inform state-wide conservation planning as well as regional efforts.

  7. Metabolomic biomarkers correlating with hepatic lipidosis in dairy cows


    Imhasly, Sandro; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Baumann, Sven; von Bergen, Martin; Luch, Andreas; Jungnickel, Harald; Potratz, Sarah; Gerspach, Christian


    BACKGROUND: Hepatic lipidosis or fatty liver disease is a major metabolic disorder of high-producing dairy cows that compromises animal performance and, hence, causes heavy economic losses worldwide. This syndrome, occurring during the critical transition from gestation to early lactation, leads to an impaired health status, decreased milk yield, reduced fertility and shortened lifetime. Because the prevailing clinical chemistry parameters indicate advanced liver damage independently of the u...

  8. The dairy industry: a brief description of production practices, trends, and farm characteristics around the world. (United States)

    Douphrate, David I; Hagevoort, G Robert; Nonnenmann, Matthew W; Lunner Kolstrup, Christina; Reynolds, Stephen J; Jakob, Martina; Kinsel, Mark


    The global dairy industry is composed of a multitude of countries with unique production practices and consumer markets. The global average number of cows per farm is about 1-2 cows; however, as a farm business model transitions from sustenance to market production, the average herd size, and subsequent labor force increases. Dairy production is unique as an agricultural commodity because milk is produced daily, for 365 days per year. With the introduction of new technology such as the milking parlor, the global industry trend is one of increasing farm sizes. The farm sizes are the largest in the United States; however, the European Union produces the most milk compared with other global producers. Dairy production is essential for economic development and sustainable communities in rural areas. However, the required capital investment and availability of local markets and labor are continued challenges. Due to farm expansion, international producers are faced with new challenges related to assuring food safety and a safe working environment for their workforce. These challenges exist in addition to the cultural and language barriers related to an increasing dependence on immigrant labor in many regions of the world. Continued success of the global dairy industry is vital. Therefore, research should continue to address the identification of occupational risk factors associated with injuries and illnesses, as well as develop cost-effective interventions and practices that lead to the minimization or elimination of these injuries and illnesses on a global scale, among our valuable population of dairy producers and workers.

  9. Lameness detection in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertem, Van T.; Bahr, C.; Schlageter Tello, A.; Viazzi, S.; Steensels, M.; Romanini, C.E.B.; Lokhorst, C.; Maltz, E.; Halachmi, I.; Berckmans, D.


    The objective of this study was to evaluate if a multi-sensor system (milk, activity, body posture) was a better classifier for lameness than the single-sensor-based detection models. Between September 2013 and August 2014, 3629 cow observations were collected on a commercial dairy farm in

  10. Pain evaluation in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gleerup, Karina Charlotte Bech; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Munksgaard, Lene


    Pain compromises the welfare of animals. A prerequisite for being able to alleviate pain is that we are able to recognize it. Potential behavioural signs of pain were investigated for dairy cattle with the aim of constructing a pain scale for use under production conditions. Forty-three cows were......, piloerection, was also significant but seemed difficult to use as it changed rapidly; p 

  11. Teat Condition in Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neijenhuis, F.


    The dairy cow's teat is the first line of defence against mastitis pathogens. The milking process may affect the teat's condition, increasing the risk of mastitis. It is well-proven that teat-ends with severe erosions or broken skin will have an increased risk of mastitis. However, more common

  12. Teat condition in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neijenhuis, Francesca


    The dairy cow's teat is the first line of defence against mastitis pathogens. The milking process may affect the teat's condition, increasing the risk of mastitis. It is well-proven that teat-ends with severe erosions or broken skin will have an increased risk of mastitis. However, more common

  13. Modeling the Precambrian Topography of Columbia County, Wisconsin Using Two-Dimensional Models of Gravity and Aeromagnetic Data (United States)

    Rasmussen, J.; Skalbeck, J.; Stewart, E.


    The deep sandstone and dolomite aquifer of Wisconsin is the primary source of water in the central, southern, and western portions of the state, as well as a supplier for many high-capacity wells in the eastern portion. This prominent groundwater system is highly impacted by the underlying Precambrian basement, which includes the doubly plunging Baraboo Syncline in Columbia and Sauk Counties. This project is a continuation of previous work done in Dodge and Fond du Lac Counties by the University of Wisconsin-Parkside (UW-P) and the Wisconsin Geological & Natural History Survey (WGNHS). The goal of this project was to produce of an updated Precambrian topographic map of southern Wisconsin, by adding Gravity and Aeromagnetic data to the existing map which is based mainly on sparse outcrop and well data. Gravity and Aeromagnetic data from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) was processed using GM-SYS 3D modeling software in Geosoft Oasis Montaj. Grids of subsurface layers were created from the data and constrained by well and drilling records. The Columbia County basement structure is a complex network of Precambrian granites and rhyolites which is non-conformably overlain by quartzite, slate, and a layer of iron rich sedimentary material. Results from previously collected cores as well as drilling done in neighboring Dodge County, show that the iron rich layer was draped over much of the Baraboo area before being subject to the multitude of folding and faulting events that happened in the region during the late Precambrian. This layer provides telltale signatures that aided in construction of the model due to having an average density of 3.7 g/cm3 and a magnetic susceptibility of 8000 x 10-6 cgs, compared to the average density and susceptibility of the rest of the bedrock being 2.8 g/cm3 and 1500 x 10-6 cgs, respectively. The research done on the Columbia County basement is one part of a larger project aimed at improving groundwater management efforts of the

  14. Feasibility Report and Final Environmental Impact Statement, Wisconsin River at Portage, Wisconsin, Feasibility Study for Flood Control. Main Report. (United States)


    TABLE OF CONTRNTS (Continued) Item Page Aldo Leopold Shack EIS-43 Nonassessed Cultural Resources EIS-43...It was here, in and around his still standing cabin, that the late Aldo Leopold wrote some of his famous works. He also wrote about the immediate...the Fox-Wisconsin Portage Site (Wauona Trail); the Zona Gale House; the Old Indian Agency House; the Portage Canal; and the Aldo Leopold Shack. Four

  15. The Evolving Role of Coliforms As Indicators of Unhygienic Processing Conditions in Dairy Foods. (United States)

    Martin, Nicole H; Trmčić, Aljoša; Hsieh, Tsung-Han; Boor, Kathryn J; Wiedmann, Martin


    Testing for coliforms has a long history in the dairy industry and has helped to identify raw milk and dairy products that may have been exposed to unsanitary conditions. Coliform standards are included in a number of regulatory documents (e.g., the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Ordinance). As a consequence, detection above a threshold of members of this method-defined, but diverse, group of bacteria can result in a wide range of regulatory outcomes. Coliforms are defined as aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, Gram negative, non-sporeforming rods capable of fermenting lactose to produce gas and acid within 48 h at 32-35°C; 19 genera currently include at least some strains that represent coliforms. Most bacterial genera that comprise the coliform group (e.g., Escherichia , Klebsiella , and Serratia ) are within the family Enterobacteriaceae, while at least one genus with strains recognized as coliforms, Aeromonas , is in the family Aeromonadaceae. The presence of coliforms has long been thought to indicate fecal contamination, however, recent discoveries regarding this diverse group of bacteria indicates that only a fraction are fecal in origin, while the majority are environmental contaminants. In the US dairy industry in particular, testing for coliforms as indicators of unsanitary conditions and post-processing contamination is widespread. While coliforms are easily and rapidly detected, and are not found in pasteurized dairy products that have not been exposed to post-processing contamination, advances in knowledge of bacterial populations most commonly associated with post-processing contamination in dairy foods has led to questions regarding the utility of coliforms as indicators of unsanitary conditions for dairy products. For example, Pseudomonas spp. frequently contaminate dairy products after pasteurization, yet they are not detected by coliform tests. This review will address the role that coliforms play in raw and

  16. The Evolving Role of Coliforms as Indicators of Unhygienic Processing Conditions in Dairy Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Helen Martin


    Full Text Available Testing for coliforms has a long history in the dairy industry and has helped to identify raw milk and dairy products that may have been exposed to unsanitary conditions. Coliform standards are included in a number of regulatory documents (e.g., the U. S. Food and Drug Administration’s Grade A Pasteurized Milk Ordinance. As a consequence, detection above a threshold of members of this method-defined, but diverse, group of bacteria can result in a wide range of regulatory outcomes. Coliforms are defined as aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, Gram negative, non-sporeforming rods capable of fermenting lactose to produce gas and acid within 48 hours at 32-35°C; 19 genera currently include at least some strains that represent coliforms. Most bacterial genera that comprise the coliform group (e.g., Escherichia, Klebsiella and Serratia are within the family Enterobacteriaceae, while at least one genus with strains recognized as coliforms, Aeromonas, is in the family Aeromonadaceae. The presence of coliforms has long been thought to indicate fecal contamination, however, recent discoveries regarding this diverse group of bacteria indicates that only a fraction are fecal in origin, while the majority are environmental contaminants. In the US dairy industry in particular, testing for coliforms as indicators of unsanitary conditions and post-processing contamination is widespread. While coliforms are easily and rapidly detected, and are not found in pasteurized dairy products that have not been exposed to post-processing contamination, advances in knowledge of bacterial populations most commonly associated with post-processing contamination in dairy foods has led to questions regarding the utility of coliforms as indicators of unsanitary conditions for dairy products. For example, Pseudomonas spp. frequently contaminate dairy products after pasteurization, yet they are not detected by coliform tests. This review will address the role that coliforms play

  17. The Evolving Role of Coliforms As Indicators of Unhygienic Processing Conditions in Dairy Foods (United States)

    Martin, Nicole H.; Trmčić, Aljoša; Hsieh, Tsung-Han; Boor, Kathryn J.; Wiedmann, Martin


    Testing for coliforms has a long history in the dairy industry and has helped to identify raw milk and dairy products that may have been exposed to unsanitary conditions. Coliform standards are included in a number of regulatory documents (e.g., the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s Grade “A” Pasteurized Milk Ordinance). As a consequence, detection above a threshold of members of this method-defined, but diverse, group of bacteria can result in a wide range of regulatory outcomes. Coliforms are defined as aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, Gram negative, non-sporeforming rods capable of fermenting lactose to produce gas and acid within 48 h at 32–35°C; 19 genera currently include at least some strains that represent coliforms. Most bacterial genera that comprise the coliform group (e.g., Escherichia, Klebsiella, and Serratia) are within the family Enterobacteriaceae, while at least one genus with strains recognized as coliforms, Aeromonas, is in the family Aeromonadaceae. The presence of coliforms has long been thought to indicate fecal contamination, however, recent discoveries regarding this diverse group of bacteria indicates that only a fraction are fecal in origin, while the majority are environmental contaminants. In the US dairy industry in particular, testing for coliforms as indicators of unsanitary conditions and post-processing contamination is widespread. While coliforms are easily and rapidly detected, and are not found in pasteurized dairy products that have not been exposed to post-processing contamination, advances in knowledge of bacterial populations most commonly associated with post-processing contamination in dairy foods has led to questions regarding the utility of coliforms as indicators of unsanitary conditions for dairy products. For example, Pseudomonas spp. frequently contaminate dairy products after pasteurization, yet they are not detected by coliform tests. This review will address the role that coliforms play in raw and

  18. Invited review: Sustainable forage and grain crop production for the US dairy industry. (United States)

    Martin, N P; Russelle, M P; Powell, J M; Sniffen, C J; Smith, S I; Tricarico, J M; Grant, R J


    A resilient US dairy industry will be underpinned by forage and crop production systems that are economically, environmentally, and socially sustainable. Land use for production of perennial and annual forages and grains for dairy cattle must evolve in response to multiple food security and environmental sustainability issues. These include increasing global populations; higher incomes and demand for dairy and other animal products; climate change with associated temperature and moisture changes; necessary reductions in carbon and water footprints; maintenance of soil quality and soil nutrient concerns; and competition for land. Likewise, maintaining producer profitability and utilizing practices accepted by consumers and society generally must also be considered. Predicted changes in climate and water availability will likely challenge current feed and dairy production systems and their national spatial distribution, particularly the western migration of dairy production in the late 20th century. To maintain and stabilize profitability while reducing carbon footprint, particularly reductions in methane emission and enhancements in soil carbon sequestration, dairy production will need to capitalize on genetic and management innovations that enhance forage and grain production and nutritive value. Improved regional and on-farm integration of feed production and manure utilization is needed to reduce environmental nitrogen and phosphorus losses and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Resilient and flexible feed production strategies are needed to address each of these challenges and opportunities to ensure profitable feeding of dairy cattle and a sustainable dairy industry. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

  19. Energy demand on dairy farms in Ireland. (United States)

    Upton, J; Humphreys, J; Groot Koerkamp, P W G; French, P; Dillon, P; De Boer, I J M


    Reducing electricity consumption in Irish milk production is a topical issue for 2 reasons. First, the introduction of a dynamic electricity pricing system, with peak and off-peak prices, will be a reality for 80% of electricity consumers by 2020. The proposed pricing schedule intends to discourage energy consumption during peak periods (i.e., when electricity demand on the national grid is high) and to incentivize energy consumption during off-peak periods. If farmers, for example, carry out their evening milking during the peak period, energy costs may increase, which would affect farm profitability. Second, electricity consumption is identified in contributing to about 25% of energy use along the life cycle of pasture-based milk. The objectives of this study, therefore, were to document electricity use per kilogram of milk sold and to identify strategies that reduce its overall use while maximizing its use in off-peak periods (currently from 0000 to 0900 h). We assessed, therefore, average daily and seasonal trends in electricity consumption on 22 Irish dairy farms, through detailed auditing of electricity-consuming processes. To determine the potential of identified strategies to save energy, we also assessed total energy use of Irish milk, which is the sum of the direct (i.e., energy use on farm) and indirect energy use (i.e., energy needed to produce farm inputs). On average, a total of 31.73 MJ was required to produce 1 kg of milk solids, of which 20% was direct and 80% was indirect energy use. Electricity accounted for 60% of the direct energy use, and mainly resulted from milk cooling (31%), water heating (23%), and milking (20%). Analysis of trends in electricity consumption revealed that 62% of daily electricity was used at peak periods. Electricity use on Irish dairy farms, therefore, is substantial and centered around milk harvesting. To improve the competitiveness of milk production in a dynamic electricity pricing environment, therefore, management

  20. Production and environmental impact of dairy cattle production in Denmark 1900–2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Troels; Aaes, Ole; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis


    and emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) per kg product has been evaluated for the Danish dairy cattle sector based on historic information. Typical farms representing the average situation for Danish dairy cattle farms and land required for feed supply was modeled for the situation in: (A) 1920 – representing......Cattle production during the last century has changed dramatically in Western Europe, including Denmark, with a steady increase in production per animal and in herd and farm size. The effect of these changes on total production, herd efficiency, surplus of nitrogen (N) at herd and farm level...... production and risk of environmental damage. In A, B and C, other livestock such as pigs and hens also played a role, while the dairy farm in 2010 only had cattle. In 1920 and 1950 the farm was based on 7–8 dairy cows producing typically 1800–3400 kg energy-corrected milk (ECM) per cow annually and fed...

  1. Role of nutrition in ethiopathogenesis of health disturbances of dairy cows in periparturient period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinovec Zlatan J.


    Full Text Available The goals of high producing dairy cow nutrition are to provide good health and condition of animals, normal 300-day long lactation, more lactation cycle during exploitation, maximal amount of milk yield with optimal chemical contents, as well as bringing healthy and vital veal once a year. Nutrients metabolism disturbances in dairy cows mostly expressed in periparturient period due to higher demands needed for fetus growth and development, as well as for requirements for lactation. Energy metabolism disorder in dairy cows mostly appeared as kethosis complicated with liver fatty acid accumulation that firstly caused fatty infiltration and later fatty degeneration of hepatocytes. Besides energy, in this period changes of mineral status are very common as consequences of higher mineral deposition in skeleton of fetus, and secretion via milk by beginning of the lactation. Mineral metabolism disorder in dairy cows, firstly calcium, mostly appeared as paresis and paralysis. Dairy cows peripartal metabolic disturbances are very dependent and caused among themselves commonly leading to mutual appearance. That’s why the meal for high producing dairy cow in periparturient period have to be optimal balanced not only according to amount of some nutrients, but their relationship, as well as their influences on metabolic pathways and homeostasis.

  2. 7 CFR 1005.10 - Producer-handler. (United States)


    ... (d) Provides proof satisfactory to the market administrator that the care and management of the dairy... packaging operations are the producer-handler's own enterprise and are operated at the producer-handler's own risk. (e) Any producer-handler with Class I route dispositions and/or transfers of packaged fluid...

  3. 7 CFR 1006.10 - Producer-handler. (United States)


    ... (d) Provides proof satisfactory to the market administrator that the care and management of the dairy... packaging operations, are the producer-handler's own enterprise and are operated at the producer-handler's own risk. (e) Any producer-handler with Class I route dispositions and/or transfers of packaged fluid...

  4. 7 CFR 1007.10 - Producer-handler. (United States)


    ... (d) Provides proof satisfactory to the market administrator that the care and management of the dairy... packaging operations, are the producer-handler's own enterprise and are operated at the producer-handler's own risk. (e) Any producer-handler with Class I route dispositions and/or transfers of packaged fluid...

  5. Efficiency of dairy production on a family farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Grgić


    Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation of economic efficiency of dairyproduction on a family farm with 14 dairy cows in the breeding stock, and with average production from 3.206 to 3.407 lit. of milk annually. On the basis of survey data for three-year period from 1998 to 2000, economic indicators were calculated, as well as the cost price of milk, income and the revenue of total production and per production head. In the family farm with an average annual sale from 2.827 to 2.972 lit. of milk per head, total revenue has been realized from 44.884 to 47.695 kuna and the profit from 606 to 8.515 kuna. Revenues per production head were from 5.655 to 6.495 kuna and the profitfrom 177 to 726 kuna. The milk cost price in the analyzed period was 1.71, 1.66 and 1.69 kn. per lit, and the profit per liter of milk was 0.06, and 0.21 kn. Basic economic indicators point out on efficiency of dairy production for the investigated farm on the stated production level. The biggest influence on the dairy production efficiency on the farm, regarding the cost price structure, has been registered from the costs of fodder production, while the favorable parity of the cost price and producer-sale price of milk determines the increase in dairy production efficiency and income from dairy production in the analyzed period.

  6. A survey of bacteria found in Belgian dairy farm products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N'Guessan, E.


    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Due to the potential hazards caused by pathogenic bacteria, farm dairy production remains a challenge from the point of view of food safety. As part of a public program to support farm diversification and short food supply chains, farm dairy product samples including yogurt, ice cream, raw-milk butter and cheese samples were collected from 318 Walloon farm producers between 2006 and 2014. Objectives. Investigation of the microbiological quality of the Belgian dairy products using the guidelines provided by the European food safety standards. Method. The samples were collected within the framework of the self-checking regulation. In accordance with the European Regulation EC 2073/2005, microbiological analyses were performed to detect and count Enterobacteriaceae, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Results. Even when results met the microbiological safety standards, hygienic indicator microorganisms like E. coli and S. aureus exceeded the defined limits in 35% and 4% of butter and cheese samples, respectively. Unsatisfactory levels observed for soft cheeses remained higher (10% and 2% for S. aureus and L. monocytogenes respectively than those observed for pressed cheeses (3% and 1% and fresh cheeses (3% and 0% (P ≥ 0.05. Furthermore, the percentages of samples outside legal limits were not significantly higher in the summer months than in winter months for all mentioned bacteria. Conclusions. This survey showed that most farm dairy products investigated were microbiologically safe. However, high levels of hygiene indicators (e.g., E. coli in some products, like butter, remind us of applying good hygienic practices at every stage of the dairy production process to ensure consumer safety.

  7. Immunological dysfunction role in transition dairy cow health disorders: biotherapeutics for disease prevention (United States)

    With a $40.5 billion Gross Domestic Value for milk produced in the U.S. during 2013, the dairy industry was the third largest sector of the 2013 U.S. animal agriculture economic engine. The value of milk produced in 2013 represented 24% of the total value of animal agriculture production; this figu...

  8. Quick scan developments dairy markets for GDF-business partner BASF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daatselaar, C.H.G.; Beldman, A.C.G.; Prins, A.M.


    With the increasing consumption of milk and dairy products in some of the major developing markets and the fall of the quota system in the major milk producing region, Europe, milk producers are getting ready for the new opportunities. Simultaneously China, as a state controlled economy is

  9. Immune Dysfunction in Transition Dairy Cows: Pharmacologic and Dietary Immune Modulation (United States)

    With a $40.5 billion Gross Domestic Value for milk produced in the U.S. during 2013, the dairy industry was the third largest sector of the 2013 U.S. animal agriculture economic engine. The value of milk produced in 2013 represented 24% of the total value of animal agriculture production; this figu...

  10. Immune dysfunction in periparturient dairy cows: Insight into pharmacologic and dietary immune treatments (United States)

    With a $40.5 billion Gross Domestic Value for milk produced in the U.S. during 2013, the dairy industry was the third largest sector of the 2013 U.S. animal agriculture economic engine. The value of milk produced in 2013 represented 24% of the total value of animal agriculture production; this figu...

  11. Assessment of Small-scale Buffalo Milk Dairy Production-A Premise for a Durable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian MIHAIU


    Full Text Available Buffalo husbandry is an important source of income for a number of small-scale producers in Romania that is why an assessment of its products quality is much needed for improvement and evaluation of their vulnerability to international competition. In order to ascertain possible developments in the buffalo dairy sector and to broadly identify areas of intervention that favor small-scale dairy producers, the study examined the potential to improve buffalo milk production by evaluating its authenticity and hygienic quality. The methods used involved the molecular testing (PCR-technique for identifying cow, sheep or goat DNA in the dairy products samples collected from the small-scale producers market. The hygienic quality of these samples was determined through classical microbiology methods, highly developed techniques (Trek System and PCR for bacterial species confirmation. The results showed that a high percent (65%, from the products found were adulterated with other species milk, mostly cow milk. The most commonly falsified buffalo dairy products were the cheese and the traditional product telemea. The prevalence of the bacterial species identified belonged to Listeria innocua and Listeria welshmeri. The conclusion of this study is the need of a durable development system in this particular dairy chain to improve and assure the authenticity and quality of the small-scale producers products and their reliability for the consumers.

  12. Perceptions of Dairy Farmers of Gadag district in northwestern part of Karnataka state, India regarding Clean Milk Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivakumar K. Radder and S.K. Bhanj


    Full Text Available Clean milk production is one important aspect in enhancing the quality of milk. It is important to know farmers' perception about it. With this view, present study was undertaken with the objective of understanding perception of dairy farmers about clean milk production. The study was conducted in six villages of Gadag district of Karnataka state. A total of 180 respondents were interviewed. Perceptions of the farmers regarding family manpower involved in dairy farming, personnel involved in milking, dairy income, intention to produce clean milk, price dependence for following clean milk production, reasons for following cleanliness measures in milk production, sale price received for milk and satisfaction for the price they received for milk were studied. Most of the dairy farmers expressed their willingness to follow clean milk production measures. Further, most of them were ready to follow such measures even if they were not paid more price for milk. Farmers practiced clean milk production measures mainly to follow regulations at the dairy co-operative society followed by to avoid spoilage of milk. Dairy farmers largely neglected impact of cleanliness on animals' udder and health, about milk contamination causing health hazards. Milking was mainly a domain of women. For over 80 % farmers, dairy farming provided a moderate income as portion of their total family income. Majority of the producers were not satisfied with price they were getting for milk. Hence, the study recommends, requisite facilities and guidelines from the agencies concerned are needed to be provided to the dairy farmers to adopt clean milk production practices. Proper education to the farmers regarding importance of clean milk production from health, marketing and animal health point of views needs to be given. There is need to give more importance to women in dairy farmers' trainings. The study also suggests offering satisfactory price for milk to hasten the process of

  13. Radiation methods in dairy production and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguli, N.C.


    Various uses of radiotracers and radiation in dairy technology are described. In dairy production, radiotracers are used for studying: (1) rumen metabolism leading to protein synthesis (2) total body water, blood volume and sodium (3) minerals metabolism (4) relation between climatic stress and thyroid functioning of dairy animals (5) volume of milk in mammary glands (6) hormone level in dairy animals and (7) spermatozoa metabolism. In dairy processing, radiotracers are used for studying: (1) compositional analysis of milk and milk products and (2) efficiency of cleaning agents for cleaning dairy equipment. Ionizing radiation is used for: (1) preservation of milk and milk products and (2) sterilization of packaging materials. Radiation source has been used to monitor the over-run in ice-cream and the fill control for fluid in papar cartons. (M.G.B.)

  14. Input and service provision supply methods in mixed crop-livestock production systems in South-Ethiopia: Improvement options from a dairy perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terefe, T.; Lee, van der J.


    This study was conducted in the Dale and Shebedino districts of southern Ethiopia during the period October 2014 to January 2015. It investigates dairy-related input and service provision in mixed crop-livestock production systems. Data were collected from 120 dairy producers, six focus group

  15. Potential of indigenous lactobacilli as starter culture in dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojanić-Rašović Mirjana


    Full Text Available Traditional production of fermented dairy products involves lactic acid bacteria that are normally present in the milk and production environment. These lactic acid bacteria represent the niche microbiota of the geographical area and they are responsible for local types of fermented products. In order to standardize indigenous products, the basic requirement is the application of the determined indigenous lactic acid bacteria as starter cultures affecting their specific characteristics by performing fermentation and influencing the ripening process. In the process of cheese fermentation usually participate bacteria of the genus Lactococcus and homofermentative lactobacilli. However, the process ripening is influenced mainly by the so-called nonstarter lactic acid bacteria - lactobacilli and secondary microflora. Lactobacilli during ripening of cheese continue to breakdown the rest of lactose, but they are primarily important in the process of protein breakdown. During metabolism of sugars and amino acids, lactobacilli produce aromatic compounds which have a positive effect on the flavor of the product. Some species of lactobacilli are available as probiotics. Some lactobacilli produce bacteriocins, which prevent the growth of pathogens, as well as many spoilage microorganisms. Indigenous lactobacilli have application especially in the production of typical local dairy products that are well accepted by the local population. Besides that, the use of indigenous lactic acid bacteria as starter cultures allows the production of cheese with designated geographical origin that could be placed on the international market. Consequently, indigenous lactic acid bacteria are a challenge for further research and possible their practical application in the dairy industry.

  16. Effect of Dairy Beef Quality Assurance Training on Dairy Worker Knowledge and Welfare-Related Practices (United States)

    Adams, Ashley E.; Ahola, Jason K.; Chahine, Mireille; Roman-Muniz, I. Noa


    A study was conducted to determine whether on-farm dairy beef quality assurance (BQA) training affected dairy worker knowledge of BQA and welfare-related practices. Dairy personnel who participated in the BQA training were administered an exam before and after the training to gauge the amount of knowledge gained. The average exam score was 21.0…

  17. Measures to improve dairy cow foot health: consequences for farmer income and dairy cow welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnis, M.R.N.; Hogeveen, H.; Stassen, E.N.


    Dairy farming in western countries with cubicle housing is an efficient way of dairy farming. Though, a disadvantage is the high prevalence and incidence of foot disorders (clinical and subclinical), which cause high economic losses and also seriously impair the welfare of dairy cattle. To point out

  18. Trends in dairy and non-dairy probiotic products - a review. (United States)

    Vijaya Kumar, Bathal; Vijayendra, Sistla Venkata Naga; Reddy, Obulam Vijaya Sarathi


    Health awareness has grown to a greater extent among consumers and they are looking for healthy probiotic counterparts. Keeping in this view, the present review focuses recent developments in dairy and non-dairy probiotic products. All over the world, dairy probiotics are being commercialized in many different forms. However, the allergy and lactose intolerance are the major set-backs to dairy probiotics. Whereas, flavor and refreshing nature are the major advantages of non-dairy drinks, especially fruit juices. Phenotypic and genotypic similarities between dairy and non-dairy probiotics along with the matrix dependency of cell viability and cell functionality are reviewed. The heterogeneous food matrices of non-dairy food carriers are the major constraints for the survival of the probiotics, while the probiotic strains from non-dairy sources are satisfactory. Technological and functional properties, besides the viability of the probiotics used in fermented products of non-dairy origin are extremely important to get a competitive advantage in the world market. The functional attributes of dairy and non-dairy probiotic products are further enhanced by adding prebiotics such as galacto-oligosaccharide, fructo-oligosaccharide and inulin.

  19. Invited review : Changes in the dairy industry affecting dairy cattle health and welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barkema, H W; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Kastelic, J P; Lam, T J G M; Luby, C; Roy, J-P; LeBlanc, S J; Keefe, G P; Kelton, D F


    The dairy industry in the developed world has undergone profound changes over recent decades. In this paper, we present an overview of some of the most important recent changes in the dairy industry that affect health and welfare of dairy cows, as well as the science associated with these changes.

  20. Heavy metals in wild rice from northern Wisconsin (United States)

    Bennett, J.P.; Chiriboga, E.; Coleman, J.; Waller, D.M.


    Wild rice grain samples from various parts of the world have been found to have elevated concentrations of heavy metals, raising concern for potential effects on human health. It was hypothesized that wild rice from north-central Wisconsin could potentially have elevated concentrations of some heavy metals because of possible exposure to these elements from the atmosphere or from water and sediments. In addition, no studies of heavy metals in wild rice from Wisconsin had been performed, and a baseline study was needed for future comparisons. Wild rice plants were collected from four areas in Bayfield, Forest, Langlade, Oneida, Sawyer and Wood Counties in September, 1997 and 1998 and divided into four plant parts for elemental analyses: roots, stems, leaves and seeds. A total of 194 samples from 51 plants were analyzed across the localities, with an average of 49 samples per part depending on the element. Samples were cleaned of soil, wet digested, and analyzed by ICP for Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mg, Pb, Se and Zn. Roots contained the highest concentrations of Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se. Copper was highest in both roots and seeds, while Zn was highest just in seeds. Magnesium was highest in leaves. Seed baseline ranges for the 10 elements were established using the 95% confidence intervals of the medians. Wild rice plants from northern Wisconsin had normal levels of the nutritional elements Cu, Mg and Zn in the seeds. Silver, Cd, Hg, Cr, and Se were very low in concentration or within normal limits for food plants. Arsenic and Pb, however, were elevated and could pose a problem for human health. The pathway for As, Hg and Pb to the plants could be atmospheric.

  1. Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin Energy Optimization Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troge, Michael [Little Bear Development Center, Oneida, WI (United States)


    Oneida Nation is located in Northeast Wisconsin. The reservation is approximately 96 square miles (8 miles x 12 miles), or 65,000 acres. The greater Green Bay area is east and adjacent to the reservation. A county line roughly splits the reservation in half; the west half is in Outagamie County and the east half is in Brown County. Land use is predominantly agriculture on the west 2/3 and suburban on the east 1/3 of the reservation. Nearly 5,000 tribally enrolled members live in the reservation with a total population of about 21,000. Tribal ownership is scattered across the reservation and is about 23,000 acres. Currently, the Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin (OTIW) community members and facilities receive the vast majority of electrical and natural gas services from two of the largest investor-owned utilities in the state, WE Energies and Wisconsin Public Service. All urban and suburban buildings have access to natural gas. About 15% of the population and five Tribal facilities are in rural locations and therefore use propane as a primary heating fuel. Wood and oil are also used as primary or supplemental heat sources for a small percent of the population. Very few renewable energy systems, used to generate electricity and heat, have been installed on the Oneida Reservation. This project was an effort to develop a reasonable renewable energy portfolio that will help Oneida to provide a leadership role in developing a clean energy economy. The Energy Optimization Model (EOM) is an exploration of energy opportunities available to the Tribe and it is intended to provide a decision framework to allow the Tribe to make the wisest choices in energy investment with an organizational desire to establish a renewable portfolio standard (RPS).

  2. Strengthening Dairy Cooperative through National Development of Livestock Region


    Priyono; A.Priyanti


    Establishment of dairy cattle development region needs to be conducted in accordance with the national dairy industry development plan. Dairy cattle regions have been designed and equipped with infrastructure supplies, supporting facilities, technologies, finance, processing, marketing, institutional and human resources. Dairy cooperative is one of the marketing channels of milk and milk products which have strategic roles to support the national dairy industry. Collaborations between dairy c...

  3. Bioactive Lipids in Dairy Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars; Nordby, Pernille


    Milk fat is the most important energy source for the newborn infant beside its important role as energy source, milk fat also contain a range of bioactive lipids, that potentially can modulate the immune response and metabolic regulation in the child. In this chapter we review the literature...... on bioactive dairy fatty acids: conjugated linoleic acid, branched chained and odd chained fatty acids, as well as bioactive complex lipids such as sphingomyelin and gangliosides....

  4. Metagenomic Analysis of Dairy Bacteriophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhammed, Musemma K.; Kot, Witold; Neve, Horst


    Despite their huge potential for characterizing the biodiversity of phages, metagenomic studies are currently not available for dairy bacteriophages, partly due to the lack of a standard procedure for phage extraction. We optimized an extraction method that allows to remove the bulk protein from ...... diversity. Possible co-induction of temperate P335 prophages and satellite phages in one of the whey mixtures was also observed....

  5. Analysis of nursing home use and bed supply: Wisconsin, 1983.


    Nyman, J A


    This article presents evidence that in 1983 excess demand was a prevailing characteristic of nursing home care markets in Wisconsin, a state with one of the highest bed to elderly population ratios. It further shows that excess demand is the source of at least three types of error in use-based estimates of the determinants of the need for nursing home care. First, if excess demand is present, estimates of the determinants of Medicaid use may simply represent a crowding out of Medicaid patient...

  6. Northern red oak volume growth on four northern Wisconsin habitat types (United States)

    Michael Demchik; Kevin M. Schwartz; Rory Braun; Eric. Scharenbrock


    Northern red oak (Quercus rubra) grows across much of Wisconsin. Using site factors to aid in prediction of volume and basal area increment facilitates management of red oak and other species of interest. Currently, habitat type (Wisconsin Habitat Type Classification System) is often determined when stands are inventoried. If habitat type were...

  7. 78 FR 65875 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Removal of Gasoline... (United States)


    ...] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Removal of Gasoline Vapor... Administrative Code, Chapter NR 420 Control of Organic Compound Emissions from Petroleum and Gasoline Sources... FROM PETROLEUM AND GASOLINE SOURCES. NR 420.01 as published in the (Wisconsin) Register, February, 1990...

  8. Hydrogeology of southwestern Sheboygan County, Wisconsin, in the vicinity of the Kettle Moraine Springs fish hatchery (United States)

    Conlon, T.D.


    This report describes the hydrogeology of the dolomite aquifer of Silurian age and its relation to springs in a study area in southwestern Sheboygan County, Wisconsin. The study was conducted at the Kettle Moraine Springs fish hatchery in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  9. Estimating outside-bark stem volume to any top diameter for ash in Wisconsin (United States)

    Paul F. Doruska; Timothy D. Hart


    The future of Wisconsin's estimated 742 million ash trees (5 million of which are in urban settings composing 20 percent of Wisconsin's urban forests) is being considered based on the presence of the emerald ash borer. Part of this discussion includes the stem volumes of these ash trees.

  10. Tree seed handling, processing, testing, and storage at Hayward State Nursery, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (United States)

    Gordon Christians


    The Hayward State Nursery, Wisconsin grows more than 40 species from seeds. Up to 6000 bushels of raw unprocessed tree and shrub seeds are collected each year, and all seeds are collected in Wisconsin or adjacent states. All white spruce (Picea glauca) and some white pine seeds (Pinus strobus) are collected from orchards containing...

  11. 75 FR 71108 - Wisconsin Public Service Corporation; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and... (United States)


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Wisconsin Public Service Corporation; Notice of Application for Amendment of... Filed: June 30, 2010. d. Applicant: Wisconsin Public Service Corporation. e. Name of Project: Tomahawk... the following hydroelectric application has been filed with the Commission and is available for public...

  12. 77 FR 40608 - Wisconsin Electric Power Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order (United States)


    ... accounting treatment of a coal contract buydown; and (2) waiver of the Commission's fuel clause regulation to allow Wisconsin Electric to recoup the cost of the coal contract buydown through Wisconsin Electric's cost-based, Formula Rate Wholesale Sales Tariff. Any person desiring to intervene or to protest this...

  13. 78 FR 48900 - Notice of Inventory Completion: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)


    .... 3003, of the completion of an inventory of human remains under the control of the State Historical....R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, WI AGENCY... Wisconsin has completed an inventory of human remains, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes or...

  14. 40 CFR 81.30 - Southeastern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. (United States)


    ... Quality Control Region. 81.30 Section 81.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.30 Southeastern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Milwaukee Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Wisconsin) has been renamed the Southeastern...

  15. 78 FR 44596 - Notice of Inventory Completion: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)


    ... address in this notice by August 23, 2013. ADDRESSES: Jennifer Kolb, Wisconsin Historical Museum, 30 North Carroll Street, Madison, WI 53703, telephone (608) 261-2461, email request to Jennifer Kolb, Wisconsin Historical Museum, 30 North Carroll Street, Madison, WI 53703...

  16. Revolution and Counter-Revolution: Network Mobilization to Preserve Public Education in Wisconsin (United States)

    Kelley, Carolyn; Mead, Julie


    In this article, Kelley and Mead consider changes in the policymaking process in Wisconsin before the election of Governor Walker, in the early years following his election, and in the months preceding passage of the 2015-17 biennial budget. Kelley and Mead argue that in Wisconsin, serious and significant attacks to public education motivated by…

  17. Survival rates and lifetime reproduction of breeding male Cooper’s Hawks in Wisconsin, 1980-2005 (United States)

    Rosenfield, Robert N.; Bielefeldt, John; Rosenfield, Laura J.; Booms, Travis L.; Bozek, Michael A.


    There are few published data on annual survival and no reports of lifetime reproduction for breeding Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii). Breeding males (n  =  105) in central and southeastern Wisconsin had an annual mortality rate of 19%, or a survival rate of 81% for birds ≤10 years of age. We did not detect significant differences in mortality rates between urban and rural habitats, nor between the earlier 13 years and later 13 years of this study. Male Cooper's Hawks produced from zero to 32 nestlings during their lifetimes. Body mass or size appeared unrelated to annual survivorship and lifetime reproduction, although lifetime reproduction was correlated strongly with longevity of breeding males. Fifteen of 66 males (23%) produced most (53%) of the nestlings. Our studies occurred in an area where breeding populations may be increasing with some of the highest reported productivity indices and nesting densities for this species. Habitat used for nesting on our Wisconsin study areas may be less important for survivorship and lifetime reproduction than acquisition of a nesting area in which a male will breed throughout his life.

  18. Assessment of Small-scale Buffalo Milk Dairy Production-A Premise for a Durable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian MIHAIU


    Full Text Available Buffalo husbandry is an important source of income for a number of small-scale producers in Romania that is why an assessment of its� product�s quality is much needed for improvement and evaluation of their vulnerability to international competition. In order to ascertain possible developments in the buffalo dairy sector and to broadly identify areas of intervention that favor small-scale dairy producers, the study examined the potential to improve buffalo milk production by evaluating its authenticity and hygienic quality. The methods used involved the molecular testing (PCR-technique for identifying cow, sheep or goat DNA in the dairy products� samples collected from the small-scale producers market. The hygienic quality of these samples was determined through classical microbiology methods, highly developed techniques (Trek System and PCR for bacterial species confirmation. The results showed that a high percent (65%, from the products found were adulterated with other species milk, mostly cow milk. The most commonly falsified buffalo dairy products were the cheese and the traditional product �telemea�. The prevalence of the bacterial species identified belonged to Listeria innocua and Listeria welshmeri. The conclusion of this study is the need of a durable development system in this particular dairy chain to improve and assure the authenticity and quality of the small-scale producers� products and their reliability for the consumers.

  19. Nutrition and Health Disparities: The Role of Dairy in Improving Minority Health Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance Brown-Riggs


    Full Text Available Consuming a balanced diet, such as the food groups represented on MyPlate, is key to improving health disparities. Despite the best of intentions, however, the dietary guidelines can be culturally challenging, particularly when it comes to dairy consumption. Many African and Hispanic Americans avoid milk and dairy products—key contributors of three shortfall nutrients (calcium, potassium and vitamin D—because many people in these populations believe they are lactose intolerant. However, avoiding dairy can have significant health effects. An emerging body of evidence suggests that yogurt and other dairy products may help support reduced risk of heart disease, hypertension, obesity, and type 2 diabetes—conditions that disproportionately impact people of color. For this reason, the National Medical Association and the National Hispanic Medical Association issued a joint consensus statement recommending African Americans consume three to four servings of low-fat dairy every day. Cultured dairy products could play an important role in addressing these recommendations. Because of the presence of lactase-producing cultures, yogurt is often a more easily digestible alternative to milk, and thus more palatable to people who experience symptoms of lactose intolerance. This was a key factor cited in the final rule to include yogurt in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children.

  20. Demonstration of the Whole-Building Diagnostician for the Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse at Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and for the University of Wisconsin at Madison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, Nathan N.; Hail, John C.


    In an effort to expand the energy savings programs within the State, the Wisconsin Division of Energy obtained funding through the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), with additional funding assistance through the Rebuild America Program (RBA) to install the Whole Building Diagnostician (WBD) software program as a test bed project in two of the State’s facilities in Wisconsin. This report discusses the results of this effort.

  1. Chromosomal Diversity in Lactococcus lactis and the Origin of Dairy Starter Cultures (United States)

    Kelly, William J.; Ward, Lawrence J. H.; Leahy, Sinead C.


    A large collection of Lactococcus lactis strains, including wild-type isolates and dairy starter cultures, were screened on the basis of their phenotype and the macrorestriction patterns produced from pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of SmaI digests of genomic DNA. Three groups of dairy starter cultures, used for different purposes in the dairy industry, and a fourth group made up of strains isolated from the environment were selected for analysis of their chromosomal diversity using the endonuclease I-CeuI. Chromosome architecture was largely conserved with each strain having six copies of the rRNA genes, and the chromosome size of individual strains ranged between 2,240 and 2,688 kb. The origin of L. lactis strains showed the greatest correlation with chromosome size, and dairy strains, particularly those with the cremoris phenotype, had smaller chromosomes than wild-type strains. Overall, this study, coupled with analysis of the sequenced L. lactis genomes, provides evidence that defined strain dairy starter cultures have arisen from plant L. lactis strains. Adaptation of these strains to the dairy environment has involved loss of functions resulting in smaller chromosomes and acquisition of genes (usually plasmid associated) that facilitate growth in milk. We conclude that dairy starter cultures generally and the industrially used cremoris and diacetylactis phenotype strains in particular comprise a specialized group of L. lactis strains that have been selected to become an essential component of industrial processes and have evolved accordingly, so that they are no longer fit to survive outside the dairy environment. PMID:20847124

  2. Dairy reproductive management: assessing a comprehensive continuing education program for veterinary practitioners. (United States)

    Schuenemann, Gustavo M; Bas, Santiago; Workman, Jeffrey D; Rajala-Schultz, Päivi J


    Comprehensive continuing veterinary medical education (CVME) programs are critical for veterinary practitioners to update their knowledge and improve their skills and services. CVME must offer an educational environment in which veterinarians can effectively rejuvenate their knowledge and skills and learn about new practices. The Ohio Dairy Health and Management Certificate Program is a comprehensive CVME program for practicing dairy veterinarians that was developed to provide advanced training on previously identified needs of the dairy industry. Our objectives in this article were (1) to provide a description of a comprehensive CVME program designed to enhance the flow of applied, research-based knowledge from educators and researchers to dairy veterinary practitioners and (2) to provide an assessment of outcomes achieved and experiences gained after the delivery of the first two modules on advanced dairy reproductive management. Findings from the two reproductive modules suggested that (1) the designed dairy reproductive management program was able to meet the participants' educational needs, (2) the implemented delivery methods significantly increased participants' knowledge level, and (3) additional educational needs should be addressed with future programming. In conclusion, results from the participants' self-reports suggested that both reproductive modules were relevant and effective, offering new information with immediate field application. These types of educational programs are important for dairy veterinary practitioners because they are a vital source of information and service providers for dairy producers. For the program to be considered completely successful, a detailed follow-up assessment of participants' behavior change, adoption of new practices and skills, and their on-farm impact is needed.

  3. A qualitative risk assessment approach for Swiss dairy products: opportunities and limitations. (United States)

    Menéndez González, S; Hartnack, S; Berger, T; Doherr, M; Breidenbach, E


    Switzerland implemented a risk-based monitoring of Swiss dairy products in 2002 based on a risk assessment (RA) that considered the probability of exceeding a microbiological limit value set by law. A new RA was launched in 2007 to review and further develop the previous assessment, and to make recommendations for future risk-based monitoring according to current risks. The resulting qualitative RA was designed to ascertain the risk to human health from the consumption of Swiss dairy products. The products and microbial hazards to be considered in the RA were determined based on a risk profile. The hazards included Campylobacter spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, coagulase-positive staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin. The release assessment considered the prevalence of the hazards in bulk milk samples, the influence of the process parameters on the microorganisms, and the influence of the type of dairy. The exposure assessment was linked to the production volume. An overall probability was estimated combining the probabilities of release and exposure for each combination of hazard, dairy product and type of dairy. This overall probability represents the likelihood of a product from a certain type of dairy exceeding the microbiological limit value and being passed on to the consumer. The consequences could not be fully assessed due to lack of detailed information on the number of disease cases caused by the consumption of dairy products. The results were expressed as a ranking of overall probabilities. Finally, recommendations for the design of the risk-based monitoring programme and for filling the identified data gaps were given. The aims of this work were (i) to present the qualitative RA approach for Swiss dairy products, which could be adapted to other settings and (ii) to discuss the opportunities and limitations of the qualitative method. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Occurrence, genotyping, shiga toxin genes and associated risk factors of E. coli isolated from dairy farms, handlers and milk consumers. (United States)

    Awadallah, M A; Ahmed, H A; Merwad, A M; Selim, M A


    The objectives of the current study were to determine the occurrence and genotypes of E. coli in dairy farms, workers and milk consumers and to evaluate risk factors associated with contamination of milk in dairy farms. Molecular characterization of shiga toxin associated genes and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR) finger printing of E. coli from different sources were also studied. Paired milk samples and rectal swabs from 125 dairy cows, rectal swabs from 82 calves and hand swabs from 45 dairy workers from five dairy farms were collected. In addition, 100 stool samples from 70 diarrheic and 30 healthy humans were collected and examined for the presence of E. coli. E. coli was isolated from milk (22.4%), dairy cattle feces (33.6%), calf feces (35.4%), dairy worker hand swabs (11.1%) and stools of milk consumers (2%, from diarrheic patients only). Only stx1 was identified in seven of 12 E. coli O125 isolated from different sources. High genetic diversity was determined (Simpson's index of diversity, D = 1) and E. coli O125 isolates were classified into 12 distinct profiles, E1-E12. The dendrogram analysis showed that two main clusters were generated. Mastitis in dairy cows was considered a risk factor associated with contamination of the produced milk with E. coli. The isolation of E. coli from rectal swabs of dairy cows and calves poses a zoonotic risk through consumption of unpasteurized contaminated dairy milk. Educational awareness should be developed to address risks related to consumption of raw milk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Carbon footprint of Canadian dairy products: calculations and issues. (United States)

    Vergé, X P C; Maxime, D; Dyer, J A; Desjardins, R L; Arcand, Y; Vanderzaag, A


    The Canadian dairy sector is a major industry with about 1 million cows. This industry emits about 20% of the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the main livestock sectors (beef, dairy, swine, and poultry). In 2006, the Canadian dairy herd produced about 7.7 Mt of raw milk, resulting in about 4.4 Mt of dairy products (notably 64% fluid milk and 12% cheese). An integrated cradle-to-gate model (field to processing plant) has been developed to estimate the carbon footprint (CF) of 11 Canadian dairy products. The on-farm part of the model is the Unified Livestock Industry and Crop Emissions Estimation System (ULICEES). It considers all GHG emissions associated with livestock production but, for this study, it was run for the dairy sector specifically. Off-farm GHG emissions were estimated using the Canadian Food Carbon Footprint calculator, (cafoo)(2)-milk. It considers GHG emissions from the farm gate to the exit gate of the processing plants. The CF of the raw milk has been found lower in western provinces [0.93 kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/L of milk] than in eastern provinces (1.12 kg of CO2e/L of milk) because of differences in climate conditions and dairy herd management. Most of the CF estimates of dairy products ranged between 1 and 3 kg of CO2e/kg of product. Three products were, however, significantly higher: cheese (5.3 kg of CO2e/kg), butter (7.3 kg of CO2e/kg), and milk powder (10.1 kg of CO2e/kg). The CF results depend on the milk volume needed, the co-product allocation process (based on milk solids content), and the amount of energy used to manufacture each product. The GHG emissions per kilogram of protein ranged from 13 to 40 kg of CO2e. Two products had higher values: cream and sour cream, at 83 and 78 kg of CO2e/kg, respectively. Finally, the highest CF value was for butter, at about 730 kg of CO2e/kg. This extremely high value is due to the fact that the intensity indicator per kilogram of product is high and that butter is almost exclusively

  6. Glycerol from biodiesel production: the new corn for dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn S Donkin


    inclusion in the diet. Data are lacking regarding the rates of rumen fermentation of glycerol at intake levels for high producing dairy cattle. Current data indicates that glycerol can be included in diets fed to dairy cattle at macro ingredient levels; however, additional information is needed to permit a full appreciation of the feeding value of glycerol and the resulting impact on cow health and productivity.

  7. Kivuguto traditional fermented milk and the dairy industry in Rwanda. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karenzi, E.


    Full Text Available Traditional methods of fermenting milk involve the use of indigenous microorganisms, leading to the production of a variety of tastes in fermented milk products. Kivuguto is a fermented milk product, which is popular in Rwanda. Kivuguto is produced by traditional spontaneous acidification of raw milk by a microflora present both on utensils and containers used for milk preservation and in the near environment of cattle. Thus, this method does not allow the shelf stability of the product. Faced to such a situation, modern dairies now produce fermented milk and other dairy products using exotic strains. The main objectives of this paper are firstly, to provide documentation on the traditional production of kivuguto, as well as its by-products, and secondly, to describe the current situation of the dairy industry in Rwanda.

  8. Modeling Dynamic Processes in Smallholder Dairy Value Chains in Nicaragua: A System Dynamics Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Lie


    Full Text Available In Nicaragua, the production of dairy and beef is the most important source of household income for many smallholder producers. However, erratic volumes and quality of milk limit the participation of small- and medium-scale cattle farmers into higher-value dairy value chains. This research uses a system dynamics (SD approach to analyze the Matiguás dairy value chain in Nicaragua. The paper presents the conceptual framework of the model and highlights the dynamic processes in the value chain, with a focus on improving feeding systems to achieve higher milk productivity and increased income for producers. The model was developed using a participatory group model building (GMB technique to jointly conceptualize and validate the model with stakeholders.

  9. Kefir: a multifaceted fermented dairy product. (United States)

    Nielsen, Barbara; Gürakan, G Candan; Unlü, Gülhan


    Kefir is a fermented dairy beverage produced by the actions of the microflora encased in the "kefir grain" on the carbohydrates in the milk. Containing many bacterial species already known for their probiotic properties, it has long been popular in Eastern Europe for its purported health benefits, where it is routinely administered to patients in hospitals and recommended for infants and the infirm. It is beginning to gain a foothold in the USA as a healthy probiotic beverage, mostly as an artisanal beverage, home fermented from shared grains, but also recently as a commercial product commanding shelf space in retail establishments. This is similar to the status of yogurts in the 1970s when yogurt was the new healthy product. Scientific studies into these reported benefits are being conducted into these health benefits, many with promising results, though not all of the studies have been conclusive. Our review provides an overview of kefir's structure, microbial profile, production, and probiotic properties. Our review also discusses alternative uses of kefir, kefir grains, and kefiran (the soluble polysaccharide produced by the organisms in kefir grains). Their utility in wound therapy, food additives, leavening agents, and other non-beverage uses is being studied with promising results.

  10. Supplementing dairy steers and organically managed dairy cows with synthetic vitamin D3 is unnecessary at pasture during exposure to summer sunlight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Lindqvist, Hanna


    with only their endogenous production of D3 from summer sunlight as a source of D3. To examine the impact of supplemental synthetic D3 from the feed on the D3 status of dairy cattle in organic production in Nordic countries, 20 high-yielding dairy cows and 30 dairy steers were divided into two groups: one......Use of synthetic feed additives, including synthetic vitamin D3 (D3) in the feed for cows and other ruminants, is not consistent with the international principles of organic farming. If dairy farmers wish to produce in accordance with the organic principles, production animals would be left...... supplemented with synthetic D3 in the feed and one not supplemented with synthetic D3. Vitamin D3 status of the animals was assessed by measuring the concentration of the liver-derived 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3) in plasma. Results showed that 25OHD3 concentration in plasma from dairy cattle as well as from...

  11. 7 CFR 1030.10 - Producer-handler. (United States)


    ... satisfactory to the market administrator that the care and management of the dairy animals and other resources... Federal order) and the processing and packaging operations are the producer-handler's own enterprise and at its own risk. (f) Any producer-handler with Class I route dispositions and/or transfers of...

  12. 7 CFR 1032.10 - Producer-handler. (United States)


    ... satisfactory to the market administrator that the care and management of the dairy animals and other resources... Federal order) and the processing and packaging operations are the producer-handler's own enterprise and at its own risk. (f) Any producer-handler with Class I route dispositions and/or transfers of...

  13. 7 CFR 1126.10 - Producer-handler. (United States)


    ... the market administrator that the care and management of the dairy animals and other resources... Federal order) and the processing and packaging operations are the producer-handler's own enterprise and at its own risk. (f) Any producer-handler with Class I route dispositions and/or transfers of...

  14. 7 CFR 1033.10 - Producer-handler. (United States)


    ... satisfactory to the market administrator that the care and management of the dairy animals and other resources... Federal order) and the processing and packaging operations are the producer-handler's own enterprise and at its own risk. (f) Any producer-handler with Class I route dispositions and/or transfers of...

  15. Brief of requirements of the dairy cow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J.M.R.; Ursinus, W.W.; Schepers, F.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Dixhoorn, van I.D.E.


    This report lists the brief of requirements of the dairy cow, based on her needs (also listed). The BoR indicates the actor’s needs with regards to the animal husbandry system. BoR of the main actors are incorporated in the redesign of a dairy husbandry system in the project Cow Power

  16. Determinants of dairy consumption expenditure in urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of the study was to examine the level of household expenditure on dairy products and to identify the principal factors that influence the level of consumption expenditure on dairy products across households in Accra and Kumasi. Structured questionnaire was used to elicit primary information from a total of ...

  17. Reproductive performance by dairy cows fed supplemental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical metabolic disorders and clinical puerperal complications were not affected by chromium methionine supplementation. The results of this experiment showed that chromium methionine supplementation in multiparous dairy cows diet may improve their reproductive performance in transition period. Key words: Dairy ...

  18. Business opportunities in the Mexican dairy industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, J.H.M.; Armenta Gutierrez, B.M.; Poelarends, J.J.; Valk, van der O.M.C.


    This study explores the Mexican and Dutch business opportunities in the dairy industry in Mexico. The report discusses first the external environment of the Mexican dairy sector: the economic developments, the country's overall competitiveness, and the economic and agricultural policies. Next, it

  19. Initial insights on the performances and management of dairy cattle herds combining two breeds with contrasting features. (United States)

    Magne, M A; Thénard, V; Mihout, S


    Finding ways of increasing animal production with low external inputs and without compromising reproductive performances is a key issue of livestock systems sustainability. One way is to take advantage of the diversity and interactions among components within livestock systems. Among studies that investigate the influence of differences in animals' individual abilities in a herd, few focus on combinations of cow breeds with contrasting features in dairy cattle herds. This study aimed to analyse the performances and management of such multi-breed dairy cattle herds. These herds were composed of two types of dairy breeds: 'specialist' (Holstein) and 'generalist' (e.g. Montbeliarde, Simmental, etc.). Based on recorded milk data in southern French region, we performed (i) to compare the performances of dairy herds according to breed-type composition: multi-breed, single specialist breed or single generalist breed and (ii) to test the difference of milk performances of specialist and generalist breed cows (n = 10 682) per multi-breed dairy herd within a sample of 22 farms. The sampled farmers were also interviewed to characterise herd management through multivariate analysis. Multi-breed dairy herds had a better trade-off among milk yield, milk fat and protein contents, herd reproduction and concentrate-conversion efficiency than single-breed herds. Conversely, they did not offer advantages in terms of milk prices and udder health. Compared to specialist dairy herds, they produce less milk with the same concentrate-conversion efficiency but have better reproductive performances. Compared to generalist dairy herds, they produce more milk with better concentrate-conversion efficiency but have worse reproductive performances. Within herds, specialist and generalist breed cows significantly differed in milk performances, showing their complementarity. The former produced more milk for a longer lactation length while the latter produced milk with higher protein and fat

  20. Engineering to support wellbeing of dairy animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caja, Gerardo; Castro-Costa, Andreia; Knight, Christopher Harold


    Current trends in the global milk market and the recent abolition of milk quotas have accelerated the trend of the European dairy industry towards larger farm sizes and higher-yielding animals. Dairy cows remain in focus, but there is a growing interest in other dairy species, whose milk is often...... directed to traditional and protected designation of origin and gourmet dairy products. The challenge for dairy farms in general is to achieve the best possible standards of animal health and welfare, together with high lactational performance and minimal environmental impact. For larger farms, this may...... need to be done with a much lower ratio of husbandry staff to animals. Recent engineering advances and the decreasing cost of electronic technologies has allowed the development of 'sensing solutions' that automatically collect data, such as physiological parameters, production measures and behavioural...

  1. Metabolomic biomarkers correlating with hepatic lipidosis in dairy cows. (United States)

    Imhasly, Sandro; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Baumann, Sven; von Bergen, Martin; Luch, Andreas; Jungnickel, Harald; Potratz, Sarah; Gerspach, Christian


    Hepatic lipidosis or fatty liver disease is a major metabolic disorder of high-producing dairy cows that compromises animal performance and, hence, causes heavy economic losses worldwide. This syndrome, occurring during the critical transition from gestation to early lactation, leads to an impaired health status, decreased milk yield, reduced fertility and shortened lifetime. Because the prevailing clinical chemistry parameters indicate advanced liver damage independently of the underlying disease, currently, hepatic lipidosis can only be ascertained by liver biopsy. We hypothesized that the condition of fatty liver disease may be accompanied by an altered profile of endogenous metabolites in the blood of affected animals. To identify potential small-molecule biomarkers as a novel diagnostic alternative, the serum samples of diseased dairy cows were subjected to a targeted metabolomics screen by triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. A subsequent multivariate test involving principal component and linear discriminant analyses yielded 29 metabolites (amino acids, phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelines) that, in conjunction, were able to distinguish between dairy cows with no hepatic lipidosis and those displaying different stages of the disorder. This proof-of-concept study indicates that metabolomic profiles, including both amino acids and lipids, distinguish hepatic lipidosis from other peripartal disorders and, hence, provide a promising new tool for the diagnosis of hepatic lipidosis. By generating insights into the molecular pathogenesis of hepatic lipidosis, metabolomics studies may also facilitate the prevention of this syndrome.

  2. Response of dairy cattle to transient voltages and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinemann, D.J.; Laughlin, N.K.; Stetson, L.E.


    Stray voltages in dairy facilities have been studied since the 1970's. Previous research using steady-state ac and dc voltages has defined cow-contact voltage levels which may cause behavior and associated production problems. This research was designed to address concerns over possible effects of transient voltages and magnetic fields on dairy cows. Dairy cows response to transient voltages and magnetic fields was measured. The waveforms of the transient voltages applied were: 5 cycles of 60-Hz ac with a total pulse time of 83 ms, 1 cycle of 60-Hz ac with a total pulse time of 16 ms, and 1 cycle of an ac square wave (spiking positive and negative) of 2-ms duration. Alternating magnetic fields were produced by passing 60-Hz ac fundamental frequency with 2nd and 3rd harmonic and random noise components in metal structures around the cows. The maximum magnetic field associated with this current flow was in excess of 4 G. A wide range of sensitivity to transient voltages was observed among cows. Response levels from 24 cows to each transient exposure were normally distributed. No responses to magnetic fields were observed

  3. Macro, minor and trace elements in bovine milk from two Brazilian dairy regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luis Gustavo Cofani dos Santos; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Simone Silveira Nery da Silva Cofani dos Santos; Marcio Arruda Bacchi; Fernando Barbosa Junior


    Brazil started to export dairy products in the early 2000s and since then has slowly consolidated its position in the world dairy market. To ensure the position in the international market by improving the quality of milk produced in the country, the government created a national program and a network of laboratories for milk quality. The Normative Instruction 51 (Instrucao Normativa 51-IN51) was introduced within the national program establishing parameters for milk quality and safety. In spite of not being included in the IN51, chemical elements are under thorough discussion as quality parameters for their nutritional and toxicological relevance. This work aimed at evaluating the quality of milk from one of the major dairy regions in Brazil, located in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, by the determination of chemical elements, comparing the results with those previously obtained for milk samples from the main dairy region of the country, in the state of Minas Gerais. Samples were collected from cooling tanks in nineteen dairy farms. After freeze drying, chemical elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For ten out of sixteen chemical elements determined, there were significant differences between samples from both producing regions (p < 0.01). (author)

  4. Impact on Human Health of Microorganisms Present in Fermented Dairy Products: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernández


    Full Text Available Fermented dairy products provide nutrients in our diet, some of which are produced by the action of microorganisms during fermentation. These products can be populated by a diverse microbiota that impacts the organoleptic and physicochemical characteristics foods as well as human health. Acidification is carried out by starter lactic acid bacteria (LAB whereas other LAB, moulds, and yeasts become dominant during ripening and contribute to the development of aroma and texture in dairy products. Probiotics are generally part of the nonstarter microbiota, and their use has been extended in recent years. Fermented dairy products can contain beneficial compounds, which are produced by the metabolic activity of their microbiota (vitamins, conjugated linoleic acid, bioactive peptides, and gamma-aminobutyric acid, among others. Some microorganisms can also release toxic compounds, the most notorious being biogenic amines and aflatoxins. Though generally considered safe, fermented dairy products can be contaminated by pathogens. If proliferation occurs during manufacture or storage, they can cause sporadic cases or outbreaks of disease. This paper provides an overview on the current state of different aspects of the research on microorganisms present in dairy products in the light of their positive or negative impact on human health.

  5. Impact on human health of microorganisms present in fermented dairy products: an overview. (United States)

    Fernández, María; Hudson, John Andrew; Korpela, Riitta; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G


    Fermented dairy products provide nutrients in our diet, some of which are produced by the action of microorganisms during fermentation. These products can be populated by a diverse microbiota that impacts the organoleptic and physicochemical characteristics foods as well as human health. Acidification is carried out by starter lactic acid bacteria (LAB) whereas other LAB, moulds, and yeasts become dominant during ripening and contribute to the development of aroma and texture in dairy products. Probiotics are generally part of the nonstarter microbiota, and their use has been extended in recent years. Fermented dairy products can contain beneficial compounds, which are produced by the metabolic activity of their microbiota (vitamins, conjugated linoleic acid, bioactive peptides, and gamma-aminobutyric acid, among others). Some microorganisms can also release toxic compounds, the most notorious being biogenic amines and aflatoxins. Though generally considered safe, fermented dairy products can be contaminated by pathogens. If proliferation occurs during manufacture or storage, they can cause sporadic cases or outbreaks of disease. This paper provides an overview on the current state of different aspects of the research on microorganisms present in dairy products in the light of their positive or negative impact on human health.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to explore differences between dairy cattle farmers in Bulgaria, according to certain factors. Information about the social characteristics of the farmers (educational level, gender, and age, and about the farm characteristics (number of cows in the main herd, average milk yield, and the rate of return on investment was collected. Sixty percent of the farmers were up to 50 years of age. Fifty percent of the farmers had had a secondary education and the rest had gained a university degree. The study found that only one of the 20 farmers was a woman. It was found that the group of farmers with a university degree had lower average age than the group of farmers with secondary school. There was no significant difference in the rate of return between the two groups of farms in terms of the effectiveness of the farm. The difference in the number of cows in the main herd was not significant too. The research identified a need for additional training for farmers in order to reduce their dependence on hired workers. It was found that farmers attend basic courses in the field of agriculture and livestock breeding in order to fill the gap between the existing levels of knowledge of farmers and the necessary skills for the effective management of dairy farms.

  7. Phosphorus and the dairy cow


    Ekelund, Adrienne


    The general aim of the present work was to investigate phosphorus balance in the dairy cow, with reference to the amount and source of phosphorus. Furthermore, biochemical bone markers were used to study the bone turnover during the lactation and dry period. Phosphorus is located in every cell of the body and has more known functions than any other mineral element in the animal body. Phosphorus is also an important constituent of milk, and is therefore required in large amounts in a high yiel...

  8. Replacement policies for dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Relund; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard


    In a recent paper a hierarchical Markov decision processes (MDP) with finite state and action space was formulated for the dairy cow replacement problem with stage lengths of 1 d. Bayesian updating was used to predict the performance of each cow in the herd and economic decisions were based...... on the prediction. The model can be used to assist the farmer in replacement decisions on a daily basis and is based on daily milk yield measurements that are available in modern milking systems. This talk will present the results of the paper and discuss directions for further research....

  9. Subclinical laminitis in dairy heifers. (United States)

    Bradley, H K; Shannon, D; Neilson, D R


    By causing poorer horn quality, subclinical laminitis is considered to be a major predisposing cause of other hoof problems, particularly sole ulcers in newly calved heifers. In this study the hind hooves of 136 female Friesian/Holstein cattle aged between four months and two years were examined to discover at what age the signs of subclinical laminitis appeared. Sole haemorrhages were found in the hoof horn of calves as young as five months. The consistent finding of these lesions in heifers of all ages indicated that subclinical laminitis of varying degree was a common condition during the early growing period of young dairy heifers.

  10. Dairy constituents and neurocognitive health in ageing. (United States)

    Camfield, David A; Owen, Lauren; Scholey, Andrew B; Pipingas, Andrew; Stough, Con


    Age-related cognitive decline (ARCD) and dementia are of increasing concern to an ageing population. In recent years, there has been considerable research focused on effective dietary interventions that may prevent or ameliorate ARCD and dementia. While a number of studies have considered the impact that dairy products may have on physiological health, particularly with regard to the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular health, further research is currently needed in order to establish the impact that dairy products have in the promotion of healthy brain function during ageing. The present review considers the available evidence for the positive effects of dairy products on the metabolic syndrome and glucose regulation, with consideration of the implications for neurocognitive health. A literature search of current (September 2010) meta-analyses/reviews and original research regarding dairy products and cognition was conducted through SCOPUS using the following search terms for dairy consituents: dairy, milk, cheese, yoghurt, probiotics, whey protein, alpha lactalbumin, calcium, B-12, bioactive peptides and colostrinin (CLN). These search terms for dairy products were combined with the following search terms related to cognition and health: cognition, cognitive decline, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, insulin resistance and glucose regulation. Concerns regarding SFA and other fatty acids found in dairy products are also reviewed in relation to different forms of dairy products. The review also considers recent evidence for positive neurocognitive effects associated with bioactive peptides, CLN and proline-rich polypeptides, α-lactalbumin, vitamin B12, calcium and probiotics. Future directions for the extraction and purification of beneficial constituents are also discussed. It is concluded that low-fat dairy products, when consumed regularly as part of a balanced diet, may have a number of beneficial outcomes for neurocognitive health

  11. Consuming the daily recommended amounts of dairy products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Nutrients; Nutrient adequacy; Dairy; Nutrition and health; NHANES. Consuming the daily ... by adding the necessary number of dairy servings, using the dairy composite designed by USDA, to each participant's diet to meet the dairy .... The National Cancer Institute method21,22 was used to estimate usual intake ...

  12. Dairy development and nutrition in Kilifi District, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leegwater, P.; Ngolo, J.; Hoorweg, J.C.


    The objectives of this study on dairy development in Kilifi District, Kenya, are, first, to assess the importance of - small-scale - intensive dairy farming as promoted by the Ministry of Livestock through the National Dairy Development Programme (DDP) compared with other types of small-scale dairy

  13. Incorporation of whey permeate, a dairy effluent, in ethanol fermentation to provide a zero waste solution for the dairy industry. (United States)

    Parashar, Archana; Jin, Yiqiong; Mason, Beth; Chae, Michael; Bressler, David C


    This study proposes a novel alternative for utilization of whey permeate, a by-product stream from the dairy industry, in wheat fermentation for ethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Whey permeates were hydrolyzed using enzymes to release fermentable sugars. Hydrolyzed whey permeates were integrated into wheat fermentation as a co-substrate or to partially replace process water. Cold starch hydrolysis-based simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was done as per the current industrial protocol for commercial wheat-to-ethanol production. Ethanol production was not affected; ethanol yield efficiency did not change when up to 10% of process water was replaced. Lactic acid bacteria in whey permeate did not negatively affect the co-fermentation or reduce ethanol yield. Whey permeate could be effectively stored for up to 4 wk at 4 °C with little change in lactose and lactic acid content. Considering the global abundance and nutrient value of whey permeate, the proposed strategy could improve economics of the dairy and biofuel sectors, and reduce environmental pollution. Furthermore, our research may be applied to fermentation strategies designed to produce value-added products other than ethanol. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The business of optimism. Wisconsin's Midwest Renewable Energy Fair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, J.


    The paper reports on the Wisconsin Midwest Renewable Energy Fair. The renewable energy business is said to be based on sound technology and sustainable development and is being largely embraced with enthusiasm. However, the keynote speaker, James Kunstler, warned that the transition from fossil fuels to renewables will be complicated and messy. The report mentions the views of several speakers but not all shared Kunstler's views. There were more than 100 workshops at the fair. Although big business was well represented, there were also home-made devices on show including a motorcycle powered by electricity. The importance of the fair is probably best judged by the way in which it generates enthusiasm for preserving the planet through the sustainable development of environmentally-friendly technology. (author)

  15. Carcinoma of the tongue in Norway and Wisconsin. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermund, H.


    The records of 503 patients with carcinoma of the tongue diagnosed between 1958 and 1972 were reviewed. The preponderance of tongue carcinoma among men was confirmed both in The Norwegian Radium Hospital (NRH) and the University of Wisconsin Hospitals (UW), but it was relatively more frequent among women in NRH and in UW than in southern Europe. More women had on presentation less advanced tumors at NRH than at UW. The incidence of tongue carcinoma in Norway increased steadily with age for both sexes. The sex ratio did not change in Norway such as in England, Canada and the United States. Tumor of the posterior one-third of the tongue was relatively infrequent in women both in NRH and UW, in agreement with reports from other countries. The length of survival was analysed and no significant sex difference was demonstrated. The younger patients had less advanced tumors and a better prognosis. (Auth.)

  16. Adolescent IQ and Survival in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Hauser, Robert M.; Palloni, Alberto


    Objective. This study attempts to explain the ubiquitous positive correlation between cognitive ability (IQ) and survival. Methods. A sample of 10,317 Wisconsin high school graduates of 1957 was followed until 2009, from ages 18 to 68 years. Mortality was analyzed using a Weibull survival model that includes gender, social background, Henmon–Nelson IQ, and rank in high school class. Results. Rank in high school class, a cumulative measure of responsible performance during high school, entirely mediates the relationship between adolescent IQ and survival. Its effect on survival is 3 times greater than that of IQ, and it accounts for about 10% of the female advantage in survival. Discussion. Cognitive functioning may improve survival by promoting responsible and timely patterns of behavior that are firmly in place by late adolescence. Prior research suggests that conscientiousness, one of the “Big Five” personality characteristics, plays a key role in this relationship. PMID:21743056

  17. Process energy efficiency improvement in Wisconsin cheese plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zehr, S.; Mitchell, J.; Reinemann, D.; Klein, S.; Reindl, D.


    Costs for the energy involved in cheese making has a major impact on profit. Although industrial cheese plants differ in size, production equipment, and the manner in which whey is processed, there are common elements in most plants. This paper evaluates several process integration opportunities at two representative cheese plants in Wisconsin. Pinch analysis is used to help assess the heat recovery potential for the major thermal processes in the plants. The potential of using packaged cheese as a thermal storage medium to allow electrical demand shifting in the cold storage warehouse is evaluated and shown to be feasible. Three major conservation measures are identified with a total cost savings of $130,000 to $160,000 annually

  18. Developing a Contemporary Dairy Foods Extension Program: A Training and Technical Resource Needs Assessment of Pennsylvania Dairy Foods Processors (United States)

    Syrko, Joseph; Kaylegian, Kerry E.


    Growth in the dairy industry and the passage of the Food Safety Modernization Act have renewed interest in dairy foods processing extension positions. A needs assessment survey was sent to Pennsylvania dairy processors and raw milk providers to guide priorities for a dairy foods extension program. The successful development and delivery of…

  19. Trends in noncompliance with milk quality standards for Dairy Herd Improvement herds in the United States (United States)

    Frequency of herd noncompliance for somatic cell count (SCC) based on current US and European Union (EU) standards as well as for standards proposed by the National Milk Producers Federation (NMPF) was examined for US Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) herds. For current US standards, regulatory action is...

  20. Modelling the dynamics and economics of health in individual dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Sørensen, J.T.


    -life problems for the dairy farmer and the practicing veterinarian. The veterinarian was able to supply detailed information concerning managerial routines applied on the farm. Epidemiologic analyses of the collected data produced input for herd-specific modelling of herd dynamic and economic effects...

  1. The impact of uncertainties on predicted GHG emissions of dairy cow production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zehetmeier, M.; Gandorfer, M.; Hoffmann, H.; Muller, U.K.; Boer, de I.J.M.


    Dairy farms produce significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and are therefore a focal point for GHG-mitigation practices. To develop viable mitigation options, we need robust (insensitive to changes in model parameters and assumptions) predictions of GHG emissions. To this end, we developed a

  2. Host-rumen microbe interactions may be leveraged to improve the productivity of dairy cows (United States)

    The cattle rumen serves as a digestive bioreactor for the dairy cow, yet our knowledge of the microbial contents, ecology, and host selection within the rumen is only precursory. This is despite the knowledge that the volatile fatty acids (VFA) and microbial crude protein (MCP) produced by rumen mic...

  3. Heat Stress in Tunisia: Effects on dairy cows and potential means ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tunisia has a Mediterranean climate characterized by high ambient temperatures for a long period. Thus, one of the challenges to dairy producers is heat stress. The objectives of this work were to characterize the environmental conditions to which Holstein cows are exposed in Tunisia using the Temperature Humidity ...

  4. Milk Yield and Quality of Crossbred Dairy Cows Fed with Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    composition of 50:50 Boran-Freisian crossbred dairy cows fed a basal diet of napier grass (Penissetium ... appropriate options to produce quality feed supplements in the tropics. Many cultivated forage .... Chemical composition and in-vitro dry matter digestibility of napier grass, natural pasture hay, vetch (Vicia dasycarpa) ...

  5. Practices to Reduce Milk Carbon Footprint on Grazing Dairy Farms in Southern Uruguay: Case Studies. (United States)

    Carbon footprint (CF) is an increasingly relevant indicator to estimate the impact of a product on climate change. This study followed international guidelines to quantify the CF of milk produced on 24 dairy farms in Uruguay. Cows were grazed all year and supplemented with concentrate feeds. These d...

  6. Relationship of Plasma Nonesterified Fatty Acids and Walking Activity in Postpartum Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adewuyi, A.A.; Roelofs, J.B.; Gruys, E.; Toussaint, M.J.M.; Eerdenburg, van F.J.C.M.


    To survive and produce milk, postpartum dairy cows use their reserves through lipolysis. If the negative energy balance is severe, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) are formed that can impair several physiological processes. A pilot study suggested that increased walking activity after calving may be

  7. Short communication: Genetic study of methane production predicted from milk fat composition in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, van S.; Bovenhuis, H.; Dijkstra, J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Visker, M.H.P.W.


    Dairy cows produce enteric methane, a greenhouse gas with 25 times the global warming potential of CO2. Breeding could make a permanent, cumulative, and long-term contribution to methane reduction. Due to a lack of accurate, repeatable, individual methane measurements needed for breeding, indicators

  8. Impact of free fatty acid composition on oocyte developmental competence in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardema, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304824100


    Oleic acid protects oocytes against the detrimental effects of saturated free fatty acids During the last four decades, the fertility of high-producing dairy cows has declined dramatically. This decline in fertility has been linked to the equally marked increase in milk production, and the

  9. Transfer of radioactive contamination from milk to commercial dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, L.G.; Sutton, P.M.


    The fate of radioactive contamination resulting from fallout from the Chernobyl accident was studied during milk processing. A range of commercial dairy products was produced on a pilot-laboratory scale and the radiocaesium contents were measured by high-resolution gamma spectrometry. The results show that the radiocaesium partitioned with the water phase and therefore butter, cream and cheese had relatively low levels of radioactivity. Ion exchange demineralization was effective in removing radiocaesium from whey. Ultrafiltration of whey resulted in a reduction of radioactivity relative to retentate solids. (author)

  10. Effluent generation by the dairy industry: preventive attitudes and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Brião


    Full Text Available Work aimed to identify the effluent is generating areas in a dairy company for purpose of changing concept pollution prevention. methodology consisted measuring volumes and collecting samples effluents production sectors. analysis was conducted by sector, order those which generated excessive amounts effluents. results show that dry products (powdered milk powdered whey are greatest generators BOD, nitrogen phosphorus, while fluid form (UHT milk, formulated UHT, pasteurized cream butter produced large quantities oils grease. solids recovery, waste segregation water reuse can be applied with saving potential as much R$ 28,000 ($ 11,200 per month only raw materials also environmental gains in pollution prevention.

  11. Studies on quantity and composition of dairy cow excreta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschke, H.


    After feeding a lactating dairy cow a day ration completely enriched with 15 N, the quantities of feces and urine were registered over a period of ten days and put into proportion to the animal mass. The fecal dry matter was put into proportion to the dry matter of the fodder by means of 15 N analysis the N excretion with the excreta was determined concerning quantity and time. Selected feces and urine charges were used to produce a slurry model. The content of nutritive elements of the initial components and of the organic fertilizer are discussed. (author)

  12. Assessing the research and education needs of the organic dairy industry in the northeastern United States. (United States)

    Pereira, A B D; Brito, A F; Townson, L L; Townson, D H


    Demographic and management data about organic dairies have been reported previously, but the current study is the first needs assessment of research and educational priorities of organic dairy farmers in the northeastern United States based directly upon their input. Our objectives were to (1) develop an initial understanding of the emerging research and educational needs of organic dairy farmers in the northeastern United States via focus group interviews, and (2) prioritize the needs identified by the focus groups with a broader population of organic dairy farmers via survey methods. Focus group interviews determined the questions used for the survey questionnaire distributed to 1,200 members of the Northeast Organic Dairy Producers Alliance. The members were asked about demographic information, but more importantly, challenges concerning business management and marketing, organic certification, and animal nutrition, health, and reproduction. The results (183 respondents, 15% response rate) were parsed by region (New England farms compared with New York and Pennsylvania farms), herd size (i.e., 12 to 37, 38 to 59, and >60 cows), and years of organic certification (farm consisted of 309 acres and 57 milking cows, on which most of the forage was homegrown but grains were purchased (73% of farms). Among the greatest challenges identified by the farmers were obtaining a steady, fair price for milk (85% respondents); determining dry matter intake for animals on pasture (76%); and controlling nuisance flies (89%). Needs for additional research included organic treatments for mastitis (92% respondents), growing forages for organic production (84%), and developing value-added products (84%). Farms with educational programs included learning about direct marketing possibilities (76% respondents) and providing training to regional veterinarians interested in organic remedies (91%). In conclusion, the information obtained from the current needs assessment provides a

  13. Invited review: palmitic and stearic acid metabolism in lactating dairy cows. (United States)

    Loften, J R; Linn, J G; Drackley, J K; Jenkins, T C; Soderholm, C G; Kertz, A F


    Energy is the most limiting nutritional component in diets for high-producing dairy cows. Palmitic (C16:0) and stearic (C18:0) acids have unique and specific functions in lactating dairy cows beyond a ubiquitous energy source. This review delineates their metabolism and usage in lactating dairy cows from diet to milk production. Palmitic acid is the fatty acid (FA) found in the greatest quantity in milk fat. Dietary sources of C16:0 generally increase milk fat yield and are used as an energy source for milk production and replenishing body weight loss during periods of negative energy balance. Stearic acid is the most abundant FA available to the dairy cow and is used to a greater extent for milk production and energy balance than C16:0. However, C18:0 is also intimately involved in milk fat production. Quantifying the transfer of each FA from diet into milk fat is complicated by de novo synthesis of C16:0 and desaturation of C18:0 to oleic acid in the mammary gland. In addition, incorporation of both FA into milk fat appears to be limited by the cow's requirement to maintain fluidity of milk, which requires a balance between saturated and unsaturated FA. Oleic acid is the second most abundant FA in milk fat and likely the main unsaturated FA involved in regulating fluidity of milk. Because the mammary gland can desaturate C18:0 to oleic acid, C18:0 appears to have a more prominent role in milk production than C16:0. To understand metabolism and utilization of these FA in lactating dairy cows, we reviewed production and milk fat synthesis studies. Additional and longer lactation studies on feeding both FA to lactating dairy cows are required to better delineate their roles in optimizing milk production and milk FA composition and yield. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of metabolic profiles in dairy cattle in tropical and subtropical countries on smallholder dairy farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, D.A.; Goodger, W.J.; Garcia, M.; Perera, B.M.A.O.; Wittwer, F.


    Metabolic profile testing has generally been used as part of a multi-disciplinary approach for dairy herds in temperate climates. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of the technique for identifying constraints on productivity in small herds in environments less favourable for milk production. Metabolites tested were chosen for stability in the sample after collection of blood, ease of analysis and practical knowledge of the meaning of the results. Blood levels of five different metabolites in low producing dairy cows belonging to smallholders in tropical and subtropical environments were measured. The study involved 13 projects with 80 cows in each, carried out in six Latin American, six Asian and one southern European country. Data was also collected on feeding, body condition (BCS) and weight change, parasitism and reproduction. In Chile, Mexico, Paraguay, Philippines, Uruguay and Venezuela globulin levels were high in more than 17% of cows sampled on each occasion. Globulin levels were also high in Turkey and Viet Nam on one or more occasions. In Paraguay 49% of cows had high globulin levels at 2-3 months after calving. These results suggest that inflammatory disease was present to a potentially important degree, although this was not always investigated and not always taken into account. In all countries except Mexico and Venezuela high β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels before calving in many cows highlighted the presence of condition loss in late pregnancy, an important potential constraint on productivity and fertility. Fewer cows showed high BHB levels in lactation where change in BCS and weight was more sensitive for measuring negative energy balance. Urea concentrations were only found to be low in small numbers of cows suggesting that dietary protein shortages were not common. Albumin values were low mainly in cows where globulin values were high and so did not generally provide additional information. The exception was in China where pregnant yaks

  15. Risk factors associated with on-farm mortality in Swedish dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvåsen, K.; Jansson Mörk, M.; Dohoo, I. R.


    Dairy cow mortality (unassisted death and euthanasia) has increased, worldwide and in Sweden. On-farm mortality indicates suboptimal herd health or welfare and causes financial loss for the dairy producer. The objective of this study was to identify cow-level risk factors associated with on......). The effects of potential risk factors on on-farm cow mortality were analysed using a Weibull proportional hazard model with a gamma distributed frailty effect common to cows within herd. The event of interest (failure) was euthanasia or unassisted death. An observation was right censored if the cow...

  16. An electrochemical immunosensor for detecting progesterone in milk from dairy cows


    Wu, Ling; Yang, Wei; Xia, Cheng; Xu, Chuang; Zhang, Hongyou


    In this study, an electrochemical immunosensor for milk progesterone produced by dairy cows was developed. Using the immunosensor, milk progesterone levels in healthy estrus dairy cows was found to range from 1 to 6 ng/mL 20 days after estrus. There were high levels of progesterone in the milk from cows with prolonged luteal phase and luteal cysts, which ranged from 15 to 28 and 19 to 29 ng/mL, respectively. Cows with inactive ovaries also showed low milk progesterone levels of 1-8 ng/mL, but...

  17. Milk and Dairy Products Labeling in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgescu Cecilia


    Full Text Available The present communication contains research and experimental investigations regarding the labelling process of dairy products in tight relation with the national and European legislative requirements. Two methods have been used during the marketing research regarding the information present on the labels of alimentary products: the method based on documentation-observation and comparative analysis of data and information collected from the consume market in Sibiu. The method based on documentation and observation has been carried out using the observation sheet and contained the following analysis criteria: The name of the product, Country origin of the product (location of the producer. Synthesizing the results and the conclusions emerged as a result of the marketing research carried out with the purpose of contouring a labelling model of alimentary products, it can be stated that the dynamics of the alimentary products market in Romania is moderate and restrained by the economical and social factors and even by the still reduces promotion of a healthy alimentary education, with the complementary protection of human health and environment.

  18. Volatile compounds of functional dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iličić Mirela D.


    Full Text Available Volatile compounds, affecting flavour of traditional and probiotic fresh cheese, were determined. Functional dairy product-fresh cheese was produced from milk of 2.5% fat content and milk of 4.2% fat content, under the semi-industrial conditions. The traditional starter culture Flora Danica (FD and a combination of probiotic starter ABT-1 and FD (ABT-1:FD=1:1 were applied as starters. The volatile fractions were isolated by employing the combined simultaneous distillation-extraction technique (SDE. The compounds were identified by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS and quantified by using standard procedure. Following 19 compounds have been identified: 8 hydrocarbons (decane, undecane, tridecane, tetradecane, pentadecane, hexadecane, octadecane and 2, 6, 10, 14-tetramethyl hexadecane; 6 ketones (2-heptanone, 2-nonanone, 2- undecanone, 2-pentadecanone, 2-heptadecanone and 2-tridecanone; 3 aldehydes (nonanal, tetradecanal and hexadecanal; 1 fatty acid (decanoic acid and disulfide, bis (1-methylethyl. The highest levels were associated with hexadecanal, 2-pentadecanone, 2-tridecanone, and 2-undecanone in all examined samples, regardless to the starter culture and type of milk used. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46009

  19. Detection of Subclinical Ketosis in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Zhang, Guowen Liu1, Hongbin Wang, Xiaobing Li1 and Zhe Wang1*


    Full Text Available Ketosis is a common metabolic disorder frequently observed in dairy cows during the early lactation period. It is characterized by increased levels of ketone bodies in the blood, urine, and milk. Subclinical ketosis (SCK in dairy cattle is an excess level of circulating ketone bodies in the absence of clinical signs of ketosis. Usually, detection of SCK is carried out by testing the ketone concentrations in blood, urine, and milk. Here, This review overview the detection methods for SCK in dairy cows, including cowside and laboratory tests.

  20. Comprehensive Review of the Impact of Dairy Foods and Dairy Fat on Cardiometabolic Risk123 (United States)

    Drouin-Chartier, Jean-Philippe; Côté, Julie Anne; Labonté, Marie-Ève; Brassard, Didier; Tessier-Grenier, Maude; Desroches, Sophie; Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoît


    Because regular-fat dairy products are a major source of cholesterol-raising saturated fatty acids (SFAs), current US and Canadian dietary guidelines for cardiovascular health recommend the consumption of low-fat dairy products. Yet, numerous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have reported rather mixed effects of reduced- and regular-fat dairy consumption on blood lipid concentrations and on many other cardiometabolic disease risk factors, such as blood pressure and inflammation markers. Thus, the focus on low-fat dairy in current dietary guidelines is being challenged, creating confusion within health professional circles and the public. This narrative review provides perspective on the research pertaining to the impact of dairy consumption and dairy fat on traditional and emerging cardiometabolic disease risk factors. This comprehensive assessment of evidence from RCTs suggests that there is no apparent risk of potential harmful effects of dairy consumption, irrespective of the content of dairy fat, on a large array of cardiometabolic variables, including lipid-related risk factors, blood pressure, inflammation, insulin resistance, and vascular function. This suggests that the purported detrimental effects of SFAs on cardiometabolic health may in fact be nullified when they are consumed as part of complex food matrices such as those in cheese and other dairy foods. Thus, the focus on low-fat dairy products in current guidelines apparently is not entirely supported by the existing literature and may need to be revisited on the basis of this evidence. Future studies addressing key research gaps in this area will be extremely informative to better appreciate the impact of dairy food matrices, as well as dairy fat specifically, on cardiometabolic health. PMID:28140322

  1. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Wisconsin based on 2000 Census Block Groups (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Wisconsin census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  2. Phosphorus Equilibrium Characteristics for Soils in the Upper Eau Galle River Watershed, Wisconsin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James, William F


    The purpose of this demonstration was to examine phosphorus adsorption-desorption and equilibrium characteristics for soils collected from different land use practices in the Upper Eau Galle River watershed (Wisconsin...

  3. Wisconsin State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Wisconsin State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Wisconsin. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Wisconsin. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Wisconsin.

  4. Evaluation of wood species and preservatives for Wisconsin transportation sign posts : [research brief]. (United States)


    The Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WisDOT) administers approximately 11,800 miles of state highways. It uses preservative-treated wood posts for much of the signage along these highways because wood is relatively inexpensive, easy to install...

  5. Determination of resilient modulus values for typical plastic soils in Wisconsin. (United States)


    "The objectives of this research are to establish a resilient modulus test results database and to develop : correlations for estimating the resilient modulus of Wisconsin fine-grained soils from basic soil properties. A : laboratory testing program ...

  6. Wisconsin State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Wisconsin State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Wisconsin. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Wisconsin. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Wisconsin

  7. 77 FR 48538 - Notice of Inventory Completion: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)


    ... Historical Society of Wisconsin at the address below by September 13, 2012. ADDRESSES: Jennifer Kolb... Indian tribe that believes it satisfies the criteria in 43 CFR 10.11(c)(1) should contact Jennifer Kolb...

  8. Cool roofs with high solar reflectance for the welfare of dairy farming animals (United States)

    Santunione, G.; Libbra, A.; Muscio, A.


    Ensuring livestock welfare in dairy farming promotes the production capacity of the animals in terms of both quantity and quality. In welfare conditions, the animals can produce at their full potential. For the dairy cattle the most debilitating period of the year is summer, when the stress arising from overheating induces physiological alterations that compromise the animals’ productivity. In this study, the summer discomfort of dairy animals is primarily quantified and the production loss is quantified versus the Temperature Humidity Index (THI), which correlates the values of temperature and relative humidity to the thermal stress. In order to reduce or eliminate such thermal stress, it is then proposed to coat the roof of the stables with a paint having high solar reflectance and thermal emittance, that is a cool roof product. This type of roofing solution can considerably limit the overheating of stables caused by solar radiation, thus providing a positive impact on the animals’ welfare and improving significantly their productivity in summer.

  9. Dietary Protected Feed Supplement to Increase Milk Production and Quality of Dairy Cows (United States)

    Pramono, A.; Handayanta, E.; Widayati, D. T.; Putro, P. P.; Kustono


    The efforts to improve and optimize productivity of dairy cows require sufficient availability of nutrients, especially high energy in the early period of lactation. Increasing energy intake in dairy cows can be conducted by increasing the density of energy. The research aimed to evaluate dietary protected feed supplement on milk production and quality, including: fat, protein, and lactose content of Friesian Holstein dairy cow milk. Protected feed supplement was produced from sardine fish oil, through saponification and microencapsulation protection methods. The experiment consists of two treatments i.e. P0: basal diet (control) and P1: basal diet + 3 % protected feed supplement. Each treatment was repeated 15 times. Data were analyzed by independent samples t-test analysis. Results showed that supplementation of protected sardine fish oil had no effect on lactose content, but increased milk yield production (pmilk fat content (p<0.05), and protein content (p<0.05).

  10. Non-dairy probiotic beverages: the next step into human health. (United States)

    Gawkowski, D; Chikindas, M L


    Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit to the host. The two main genera of microorganisms indicated as sources of probiotic bacteria are Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Historically used to produce fermented dairy products, certain strains of both genera are increasingly utilised to formulate other functional foods. As the consumers' understanding of the role of probiotics in health grows, so does the popularity of food containing them. The result of this phenomenon is an increase in the number of probiotic foods available for public consumption, including a rapidly-emerging variety of probiotic-containing non-dairy beverages, which provide a convenient way to improve and maintain health. However, the composition of non-dairy probiotic beverages can pose specific challenges to the survival of the health conferring microorganisms. To overcome these challenges, strain selection and protection techniques play an integral part in formulating a stable product. This review discusses non-dairy probiotic beverages, characteristics of an optimal beverage, and commonly used probiotic strains, including spore-forming bacteria. It also examines the most recent developments in probiotic encapsulation technology with focus on nano-fibre formation as a means of protecting viable cells. Utilising bacteria's natural armour or creating barrier mechanisms via encapsulation technology will fuel development of stable non-dairy probiotic beverages.

  11. A review of current timed-AI (TAI) programs for beef and dairy cattle. (United States)

    Colazo, Marcos G; Mapletoft, Reuben J


    This is a review of the physiology and endocrinology of the estrous cycle and how ovarian physiology can be manipulated and controlled for timed artificial insemination (TAI) in beef and dairy cattle. Estrus detection is required for artificial insemination (AI), but it is done poorly in dairy cattle and it is difficult in beef cattle. Protocols that synchronize follicle growth, corpus luteum regression and ovulation, allowing for TAI, result in improved reproductive performance, because all animals are inseminated whether they show estrus or not. As result, TAI programs have become an integral part of reproductive management in many dairy herds and offer beef producers the opportunity to incorporate AI into their herds. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-based protocols are commonly used in North America for estrus synchronization as part of a TAI program. Protocols that increase pregnancy rates in lactating dairy cows and suckling beef cows have been developed. Protocols that improve pregnancy rates in heifers, acyclic beef cows, and resynchronized lactating dairy cows are also discussed.

  12. Chemical Analysis of Pottery Demonstrates Prehistoric Origin for High-Altitude Alpine Dairying. (United States)

    Carrer, Francesco; Colonese, André Carlo; Lucquin, Alexandre; Petersen Guedes, Eduardo; Thompson, Anu; Walsh, Kevin; Reitmaier, Thomas; Craig, Oliver E


    The European high Alps are internationally renowned for their dairy produce, which are of huge cultural and economic significance to the region. Although the recent history of alpine dairying has been well studied, virtually nothing is known regarding the origins of this practice. This is due to poor preservation of high altitude archaeological sites and the ephemeral nature of transhumance economic practices. Archaeologists have suggested that stone structures that appear around 3,000 years ago are associated with more intense seasonal occupation of the high Alps and perhaps the establishment of new economic strategies. Here, we report on organic residue analysis of small fragments of pottery sherds that are occasionally preserved both at these sites and earlier prehistoric rock-shelters. Based mainly on isotopic criteria, dairy lipids could only be identified on ceramics from the stone structures, which date to the Iron Age (ca. 3,000-2,500 BP), providing the earliest evidence of this practice in the high Alps. Dairy production in such a marginal environment implies a high degree of risk even by today's standards. We postulate that this practice was driven by population increase and climate deterioration that put pressure on lowland agropastoral systems and the establishment of more extensive trade networks, leading to greater demand for highly nutritious and transportable dairy products.

  13. Short communication: The water footprint of dairy products: case study involving skim milk powder. (United States)

    Ridoutt, B G; Williams, S R O; Baud, S; Fraval, S; Marks, N


    In the context of global water scarcity and food security concerns, water footprints are emerging as an important sustainability indicator in the agriculture and food sectors. Using a recently developed life cycle assessment-based methodology that takes into account local water stress where operations occur, the normalized water footprints of milk products from South Gippsland, one of Australia's major dairy regions, were 14.4 L/kg of total milk solids in whole milk (at farm gate) and 15.8 L/kg of total milk solids in skim milk powder (delivered to export destination). These results demonstrate that dairy products can be produced with minimal potential to contribute to freshwater scarcity. However, not all dairy production systems are alike and the variability in water footprints between systems and products should be explored to obtain strategic insights that will enable the dairy sector to minimize its burden on freshwater systems from consumptive water use. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The potential of avocado paste (Persea americana) as fat substitute in non-dairy ice cream (United States)

    Ervina; Surjawan, I.; Abdillah, E.


    Consumer preferences towards plant-based food have shifted significantly due to sustainable and healthy reasons. Dairy products consist of high Saturated Fatty Acid (SFA) and overconsumption of SFA could lead to cardiovascular diseases. Avocado contains high levels of fat dominated by Monounsaturated Fatty Acid (MUFA) and phytosterol that have the potential as a plant-based fat source to substitute dairy-fat in ice cream. The objective of this study was to analyze the physicochemical, rheological and sensorial properties of ice cream substituted with different concentrations of avocado paste ranging from 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% respectively against dairy fat to produce non-dairy fat ice cream. The psychochemical properties and total fat were determined. Sensorial quality and hedonic attributes of ice cream were investigated using 60 semi-trained panelists. There were significant differences (pice cream substituted with avocado paste. The addition of avocado paste lead to the increase in viscosity and hardness of the ice cream significantly (p0.05). The addition of 50% avocado paste was the most preferred among the panelists. Avocado could provide a potential substitution for dairy-fat in ice cream.

  15. Dairy Analytics and Nutrient Analysis (DANA) Prototype System User Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sam Alessi; Dennis Keiser


    This document is a user manual for the Dairy Analytics and Nutrient Analysis (DANA) model. DANA provides an analysis of dairy anaerobic digestion technology and allows users to calculate biogas production, co-product valuation, capital costs, expenses, revenue and financial metrics, for user customizable scenarios, dairy and digester types. The model provides results for three anaerobic digester types; Covered Lagoons, Modified Plug Flow, and Complete Mix, and three main energy production technologies; electricity generation, renewable natural gas generation, and compressed natural gas generation. Additional options include different dairy types, bedding types, backend treatment type as well as numerous production, and economic parameters. DANA’s goal is to extend the National Market Value of Anaerobic Digester Products analysis (informa economics, 2012; Innovation Center, 2011) to include a greater and more flexible set of regional digester scenarios and to provide a modular framework for creation of a tool to support farmer and investor needs. Users can set up scenarios from combinations of existing parameters or add new parameters, run the model and view a variety of reports, charts and tables that are automatically produced and delivered over the web interface. DANA is based in the INL’s analysis architecture entitled Generalized Environment for Modeling Systems (GEMS) , which offers extensive collaboration, analysis, and integration opportunities and greatly speeds the ability construct highly scalable web delivered user-oriented decision tools. DANA’s approach uses server-based data processing and web-based user interfaces, rather a client-based spreadsheet approach. This offers a number of benefits over the client-based approach. Server processing and storage can scale up to handle a very large number of scenarios, so that analysis of county, even field level, across the whole U.S., can be performed. Server based databases allow dairy and digester

  16. The evolution of Wisconsin's urban FIA program—yesterday today and tomorrow (United States)

    Andrew M. Stoltman; Richard B. Rideout


    In 2002, Wisconsin was part of two pilot projects in cooperation with the US Forest Service. The first was a street tree assessment, and the second was an urban FIA project. The data generated by these pilots changed the way that Wisconsin DNRs’ Urban Forestry Program conducts its business. Although there have been several urban FIA pilot projects throughout the U.S.,...

  17. Dairy (United States)

    ... a Member Donate Now! One Time Monthly In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are You At Risk? Diabetes Basics Living with Diabetes Food & Fitness In My Community Advocacy Research & Practice Ways ...

  18. Ectomycorrhizal characterization of an American chestnut (Castanea dentata)-dominated community in Western Wisconsin. (United States)

    Palmer, Jonathan M; Lindner, Daniel L; Volk, Thomas J


    Circa 1900, a farmer from the eastern US planted 11 American chestnut (Castanea dentata) seeds on a newly established farm near West Salem in western Wisconsin. These trees were very successful, producing a large stand of over 6,000 trees. Since this area is well outside the natural range of chestnut, these trees remained free from chestnut blight until 1987. In the West Salem stand, chestnuts are the dominant species of a mixed forest community, reminiscent of the chestnut-oak ecosystems of pre-1900 Appalachia. To identify putative mycorrhizal associates of chestnut in this unique forest, our approach was twofold: (1) an extensive fruiting body survey was conducted for four seasons that yielded approximately 100 putative mycorrhizal species and (2) a belowground molecular approach was used to generate DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region from ectomycorrhizae. Unexpectedly, chestnut did not appear to be the dominant underground ectomycorrhizal-forming plant species. This study highlights the need to identify the plant host species when conducting belowground molecular-based surveys and provides preliminary identification of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with a disjunct stand of American chestnut.

  19. Measurement of nicotine withdrawal symptoms: linguistic validation of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS in Malay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafie Asrul A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the linguistic validation of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS was to produce a translated version in Malay language which was "conceptually equivalent" to the original U.S. English version for use in clinical practice and research. Methods A seven-member translation committee conducted the translation process using the following methodology: production of two independent forward translations; comparison and reconciliation of the translations; backward translation of the first reconciled version; comparison of the original WSWS and the backward version leading to the production of the second reconciled version; pilot testing and review of the translation, and finalization. Results Linguistic and conceptual issues arose during the process of translating the instrument, particularly pertaining to the title, instructions, and some of the items of the scale. In addition, the researchers had to find culturally acceptable equivalents for some terms and idiomatic phrases. Notable among these include expressions such as "irritability", "feeling upbeat", and "nibbling on snacks", which had to be replaced by culturally acceptable expressions. During cognitive debriefing and clinician's review processes, the Malay translated version of WSWS was found to be easily comprehensible, clear, and appropriate for the smoking withdrawal symptoms intended to be measured. Conclusions We applied a rigorous translation method to ensure conceptual equivalence and acceptability of WSWS in Malay prior to its utilization in research and clinical practice. However, to complete the cultural adaptation process, future psychometric validation is planned to be conducted among Malay speakers.

  20. National survey of children with special health care needs: Wisconsin-specific data. (United States)

    Oftedahl, Elizabeth; Benedict, Ruth; Katcher, Murray L


    The National Center for Health Statistics developed and conducted (2000-2002) the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN), a module of the State and Local Area Integrated Telephone Survey (SLAITS). The purpose of this paper is to present the Wisconsin-specific data derived from analysis of the national survey and to make a comparison with the United States as a whole. In Wisconsin, approximately one fifth (21%) of households have CSHCN, and 13.4% of children have a special health care need; US comparison data are 20% and 12.8%, respectively. When examined by type of special need, Wisconsin shows slightly higher proportions of CSHCN in all categories, when compared with U.S. data, with the exception of limitation in activity. Families in Wisconsin with CSHCN are more likely to report being involved with medical decision making and satisfied with services they receive (67%); having a medical home (57%); having adequate insurance; easy use of community-based service systems (81%); and receiving services to make transition to adult life (7.5%). Though Wisconsin has a slightly higher proportion of CSHCN than the United States as a whole, a greater proportion of Wisconsin families receive important services. These measurements allow us to strive for further improvement through coordination of services in the private health care delivery sector with public health programs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Marchetti


    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP is the etiologic agent of paratuberculosis. The disease affects cows and other ruminants and causes high economic losses, mainly for dairy production. MAP may also have a role in the development of Crohn’s disease in humans. Infected animals shed viable MAP with milk and faeces and humans may assume MAP via the consumption of contaminated milk and dairy products. Current methods of milk pasteurization are not sufficient to kill all MAP cells present in milk and MAP has been found in raw or pasteurized milk and isolated from cheese. The aim of this paper is to review the current knowledge about MAP in dairy production. We analyzed studies on milk contamination, effect of pasteurization and methods for identification of MAP that can be applied to dairy products.

  2. Dairy Dilemma: Are You Getting Enough Calcium? (United States)

    ... to grow and stay strong. The body also needs vitamin D to absorb calcium. Nutrition surveys have shown ... found in dairy products. How much calcium and vitamin D you need depends on your age and other factors. If ...

  3. International genomic evaluation methods for dairy cattle (United States)

    Background Genomic evaluations are rapidly replacing traditional evaluation systems used for dairy cattle selection. Economies of scale in genomics promote cooperation across country borders. Genomic information can be transferred across countries using simple conversion equations, by modifying mult...

  4. Dairy propionibacteria as probiotics: recent evidences. (United States)

    Altieri, Clelia


    Nowdays there is evidence that dairy propionibacteria display probiotic properties, which as yet have been underestimated. The aim of this paper is to review the recent highlights of data representing the probiotic potential of dairy propionibacteria, studied both by general selection criteria (useful for all probiotic potentials), and by more specific and innovative approach. Dairy propionibacteria show a robust nature, that makes them able to overcome technological hurdles, allowing their future use in various fermented probiotic foods. In addition to the general selection criteria for probiotics in areas such as food safety, technological and digestive stress tolerance, many potential health benefits have been recently described for dairy propionibacteria, including, production of several active molecules and adhesion capability, that can mean a steady action in modulation of microbiota and of metabolic activity in the gut; their impact on intestinal inflammation, modulation of the immune system, potential modulation of risk factors for cancer development modulation of intestinal absorption.

  5. Robotic milking of dairy cows: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Maculan


    Full Text Available An innovative technology that currently tries to gain market share are milking robots. Despite the high costs, robotic milking may produce benefits for the farmer and for animals submitted to this system. The objective of this study was to perform a literature review on the use of robotic milking of dairy cows, addressing aspects such as implementation and functioning of the system and effect on milking frequency, milk production and composition, somatic cell count, mastitis, reproduction, and animal welfare. The results showed that the programming of the robot depends on the number of animals to be milked daily and on the milking frequency adopted in each batch. The implementation of the system mainly depends on the site where the facilities will be built and already existing structures on the farm. The milking frequency is higher for high-producing cows and at the beginning of lactation and is influenced by the palatability of the concentrate offered at the time of milking. Frequencies higher than three times per day reduce total milk fat production and increase the concentration of free fatty acids. The incidence of mastitis and somatic cell count tend to increase in the first three months after implementation of the system. After the second year, udder health tends to improve, normalizing mastitis incidence and somatic cell count. Reproduction of the cows is not affected if dry matter intake compensates the higher energy expenditure required for higher milk productions. Robotic milking improves cow welfare since the animals voluntarily turn to the robot when they feel discomfort.

  6. Herd factors associated with dairy cow mortality. (United States)

    McConnel, C; Lombard, J; Wagner, B; Kopral, C; Garry, F


    Summary studies of dairy cow removal indicate increasing levels of mortality over the past several decades. This poses a serious problem for the US dairy industry. The objective of this project was to evaluate associations between facilities, herd management practices, disease occurrence and death rates on US dairy operations through an analysis of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2007 survey. The survey included farms in 17 states that represented 79.5% of US dairy operations and 82.5% of the US dairy cow population. During the first phase of the study operations were randomly selected from a sampling list maintained by the National Agricultural Statistics Service. Only farms that participated in phase I and had 30 or more dairy cows were eligible to participate in phase II. In total, 459 farms had complete data for all selected variables and were included in this analysis. Univariable associations between dairy cow mortality and 162 a priori identified operation-level management practices or characteristics were evaluated. Sixty of the 162 management factors explored in the univariate analysis met initial screening criteria and were further evaluated in a multivariable model exploring more complex relationships. The final weighted, negative binomial regression model included six variables. Based on the incidence rate ratio, this model predicted 32.0% less mortality for operations that vaccinated heifers for at least one of the following: bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Haemophilus somnus, leptospirosis, Salmonella, Escherichia coli or clostridia. The final multivariable model also predicted a 27.0% increase in mortality for operations from which a bulk tank milk sample tested ELISA positive for bovine leukosis virus. Additionally, an 18.0% higher mortality was predicted for operations that used necropsies to determine the cause of death for some proportion of dead



    Nott, Sherrill B.


    This report is a summary of the financial and production records kept by dairy farmers enrolled in the Telfarm/MicroTel record program through Michigan State University Extension., or were accounting clients of AgriSolutions in Michigan, or of Farm Credit Services of Escanaba. This report has three purposes: 1)to provide statistical information about the financial results on dairy farms during 1999; 2)to provide production costs for comparative analysis and forward planning; and 3)to provide ...



    Nott, Sherrill B.


    This report is a summary of the financial and production records kept by dairy farmers enrolled in the Telfarm/MicroTel record program through Michigan State University Extension, or were accounting clients of either AgriSolutions or Salisbury Management Services. This report has three purposes: 1)to provide statistical information about the financial results on dairy farms during 1997; 2)to provide production costs for comparative analysis and forward planning; and 3)to provide information o...

  9. The concept evaluation of dairy cattle nutrition




    Bachelor thesis gives a comprehensive overview of the dairy cow nutrition and assesses the system of nutrition and feeding in relation to milk production. The main part is devoted to the basics of dairy cow nutrition, the main nutrient requirements and composition of feed diets. There was assessed composition of feed rations for the year 2010 in working conditions on the School farm Měšice. The recommendations were designed to improve the nutrition level on the farm on the based data.

  10. Regular-fat dairy and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Bradley, Beth H Rice; Brenna, J Thomas


    In recent history, some dietary recommendations have treated dairy fat as an unnecessary source of calories and saturated fat in the human diet. These assumptions, however, have recently been brought into question by current research on regular fat dairy products and human health. In an effort to......, cheese and yogurt, can be important components of an overall healthy dietary pattern. Systematic examination of the effects of dietary patterns that include regular-fat milk, cheese and yogurt on human health is warranted....

  11. Strengthening Dairy Cooperative through National Development of Livestock Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Establishment of dairy cattle development region needs to be conducted in accordance with the national dairy industry development plan. Dairy cattle regions have been designed and equipped with infrastructure supplies, supporting facilities, technologies, finance, processing, marketing, institutional and human resources. Dairy cooperative is one of the marketing channels of milk and milk products which have strategic roles to support the national dairy industry. Collaborations between dairy cooperatives and smallholder farmers within a district region have to be done based on agricultural ecosystems, agribusiness system, integrated farming and participatory approach. This may improve dairy cooperatives as an independent and competitive institution. Strengthening dairy cooperatives in national region dairy cattle was carried out through institutional inventory and dairy cooperatives performance; requirement of capital access, market and networks as well as education and managerial training; certification and accreditation feasibility analysis and information and technology utilization. Establishment of emerging dairy cooperatives towards small and micro enterprises is carried out by directing them to establish cooperatives which have legal certainty and business development opportunities. The impact of strengthening dairy cooperative may support dairy cattle development through increase population and milk production. Sustainable dairy cattle development needs to be supported by regional and national government policies.

  12. Fermented dairy products: knowledge and consumption. (United States)

    Hekmat, Sharareh; Koba, Lesia


    Much has been published on the nutritional and health benefits of fermented dairy products, especially those containing probiotic microorganisms. However, consumers may not be familiar with the term "fermented dairy products," and therefore may not take full advantage of them. University students' knowledge and consumption patterns of fermented dairy products were assessed. University students (n=223) completed a survey consisting of a section on demographics and another on knowledge and consumption patterns. The majority of respondents (62%) were not familiar with the term "fermented dairy products." Most respondents consumed yogourt a few times a week (40%) or a few times a month (30%). Almost all respondents (92%) were unable to identify the difference between regular and probiotic yogourt. Most respondents (93%) had not heard of acidophilus milk, but the majority (65%) would be willing to try it. Most respondents were unsure whether sour cream (65%), yogourt beverages (74%), and cheddar cheese (61%) were fermented dairy products. Sixty percent of respondents never consumed yogourt drinks. Education is needed about fermented dairy products, especially probiotics, and their nutritional and health benefits. Such education may increase their acceptability and consumption.

  13. Fermented dairy food and CVD risk. (United States)

    Tapsell, Linda C


    Fermented dairy foods such as yoghurt and cheese are commonly found in the Mediterranean diet. Recent landmark research has confirmed the effect of the Mediterranean diet on reducing the CVD risk, but the relative contributions of fermented dairy foods have not been fully articulated. The present study provides a review of the relationship between fermented dairy foods consumption and CVD risk in the context of the whole diet. Studies show that people who eat healthier diets may be more likely to consume yoghurt, so there is a challenge in attributing separate effects to yoghurt. Analyses from large population studies list yoghurt as the food most negatively associated with the risk of weight gain (a problem that may lead to CVD). There is some suggestion that fermented dairy foods consumption (yoghurt or cheese) may be associated with reduced inflammatory biomarkers associated with the development of CVD. Dietary trials suggest that cheese may not have the same effect on raising LDL-cholesterol levels as butter with the same saturated fat content. The same might be stated for yoghurt. The use of different probiotic cultures and other aspects of study design remain a problem for research. Nevertheless, population studies from a range of countries have shown that a reduced risk of CVD occurs with the consumption of fermented dairy foods. A combination of evidence is necessary, and more research is always valuable, but indications remain that fermented dairy foods such as cheese and yoghurt are integral to diets that are protective against CVD.

  14. Food preference for milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Derflerová Brázdová


    Full Text Available Milk and dairy products constitute an important source of energy and nutrients for humans. Food preferences may significantly influence the actual consumption (and thus nutrition of people at the population level. The objective of the present large-scale survey was to specify current preferences for milk and dairy products with regard to age and sex. The study was conducted across the Moravia region, Czech Republic, on a sample of 451 individuals divided into 4 age groups: children, adolescents, young adults, and elderly people. A graphic scale questionnaire was administered, with respondents rating their degree of preference for each food item by drawing a mark on a 35 mm line. Out of the 115 items in the questionnaire, 11 items represented dairy products. Data was analysed by means of a general linear model using IBM SPSS Statistics software. Preference for milk was lower in the elderly group than the other groups (P P < 0.01. The overall preference for dairy products (21.6 was lower than the average preference for all foods on the list (22.5. The cross-sectional study revealed intergenerational differences in preferences for specific dairy products, which were most marked in case of cream, processed cheese, blue cheese, and buttermilk. The knowledge of these differences might help promote more focused action at the community level directed at increasing the overall consumption of dairy products in the population.

  15. Pulmonary Blastomycosis in Vilas County, Wisconsin: Weather, Exposures and Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Baumgardner


    Full Text Available Purpose: Blastomycosis is a serious fungal infection contracted by inhalation of Blastomyces spores from the environment. Case occurrence in dogs in Vilas County, Wisconsin, has been associated with antecedent weather. We aimed to explore the effects of weather on the occurrence of human pulmonary blastomycosis in this area, and update exposure factors and symptoms since last published reports. Methods: Mandatory case reports were reviewed. Chi-square test was used for categorical data of exposures, comparing 1979–1996 (n=101 versus 1997–June 2013 (n=95. Linear regression was used to model local weather data (available 1990–2013; n=126; Southern Oscillation Index (SOI, North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI, and Wisconsin River water discharge (WRD from the adjacent county (all available for 1984–2013; n=174; and case counts of known onset by warm (April–September and cold (October–March 6-month periods. Results: Distribution of pulmonary blastomycosis cases did not vary by season. Environmental exposures for the 1997–June 2013 group (mean age 45, 59% male were: residence(76%, excavation (42% and gardening (31%, all similar to the 1979–1996 group. Fishing (23% vs. 37%; P=0.09 and hunting (15% vs. 26%; P=0.13 exposures were less common in 1997–June 2013, but not significantly different. Overall, 69% of cases recalled some prior soil-disturbing activities. Considering the 6-month warm/cold periods, 19% of variation is explained by a direct relationship with total precipitation from two periods prior (P=0.005. There was no association of case occurrence with SOI, NAOI or WRD. Estimated annual incidence of blastomycosis for 1997–June 2013 was 27/100,000 compared with 44/100,000 for 1984–1996. Several symptoms were significantly less frequent in 2002–June 2013 compared to earlier years. Conclusions: As with dogs, human pulmonary blastomycosis occurrence is partially determined by antecedent precipitation. It is unclear if

  16. Protein recovery from dairy industry wastes with aerobic biofiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheatley, A.D.; Mitra, R.I.; Hawkes, H.A.


    Experiments were carried out to improve the economics of effluent treatment by the recovery of single cell protein. Field observations showed that acidic strong wastes, such as those from the dairy industry, produced a predominantly fungal biomass. Mixtures of dairy waste and domestic sewage did not produce fungal films. The most common fungi isolated were Fusarium and Geotrichum, but the species was affected by local conditions, i.e. creamery, yoghurt, milk or cheese wastes and the load to the plant. Batch culture was used to determine the growth requirements of Fusarium and Geotrichum and continuous culture, on vertical and horizontal fixed films, to determine growth and sloughing at different organic loads. The fungi grew well on acidic strong wastes which would discourage other organisms. A 1 cubic metre/hour pilot plant was built to treat the wastes from cheese, butter and cream production. The plant was run at pH 4-5 and at between 5 and 10 kg of BOD/day/cubic metres. BOD removal was between 30 and 50% and biomass production between 0.1 and 0.5 kg of dry solids/day. The filamentous fungal growth was separated from the tower effluent by an inclined screen. The amino acid content of the product was similar to other single-cell protein. Feeding trials are being carried out. (Refs. 14).

  17. Activation of inoculum microorganism from dairy cattle feces (United States)

    Ayuningtyas, Widya D.; Ridwan, Roni; Joni, I. M.; Marlina, E. T.; Harlia, Ellin


    Coal produces Coal Bed Methane (CBM) which is formed both biogenically and thermogenically. Lignite is not utilized optimally because it has low heat content and productivity time limit that decreases CBM production. In order to utilize lignite waste, adding inoculum consortium microorganism from dairy cattle waste as starter for biogas process can be a solution. This study aimed to produce inoculum consortium microorganism as biogas starter from dairy cattle feces through in vitro activation process by Theoudorou modification method. The research used complete randomized design with 3 replications. The treatments were blank (R0), 100% concentrate (R1), 70% concentrate+30% grass (R2), 70% grass+30% concentrate (R3) and 100% grass (R4). All treatments were added by buffer solution and feces with ratio of 2:1 into 100 ml serum injection bottle with anaerobic conditions. The parameters observed were gas production, pH and gas kinetics (orskov's equation) for 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24 and 48 hours. The results showed that the treatment had significant effect (P biogas starter selected based on the observed parameters and potential availability of proteolytic and fibrocytic microorganisms is R2 (70% concentrate +30% grass).

  18. Performance of Lactating Dairy Cows Fed Dried Sardines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. AI-Abri


    Full Text Available To utilize locally available feed resources with livestock production in hot climates, dried sardines were incorporated into diets for lactating dairy cows. Fourteen Holstein and 13 Australian Milk Zebu multiparous cows were used in a 70-day continuous feeding experiment. lsonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing either soybean meal or dried sardines (supplied 40% of dietary crude protein were fed ad - libitum. Comparisons between diets were made during the 7-week experimental period. The experiment was conducted as a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatment, with diet and breed as main factors. Ruminal pH, ammonia N, total and individual volatile fatty acids concentrations were not altered by the feeding of dried sardines. Intakes of dry matter, energy, crude protein, and acid detergent fiber were lower (P0.05 in Holstein cows fed dried sardines than those fed the control diet (16.2 vs 15.1 kg/d. Feeding of dried sardines did not affect milk composition and compositional yields. Milk production was higher (P<0.01 in Holstein than Australian Milk Zebu cows. Effect of diet and breed interaction on milk production was significant (P<0.01 . Potential of feeding marine proteins may be higher for higher milk producers (Holstein than lower producers (Australian Milk Zebu. Reproduction parameters, body condition scores, and heat-stress associated parameters were not affected by the feeding of dried sardines. This study suggests that dried sardines could be incorporated into diets of lactating dairy cows without affecting milk production.

  19. Foot disorders in dairy cattle: impact on cow and dairy farmer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnis, M.R.N.; Beerda, B.; Hogeveen, H.; Stassen, E.N.


    This paper considers the economic consequences and the welfare impact of foot disorders in dairy cattle and the association between them, taking into account clinical and subclinical foot disorders. In dairy farming with cubicle housing and concrete floors, foot disorders are a major welfare problem

  20. Ploidy Variation in Kluyveromyces marxianus Separates Dairy and Non-dairy Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl A. Ortiz-Merino


    Full Text Available Kluyveromyces marxianus is traditionally associated with fermented dairy products, but can also be isolated from diverse non-dairy environments. Because of thermotolerance, rapid growth and other traits, many different strains are being developed for food and industrial applications but there is, as yet, little understanding of the genetic diversity or population genetics of this species. K. marxianus shows a high level of phenotypic variation but the only phenotype that has been clearly linked to a genetic polymorphism is lactose utilisation, which is controlled by variation in the LAC12 gene. The genomes of several strains have been sequenced in recent years and, in this study, we sequenced a further nine strains from different origins. Analysis of the Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in 14 strains was carried out to examine genome structure and genetic diversity. SNP diversity in K. marxianus is relatively high, with up to 3% DNA sequence divergence between alleles. It was found that the isolates include haploid, diploid, and triploid strains, as shown by both SNP analysis and flow cytometry. Diploids and triploids contain long genomic tracts showing loss of heterozygosity (LOH. All six isolates from dairy environments were diploid or triploid, whereas 6 out 7 isolates from non-dairy environment were haploid. This also correlated with the presence of functional LAC12 alleles only in dairy haplotypes. The diploids were hybrids between a non-dairy and a dairy haplotype, whereas triploids included three copies of a dairy haplotype.

  1. Consumers' Motivations and Dairy Production Beliefs Regarding Participation in an Educational Dairy Farm Event (United States)

    LaFollette, Lindsay K.; Knobloch, Neil A.; Schutz, Michael M.; Brady, Colleen M.


    Exploratory discriminant analysis was used to determine the extent adult consumers' interest motivation to participate in a free educational dairy farm event and their beliefs of the dairy industry could correctly classify the respondents' predicted participation in a nonformal educational event. The most prominent conclusion of the study was that…

  2. 78 FR 29612 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Redefinition of the Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN, and Southwestern Wisconsin... (United States)


    ...: Minnesota: Benton Big Stone Blue Earth Brown Chippewa Cottonwood Dodge Douglas Faribault Freeborn Goodhue... plus: Minnesota: Fillmore Houston Winona Wisconsin: Barron Buffalo Clark Crawford Dunn Florence Forest...

  3. Escherichia coli verotoxigênica: isolamento e prevalência em 60 propriedades de bovinos de leite da região de Pelotas, RS, Brasil Verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli: isolation and prevalence in 60 dairy cattle farms from Pelotas-RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Nunes Moreira Sandrini


    Full Text Available A produção de verotoxinas foi investigada em 1.127 isolamentos de Escherichia coli feitos a partir de 243 bovinos de leite, de água de consumo humano e animal e de amostras de leite de 60 propriedades da bacia leiteira de Pelotas, no período de dezembro de 1999 a dezembro de 2000, com o objetivo de determinar a prevalência de E. coli verotoxigênicas (VTEC nas propriedades e no rebanho, de detectar a presença de sorotipos ligados a infecções humanas e de identificar, nas propriedades e na região de Pelotas, potenciais fatores de risco de infecção para os animais. A detecção das toxinas em sobrenadante de culturas de E. coli isoladas foi realizada através do ensaio de citotoxicidade em células Vero. VTEC foi isolada em 95% (57/60 das propriedades estudadas, em 49% (119/243 dos animais testados, em 5% (3/60 das amostras de água de consumo humano, em 8,35% (5/60 das amostras de água de consumo animal e em 5% (3/60 das amostras de leite. A prevalência de bovinos infectados em cada propriedade variou de 0 a 100%. Em 2,9% (7/243 dos animais testados, foram isoladas VTEC pertencentes aos sorogrupos O157, O91 e O112, que incluem cepas responsáveis por casos de colite hemorrágica e síndrome urêmica hemolítica em humanos. Fatores de risco de contaminação, como a precipitação pluviométrica, a temperatura, o tamanho da propriedade e a concentração de animais, apresentaram evidências de influenciarem a prevalência de VTEC nos animais. Estes resultados sugerem que o grupo VTEC está amplamente distribuído na bacia leiteira de Pelotas e inclui organismos pertencentes a sorogrupos patogênicos para humanos.The production of verotoxin was investigated in 1127 Escherichia coli isolated from 243 dairy cattle, water for human and animal consumption, and milk samples from 60 dairy farms from Pelotas-Brazil, from December of 1999 to December of 2000, to determine the prevalence of verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC in farms, to detect the




  5. Checking into China's cow hotels: have policies following the milk scandal changed the structure of the dairy sector? (United States)

    Mo, D; Huang, J; Jia, X; Luan, H; Rozelle, S; Swinnen, J


    China's milk scandal is well known for causing the nation's largest food safety crisis and for its effect on thousands of children. Less, however, is known about the effect on the other victim: China's small dairy farmers. Although small backyard producers were not the ones that added melamine to the milk supply, the incomes of dairy farmers fell sharply after the crisis. In response, one of the actions taken by the government was to encourage small dairy producers to check into production complexes that were supposed to supply services, new technologies, and provide for easy/bulk procurement of the milk produced by the cows of the farmers. Because both farmers and their cows were living (and working) away from home, in the rest of the paper we call these complexes cow hotels. In this paper we examine the dynamics of China's dairy production structure before and after the milk scandal. In particular, we seek to gain a better understanding about how China's policies have been successful in encouraging farmers to move from the backyard into cow hotels. We also seek to find if larger or smaller farmers respond differently to these policy measures. Using data from a sample of farmers from dairy-producing villages in Greater Beijing, our empirical analysis finds that 1 yr after the milk scandal, the dairy production structure changed substantially. Approximately one quarter (26%) of the sample checked into cow hotels after the milk scandal, increasing from 2% before the crisis. Our results also demonstrate that the increase in cow hotel production can largely be attributed to China's dairy policies. Finally, our results suggest that the effects of government policy differ across farm sizes; China's dairy policies are more likely to persuade larger farms to join cow hotels. Apparently, larger farms benefit more when they join cow hotels. Overall, these results suggest that during the first year after the crisis, the government policies were effective in moving some of

  6. Inhibition of phage infection in capsule-producing Streptococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 4, 2007 ... Lactic cultures that produce capsular polysaccharides are widely used in the dairy industry. However, little information is available on their phage-cell interactions. Concanavalin A (Con A), lysozyme, and saccharides were investigated for their ability to modify phage-cell interactions in such a manner as to.

  7. Effect of ropy and capsular exopolysaccharides producing strain of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 14, 2004 ... The presence of viscous extracellular materials produced by some culture bacteria were also demonstrated to play an important role in achieving satisfactory firmness and apparent viscosity of yoghurt (Hassan et al., 1996; De Vuyst and Degeest,. 1999; Patricia et al., 2002). Besides yogurt, other dairy.

  8. Hazards And Critical Control Points Of Yoghurt Produced In A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hazard analyses of yoghurt, produced by the Dairy Unit of a Research Institute farm in Zaria were conducted to determine hazards associated with the processing of milk supplied to the unit into the milk product, and also to determine critical control points that are necessary for effective control of the hazards. The analyses ...

  9. Structural studies of exopolysaccharides produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez de Medina Herrera, I.M.


    Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) produced by lactic acid bacteria are widely used in the food industry, especially for the preparation of dairy products, such as yoghurt and cheese. Their interesting physical and rheological properties make them suitable as gellifying or viscosifying agents in the

  10. Potential use of Bacillus thuringiensis bacteriocins to control antibiotic-resistant bacteria associated with mastitis in dairy goats. (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Chávez, A J; Martínez-Ortega, E A; Valencia-Posadas, M; León-Galván, M F; de la Fuente-Salcido, N M; Bideshi, D K; Barboza-Corona, J E


    Mastitis caused by microbial infections in dairy goats reduces milk yield, modifies milk composition, and potentially contributes to morbidity in herds and consumers of dairy products. Microorganisms associated with mastitis in dairy goats are commonly controlled with antibiotics, but it is known that continued use of these chemical agents promotes antibiotic resistance among bacterial populations. Recently, it has been shown that bacteriocins of Bacillus thuringiensis inhibit growth of food-borne pathogens and also bacteria associated with bovine mastitis. However, there is no report on their ability to inhibit microorganisms linked to mastitis in dairy goats. In this study, using 16S rDNA and ITS regions of rDNA, we identified nine bacterial isolates and an encapsulated yeast associated with mastitis in dairy goats. Enterococcus durans, Brevibacillus sp., and Staphylococcus epidermidis 2 were resistant to, respectively, 75, ~67, ~42, and ~42 % of the antibiotics screened. In addition, 60 % of the bacterial isolates were resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, vancomycin, and dicloxacillin. Importantly, 60 % of the isolates were inhibited by the bacteriocins, but S. epidermidis 1, Enterobacter sp., Escherichia vulneris, and Cryptococcus neoformans were not susceptible to these antimicrobial peptides. Using Brevibacillus sp. and Staphylococcus chromogenes as indicator bacteria, we show that peptides of ~10 kDa that correspond to the molecular mass of bacteriocins used in this study are responsible for the inhibitory activity. Our results demonstrate that multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria associated with subclinical mastitis in dairy goats from Guanajuato, Mexico, are susceptible to bacteriocins produced by B. thuringiensis.

  11. Neuropathology of organophosphate poisoning in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulvian Sani


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate pathological changes in brain tissues of Frisien Holstein dairy cattle affected by organophosphate (OP. The study was directed to anticipate spongiform encephalopathy. Samples consisted of animal feeds, sera and brain tissues were collected from Lembang, West Java. Animal feeds (fodders and commercial feed were collected directly from the dairy farms around Lembang. Sera (31 samples were from dairy cattle owned by the local farmers and brain tissues were from the local animal slaughter house. Pesticide residues were analysed following a standard procedure using gas chromatography (GC. There was an interaction between pesticide residues in animal feeds, residue level of pesticides in sera and brain tissues to cause encephalopathy in dairy cattle. Pesticide contamination in animal feeds was regarded as the source of encephalopathy in dairy cattle. The total average of OP residues (16.8 ppb were lower than organochlorines/OC (18.7 ppb in fodder, showing that pesticides were originated from the contaminated soils. On the other hand, the total average of OP residues in commercial feeds (12.0 ppb, sera (85.6 ppb and brain tissues (22.7 ppb were higher than OC (1.8; 16.7; and 5.1 ppb. The OP appears more frequently used for dairy farm activity as insecticides. Histopathological examination for brain tissues of dairy cattle showed that most cattle were diagnosed as encephalopathy with microscopic changes of vacuolation, neuronal necrosis, chromatolysis of neurons and nucleolysis of neurons. The encephalopathy was confirmed in rats intoxicated with chlorpyrifos methyl as severe brain damage with spongiform-like lesions.

  12. Evaluation of Brucella contamination in raw milk in Kerman dairy farms by PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khalili


    Full Text Available Background: Human brucellosis is a significant public health problem in many middle east countries including Iran. In endemic developing countries, dairy products produced from untreated milk are a potential threat to public health. The aim of this study was to detect brucellae in milk from dairy cattle farms in Kerman (Iran. Methods: Forthy and eight Bulk Tank Milk (BTM  were collected from 48 dairy cattle farm including 4200 cow. All milk samples were examined by PCR to detect Brucella-specific DNA. Results: Using IS711 primer were detected in 4 samples (8.3% Brucella spp from 48 BTM samples in this area.. Conclusions: The detection of Brucella DNA in milk for human consumption, especially the highly pathogenic species B. melitensis, is of obvious concern. The shedding of Brucella spp. in milk poses an increasing threat to consumers in Iran. Consumption of dairy products produced from non-pasteurized milk by individual farmers operating under poor hygienic conditions represents an unacceptable risk to public health.

  13. Investigation of joint costs management practices of dairy industry: a contingency approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Costa da Silva Zonatto


    Full Text Available The research has investigated the adoption of administration practices in the set of costs in dairy product industries in the Southwest Region in Parana State, as well as, the contingency factors which has influenced the system in the management control at these companies. The explore research was developed through a study on data in quantitative approach in forty- three dairies. From these, just twenty-three produce milk and the other twenty cheese and its derivatives. According to the study these companies are concerned on how to check their costs on production. However, just the dairies which produce cheese and its derivatives are managing costs based on data in a planning and control process. The way used to determine the costs is based on the method of market value. These organizations stand out by the development of control systems of computerized costs where the aims are related to right identification of the costs and the prices for sale, as well. The main outside elements which have affected the organizations are the market needs and the goods availability. In relation to the model  of the manage control in these organizations, it was  checked that these are different from the others in the strategies structure, complexity in the production process, level of computerization and the aims of the use. It was concluded that the administration practices in those researched dairies are influenced by contingency factors.

  14. Economic weights for major milk constituents of Manchega dairy ewes. (United States)

    Ramón, M; Legarra, A; Ugarte, E; Garde, J J; Pérez-Guzmán, M D


    The objective of this study was to estimate economic weights of major components of milk (fat and protein) for the Manchega dairy sheep breed. An economic study was carried out and the profit associated with fat and protein yields of milk was calculated as the difference between incomes and costs. Incomes were obtained from milk sales to cheese industry and a reference marked price was used. Costs were calculated considering the energy necessary to produce each of the components of milk, and the price per milk forage unit was calculated as the total expense in feedstuff divided by the total (theoretical) needs of the flock. Economic values were defined as partial derivatives of the profit function with respect to each trait. Economic weights for fat and protein yields were similar, being slightly greater for protein in all cases. For carrier, economic weights were close to zero and negative because an increase in carrier production without changes in fat and protein composition leads to an increase in energy demands, holding the sale price of milk constant. When genetic standard deviations were taken into account and standardized economic values were calculated, an increase in economic value of protein and a decrease in economic value of fat yields were observed. The consequences that different changes in production system conditions have on the estimated economic weights were also studied. In general, economic weights were relatively insensitive to changes in production levels and market prices except for changes on milk price. Given the economic importance shown for fat and protein, milk components should be taken into consideration when breeding objectives for dairy sheep are established. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Consuming the daily recommended amounts of dairy products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , but children and adults do not consume the recommended amounts from this ... Modelling was performed by adding the necessary number of dairy servings, using the dairy composite designed by USDA, to each participant's diet to meet the ...

  16. Meat, dairy, and cancer1234 (United States)

    Abid, Zaynah; Cross, Amanda J; Sinha, Rashmi


    In 2007 the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) report judged that the evidence for an association between red and processed meat consumption and colorectal cancer was convincing. In addition, the effect of other animal products on cancer risk has been studied, and the WCRF/AICR report concluded that milk probably decreases the risk of colorectal cancer but diets high in calcium probably increase the risk of prostate cancer, whereas there was limited evidence for an association between milk and bladder cancer and insufficient evidence for other cancers. There are several potential mechanisms relating meat to cancer, including heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, N-nitroso compounds, and heme iron. Although the evidence in favor of a link between red and processed meat and colorectal cancer is convincing, the relations with other cancers are unclear. In this review, we summarize cohort studies conducted by the National Cancer Institute on meat and dairy intake in relation to cancer since the 2007 WCRF/AICR report. We also report the findings of meta-analyses published since 2007. PMID:24847855

  17. The welfare of dairy buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Winckler


    Full Text Available The present paper addresses the issue of buffalo welfare. Firstly, the biological characteristics and behavioural needs of buffalo are considered. Subsequently, the effects of intensive farming and some animalrelated indicators, to be used for a monitoring scheme of buffalo welfare at farm level, are described. The attention was focused on the following indicators: excessive thinning or fattening assessed with Body Condition Score (BCS systems; cleanliness (the presence of mud may be considered positively, whereas a thick and compact layer of dung may be regarded negatively; health status (lameness, hoof overgrowth, injuries, etc.; social, aggressive, oral abnormal behaviours; animal-human relationship (avoidance distance at manger; positive indicators (qualitative assessment of behaviour, etc.; housing factors. The indicators are discussed on the basis of their validity (meaningful with respect to animal welfare, reliability (reflecting the tendency to give the same results on repeated measurements and feasibility (concerning time and money consumed. For some aspects, the differences between buffalo and dairy cattle are also highlighted.

  18. "Subclinical" laminitis in dairy cattle. (United States)

    Vermunt, J J


    In dairying countries worldwide, the economic importance of lameness in cattle is now recognised. Laminitis is regarded as a major predisposing factor in lameness caused by claw disorders such as white zone lesions, sole ulcer, and heel horn erosion. The existence of subclinical laminitis was first suggested in the late 1970s by Dutch workers describing the symptoms of sole haemorrhages and yellowish-coloured, soft sole horn. In an attempt to clarify some of the confusing and often conflicting terminology, the literature on laminitis is reviewed. Disturbed haemodynamics, in particular repeated or prolonged dilation of arteriovenous anastomoses, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of both equine and bovine laminitis. Some characteristics of the vascular system of the bovine claw which may be of importance in the pathophysiology of the subclinical laminitis syndrome are therefore discussed. Clinical observations suggest that subclinical laminitis is a multifactorial disease. The different factors that are or may be involved in its aetiology vary in complexity and severity according to the management protocol of the animals. The possible involvement of subclinical laminitis in claw lesions is assessed.

  19. Microbiological performance of dairy processing plants is influenced by scale of production and the implemented food safety management system: a case study. (United States)

    Opiyo, Beatrice Atieno; Wangoh, John; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau


    The effects of existing food safety management systems and size of the production facility on microbiological quality in the dairy industry in Kenya were studied. A microbial assessment scheme was used to evaluate 14 dairies in Nairobi and its environs, and their performance was compared based on their size and on whether they were implementing hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) systems and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 22000 recommendations. Environmental samples from critical sampling locations, i.e., workers' hands and food contact surfaces, and from end products were analyzed for microbial quality, including hygiene indicators and pathogens. Microbial safety level profiles (MSLPs) were constructed from the microbiological data to obtain an overview of contamination. The maximum MSLP score for environmental samples was 18 (six microbiological parameters, each with a maximum MSLP score of 3) and that for end products was 15 (five microbiological parameters). Three dairies (two large scale and one medium scale; 21% of total) achieved the maximum MSLP scores of 18 for environmental samples and 15 for the end product. Escherichia coli was detected on food contact surfaces in three dairies, all of which were small scale dairies, and the microorganism was also present in end product samples from two of these dairies, an indication of cross-contamination. Microbial quality was poorest in small scale dairies. Most operations in these dairies were manual, with minimal system documentation. Noncompliance with hygienic practices such as hand washing and cleaning and disinfection procedures, which is common in small dairies, directly affects the microbial quality of the end products. Dairies implementing HACCP systems or ISO 22000 recommendations achieved maximum MSLP scores and hence produced safer products.

  20. Dairy and cardiovascular health: Friend or foe? (United States)

    Markey, O; Vasilopoulou, D; Givens, D I; Lovegrove, J A


    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevalence at a global level is predicted to increase substantially over the next decade due to the increasing ageing population and incidence of obesity. Hence, there is an urgent requirement to focus on modifiable contributors to CVD risk, including a high dietary intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). As an important source of SFA in the UK diet, milk and dairy products are often targeted for SFA reduction. The current paper acknowledges that milk is a complex food and that simply focusing on the link between SFA and CVD risk overlooks the other beneficial nutrients of dairy foods. The body of existing prospective evidence exploring the impact of milk and dairy consumption on risk factors for CVD is reviewed. The current paper highlights that high milk consumption may be beneficial to cardiovascular health, while illustrating that the evidence is less clear for cheese and butter intake. The option of manipulating the fatty acid profile of ruminant milk is discussed as a potential dietary strategy for lowering SFA intake at a population level. The review highlights that there is a necessity to perform more well-controlled human intervention-based research that provides a more holistic evaluation of fat-reduced and fat-modified dairy consumption on CVD risk factors including vascular function, arterial stiffness, postprandial lipaemia and markers of inflammation. Additionally, further research is required to investigate the impact of different dairy products and the effect of the specific food matrix on CVD development. PMID:25400508

  1. Nutritional strategies to optimize dairy cattle immunity. (United States)

    Sordillo, L M


    Dairy cattle are susceptible to increased incidence and severity of both metabolic and infectious diseases during the periparturient period. A major contributing factor to increased health disorders is alterations in bovine immune mechanisms. Indeed, uncontrolled inflammation is a major contributing factor and a common link among several economically important infectious and metabolic diseases including mastitis, retained placenta, metritis, displaced abomasum, and ketosis. The nutritional status of dairy cows and the metabolism of specific nutrients are critical regulators of immune cell function. There is now a greater appreciation that certain mediators of the immune system can have a reciprocal effect on the metabolism of nutrients. Thus, any disturbances in nutritional or immunological homeostasis can provide deleterious feedback loops that can further enhance health disorders, increase production losses, and decrease the availability of safe and nutritious dairy foods for a growing global population. This review will discuss the complex interactions between nutrient metabolism and immune functions in periparturient dairy cattle. Details of how either deficiencies or overexposure to macro- and micronutrients can contribute to immune dysfunction and the subsequent development of health disorders will be presented. Specifically, the ways in which altered nutrient metabolism and oxidative stress can interact to compromise the immune system in transition cows will be discussed. A better understanding of the linkages between nutrition and immunity may facilitate the design of nutritional regimens that will reduce disease susceptibility in early lactation cows. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Possibilities and requirements for organic dairy breeding lines


    Kargo, Morten; Hjortø, Line; Thomasen, Jørn Rind


    Possibilities and requirements for organic dairy breeding lines Until now, improvements in the efficiency of organic dairy production have mainly occurred through better management, feeding and production strategies, using the dairy cattle breeds developed in conventional production systems. The potential of breeding lines of dairy cattle that are genetically adapted to organic milk production is essentially unexploited even though specific lines offer the potential to breed for cows with...

  3. Teaching dairy production medicine to entry-level veterinarians: the summer dairy institute model. (United States)

    Nydam, Charles W; Nydam, Daryl V; Guard, Charles L; Gilbert, Robert O


    Food supply veterinarians who intend to enter dairy cattle practice or other related career activities are in need of up-graded skills to better serve the dairy industry as it continues to evolve. The time available for students to increase their abilities within the conventional professional curriculum is scarce, especially as those with food-supply interests are a minority of students competing for time and resources. The dairy industry has need of skilled veterinarians who are not only well versed in their traditional capabilities, but who also have an understanding of the complete picture of that industry as a "farm-to-fork" experience. Society at large also stands to benefit from the presence of skilled dairy veterinarians contributing to the production of safe, affordable dairy foodstuffs in a manner deemed sustainable and humane. Veterinarians in practice can and do acquire the necessary skills to make themselves relevant to their clients and consumers; however, better preparation of entry-level veterinarians could increase their value to their employers, clients, themselves, and society in a more timely manner. Cornell University's College of Veterinary Medicine developed the Summer Dairy Institute to provide an avenue for advancing the skills of new veterinarians as a means to address the current and future needs of the dairy industry. This article describes the need for, concept of, and experience with that program.

  4. Assessment of herd management on organic and conventional dairy farms in the United States. (United States)

    Stiglbauer, K E; Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Richert, R; Schukken, Y H; Ruegg, P L; Gamroth, M


    The objective of this study was to evaluate management characteristics on organic and similarly sized conventional dairy farms located in New York, Wisconsin, and Oregon. Data from 192 organic farms (ORG), 64 conventional nongrazing farms (CON-NG), and 36 conventional grazing farms (CON-GR) were collected during farm visits and were size-matched and analyzed. The average lactation number of animals on ORG and CON-GR farms was 2.6 lactations, which was greater than that on CON-NG farms (2.3 lactations). A greater percentage of first-lactation heifers were found on conventional farms than on ORG farms. Facilities used by adult animals, including housing and milking facilities, did not differ among the grazing systems. Cattle on conventional farms were fed approximately twice as much grain as cattle on ORG farms and had greater milk production. Little difference was found for the average reported somatic cell count and standard plate count, suggesting that milk quality is not dependent on grazing system. Milking procedures were similar across all 3 grazing systems, indicating that an industry standard now exists for milking and that milk quality problems will need to be addressed with other management problems in mind. Although some disease prevention measures were commonly utilized on ORG farms, such as keeping a closed herd and having a written record of treatments administered to the animals, the use of outside support and vaccinations were found to be less prevalent on organic farms than on conventional farms. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The 2016 groundwater flow model for Dane County, Wisconsin (United States)

    Parsen, Michael J.; Bradbury, Kenneth R.; Hunt, Randall J.; Feinstein, Daniel T.


    A new groundwater flow model for Dane County, Wisconsin, replaces an earlier model developed in the 1990s by the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey (WGNHS) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). This modeling study was conducted cooperatively by the WGNHS and the USGS with funding from the Capital Area Regional Planning Commission (CARPC). Although the overall conceptual model of the groundwater system remains largely unchanged, the incorporation of newly acquired high-quality datasets, recent research findings, and improved modeling and calibration techniques have led to the development of a more detailed and sophisticated model representation of the groundwater system. The new model is three-dimensional and transient, and conceptualizes the county’s hydrogeology as a 12-layer system including all major unlithified and bedrock hydrostratigraphic units and two high-conductivity horizontal fracture zones. Beginning from the surface down, the model represents the unlithified deposits as two distinct model layers (1 and 2). A single layer (3) simulates the Ordovician sandstone and dolomite of the Sinnipee, Ancell, and Prairie du Chien Groups. Sandstone of the Jordan Formation (layer 4) and silty dolostone of the St. Lawrence Formation (layer 5) each comprise separate model layers. The underlying glauconitic sandstone of the Tunnel City Group makes up three distinct layers: an upper aquifer (layer 6), a fracture feature (layer 7), and a lower aquifer (layer 8). The fracture layer represents a network of horizontal bedding-plane fractures that serve as a preferential pathway for groundwater flow. The model simulates the sandstone of the Wonewoc Formation as an upper aquifer (layer 9) with a bedding-plane fracture feature (layer 10) at its base. The Eau Claire aquitard (layer 11) includes shale beds within the upper portion of the Eau Claire Formation. This layer, along with overlying bedrock units, is mostly absent in the preglacially eroded valleys along

  6. Behaviour of dairy cows under modern housing and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, H.K.


    The results of behavioural studies of dairy cows' behaviour under some modern housing and management conditions are presented. Social dominance in dairy cows is studied and methods to describe social dominance are discussed. The lying behaviour of dairy cows is studied under various

  7. Reproductive and Lactation Performance of Crossbreed Dairy Cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For several years, Ethiopia ranked first in cattle population in Africa. However, the dairy industry is not as developed as that of East African countries including Ethiopia. This study was conducted to assess the reproductive and lactation performance and factors affecting crossbreed dairy cattle in intensive dairy farm in ...

  8. Smallholder dairying in Kenya: the assessment of the technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dairying in Kenya remains a multi-purpose cattle system providing milk, manure and capital assets to the farmer. Dairy activities in Kenya are predominantly run by smallholders and are concentrated in the high and medium potential areas. Smallholders operating 1-3 dairy cows on small farms are predominant in Kenya.

  9. Groundwater quality on dairy farms in central South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dairy farms in central South Africa depend mostly on groundwater for domestic needs and dairy activities. Groundwater samples were collected from 37 dairy farms during 2009 and 2013. Sixteen water quality parameters were tested and compared to the standard. Four parameters in 2009 and six in 2013 exhibited 100% ...

  10. Catalyzing Collaboration: Wisconsin's Agency-Initiated Basin Partnerships (United States)

    Genskow, Kenneth D.


    Experience with collaborative approaches to natural resource and environmental management has grown substantially over the past 20 years, and multi-interest, shared-resources initiatives have become prevalent in the United States and internationally. Although often viewed as “grass-roots” and locally initiated, governmental participants are crucial to the success of collaborative efforts, and important questions remain regarding their appropriate roles, including roles in partnership initiation. In the midst of growing governmental support for collaborative approaches in the mid-1990s, the primary natural resource and environmental management agency in Wisconsin (USA) attempted to generate a statewide system of self-sustaining, collaborative partnerships, organized around the state’s river basin boundaries. The agency expected the partnerships to enhance participation by stakeholders, leverage additional resources, and help move the agency toward more integrated and ecosystem-based resource management initiatives. Most of the basin partnerships did form and function, but ten years after this initiative, the agency has moved away from these partnerships and half have disbanded. Those that remain active have changed, but continue to work closely with agency staff. Those no longer functioning lacked clear focus, were dependent upon agency leadership, or could not overcome issues of scale. This article outlines the context for state support of collaborative initiatives and explores Wisconsin’s experience with basin partnerships by discussing their formation and reviewing governmental roles in partnerships’ emergence and change. Wisconsin’s experience suggests benefits from agency support and agency responsiveness to partnership opportunities, but cautions about expectations for initiating general-purpose partnerships.

  11. Associations of grassland birds with landscape factors in southern Wisconsin (United States)

    Ribic, C.A.; Sample, D.W.


    We investigated the association of grassland birds with field- and landscape-level habitat variables in south-central Wisconsin during 1985-1987. Landscape-level variables were measured and digitized at 200, 400 and 800 m from the perimeter of 38 200 m ?? 100 m strip transects. A mixture of field and landscape variables was associated with the density of savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) and grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum). Only landscape variables were associated with the density of bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus), eastern meadowlark (Sturnella magna) and all birds that were grassland species of management concern. Field size was not an important predictor of bird density. Cover-type diversity of the surrounding area was commonly selected in the models for three species and all birds that were grassland species of management concern. Higher bird densities in the transects were associated with landscapes where the cover types were less diverse. Landscapes with low cover type diversity were dominated by grassland, pasture and hay. Field habitat, mean patch size of cover types and distance to woody vegetation were the next most common predictors of avian density. The density of some grassland birds increased as nonlinear woody features such as woodlots and shrub carrs decreased in patch size, decreased in total amount in the landscape and increased in distance from a transect. However, density of other species was positively associated with linear woody features such as the total amount and nearness of hedgerows. The composition of the surrounding landscape, at least out to 800 m, is important in grassland bird management.

  12. Atmospheric mercury in northern Wisconsin: sources and species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamborg, C.H.; Fitzgerald, W.F.; Vandal, G.M.; Rolfhus, K.R.


    The atmospheric chemistry, deposition and transport of mercury (Hg) in the Upper Great Lakes region is being investigated at a near-remote sampling location in northern Wisconsin. Intensive sampling over two years has been completed. A multi-phase collection strategy was used to gain insight into the processes controlling concentrations and chemical/physical speciation of atmospheric Hg. Additional chemical and physical atmospheric determinations were also made during these periods to aid in the interpretation of the Hg determinations. For example, correlations of Hg with ozone, sulfur dioxide and synopticscale meteorological features suggest a regionally discernible signal in Hg. Comparison to isosigma backward air parcel trajectories confirms this regionality and implicates the areas south, southeast and northwest of the size to be source for Hg. Particle-phase Hg (Hg p ) was found to be approximately 40% in an oxidized form, or operationally defined as reactive but was variable. Hg p and other particle constituents show significant correlation and similarity in behavior. These observations support the hypothesis that precipitation-phase Hg arises from the scavenging of atmospheric particulates bearing Hg. Observed concentrations of rain and particle-Hg fit the theoretical expectations for nucleation and below-cloud scavenging. Increases in the Hg/aerosol mass ratio appear to take place during transport. Enrichment of aerosols is taken as evidence of gas/particle conversion which could represent the step linking gas-phase Hg with rain. The refined budget indicates ca. 24% of total deposition is from summer particle dry deposition, and that this deposition also contributes ca. 24% of all reactive Hg deposition. Most deposition occurs during the summer months. 40 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs

  13. BREEDING AND GENETICS SYMPOSIUM:Breeding heat tolerant dairy cattle: the case for introgression of the "slick" prolactin receptor variant into dairy breeds. (United States)

    Davis, S R; Spelman, R J; Littlejohn, M D


    Increasing environmental temperatures are a threat to the sustainability of livestock production and, because of the high metabolic demands of lactation, to dairy production in particular. Summer heat waves in temperate climates reduce feed intake, milk production, and cow comfort. In extreme heat events, there is an increase in cow mortality. In tropical climates, dairy cattle are mostly (zebu) type or zebu crossbred with temperate dairy breeds. Crossbreeding is undertaken to combine the heat tolerance and tick resistance of zebu with the productivity of temperate dairy breeds. In the absence of improved heat tolerance, milk production and fertility of temperate cattle is severely impaired. We have recently identified a key role for the prolactin pathway in regulating heat tolerance. A de novo mutation in prolactin that impairs prolactin activity was discovered in hairy and heat intolerant, New Zealand dairy cattle. The phenotypes produced were remarkably similar to those seen in fescue toxicosis, a syndrome seen in grazing cattle in the U.S. where ingestion of ergovaline, a fungal toxin from infected pasture, inhibits prolactin secretion. Recognition of the role of prolactin in hairy cattle led us to identify a deletion in exon 10 of the long-form of the prolactin receptor in Senepol cattle that causes truncation of the protein and determines the slick coat and heat tolerance traits found in this , beef breed. The short form of the prolactin receptor is predicted to be unaffected by the deletion. Knowledge of this dominant mutation has provided the impetus to begin a crossbreeding program to investigate performance and heat tolerance of temperate dairy cattle carrying the slick, prolactin receptor variant. The perceived opportunity is to introgress this variant into temperate dairy cattle to enable performance and welfare improvement in hot climates. Heat tolerance of cattle with slick coats appears to be mostly associated with coat type although sweating ability

  14. Investment appraisal of technology innovations on dairy farm electricity consumption. (United States)

    Upton, J; Murphy, M; De Boer, I J M; Groot Koerkamp, P W G; Berentsen, P B M; Shalloo, L


    The aim of this study was to conduct an investment appraisal for milk-cooling, water-heating, and milk-harvesting technologies on a range of farm sizes in 2 different electricity-pricing environments. This was achieved by using a model for electricity consumption on dairy farms. The model simulated the effect of 6 technology investment scenarios on the electricity consumption and electricity costs of the 3 largest electricity-consuming systems within the dairy farm (i.e., milk-cooling, water-heating, and milking machine systems). The technology investment scenarios were direct expansion milk-cooling, ice bank milk-cooling, milk precooling, solar water-heating, and variable speed drive vacuum pump-milking systems. A dairy farm profitability calculator was combined with the electricity consumption model to assess the effect of each investment scenario on the total discounted net income over a 10-yr period subsequent to the investment taking place. Included in the calculation were the initial investments, which were depreciated to zero over the 10-yr period. The return on additional investment for 5 investment scenarios compared with a base scenario was computed as the investment appraisal metric. The results of this study showed that the highest return on investment figures were realized by using a direct expansion milk-cooling system with precooling of milk to 15°C with water before milk entry to the storage tank, heating water with an electrical water-heating system, and using standard vacuum pump control on the milking system. Return on investment figures did not exceed the suggested hurdle rate of 10% for any of the ice bank scenarios, making the ice bank system reliant on a grant aid framework to reduce the initial capital investment and improve the return on investment. The solar water-heating and variable speed drive vacuum pump scenarios failed to produce positive return on investment figures on any of the 3 farm sizes considered on either the day and night

  15. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice (KAP) of Dairy Products in Chinese Urban Population and the Effects on Dairy Intake Quality


    Zhao, Ai; Szeto, Ignatius Man-Yau; Wang, Yan; Li, Ce; Pan, Min; Li, Ting; Wang, Peiyu; Zhang, Yumei


    Insufficient intake of dairy products is a nutritional problem of concern in China. However, the knowledge, attitude, and practice of consuming dairy products in the Chinese population remain unknown. A total of 1739 subjects from eight cities in China participated in this study. A questionnaire was used to measure knowledge of and attitude toward dairy. A semi-food intake frequency questionnaire was used to obtain the frequencies and amount of different kinds of dairy product intake. Calcium...

  16. Dairy Products and Health: Recent Insights. (United States)

    Tunick, Michael H; Van Hekken, Diane L


    Milk, cheese, yogurt, and other dairy products have long been known to provide good nutrition. Major healthful contributors to the diets of many people include the protein, minerals, vitamins, and fatty acids present in milk. Recent studies have shown that consumption of dairy products appears to be beneficial in muscle building, lowering blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and preventing tooth decay, diabetes, cancer, and obesity. Additional benefits might be provided by organic milk and by probiotic microorganisms using milk products as a vehicle. New research on dairy products and nutrition will improve our understanding of the connections between these products, the bioactive compounds in them, and their effects on the human body.

  17. Genomic selection in small dairy cattle populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, Jørn Rind

    Genomic selection provides more accurate estimation of genetic merit for breeding candidates without own recordings and is now an integrated part of most dairy breeding schemes. However, the method has turned out to be less efficient in the numerically smaler breeds. This thesis focuses on optimi......Genomic selection provides more accurate estimation of genetic merit for breeding candidates without own recordings and is now an integrated part of most dairy breeding schemes. However, the method has turned out to be less efficient in the numerically smaler breeds. This thesis focuses...... on optimization of genomc selction for a small dairy cattle breed such as Danish Jersey. Implementing genetic superior breeding schemes thus requires more accurate genomc predictions. Besides international collaboration, genotyping of cows is an efficient way to obtain more accurate genomic predictions...

  18. Invited review: Changes in the dairy industry affecting dairy cattle health and welfare. (United States)

    Barkema, H W; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Kastelic, J P; Lam, T J G M; Luby, C; Roy, J-P; LeBlanc, S J; Keefe, G P; Kelton, D F


    The dairy industry in the developed world has undergone profound changes over recent decades. In this paper, we present an overview of some of the most important recent changes in the dairy industry that affect health and welfare of dairy cows, as well as the science associated with these changes. Additionally, knowledge gaps are identified where research is needed to guide the dairy industry through changes that are occurring now or that we expect will occur in the future. The number of farms has decreased considerably, whereas herd size has increased. As a result, an increasing number of dairy farms depend on hired (nonfamily) labor. Regular professional communication and establishment of farm-specific protocols are essential to minimize human errors and ensure consistency of practices. Average milk production per cow has increased, partly because of improvements in nutrition and management but also because of genetic selection for milk production. Adoption of new technologies (e.g., automated calf feeders, cow activity monitors, and automated milking systems) is accelerating. However, utilization of the data and action lists that these systems generate for health and welfare of livestock is still largely unrealized, and more training of dairy farmers, their employees, and their advisors is necessary. Concurrently, to remain competitive and to preserve their social license to operate, farmers are increasingly required to adopt increased standards for food safety and biosecurity, become less reliant on the use of antimicrobials and hormones, and provide assurances regarding animal welfare. Partly because of increasing herd size but also in response to animal welfare regulations in some countries, the proportion of dairy herds housed in tiestalls has decreased considerably. Although in some countries access to pasture is regulated, in countries that traditionally practiced seasonal grazing, fewer farmers let their dairy cows graze in the summer. The proportion of

  19. Brucellosis in Dairy Cattle and Goats in Northern Ecuador (United States)

    Poulsen, Keith P.; Hutchins, Frank T.; McNulty, Chase M.; Tremblay, Marlène; Zabala, Carmen; Barragan, Veronica; Lopez, Luis; Trueba, Gabriel; Bethel, Jeffrey W.


    The purpose of this study was to conduct a convenience study for brucellosis prevalence in dairy-producing animals in northern Ecuador. In total, 2,561 cows and 301 goats were tested. Cattle sera were tested using the Rose Bengal card antigen test (RBCT), yielding an overall apparent prevalence of 5.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 4.7–6.5%) and true prevalence of 7.2% (95% CI = 6.0–8.5%). Prevalence varied by herd size and was highest in larger commercial herds. Polymerase chain reaction was used to test goat milk and lymph nodes, resulting in 9% and 8% positivity, respectively. The RBCTs from goat sera yielded an adjusted true prevalence of 17.8% (95% CI = 6.2–44.2%). Our findings are similar to other overall prevalence estimates for dairy herds but show higher prevalence in commercial herds compared with small groups (less than five animals). We also identify urban milking goats living in metropolitan Quito as a potential source of zoonosis. PMID:24591429

  20. Improving Milk Quality for Dairy Goat Farm Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cyrilla


    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate factors affecting goat’s milk quality, consumer’s satisfaction to goat’s milk, and technical responses associated with goat’s milk quality. Three farms having more than 100 dairy goats were purposively selected for the study. Thirty consumers were determined by using judgement sampling techniques to assess the satisfaction of consumer to goat’s milk quality. Data were analyzed by using fishbone diagram and House of Quality matrix. The study revealed that milk quality produced by dairy goat farms met the standard quality of milk composition namely; specific gravity, total solid, fat, protein, and total solid non-fat. The main factors affecting goat milk quantity and quality were the quality of does, pregnancy status, number of kids per birth, shape and size of the udder, lactation length, and the health status of the goat. The attributes of goat’s milk that were able to achieve customer’s satisfaction targets were nutritional content, packaging size, and goat milk color. Technical responses that were major concern in ensuring goat’s milk quality included goat breed quality and health conditions, skills and performances of farmers and employees, feed quality, farm equipment hygiene and completeness, cleanliness, and hygiene of livestock housing and environment. Technical response on livestock health condition was the first priority to be improved.