Sample records for wisconsin dairy feeds

  1. Feeding strategies on certified organic dairy farms in Wisconsin and their effect on milk production and income over feed costs. (United States)

    Hardie, C A; Wattiaux, M; Dutreuil, M; Gildersleeve, R; Keuler, N S; Cabrera, V E


    The purposes of this study were (1) to analyze and categorize certified organic Wisconsin dairy farms based on general farm characteristics and feeding strategies during the course of 2010, and (2) to evaluate herd milk production and income over feed costs (IOFC). An on-site survey containing sections on farm demographics, feeding, grazing, and economics was conducted on 69 farms (12.6% survey response rate). A nonhierarchical clustering method using 9 variables related to general farm characteristics, feed supplementation, and grazing was applied to partition the farms into clusters. A scree plot was used to determine the most appropriate number of clusters. Dry matter intake was approximated based on farmer-reported total amounts of feed consumed (feed offered less refusals). Milk production was evaluated using reported milk rolling herd averages (RHA). Income over feed costs was calculated as milk sales minus feed expenses. The farms in clusters 1 (n=8) and 3 (n=32), the large and small high-input farms, respectively, included more feed ingredients in their lactating cow diets and relied more heavily on concentrates than farms in other clusters. Cows on these farms were predominantly Holstein. Clusters 1 and 3 had the highest RHA (6,878 and 7,457 kg/cow per year, respectively) and IOFC ($10.17 and $8.59/lactating cow per day, respectively). The farms in cluster 2 (n=5) were completely seasonal, extremely low-input farms that relied much more heavily on pasture as a source of feed, with 4 out of the 5 farms having all of their operated land in pasture. Farms in cluster 2 relied on fewer feeds during both the grazing and nongrazing seasons compared with farms in the other clusters. These farms had the lowest RHA and IOFC at 3,632 kg/cow per year and $5.76/lactating cow per day, respectively. Cluster 4 (n=24), the partly seasonal, moderate-input, pasture-based cluster, ranked third for RHA and IOFC (5,417 kg/cow per year and $5.92/lactating cow per day

  2. Effect of feeding strategies and cropping systems on greenhouse gas emission from Wisconsin certified organic dairy farms. (United States)

    Liang, D; Sun, F; Wattiaux, M A; Cabrera, V E; Hedtcke, J L; Silva, E M


    Organic agriculture continues to expand in the United States, both in total hectares and market share. However, management practices used by dairy organic producers, and their resulting environmental impacts, vary across farms. This study used a partial life cycle assessment approach to estimate the effect of different feeding strategies and associated crop production on greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from Wisconsin certified organic dairy farms. Field and livestock-driven emissions were calculated using 2 data sets. One was a 20-yr data set from the Wisconsin Integrated Cropping System Trial documenting management inputs, crop and pasture yields, and soil characteristics, used to estimate field-level emissions from land associated with feed production (row crop and pasture), including N 2 O and soil carbon sequestration. The other was a data set summarizing organic farm management in Wisconsin, which was used to estimate replacement heifer emission (CO 2 equivalents), enteric methane (CH 4 ), and manure management (N 2 O and CH 4 ). Three combinations of corn grain (CG) and soybean (SB) as concentrate (all corn = 100% CG; baseline = 75% CG + 25% SB; half corn = 50% CG + 50% SB) were assigned to each of 4 representative management strategies as determined by survey data. Overall, GHG emissions associated with crop production was 1,297 ± 136 kg of CO 2 equivalents/t of ECM without accounting for soil carbon changes (ΔSC), and GHG emission with ΔSC was 1,457 ± 111 kg of CO 2 equivalents/t of ECM, with greater reliance on pasture resulting in less ΔSC. Higher levels of milk production were a major driver associated with reduction in GHG emission per metric tonne of ECM. Emissions per metric tonne of ECM increased with increasing proportion of SB in the ration; however, including SB in the crop rotation decreased N 2 O emission per metric tonne of ECM from cropland due to lower applications of organically approved N fertility inputs. More SB at the expense of CG

  3. Feeding strategies and manure management for cost-effective mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farms in Wisconsin. (United States)

    Dutreuil, M; Wattiaux, M; Hardie, C A; Cabrera, V E


    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dairy farms are a major concern. Our objectives were to assess the effect of mitigation strategies on GHG emissions and net return to management on 3 distinct farm production systems of Wisconsin. A survey was conducted on 27 conventional farms, 30 grazing farms, and 69 organic farms. The data collected were used to characterize 3 feeding systems scaled to the average farm (85 cows and 127ha). The Integrated Farm System Model was used to simulate the economic and environmental impacts of altering feeding and manure management in those 3 farms. Results showed that incorporation of grazing practices for lactating cows in the conventional farm led to a 27.6% decrease in total GHG emissions [-0.16kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2eq)/kg of energy corrected milk (ECM)] and a 29.3% increase in net return to management (+$7,005/yr) when milk production was assumed constant. For the grazing and organic farms, decreasing the forage-to-concentrate ratio in the diet decreased GHG emissions when milk production was increased by 5 or 10%. The 5% increase in milk production was not sufficient to maintain the net return; however, the 10% increase in milk production increased net return in the organic farm but not on the grazing farm. A 13.7% decrease in GHG emissions (-0.08kg of CO2eq/kg of ECM) was observed on the conventional farm when incorporating manure the day of application and adding a 12-mo covered storage unit. However, those same changes led to a 6.1% (+0.04kg of CO2eq/kg of ECM) and a 6.9% (+0.06kg of CO2eq/kg of ECM) increase in GHG emissions in the grazing and the organic farms, respectively. For the 3 farms, manure management changes led to a decrease in net return to management. Simulation results suggested that the same feeding and manure management mitigation strategies led to different outcomes depending on the farm system, and furthermore, effective mitigation strategies were used to reduce GHG emissions while maintaining

  4. On Farmers’ Ground: Wisconsin Dairy Farm Nutrient Management Survey Questionnaire (United States)

    This questionnaire was used during quarterly, face-to-face interviews with the fifty-four Wisconsin dairy farmers who participated in the ‘On Farmers’ Ground’ nutrient management research project. It was designed to systematically and consistently compile information on herd size and composition, l...

  5. Effect of feed presentation on feeding patterns of dairy calves. (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J


    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of feed presentation on meal frequency and duration, as well as diurnal feeding patterns of dairy calves, and to assess any longer-term differences in feeding patterns resulting from previous experience. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed from wk 1 to 8 of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (Feed was provided ad libitum. Calves received 8L/d of milk replacer (1.2 kg of dry matter), with the amount progressively reduced after 5 wk to facilitate weaning by the end of wk 7. At the beginning of wk 9, all calves received the MIX diet and remained on trial for an additional 3 wk. Feeding behavior was recorded from video for 4d during wk 6, 8, 9, and 11. In wk 6, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding than calves fed COM (56.7 vs. 46.8 min/d). In wk 8, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding (174.0 vs. 139.1 min/d) and had a lower rate of intake (11.5 vs. 14.7 g/min) compared with calves fed COM. Meal frequency was similar between treatments (12.2 meals/d). Diurnal feeding patterns in wk 8 were also affected by feed presentation, with calves fed MIX spending less time feeding at time of feed delivery and more time feeding throughout the rest of the daylight hours than calves fed COM. Diurnal feeding patterns of hay and concentrate in wk 8 differed for calves fed COM, with more time spent consuming hay at time of feed delivery and less time spent consuming hay throughout the rest of the day. Once calves previously fed COM were transitioned to the MIX diet in wk 9, meal frequency, meal duration, and diurnal feeding patterns were similar between treatments: both treatments spent similar amounts of time feeding (173.9 min/d) and had similar peaks in feeding activity at time of feed delivery, sunrise, and sunset. Provision of hay and concentrate to young calves as a mixed ration, compared with separate components, increases time spent feeding and results in more evenly

  6. International Genetic Evaluations for Feed intake in Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berry, Dognah; Coffey, Mike; Pryce, Jennie E


    Feed represents a large proportion of the variable costs in dairy production systems. The omission of feed intake measures explicitly from national dairy cow breeding objectives is predominantly due to a lack of information on which to make selection decisions. Individual cow feed intake data...

  7. Feeding toasted field beans to dairy cows


    Jørgensen, K.F.; Kjeldsen, A.M.; Askegaard, M.


    Toasting field beans can improve the protein quality of field beans markedly. In the feed demonstrations carried out in Project EcoProtein testing a new method of toasting with a drum dryer, showed, however, only reduced effect on the protein quality due to a lower than optimal temperature. The toasted field beans were fed in two organic dairy herds, replacing a part of the concentrates in the ration in a cross-over design. Preliminary results showed no milk yield difference in herd 1, but a ...

  8. Genomic selection for feed efficiency in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pryce, J.E.; Wales, W.J.; Haas, de Y.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Hayes, B.J.


    Feed is a major component of variable costs associated with dairy systems and is therefore an important consideration for breeding objectives. As a result, measures of feed efficiency are becoming popular traits for genetic analyses. Already, several countries account for feed efficiency in their

  9. Effect of Feeding Method on the Performance of Growing Dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Providing the ration as a Total Mixed Ration (TMR) is now common practice on most commercial dairy farms in the world for nearly all classes of animals. This practice decreases sorting of the individual ration components by dairy cattle. The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of two feeding methods on ...

  10. Systems Genetics and Transcriptomics of Feed Efficiency in Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salleh, Suraya Binti Mohamad; Hoglund, J.; Løvendahl, P.

    Feed is the largest variable cost in milk production industries, thus improving feed efficiency will give better use of resources. This project works closely on definitions of feed efficiency in dairy cattle and uses advanced integrated genomics, bioinformatics and systems biology methods linking...... transcriptomics differences to important attributes or traits related to dairy cattle feed efficiency. Twenty cows (10 Jersey; 10 Holstein Friesian) will be used in the experiment. These two groups of breeds will be divided into two feed efficiency groups depending on their feed efficiency status which......-hydroxybutyrates, Triacylglyceride and urea. Feed efficiency, namely Residual Feed Intake and Kleiber Ratio based on daily feed or dry matter intake, body weight and milk production records also will be calculated. The bovine RNAseq gene expression data will be analyzed using statistical-bioinformatics and systems biology...

  11. Identifying cost-minimizing strategies for guaranteeing target dairy income over feed cost via use of the Livestock Gross Margin dairy insurance program. (United States)

    Valvekar, M; Cabrera, V E; Gould, B W


    Milk and feed price volatility are the major source of dairy farm risk. Since August 2008 a new federally reinsured insurance program has been available to many US dairy farmers to help minimize the negative effects of adverse price movements. This insurance program is referred to as Livestock Gross Margin Insurance for Dairy Cattle. Given the flexibility in contract design, the dairy farmer has to make 3 critical decisions when purchasing this insurance: 1) the percentage of monthly milk production to be covered, 3) declared feed equivalents used to produce this milk, and 3) the level of gross margin not covered by insurance (i.e., deductible). The objective of this analysis was to provide an optimal strategy of how a dairy farmer could incorporate this insurance program to help manage the variability in net farm income. In this analysis we assumed that a risk-neutral dairy farmer wants to design an insurance contract such that a target guaranteed income over feed cost is obtained at least cost. We undertook this analysis for a representative Wisconsin dairy farm (herd size: 120 cows) producing 8,873 kg (19,545 lb) of milk/cow per year. Wisconsin statistical data indicates that dairy farms of similar size must require an income over feed cost of at least $110/Mg ($5/cwt) of milk to be profitable during the coverage period. Therefore, using data for the July 2009 insurance contract to insure $110/Mg of milk, the least cost contract was found to have a premium of $1.22/Mg ($0.055/cwt) of milk produced insuring approximately 52% of the production with variable monthly production covered during the period of September 2009 to June 2010. This premium represented 1.10% of the desired IOFC. We compared the above optimal strategy with an alternative nonoptimal strategy, defined as a contract insuring the same proportion of milk as the optimal (52%) but with a constant amount insured across all contract months. The premium was found to be almost twice the level obtained

  12. Feed and manure use in low-N-input and high-N-input dairy cattle production systems (United States)

    Powell, J. Mark


    In most parts of Sub-Saharan Africa fertilizers and feeds are costly, not readily available and used sparingly in agricultural production. In many parts of Western Europe, North America, and Oceania fertilizers and feeds are relatively inexpensive, readily available and used abundantly to maximize profitable agricultural production. A case study, dairy systems approach was used to illustrate how differences in feed and manure management in a low-N-input dairy cattle system (Niger, West Africa) and a high-N-input dairy production system (Wisconsin, USA) impact agricultural production and environmental N loss. In Niger, an additional daily feed N intake of 114 g per dairy animal unit (AU, 1000 kg live weight) could increase annual milk production from 560 to 1320 kg AU-1, and the additional manure N could greatly increase millet production. In Wisconsin, reductions in daily feed N intake of 100 g AU-1 would not greatly impact milk production but decrease urinary N excretion by 25% and ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from manure by 18% to 30%. In Niger, compared to the practice of housing livestock and applying dung only onto fields, corralling cattle or sheep on cropland (to capture urinary N) increased millet yields by 25% to 95%. The additional millet grain due to dung applications or corralling would satisfy the annual food grain requirements of 2-5 persons; the additional forage would provide 120-300 more days of feed for a typical head of cattle; and 850 to 1600 kg ha-1 more biomass would be available for soil conservation. In Wisconsin, compared to application of barn manure only, corralling heifers in fields increased forage production by only 8% to 11%. The application of barn manure or corralling increased forage production by 20% to 70%. This additional forage would provide 350-580 more days of feed for a typical dairy heifer. Study results demonstrate how different approaches to feed and manure management in low-N-input and high-N-input dairy cattle

  13. Monitoring feeding behaviour of dairy cows using accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Mattachini


    Full Text Available Monitoring cow behaviour has become increasingly important in understanding the nutrition, production, management of the well being, and overall health of dairy cows. Methods of assessing behavioural activity have changed in recent years, favouring automatic recording techniques. Traditional methods to measure behaviour, such as direct observation or time-lapse video, are labour-intensive and time-consuming. Automated recording devices have become increasingly common to measure behaviour accurately. Thus, the development of automated monitoring systems that can continuously and accurately quantify feeding behaviour are required for efficient monitoring and control of modern and automated dairy farms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible use of a 3D accelerometer to record feeding behaviour of dairy cows. Feeding behaviour (feeding time and number of visits to the manger of 12 lactating dairy cows was recorded for approximately 3 h with 3D-accelerometer data loggers (HOBO Pendant G logger. The sensors were positioned in the high part of the neck to monitor head movements. Behaviour was simultaneously recorded using visual observation as a reference. Linear regression analysis between the measurement methods showed that the recorded feeding time (R2=0.90, n=12, P<0.001 was closely related to visual observations. In contrast, the number of visits was inadequately recorded by the 3D-accelerometer, showing a poor relationship with visual observations (R2=0.31, n=12, P<0.06. Results suggest that the use of accelerometer sensors can be a reliable and suitable technology for monitoring feeding behaviour of individual dairy cows in free stall housing. However, further research is necessary to develop an appropriate device able to detect and recognise the movements connected with the head movement during feeding. Such a device could be part of an automatic livestock management tool for the efficient monitoring and control of comfort and

  14. Cambridge journals blog: Improving feed efficiency in dairy production (United States)

    Because the cost of feeding animals is one of the greatest expenses in dairy production (40-60% of production costs), research focused on ways to identify and select for animals that are the most efficient at converting feed into milk has greatly expanded during the last decade. The animal Article o...

  15. Exploring relationships between Dairy Herd Improvement monitors of performance and the Transition Cow Index in Wisconsin dairy herds. (United States)

    Schultz, K K; Bennett, T B; Nordlund, K V; Döpfer, D; Cook, N B


    Transition cow management has been tracked via the Transition Cow Index (TCI; AgSource Cooperative Services, Verona, WI) since 2006. Transition Cow Index was developed to measure the difference between actual and predicted milk yield at first test day to evaluate the relative success of the transition period program. This project aimed to assess TCI in relation to all commonly used Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) metrics available through AgSource Cooperative Services. Regression analysis was used to isolate variables that were relevant to TCI, and then principal components analysis and network analysis were used to determine the relative strength and relatedness among variables. Finally, cluster analysis was used to segregate herds based on similarity of relevant variables. The DHI data were obtained from 2,131 Wisconsin dairy herds with test-day mean ≥30 cows, which were tested ≥10 times throughout the 2014 calendar year. The original list of 940 DHI variables was reduced through expert-driven selection and regression analysis to 23 variables. The K-means cluster analysis produced 5 distinct clusters. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the 23 variables per cluster grouping. Using principal components analysis, cluster analysis, and network analysis, 4 parameters were isolated as most relevant to TCI; these were energy-corrected milk, 3 measures of intramammary infection (dry cow cure rate, linear somatic cell count score in primiparous cows, and new infection rate), peak ratio, and days in milk at peak milk production. These variables together with cow and newborn calf survival measures form a group of metrics that can be used to assist in the evaluation of overall transition period performance. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Feed sorting in dairy cattle: Causes, consequences, and management. (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; DeVries, T J


    Dairy cattle commonly sort total mixed rations, a behavior that influences individual nutrient intake and reduces the nutritive value of the ration left in the bunk across the day. Typical patterns of feed sorting in lactating dairy cows, against longer forage particles, result in greater intake of highly-fermentable carbohydrates and lesser intake of effective fiber than intended, and are associated with reduced rumen pH and altered milk composition. To understand the reason for this behavior and reduce it on-farm, numerous studies have explored the influences of ration characteristics, feeding strategies, and management factors on the expression of feed sorting. In mature cows and young calves, feed sorting is influenced by forage inclusion rate, particle size, and dry matter content. Feeding strategies that increase the time available to manipulate feed-including decreased feeding frequency and increased feeding level-may result in increased feed sorting. The extent of feed sorting is also influenced by a variety of herd-level factors, but variability between individuals in the extent of feed sorting suggests that this behavior may be subject to additional factors, including previous experience and internal state. The development of feed sorting in young calves has been explored in several recent studies, suggesting that early opportunities to sort feed, as provided by access to mixed diets, may encourage the early onset of this behavior and help it persist beyond weaning. Evidence also supports the role of feedback mechanisms that influence this behavior at the individual level. In calves and adult cows, selective consumption of higher-energy ration components may be linked to energy demands, as influenced by the availability of supplemental feed or changing metabolic status. Further, considerable evidence suggests that cattle will adjust patterns of feed sorting in favor of physically effective fiber to attenuate low rumen pH, providing evidence for the role

  17. Alternative feeding strategies and potential disease transmission in Wisconsin white-tailed deer (United States)

    Thompson, A.K.; Samuel, M.D.; VanDeelen, T.R.


    We conducted experimental feeding using 3 feeding methods (pile, spread, trough) and 2 quantities (rationed, ad libitum) of shelled corn to compare deer activity and behavior with control sites and evaluate potential direct and indirect transmission of infectious disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in central Wisconsin, USA. Deer use was higher at 2 of the feeding sites than at natural feeding areas (P ??? 0.02). Deer spent a higher proportion of time (P feeding at pile (49%) and spread (61%) treatments than at natural feeding areas (36%). We found higher deer use for rationed than ad libitum feeding quantities and feeding intensity was greatest at rationed piles and lowest at ad libitum spreads. We also observed closer pairwise distances (???0.3 m) among deer when corn was provided in a trough relative to spread (P=0.03). Supplemental feeding poses risks for both direct and indirect disease transmission due to higher deer concentration and more intensive use relative to control areas. Concentrated feeding and contact among deer at feeding sites can also increase risk for disease transmission. Our results indicated that restrictions on feeding quantity would not mitigate the potential for disease transmission None of the feeding strategies we evaluated substantially reduced the potential risk for disease transmission and banning supplemental feeding to reduce transmission is warranted.

  18. Relationships between residual feed intake, average daily gain, and feeding behavior in growing dairy heifers. (United States)

    Green, T C; Jago, J G; Macdonald, K A; Waghorn, G C


    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of an individual's efficiency in utilizing feed for maintenance and production during growth or lactation, and is defined as the difference between the actual and predicted feed intake of that individual. The objective of this study was to relate RFI to feeding behavior and to identify behavioral differences between animals with divergent RFI. The intakes and body weight (BW) of 1,049 growing dairy heifers (aged 5-9 mo; 195 ± 25.8 kg of BW) in 5 cohorts were measured for 42 to 49 d to ascertain individual RFI. Animals were housed in an outdoor feeding facility comprising 28 pens, each with 8 animals and 1 feeder per pen, and were fed a dried, cubed alfalfa diet. This forage diet was chosen because most dairy cows in New Zealand are grazed on ryegrass-dominant pastures, without grain or concentrates. An electronic feed monitoring system measured the intake and feeding behavior of individuals. Feeding behavior was summarized as daily intake, daily feeding duration, meal frequency, feeding rate, meal size, meal duration, and temporal feeding patterns. The RFI was moderately to strongly correlated with intake in all cohorts (r=0.54-0.74), indicating that efficient animals ate less than inefficient animals, but relationships with feeding behavior traits (meal frequency, feeding duration, and feeding rate) were weak (r=0.14-0.26), indicating that feeding behavior cannot reliably predict RFI in growing dairy heifers. Comparison of the extremes of RFI (10% most and 10% least efficient) demonstrated similar BW and average daily gain for both groups, but efficient animals ate less; had fewer, longer meals; shorter daily feeding duration; and ate more slowly than the least-efficient animals. These groups also differed in their feeding patterns over 24h, with the most efficient animals eating less and having fewer meals during daylight (0600 to 2100 h), especially during the afternoon (1200 to 1800 h), but ate for a longer time during

  19. The influence of elevated feed stalls on feeding behaviour of lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Benz


    Full Text Available The performance level of high yielding cows can only be guaranteed by high quality forage and high feed intake. An about 15–20 cm elevated and 160 cm long feed stall with rubber flooring doesn’t only offer undisturbed meals but also a yielding and dry standing surface. In a pilot stable with 130 dairy cows (German Simmental the feeding alley was subsequently equipped with elevated feed stalls. The results show that animals frequented the feeding barn less often while the duration of single meals prolonged. The specific behavioural changes differed depending on milk yield and number of lactation.

  20. Milk composition and feeding in the Italian dairy sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nudda


    Full Text Available Milk production represents a relevant quota of the energy consumption of the dairy ewe. Studies on relationships among  level of production, milk composition and metabolic aspects are the first fundamental step in the development of a feed-  ing system aimed at satisfying nutritive requirements of the animals. This paper reviews the knowledge about the milk  composition of main Italian dairy sheep breeds, the relationship among secretion kinetics of milk and protein and pro-  ductive level of animals, the algorithms used for estimating fat (6.5% and protein (5.8% corrected milk yield, the  evolution over time of milk production during lactation and the relationships between feeding and milk composition. 

  1. Feeding Dairy Cows to Increase Performance on Rhodes Grass Ley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irungu, K.R.G.; Mbugua, P.N.


    Majority of dairy farmers in Kenya produce milk from cows fed on roughage. The cow performance follows seasonal variability in quality and quantity of roughage. The objective of the current study was to increase cow performance and maintain productivity of a rhodes grass (chloris gayana) ley. Twenty-four Freisian cows in their second to third lactation were strip grazed on fertilized irrigated Rhodes grass at a stocking rate of 0.034 ha per cow. Four dietary groups of six cows were allocated to one of our diets. one group got no dairy meal while the other three groups were supplemented at a 1kg of dairy meal per 10, 5 and 2.5 kg of 4% fat corrected milk dairy. this amount to 0, 386, 750 and 1542 kg dairy meal (89.4%, DM, 93.7 OM, 16.8, CP and CF) during the lactation. during the 43 - week lactation, records on pasture nutrient yield, nutrient intake, milk yield, liveweight, reproduction and subsequent calf birth weight were collected. The Rhodes grass ley produced 20.7 (ranging from 16.7 to 28.7) t of dry matter (DM) per hectare and cows harvested 16.0 (12.0 to 24.0) t during the 43 weeks.The Rhodes grass contained 32.1, 87.7, 10.8, and 32.3% DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) respectively. Mean stubble of 4.7 (3.9 to 6.0) t DM per hectare was left at pasture. Feeding dairy meals significantly increased (P 0.05) affect batter fat content (3.78 to 3.96%). It maintained (P > 0.05) cow liveweight and increased (P < 0.05) calf birth weight from 32.7 to 37.2 kg. Feeding dairy meal did not affect oestrus cycling. Extreme supplementation, 1542 kg dairy meal, decreased (P < 0.05) fertility. Insemination per conception and calving interval increased (P < 0.05) from 1.5 to 3.5 and 522 days. The findings in the current study show that pasture yield can be increased by over 590% dry matter from 3.5 t obtained from natural pasture containing Kikuyu and Star grasses. The Rhodes grass yield can be increased to 232% of national average yield of 1300

  2. Does Green Feed Result in Healthier Dairy Products?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Louise Bruun

    has the potential to modify the content of this FA in commercially sold dairy products. The objective of the first part of this PhD thesis was to examine if dairy products derived from cows fed green plant material have protective effect against risk markers of the metabolic syndrome compared to milk...... from cows fed conventional feed – with special focus on phytanic acid. This was evaluated on the basis of two human intervention studies. In the European Union about one third of all emissions are related to the food production. Animal based products are generally associated with relatively large...... greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) on a per kg basis compared to vegetable products. Therefore, a change toward a less animal-dependent diet is also one of the solutions often suggested to reduce GHGE. However, products of animal origin also have an important place in a healthy diet because of their high...

  3. Economic effect of reducing nitrogen and phosphorus mass balance on Wisconsin and Québec dairy farms. (United States)

    Pellerin, D; Charbonneau, E; Fadul-Pacheco, L; Soucy, O; Wattiaux, M A


    Our objective was to explore the trade-offs between economic performance (farm net income, FNI) and environmental outcomes (whole-farm P and N balances) of dairy farms in Wisconsin (WI; United States) and Québec (QC; Canada). An Excel-based linear program model (N-CyCLES; nutrient cycling: crops, livestock, environment, and soil) was developed to optimize feeding, cropping, and manure management as a single unit of management. In addition to FNI, P and N balances model outputs included (1) the mix of up to 9 home-grown and 17 purchased feeds for up to 5 animal groups, (2) the mix of up to 5 crop rotations in up to 5 land units and c) the mix of up to 7 fertilizers (solid and liquid manure and 5 commercial fertilizers) to allocate in each land unit. The model was parameterized with NRC nutritional guidelines and regional nutrient management planning rules. Simulations were conducted on a typical WI farm of 107 cows and 151 ha of cropland and, a Southern QC farm of 87 cows and 142 ha of cropland and all results were expressed per kg of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). In absence of constraints on P and N balances, maximum FNI was 0.12 and 0.11 $/kg of FPCM for WI and QC, respectively, with P and N balances of 1.05 and 14.29 g/kg of FPCM in WI but 0.60 and 15.70 g/kg of FPCM in QC. The achievable reduction (balance at maximum FNI minus balance when the simulation objective was to minimize P or N balance) was 0.31 and 0.54 g of P/kg of FPCM (29 and 89% reduction), but 2.37 and 3.31 g of N/kg of FPCM (17 and 24% reduction) in WI and QC, respectively. Among other factors, differences in animal unit per hectare and reliance on biological N fixation may have contributed to lower achievable reductions of whole-farm balances in WI compared with QC. Subsequent simulations to maximize FNI under increasing constraints on nutrient balances revealed that it was possible to reduce P balance, N balance, and both together by up to 33% without a substantial effect on FNI

  4. Genomic selection for feed efficiency in dairy cattle. (United States)

    Pryce, J E; Wales, W J; de Haas, Y; Veerkamp, R F; Hayes, B J


    Feed is a major component of variable costs associated with dairy systems and is therefore an important consideration for breeding objectives. As a result, measures of feed efficiency are becoming popular traits for genetic analyses. Already, several countries account for feed efficiency in their breeding objectives by approximating the amount of energy required for milk production, maintenance, etc. However, variation in actual feed intake is currently not captured in dairy selection objectives, although this could be possible by evaluating traits such as residual feed intake (RFI), defined as the difference between actual and predicted feed (or energy) intake. As feed intake is expensive to accurately measure on large numbers of cows, phenotypes derived from it are obvious candidates for genomic selection provided that: (1) the trait is heritable; (2) the reliability of genomic predictions are acceptable to those using the breeding values; and (3) if breeding values are estimated for heifers, rather than cows then the heifer and cow traits need to be correlated. The accuracy of genomic prediction of dry matter intake (DMI) and RFI has been estimated to be around 0.4 in beef and dairy cattle studies. There are opportunities to increase the accuracy of prediction, for example, pooling data from three research herds (in Australia and Europe) has been shown to increase the accuracy of genomic prediction of DMI from 0.33 within country to 0.35 using a three-country reference population. Before including RFI as a selection objective, genetic correlations with other traits need to be estimated. Weak unfavourable genetic correlations between RFI and fertility have been published. This could be because RFI is mathematically similar to the calculation of energy balance and failure to account for mobilisation of body reserves correctly may result in selection for a trait that is similar to selecting for reduced (or negative) energy balance. So, if RFI is to become a

  5. Chemical analysis of dairy cattle feed from Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luis Gustavo Cofani dos Santos; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Marcio Arruda Bacchi; Lucimara Blumer; Gabriel Adrian Sarries; Fernando Barbosa Junior


    The bovine dairy cattle demand diets of high nutritional value being essential to know chemical composition of feed supplied to cows to achieve high levels of quality, safety and productivity of milk. Different roughages and concentrates from Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul states, Brazil, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Concentrate and roughage samples were differentiated by mass fractions of As, Ba, Mg, P, Rb and Sr. Samples of concentrate from both origins were differentiated by mass fractions of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Ni and Rb. (author)

  6. Prediction of feed intake in the Italian dairy sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Avondo


    Full Text Available Recommendations on feed intake for sheep are based on assessments of genetic types, feeding systems and environ-  mental conditions that are very different from Italian ones. These considerations underline the need for intake data or  models that derive from local trials. For this reason intake data of lactating and dry ewes, pregnant ewes, rams and  growing lambs have been collected from selected literature based on sheep feeding trials mainly conducted on dairy  breeds in Italy or in other Mediterranean countries. Equations and intake tables differentiated according to the physio-  logical and productive categories, as well as feeding typology are reported. Particular consideration is given to pasture  intake with supplementation, reporting three equations developed for three qualitative levels of the pasture, recogniz-  able from the CP content of herbage: 16% DM. The equations include animal and  pasture variables and supplementation, expressed as grams of CP given with feeds other than pasture. Only when pas-  ture CP content is lower than 10% DM, supplement is not included in the equation, as no or negative substitution effect  is expected. 

  7. Dairy intensification, mothers and children: an exploration of infant and young child feeding practices among rural dairy farmers in Kenya. (United States)

    Wyatt, Amanda J; Yount, Kathryn M; Null, Clair; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Webb Girard, Aimee


    Agricultural strategies such as dairy intensification have potential to improve human nutrition through increased household food security. Increasing dairy productivity could also adversely affect infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices because of increased maternal stress, demands on maternal time, and beliefs about the timing and appropriate types of complementary foods. Yet, few studies have looked rigorously at how interventions can affect young children (0-60 months). The study explores, within the context of rural dairy farming in Kenya, the relationship between level of household dairy production and selected IYCF practices using a mixed-methods approach. Six focus group discussions with women involved in dairy farming investigated their attitudes towards breastfeeding, introduction of complementary foods and child diets. Ninety-two households involved in three levels of dairy production with at least one child 0-60 months participated in a household survey. Quantitative results indicated that women from higher dairy producing households were more likely to introduce cow's milk to infants before they reached 6 months than women from households not producing any dairy. Themes from the focus group discussions demonstrated that women were familiar with exclusive breastfeeding recommendations, but indicated a preference for mixed feeding of infants. Evidence from this study can inform nutrition education programmes targeted to farmers participating in dairy interventions in rural, low-income settings to minimise potential harm to the nutritional status of children. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Interactions between optimal replacement policies and feeding strategies in dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas, B.; Herrero, M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.


    A dynamic performance model was integrated with a model that optimised culling and insemination policies in dairy herds using dynamic programming. The performance model estimated daily feed intake, milk yield and body weight change of dairy cows on the basis of availability and quality of feed and

  9. The development of a model for the prediction of feed intake and energy partitioning in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zom, R.L.G.


    Balancing the supply of on-farm grown forages with the production targets of the dairy herd is a crucial aspect of the management of a dairy farm. Models which provides a rapid insight of the impact of the ration, feed quality and feeding management on feed intake and performance of dairy cows

  10. The Design and Experiment of the Track-Type Equipment for Feeding Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping LI


    Full Text Available As one of the effective ways of reducing the cost and increase the revenue, feeding dairy cows with individual precision in quantity could further develop the production potential of high- yield dairy cows and improve the milk yield of every dairy cow. Therefore, based on three kinds of technologies of radio frequency identification technology, wireless transmission technology and infrared technology and grounded on the foundation of previous studies, this thesis has completed the track- type equipment for feeding dairy cows with individual precision in quantity. The equipment takes the computer as the information management platform, adopts the singly chip microcomputer as the control platform, uses the wireless module and U disk to conduct the transmission of individual feeding data of dairy cows and guides the whole process with the track. This kind of equipment could advance automatically, identify and feed dairy cows precisely during the feeding process. This thesis also designs the matching feeding technology of the equipment, and accomplishes the test of feeding outside the cowshed, which takes “TMR + precise feeding with concentrated feed” as the feeding model, so that the feeding process could be more effective and further steady.

  11. Feed delivery method affects the learning of feeding and competitive behavior in dairy heifers. (United States)

    Greter, A M; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; McBride, B W; DeVries, T J


    The objective of this study was to determine how different feeding methods may affect the learning of feeding, sorting, and competitive behavior of growing dairy heifers. We hypothesized that heifers previously fed a total mixed ration (TMR) would distribute their feeding time more evenly throughout the day, sort the new ration less, compete less for feed, maintain a more solid fecal consistency, and continue to grow rapidly compared with heifers previously fed a top-dressed ration (TDR). Thirty-two Holstein heifers (237.2+/-21.9 d of age) were divided into 8 groups of 4 and exposed to 1 of 2 treatments for 13 wk: 1) TMR or 2) TDR, with each containing 65% grass/alfalfa haylage and 35% textured concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis. Following this feeding period, all heifers were switched to an unfamiliar TMR containing 56.1% grass/alfalfa haylage, 21.0% corn silage, 21.0% high-moisture corn, and 1.9% mineral supplement (DM basis) for 7 wk. Group DM intakes were recorded daily throughout the experiment. Feeding behavior, recorded using time-lapse video, and sorting behavior were measured for 7 d during wk 1, 4, and 7 after the dietary change. Feeding competition was measured on d 2, 4, and 6 of each recording week. Sorting activity was determined through particle size analysis of the fresh feed and orts. The particle size separator separated feed into 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting of each fraction was calculated as actual intake expressed as a percentage of predicted intake. Animals were scored for fecal consistency twice weekly, using a scale from 1 (liquid) to 4 (solid). Heifers were weighed every 2 wk. Neither DM intake (9.0 kg/d) nor average daily gain (1.2 kg/d) differed between treatments. Sorting also did not differ between treatments. Heifers tended to spend more time feeding if they had previously been fed a TDR (198.8 vs. 186.8 min/d). As they had done before the dietary change, heifers previously fed the TDR spent more time at the

  12. Effect of early exposure to different feed presentations on feed sorting of dairy calves. (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; Devries, T J


    This study examined how early exposure to different feed presentations affects development of feed sorting in dairy calves. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed for the first 8 wk of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (Calves received 8L/d of milk replacer (1.2kg of dry matter), with the amount progressively reduced after 5 wk to facilitate weaning by the end of wk 7. All calves received the MIX diet in wk 9 to 11 and, subsequently, a novel total mixed ration (TMR; containing 40.5% corn silage, 22.0% haylage, 21.5% high-moisture corn, and 16.0% protein supplement) in wk 12 to 13. Intake was recorded daily and calves were weighed twice a week. Fresh feed and orts were sampled on d 1 to 4 of wk 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, and 13 for analysis of feed sorting, which was assessed through nutrient analysis for the MIX diet and particle size analysis for the TMR. The particle separator had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18mm) producing long, medium, short, and fine particle fractions. Sorting of nutrients or particle fractions was calculated as the actual intake as a percentage of predicted intake; values >100% indicate sorting for, whereas values Feed presentation did not affect dry matter intake or growth. Prior to weaning, all calves selected in favor of hay; MIX calves consumed more neutral detergent fiber (NDF) than predicted (103.6%) and less nonfiber carbohydrates (NFC) than predicted (92.6%), and COM calves consumed, as a percentage of dry matter intake, 40.3% hay (vs. 30% offered rate). In wk 8, calves fed COM consumed more NFC than calves fed MIX (1.0 vs. 0.95kg/d) and less NDF (0.43 vs. 0.54kg/d), indicating greater selection in favor of concentrate. However, when provided the MIX diet, calves previously fed COM did not sort, whereas calves previously fed MIX consumed more NFC intake than predicted (103.2%) and less NDF intake than predicted (97.6%). Calves previously fed MIX maintained increased sorting after transition to the

  13. Estimation of risk management effects on revenue and purchased feed costs on US dairy farms. (United States)

    Hadrich, Joleen C; Johnson, Kamina K


    Variations in milk and feed prices directly affect dairy farm risk management decisions. This research used data from the 2010 US Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Resource Management Surveys phase III dairy survey to examine how risk management tools affected revenues and expenses across US dairy farms. The survey was sent to 26 states and collected information on costs and returns to individual dairy farms. This research used the information from milk sales, crops sales, feed expenses, and farm and operator characteristics, as well as the use of risk management tools. Matching methodology was used to evaluate the effect of 5 independent risk management tools on revenues and expenses: selling milk to a cooperative, using a commodity contract to sell grain, feeding homegrown forage at a basic and intensive level, and use of a nutritionist. Results showed that dairy farms located in the Midwest and East benefit from selling milk to a cooperative and using commodity contracts to sell grain. Across the United States, using a nutritionist increased total feed costs, whereas a feeding program that included more than 65% homegrown forages decreased total feed costs. Results point to benefits from educational programming on risk management tools that are region specific rather than a broad generalization to all US dairy farmers. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Feeding practices and potential risk factors for laminitis in dairy cows in Thailand


    Pilachai, R.


    Laminitis is considered an important health problem facing the Thai dairy industry. Although the etiology of laminitis is multifactorial, nutrition is considered an important risk factor. Rumen acidosis, lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and histamine may play a role in the development of laminitis in dairy cattle. However, the relevancy of these risk factors in relation to the occurrence of laminitis under practical feeding conditions in Thailand is not clear. In Thailand, dairy rations are generall...

  15. Capacity of milk composition to identify the feeding system used to feed dairy cows. (United States)

    Vicente, Fernando; Santiago, Carme; Jiménez-Calderón, José D; Martínez-Fernández, Adela


    This Research Paper addresses the hypothesis that is possible to identify the type of feed used for dairy cows by means of the analysis of milk composition and the fatty acid profile of milk fat. Sixteen dairy farms were monitored during 1 year with quarterly visits between summer 2014 and spring 2015. Rations varied throughout the year due to annual dynamic change of forage production, forage rotation, variation of nutrient requirements according to physiological state of the animal, etc. The ingredients of the rations were analysed by cluster identifying five feeding systems based on the main ingredient of the diet: grazing, maize silage, grass silage, dry forage and concentrate. Milk composition could explain up to 91·3% of the total variability among feeding systems, while fatty acid profile could explain only up to 61·2% of total variability. However, when the sum of types of fatty acids and their ratios are taken, up to 93·5% of total variability could be explained. The maize silage system had the greatest milk yield, protein, solid non-fat and urea proportions, as well as the highest proportion of saturated fatty acid and lowest concentration of trans11 18 : 1, cis9 18 : 1 and 18 : 3 n3. Principal component analysis distinguishes the maize silage system from other feeding systems, both from milk composition and milk fatty acid profile. Concentrate system overlapped partially with the grazing, grass silage and dry forage systems. The latter systems had the highest concentrations of cis9 18 : 1, trans11 18 : 1 and 18 : 3, but there was no clear differentiation among them.

  16. International genetic evaluations for feed intake in dairy cattle through the collation of data from multiple sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, D.P.; Coffey, M.P.; Pryce, J.E.; Haas, de Y.; Lovendahl, P.; Krattenmacher, N.; Crowley, J.; Wang, Z.; Spurlock, D.M.; Weigel, K.; MacDonald, K.; Veerkamp, R.F.


    Feed represents a large proportion of the variable costs in dairy production systems. The omission of feed intake measures explicitly from national dairy cow breeding objectives is predominantly due to a lack of information from which to make selection decisions. However, individual cow feed intake

  17. Feeding behavior improves prediction of dairy cow voluntary feed intake but cannot serve as the sole indicator. (United States)

    Halachmi, I; Ben Meir, Y; Miron, J; Maltz, E


    Low-cost feeding-behavior sensors will soon be available for commercial use in dairy farms. The aim of this study was to develop a feed intake model for the individual dairy cow that includes feeding behavior. In a research farm, the individual cows' voluntary feed intake and feeding behavior were monitored at every meal. A feed intake model was developed based on data that exist in commercial modern farms: 'BW,' 'milk yield' and 'days in milking' parameters were applied in this study. At the individual cow level, eating velocity seemed to be correlated with feed intake (R 2=0.93 to 0.94). The eating velocity coefficient varied among individuals, ranging from 150 to 230 g/min per cow. The contribution of feeding behavior (0.28) to the dry matter intake (DMI) model was higher than the contribution of BW (0.20), similar to the contribution of fat-corrected milk (FCM)/BW (0.29) and not as large as the contribution of FCM (0.49). Incorporating feeding behavior into the DMI model improved its accuracy by 1.3 (38%) kg/cow per day. The model is ready to be implemented in commercial farms as soon as companies introduce low-cost feeding-behavior sensors on commercial level.

  18. Environmental and economic impacts of feeding strategies in Costa Rican dairy farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Iñamagua-Uyaguari


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze feeding practices in Costa Rica’s dairy farms and their influence on greenhouse gas emissions (GHG. Methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O, and income over feed cost (IOFC were evaluated. This study was carried out at 104 dairy farms, which were distributed within a range of altitude from 1000 to 2400 meters above sea level. Using cluster analysis based on type of feed, grazing period, areas of forage and pastures; four feeding strategies were identified, which included different proportions of feed categories in daily rations. Emissions expressed as carbon dioxide equivalent per kilo of fat and protein corrected milk (CO2eq/FPCM were higher for forage feeding strategies and lower for farms found in higher altitudes. Concentrate feed accounted for the higher cost in all feeding strategies, and represented more than 50% in the intensive concentrate based production system, whereas the costs of fertilizers were higher in pasture based feeding strategies. Income from milk sales was higher for the concentrate based feeding strategy. However, IOFC was the same for all feeding strategies in spite of the large differences in daily milk production. Feeding strategies influenced GHG emissions and feeding costs. Feeding strategies associated with lower GHG emissions within the farm were more dependent from external inputs.

  19. Allocation of feed based on individual dairy cow live weight changes: I: Feed intake and live weight changes during lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Dorte; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Munksgaard, Lene


    Based on individual cow live weight changes, feeding strategies were designed for individual feeding of dairy cows in loose-housing systems and examined in a four-year production trial including 115 Danish Red (DR), 91 Danish Holstein (DH) and 93 Danish Jersey (DJ). Cows were kept in a dairy system...... based on automatic milking (AMS). The objective was to examine the relationship between feed intake and live weight changes in response to the three feeding strategies examined. All cows were allowed a combination of a mixed ration (MR) and individually separately offered concentrate (ISC) in the AMS......) or late (MR2-L) change to a low energy ration. The early and late change was defined as a live weight gain after live weight minimum of 15 and 35 kg respectively for DR/DH and 11 and 25 kg respectively for DJ. Peak energy intake obtained by primiparous cows and cows of DJ was not significantly higher...

  20. Early pair housing increases solid feed intake and weight gains in dairy calves


    Costa, J. H. C.; Meagher, R. K.; von Keyserlingk, M. A. G.; Weary, D. M.


    Dairy calves have traditionally been kept in individual pens throughout the milk-feeding period. Social rearing is associated with increased solid feed intake and hence higher weight gains before and after weaning. Little is known about the effect of the age at which social housing begins. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of early versus late pairing on feeding behavior and weight gain before and after weaning. Holstein bull calves were reared individually (n=8 calves), or pair...

  1. Effect of feeding fractionated RBD palm stearin on milk yield and quality of dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norliza, S.


    Full Text Available Energy intake of dairy cows is important during the peak of milk production to maintain consistency of milk yield. To overcome energy deficiency, diet with high energy density is required for lactating dairy cows which can be enhanced by incorporating fats. Therefore a feeding trial was conducted to determine the effects of supplementing fat with fractionated RBD Palm Stearin on feed consumption, milk yield, composition and fatty acid profile of dairy cows. A total of 35 lactating dairy cows in early and mid-lactating periods were used in this trial. The trial was conducted for 12 wk and individual milk yield was recorded twice daily. Daily milk yield was increased (p<0.05 from 8.18 l for diet without fat to 8.42 and 8.32 l of milk yield per day, for inclusion of 5% and 2.5% fractionated RBD Palm Stearin, respectively.

  2. Mechanisms for Nitrogen Oxide Formation during Ensiling of Dairy Feeds (United States)

    Silage (ensiled feed), as a dairy’s greatest operational cost, is its most critical feed commodity. Ensiling is the process of converting entire harvested feed plants such as corn, sorghum, or alfalfa into fermented, stable anaerobic animal feed (i.e., silage). The continued use...

  3. Dietary Protected Feed Supplement to Increase Milk Production and Quality of Dairy Cows (United States)

    Pramono, A.; Handayanta, E.; Widayati, D. T.; Putro, P. P.; Kustono


    The efforts to improve and optimize productivity of dairy cows require sufficient availability of nutrients, especially high energy in the early period of lactation. Increasing energy intake in dairy cows can be conducted by increasing the density of energy. The research aimed to evaluate dietary protected feed supplement on milk production and quality, including: fat, protein, and lactose content of Friesian Holstein dairy cow milk. Protected feed supplement was produced from sardine fish oil, through saponification and microencapsulation protection methods. The experiment consists of two treatments i.e. P0: basal diet (control) and P1: basal diet + 3 % protected feed supplement. Each treatment was repeated 15 times. Data were analyzed by independent samples t-test analysis. Results showed that supplementation of protected sardine fish oil had no effect on lactose content, but increased milk yield production (pmilk fat content (p<0.05), and protein content (p<0.05).

  4. Management and use of dairy cattle feed resources on smallholder certified organic pineapple farms in Central Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiggundu, Muhammad; Kabi, Fred; Vaarst, Mette


    as major dairy cattle feed resources while only 19% reported using elephant grass. Banana peels (25.1%) and sweet potato vines (24.7%) were the most important crop residues fed to cattle. Farmers reported high cost of concentrates and scarcity of feeds as their biggest challenges in dairy cattle production...

  5. Assessment of feed resources, feeding practices and coping strategies to feed scarcity by smallholder urban dairy producers in Jimma town, Ethiopia. (United States)

    Duguma, Belay; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules


    Smallholder dairy production is increasingly becoming popular in Jimma town. However, feed shortage is a major constraint to dairy production. The objectives of this study was to assess feed resources, feeding practices and farmers' perceived causes of feed shortage and coping strategies to feed scarcity in smallholder dairy producers in Jimma town, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. A total of 54 randomly selected dairy farmers were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire and through direct observations. Twenty major feed types used by dairy farmers were identified and categorized into five classes: natural pasture grazing, green feeds, hay, concentrate (commercial mix and agro-industrial by-products) and non-conventional feed resources. Green feeds-fresh or succulent grasses and legumes (mean rank = 0.361), concentrate (0.256), hay (0.198), non-conventional feeds (0.115) and natural pasture grazing (0.070) were ranked as the main feed resources in that order of importance. Green feed (94.4 % of the respondents) was found to be the main basal diet of dairy cattle. Overall, wheat bran (85.2 % of the respondents), commercial concentrate (55.6 %), noug (Guizotia abyssinica) cake (20.4 %), cotton seed cake (7.4 %) and molasses (7.4 %) were the main concentrate supplements used (P > 0.05). Local brew waste (attela) (77.8 % of the respondents), bean and pea hulls (42.6 %) enset (Ensete ventricosum) leaf and pseudo-stem (37 %), sugarcane tops (33.3 %), banana leaf and stem/stover (16.7 %) and papaya stem (16.7 %) were the dominant non-conventional feed resources in the surveyed area (P > 0.05). About 79.6, 7.4, 1.9 and 11.1 % of the farmers used zero-, semi-zero-, and the combination of zero- and semi-zero- and free-grazing systems, respectively. Most farmers (90.7 %) offered concentrate supplements to milking cows. However, supplementation did not consider milk yield, physiological status and condition of cows. All the farmers (100

  6. System Genetics and Transcriptomic of Feed Efficiency in Nordic Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salleh, Suraya Binti Mohamad; Höglund, Johanna; Løvendahl, Peter

    Feed is the largest variable cost in milk production industries, thus improving feed efficiency will give better use of resources. This project works closely on definitions of feed efficiency in dairy cattle and uses advanced integrated genomics, bioinformatics and systems biology methods linking......-hydroxybutyrates (BHB), Triacylglyceride (TAG) and urea. Feed efficiency, namely Residual Feed Intake (RFI) and Kleiber Ratio (KR) based on daily feed or dry matter intake (DMI), body weight and milk production records also will be calculated. The bovine RNAseq gene expression data will be analyzed using statistical......-bioinformatics and systems biology approaches to identify a list of differentially expressed (DE) genes, co-expressed (CE) genes, differentially wired networks, co-expression, transcriptional regulatory networks and hub genes/biomarkers for feed efficiency. This study will provide molecular mechanisms of metabolic processes...

  7. Cost-effectiveness of feeding strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelaar, van C.E.; Dijkstra, J.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.


    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of 3 feeding strategies to reduce enteric CH4 production in dairy cows by calculating the effect on labor income at the farm level and on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the chain level (i.e., from production of farm inputs to the

  8. Feed intake and energy utilization in dairy cows of different breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbroek, J.K.


    Improvement of nutrition of dairy cows and improvement of the genetic capacity for milk production aim to improve the efficiency of converting feed into milk. This efficiency can be expressed as the ratio between energy in milk and Net Energy intake (defined as the biological efficiency) or as the

  9. Variation in residual feed intake in Holstein-Friesian dairy heifers in southern Australia. (United States)

    Williams, Y J; Pryce, J E; Grainger, C; Wales, W J; Linden, N; Porker, M; Hayes, B J


    Feed conversion efficiency of dairy cattle is an important component of the profitability of dairying, given that the cost of feed accounts for much of total farm expenses. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a useful measure of feed conversion efficiency, as it can be used to compare individuals with the same or differing levels of production during the period of measurement. If genetic variation exists in RFI among dairy cattle, selection for lower RFI could improve profitability. In this experiment, RFI was defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake, which was determined by regression of dry matter (DM) intake against mean body weight (BW) and growth rate. Nine hundred and three Holstein-Friesian heifer calves, aged between 5 and 7 mo, were measured for RFI in 3 cohorts of approximately 300 animals. Calves were housed under feedlot style conditions in groups of 15 to 20 for 85 to 95 d and had ad libitum access to a cubed alfalfa hay. Intakes of individual animals were recorded via an electronic feed recording system and BW gain was determined by weighing animals once or twice weekly, over a period of 60 to 70 d. Calves had DM intake (mean ± SD) of 8.3±1.37 kg of DM/d over the measurement period with BW gains of 1.1±0.17 kg/d. In terms of converting feed energy for maintenance and growth, the 10% most efficient calves (lowest RFI) ate 1.7 kg of DM less each day than the 10% least efficient calves (highest RFI) for the same rate of growth. Low-RFI heifers also had a significantly lower rate of intake (g/min) than high-RFI heifers. The heritability estimate of RFI (mean ± SE) was 0.27 (±0.12). These results indicate that substantial genetic variation in RFI exists, and that the magnitude of this variation is large enough to enable this trait to be considered as a candidate trait for future dairy breeding goals. A primary focus of future research should be to ensure that calves that are efficient at converting feed

  10. Invited review: Carryover effects of early lactation feeding on total lactation performance in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carina; Spörndly, R; Bertilsson, J


    to be determined by several factors including duration of the treatment and post-treatment feeding level. The most important factor though appears to be the magnitude of over- or underfeeding (i.e., a strong relationship between the treatment period feeding level and the subsequent response in production).......In comparison with the intensive research on the direct effects of energy supply on dairy cow lactation performance, little attention has been paid to the effect of early lactation feeding on subsequent production. The present paper reviews 9 studies carried out with the aim of quantifying...... the immediate and subsequent responses in milk production and body weight to early lactation feeding. Most results showed that a more generous feeding in early lactation caused a positive carryover effect on subsequent production, whereas an inadequate level of feed in early lactation has been shown to reduce...

  11. Meal pattern analysis for effects of compound feed formulation in mid to late lactating dairy cows fed hay and compound feed both ad libitum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leen, F.; Navarro-Villa, A.; Fowers, R.; Martin-Tereso, J.; Pellikaan, W.F.


    The Kempen System is a dairy feeding system allowing ad libitum access to pelleted compound feed (CF) and hay. This system allows high DM intake (DMI) up to 30 kg DM (80% CF), but small and frequent CF meals are essential to reduce negative ruminal pH fluctuations. Little is known about feed intake

  12. Dietary preference in dairy calves for feed ingredients high in energy and protein. (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Montoro, C; Ipharraguerre, I R; Bach, A


    In 3 experiments, we assessed preference of recently weaned dairy calves for (1) 8 high-energy feed types [barley meal, corn meal, corn gluten feed (CGF), oat meal, rice meal, sorghum meal, wheat meal, and wheat middlings meal]; (2) 6 high-protein feed types [corn gluten meal (CGM), wheat distillers dried grains, rapeseed meal, soybean meal (SBM), sunflower meal, and pea meal]; and (3) 4 mixtures (50:50) of the highest- and lowest-ranked high-energy and high-protein feeds, to assess whether calves maintain preference for feed ingredients that are included in a mixture. In all experiments, pairwise preference tests were conducted between all feed types (28 different pairwise preference tests in experiment 1, 15 tests in experiment 2, and 6 tests in experiment 3). Each pairwise preference test was conducted by offering ad libitum access to both feed types for 6h. All tests were repeated with 20 Holstein calves. Before this study, calves were offered milk replacer at a rate of 4 L/d and a pelleted starter feed ad libitum. After weaning at 62 d of age, each calf was involved in a pairwise preference test at 3 and 5d postweaning. A preference ratio was calculated for each calf in each test as (intake of feed type A)/(intake of feed type A + intake of feed type B). Preference for feed types was ranked across tests in each experiment using pairwise comparison charts. In experiment 1, the highest-ranked high-energy feed type was wheat meal and the lowest ranked were rice meal and CGF. In experiment 2, the highest-ranked high-protein feed type was SBM and the lowest ranked was CGM. According to the preference rankings from experiments 1 and 2, experiment 3 evaluated (50:50) mixtures of SBM + wheat meal, SBM + CGF, CGM + wheat meal, and CGM + CGF. The mixture of SBM + wheat meal was highest ranked, CGM + CGF was lowest ranked, and the mixtures containing one high-ranked and one low-ranked feed ingredient (SBM + CGF and CGM + wheat meal) were ranked equally. The results of

  13. Economic analysis of feeding pasteurized nonsaleable milk versus conventional milk replacer to dairy calves. (United States)

    Godden, Sandra M; Fetrow, John P; Feirtag, Joellen M; Green, Lorissa R; Wells, Scott J


    To determine growth, morbidity, and mortality rates in dairy calves fed pasteurized nonsaleable milk versus commercial milk replacer and compare economics of feeding pasteurized nonsaleable milk versus commercial milk replacer in dairy calves. Clinical trial. 438 dairy calves. Calves were assigned at 1 to 2 days of age to be fed pasteurized nonsaleable milk or a commercial milk replacer until weaned. Body weight was measured at the time of study enrollment and at the time of weaning, and any medical treatments administered and deaths that occurred prior to weaning were recorded. A partial budget model was developed to examine the economics of feeding pasteurized nonsaleable milk versus commercial milk replacer. Calves fed conventional milk replacer had significantly lower rates of gain (-0.12 kg/d [-0.26 lb/d]), lower weaning weights (-5.6 kg [-12.3 lb]), higher risk for treatment during the summer and winter months (odds ratio [OR], 3.99), and higher risk of death during the winter months (OR, 29.81) than did calves fed pasteurized nonsaleable milk. The estimated savings of feeding pasteurized nonsaleable milk, compared with milk replacer, was dollars 0.69/calf per day. The estimated number of calves needed to economically justify the nonsaleable milk pasteurization system was 23 calves/d. Results suggest that dairy calves fed pasteurized nonsaleable milk have a higher growth rate and lower morbidity and mortality rates than do calves fed conventional milk replacer. Feeding pasteurized nonsaleable milk could be an economically viable strategy for dairy calf producers.

  14. Influence of automatic feeding systems on design and management of dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Da Borso


    Full Text Available During the last decades, many dairy farmers have actively advanced their farms toward automation. Automatic concentrate dispensers and automatic milking systems have been utilised for years, and several manufacturers have introduced automatic feeding systems (AFS. AFSs allow for the increase in frequency of feed distribution with significant advantages in terms of health and production. Furthermore, they provide a reduction of man labour related to preparation of feed, distribution, and propelling the ration closer to the feeding rack. The present research was focused on the monitoring of a dairy farm, located in the Veneto region of Italy, during the transition from a conventional feeding system (CFS, based on a tractor operated mixing wagon, to an automatic system equipped with stationary feeding hoppers, mixing unit, and distribution wagon operating on rail. The article reports a comparative analysis of the structural modifications required for the adoption of AFS, including an analysis of the AFS/CFS systems based on their functionality, energy, and man labour requirements. In the case study, AFS represented an affordable way to reduce covered area of the housings, as a result of the reduction in width of foraging lane and the reduction of manger front length. In addition, AFS demonstrated a reduction in labour requirements and improvement of quality and consistency of work when feeding total mixed ration. Finally, the research was addressed to study dairy cow behaviour. A method for monitoring the feeding, resting, and standing indexes was applied to the CFS farm. As a preliminary result of this activity, a positive correlation between cow resting activity and milk production was discovered.

  15. Feed inventory and smallholder farmers' perceived causes of feed shortage for dairy cattle in Gisagara District, Rwanda. (United States)

    Kamanzi, Moses; Mapiye, Cletos


    A survey was conducted to indentify dairy cattle feed resources and smallholder farmers' perceived causes of feed shortage in the central and southern plateaus of Gisagara District, Rwanda. Data were obtained by interviewing 120 smallholder milk producers using structured questionnaires and through direct observations made during transect walks. In all the surveyed areas, rangelands (mean rank = 1.12), crop residues (1.21), improved grasses (2.34), browse (3.23) and herbaceous (4.84) legumes were ranked as the main feed resources. Pennisetum purpureum (95% of the respondents), Leucaena diversifolia (60%) and Calliandra calothyrsus (40%) were the most cultivated fodders in all the plateaus. The dominant crop residue was Zea mays stover (65% of the farmers) in the surveyed areas. In both plateaus, land scarcity was ranked (mean rank = 1.45) as the most important cause of feed shortage followed by inadequacy of forage planting material (2.72) and lack of knowledge on forage production and utilisation (3.02). To ensure sustainable viability of smallholder dairying in densely populated highlands, screening and evaluation of high-yielding and easily propagated pastures, incorporation of forages into cropping systems, value addition of low quality roughages and training farmers on forage production and utilisation should be prioritized.

  16. Effect of different feeding strategies on lactation performance of Holstein and Normande dairy cows. (United States)

    Delaby, L; Faverdin, P; Michel, G; Disenhaus, C; Peyraud, J L


    The dairy farming systems of Western Europe are based on a simple feeding system composed of grazed and preserved grass, maize silage and concentrates in variable proportions. There is, nevertheless, a great diversity of feeding strategies between dairy farms. Over 5 years, we studied the direct and delayed effects of four feeding strategies on the lactation and reproduction performances of Holstein and Normande dairy cows. The four feeding strategies (denoted Hh, Hl, Lh and Ll) correspond to two total mixed rations applied in winter from calving to turnout (maize silage with 30% concentrate or grass silage with 15% concentrate), which were subsequently crossed with two levels of concentrate supplementation at grazing to 210 days. Each year, 72 dairy cows managed in grouped winter calving were assigned to the four strategies. Finally, the results of 325 lactations and 295 inseminated cows were analysed. The four strategies resulted in considerable variation in nutrient intake and, in particular, in differences in concentrates consumed, with values of 1407, 1026, 773 and 392 kg dry matter per cow for strategies Hh, Lh, Hl and Ll, respectively. Total milk production (7567, 7015, 6720 and 6238 kg per cow for treatments Hh, Lh, Hl and Ll, respectively), milk fat content (39.0, 37.1, 40.3 and 38.5 g/kg, respectively), milk protein content (33.0, 31.8, 33.1 and 31.6 g/kg, respectively), and the character of the lactation and body condition curves were all highly sensitive to the strategies applied. While no significant interaction was detected on total lactation yield, the Holstein cows reacted more dramatically to each dietary change at each period, compared with the Normande cows. Winter feeding did not affect the production of milk at pasture whereas, at pasture, the milk from the cows of the H groups in winter was higher in milk fat and protein content. Reproduction performance was unaffected by feeding strategy. The Holstein cows, well fed and producing the most

  17. Feed Additives Production Out of Dairy Industry Waste (United States)

    Ulrikh, EV


    Application of macro- and microelements in animal feed is the most effective in the case of their industrial brining in mixed feeds, feed mixes, and protein-vitamin supplements in the form of various complex salts. Application of the product contributes to the body’s needs of broiler chickens in vitamins and minerals, normalization of metabolism, and ensures a high rate of growth and development. The composition of the premix can be adjusted depending on the actual proportion of biologically active substances in the feed used by a consumer. It is possible to include in the premix other biologically active substances. Assessing the slaughter qualities of experimental pigs, it was found (Table. 2) that the pigs of group II has a tendency toward greater weight of hot carcass (4.5 kg), of slaughter yelts (by 3.83%) and toward a smaller thickness of fat over the spinous processes of the 6-7th thoracic vertebrae (1.67 mm). The performed investigations have established that there is no significant difference between groups I and II in the content of certain amino acids, however, group I shows poorer results in the content of valine, isoleucine, leucine and lysine by 0.16 g / 100 g of protein (P> 0.999) 0.2 (P> 0.90), 0.46 (P> 0.999) and 0.39 (P> 0.999) g / 100 g protein respectively.

  18. Feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid affects enteric methane production and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.; Hatew, B.; Bannink, A.; Dijkstra, Jan


    An experiment was conducted to study potential interaction between the effects of feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3) on enteric CH4 production and performance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped into 7 blocks of 4


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girma Chalchissa Kenea


    Full Text Available The study was conducted in urban and peri-urban areas of Southern Ethiopia to assess the quality of available feed resources and feeding practices in the area. Shashamane city was considered as urban, while Kerara Filicha, Kuyera and Arsi Negele were considered as peri-urban production system. Structured questionnaire, secondary data sources and field observations were employed to generate data. A total of 60 dairy farmers from urban and 60 from peri-urban (Kerara Filicha =20, Kuyera = 20 and Arsi Negele = 20 were selected for the study. Average herd size per farm in urban area was 5.08±0.35 out of which small and medium scale farms had 2.6±0.2 and 7.5±0.29 crossbred cattle, respectively. In peri-urban areas average herd size per farm was 4.7±0.34 crossbred cattle out of which 2.3±0.16 were in small and 7.06±0.24 in medium scale farms. Fifteen major feed types used by dairy farms were identified in the area and categorized into five classes: grazing, green feeds, crop residues, agro-industrial by-products and non-conventional feeds. The result of the study indicated that wheat straw and teff straw were the main basal diets in the study area. Laboratory analysis of major feed resources indicated that crop residues had CP, digestibility and metabolizable energy contents of 2.9-5.9%, 46.6% and 5.9-8.7MJ/kg DM, respectively. About 50% of small and 51.7% of medium scale farms use roughage feeds as a major feed source. Therefore, from the current study it was concluded that the quality of available basal roughage feed is generally low and needs strategic supplementation with protein and energy rich feeds. Â

  20. A validation of technologies monitoring dairy cow feeding, ruminating, and lying behaviors. (United States)

    Borchers, M R; Chang, Y M; Tsai, I C; Wadsworth, B A; Bewley, J M


    The objective of this study was to evaluate commercially available precision dairy technologies against direct visual observations of feeding, rumination, and lying behaviors. Primiparous (n=24) and multiparous (n=24) lactating Holstein dairy cattle (mean ± standard deviation; 223.4±117.8 d in milk, producing 29.2±8.2kg of milk/d) were fitted with 6 different triaxial accelerometer technologies evaluating cow behaviors at or before freshening. The AfiAct Pedometer Plus (Afimilk, Kibbutz Afikim, Israel) was used to monitor lying time. The CowManager SensOor (Agis, Harmelen, Netherlands) monitored rumination and feeding time. The HOBO Data Logger (HOBO Pendant G Acceleration Data Logger, Onset Computer Corp., Pocasset, MA) monitored lying time. The CowAlert IceQube (IceRobotics Ltd., Edinburgh, Scotland) monitored lying time. The Smartbow (Smartbow GmbH, Jutogasse, Austria) monitored rumination time. The Track A Cow (ENGS, Rosh Pina, Israel) monitored lying time and time spent around feeding areas for the calculation of feeding time. Over 8 d, 6 cows per day were visually observed for feeding, rumination, and lying behaviors for 2 h after morning and evening milking. The time of day was recorded when each behavior began and ended. These times were used to generate the length of time behaviors were visually observed. Pearson correlations (r; calculated using the CORR procedure of SAS Version 9.3, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC), and concordance correlations (CCC; calculated using the epiR package of R version 3.1.0, R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria) evaluated association between visual observations and technology-recorded behaviors. Visually recorded feeding behaviors were moderately correlated with the CowManager SensOor (r=0.88, CCC=0.82) and Track A Cow (r=0.93, CCC=0.79) monitors. Visually recorded rumination behaviors were strongly correlated with the Smartbow (r=0.97, CCC=0.96), and weakly correlated with the CowManager SensOor (r=0

  1. Effect of concentrate feed level on methane emissions from grazing dairy cows. (United States)

    Jiao, H P; Dale, A J; Carson, A F; Murray, S; Gordon, A W; Ferris, C P


    Although the effect of nutrition on enteric methane (CH4) emissions from confined dairy cattle has been extensively examined, less information is available on factors influencing CH4 emissions from grazing dairy cattle. In the present experiment, 40 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (12 primiparous and 28 multiparous) were used to examine the effect of concentrate feed level (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 kg/cow per day; fresh basis) on enteric CH4 emissions from cows grazing perennial ryegrass-based swards (10 cows per treatment). Methane emissions were measured on 4 occasions during the grazing period (one 4-d measurement period and three 5-d measurement periods) using the sulfur hexafluoride technique. Milk yield, liveweight, and milk composition for each cow was recorded daily during each CH4 measurement period, whereas daily herbage dry matter intake (DMI) was estimated for each cow from performance data, using the back-calculation approach. Total DMI, milk yield, and energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield increased with increasing concentrate feed level. Within each of the 4 measurement periods, daily CH4 production (g/d) was unaffected by concentrate level, whereas CH4/DMI decreased with increasing concentrate feed level in period 4, and CH4/ECM yield decreased with increasing concentrate feed level in periods 2 and 4. When emissions data were combined across all 4 measurement periods, concentrate feed level (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 kg/d; fresh basis) had no effect on daily CH4 emissions (287, 273, 272, and 277 g/d, respectively), whereas CH4/DMI (20.0, 19.3, 17.7, and 18.1g/kg, respectively) and CH4-E/gross energy intake (0.059, 0.057, 0.053, and 0.054, respectively) decreased with increasing concentrate feed levels. A range of prediction equations for CH4 emissions were developed using liveweight, DMI, ECM yield, and energy intake, with the strongest relationship found between ECM yield and CH4/ECM yield (coefficient of determination = 0.50). These results demonstrate that

  2. Genetic parameters for feed intake and feed efficiency in growing dairy heifers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, S.; Eekelen, van E.A.M.; Vos, H.; Nieuwhof, G.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.


    Feed intake and feed efficiency are of importance in cattle breeding programmes. A divergent selection experiment on feed intake was carried out during three generations. Young performance-tested bulls were selected on high or low dry matter roughage intake. The effective phenotypic selection

  3. Harnessing the genetics of the modern dairy cow to continue improvements in feed efficiency. (United States)

    VandeHaar, M J; Armentano, L E; Weigel, K; Spurlock, D M; Tempelman, R J; Veerkamp, R


    Feed efficiency, as defined by the fraction of feed energy or dry matter captured in products, has more than doubled for the US dairy industry in the past 100 yr. This increased feed efficiency was the result of increased milk production per cow achieved through genetic selection, nutrition, and management with the desired goal being greater profitability. With increased milk production per cow, more feed is consumed per cow, but a greater portion of the feed is partitioned toward milk instead of maintenance and body growth. This dilution of maintenance has been the overwhelming driver of enhanced feed efficiency in the past, but its effect diminishes with each successive increment in production relative to body size and therefore will be less important in the future. Instead, we must also focus on new ways to enhance digestive and metabolic efficiency. One way to examine variation in efficiency among animals is residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of efficiency that is independent of the dilution of maintenance. Cows that convert feed gross energy to net energy more efficiently or have lower maintenance requirements than expected based on body weight use less feed than expected and thus have negative RFI. Cows with low RFI likely digest and metabolize nutrients more efficiently and should have overall greater efficiency and profitability if they are also healthy, fertile, and produce at a high multiple of maintenance. Genomic technologies will help to identify these animals for selection programs. Nutrition and management also will continue to play a major role in farm-level feed efficiency. Management practices such as grouping and total mixed ration feeding have improved rumen function and therefore efficiency, but they have also decreased our attention on individual cow needs. Nutritional grouping is key to helping each cow reach its genetic potential. Perhaps new computer-driven technologies, combined with genomics, will enable us to optimize management for

  4. Survey the frequency and type of Fungal Contaminants in Animal Feed of Yazd Dairy Cattles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad taghi ghaneian


    Full Text Available Introduction About 500,000 species of fungi have been realized up to now. There are abundant fungi in air, soil and our environment. So the growth of them increases in the presence of air moisture and appropriate temperature. However saprophytic fungi have a wide distribution in nature, they are responsible for decomposition of organic materials and playing an important role in the biogeochemical cycles of major nutrients. Some saprophytes are toxic that contaminate human foods and animal feeds by production of mycotoxins. Aflatoxins are the most common and dangerous mycotoxins produced by few species of Aspergillus and penicillium. This group of mycotoxin has disorder and risks, including the induction of liver cancer. They are mutagenic and teratogenic. Aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2, which are naturally produced by several toxic fungi, may contaminate a wide range of dairy animal feeds resulted severe economic loss of cattle meat. Since Aflatoxin B1 and B2 can be transmitted via mammalian’s milk and cheese in form of synthetic Aflatoxin M1 and M2 to human consumers, cause significant health problems. Therefore contamination of animal feed with common toxic airborne saprophytic fungi is a major concern of health officials. Wheat, barley, corn, soybean and other animal feeds may be contaminated with toxic fungi during implantation, harvesting and storage. There are many dairy and livestock centers in Yazd that prepare milk and dairy products for Yazd and neighboring provinces. The aim of current study was to evaluate the amount and type of fungal contaminates of dairy feeds in Yazd dairies. Materials and methods This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in the summer of 2012 on 23 dairies in Yazd. Samples of different animal feeds including concentrates, wheat straw, hay, corn, silage corn, soybean and canola as well as waste of bread, were randomly selected from their bulks. The temperature and humidity of feed storage were recorded

  5. Influence of feed delivery frequency on behavioural activity of dairy cows in freestall barns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Riva


    Full Text Available Research on feeding management in more competitive free-stall settings indicates that frequency of delivery of fresh feed stimulates feed bunk attendance and can affect other aspects of cows’ time budgets apart from feeding such as time spent standing vs. lying down. The objective of this study was to examine how the frequency of feed delivery affects the behavior in two farms, one with a conventional and one with automatic milking system (AMS. The feeding frequency was varied from two to three times per day in the conventional dairy farm; one to two times per day in the AMS farm. The experiment was carried out in two different seasons. All behaviours of the cows were monitored in continuous by video recording. As expected, behavioral indices have been significantly affected by environmental conditions both in conventional farm and AMS farm. The variation in the frequency of feed delivery seems to affect the cow behavioural activity only in a limited way and modify only slightly the daily averages of the time spent in different activities mainly increasing the time cows spend standing (+4- 5%.

  6. Exploration of the genetic and biological basis of feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the genetic basis underlying variation in feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows. A genome-wide association study was performed for residual feed intake (RFI) and related traits using a large data set, consisting of nearly 5,000 cows. It wa...

  7. New commercial dairy products in the feeding of children aged 1 to 3 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Abramova


    Full Text Available Nutrition is of particular importance in young children who are characterized by exceptionally high growth rates in conjunction with scare resources of nutrients in their body. The physiological features of infants suggest that this active life period in the child requires adequate attitude towards his nutrition that largely differs from that during the first year of life. The paper considers the issues of organizing the nutrition of children aged 1 to 3 years, by using commercial infant dairy products — new combined products — sterilized milk- and fruit-milk-based desserts and milk cocktails for infant feeding

  8. Chemical composition and nutritive value of the feed used in dairy cow feeding in the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa CAISIN


    Full Text Available Information on nutritive value of locally available feed ingredients is scarce, therefore the study conducted in the laboratory of the Department “General Animal Husbandry” of the State Agrarian University of Moldova, was aimed at determining the chemical composition and nutrient content of various feeds and fodder species commonly used in the diets of dairy cow sraised in the University farm. Fodder samples, proceeding from different agricultural and ecological zones of the Republic of Moldova, were analyzed for their content of total moisture, dry matter, crude protein, fat, fiber, ash and NFE quantity and the data were compared with those available in the specialized literature. The comparative analysis showed differences in the content of a number of nutrients and large fluctuations were observed in terms of the level of oat nutrition units, energetic nutrition units and metabolizable energy contentin comparison with the data contained in normative references and used in the calculation of the nutritional value of feed and diets.

  9. Impacts of Nutrition and Feeding Programs on Farmers’ Management Decisions Affecting the Success of Dairy Farms with Culture Breed Cattle


    Yavuz Topcu; Mehmet Toparlak; Muhlis Macit


    The aim of the study is to evaluate all the factors determining the milk production and yield decisions with regard to the nutrition and feeding programs affecting the integrated management strategies on the success of the dairy farms with culture breed cattle under the pasture-based and indoor barn-based production systems. For these aims, data obtained from the individual interviews conducted at the dairy farms with 100 culture breed cattle were used for Principal Component and Multiple Reg...

  10. Short communication: Determination of Salmonella clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) diversity on dairy farms in Wisconsin and Minnesota. (United States)

    Wehnes, C A; Rehberger, T G; Barrangou, R; Smith, A H


    Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica is a foodborne pathogen able to cause disease in both humans and animals. Diverse serovars of this pathogen exist, some of which are host specific, causing a range of clinical symptoms from asymptomatic infection through morbidity and mortality. According to a 2007 survey by the USDA National Animal Health Monitoring System, fecal shedding of Salmonella from healthy cows occurs on 39.7% of dairy farms in the United States. Certain serovars are frequently isolated from dairy farms and the majority of isolates from the National Animal Health Monitoring System study were represented by 5 serovars; however, genotypic diversity was not examined. The objective of this study was to determine the diversity of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) loci in Salmonella collected from 8 dairy farms with a previous history of salmonellosis. None of the cows or calves sampled on 2 of the 8 dairy farms were shedding Salmonella, although Salmonella was detected in a cow bedding sample on 1 of these farms. Salmonella populations were discrete on each farm, according to CRISPR typing, with the exception of an Anatum var. 15+ type on farms 5 and 6 and the Montevideo type on farms 1 and 2. One to 4 distinct CRISPR genotypes were identified per farm. The CRISPR typing differed within serovars, as Montevideo, Anatum var. 15+, and Muenster serovars had no overlap of spacer content, even on the same farm, reflecting between- and within-serovar genetic diversity. The dynamic nature of Salmonella populations was shown in a farm that was sampled longitudinally over 13.5 mo. Changes in serovar from 3,19:-:z27 to Montevideo was observed between the first sampling time and 8 mo later, with concomitant change in CRISPR alleles. The results indicate that Salmonella strains present in smaller dairy herds (<500 head) are specific to that farm and new Salmonella strains may emerge over time. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science

  11. Management and use of dairy cattle feed resources on smallholder certified organic pineapple farms in Central Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kiggundu


    Full Text Available Formulation of exclusively organic diets that meet maintenance and production requirements of dairy cattle is a major limitation to production of premium organic products of animal origin. This study was therefore carried out to assess the use and availability of feed resources and the coping strategies used by farmers to overcome dry season feed shortages on 64 smallholder certified organic pineapple farms. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires and two focus group discussions. Majority of households were headed by males (62.9% while average age of respondents was 42.5 years. Farmers allocated more land (P<0.05 to organic pineapple production compared to livestock. Beside dairy cattle, farmers also kept chickens, goats and pigs. Tethering was the commonest cattle management system. Fifty three percent of respondents reported using both natural pastures and crop residues as major dairy cattle feed resources while only 19% reported using elephant grass. Banana peels (25.1% and sweet potato vines (24.7% were the most important crop residues fed to cattle. Farmers reported high cost of concentrates and scarcity of feeds as their biggest challenges in dairy cattle production. Of the respondents, 51.4% conserved feed for their cattle as fodder banks. As a coping strategy to feed shortages, majority (42.9% of farmer scavenged for feed resources from both organic certified and nonorganic neighbouring farms which is contrary to organic livestock farming standards. It was, therefore, concluded that management of livestock feeding in the study area fell short of the requirements for organic livestock feeding standards. Research to develop strategies that can use alternative on-farm feed resources through ensiling organic pineapple wastes during the dry season is recommended as a long term strategy to address feed challenges for organic livestock farmers.


    Brown midrib (BMR) forage sorghum contains less lignin , resulting in increased NDF digestibility compared to conventional sorghum . An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of BMR forage sorghum silage in diets containing wet corn gluten feed (WCGF). The objective was to determine the e...

  13. Hot topic: Definition and implementation of a breeding value for feed efficiency in dairy cows. (United States)

    Pryce, J E; Gonzalez-Recio, O; Nieuwhof, G; Wales, W J; Coffey, M P; Hayes, B J; Goddard, M E


    the Australian national selection index, the Balanced Performance Index (BPI). Selection on the BPI is expected to lead to modest gains in feed efficiency. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Invited review: Microbe-mediated aflatoxin decontamination of dairy products and feeds. (United States)

    Kim, Sejeong; Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Soomin; Lee, Jeeyeon; Ha, Jimyeong; Choi, Yukyung; Yoon, Yohan; Choi, Kyoung-Hee


    Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, and Aspergillus nomius contaminate corn, sorghum, rice, peanuts, tree nuts, figs, ginger, nutmeg, and milk. They produce aflatoxins, especially aflatoxin B 1 , which is classified as a Group 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Many studies have focused on aflatoxin removal from food or feed, especially via microbe-mediated mechanisms-either adsorption or degradation. Of the lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG efficiently binds aflatoxin B 1 , and a peptidoglycan in the bacterium cell wall plays an important role. This ability of L. rhamnosus GG should be applied to the removal of aflatoxin B 1 . Aflatoxin can be removed using other aflatoxin-degrading microorganisms, including bacterial and fungal strains. This review explores microbe-associated aflatoxin decontamination, which may be used to produce aflatoxin-free food or feed. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cost-effectiveness of feeding strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farming. (United States)

    Van Middelaar, C E; Dijkstra, J; Berentsen, P B M; De Boer, I J M


    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of 3 feeding strategies to reduce enteric CH4 production in dairy cows by calculating the effect on labor income at the farm level and on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the chain level (i.e., from production of farm inputs to the farm gate). Strategies included were (1) dietary supplementation of an extruded linseed product (56% linseed; 1kg/cow per day in summer and 2kg/cow per day in winter), (2) dietary supplementation of a nitrate source (75% nitrate; 1% of dry matter intake), and (3) reducing the maturity stage of grass and grass silage (grazing at 1,400 instead of 1,700kg of dry matter/ha and harvesting at 3,000 instead of 3,500kg of dry matter/ha). A dairy farm linear programing model was used to define an average Dutch dairy farm on sandy soil without a predefined feeding strategy (reference situation). Subsequently, 1 of the 3 feeding strategies was implemented and the model was optimized again to determine the new economically optimal farm situation. Enteric CH4 production in the reference situation and after implementing the strategies was calculated based on a mechanistic model for enteric CH4 and empirical formulas explaining the effect of fat and nitrate supplementation on enteric CH4 production. Other GHG emissions along the chain were calculated using life cycle assessment. Total GHG emissions in the reference situation added up to 840kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e) per t of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) and yearly labor income of €42,605. Supplementation of the extruded linseed product reduced emissions by 9kg of CO2e/t of FPCM and labor income by €16,041; supplementation of the dietary nitrate source reduced emissions by 32kg of CO2e/t of FPCM and labor income by €5,463; reducing the maturity stage of grass and grass silage reduced emissions by 11kg of CO2e/t of FPCM and labor income by €463. Of the 3 strategies, reducing grass maturity was the most cost

  16. The assessment and the farmers' perceived ranking of feed resources and coping strategies with feed scarcity in smallholder dairy farming in selected district towns of Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. (United States)

    Duguma, Belay; Dermauw, Veronique; Janssens, Geert


    Inadequate quantity and quality of feed resources are major constraints limiting milk production and reproductive performance of dairy cattle in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess dairy cattle feed resources, feeding practices, the farmers' perceived ranking of feed resources, causes of feed shortage, and coping strategies to feed scarcity in smallholder dairy system in selected district towns of Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. Data were obtained by interviewing 52 randomly selected smallholder dairy farmers using structured questionnaires and through direct observations. Results showed that 20 main feed types used by dairy farmers were identified and categorized into natural pastures, crop residues, green feeds, hay, agro-industrial by-products, concentrate mix, and non-conventional feeds. Overall, natural pasture (mean rank = 0.453), non-conventional feeds (0.307), cut green feeds (0.086), conserved hay (0.076), crop residues (0.049), and concentrate feeds (0.029) were ranked as the main feed resources in decreasing order of importance. Natural pasture grazing (92.2% of the respondents), hay (35.6%), and green feeds (29.4%) were the most important conventional basal feeds used. Wheat bran (11.7% of the respondents) followed by commercial concentrate mix (9.4%), Noug seedcake (8.3%), grain (7.8%), and molasses (6.1%) were the concentrate supplements used. Overall, bulule-flour mill leftovers (67.2% of the farmers), bean and pea hulls (57.2%) and atella-local brew by-product (37.2%), enset (Ensete ventricosum, 34.4%), and sugarcane top (32.2%) were the non-conventional feeds available and used during feed scarcity. Barley and teff (Eragrostis teff) straws and maize and sorghum stovers were the main crop residues used in the dry seasons. Overall, 73.9, 12.2, 12.2, and 1.7% of the respondents practiced free grazing, zero grazing, semi-zero, and a combination of zero- and free-grazing systems, respectively. Over 84% of the respondents in the dry season and 50% in

  17. Nutritional, technological and managerial parameters for precision feeding to enhance feed nutrient utilization and productivity in different dairy cattle production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Empel, Mireille JM; Makkar, Harinder PS; Dijkstra, Jan


    on precision feeding (PF) and the relevance of PF approaches in dairy cattle production systems in developing countries. The concept of PF aims at achieving balanced nutrition (matching animal requirements with nutrient supply, preferably from locally available feed resources) to improve animal productivity...... increased farmer income. In view of large variation in forage quality, rapid determination of nutrient composition of forage on site is indispensable in PF of dairy cattle. The relevance of application of the elaborate approaches for intensive, mixed crop-livestock, mixed extensive and extensive systems...... and to reduce both the cost of production and environmental pollution. In addition to the supply of proper amounts of nutrients to the dairy cow using various methodologies and tools, approaches that enhance overall nutrient digestion and availability to the animal are also discussed as an integral part of PF...

  18. Yeast product supplementation modulated feeding behavior and metabolism in transition dairy cows. (United States)

    Yuan, K; Liang, T; Muckey, M B; Mendonça, L G D; Hulbert, L E; Elrod, C C; Bradford, B J


    Yeast supplementation has been shown to increase feed intake and production in some studies with early lactation dairy cows, but the mechanisms underlying such an effect remain unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of supplementing a yeast product derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on production, feeding behavior, and metabolism in cows during the transition to lactation. Forty multiparous Holstein cows were blocked by expected calving date and randomly assigned within block to 1 of 4 treatments (n=10) from 21 d before expected calving to 42 d postpartum. Rations were top-dressed with a yeast culture plus enzymatically hydrolyzed yeast (YC-EHY; Celmanax, Vi-COR Inc., Mason City, IA) at the rate of 0, 30, 60, or 90g/d throughout the experiment. Dry matter and water intake, feeding behavior, and milk production were monitored. Plasma samples collected on -21, -7, 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 35 d relative to calving were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, and nonesterified fatty acids. Data were analyzed using mixed models with repeated measures over time. Pre- or postpartum dry matter intake and water intake did not differ among treatments. Quadratic dose effects were observed for prepartum feeding behavior, reflecting decreased meal size, meal length, and intermeal interval, and increased meal frequency for cows received 30 and 60g/d of YC-EHY. Postpartum feeding behavior was unaffected by treatments. Milk yields were not affected (45.3, 42.6, 47.8, and 46.7kg/d for 0, 30, 60, and 90g/d, respectively) by treatments. Tendencies for increased percentages of milk fat, protein, and lactose were detected for cows receiving YC-EHY. Supplementing YC-EHY increased plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and tended to decrease (quadratic dose effect) glucose but did not affect nonesterified fatty acids. Yeast product supplementation during the transition period did not affect milk production and dry matter intake but modulated feeding behavior and metabolism

  19. Competition during the milk-feeding stage influences the development of feeding behavior of pair-housed dairy calves. (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J


    This study investigated how the feeding behavior of pair-housed calves develops in response to reduced teat and feed place availability. Twenty Holstein bull calves were pair housed and provided with milk replacer (MR) and grain concentrate ad libitum via either (1) 1 teat and feed bucket/pen, such that calves could not feed simultaneously [competitive feeding (CF)] or (2) 2 teats and feed buckets/pen [noncompetitive feeding (NCF)]. The calves were weaned during wk 7 of life by incrementally diluting the MR. Postweaning, all pens were managed identically and offered a complete pelleted diet ad libitum via 2 feed buckets/pen (NCF) in period 1 (wk 8 and 9) and period 3 (wk 12 and 13) and exposed to a competitive challenge with CF in period 2 (wk 10 and 11). Feeding times and competitive interactions were recorded from video for 3 d/wk in wk 2, 4, and 6 and 2 d/wk in wk 8 to 13. Meal criteria were used to calculate daily meal frequency, meal time, and synchronized meal time (the percentage of meal time when calves within the pen were engaged in simultaneous meals). Milk replacer intake was subject to a treatment × week interaction, with calves in CF pens having lower MR intake (wk 2: 8.3 vs. 10.0 L/calf per day for CF vs. NCF), but compensating by increasing intake to a greater extent over time (wk 4-5: 13.3 vs. 11.7 L/d for CF vs. NCF). Corresponding to MR intake, meal frequencies and feeding times evolved differently over this period, increasing in CF pens and decreasing in NCF pens (wk 2: 5.8 vs. 11.1 and wk 4-6: 6.2 vs. 5.1 meals/d for CF vs. NCF). Calves in CF pens also spent less time engaged in synchronized meals (28 vs. 51% of meal time; standard error=7.1) and displaced each other 5 times more frequently during synchronized eating. Postweaning, calves in previously CF pens maintained 5 times greater displacement frequencies and had fewer overlapping meals than calves in previously NCF pens (34.5 vs. 40.7% of meals, respectively). Postweaning, when calves

  20. Effect of early feed type exposure on diet-selection behavior of dairy calves. (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; DeVries, T J


    Dairy cattle exhibit characteristic feeding behavior patterns that may be influenced by early experiences. The objective of this study was to determine how early exposure to different feed types affects diet selection behavior of dairy calves once fed a mixed ration after weaning off milk. Eight Holstein bull calves were randomly assigned at birth to a feed exposure treatment: concentrate or grass/alfalfa hay, offered ad libitum. All calves were offered 8 L/d of milk replacer [1.2 kg of dry matter (DM)] from birth, which was incrementally reduced after 4 wk to enable weaning by the end of wk 7. After milk weaning, all calves were fed a mixed ration containing (on a DM basis) 60% concentrate and 40% grass/alfalfa hay for 9 wk. Intake was recorded daily, and calves were weighed 3 times/wk. Samples of fresh feed and orts were taken in wk 8, 12, and 16 for particle size analysis. The separator had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) producing long, medium, short, and fine particle fractions. Sorting of each fraction was calculated as actual intake as a percentage of predicted intake. Calves exposed to concentrate tended to have greater DM intake than calves exposed to hay both before (0.49 vs. 0.16 kg/d) and after weaning off milk (3.3 vs. 2.6 kg/d). Weights were similar during the milk-feeding stage, but calves exposed to concentrate had greater weights overall in the postweaning stage (129.8 vs. 112.6 kg). Initially after weaning, calves sorted for familiar feed; calves previously exposed to concentrate sorted for short particles (126.4%), which were primarily concentrate, whereas calves previously exposed to hay did not (94.2%). Calves previously exposed to hay tended to sort for long particles (113.4%), which were solely hay, whereas calves previously exposed to concentrate sorted against them (56.4%). The sorting observed for short particles was associated with consuming a diet with a greater concentration of protein, nonfiber carbohydrates, and metabolizable energy

  1. Effects of feeding dairy cows different legume-grass silages on milk phytoestrogen concentration. (United States)

    Höjer, A; Adler, S; Purup, S; Hansen-Møller, J; Martinsson, K; Steinshamn, H; Gustavsson, A-M


    Phytoestrogens are hormone-like substances in plants that can substantially influence human health (positively or negatively), and when fed to dairy cows are partly transferred to their milk. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of varying the botanical composition and regrowth interval of legume-grass silage on phytoestrogen intake and milk phytoestrogen concentrations. In one experiment, 15 Swedish Red dairy cows were fed 2- or 3-cut red clover-grass silage, or 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage. In a second experiment, 16 Norwegian Red dairy cows were fed short-term ley silage with red clover or long-term ley silage with white clover, and the effects of supplementation with α-tocopherol were also tested. High concentrations of formononetin and biochanin A were found in all silage mixtures with red clover. The milk concentration of equol was highest for cows on the 2-cut red clover-grass silage diet (1,494 μg/kg of milk). Because of the metabolism of biochanin A, genistein, and prunetin, their concentrations in milk and the apparent recovery were low. Coumestrol was detected in only short-term and long-term ley silage mixtures, and its milk concentration was low. Concentrations of secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol were higher in 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass and long-term ley silage mixtures, those with legume species other than red clover, and the highest grass proportions. The 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet also resulted in higher enterolactone concentration than the other diets (226 μg/kg of milk). Lengthening the regrowth interval increased the intake of secoisolariciresinol and decreased the recovery of lignans. Feeding long-term ley silage resulted in higher milk lignan concentrations but lower milk isoflavone concentrations than feeding short-term ley silage. The apparent recovery of all phytoestrogens except prunetin was highest on the 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet. No effect of α-tocopherol supplementation

  2. Short communication: effects of frequency of feed delivery and bunk space on the feeding behavior of limit-fed dairy heifers. (United States)

    Greter, A M; Westerveld, R S; Duffield, T F; McBride, B W; Widowski, T M; Devries, T J


    The objective of this experiment was to determine the interaction between feed bunk space and frequency of feed provision on the feeding behavior patterns and growth of growing dairy heifers fed a limited amount. Sixteen Holstein dairy heifers (183.4 ± 9.1 d of age, mean ± standard deviation) were divided into 4 groups of 4. The groups were exposed to each of 4 treatments, using a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, over 21-d periods (14-d adaptation period, 7-d data collection periods). The treatments were arranged in 2 feed delivery frequencies (once per day at 1200 h: 1 ×/d, and twice per day at 1200 and 1400 h: 2 ×/d) and 2 levels of feed bunk space (adequate feed bunk space: 0.40 m/heifer, and reduced feed bunk space: 0.29 m/heifer). Pen dry matter intake (DMI) was recorded daily, average daily gain (ADG) was recorded weekly, and variability in ADG was calculated from the standard deviation of ADG. Feeding, unrewarded behavior (time at feed bunk without feed present), and competitive behavior were recorded using time-lapse video. Feeding and unrewarded behavior were measured for the last 7 d of each period, whereas competitive behavior was recorded on d 16, 18, and 20 of each period. Lying time was recorded for the last 7 d of each period. A tendency for interaction between feed bunk space and frequency of feed delivery on the feed efficiency of limit-fed dairy heifers was noted. Heifers provided restricted bunk space were reported as being less efficient when fed 2 ×/d; however, no other interactions were found. Although DMI and variability in ADG were similar between treatments, ADG was higher (1.0 vs. 0.9 kg/d) when heifers were provided with 0.40 m of feed bunk space and tended to be higher when fed 1 ×/d compared with that of heifers given restricted bunk space or fed 2 ×/d. Heifers fed 1 ×/d spent more time feeding throughout the day (70.5 vs. 58.9 min/d) than heifers fed 2 ×/d. Heifers fed at a

  3. Influence of dietary component manipulation and feed management strategies on growth and rumen development of weaned dairy heifers


    Dennis, Tana Shea


    Well-developed replacement heifers provide a central foundation for the continued success of the dairy industry. Emphasis on improving pre-weaned calf nutrition has predominated in the industry, but opportunities exist to improve post-weaning heifer nutrition and management. We aimed to evaluate common feed management strategies seen in the industry and their effects on growth, feed efficiency (G:F), and rumen development of calves from birth to 8 mo of age using pen- and individually-fed ani...

  4. Measuring residual feed intake in dairy heifers fed an alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cube diet. (United States)

    Waghorn, G C; Macdonald, K A; Williams, Y; Davis, S R; Spelman, R J


    Selection for divergence between individuals for efficiency of feed utilization (residual feed intake, RFI) has widespread application in the beef industry and is usually undertaken when animals are fed diets based on silages with grain. The objective of this research was to develop a feeding system (using Gallagher, Hamilton, New Zealand, electronics) to measure RFI for growth in Holstein-Friesian heifers (aged 5-9 mo), and identify divergent individuals to be tested for RFI during lactation. A dry forage diet (alfalfa cubes) was fed because intakes could be measured accurately, and the New Zealand dairy industry (4.4 million milking cows in lactation) relies heavily on forage feeding. The evaluation was undertaken over 3 yr with 1,052 animals fed in a facility for 7 wk, and weighed 3 times weekly. The mean age at the start of measurements was 215 d, body weight (BW) 189 kg, and mean daily dry matter intakes averaged 6.7 kg. Body weight gain (all animals) averaged 0.88 kg/d. The RFI was determined as the residuals from the regression of mean intake on mean BW(0.75) and daily BW gain of individuals. Actual and fitted intakes were strongly related (R(2) = 0.82). In terms of gross efficiency (feed intake/BW gain), RFI+year explained 43% of the variation, BW gain+year explained 66%, and RFI+BW gain+year explained 79% of the variation (all PDaily BW gains (kg) of the most and least efficient 10% averaged (± standard deviation) 0.88 ± 0.15 and 0.88 ± 0.12 (P = 0.568), respectively, and the divergence between mean intakes was 1.46 kg of dry matter/d. The most and least efficient animals will be tested for RFI during lactation and genetic markers will be identified for the trait. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Early pair housing increases solid feed intake and weight gains in dairy calves. (United States)

    Costa, J H C; Meagher, R K; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M


    Dairy calves have traditionally been kept in individual pens throughout the milk-feeding period. Social rearing is associated with increased solid feed intake and, hence, higher weight gains before and after weaning. Little is known about the effect of the age at which social housing begins. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of early versus late pairing on feeding behavior and weight gain before and after weaning. Holstein bull calves were reared individually (n=8 calves) or paired with another calf at 6±3 d (n=8 pairs) or 43±3 d of age (n=8 pairs). All calves were fed 8 L of milk/d for 4 wk, 6 L/d from 4 to 7 wk, and then milk was reduced by 20%/d until calves were completely weaned at 8 wk of age. Calves were provided ad libitumaccess to calf starter and a total mixed ration (TMR). Body weight and feed intake were measured weekly from 3 to 10 wk of age.Intake of calf starter was significantly higher for the early-paired calves than for individually reared and late-paired calves throughout the experimental period. At 10 wk of age, starter dry matter intake averaged 2.20±0.22, 1.09±0.25, and 1.26±0.33kg/d for early-paired, late-paired, and individually housed calves, respectively. Intake of TMR did not differ among treatments, TMR dry matter intake averaged 3.27±0.72, 3.08±0.46, and 2.89±0.54kg/d for the same 3 treatments. Calves in the early paired treatment also showed significantly higher average daily gain over the experimental period (0.89±0.04 vs. 0.76±0.04 and 0.73±0.04kg/d for the early-paired, individual, and late-paired calves, respectively). These results indicate that social housing soon after birth can increase weight gains and intake of solid feed. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of a combination of feed additives on methane production, diet digestibility, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijderveld, van S.M.; Fonken, B.C.J.; Dijkstra, J.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Perdok, H.B.; Fokkink, W.B.; Newbold, J.R.


    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of a mixture of dietary additives on enteric methane production, rumen fermentation, diet digestibility, energy balance, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows. Identical diets were fed in both experiments. The mixture of feed additives

  7. Replacing grass silage with pea-barley intercrop silage in the feeding of the dairy cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The effect of replacing wilted grass silage (GS with pea-barley intercrop silage (PBS on feed intake, diet digestibility and milk production was studied with 8 multiparous Ayrshire-cows in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment. Proportion of PBS was 0 (PBS0, 33 (PBS33, 67 (PBS67 or 100 (PBS100 % of silage dry matter (DM. The DM content was 559 and 255 g kg-1 for GS and PBS. Crude protein content was 131 and 170 g kg-1 DM, respectively. Pea-barley silage was more extensively fermented than GS with total fermentation acid content of 120 vs. 12 g kg-1 DM. Silage was fed for ad libitum intake and supplemented with on the average 13 kg concentrate per day. Silage DM intake was 9.2 (PBS0, 9.7 (PBS33, 9.0 (PBS67 and 7.1 (PBS100 kg per day (Pquadr. < 0.05. The energy corrected milk yield [30.3 (PBS0, 29.8 (PBS33, 30.3 (PBS67, 31.3 (PBS100 kg per day] was not significantly affected by the treatment. Milk protein concentration decreased linearly (P < 0.05 in response to feeding PBS. It is concluded that PBS can replace up to two thirds of wilted, moderate quality GS in the feeding of dairy cows because in this experiment pure pea-barley silage reduced silage intake.

  8. The Behavioural Manifestations of Dairy Cows in Relation to the Management System Feeding Regime

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    Miloslav Šoch


    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to obtain data and formulate knowledge about the behavioural manifestations of dairy cows in relation to the management system of feeding regime on the farm, where Holstein cows are bred. The observations took place on the 13 and 14 August, 2014, when the cows were observed for 24 hours continuously. The ethogram records were recorded after 1 minute and physical activity of cows, periods of rest, ruminating, eating, drinking, defecation, urination and comfort and social behaviour. Cows are herded for milking 3 times a day. It was found  that within 24 hours dairy cows spend on average 10 hours by lying, 8 hours by ruminating, 20 minutes by drinking, 6 hours by eating, they defecate 14 times, urinate 6 times and walk about 430 meters. They are also scratching, licking each other and tail swiping (comfort behaviour within 24 hours. The observations of the responses to serving food indicate that cows actively react to the passage of the food vehicle, not the passage of a piling-up tractor.

  9. Precision in the measurement of dairy feed fractions based on particle size.

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    Mauro Spanghero


    Full Text Available The aim of this research note is to evaluate the variability of the physical measurements obtained by a separator of feeds  for dairy cows based on particle size. Fresh samples of total mixed ration (TMR and corn silage were collected from four  dairy units and were immediately fractionated using a particle separator (NASCO®, Pennsylvania State University com-  posed of two sieves (diameters of 19 and 8 mm and a collector on the bottom. Repeatability expressed as standard devi-  ation was similar between fractions (>19, 8-19 and   +1.7 and +1.5% for corn silages, but when expressed as coefficient of variation there were, for both samples, large dif-  ferences between the values for fraction exceeding 19 mm (44.7 and 35.1 %, respectively for TMR and corn silages and  the middle (3.9 and 2.5 %, respectively for TMR and corn silages and bottom fractions (3.7 and 5.6 %, respectively for  TMR and corn silages. The between operator reproducibility was very close to repeatability and this indicates that the  operator’s contribution to the overall variability is marginal in comparison with residual variability. In conclusion, differ-  ent operators properly trained in the use of the NASCO® separator can produce satisfactory repeatable and reproducible  values for the middle and the bottom fractions. 

  10. Randomized controlled trial on impacts of dairy meal feeding interventions on early lactation milk production in smallholder dairy farms of Central Kenya. (United States)

    Richards, Shauna; VanLeeuwen, John A; Shepelo, Getrude; Gitau, George Karuoya; Wichtel, Jeff; Kamunde, Collins; Uehlinger, Fabienne


    There is limited field-based research and recommendations on the effect of cattle feeding management practices on smallholder dairy farms (SDF) for the growing dairy industry in Kenya. This controlled trial aimed to determine the effect of feeding locally produced dairy meal (DM) on early lactation daily milk production (DMP) on Kenyan SDF, controlling for other factors associated with DMP. Privately owned, recently calved cows (n=111) were randomly assigned to one of three groups of feeding recommendations for DM (meeting predicted DM requirements by: (1) 100%; (2) 50%; or (3) feeding by the farmer's discretion). DM was provided for free to groups 1 and 2 to ensure they had sufficient DM to feed to the recommendations. Data collection on cow and farm characteristics occurred biweekly for a 60-day period post-calving starting in June 2013. A repeated measures multivariable linear regression model was used on the DMP outcome variable. With variability in DM consumption within feeding groups due to variability in DMP, actual DM fed was assessed as an independent variable rather than assigned feeding groups. DMP was positively associated with each kg/day of DM fed (0.53kg/day), cow weight (0.13kg/day), feeding DM in the month prior to calving (1.42kg/day), and feeding high protein forage (0.41kg/day), and was negatively associated with having mastitis (-0.30kg/day). In interaction terms, taller cows had higher DMP than shorter cows, whereas heifers (first parity cows) had similar DMP regardless of height. Also, thin cows (2+ parity with body condition scoremilk (1.0kg/day less) than cows with a better body condition score at calving,whereas thin heifers produced more milk (2.0kg/day more) than heifers in better body condition-this association is possibly due to a small unrepresentative sample size of heifers. In conclusion, feeding DM in the month prior to calving, improving body condition in cows prior to calving, and enhancing dietary DM and high protein forage were

  11. Effect of feeding of different sources of NPN on production performance of dairy cows

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    Juraj Karcol


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of feeding of different sources of NPN on nutrient utilization and production performance of dairy cows under field conditions. Balancing diets for crude protein without consideration of protein quality or rumen degradability often led to overfeeding of nitrogen and less than optimum production. High yielding dairy cows separated in two groups with 85 resp. 80 cows in each were set up for the trial. Groups were consistent according the stage of production and reproduction cycle as well as age structure. Both groups were fed concentrate mixture with the same composition with only difference in NPN/ microbial protein source, with same dosage of 100 g per cow and day. Field trial was performed for period of 3 subsequent months. Performance data were collected in accordance with official milk recording. In both groups majority of cows were on first lactation. Significant differences in daily milk production were observed 2.87 kg (P<0.01 for group 2, in fat content 0.07 % for group 2 non-significant, whereas in protein content 0.18% for group 1 significant (P<0.01 in case of first lactations. If considering first tree lactations, group 2 produced 1.7 kg milk per day more (P<0.08, with 0.05% fat more and 0.002 % protein less than group 1. The space created in dry matter intake by a concentrated slow-release NPN can be filled with high quality forage that could reduce the cost of feeding while maintaining levels of production.

  12. Milk production responses to different strategies for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows. (United States)

    Auldist, M J; Marett, L C; Greenwood, J S; Wright, M M; Hannah, M; Jacobs, J L; Wales, W J


    for all feeding strategies, but the decline was most marked for the control cows. Milk protein concentration increased for all groups as the amount of supplement increased, but was greater for FGM, PMRL, and PMRH cows than control cows. It is concluded that when supplements are fed to grazing dairy cows, inclusion of corn grain and canola meal can increase milk production even at similar metabolizable energy intakes, and that it does not matter whether these supplements are fed as a PMR or in the parlor and paddock. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Feeding a higher forage diet prepartum decreases incidences of subclinical ketosis in transition dairy cows. (United States)

    Vickers, L A; Weary, D M; Veira, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G


    A common feeding practice during the dry period is to switch dairy cows to an energy-dense diet 3 wk prepartum, but this practice may lead to the overconsumption of energy and increase the risk of metabolic disease postpartum. The aim of this trial was to compare the metabolic status of transition Holstein dairy cows fed a 77% forage diet (77F; NEl = 1.46 Mcal/kg; NDF = 41%) vs. those fed an 87% forage diet (87F; NEl = 1.41 Mcal/kg; 48% NDF). Approximately 60 d before calving, cows were dried off, housed in a free stall barn, and fed the 87F diet. Three weeks before expected calving, cows were randomly assigned to either the 77F treatment and switched to this diet (n = 45) or assigned to the 87F treatment and stayed on the dry cow ration until parturition (n = 42). After parturition, all cows were fed a common lactation diet (NEl = 1.59 Mcal/kg; 36% NDF). Dry matter intake was measured daily from 2 wk before to 2 wk after calving. Blood was sampled daily for 10 d postpartum. Subclinical ketosis was diagnosed using a threshold of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) ≥ 1.0 mmol/L after calving. The percentage of cows pregnant and odds of being pregnant for each treatment group were determined at 60, 90, and 120 d in milk through ultrasound by the herd veterinarian. Cows on the 87F diet consumed less DM prepartum than those on the 77F diet (12.7 ± 0.3 kg/d vs. 15.4 ± 0.3 kg/d, P ketosis (SCK; 49% vs. 17%; P = 0.001). Milk production tended to be less for cows fed the 87F diet prepartum (47.3 ± 0.4 kg/d vs. 48.8 ± 0.4 kg/d; P = 0.10) for the first 22 wk of lactation, which was significant for d 7 to 28 of lactation (44.6 ± 1.1 kg/d vs. 47.6 ± 1.0 kg/d; P = 0.05). Although sample size was small to draw strong conclusions on reproductive performance, at 120 d in milk, cows on the 87F diet were 0.3 times more likely to be pregnant (P = 0.03). These results indicate that feeding an 87F diet before calving can reduce rates of SCK in transition dairy cows.

  14. Modification of the feeding behavior of dairy cows through live yeast supplementation. (United States)

    DeVries, T J; Chevaux, E


    The objective of this study was to determine if the feeding behavior of dairy cows is modified through live yeast supplementation. Twelve lactating Holstein dairy cows (2 primiparous and 10 multiparous) were individually exposed, in a replicated crossover design, to each of 2 treatment diets (over 35-d periods): (1) a control TMR and (2) a control TMR plus 1 × 10(10) cfu/head per day of live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1077; Levucell SC20; Lallemand Animal Nutrition, Montreal, QC, Canada). Milk production, feeding, and rumination behavior were electronically monitored for each animal for the last 7 d of each treatment period. Milk samples were collected for the last 6 d of each period for milk component analysis. Dry matter intake (28.3 kg/d), eating time (229.3 min/d), and rate (0.14 kg of dry matter/min) were similar between treatments. With yeast supplementation, meal criteria (minimum intermeal interval) were shorter (20.0 vs. 25.8 min), translating to cows tending to have more meals (9.0 vs. 7.8 meals/d), which tended to be smaller in size (3.4 vs. 3.8 kg/meal). Yeast-supplemented cows also tended to ruminate longer (570.3 vs. 544.9 min/d). Milk yield (45.8 kg/d) and efficiency of production (1.64 kg of milk/kg of dry matter intake) were similar between treatments. A tendency for higher milk fat percent (3.71 vs. 3.55%) and yield (1.70 vs. 1.63 kg/d) was observed when cows were supplemented with yeast. No differences in milk fatty acid composition were observed, with the exception of a tendency for a greater concentration of 18:2 cis-9,cis-12 fatty acid (2.71 vs. 2.48% of total fatty acids) with yeast supplementation. Yeast-supplemented cows had lower mean ruminal temperature (38.4 vs. 38.5 °C) and spent less time with rumen temperature above 39.0 °C (353.1 vs. 366.9 min/d), potentially indicating improved rumen pH conditions. Overall, the results show that live yeast supplementation tended to improve meal patterns and rumination, rumen

  15. Productive, economic and environmental effects of optimised feeding strategies in small-scale dairy farms in the Highlands of Mexico

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    José Velarde-Guillén


    Full Text Available Since most dairy production in developing countries comes from small farms, there is scope to reduce their contribution to greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. In the highlands of Mexico, the limitations in these systems are high feeding costs. This paper assessed the production, economics and estimated methane emissions from traditional feeding strategies (TFS in 22 small-scale dairy farms compared to optimised feeding strategies (OFS evaluated through on-farm research in eight participating farms in the dry (DS and in the rainy (RS seasons. Results were analysed with a completely randomized design. There were no differences (P>0.05 in milk fat, body condition score (BCS or live weight between TFS and OFS, but there was higher (P

  16. Performance and methane emissions in dairy cows fed oregano and green tea extracts as feed additives. (United States)

    Kolling, G J; Stivanin, S C B; Gabbi, A M; Machado, F S; Ferreira, A L; Campos, M M; Tomich, T R; Cunha, C S; Dill, S W; Pereira, L G R; Fischer, V


    Plant extracts have been proposed as substitutes for chemical feed additives due to their potential as rumen fermentation modifiers and because of their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, possibly reducing methane emissions. This study aimed to evaluate the use of oregano (OR), green tea extracts (GT), and their association as feed additives on the performance and methane emissions from dairy between 28 and 87 d of lactation. Thirty-two lactating dairy cows, blocked into 2 genetic groups: 16 Holstein cows and 16 crossbred Holstein-Gir, with 522.6 ± 58.3 kg of body weight, 57.2 ± 20.9 d in lactation, producing 27.5 ± 5.0 kg/cow of milk and with 3.1 ± 1.8 lactations were evaluated (means ± standard error of the means). Cows were allocated into 4 treatments: control (CON), without plant extracts in the diet; oregano extract (OR), with the addition of 0.056% of oregano extract in the dry matter (DM) of the diet; green tea (GT), with the addition of 0.028% of green tea extract in the DM of the diet; and mixture, with the addition of 0.056% oregano extract and 0.028% green tea extract in the DM of the diet. The forage-to-concentrate ratio was 60:40. Forage was composed of corn silage (94%) and Tifton hay (6%); concentrate was based on ground corn and soybean meal. Plant extracts were supplied as powder, which was previously added and homogenized into 1 kg of concentrate in natural matter, top-dressed onto the total mixed diet. No treatment by day interaction was observed for any of the evaluated variables, but some block by treatment interactions were significant. In Holstein cows, the mixture treatment decreased gross energy and tended to decrease the total-tract apparent digestibility coefficient for crude protein and total digestible nutrients when compared with OR. During the gas measurement period, GT and OR increased the digestible fraction of the ingested DM and decreased CH 4 expressed in grams per kilogram of digestible DMI compared with CON. The use

  17. Short communication: Effects of processing methods of barley grain in starter diets on feed intake and performance of dairy calves. (United States)

    Jarrah, A; Ghorbani, G R; Rezamand, P; Khorvash, M


    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different processing methods of barley grain in starter rations on feed intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency, skeletal growth, fecal score, and rumen pH of dairy calves. Thirty-two Holstein dairy calves (16 female and 16 male) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 treatments consisting of coarse ground, whole, steam-rolled, or roasted barley from d 4 to 56 of birth in a completely randomized design. Starter diets were formulated to have similar ingredients and composition. All calves had free access to water and feed throughout the study period and received 4 L of milk/d from a bottle from d 4 to 41, 2L/d from d 41 to 45, and weaning occurred on d 45. Feed intake and fecal score were recorded daily. Body weight and skeletal growth measures were recorded on d 4 (beginning of the study), 45, and 56. Rumen fluid and blood samples were collected on d 35, 45, and 56. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The results indicate that different methods of processing barley had no detectable effect on dry matter intake, average daily gain, and feed efficiency and that skeletal growth, health, and rumen pH were not affected by dietary treatments. In conclusion, the results show that different processing methods of barley included in starter diets had no detectable effect on the performance of dairy calves under our experimental conditions. Therefore, feeding whole or coarsely ground barley would be a more economical method compared with steam rolled or roasted barley. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dairy intensification in developing countries: effects of market quality on farm-level feeding and breeding practices. (United States)

    Duncan, A J; Teufel, N; Mekonnen, K; Singh, V K; Bitew, A; Gebremedhin, B


    Smallholder dairy production represents a promising income generating activity for poor farmers in the developing world. Because of the perishable nature of milk, marketing arrangements for collection, distribution and sale are important for enhanced livelihoods in the smallholder dairy sector. In this study we examined the relationship between market quality and basic feeding and breeding practices at farm level. We define market quality as the attractiveness and reliability of procurement channels and associated input supply arrangements. We took as our study countries, India with its well-developed smallholder dairy sector, and Ethiopia where the smallholder dairy industry has remained relatively undeveloped despite decades of development effort. We conducted village surveys among producer groups in 90 villages across three States in India and two Regions in Ethiopia. Producer groups were stratified according to three levels of market quality - high, medium and low. Data showed that diet composition was relatively similar in India and Ethiopia with crop residues forming the major share of the diet. Concentrate feeding tended to be more prominent in high market quality sites. Herd composition changed with market quality with more dairy (exotic) cross-bred animals in high market quality sites in both India and Ethiopia. Cross-bred animals were generally more prominent in India than Ethiopia. Herd performance within breed did not change a great deal along the market quality gradient. Parameters such as calving interval and milk yield were relatively insensitive to market quality. Insemination of cross-bred cows was predominantly by artificial insemination (AI) in India and accounted for around half of cross-bred cow inseminations in Ethiopia. Data on perceptions of change over the last decade indicated that per herd and per cow productivity are both increasing in high market quality sites with a more mixed picture in medium and low-quality sites. Similarly dairy

  19. Radioimmunoassay determination of the effect on animal reproduction of alternative of feeding suplementation in dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalba, Patricio; Ambuludi, Eduardo


    The principal object of this trial was to evaluate the influence of three alternatives of feeding suplementation in dairy cows in the post-partum period in ecuadorian highlands. Thirty sic animals in fist lactation were used in this experiment and were divided in three groups according to the feed intake: Group A diet was 5 Kg. of a commercial concentrate mixture with 12 per cent of crude protein plus pasture ad libitum; Group B diet was green banans (Musa paradisiaca) and pasture and Group C diet was the control only pasture. Using Radioimmunoassay technique (RIA), progesterone values were determinated in milk from each cow. the sampling was sequential, two samples a week, starting 6 days after parturition, until the animal was pregnant or until the study was finished, 150 days after post-partum for each cow. This research allowed us to evaluate the ovaric post-partum activity of each group: Frequency and length of the oestrus cycles; efficiency of oestrus detection, calving-first, oestrus period, calving-conception length, conception rate, and services per conception. Additional datas were used in this study such as: milk production, palpations and treatments

  20. Mean-reversion in income over feed cost margins: evidence and implications for managing margin risk by US dairy producers. (United States)

    Bozic, M; Newton, J; Thraen, C S; Gould, B W


    With the increased volatility of feed prices, dairy farm managers are no longer concerned with managing only milk price volatility, but are considering the adoption of risk management programs that address income over feed cost (IOFC) margin risk. Successful margin risk management should be founded on an understanding of the behavior of IOFC margins. To that end, we have constructed forward IOFC margins using Class III milk, corn, and soybean meal futures prices. We focus on the characteristics of the term structure of forward IOFC margins, that is, the sequence of forward margins for consecutive calendar months, all observed on the same trading day. What is apparent from the shapes of these term structures is that both in times when margins were exceptionally high and in times when they were disastrously low, market participants expected that a reversal back to average margin levels would not come quickly, but rather would take up to 9 mo. Slopes of the forward margin term structure before and after most of the major swings in IOFC indicate these shocks were mostly unanticipated, whereas the time needed for recovery to normal margin levels was successfully predicted. This suggests that IOFC margins may exhibit slow mean-reverting, rather than predictable cyclical behavior, as is often suggested in the popular press. This finding can be exploited to design a successful catastrophic risk management program by initiating protection at 9 to 12 mo before futures contract maturity. As a case study, we analyzed risk management strategies for managing IOFC margins that used Livestock Gross Margin for Dairy Cattle insurance contracts and created 2 farm profiles. The first one represents dairy farms that grow most of their feed, whereas the second profile is designed to capture the risk exposure of dairy farms that purchase all their dairy herd, dry cow, and heifer feed. Our case study of this program encompasses the 2009 period, which was characterized by exceptionally

  1. Management and use of dairy cattle feed resources on smallholder certified organic pineapple farms in Central Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiggundu, Muhammad; Kabi, Fred; Vaarst, Mette


    , concluded that management of livestock feeding in the study area fell short of the requirements for organic livestock feeding standards. Research to develop strategies that can use alternative on-farm feed resources through ensiling organic pineapple wastes during the dry season is recommended as a long......Formulation of exclusively organic diets that meet maintenance and production requirements of dairy cattle is a major limitation to production of premium organic products of animal origin. This study was therefore carried out to assess the use and availability of feed resources and the coping...... strategies used by farmers to overcome dry season feed shortages on 64 smallholder certified organic pineapple farms. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires and two focus group discussions. Majority of households were headed by males (62.9%) while average age of respondents was 42.5 years...

  2. Effects of grain, fructose, and histidine feeding on endotoxin and oxidative stress measures in dairy heifers. (United States)

    Golder, H M; Lean, I J; Rabiee, A R; King, R; Celi, P


    Ruminal endotoxin and plasma oxidative stress biomarker concentrations were studied in dairy heifers challenged with grain, fructose, and histidine in a partial factorial study. Holstein-Friesian heifers [n=30; average body weight (BW) of 359.3±47.3 kg] were randomly allocated to 5 treatment groups: (1) control (no grain); (2) grain [crushed triticale at 1.2% of BW dry matter intake (DMI)]; (3) grain (0.8% of BW DMI) + fructose (0.4% of BW DMI); (4) grain (1.2% of BW DMI) + histidine (6g/head); and (5) grain (0.8% of BW DMI) + fructose (0.4% of BW DMI) + histidine (6 g/head). Rumen samples were collected by stomach tube 5, 65, 115, 165, and 215 min after diet consumption and blood samples at 5 and 215 min after consumption. Rumen fluid was analyzed for endotoxin concentrations. Plasma was analyzed for concentrations of the following oxidative stress biomarkers: reactive oxygen metabolites (dROM), biological antioxidant potential (BAP), advanced oxidation protein products, and ceruloplasmin, and activity of glutathione peroxidase. Dietary treatment had no effect on concentrations of endotoxin or oxidative stress biomarkers. We observed no interactions of treatment by time. Ruminal concentrations of endotoxin decreased during the sampling period from 1.12×10(5) ± 0.06 to 0.92×10(5) endotoxin units/mL ± 0.05 (5 and 215 min after diet consumption, respectively). Concentrations of dROM and the oxidative stress index (dROM/BAP × 100) increased over the sampling period, from 108.7 to 123.5 Carratelli units (Carr U), and from 4.1 to 4.8, respectively. Ceruloplasmin concentrations markedly declined 5 min after the consumption of diets, from 190 to 90 mg/L over the 215-min sampling period. Overall, a single feeding challenge for dairy cattle with grain, fructose, and histidine, and combinations thereof, may not be sufficient to induce marked changes in endotoxin or oxidative stress biomarker concentrations. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association

  3. Feeding and fertilization practices and greenhouse gas emissions in specialized dairy farms of Dos Pinos in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel A. Wattiaux


    Full Text Available Emissions of methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O based on the feeding systems of 104 dairy farms in Costa Rica were estimated using IPCC procedures. This study indicated that farmers’ decisions, which determine the feeding strategies for lactating cows, have a substantial impact on CH4 emissions per kg of milk. Lower CH4 emissions per kg milk were estimated on farms with high-producing cows consuming rations with lower neutral detergent fiber concentrations and higher amounts of concentrates. Hours spent in pasture did not influence estimated grass intake or CH4 emissions. However, higher feed efficiency appeared to be a key factor in reducing CH4 emissions per kg of milk. The study also showed that higher N2O emissions were associated with higher amounts of commercial nitrogen fertilizer application; however, the main source of N2O emissions was from the manure deposited during the grazing period. Future approaches to reduce farm gate emissions of CH4 per kg of milk in specialized dairy farms could include incorporating dietary fats in rations, feeding adequate amounts of concentrates and feeding forage at a more digestible stage. These findings are strongly influenced by the assumptions made in calculating CH4 and N2O emissions but do highlight the critical areas which affect greenhouse gas emissions.Keywords: Feed efficiency, fertilization, forage, manure, methane, nitrous oxide.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(4146-158

  4. Effects of feeding perennial ryegrass with an elevated concentration of water-soluble carbohydrates on intake, rumen function and performance of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taweel, H.Z.; Tas, B.M.; Smit, H.J.; Elgersma, A.; Dijkstra, J.; Tamminga, S.


    This study investigated effects of feeding perennial ryegrass with an elevated concentration of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) on dry matter intake (DMI), rumen function, milk production and composition of dairy cows. Twelve Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in mid lactation were stall-fed with fresh

  5. Effects of feeding betaine-containing liquid supplement to transition dairy cows. (United States)

    Monteiro, A P A; Bernard, J K; Guo, J-R; Weng, X-S; Emanuele, S; Davis, R; Dahl, G E; Tao, S


    Betaine is a natural compound found in sugar beets that serves as a methyl donor and organic osmolyte when fed to animals. The objective was to evaluate the effect of feeding betaine-containing molasses on performance of transition dairy cows during late summer in 2 trials. In early September, cows were randomly assigned to betaine (BET) or control (CON) groups either shortly after dry off (trial 1; n = 10 per treatment) or 24 d before calving (trial 2; n = 8 per treatment) based on parity and previous mature equivalent milk yield. Cows were fed common diets supplemented either with a liquid supplement made of molasses from sugar cane and condensed beet solubles containing betaine [BET, 89.1 g/kg of dry matter (DM)] or a sugar cane molasses-based liquid supplement without betaine (CON) until 8 wk postpartum. The liquid supplements had similar nutrient contents and were fed at a rate of 1.1 and 1.4 kg DM/d for pre- and postpartum cows, respectively. Starting at their entry in the studies, cows were housed in the same freestall barn without a cooling system. After calving, all cows were housed in the same barn cooled by misters and fans and milked thrice daily. Intake was recorded daily and body weight and body condition score were assessed every 2 wk. Milk yield was recorded at each milking and composition was analyzed weekly. Blood samples were collected weekly from a subset of cows to assess concentrations of metabolites and AA. No treatment effects were apparent for DM intake and body weight in the prepartum and postpartum periods. For cows enrolled at dry off, BET supported higher milk yield (45.1 vs. 41.9 kg/d) and fat content (4.78 vs. 4.34%) and elevated plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate in early lactation compared to CON. However, no differences were observed for milk yield, most milk component contents and yields, and blood metabolites between treatments for cows enrolled during the close-up period. Compared to cows

  6. Production of Fungal Biomass for Feed, Fatty Acids, and Glycerol by Aspergillus oryzae from Fat-Rich Dairy Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mahboubi


    Full Text Available Dairy waste is a complex mixture of nutrients requiring an integrated strategy for valorization into various products. The present work adds insights into the conversion of fat-rich dairy products into biomass, glycerol, and fatty acids via submerged cultivation with edible filamentous fungi. The pH influenced fat degradation, where Aspergillus oryzae lipase was more active at neutral than acidic pH (17 g/L vs. 0.5 g/L of released glycerol; the same trend was found during cultivation in crème fraiche (12 g/L vs. 1.7 g/L of released glycerol. In addition to glycerol, as a result of fat degradation, up to 3.6 and 4.5 g/L of myristic and palmitic acid, respectively, were released during A. oryzae growth in cream. The fungus was also able to grow in media containing 16 g/L of lactic acid, a common contaminant of dairy waste, being beneficial to naturally increase the initial acidic pH and trigger fat degradation. Considering that lactose consumption is suppressed in fat-rich media, a two-stage cultivation for conversion of dairy waste is also proposed in this work. Such an approach would provide biomass for possibly feed or human consumption, fatty acids, and an effluent of low organic matter tackling environmental and social problems associated with the dairy sector.

  7. Effects of feeding organic trace minerals on milk production and reproductive performance in lactating dairy cows: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Rabiee, A R; Lean, I J; Stevenson, M A; Socha, M T


    The objectives of this meta-analysis were to evaluate the effectiveness of supplementation with the organic trace minerals (OTM; Availa-4 and 4-Plex, Zinpro Corp., Eden Prairie, MN) on milk yield, composition, and component yields and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Twenty research papers and reports on the effects of OTM were considered in this meta-analysis. Criteria for inclusion in the study were information on the form of OTM, an adequate description of randomization, production and reproduction data, and associated measures of variance (SE or SD) and P-values. The OTM increased milk production by 0.93 kg [95% confidence interval (CI)=0.61 to 1.25], milk fat by 0.04 kg (95% CI=0.02 to 0.05), and milk protein by 0.03 kg (95% CI=0.02 to 0.04) per day. Milk SCC was not different in cows supplemented with OTM. All production outcomes except milk solids (yield) and milk SCC were heterogeneous. Meta-regression analysis showed that feeding before calving, feeding for a full lactation after calving, and the use of other supplements increased responses over feeding after calving only, feeding for part of lactation, or not using other supplements, respectively. Supplementation of cows with OTM reduced days open (weighted mean difference=13.5 d) and number of services per conception (weighted mean difference=0.27) in lactating dairy cows. The risk of pregnancy on d 150 of lactation was greater in cows fed OTM (risk ratio=1.07), but OTM had no significant effect on the interval from calving to first service and 21-d pregnancy rate. There was no evidence of heterogeneity for any of the reproductive outcomes evaluated. The results of this meta-analysis showed that organic trace mineral supplementation could improve production and reproduction in lactating dairy cows. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A deterministic evaluation of heat stress mitigation and feed cost under climate change within the smallholder dairy sector. (United States)

    York, L; Heffernan, C; Rymer, C; Panda, N


    In the global South, dairying is often promoted as a means of poverty alleviation. Yet, under conditions of climate warming, little is known regarding the ability of small-scale dairy producers to maintain production and/or the robustness of possible adaptation options in meeting the challenges presented, particularly heat stress. The authors created a simple, deterministic model to explore the influence of breed and heat stress relief options on smallholder dairy farmers in Odisha, India. Breeds included indigenous Indian (non-descript), low-grade Jersey crossbreed and high-grade Jersey crossbreed. Relief strategies included providing shade, fanning and bathing. The impact of predicted critical global climate parameters, a 2°C and 4°C temperature rise were explored. A feed price scenario was modelled to illustrate the importance of feed in impact estimation. Feed costs were increased by 10% to 30%. Across the simulations, high-grade Jersey crossbreeds maintained higher milk yields, despite being the most sensitive to the negative effects of temperature. Low-capital relief strategies were the most effective at reducing heat stress impacts on household income. However, as feed costs increased the lower-grade Jersey crossbreed became the most profitable breed. The high-grade Jersey crossbreed was only marginally (4.64%) more profitable than the indigenous breed. The results demonstrate the importance of understanding the factors and practical trade-offs that underpin adaptation. The model also highlights the need for hot-climate dairying projects and programmes to consider animal genetic resources alongside environmentally sustainable adaptation measures for greatest poverty impact.

  9. Pengaruh Penggunaan High Quality Feed Supplement terhadap Konsumsi dan Kecernaan Nutrien Sapi Perah Awal Laktasi (The Effect of High Quality Feed Supplement Addition on the Nutrient Consumption and Digestibility of Early Lactating Dairy Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriyani Astuti


    (73.11%, and K (70.69% on BETN. The conclusion was that the addition of HQFS of first lactation dairy cow would increase nutrient consumption and crude protein and nitrogen-free extract digestibility. (Key words: High quality feed supplement, Dairy cow, Consumption, Digestibility

  10. Rice gluten meal as an alternative by-product feed for growing dairy calves. (United States)

    Kumar, Rohit; Thakur, Sudarshan Singh; Mahesh, M S


    This experiment aimed at studying the nutritional characteristics and feeding value of rice gluten meal (RGM, a wet-milling by-product of rice) in growing dairy calves. RGM contained 464 g/kg of crude protein with 821 and 196 g/kg nitrogen (N) of borate-phosphate insoluble N and acid detergent insoluble N, respectively, which were higher (P calves (6-12 months) were randomly assigned into three groups based on comparable body weight and age. The first group (GP-I) was fed concentrate mixture containing mainly GNC as protein source, whilst it was replaced by RGM up to 50 and 75 % on N basis, in second (GP-II) and third (GP-III) groups, respectively. Thus, RGM constituted 140 and 210 g/kg of concentrate mixture of GP-II and GP-III, respectively. In addition, all animals were offered chopped green maize and wheat straw for the whole experimental period of 90 days. Results revealed that there was no difference in intake and digestibility of nutrients, N balance, average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency among three groups. Nevertheless, RGM-based diets produced cost-effective ADG than GP-I. Furthermore, experimental calves did not differ in haematological variables like glucose, blood urea N, plasma proteins and non-esterified fatty acids. This study demonstrated that RGM could be incorporated successfully in the concentrate mixture, replacing 75 % of GNC without any discernable compromise in the performance of growing calves.

  11. Effect of calving interval and parity on milk yield per feeding day in Danish commercial dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Jesper Overgård; G. Fadel, J.; Mogensen, Lisbeth


    an extended compared with a shorter lactation. Increasing CInt increased the dry period length with 3 to 5 d. In conclusion, the group of cows with longer CInt were able to produce at least equivalent amounts of ECM per feeding day when the CInt was up to 17 to 19 mo on these 4 commercial dairy farms....... that cows are able to maintain milk yield per feeding day when the length of the calving interval (CInt) is increased. Milk yield per feeding day is defined as the cumulated lactation milk yield divided by the sum of days between 2 consecutive calvings. The main objective of this study was to investigate...... the milk production of cows managed for lactations of different lengths, and the primary aim was to investigate the relationship between CInt, parity, and milk yield. Five measurements of milk yield were used: energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield per feeding day, ECM yield per lactating day, cumulative ECM...

  12. Feeding heat-oxidized oil to dairy cows affects milk fat nutritional quality. (United States)

    Kaleem, M; Enjalbert, F; Farizon, Y; Meynadier, A


    Heating oil and oilseeds results in oxidation products that affect ruminal biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, altering milk fatty acids profile, and could be transferred to milk. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of oil heating on rumen and milk fatty acids profile and the transfer of oxidation products to milk. Sunflower oil was heated at 150°C for 15 h and given to lactating dairy cows in a 2×2 arrangement: two groups of two cows, equipped with a ruminal cannula and receiving two diets (containing either heated or unheated oil) during two experimental periods. Oil heating generated hydroperoxides and/or hydroxyacids and aldehydes, in particular trans-2,trans-4-decadienal. In milk, heated oil only significantly decreased trans-11-C18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-CLA percentage compared to non-heated oil, and slightly increased cis-9,cis-12-C18:2 percentage, which was probably linked to an inhibition of the ruminal Δ12 isomerase by oxidative products in the rumen. However, feeding highly oxidized oil did not result in the appearance of hydroperoxides or hydroxyacids in milk and did not increase milk aldehydes content.

  13. Effects of Feeding Garlic and Juniper Berry Essential Oils on Milk Fatty Acid Composition of Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhu Yang


    Full Text Available Essential oils (EOs from plant extracts have been reported to have an antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Several of the gram-positive bacteria are involved in ruminal biohydrogenation of fatty acids (FAs, thus suggesting that feeding EOs could lower biohydrogenation of FA because of a decrease in the number of bacteria involved in that process. As a result, milk FA profiles are expected to be modified. In addition, monensin was approved as an antibiotic to be fed in dairy cattle, and it was reported that dairy cows supplemented with monensin produced milk containing higher concentration of 18:1 t10 and 18:1 t11. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two EOs (garlic and juniper berry oils and monensin on FA profiles of milk fat. Four ruminally fistulated Holstein dairy cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment. Cows were fed for ad libitum intake a total mixed ration without supplementation (control, or supplemented with monensin (330 mg/head per day, garlic oil (5 g/head per day, or juniper berry oil (2 g/head per day. The FA composition of saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated was not affected by supplementation of EO and monensin. However, proportion of conjugated linoleic acid trans 10, cis 12 (CLA t10, c12 was higher ( P < 0.05 for cows fed EO or monensin than for control cows. Supplementation of monensin increased ( P < 0.05 the proportion of total trans FA compared with the control. These results indicate that supplementation of the dairy cow diet with garlic or juniper berry EO or monensin had the potential to increase the proportion of CLA t10, c12 in milk fat with minimal overall effects on FA of milk fat. The results also confirm the increase of 18:1 t10 in milk fat by feeding monensin to dairy cows.

  14. Effects of milk replacer feeding strategies on performance, ruminal development, and metabolism of dairy calves. (United States)

    Silper, B F; Lana, A M Q; Carvalho, A U; Ferreira, C S; Franzoni, A P S; Lima, J A M; Saturnino, H M; Reis, R B; Coelho, S G


    feeding strategy did not affect glucose concentration, but insulin was higher in 6L-60 d calves than in the other groups. Glucose concentration increased with age, whereas insulin decreased until 45 d old, and then started to increase until 90 d. In conclusion, MR feeding strategy did not influence ruminal development. Feeding calves 6 L of MR/d over 60 d resulted in greater rate of weight gain without negative effects on starter intake or forestomach development. The weight advantage that 6L-60 d calves obtained preweaning was maintained until 90 d of age. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of physical form and protein source of starter feed on growth and development of dairy calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yavuz


    Full Text Available Abstract. The objective of this paper was to review the literature on effects of different methods of processing of grain fraction of the starter feeds for young dairy calves, as well as providing another part of starter which is a source of protein, minerals and vitamins in different physical forms. The second aim was to discus the impact of the main protein sources for starter feeds on performance of preweaning and posteweaning dairy calves. The main criteria for assessment of physical form effect and sources of protein in the starter feeds were intake of dry feeds, daily live weight gain and frame size growth of calves, morphological and functional development of forestomachs, digestibility of feeds and health status of young calves. Data show big variations and lack of consistency of experimental results. Good results were achieved when calves were fed whole, ground, dry-rolled, pelleted and steam-flaked grains. It seemed that fineness of grinding and quantities of fine fraction were important for starter intake. Steam-flaking and grinding improved digestibility to the same extent, but whole grain stimulated chewing and improved rumen environment for bacteria growth. Soybean meal was the most palatable and ensured best performance of calves. Evidently, it is possible to replace soybean meal with rape seed, canola type meal, dry distillers grain with solubles (DDGS and other protein sources which contain more fiber and are less digestible. However, it is difficult to appraise how much and at what conditions is it possible to replace completely or a maximum possible portion of soybean meal. Additional studies are needed to clarify interactions between physical form of starters, rumen fermentation environments and age of calves. Information for composition of diets is needed allowing inclusion of maximum amounts of canola meal, DDGS and sunflower meal, which are produced locally and are cheaper than soybean meal, without decreasing live weight

  16. Development of equations, based on milk intake, to predict starter feed intake of preweaned dairy calves. (United States)

    Silva, A L; DeVries, T J; Tedeschi, L O; Marcondes, M I


    There is a lack of studies that provide models or equations capable of predicting starter feed intake (SFI) for milk-fed dairy calves. Therefore, a multi-study analysis was conducted to identify variables that influence SFI, and to develop equations to predict SFI in milk-fed dairy calves up to 64 days of age. The database was composed of individual data of 176 calves from eight experiments, totaling 6426 daily observations of intake. The information collected from the studies were: birth BW (kg), SFI (kg/day), fluid milk or milk replacer intake (MI; l/day), sex (male or female), breed (Holstein or Holstein×Gyr crossbred) and age (days). Correlations between SFI and the quantitative variables MI, birth BW, metabolic birth BW, fat intake, CP intake, metabolizable energy intake, and age were calculated. Subsequently, data were graphed, and based on a visual appraisal of the pattern of the data, an exponential function was chosen. Data were evaluated using a meta-analysis approach to estimate fixed and random effects of the experiments using nonlinear mixed coefficient statistical models. A negative correlation between SFI and MI was observed (r=-0.39), but age was positively correlated with SFI (r=0.66). No effect of liquid feed source (milk or milk replacer) was observed in developing the equation. Two equations, significantly different for all parameters, were fit to predict SFI for calves that consume less than 5 (SFI5) l/day of milk or milk replacer: ${\\rm SFI}_{{\\,\\lt\\,5}} {\\equals}0.1839_{{\\,\\pm\\,0.0581}} {\\times}{\\rm MI}{\\times}{\\rm exp}^{{\\left( {\\left( {0.0333_{{\\,\\pm\\,0.0021 }} {\\minus}0.0040_{{\\,\\pm\\,0.0011}} {\\times}{\\rm MI}} \\right){\\times}\\left( {{\\rm A}{\\minus}{\\rm }\\left( {0.8302_{{\\,\\pm\\,0.5092}} {\\plus}6.0332_{{\\,\\pm\\,0.3583}} {\\times}{\\rm MI}} \\right)} \\right)} \\right)}} {\\minus}\\left( {0.12{\\times}{\\rm MI}} \\right)$ ; ${\\rm SFI}_{{\\,\\gt\\,5}} {\\equals}0.1225_{{\\,\\pm\\,0.0005 }} {\\times

  17. Protein feeding and balancing for amino acids in lactating dairy cattle. (United States)

    Patton, Robert A; Hristov, Alexander N; Lapierre, Hélène


    This article summarizes the current literature as regards metabolizable protein (MP) and essential amino acid (EAA) nutrition of dairy cattle. Emphasis has been placed on research since the publication of the National Research Council Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, Seventh Revised Edition (2001). Postruminal metabolism of EAA is discussed in terms of the effect on requirements. This article suggests methods for practical application of MP and EAA balance in milking dairy cows. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The association between daily average feeding behaviors and morbidity in automatically fed group-housed preweaned dairy calves. (United States)

    Knauer, W A; Godden, S M; Dietrich, A; James, R E


    Group housing and computerized feeding of preweaned dairy calves is gaining popularity among dairy producers worldwide, yet disease incidence and detection remain a challenge in these systems. The aim of this prospective observational cohort study was to describe the relationship between morbidity and feeding behavior around the period of illness detection. Calves were enrolled upon entrance to the group pen on 10 farms in Minnesota (n = 4) and Virginia (n = 6) utilizing group housing and computerized feeding from February until October 2014. Morbidity and mortality events were recorded by the calf caregiver. Farms were visited either every week (Minnesota) or every other week (Virginia) to collect calf enrollment data, feeding behavior data, and health records. Daily average feeding behaviors (drinking speed, mL/min; daily consumption, L/d; rewarded visits to the feeder; and unrewarded visits to the feeder) were described both overall and for sick and healthy calf days. Multivariable mixed models were built to assess the differences in daily average feeding behaviors (drinking speed, daily consumption, rewarded visits, unrewarded visits) between matched sick and healthy calves around the time of an illness event (-10 to 10 d). Final models were controlled for calf age, region (Minnesota and Virginia), group size, disease diagnosis, the random effect of farm, and repeated measurements on calf. A stratified analysis was performed by both day from treatment event and disease diagnosis. We enrolled 1,052 calves representing 43,607 calf days over 9 mo. From these, 176 sick calves had a matched control and were carried forward to the matched pair analysis. Fifty-five percent of sick calves (97/176) were treated for diarrhea, 30% (53/176) were treated for pneumonia, and 15% (26/176) were treated for ill thrift. Sick calves drank 183 ± 27 mL/min (mean ± standard error) more slowly, drank 1.2 ± 0.6 L/d less, and had 3.1 ± 0.7 fewer unrewarded visits than control calves

  19. The effect of feeding dairy heifers diets with and without supplemental phosphorus on growth, reproductive efficiency, health, and lactation performance. (United States)

    Bjelland, D W; Weigel, K A; Hoffman, P C; Esser, N M; Coblentz, W K


    The phosphorus requirements for dairy heifers (0.20-0.35%) and endogenous concentrations (0.20-35%) of P in feeds fed to dairy heifers are similar, suggesting that the need for supplemental P in dairy heifer diets may be minimal. Because long-term P feeding studies on dairy heifers are unavailable, 183 Holstein heifers and 182 backcross Holstein × Jersey heifers were offered diets with (SP=0.40% of dry matter) and without (NP=0.30% of dry matter) supplemental P from 4 to 22 mo of age in a replicated pen design. Forty-eight pens of 8 heifers each were split evenly by breed and treatment group. Heifers were evaluated for body weight (BW), external bone/frame growth, dystocia, calf BW, reproductive efficiency, and first-lactation performance. Growth phase data were analyzed using pen-based statistical models, and lactation data were analyzed using mixed linear models with effects of season of birth, age of dam, heifer pen, sire, sire birth year, and days in milk. Heifers fed NP had similar average daily gain from 170 to 410 and from 410 to 650 d of age compared with heifers fed SP. At 22 mo of age, heifers fed NP did not differ in BW, hip height, hip width, body length, heart girth, cannon bone circumference, or pelvic area compared with heifers fed SP. Blood P concentrations between heifers fed SP or NP did not differ at 8 or 18 mo of age, and heifers fed SP excreted more P (29.2 vs. 24.2g/d) than heifers fed NP. As heifers, services per conception and age at pregnancy were not different between heifers fed NP or SP. At parturition, heifers fed NP or SP had similar dystocia scores and calves were similar in BW. Complete first-lactation data (305 d) were available for 333 primiparous cows, and cows fed NP as heifers produced similar milk, fat, and protein compared with cows fed SP as heifers. Days open, days in milk at first breeding, and services per conception also were similar for primiparous cows fed NP or SP as heifers. No growth, reproductive, or lactation

  20. [Influence of feeding rumen-protected choline to transition dairy cows. Part 1: metabolism and milk yield]. (United States)

    Furken, C; Hoedemaker, M


    The effects of rumen-protected choline (RPC) on energy metabolism and milk production in dairy cows were analyzed. Two hundred and ninety-eight primiparous and multiparous cows of a high producing dairy herd (mean daily milk yield: 32 l) were randomly assigned to control or treatment groups and were fed with 0 or 15 g RPC, respectively, (corresponding to 0 and 60 g/d ReaShure®, respectively) from 21 days before expected calving to 21 days postpartum (p. p.). Blood metabolites were determined for either all cows (glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate [BHB]) or randomly (insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1], non-esterified fatty acids [NEFA]) during the periparturient period. An index for insulin sensitivity (RQUICKI) was calculated and milk production data (dairy herd improvement tests, 100-days-, 305-days-, milk peak yield, colostrum quality) was analyzed. In the statistical analysis, a distinction was made between the feeding groups and between the parity, and their interactions were analyzed. With the exception of a lower 305-day-milk yield in the treatment group (p cows had less cases of subclinical ketosis a. p. and p. p. (OR a. p.: 0.178; OR p. p.: 0.310), more of them were above the threshold for somatic cell counts (OR 2.584-3.298), and their milk yields were higher (p metabolism or the milk production in this herd. Further research in other dairy herds should focus on this topic.

  1. Effects of Feeding Corn-lablab Bean Mixture Silages on Nutrient Apparent Digestibility and Performance of Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongli Qu


    Full Text Available This study estimated the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of corn-lablab bean mixture silages relative to corn silages. The effects of feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages on nutrient apparent digestibility and milk production of dairy cows in northern China were also investigated. Three ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used to determine the ruminal digestion kinetics and ruminal nutrient degradability of corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages. Sixty lactating Holstein cows were randomly divided into two groups of 30 cows each. Two diets were formulated with a 59:41 forage: concentrate ratio. Corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages constituted 39.3% of the forage in each diet, with Chinese wildrye hay constituting the remaining 60.7%. Corn-lablab bean mixture silages had higher lactic acid, acetic acid, dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ash, Ca, ether extract concentrations and ruminal nutrient degradability than monoculture corn silage (p<0.05. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF concentrations of corn-lablab bean mixture silages were lower than those of corn silage (p<0.05. The digestibility of DM, CP, NDF, and ADF for cows fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was higher than for those fed corn silage (p<0.05. Feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield and milk protein of dairy cows when compared with feeding corn silage (p<0.05. The economic benefit for cow fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was 8.43 yuan/day/cow higher than that for that fed corn silage. In conclusion, corn-lablab bean mixture improved the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of silage compared with monoculture corn. In this study, feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield, milk protein and nutrient apparent digestibility of dairy cows compared with corn silage in northern China.

  2. Herbage intake and behavioural adaptation of grazing dairy cows by restricting time at pasture under two feeding regimes. (United States)

    Pérez-Ramírez, E; Delagarde, R; Delaby, L


    The time at pasture of dairy cows is often restricted in the context of extending the grazing season in autumn or at the end of winter. The objective of our study was to evaluate the effects of a restriction of time at pasture on milk production, herbage intake and feeding behaviour in dairy cows according to feeding regime. The four treatments consisted of 4 h or 8 h of time at pasture per day tested under two feeding regimes combining rate of supplementation and herbage allowance: either a high rate of supplementation (10 kg dry matter (DM) of a maize silage-soya bean meal mixture in the ratio 87 : 13 on a % DM basis) with a low herbage allowance (6 kg DM/cow per day above 5 cm), or a low rate of supplementation (5 kg DM of the same supplement) with a high herbage allowance (11 kg DM/cow per day). The study was carried out according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design with four 2-week periods, with 48 mid-lactation Holstein cows. The cows in the 4-h treatment had access to pasture from 0900 h to 1300 h and those in the 8-h treatment from 0900 h to 1700 h. The supplement was given at 1830 h. When time at pasture was reduced from 8 h to 4 h per day, herbage intake decreased (9.9 v. 8.1 kg DM, P grazing time (327 v. 209 min, P grazing (0.68 v. 0.87, P grazing when receiving the low-supplement feeding regime. In conclusion, we showed that reducing time at pasture from 8 to 4 h for cows receiving 5 to 10 kg DM of a maize silage-based supplement decreased moderately milk production and herbage intake, because of the capacity for behavioural adaptation by the grazing dairy cows.

  3. Feeding practices and potential risk factors for laminitis in dairy cows in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilachai, R.


    Laminitis is considered an important health problem facing the Thai dairy industry. Although the etiology of laminitis is multifactorial, nutrition is considered an important risk factor. Rumen acidosis, lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and histamine may play a role in the development of laminitis in dairy

  4. Sorghum as a forage in Wisconsin (United States)

    Growing moderate quality forages that meet, but do not exceed, requirements of dairy replacement heifers is not a common practice in Wisconsin; however, this forage management option would have a positive impact on the dairy industry. It is typical for heifers to gain excessive bodyweight when they ...

  5. Feeding fat from distillers dried grains with solubles to dairy heifers: II. Effects on metabolic profile. (United States)

    Anderson, J L; Kalscheur, K F; Clapper, J A; Perry, G A; Keisler, D H; Garcia, A D; Schingoethe, D J


    The objective of this study was to determine if increased dietary fat from dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets of growing heifers affected metabolic profile, plasma fatty acid profile, and reproductive maturation. Thirty-three Holstein heifers (133±18 d of age) were used in a 24-wk randomized complete block design with 3 treatment diets. Treatment diets were (1) control (CON) containing ground corn (15.9% of DM) and soybean products (17.9%), (2) low-fat (LFDG) containing low-fat DDGS (21.9%) and ground corn (11.9%), or (3) high-fat (HFDG) with traditional DDGS (33.8%). Diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric, but the HFDG diet was formulated to contain 4.8% fat compared with 2.8% in the CON and LFDG diets. All 3 diets were limit-fed to 2.45% of body weight on a dry matter basis, and resulted in a mean average daily gain of 0.96kg/d across treatments. Every 4wk, jugular blood was collected for analysis of metabolites and metabolic hormones. During wk20 of the feeding period, blood samples were collected for analysis of plasma fatty acid profiles. When heifers weighed between 200 and 300kg of body weight, coccygeal blood samples were taken twice weekly for analysis of progesterone to determine if puberty had been reached. Plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids were similar among treatments and consistent over the duration of the study. Plasma concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, and leptin were similar among heifers fed each treatment diet, but increased over the duration of the feeding period. Serum concentrations of glucose tended to be less in heifers fed HFDG compared with heifers fed the CON diet. Glucose concentrations fluctuated throughout the feeding period, but no treatment by time interactions were noted. Plasma urea N concentrations were less in heifers fed LFDG compared with heifers fed HFDG and CON diets. The concentrations of plasma urea N increased over the duration of the feeding

  6. Performance of dairy cattle under two different feeding systems, as practiced in Kiambu and Nyandarua district of Central Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbugua, P.N.; Gachuiri, C.K.; Wahome, R.G.; Wanyoike, M.M.; Abate, A.; Munyua, S.J.M.; Kamau, J.M.Z.


    A study was carried out in Central Kenya to compare the performance of dairy cattle under two different feeding systems, stall feeding in Kiambu and grazing in Nyandarua. A total of 23 dairy farmers were randomly selected, 11 from the Kiambu district with a total of 61 cows and 12 from Nyandarua district with a total of 102 cows. Data on milk production and reproduction was collected over a period of two years. Stall-fed cattle showed a significantly higher milk yield (P <0.05) than the grazed animals over a 10 month lactation period (3,150 vs 2,299 kg/lactation). In both feeding systems Ayshires performed better than the other breeds. The cross-bred animals compared well with pure-breds in the grazing system. Lactation yield increased with parity for the stall-fed animals while for grazed animals, milk yield declined from the 5th parity onwards. The calving intervals were long for both feeding systems (437 vs 513 days, stall-fed vs grazed, respectively). Services per conception were significantly lower (P <0.05) for stall-fed (1.85 vs 2.36) compared to grazed animals. Calving season did not have any significant effect on milk yield in both feeding systems but animals calving during the wet season, on average, had a slightly higher milk yield. Lactation curves for animals in both feeding systems did not show a distinct peak. Body weight and body condition score varied with the stage of lactation. (author)

  7. Effect of space availability at feed bunk and rest area on metabolic conditions and productive responses in dairy cows

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    L. Stefanini


    Full Text Available It has been estimated that dairy cows spend 3 to 5 h/d eating, consuming 9 to 14 meals per day. In addition, they ruminate 7 to 10 h/d, spend approximately 30 min/d drinking, 2 to 3 h/d being milked, and require approximately 10 h/d for lying time (Grant and Albright, 2000. Management decisions on dairy must not interfere with the cow’s ability to perform these activities which comprises her daily routines. It is well known that feed bunk space modifies eating behaviour, while the amount and characteristics of rest area modify resting activity of the cows. The traditional recommendation of 0.6 linear meter of bunk space per cow is the minimal amount of space needed for all cows to eat at one time (Grant and Albright, 2001.......

  8. Effect of Supplemental Feeding with Glycerol or Propylene Glycol in Early Lactation on the Fertility of Swedish Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomander, H; Gustafsson, H; Frössling, J


    The aim of this field study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental feeding with glycerol (GLY) or propylene glycol (PG) during early lactation on the fertility of Swedish dairy cows. Within 17 commercial dairy herds, 798 cows were randomized to three groups that were daily fed supplements......-parametric survival models (Cox proportional hazards models) controlling for the effect of parity, breed, calving season, milk yield and the clustering effect of herd. There was no difference in time to FLA between the cows in group C and in group GLY or PG. No differences in time to FAI or in time to CON were found...... between cows in group PG and group C. However, cows in the GLY group tended to get their FAI later compared with cows in the control group but without at subsequent delaying of time to CON....

  9. Farming practices in Sweden related to feeding milk and colostrum from cows treated with antimicrobials to dairy calves (United States)


    Background Milk produced by cows in receipt of antimicrobial therapy may contain antimicrobial residues. Such antimicrobial-containing waste milk must be withdrawn from human consumption and is therefore sometimes used as calf feed. Unfortunately, this approach might promote selection of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in the calves’ intestinal microbiota. The objectives of this study were therefore to obtain an overview of waste milk feeding practices on Swedish dairy farms and to investigate if these practices were associated with certain farm characteristics. A representative group of 457 Swedish dairy farmers participated in a web-based survey with questions about the use of colostrum and milk from cows treated with antimicrobials at dry off or during lactation, respectively, as calf feed. Results Colostrum (milk from the first milking after calving) and transition milk (milk from the second milking to the fourth day after calving) from cows treated with antimicrobials at dry off was fed to calves on 89% and 85% of the farms in the study, respectively. When antimicrobial therapy was given to cows during lactation, 56% of the farms fed milk that was produced during the course of treatment to calves, whereas milk that was produced during the subsequent withdrawal period was fed to calves on 79% of the farms. Surveyed farmers were less prone to feed such milk if the antimicrobial therapy was due to mastitis than other infections. In Sweden, a majority of antimicrobial treatments during lactation are systemic administration of benzylpenicillin and thus, the bulk of waste milk in Sweden is likely to contain residues of this drug. Feeding waste milk to calves was more common on non-organic farms, and on farms located in Southern Sweden, and was less common on farms with cows housed in cold free stalls barns. Conclusions Waste milk that may contain antimicrobial residues is, at least occasionally, used as feed for calves on a majority of surveyed Swedish dairy

  10. Carbon footprint and land requirement for dairy herd rations: impacts of feed production practices and regional climate variations. (United States)

    Henriksson, M; Cederberg, C; Swensson, C


    Feed production is a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dairy production and demands large arable and pasture acreage. This study analysed how regional conditions influence GHG emissions of dairy feed rations in a life cycle perspective, that is the carbon footprint (CF) and the land area required. Factors assessed included regional climate variations, grass/clover silage nutrient quality, feedstuff availability, crop yield and feed losses. Using the Nordic feed evaluation model NorFor, rations were optimised for different phases of lactation, dry and growing periods for older cows, first calvers and heifers by regional feed advisors and combined to annual herd rations. Feed production data at farm level were based on national statistics and studies. CF estimates followed standards for life cycle assessment and used emissions factors provided by IPCC. The functional unit was 'feed consumption to produce 1 kg energy corrected milk (ECM) from a cow with annual milk yield of 9 900 kg ECM including replacement animals and feed losses'. Feed ration CF varied from 417 to 531 g CO2 e/kg ECM. Grass/clover silage contributed more than 50% of total GHG emissions. Use of higher quality silage increased ration CF by up to 5% as a result of an additional cut and increased rates of synthetic N-fertiliser. Domestically produced horse bean (Vicia faba), by-products from the sugar industry and maize silage were included in the rations with the lowest CF, but horse bean significantly increased ration land requirement. Rations required between 1.4 to 2 m2 cropland and 0.1 to 0.2 m2/kg semi-natural grassland per kg ECM and year. Higher yield levels reduced ration total CF. Inclusion of GHG emissions from land use change associated with Brazilian soya feed significantly increased ration CF. Ration CF and land use depended on ration composition, which was highly influenced by the regional availability and production of feedstuffs. The impact of individual

  11. Effect of different feeding strategies in intensive dairy farming systems on milk fatty acid profiles, and implications on feeding costs in Italy. (United States)

    Borreani, G; Coppa, M; Revello-Chion, A; Comino, L; Giaccone, D; Ferlay, A; Tabacco, E


    The aim of this work was to characterize the fatty acid (FA) profile of milk from intensive dairy farming systems in the Po Plain (Italy) to estimate the costs of the adopted feeding strategies and to simulate the effect of supplementary premiums on the basis of milk FA composition on milk income. Twenty dairy farms with 5 different feeding strategies were studied: 3 corn silage-based systems in which cows were supplemented with a great proportion (CCH), a medium proportion (CCM), or without commercial concentrate mix (CC0), and 2 systems in which part of corn silage was replaced with grass or legume silage (HF) or with fresh herbage (G), cut and fed indoors. Bulk milk was sampled and lactating cow performance, feeding strategies and forage characteristics were recorded through a survey, 3 times during a year. The milk FA supplementary premium was calculated considering C18:3n-3 and saturated FA (SFA) concentrations, and ratio of total cis C18:1 isomers to C16:0. The CCH, CCM, and CC0 systems bought most of their dairy cow feeds off farm, which allowed them to increase milk production to 35,000 L/yr per hectare. Their low dry matter and crude protein self-sufficiency led to higher feeding costs per liter of milk (from €0.158 to €0.184), and highest income over feed cost was achieved only for milk yield performance greater than 10,000 kg/cow per year. The use of homegrown forages in HF and G increased dry matter and crude protein self-sufficiency and reduced the feeding costs per liter of milk from 9 to 22%, compared with the other studied systems, making HF and G feeding economically competitive, even for a lower milk yield per cow. The studied systems highlighted a remarkable variation in FA profiles. The concentrations of C16:0 and SFA were the highest in CCH (31.53 and 67.84 g/100g of FA) and G (31.23 and 68.45 g/100g of FA), because of the larger proportion of commercial concentrate mix in the cow diet. The concentrations of C16:0 and SFA were the lowest in

  12. Responses of dairy cows with divergent residual feed intake as calves to metabolic challenges during midlactation and the nonlactating period. (United States)

    DiGiacomo, K; Norris, E; Dunshea, F R; Hayes, B J; Marett, L C; Wales, W J; Leury, B J


    Residual feed intake (RFI) is defined as the difference between the actual and expected feed intake required to support animal maintenance and growth. Thus, a cow with a low RFI can obtain nutrients for maintenance and growth from a reduced amount of feed compared with a cow with a high RFI. Variation in RFI is underpinned by a combination of factors, including genetics, metabolism, thermoregulation and body composition; hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responsiveness is also a possible contributor. Responses to 3 metabolic challenges were measured in lactating and nonlactating dairy cattle. Sixteen Holstein Friesian cows with phenotypic RFI measurements that were obtained during the growth period (188-220 d old) were grouped as either low-calfhood RFI (n = 8) or high-calfhood RFI (n = 8). An ACTH (2 µg/kg of body weight), insulin (0.12 U/kg), and epinephrine (a low dose of 0.1 µg/kg and a high dose of 1.6 µg/kg of epinephrine) challenge were each conducted during both midlactation (122 ± 23.4 d in milk) and the nonlactating period (dry period; approximately 38 d after cessation of milking). Cows were housed in metabolism stalls for the challenges and were fed a diet of alfalfa cubes ad libitum for at least 10 d before the experiment (lactating cows also were offered a total of 6 kg of dry matter/d of crushed wheat grain plus minerals fed as 3 kg of dry matter at each milking) and were fasted for 12 h before the challenges. The efficiency of conversion of feed into milk (the ratio of feed consumed to milk produced over the 7 d before the experiment) during midlactation was better (lower) in low-calfhood RFI cows, although dry matter intake did not differ between RFI groups. Low-calfhood RFI cows exhibited a lower plasma cortisol response to the ACTH challenge than high-calfhood RFI cows, particularly in midlactation (-15%). The low-calfhood RFI cows had a greater plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 response to the insulin challenge and plasma fatty

  13. Liver fat content and lipid metabolism in dairy cows during early lactation and during a mid-lactation feed restriction. (United States)

    Gross, J J; Schwarz, F J; Eder, K; van Dorland, H A; Bruckmaier, R M


    During the transition period, the lipid metabolism of dairy cows is markedly affected by energy status. Fatty liver is one of the main health disorders after parturition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a negative energy balance (NEB) at 2 stages in lactation [NEB at the onset of lactation postpartum (p.p.) and a deliberately induced NEB by feed restriction near 100 d in milk] on liver triglyceride content and parameters of lipid metabolism in plasma and liver based on mRNA abundance of associated genes. Fifty multiparous dairy cows were studied from wk 3 antepartum to approximately wk 17 p.p. in 2 periods. According to their energy balance in period 1 (parturition to wk 12 p.p.), cows were allocated to a control (CON; n=25) or a restriction group (RES; 70% of energy requirements; n=25) for 3 wk in mid lactation starting at around 100 d in milk (period 2). Liver triglyceride (TG) content, plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate were highest in wk 1 p.p. and decreased thereafter. During period 2, feed restriction did not affect liver TG and β-hydroxybutyrate concentration, whereas NEFA concentration was increased in RES cows as compared with CON cows. Hepatic mRNA abundances of tumor necrosis factor α, ATP citrate lyase, mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 2 were not altered by lactational and energy status during both experimental periods. The expression of fatty acid synthase was higher in period 2 compared with period 1, but did not differ between RES and CON groups. The mRNA abundance of acetyl-coenzyme A-carboxylase showed a tendency toward higher expression during period 2 compared with period 1. The solute carrier family 27 (fatty acid transporter), member 1 (SLC27A1) was upregulated in wk 1 p.p. and also during feed restriction in RES cows. In conclusion, the present study shows that a NEB has different effects on hepatic lipid metabolism and TG

  14. Enteric methane production in lactating dairy cows with continuous feeding of essential oils or rotational feeding of essential oils and lauric acid. (United States)

    Klop, G; Dijkstra, J; Dieho, K; Hendriks, W H; Bannink, A


    ). Results indicate a transient decrease in CH 4 yield and intensity in time, but no improvement in extent or persistency of the decline in CH 4 due to rotational feeding of essential oils and C12:0 in lactating dairy cows. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of feeding alfalfa stemlage or wheat straw for dietary energy dilution on nutrient intake and digestibility, growth performance, and feeding behavior of Holstein dairy heifers. (United States)

    Su, Huawei; Akins, Matt S; Esser, Nancy M; Ogden, Robin; Coblentz, Wayne K; Kalscheur, Kenneth F; Hatfield, Ron


    Feeding high-quality forage diets may lead to excessive weight gains and over-conditioning for dairy heifers. Restriction of energy density and dry matter intake by using low-energy forages, such as straw, is a good approach for controlling this problem. Alfalfa stems contain high fiber and moderate protein content and have the potential to be used to replace straw to reduce dietary energy. The objective of this study was to compare nutrient intakes, digestibilities, growth performance, and feeding behaviors of dairy heifers offered an alfalfa silage/corn silage high-energy diet (HE; 13.1% crude protein, 65.4% total digestible nutrients, 39.7% neutral detergent fiber) with 2 energy-diluted diets that replaced various proportions of the corn or alfalfa silages with either alfalfa stemlage (STM; 12.6% crude protein, 59.1% total digestible nutrients, 46.4% neutral detergent fiber) or chopped wheat straw (WS; 12.6% crude protein, 61.9% total digestible nutrients, 43.7% neutral detergent fiber). Seventy-two pregnant Holstein heifers (16.8 ± 1.3 mo) were stratified into 3 blocks (24 heifers/block) by initial body weight (light, 440 ± 18.0 kg; medium, 486 ± 18.6 kg; heavy, 534 ± 25.1 kg), with each block composed of 3 pens (8 heifers/pen), with diets assigned randomly to 1 pen within the block. Diets were offered in a 56-d feeding trial. Both dry matter intake and energy intake were decreased with the addition of low-energy forages to the diets, but no differences in dry matter intake were observed across diluted diets. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and apparent N were greater for HE compared with diluted diets, and for WS compared with STM. Total body weight gain (74 vs. 56 kg) and average daily gain (1.32 vs. 1.00 kg/d) were greater for heifers offered HE compared with diluted diets. Feed efficiency tended to be less for heifers offered the diluted diets compared with HE (10.7 vs. 8.6 kg of feed/kg of gain). Heifers did not

  16. Intensive liquid feeding of dairy calves with a medium crude protein milk replacer: Effects on performance, rumen, and blood parameters. (United States)

    de Paula, M R; Oltramari, C E; Silva, J T; Gallo, M P C; Mourão, G B; Bittar, C M M


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different liquid-feeding systems using a medium crude protein milk replacer on performance, rumen, and blood parameters. Thirty newborn Holstein calves were blocked according to birth weight and date of birth, and randomly distributed to different liquid-feeding systems: conventional (4 L/d), intensive (8 L/d), or step-up/step-down (wk 1, 4 L/d; wk 2 to 6, 8 L/d; wk 7 and 8, 4 L/d). The commercial milk replacer (12.5% solids, 20.2% crude protein, 15.6% fat) was fed twice daily (0700 and 1700 h) until calves were weaned, at 8 wk of age. Calves were individually housed in wood hutches, with free access to water and starter concentrate, and to hay only after weaning. They were followed through 10 wk of age. Milk replacer and starter intake were inversely affected by feeding system. After weaning, starter intake and hay intake were similar among feeding systems. Total dry matter intake was higher during the liquid-feeding period for calves on the intensive system compared to calves on the conventional system, but conventional feeding resulted in the highest dry matter intake after weaning. Feed efficiency was similar among feeding systems before and after weaning. Average body weight and daily gain were not affected by feeding system before or after weaning. During liquid feeding, diarrhea occurrence was lower for calves on the conventional system; however, when calves on the step-up/step-down system were fed lower volumes of liquid feed, diarrhea occurrence was similar to that of calves on the conventional system. Plasma concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate were higher for calves on the conventional system, reflecting starter intake. Rumen pH, short-chain fatty acids, and N-NH 3 were not affected by feeding system. Feeding higher volumes of milk replacer with a medium crude protein content had no beneficial effect on the performance of calves up to 10 wk of age. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science

  17. Effects of lasalocid and intermittent feeding of chlortetracycline on the growth of prepubertal dairy heifers. (United States)

    Cabral, R G; Erickson, P S; Guindon, N E; Kent, E J; Chapman, C E; Aragona, K M; Cabral, M D; Massa, E C; Antaya, N T; Muir, C C; O'Donnell, B; Branine, M E


    Forty Holstein heifers entered the 12-wk study at approximately 12 wk of age. At enrollment, heifers were blocked by birth date and assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: (1) carrier (30 g; control); (2) lasalocid + carrier (1 mg/kg of body weight; L); (3) chlortetracycline + carrier (22 mg/kg of body weight; CTC); (4) L + CTC + carrier (CTCL). Heifers on CTC and CTCL were provided treatment Monday through Friday and carrier only on Saturday and Sunday. These heifers were provided their respective treatment during wk 1 to 4, 6, and 10; wk 5, 7 to 9, and 11 to 12 heifers were provided the nonmedicated carrier. Heifers were individually fed a total mixed ration with treatments top-dressed at 1200 h daily. Dry matter intake was monitored for each heifer and feed provided was adjusted according to individual intakes. Skeletal measurements were taken weekly and blood samples were obtained every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. Blood samples were analyzed for thyroxine concentration via radial immunoassay. Heifers supplemented with L had lower average daily gain , overall body weight gain, and trends for lower daily body length gain and overall girth gain compared with CTC heifers, but similar to control and CTCL heifers. Heifers fed L had lower hip height gain and overall hip height gain compared with CTCL heifers, but similar to control and CTC heifers. Heifers fed L had lower overall withers height gain compared with control heifers, but similar to CTC and CTCL heifers. No treatment effect on thyroxine concentrations was observed. These data indicate that L did not increase growth. Results from this experiment indicate that supplementing heifers with L was not beneficial and no benefits to supplementing heifers with CTC or the combination of CTC and L were evident compared with control heifers. Heifers in this study experienced minimal health problems and were regarded to be under low stress levels. Supplementing CTC and L may be beneficial to growing heifers under conditions

  18. Effects of supplementary concentrate level and separate or total mixed ration feeding on performance of growing dairy bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Kalevi Huuskonen


    Full Text Available A randomised complete block design was used to study the effects on animal performance of (1 the increasing level of supplementary concentrate with grass silage (GS, and (2 feeding GS and concentrates separately or as a total mixed ration (TMR. A feeding experiment comprised 32 dairy bulls with average initial live weight of 145 kg. The feeding treatments were: (1 GS (660 g kg-1 dry matter intake plus medium level of rolled barley (330 offered separately, (2 GS (660 plus medium level of rolled barley (330 offered as TMR, (3 GS (330 plus high level of rolled barley (660 offered separately, and (4 GS (330 plus high level of rolled barley (660 offered as TMR. During the experiment (398 days the bulls were fed ad libitum either GS or TMR. The increasing concentrate level increased energy intake, carcass gain and dressing proportion of the bulls but had no effects on carcass conformation or fat score. TMR feeding had no effects on carcass gain, dressing proportion, carcass conformation or fat score but increased dry matter and energy intake compared to the separate feeding.

  19. Plasma Vitamin E and Blood Selenium Concentrations in Norwegian Dairy Cows: Regional Differences and Relations to Feeding and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivertsen T


    Full Text Available Plasma α-tocopherol (vit E and blood selenium (Se concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle Health Recording System. The mean concentrations were 6.9 μg vit E per ml plasma and 0.16 μg Se per g blood. Both levels were highest in mid lactation. Plasma vit E varied with the amount of silage fed to the cow, while blood Se varied with the amount of concentrates and mineral supplements, and with geographical region. No differences in vit E or Se levels were found between cows with recorded treatments for mastitis, parturient paresis or reproductive disorders in the lactation during or immediately prior to sampling, and those without such treatments. For ketosis, a small difference in blood Se was found between the groups with or without recorded treatments. It is concluded that winter-fed lactating cows in Norway had an adequate plasma level of vit E and a marginal-to-adequate level of Se.

  20. Plasma Vitamin E and Blood Selenium Concentrations in Norwegian Dairy Cows: Regional Differences and Relations to Feeding and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østerås O


    Full Text Available Plasma α-tocopherol (vit E and blood selenium (Se concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle Health Recording System. The mean concentrations were 6.9 μg vit E per ml plasma and 0.16 μg Se per g blood. Both levels were highest in mid lactation. Plasma vit E varied with the amount of silage fed to the cow, while blood Se varied with the amount of concentrates and mineral supplements, and with geographical region. No differences in vit E or Se levels were found between cows with recorded treatments for mastitis, parturient paresis or reproductive disorders in the lactation during or immediately prior to sampling, and those without such treatments. For ketosis, a small difference in blood Se was found between the groups with or without recorded treatments. It is concluded that winter-fed lactating cows in Norway had an adequate plasma level of vit E and a marginal-to-adequate level of Se.

  1. Feeding Moringa oleifera fresh or ensiled to dairy cows--effects on milk yield and milk flavor. (United States)

    Mendieta-Araica, Bryan; Spörndly, Eva; Reyes-Sánchez, Nadir; Spörndly, Rolf


    Moringa oleifera, either fresh or ensiled, was compared with Elephant grass as a main feedstuff for dairy cows. To test the effects feed had on milk yield, milk composition, ration digestibility, and the organoleptic characteristics of milk, six lactating dairy cows were used in a Changeover 3 × 3 Latin Square experiment, replicated twice. With equal intake of metabolizable energy the intake of protein and fiber differed (p ensiled Moringa had higher digestibility (P < 0.05) of both protein and fiber. With the exception of DM digestibility, no digestibility differences were found between fresh Moringa and Moringa silage treatments. Milk yield did not differ between any of the treatments and averaged 13.7 kg cow day(-1). Milk composition was similar among all treatments. Milk from the fresh Moringa treatment, however, had a grassy flavor and aroma, significantly different from the other two treatments, even though it was normal in color and appearance. No organoleptic differences were found between milk from the control treatment and the Moringa silage treatment. The conclusion is that Moringa silage can be fed to dairy cows in large quantities to produce the same quantity and quality of milk as traditional diets.

  2. Effect of group size and health status on behavior and feed intake of multiparous dairy cows in early lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Proudfoot, Kathryn L.


    Dairy cows in early lactation are often housed in a large group, where they may have to compete for access to feed and space. However, a cow's ability to compete may be impaired due to production disease, and housing in a small group with minimal competition may be beneficial for cow welfare....... The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of group size and health on social and feeding behavior of cows during the first 3 d after introduction to a new group. Data included 54 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows that were moved from an individual maternity pen and individually joined...... an existing group pen for 6 (N6) or 24 cows (N24) on d 4 after calving. Cows were considered sick if they were diagnosed with and treated for milk fever, mastitis, or retained placenta, diagnosed with subclinical ketosis or metritis within 3 d of calving, or were diagnosed and treated for any other infection...

  3. Extruded pea (Pisum sativum as alternative to soybean protein for dairy cows feeding in organic Alpine farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Gottardo


    Full Text Available The study evaluated the use of extruded pea as an alternative to soybean in the protein feeding of dairy cattle raised in organic Alpine farms. The research was carried out in a commercial organic dairy farm located in the Province of Trento (Northern Italy and it considered two separate periods of cows’ lactation: early and late lactation. According to the traditional management practice of alpine dairy herds with the seasonal calving of the cows in early winter, the former period was carried out during the cold season when cows were housed indoors, while the latter period started after the transfer of the entire herd to an alpine pasture for the summer grazing. In both periods, 16 cows of Rendena breed were equally assigned to 2 experimental groups. The dietary forage (meadow hay in early lactation or pasture in late lactation was supplemented to one group of cows with a Control concentrate in which soybean expeller, sunflower expeller and wheat bran were the main protein feeds. Soybean proteins were replaced by extruded peas in the Soy-free concentrate given to the other group of cows. The daily amount of concentrate was adjusted to the individual milk yield on a weekly basis adopting ratios of 0.360 and 0.125 kg of DM per kg of milk in early and late lactation periods, respectively. Cows receiving Soy-free concentrate showed a higher milk yield than the Control cows in both lactation periods (18.7 vs 17.5 kg/d in early lactation and 9.3 vs 8.6 kg/d on pasture, respectively. Milk fat and protein were not affected by the diet at any stage of lactation, while a higher concentration of milk urea was observed in milk samples taken from Soy-free cows in both periods of the study. This result could have been promoted by the higher soluble fraction of extruded pea proteins in comparison to that of soybean expeller. Cows feeding behaviour was monitored only in the early lactation period and despite of the different amount of concentrate consumed by

  4. Mechanisms for Formation of Oxides of Nitrogen during Ensiling of Dairy Feeds (United States)

    Silage (ensiled feed), as a dairy’s greatest operational cost, is its most critical feed commodity. Ensiling is the process of converting entire harvested feedplants such as corn, sorghum, or alfalfa into fermented, stable anaerobic animal feed (i.e., silage). The continued...

  5. Local feeding strategies and milk composition in small-scale dairy production systems during the rainy season in the highlands of Mexico. (United States)

    Alfonso-Ávila, Ángel René; Wattiaux, Michel A; Espinoza-Ortega, Angélica; Sánchez-Vera, Ernesto; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos M


    The objective of the work was to identify local feeding strategies in small-scale dairy production systems during the rainy season in the highlands of Mexico, and to determine their effects on milk yields (MY), milk composition and economic viability. Twenty-two dairy farms were monitored by monthly visits, recording and sampling milk from between two and six cows in each farm, live-weight was also recorded. Samples from feeds used in that month were taken and feeds given to the dairy herd were weighed. Economic data was also recorded. Milk composition and milk urea nitrogen were determined, as well as chemical composition of feeds. Eighteen feedstuffs were identified, grouped in: HNH feeds-high in neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and in DM matter; HNL feeds-high in NDF but low in DM; HCh feeds-high in non-fibrous carbohydrates; and HCP feeds-high in crude protein. Four feeding strategies were identified: strategy 1 uses HND, HNL and HCP; strategy 2-HND, HNL, HCh and HCP; strategy 3 HNH and HCP; and strategy 4 HNL and HCP. Of participating farms, 73.4% followed strategy 1, 11.3% strategy 2, 11.3% strategy 4 and 3.8% strategy 3. There were no statistical differences (P > 0.05) between strategies for MY and milk composition, but there were differences (P  0.05) model relating intake of feed groups and milk fat content, but milk protein and SNF contents were significantly explained by intake of HCP. When expressed as MY and milk components yield, milk fat yield was significantly explained by intake of all four feed groups, but milk protein and SNF yields were explained only by intake of HCP and LW. MUN excretion was explained also by HCP intake. All feeding strategies produced positive economic returns, on average generating the equivalent of 3.45 minimum wages of the area.

  6. An international effort to improve feed efficiency and reduce methane emissions in dairy cows through genomics (United States)

    Increasing international demand for high quality dairy and meat products as well as greater awareness of climate change has put pressure on the livestock industry to deliver quality products while reducing its environmental impact. Enteric methane from cattle is a major contributor to greenhouse gas...

  7. Use of microseaweeds (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) as a probiotic in dairy goats feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreno-Indias, I.; Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; Torres, C.


    Ten Majorera dairy goats were divided into two groups in order to observe the effects of the Chlorella pyrenoidosa oral administration on the colostrum and milk quality and on the animals' immune status. Treated animals received 5 g/day of seaweed from 40 days before partum to 40 days after partu...

  8. Modification of digestive system microbiome of lactating dairy cows by feeding Bovamine: effect on ruminal fermentation (United States)

    We evaluated the immune modulatory effects as well as effects on productivity of Bovamine® (Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 and Probionibacterium freudenreichii) on the digestive system microbiome of dairy cattle during late lactation (average DIM = 202). To unveil the underlying mechanisms, ...

  9. Mammary gland and milk fatty acid composition of two dairy goat breeds under feed-restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palma, Mariana; Alves, Susana P.; Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E


    Goat dairy products are an important source of animal protein in the tropics. During the dry season, pasture scarcity leads animals to lose up to 40% of their body weight, a condition known as Seasonal Weight Loss (SWL) that is one of the major constraints in ruminant production. Breeds with high...

  10. Effect of early exposure to mixed rations differing in forage particle size on feed sorting of dairy calves. (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Montoro, C; Bach, A; DeVries, T J


    Feed sorting of dairy cattle is influenced by dietary forage particle size. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of early exposure to rations differing in forage particle size on development of feed sorting in dairy calves. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed for 8 wk to 1 of 2 mixed rations containing (on a dry-matter basis) 90% crumb starter concentrate and either (1) 10% coarsely chopped (3- to 4-cm) grass hay (CRS; n=10) or (2) 10% finely ground (2-mm) grass hay (FN; n=10), both offered ad libitum. Calves received 8L of milk replacer/d (1.2 kg of dry matter/d), with the amount progressively reduced after 5 wk, to facilitate weaning by the end of wk 7. At the beginning of wk 9, all calves received the CRS diet and were followed for 3 wk. Intake was recorded daily and calves were weighed twice per week. Samples of fresh feed and orts were taken on d 1 to 4 of wk 9 and 11 for analysis of feed sorting. Sorting of the ration was assessed through analysis of nutrient intake. Actual intake of each nutrient was expressed as a percentage of predicted intake of that nutrient, based on the concentration in the fresh sample. Daily dry matter intake (DMI) was similar between treatments after transition to the common CRS ration (3.20 kg/d, standard error=0.25 kg/d). However, feed efficiency was subject to a treatment-by-week interaction, with calves previously fed the FN diet having an initially greater gain-to-feed ratio than those fed the CRS diet [in wk 9, 0.60 vs. 0.47 kg of average daily gain (ADG)/kg of DMI] and similar feed efficiency in the following weeks (in wk 10, 0.43 vs. 0.43 kg of ADG/kg of DMI). A corresponding tendency was observed for ADG and body weight to evolve differently, depending on treatment, with calves previously fed the FN diet having greater ADG initially (in wk 9, 1.60 vs. 1.32 kg/d) but similar ADG to those fed the CRS diet in the following weeks (in wk 10, 1.39 vs. 1.33 kg/d and in wk 11, 1.32 vs. 1.31 kg/d). Calves

  11. Effect of substituting barley with glycerol as energy feed on feed intake, milk production and milk quality in dairy cows in mid or late lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens


    intake, and milking frequency were recorded daily, while milk composition and milk FA daily were analyzed weekly. Milk sensory analysis was performed on fresh and 7 d stored samples for the four diets. The PMR intake increased almost 1 kg from Gly0 to Gly12, and decreased by approximately 1 kg from Gly12......The experiment reported in this research paper aimed to determine the level at which glycerol can substitute barley in grass-clover silage-based ration for dairy cows in mid or late lactation, without affecting milk production, milk composition, milk free fatty acid (FFA) profile, and milk sensory...... quality. Forty Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design. Crude glycerol substituted barley in the partially mixed ration (PMR) of the cows at inclusion levels of 0% (Gly0), 6% (Gly6), 12% (Gly12), and 18% (Gly18) of dietary dry matter (DM). Individual milk production, feed...

  12. Effects of plane of nutrition and feed deprivation on insulin responses in dairy cattle during late gestation. (United States)

    Schoenberg, K M; Ehrhardt, R M; Overton, T R


    . 3,957 μIU/mL × 60 min). During the fed-state HEC, circulating concentrations of NEFA were 21% below basal for cows fed the HP diet and 62% below basal for cows fed the LP diet; during feed deprivation, NEFA were 79 and 59% below basal for the HP and LP diets, respectively (diet × HEC). Cows that are fed below energy requirements or are feed deprived have slower clearance of glucose and greater NEFA responses to glucose challenge. Additionally, feed deprivation had a large effect on insulin secretion. Overall, effects of feed deprivation were larger than effects of plane of nutrition. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Naturally occurring radionuclides in pasture soil, feed ingredients and milk of dairy cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turtiainen, T.; Kostiainen, E.; Solatie, D. [STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)


    Naturally occurring radionuclides are generally considered being respective part of the environment and hence no statutory monitoring of their levels are required in food products. Therefore, limited data are available on the naturally occurring radionuclides in food. Dairy products constitute a significant portion of Finnish diet (400-500 g/d) and hence it is reasonable to study radionuclide levels in milk in more detail. Contrary to caesium, strontium and iodine, few transfer coefficients are available in the literature for naturally occurring radionuclide transfer to cow's milk. The renaissance of mining industry in Finland has raised a question among the public about the baseline values of naturally occurring radionuclides in Finnish agricultural products. The objective of this study was to investigate naturally occurring radionuclides in the components of dairy cattle diet and milk and calculate their transfer to milk. This information is needed for regulating the permitted discharges to the environment and for setting up monitoring programs if any unplanned discharges are released. In modern dairy farming, cattle are fed a precise diet in order to maximize milk production and quality and to achieve cost-effectiveness. Therefore, several different components are found in dairy cattle's diet and pasture grass concentrations are not sufficient for calculating radionuclide transfer to cow's milk. In this study, we carried out comprehensive sampling at four dairy farms each representing different areas of natural radiation background. The pasture soils were characterized and measured for natural radioactivity. Samples were taken from cattle's total diet (including e.g. pasture grass, water, silage, mineral forage) and milk. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  14. Effects of feeding practices on milk yield and composition in peri-urban and rural smallholder dairy cow and pastoral camel herds in Kenya. (United States)

    Kashongwe, O B; Bebe, B O; Matofari, J W; Huelsebusch, C G


    Associations between feeding practices, milk yield, and composition were assessed in smallholder rural and peri-urban dairy cow (n = 97) and pastoral camel (n = 15) herds. A cross-sectional survey supplemented by follow-up collection of feed and milk samples for laboratory analyses was conducted. Data was analyzed using descriptive, correlation, and analysis of variance statistics. Feeding practices in rural smallholder dairy cows' herds were pastured based (87.7%) with napier grass (89.4%) and concentrates (93.9%) as forage and concentrate supplements. In smallholder peri-urban dairy cows' herds, it was napier grass based (68.4%) with concentrates (100%), oat forages (42.9%), and crop residues (28.6%). Pastoral camel herds were shrub browsing (53%), rangeland pasture grazing (20%), or Euphorbia tirucalli feeding (27%). Smallholder rural farmers offered more feeds (16.1 vs 15.3 kg/day) than peri-urban farmers, hence net energy for lactation (1.4 vs 1.3 Mcal/kg), crude protein (CP) (10 vs 12%), and milk yields (12 vs 9 kg/herd/day) was higher. Milk fat was higher in smallholder peri-urban (4.3%) than that of rural (3.9%). In pastoral camels, E. tirucalli feeding had higher daily milk yield/herd, fat, and CP (63 kg, 4.5 and 3.6%) than shrub browsing (35 kg, 4.2 and 3.0%) and grazing (23 kg yield, 2.6 and 2.7%). Five feeding practices out of 14 in smallholder dairy cattle herds resulted in more than 10 kg milk/cow/day because of low forage-to-concentrate ratio (2.5), inclusion of legume crop residue, or processing forages. They present opportunities for improved production in smallholder herds. In pastoral camel, E. tirucalli feeding showed the highest potential.

  15. Feeding saponin-containing Yucca schidigera and Quillaja saponaria to decrease enteric methane production in dairy cows. (United States)

    Holtshausen, L; Chaves, A V; Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M; McAllister, T A; Odongo, N E; Cheeke, P R; Benchaar, C


    An experiment was conducted in vitro to determine whether the addition of saponin-containing Yucca schidigera or Quillaja saponaria reduces methane production without impairing ruminal fermentation or fiber digestion. A slightly lower dose of saponin was then fed to lactating dairy cows to evaluate effects on ruminal fermentation, methane production, total-tract nutrient digestibility, and milk production and composition. A 24-h batch culture in vitro incubation was conducted in a completely randomized design with a control (no additive, CON) and 3 doses of either saponin source [15, 30, and 45 g/kg of substrate dry matter (DM)] using buffered ruminal fluid from 3 dairy cows. The in vivo study was conducted as a crossover design with 2 groups of cows, 3 treatments, and three 28-d periods. Six ruminally cannulated cows were used in group 1 and 6 intact cows in group 2 (627 +/- 55 kg of body weight and 155 +/- 28 d in milk). The treatments were 1) early lactation total mixed ration, no additive (control; CON); 2) CON diet supplemented with whole-plant Y. schidigera powder at 10 g/kg of DM (YS); and 3) CON diet supplemented with whole-plant Q. saponaria powder at 10 g/kg of DM (QS). Methane production was measured in environmental chambers and with the sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6)) tracer technique. In vitro, increasing levels of both saponin sources decreased methane concentration in the headspace and increased the proportion of propionate in the buffered rumen fluid. Concentration of ammonia-N, acetate proportion, and the acetate:propionate ratio in the buffered rumen fluid as well as 24-h digestible neutral detergent fiber were reduced compared with the CON treatment. Medium and high saponin levels decreased DM digestibility compared with the CON treatment. A lower feeding rate of both saponin sources (10 g/kg of DM) was used in vivo in an attempt to avoid potentially negative effects of higher saponin levels on feed digestibility. Feeding saponin did not affect milk

  16. Transfer efficiency of melamine from feed to milk in lactating dairy cows fed with different doses of melamine. (United States)

    Shen, J S; Wang, J Q; Wei, H Y; Bu, D P; Sun, P; Zhou, L Y


    This study was conducted to investigate the transfer efficiency of melamine (1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine) from feed to milk of lactating cows fed with different doses of melamine. Twenty-four China Holstein dairy cows were divided into 2 blocks according to milk yield (block 1 and block 2 for low- and high-producing cows). Cows of block 1 or block 2 each were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a randomized complete block design and each treatment had 6 cows. The cows of treatments 1 to 4 were dosed with melamine at 0 (control), 90 (treatment 1), 270 (treatment 2), and 450 (treatment 3) mg/d per cow, respectively. The trial lasted 19 d. During the first 13 d, cows were fed melamine at the respective treatment levels, and the last 6 d was the clearance period after melamine was withdrawn. The results indicated that the levels of melamine used did not affect milk yield or composition. The mean milk melamine concentration increased during the initial 3 d after melamine feeding in all the melamine-supplemented groups, and then fluctuated slightly over the remaining 10 d of melamine feeding. No melamine was detected in the milk of any groups on d 4 of the clearance period. Milk melamine concentration measured between 3 to 13 d was significantly affected by melamine feeding doses, but was not influenced by milk yield. The transfer efficiency of melamine from feed to milk was not affected by melamine doses (0.95, 0.70, and 0.66% for treatments 1, 2, and 3, respectively), but was linearly related with milk yield (0.56% for block 1 and 0.95% for block 2, R(2)=0.80). The milk melamine concentration was linearly related with melamine intake (R(2)=0.84). The present study demonstrated that when the daily intake of melamine exceeds 312.7mg/cow, the milk should not be used to produce infant formula powder. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of feed type and method of presentation on feeding behavior, intake, and growth of dairy calves fed a high level of milk. (United States)

    Overvest, M A; Bergeron, R; Haley, D B; DeVries, T J


    .4 g of dry matter per minute). It appears that during weaning, and postweaning, calves fed TMR were attempting to maximize their nutrient intake but were unable to match that of calves in other treatments because of the high moisture content of their feed, and thus were unable to achieve similar average daily gain. Additionally, growth and total intake throughout the preweaning and weaning stages were similar for calves fed chopped hay along with concentrate and those not offered hay, suggesting no detrimental effect of feeding forage. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Allocation of feed based on individual dairy cow live weight changes. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Dorte; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis


    paper was to examine the milk yield obtained in response to three feeding strategies. The interrelationship between feed intake and live weight changes is presented in a companion paper. Cows were stalled in a loose-housing system based on automatic milking, automatic recording of feed intake...... in a companion paper indicated, that cows offered the MR2 strategies obtained a lower extent of mobilization compared to cows offered the MR1 strategy, and feeding the MR2-E strategy significantly increased duration of the mobilization period, which might have increased MR2-E cows' ability to maintain a high...

  19. Effect of pregnancy and feeding level on cell turnover and expression of related genes in the mammary tissue of lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, J V; Sørensen, M T; Theil, P K


    Milk yield is reduced by pregnancy, and the present experiment was conducted to study the biological basis for the negative effect of pregnancy on milk yield. A total of 16 dairy cows were fed at either a normal or a low feeding level (eight cows per treatment), and half of them were inseminated...

  20. Carry-over of aflatoxin B1-feed into aflatoxin M1-milk in dairy cows treated with natural sources of aflatoxin and bentonite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumantri, I.; Murti, T.W.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Boehm, J.; Agus, A.


    High occurrence of aflatoxin contamination in feed stuffs implicates for a long time experience of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure to dairy cattle in Indonesia. A latin square 4X4 research design was adopted to study the characteristic of AFB1 carry-over rate (COR) of Indonesian crossbred Friesian

  1. Effect of Different Levels of Organic Acids Supplementation on Feed Intake, Milk Yield and Milk composition of Dairy Cows during Thermal Stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kahn, S.; Ali, A.; Mobashar, M.; Inam, M.; Ahmed, I.; Khan, N.A.; Ali, Mubarak; Khan, H.


    In many developing countries in the tropics, thermal stress results in lower feed intake, changes in energy metabolism, alterations in endocrine profiles of dairy cows which lead to animal health problems and production losses. Supplementation of organic acids can reduce the toxic metabolites and

  2. Effects of feeding different linseed sources on omasal fatty acid flows and fatty acid profiles of plasma and milk fat in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, A.R.; Vlaeminck, B.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Hendriks, W.H.; Dijkstra, J.


    The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of feeding different linseed sources on omasal fatty acid (FA) flows, and plasma and milk FA profiles in dairy cows. Four ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein-Friesian cows were assigned to 4 dietary treatments in a 4 × 4 Latin square design.

  3. Effects of feeding dairy cows different legume-grass silages on milk phytoestrogen concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höjer, A; Adler, S; Purup, Stig


    interval of legume-grass silage on phytoestrogen intake and milk phytoestrogen concentrations. In one experiment, 15 Swedish Red dairy cows were fed 2- or 3-cut red clover-grass silage, or 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage. In a second experiment, 16 Norwegian Red dairy cows were fed short-term ley...... silage with red clover or long-term ley silage with white clover, and the effects of supplementation with α-tocopherol were also tested. High concentrations of formononetin and biochanin A were found in all silage mixtures with red clover. The milk concentration of equol was highest for cows on the 2-cut....... Concentrations of secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol were higher in 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass and long-term ley silage mixtures, those with legume species other than red clover, and the highest grass proportions. The 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet also resulted in higher enterolactone...

  4. Nutritional and ecological evaluation of dairy farming systems based on concentrate feeding regimes in semi-arid environments of Jordan. (United States)

    Alqaisi, Othman; Hemme, Torsten; Hagemann, Martin; Susenbeth, Andreas


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and ecological aspects of feeding systems practiced under semi-arid environments in Jordan. Nine dairy farms representing the different dairy farming systems were selected for this study. Feed samples (n = 58), fecal samples (n = 108), and milk samples (n = 78) were collected from the farms and analysed for chemical composition. Feed samples were also analysed for metabolisable energy (ME) contents and in vitro organic matter digestibility according to Hohenheim-Feed-Test. Furthermore, fecal nitrogen concentration was determined to estimate in vivo organic matter digestibility. ME and nutrient intakes were calculated based on the farmer's estimate of dry matter intake and the analysed composition of the feed ingredients. ME and nutrient intakes were compared to recommended standard values for adequate supply of ME, utilizable crude protein, rumen undegradable crude protein (RUCP), phosphorus (P), and calcium (Ca). Technology Impact Policy Impact Calculation model complemented with a partial life cycle assessment model was used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions of milk production at farm gate. The model predicts CH4, N2O and CO2 gases emitted either directly or indirectly. Average daily energy corrected milk yield (ECM) was 19 kg and ranged between 11 and 27 kg. The mean of ME intake of all farms was 184 MJ/d with a range between 115 and 225 MJ/d. Intake of RUCP was lower than the standard requirements in six farms ranging between 19 and 137 g/d, was higher (32 and 93 g/d) in two farms, and matched the requirements in one farm. P intake was higher than the requirements in all farms (mean oversupply = 19 g/d) and ranged between 3 and 30 g/d. Ca intake was significantly below the requirements in small scale farms. Milk nitrogen efficiency N-eff (milk N/intake N) varied between 19% and 28% and was mainly driven by the level of milk yield. Total CO2 equivalent (CO2 equ) emission ranged

  5. The genetic and biological basis of feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows (United States)

    The objective of this study was to characterize the genetic architecture and biological basis of feed efficiency in lactating Holstein cows. In total, 4,916 cows with actual or imputed genotypes for 60,671 SNP had individual feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, and body weight records. Cows we...

  6. Influence of feeding pattern and hydraulic selection pressure to control filamentous bulking in biological treatment of dairy wastewaters. (United States)

    Meunier, Christophe; Henriet, Olivier; Schoonbroodt, Bastien; Boeur, Jean-Marc; Mahillon, Jacques; Henry, Paul


    In sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) treating dairy wastewaters, the overgrowth of filamentous bacteria is a frequent cause of operational problems. The present study aimed at understanding to what extent the operating conditions of a SBR can be optimized to convert a bulking activated sludge into a well-settling biomass at low aeration velocity. The abundance of filament morphotypes and floc-formers able to store biopolymers were analysed by PCR-DGGE and 16S amplicon sequencing. The results indicated that a combination of an anaerobic-microaerated feeding pattern with a low selective pressure was beneficial to supress filamentous overgrowth and to form aerobic granules, while increasing the efficiency of suspended solid removal. Average removal efficiencies for total chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were 94±2%, 95±1% and 83±13%, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Feed intake and milk production in dairy cows fed different grass and legume species: a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Marianne; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis


    The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare feed intake, milk production, milk composition and organic matter (OM) digestibility in dairy cows fed different grass and legume species. Data from the literature was collected and different data sets were made to compare families (grasses v. legumes......, red clover, lucerne and birdsfoot trefoil. Overall, dry matter intake (DMI) and milk production were 1.3 and 1.6kg/day higher, respectively, whereas milk protein and milk fat concentration were 0.5 and 1.4 g/kg lower, respectively, for legume-based diets compared with grass-based diets. When comparing...... individual legume species with grasses, only red clover resulted in a lower milk protein concentration than grasses. Cows fed white clover and birdsfoot trefoil yielded more milk than cows fed red clover and lucerne, probably caused by a higher OM digestibility of white clover and activity of condensed...

  8. Performance of small-scale dairy farms in the highlands of central Mexico during the dry season under traditional feeding strategies. (United States)

    Martínez-García, Carlos Galdino; Rayas-Amor, Adolfo Armando; Anaya-Ortega, Juan Pablo; Martínez-Castañeda, Francisco Ernesto; Espinoza-Ortega, Angélica; Prospero-Bernal, Fernando; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel


    In Mexico, small-scale dairy systems (SSDS) represent over 78 % of dairy farms and contribute with 37 % of national milk production; however, they face high feeding costs. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of SSDS during the dry season in terms of milk yields, milk composition and feeding costs under traditional feeding strategies, to identify areas of opportunity for improving their profitability. The information was collected from 22 SSDS every month during dry season. Feeds were classified in quality forages (QF), supplements (SU) and straws (ST). Two factors were identified: factor 1-a positive relationship among QF, SU, milk yield and ration cost and factor 2-represented straw usage. Four feeding strategies were identified: (1) low-cost feeding strategy; (2) home-grown feeding strategy; (3) high-cost feeding strategy; and (4) straw-based feeding strategy. There were differences (P feeding strategies for QF, SU, ST, total dry matter offered (TDMO), ration cost (RC), external inputs, home-grown inputs and milk yield. There were no significant (P > 0.05) differences among feeding strategies for fat and protein contents in milk. It is concluded that to improve performance and profitability and enhance sustainability in SSDS, farmers should base feeding strategies on home-grown quality forages, as it was the case in group 2 which showed lower feeding cost and better milk yield. It is also recommended to increase the inclusion of quality forages like grazing pastures and maize silages during the dry season and to avoid the inclusion of straws.

  9. A survey of antimicrobial usage on dairy farms and waste milk feeding practices in England and Wales. (United States)

    Brunton, L A; Duncan, D; Coldham, N G; Snow, L C; Jones, J R


    The cause for the high prevalence of cefotaximase-producing Escherichia coli reported in dairy calves is unknown but may be partly due to the selective pressure of antimicrobial residues in waste milk (milk unfit for human consumption) fed to the calves. Antimicrobial use and waste milk feeding practices were investigated in 557 dairy farms in 2010/2011 that responded to a randomised stratified postal survey. The mean number of cases of mastitis per herd in the previous year was 47, and 93 per cent of respondents used antibiotic intra-mammary tubes to treat mastitis. The most frequently used lactating cow antibiotic tubes contained dihydrostreptomycin, neomycin, novobiocin, and procaine penicillin (37 per cent), and cefquinome (29 per cent). Ninety-six per cent of respondents used antibiotic tubes at the cessation of lactation ('drying off'). The most frequently used dry cow antibiotic tube (43 per cent) contained cefalonium. Frequently used injectable antibiotics included tylosin (27 per cent), dihydrostreptomycin and procaine penicillin (20 per cent) and ceftiofur (13 per cent). Eighty-three per cent of respondents (413) fed waste milk to calves. Of these 413, 87 per cent fed waste milk from cows with mastitis, and only one-third discarded the first milk after antibiotic treatment. This survey has shown that on more than 90 per cent of the farms that feed waste milk to calves, waste milk can contain milk from cows undergoing antibiotic treatment. On some farms, this includes treatment with third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins. Further work is underway to investigate the presence of these antimicrobials in waste milk.

  10. The effect of dietary garlic supplementation on body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, faecal score, faecal coliform count and feeding cost in crossbred dairy calves. (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudipta; Mehla, Ram K; Sirohi, S K; Roy, Biswajit


    Thirty-six crossbred calves (Holstein cross) of 5 days of age were used to study the effect of garlic extract feeding on their performance up to the age of 2 months (pre-ruminant stage). They were randomly allotted into treatment and control groups (18 numbers in each group). Performance was evaluated by measuring average body weight (BW) gain, feed intake (dry matter (DM), total digestible nutrient (TDN) and crude protein (CP)), feed conversion efficiency (FCE; DM, TDN and CP), faecal score, faecal coliform count and feeding cost. Diets were the same for the both groups. In addition, treatment group received garlic extract supplementation at 250 mg/kg BW per day per calf. Body weight measured weekly, feed intake measured twice daily, proximate analysis of feeds and fodders analysed weekly, faecal scores monitored daily and faecal coliform count done weekly. There was significant increase in average body weight gain, feed intake and FCE and significant decrease in severity of scours as measured by faecal score and faecal coliform count in the treatment group compared to the control group (P Feed cost per kilogramme BW gain was significantly lower in the treatment group compared to control group (P calves for better performance.

  11. Effects of milk yield, feed composition, and feed contamination with aflatoxin B1 on the aflatoxin M1 concentration in dairy cows’ milk investigated using Monte Carlo simulation modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der Ine; Camenzuli, Louise


    This study investigated the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AfM1) in dairy cows’ milk, given predefined scenarios for milk production, compound feed (CF) contamination with aflatoxin B1 (AfB1), and inclusion rates of ingredients, using Monte Carlo simulation modelling. The model simulated a typical

  12. A mathematical model to describe the diurnal pattern of enteric methane emissions from non-lactating dairy cows post-feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang


    Full Text Available Enteric methane emission is not only a source of energy loss in ruminants, but also a potent contributor to greenhouse gas production. To identify the nature and timing of interventions to reduce methane emissions requires knowledge of temporal kinetics of methane emissions during animal husbandry. Accordingly, a mathematical model was developed to investigate the pattern of enteric methane emissions after feeding in dairy cows. The model facilitated estimation of total enteric methane emissions (V, g produced by the residual substrate (V1, g and newly ingested feed (V2, g. The model was fitted to the 10 h methane emission patterns after morning feeding of 16 non-lactating dairy cows with various body weights (BW, and the obtained parameters were used to predict the kinetics of 24 h methane emission for each animal. The rate of methane emission (g/h reached a maximum within 1 to 2 h after feeding, followed by a gradual post-prandial decline to a basal value before the next feeding. The model satisfactorily fitted curves for each cow according to the criterion of goodness-of-fit, and provided biological descriptions for fluctuations in methane emissions based on basal V1 and feeding V2 in response to the changes in BW and dry matter intake (DMI of different dairy cows. The basal V1 and feeding V2 are probably maintained by slow- and readily-degradable substrates, respectively. The former contributed at least 0.6 of methane production. In summary, the model provides a means to separate basal V1 and feeding V2 within V, and can be used to predict 24 h emission from a single feeding period.

  13. Effects of feeding silage and grain from glyphosate-tolerant or insect-protected corn hybrids on feed intake, ruminal digestion, and milk production in dairy cattle. (United States)

    Donkin, S S; Velez, J C; Totten, A K; Stanisiewski, E P; Hartnell, G F


    Lactating dairy cows were used to determine effects of feeding glyphosate-tolerant or insect-protected corn hybrids on feed intake, milk production, milk composition, and ruminal digestibility. Corn resistant to European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) infestation (Bt-MON810), or its nontransgenic control (Bt-CON), were planted in alternating fields during two successive years. One-half of each strip was harvested for whole plant corn silage and the remainder was allowed to mature and harvested as grain. Effects of feeding diets containing either Bt-MON810 or Bt-CON grain and silage were determined in two experiments (1 and 2) conducted during successive years. In experiment 3, glyphosate-tolerant Roundup Ready corn (RR-GA21) or its nontransgenic control (RR-CON) corn were grown in alternating fields during one cropping season. Diets contained 42 to 60% corn silage and 20 to 34% corn grain from Bt-MON810, RR-GA21, or the appropriate nontransgenic counterpart; treatments were applied using a switchback design. Cows were fed ad libitum and milked twice daily. There were no differences for nutrient composition between silage sources or between grain sources within an experiment. Data for experiments 1 and 2 indicated similar dry matter intake (DMI), 4% fat-corrected milk (FCM) production, and milk composition between Bt-MON810 and Bt-CON diets. There were no differences for DMI, 4% FCM production, and milk composition between RR-GA21 and RR-CON diets. There was no difference in ruminal degradability, determined separately for corn silage and corn grain, for RR-GA21 or Bt-MON810-hybrids compared with their respective controls. These data demonstrate equivalence of nutritional value and production efficiency for corn containing Bt-MON810 compared with its control and for RR-GA21 corn compared with its control.

  14. Use of Onion Extract as a Dairy Cattle Feed Supplement: Monitoring Propyl Propane Thiosulfonate as a Marker of Its Effect on Milk Attributes. (United States)

    Abad, Paloma; Arroyo-Manzanares, Natalia; Gil, Lidia; García-Campaña, Ana M


    Onion extract is used as a feed supplement for the diet of dairy cows, acting as inhibitor of methane production; however, its properties could alter sensory attributes of milk. In this work, we propose a method to evaluate the influence of this extract on milk properties, using propyl propane thiosulfonate (PTSO) as a marker. PTSO is extracted using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe procedure and monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. The method was applied to milk samples obtained from 100 dairy cows fed during 2 months with enriched feed. In addition, a milk tasting panel was established to evaluate the PTSO residue that should not be exceeded to guarantee milk sensory attributes. It was established that a value of PTSO lower than 2 mg kg -1 does not alter milk organoleptic properties. This fact makes onion extract an interesting alternative as a feed supplement to control the methane emissions without any influence on milk attributes.

  15. RNA-Seq transcriptomics and pathway analyses reveal potential regulatory genes and molecular mechanisms in high- and low-residual feed intake in Nordic dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salleh, M. S.; Mazzoni, G.; Höglund, J. K.


    -throughput RNA sequencing data of liver biopsies from 19 dairy cows were used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between high- and low-FE groups of cows (based on Residual Feed Intake or RFI). Subsequently, a profile of the pathways connecting the DEGs to FE was generated, and a list of candidate......The selective breeding of cattle with high-feed efficiencies (FE) is an important goal of beef and dairy cattle producers. Global gene expression patterns in relevant tissues can be used to study the functions of genes that are potentially involved in regulating FE. In the present study, high...... genes and biomarkers was derived for their potential inclusion in breeding programmes to improve FE. The bovine RNA-Seq gene expression data from the liver was analysed to identify DEGs and, subsequently, identify the molecular mechanisms, pathways and possible candidate biomarkers of feed efficiency...

  16. 75 FR 18828 - Wisconsin Electric Power Company, Wisconsin Gas LLC, Wisconsin Public Service Corporation... (United States)


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Wisconsin Electric Power Company, Wisconsin Gas LLC, Wisconsin Public Service Corporation: Complainants; ANR Pipeline Company: Respondent; Notice of Complaint April 6, 2010....206 (2009), Wisconsin Electric Power Company, Wisconsin Gas LLC, and Wisconsin Public Service...

  17. Carbon dynamics and retention in soil after anaerobic digestion of dairy cattle feed and faeces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Olesen, Jørgen E; Møller, Henrik Bjarne


    Animal manure and plant biomass are increasingly used for methane production. While minerals may be conserved during gas generation, the composition of the biogenic material is changed and less carbon (C) is returned to the soil in the digested residue. We evaluated the fate of C in ruminant feed....... When C lost during the pre-treatments was included, the long-term C retention in soil accounted for 12–14% of the C initially present in the feed. We conclude that soil microbial activity is reduced when residues are anaerobically digested for biogas before being applied to soil. However, the retention...... treated differently before added to soil: no treatment (feed), anaerobic digestion (digested feed), consumed by cattle (faeces), consumed by cattle and anaerobic digestion (digested faeces). The materials were incubated for 245 days at 20 °C. The net CO2 release was determined and fitted to a kinetic C...

  18. Adipose tissue remodeling in late-lactation dairy cows during feed-restriction-induced negative energy balance. (United States)

    Contreras, G Andres; Thelen, Kyan; Schmidt, Sarah E; Strieder-Barboza, Clarissa; Preseault, Courtney L; Raphael, William; Kiupel, Matti; Caron, John; Lock, Adam L


    Excessive rates of demand lipolysis in the adipose tissue (AT) during periods of negative energy balance (NEB) are associated with increased susceptibility to disease and limited lactation performance. Lipolysis induces a remodeling process within AT that is characterized by an inflammatory response, cellular proliferation, and changes in the extracellular matrix (ECMT). The adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) is a key component of the inflammatory response. Infiltration of ATM-forming cellular aggregates was demonstrated in transition cows, suggesting that ATM trafficking and phenotype changes may be associated with disease. However, it is currently unknown if ATM infiltration occurs in dairy cows only during NEB states related to the transition period or also during NEB-induced lipolysis at other stages of lactation. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in ATM trafficking and inflammatory phenotypes, and the expression of genetic markers of AT remodeling in healthy late-lactation cows during feed restriction-induced NEB. After a 14-d (d -14 to d -1) preliminary period, Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 feeding protocols, ad libitum (AL) or feed restriction (FR), for 4 d (d 1-4). Caloric intake was reduced in FR to achieve a targeted energy balance of -15 Mcal/d of net energy for lactation. Omental and subcutaneous AT samples were collected laparoscopically to harvest stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells on d -3 and 4. The FR induced a NEB of -14.1±0.62 Mcal/d of net energy for lactation, whereas AL cows remained in positive energy balance (3.2±0.66 Mcal/d of NE L ). The FR triggered a lipolytic response reflected in increased plasma nonesterified fatty acids (0.65±0.05 mEq/L on d 4), enhanced phosphorylation of hormone sensitive lipase, and reduced adipocyte diameter. Flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that on d 4, FR cows had increased numbers of CD172a + , an ATM (M1 and M2) surface marker, cells in SVF that

  19. Effect of Feeding on Hindgut Fermentation and Microbiota of Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Song


    Full Text Available The effect of Bacillus subtilis natto on hindgut fermentation and microbiota of early lactation Holstein dairy cows was investigated in this study. Thirty-six Holstein dairy cows in early lactation were randomly allocated to three groups: no B. subtilis natto as the control group, B. subtilis natto with 0.5×1011 cfu as DMF1 group and B. subtilis natto with 1.0×1011 cfu as DMF2 group. After 14 days of adaptation period, the formal experiment was started and lasted for 63 days. Fecal samples were collected directly from the rectum of each animal on the morning at the end of eighth week and placed into sterile plastic bags. The pH, NH3-N and VFA concentration were determined and fecal bacteria DNA was extracted and analyzed by DGGE. The results showed that the addition of B. subtilus natto at either treatment level resulted in a decrease in fecal NH3-N concentration but had no effect on fecal pH and VFA. The DGGE profile revealed that B. subtilis natto affected the population of fecal bacteria. The diversity index of Shannon-Wiener in DFM1 decreased significantly compared to the control. Fecal Alistipes sp., Clostridium sp., Roseospira sp., beta proteobacterium were decreased and Bifidobacterium was increased after supplementing with B. subtilis natto. This study demonstrated that B. subtilis natto had a tendency to change fecal microbiota balance.

  20. Maintenance and improvement of dairy feed quality by radiation for distribution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Ryoei; Kawamoto, Hidenori; Uegaki, Ryuichi; Tanaka, Osamu; Ando, Sada; Akiyama, Noriaki; Yamada, Akio


    With an aim to improve the quality of crude feed and its maintenance, γ-ray radiation was carried out during the steps of preparation and storage of feed and the effects on the fermentation of silage crude feed and mixed feed were investigated. Of the γ-ray radiation significant effects on general constituents in the silage were not observed immediately after the radiation, but it was clear that the contents of fibrous components were apt to increase one month later. The ratio, VBN/TN in the silage decreased with the elevation of radiation dose. Further it was found that radiation at 16 Gy or more is needed to prevent butyric acid fermentation in the silage and aerobic deterioration. In addition, the amount of peroxide lipids was not increased by the γ-radiation, suggesting that no adverse effects on the quality of the feed in silage might be caused by radiation. Thus, it was concluded that γ-radiation in appropriate conditions has favorable influence on silage fermentation. (M.N.)

  1. Effects of Milk Yield, Feed Composition, and Feed Contamination with Aflatoxin B1 on the Aflatoxin M1 Concentration in Dairy Cows’ Milk Investigated Using Monte Carlo Simulation Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. van der Fels-Klerx


    Full Text Available This study investigated the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AfM1 in dairy cows’ milk, given predefined scenarios for milk production, compound feed (CF contamination with aflatoxin B1 (AfB1, and inclusion rates of ingredients, using Monte Carlo simulation modelling. The model simulated a typical dairy farm in the Netherlands. Six different scenarios were considered, based on two lactation and three CF composition scenarios. AfB1 contamination of the CF was based on results from the Dutch national monitoring programme for AfB1 in feed materials from 2000 until 2010. Monitoring data from feed materials used in CF production for dairy cattle in the Netherlands were used. Additionally, AfB1 contamination data from an incident in maize in 2013 were used. In each scenario, five different transfer equations of AfB1 from feed to AfM1 in the milk were used, and 1000 iterations were run for each scenario. The results showed that under these six scenarios, the weekly farm concentration of AfM1 in milk was above the EC threshold in less than 1% of the iterations, with all five transfer equations considered. However, this increased substantially in weeks when concentrations from the contaminated maize batch were included, and up to 28.5% of the iterations exceeded the EC threshold. It was also observed that an increase in the milk production had a minimal effect on the exceedance of the AfM1 threshold due to an apparent dilution effect. Feeding regimes, including the composition of CF and feeding roughages of dairy cows, should be carefully considered based on the potential AfM1 contamination of the farm’s milk.

  2. Short communication: Use of fecal starch concentration as an indicator of dry feed digestion in preweaned dairy calves. (United States)

    Dennis, T S; Hu, W; Suarez-Mena, F X; Hill, T M; Quigley, J D; Schlotterbeck, R L


    Fecal starch (FS) has been used as a tool to evaluate starch and diet digestibility in lactating dairy cows and feedlot steers. Some on-farm advisors also use FS to evaluate calf starter digestibility in preweaned dairy calves. Our objective was to evaluate the influence of starter intake (SI), starch and organic matter digestibility, milk replacer (MR) feeding rate, and age on FS concentrations in preweaned dairy calves. Male Holstein calves (43 ± 2.9 kg of body weight; n = 35) from a single farm were fed different amounts of MR ranging from 0.44 to 1.10 kg of dry matter (DM) daily (27% crude protein, 17% fat) and weaned by 7 wk of age. Starter ingredient composition was 37% whole corn, 20% whole oats, 35% protein pellet, and 3% molasses and contained 43 ± 1.9% starch. Fecal grab samples were taken at 3 (n = 20), 6 (n = 20), and 8 wk (n = 35) of age. Twelve fecal samples per calf were taken via rectal palpation over a 5-d period each week, frozen daily, combined on an equal wet-weight basis, and subsampled for analysis. Chromic oxide was used as an external digestibility marker at 3 and 6 wk (included in MR), whereas acid-insoluble ash was used as an internal marker at 8 wk. Milk replacer and starter intakes (offered and refused) were recorded daily during collection periods. Multiple and linear regression of organic matter digestibility (% of DM), total-tract starch digestibility (TTSD; % of DM), MR intake (kg/d), SI (kg/d), and age (week) versus FS (% of fecal DM) were determined using PROC REG of SAS (version 9.2, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Prior to weaning, SI, age, and MR rate explained 89% of the variation in TTSD, where TTSD = [19.7 × SI (±4.25)] + [3.8 × age (±0.79)] - [24.8 × MR (±3.19)] + 56.2 (±3.39). At 3 wk of age, TTSD increased (coefficient of determination = 0.53) and SI decreased (coefficient of determination = 0.20) with increasing FS. At 6 wk of age, TTSD and SI were unrelated to FS. In 8-wk-old calves (with 2 trials), SI, MR rate

  3. Effects of Feeding Methylthio Butyric Acid Isopropyl Ester on Postpartum Performance and Metabolism in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Xia


    Full Text Available The present experiment aimed to evaluate the effect of HMBi on the production performance and metabolism in dairy cows. Thirty multiparous Holstein dairy cows under similar conditions were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments; i Control, a basal diet; ii T1, a basal diet plus HMBi (0 g prepartum and 18 g postpartum; and iii T2, a basal diet plus HMBi (10 g prepartum and 18 g postpartum. Treatments were initiated 21 d before expected calving and continued through 91 d postpartum. HMBi was top-dressed onto the total mixed ration of each cow. Treatments did not affect dry matter intake, plasma urea nitrogen, peak milk yield, days to peak milk yield, nonesterified fatty acid, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glutamic oxalaetic transaminase, milk fat content, milk protein content, milk lactose content, and milk solid non-fat content. The milk composition yields were increased by the HMBi-supplemented treatment. The T1 and T2 treatments increased the yields of 4% fat-corrected milk yield, milk fat, milk protein, and milk lactose compared with the control. Although there was no difference in the milk composition of the control and T2-treated cows, the T2-treated cows exhibited higher milk fat yield (increased by 74 g/d, lower milk urea nitrogen (reduced by 3.41%, and plasma β-hydroxy butyrate than the control cows. The results indicate that HMBi supplementation to diet has beneficial effects, and that there is no difference between supplementation at prepartum and starting only at parturition.

  4. Effect of feeding ensiled mixture of pomegranate pulp and drier feeds on digestibility and milk performance in dairy cows. (United States)

    Shaani, Yoav; Eliyahu, Dana; Mizrahi, Itzhak; Yosef, Edith; Ben-Meir, Yehoshav; Nikbachat, Moshe; Solomon, Ran; Mabjeesh, Sameer Jermaya; Miron, Joshua


    Based on a previous ensiling study in glass silos of various pomegranate pulp (PP) mixtures, fresh pomegranate pulp (PP) was mixed with drier feeds including soy hulls and corn silage (40:35:25 on DM basis) and ensiled in 32 pressed bales (700 kg each) wrapped with stretch polyethylene film. This ensiled pomegranate pulp mixture (PPM) was included in lactating cow total mixed ration (TMR) at a level of 20% of DM (PPM-TMR). Performance and digestion experiment was conducted with two groups of 21 milking cows each, fed individually one of the two TMR: 1. Control TMR without ensiled PPM; 2. Experimental TMR which contained 20% ensiled PPM, including 8% PP as corn grain replacer. Voluntary DM intake of cows fed the control TMR was 5.04% higher than that of the PPM cows. In vivo digestibility of DM, OM, NDF, CP and fat were significantly higher in the control cows compared with the PPM group, but methane production in the rumen fluid was 25% lower in the PPM cows. A slightly higher milk yield (by 2.2%) observed in the control cows; however, milk fat content was 5.9% higher in the PPM cows. This was reflected in similar yield of energy corrected milk (ECM) and 3.97% increase in production efficiency (ECM/DM intake) of the PPM cows compared with the control ones. Welfare of the cows, as assessed by length of daily recumbence time, was in the normal range for both groups. Body weight gain was also similar in both groups. Data suggest that the level of 8% PP in the PPM-TMR used in this study was probably too high for lactating cows and should be lowered to 4% in order to achieve better performance.

  5. Supplementation of Red Betel Leaf (Piper crocatum in Dairy Cattle Feed on Fermentation Characteristics by in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caribu Hadi Prayitno


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact and efficiency of red betel leaf’s extract supplementation in the diet of dairy cattle on fermentation characteristics by in vitro.  The research method was experiment by using completely randomized design.  The treatments that were tested were R1: basal feed, R2:  R1 + 15 ppm of  red betel  leaf (Piper crocatum extract, R3: R1 + 30 ppm of  red betel leaf (Piper crocatum extract, R4: R1 + 45 ppm of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum extract, R5: R1 + 60 ppm of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum extract. The parameters measured in this study were (1Dry MatterDigestibility (DMD,(2Organic Matter Digestibility (OMD  (3 total gas production  (4 methane production (CH4 and (5  total Volatille Fatty Acid (VFA.  The data were analyzed using analysis of variance followed Orthogonal Polynomial Test.The results showed that the suplementation red batel extract in the diet of dairy cow was significant (P < 0.01 on DMD, OMD, total gas production, methane production (CH4  and total VFA.Orthogonal Polynomial test showed the effect of treatment on Dry MatterDigestibility (DMD, total gas and CH4 gas production were in the form of cubic curve, as well as Organic Matter Digestibility (OMD and Volatille Fatty Acid (VFA in the form of quadrate curvewith supplementation of red betel leaf.

  6. Forage quality on family farms in Croatia: hay quality monitoring over the two winter feeding seasons of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vranić


    Full Text Available The aim of the applied research project:“Forage evaluation by NIR spectroscopy” was to monitor the nutritive value of grass silage, corn silage and hay on family farms in Croatia over 6-month feeding in each of the two investigation years (from November 2003 to May 2004 and from November 2004 to May 2005. In this paper the nutritive value of hay on 18 dairy farms over the second year of investigation and the comparison of the results with the first year was done. Extension service staff recommended dairy nutrition based on monthly silage analysis by NIRS instrument (Foss, Model 6500. The following parameters were estimated: dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, metabolizable energy (ME, water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC and organic matter digestibility in DM (D-value. The average results show desirable DM content (873.30 g kg-1, high NDF (671.16 g kg-1DM, but low WSC (83.53 g kg-1 DM, CP (61.75 g kg-1 DM, ME (8.75 MJ kg-1 DM and D-value (58.33%. Great variations were observed for CP (40-133 g kg-1 DM, ME (6-11.7 MJ kg-1DM, WSC (21-160 g kg-1 DM and D-value (40-78%. Statistically significant differences (P<0.05 among family farms were recorded for CP (P<0.05 that varied from 40-112.4 g kg-1 DM. No statistically significant differences were observed in the investigated parameters between the first and the second year of the investigation.

  7. Forage quality on family farms in Croatia: hay quality monitoring over the two winter feeding seasons of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vranić


    Full Text Available The aim of the applied research project:“Forage evaluation by NIR spectroscopy” was to monitor the nutritive value of grass silage, corn silage and hay on family farms in Croatia over 6-month feeding in each of the two investigation years (from November 2003 to May 2004 and from November 2004 to May 2005. In this paper the nutritive value of hay on 18 dairy farms over the second year of investigation and the comparison of the results with the first year was done. Extension service staff recommended dairy nutrition based on monthly silage analysis by NIRS instrument (Foss, Model 6500.The following parameters were estimated: dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, metabolizable energy (ME, water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC and organic matter digestibility in DM (D-value. The average results show desirable DM content (873.30 g kg-1, high NDF (671.16 g kg-1DM, but low WSC (83.53 g kg-1 DM, CP (61.75 g kg-1 DM, ME (8.75 MJ kg-1 DM and D-value (58.33%. Great variations were observed for CP (40-133 g kg-1 DM, ME (6-11.7 MJ kg-1DM, WSC (21-160 g kg-1 DM and D-value (40-78%. Statistically significant differences (P<0.05 among family farms were recorded for CP (P<0.05 that varied from 40-112.4 g kg-1 DM. No statistically significant differences were observed in the investigated parameters between the first and the second year of the investigation.

  8. Selection and identification of oleaginous yeast isolated from soil, animal feed and ruminal fluid for use as feed supplement in dairy cattle. (United States)

    Paserakung, A; Pattarajinda, V; Vichitphan, K; Froetschel, M A


    The purpose of this study was to select oleaginous yeast for microbial lipid production. Sixty-four yeast isolates were obtained from soil (GSY1-12), animal feeds (FDY1-21), and ruminal fluid (RMY1-31) using yeast extract peptone dextrose (YPD) agar. The cultivation of these isolates on nitrogen limited-medium revealed that GSY2 to GSY6, GSY10, FDY2, FDY12 and FDY14 accumulated lipid over 20% of dry biomass. Therefore, they were preliminarily classified as oleaginous yeast. In subsequent experiment, an 8 × 3 factorial in completely randomized design was conducted to examine the effect of eight oleaginous yeast strains and three nitrogen sources (peptone, (NH4 )2 SO4 , urea) on lipid accumulation when using molasses as substrate. The result illustrated that only GSY3 and GSY10 accumulated lipid over 20% of biomass when using peptone or (NH4 )2 SO4 but urea did not. However, GSY10 gave higher biomass and lipid yield than GSY3 (P < 0·05). Identification of GSY10 using 26S rDNA illustrated that GSY10 belongs to Trichosporon asahii. Fatty acid profiles of this strain contained unsaturated fats up to 62·5% of which oleic acid (C18:1 ) was predominant. In conclusion, T. asahii GSY10 was the most promising oleaginous yeast for microbial lipid production from molasses. This study illustrated the ability of T. asahii GSY10 to utilize molasses and (NH4 )2 SO4 for synthesizing and accumulating cellular lipid of which oleic acid (C18:1 ) was predominant. This yeast would be used for microbial lipid production used as feed supplement in dairy cattle. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Estimating the energetic cost of feeding excess dietary nitrogen to dairy cows (United States)

    Feeding N in excess of requirements could require the use of additional energy to synthesize and excrete urea, however, the amount energy required is unclear. Little progress has been made on this topic in recent decades so an extension of work published in 1970 was conducted to quantify the effect ...

  10. Transfer of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) from contaminated feed to dairy milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, van E.D.; Kowalczyk, J.; Eijkeren, J.C.H.; Zeilmaker, M.J.; Ehlers, S.; Fürst, P.; Lahrssen - Wiederholt, M.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.


    Dietary intake is the predominant route for human exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS). Single pollution events may thus affect human exposure if polluted ground and water is used to produce animal feed or food. In this study, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK-) model is

  11. Analysing trade-offs between milk, feed and manure production on Dutch dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samson, Sabrina; Gardebroek, C.; Jongeneel, R.A.


    The abolition of milk quota fuels environmental concerns in the Netherlands. A microeconomic model is developed to analyse the technical relations between milk, roughage and manure production. Production functions for milk, feed and roughage are estimated based on milk quota and manure constraints.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available ABSTRACTClaw horn lesions are believed to develop from increased pedal bone mobility induced by changes in the corium tissue. During the planning of barns herd owners are faced with choices of materials and dimensions, as well as feed bunk heights. Among the causes that may lead to front claw injuries there is the height of the feed bunk, as the cow changes its postural behavior in order to reach the food. This research aimed to study the dairy cows’ front claws force exerted during eating for determiningthe lesion risk factor of the feed bunk height. Eight dairy cows were placed in front of the feed bunk, their front claws stepped on the pressure assessment system, and the forces exerted on front claws due to the eating postural change were recorded. The mean pressure, the maximum pressure, the floor contact area, and the mean force per region were calculated. While the cow was eating, the highest mean pressure shifted slightly towards the sole. In the lateral claw the maximum pressurewas also shifted slightly towards the toe. No difference was found in the variables analyzed for both lateral and medial sides, as well for the force distribution in the left and right claws. Results of this experiment were not conclusive, not allowing explaining either laminitis or the corkscrew deformity as a result of the force exerted in the claws by means of height of the feed bunk being a risk factor.Keywords: lameness, animal welfare, feed bunk design.

  13. The effects of increasing amounts of milk replacer powder added to whole milk on feed intake and performance in dairy heifers. (United States)

    Azevedo, R A; Machado, F S; Campos, M M; Furini, P M; Rufino, S R A; Pereira, L G R; Tomich, T R; Coelho, S G


    also increased linearly with concentration of TS in liquid feed. Increasing the concentration of TS in liquid feed up to 20.4% increased performance and body frame development in dairy heifers during the pre- and postweaning periods and had no effects on solid feed intake or health. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol of dairy cows in early lactation - Effects on metabolic status, body condition, and milk yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomander, H; Frössling, J; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne


    The objective of this field study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol to dairy cows in early lactation on metabolic status, body condition and milk yield. In total, 673 newly calved cows from 12 commercial Swedish dairy herds were randomized to daily...... score (BCS) and heart girth (HG) were obtained at approximately 2 and 5 wk pp and at time of first insemination. The effects of supplemental feeding with GLY or PG on the plasma concentrations of glucose, NEFA, BHBA, insulin, and IGF-1, and BCS, HG, and occurrence of disease were analyzed....... No differences in BCS or HG or in plasma concentrations of glucose, BHBA, NEFA, or IGF-1 were found between the control group and any of the treatment groups. Cows in the GLY group had lower plasma insulin concentrations during DIM 0 to 63 compared with group CON, but no difference in insulin was found between...

  15. Effects of physical form of a starter for dairy replacement calves on feed intake and performance. (United States)

    Bach, A; Giménez, A; Juaristi, J L; Ahedo, J


    One hundred six female Holstein calves [body weight (BW) = 41.5 +/- 0.37 kg and 11.2 +/- 0.3 d old] were used to evaluate the effects of physical form of a starter on animal performance and starter intake. Calves were randomly allocated to 2 treatments consisting of either a multiparticle or a pelleted starter. Both starters had exactly the same ingredient and nutrient composition but differed in their physical form. Calves received 4 L/d of the same milk replacer at a 150 g/kg dilution rate in 2 offers of 2 L each until they consumed an average of 300 g/d of starter (as fed) for 2 consecutive days; then the dilution rate was decreased to 120 g/kg until the age of 49 d when milk replacer was limited to 1 daily dose of 2 L until 57 d of age. Calves were kept in individual hutches for at least 1 wk after weaning. Body weight was measured at the beginning of the study and at 49 and 64 d of age. The median perimeters for the multiparticle and pelleted starters were 0.61 +/- 0.016 and 2.71 +/- 0.082 cm, respectively. Overall starter consumption was greater in calves receiving the multiparticle starter (944.8 +/- 30.01 g/d) than in those receiving the pelleted starter (863.9 +/- 32.04 g/d). There were no differences in the total milk replacer intake between the 2 treatments. Calf BW when leaving the individual hutches at the end of the study was similar between both treatments. Consequently, feed conversion efficiency was greater in calves consuming the pelleted than the multiparticle starter up to 64 d of age, mainly due to the greater conversion efficiency obtained with the pelleted than with the multiparticle starter after the preweaning period. It is concluded that pelleted starters may result in lower dry feed consumption compared with multiparticle starters, but because final BW was similar in both treatments, feed efficiency of calves consuming pelleted starters may be greater than that of calves consuming multiparticle starters. Therefore, when feeding a starter

  16. Feeding barley grain steeped in lactic acid modulates rumen fermentation patterns and increases milk fat content in dairy cows. (United States)

    Iqbal, S; Zebeli, Q; Mazzolari, A; Bertoni, G; Dunn, S M; Yang, W Z; Ametaj, B N


    The objectives of the present in vivo and in situ trials were to evaluate whether feeding barley grain steeped in lactic acid (LA) would affect rumen fermentation patterns, in situ dry matter (DM) degradation kinetics, and milk production and composition in lactating dairy cows. The in vivo trial involved 8 rumen-fistulated Holstein cows fed once daily a total mixed ration containing rolled barley grain (27% in DM) steeped for 48 h in an equal quantity of tap water (CTR) or in 0.5% LA (TRT) in a 2 x 2 crossover design. The in situ trials consisted of incubation of untreated rolled barley grain in cows fed CTR or TRT diets and of incubation of 3 different substrates including CTR or barley grain steeped in 0.5% or 1.0% LA (TRT1 and TRT2, respectively) up to 72 h in the rumen. Results of the in vivo trial indicated that cows fed the TRT diet had greater rumen pH during most intensive fermentation phases at 10 and 12 h post-feeding. The latter effect was associated with a shorter duration in which rumen pH was below 5.8 for cows fed the TRT diet (2.4 h) compared with CTR diet (3.9 h). Furthermore, cows fed the TRT diet had lower concentrations of volatile fatty acids at 2 and 4 h post-feeding. In addition, concentrations of preprandial volatile fatty acids were lower in the rumen fluid of cows fed the TRT diet. Results also showed that molar proportion of acetate was lower, whereas propionate tended to increase by feeding cows the TRT diet. Cows fed the TRT diet demonstrated greater rumen in situ lag time of substrate DM degradation and a tendency to lower the fractional degradation rate. Other in situ results indicated a quadratic effect of LA on the effective rumen degradability of substrates whereby the latter variable was decreased from CTR to TRT1 but increased for TRT2 substrate. Although the diet did not affect actual milk yield, fat-corrected milk, percentages of milk protein, and lactose and concentration of milk urea nitrogen, cows fed the TRT diet increased

  17. Examinations to investigate the effects of feeding propylene glycol, glycerin and L-carnitin on metabolism and parameters of efficiency of dairy cows concerning ketosis prevention


    Malchau, Inke


    The prevalence of subclinical ketosis and metabolic disorders caused by negative energy balance in many modern dairy farms often are a reason for insufficient milk yield, high rate of disease and impaired reproduction performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding propylene glycol, glycerin, and L-carnitin on metabolism and milk production. 97 Holstein Friesian cows were divided into four groups, at least five days before calving. All four groups were fed w...

  18. Validating a model that predicts daily growth and feed quality of New Zealand dairy pastures. (United States)

    Woodward, S J


    The Pasture Quality (PQ) model is a simple, mechanistic, dynamical system model that was designed to capture the essential biological processes in grazed grass-clover pasture, and to be optimised to derive improved grazing strategies for New Zealand dairy farms. While the individual processes represented in the model (photosynthesis, tissue growth, flowering, leaf death, decomposition, worms) were based on experimental data, this did not guarantee that the assembled model would accurately predict the behaviour of the system as a whole (i.e., pasture growth and quality). Validation of the whole model was thus a priority, since any strategy derived from the model could impact a farm business in the order of thousands of dollars per annum if adopted. This paper describes the process of defining performance criteria for the model, obtaining suitable data to test the model, and carrying out the validation analysis. The validation process highlighted a number of weaknesses in the model, which will lead to the model being improved. As a result, the model's utility will be enhanced. Furthermore, validation was found to have an unexpected additional benefit, in that despite the model's poor initial performance, support was generated for the model among field scientists involved in the wider project.

  19. The role of veterinarians and feed-store vendors in the prescription and use of antibiotics on small dairy farms in rural Peru. (United States)

    Redding, L E; Barg, F K; Smith, G; Galligan, D T; Levy, M Z; Hennessy, S


    This study aimed to describe and compare the role of veterinarians and feed-store vendors in the use of antibiotics on small dairy farms in Cajamarca, Peru, a major dairy-producing center characterized by small, rural farms with poor, mostly uneducated farmers. We used a purposive sampling strategy to recruit 12 veterinarians into 2 focus group discussions and supplemented these data with 8 semi-structured interviews with feed-store vendors. Participants reported that inappropriate antibiotic usage was widespread among their clients, which may prevent the efficient use of drugs on farms where animal disease can be devastating to the livelihood of the farmer. Participants also identified many barriers to appropriate prescribing and use, including availability of drugs, competition from other prescribers, economic constraints and habits of farmers, and limited farmer knowledge of drugs and disease. Veterinarians expressed mistrust toward nonprofessional prescribers, whereas feed-store vendors felt that veterinarians were important partners in promoting the health of their clients' animals. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dairy Wise, A Whole-Farm Dairy Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schils, R.L.M.; Haan, de M.H.A.; Hemmer, J.G.A.; Pol, van den A.; Boer, de J.A.; Evers, A.G.; Holshof, G.; Middelkoop, van J.C.; Zom, R.L.G.


    A whole-farm dairy model was developed and evaluated. The DairyWise model is an empirical model that simulated technical, environmental, and financial processes on a dairy farm. The central component is the FeedSupply model that balanced the herd requirements, as generated by the DairyHerd model,

  1. The daily rhythm of milk synthesis is dependent on the timing of feed intake in dairy cows. (United States)

    Rottman, L Whitney; Ying, Yun; Zhou, Kan; Bartell, Paul A; Harvatine, Kevin J


    Regulation of the daily rhythm of milk synthesis is important to production animals and breastfeeding, but is difficult to observe in nursing animals. The rate of food intake varies over the day and is expected to create a daily rhythm of nutrient absorption. The objective of this study was to determine if the timing of food intake entrains a daily pattern of milk synthesis. Seventeen Holstein cows were used in a crossover design. Treatments were ad libitum feeding of a total mixed ration once daily (1× fed) or fed in four equal meals every 6 h (4× fed). Cows were milked every 6 h the last 7 days of each period. There was a treatment by time of day interaction for milk and milk component yield and concentration. Milk fat and protein concentration and yield exhibited a daily rhythm and the amplitude of the rhythm was reduced in 4× fed. In addition, milk fat percent was higher in 4× fed than 1× fed at three of the four milking intervals (0.22-0.45% higher) and 4× fed increased daily milk fat yield. Treatment by time of day interactions were detected for plasma glucose, insulin, and blood urea nitrogen. These variables also fit a cosine function with a 24 h period and the amplitudes of plasma glucose, insulin, and blood urea nitrogen rhythms were decreased by 4× feeding. In conclusion, there is a circadian pattern of milk synthesis in the dairy cow that is responsive to the timing of food intake. © 2014 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  2. Effects of different feeding time and frequency on metabolic conditions and milk production in heat-stressed dairy cows (United States)

    Calamari, L.; Petrera, F.; Stefanini, L.; Abeni, F.


    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of three different feeding management (FM) schedules on physiological markers of heat stress (HS), metabolic conditions, milk yield and quality during the hot season in dairy cows. The study involved 27 mid-lactating cows, subdivided in three homogeneous groups differing in feeding time and frequency: total mixed ration (TMR) delivered once daily in the morning (M); twice daily, half in the morning and half in the evening (ME); once daily in the evening (E). During the trial, blood samples were collected in the morning (a.m.) and in the evening (p.m.), breathing rate (BR), rectal temperature (RT), and milk yield were recorded and individual milk samples were collected. Microclimate data indicated that cows were subjected to mild-moderate HS. During the hotter days, cows receiving M treatment showed higher values of RT (38.97 °C vs 38.68 °C and 38.62 °C, in ME and E) and BR (71.44 vs 66.52 and 65.26 breaths min-1, in ME and E), a.m. plasma glucose was lower in M (3.69 vs 3.83 and 3.83 mmol L-1, in ME and E) and a.m. plasma urea was lower in E (4.82 vs 5.48 and 5.35 mmol L-1, in M and ME). Milk yield was unaffected by FM, as well as milk composition and cheese-making properties. Only milk protein content and yield were higher in M (3.42 vs 3.36 and 3.27 g 100 mL-1; and 1.11 vs 1.08 and 1.02 kg day-1, for ME and E). Our results on cow physiology indicate that M seems a less suitable FM to match cow welfare during the summer season.

  3. Effect of concentrate feeding strategy on the performance of dairy cows fed total mixed rations

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    Full Text Available Little information is available concerning the effects of offering additional concentrates with total mixed ration (TMR on milk production. The aim of the present study was to compare TMR representing simplified feeding (TMR1 with TMR combined with a decreasing amount of additional concentrate (TMR2C. Finnish Ayrshire cows (39 were housed in a loose housing barn. TMR1 consisted of a mixed ration of grass silage (0.49 and concentrates (0.51. In TMR2C, the same grass silage and concentrate were mixed in a ratio of 55:45. In TMR2C, cows were offered additional concentrates from automatic feeders differing in composition from the concentrate in TMR1 [6.5 kg d-1 (first 100 days, Phase 1, 3.0 kg d-1 (subsequent 50 days, Phase 2 and no concentrate thereafter (Phase 3]. During the whole experiment (224 days, total consumption of concentrates per cow averaged 2426 kg dry matter (TMR1 and 2414 kg dry matter (TMR2C. There were no significant differences in mean total dry matter, metabolizable energy, crude protein or absorbed amino acid intakes. During Phase 2, total intake of all cows fed TMR2C was one kg lower (P = 0.10 than for cows fed TMR1. This was due to differences in total feed intake of multiparous cows. Average yields (kg d-1 of milk, energy corrected milk, protein, fat and lactose were not significantly different between diets. During Phase 2, primiparous cows tended to produce more energy corrected milk on TMR2C than on TMR1. The results showed that both TMR1 and TMR2C were equal feeding strategies for early lactating cows and cows did not benefit from greater concentrate consumption in early stage of lactation when total consumption of concentrates was similar.;

  4. Biohydrogenation of Fatty Acids Is Dependent on Plant Species and Feeding Regimen of Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Majbritt Bonefeld; Jensen, Søren Krogh


    and LA between single plant species and feeding regimens. Rumen fluid was collected from cows fed either total mixed ration (TMR), species-rich silage (HERB), or grass silage (GRASS). Five single species (alfalfa, birdsfoot trefoil, chicory, English plantain, and salad burnet) and a grass–clover mixture...... (white clover and ryegrass) were incubated in three replicas up to 30 h and subsequently analyzed for fatty acid content. Michaelis–Menten kinetics was applied for quantifying the BH rate. BH proceeded at the lowest rate in alfalfa and salad burnet (P

  5. Milk production, feeding systems and environmental impact of dairy cattle farming in Alpine areas: results of a field study

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    Anna Sandrucci


    Full Text Available Intensification of milk production occurs even in areas traditionally characterized by low-intensive farming systems like mountain areas, leading to environmental concern. The aim of this study was to analyze management and feeding systems in a sample of 31 dairy farms in a mountain area of Lombardy (Valtellina and their effects on milk production and environmental sustainability. In 2006 daily milk sold was 17.5±5.6 kg/cow on average and daily DMI was 19.4±1.3 kg/cow, with a high forages content (65.8±9.2% DM. Rations were quite energetically balanced (+0.09±17.6 MJ/d of ME. Rations higher in starch and lower in NDF resulted in higher milk yields but significantly compromised farm self-sufficiency (which was 62.9±16.8% DM on average. Average Metabolizable Protein balance was negative (-280±203 g/d of MP, mainly due to the low CP content of diets (13.5±1.5% DM. When CP content increased, N manure and N excreted in urine increased (P<0.05 and P<0.01 respectively, probably due to insufficient energy intake which is partly caused by the scarce quality of forages. An improvement in forages quality could increase ME and MP contents of diets without compromising farm self-sufficiency.

  6. Effects of Feeding Levels of Starter on Weaning Age, Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Health Parameters in Holstein Dairy Calves

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    J. Ghassemi Nejad


    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of feeding four different levels of starter in male Holstein dairy calves, a completely randomized study was conducted, using 28 calves with initial body weight of 40.5±2.4 kg. The animals were fed iso-nitrogenous starter and were weaned when they consumed 350, 500, 650 and 800 g/d of starter for 3 d consecutively. Starter and water were available ad-libitum throughout the experiment. Body weight at pre-weaning (less than 5 wk and post-weaning (8 wk was lower in calves that received 350 g/d of starter than in the other treatments (p0.05. Dry matter, organic matter and crude protein digestibilities were lower in calves that received 350 g/d of starter compared with other treatments (p0.05.Treatments had no significant effect on time of starting rumination, respiratory score, and days of drug administration for pneumonia. There were no meaningful differences in feces, fecal odor scores, body temperature, and days of drug administration for diarrhea among all treatments (p>0.05. Total dry matter intake at the end of experiment showed no significant difference among calves fed 600 and 800 g/d of starter, but calves fed 350 and 500 g/d of starter showed more dry matter (DM intake than calves in the 600 and 800 g/d groups (p<0.05.

  7. Results of mycological and mycotoxicological investigations of corn-based feed for dairy cow diet

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    Škrinjar Marija


    Full Text Available In this study, fungal contamination was determined as well as total aflatoxin B1(AB1, ochratoxin A (OTA and zearalenon (ZEA levels in corn-based feed samples obtained from four different farms in Serbia (n=35 during one year. Mycotoxins were detected in feed using the VICAM fluorometric method. It was determined that 97.14% of all samples were contaminated with moulds which belonged to following genera: Absidia, Acremonium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Geotrichum, Eurotium, Fusarium, Mucor, Mortierella, Oidiodendron, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Scopulariopsis, Syncephalastrum, Trichoderma, Ulocladium and Wallrothiella. A total of 58 different species were identified. Total mould count per 1 g ranged from 1.00 log cfu/g (dried corn silage - autumn, fresh corn silage - summer and corn grain silage - spring to 7.32 log cfu/g (dried corn silage - winter. Mycotoxins were isolated from 28.5% of samples: ZEA was found in summer (220-240 μg/kg and in spring (240 μg/kg in concentrate samples; OTA was detected in winter in dried corn silage (16 μg/kg and in spring (12 μg/kg; all samples were AB1 free.

  8. Evaluation of feeding steam treated bagasse pith on milk production and blood parameters of dairy buffaloes

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    H.M. Kasiri


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding steam treated baggase pith of sugar cane (STP in feeding of buffalos. Eight milking buffaloes with the average live weight 541 ±47.5 kg were used in a complete randomized design with 4 treatments and 4 replications during 84 days. Diets contained forage: concentrate ratio 45:55. Concentrates were included amounts of 0,10,20 and 30 percent of steam treated pith bagasse (STP witch replaced with beet pulp sugar. Results indicted that, there were significant differences (P<0.05 affected by the diets. Diets included 20 and 30% STP had greater milk production with no differences in milk composition. Buffaloes fed 0 % STP had low milk fat and protein where as buffaloes had 30% had higher milk yield. The mean rumination times between treatment diets were significantly different (P<0.05. However, significant differences (P<0.05 were observed in plasma glucose and cholesterol concentrations in the experimental buffaloes cow. Buffaloes fed 30% STP had higher plasma insulin concentrates in response to a glucose challenge.

  9. Small Scale Dairy Cattle Feeding for Nyakinyua Area of Trans Nzoia District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwendia, C.W.; Miyekho, F.N.; Scarr, M.


    An on-station investigation was carried out to evaluate performance of 12 Friesian cows on three diets formulated to mimic farmer conditions in Nyakinyua area of Trans Nzoia District. The feeding trial involved use of high amounts of maize stover with different levels of other locally available feedstuffs. All the diets were deficient in energy, crude protein and had an unfavourable Calcium:Phosphorus ratio. Intakes were lower than expected although there was a significant difference between the diets with the higher intakes being achieved where level of supplementation was higher. It was concluded that the farmer's practice of feeding dry season crop residues with little else to balance nutrients is not sustainable. There was further evidence from this investigation to suggest that bought-in nutrient balancing feedstuffs would be necessary to enhance animal performance although this is viewed as a problem to the farmer who is already constrained on financially. however, research dilemma on advocating purchasing of necessary feedstuffs to balance for in crop residue based diets would be available if the economics of doing so is viable

  10. Effects of different restricted feeding strategies on performance of growing and finishing dairy bulls offered grass silage and barley based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katariina Manni


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of restricted feeding strategies on performance of growing and finishing dairy bulls. The feeding experiment comprised in total 32 Finnish Ayrshire bulls with an initial mean live weight (LW of 122 kg and age of 114 days. Feeding treatments were silage ad libitum and daily barley allowance of 93 g kg-1 LW0.60 (A; restricted feeding (R at 0.80 × A; increasing feeding (I similar to R until LW of 430 kg and thereafter similar to A; and decreasing feeding (D similar to A until LW of 430 kg and thereafter similar to R. Restricted feeding strategies decreased daily dry matter intake and LW gain and increased the time to reach the target carcass weight (300 kg. Bulls on I exhibited compensatory growth. There were no significant differences in feed efficiency between the treatments. The present experiment indicates that silage intake ad libitum and supplemented with concentrate resulted in most effective beef production.

  11. Effects of feeding extruded linseed on production performance and milk fatty acid profile in dairy cows: A meta-analysis. (United States)

    Meignan, T; Lechartier, C; Chesneau, G; Bareille, N


    The objectives of this study were to quantify the effects on production performance and milk fatty acid (FA) profile of feeding dairy cows extruded linseed (EL), a feed rich in α-linolenic acid, and to assess the variability of the responses related to the dose of EL and the basal diet composition. This meta-analysis was carried out using only data from trials including a control diet without fat supplementation. The dependent variables were defined by the mean differences between values from EL-supplemented groups and values from control groups. The data were processed by regression testing the dose effect, multivariable regression testing the effect of each potential interfering factor associated with the dose effect, and then stepwise regression with backward elimination procedure with all potential interfering factors retained in previous steps. This entire strategy was also applied to a restricted data set, including only trials conducted inside a practical range of fat feeding (only supplemented diets with Extruded linseed supplementation increased milk yield (0.72 kg/d in the restricted data set) and decreased milk protein content by a dilutive effect (-0.58 g/kg in the restricted data set). No effect of dose or diet was identified on dry matter intake, milk yield, or milk protein content. Milk fat content decreased when EL was supplemented to diets with high proportion of corn silage in the forage (-2.8 g/kg between low and high corn silage-based diets in the restricted data set) but did not decrease when the diet contained alfalfa hay. Milk trans-10 18:1 proportion increased when EL was supplemented to high corn silage-based diets. A shift in ruminal biohydrogenation pathways, from trans-11 18:1 to trans-10 18:1, probably occurred when supplementing EL with high corn silage-based diets related to a change in the activity or composition of the microbial equilibrium in the rumen. The sum of pairs 4:0 to 14:0 (FA synthesized de novo by the udder), palmitic

  12. The effect of feed demand on greenhouse gas emissions and farm profitability for organic and conventional dairy farms. (United States)

    Kiefer, Lukas; Menzel, Friederike; Bahrs, Enno


    The reduction of product-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in milk production appears to be necessary. The reduction of emissions on an individual farm might be highly accepted by farm owners if it were accompanied by an increase in profitability. Using life cycle assessments to determine the product carbon footprints (PCF) and farm-level evaluations to record profitability, we explored opportunities for optimization based on analysis of 81 organic and conventional pasture-based dairy farms in southern Germany. The objective of the present study was to detect common determining factors for low PCF and high management incomes (MI) to achieve GHG reductions at the lowest possible operational cost. In our sample, organic farms, which performed economically better than conventional farms, produced PCF that were significantly higher than those produced by conventional farms [1.61 ± 0.29 vs. 1.45 ± 0.28 kg of CO₂ equivalents (CO₂eq) per kg of milk; means ± SD)]. A multiple linear regression analysis of the sample demonstrated that low feed demand per kilogram of milk, high grassland yield, and low forage area requirements per cow are the main factors that decrease PCF. These factors are also useful for improving a farm's profitability in principle. For organic farms, a reduction of feed demand of 100 g/kg of milk resulted in a PCF reduction of 105 g of CO₂eq/kg of milk and an increase in MI of approximately 2.1 euro cents (c)/kg of milk. For conventional farms, a decrease of feed demand of 100 g/kg of milk corresponded to a reduction in PCF of 117 g of CO₂eq/kg of milk and an increase in MI of approximately 3.1 c/kg of milk. Accordingly, farmers could achieve higher profits while reducing GHG emissions. Improved education and training of farmers and consultants regarding GHG mitigation and farm profitability appear to be the best methods of improving efficiency under traditional and organic farming practices.

  13. Short term responses in feed intake and yield during concentrate regulation in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt Henriksen, Julie Cherono; Munksgaard, Lene; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    regulation, and an increase during down regulation (β=-0.3 kg DM/day, β0.06 kg DM/day; Peating time of mixed ration decrease during up regulation of concentrate and increase during down regulation W=-1.1 min/day; P=0.06; β= 1.3 min/day; P... during either up- or down regulation (P=0.71; P=0.51). When comparing results from the following week with constant concentrate offer, yield was highest at 6 kg vs 3 kg (P=0.034). In conclusion the cows responded both during up and down regulation in daily feed intake and eating time...

  14. Short communication: grazing pattern of dairy cows that were selected for divergent residual feed intake as calves. (United States)

    Gregorini, P; Waghorn, G C; Kuhn-Sherlock, B; Romera, A J; Macdonald, K A


    The aim of this study was to investigate and assess differences in the grazing pattern of 2 groups of mature dairy cows selected as calves for divergent residual feed intake (RFI). Sixteen Holstein-Friesian cows (471±31kg of body weight, 100 d in milk), comprising 8 cows selected as calves (6-8 mo old) for low (most efficient: CSCLowRFI) and 8 cows selected as calves for high (least efficient: CSCHighRFI) RFI, were used for the purpose of this study. Cows (n=16) were managed as a single group, and strip-grazed (24-h pasture allocation at 0800h) a perennial ryegrass sward for 31 d, with measurements taken during the last 21 d. All cows were equipped with motion sensors for the duration of the study, and jaw movements were measured for three 24-h periods during 3 random nonconsecutive days. Measurements included number of steps and jaw movements during grazing and rumination, plus fecal particle size distribution. Jaw movements were analyzed to identify bites, mastication (oral processing of ingesta) during grazing bouts, chewing during rumination, and to calculate grazing and rumination times for 24-h periods. Grazing and walking behavior were also analyzed in relation to the first meal of the day after the new pasture was allocated. Measured variables were subjected to multivariate analysis. Cows selected for low RFI as calves appeared to (a) prioritize grazing and rumination over idling; (b) take fewer steps, but with a higher proportion of grazing steps at the expense of nongrazing steps; and (c) increase the duration of the first meal and commenced their second meal earlier than CSCHighRFI. The CSCLowRFI had fewer jaw movements during eating (39,820 vs. 45,118 for CSCLowRFI and CSCHighRFI, respectively), more intense rumination (i.e., 5 more chews per bolus), and their feces had 30% less large particles than CSCHighRFI. These results suggest that CSCLowRFI concentrate their grazing activity to the time when fresh pasture is allocated, and graze more efficiently

  15. Milk production and economic assessment of cassava bagasse in the feed of dairy cows

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    Leandro Pereira Lima


    Full Text Available The addition of 0; 5; 10 and 15% cassava bagasse, based on the dry matter of the total diet of crossbred Holstein v. Zebu cows, was evaluated on milk production and composition and on the impacts of diet costs. The animals, weighing an average of 478.5 kg, were in the middle third lactation period. Diet with 15% cassava bagasse provided a 13.2% increase in production when compared to control. Feed conversion had a quadratic effect with minimum point at 4.2% of cassava bagasse inclusion. Crude protein, the only milk component that changed, increased linearly with the inclusion of cassava bagasse levels. Treatment with 15% cassava bagasse caused a more effective operational cost (42.8% higher when compared to control and the highest leveling point for milk production and price. The lowest leveling points were treatments with 5 and 10% inclusion of cassava bagasse, which had the best economic results. Concentrates caused cost increase, particularly when roughage : concentrate ratio decreased due to higher cassava bagasse inclusion levels.

  16. Fusarium and Aspergillus mycotoxins contaminating wheat silage for dairy cattle feeding in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina del Palacio

    Full Text Available Abstract Wheat is one of the most important cultivated cereals in Uruguay for human consumption; however, when harvest yields are low, wheat is usually used in ensiling for animal feeding. Ensiling is a forage preservation method that allows for storage during extended periods of time while maintaining nutritional values comparable to fresh pastures. Silage is vulnerable to contamination by spoilage molds and mycotoxins because ensilage materials are excellent substrates for fungal growth. The aim of the study was to identify the mycobiota composition and occurrence of aflatoxins and DON from wheat silage. A total of 220 samples of wheat were collected from four farms in the southwest region of Uruguay were silage practices are developed. The main fungi isolated were Fusarium (43% and Aspergillus (36%, with Fusarium graminearum sensu lato and Aspergillus section Flavi being the most prevalent species. Aflatoxin concentrations in silo bags ranged from 6.1 to 23.3 µg/kg, whereas DON levels ranged between 3000 µg/kg and 12,400 µg/kg. When evaluating aflatoxigenic capacity, 27.5% of Aspergillus section Flavi strains produced AFB1, 5% AFB2, 10% AFG1 and 17.5% AFG2. All isolates of F. graminearum sensu lato produced DON and 15-AcDON. The results from this study contribute to the knowledge of mycobiota and mycotoxins present in wheat silage.

  17. Carry-over of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from feed to milk in dairy cows. (United States)

    Hoogenboom, L A P; Mulder, P P J; Zeilmaker, M J; van den Top, H J; Remmelink, G J; Brandon, E F A; Klijnstra, M; Meijer, G A L; Schothorst, R; Van Egmond, H P


    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are toxins present in many plants belonging to the families of Asteraceae, Boraginaceae and Fabaceae. Particularly notorious are pyrrolizidine alkaloids present in ragwort species (Senecio), which are held responsible for hepatic disease in horses and cows and may lead to the death of the affected animals. In addition, these compounds may be transferred to edible products of animal origin and as such be a threat for the health of consumers. To investigate the possible transfer of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from contaminated feed to milk, cows were put on a ration for 3 weeks with increasing amounts (50-200 g day(-1)) of dried ragwort. Milk was collected and sampled twice a day; faeces and urine twice a week. For milk, a dose-related appearance of pyrrolizidine alkaloids was found. Jacoline was the major component in milk despite being a minor component in the ragwort material. Practically no N-oxides were observed in milk, notwithstanding the fact that they constituted over 80% of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids in ragwort. The overall carry-over of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids was estimated to be only around 0.1%, but for jacoline 4%. Notwithstanding the low overall carry-over, this may be relevant for consumer health considering the genotoxic and carcinogenic properties demonstrated for some of these compounds. Analysis of the faeces and urine samples indicated that substantial metabolism of pyrrolizidine alkaloids is taking place. The toxicity and potential transfer of metabolites to milk is unknown and remains to be investigated.

  18. Growth performance, feeding behavior, and selected blood metabolites of Holstein dairy calves fed restricted amounts of milk: No interactions between sources of finely ground grain and forage provision. (United States)

    Mirzaei, M; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Ghaffari, M H


    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of grain sources and forage provision on growth performance, blood metabolites, and feeding behaviors of dairy calves. Sixty 3-d-old Holstein dairy calves (42.2 ± 2.5 kg of body weight) were used in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with the factors being grain sources (barley and corn) and forage provision (no forage, alfalfa hay, and corn silage). Individually housed calves were randomly assigned (n = 10 calves per treatment: 5 males and 5 females) to 6 treatments: (1) barley grain (BG) without forage supplement, (2) BG with alfalfa hay (AH) supplementation, (3) BG with corn silage (CS) supplementation, (4) corn grain (CG) without forage supplement, (5) CG with AH supplementation, and (6) CG with CS supplementation. All calves had ad libitum access to water and starter feed throughout the experiment. All calves were weaned on d 49 and remained in the study until d 63. Starter feed intake and average daily gain (ADG) was greater for calves fed barley than those fed corn during the preweaning and overall periods. Calves supplemented with CS had greater final body weight and postweaning as well as overall starter feed intake than AH and non-forage-supplemented calves. During the preweaning and overall periods, feeding of CS was found to increase ADG compared with feeding AH and nonforage diets. However, feed efficiency was not affected by dietary treatments. Calves supplemented with CS spent more time ruminating compared with AH and control groups; nonnutritive oral behaviors were the greatest in non-forage-supplemented calves. Regardless of the grain sources, the rumen pH value was greater for AH calves compared with CS and non-forage-supplemented calves. Blood concentration of BHB was greater for CS-supplemented calves compared with AH and non-forage-supplemented calves. Furthermore, body length and heart girth were greater for calves fed barley compared with those fed corn, and also in forage

  19. RNA-Seq transcriptomics and pathway analyses reveal potential regulatory genes and molecular mechanisms in high- and low-residual feed intake in Nordic dairy cattle. (United States)

    Salleh, M S; Mazzoni, G; Höglund, J K; Olijhoek, D W; Lund, P; Løvendahl, P; Kadarmideen, H N


    The selective breeding of cattle with high-feed efficiencies (FE) is an important goal of beef and dairy cattle producers. Global gene expression patterns in relevant tissues can be used to study the functions of genes that are potentially involved in regulating FE. In the present study, high-throughput RNA sequencing data of liver biopsies from 19 dairy cows were used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between high- and low-FE groups of cows (based on Residual Feed Intake or RFI). Subsequently, a profile of the pathways connecting the DEGs to FE was generated, and a list of candidate genes and biomarkers was derived for their potential inclusion in breeding programmes to improve FE. The bovine RNA-Seq gene expression data from the liver was analysed to identify DEGs and, subsequently, identify the molecular mechanisms, pathways and possible candidate biomarkers of feed efficiency. On average, 57 million reads (short reads or short mRNA sequences cows, respectively. The interaction analysis (high vs. low RFI x control vs. high concentrate diet) showed no interaction effects in the Holstein cows, while two genes showed interaction effects in the Jersey cows. The analyses showed that DEGs act through certain pathways to affect or regulate FE, including steroid hormone biosynthesis, retinol metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, ether lipid metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism and drug metabolism cytochrome P450. We used RNA-Seq-based liver transcriptomic profiling of high- and low-RFI dairy cows in two breeds and identified significantly DEGs, their molecular mechanisms, their interactions with other genes and functional enrichments of different molecular pathways. The DEGs that were identified were the CYP's and GIMAP genes for the Holstein and Jersey cows, respectively, which are related to the primary immunodeficiency pathway and play a major role in feed utilization and the metabolism of lipids, sugars and proteins.

  20. Forage quality on family farms in Croatia: monitoring corn silage quality over the two winter feeding seasons of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vranić


    Full Text Available The aim of the applied research project: “Forage evaluation by NIR spectroscopy” was to monitor the nutritive value of grass silage, corn silage and hay on family farms in Croatia over 6-month feeding in each of the two investigation years (from November 2003 to May 2004 and from November 2004 to May 2005. The aim of this paper was to determine the nutritive value of corn silage in the second year and to compare the results with the first year of the investigation. Extension service staff recommended dairy nutrition based on monthly silage analysis by NIRS instrument (Foss, Model 6500. The following parameters were determined: dry matter (DM, dry matter corrected (CDM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, metabolic energy (ME, pH value, fermented ME in ME (FME/ME, starch and OM digestibility in DM (D-value. The results show desirable DM (352.99 g kg-1, high starch (339.86 g kg-1ST and high NDF (422.65 g kg-1ST content. In average, the silage was stabile (pH 3.65 with suitable FME/ME (79% and D-value ( 71.6%, but with low CP content (58.96 g kg-1ST. Statistically significant differences among family farms were observed for CDM (P<0.05, D-value (P<0.05, NDF (P<0.05, pH (P<0.05, starch (P<0.05, ME (P<0.05 and OM (P<0.05. The samples from the second year of the investigation had significantly lower CDM (P<0.01, CP (P<0.01 and FME/ME (P<0.01.

  1. Feed intake and milk production in dairy cows fed different grass and legume species: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Johansen, M; Lund, P; Weisbjerg, M R


    The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare feed intake, milk production, milk composition and organic matter (OM) digestibility in dairy cows fed different grass and legume species. Data from the literature was collected and different data sets were made to compare families (grasses v. legumes, Data set 1), different legume species and grass family (Data set 2), and different grass and legume species (Data set 3+4). The first three data sets included diets where single species or family were fed as the sole forage, whereas the approach in the last data set differed by taking the proportion of single species in the forage part into account allowing diets consisting of both grasses and legumes to be included. The grass species included were perennial ryegrass, annual ryegrass, orchardgrass, timothy, meadow fescue, tall fescue and festulolium, and the legume species included were white clover, red clover, lucerne and birdsfoot trefoil. Overall, dry matter intake (DMI) and milk production were 1.3 and 1.6 kg/day higher, respectively, whereas milk protein and milk fat concentration were 0.5 and 1.4 g/kg lower, respectively, for legume-based diets compared with grass-based diets. When comparing individual legume species with grasses, only red clover resulted in a lower milk protein concentration than grasses. Cows fed white clover and birdsfoot trefoil yielded more milk than cows fed red clover and lucerne, probably caused by a higher OM digestibility of white clover and activity of condensed tannins in birdsfoot trefoil. None of the included grass species differed in DMI, milk production, milk composition or OM digestibility, indicating that different grass species have the same value for milk production, if OM digestibility is comparable. However, the comparison of different grass species relied on few observations, indicating that knowledge regarding feed intake and milk production potential of different grass species is scarce in the literature. In conclusion

  2. Enteric methane production in lactating dairy cows with continuous feeding of essential oils or rotational feeding of essential oils and lauric acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.; Dijkstra, Jan; Dieho, K.; Hendriks, W.H.; Bannink, A.


    The rumen microbes can adapt to feed additives, which may make the decrease in enteric CH4 production upon feeding an additive a transient response only. This study investigated alternate feeding of 2 CH4 mitigating feed additives with a different mode of action on persistency of lowering CH4

  3. Effect of Plants Containing Secondary Compounds with Palm Oil on Feed Intake, Digestibility, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Microbial Population in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Anantasook


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of rain tree pod meal with palm oil supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, microbial protein synthesis and microbial populations in dairy cows. Four, multiparous early-lactation Holstein-Friesian crossbred (75% lactating dairy cows with an initial body weight (BW of 405±40 kg and 36±8 DIM were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4×4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were un-supplementation (control, supplementation with rain tree pod meal (RPM at 60 g/kg, supplementation with palm oil (PO at 20 g/kg, and supplementation with RPM at 60 g/kg and PO at 20 g/kg (RPO, of total dry matter intake. The cows were offered concentrates, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and chopped 30 g/kg of urea treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The RPM contained condensed tannins and crude saponins at 88 and 141 g/kg of DM, respectively. It was found that supplementation with RPM and/or PO to dairy cows diets did not show negative effects on feed intake and ruminal pH and BUN at any times of sampling (p>0.05. However, RPM supplementation resulted in lower crude protein digestibility, NH3-N concentration and number of proteolytic bacteria. It resulted in greater allantoin absorption and microbial crude protein (p<0.05. In addition, dairy cows showed a higher efficiency of microbial N supply (EMNS in both RPM and RPO treatments. Moreover, NDF digestibility and cellulolytic bacteria numbers were highest in RPO supplementation (p<0.05 while, supplementation with RPM and/or PO decreased the protozoa population in dairy cows. Based on this study, supplementation with RPM and/or PO in diets could improve fiber digestibility, microbial protein synthesis in terms of quantity and efficiency and microbial populations in dairy cows.

  4. Sediment yields of Wisconsin streams (United States)

    Hindall, S.M.; Flint, R.F.


    Sediment in Wisconsin streams causes economic and engineering problems in water management and reduces the value of water for nearly all uses. Sediment produces problems such as reduced reservoir capacity, navigation hazards, increased cost of water treatment, property damage, temporary loss of farmland, destruction of feeding and nesting grounds of fish, and destruction of wildlife habitat. Sediment in water also reduces the aesthetic value of surface waters and is detrimental to the State's tourist and recreation industry.

  5. Effects of feeding diets based on transgenic soybean meal and soybean hulls to dairy cows on production measures and sensory quality of milk. (United States)

    Weiss, W P; Simons, C T; Ekmay, R D


    This experiment was conducted to determine whether feeding meal and hulls derived from genetically modified soybeans to dairy cows affected production measures and sensory qualities of milk. The soybeans were genetically modified (Event DAS-444Ø6-6) to be resistant to multiple herbicides. Twenty-six Holstein cows (13/treatment) were fed a diet that contained meal and hulls derived from transgenic soybeans or a diet that contained meal and hulls from a nontransgenic near-isoline variety. Soybean products comprised approximately 21% of the diet dry matter, and diets were formulated to be nearly identical in crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, energy, and minerals and vitamins. The experimental design was a replicated 2×2 Latin square with a 28-d feeding period. Dry matter intake (21.3 vs. 21.4kg/d), milk yield (29.3 vs. 29.4kg/d), milk fat (3.70 vs. 3.68%), and milk protein (3.10 vs. 3.12%) did not differ between cows fed control or transgenic soybean products, respectively. Milk fatty acid profile was virtually identical between treatments. Somatic cell count was significantly lower for cows fed transgenic soybean products, but the difference was biologically trivial. Milk was collected from all cows in period 1 on d 0 (before treatment), 14, and 28 for sensory evaluation. On samples from all days (including d 0) judges could discriminate between treatments for perceived appearance of the milk. The presence of this difference at d 0 indicated that it was likely not a treatment effect but rather an initial bias in the cow population. No treatment differences were found for preference or acceptance of the milk. Overall, feeding soybean meal and hulls derived from this genetically modified soybean had essentially no effects on production or milk acceptance when fed to dairy cows. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical trial on the effects of a free-access acidified milk replacer feeding program on the health and growth of dairy replacement heifers and veal calves. (United States)

    Todd, C G; Leslie, K E; Millman, S T; Bielmann, V; Anderson, N G; Sargeant, J M; DeVries, T J


    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of free-access acidified milk replacer feeding on the pre- and postweaning health of dairy and veal calves. Individually housed calves were systematically assigned at birth to 1 of 2 feeding programs: free-access feeding (ad libitum) of acidified milk replacer (ACD, n=249) or traditional restricted feeding (3L fed twice daily) of milk replacer (RES, n=249). Calves were fed milk replacer containing 24% crude protein and 18% fat. Acidified milk replacer was prepared to a target pH between 4.0 and 4.5 using formic acid. Calves were weaned off milk replacer at approximately 6wk of age. Weaning occurred over 5d, and during this weaning period, ACD calves had access to milk replacer for 12h/d and RES calves were offered only one feeding of milk replacer (3 L) daily. Calves were monitored daily for signs of disease. Fecal consistency scores were assigned each week from birth until weaning. A subset of calves was systematically selected for fecal sampling at 3 time points between 7 and 27d of age. Fecal samples were analyzed for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F5, Cryptosporidium parvum, rotavirus, and coronavirus. Hip width, hip height, body length, heart girth, and body weight were measured at birth and weaning. Postweaning body weight measurements were collected from the heifers at approximately 8mo of age. Postweaning body weight and carcass grading information was collected from the veal calves at slaughter once a live weight between 300 and 350kg had been achieved. The odds of ACD calves being treated for a preweaning disease event tended to be lower than that of the RES calves (1.2 vs. 5.2%, respectively). Preweaning mortality, postweaning disease treatment, and postweaning mortality did not differ between feeding treatments. The ACD feeding treatment supported greater preweaning average daily gain (0.59 vs. 0.43kg/d) and structural growth than RES feeding. Postweaning average daily gain and carcass

  7. Effect of stall design on dairy calf transition to voluntary feeding on an automatic milk feeder after introduction to group housing. (United States)

    Wilson, Tanya R; LeBlanc, Stephen J; DeVries, Trevor J; Haley, Derek B


    Automatic milk feeders (AMF) for young dairy calves are widely used in the dairy industry. These feeders are thought to have benefits for calf health and welfare and may reduce labor required for feeding; however, little is known about how calves adapt to feeding with AMF. The objective of this study was to observe the effects of feeding stall design on calves learning to use the AMF. The hypothesis was that solid side stalls, compared with steel bar stalls, would result in a longer latency to approach and feed from the AMF without assistance. A total of 147 Holstein calves (80 male and 67 female) were enrolled at 4 d of age, introduced to a group pen, and, at the same time, trained on an AMF. For training, calves were allowed to suck on the trainer's fingers and guided to the teat. Calves were allocated to 1 of 2 stall designs at the pen level, depending on which treatment cohort they were born into, either with steel bar stall walls (n = 46 male, 34 female calves) or with solid side stall walls (n = 34 male, 33 female calves). For 72 h after introductory training on the AMF, data from the feeders were collected and calf behavior was monitored by video. Outcomes measured included latency to first voluntary visit to the feeder and to first feeding, time spent in the feeder, amount of milk consumed over 72 h, number of retraining sessions required (retrained if linear regression models or a Poisson model for the outcome of retraining. For certain outcomes the effects of stall design interacted with difficulty of training (willingness to enter feeder and drink); for the 38% of calves that were scored as moderately difficult to train on a scale of easy, moderate, or difficult, treatment (stall design) differences were detected. These calves took 2× longer to lick or bite toward the nipple, 2× longer to first voluntarily feeding, and consumed less milk over 72 h following training when trained on the steel bar stall design. These results suggest simple features of a

  8. Continuous measurement of reticuloruminal pH values in dairy cows during the transition period from barn to pasture feeding using an indwelling wireless data transmitting unit. (United States)

    Gasteiner, J; Horn, M; Steinwidder, A


    This study was performed to investigate the effect of the transition from barn feeding to pasture on the pattern of reticuloruminal pH values in 8 multiparous dairy cows. A indwelling wireless data transmitting system for pH measurement was given to 8 multiparous cows orally. Reticuloruminal pH values were measured every 600 s over a period of 42 days. After 7 days of barn feeding (period 1), all of the animals were pastured with increasing grazing times from 2 to 7 h/day over 7 days (period 2). From day 15 to day 21 (period 3), the cows spent 7 h/day on pasture. Beginning on day 22, the animals had 20 h/day access to pasture (day and night grazing). To study reticuloruminal adaptation to pasture feeding, the phase of day and night grazing was subdivided into another 3 weekly periods (periods 4-6). Despite a mild transition period from barn feeding to pasture, significant effects on reticuloruminal pH values were observed. During barn feeding, the mean reticuloruminal pH value for all of the cows was 6.44 ± 0.14, and the pH values decreased significantly (p pH values increased again (pH 6.25 ± 0.22; pH 6.31 ± 0.17; pH 6.37 ± 0.16). Our results showed that the animals had significantly lowered reticuloruminal pH during the periods of feed transition from barn to pasture feeding. Despite these significant changes, the decrease was not harmful, as indicated by data of feed intake and milk production. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Effects of feeding lauric acid on ruminal protozoa numbers, fermentation, and digestion and on milk production in dairy cows. (United States)

    Faciola, A P; Broderick, G A


    The objectives of this study were 1) to determine the level of lauric acid (LA) addition to the diet necessary to effectively suppress ruminal protozoa (RP) to the extent observed when a single dose was given directly into the rumen, 2) to assess LA effects on production and ruminal metabolism, and 3) to determine the time needed for RP to reestablish themselves after LA is withdrawn from the diet of lactating dairy cows. In Exp. 1, 2 Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulae were used in a split-plot design pilot study. Both cows consumed the same level of LA, starting with 0 g/d and increasing to 129, 270, and 438 g/d mixed into the diet. Diets were fed as total mixed ration (TMR) and contained (DM basis) 30% corn silage, 30% alfalfa silage, and 40% concentrate. Lauric acid intake linearly decreased DMI (P = 0.03), RP numbers (P Lauric acid intake linearly increased ruminal valerate molar proportion (P = 0.02). A quadratic response of LA consumption was observed on total ruminal VFA concentration (P acid (TAA) concentration (P < 0.01), with minimum concentration at 270 g/d of LA intake. After withdrawing the greatest LA dose from the diet, RP returned to their original numbers in 12 d. In Exp. 2, 48 multiparous Holstein cows (8 with ruminal cannulae) were blocked by days in milk into 12 blocks of 4 cows (2 blocks of cannulated cows) and randomly assigned within replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares to balanced dietary treatment sequences. Diets were fed as TMR and contained (DM basis) 36% corn silage, 29% alfalfa silage, and 35% concentrate, and LA intake levels were 0, 220, 404, and 543 g/d mixed in the TMR. In Exp. 2, LA linearly reduced RP (P < 0.01), ruminal ammonia (P < 0.01), and total free AA concentration (P < 0.01); however, dietary LA also linearly decreased DM intake (P < 0.01). Intake of LA linearly reduced ruminal total VFA concentration (P < 0.01); DM, OM, NDF, and CP digestibility (P < 0.01); and milk production and milk components (P < 0.01). Therefore

  10. The effect of dry corn gluten feed on chewing activities and rumen parameters in lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ismet Turkmen


    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of dry corn gluten feed (DCGF on dry matter intake (DMI, chewing activity, and rumen fermentation when used to replace a portion of corn silage in diets for lactating Holstein cows. Eight lactating Holstein primiparous cows averaging 98±20 d in milk and weighing 515±20 kg were randomly assigned in a 4x4 Latin square design with 4 week periods. Dietary treatments were 1 a control diets (C of 50% forage (corn silage and wheat straw, 35%, 15% DM basis, respectively, 2 a low DCGF diet (L-DCGF in which 10% of the same corn silage was replaced by DCGF, 3 a medium DCGF diet (M-DCGF in which 18% of the same corn silage was replaced by DCGF, and 4 a high DCGF diet (H-DCGF in which 25% of the same corn silage was replaced by DCGF. The proportion of particles retained on the 19.0 mm screen and physical effectiveness factor of the HDCGF was lower (P<0.05 than in the other groups. Increasing the level of DCGF did not change DMI. Cows fed the C diet spent significantly more time ruminating and chewing per day compared with the MDCGF and H-DCGF diets (483.88, 435.63, 431.25 min/d, P<0.05; and 818.38, 753.00, 745.75 min/d respectively, P<0.05. Cows fed the C diet had ruminal pH values higher than the cows fed the M-DCGF and H-DCGF diets (6.02, 5.95, and 5.91, P<0.05. The total volatile fatty acid and propionate levels of H-DCGF fed cows were higher than the control (P<0.05. The changes in acetate (A and propionate (P concentrations resulted in a decrease in A/P ratio, when corn silage was replaced by DCGF, which led to a reduction in the particle size of the diets (P<0.05. It was concluded that when ratio 18 and 25% DCGF were substituted for corn silage, rumination time, chewing activities and ruminal pH are negatively affected. The optimum level for the addition of DCGF was found to be below 18% of the diet for a healthy rumen and a chewing behaviour in dairy cows.

  11. Effect of feeding buckwheat and chicory silages on fatty acid profile and cheese-making properties of milk from dairy cows. (United States)

    Kälber, Tasja; Kreuzer, Michael; Leiber, Florian


    Fresh buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) had been shown to have the potential to improve certain milk quality traits when fed as forages to dairy cows. However, the process of ensiling might alter these properties. In the present study, two silages, prepared from mixtures of buckwheat or chicory and ryegrass, were compared with pure ryegrass silage (Lolium multiflorum) by feeding to 3 × 6 late-lactating cows. The dietary dry matter proportions realised for buckwheat and chicory were 0.46 and 0.34 accounting also for 2 kg/d of concentrate. Data and samples were collected from days 10 to 15 of treatment feeding. Buckwheat silage was richest in condensed tannins. Proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and α-linoleic acid in total fatty acids (FA) were highest in the ryegrass silage. Feed intake, milk yield and milk gross composition did not differ among the groups. Feeding buckwheat resulted in the highest milk fat concentrations (g/kg) of linoleic acid (15.7) and total PUFA (40.5; both P milk fat was similar across treatments, but its apparent recovery in milk relative to the amounts ingested was highest with buckwheat. The same was true for the occurrence of FA biohydrogenation products in milk relative to α-linolenic acid intake. Recovery of dietary linoleic acid in milk remained unaffected. Feeding buckwheat silage shortened rennet coagulation time by 26% and tended (P milk and to contribute to improved cheese-making properties.

  12. Phosphorus Loading and Compositional Characteristics in Eight-Mile Run Watershed, Wisconsin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James, William


    The purpose of this research was to describe and quantify biologically labile and refractory phosphorus runoff in Eight-Mile Run, a small watershed in west-central Wisconsin that is impacted by dairy...

  13. Dairy Foods in a Moderate Energy Restricted Diet Do Not Enhance Central Fat, Weight, and Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue Losses nor Reduce Adipocyte Size or Inflammatory Markers in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Controlled Feeding Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta D. Van Loan


    Full Text Available Background. Research on dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective. A 15-week controlled feeding study to determine if dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a modest energy restricted diet of overweight and obese adults. Design. A 3-week run-in to establish energy needs; a 12-week 500 kcal/d energy reduction with 71 low-dairy-consuming overweight and obese adults randomly assigned to diets: ≤1 serving dairy/d (low dairy, LD or ≤4 servings dairy/d (adequate dairy, AD. All foods were weighed and provided by the metabolic kitchen. Weight, fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT macrophage number, SAT inflammatory gene expression, and circulating cytokines were measured. Results. No diet differences were observed in weight, fat, or IAAT loss; nor SAT mRNA expression of inflammation, circulating cytokines, fasting lipids, glucose, or insulin. There was a significant increase (P=0.02 in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the AD group. Conclusion. Whether increased dairy intake during weight loss results in greater weight and fat loss for individuals with metabolic syndrome deserves investigation. Assessment of appetite, hunger, and satiety with followup on weight regain should be considered.

  14. Beneficial changes in rumen bacterial community profile in sheep and dairy calves as a result of feeding the probiotic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens H57. (United States)

    Schofield, B J; Lachner, N; Le, O T; McNeill, D M; Dart, P; Ouwerkerk, D; Hugenholtz, P; Klieve, A V


    The probiotic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens H57 increased weight gain, increased nitrogen retention and increased feed intake in ruminants when administered to the diet. This study aims to develop a better understanding of this probiotic effect by analysing changes in the rumen prokaryotic community. Sequencing the 16S rRNA gene PCR amplicons of the rumen microbiome, revealed that ewes fed H57 had a significantly different rumen microbial community structure to Control sheep. In contrast, dairy calves showed no significant differences in rumen community structure between treatment groups. In both instances, H57 was below detection in the rumen community profile and was only present at low relative abundance as determined by qPCR. The altered rumen microbial community in sheep likely contributes to increased weight gain through more efficient digestion of plant material. As no change occurred in the rumen community of dairy calves it is suggested that increased weight gain may be due to changes in community function rather than structure. The low relative abundance of H57 as determined by qPCR, suggests that weight gain was not directly mediated by the probiotic, but rather by influencing animal behaviour (feed consumption) and/or altering the native rumen community structure or function. This study provides a novel look at the rumen prokaryotic community in both sheep and dairy calves when fed H57. These findings improve our understanding for the potential rumen community involvement in H57-enabled weight gain. The study reveals that the probiotic B. amyloliquefaciens H57 is capable of benefiting ruminants without colonizing the rumen, suggesting an indirect mechanism of action. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Effect of Carbohydrate Sources and Levels of Cotton Seed Meal in Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Young Dairy Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wanapat


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of levels of cottonseed meal with various carbohydrate sources in concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in dairy bulls. Four, 6 months old dairy bulls were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC and cassava chip+rice bran in the ratio of 3:1 (CR3:1, and factor B was cotton seed meal levels in the concentrate; 109 g CP/kg (LCM and 328 g CP/kg (HCM at similar overall CP levels (490 g CP/kg. Bulls received urea-lime treated rice straw ad libitum and were supplemented with 10 g of concentrate/kg BW. It was found that carbohydrate source and level of cotton seed meal did not have significant effects on ruminal pH, ammonia nitrogen concentration, microbial protein synthesis or feed intake. Animals which received CC showed significantly higher BUN concentration, ruminal propionic acid and butyric acid proportions, while dry matter, organic matter digestibility, populations of total viable bacteria and proteolytic bacteria were lower than those in the CR3:1 treatment. The concentration of total volatile fatty acids was higher in HCM than LCM treatments, while the concentration of butyric acid was higher in LCM than HCM treatments. The population of proteolytic bacteria with the LCM treatments was higher than the HCM treatments; however other bacteria groups were similar among the different levels of cotton seed meal. Bulls which received LCM had higher protein digestibility than those receiving HCM. Therefore, using high levels of cassava chip and cotton seed meal might positively impact on energy and nitrogen balance for the microbial population in the rumen of the young dairy bull.

  16. α-Tocopherol and β-carotene concentrations in feed, colostrum, cow and calf serum in Swedish dairy herds with high or low calf mortality. (United States)

    Torsein, Maria; Lindberg, Ann; Svensson, Catarina; Jensen, Sören Krogh; Berg, Charlotte; Waller, Karin Persson


    A study of herd-level risk factors for calf mortality in large Swedish dairy herds showed low serum concentrations of α-tocopherol and β-carotene in 1-7 day old calves to be more common in high mortality herds. Therefore, we aimed to investigate if calf mortality risk at herd level is associated with concentrations of α-tocopherol and/or β-carotene at individual level in feed, colostrum, cow and calf serum, while controlling for herd level covariates. Inclusion criteria were affiliation to the Swedish official milk recording scheme, herd size of ≥ 120 milking cows/year, calf mortality risk (day 1-90) of at least 6% (high mortality; HM) or less than 1% (low mortality; LM) and located within one of two regions in southern Sweden. This cross-sectional study was performed in 2010 in 19 (n HM  = 9; n LM  = 10) dairy herds. Questionnaires were used to collect information about feed and routines for colostrum feeding. Feed (n = 57), colostrum (n = 162), cow serum (n = 189) and calf serum samples (n = 187) were collected and analysed for α-tocopherol and β-carotene. Other analyses e.g. total serum protein, fat content, and total solids in colostrum were also performed. Linear regression models with vitamin concentrations in feed, colostrum, cow and calf serum as outcome were performed. Calves in HM herds had lower concentrations of α-tocopherol in serum than calves in LM herds, but the effect depended on total protein status in serum of the calf (P = 0.036). Calves from herds that fed transition milk for 3 days or more had higher α-tocopherol concentrations in serum than calves from herds feeding transition milk up to 2 days (P = 0.013). Fat percentage in colostrum was positively associated with α-tocopherol (P mortality risks were associated with lower concentrations of α-tocopherol in calf serum for calves with failure of passive transfer. Feeding transition milk longer was associated with higher concentrations of α-tocopherol in calf

  17. Effects of feeding unlimited amounts of milk replacer for the first 5 weeks of age on rumen and small intestinal growth and development in dairy calves. (United States)

    Schäff, C T; Gruse, J; Maciej, J; Pfuhl, R; Zitnan, R; Rajsky, M; Hammon, H M


    circumference and height tended to be greater, whereas crypt depth was smaller in ADLIB than in RES calves. The findings from this study indicate that ad libitum MR feeding for 5 wk of age followed by its gradual reduction promotes growth performance without any negative influence on gastrointestinal growth and development in dairy calves at 9 wk of age. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Feed conversion efficiency in dairy cows: Repeatability, variation in digestion and metabolism of energy and nitrogen, and ruminal methanogens. (United States)

    Arndt, C; Powell, J M; Aguerre, M J; Crump, P M; Wattiaux, M A


    The objective was to study repeatability and sources of variation in feed conversion efficiency [FCE, milk kg/kg dry matter intake (DMI)] of lactating cows in mid to late lactation. Trials 1 and 2 used 16 cows (106 to 368 d in milk) grouped in 8 pairs of 1 high- and 1 low-FCE cow less than 16 d in milk apart. Trial 1 determined the repeatability of FCE during a 12-wk period. Trial 2 quantified the digestive and metabolic partitioning of energy and N with a 3-d total fecal and urine collection and measurement of CH4 and CO2 emission. Trial 3 studied selected ruminal methanogens in 2 pairs of cows fitted with rumen cannulas. Cows received a single diet including 28% corn silage, 27% alfalfa silage, 17% crude protein, and 28% neutral detergent fiber (dry matter basis). In trial 1, mean FCE remained repeatedly different and averaged 1.83 and 1.03 for high- and low-FCE cows, respectively. In trial 2, high-FCE cows consumed 21% more DMI, produced 98% more fat- and protein-corrected milk, excreted 42% less manure per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk, but emitted the same daily amount of CH4 and CO2 compared with low-FCE cows. Percentage of gross energy intake lost in feces was higher (28.6 vs. 25.9%), but urinary (2.76 vs. 3.40%) and CH4 (5.23 vs. 6.99%) losses were lower in high- than low-FCE cows. Furthermore, high-FCE cows partitioned 15% more of gross energy intake toward net energy for maintenance, body gain, and lactation (37.5 vs. 32.6%) than low-FCE cows. Lower metabolic efficiency and greater heat loss in low-FCE cows might have been associated in part with greater energy demand for immune function related to subclinical mastitis, as somatic cell count was 3.8 fold greater in low- than high-FCE cows. As a percentage of N intake, high-FCE cows tended to have greater fecal N (32.4 vs. 30.3%) and had lower urinary N (32.2 vs. 41.7%) and greater milk N (30.3 vs. 19.1%) than low-FCE cows. In trial 3, Methanobrevibacter spp. strain AbM4 was less prevalent in

  19. Influence of carbohydrates on feed intake, rumen fermentation and milk performance in high-yielding dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de H.


    Food for human consumption originates directly from plants, after processing, or indirectly by conversion of plant materials into food of animal origin through livestock. An important example of food of animal origin are dairy products such as milk, cheese, butter, yoghurt,

  20. Implementation of an application for daily individual concentrate feeding in commercial software for use on dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleumer, E.J.B.; Andre, G.; Duinkerken, van G.


    Daily concentrate allowances for individual dairy cows are usually based on empiric models. These models are generally based on regression equations derived from population data and do not take into account individual and temporal variation. An application was implemented in common practice which

  1. Modification of immune responses and digestive system microbiota of lactating dairy cows by feeding Bovamine(R) (United States)

    We evaluated the immune modulatory effects as well as effects on productivity of Bovamine® (Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 and Probionibacterium freudenreichii) fed to Holstein and Jersey dairy cows during late lactation (average DIM = 202.44 days on wk-0). Cows were randomized to treatment g...

  2. Total replacement of corn by mesquite pod meal considering nutritional value, performance, feeding behavior, nitrogen balance, and microbial protein synthesis of Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers. (United States)

    de Oliveira Moraes, Gláucia Sabrine; de Souza, Evaristo Jorge Oliveira; Véras, Antonia Sherlânea Chaves; de Paula Almeida, Marina; da Cunha, Márcio Vieira; Torres, Thaysa Rodrigues; da Silva, Camila Sousa; Pereira, Gerfesson Felipe Cavalcanti


    The objective of the present study to assess the effects of mesquite pod addition replacing corn (0, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 g/kg in the dry matter basis) on nutrient intake, animal performance, feeding behavior, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance, and microbial protein synthesis. Twenty-five Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers at 219 ± 22 kg initial body weight and 18 months of age were used. The experiment lasted 84 days, divided into three periods of 28 days. A completely randomized design was used, and data were submitted to analysis using PROC GLM for analysis of variance and PROC REG for regression analysis using the software Statistical Analysis Systems version 9.1. Experimental diets were composed of Tifton 85 hay, soybean meal, ground corn, mesquite pod meal, and mineral salt. Samples of food offered were collected during the last 3 days of each period, and the leftovers were collected daily, with samples bulked per week. At the end of each 28-day period, the remaining animals were weighed to determine total weight gain and average daily gain. The assessment of behavioral patterns was performed through instantaneous scans in 5-min intervals for three consecutive 12-h days. A single urine sample from each animal was collected on the last day of each collection period at about 4 h after the first feeding. The replacement of corn by mesquite pod meal did not significantly influence treatments regarding nutrients intake, animal performance, and feeding behavior. Retained and consumed nitrogen ratio did not statistically differ between replacement levels. Likewise, there were no statistical differences regarding microbial protein synthesis and efficiency between replacement levels. Mesquite pod meal can be used in Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers' diet with total corn replacement.

  3. Essential oils improved weight gain, growth and feed efficiency of young dairy calves fed 18 or 20% crude protein starter diets. (United States)

    Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Falahati, R; Poorhamdollah, M; Heidari, S R; Pezeshki, A


    The objective was to evaluate interactions between starter protein (180 vs. 200 g/kg, DM basis) and a mixture of essential oils (EOs; containing thymol, eugenol, vanillin, limonene and guaiacol) on growth, metabolic and ruminal functions of Holstein dairy calves. In a completely randomized 2 × 2 factorial design, 48 calves, 3 days old (averaging BW 42.7 ± 1.9 kg), were allocated into groups fed the following diets: (i) 180 g/kg CP with no EO (180P-NEO); (ii) 180 g/kg CP with EO (180P-EO); (iii) 200 g/kg CP with no EO (200P-NEO); and (iv) 200 g/kg CP with EO (200P-EO). The EO was supplemented as 1 g/kg of starter DM. Calves were fed ad libitum starter diet and were weaned at day 59 of age, but diets continued until day 80. There were no interactive effects of CP and EO on intake and growth. Pre-weaning feed efficiency tended to be increased for 200P-EO (p = .09). Average daily gain and feed efficiency during pre-weaning period as well as weaning weight were increased (p calves-fed EO (p = .05) and was lower in those fed 180P vs. 200P (p feed efficiency of dairy calves, irrespective of dietary protein content. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Effects of feeding dry glycerol on milk production, nutrients digestibility and blood components in primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafilzadeh, F.; Piri, V.; Karami-Shabankareh, H.


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the glucogenic property of glycerol supplementation in the dairy cow’s diet. Sixty primiparous cows (control, n=30, and glycerol supplemented, n=30) were used to measure milk yield and components, blood hormone and metabolite profiles, and body condition score. Feed intake and apparent total-tract digestibility were also measured using 10 primiparous cows (control, n=5, and glycerol supplemented, n=5). Dry glycerol was top dressed at 250 g/day/cow from parturition to 21 days postpartum. Average feed intake, milk yield and components were not affected by glycerol supplementation. Apparent total–tract digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fibre were not influenced by dry glycerol supplementation, but lipid digestibility was greater (p=0.01) in cows fed glycerol. The serum concentration of glucose and insulin tended to be higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p=0.1; p=0.06, respectively). While, serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were not affected. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1 to 5 after calving (p=0.09). The glucogenic effect of glycerol did not affect milk yield during the first 3 weeks of lactation. However, daily milk yield during the 13 weeks recording period was higher in the glycerol-supplemented cows (28.5 vs. 30.3 kg, p<0.001). Percentages of cows cycling at the planned breeding date was greater (p=0.01) for cows fed dry glycerol. The results demonstrated that feeding dry glycerol as a glucogenic supply could be useful in saving body reserves and improving energy balance of primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period. (Author)

  5. Nutritional, technological and managerial parameters for precision feeding to enhance feed nutrient utilization and productivity in different dairy cattle production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Empel, van Mireille; Makkar, H.P.S.; Dijkstra, J.; Lund, Peter


    Increased future demand of animal products as well as competition between food, feed and fuel, require efficient utilization of feed resources to strengthen environmental, economic and social sustainability of livestock systems. The objective of this review is to summarize current knowledge on

  6. Different milk feeding intensities during the first 4 weeks of rearing in dairy calves: Part 1: Effects on performance and production from birth over the first lactation. (United States)

    Korst, M; Koch, C; Kesser, J; Müller, U; Romberg, F-J; Rehage, J; Eder, K; Sauerwein, H


    different among groups, nor was milk composition. Milk yields (305 d) were numerically but not statistically greater in the ad libitum-fed groups during the first lactation (+765 kg for WM-ad lib vs. MR-res; +612 kg for MR-ad lib vs. MR-res). Feeding WM-ad lib and MR-ad lib was 1.37- and 1.21-fold more costly than MR-res, respectively, but amounted to 18, 15, and 13% of the total estimated feed costs until first calving in WM-ad lib, MR-ad lib, and MR-res, respectively. Our study confirms that ad libitum feeding is an attractive measure for rearing dairy calves, both for animal welfare and-with the caveat of a small sample size in trial 2 that led to insufficient power-economic profit from milk. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of corn silage hybrids and dietary nonforage fiber sources on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and productive performance of lactating Holstein dairy cows. (United States)

    Holt, M S; Williams, C M; Dschaak, C M; Eun, J-S; Young, A J


    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of corn silage hybrids and nonforage fiber sources (NFFS) in high forage diets formulated with high dietary proportions of alfalfa hay (AH) and corn silage (CS) on ruminal fermentation and productive performance by early lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (4 ruminally fistulated) averaging 36±6.2 d in milk were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were fed 1 of 4 dietary treatments during each of the four 21-d replicates. Treatments were (1) conventional CS (CCS)-based diet without NFFS, (2) CCS-based diet with NFFS, (3) brown midrib CS (BMRCS)-based diet without NFFS, and (4) BMRCS-based diet with NFFS. Diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Sources of NFFS consisted of ground soyhulls and pelleted beet pulp to replace a portion of AH and CS in the diets. In vitro 30-h neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradability was greater for BMRCS than for CCS (42.3 vs. 31.2%). Neither CS hybrids nor NFFS affected intake of dry matter (DM) and nutrients. Digestibility of N, NDF, and acid detergent fiber tended to be greater for cows consuming CCS-based diets. Milk yield was not influenced by CS hybrids and NFFS. However, a tendency for an interaction between CS hybrids and NFFS occurred, with increased milk yield due to feeding NFFS with the BMRCS-based diet. Yields of milk fat and 3.5% fat-corrected milk decreased when feeding the BMRCS-based diet, and a tendency existed for an interaction between CS hybrids and NFFS because milk fat concentration further decreased by feeding NFFS with BMRCS-based diet. Although feed efficiency (milk/DM intake) was not affected by CS hybrids and NFFS, an interaction was found between CS hybrids and NFFS because feed efficiency increased when NFFS was fed only with BMRCS-based diet. Total volatile fatty acid production and individual molar proportions were not affected by diets. Dietary

  8. Effect of corn silage particle size and supplemental hay on rumen pH and feed preference by dairy cows fed high-starch diets. (United States)

    Kmicikewycz, A D; Heinrichs, A J


    The objectives of this experiment were to determine the effects of corn silage particle size and supplemental hay on rumen pH and feed preference in lactating dairy cows experiencing a bout of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). In this study, 12 lactating (8 ruminally cannulated), multiparous Holstein cows averaging 91±40d in milk and weighing 695±95kg (mean ± SD) were randomly assigned to a replicated 4×4 Latin square. During each of the four 21-d periods, animals were offered 1 of 4 diets that were chemically similar but varied in corn silage particle size and supplemental second cutting orchardgrass hay: short corn silage total mixed ration (TMR; ST); short corn silage TMR with 5.6% supplemental hay (SH); long corn silage TMR (L); and long corn silage TMR with 5.6% supplemental hay (LH). Cows were allowed to adapt to this feeding scheme for 14d, and cannulated cows were then subjected to a rumen challenge to induce a bout of SARA by restricting feed before the challenge and providing 4kg of ground wheat via the rumen cannula. Although baseline pH was low, the SARA challenge lowered ruminal pH further for all cows regardless of diet. Daily average rumen pH decreased from 5.44 and 5.45 to 5.33 and 5.38 for ST and SH, respectively, and from 5.64 and 5.54 to 5.47 and 5.39 for L and LH, respectively, from baseline to challenge phase. Following the rumen challenge, rumen concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, and valerate increased. Decreasing corn silage particle size significantly increased TMR and total DMI during all phases of the model. Feeding short corn silage TMR increased milk, protein, and lactose yields. Cows fed supplemental hay had increased fat yield and protein concentration in the milk and responded minimally to the effects of particle size selection when challenged with SARA. Cows consuming short corn silage TMR changed feed preference for longer forage particles during the course of the SARA challenge. During the recovery phase, however

  9. Effect of milk replacer and concentrate intake on growth rate, feeding behaviour and systemic metabolite concentrations of pre-weaned bull calves of two dairy breeds. (United States)

    Byrne, C J; Fair, S; English, A M; Johnston, D; Lonergan, P; Kenny, D A


    Early-life nutrition affects calf development and thus subsequent performance. The aim of this study was to examine the effect plane of nutrition on growth, feeding behaviour and systemic metabolite concentrations of artificially reared dairy bull calves. Holstein-Friesian (F; n=42) and Jersey (J; n=25) bull calves with a mean±SD age (14±4.7 v. 27±7.2 days) and BW (47±5.5 v. 33±4.7 kg) were offered a high, medium or low plane of nutrition for 8 weeks using an electronic feeding system which recorded a range of feed-related events. Calves were weighed weekly and plasma samples were collected via jugular venipuncture on weeks 1, 4 and 7 relative to the start of the trial period. The calves offered a high plane of nutrition had the greatest growth rate. However, the increased consumption of milk replacer led to a reduction in feed efficiency. Holstein-Friesian calves offered a low plane of nutrition had the greatest number of daily unrewarded visits to the feeder (Pcalves on a low plane of nutrition (Pcalves increased before weaning, concomitant with an increase in concentrate consumption. Urea concentrations were unaffected by plane of nutrition within either breed. Jersey calves on a low plane of nutrition tended to have lower triglycerides than those on a high plane (P=0.08), but greater than those on a medium plane (P=0.08). Holstein-Friesian calves offered a high plane of nutrition tended to have greater triglyceride concentrations than those on a medium plane (P=0.08). Triglycerides increased from the start to the end of the feeding period (Pfeeding behaviour and metabolic response comparable with a high plane of nutrition in pre-weaned bull calves of both F and J breeds.

  10. In vivo assessment of an industrial waste product as a feed additive in dairy cows: Effects of larch (Larix decidua L.) sawdust on blood parameters and milk composition. (United States)

    Tedesco, D; Garavaglia, L; Spagnuolo, M S; Pferschy-Wenzig, E M; Bauer, R; Franz, C


    When larch (Larix spp.) is processed in the wood industry, the sawdust is currently disposed of as waste or used as combustible material, even though it is rich in biologically active compounds. In this study the effect of larch sawdust supplementation on blood parameters as well as milk composition was examined in healthy mid-lactating dairy cows. Twenty-four multiparous Italian Friesian dairy cows were assigned to groups receiving either 300 g/day/cow of larch sawdust or a control diet, and treatments were continued for a 20 day period. Milk parameters were unaffected by treatment. A lower plasma total protein concentration was observed and can be attributed to a decrease in globulin concentration. A lower plasma urea concentration was also detected in the larch group. Moreover, biomarkers of liver function were influenced by the treatment. Total bilirubin was lower in larch-treated animals, and cholesterol tended to be lower. In addition, an interaction between day and treatment was observed for very low density lipoprotein. The concentration of other parameters, including reactive oxygen metabolites, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and nitrotyrosine, did not differ between treatments. The observed benefits, together with the good palatability, make larch sawdust a promising candidate for the development of beneficial feed supplements for livestock. Further studies will be useful, particularly to evaluate its efficacy in different health conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in soil, crops, and ensiled feed following manure spreading on infected dairy farms. (United States)

    Fecteau, Marie-Eve; Hovingh, Ernest; Whitlock, Robert H; Sweeney, Raymond W


    The goal of this study was to determine the persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in soil, crops, and ensiled feeds following manure spreading. This bacterium was often found in soil samples, but less frequently in harvested feeds and silage. Spreading of manure on fields used for crop harvest is preferred to spreading on grazing pastures.

  12. The effect of increasing the nutrient and amino acid concentration of milk diets on dairy heifer individual feed intake, growth, development, and lactation performance. (United States)

    Margerison, J K; Robarts, A D J; Reynolds, G W


    Increasing early (feeding levels and growth rate of dairy calves has been found to increase their milk production potential. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of offering milk diets with or without added carbohydrates and amino acids on calf growth, weaning age, and subsequent growth and milk yield of dairy heifers in their first lactation. Friesian calves born at Massey University (n=57) were selected at random, weighed, and allocated to receive 1 of 3 diets. All calves were fed colostrum from 1 to 3d of age, followed by 4 L of whole milk (WM) per head per day and probiotics between 3 and 18d of age. At 18d of age, calves were weighed to ensure mean body weight (BW); then, at 19 d of age, calves changed diets to 1 of 3 treatments, which reached full treatment rate at 21 d of age. The diets were 4 L/head per day of WM (M); 4 L/head per day of WM plus 200 g of plant carbohydrates (MP); and 4 L/head per day of WM plus 200 g of plant carbohydrates with amino acids (MPA). Calves were weaned upon reaching a BW of 90 kg. During this period, BW, body condition, and hip height and width were measured. The heifers were commingled and grazed on ryegrass and white clover pastures until calving at 23 mo of age, when BW, body condition, and hip height and width were measured again. Milk yield and composition were measured throughout first lactation. At weaning, calves fed MPA had greater mean BW gain, a lower number of days to target BW, and a greater mean hip width gain compared with calves in the M group, although mean gain in hip height did not differ among treatments. Total calf starter intake during the milk period was lower for MPA-fed calves compared with those offered M, mainly due to a shorter milk feeding period required to attain the 90-kg weaning weight, whereas mean daily starter intake and straw intake did not differ. No difference was observed in the calving rate or calving age of heifers in any of the dietary feeding groups. First lactation

  13. Summary of the co-ordinated research project on development of feed supplementation strategies for improving the productivity of dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasuriya, M.C.N.


    Livestock are an important and integral part of most farming systems in Africa. Recent nutritional research has demonstrated the possibility of substantial increases in the productivity of milk-producing animals fed poor quality roughages through small alterations to the feed base. In some cases, improvements have been demonstrated at the farm level: milk yield has increased, body condition of the animals has improved and age at puberty and the interval between calvings have been reduced. These advances have been brought about by the addition of critical nutrients to the diet, e.g. nitrogen or minerals for the rumen micro-organisms or rumen non-degradable protein or all of these. The introduction of improved feeding practices such as strategic supplementation using locally available feed resources (e.g. tree legume leaves, brewers waste, fish waste, multinutrient blocks, etc.) will not only enhance milk production but will also introduce a sustainable fanning practice that will ensure a continuous supply of milk and milk products to local populations. To introduce effective supplementation there is a need to identify the nutrient or combination of nutrients that are the limiting factors for achieving optimum rumen fermentative digestion of the basal diet or the efficiency of utilization of the major products of digestion. In many of the dairying systems operating in Africa this is far from easy, mainly because of the difficulties encountered in effectively measuring feed intake and selection and the efficiency with which the nutrients absorbed are used for productive purposes. In order to circumvent these difficulties it may be possible to measure biochemical indicators in the cows themselves that provide an assessment of nutrient status. The specific objectives of the co-ordinated research project (CRP) were to: - btain baseline information on production and reproductive parameters using a comprehensive survey, progesterone radioimmunoassay and clinical

  14. Establishment of a ruminal protein degradation data base for dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diets for high-producing dairy cattle. UDP values were obtained using sheep, growing cattle and lactating dairy cows eating less feed than normally consumed by high- producing dairy cattle. ... producing dairy cows consuming large amounts of feed, may ... Holstein cows with an average dry-matter intake of 20,8. (:!

  15. Zearalenone (ZEN) metabolism and residue concentrations in physiological specimens of dairy cows exposed long-term to ZEN-contaminated diets differing in concentrate feed proportions. (United States)

    Dänicke, Sven; Keese, Christina; Meyer, Ulrich; Starke, Alexander; Kinoshita, Asako; Rehage, Jürgen


    A long-term feeding experiment with dairy cows was performed to investigate the effects of feeding a Fusarium toxin contaminated (FUS) and a background-contaminated control (CON) ration with a mean concentrate feed proportion of 50% during the first 11 weeks after parturition (Groups FUS-50, CON-50, Period 1), and with concentrate feed proportions of 30% or 60% during the remaining 17 weeks (Groups CON-30, CON-60, FUS-30 and FUS-60, Period 2), on zearalenone (ZEN) residue levels in blood serum, milk, urine and bile. ZEN, α-zearalenol (α-ZEL) and β-zearalenol (β-ZEL), zearalanone (ZAL), α-zearalanol (α-ZAL) and β-zearalanol (β-ZAL) were determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The ZEN concentrations of the rations fed to Groups CON-50, FUS-50 (Period 1), CON-30, CON-60, FUS-30 and FUS-60 (Period 2) amounted to 53.1, 112.7, 35.0, 24.4, 73.8 and 72.5 µg/kg dry matter, respectively. The concentrations of ZEN, α-ZEL, β-ZEL, ZAN, α-ZAL and β-ZAL in serum, urine and milk were lower than 1, 1, 4, 100, 50 and 200 ng/g, respectively, while ZEN, α-ZEL and β-ZEL were detected in bile. Their levels changed with oral ZEN exposure in the course of the experiment and in a similar direction with concentrate feed proportion (Period 2 only). Thus the proportions of the individual β-ZEL, α-ZEL and ZEN concentrations of their sum varied only in narrow ranges of 68-76%, 6-13% and 12-20%, respectively. Interestingly, the bile concentrations of β-ZEL, α-ZEL and ZEN of Groups CON-60 and FUS-60 amounted to only approximately 50%, 45% and 62%, respectively, of those of Groups CON-30 and FUS-30 despite a similar or even lower ZEN exposure. The results indicate that conversion of ZEN to its detectable metabolites was not changed by different dietary concentrate feed proportions while their absolute levels were decreased. These findings might suggest concentrate feed proportion-dependent and rumen fermentation-mediated alterations in ZEN/metabolite degradation, and

  16. e-Cow: an animal model that predicts herbage intake, milk yield and live weight change in dairy cows grazing temperate pastures, with and without supplementary feeding. (United States)

    Baudracco, J; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Holmes, C W; Comeron, E A; Macdonald, K A; Barry, T N; Friggens, N C


    This animal simulation model, named e-Cow, represents a single dairy cow at grazing. The model integrates algorithms from three previously published models: a model that predicts herbage dry matter (DM) intake by grazing dairy cows, a mammary gland model that predicts potential milk yield and a body lipid model that predicts genetically driven live weight (LW) and body condition score (BCS). Both nutritional and genetic drives are accounted for in the prediction of energy intake and its partitioning. The main inputs are herbage allowance (HA; kg DM offered/cow per day), metabolisable energy and NDF concentrations in herbage and supplements, supplements offered (kg DM/cow per day), type of pasture (ryegrass or lucerne), days in milk, days pregnant, lactation number, BCS and LW at calving, breed or strain of cow and genetic merit, that is, potential yields of milk, fat and protein. Separate equations are used to predict herbage intake, depending on the cutting heights at which HA is expressed. The e-Cow model is written in Visual Basic programming language within Microsoft Excel®. The model predicts whole-lactation performance of dairy cows on a daily basis, and the main outputs are the daily and annual DM intake, milk yield and changes in BCS and LW. In the e-Cow model, neither herbage DM intake nor milk yield or LW change are needed as inputs; instead, they are predicted by the e-Cow model. The e-Cow model was validated against experimental data for Holstein-Friesian cows with both North American (NA) and New Zealand (NZ) genetics grazing ryegrass-based pastures, with or without supplementary feeding and for three complete lactations, divided into weekly periods. The model was able to predict animal performance with satisfactory accuracy, with concordance correlation coefficients of 0.81, 0.76 and 0.62 for herbage DM intake, milk yield and LW change, respectively. Simulations performed with the model showed that it is sensitive to genotype by feeding environment

  17. Effects of Prepartum Monensin Feeding on Energy Metabolism and Reproductive Performance of Postpartum High-Producing Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Changizi Mohammadi, Abbas Rowshan Ghasrodashti1, Amin Tamadon2,3 and Mohammad Amin Behzadi4*


    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the effects of monensin in preparturient diet on postpartum milk production, energy metabolism, and reproductive performance of Holstein dairy cows. Forty Holstein dairy cows on close-up period were randomly divided into monensin treated (300 mg/day in close-up ration, top dress and control groups. Body condition score (BCS was estimated three weeks before and three weeks after calving. Milk production and milk fat percentage were recorded in both groups within 3 weeks postpartum. Blood samples were collected from five randomly selected cows of each group three weeks after calving. Serum concentrations of insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I, insulin, glucose, and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA were measured. Calving to the first observed estrus interval and calving to conception interval were compared between two groups. The results of the experiment showed that loss of BCS (P=0.3, increase of milk production (P=0.9, and milk fat percentage (P>0.05 were not significantly different between two groups during the period of study. In addition, mean serum glucose concentration (P=0.001 and serum insulin concentration (P=0.01 in monensin group were significantly higher than control cows in the first week postpartum. Moreover, serum BHBA concentration did not significantly change in monensin group. Serum IGF-I concentration in monensin group was significantly higher than control group in three weeks postpartum (P<0.01. The present study indicated that monensin treatment decreased calving to the first observed estrus interval (P=0.05 and calving to conception interval (P=0.002. In conclusion, supplementing the close-up ration can increase postpartum serum IGF-I concentration and prevent the increase of serum BHBA concentration. These may result in enhancement reproductive performance of high-producing dairy cows.

  18. Exposure to Inhalable Dust, Endotoxin, and Total Volatile Organic Carbons on Dairy Farms Using Manual and Automated Feeding Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basinas, Ioannis; Cronin, Garvin; Hogan, Victoria


    was collected during the surveys. Associations between exposure concentrations and feeding systems, worker tasks, and other farm characteristics were explored in linear mixed-effect regression models with farmer identity treated as a random effect. Results: Exposure concentrations were variable and had......Introduction: Agricultural workers tend to have high exposures to organic dusts which may induce or exacerbate respiratory disorders. Studies investigating the effect of work tasks and farm characteristics on organic dust exposures among farm workers suggest that handling of animal feed...... in farms using semi-automatic feeding systems when compared to those using manual feeding systems but in multivariate regression analysis associations were not statistically significant (β = -0.54, P = 0.4). Performance of activities related to handling and spreading of hay or straw was the strongest...

  19. Implications of feed concentrate reduction in organic grassland-based dairy systems: a long-term on-farm study. (United States)

    Leiber, F; Schenk, I K; Maeschli, A; Ivemeyer, S; Zeitz, J O; Moakes, S; Klocke, P; Staehli, P; Notz, C; Walkenhorst, M


    In response to increasing efforts for reducing concentrate inputs to organic dairy production in grassland-rich areas of Europe, a long-term study was conducted, which assessed the impacts of concentrate reductions on cows' performance, health, fertility and average herd age. In total, 42 Swiss commercial organic dairy cattle farms were monitored over 6 years ('Y0', 2008/09 until 'Y5', 2013/14). In comparison with overall data of Swiss herdbooks (including conventional and organic farms), the herds involved in the project had lower milk yields, similar milk solids, shorter calving intervals and higher average lactation numbers. During the first 3 project years farmers reduced the concentrate proportion (i.e. cereals, oilseeds and grain legumes) in the dairy cows' diets to varying degrees. In Y0, farms fed between 0% and 6% (dietary dry matter proportion per year) of concentrates. During the course of the study they changed the quantity of concentrates to voluntarily chosen degrees. Retrospectively, farms were clustered into five farm groups: Group '0-conc' (n=6 farms) already fed zero concentrates in Y0 and stayed at this level. Group 'Dec-to0' (n=11) reduced concentrates to 0 during the project period. Groups 'Dec-strong' (n=8) and 'Dec-slight' (n=12) decreased concentrate amounts by >50% and farms) remained at the initial level of concentrates during the project. Milk recording data were summarised and analysed per farm and project year. Lactation number and calving intervals were obtained from the databases of the Swiss breeders' associations. Dietary concentrate amounts and records of veterinary treatments were obtained from the obligatory farm documentations. Data were analysed with GLMs. Daily milk yields differed significantly between farm groups already in Y0, being lowest in groups 0-conc (16.0 kg) and Dec-to0 (16.7 kg), and highest in groups Dec-slight (19.6 kg) and Const-conc (19.2 kg). Milk yield decreases across the years within groups were not

  20. In-field evaluation of clinoptilolite feeding efficacy on the reduction of milk aflatoxin M1 concentration in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis D. Katsoulos


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinoptilolite is a natural zeolite with high adsorption capacity for polar mycotoxins such as aflatoxins. The efficacy of clinoptilolite in ameliorating the toxic effects of aflatoxicosis has been proven in monogastric animals, but there is no such evidence for ruminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate, under field conditions, whether the dietary administration of clinoptilolite in dairy cows could reduce the concentration of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 in bulk-tank milk, in farms with higher than or close to 0.05 μg/kg of milk (European maximum allowed residual level. An objective of the present study was also to investigate the effect of particle size of clinoptilolite on aflatoxin binding. Methods Fifteen commercial Greek dairy herds with AFM1 concentrations in bulk tank milk ≥0.05 μg/kg were selected. Bulk tank milk AFM1 was determined prior to the onset and on day 7 of the experiment. Clinoptilolite was added in the total mixed rations of all farms at the rate of 200 g per animal per day, throughout this period. Two different particle sizes of clinoptilolite were used; less than 0.15 mm in 9 farms (LC group and less than 0.8 mm in 6 farms (HC group. Results Clinoptilolite administration significantly reduced AFM1 concentrations in milk in all farms tested at an average rate of 56.2 % (SD: 15.11. The mean milk AFM1 concentration recorded on Day 7 was significantly (P < 0.001 lower compared to that of Day 0 (0.036 ± 0.0061 vs. 0.078 ± 0.0074 μg/kg. In LC group farms the reduction of milk AFM1 concentration was significantly higher than HC group farms (0.046 ± 0.0074 vs. 0.036 ± 0.0061 μg/kg, P = 0.002. As indicated by the Pearson correlation, there was a significant and strong linear correlation among the milk AFM1 concentrations on Days 0 and 7 (R = 0.95, P < 0.001. Conclusions Dietary administration of clinoptilolite, especially of smallest particle size, at the rate of

  1. Consequences of two or four months of finishing feeding of culled dry dairy cows on carcass characteristics and technological and sensory meat quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, M.; Madsen, N. T.; Bligaard, H. B.


    with 1st parity cows, older cows ate 12% more feed, had similar daily gain, were heavier, and had higher BCS and fatness including IMF. The results show that it is possible to dry-off and finish-feed culled dairy cows resulting in larger muscles, increased fatness, improved overall carcass quality...... (C) was slaughtered immediately after drying-off (n=43), a group (F2) was finishing-fed for 63 days (n=41), and a group (F4) was finishing-fed for 126 days (n=41). In the finishing period, cows had free access to a TMR (10.6 MJ ME and 130 g CP per kg of DM). Cows on treatment, F2 and F4 gained 1.......16§0.05 kg/d in the finishing period. Compared with C-cows, F2- and F4-cows had 56 and 97 kg higher carcass weight, 10% and 21% larger Longissimus muscle area, and 14 and 70% more backfat, respectively, at time of slaughter. EUROP conformation scores were 2.2 (C), 3.4 (F2) and 4.4 (F4) and EUROP fat scores...

  2. Forests of Wisconsin, 2013 (United States)

    Charles H. Perry


    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Wisconsin based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Data estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and...

  3. Quercetin Feeding in Newborn Dairy Calves Cannot Compensate Colostrum Deprivation: Study on Metabolic, Antioxidative and Inflammatory Traits (United States)

    Gruse, Jeannine; Kanitz, Ellen; Weitzel, Joachim M.; Tuchscherer, Armin; Stefaniak, Tadeusz; Jawor, Paulina; Wolffram, Siegfried; Hammon, Harald M.


    Immaturity of the neonatal immune system is causative for high morbidity in calves and colostrum intake is crucial for acquiring passive immunity. Pathogenesis is promoted by reactive oxygen species accumulating at birth if counter-regulation is inadequate. The flavonol quercetin exerts antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects that may enhance neonatal health. The aim of this work was to study effects of quercetin feeding on metabolic, antioxidative and inflammatory parameters in neonatal calves to investigate whether quercetin could compensate for insufficient colostrum supply. Twenty-eight newborn calves were assigned to two dietary groups fed colostrum or milk-based formula on day 1 and 2 and milk replacer thereafter. From day 2 onwards, 7 calves per diet group were additionally fed quercetin aglycone (50 mg/(kg body weight × day)). Blood samples were taken repeatedly to measure plasma concentrations of flavonols, glucose, lactate, total protein, albumin, urea, non-esterified fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, immunoglobulins, fibrinogen, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A. Trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity, ferric reducing ability of plasma, thiobarbituric acid reactive species and F2-isoprostanes were analyzed to evaluate plasma antioxidative status. Expression of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1α, interleukin-1β, serum amyloid A, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase mRNA were measured in liver tissue on day 8. Plasma flavonol concentrations were detectable only after quercetin-feeding without differences between colostrum and formula feeding. Plasma glucose, lactate, total protein, immunoglobulins, triglycerides, cholesterol, trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity and thiobarbituric acid reactive species were higher after colostrum feeding. Body temperature, fecal fluidity and plasma concentrations of cortisol and haptoglobin were higher in

  4. Feeding distillers dried grains in replacement of forage in limit-fed dairy heifer rations: Effects on growth performance, rumen fermentation, and total-tract digestibility of nutrients. (United States)

    Manthey, A K; Anderson, J L; Perry, G A


    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of increasing dietary concentration of distillers dried grains (DDGS) in dairy heifer rations. A 16-wk randomized complete block design study was conducted using 48 Holstein heifers [199±2 d of age; body weight (BW) 206±2kg] to evaluate effects of dietary treatment on dry matter (DM) intake, average daily gain, growth performance, rumen fermentation, and nutrient digestibility. Treatments were (1) 30% DDGS with the diet fed at 2.65% of BW, (2) 40% DDGS with the diet fed at 2.50% of BW, and (3) 50% DDGS with the diet fed at 2.35% of BW. The remainder of the diet consisted of grass hay and 1.5% mineral mix. Heifers were individually limit-fed using Calan gates. Heifers were weighed every 2 wk and the ration amount offered was adjusted accordingly. Frame measurements and body condition score were recorded every 2wk. Rumen fluid was collected via esophageal tubing during wk 12 and 16 for pH, ammonia N, and volatile fatty acid analysis. Total-tract digestibility of nutrients was evaluated during wk 16 using fecal grab sampling. No treatment by week interactions were found for any of the growth parameters measured, and growth parameters did not differ among treatments. Heifer DM intake linearly decreased with increasing concentrations of DDGS. Body weight and average daily gain were similar among treatments, whereas gain:feed linearly increased across treatments, with a tendency for a treatment by time interaction. As the dietary concentrations of DDGS increased, rumen ammonia N linearly increased. Acetate proportion and acetate:propionate linearly decreased as DDGS increased, whereas propionate linearly increased. There were treatment by time interactions for propionate proportion and acetate:propionate. Increasing dietary concentrations of DDGS linearly increased total-tract digestibility of DM, organic matter, and crude protein. Limit-feeding diets with greater concentrations of DDGS improved gain:feed and

  5. Effect of feed-related farm characteristics on relative values of genetic traits in dairy cows to reduce greenhouse gas emissions along the chain. (United States)

    Van Middelaar, C E; Berentsen, P B M; Dijkstra, J; Van Arendonk, J A M; De Boer, I J M


    Breeding has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dairy farming. Evaluating the effect of a 1-unit change (i.e., 1 genetic standard deviation improvement) in genetic traits on GHG emissions along the chain provides insight into the relative importance of genetic traits to reduce GHG emissions. Relative GHG values of genetic traits, however, might depend on feed-related farm characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feed-related farm characteristics on GHG values by comparing the values of milk yield and longevity for an efficient farm and a less efficient farm. The less efficient farm did not apply precision feeding and had lower feed production per hectare than the efficient farm. Greenhouse gas values of milk yield and longevity were calculated by using a whole-farm model and 2 different optimization methods. Method 1 optimized farm management before and after a change in genetic trait by maximizing labor income; the effect on GHG emissions (i.e., from production of farm inputs up to the farm gate) was considered a side effect. Method 2 optimized farm management after a change in genetic trait by minimizing GHG emissions per kilogram of milk while maintaining labor income and milk production at least at the level before the change in trait; the effect on labor income was considered a side effect. Based on maximizing labor income (method 1), GHG values of milk yield and longevity were, respectively, 279 and 143kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/unit change per cow per year on the less efficient farm, and 247 and 210kg of CO2e/unit change per cow per year on the efficient farm. Based on minimizing GHG emissions (method 2), GHG values of milk yield and longevity were, respectively, 538 and 563kg of CO2e/unit change per cow per year on the less efficient farm, and 453 and 441kg of CO2e/unit change per cow per year on the efficient farm. Sensitivity analysis showed that, for both methods, the absolute effect of a

  6. Effects of feeding lutein on production performance, antioxidative status, and milk quality of high-yielding dairy cows. (United States)

    Xu, C Z; Wang, H F; Yang, J Y; Wang, J H; Duan, Z Y; Wang, C; Liu, J X; Lao, Y


    This experiment was conducted to determine the influences of supplementing different levels of an additive containing lutein in the diet of Chinese Holstein lactating cows on production performance, antioxidative plasma metabolites, and milk quality. This study was performed on 60 multiparous Holstein dairy cows in peak lactation. The cows were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 homogeneous treatments, with lutein preparation (extracted from marigolds; effective lutein content was 2%) added at levels of 0, 100, 150, and 200 g/d per head, with the actual available amounts being 0, 2, 3, and 4 g of lutein/d per head, respectively. The experiment lasted for 13 wk, with the first week for adaptation. Milk yield and milk compositions were recorded weekly, and milk concentrations of lutein, dry matter intake, and antioxidative blood index were analyzed in the first, fourth, seventh, and thirteenth week of the study. The results showed that adding lutein in the diet had no effect on dry matter intake compared with the control group; however, it slowed down the trend of decline in milk yield, and had a linear incremental effect on milk yield with increasing concentration of lutein. Dietary lutein tended to quadratically increase the percentage of milk fat, and linearly increased milk lactose concentration, with the highest value when treated at 200 g of lutein preparation/d per head, and decreased somatic cell count, with the lowest values when treated with 150 and 200 g of lutein preparation/d per head. The concentration of lutein in milk linearly increased with the incorporation of the additive, with a value of 0.59, 0.70, 1.20, and 1.50 μg/100mL when treated with 0, 100, 150, and 200 g/d, respectively. Total plasma antioxidant capacity tended to linearly increase in cows fed lutein preparation, whereas plasma superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities did not differ significantly. In conclusion, addition of lutein in the diet could improve the production

  7. A New Strategy for Utilizing Rice Forage Production Using a No-Tillage System to Enhance the Self-Sufficient Feed Ratio of Small Scale Dairy Farming in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windi Al Zahra


    Full Text Available Rice forage systems can increase the land use efficiency in paddy fields, improve the self-sufficient feed ratio, and provide environmental benefits for agro-ecosystems. This system often decreased economic benefits compared with those through imported commercial forage feed, particularly in Japan. We observed the productivities of winter forage after rice harvest between conventional tillage (CT and no-tillage (NT in a field experiment. An on-farm evaluation was performed to determine the self-sufficient ratio of feed and forage production costs based on farm evaluation of the dairy farmer and the rice grower, who adopted a rice forage system. The field experiment detected no significant difference in forage production and quality between CT and NT after rice harvest. However, the production cost was dramatically decreased by 28.1% in NT compared with CT. The self-sufficient ratio was 5.4% higher when dairy farmers adopted the rice forage system compared with those using the current management system. Therefore, this study demonstrated the positive benefits for dairy farmers and rice growers in Japan when adopting a rice forage system with NT, which could improve the self-sufficient feed ratio and reduce production costs.

  8. Studies on the post-partum ovarian activity of dairy cattle under different feeding regimes in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrin, J.; Villalba, P.; Guerron, E.; Zurita, E.


    In order to monitor ovarian activity in post-partum dairy cows in the Cayambe Valley, Ecuador, 164 cows from three farms were studied. Milk progesterone concentrations (analysed by RIA) and additional data on livestock management, nutritional status and health were compiled. Farms were classified mainly according to nutritional and management status; the better the nutritional status of the cows the sooner they resumed oestrous activity (28.3-31.6 days post-partum). The duration of the first oestrous cycle was found to be variable, 18.0 to 20.4 days. Thirty-one per cent of the study cows did not conceive during the course of the trial and the mean calving interval of those that calved was 426 days. The high incidence of hypofunctional ovaries was a cause for concern on one farm. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Effect of feed forage particle size and dietary urea on excretion of phosphorus in lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puggaard, Liselotte; Lund, Peter; Sehested, Jakob


    Thirty six multiparous Danish Holstein cows, 222 days from calving with a standard deviation (±) of 102 days, 627±7 kg of body weight, and 32±3 kg/d energy corrected milk were used to investigate the effect of forage particle size (FPS) and dietary urea supplementation on excretion of phosphorus (P...... of grass hay was reduced to a theoretical particle size of 3 mm, as compared to 40–60 mm in CONTROL and LOW-N. Rations were fed for ad libitum intake for 16 d and balance trials were conducted on d 15 and 16. Indigestible neutral detergent fiber was used as an internal marker to estimate fecal output...... and total tract digestibilities. The obtained negative P balances confirmed that dairy cows were fed below P requirement, indicating that treatment effects on fecal P excretion mainly originated from variations in IL. Fecal P excretion was not reduced with reduced forage particle size despite reduction...


    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in cooperation with USDA and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), has undertaken a program to study the presence of dioxin-like compounds in animal feeds. Two phases of this program have been completed, and this paper reports on t...

  11. Ensiling characteristics of distillers wet grains with corn stalks and determination of the feeding potential for dairy heifers (United States)

    The characteristics and feeding potential of corn distillers wet grains with solubles (DWGS) ensiled with corn stalks (CS) were evaluated in a two-part experiment. A mix of 66.7 % DWGS and 33.3 % CS (as-fed) was ensiled in two plastic silage bags. One silage bag was left untreated (UNT) and the othe...

  12. Effect of feeding oat and vetch forages on milk production and quality in smallholder dairy farms in Central Kenya. (United States)

    Mwendia, Solomon W; Mwungu, Chris M; Ng'ang'a, Stanley Karanja; Njenga, David; Notenbaert, An


    Despite the significant livestock contribution to households' nutrition and incomes in many African smallholder farms, milk productivity remains low. Inadequate feeding is the main reason for the underperformance. To contribute towards addressing this, an on-farm feeding trial was undertaken in Ol-joro-Orok Central Kenya. A feed basket using oat (Avena sativa) cv Conway and vetch (Vicia villosa) was compared to farmers practice. Milk production (kg) and quality parameters, including butterfat, protein, lactose, and density, were monitored, and cost-benefit analysis (CBA) undertaken. Feeding both oat and vetch increased milk production by 21% (morning) and 18%, (evening), equivalent to 1.4 kg/day. Increases (%) in quality were butter fat (18.2), solid-non-fat (16.5), lactose (16.2), and protein (16.1). Concomitantly, the CBA returned positive results, supporting the hypothesis of economic advantage in using oat and vetch in milk production in the area, and possibly in other similar areas.

  13. Precision-feeding dairy heifers a high rumen-degradable protein diet with different proportions of dietary fiber and forage-to-concentrate ratios. (United States)

    Lascano, G J; Koch, L E; Heinrichs, A J


    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding a high-rumen-degradable protein (RDP) diet when dietary fiber content is manipulated within differing forage-to-concentrate ratio (F:C) on nutrient utilization of precision-fed dairy heifers. Six cannulated Holstein heifers (486.98±15.07kg of body weight) were randomly assigned to 2 F:C, low- (45% forage; LF) and high-forage (90% forage; HF) diets and to a fiber proportion sequence [33% grass hay and wheat straw (HS), 67% corn silage (CS; low fiber); 50% HS, 50% CS (medium fiber); and 67% HS, 33% CS (high fiber)] within forage proportion administered according to a split-plot, 3×3 Latin square design (16-d periods). Heifers fed LF had greater apparent total-tract organic matter digestibility coefficients (dC), neutral detergent fiber, and cellulose than those fed LC diets. Substituting CS with HS resulted in a linear reduction in dry matter, organic matter, and cellulose dC. Nitrogen dC was not different between F:C or with increasing proportions of HS in diets, but N retention tended to decrease linearly as HS was increased in the diets. Predicted microbial protein flow to the duodenum decreased linearly with HS addition and protozoa numbers HS interacted linearly, exhibiting a decrease as HS increased for LF, whereas no effects were observed for HF. Blood urea N increased linearly as HS was incorporated. The LF-fed heifers had a greater ruminal volatile fatty acids concentration. We noted a tendency for a greater dry matter, and a significantly higher liquid fraction turnover rate for HF diets. There was a linear numerical increase in the liquid and solid fraction turnover rate as fiber was added to the diets. Rumen fermentation parameters and fractional passages (solid and liquid) rates support the reduction in dC, N retention, and microbial protein synthesis observed as more dietary fiber is added to the rations of dairy heifers precision-fed a constant proportion of rumen

  14. Effects of feeding lauric acid or coconut oil on ruminal protozoa numbers, fermentation pattern, digestion, omasal nutrient flow, and milk production in dairy cows. (United States)

    Faciola, A P; Broderick, G A


    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feeding of coconut oil (CO), in which lauric acid (La) comprises about 50% of the fatty acid composition, as a practical rumen protozoa (RP) suppressing agent, to assess whether the source of La affects ruminal fermentation and animal performance and to test whether suppressing RP improves N utilization, nutrient digestion, nutrient flow at the omasal canal, and milk production. Fifteen multiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) and 15 primiparous Holstein cows (3 fitted with ruminal cannulas) were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square experiment with 14d of adaptation and 14d of sample collection. Diets were fed as total mixed ration and contained (dry matter basis) 10% corn silage, 50% alfalfa silage, and 40% concentrate. The control diet contained 3% (dry matter basis) calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids (Megalac, Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ) as a ruminally inert fat source and had no added La or CO. Diets with La and CO were formulated to contain equal amounts of La (1.3%, dry matter basis). Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment. Both CO and La reduced RP numbers by about 40%. Lauric acid reduced yield of milk and milk components; however, CO did not affect yield of milk and yields of milk components. Both La and CO caused small reductions in total VFA concentration; CO increased molar proportion of ruminal propionate, reduced ruminal ammonia and branched-chain volatile fatty acids, suggesting reduced protein degradation, and reduced milk urea N and blood urea N concentrations, suggesting improved protein efficiency. Lauric acid reduced total-tract apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as well as ruminal apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber as measured at the omasal canal; however, CO did not alter fiber digestion. Microbial protein flow at the omasal canal, as well as the flow of N fractions at

  15. Precision-feeding dairy heifers a high rumen-undegradable protein diet with different proportions of dietary fiber and forage-to-concentrate ratios. (United States)

    Koch, L E; Gomez, N A; Bowyer, A; Lascano, G J


    The addition of dietary fiber can alter nutrient and N utilization in precision-fed dairy heifers and may further benefit from higher inclusion levels of RUP. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding a high-RUP diet when dietary fiber content was manipulated within differing forage-to-concentrate ratios (F:C) on nutrient utilization of precision-fed dairy heifers. Six rumen-cannulated Holstein heifers (555.4 ± 31.4 kg BW; 17.4 ± 0.1 mo) were randomly assigned to 2 levels of forage, high forage (HF; 60% forage) or low forage (LF; 45% forage), and to a fiber proportion sequence (low fiber: 100% oat hay and silage [OA], 0% wheat straw [WS]; medium fiber: 83.4% OA, 16.6% WS; and high fiber: 66.7% OA, 33.3% WS) administered according to a split-plot 3 × 3 Latin square design (21-d periods). Similar levels of N intake (1.70 g N/kg BW) and RUP (55% of CP) were provided. Data were analyzed as a split-plot, 3 × 3 Latin square design using a mixed model with fixed effects of period and treatment. A repeated measures model was used with data that had multiple measurements over time. No differences were observed for DM, OM, NDF, or ADF apparent digestibility coefficients (dC) between HF- and LF-fed heifers. Heifers receiving LF diets had greater starch dC compared to HF heifers. Increasing the fiber level through WS addition resulted in a linear reduction of OM dC. There was a linear interaction for DM dC with a concurrent linear interaction in NDF dC. Nitrogen intake, dC, and retention did not differ; however, urine and total N excretion increased linearly with added fiber. Predicted microbial CP flow (MP) linearly decreased with WS inclusion mainly in LF heifers, as indicated by a significant interaction between F:C and WS. Rumen pH linearly increased with WS addition, although no F:C effect was detected. Ruminal ammonia concentration had an opposite linear effect with respect to MP as WS increased. Diets with the higher proportion of

  16. Die Deutschen in Wisconsin (Germans in Wisconsin). (United States)

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    The following curriculum units comprise this course book: (1) Germans in a New Home, (2) Contributions of the Germans in Wisconsin, (3) A Letter to Germany, (4) Germans Come to Kingston, (5) First a Soldier, Then a Man of the Church (about Heinrich von Rohr), (6) A Visiting German, and (7) Germans and Music. Each unit begins with a reading of…

  17. Enhancing the performance of cut-and-carry based dairy production in selected peri-urban areas of the United Republic of Tanzania through strategic feed supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nkya, R.; Kessy, B.M.; Shem, M.N.; Mwanga, I.E.


    A survey was conducted in 81 smallholder farms in the peri-urban areas of Morogoro (Site I: n=52) and Dar es Salaam (Site II: n=29). The results showed that food supply was insufficient and of poor quality resulting in the poor performance of cows. In order to investigate the effect of farm-formulated concentrate (FC) or urea-molasses multinutrient-blocks (UMMB) in improving the productive and reproductive performance of dairy cattle, two feeding trials were carried out in 56 farms, 48 at Site I and 8 at Site II. The cost:benefit analysis determined their suitability for incorporation in dry season feeding. The FC was given to 14 farms at Site I (n=37 cows) to be incorporated in the diet of cows at the rate of 0.8 kg per litre of milk produced. The UMMB was tested in 18 farms (14 at Site I and 4 at Site II), fed to 27 cows (18 in Site I and 9 in Site II) at approximately 0.7 - 1.0 kg per cow per day. The Control group comprised of 14 farms (10 at Site I and 4 at Site II) with 28 cows (20 at Site I and 8 at Site II). The supplements were introduced to the farms after successful on-station trials for acceptability by dairy cows. Chemical composition and in sacco rumen degradability of the major feeds showed low CP content and degradability. Supplementation of forage with FC and UMMB was associated with increased milk production of 1.26 and 1.5 litres per cow/day and BCS and body weight changes of 0.2 and 4 kg and 0.25 and 8 kg, respectively. The improvement in milk yield, BCS and body weight change were significantly different in the UMMB supplemented cows (P 0.05), and the control groups. Both supplementation strategies had no significant effect on reproductive performance. However, there was a slight reduction in the number of days postpartum (DPP) to first progesterone rise (65.3 vs 77.6), DPP to conception oestrus (120.2 vs 128.7), and calving interval (400 vs 414.5 days) in the UMMB supplemented cows compared to non-supplemented control animals. Conception rate

  18. Effect of feeding heat-treated colostrum on risk for infection with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, milk production, and longevity in Holstein dairy cows. (United States)

    Godden, S M; Wells, S; Donahue, M; Stabel, J; Oakes, J M; Sreevatsan, S; Fetrow, J


    In summer 2007, a randomized controlled field trial was initiated on 6 large Midwest commercial dairy farms to investigate the effect of feeding heat-treated (HT) colostrum on transmission of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and on future milk production and longevity within the herd. On each farm, colostrum was collected daily from fresh cows, pooled, divided into 2 aliquots, and then 1 aliquot was heat-treated in a commercial batch pasteurizer at 60°C for 60min. A sample from each batch of colostrum was collected for PCR testing (MAP-positive vs. MAP-negative). Newborn heifer calves were removed from the dam within 30 to 60min of birth and systematically assigned to be fed 3.8 L of either fresh (FR; n=434) or heat-treated (HT; n=490) colostrum within 2h of birth. After reaching adulthood (>2 yr old), study animals were tested once annually for 3 yr (2010, 2011, 2012) for infection with MAP using serum ELISA and fecal culture. Lactation records describing milk production data and death or culling events were collected during the 3-yr testing period. Multivariable model logistic and linear regression was used to investigate the effect of feeding HT colostrum on risk for testing positive to MAP during the 3-yr testing period (positive/negative; logistic regression) and on first and second lactation milk yield (kg/cow; linear regression), respectively. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to investigate the effect of feeding HT colostrum on risk and time to removal from the herd. Fifteen percent of all study animals were fed PCR-positive colostrum. By the end of the 3-yr testing period, no difference was noted in the proportion of animals testing positive for MAP, with either serum ELISA or fecal culture, when comparing the HT group (10.5%) versus the FR group (8.1%). There was no effect of treatment on first- (HT=11.797kg; FR=11,671kg) or second-lactation (HT=11,013kg; FR=11,235kg) milk production. The proportion of cows leaving the herd by

  19. Effect of dietary Quebracho tannin extract on feed intake, digestibility, excretion of urinary purine derivatives and milk production in dairy cows. (United States)

    Henke, Anika; Dickhoefer, Uta; Westreicher-Kristen, Edwin; Knappstein, Karin; Molkentin, Joachim; Hasler, Mario; Susenbeth, Andreas


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary Quebracho tannin extract (QTE) on feed intake, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), excretion of urinary purine derivatives (PD) and milk composition and yield in dairy cows. Fifty Holstein cows were divided into two groups. To reach a similar performance of both groups, cows were divided according to their milk yield, body weight, days in milk and number of lactations at the start of the experiment averaging 33.2 ± 8.2 kg/d, 637 ± 58 kg, 114 ± 73 d and 2.3 ± 1.6 lactations, respectively. The cows were fed a basal diet as total mixed ration containing on dry matter (DM) basis 34% grass silage, 32% maize silage and 34% concentrate feeds. Three dietary treatments were tested, the control (CON, basal diet without QTE), QTE 15 (basal diet with QTE at 15 g/kg DM) and QTE 30 (basal diet with QTE at 30 g/kg DM). Two treatments were arranged along six periods each 21 d (13 d adaptation phase and 8 d sampling phase). The ATTD of DM and organic matter were reduced only in Diet QTE 30 , whereas both QTE treatments reduced ATTD of fibre and nitrogen (N), indicating that QTE impaired rumen fermentation. Nevertheless, feed intake was unaffected by QTE. In Diet CON, urinary N excretion accounted for 29.8% of N intake and decreased in treatments QTE 15 and QTE 30 to 27.5% and 17.9%, respectively. Daily faecal N excretion increased in treatments CON, QTE 15 and QTE 30 from 211 to 237 and 273 g/d, respectively, which amounted to 39.0%, 42.4% and 51.7% of the N intake, respectively. Hence, QTE shifted N excretion from urine to faeces, whereas the proportion of ingested N appearing in milk was not affected by QTE (average 30.7% of N intake). Daily PD excretion as indicator for microbial crude protein (CP) flow at the duodenum decreased in treatment QTE 30 compared with Diet CON from 413 to 280 mmol/d. The ratios of total PD to creatinine suggest that urinary PD excretion was already lower when

  20. Effect of substituting soybean meal and canola cake with dried distillers grains with solubles at 2 dietary crude protein levels on feed intake, milk production, and milk quality in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens


    Dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) is an alternative source of feed protein for dairy cows. Previous studies found that DDGS, based on grains other than corn, can substitute for soybean meal and canola cake as a dietary protein source without reducing milk production or quality. As socie......Dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) is an alternative source of feed protein for dairy cows. Previous studies found that DDGS, based on grains other than corn, can substitute for soybean meal and canola cake as a dietary protein source without reducing milk production or quality....... As societal concerns exist, and in many areas strict regulation, regarding nitrogen excretion from dairy cows, the dairy industry has focused on reducing dietary protein level and nitrogen excretion. In the present study, we investigated the use of DDGS as a protein source, at a marginally low dietary crude...... protein (CP) levels, in a grass-clover and corn silage-based ration. The experiment involved 24 Holstein cows and 2 protein sources (DDGS or soybean-canola mixture) fed at 2 levels of CP (14 or 16%) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of both protein source...

  1. Impact of cow strain and concentrate supplementation on grazing behaviour, milk yield and metabolic state of dairy cows in an organic pasture-based feeding system. (United States)

    Heublein, C; Dohme-Meier, F; Südekum, K-H; Bruckmaier, R M; Thanner, S; Schori, F


    As ruminants are able to digest fibre efficiently and assuming that competition for feed v. food use would intensify in the future, cereals and other field crops should primarily be destined to cover the dietary needs of humans and monogastric animals such as poultry and pigs. Farming systems with a reduced or absent concentrate supplementation, as postulated by organic agriculture associations, require adapted dairy cows. The aim of this experiment was to examine the impact of concentrate supplementation on milk production, grazing and rumination behaviour, feed intake, physical activity and blood traits with two Holstein-Friesian cow strains and to conclude the consequences for sustainable and organic farming. The experiment was a cross-over study and took place on an organic farm in Switzerland. In all, 12 Swiss Holstein-Friesian (HCH) cows and 12 New Zealand Holstein-Friesian (HNZ) cows, which were paired according to lactation number, days in milk and age for primiparous cows, were used. All cows grazed full time and were supplemented either with 6 kg/day of a commercial, organic cereal-grain mix or received no supplement. After an adaptation period of 21 days, a measurement period of 7 days followed, where milk yield and composition, pasture dry matter intake estimated with the n-alkane double-indicator technique, physical activity based on pedometer measurements, grazing behaviour recorded by automatic jaw movement recorder and blood samples were investigated. Non-supplemented cows had a lower milk yield and supplemented HCH cows produced more milk than supplemented HNZ cows. Grazing time and physical activity were greater for non-supplemented cows. Supplementation had no effect on rumination behaviour, but HNZ cows spent longer ruminating compared with HCH cows. Pasture dry matter intake decreased with the concentrate supplementation. Results of blood analysis did not indicate a strong negative energy balance for either non-supplemented or supplemented cows

  2. Effects of limited concentrate feeding on growth and blood and serum variables, and on nutrient digestibility and gene expression of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes in dairy calves. (United States)

    Lohakare, J D; van de Sand, H; Gerlach, K; Hosseini, A; Mielenz, M; Sauerwein, H; Pries, M; Südekum, K-H


    This study elucidated the effects of limited concentrate feeding on growth, nutrient digestibility, blood profile and gene expression of gluconeogenic enzymes in the liver of dairy calves. The study utilized 36 German Holstein dairy calves (5-7 days of age) divided into two groups of 18 calves each for 150 days. Control group calves received 2 kg/(calf × day) of concentrate, whereas calves in the restricted group received only 1 kg/(calf × day). Good quality forage (mixture of maize and grass silages) was available for ad libitum consumption to both groups. The intake of milk replacer before weaning, and of concentrate were recorded daily per calf; however, the consumption of forages was quantified as daily average of the group. Body weights (BW) were recorded at start and on days 35, 70, 112 and 150. Blood and serum samples and spot urinary and faecal samples were also collected at similar time points. On days 70 and 150, liver biopsies were collected from seven animals in each group. The BW was not different between the groups at all times. Total BW gain in the control group was 124 kg as opposed to 111 kg in restricted group that led to average BW gain of 827 g/day and 739 g/day in respective groups, and the differences were significant (p = 0.018). As planned, the control group had higher concentrate and lower forage intake than the restricted group. The blood haemoglobin, haematocrit and serum variables (glucose, total protein, albumin and urea) were within the normal range in both groups, but serum glucose was higher (p < 0.05) in control than in restricted group at 70 days. There was no difference between groups in organic matter (OM) digestibility which declined (p < 0.001) with increasing age in both groups. Microbial crude protein (MCP) synthesis estimated from urinary allantoin excretion increased (p < 0.001) in both groups with increasing age but was not different between groups. The mRNA expressions for the gluconeogenic enzymes, cytosolic and

  3. Multivariate factor analysis of detailed milk fatty acid profile: Effects of dairy system, feeding, herd, parity, and stage of lactation. (United States)

    Mele, M; Macciotta, N P P; Cecchinato, A; Conte, G; Schiavon, S; Bittante, G


    We investigated the potential of using multivariate factor analysis to extract metabolic information from data on the quantity and quality of milk produced under different management systems. We collected data from individual milk samples taken from 1,158 Brown Swiss cows farmed in 85 traditional or modern herds in Trento Province (Italy). Factor analysis was carried out on 47 individual fatty acids, milk yield, and 5 compositional milk traits (fat, protein, casein, and lactose contents, somatic cell score). According to a previous study on multivariate factor analysis, a variable was considered to be associated with a specific factor if the absolute value of its correlation with the factor was ≥0.60. The extracted factors were representative of the following 12 groups of fatty acids or functions: de novo fatty acids, branched fatty acid-milk yield, biohydrogenation, long-chain fatty acids, desaturation, short-chain fatty acids, milk protein and fat contents, odd fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acids, linoleic acid, udder health, and vaccelenic acid. Only 5 fatty acids showed small correlations with these groups. Factor analysis suggested the existence of differences in the metabolic pathways for de novo short- and medium-chain fatty acids and Δ 9 -desaturase products. An ANOVA of factor scores highlighted significant effects of the dairy farming system (traditional or modern), season, herd/date, parity, and days in milk. Factor behavior across levels of fixed factors was consistent with current knowledge. For example, compared with cows farmed in modern herds, those in traditional herds had higher scores for branched fatty acids, which were inversely associated with milk yield; primiparous cows had lower scores than older cows for de novo fatty acids, probably due to a larger contribution of lipids mobilized from body depots on milk fat yield. The statistical approach allowed us to reduce a large number of variables to a few latent factors with biological

  4. Early lactation feed intake and milk yield responses of dairy cows offered grass silages harvested at early maturity stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randby, A.T.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Nørgaard, Peder


    was available in automatic feed stations. Intake of grass silage when fed as the sole feed was 16.9 kg of DM on average for lactation wk 1 to 16. When H1 was supplemented with 4 or 8 kg of concentrates, silage DM intake did not change, but total DM intake increased to 20.6 and 23.7 kg/d, respectively. Energy......-corrected milk (ECM) yield increased from 23.4 kg when H1 was offered without concentrate supplement to 29.1 and 32.8 kg when supplemented with 4 or 8 kg concentrate, respectively. None of the other diets equaled the yield obtained by H1 plus 8 kg of concentrate. Feed intake and yield of cows offered H3 plus 4...... was offered without concentrates and H3 with 16 kg/d, giving a total of 11 diets. Cows, blocked according to parity and calving date, were introduced to the experiment before calving and kept in the experiment until wk 16 of lactation. Silage was offered ad libitum in loose housing and concentrate...

  5. Effects of level of concentrate feeding during the second gestation of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. 1. Feed intake and milk production. (United States)

    Dewhurst, R J; Moorby, J M; Dhanoa, M S; Fishert, W J


    The objective of this experiment was to examine the residual effects of the level of concentrate feeding during the second gestation on performance in the second lactation. Forty-three Holstein-Friesian heifers that calved for the first time at 2 or 3 yr of age were offered diets based on ad libitum consumption of ryegrass silage and either 2 or 7 kg/d of concentrates over the second half of the first lactation. All cows received a low quality diet, based on grass silage and barley straw (60:40 DM basis) for a short (6-wk) dry period. Feeding in the second lactation was based on ad libitum access to grass silage and a flat rate of concentrates (8 kg/ d for 120 d; 5 kg/d thereafter). Three-year-old heifers produced more milk than 2-yr old heifers in the first lactation, equivalent to 93 kg of fat-corrected milk for each additional month of rearing. Cows given the low level of concentrates produced less milk and gained less weight and body condition, though there was a partial compensation when silage quality improved in late lactation. Forage intake declined as cows approached calving, and cows gained little weight or body condition over the dry period. There was no effect on calf weights. Cows that had received the low level of concentrates in the previous lactation consumed more forage dry matter during the second lactation. Parallel curve analysis showed that 2-yr-old heifers that had received a low level of concentrates produced significantly less milk in the second lactation. The numerically much greater gains of weight and body condition for this group were not statistically significant, owing to large between-cow variation.

  6. Barns of Wisconsin (United States)

    Watson-Newlin, Karen


    In this article, the author shares a painting unit she introduced to her students. In this unit, her students painted pictures of barns and discussed the historical significance of barns in Wisconsin.

  7. Short- and longer-term effects of feeding increased metabolizable protein with or without an altered amino acid profile to dairy cows immediately postpartum. (United States)

    Carder, E G; Weiss, W P


    The first few weeks after parturition is marked by low, but increasing feed intake and sharply increasing milk production by dairy cows. Because of low intake, the nutrient density of the diet may need to be higher during this period to support increasing milk yields. We hypothesized that feeding higher levels of metabolizable protein (MP) or a protein supplement with rumen-protected lysine and methionine during the immediate postpartum period would increase yields of milk and milk components. Fifty-six Holstein cows (21 primiparous and 35 multiparous) starting at 3 d in milk were used in a randomized block design. In phase 1 (3 through 23 d in milk), cows were fed 1 of 3 diets that differed in supply of MP and AA profile. At 23 d in milk, all cows were moved to a common freestall pen and fed the control diet used in phase 1 for an additional 63 d (phase 2). Diets were formulated using the National Research Council model and were control [16.5% crude protein (CP), 10.9% rumen-degradable protein (RDP), and 5.6% rumen-undegradable protein (RUP)], high MP (HMP; 18.5% CP, 11.6% RDP, 6.9% RUP), and AA (MPAA; 17.5% CP, 10.5% RDP, 7.0% RUP 29.7). The MPAA diet included a proprietary spray-dried blood meal product (Perdue Agribusiness, Salisbury, MD) and contained a model-estimated 7.2 and 2.6% of digestible lysine and methionine (% of MP). The HMP and control diets contained 6.3 and 6.7% digestible lysine and both had 1.8% digestible methionine. In phase 1, diet did not affect milk yield (33.6, 34.7, and 33.2 kg for control, HMP, and MPAA, respectively), dry matter intake (17.8, 18.0, and 18.5 kg/d for control, HMP, and MPAA), or milk protein yield (1.07 kg/d). Feeding additional protein (HMP or MPAA) increased both the concentration and yield of milk fat, and milk protein concentration was greater (3.30 vs. 3.17%) for MPAA compared with the HMP diet. Energy-corrected milk was greater (38.4 and 38.6 vs. 35.3 kg/d, respectively) for MPAA and HP than for the control. Cows

  8. Effects of altering total mixed ration conservation method when feeding dry-rolled versus steam-flaked hulled rice on lactation and digestion in dairy cows. (United States)

    Miyaji, M; Nonaka, K


    We evaluated the effects of different methods of conserving the total mixed ration (TMR) and processing hulled rice (Oryza sativa L.) on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, lactation performance, and nitrogen utilization in dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (126 ± 19 d in milk) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. The experimental diets used fresh TMR and ensiled TMR containing either dry-rolled (DR) hulled rice or steam-flaked (SF) hulled rice. The fresh TMR was prepared every morning. The ensiled TMR was prepared by baling fresh TMR and then sealing it with a bale wrapper; this was stored outdoors at 10 to 30°C for >4 mo. The method of grain processing did not affect the dry matter (DM) intake. The DM intake tended to be greater for ensiled TMR than for fresh TMR. Apparent total-tract DM digestibility and milk yield were increased by feeding ensiled TMR instead of fresh TMR and by replacing DR with SF. An interaction effect between the TMR conservation method and the grain processing method was detected for DM digestibility and milk yield; replacing DR with SF increased the DM digestibility and milk yield in cows fed fresh TMR, but this did not affect the cows fed ensiled TMR. The milk fat and lactose contents did not differ among dietary treatments. The milk protein concentration was higher for the cows fed SF processed hulled rice than those fed DR, but it was not influenced by the TMR conservation method. The ruminal total volatile fatty acid concentration was higher for the cows fed ensiled TMR compared with those fed fresh TMR, but it was not affected by the grain processing method. The molar proportion of acetate was decreased and propionate was increased by feeding ensiled TMR instead of fresh TMR and by replacing DR with SF. The concentrations of rumen ammonia N and plasma urea N were higher for the cows fed ensiled TMR than fresh TMR and were lower for SF than DR

  9. Influence of feeding supplements of almond hulls and ensiled citrus pulp on the milk production, milk composition, and methane emissions of dairy cows. (United States)

    Williams, S R O; Chaves, A V; Deighton, M H; Jacobs, J L; Hannah, M C; Ribaux, B E; Morris, G L; Wales, W J; Moate, P J


    different to the pH in the ruminal fluids of cows offered the ALH or the CIT diets. The mean methane emissions (g/d) and yields (g/kg of DM intake) were not influenced by dietary treatment. These findings indicate that, although almond hulls and ensiled citrus pulp can be used as a low-cost feed supplement, almond hulls did negatively affect milk production and neither inhibited enteric methane emissions. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Variation in fat mobilization during early lactation differently affects feed intake, body condition, and lipid and glucose metabolism in high-yielding dairy cows. (United States)

    Weber, C; Hametner, C; Tuchscherer, A; Losand, B; Kanitz, E; Otten, W; Singh, S P; Bruckmaier, R M; Becker, F; Kanitz, W; Hammon, H M


    Fat mobilization to meet energy requirements during early lactation is inevitable because of insufficient feed intake, but differs greatly among high-yielding dairy cows. Therefore, we studied milk production, feed intake, and body condition as well as metabolic and endocrine changes in high-yielding dairy cows to identify variable strategies in metabolic and endocrine adaptation to overcome postpartum metabolic load attributable to milk production. Cows used in this study varied in fat mobilization around calving, as classified by mean total liver fat concentrations (LFC) postpartum. German Holstein cows (n=27) were studied from dry off until d 63 postpartum in their third lactation. All cows were fed the same total mixed rations ad libitum during the dry period and lactation. Plasma concentrations of metabolites and hormones were measured in blood samples taken at d 56, 28, 15, and 5 before expected calving and at d 1 and once weekly up to d 63 postpartum. Liver biopsies were taken on d 56 and 15 before calving, and on d 1, 14, 28, and 49 postpartum to measure LFC and glycogen concentrations. Cows were grouped accordingly to mean total LFC on d 1, 14, and 28 in high, medium, and low fat-mobilizing cows. Mean LFC (±SEM) differed among groups and were 351±14, 250±10, and 159±9 mg/g of dry matter for high, medium, and low fat-mobilizing cows, respectively, whereas hepatic glycogen concentrations postpartum were the highest in low fat-mobilizing cows. Cows in the low group showed the highest dry matter intake and the least negative energy balance postpartum, but energy-corrected milk yield was similar among groups. The decrease in body weight postpartum was greatest in high fat-mobilizing cows, but the decrease in backfat thickness was greatest in medium fat-mobilizing cows. Plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were highest around calving in high fat-mobilizing cows. Plasma triglycerides were highest in the medium group and

  11. The effects of feeding rations that differ in neutral detergent fiber and starch concentration within a day on rumen digesta nutrient concentration, pH, and fermentation products in dairy cows. (United States)

    Ying, Y; Rottman, L W; Crawford, C; Bartell, P A; Harvatine, K J


    There is a daily pattern of feed intake in the dairy cow, and feeding a single total mixed ration results in variation in the amount of fermentable substrate entering the rumen over the day. The object of this study was to determine if feeding multiple rations over the day that complement the pattern of feed intake would stabilize rumen pool sizes and fermentation. Nine ruminally cannulated cows were used in a 3×3 Latin square design with 23-d periods. Diets were a control diet [33.3% neutral detergent fiber (NDF)], a low-fiber diet (LF; 29.6% NDF), and a high-fiber diet (HF; 34.8% NDF). The LF and HF diets were balanced to provide the same nutrient composition as the control diet when cows were fed 3 parts of LF and 7 parts of HF. Cows on the control treatment (CON) were fed at 0900h, cows on the high/low treatment (H/L) were fed HF at 70% of daily offering at 0900h and LF at 30% of daily offering at 2200h, and cows on the low/high (L/H) treatment were fed LF at 30% of daily offering at 0900h and HF at 70% of daily offering at 1300h. All treatments were fed at 110% of daily intake. Preplanned contrasts compared CON with H/L and H/L with L/H. Feeding the LF diet in the evening resulted in a large increase in the amount of feed consumed immediately after feed delivery at that feeding. Rumen digesta starch concentration increased and NDF concentration decreased following feeding of the LF diet in both the L/H and H/L treatments. Starch pool size also increased following feeding of the LF diet in the evening and tended to increase after feeding the LF diet in the morning. Rumen ammonia concentration was increased following feeding of the HF diet in the morning and the LF diet in the evening in the H/L treatment. Additionally, cis-9 C18:1 and cis-9,cis-12 18:2 are higher in concentrate feeds and were increased after feeding the LF diet in both treatments. Trans fatty acid isomers of the normal and alternate biohydrogenation pathways followed a daily pattern, and the H

  12. Some compositional and health indicators of milk quality of dairy cows with higher milk yield at including of selected corn species into feeding ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pozdíšek


    Full Text Available Because of economical reasons the substitution of maize by feed corn as wheat (Sulamit and triticale (Kitaro was revolved in concentrate part of dairy cow feeding rations. The design of mentioned replacement in feeding rations was carried out according to results of previous research (Pozdíšek and Vaculová, 2008 for nutrition experiment. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the possible effects of corn replacement in cow feeding rations on milk composition and properties. The expressively different variants of corn were selected for experiment in comparison to maize (reference. Dairy cows were fed by total mixed ration on the basis of maize and clover silage and hay. Otherwise the identical day feeding rations among cow groups differed only in concentrate portions ((K, control group maize 1.5 kg, wheat (P1 2.0 kg and triticale (P2 2.0 kg (experimental groups. Group feeding rations 1 (K, 2 (P1 and 3 (P2 had: NEL/kg dry (DM matter (6.524, 6.512 and 6.491; NL % in DM (17.9, 18.2 and 17.9; fibre % in DM (15.96, 15.74 and 15.72; PDIN/PDIE (1.189, 1.189 and 1.191. The experiment took six weeks, there were included 8, 9 and 9 cows (n = 26 of Czech Fleckvieh breed. Feed groups were well balanced in terms of milk yield, days in milk and number of lactation. The tie stable and pipeline milking equipment were used in experiment. Animals were milked twice a day and sampled at morning milking in intervals about seven days approximately. Cows were relatively healthy in terms of occurrence of milk secretion disorders. Within groups the individual milk samples (in total 182 in experiment were aggregated into bulk samples (n = 21 = 3 groups × 7 sampling periods, which were analysed on 45 milk indicators, 18 of them were evaluated in this paper. The differences in milk yield were significantly advantageous for K group (15.32 > 14.07 (wheat or 13.86 kg (triticale at morning milking, while fat (3.27 < 3.47 or 3.44 % was lower (P < 0.05. Lactose was not

  13. Ruminal Bacterial Community Composition in Dairy Cows Is Dynamic over the Course of Two Lactations and Correlates with Feed Efficiency (United States)

    Jewell, Kelsea A.; McCormick, Caroline A.; Odt, Christine L.; Weimer, Paul J.


    Fourteen Holstein cows of similar ages were monitored through their first two lactation cycles, during which ruminal solids and liquids, milk samples, production data, and feed consumption data were collected for each cow during early (76 to 82 days in milk [DIM]), middle (151 to 157 DIM), and late (251 to 257 DIM) lactation periods. The bacterial community of each ruminal sample was determined by sequencing the region from V6 to V8 of the 16S rRNA gene using 454 pyrosequencing. Gross feed efficiency (GFE) for each cow was calculated by dividing her energy-corrected milk by dry matter intake (ECM/DMI) for each period of both lactation cycles. Four pairs of cows were identified that differed in milk production efficiency, as defined by residual feed intake (RFI), at the same level of ECM production. The most abundant phyla detected for all cows were Bacteroidetes (49.42%), Firmicutes (39.32%), Proteobacteria (5.67%), and Tenericutes (2.17%), and the most abundant genera included Prevotella (40.15%), Butyrivibrio (2.38%), Ruminococcus (2.35%), Coprococcus (2.29%), and Succiniclasticum (2.28%). The bacterial microbiota between the first and second lactation cycles were highly similar, but with a significant correlation between total community composition by ruminal phase and specific bacteria whose relative sequence abundances displayed significant positive or negative correlation with GFE or RFI. These data suggest that the ruminal bacterial community is dynamic in terms of membership and diversity and that specific members are associated with high and low milk production efficiency over two lactation cycles. PMID:25934629

  14. Effect of programmed diurnal temperature cycles on plasma thyroxine level, body temperature, and feed intake of holstein dairy cows (United States)

    Scott, I. M.; Johnson, H. D.; Hahn, G. L.


    Holstein cows exposed to simulated summer diurnal ambient temperature cycles of Phoenix, Arizona and Atlanta, Georgia and diurnal modifications of these climates displayed daily cycles fluctuations in plasma thyroxine (T4) and rectal temperatures (Tre). There were daily diurnal changes in T4 and Tre under all simulated climate conditions. Maximal values generally occurred in the evening hours and minimum values in the morning. Although the diurnal rhythm was influenced by the various simulated climates (diurnal modifications) a diurnal rhythm was very evident even under constant conditions at thermoneutral (Tnc) and at cyclic thermoneutral conditions (TN). The major significance of the study is that the initiation of night cooling of the animals at a time when their Tre was highest was most beneficial to maintenance of a TN plasma T4 level. There was a highly significant negative relationship of average T4 and average Tre. There was also a significant negative relationship of feed consumption and average temperature-humidity index (THI). These data suggest that night cooling may be a most effective method to alleviate thermoregulatory limitations of a hot climate on optimal animal performance. Decreasing the night time air temperature (Ta) or THI or increasing the diurnal range allows the cows to more easily dissipate excess body heat accumulated during the day and minimize the thermal inhibition on feed intake, and alterations in plasma T4 and Tre.

  15. Comparison of the impact of six heat-load management strategies on thermal responses and milk production of feed-pad and pasture fed dairy cows in a subtropical environment (United States)

    Davison, T. M.; Jonsson, N. N.; Mayer, D. G.; Gaughan, J. B.; Ehrlich, W. K.; McGowan, M. R.


    Exposure to hot environments affects milk yield (MY) and milk composition of pasture and feed-pad fed dairy cows in subtropical regions. This study was undertaken during summer to compare MY and physiology of cows exposed to six heat-load management treatments. Seventy-eight Holstein-Friesian cows were blocked by season of calving, parity, milk yield, BW, and milk protein (%) and milk fat (%) measured in 2 weeks prior to the start of the study. Within blocks, cows were randomly allocated to one of the following treatments: open-sided iron roofed day pen adjacent to dairy (CID) + sprinklers (SP); CID only; non-shaded pen adjacent to dairy + SP (NSD + SP); open-sided shade cloth roofed day pen adjacent to dairy (SCD); NSD + sprinkler (sprinkler on for 45 min at 1100 h if mean respiration rate >80 breaths per minute (NSD + WSP) ); open-sided shade cloth roofed structure over feed bunk in paddock + 1 km walk to and from the dairy (SCP + WLK). Sprinklers for CID + SP and NSD + SP cycled 2 min on, 12 min off when ambient temperature >26°C. The highest milk yields were in the CID + SP and CID treatments (23.9 L cow-1 day-1), intermediate for NSD + SP, SCD and SCP + WLK (22.4 L cow-1 day-1), and lowest for NSD + WSP (21.3 L cow-1 day-1) ( P cows in CID + SP showed no decline in MY out to a THI break point value of 83.2, whereas the pooled MY of the other treatments declined when THI >80.7. A combination of iron roof shade plus water sprinkling throughout the day provided the most effective control of heat load.

  16. Feeding of palm oil fatty acids or rapeseed oil throughout lactation: Effects on energy status, body composition, and milk production in Norwegian dairy goats. (United States)

    Eknæs, M; Chilliard, Y; Hove, K; Inglingstad, R A; Bernard, L; Volden, H


    The objective of this experiment was to examine how supplements of rapeseed oil or palm oil fatty acids would affect milk production and composition, body lipid stores, and energy balance in 30 multiparous goats of Norwegian dairy goat breed. The experiment lasted 230 d, with 1 to 120 d in milk (DIM) for indoor feeding (P1), 120 to 200 DIM for mountain grazing (P2), and 200 to 230 DIM for indoor feeding (P3). Grass silage was fed according to appetite during indoor feeding periods. After an adjustment period (1-60 DIM) when the control diet was given to the goats, the animals were subdivided into 3 groups of 10 goats. Treatments (60-230 DIM) were (1) basal concentrate (control; no added fat); (2) control concentrate with 8% (added on air-dry basis) hydrogenated palm oil enriched with palmitic acid (POFA); and (3) control concentrate with 8% (added on air-dry basis) rapeseed oil (RSO). Individual energy balances based on energy intake and milk production were estimated on 10, 30, 60, 90, 120, 200, and 230 DIM. At the same times, body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), body mass index, and body tissue stores using computed tomography were monitored. Silage intake was depressed by POFA throughout the experimental period. Reduced BW and body mass index were observed in the POFA and RSO groups, whereas no effect on BCS or body composition was observed throughout lactation. Generally, a minor decrease in BW was observed from 10 to 120 DIM (only 0.6 kg on average) and the total amount of body lipid was reduced by 4.4 kg. During the mountain grazing period, a further reduction in body lipid stores (2.7 kg) was observed, and BW was reduced by 3.9 kg in the same period. The goats mobilized, on average, 72% of their fat reserves during the first 200 DIM. In this period, dietary fat supplementation did not reduce the mobilization of adipose tissue but resulted in greater milk fat yield (2 kg more, on average, compared with the control group). Milk yield was not affected

  17. Do breath gas measurements hold the key to unlocking the genetics of feed efficiency in dairy cows?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Difford, Gareth; de Haas, Yvette; Visker, M.H.P.W.

    for DMI and then used to predict breeding values for DMI along using other highly correlated traits like milk yield, body weight and chest width. Recent interest in greenhouse gases, such as methane (CH4), has seen the development of tools for measuring gas concentrations in the breath of the cow during...... has been exploited to predict CH4 production from DMI to aid in CH4 related research. Here we turn this idea around and assess the effectivity of CH4 and Carbon dioxide breath measurements for the prediction of DMI and feed efficiency in Dutch and Danish Holstein cattle. Preliminary results indicate...... a strong positive genetic correlation of 0.75 between CH4 production and DMI and a strong negative genetic correlation of -0.68 between CH4 concentration and RFI. Through the use of genomic tools we assess the added benefit of these strong correlations with large scale breath measurements...

  18. Effects of feeding sugar beets, ensiled with or without an additive, on the performance of dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Messerschmidt, Ulrike; Larsen, Mogens


    The objective of this study was to examine the nutritional composition and quality of beet silages ensiled without (SBS–) and with silage additive (SBS+) and the effect on nutrient intake, milk yield, and milk composition when maize silage was replaced with SBS+ or SBS–. SBS– ferment heavily......, and the main fermentation products are ethanol, lactic acid, and acetic acid. Adding a silage additive restricts fermentation and preserves most of the sugar in SBS+. Forty-two Holstein cows were used in a multiple 3 × 3 Latin square design. Each experimental period consisted of two weeks adaptation and one...... to fewer visits to the milking robot and thus less concentrate intake in DSBS+. The results show that sugar beets ensiled wet, without silage additive, is a promising feed for lactating cows....

  19. Effects of supplementing glycerol and soybean oil in drinking water on feed and water intake, energy balance, and production performance of periparturient dairy cows. (United States)

    Osborne, V R; Odongo, N E; Cant, J P; Swanson, K C; McBride, B W


    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of supplementing glycerol and soybean oil in drinking water on feed and water intake, calculated energy balance, and production performance of periparturient dairy cows. Ninety multiparous Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) no nutrients supplemented in the drinking water (control); 2) 20 g/L of glycerin supplemented in the drinking water (glycerol); and 3) 10 g/L of soybean oil supplemented in the drinking water (SBO). The trial lasted from 7 d prepartum to 7 d postpartum. Cows were offered a close-up and milking cow TMR for ad libitum intake, pre- and postpartum, respectively. The dry matter intake of cows supplemented with glycerol and SBO was lower than for the control cows throughout the experimental period but not different from each other. Water intake for the control cows was greater than the average for the glycerol and SBO cows prepartum, and greater than for SBO cows but similar to that of glycerol cows postpartum. Glycerol cows consumed more water than SBO cows. There were no differences in energy intake and energy balance of the cows pre- and postpartum. Serum triacylglycerol concentration for glycerol cows was lower than for the control and SBO cows prepartum and was lower than for the SBO cows postpartum. There were no differences in the serum nonesterified fatty acids and glucose concentrations throughout the experiment. There were no differences in the serum beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations at parturition, but serum BHBA concentration of the glycerol cows was greater than for control and SBO cows during the prepartum period. However, during the postpartum period, serum BHBA concentrations of the control cows were greater than for glycerol and SBO cows. There were no differences in calf birth weights or milk yield and composition. Although the glucogenic property of glycerol supplemented in the drinking water at 20 g/L may not have been sufficient to

  20. Crude glycerol as glycogenic precursor in feed; effects on milk coagulation properties and metabolic profiles of dairy cows. (United States)

    Harzia, Hedi; Kilk, Kalle; Ariko, Tiia; Kass, Marko; Soomets, Ursel; Jõudu, Ivi; Kaart, Tanel; Arney, David; Kärt, Olav; Ots, Meelis


    As grain prices rise, the search for alternative glycogenic precursors in animal feed becomes increasingly important, and this study was conducted to determine if the replacement of starch with glycerol, as an alternative glycogenic precursor, affects the milk metabolic profile and milk coagulation ability, and therefore the quality of the milk. Eight primiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows were fed during a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square trial with four different isoenergetic rations: (1) control (T0) fed a total mixed ration (TMR) with barley meal; (2) group T1, decreased barley content, replaced isoenergetically with 1 kg crude glycerol; (3) group T2, the barley meal was replaced with 2 kg of crude glycerol; and (4) group T3 the barley meal was replaced with 3 kg of crude glycerol. Rumen, blood and milk samples were collected at the end of every 21-d treatment period. Rumen samples were analysed for proportion of total volatile fatty acid (VFA), blood samples for insulin and glucose, and milk for metabolites (e.g. citric-acid cycle compounds). The change in glycogenic precursors had a positive effect on rumen VFA proportions; the proportion of propionic acid increased (P Milk protein (P milk protein concentration may have been due to an increase in microbial protein. Regarding the milk metabolic profiles, different signals were positively associated with coagulation ability and change in the diet. Based on this study, changing the glycogenic precursor in animal diet in this way is possible, and may have no immediate deleterious consequences on milk quality or cow health. Indeed, there is evidence for benefits from this substitution.

  1. Effect of substituting soybean meal and canola cake with dried distillers grains with solubles at 2 dietary crude protein levels on feed intake, milk production, and milk quality in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens


    Dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) is an alternative source of feed protein for dairy cows. Previous studies found that DDGS, based on grains other than corn, can substitute for soybean meal and canola cake as a dietary protein source without reducing milk production or quality...... protein (CP) levels, in a grass-clover and corn silage-based ration. The experiment involved 24 Holstein cows and 2 protein sources (DDGS or soybean-canola mixture) fed at 2 levels of CP (14 or 16%) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of both protein source...... of this experiment, feeding 16% CP compared with 14% CP in the ration can increase feed intake and milk production....

  2. The effect of feed rations containing high moisture crimped corn ensiled with microbial inoculant or chemical additive on milk production and metabolism of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Könyves


    Full Text Available The study evaluated the effects of crimped corn preserved either with organic acids or with a microbial inoculant on a range of metabolic and production indicators of dairy cows. Two hundred and sixty in-calf, second and third parity cows were selected into pairs on basis of age, parity, milk production in previous lactation, days in milk and body condition score with the greatest possible conformity within pairs. Cow pairs were assigned into a 2-period crossover experiment (2 × 45 days and kept in separate groups within the same shed. Dietary treatments were TMR with crimped corn preserved with either organic acids (treatment K or microbial inoculant (treatment B. Ten superbly matched cow-pairs were selected to form nucleus pairs for metabolic studies. The preservatives had no effect on the nutrient content of crimped corn. Crimped corn preserved with the microbial inoculant were found mouldy, predominantly with Mucor sp. at a number high enough to inhibit the growth of lactic acid bacteria, and had significantly higher pH and ammonium concentration compared to the chemical treatment. The milk yield of treatment K cows was significantly higher than that of treatment B cows with identical feed intake. Blood beta-hydroxy-butyrate concentration was lower and blood aspartate amino transferase activity higher with treatment K compared to treatment B. Results of this study suggest the superiority of total mixed rations containing chemically preserved crimped corn in terms of ammonia and microbiological indicators of crimped corn, significantly higher milk yield, and balanced energy metabolism.

  3. Learning from Wisconsin (United States)

    Daniel, Jamie Owen


    Like thousands of other people from around the country and around the world, this author was heartened and inspired by the tenacity, immediacy, and creativity of the pushback by Wisconsin's public-sector unions against Governor Scott Walker's efforts to limit their collective bargaining rights. And like many others who made the trek to Madison to…

  4. Wisconsin's forest resources, 2010 (United States)

    C.H. Perry


    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Wisconsin based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report...

  5. Wisconsin's forest resources, 2005 (United States)

    Charles, H. (Hobie) Perry; Gary J. Brand


    The annual forest inventory of Wisconsin continues, and this document reports 2001-05 moving averages for most variables and comparisons between 2000 and 2005 for growth, removals, and mortality. Summary resource tables can be generated through the Forest Inventory Mapmaker website at htm. Estimates from this inventory show a...

  6. Wisconsin's forest resources, 2006 (United States)

    C.H. Perry; V.A. Everson


    Figure 2 was revised by the author in August 2008. This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Wisconsin based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service from 2002-2006. These estimates, along with associated core tables postedon the Internet, are...

  7. Wisconsin's Forest Resources, 2007 (United States)

    C.H. Perry; V.A. Everson


    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Wisconsin based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, are updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report.

  8. Wisconsin's forest resources, 2009 (United States)

    C.H. Perry


    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Wisconsin based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this report...

  9. Feeding fat from distillers dried grains with solubles to dairy heifers: I. Effects on growth performance and total-tract digestibility of nutrients. (United States)

    Anderson, J L; Kalscheur, K F; Garcia, A D; Schingoethe, D J


    The objective of this study was to determine if increased dietary fat from dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets of growing heifers affected dry matter intake, average daily gain (ADG), growth performance, and nutrient digestibility. Thirty-three Holstein heifers (133±18 d old) were used in a 24-wk randomized complete block design. Treatments were (1) control (CON) containing ground corn and soybean products, (2) low-fat (LFDG) containing low-fat, high-protein DDGS and ground corn, and (3) high-fat (HFDG) with traditional DDGS. All diets contained 39.8% grass hay, 24.8% corn silage, and 1.5% vitamins and minerals. The HFDG diet was formulated to contain 4.8% fat compared with 2.8% in the CON and LFDG diets, which were greater in nonfibrous carbohydrate. Diets had a net energy gain of 1.0Mcal/kg of dry matter and were limit-fed at 2.45% of body weight. Heifers were weighed every 2wk and rations were adjusted accordingly. Heart girth, hip and wither heights, body length, and body condition score were recorded every 2wk. Total-tract digestion of nutrients was evaluated during wk16 using fecal grab sampling and an external marker. No treatments by time interactions were found. Dry matter intakes, body weights, ADG, and gain-to-feed ratio were similar among treatments; however, ADG averaged 0.96kg/d among treatments, which is greater than recommended. All body frame measurements and body condition scores were similar among treatments. Total-tract digestibilities of dry matter and organic matter were not different among treatments. However, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber digestibility were increased in the HFDG diet compared with the CON and LFDG diets. These results demonstrate that using DDGS or low-fat DDGS with corn in growing heifer rations can maintain performance. Utilizing the fat in DDGS as a dietary energy source in replacement of starch from corn did not influence growth performance or negatively affect nutrient digestion. Copyright

  10. Supplementation with different energy and protein sources on the feeding behavior and performance of dairy heifers grazing Marandu during the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Dias Signoretti


    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of supplementation different energy and protein sources in the dry season of the year, on body development and diurnal feeding behavior of crossbred Gir x Holstein dairy heifers 12.8 ± 4.6 months old, 215.50 ± 43.2 kg average body weight were distributed in Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pasture with supplements being offered daily in proportion of 0.75% of the body weight. A completely randomized block design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement was used, with six replicates per treatment. Supplements contained whole soybean (WS or whole cottonseed (WC as the protein sources and citrus pulp (CPU or corn (C as the energy sources. Marandu grass pasture was managed according a rotational grazing system, six days grazing and 30 days of rest period. It was recorded the animals weight, height at withers, heart girt, rump length and corporal score after the grazing cycle. The considered behavioral variables were grazing time, ruminating time, idle time, trough time. No significant differences on the initial, heart girt, height at withers, rump length and corporal score final and initial to protein and energy sources. However, a significant effect was observed (P<0.05 in heifers supplemented with WC had greater final body weight and heart girt and average daily gain live weight (271.1 kg, 152.2 cm and 0.382 kg/animal, respectively in comparison to those with WS (251.1 kg, 148.7 cm and 0.255 kg/animal, respectively. The CPU base supplement resulted in smaller grazing time and greater ruminating and idle time (P>0.05. The WS base supplemented animals had kept lesser time eating supplement in comparison to the WC base supplemented ones (P<0.05, with no variation in grazing, rumination or idle times regarding protein font (P>0.05. The hour of the day influenced all the considered behaviors (P<0.01.

  11. Semi-supervised learning for genomic prediction of novel traits with small reference populations: an application to residual feed intake in dairy cattle. (United States)

    Yao, Chen; Zhu, Xiaojin; Weigel, Kent A


    Genomic prediction for novel traits, which can be costly and labor-intensive to measure, is often hampered by low accuracy due to the limited size of the reference population. As an option to improve prediction accuracy, we introduced a semi-supervised learning strategy known as the self-training model, and applied this method to genomic prediction of residual feed intake (RFI) in dairy cattle. We describe a self-training model that is wrapped around a support vector machine (SVM) algorithm, which enables it to use data from animals with and without measured phenotypes. Initially, a SVM model was trained using data from 792 animals with measured RFI phenotypes. Then, the resulting SVM was used to generate self-trained phenotypes for 3000 animals for which RFI measurements were not available. Finally, the SVM model was re-trained using data from up to 3792 animals, including those with measured and self-trained RFI phenotypes. Incorporation of additional animals with self-trained phenotypes enhanced the accuracy of genomic predictions compared to that of predictions that were derived from the subset of animals with measured phenotypes. The optimal ratio of animals with self-trained phenotypes to animals with measured phenotypes (2.5, 2.0, and 1.8) and the maximum increase achieved in prediction accuracy measured as the correlation between predicted and actual RFI phenotypes (5.9, 4.1, and 2.4%) decreased as the size of the initial training set (300, 400, and 500 animals with measured phenotypes) increased. The optimal number of animals with self-trained phenotypes may be smaller when prediction accuracy is measured as the mean squared error rather than the correlation between predicted and actual RFI phenotypes. Our results demonstrate that semi-supervised learning models that incorporate self-trained phenotypes can achieve genomic prediction accuracies that are comparable to those obtained with models using larger training sets that include only animals with

  12. The concept evaluation of dairy cattle nutrition




    Bachelor thesis gives a comprehensive overview of the dairy cow nutrition and assesses the system of nutrition and feeding in relation to milk production. The main part is devoted to the basics of dairy cow nutrition, the main nutrient requirements and composition of feed diets. There was assessed composition of feed rations for the year 2010 in working conditions on the School farm Měšice. The recommendations were designed to improve the nutrition level on the farm on the based data.

  13. Effect of substituting soybean meal and canola cake with grain-based dried distillers grains with solubles as a protein source on feed intake, milk production, and milk quality in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens


    The growth of the bioethanol industry is leading to an increase in the production of coproducts such as dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Both corn-based DDGS and grain-based DDGS (gDDGS; defined as originating from grain sources such as barley, wheat, triticale, or a mix, excluding...... corn) appear to be relevant sources of feed and protein for dairy cows. To date, most of the studies investigating DDGS have been performed with corn-based DDGS. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of the proportion of gDDGS in the diet on feed intake, milk production, and milk...... may consist of gDDGS without negatively affecting milk production, milk quality, or milk taste. When gDDGS represents 23% of dietary DM, milk production is reduced by 1.6 kg/d, whereas energy-corrected milk production is numerically reduced by 1 kg....

  14. Wisconsin's Forests 2009 (United States)

    Charles H. Perry; Vern A. Everson; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Sally E. Dahir; Andrea L. Diss-Torrance; Grant M Domke; Dale D. Gormanson; Sarah K. Herrick; Steven S. Hubbard; Terry R. Mace; Patrick D. Miles; Mark D. Nelson; Richard B. Rodeout; Luke T. Saunders; Kirk M. Stueve; Barry T. Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall


    The second full annual inventory of Wisconsin's forests reports more than 16.7 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 1,400 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the oak/hickory forest-type group, which occupies slightly more than one quarter of the total forest land area; the maple/beech/birch forest-type group occupies an...

  15. Genetic parameters between feed-intake-related traits and conformation in 2 separate dairy populations-the Netherlands and United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzanilla-Pech, C.I.V.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Tempelman, R.J.; Pelt, van M.L.; Weigel, K.A.; VandeHaar, M.; Lawlor, T.J.; Spurlock, D.M.; Armentano, L.E.; Staples, C.R.; Hanigan, M.; Haas, De Y.


    To include feed-intake-related traits in the breeding goal, accurate estimates of genetic parameters of feed intake, and its correlations with other related traits (i.e., production, conformation) are required to compare different options. However, the correlations between feed intake and

  16. Nitrogen use efficiencies to grow, feed, and recycle manure from the major diet components fed to dairy cows in the USA (United States)

    Crops and livestock transform a general range of 20% to 50% of applied N into product N. Most applied N not transformed into agricultural products is lost to the environment. The objective of this study was to quantify soil N input (fertilizer N, biologically fixed-N) incorporation into dairy cow di...

  17. Development of feed supplementation strategies for improving the productivity of dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Africa. Proceedings of the final research co-ordination meeting of a co-ordinated research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture through co-ordinated research projects (CRP) supports studies aimed at improving livestock productivity in developing countries through the application of nuclear and related techniques. These studies have focused on animal nutrition, animal reproduction and more recently on animal nutrition/reproduction interactions with emphasis on smallholder farming systems. The primary aim of this CRP was to identify approaches for improving the productivity of dairy cattle maintained on smallholder farms in peri-urban areas. Central to the approach was to first obtain baseline information on productivity and reproductive efficiency and thereby identify nutritional and management constraints. Subsequently, corrective measures were developed and tested, keeping in mind the need for maximising the efficiency of current production systems and sustaining the nutrient supply through practical and economically feasible feed supplementation strategies developed using locally available feed resources. In addition the project envisaged contributing to enhancing the level of expertise within the national animal production research institutes in the region, to encourage close contact and interaction between scientists and institutions in Africa and to promote scientific information exchange on a regional basis. Through the project substantial progress was made in understanding the relationship between nutrient supply and productive and reproductive functions in dairy cattle on smallholder farming systems. Most of the participating countries were able to develop and test cost-effective feed supplementation strategies which improved both milk production and/or reproductive efficiency. The present publication contains the reports from participants of the project presented at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Vienna from 7 to 11 September 1998

  18. Dairy cow nutrition


    Tame, Mike


    This review pulls together the results of over 40 research projects and brings us up to date with the latest in thinking on dairy cow nutrition, incorporates the findings of a wide range of organic trials and draws some clear recommendations on appropriate strategies for forage type and management, supplementary feeding, ration formulation and farming systems. It raises important issues around sustainability versus optimum production and highlights future research priorities.

  19. Effects of feeding brown midrib corn silage with a high dietary concentration of alfalfa hay on lactational performance of Holstein dairy cows for the first 180 days of lactation. (United States)

    Holt, M S; Eun, J-S; Thacker, C R; Young, A J; Dai, X; Nestor, K E


    This experiment was conducted to test a hypothesis that lactating dairy cows fed 35% brown midrib (BMR) corn silage and 25% alfalfa hay (dry matter (DM) basis) would consume more DM around peak lactation compared with those fed conventional corn silage (CS), resulting in longer peak milk production. Twenty-eight multiparous Holstein cows were used starting at the onset of lactation through 180 d in milk (DIM). Treatments were formulated to maintain a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 60:40, differing only in the CS hybrids used. Two dietary treatments were assessed in a completely randomized design: total mixed ration based on conventional CS (CCS) and total mixed ration based on BMR silage. Through peak lactation (1-60 DIM), DM intake was not different between dietary treatments, whereas DM intake post-peak lactation (61-180 DIM) tended to increase by feeding the BMR diet compared with the CCS diet (25.8 vs. 24.7 kg/d). Cows fed the BMR diet tended to lose less body weight through peak lactation compared with those fed the CCS diet (-0.22 vs. -0.52 kg/d). Although milk yield was not different between dietary treatments through peak lactation, milk yield post-peak lactation increased by feeding the BMR diet compared with the CCS diet (41.0 vs. 38.8 kg/d). Yield of 3.5% fat-corrected milk was similar between dietary treatments throughout the experiment (41.4 kg/d, on average), but milk fat concentration decreased by feeding the BMR diet compared with the CCS diet post-peak lactation (3.47 vs. 3.80%). Overall milk protein concentration was similar between dietary treatments throughout the experiment (2.96%, on average), whereas milk protein yield tended to be higher for the BMR diet post-peak lactation compared with the CCS diet (1.19 vs.1.13 kg/d). Feeding BMR silage with a high dietary concentration of alfalfa hay maintained more body weight, but did not affect milk production through peak lactation; however, cows fed the BMR diet post-peak lactation consumed more

  20. Dairy development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leegwater, P.; Hoorweg, J.C.


    The growth of the dairy sector as it has occurred in Kilifi and Malindi Districts is one of the few examples of successful agricultural development in the coastal region in the past decades. Between 1985 and 1997 dairy cattle have more than doubled in number. Three livestock systems are described:

  1. Tornadoes Strike Northern Wisconsin (United States)


    A series of tornadoes ripped through the Upper Midwest region of the United States in the evening of June 7, 2007. At least five different tornadoes touched down in Wisconsin, according to the Associated Press, one of which tore through the Bear Paw Resort in northern Wisconsin. Despite dropping as much as fifteen centimeters (six inches) of rain in some places and baseball-size hail in others, authorities were reporting no deaths attributable to the storm system, and only a smattering of injuries, but considerable property damage in some areas. When the MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra satellite observed the area on June 9, 2007, the track torn through the woods by one of the tornadoes stands out quite clearly. This photo-like image uses data collected by MODIS in the normal human vision range to give a familiar natural-looking appearance. The landscape is largely a checkerboard of farms, towns, roads, and cities. The pale land is predominantly farmland where crops have not fully grown in yet. Dark blue shows the winding path of rivers and lakes dotting the landscape. The large blue lake on the east (right) side of the image is Lake Michigan. Towns and cities, including the city of Green Bay, are gray. To the north side, farmland gives way to dark green as land use shifts from agriculture to the Menominee Indian Reservation and Nicolet National Forest. The diagonal slash through the dark green forested land shows the tornado track. Bare land was revealed where the tornado tore down trees or stripped vegetation off the branches. The high-resolution image provided above is at MODIS' full spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response System provides this image at additional resolutions.

  2. Possibilities and requirements for organic dairy breeding lines


    Kargo, Morten; Hjortø, Line; Thomasen, Jørn Rind


    Possibilities and requirements for organic dairy breeding lines Until now, improvements in the efficiency of organic dairy production have mainly occurred through better management, feeding and production strategies, using the dairy cattle breeds developed in conventional production systems. The potential of breeding lines of dairy cattle that are genetically adapted to organic milk production is essentially unexploited even though specific lines offer the potential to breed for cows with...

  3. Cost implications of improving food safety in the Dutch dairy chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valeeva, N.I.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.


    This paper examines control measures for improving food safety in the dairy chain, using an integer linear programming model. The chain includes feed (compound feed production and delivery), farm (dairy farm) and dairy processing (transport and processing of raw milk, delivery of pasteurised milk)

  4. Effect of substituting soybean meal and canola cake with grain-based dried distillers grains with solubles as a protein source on feed intake, milk production, and milk quality in dairy cows. (United States)

    Gaillard, C; Sørensen, M T; Vestergaard, M; Weisbjerg, M R; Basar, A; Larsen, M K; Martinussen, H; Kidmose, U; Sehested, J


    The growth of the bioethanol industry is leading to an increase in the production of coproducts such as dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Both corn-based DDGS and grain-based DDGS (gDDGS; defined as originating from grain sources such as barley, wheat, triticale, or a mix, excluding corn) appear to be relevant sources of feed and protein for dairy cows. To date, most of the studies investigating DDGS have been performed with corn-based DDGS. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of the proportion of gDDGS in the diet on feed intake, milk production, and milk quality. The present experiment involved 48 Holstein cows in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 grass-based dietary treatments consisting of 4, 13.5, and 23% gDDGS on a dry matter (DM) basis (L, M, and H, respectively) as a replacement for a concentrate mix. The concentrate mix consisted of soybean meal, canola cake, and beet pulp. Dry matter intake and energy-corrected milk yield were not affected by the proportion of gDDGS in the diet. Daily milk yield decreased with the H diet compared with the L and M diets. The percentage of fat in milk was higher when cows were fed the H diet compared with the L and M diets, whereas milk fat yield was not affected by dietary treatment. The M diet had a higher percentage of protein in milk compared with the L and H diets. Milk protein yield was similar for the L and M diets; however, it decreased for the H diet. Milk taste was not affected by the proportion of gDDGS in the diet or when milk was stored for 7 d. Linoleic acid and conjugated linoleic acid cis-9,trans-11 in milk increased with increasing proportion of gDDGS. To conclude, gDDGS can replace soybean meal and canola cake as a protein source in the diet of dairy cows. Up to 13.5% of the diet may consist of gDDGS without negatively affecting milk production, milk quality, or milk taste. When gDDGS represents 23% of dietary DM, milk production is reduced by 1.6 kg

  5. Wisconsin SRF Electron Gun Commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisognano, Joseph J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Bissen, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Bosch, R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Efremov, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Eisert, D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Fisher, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Green, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Jacobs, K. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Keil, R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Kleman, K. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Rogers, G. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Severson, M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Yavuz, D. D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Legg, Robert A. [JLAB; Bachimanchi, Ramakrishna [JLAB; Hovater, J. Curtis [JLAB; Plawski, Tomasz [JLAB; Powers, Thomas J. [JLAB


    The University of Wisconsin has completed fabrication and commissioning of a low frequency (199.6 MHz) superconducting electron gun based on a quarter wave resonator (QWR) cavity. Its concept was optimized to be the source for a CW free electron laser facility. The gun design includes active tuning and a high temperature superconducting solenoid. We will report on the status of the Wisconsin SRF electron gun program, including commissioning experience and first beam measurements.

  6. Wisconsin's forest resources in 2004 (United States)

    Charles H. Perry


    Results of the 2000-2004 annual inventory of Wisconsin show about 16.0 million acres of forest land, more than 22.1 billion cubic feet of live volume on forest land, and nearly 593 million dry tons of all live aboveground tree biomass on timberland. Populations of jack pine budworm are increasing, and it remains a significant pest in Wisconsin forests. A complete...

  7. Effects of inclusion of graded amounts of soya bean hulls on feed intake, chewing activity and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows. (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, H; Rezayazdi, K; Nikkhah, A


    Twelve multiparous Holstein dairy cows were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square changeover design to evaluate the effects of graded inclusion of soya bean hulls (SHs) in replacement of diet forages at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% of dietary dry matter (DM) basis on peNDF > 8 and peNDF > 1.18 contents of diets and their resulting effects on chewing activity, nutrient digestibility and milk production of dairy cattle. The control diet contained 50% forage, 50% concentrate and no SH. In the other three diets, SH was substituted for alfalfa hay, corn silage and wheat bran to supply 10%, 20% and 30% of the dietary DM. Increasing SH concentration in the diets resulted in decreasing concentrations of forage neutral detergent fibre (NDF), physically effective NDF (peNDF) and mean particle size (p 1.18 when SH was included in the diets (p 8 among the diets and that these differences are better reflected in terms of DMI, chewing activity and nutrient digestibility, but not in rumen pH. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Feed degradability, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites in response to essential oil addition to fistulated non-lactating dairy cow diets. (United States)

    Suksombat, Wisitiporn; Nanon, Atitthan; Meeprom, Chayapol; Lounglawan, Pipat


    The effects of essential oils (EOs) on ruminal nutrient disappearance, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites in fistulated non-lactating dairy cows were studied. Four fistulated non-lactaing dairy cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design; the experiment consisted of four periods of 21 days in each period, with the first 14 days for adaptation followed by 7 days of measurement period. Animals were fed 3 kg/day of 21% crude protein (CP) concentrate and ad libitum corn silage. Treatments were: (i) control; (ii) 2 mL Allicin/cow/day; (iii) 2 mL zingiberene/cow/day; and (iv) 2 mL citral/cow/day. The results demonstrated that EOs increased dry matter and neutral detergent fiber degradabilities at 48 and 72 h, but had no effect on acid detergent fiber and CP degradabilities. EOs did not change ruminal pH, ammonia nitrogen, protozoa, volatile fatty acid concentrations and blood glucose but reduced blood urea nitrogen at 4 h. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Selection of Feed Intake or Feed Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veerkamp, Roel F; Pryce, Jennie E; Spurlock, Diane


    The widespread use of genomic information in dairy cattle breeding programs has opend up the possibility to select for novel traits, especially for traits that are traditionally difficult to record in a progeny testing scheme. Feed intake and efficiency is such a difficult to measure trait...

  10. Influence of experience on intake and feeding behavior of dairy sheep when offered forages from woody plants in a multiple-choice situation. (United States)

    Meier, J S; Liesegang, A; Rischkowsky, B; Louhaichi, M; Zaklouta, M; Kreuzer, M; Marquardt, S


    A satisfactory intake of novel low-quality forages by ruminants may require previous experience with this feed. Therefore, this study tested in sheep whether experience with forages from woody plants had an influence on feed intake, feeding behavior, and nutrient supply when offered in a multiple-choice arrangement. Two sheep experiments were conducted, 1 in Syria (Mediterranean region; Exp. 1) and the other in Switzerland (Central Europe; Exp. 2), that investigated 5 and 6 woody test plants, respectively. In Exp. 1, the test plants were Artemisia herba-alba, Atriplex leucoclada, Haloxylon articulatum, Noaea mucronata, and Salsola vermiculata. In Exp. 2, Betula pendula, Castanea sativa, and Juglans regia were used in addition to A. leucoclada, H. articulatum, and S. vermiculata (the plants most consumed in Exp. 1). In each experiment, 12 lactating sheep (Awassi sheep in Exp. 1 and East Friesian Milk sheep in Exp. 2) were allocated to 2 groups ("experienced" and "naïve"). Experienced sheep subsequently were familiarized with each test plant during a learning period of binary choices (1 test plant vs. barley straw) for 4 h in the morning for 7 d each. The naïve group received only straw. During the rest of the day, a basal diet composed of barley straw (ad libitum) and concentrate was offered to both groups. For the 2 wk following the learning period, the sheep were subjected to feeding of the basal diet to avoid carryover effects of the last offered test plant. In the following multiple-choice period, both groups were allowed to select from all test plants during 4 h in the morning for 14 d. Forage intake after 4 and 24 h and feeding behavior during the first 30 min of the test feeding were assessed. Milk yield and composition were measured at the end of the multiple-choice period. Nutrient intake was calculated using feed intake measurements and compositional analyses. Only in Exp. 2, group differences (P forage, straw, OM, NDF, ADF, and ADL (nutrients without

  11. Injection of synthetic human growth hormone-releasing factors in dairy cows. 1. Effect on feed intake and milk yield and composition. (United States)

    Pelletier, G; Petitclerc, D; Lapierre, H; Bernier-Cardou, M; Morisset, J; Gaudreau, P; Couture, Y; Brazeau, P


    Eighteen multiparous Holstein cows in the second half of their lactation were used to determine the effect of human growth hormone-releasing factor (1-44)NH2 and a fragment of growth hormone-releasing factor (1-29)NH2 on lactational performance and feed intake. Saline, the 44-amino acid peptide or the 29-amino acid fragment, at the same dose per injection (.2 was injected intravenously at 4-h intervals for 10 d. Average milk yield, milk composition, feed intake, and feed efficiency were compared for the second half of each 10-d preinjection, injection, and post-injection period. Injections of the 44-amino acid peptide and the 29-amino acid fragment increased milk yield 18.6 and 14.6%, respectively. Feed intake was not changed, but feed efficiency was increased 23.9 and 18.8% over control following 44-amino acid peptide and the 29-amino acid fragment injection, respectively. The lactational response was not different between the two peptides for any of the variables measured. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using a growth hormone-releasing factor fragment as an alternative method of elevating milk yield in cattle via somatotropins.

  12. [Preliminary analysis of ginseng industry in Wisconsin]. (United States)

    Hu, Li; Zhang, Wen-sheng


    To study the case of Wisconsin as the top ginseng state in United States which has come through four developing steps: beginning, stagnating, flourishing and now, downturn. The current situation of the ginseng industry in Wisconsin was briefly introduced, the federal and state management on ginseng cultivation and export, the organization of Ginseng Board of Wisconsin and their marketing style based on the field investigation and data collected from USDA and Wisconsin state. The advantages and disadvantages of Wisconsin ginseng industry were analyzed in order to provide some suggestions for Chinese medicine industry. Chinese ginseng industry should learn the organization system from Wisconsin.

  13. A meta-analysis of the effects of feeding yeast culture produced by anaerobic fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on milk production of lactating dairy cows. (United States)

    Poppy, G D; Rabiee, A R; Lean, I J; Sanchez, W K; Dorton, K L; Morley, P S


    The purpose of this study was to use meta-analytic methods to estimate the effect of a commercially available yeast culture product on milk production and other production measures in lactating dairy cows using a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Sixty-one research publications (published journal articles, published abstracts, and technical reports) were identified through a review of literature provided by the manufacturer and a search of published literature using 6 search engines. Thirty-six separate studies with 69 comparisons met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. The fixed-effect meta-analysis showed substantial heterogeneity for milk yield, energy-corrected milk, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, milk fat yield, and milk protein yield. Sub-group analysis of the data showed much less heterogeneity in peer-reviewed studies versus non-peer-reviewed abstracts and technical reports, and tended to show higher, but not significantly different, treatment effects. A random-effects meta-analysis showed estimated raw mean differences between treated and untreated cattle reported in peer-reviewed publications of 1.18 kg/d [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55 to 1.81], 1.61 kg/d (95% CI: 0.92 to 2.29), and 1.65 kg/d (95% CI: 0.97 to 2.34) for milk yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, and energy-corrected milk, respectively. Milk fat yield and milk protein yield for peer-reviewed studies showed an increase in the raw mean difference of 0.06 kg/d (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.10) and 0.03 kg/d (95% CI: 0.00 to 0.05), respectively. Estimated raw mean dry matter intake of the peer-reviewed studies during early lactation (yeast culture product provides significant improvement in several important milk production outcomes as evaluated in production settings typical for commercial dairies in North America. Utilizing meta-analytic methods to study the complete breadth of information relating to a specific treatment by studying multiple overcomes of all eligible studies can

  14. Effect of changes in diet energy density on feed intake, milk yield and metabolic parameters in dairy cows in early lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N.I.; Friggens, N.C.; Larsen, T.


    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate how early lactating cows adjust their metabolism and production to acute, but moderate changes in the energy density of the diet. Sixty dairy cows were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: two change-over groups (HNH and NHN) and two control...... calving while cows assigned to HHH or NNN were fed the same TMR for all 9 weeks. Results from cows on treatment HNH were compared with group HHH while cows on treatment NHN were compared with group NNN. When the diet changed from N to H and H to N, cows increased and decreased their dry-matter intake (DMI......), respectively compared with control groups. Cows adjusted milk yield accordingly to changes in DMI, although not always significantly. Energy-corrected milk yield was not significantly affected by any of the changes in the energy density of the diet but generally showed same tendencies as milk yield. Non...

  15. Establishment of the biochemical and endocrine blood profiles in the Majorera and Palmera dairy goat breeds: the effect of feed restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lérias, Joana R; Peña, Raquel; Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E


    Feed restriction, and seasonal weight loss (SWL), are major setbacks for animal production in the tropics and the Mediterranean. They may be solved through the use of autochthonous breeds particularly well adapted to SWL. It is therefore of major importance to determine markers of tolerance to fe...

  16. Periparturient effects of feeding a low dietary cation-anion difference diet on acid-base, calcium, and phosphorus homeostasis and on intravenous glucose tolerance test in high-producing dairy cows. (United States)

    Grünberg, W; Donkin, S S; Constable, P D


    Feeding rations with low dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) to dairy cows during late gestation is a common strategy to prevent periparturient hypocalcemia. Although the efficacy of low-DCAD rations in reducing the incidence of clinical hypocalcemia is well documented, potentially deleterious effects have not been explored in detail. The objective of the study presented here was to determine the effect of fully compensated metabolic acidosis on calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, insulin responsiveness, and insulin sensitivity as well as on protein metabolism. Twenty multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups and fed a low-DCAD ration (DCAD = -9 mEq/100g, group L) or a control ration (DCAD = +11 mEq/100g, group C) for the last 3 wk before the expected calving date. Blood and urine samples were obtained periodically between 14 d before to 14 d after calving. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests and 24-h volumetric urine collection were conducted before calving as well as 7 and 14 d postpartum. Cows fed the low-DCAD ration had lower urine pH and higher net acid excretion, but unchanged blood pH and bicarbonate concentration before calving. Protein-corrected plasma Ca concentration 1 d postpartum was higher in cows on the low-DCAD diet when compared with control animals. Urinary Ca and P excretion was positively associated with urine net acid excretion and negatively associated with urine pH. Whereas metabolic acidosis resulted in a 6-fold increase in urinary Ca excretion, the effect on renal P excretion was negligible. A more pronounced decline of plasma protein and globulin concentration in the periparturient period was observed in cows on the low-DCAD diets resulting in significantly lower total protein and globulin concentrations after calving in cows on low-DCAD diets. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests conducted before and after calving did not reveal group differences in insulin response or insulin sensitivity. Our

  17. Genetic improvement of feed intake and methane emissions of cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzanilla Pech, Coralia I.V.


    Feed costs represent half of the total costs of dairy production. One way to increase profitability of dairy production is to reduce feed costs by improving feed efficiency. As DMI is a trait that varies significantly during and across lactations, it is imperative to


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldi Fernandes de Souza França


    Full Text Available

    Pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum is an annual summer forage that grows in India and some African countries, used for human and animal feeding. Due to its high nutritive value it can be used for grain production and forage. Because of its physiologic characteristics, pearl millet is adapted to the soil and climate conditions of Brazilian cerrados region. This trial was conducted with the aim of evaluating the use of pearl millet (grain + ears to dairy goat feeding. Sixteen dairy goat females were alloted in a Latin square design and submitted to four levels of substitution of millet ear corn for pearl millet. The percentual levels of substitution used were 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% that correspond to treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. The results, obtained in terms of average of milk production in a period of six days, were: 4.471, 4.621, 4.911 and 4.771 for treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. It was not observed any statistical difference between treatments with the use of Tukey test at the probability level of 5%.

    KEY-WORDS: Pearl millet; dairy goat; feeding.

    O milheto (Pennisetum americanum (L Leeke se constitui em uma forrageira anual de verão muito utilizada na Índia e em alguns países da África, tanto para alimentação humana como animal. Apresenta alto valor nutritivo, podendo ser utilizada para a produção de grãos ou de forragens. Por suas características fisiológicas se adapta muito bem às condições edafoclimáticas dos cerrados. O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o

  19. Different milk feeding intensities during the first 4 weeks of rearing dairy calves: Part 2: Effects on the metabolic and endocrine status during calfhood and around the first lactation. (United States)

    Kesser, J; Korst, M; Koch, C; Romberg, F-J; Rehage, J; Müller, U; Schmicke, M; Eder, K; Hammon, H M; Sadri, H; Sauerwein, H


    Feeding dairy calves at high intensity has been demonstrated to increase milk yield in later life. We investigated the effect of 3 different feeding regimens in the preweaning period on the metabolic and endocrine status during calfhood and in heifers at the onset of the first lactation. In trial 1, 57 German Holstein calves were allocated to 3 different feeding groups: milk replacer restricted to 6.78 kg/calf per day, 11.5% solids (MR-res, n = 20), milk replacer 13.8% solids, ad libitum (MR-ad lib, n = 17), and whole milk ad libitum (WM-ad lib, n = 20). All calves received ad libitum colostrum for 3 d postnatal (p.n.). From d 4 to 27, all calves were fed according to their respective feeding regimen, resulting in average intakes of 6.38, 9.25, and 9.47 kg/d in MR-res, MR-ad lib, and WM-ad lib, respectively. Thereafter, all calves were fed according to the MR-res regimen until weaning at d 55 (gradually until d 69 p.n.). Blood samples were collected on d 0 before colostrum intake and on d 1, 3, 11, 22, 34, 43, 52, 70, 90, and 108 p.n. Liver biopsies were taken on d 19 and 100, and on d 22, 52, and 108 p.n. intravenous glucose tolerance tests were performed. The male calves (n = 8 to 10 per group) underwent also an insulin tolerance test on d 24, 54, and 110 p.n. The females (n = 28) from trial 1 were further reared and bred as common practice, and were enrolled in trial 2 when beginning the last trimester of pregnancy. Blood samples were collected monthly antepartum starting 91 d before calving and weekly (0-70 d) postpartum. Trial 1 was subdivided into 4 phases (P): P0 (d 0-1), P1 (d 2-27), P2 (d 28-69), and P3 (d 70-110 p.n.). In trial 1, the leptin and adiponectin concentrations increased with colostrum intake. Differences in fatty acids, insulin, adiponectin, revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (RQUICKI), and variables from the glucose tolerance tests were largely limited to P1. The MR-res group had greater RQUICKI and fatty acid values, and

  20. Forage management to improve on-farm feed production, nitrogen fluxes and greenhouse gas emissions from dairy systems in a wet temperate region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doltra, J; Villar, A.; Moros, R


    and heifers, diet, milk yield and slurry management. The model was applied to simulate carbon (C) and N fluxes at the farm level, and to calculate feed balances, GHG emissions and the N surplus. Farms were simulated under current forage management (baseline) and under scenarios of enhanced forage production....... Milk yield, the balance between forage production and consumption in the animal diet, and between manure generation and application in the field, were used as reference for accepting model simulations. The results from the scenarios indicate that increasing forage productivity, not only reduces...... the external dependence for feeding animals, but also would have a clear potential for mitigating yield-scaled farm GHG emissions. However, this potential appears to have a limit when N surplus exceeds a threshold value. Rotational grassclover would have additional benefits in terms of reduced N fertilizer...

  1. Replacing wheat with canola meal and maize grain in the diet of lactating dairy cows: Feed intake, milk production and cow condition responses. (United States)

    McDonnell, Ruairi P; Staines, Martin vH


    This research paper describes the effect of partially replacing wheat with maize grain and canola meal on milk production and body condition changes in early lactation Holstein-Friesian dairy cows consuming a grass silage-based diet over an 83-d period. Two groups of 39 cows were stratified for age, parity, historical milk yield and days in milk (DIM), and offered one of two treatment diets. The first treatment (CON) reflected a typical diet used by Western Australian dairy producers in summer and comprised (kg DM/cow per d); 8 kg of annual ryegrass silage, 6 kg of crushed wheat (provided once daily in a mixed ration), 3·6 kg of crushed lupins (provided in the milking parlour in two daily portions) and ad libitum lucerne haylage. The second treatment diet (COMP) was identical except the 6 kg of crushed wheat was replaced by 6 kg of a more complex concentrate mix (27% crushed wheat, 34% maize grain and 37% canola meal). Lucerne haylage was provided independently in the paddock to all cows, and no pasture was available throughout the experiment. The COMP group had a greater mean overall daily intake (22·5 vs 20·4 kg DM/cow) and a higher energy corrected milk (ECM) yield (29·2 vs 27·1 kg/cow; P = 0·047) than the CON cows. The difference in overall intake was caused by a higher daily intake of lucerne haylage in COMP cows (4·5 vs 2·3 kg DM/cow). The CON group had a higher concentration of milk fat (42·1 vs 39·3 g/kg; P = 0·029) than COMP cows. Milk protein yield was greater in COMP cows (P < 0·021); however, milk fat yield was unaffected by treatment. It is concluded that partially replacing wheat with canola meal and maize grain in a grass silage-based diet increases voluntary DMI of conserved forage and consequently yields of ECM and milk protein.

  2. The effect of supplementary formalin treated soya‐bean meal on feed intake, milk yield and live‐weight gain of dairy cows fed ensiled fodder beets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, John Erik; Kristensen, Troels


    The present experiment compared formalin treated soya‐bean meal (2 kg DM) with barley and urea (2.4 kg DM) as supplements for a mixture of ensiled beets and ammonium‐treated straw given ad libitum in a cross over experiment with two periods of 6 weeks. Furthermore, these diets were compared...... and may indicate that not only the amino acid supply of the cows but also the supply of other glucogenic nutrients may be adversely affected when feeding ensiled beets....

  3. Effects of feeding a Moringa oleifera rachis and twig preparation to dairy cows on their milk production and fatty acid composition, and plasma antioxidants. (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Si, Bingwen; Deng, Kaidong; Tu, Yan; Zhou, Chaolong; Diao, Qiyu


    We determined how supplementing the diet of lactating, multiparous Holstein dairy cows with a preparation of Moringa oleifera rachises and twigs affected their milk production and quality and the levels of plasma antioxidants. We found that milk yield increased in cows receiving the 6% (w/w) moringa supplement compared with that of the control. Addition of the moringa supplement increased the concentration of milk fat and decreased the somatic cell count in the milk. However, protein, glucose and total solid and urea nitrogen concentrations in the milk were the same for all treatments. The concentration of glutathione peroxidase increased for cows fed the moringa supplement compared with the control. The percentages of total unsaturated fatty acids, mono-unsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid increased in the milk of cows fed the moringa supplement compared with those of the controls. Addition of the moringa supplement into the diet of lactating multiparous cows improved milk production and health status and modified milk fatty acid profile positively. The results suggested that moringa supplement could be used as a diet supplement for producing high quality and healthier milk. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Neuropathology of organophosphate poisoning in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulvian Sani


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate pathological changes in brain tissues of Frisien Holstein dairy cattle affected by organophosphate (OP. The study was directed to anticipate spongiform encephalopathy. Samples consisted of animal feeds, sera and brain tissues were collected from Lembang, West Java. Animal feeds (fodders and commercial feed were collected directly from the dairy farms around Lembang. Sera (31 samples were from dairy cattle owned by the local farmers and brain tissues were from the local animal slaughter house. Pesticide residues were analysed following a standard procedure using gas chromatography (GC. There was an interaction between pesticide residues in animal feeds, residue level of pesticides in sera and brain tissues to cause encephalopathy in dairy cattle. Pesticide contamination in animal feeds was regarded as the source of encephalopathy in dairy cattle. The total average of OP residues (16.8 ppb were lower than organochlorines/OC (18.7 ppb in fodder, showing that pesticides were originated from the contaminated soils. On the other hand, the total average of OP residues in commercial feeds (12.0 ppb, sera (85.6 ppb and brain tissues (22.7 ppb were higher than OC (1.8; 16.7; and 5.1 ppb. The OP appears more frequently used for dairy farm activity as insecticides. Histopathological examination for brain tissues of dairy cattle showed that most cattle were diagnosed as encephalopathy with microscopic changes of vacuolation, neuronal necrosis, chromatolysis of neurons and nucleolysis of neurons. The encephalopathy was confirmed in rats intoxicated with chlorpyrifos methyl as severe brain damage with spongiform-like lesions.

  5. Grazing intensity affects the environmental impact of dairy systems. (United States)

    Aguirre-Villegas, H A; Passos-Fonseca, T H; Reinemann, D J; Larson, R


    Dairy products are major components of the human diet but are also important contributors to global environmental impacts. This study evaluated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, net energy intensity (NEI), and land use of confined dairy systems with increasing levels of pasture in the diet. A Wisconsin farm was modeled to represent practices adopted by dairy operations in a humid continental climate typical in the Great Lakes region and other climates that have large differences in seasonal temperatures. Five grazing scenarios (all of which contained some portion of confinement) were modeled based on different concentrations of dry matter intake from pasture and feed supplementation from corn grain, corn silage, and soybean meal. Scenarios that incorporate grazing consisted of 5 mo of pasture feeding from May to September and 7 mo of confined feeding from October to April. Environmental impacts were compared within the 5 scenarios that incorporate grazing and across 2 entirely confined scenarios with and without on-farm electricity production through anaerobic digestion (AD). To conduct a fair comparison, all scenarios were evaluated based on the same total amount of milk produced per day where resource inputs were adjusted according to the characteristics of each scenario. A cradle-to-farm gate life cycle assessment evaluated the environmental burdens that were partitioned by allocation between milk and meat and by system expansion when biogas-based electricity was produced. Overall, results for all scenarios were comparable. Enteric methane was the greatest contributor to GHG emissions, and the production of crops was the most energy-intense process. For the confined scenario without AD, GHG emissions were 0.87 kg of CO 2 equivalents, NEI was 1.59 MJ, and land use was 1.59 m 2 /kg of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). Anaerobic digestion significantly reduced emissions to 0.28 kg of CO 2 equivalents/kg of FPCM and reduced NEI to -1.26 MJ/kg of FPCM, indicating

  6. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Energy used by Wisconsin single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  7. Wisconsin's fourth forest inventory, 1983. (United States)

    John S. Jr. Spencer; W. Brad Smith; Jerold T. Hahn; Gerhard K. Raile


    The fourth inventory of the timber resource of Wisconsin shows that growing-stock volume increased from 11.2 to 15.5 billion cubic feet between 1968 and 1983, and area of timberland increased from 14.5 to 14.8 million acres. Presented are analysis and statistics on forest area and timber volume, growth, mortality, removals, and projections.

  8. Wisconsin's forest resources in 2001. (United States)

    John S. Vissage; Gery J. Brand; Manfred E. Mielke


    Results of the 2001 annual inventory of Wisconsin show about 15.8 million acres of forest land, more than 21.6 billion cubic feet of live volume on forest land, and nearly 584 million dry tons of all live aboveground tree biomass on timberland. Gypsy moth, forest tent caterpillar, twolined chestnut borer, bronze birch borer, ash yellows, and white pine blister rust...

  9. Educational Attainment in Southeast Wisconsin (United States)

    Million, Laura; Henken, Rob; Dickman, Anneliese


    In metro Milwaukee, as a part of the WIRED Initiative, the Regional Workforce Alliance (RWA)--a collaboration of organizations representing workforce development, economic development and education across southeast Wisconsin--has established the framework for pursuing the local talent dividend goal and a regional strategy for increasing…

  10. Birds of Prey of Wisconsin. (United States)

    Hamerstrom, Frances

    This copiously illustrated document is designed to be a field quide to birds of prey that are common to Wisconsin, as well as to some that enter the state occasionally. An introduction discusses birds of prey with regard to migration patterns, the relationship between common names and the attitudes of people toward certain birds, and natural signs…

  11. Shredded beet pulp substituted for corn silage in diets fed to dairy cows under ambient heat stress: Feed intake, total-tract digestibility, plasma metabolites, and milk production. (United States)

    Naderi, N; Ghorbani, G R; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Nasrollahi, S M; Beauchemin, K A


    The effects of substituting increasing concentrations of dried, shredded beet pulp for corn silage on dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation, blood metabolites, and milk production of lactating dairy cows was evaluated under conditions of ambient heat stress. Four multiparous (126±13d in milk) and 4 primiparous (121±11d in milk) Holstein cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment with 4 periods of 21d. Each period had 14d of adaptation and 7d of sampling, and parity was the square. Dietary treatments were (dry matter basis): 16% of dietary dry matter as corn silage without BP (0BP, control diet); 8% corn silage and 8% beet pulp (8BP); 4% corn silage and 12% beet pulp (12BP); and 0% corn silage and 16% beet pulp (16BP). Alfalfa hay was included in all diets (24% dietary dry matter). Dietary concentrations of forage neutral detergent fiber and nonfiber carbohydrates were 21.3 and 39.2% (0BP), 16.5 and 40.9% (8BP), 14.1 and 42.2% (12BP), and 11.7 and 43.4% (16BP), respectively (dry matter basis). The ambient temperature-humidity index indicated that the cows were in heat stress for almost the entire duration of the study. Dry matter intake and nutrient digestibilities were similar across treatments and between multi- and primiparous cows. Mean rumen pH tended to decrease with increasing proportions of beet pulp in the diet. Also, increasing proportions of beet pulp in the diet linearly decreased acetate and butyrate concentrations in the rumen and increased propionate concentrations, leading to a linear decrease in acetate:propionate ratio. Milk yield linearly increased (38.5, 39.3, 40.9, and 39.6kg/d for 0BP, 8BP, 12BP, and 16BP, respectively), but fat content linearly decreased (3.46, 3.47, 3.27, and 2.99), such that we observed no effect on fat-corrected milk. Substituting beet pulp for corn silage increased the neutral detergent insoluble crude protein content of the diet, leading to a decrease in rumen concentration of

  12. Effects of feeding level and NDF content of grass-clover silages on chewing activity, fecal particle size and NDF digestibility in dairy heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Anne-Katrine Skovsted; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Nørgaard, Peder


    , replicated with further restricted feeding levels (50%, 60%, 70% or 80% of ad libitum) in a balanced 4 × 4 × 4 Greco-Latin square design. Eating activity was estimated from test meal observations, while rumination activity was estimated from jaw movements logged by a jaw recorder system. Total tract...... digestibility was estimated from chromic oxide marker and fecal spot sampling, and fecal particle size distribution in washed and freeze-dried particulate DM was determined by dry sieving (2.36, 1.0, 0.5, 0.212 and 0.106 mm, and bottom bowl). Higher NDF content of silage stimulated longer eating time per kg DM...... intake (Peating time per kg DM intake (P

  13. Effect of amount of concentrate offered in automatic milking systems on milking frequency, feeding behavior, and milk production of dairy cattle consuming high amounts of corn silage. (United States)

    Bach, A; Iglesias, C; Calsamiglia, S; Devant, M


    The objective was to evaluate whether the amount of concentrate offered in an automatic milking systems (AMS) would modify milking frequency, feeding behavior, and milk production. One hundred fifteen lactating cows were used in a cross-over design with 2 periods of 90 d each and 2 treatments: low concentrate (LC; up to 3 kg/d of concentrate at the AMS) or high concentrate (HC; up to 8 kg/d of concentrate at the AMS). Cows were evenly distributed in 2 symmetrical pens, each containing 1 AMS and about 50 cows at any given time. All cows received the same total ration (28% corn silage, 1.67 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg, 16.5% crude protein, DM basis), but a different amount of concentrate from this ration was offered at the AMS depending on treatment. The concentrate at the AMS had the same composition in both treatments. Cows were fetched when time elapsed, because last milking was greater than 12 h. The amount of concentrate offered at the AMS was proportional to the time elapsed since last visit (125 and 333 g/h for LC and HC, respectively). Milk production, total number of daily milkings, number of cows fetched, or number of voluntary milkings were not affected by treatments. The consumption of basal ration was greater in LC than in HC, but this difference was compensated by a greater consumption of concentrate at the AMS in HC than LC cows. Total dry matter intake tended to be lower, therefore, in HC than in LC cows. Eating rate of the basal ration was greater in LC than in HC, but the total amount of time that cows devoted to eat was similar between treatments. Offering high amounts of concentrate to the AMS feeding a basal ration rich in corn silage did not diminish the need for fetching cows and did not increase the number of daily milkings nor milk production.

  14. Dairy cow monitoring by RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Stankovski


    Full Text Available Dairy cows identification and monitoring on small cattle farms are usually based on the utilization of barcode technology. This kind of identification technology is unsuitable for dairy cows milking and feeding process automation. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology is a better solution in this case. This paper describes the research and implementation of the milking cycle´s automated monitoring with the use of RFID tags conducted on a small cattle farm in the Republic of Serbia. This solution is based on RFID system which consists of two parts. First part includes control box, two Ultra High Frequency (UHF RFID readers operating at frequency of 915 MHz and RFID tags glued onto the dairy cow ear labels. Second part includes software modules for acquisition and collecting data from RFID tags to build up an archive due to supervision and analysis of the milking cycle. Reading accuracy of RFID system in the observed period was 99.8 % in average. A group of dairy cows having a settled milking cycle within an interval of 12h ± 5 % had a 1.5 % better yield and a 0.08 better quality in comparison with a group of dairy cows having a milking cycle variance higher than 20 %. RFID system implemented in described way can be easily integrated into a new or existing farm management system in order to have better production results which depend on several factors including settled milking cycles.

  15. Water resources of Wisconsin: lower Wisconsin River basin (United States)

    Hindall, S.M.; Borman, Ronald G.


    This report describes the physical environment, availability, distribution, movement, quality, and use of water in the upper Wisconsin River basin as an aid in planning and water management. The report presents general information on the basin derived from data obtained from Federal, State, and local agencies, New field data were collected in areas where information was lacking. More detailed studies of problem areas may be required in the future, as water needs and related development increase.

  16. Prevalence of aflatoxin in feeds and cow milk from five counties in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This may contribute to ill health effects in both humans and animals and, therefore, there is need for better understanding of the impacts of aflatoxins in the feed–dairy value chain and appropriate interventions to control aflatoxin contamination in animal feeds. Keywords: aflatoxins, feeds, dairy cattle, milk, Kenya, dairy value ...

  17. Dairy-impacted wastewater is a source of iodinated disinfection byproducts in the environment (United States)

    Hladik, Michelle; Hubbard, Laura E.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Focazio, Michael J.


    Iodinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are among the most toxic DBPs, but they are not typically measured in treated water. Iodinated DBPs can be toxic to humans, and they also have the potential to affect aquatic communities. Because of the specific use of iodine and iodine-containing compounds in dairies, such livestock operations can be a potential source of iodinated DBPs in corresponding receiving water bodies. DBPs [trihalomethanes (THMs), including iodinated THMs] were measured within dairy processing facilities (milking and cheese manufacturing) and surface waters that receive dairy-impacted effluents [either directly from the dairy or through wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs)] in three areas of the United States (California, New York, and Wisconsin). Iodo-THMs comprised 15−29% of the total THMs in surface water near WWTP effluents that were impacted by dairy waste and 0−100% of the total THMs in samples from dairy processing facilities.

  18. Characteristics of peri-urban dairy herds of Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sidibe, M.; Boly, H.; Lakouetené, T.; Leroy, P.; Bosma, R.H.


    Peri-urban dairy cattle farms within 50 km of Bobo-Dioulasso were studied to assess herd type, disease incidence, management, feeding and breeding strategy. Out of 417 cattle farmers, 42% had dairy objectives and were studied. Among these peri-urban dairy farmers, 60% were settled, 36% semi-settled,

  19. Factors influencing energy demand in dairy farming | Kraatz | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficiency of energy utilization is one of the key indicators for developing more sustainable agricultural practices. Factors influencing the energy demand in dairy farming are the cumulative energy demand for feed-supply, milk yield as well as the replacement rate of cows. The energy demand of dairy farming is ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tothi


    Full Text Available The effect of processed cereal grain supplementation on volatile fatty acid (VFA production rates of grazing, lactating Holstein-Friesian cows were measured in a 5x5 Latin square experiment. The experimental treatments were as follows: control (only grazing, no supplement addition, NS, pelleted barley (PB, pelleted maize (PM, toasted and subsequently pelleted barley (TPB, and toasted and subsequently pelleted maize (TPM as supplements. An isotope dilution technique using stable isotope of carbon (13C as an internal marker was employed for the estimation of VFA production. At the beginning of a 3-hour long allowed grazing time, 100 mg of 99% enriched 13C2 Na-acetate were introduced in the rumen and repeated after grazing with 50 mg isotope, after which the cows were starved for 6 hours until evening milking. During grazing disappearance rate (kdis and production rate (kprod of acetate, propionate and butyrate were significantly higher (P≤0.05 in supplemented than in NS cows. Moreover the effect of barley grain and pelleting treatment was higher than the effect of maize grain and toasting. During starvation significantly higher (P≤0.05 kdis and kprod of VFAs were observed in PM and TPM treatments. Total VFA production for the experimental period (grazing + starvation were 49.5, 78.7, 69.9, 88.5, 80.8 mol/day for NS, PB, TPB, PM and TPM, respectively. The higher VFA productions measured in supplemented animals emphasis the extensive digestion that occurs in the rumen after feeding processed grains. In methodological terms, 13C2 Na-acetate labelling appears to be a useful means for examining the VFA acetate production in ruminants.

  1. Effect of feeding level of pregnant dairy heifers sired by one bull on maternal metabolism, placental parameters and birth weight of their female calves. (United States)

    Spiegler, Sonja; Kaske, Martin; Köhler, Ursula; Meyer, Heinrich H D; Schwarz, Frieder J; Wiedemann, Steffi


    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different phases of feed restriction on the metabolism and placental indices of growing heifers inseminated with sexed semen of one bull and on the birth weights of their calves. Red-Holstein heifers were randomly divided into three groups. C-group animals (N=17) daily received recommended energy and crude protein (standard diet). ER-Group animals (N=14) were fed 60% of recommended energy and crude protein for the first two pregnancy months followed by the standard diet. LR-group animals (N=13) were provided with the standard diet throughout the first seven months and with 60% energy and crude protein for the last two months of pregnancy. Blood metabolites and weights of dams were assessed regularly during pregnancy. Placenta weight, area of placentomes and calves' birth weights were examined directly after birth. The physiological levels of blood metabolites varied in C-group animals during the different pregnancy stages. Both restriction periods resulted in reduced weight gain of the dams. ER-group animals showed a marked compensatory growth during mid-pregnancy. Serum glucose, cholesterol and beta-hydroxybutyrate were lower in ER-group animals compared with C-group animals during early restriction. During late restriction, only non-esterified fatty acids increased in LR-group animals. Placental parameter and calves' birth weights did not differ between groups. Results indicate only minor effects of a 40% energy and protein restriction during early or late pregnancy in growing heifers on maternal metabolic and placental indices as well as on foetal development, but further studies might show long-term consequences of offspring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Forages from intensively managed and semi-natural grasslands in the diet of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinenberg, M.H.


    Keywords : Intensively managed grass, semi-natural grasslands, forage species, dairy cows, in vivo digestibility, feed degradation, energy metabolism, milk production, ruminant nutrition, rumen fermentation, rumen kinetics, voluntary intake, feed

  3. Intervalos de observações com diferentes escalas de tempo no comportamento ingestivo de vacas leiteiras confinadas Intervals between observations at different time scales in the feeding behavior of dairy confined cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Bacelar Lima Mendes


    Full Text Available Objetivou-se analisar as diferentes escalas de tempo para determinar qual o intervalo mais adequado no estudo do comportamento ingestivo de vacas leiteiras confinadas. O experimento foi conduzido na fazenda Água Azul, Município de Macarani-Bahia, no período de outubro a novembro de 2005. Foram utilizadas 12 vacas mestiças Holandês, apresentando, em média, 478,5  15,89kg de peso corporal. Os tratamentos do presente estudo foram os intervalos (cinco, 10; 15; 20 e 30 minutos, observados durante o comportamento ingestivo. A observação do comportamento ocorreu no penúltimo dia de cada período de 12 dias durante 24 horas. Procedeu-se a análise de variância e a aplicação do teste de Dunnett, adotando-se 0,05 como nível crítico de probabilidade. Não houve efeito significativo das escalas de registro do tempo de alimentação, ruminação, ócio e para as eficiências de alimentação e ruminação. Para as variáveis dos números de períodos de alimentação, ruminação e ócio e os tempos por período de alimentação, ruminação e ócio, as escalas de 10, 15, 20 e 30 minutos foram diferentes quando comparadas com o intervalo de observação de cinco minutos. As coletas totais dos tempos de alimentação ruminação e ócio, e as eficiências de alimentação e ruminação nos diferentes nutrientes podem ser realizadas com intervalo de observação de até 30 minutos. Para a discretização das séries temporais do comportamento ingestivo recomenda-se a escala de cinco minutos entre as observações.This study aimed to analyze different time scales to determine the most appropriate interval in the study of ingestive behavior of confined dairy cows. The experiment was conducted at the farm Blue Water, city of Macarani-Bahia, in the period from October to November 2005. 12 crossbred Holstein cows were used, with an average body weight of 478.5  15.89kg. The treatments of this study were the intervals (five; 10; 15; 20 and 30

  4. A 100-Year Review: Metabolic modifiers in dairy cattle nutrition. (United States)

    McGuffey, R K


    The first issue of the Journal of Dairy Science in 1917 opened with the text of the speech by Raymond A. Pearson, president of the Iowa State College of Agriculture, at the dedication of the new dairy building at the University of Nebraska (J. Dairy Sci. 1:4-18, 1917). Fittingly, this was the birth of a new research facility and more importantly, the beginning of a new journal devoted to the sciences of milk production and manufacture of products from milk. Metabolic modifiers of dairy cow metabolism enhance, change, or interfere with normal metabolic processes in the ruminant digestive tract or alter postabsorption partitioning of nutrients among body tissues. Papers on metabolic modifiers became more frequent in the journal around 1950. Dairy farming changed radically between 1955 and 1965. Changes in housing and feeding moved more cows outside, and cows and heifers in all stages of lactation, including the dry period, were fed as a single group. Rations became wetter with the shift to corn silage as the major forage in many rations. Liberal grain feeding met the requirements of high-producing cows and increased production per cow but introduced new challenges; for example, managing and feeding cows as a group. These changes led to the introduction of new strategies that identified and expanded the use of metabolic modifiers. Research was directed at characterizing the new problems for the dairy cow created by group feeding. Metabolic modifiers went beyond feeding the cow and included environmental and housing factors and additives to reduce the incidence and severity of many new conditions and pathologies. New collaborations began among dairy cattle specialties that broadened our understanding of the workings of the cow. The Journal of Dairy Science then and now plays an enormously important role in dissemination of the findings of dairy scientists worldwide that address existing and new technologies. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association

  5. Improving food safety within the dairy chain: an application of conjoint analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valeeva, N.I.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.


    This study determined the relative importance of attributes of food safety improvement in the production chain of fluid pasteurized milk. The chain was divided into 4 blocks: "feed" (compound feed production and its transport), "farm" (dairy farm), "dairy processing" (transport and processing of raw

  6. Economic and environmental issues associated with confinement and pasture-based dairy systems (United States)

    Milk is produced in a continuum of dairy systems from full confinement to full pasture grazing. Climate, available feeds, and milk price: feed cost ratio influence the preferred system. All dairy systems have an environmental impact and inputs to maximise profit may lead to pollution levels unacce...

  7. Digestible NDF is selectively retained in the rumen of dairy cows compared to indigestible NDF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben


    Data was compiled from four experiments (60 observations) with fistulated dairy cows. Different forages were fed ad libitum as the only feed or supplemented with a fixed amount of concentrate.......Data was compiled from four experiments (60 observations) with fistulated dairy cows. Different forages were fed ad libitum as the only feed or supplemented with a fixed amount of concentrate....

  8. 7 CFR 1430.208 - Payment rate and dairy operation payment. (United States)


    ... the months that the Boston Class I milk price under the applicable milk marketing order is equal to or... the feed components of the estimated price of 16 percent Mixed Dairy Feed per pound noted on page 33... be made to dairy operations when the Boston Class I milk price under the applicable Federal milk...

  9. Water Use in Wisconsin, 2005 (United States)

    Buchwald, Cheryl A.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Wisconsin Water Science Center is responsible for presenting data collected or estimated for water withdrawals and diversions every 5 years to the National Water-Use Information Program (NWUIP). This program serves many purposes such as quantifying how much, where, and for what purpose water is used; tracking and documenting water-use trends and changes; and providing these data to other agencies to support hydrologic projects. In 2005, data at both the county and subbasin levels were compiled into the USGS national water-use database system; these data are published in a statewide summary report and a national circular. This publication, Water Use in Wisconsin, 2005, presents the water-use estimates for 2005; this publication also describes how these water-use data were determined (including assumptions used), limitations of using these data, and trends in water-use data presented to the NWUIP. Estimates of water use in Wisconsin indicate that about 8,608 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) were withdrawn during 2005. Of this amount, about 7,622 Mgal/d (89 percent) were from surface-water sources and about 986 Mgal/d (11 percent) were from ground-water sources. Surface water used for cooling at thermoelectric-power plants constituted the largest portion of daily use at 6,898 Mgal/d. Water provided by public-supply water utilities is the second largest use of water and totaled 552 Mgal/d. Public supply served approximately 71 percent of the estimated 2005 Wisconsin population of 5.54 million people; two counties - Milwaukee and Dane - accounted for more than one-third of the public-supply withdrawal. Industrial and irrigation were the next major water uses at 471 and 402 Mgal/d, respectively. Non-irrigational agricultural (livestock and aquaculture) accounted for approximately 155 Mgal/d and is similar to the combined withdrawal for the remaining water-use categories of domestic, commercial, and mining (131 Mgal/d). Data on water use

  10. Improving mobility for Wisconsin's elderly : brief. (United States)


    By 2035, the number of elderly residents in Wisconsin is expected to nearly double, and one in four drivers on Wisconsin roads will be elderly. According to national statistics, the elderly are more likely to be involved in crashes on a per-mile basi...

  11. Feeding dairy cows with soybean by-products: effects on metabolic profile Alimentação de vacas leiteiras com subprodutos de soja: efeitos sobre o perfil metabólico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Alves


    Full Text Available Soybean by-products are currently used in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, as a source of protein in dairy cows. However, the high protein breakdown of this feed source in the rumen causes loss of the intrinsic quality of the protein and increases plasma urea with deleterious consequences to animal metabolism. Thermal treatment of soybean can overcome this limitation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolism of dairy cows fed with thermally treated soybean and raw soybean, through the analyses of the metabolic profile of plasma and milk. Twelve Holstein cows in mid-lactation period were studied using four treatments: commercial concentrated of protein, soybean meal, raw soybean and roasted soybean. Protein and urea levels in milk were measured in morning and afternoon samples. Data were arranged in a Latin square design (4 treatments and 3 animals in each square. There were no significant differences in glucose, beta-hydroxybutyrate, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium concentrations among treatments. Cows consuming raw and thermally treated soybean had higher levels of plasma cholesterol. Cows consuming roasted soybean had lower level of plasma and milk urea in the morning. Afternoon milk samples had higher levels of urea than morning samples. It is suggested that thermally treated soybean was effective in diminishing the breakdown of protein in the rumen. It is better to employ morning milk samples to evaluate metabolic profile than afternoon samples.Os subprodutos de soja vêm sendo utilizados como fonte protéica na alimentação de vacas leiteiras no Rio Grande do Sul. Entretanto, a elevada degradabilidade ruminal desta fonte causa perda da qualidade intrínseca da proteína e leva a aumento da uréia plasmática, com conseqüências deletérias no metabolismo animal. O tratamento térmico do grão de soja pode superar essa limitação. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o metabolismo de vacas leiteiras alimentadas com grão de

  12. Dairy farmer use of price risk management tools. (United States)

    Wolf, C A


    Volatility in milk and feed prices can adversely affect dairy farm profitability. Many risk management tools are available for use by US dairy farmers. This research uses surveys of Michigan dairy farmers to examine the extent to which price risk management tools have been used, the farm and operator characteristics that explain the use of these tools, and reasons farmers have not used these tools. A 1999 survey was used to benchmark the degree to which dairy producers had used milk and feed price risk management instruments to compare with 2011 use rates. The surveys collected information about the farm characteristics such as herd size, farmland operated, business organization, and solvency position. Farm operator characteristics collected include age, education, and experience. Dairy farmer use of both milk and feed price risk management tools increased between 1999 and 2011. In 2011, herd size was positively related to the use of milk price risk management tools, whereas farms organized as a sole proprietorship were less likely to use them. Also in 2011, herd size and land operated were positively related to feed price risk management tools, whereas operator age was negatively related. Reasons why farmers had not used price risk management tools included basis risk, cost, lack of management time, cooperative membership, and lack of understanding. Conclusions include the need for educational programming on price risk management tools and a broader exploration of dairy farm risk management programs. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Silage alcohols in dairy cow nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl

    Corn silages with high propanol concentrations has been suspected to cause reduced feed intake and health problems for dairy cows in the post-pattum transition period. With the increasing use of hetero fermentative inoculants to support corn silage fermentation it is likely that silage concentrat...

  14. Selection for body weight in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenen, E.P.C.


    This thesis deals with selection for body weight (BW) in dairy cattle. The economic efficiency of present breeding schemes might increase further when selection decisions also consider information on BW as BW relates to feed costs and revenues from beef production. However, the practical

  15. The benefits of authoritative feeding style: caregiver feeding styles and children's food consumption patterns. (United States)

    Patrick, Heather; Nicklas, Theresa A; Hughes, Sheryl O; Morales, Miriam


    This research tested the associations between caregiver feeding styles and children's food consumption patterns among African-American (AA) and Hispanic (H) caregivers and their preschool children. Participants were 231 caregivers (101 AA; 130 H) with children enrolled in Head Start. Caregivers completed questionnaires on authoritarian and authoritative feeding styles (Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire; CFSQ) and various aspects of children's food consumption patterns (availability of, feeding attempts for, and child's consumption of dairy, fruit, and vegetables). Simultaneous multiple regression analyses tested the unique contribution of feeding styles in predicting food consumption patterns. Authoritative feeding was positively associated whereas authoritarian feeding was negatively associated with the availability of fruit and vegetables. Authoritative feeding was also positively associated with attempts to get the child to eat dairy, fruit, and vegetables, and reported child consumption of dairy and vegetables. Authoritarian feeding was negatively associated with child's vegetable consumption. All results remained significant after controlling for child's gender and body mass index (BMI), and caregiver's ethnicity, BMI, and level of education. Overall, results provide evidence for the benefits of authoritative feeding and suggest that interventions to increase children's consumption of dairy, fruit, and vegetables should be targeted toward increasing caregivers' authoritative feeding behaviors.

  16. Evaluación del Residuo del Cultivo de Agaricus bisporus como Alimento de Vacas Lecheras en Lactancia Media / Evaluation of the Agaricus bisporus Spent Compost as Feed of Dairy Cows in Mid Lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Gómez Urrego


    Full Text Available Resumen. Se evaluó el potencial del residuo del cultivo de la seta Agaricus bisporus como materia prima para la alimentación de vacas lecheras en segundo tercio de lactancia. Para esto, se sustituyó 10% del concentrado comercial por el residuo (sin turba y se evaluó su efecto en la producción, el balance nutricional de las vacas y el costo final del concentrado. El diseño experimental fue un cross-over o de intercambio con medidas repetidas en eltiempo. Cada periodo experimental tuvo una duración de 14 días. Se utilizaron dos grupos de animales, uno con 4 vacas Holstein y otro con 4 vacas cruzadas Holstein x BON. En promedio, las vacas tenían 117 ± 18,6 días en leche, 2,6 ± 0,9 partos, 529,5 ± 52,9 kg peso vivo y una producción de leche/día de 15,42 ± 2,6 L. El tratamiento experimental redujo los nutrientes digeribles totales de la dieta total en 2%. No hubo diferencias estadísticas en el balance nutricional de las vacas a causa del tratamiento experimental. Tampoco hubo diferencia estadística en cuanto a la producción de leche (14,4 L y calidad composicional (% de grasa:3,86; % de proteína: 3,5; relación grasa: proteína: 1,11. El análisis de costos mostró que al incluirse en el concentrado un 10% del residuo de A. bisporus (Champiñosa se obtenía una reducción en los costos de alimentación de $403 pesos colombianos/vaca/día. / Abstract. This study evaluated the potential of the growth bed of the mushroom Agaricus bisporus as a feed for mid lactation dairy cows. We replaced 10% of commercial concentrate with the residue (peat removed and assessed its effect on milk production, nutritional balance of the cows and final cost of the concentrate. The experimental design was a cross-over or change-over with repeated measurements. Each experimental period lasted 14 days. Two groups of animals, one with four Holstein cows and one with four crossbred Holstein x BON cows were used. On average, cows had 117

  17. Chronic copper toxicity in a dairy herd


    Perrin, David J.; Schiefer, H. Bruno; Blakley, Barry R.


    The addition of excessive copper to a commercially prepared dairy ration caused chronic copper toxicity in a dairy herd. A formulation error by a feed company resulted in copper levels of 800 to 1,000 mg/kg in the “as fed concentrate,” amounting to about 400-500 mg copper/kg of the whole ration. Five animals died with typical signs of acute copper toxicity, including intravascular hemolysis and methemoglobinemia. A further 39 cows died on the farm from a combination of debilitation and second...

  18. Addressing elderly mobility issues in Wisconsin. (United States)


    "The aging of baby boomers poses significant challenges to Wisconsins existing transportation infrastructure and specialized transit : programs. From 2010 to 2035, the number of elderly Wisconsinites is projected to grow by 90 percent, an increase...

  19. Predicting Scour of Bedrock in Wisconsin (United States)


    This research evaluates the scour potential of rocks supporting Wisconsin DOT bridge foundations. Ten highway bridges were selected for this study, of which seven are supported by shallow foundations, and five were built on sandstone in rivers/stream...

  20. Fuelwood production and sources in Wisconsin, 1981. (United States)

    James E. Blyth; E. Michael Bailey; W. Brad Smith


    Discusses and analyzes the 1981 Wisconsin fuelwood production from roundwood and primary wood-using mill residue. Analyzes production by geographic area, type of producer, species, landowner class, type of land, and tree source.

  1. Heat treatment of colostrum on commercial dairy farms decreases colostrum microbial counts while maintaining colostrum immunoglobulin G concentrations (United States)

    This study was conducted on six commercial dairy farms in Minnesota and Wisconsin to describe the effect of heat-treatment of colostrum, at 60o58 C for 60 minutes, on colostrum bacteria counts and immunoglobulin G concentrations. First milking colostrum was collected each day, pooled, divided into t...

  2. Assessing the effects of weekly preweaning health scores on dairy calf mortality and productivity parameters: cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahendran, Sophie; Booth, Richard; Beekhuis, Lies; Manning, Alex; Blackmore, Tania; Vanhoudt, A.; Bell, Nicholas


    A longitudinal cohort study was conducted to follow the health of 787 calves from one UK dairy farm over a two-and-a-half-year period. Weekly health scores were gathered using a modified version of the Wisconsin Calf Scoring system (which did not record ear position) until calves were eight weeks of

  3. Dairy farming and dairy industry in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beldman, A.; Berkum, van S.; Kortstee, H.; Zijlstra, J.


    Iran is a country with a long dairy tradition. Dairy production has increased to a level of about 9bn kg of milk per year. The ambition in the sector is to further increase production and to improve the quality of the milk to be able to export. Based on the analysis of available data and on a field

  4. St. Croix River Reconnaissance Report Including Stillwater, Minnesota and New Richmond, Wisconsin. (United States)


    built on the Willow River at the site of the present Domain Industries Feed Mills. It was destroyed in the flood of 1876. The New Richmond Roller...Minnesota, and iew Richmond, Wisconsin. Edward G. Rapp Colonel, Corps of Engineers District Engineer 4 -𔃾 ,.-. Ill .".,. ,K...small busi- nesses, few homes, marina- creek backup Bayport (high damage potential) marina-- Perro Creek backup, nunerous residential struc- tures

  5. 75 FR 56597 - University of Wisconsin; University of Wisconsin Nuclear Reactor Environmental Assessment and... (United States)


    ... when solid waste is generated from use of the UWNR, it is transferred to the University of Wisconsin.... In the years that solid waste was generated, less than 400 milliCuries of solid waste was transferred...; University of Wisconsin Nuclear Reactor Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S...

  6. Major advances in applied dairy cattle nutrition. (United States)

    Eastridge, M L


    Milk yield per cow continues to increase with a slower rate of increase in dry matter intake; thus, efficiency of ruminal fermentation and digestibility of the dietary components are key factors in improving the efficiency of feed use. Over the past 25 yr, at least 2,567 articles relating to ruminant or dairy nutrition have been published in the Journal of Dairy Science. These studies have provided important advancements in improving feed efficiency and animal health by improving quality of feeds, increasing feedstuff and overall diet digestibility, better defining interactions among feedstuffs in diets, identifying alternative feed ingredients, better defining nutrient requirements, and improving efficiency of ruminal fermentation. The publications are vital in continuing to make advancements in providing adequate nutrition to dairy cattle and for facilitating exchange of knowledge among scientists. Forages have been studied more extensively than any other type of feed. Cereal grains continue to be the primary contributors of starch to diets, and thus are very important in meeting the energy needs of dairy cattle. Processing of cereal grains has improved their use. Feeding by-products contributes valuable nutrients to diets and allows feedstuffs to be used that would otherwise be handled as wastes in landfills. Many of these by-products provide a considerable amount of protein, nonforage fiber, fat, and minerals (sometimes a detriment as in the case of P) to diets. The primary feeding system today is the total mixed ration, with still considerable use of the pasture system. Major improvements have occurred in the use of protein, carbohydrates, and fats in diets. Although advancements have been made in feeding practices to minimize the risk of metabolic diseases, the periparturient period continues to present some of the greatest challenges in animal health. Computers are a must today for diet formulation and evaluation, but fewer software programs are developed by

  7. Rehabilitation of Delavan Lake, Wisconsin (United States)

    Robertson, Dale M.; Goddard, Gerald L.; Helsel, D.R.; MacKinnon, Kevin L.


    A comprehensive rehabilitation plan was developed and implemented to shift Delavan Lake, Wisconsin, from a hypereutrophic to a mesotrophic condition. The plan was threefold: (1) reduce external phosphorus (P) loading by applying Best Management Practices in the watershed, enhance an existing wetland, and short-circuit the inflows through the lake, (2) reduce internal P loading by treating the sediments with alum and removing carp, and (3) rehabilitate the fishery by removing carp and bigmouth buffalo and adding piscivores (biomanipulation). The first and second parts of the plan met with only limited success. With only minor reductions in internal and external P loading, P concentrations in the lake returned to near pre-treatment concentrations. The intensive biomanipulation and resulting trophic cascade (increased piscivores, decreased planktivores, increased large zooplankton populations, and reduced phytoplankton populations) eliminated most of the original problems in the lake (blue-green algal blooms and limited water clarity). However, now there is extensive macrophyte growth and abundant filamentous algae. Without significantly reducing the sources of the problems (high P loading) in Delavan Lake, the increased water clarity may not last. With an improved understanding of the individual components of this rehabilitation program, better future management plans can be developed for Delavan Lake and other lakes and reservoirs with similar eutrophication problems.

  8. Protein efficiency in intensive dairy production: a Swedish example. (United States)

    Swensson, Christian; Lindmark-Månsson, Helena; Smedman, Annika; Henriksson, Maria; Modin Edman, Anna-Karin


    Animal agriculture has been criticised in terms of its sustainability from several perspectives. Ruminants such as dairy cows can transform inedible, low-quality protein in roughage and by-products from the food industry into the high-quality protein found in milk and meat. Evaluation of the protein conversion efficiency of dairy production from a sustainability and resource perspective must be based on the proportion of the animal feed edible to humans. A relevant metric is thus edible feed protein conversion ratio (eFPCR), i.e. human-edible protein output in cow's milk per unit human-edible protein input in feed. In this study, eFPCR was calculated for five regionally adapted and realistic feed rations fed to Swedish dairy cows producing different annual milk yields typical for high-yielding, intensive dairy production. All scenarios except one showed a protein efficiency ratio of >1 for human-edible protein. Thus, depending on the composition of their diet, most Swedish dairy cows can convert human-inedible protein into edible, high-value protein. However, higher milk yield led to a decrease in eFPCR, regardless of diet. Dairy cows in high-yielding, intensive production systems such as those used in Sweden have the capacity to convert low-value inedible protein into high-value edible protein. However, a minor part of the dairy cow diet is edible for humans and this fraction must be minimised to justify dairy production. These results are in line with previous findings on protein conversion efficiency and add scientific input to the debate on sustainable food systems and sustainable diets. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.



    Bosch, Darrell J.; Johnson, Christian J.


    Variability in feed prices and crop yields are important sources of risk to dairy farmers. A simulation model of a representative dairy farm was used to evaluate crop insurance and hedging as risk management strategies. These strategies lowered expected net returns but also reduced risk. The preferred set of strategies at lower levels of risk aversion included hedging and crop insurance, although a base scenario in which no risk management strategies were employed was also efficient. The pref...

  10. Propanol in maize silage at Danish dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl; Kristensen, Niels Bastian


    The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence maize silage containing propanol, the seasonal variation in propanol content of maize silage, and correlations between propanol and other fermentation products in maize silage collected from 20 randomly selected Danish dairy farms...... farms, the maize silage had ≥5 g propanol/kg DM. The present study indicates that dairy cows in Denmark are commonly exposed to propanol and that approximately 20% of the dairy cows will have an intake in the range of 75-100 g propanol/d under common feeding conditions....

  11. Risk factors for clinical mastitis, ketosis, and pneumonia in dairy cattle on organic and small conventional farms in the United States. (United States)

    Richert, R M; Cicconi, K M; Gamroth, M J; Schukken, Y H; Stiglbauer, K E; Ruegg, P L


    The US regulations for production of organic milk include a strict prohibition against the use of antimicrobials and other synthetic substances. The effect of these regulations on dairy animal health has not been previously reported. The objective of this study was to characterize disease detection and identify risk factors for selected diseases on organic (ORG) and similarly sized conventional (CON) farms. Dairy herds (n=292) were enrolled across 3 states (New York, Oregon, Wisconsin) with CON herds matched to ORG herds based on location and herd size. During a single herd visit, information was collected about herd management practices and animal disease occurring in the previous 60 d, and paperwork was left for recording disease occurrences during 60 d after the visit. For analysis, CON herds were further divided into grazing and nongrazing. Poisson regression models were used to assess risk factors for rate of farmer-identified and recorded cases of clinical mastitis, ketosis, and pneumonia. An increased rate of farmer-identified and recorded cases of clinical mastitis was associated with use of CON management, use of forestripping, presence of contagious pathogens in the bulk tank culture, proactive detection of mastitis in postpartum cows, and stall barn housing. An increased rate of farmer-identified and recorded cases of ketosis was associated with having a more sensitive definition of ketosis, using stall barn housing, and feeding a greater amount of concentrates. An increased rate of farmer-identified and recorded cases of pneumonia was associated with a lack of grazing, small or medium herd size, and Jersey as the predominant breed. Overall, disease definitions and perceptions were similar among grazing systems and were associated with the rate of farmer-identified and recorded cases of disease. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Tickborne Powassan virus infections among Wisconsin residents. (United States)

    Johnson, Diep K Hoang; Staples, J Erin; Sotir, Mark J; Warshauer, David M; Davis, Jeffrey P


    Powassan virus (POWV) is a tickborne Flavivirus that causes a rare but potentially life-threatening illness. The first reported case of POWV infection in a Wisconsin resident occurred in 2003. Enhanced surveillance and testing detected 2 additional cases. Patient specimens with a positive or equivocal immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody to an arbovirus were sent from commercial laboratories to the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene and forwarded to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for confirmatory testing. Patients with laboratory confirmed POWV infections were interviewed to obtain demographic, clinical, and epidemiologic information. POWV infections were confirmed in 3 adult Wisconsin residents in 2003, 2006, and 2007; illness onsets occurred during May and June. Two patients were hospitalized and all survived. One patient had a dual infection with POWV and Anaplasma phaghocytophilum. Specimens from all 3 patients were initially reported as positive for IgM antibody to either St Louis encephalitis or California serogroup viruses; POWV-specific antibody was detected during confirmatory testing at the CDC. Each patient had exposures to known or likely tick habitats in different counties within 30 days before illness onset. These are the first diagnosed human POWV infections in Wisconsin. Because all 3 patients were initially identified as having other arboviral infections using commercial screening kits, routine confirmatory testing is essential for proper diagnosis of most arboviral infections. Wisconsin residents should be educated regarding risks of acquiring and ways to prevent POWV infection and other tickborne diseases when spending time outdoors.

  13. Improving smallholder livelihoods: Dairy production in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Ulicky


    Full Text Available Tanzania is primarily an agro-based economy, characterized by subsistence agricultural production that employs more than 80% of the population and contributes up to 45% of the GDP (2005. This country is endowed with a cattle population of 21.3 M, composed mainly of indigenous Zebu breeds and about 680 000 improved dairy animals. About 70% of the milk produced comes from the traditional sector (indigenous cattle kept in rural areas, while the remaining 30% comes from improved cattle, mainly kept by smallholder producers. In Northern Tanzania and particularly in Hai district of Kilimanjaro Region, some dairy farmers organize themselves into small producer groups for the purpose of milk collecting, marketing and general promotion of the dairy sector in their community. Nronga Women Dairy Cooperative Society (NWDCS Limited is one of such organizations dedicated to improve the well-being of the Nronga village community through promoting small-scale dairy farming and its flow-on benefits. Milk flows out of the village, and services for investment and dairy production flow into the village, ensuring a sustainable financial circulation necessary for poverty reduction, rural development and better life for the rural community. In 2001 NWDCS introduced a school milk feeding program that has attracted Australian donors since 2005. Guided by Global Development Group, a multi-faceted project, integrating micro-enterprises, business, education and child health/nutrition, was proposed and initiated by building a dairy plant in Hai District headquarters, the Boma plant. In March 2013, the Australian High Commission to East Africa approved Direct Aid Program funding of AUD 30 000 towards the NWDCS - Biogas Pilot Project in Tanzania, which included the renovation of zero-grazing cow shade units, the construction of 6-m3 biodigester plants on each farm, and encouragement of the use of bioslurry for pasture production and home gardens.

  14. Dairy Cows Productivity and Socio-Economic Profile of Dairy Smallholder’s Communities in Yogyakarta, Indonesia (United States)

    Widyobroto, B. P.; Rochijan; Noviandi, C. T.; Astuti, A.


    The objective of this field questionnaire survey was to describe the dairy cow productivity and socio-economic profile of dairy cattle farmers in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta smallholder farming communities which have been targeted dairy development policy. The study was conducted on 190 Friesian Holstein (FH) cows maintained under smallholder’s management system in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, Indonesia. A total of 83 farmers were randomly selected and interviewed with structured questionnaire to assess the socio-economic dairy farmer and productivity performance of dairy cows. The number of dairy productivity performance within the normal. Shortages as well as high cost of feed, occurrence of disease, scarce information about feeding and high medicament cost were the main constraints which might have contributed considerably to delayed age at first service, late age at first calving, long calving interval, short lactation length and low milk production. Therefore, strategies designed to solve the existing problem should be important by involving all stakeholders in the formulation and implementation of improvement strategiesor dairy development policy was being implemented and necessary respect to environmental factors affecting agricultural activities such as a constraint on land use and access to water resources.

  15. Biological treatment of crop residues for ruminant feeding: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 3, 2013 ... Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division, National Dairy Research Institute (Deemed University), Karnal, Haryana-132 001. Accepted 1 July, 2013 ... feed quality either by increasing digestibility or by enhancing palatability. However ..... Effect on nutrient utilization and growth performance. Majority of the animal trials ...

  16. Implementing high-speed rail in Wisconsin peer exchange. (United States)


    The Wisconsin Department of Transportation Division of Transportation Investment Management hosted : a peer exchange on June 2 -4, 2009 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Representatives from four state DOTs and : two freight railroads joined representatives f...

  17. 77 FR 4228 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Monensin (United States)


    ...-choice feeds for growing cattle on pasture or in dry lot (stocker and feeder cattle and dairy and beef...-choice feeds for growing cattle on pasture or in dry lot (stocker and feeder cattle and dairy and beef... individually or cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment. Therefore, neither an...

  18. Short communication: Cinnamaldehyde taste preferences of weaned dairy heifers. (United States)

    Chapman, C E; Cabral, R G; Aragona, K M; Erickson, P S


    Within a dairy enterprise, one major cost is raising young calves. Optimizing the feeding programs of dairy calves is imperative for the sustainability and profitability of dairy operations. Essential oils appear to be natural alternatives to antibiotics and function similarly to ionophores. Supplemental antibiotic ionophores have been very successful in improving feed efficiency and rate of gain in calves, as well as decreasing disease incidences; however, calves may be developing resistance to ionophores and the use of antibiotics in animal feeds has been a major concern for consumers. No current research has examined the value or palatability of supplementing essential oils to dairy heifers. The purpose of this sequential elimination experiment was to evaluate the taste preferences of 6 weaned dairy heifers [approximately 3mo old; 95±10.8kg of body weight (BW)] provided with 0 (control), 1, 2, 3, or 4mg/kg of BW of cinnamaldehyde daily. Heifers had 2 d of adaptation to the new feeding regimen before the experiment started and were then offered the 5 experimental diets for 5 d. The most preferred diet was removed and the study continued with the 4 remaining diets. The most preferred diets were again eliminated sequentially, so that only 2 diets remained on d 13 and 14. Each diet was ranked based on the weight of feed refused at the end of each feeding segment. Overall ranking of the 5 treatments were control, 2, 1, 3, and 4mg/kg of BW of cinnamaldehyde. Results indicated that heifers preferred diets without cinnamaldehyde; however, when only cinnamaldehyde diets remained, dry matter intake was not negatively affected regardless of the concentration of cinnamaldehyde provided. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Probiotic fermented dairy products


    Adnan Tamime; Rajka Božanić; Irena Rogelj


    Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  20. Probiotic fermented dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Tamime


    Full Text Available Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  1. Access to outside areas during march and april in Denmark has negligible effect on the vitamin D3 status of organic dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Mikkelsen, Louise Karoline; Jensen, Søren Krogh


    Use of artificial fat-soluble vitamins in feed for dairy cows does not conform to organic production principles. Therefore sunlight is the only natural source of vitamin D3 for organic dairy coes. In order to establish the effect of sunlight on the vitamin D3 status of high yielding dairy cows in...

  2. Dairy Free Kids


    Dairy Free Kids


    I am a Mom of two young boys both of whom have a dairy intolerance. My older boy is 4 and my younger boy is 1. It has been a long journey from finding out my child has a dairy intolerance through to realisation of exactly what that means day to day for him to reaching a stage where it is second nature for all of us. For my older child it was all new, a big learning curve. By the time son number two started showing similar symptoms it was simple to take him off dairy and keep him off dairy.

  3. How well does pasture meet the nutrient needs of dairy cows (United States)

    Little research has evaluated the nutritional content of pastures relative to nutrient needs of grazing dairy cows. We conducted a study to determine how frequently pastures in the northeastern U.S. met nutrient requirements of lactating dairy cows and to describe a sample of the feeding strategies ...

  4. Growth and carcass characteristics of male dairy calves on a yeast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this experiment the inclusion of a yeast culture in the finishing off diet of dairy calves had no effect on their growth rate, feed conversion ratio, carcass characteristics or meat quality. Keywords: Yeast, dairy calves, growth performance, carcass quality. South African Journal of Animal Science Vol. 38 (3) 2008: pp. 174-183 ...

  5. Persistency of methane mitigation by dietary nitrate supplementation in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijderveld, van S.M.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Dijkstra, J.; Newbold, J.R.; Hulshof, R.B.A.; Perdok, H.B.


    Feeding nitrate to dairy cows may lower ruminal methane production by competing for reducing equivalents with methanogenesis. Twenty lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (33.2±6.0 kg of milk/d; 104±58 d in milk at the start of the experiment) were fed a total mixed ration (corn silage-based;

  6. Determining effects of multiple tannin manure applications on dairy forages and soil (United States)

    Dietary choices for dairy cows have direct implications to nutrient availability from land-applied manure because of alterations to manure chemistry. Tannin additions to a dairy cow’s diet protect feed protein through rumen fermentation and digestion, resulting in reduced concentrations of urea nitr...

  7. Nutrient Management Approaches and Tools for Dairy farms in Australia and the USA. (United States)

    In Australia and the USA, nutrient imports and accumulation on dairy farms can be a problem and may pose a threat to the greater environment. While the major nutrient imports onto dairy farms (i.e. fertilizer and feed) and exports (i.e. milk and animals) are generally the same for confinement-based ...

  8. Perennial ryegrass for dairy cows: Grazing behaviour, intake, rumen function and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taweel, H.Z.


    Keywords: Dairy cows, Perennial ryegrass, Rumen fill, Clearance, Degradation, Grazing behaviour.In temperate environments, perennial ryegrass is the most widely used species for feeding dairy cows. That is because of its high productivity, palatability, digestibility and nutritive

  9. Identification of toxigenic Aspergillus species from diet dairy goat using a polyphasic approach


    Silva, Janaina Lara da; Aparecido, Christiane Ceriani; Hansen, Daiane; Pereira, Tacila Alves Muniz; Felicio, Joana D'arc; Gonçalez, Edlayne


    Some species of filamentous fungi that infest agricultural commodities are able to produce mycotoxins, contaminating feed and animal products. The aim of this research was to identify the mycoflora present in the feed and forage for dairy goat and to isolate and characterize the Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus strains based on a morphological and molecular characterization and mycotoxigenic ability. The goat dairy diets were collected monthly from 11 goat milk farms, totaling 129 and 10...

  10. The Legal Status of Homemakers in Wisconsin. (United States)

    Melli, Marygold Shire

    This report focuses on laws in the state of Wisconsin as they relate to homemakers. Four areas are discussed, each in separate sections: marriage, widowhood, divorce, and wife abuse. The section on marriage includes information on property rights, disability and death of homemaker, federal Equal Credit Opportunity Act, domicile, interspousal…

  11. Divided Wisconsin: Partisan Spatial Electoral Realignment (United States)

    Zaniewski, Kazimierz J.; Simmons, James R.


    When the Republican and Democratic presidential candidates head into the general election this fall, they will be courting votes from a statewide electorate that has dramatically shifted over time, mirroring the political polarization that is happening across the country. Over the last three decades, Wisconsin's political geography has evolved…

  12. Wisconsin Public Schools at a Glance, 2016 (United States)

    Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, 2016


    "Wisconsin Public Schools at a Glance" provides in a single page document statistical information on the following topics: (1) Total number of public schools (2015-16); (2) Student (2015-16); (3) Attendance & Graduation (2014-15);(4) Staff (2013-14); (5) School Funding; and (6) Student Performance (2014-15). [For the previous report…

  13. Wisconsin Public Schools at a Glance (United States)

    Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, 2014


    "Wisconsin Public Schools at a Glance" provides in a single page document statistical information on the following topics: (1) Total number of public schools (2014-15); (2) Staff (2013-14); (3) Students (2013-14);(4) Report Cards (2013-14); (5) Attendance and Graduation (2012-13); (6) Student Performance (2013-14); and (7) School Funding.

  14. The University of Wisconsin OAO operating system (United States)

    Heacox, H. C.; Mcnall, J. F.


    The Wisconsin OAO operating system is presented which consists of two parts: a computer program called HARUSPEX, which makes possible reasonably efficient and convenient operation of the package and ground operations equipment which provides real-time status monitoring, commanding and a quick-look at the data.

  15. Genetic Analysis of Termite Colonies in Wisconsin (United States)

    R.A. Arango; D.A. Marschalek; F. Green III; K.F. Raffa; M.E. Berres


    The objective of this study was to document current areas of subterranean termite activity in Wisconsin and to evaluate genetic characteristics of these northern, peripheral colonies. Here, amplified fragment-length polymorphism was used to characterize levels of inbreeding, expected heterozygosity, and percent polymorphism within colonies as well as genetic structure...

  16. Stakeholders' Perceptions of Parcelization in Wisconsin's Northwoods (United States)

    Mark G. Rickenbach; Paul H. Gobster


    Parcelization, the process by which relatively large forest ownerships become subdivided into smaller ones, is often related to changes in ownership and can bring changes to the use of the land. Landowners, resource professionals, and others interested in Wisconsin's Northwoods were asked their views on parcelization in a series of stakeholder forums. We analyzed...

  17. DairyBISS Baseline report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buizer, N.N.; Berhanu, Tinsae; Murutse, Girmay; Vugt, van S.M.


    This baseline report of the Dairy Business Information Service and Support (DairyBISS) project presents the findings of a baseline survey among 103 commercial farms and 31 firms and advisors working in the dairy value chain. Additional results from the survey among commercial dairy farms are

  18. Sickness behavior in dairy cows during Escherichia coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Røntved, Christine Maria; Sørensen, Peter


    -recorded on 5 consecutive days, d −2 to +2 after challenge when the cows were not disturbed by humans. The behavior of the animals was compared among all days. Infection with E. coli altered the behavior of the dairy cows. Time spent feeding was lower in the initial 24 h after infection compared......The consequences of mastitis in terms of dairy cow behavior are relatively unknown. Future assessment of dairy cow welfare during mastitis will be facilitated by knowledge about the potential of mastitis to induce sickness behavior. Our aim was to examine behavior of dairy cows in the period from 2...... d before (d −2 and −1) to 3 d (d 0, 1, and 2) after experimental intramammary challenge with Escherichia coli. Effects of experimentally induced mastitis on behavior were examined in 20 primiparous Danish Holstein-Friesian cows, all 3 to 6 wk after calving and kept in tie stalls. After evening...

  19. The effect of housing on dairy cattle behavior during the transition period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campler, Magnus Robert Bertil


    Lying- and feeding behavior in dairy cows are important factors for assessing welfare, and there is considerable knowledge about how the housing of dairy cows can affect these behaviors. To date, most studies on dairy cow behavior has focused on the lactation period, but there is less knowledge...... about the behavior of dairy cows‘ during the transition period around calving (defined as 3 weeks before calving to 3 weeks after calving). During the transition period, dairy cows undergo both physical- and behavioral changes during a short time span. Since most cows are housed in facilities...... with freestalls until the day before calving or signs of imminent calving in Denmark (and northern Europe), the aim of this PhD was to investigate the effect of a straw yard housing system during the last 4 weeks of the dry period compared to freestalls on; 1) lying-, feeding- and agonistic behavior before...

  20. The effect of Enterococcus faecium M74 feed additive on the extended-spectrum beta-lactamases/AmpC-positive Escherichia coli faecal counts in pre-weaned dairy calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Šmídková


    Full Text Available The increasing occurrence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and/or AmpC-positive Escherichia coli among different species of food producing animals poses a threat to public health. The animal gut plays a key role in the development of antibiotic resistant bacteria, allowing the selection, multiplication and subsequent contamination of the farm environment. However, applicable procedures for reducing such bacteria on farms are currently unavailable. The present study was aimed to determine whether a probiotic administration to new-born dairy calves would reduce faecal shedding of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and/or AmpC-positive Escherichia coli during the pre-weaning period. Ten randomly assigned new-born Holstein calves on a dairy farm with recent evidence of high occurrence of AmpC-positive Escherichia coli among calves were treated by a probiotic mix within 12 h after birth. Nine control calves were not treated. Faecal samples were collected from each calf daily on days 2 through 5, and then on days 7, 10, and 14. The faecal samples were cultured, and the mean numbers of cefotaxime-resistant Escherichia coli and confirmed enteroaggregative Escherichia coli were compared between the two groups. Results suggested that the Enterococcus faecium probiotic treatment (Enterococcus faecium M74, NCIMB 11181 of new-born calves did not reduce the enteroaggregative Escherichia coli counts in their faeces. There was no significant difference in the shedding of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli between the probiotic-treated and control calves throughout the two-week study period.

  1. Dairy products and plasma cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Ohlsson


    Full Text Available Cholesterol synthesized in the body or ingested is an essential lipid component for human survival from our earliest life. Newborns ingest about 3–4 times the amount per body weight through mother's milk compared to the dietary intake of adults. A birth level of 1.7 mmol/L plasma total cholesterol will increase to 4–4.5 mmol/L during the nursing period and continue to increase from adulthood around 40% throughout life. Coronary artery disease and other metabolic disorders are strongly associated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol as well as triacylglycerol concentration. Milk fat contains a broad range of fatty acids and some have a negative impact on the cholesterol rich lipoproteins. The saturated fatty acids (SFAs, such as palmitic acid (C16:0, myristic acid (C14:0, and lauric acid (C12:0, increase total plasma cholesterol, especially LDL, and constitute 11.3 g/L of bovine milk, which is 44.8% of total fatty acid in milk fat. Replacement of dairy SFA and trans-fatty acids with polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases plasma cholesterol, especially LDL cholesterol, and is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Available data shows different effects on lipoproteins for different dairy products and there is uncertainty as to the impact a reasonable intake amount of dairy items has on cardiovascular risk. The aim of this review is to elucidate the effect of milk components and dairy products on total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and the LDL/HDL quotients. Based on eight recent randomized controlled trials of parallel or cross-over design and recent reviews it can be concluded that replacement of saturated fat mainly (but not exclusively derived from high-fat dairy products with low-fat dairy products lowers LDL/HDL cholesterol and total/HDL cholesterol ratios. Whey, dairy fractions enriched in polar lipids, and techniques such as fermentation, or fortification of cows feeding can be used

  2. Bridging gender gaps with dairy goats and root crops | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    May 5, 2016 ... Introducing dairy goats in semi-arid regions of Tanzania has led to farmers earning US$160 from milk sales during the first lactation, as well as an increase in household milk consumption. In these trials led by Canadian and Tanzanian researchers, cassava and sweet potato leaves are a significant feed ...

  3. Antagonism in the carbon footprint between beef and dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 22, 2014 ... In addition, when differences in productivity are accounted for, pasture systems require more resources (land, feed, water, etc.) per unit of milk produced and the carbon footprint is greater than that of intensive systems. This raises the question as to why the carbon footprint of intensive dairy cow production ...

  4. Digestion and nitrogen metabolism of grass fed dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, van A.M.


    Until recently, young, highly digestible grass was considered an ideal feed for dairy cows. However, research during the last decades has shown that the nutrient supply of grazing animals is insufficient for milk productions above c. 29 kg per day. Experiments in England and New Zealand

  5. Prevalence of bovine brucellosis in smallholder dairying farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... regression model as analytical method, feeding cotton seed cake, sex, source of animals and levels of exotic blood were found to be associated with seropositivity to Br. abortus. Key words: Seroprevalence, Brucella abortus, Dairy cattle, risk factors, smallholder, Moshi, Tanzania. Bull Anim. Hlth. Prod. Afr. (2005) 53(2), 97- ...

  6. Blood metabolites and their relatioriship to dairy cattle productive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty-four dairy cows (B taums x B indicus crosses) belonging to 40 peri-urban smallholder farms were investigated for relationship of their blood metabolites, body condition score (BCS) and body weight to milk yield and reproductive performance. Feed availability and quality were monitored monthly. Plasma ...

  7. Shortening or omitting the dry period in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Juncai


    During early lactation, dairy cows typically experience negative energy balance (EB) caused by the high energy requirement for milk yield, which cannot be met by feed intake. Severity of negative EB has been associated with an increased incidence of metabolic disorders and infectious diseases,

  8. The determination of the concentrations of Isoforms of Vitamin E in tissues, milk and blood via High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) after short-term feeding in dairy cows (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of change in the concentrations of the four isoforms of vitamin E (alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol) in bovine tissues (liver, mammary and muscle), blood and milk after short-term feeding of a vegetable-derived oil (Tmix) particularl...

  9. The carbon footprint of dairy production systems through partial life cycle assessment. (United States)

    Rotz, C A; Montes, F; Chianese, D S


    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and their potential effect on the environment has become an important national and international issue. Dairy production, along with all other types of animal agriculture, is a recognized source of GHG emissions, but little information exists on the net emissions from dairy farms. Component models for predicting all important sources and sinks of CH(4), N(2)O, and CO(2) from primary and secondary sources in dairy production were integrated in a software tool called the Dairy Greenhouse Gas model, or DairyGHG. This tool calculates the carbon footprint of a dairy production system as the net exchange of all GHG in CO(2) equivalent units per unit of energy-corrected milk produced. Primary emission sources include enteric fermentation, manure, cropland used in feed production, and the combustion of fuel in machinery used to produce feed and handle manure. Secondary emissions are those occurring during the production of resources used on the farm, which can include fuel, electricity, machinery, fertilizer, pesticides, plastic, and purchased replacement animals. A long-term C balance is assumed for the production system, which does not account for potential depletion or sequestration of soil carbon. An evaluation of dairy farms of various sizes and production strategies gave carbon footprints of 0.37 to 0.69kg of CO(2) equivalent units/kg of energy-corrected milk, depending upon milk production level and the feeding and manure handling strategies used. In a comparison with previous studies, DairyGHG predicted C footprints similar to those reported when similar assumptions were made for feeding strategy, milk production, allocation method between milk and animal coproducts, and sources of CO(2) and secondary emissions. DairyGHG provides a relatively simple tool for evaluating management effects on net GHG emissions and the overall carbon footprint of dairy production systems.

  10. Private drinking water quality in rural Wisconsin. (United States)

    Knobeloch, Lynda; Gorski, Patrick; Christenson, Megan; Anderson, Henry


    Between July 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, Wisconsin health departments tested nearly 4,000 rural drinking water supplies for coliform bacteria, nitrate, fluoride, and 13 metals as part of a state-funded program that provides assistance to low-income families. The authors' review of laboratory findings found that 47% of these wells had an exceedance of one or more health-based water quality standards. Test results for iron and coliform bacteria exceeded safe limits in 21% and 18% of these wells, respectively. In addition, 10% of the water samples from these wells were high in nitrate and 11% had an elevated result for aluminum, arsenic, lead, manganese, or strontium. The high percentage of unsafe test results emphasizes the importance of water quality monitoring to the health of nearly one million families including 300,000 Wisconsin children whose drinking water comes from a privately owned well.

  11. Carbon footprint from dairy farming system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Riva, A.; Kristensen, Troels; De Marchi1, M.


    . The results show 0.80 kg CO2eq/kg ECM in JE herd, while 0.96 kg CO2eq/kg ECM in HF herd. The main differences were due to the level of dry matter intake, milk yield and fertility traits. Indeed, JE herd showed a lower milk yield than HF herd, a lower DMI and better fertility, determining less production......Aim of the present study was to estimate the carbon footprint (CF) of milk production at farm gate considering two dairy cattle breeds, Holstein Friesian (HF) and Jersey (JE). Using Italian inventory data the emissions of CO2eq per kg ECM for dairy herds of HF and JE breed were estimated...... and consumption of feed and less replacement animals in the herd....

  12. Wisconsin Earth and Space Science Education (United States)

    Bilbrough, Larry (Technical Monitor); French, George


    The Wisconsin Earth and Space Science Education project successfilly met its objectives of creating a comprehensive online portfolio of science education curricular resources and providing a professional development program to increase educator competency with Earth and Space science content and teaching pedagogy. Overall, 97% of participants stated that their experience was either good or excellent. The favorable response of participant reactions to the professional development opportunities highlights the high quality of the professional development opportunity. The enthusiasm generated for using the curricular material in classroom settings was overwhelmingly positive at 92%. This enthusiasm carried over into actual classroom implementation of resources from the curricular portfolio, with 90% using the resources between 1-6 times during the school year. The project has had a positive impact on student learning in Wisconsin. Although direct measurement of student performance is not possible in a project of this kind, nearly 75% of participating teachers stated that they saw an increase in student performance in math and science as a result of using project resources. Additionally, nearly 75% of participants saw an increase in the enthusiasm of students towards math and science. Finally, some evidence exists that the professional development academies and curricular portfolio have been effective in changing educator behavior. More than half of all participants indicated that they have used more hands-on activities as a result of the Wisconsin Earth and Space Science Education project.

  13. Dairy goat nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ronchi


    Full Text Available Good goat nutrition is fundamental to the success and sustainability of dairy goat farming in terms of economics, goat health, high quality products, and minimizing environmental impact.

  14. Traditional Indonesian dairy foods. (United States)

    Surono, Ingrid S


    Indonesia is the largest archipelago blessed with one of the richest mega-biodiversities and also home to one of the most diverse cuisines and traditional fermented foods. There are 3 types of traditional dairy foods, namely the butter-like product minyak samin; yogurt-like product dadih; and cheese-like products dali or bagot in horbo, dangke, litsusu, and cologanti, which reflect the culture of dairy product consumption in Indonesia.

  15. An improved data base for the description of dairy cows in the German agricultural emission model GAS-EM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dämmgen, Ulrich; Haenel, Hans-Dieter; Rösemann, Claus


    The application of the previously published detailed model describing dairy cow husbandry in the German agricultural emission model requires an extended and improved data base. This concerns animal weights, weight gains, regional feed regimes, feeding requirements and feed properties as well...... of animal performance. The knowledge of hitherto unpublished data allows for a recalculation and revaluation of nitrogen excretions and ammonia emission factors....

  16. Characterizing phosphorus dynamics in tile-drained agricultural fieldsof eastern Wisconsin (United States)

    Madison, Allison; Ruark, Matthew; Stuntebeck, Todd D.; Komiskey, Matthew J.; Good, Laura W; Drummy, Nancy; Cooley, Eric


    Artificial subsurface drainage provides an avenue for the rapid transfer of phosphorus (P) from agricultural fields to surface waters. This is of particular interest in eastern Wisconsin, where there is a concentrated population of dairy farms and high clay content soils prone to macropore development. Through collaboration with private landowners, surface and tile drainage was measured and analyzed for dissolved reactive P (DRP) and total P (TP) losses at four field sites in eastern Wisconsin between 2005 and 2009. These sites, which received frequent manure applications, represent a range of crop management practices which include: two chisel plowed corn fields (CP1, CP2), a no-till corn–soybean field (NT), and a grazed pasture (GP). Subsurface drainage was the dominant pathway of water loss at each site accounting for 66–96% of total water discharge. Average annual flow-weighted (FW) TP concentrations were 0.88, 0.57, 0.21, and 1.32 mg L−1 for sites CP1, CP2, NT, and GP, respectively. Low TP concentrations at the NT site were due to tile drain interception of groundwater flow where large volumes of tile drainage water diluted the FW-TP concentrations. Subsurface pathways contributed between 17% and 41% of the TP loss across sites. On a drainage event basis, total drainage explained between 36% and 72% of the event DRP loads across CP1, CP2, and GP; there was no relationship between event drainflow and event DRP load at the NT site. Manure applications did not consistently increase P concentrations in drainflow, but annual FW-P concentrations were greater in years receiving manure applications compared to years without manure application. Based on these field measures, P losses from tile drainage must be integrated into field level P budgets and P loss calculations on heavily manured soils, while also acknowledging the unique drainage patterns observed in eastern Wisconsin.

  17. Fate of Nitrogen on California Dairies as Measured by Regulatory Reporting (United States)

    Parsons, T.; Lee, E.; Harter, T.


    California is the largest dairy producer in the Unites States, generating over 20% of U.S. milk and cheese. Many California dairy herds live in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in the Central Valley. Surrounding these CAFOs, dairies also manage a significant amount of forage land where animal waste is recycled. Through expansion and more efficient production, the milk and manure output of the Central Valley dairies increased nearly exponentially for five decades, until animal numbers levelled off in the 2000s. Due to this expansion, specifically in the Central Valley, the dairy industry poses significant concerns in regard to nitrate contamination and salinization of groundwater. In 2007, new regulations were placed upon the California dairy industry, pertaining to nonpoint source emissions to groundwater. We have digitized and are currently analyzing these annual dairy reports submitted by individual operators to the regulatory agency (Regional Water Boards) to assess the fate of nutrients on dairies in the Central Valley. We are able to assess data completeness and consistency, annual trends over the first eight years of the program, and evaluate the reporting program. Our analysis can be used to determine potential groundwater nitrate impacts based on field nitrogen mass balance. Preliminary results indicate that increased regulation and efforts made by dairy operations have decreased the presence of excess nutrients on dairy lands, although improvements need to be made to the reporting process in order to further this progress.

  18. Effects of feeding systems and breed of cattle on reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    and reproductive performances in smallholder dairy farms reflect low levels of feeding, which is due to limited cash flow related to the low risk-bearing capacity of smallholders. Membership to co-operative society is one way to improve smallholders' access to better quality feeds, possible through credit arrangements.

  19. Dairy Propionibacteria: Versatile Probiotics. (United States)

    Rabah, Houem; Rosa do Carmo, Fillipe Luiz; Jan, Gwénaël


    Dairy propionibacteria are used as cheese ripening starters, as biopreservative and as beneficial additives, in the food industry. The main species, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, is known as GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe, USA, FDA). In addition to another dairy species, Propionibacterium acidipropionici, they are included in QPS (Qualified Presumption of Safety) list. Additional to their well-known technological application, dairy propionibacteria increasingly attract attention for their promising probiotic properties. The purpose of this review is to summarize the probiotic characteristics of dairy propionibacteria reported by the updated literature. Indeed, they meet the selection criteria for probiotic bacteria, such as the ability to endure digestive stressing conditions and to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells. This is a prerequisite to bacterial persistence within the gut. The reported beneficial effects are ranked according to property's type: microbiota modulation, immunomodulation, and cancer modulation. The proposed molecular mechanisms are discussed. Dairy propionibacteria are described as producers of nutraceuticals and beneficial metabolites that are responsible for their versatile probiotic attributes include short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), conjugated fatty acids, surface proteins, and 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphtoic acid (DHNA). These metabolites possess beneficial properties and their production depends on the strain and on the growth medium. The choice of the fermented food matrix may thus determine the probiotic properties of the ingested product. This review approaches dairy propionibacteria, with an interest in both technological abilities and probiotic attributes.

  20. Feeding behavior and performance of dairy cows during the transition period seven days before and after calvingComportamento e desempenho de vacas leiteiras no período de transição de sete dias antes e após o parto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Veira


    Full Text Available Dairy cows experience challenges during the transition period, which may put them at risk of diseases such as rumen acidosis and laminitis. The traditional recommendations during the transition period is to feed dairy cows on moderate level of concentrates in the pre-partum and switch it to high grain diet just after calving. However, there are some evidences that this management may cause a bump effect on the feeding intake in the post-partum period. The aim of this work was to study the effect of a constant diet during all transition period on the behaviour; feeding intake and milk yield of dairy cows. Thirty primiparous and multiparous Holstein dairy cows were at random allocated in one group fed on higher fibre diet in the pre-partum followed by a higher concentrate diet in the post-partum (traditional management and in a second group fed constantly on a higher fibre diet during all transition period. The behaviour and the feeding intake were monitored by an electronic feeding system and data loggers and milk yield data obtained in the milking parlour computer. The animals fed on the constant diet spent more time eating ration in second day post-partum, 142 minutes/day and cows in traditional recommendations 105minutes/day, while cows fed on lactation diet just after calving had higher dry matter intake in day 1 averaging 2.2 kg/day/100 kg LW but not in the following days, longer for cows receiving the constant diet the DMI was 1.7 kg/day/100 kg LW. There were no significant differences between the two diets related to milk yield (P>0.05. Cows fed diets constant throughout the transition period produced an average of 29.0 ± 8.2 liters of milk/day, while those who received traditional treatment ration with the highest concentrate after birth, produced an average of 29.1 ± 7.5 liters of milk/day. These results do not allow to a final conclusion about the recommendation to delay or not to switch diet after post-partum to avoid the bump in dry


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The paper aimed to present the evolution of milk production and dairy products in the USA during the period 2004-2006, based on USDA Statistics. The USA is a top produce of milk and dairy products in the world. Milk production accounted for 181,798 Millions Pounds in the year 2006. Its continuously increase during the last years has been positively influenced by the increasing number of dairy cows and average milk yield . The top states are California, Wisconsin, New York, Idaho and Pennsylvania, which all together achieve about 54 % of the country milk production. Over 99.37 % of Milk Production is marketed. Considering all milk marketings, Million USD 23,422 cash receiptscould be obtained from a dairy farm in the year 2006. The average return per Cwt was about USD 13 in 2006 . Milk is processed by about 1,000 manufacturing plants in a large variety of dairy products. Cheese production was about 9.5 Billion Pounds in the last analyzed years. The US also produces important amounts of butter , yogurt, ice cream etc. About 8.3 % of the US dairy products are exported, the most markets being Japan, Mexico and Canada.

  2. Effect of substituting soybean meal and canola cake with grain-based dried distillers grains with solubles as a protein source on feed intake, milk production, and milk quality in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens


    by the proportion of gDDGS in the diet or when milk was stored for 7 d. Linoleic acid and conjugated linoleic acid cis-9,trans-11 in milk increased with increasing proportion of gDDGS. To conclude, gDDGS can replace soybean meal and canola cake as a protein source in the diet of dairy cows. Up to 13.5% of the diet...... quality. The present experiment involved 48 Holstein cows in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 grass-based dietary treatments consisting of 4, 13.5, and 23% gDDGS on a dry matter (DM) basis (L, M, and H, respectively) as a replacement for a concentrate mix. The concentrate mix consisted...... of soybean meal, canola cake, and beet pulp. Dry matter intake and energy-corrected milk yield were not affected by the proportion of gDDGS in the diet. Daily milk yield decreased with the H diet compared with the L and M diets. The percentage of fat in milk was higher when cows were fed the H diet compared...

  3. Assessing regional differences in nitrogen losses from U.S. dairy farms using the integrated farm systems model (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) enters and leaves a dairy production system through many pathways and in many forms: undergoing numerous transformations as it passes from feed to animal to milk or manure and back again. Due to the complexity of the dairy system, estimates of N flows and losses require the use of model...

  4. Pre- and postpartum effects of starch and fat in dairy cows: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alain Useni


    Jan 30, 2018 ... metritis), decreased body condition loss and improved reproductive axis in the subsequent lactation. Adding ... However, studies on the pre- and postpartum effects of starch- or fat-based diets on dairy cow reproduction parameters are ...... Effects of feeding intensity during the dry period: 1. Feed intake ...

  5. Peri-urban dairy production systems in developing countries: Characteristics, potential and opportunities for improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devendra, C.


    Full text: Peri-urban dairy production systems in developing countries are discussed with reference to type of systems, their characteristics, potential, and opportunities for improvement. Three types of dairy systems are identified and described: smallholder systems, smallholder co-perative dairy production systems, and intensive dairy production systems. The first two systems are by far the most important, and are associated with increasing intensification. Buffaloes are especially important in South Asia, but elsewhere dairy production mainly involves Holstein-Friesian cross-bred cattle. Dairy goats are important in some countries, but are generally neglected in development programmes. The expansion and intensification of peri-urban dairy production is fuelled by increased demand for milk with associated problems of milk handling and distribution, hygiene and environmental pollution. The major constraints to production are inter alia, choice of species, breeds and availability of animals; feed resources and improved feeding systems; improved breeding, reproduction, and animal health care; management of animal manure, and organised marketing, and market outlets. These constraints provide major opportunities and challenges for research and development to increase dairy production, efficient management of natural resources, and improved livelihoods of poor farmers. Specific areas for research are identified, as also the need of a holistic focus involving interdisciplinary research and integrated natural resource management, in a shared partnership between farmers and scientists that can demonstrate increased productivity and sustainable production systems. Suggestions for performance indicators for such systems are indicated. (author)

  6. Invited review: Sustainable forage and grain crop production for the US dairy industry. (United States)

    Martin, N P; Russelle, M P; Powell, J M; Sniffen, C J; Smith, S I; Tricarico, J M; Grant, R J


    A resilient US dairy industry will be underpinned by forage and crop production systems that are economically, environmentally, and socially sustainable. Land use for production of perennial and annual forages and grains for dairy cattle must evolve in response to multiple food security and environmental sustainability issues. These include increasing global populations; higher incomes and demand for dairy and other animal products; climate change with associated temperature and moisture changes; necessary reductions in carbon and water footprints; maintenance of soil quality and soil nutrient concerns; and competition for land. Likewise, maintaining producer profitability and utilizing practices accepted by consumers and society generally must also be considered. Predicted changes in climate and water availability will likely challenge current feed and dairy production systems and their national spatial distribution, particularly the western migration of dairy production in the late 20th century. To maintain and stabilize profitability while reducing carbon footprint, particularly reductions in methane emission and enhancements in soil carbon sequestration, dairy production will need to capitalize on genetic and management innovations that enhance forage and grain production and nutritive value. Improved regional and on-farm integration of feed production and manure utilization is needed to reduce environmental nitrogen and phosphorus losses and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Resilient and flexible feed production strategies are needed to address each of these challenges and opportunities to ensure profitable feeding of dairy cattle and a sustainable dairy industry. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

  7. Retention of bone strength by feeding of milk and dairy products in ovariectomized rats: involvement of changes in serum levels of 1alpha, 25(OH)2D3 and FGF23. (United States)

    Tanabe, Rieko; Haraikawa, Mayu; Sogabe, Natsuko; Sugimoto, Aoi; Kawamura, Yuka; Takasugi, Satoshi; Nagata, Masashi; Nakane, Ayako; Yamaguchi, Akira; Iimura, Tadahiro; Goseki-Sone, Masae


    The current study compared the effects of milk, yogurt or whey on the bone strength, body composition and serum biomarkers. Forty 12-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized (OVX), and another nine rats received a sham operation (Sham-Cont). After a 1-week recovery period, the OVX rats were divided into four dietary groups: OVX-control group (OVX-Cont), 17% skimmed milk powder diet group (OVX-Milk), 17% powdered fermented milk diet group (OVX-Yogurt) and 12% whey powder and 6% whey protein extract diet group (OVX-Whey) (n=10 in each group). The protein, nitrogen, fat, calcium and phosphorus contents of the experimental diets were adjusted to be similar to the control diet (AIN-93M). Eighty-four days after the beginning of the experimental diet, the total bone mineral density and bone mineral contents of lumbar vertebrae were significantly higher in the OVX-Milk and OVX-Whey groups than in the OVX-Cont group. Furthermore, the level of 1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1alpha, 25(OH)2D3] was significantly lower, while the serum level of FGF23 was significantly higher in the OVX-Milk, OVX-Yogurt and OVX-Whey groups than in the OVX-Cont group. These findings suggest that milk and the dairy products could improve bone metabolism in a postmenopausal animal model at least partly through changing the balance between 1alpha, 25(OH)2D3 and FGF23. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Elements of Instruction VTAE Workshop (Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin, March 7-9, 1989). Final Report. (United States)

    Lee, Howard D.

    This document describes a 3-day Wisconsin workshop on essential elements of instruction in vocational, technical, and adult education (VTAE). The workshop's content was based on the Univesity of California at Los Angeles' Teaching Model, which resulted from the work of Madeline Hunter. A three-page narrative describes some aspects of the model,…

  9. Adoption of Indigenous Dairy Management Practices among Tribal Farm Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chigasil M. Sangma


    Full Text Available The study was conducted among the tribal farm women of West Garo Hills District of Meghalaya, India with the objective to determine the extent of adoption of indigenous dairy management practices. Proportionate random sampling was used in selection of 120 respondents. Practices having rationality for adoption of indigenous dairy management practices were collected and the data were analyzed using percentage analysis. The findings revealed that majority of the respondents adopted care and management of dry and pregnant cows. This was followed by adoption of other practices viz.., selection of breed and feeding, care during and after calving and milking technique

  10. Quality of Wisconsin stormwater, 1989-94 (United States)

    Bannerman, Roger T.; Legg, Andrew D.; Greb, Steven R.


    Water-quality data were compiled from four urban stormwater monitoring projects conducted in Wisconsin between 1989 and 1994. These projects included monitoring in both storm-sewer pipes and urban streams. A total of 147 constitu ents were analyzed for in stormwater sampled from 10 storm-sewer pipes and four urban streams. Land uses represented by the storm-sewer watersheds included residential, commercial, industrial, and mixed. For about one-half the con stituents, at least 10 percent of the event mean con centrations exceeded the laboratory's minimum reporting limit. Detection frequencies were greater than 75 percent for many of the heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in both the storm sewer and stream samples, whereas detec tion frequencies were about 20 percent or greater for many of the pesticides in both types of sam ples. Stormwater concentrations for conventional constituents, such as suspended solids, chloride, total phosphorus, and fecal coliform bacteria were greater than minimum reporting limits almost 100 percent of the time. Concentrations of many of the constituents were high enough to say that stormwater in the storm sewers and urban streams might be contrib uting to the degradation of the streams. In this report, constituents defined as potential contami nants are those for which the laboratory minimum report limit was exceeded for at least 10 percent of the sampled storm events, and for which at least one event mean concentration exceeded an estab lished water-quality standard. Storm-sewer sam ples had event mean concentrations of lead, copper, zinc, cadmium, and silver that frequently exceeded Wisconsin's acute toxicity criteria for cold water fisheries. Wisconsin's human cancer criteria was exceeded almost 100 percent of the time for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in stormwater samples from storm sewers and streams. Maximum concentrations of diazinon found in storm sewers exceeded recommended levels of diazinon. Storm

  11. Mixing zones studies of the waste water discharge from the Consolidated Paper Company into the Wisconsin River at Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin (United States)

    Hoopes, J. A.; Wu, D. S.; Ganatra, R.


    Effluent concentration distributions from the waste water discharge of the Kraft Division Mill, Consolidated Paper Company, into the Wisconsin River at Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin, is investigated. Effluent concentrations were determined from measurements of the temperature distribution, using temperature as a tracer. Measurements of the velocity distribution in the vicinity of the outfall were also made. Due to limitations in the extent of the field observations, the analysis and comparison of the measurements is limited to the region within about 300 feet from the outfall. Effects of outfall submergence, of buoyancy and momentum of the effluent and of the pattern and magnitude of river currents on these characteristics are considered.

  12. Flood-frequency characteristics of Wisconsin streams (United States)

    Walker, John F.; Peppler, Marie C.; Danz, Mari E.; Hubbard, Laura E.


    Flood-frequency characteristics for 360 gaged sites on unregulated rural streams in Wisconsin are presented for percent annual exceedance probabilities ranging from 0.2 to 50 using a statewide skewness map developed for this report. Equations of the relations between flood-frequency and drainage-basin characteristics were developed by multiple-regression analyses. Flood-frequency characteristics for ungaged sites on unregulated, rural streams can be estimated by use of the equations presented in this report. The State was divided into eight areas of similar physiographic characteristics. The most significant basin characteristics are drainage area, soil saturated hydraulic conductivity, main-channel slope, and several land-use variables. The standard error of prediction for the equation for the 1-percent annual exceedance probability flood ranges from 56 to 70 percent for Wisconsin Streams; these values are larger than results presented in previous reports. The increase in the standard error of prediction is likely due to increased variability of the annual-peak discharges, resulting in increased variability in the magnitude of flood peaks at higher frequencies. For each of the unregulated rural streamflow-gaging stations, a weighted estimate based on the at-site log Pearson type III analysis and the multiple regression results was determined. The weighted estimate generally has a lower uncertainty than either the Log Pearson type III or multiple regression estimates. For regulated streams, a graphical method for estimating flood-frequency characteristics was developed from the relations of discharge and drainage area for selected annual exceedance probabilities. Graphs for the major regulated streams in Wisconsin are presented in the report.

  13. Archaeological Investigations at a Wisconsin Petroglyph Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Steinbring


    Full Text Available Preliminary test excavations at the Hensler Petroglyph Site in East Central Wisconsin, U.S.A. have disclosed the remains of aboriginal engravings below Aeolian sediments dated to ca. 15,000 years B.P. The stratified deposits lying adjacent to an engraved panel, containing 35 pecked images, have yielded animal-like cobbles, some covered with red ochre, apparently picked for some esoteric use. The site itself has unusual natural shapes in the rock formation, along with acoustical properties, lightning strikes, a magnetic anomaly, and geographic prominence. Collectively these factors are thought to have attracted the ancient rock artists to the site.

  14. Wisconsin EE Mandates: The Bad News and the Good News. (United States)

    Lane, Jennie; And Others


    Examines Wisconsin teachers' perceived competencies in, attitudes toward, and amount of class time devoted to teaching about the environment. Discusses the effects of Wisconsin environmental education mandates concerning preservice preparation in environmental education and K-12 environmental education curriculum plans. Identifies areas where the…

  15. Wisconsin Maternity Leave and Fringe Benefits: Policies, Practices and Problems. (United States)

    Gerner, Jennifer

    The study examines the economic implications in Wisconsin of the 1972 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission guideline which requires employers to treat maternity leave as a temporary disability. First, the static cost of the maternity leave guideline to employers is estimated for the State of Wisconsin. Second, some examination of the economic…

  16. Aflatoxin B1 and M1 contamination of animal feeds and milk from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was initiated to assess the knowledge and practices of urban dairy farmers and feed millers about aflatoxin in feeds and milk, determine the prevalence and quantify the levels of AFB1 and AFM1 in animal feeds and milk respectively from urban environs in Kenya. Methods: This work was carried out in ...

  17. New Zealand Dairy Farming: Milking Our Environment for All Its Worth. (United States)

    Foote, Kyleisha J; Joy, Michael K; Death, Russell G


    Over the past two decades there have been major increases in dairy production in New Zealand. This increase in intensity has required increased use of external inputs, in particular fertilizer, feed, and water. Intensified dairy farming thus incurs considerable environmental externalities: impacts that are not paid for directly by the dairy farmer. These externalities are left for the wider New Zealand populace to deal with, both economically and environmentally. This is counter-intuitive given the dairy industry itself relies on a 'clean green' image to maximize returns. This is the first nationwide assessment of some of the environmental costs of the recent increase of dairy intensification in New Zealand. Significant costs arise from nitrate contamination of drinking water, nutrient pollution to lakes, soil compaction, and greenhouse gas emissions. At the higher end, the estimated cost of some environmental externalities surpasses the 2012 dairy export revenue of NZ$11.6 billion and almost reaches the combined export revenue and dairy's contribution to Gross Domestic Product in 2010 of NZ$5 billion. For the dairy industry to accurately report on its profitability and maintain its sustainable marketing label, these external costs should be reported. This assessment is in fact extremely conservative as many impacts have not been valued, thus, the total negative external impact of intensified dairying is probably grossly underestimated.

  18. Supplementing dairy steers and organically managed dairy cows with synthetic vitamin D3 is unnecessary at pasture during exposure to summer sunlight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Lindqvist, Hanna


    with only their endogenous production of D3 from summer sunlight as a source of D3. To examine the impact of supplemental synthetic D3 from the feed on the D3 status of dairy cattle in organic production in Nordic countries, 20 high-yielding dairy cows and 30 dairy steers were divided into two groups: one......Use of synthetic feed additives, including synthetic vitamin D3 (D3) in the feed for cows and other ruminants, is not consistent with the international principles of organic farming. If dairy farmers wish to produce in accordance with the organic principles, production animals would be left...... supplemented with synthetic D3 in the feed and one not supplemented with synthetic D3. Vitamin D3 status of the animals was assessed by measuring the concentration of the liver-derived 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3) in plasma. Results showed that 25OHD3 concentration in plasma from dairy cattle as well as from...

  19. Glycerol from biodiesel production: the new corn for dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn S Donkin


    Full Text Available Glycerol, also known as glycerin, is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. It is a sugar alcohol with high solubility index in water and has a wide range of applications in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. The use of glycerol in diets for dairy cattle is not novel; however, this interest has been renewed due to the increased availability and favorable pricing of glycerol as a consequence of recent growth in the biofuels industry. Experimental evidence supports the use of glycerol as a transition cow therapy but feeding rates are low, ranging from 5 to 8 % of the diet DM. There is a paucity of research that examines the use of glycerol as a macro-ingredient in rations for lactating dairy cows. Most reports indicate a lack of effect of addition of glycerol to the diet when it replaces corn or corn starch. Recent feeding experiments with lactating dairy cows indicate replacing corn with glycerol to a level of 15% of the ration DM does not adversely effect milk production or composition. Milk production was 37.0, 36.9, 37.3, 36.4 ± 0.6 kg/d and feed intake was 24.0, 24.5, 24.6, 24.1 ± 0.5 kg/d for 0, 5, 10 and 15% glycerol treatments respectively and did not differ (P > 0.05 except for a modest reduction in feed intake during the first 7 days for the 15% glycerol treatment. Glycerol fed to dairy cattle is fermented to volatile fatty acids in the rumen and early reports indicated that glycerol is almost entirely fermented to propionate. In vitro data indicates glycerol fermentation increases the production of propionate and butyrate at the expense of acetate. Rumen microbes appear to adapt to glycerol feeding and consequently, cows fed glycerol also require an adaptation period to glycerol inclusion. Debate exists regarding the fate of glycerol in the rumen and although most reports suggest that glycerol is largely fermented in the rumen, the extent of rumen digestion may depend on level of

  20. Probiotics cultures in animal feed: Effects on ruminal fermentation, immune responses, and resistance to infectious diseases (United States)

    We evaluated the effects of probiotics included in dairy cattle and mice feed on ruminal fermentation, immune responses, and resistance to Johne’s disease. To unveil the underlying mechanisms, dairy cattle were either fed Bovamine (1.04 x 10**9 cfu of Lactobacillus acidophilus NP51 plus 2.04 x 10**...

  1. Fluoride Levels in Water, Animal Feeds, Cow Milk, Cow Urine and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kiambu and Thika Districts are situated in Central part of Kenya. Most of the available land is suitable for agricultural use. Majority of the farmers are small scale or subsistence dairy farmers. Intake of excess fluoride in water, feed and mineral supplements may adversely affect health, reproduction and production in dairy ...

  2. Veterinarians’ and agricultural advisors’ perception of calf health and welfare in organic dairy production in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellingsen, Kristian; Mejdell, C. M.; Hansen, B.


    Veterinarians, as opposed to other professionals, have been accused of being unduly critical to animal welfare in organic farming. A nationwide questionnaire (QuestBack™) was distributed to 400 Norwegian production animal veterinarians and 400 agricultural dairy advisors to compare attitudes......, a significant number of both veterinarians and advisors considered the calves’ confidence in people and space allowance to be better in organic dairy herds compared with conventional dairy herds, whereas feed quality was regarded to be poorer. When asked in more depth about organic dairy farming, the majority...... are more sceptical towards animal health and welfare in organic production compared with other professionals is not supported. The few differences found between the two groups may reflect different emphases due to their education and focus, e.g. treatment of disease versus advice on feeding, rather than...

  3. Behavioral changes in freestall-housed dairy cows with naturally occurring clinical mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Bennedsgaard, Torben Werner; Herskin, Mette S


    Dairy cows exhibit classic signs of sickness behavior during mastitis. However, knowledge about the consequences of naturally occurring mastitis in freestall-housed dairy cows, milked in automatic milking systems, is lacking. The aim of the present study was to describe the behavior of dairy cows...... after diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of mastitis. In the days before and after antibiotic treatment, the milking behavior, feeding, and activity were examined in 30 mastitic and 30 control Danish Holstein-Friesian cows kept in freestalls and milked by an automatic milking system. Sickness behavior...... was evident in the mastitic dairy cows and local clinical signs in the udder as well as behavioral changes persisted beyond the 3 d of antibiotic treatment. In the days before diagnosis and treatment, feed intake was reduced compared with the control animals. Although reduced by the antibiotic treatment...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. DUNEA


    Full Text Available This paper briefly presents several applications of the geospatial technology as a method to maximize the efficiency of the dairy farm management. The experiment was carried out at Negraşi dairy farm in Târgovişte Plain. A functional farm production and mapping program for detailed farm management information system with several modules: mapping, forage stock, feed forecaster, individual cattle database, fuel consume for field operations and farm inputs database was developed for handheld computers with GPS navigation. Such portable information tools might help the decision making process, the development of ideo-types or in the exploration of land use options to support the policy makers at eco-regional level, the management staff at farm level and various other applications in dairy farms.

  5. Contemporary aspects in assessment of protein needs in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubić Goran


    Full Text Available The aim of meeting protein needs in dairy cows is to provide sufficient degradable proteins, which are optimally used in the rumen, to provide the required level of productivity with a minimal amount of crude protein in the diet. The new concept, shown in this paper, which expresses protein value as metabolic, enables better protein balancing in dairy cows than before. The nutritive value of metabolic protein in dairy cows depends on essential amino acid composition of protein and their contribution to total essential amino acids. The improvement of protein utilization efficiency has practical implications. The reason for this is to decrease feeding costs per kilogram of milk or milk protein, the need for more efficient production, higher milk protein yield and to allow other nutrients in the diet to prove their influence on the increase of production.

  6. Modeling greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farms. (United States)

    Rotz, C Alan


    Dairy farms have been identified as an important source of greenhouse gas emissions. Within the farm, important emissions include enteric CH 4 from the animals, CH 4 and N 2 O from manure in housing facilities during long-term storage and during field application, and N 2 O from nitrification and denitrification processes in the soil used to produce feed crops and pasture. Models using a wide range in level of detail have been developed to represent or predict these emissions. They include constant emission factors, variable process-related emission factors, empirical or statistical models, mechanistic process simulations, and life cycle assessment. To fully represent farm emissions, models representing the various emission sources must be integrated to capture the combined effects and interactions of all important components. Farm models have been developed using relationships across the full scale of detail, from constant emission factors to detailed mechanistic simulations. Simpler models, based upon emission factors and empirical relationships, tend to provide better tools for decision support, whereas more complex farm simulations provide better tools for research and education. To look beyond the farm boundaries, life cycle assessment provides an environmental accounting tool for quantifying and evaluating emissions over the full cycle, from producing the resources used on the farm through processing, distribution, consumption, and waste handling of the milk and dairy products produced. Models are useful for improving our understanding of farm processes and their interacting effects on greenhouse gas emissions. Through better understanding, they assist in the development and evaluation of mitigation strategies for reducing emissions and improving overall sustainability of dairy farms. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article

  7. Dairy chemistry and physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walstra, P.; Jenness, R.


    Milk and products made from it affect the lives of a large proportion of the world’s population. Many dairy products are consumed at times and in places far removed from the point at which the milk was produced. This is made possible by the chemical and physical treatments and fractionations applied

  8. Dairy wastewater treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 4, 2009 ... organic sources into methane via anaerobic process. Whey is considered as highly pollutant effluent with res- pect to COD level (60-80 g/l) (Mc-Hugh et al., 2006;. Gannoun et al., 2008). There are number of biological treatment processes to treat dairy wastewater such as activated sludge system, anaerobic ...

  9. ‘Milk is Milk’: Organic Dairy Adoption Decisions and Bounded Rationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline C. Brock


    Full Text Available Bounded rationality is an especially appropriate framework for organic dairy adoption decisions as it recognizes internal and external constraints which are critical in understanding complex farm decision making. Farmers use of, and access to, information is examined using interview data gathered from organic, conventional, managed graziers, and Amish dairy farmers in Southwestern Wisconsin at a time when organic milk prices offered a 50% premium over conventional prices. Focusing on certain aspects and impressions of organic dairy, such as the sentiment that “milk is milk”, may lead to information satisficing where farmers do not take full advantage of the information available to them. Organic farmer interviews reveal the challenges they faced with bounded rationality constraints and how they countered these challenges with the help of social networks, as well as how situational factors such as economic and health crises may have motivated them to adopt organic dairy. The interview data from organic and conventional farmers alike also reveals how many conventional dairy farmers utilized information strategies which did not fully consider the pros and cons of the organic system. A bounded rationality framework could enlighten policy makers and educators as they tailor sustainable agricultural policy design and information dissemination strategies to serve the diversity of farmers on the landscape.

  10. Applying Learning Theory to Safety and Health Training for Hispanic Immigrant Dairy Workers. (United States)

    Juárez-Carrillo, Patricia M; Liebman, Amy K; Reyes, Iris Anne C; Ninco Sánchez, Yurany V; Keifer, Matthew C


    We designed a safety and health curriculum for dairy immigrant workers aiming to increase knowledge, encourage safe behavior, and reduce worker communication inequalities to prevent occupational injury and diseases. The design is largely based on the Taxonomy of Significant Learning and incorporated behavioral and adult learning theories and principles of occupational hazard control. Trainings were implemented with 836 Spanish-speaking workers from 67 farms in Wisconsin. Sixty-seven percent of workers reported never being trained before in dairy safety, 65% of these worked in dairy for 5 or fewers years, and 26% of workers reported being ever injured while working on dairy. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the trainings suggest that our curriculum successfully increased worker knowledge and promoted contemplation of safe practices. The overall knowledge gain of 25% was statistically significant ( p behavior, and mentioned their intention to communicate safety concerns to farmers. To our knowledge, this is the first Taxonomy of Significant Learning application to occupational safety and health education. Our curriculum can support dairy farmers' compliance with Occupational Safety and Health Administration's annual training requirements by providing our basic safety and health training to workers at early job stages.

  11. Dairy cow disability weights. (United States)

    McConnel, Craig S; McNeil, Ashleigh A; Hadrich, Joleen C; Lombard, Jason E; Garry, Franklyn B; Heller, Jane


    Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies. National and international dairy health and management authorities were contacted through professional organizations, dairy industry publications and conferences, and industry contacts. Estimates of minimum, most likely, and maximum disability weights were derived for 12 common dairy cow diseases. Survey participants were asked to estimate the impact of each disease on overall health and milk production. Diseases were classified from 1 (minimal adverse effects) to 10 (death). The data was modelled using BetaPERT distributions to demonstrate the variation in these dynamic disease processes, and to identify the most likely aggregated disability weights for each disease classification. A single disability weight was assigned to each disease using the average of the combined medians for the minimum, most likely, and maximum severity scores. A total of 96 respondents provided estimates of disability weights. The final disability weight values resulted in the following order from least to most severe: retained placenta, diarrhea, ketosis, metritis, mastitis, milk fever, lame (hoof only), calving trauma, left displaced abomasum, pneumonia, musculoskeletal injury (leg, hip, back), and right displaced abomasum. The peaks of the probability density functions indicated that for certain disease states such as retained placenta there was a relatively narrow range of

  12. Performance of Lactating Dairy Cows Fed Dried Sardines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. AI-Abri


    Full Text Available To utilize locally available feed resources with livestock production in hot climates, dried sardines were incorporated into diets for lactating dairy cows. Fourteen Holstein and 13 Australian Milk Zebu multiparous cows were used in a 70-day continuous feeding experiment. lsonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing either soybean meal or dried sardines (supplied 40% of dietary crude protein were fed ad - libitum. Comparisons between diets were made during the 7-week experimental period. The experiment was conducted as a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatment, with diet and breed as main factors. Ruminal pH, ammonia N, total and individual volatile fatty acids concentrations were not altered by the feeding of dried sardines. Intakes of dry matter, energy, crude protein, and acid detergent fiber were lower (P0.05 in Holstein cows fed dried sardines than those fed the control diet (16.2 vs 15.1 kg/d. Feeding of dried sardines did not affect milk composition and compositional yields. Milk production was higher (P<0.01 in Holstein than Australian Milk Zebu cows. Effect of diet and breed interaction on milk production was significant (P<0.01 . Potential of feeding marine proteins may be higher for higher milk producers (Holstein than lower producers (Australian Milk Zebu. Reproduction parameters, body condition scores, and heat-stress associated parameters were not affected by the feeding of dried sardines. This study suggests that dried sardines could be incorporated into diets of lactating dairy cows without affecting milk production.

  13. 7 CFR 1150.112 - Dairy products. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Dairy products. 1150.112 Section 1150.112 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.112 Dairy products. Dairy products means products manufactured for human...

  14. Wisconsin River at Portage, Wisconsin; Feasibility Study for Flood Control Plant of Study. (United States)


    natural setting that the late Aldo Leopold , often called the "Father of Wildlife Management," wrote some of his famous works in the still-standing log...Protect endangered or threatened plants and animals and their ha>itats. e. Consider the Aldo Leopold Memorial Reserve. The Wisconsin Department of Natural...standing log cabin he built -- that the late 0 0 Aldo Leopold wrote some of his famous works. He also wrote about this very site and the immediate area

  15. Pesticide residues in brain tissues of dairy cattle in Lembang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The use of pesticides to control plant diseases may cause residual formation in crops, its byproduct and environmental. Furthermore, the use of agriculture byproduct as animal feed may cause poisoning or residual formation in animal products. The purpose of this study is to investigate of pesticide residues in brain tissues of dairy cattle in relation to animal feed as a contamination source. Samples consisted of animal feeds (19 samples of fodder and 6 samples of feed, 31 samples of sera and 25 samples of brain tissues of dairy cattle collected from Lembang, West Java. Feeds and fodders were collected from dairy farms located in Lembang. Sera were directly collected from 31 heads of Frisien Holstein (FH cattle from the same location, while brain tissues of FH cattle were collected from a local animal slaughtering house. Pesticide residues were analysed using gas chromatography (GC. Both residues of organochlorines and organophosphates were detected from brain tissues with average residue concentration OP was 22.7 ppb and OC was 5.1 ppb and a total residue was 27.8 ppb. The pesticide residues in brain tissues are new information that should be taken into consideration since the Indonesian consumed this tissues as an oval. Although pesticides residue concentration was low, pathological changes were noted microscopically from the brain tissues including extracellular vacuolisation, focal necrosis, haemorrhages, dilatation of basement membrane without cellular infiltration. Both pesticide residues were also detected in sera, where OP (9.0 ppb was higher than OC (4.9 ppb. These pesticides were also detected in animal feeds consisting fodders and feeds. Residues of OP (12.0 ppb were higher than OC (1.8 ppb in feeds, but residues of OP (16.8 ppb were lower than OC (18.7 ppb in fodders. Although, pesticide residues in sera and brain tissues were below the maximum residue limits (MRL of fat, the presence of pesticides in brain tissues should be taken

  16. Factors affecting the technical efficiency of dairy farms in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egzon BAJRAMI


    Full Text Available A possible accession into the World Trade Organization (WTO and an expected membership in the European Union raise significant opportunities and challenges for the agricultural sector in Kosovo. As a result of these changes, the sector will have to improve efficiency and competitiveness. This research is motivated by the need to understand better the forces that drive competitiveness in the Kosovo dairy sector. This study estimates the technical efficiency (TE of 243 dairy farms in Kosovo and relates TE variation to farm size and other primary determinants of TE. A stochastic frontier production function is estimated using a two-stage procedure. Results reveal that concentrate feed intake, land use per cow, and the number of days cows had been kept on pasture have statistically significant impacts on milk productivity per cow. The mean technical efficiency of dairy farms was estimated at 0.72. The major determinants that increase efficiency are breed improvement, intensification of corn production on the farm, improving concentrate feed intake, and using free-range production systems. Given the results from the technical efficiency analysis, it is crucial for the Government of Kosovo to redesign their dairy policy—specifically their grant investment schemes—and target assistance on improving national herd genetics, promoting free range systems and expanding area planted in corn.

  17. Specific fatty acids as metabolic modulators in the dairy cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.A. Pires


    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent developments on the utilization of specific fatty acids to modulate bovine energy metabolism, with emphasis on the periparturient dairy cow. A number of experiments have assessed the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on bovine hepatic energy metabolism using in vitro and in vivo models. Treatment of hepatocytes with specific fatty acids altered energy metabolism in vitro. For example, linolenic acid seemed to decrease hepatocyte triacylglycerol accumulation. This effect was confirmed in vivo, using parenteral infusions of emulsions derived from different fat sources to feed-restricted non-lactating cows. Additionally, polyunsaturated fatty acids can increase whole body response to insulin, potentially enhancing antilipolytic effects of insulin and muscle protein anabolism in the bovine. There is limited literature on the effects of feeding fat sources rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as fish oil and linseed oil, on metabolism of periparturient dairy cows. Available research has yielded conflicting results which need further clarification. On the other hand, specific isomers of conjugated linoleic acid consistently induce milk fat depression and are able to decrease energy export in milk by periparturient dairy cows. Nonetheless, research is still needed to assess whether these effects will ultimately benefit productivity and health status of periparturient dairy cows. Limitations of available methods to protect fatty acids from ruminal biohydrogenation are also addressed.

  18. Feeding Supplementation And Radioimmunoassay (RIA) Technique For The Improvement Of artificial Insemination (AI) Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjiptosumirat, Totti; Supandi, Dadang; Firsoni


    Recent research activities have showed that RIA techniques may be use as a tool in the improvement of dairy cattle AI in . Cisurupan district, Garut. Although already indicate in the previous research, with a small number of dairy cattle tested, a more in depth study on the utilization of RIA for the improvement of AI efficiency is still required. It is indicated from the previous experiment results that administration of feeding supplementation might improved the efficiency of reproductive performance of dairy cattle. The current Study is a continuation from the previous study with a larger number of dairy cattle and wider area covered. The experiment is aimed to monitor the impact of feeding supplementation on the reproductive performance of dairy cattle using Artificial Insemination Database Application (AIDA) and RIA technique. Result from this study indicated that feeding supplementation improved conception rate between pre-supplemented and post-supplemented dairy cattle; 25% vs 40%, respectively, therefore improve ratio of Service per Conception of 4.0 vs 2.3, respectively for pre-supplemented and post-supplemented dairy cattle. Result of this experiment also showed that RIA might be use as an effective tool in monitoring the early failure of AI compared to if just relying on the conventional method, the rectal palpation. However, due to an increase in milk production as a result of feeding supplementation, tanners tend to lengthen the lactation period from 10.20 ± 0.5 months to 11.8 ± 0.6 months, respectively in dairy cattle pre-supplemented and post-supplemented. It can be conclude from this study that supplementation feeding improve reproductive performance. However, even AIDA and RIA may be of effective tool in monitoring the reproductive performance of dairy cattle, as an holistic approach for an improvement dairy farm management is still required due to other factors play important role for AI efficiency

  19. An evaluation of the bedrock aquifer system in northeastern Wisconsin (United States)

    Emmons, P.J.


    Ground water is a major source of water in northeastern Wisconsin. The lower Fox River valley, located between Lake Winnebago and Green Bay in northeastern Wisconsin, is the second largest population center in Wisconsin. By 1957, ground-water withdrawals had lowered the potentiometric surface of the aquifer system as much as 440 feet below prepumping levels. With the exception of the city of Green Bay, which converted from ground water to surface water (Lake Michigan) for their municipal water supply in 1957, ground-water withdrawals have continually increased.

  20. Emergy evaluation of contrasting dairy systems at multiple levels. (United States)

    Vigne, Mathieu; Peyraud, Jean-Louis; Lecomte, Philippe; Corson, Michael S; Wilfart, Aurélie


    Emergy accounting (EmA) was applied to a range of dairy systems, from low-input smallholder systems in South Mali (SM), to intermediate-input systems in two regions of France, Poitou-Charentes (PC) and Bretagne (BR), to high-input systems on Reunion Island (RI). These systems were studied at three different levels: whole-farm (dairy system and cropping system), dairy-system (dairy herd and forage land), and herd (animals only). Dairy farms in SM used the lowest total emergy at all levels and was the highest user of renewable resources. Despite the low quality of resources consumed (crop residues and natural pasture), efficiency of their use was similar to that of industrialised inputs by intensive systems in RI, PC and BR. In addition, among the systems studied, SM dairy farms lay closest to environmental sustainability, contradicting the usual image of high environmental impact of cattle production in developing countries. EmA also revealed characteristics of the three intensive systems. Systems from RI and PC had lower resource transformation efficiency and higher environmental impacts than those from BR, due mainly to feeding strategies that differed due to differing socio-climatic constraints. Application of EmA at multiple levels revealed the importance of a multi-level analysis. While the whole-farm level assesses the overall contribution of the system to its environment, the dairy-system level is suitable for comparison of multi-product systems. In contrast, the herd level focuses on herd management and bypasses debates about definition of system boundaries by excluding land management. Combining all levels highlights the contribution of livestock to the global agricultural system and identifies inefficiencies and influences of system components on the environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Survey of medical radium installations in Wisconsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapert, A.C.; Lea, W.L.


    A radiation protection survey was performed at 70 medical radium installations in the State of Wisconsin. The requirements of the State's Radiation Protection Code were used as survey criteria. Radiation measurements of radium storage containers, radium capsule leakage tests, and monitoring of work surfaces for contamination were performed. Film badge monitoring data of whole body and extremity doses are presented for 221 individuals at 17 hospitals. Whole body doses during single treatments ranged from 10 to 1360 mrems per individual. The estimate of 500 mrems per treatment was determined as the dose aggregate to hospital personnel. Whole body doses from film badges are compared with analogous TLD doses. Four physicians and six technicians at nine hospitals participated in a study for monitoring the extremities with TLD. Cumulative extremity doses ranged from 28 to 6628 mrems per participant during the study. (U.S.)

  2. US hydropower resource assessment for Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.


    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Wisconsin.

  3. Updating progress in cancer control in Wisconsin. (United States)

    Treml, Kimberly B; McElroy, Jane A; Kaufman, Stephanie K; Remington, Patrick L; Wegner, Mark V


    In 1989, experts in cancer prevention, early detection, and treatment met in Madison to set the public health agenda for cancer control. Part of the plan defined target percent change in cancer mortality rates to be met by the year 2000. During the 1990s, public health and health care professionals developed programs and policies to reach these goals. The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate Wisconsin's progress in reducing cancer mortality and success in meeting the year 2000 objectives. Wisconsin mortality data for 1984-1986 and 1999-2001 were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC Wonder. Percent change was calculated between the 2 time periods and compared to the 2000 target percent change for all-site cancer and site specific cancer mortality. All-site cancer mortality decreased by 7% from 1984-1986 to 1999-2001 with a greater than 16% decline in age groups <65 years. Mortality from breast, colorectal, and cervical cancer each decreased by at least 25%. Lung cancer and malignant melanoma mortality rates increased by 5% and 17%, respectively. Among additionally analyzed cancers, mortality decreased in prostate, stomach, and childhood cancers and increased in liver cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The results of the state's cancer control effort are mixed. The year 2000 objectives were met for breast and colorectal cancer. Progress was made in reducing mortality from cervical cancer and from all sites combined, but the other year 2000 objectives were not met. Mortality rates increased for lung cancer and malignant melanoma during the 15-year period.

  4. Effect of Feeding Distillery Dried Grains to Lactating Cows on Farms in the Southern Dairy Region of Chile Efecto de la Alimentación con Granos Secos de Destilería en Vacas en Lactancia de la Región Lechera del Sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Shaver


    Full Text Available A field trial was conducted on five farms to determine the effect of feeding distillery dried grains (DDGS on milk production in the southern dairy region of Chile. The trial was repeated on each farm during winter (July and August; primarily silage-based rations and spring (November and December; pasture-based rations. Only for one farm could the treatments be applied concurrently by feeding different iso-nitrogenous concentrate mixes to randomly assigned cows in the milking parlor with data analyzed as a randomized complete block design. Milk yield tended (P Para medir el efecto de la suplementación con granos secos de destilería (DDGS en producción de leche se realizó un ensayo en cinco lecherías del sur de Chile. Se tuvo una fase invernal (julio-agosto, basada en ensilajes, una primaveral (noviembre-diciembre, basada en praderas. En una lechería se aplicó un tratamiento simultáneo, alimentando las vacas durante la ordeña con diferentes mezclas de concentrados isoproteicos asignados aleatoriamente. Se analizaron resultados utilizando un diseño de bloques completos al azar, donde las vacas fueron la unidad experimental. La producción de leche tendió a ser mayor 1,9 kg d-1 en invierno, 1,8 kg d-1 en primavera (P < 0,07, en vacas alimentadas con DDGS (2,0 kg vaca-1d-1. En invierno, el porcentaje de proteína en las vacas suplementadas con DDGS fue mayor en 73 g d-1 (P < 0,02. El contenido de grasa fue (P < 0,01 menor en 0,26 unidades porcentuales en las vacas alimentadas con DDGS durante la primavera, sin embargo, la producción total de grasa no se afectó por el tratamiento. En las lecherías que no se utilizó el tratamiento simultáneo, las vacas se asignaron al azar en invierno y primavera, a una secuencia de 1 mes de alimentación con concentrados isoproteicos Control-DDGS o DDGS-Control. Los datos fueron analizados con un diseño cruzado en el cual la lechería fue la unidad experimental. En invierno, con la suplementaci

  5. Probiotic Delivery through Fermentation: Dairy vs. Non-Dairy Beverages


    Chaminda Senaka Ranadheera; Janak K. Vidanarachchi; Ramon Silva Rocha; Adriano G. Cruz; Said Ajlouni


    Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host, mainly through the process of replacing or including beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Fermented dairy foods such as yogurt, fermented milk and cheese are the major vehicle in delivering probiotics, and probiotic delivery have been traditionally associated with these fermented dairy foods. Additionally, many other non-dairy probiotic products and non-food form ...

  6. Características de carcaça de bezerros de rebanhos leiteiros desmamados precocemente e alimentados com diferentes dietas líquidas Effect of feeding different liquid diets on carcass characteristics of early weaned dairy calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bento Mancio


    not with soy oil (45 mL and with or without growth promoter Zeranol were evaluated. The animals were daily fed a diet with concentrate (23% crude protein, Tifton hay ad libitum and 3 L of milk or fermented colostrum. The animals were slaughtered at average weight of 57.38 kg and 60 days old. No effect of feeding different liquid diets on the organs weight and non integrate carcass components was detected. However, calves fed milk and Zeranol showed heavier industrial meat weight. No effect of feeding liquid diets with Zeranol on Longissimus dorsi area was observed, with an average value of 15.27 cm². Animals fed fermented colostrum without Zeranol exhibited respective weights of rumen-reticulum, small intestine and mesentery of 954, 2,076 and 619 g. Calves fed diet supplemented with with soy oil had higher percentage of internal fat. Carcass length increased by 5.0% in animals fed milk with Zeranol and decreased by 5.5% in animals fed colostrum with Zeranol. Animals fed fermented colostrum without Zeranol showed carcass 5.0% heavier than those fed whole milk without Zeranol. Performance (hot and cold carcass weight of animals fed whole milk with Zeranol was similar to those fed fermented colostrum with Zeranol. Animals fed milk showed greater bone and fat proportions in the carcass.

  7. Main causes of poor welfare in intensively reared dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Abeni


    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to summarise the main causes of poor welfare in intensively reared dairy cows. Intensive farming systems are considered, both from a structural and a managerial point of view, for their constraints that may limit animal welfare: possible physical activity; acceptable interactions with humans and other animals; feeding and watering, protection from climate, parasites, and diseases. The dairy farms managed according to the organic rules do not always guarantee, per se, better welfare conditions; organic or low input dairy farming needs to consider the right interaction among cattle breed and herd management, focusing on the actual quality of feedstuffs meet face cow requirements. The considered structural aspects evidence how special care must be given to the rest area (straw yard or cubicle; to the floors that should be not too hard or abrasive and not slippery; to the cubicle bedding material to ensure hygiene, softness, and dryness; to the feeding (and watering area to reduce conflicts; to a microclimate control system, to avoid heat stress during summer time. The importance of proper management for animal welfare is evidenced for buildings and equipment, to have clean and comfortable stables and well functioning milking machines; nutritive and storage quality of feeds; diet suitability (energy, protein, physically efficient fibre, buffers etc., in the different phases of a dairy cow’s life (dry period, close-up, transition, and lactation; feed distribution (frequency and time, and 24h availability. Special attention has to be paid to the social aspects, regarding both animal competition (stocking density, group size, and human/animal interactions (methods of management and manipulation. The interaction between welfare and health requires special attention. Poor welfare can cause immune depression, thus increasing the risk of disease. In turn, any disease that causes an inflammatory response may determine depression

  8. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter


    , unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While......, a number of potential risks are discussed, including detrimental genetic trends for non-measured welfare traits, the increased chance of spreading unfavourable mutations, reduced sharing of information arising from concerns over patents, and an increased monopoly within dairy cattle breeding that may make...... negative effects on animal welfare and to invest in breeding for increased animal welfare. Researchers are encouraged to further investigate the long-term effects of various breeding schemes that rely on genomic breeding values....

  9. Milk and dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechen, A.; Heine, K.; Bundesanstalt fuer Milchforschung, Kiel


    Gammaspectroscopic measurements are taken as an example to describe the monitoring programme of the FRG for monitoring of milk and dairy products. A table shows the number of milk samples taken every year in the FRG in the general environment, and in the vicinity of nuclear installations, together with the radioactivity data obtained by gammaspectroscopy. Due to the decreasing radioactivity as a result of the nuclear weapons tests fallout, the number of samples taken in the general environment has been cut down to half over the period under review. The monitoring capacity set free by this decision has been used during this period for enhanced monitoring of milk and dairy products in regions where nuclear installations such as nuclear power plants have been operating. The nuclides of interest are Sr-90, Cs-137, J-131. (orig./DG) [de

  10. University of Wisconsin Antarctic Soils Database, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The University of Wisconsin Antarctic Soils Database contains data collected by Dr. James G. Bockheim and his colleagues from 1975 through 1987. Data include site...

  11. Daily eating activity of dairy cows from 3D accelerometer data and RFID signals: prediction by random forests and detection of sick cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldager, Leslie; Gildbjerg, Lars Bilde; Voss, Heidi


    Feed intake is very important for dairy cows and deviation from normal eating behaviour may predict a cow that needs treatment. We used video recordings of dairy cows at the Danish Cattle Research Centre (DKC) combined with data from a neck-collar mounted 3D accelerometer and RFID device from...

  12. Short communication: Measuring feed volume and weight by machine vision. (United States)

    Shelley, A N; Lau, D L; Stone, A E; Bewley, J M


    Individual dairy cow feed intake is closely related to the health and productive output of each cow, with healthy cows generally eating more feed than unhealthy cows. Incorporating the use of an automated system to monitor feed consumption for each cow may be beneficial for dairy farm management. This study examined the use of an inexpensive 3-dimensional video camera to measure feed volume, from which we derived feed weight. Proof-of-concept testing was conducted to determine the effectiveness and capability of the machine vision feed-scanning system and its possible use in feed intake monitoring. Such systems are ideal because they do not impede the workflow of the farm or interrupt feeding behavior. This is an improvement over existing systems that are labor and cost intensive. Our conducted experiments involve measuring feed volume at known weights, up to 22.68 kg, with the resulting volume and weight values analyzed by means of linear and quadratic least squares t-test regression analysis. The effects of feed positioning in the bin and near-range sensor limitations were also examined. The results showed that an estimation of feed weight from 3-dimensional scan of volume measurements could be made to within 0.5 kg of the physically measured feed weight using a digital scale. Future efforts will focus on extending this work to active bunks with multiple cows eating throughout the day and testing total mixed rations of varied composition. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An Assessment of Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Facilities in Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Ferguson


    Full Text Available A survey of 715 Holstein dairy farms in Pennsylvania was used to construct demographics for the average Holstein dairy farm. The average Holstein dairy farm was composed of 69 lactating cows; 11 nonlactating, pregnant cows; 44 heifers; and 18 calves. Milk production averaged 27.3 kg (60.0 lb. Crop area averaged 73.6 ha. Milk production, crop area and type, average county yields, and herd animal groups were used to construct a typical feeding program for these farms. Typical rations were constructed for six feeding groups (three milk production groups, one nonlactating group, two heifer groups to meet milk production, pregnancy, and growth requirements. Rations were constructed based on three forage qualities (excellent, average, and poor typically observed on Pennsylvania dairy farms. Data for animal description (milk production, body weight, growth, and pregnancy status and ration components and amounts consumed for each animal group were input into the excretion model of the Dairy Nutrient Planner computer program (DNP. Excretion of fecal N and dry matter (DM, urinary N, and total P and K were produced for each animal group and used to assess potential volatile losses of N. Work at the Marshak Dairy, New Bolton Center, indicates the majority of urinary N is rapidly lost as ammonia from dairy facilities. Based on this observation, the losses of N as ammonia were estimated to be 4.63, 4.62, and 4.28�tonne/year for the farm with excellent, average, and poor quality forages, respectively. Volatile losses of N may be reduced most by controlling levels of urea in urine. Urinary N may be reduced through dietary manipulation of protein and carbohydrate sources. Conversion of urea to ammonia may be reduced by altering the pH of barn floors and gutters. Entrapment of ammonia may be accomplished by acidification of manure slurry. Atmospheric ammonia contributes to acid rain, eutrophication of estuaries and lakes, and particulate air pollution

  14. Analyzing the Sources of Technical Efficiency among Heterogeneous Dairy Farms: A Quantile Regression Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Chidmi


    Full Text Available Abstract. An unbalanced panel data including 1,151 farm observations from 2004 to 2008 was used to analyze the determinants of technical efficiency (TE for dairy farms in the State of Wisconsin. To account for farm heterogeneity in our analysis we implemented a two-step framework using a stochastic production frontier and a quantile regression analysis. Our results show that the determinants of TE affect in very specific ways farmers with different levels of TE. This outcome is of significant importance from an empirical point of view. Farmers could use this knowledge to find alternatives to improve their specific level of performance. Additionally, policy makers could use this information to improve the effectiveness of their policies by targeting specific agricultural services and aid to group of farmers with similar levels of TE. Key Words : technical efficiency, dairy farms

  15. U.S. Dairy Forage Research Center (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Vision: Leading the world in integrated dairy forage systems research. Mission: Providing dairy industry solutions for food security, environmental sustainability,...


    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Vision: Leading the world in integrated dairy forage systems research. Mission: Providing dairy industry solutions for food security, environmental sustainability,...

  17. Geographic and racial variation in teen pregnancy rates in Wisconsin. (United States)

    Layde, Molly M; Remington, Patrick L


    Despite recent declines in teen birth rates, teenage pregnancy remains an important public health problem in Wisconsin with significant social, economic, and health-related effects. Compare and contrast teen birth rate trends by race, ethnicity, and county in Wisconsin. Teen (ages 15-19 years) birth rates (per 1000 teenage females) in Wisconsin from 2001-2010 were compared by racelethnicity and county of residence using data from the Wisconsin Interactive Statistics on Health. Teen birth rates in Wisconsin have declined by 20% over the past decade, from 35.5/1000 teens in 2001 to 28.3/1000 teens in 2010-a relative decline of 20.3%. However, trends vary by race, with declines among blacks (-33%) and whites (-26%) and increases among American Indians (+21%) and Hispanics (+30%). Minority teen birth rates continue to be 3 to 5 times greater than birth rates among whites. Rates varied even more by county, with an over 14-fold difference between Ozaukee County (7.8/1000) and Menominee County (114.2). Despite recent declines, teen pregnancy continues to be an important public health problem in Wisconsin. Pregnancy prevention programs should be targeted toward the populations and counties with the highest rates.

  18. Food safety of milk and dairy product of dairy cattle from heavy metal contamination (United States)

    Harlia, E.; Rahmah, KN; Suryanto, D.


    Food safety of milk and dairy products is a prerequisite for consumption, which must be free from physical, biological and chemical contamination. Chemical contamination of heavy metals Pb (Plumbum/Lead) and Cd (Cadmium) is generally derived from the environment such as from water, grass, feed additives, medicines and farm equipment. The contamination of milk and dairy products can affect quality and food safety for human consumption. The aim of this research is to investigate contamination of heavy metals Pb and Cd on fresh milk, pasteurized milk, and dodol milk compared with the Maximum Residue Limits (MRL). The methods of this researched was through case study and data obtained analyzed descriptively. Milk samples were obtained from Bandung and surrounding areas. The number of samples used was 30 samples for each product: 30 samples of fresh milk directly obtained from dairy farm, 30 samples of pasteurized milk obtained from street vendors and 30 samples of dodol milk obtained from home industry. Parameters observed were heavy metal residues of Pb and Cd. The results showed that: 1) approximately 83% of fresh milk samples were contaminated by Pb which 57% samples were above MRL and 90% samples were contaminated by Cd above MRL; 2) 67% of pasteurized milk samples were contaminated by Pb below MRL; 3) 60% of dodol milk samples were contaminated by Pb and Cd above MRL.

  19. Utilizing waste activated sludge for animal feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beszedits, S.


    Activated sludge has a high protein content and is a good source of B-group vitamins and generally also of minerals (Ca, Mg, Fe and K). Propionibacterium freudenreichii can be readily incorporated into the activated sludge to synthesize vitamin B12, particularly high vitamin yields being obtained with sewage mixed with dairy waste. Numerous examples of successful use of activated sludge in animal feeding are given.

  20. Antroduodenal motility in neurologically handicapped children with feeding intolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werlin Steven L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dysphagia and feeding intolerance are common in neurologically handicapped children. The aim is to determine the etiologies of feeding intolerance in neurologically handicapped children who are intolerant of tube feedings. Methods Eighteen neurologically handicapped children, followed in the Tube Feeding Clinic at the Children's Hospital of Wisconsin who were intolerant of gastrostomy feedings. The charts of these 18 patients were reviewed. Past medical history, diagnoses, history of fundoplication and results of various tests of gastrointestinal function including barium contrast radiography, endoscopy and antroduodenal manometry were documented. Results Five of 11 children had abnormal barium upper gastrointestinal series. Seven of 14 had abnormal liquid phase gastric emptying tests. Two of 16 had esophagitis on endoscopy. All 18 children had abnormal antroduodenal motility. Conclusions In neurologically handicapped children foregut dysmotility may be more common than is generally recognized and can explain many of the upper gastrointestinal symptoms in neurologically handicapped children.