WorldWideScience

Sample records for wirkung von gibberellin

  1. Wirkung ultrafeiner Modellpartikel auf das isolierte Langendorff-Herz von Meerschweinchen

    OpenAIRE

    Radykewicz, Roman

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiologische Studien zeigen einen Zusammenhang zwischen der Konzentration von ultrafeinen Partikeln in der Luft und Herzerkrankungen. In dieser Arbeit wurde die Wirkung von verschiedenen ultrafeinen Modellpartikeln (UFP) auf das isolierte Meerschweinchenherz untersucht, um zu klären, ob ultrafeine Partikel eine direkte Wirkung auf das isolierte Herz ausüben oder diese durch inflammatorische und andere Effekte in der Lunge hervorgerufen werden. Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass ultrafeine ...

  2. Die Wirkung von Work-Life Balance Initiativen auf das Mitarbeitercommitment: Eine empirische Untersuchung in der Unternehmensberatungsbranche

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, Stephan; Ringlstetter, Max; Reindl, Cornelia U.; Stolz, Martin Lothar

    2010-01-01

    Der vorliegende Beitrag untersucht die Wirkung von unternehmerischen Work-Life Balance Initiativen für die emotionale Bindung der Mitarbeiter zum Unternehmen, d. h. das organisationale Commitment von Mitarbeitern im Kontext der Unternehmensberatung. Dazu wurde eine Untersuchung mit insgesamt 275 Unternehmensberaterinnen und -beratern durchgeführt. Die Datenanalyse erfolgte anhand eines PLSStrukturgleichungsmodells (Partial-Least-Squares-Ansatz). Die Ergebnisse weisen darauf hin, dass auch in ...

  3. Die Wirkung von Desacetylcefotaxin, einem Metaboliten von Cefotaxim, in vitro und auf die experimentelle Infektion mit Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Wirbelauer, J.; Hof, H.; Hacker, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    Die MHK-Werte von Desacetylcefotaxim gegen verschiedene, z. T. ampicillinresistente Stämme von Escherichia coH, die mit Hilfe einer Agardilutionsmethode erhoben wurden, waren höher als die von Cefotaxim und Ceftriaxon, jedoch niedriger als die von Cefoxitin. In einem Modell der systemischen Infektion der Maus mit einem plasmidtragenden, betalactamaseproduzierenden Stamm von E. coli führte die Therapie mit Desacetylcefotaxim zu einer starken Reduktion der Keime pro Leber. Im Vergleich zur Ther...

  4. Wirkung von partikulären Umweltnoxen auf die Immunabwehr monozytärer Zellen

    OpenAIRE

    Hofer, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Atmosphärische Teilchen anthropogenen Ursprungs mit einem Durchmesser von weniger als 2 μm stellen für suszeptible Personen ein Gesundheitsrisiko dar. Ultrafeine Partikel (Durchmesser kleiner 0,1 μm) sind dabei von besonderem Interesse, da sie in ihrer Anzahlkonzentration 70% aller atmosphärischen Teilchen ausmachen und epidemiologische Studien einen Zusammenhang zwischen Partikelbelastung und Morbidität bzw. Mortalität bei Lungenerkrankungen belegen. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde die Wirk...

  5. Wirkung mineralischer N-Düngung auf Blatterträge und Scopolamingehalte von Duboisia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oster, Sabine

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Duboisia wird als Rohstofflieferant für Scopolamin verwendet. Dieses Tropanalkaloid wird aus dem Blattmaterial von Duboisia Arthybriden gewonnen und dient als Wirkstoff zur Therapie der Reisekrankheit sowie als Ausgangsstoff für partialsynthetische Anticholinergika. Für die effiziente Produktion sind hohe Erträge an Biomasse bei möglichst hohem Wirkstoffgehalt wünschenswert. Eine der abiotischen Einflussgrößen ist die Stickstoffernährung. Der hier beschriebene Freilandversuch stellt den Einfluss von vier unterschiedlich hohen N-Düngungsgaben (0 kg N/ha, 100 kg N/ha, 200 kg N/ha, 100+100 kg N/ha mit Kalkammonsalpeter (KAS auf drei Genotypen dar. Die N-Düngung zeigte keinen Einfluss auf den Scopolamingehalt, jedoch stieg mit erhöhter N-Menge die Biomasse signifikant an.

  6. In vitro-Untersuchung zur Erreger-eliminierenden Wirkung von Wundspüllösungen

    OpenAIRE

    Nayel, Aria

    2010-01-01

    Die Durchführung einer gewissenhaften Lavage in Verbindung mit einem sorgfältig durchgeführten Débridement hat essenzielle Bedeutung im Wundmanagement der Akut-versorgung traumatologischer Patienten zur Verhinderung von Wundheilungsstörungen und etwaiger Infektionen. Für eine solche Lavage stehen diverse antiseptische Wundreinigungsmittel sowie sterile Spülmedien wie Kochsalz- oder Ringerlösung zur Verfügung. Zur Entschei...

  7. Hydrogen effects in nitrogen-alloyed austenitic steels; Wirkung von Wasserstoff in stickstofflegierten austenitischen Staehlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlemann, M.; Mummert, K. [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung Dresden e.V. (Germany); Shehata, M.F. [National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt)

    1998-12-31

    Hydrogen increases the yield strength of nitrogen-alloyed steels, but on the other hand adversely affects properties such as tensile strength and elongation to fracture. The effect is enhanced with increasing nitrogen and hydrogen contents. Under the effect of hydrogen addition, the discontinuous stress-strain characteristic and the distinct elongation limit of hydrogen-free, nitrogen containing steels is no longer observed in the material. This change of mechanical properties is attributed to an interatomic interaction of nitrogen and hydrogen in the lattice, which is shown for instance by such effects as reduction of hydrogen velocity, high solubility, and a particularly strong lattice expansion. The nature of this interaction of nitrogen and hydrogen in the fcc lattice remains to be identified. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Wasserstoff fuehrt in stickstofflegierten Staehlen zu einer Erhoehung der Streckgrenze, aber gleichzeitig zu einer Abnahme der Zugfestigkeit und Bruchdehnung. Dieser Effekt verstaerkt sich mit zunehmenden Stickstoff- und Wasserstoffgehalten. Ein diskontinuierlicher Spannungs-Dehnungsverlauf mit einer ausgepraegten Streckgrenze in wasserstofffreien hochstickstoffhaltigen Staehlen wird nach Wasserstoffeinfluss nicht mehr beobachtet. Die Aenderung der mechanischen Eigenschaften, wird auf eine interatomare Wechselwirkung von Stickstoff und Wasserstoff im Gitter zurueckgefuehrt, die sich u.a. in geringer Wasserstoffdiffusionsgeschwindigkeit, hoher Loeslichkeit und vor allem in extremer Gitteraufweitung aeussert. Insgesamt ist die Natur der Wechselwirkung zwischen Stickstoff und Wasserstoff im kfz Gitter noch nicht aufgeklaert. (orig.)

  8. Antitumoral action of interferons and interleukins in combination with radiotherapy. Pt. I. Immunologic basis; Antitumorale Wirkung von Interferonen und Interleukinen in Kombination mit Strahlentherapie. Teil I. Immunologische Grundlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herskind, C. [Dept. of Experimental Clinical Oncology, Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Sektion Strahlentherapie, Mannheim (Germany); Fleckenstein, K.; Wenz, F.; Lohr, F. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Sektion Strahlentherapie, Mannheim (Germany); Lohr, J. [Dept. of Pathology, Univ. of California San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States); Li Chuan-Yuan [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Method: the cellular immune response toward tumor cells is reviewed. The role of cytokines in antigen presentation and activation of effector cells and their interactions with radiation are described. Preclinical strategies of the antitumor action of cytokines are presented and discussed based on the induction of IFN-{gamma} by IL-12. Results: recent advances in immunology have demonstrated the importance of local interactions between antigen-presenting cells (APC) and effector cells such as natural killer (NK) cells and T-lymphocytes for an effective immune reaction against tumors. Interferons stimulate such interactions, while IL-2 plays a central role in the activation of NK cells and T-lymphocytes. The interactions between APC and effector cells are suppressed by many tumors but can be stimulated by irradiation. Since systemic application of interferons is quite toxic, present strategies aim at local expression, e.g., the induction of IFN-{gamma} expression in Th1 cells by IL-12. (orig.) [German] Methodik: Die immunologischen Grundlagen der zellulaeren Immunreaktion gegenueber Tumorzellen werden beschrieben. Die Rolle der Zytokine bei der Antigenpraesentation und der Aktivierung von Effektorzellen sowie die Interaktion mit Bestrahlung werden dargestellt. Anschliessend werden praeklinische Strategien der antitumoralen Wirkung von Zytokinen am Beispiel der IFN-{gamma}-Induktion durch IL-12 diskutiert. Ergebnisse: Neue immunologische Erkenntnisse haben gezeigt, dass lokale Interaktionen zwischen antigenpraesentierenden Zellen (APC) und Effektorzellen wie natuerlichen Killerzellen (NK-Zellen) und T-Lymphozyten wichtig fuer eine effektive Immunreaktion gegen Tumoren sind. Interferone stimulieren solche Interaktionen, waerend das Zytokin IL-2 bei der Aktivierung von NK-Zellen und T-Lymphozyten eine zentrale Rolle spielt. Die Interaktionen zwischen APC und Effektorzellen koennen von vielen Tumoren unterdrueckt, andererseits aber auch durch Bestrahlung stimuliert

  9. Effects of noxious environmental particulate matter on the immune response of monocyte cells; Wirkung von partikulaeren Umweltnoxen auf die Immunabwehr monozytaerer Zellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofer, T.

    2000-07-01

    The effects of ultrafine particles on the immune response of alveolar macrophages of mice was investigated. The findings are presented and discussed in this report. [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde die Wirkung ultrafeiner Partikel auf die Immunabwehr an Alveolarmakrophagen der Maus untersucht. Die Ergebnisse werden dargestellt und diskutiert. (orig/MG)

  10. Die Wirkung von Dopamin und Faktoren der dopaminergen Neurotransmission auf HIV-Infektion und Immunaktivierung: Fokus auf Dopamin-assoziierte Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Horn, Anne

    2015-01-01

    HIV verursacht eine progressive Zerstörung des Immunsystems und führt zusätzlich durch Veränderungen im ZNS zu neurokognitiven Störungen (HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, HAND). Die HIV-Infektion geht mit einer Dysfunktion von dopaminergen Signalwegen einher, die sich unter anderem in einer erhöhten Dopamin-Verfügbarkeit im Liquor von Therapie-naiven HIV-Patienten äußert. Der Grund für die Dysregulation der dopaminergen Signalwege in HIV-Patienten ist nicht geklärt. Aufgrund dessen wa...

  11. Soil ecological investigations into the effect and distribution of organic groups of compounds (PAHs, PCBs) in ecosystems typical of agglomerations.. Joint final report; Bodenoekologische Untersuchungen zur Wirkung und Verteilung von organischen Stoffgruppen (PAK, PCB) in ballungsraumtypischen Oekosystemen. Gemeinsamer Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, M.; Klementz, D.; Reese-Staehler, G.; Luedersdorf, M. [Biologische Bundesanstalt fuer Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Berlin (Germany); Achazi, R.; Kratz, W.; Heck, M.; Beylich, A.; Neumeister, H.; Hesse, M.; Quader, S. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Metz, R.; Dorn, J. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany); Schuphan, I.; Maier-Gaipl, S.; Herlitz, E. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany); Wilke, B.M.; Koch, C.; Marschner, B.; Brose, A.; Doering, U.; Peters, M.; Pieper, S.; Baschien, C. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    In this interdisciplinary complex of matched field and laboratory experiments, the effects of defined pollutant loads were analysed by means of suitable representatives of different groups of soil organisms (soil fauna and soil micro-organisms) and by means of soil processes depending on them (for instance, enzyme activities, degradation of litter, nitrification, feeding damage). Similarly, the influence of selected organic pollutants, part of them in combination with heavy metals, on the soil-plant system was studied in selected herbaceous and ligneous types of plants in different development stages. Further, the possibility of developing a test battery was investigated which would indicate the toxicity of soil by means of watery and organic extracts. (orig.) [Deutsch] In diesem interdisziplinaeren Verbund von abgestimmten Freiland- und Laborversuchen wurde anhand repraesentativer Vertreter verschiedener Bodenorganismengruppen (Bodenfauna und Bodenmikroorganismen) und von durch sie bestimmten Bodenprozessen (z.B. Enzymaktivitaeten, Streuabbau, Nitrifikation, Frass) die Wirkungen von definierten Schadstoffbelastungen analysiert. In der gleichen Weise wurde der Einfluss von ausgewaehlten organischen Schadstoffen, z.T. in Kombination mit Schwermetallen auf das System Boden-Pflanze an ausgewaehlten krautigen und holzigen Pflanzenarten in unterschiedlichen Entwicklungsstadien untersucht. Darueberhinaus wurde ueberprueft ob sich eine Testbatterie entwickeln laesst, die die Toxizitaet von Boeden aufgrund von waessrigen und organischen Extrakten anzeigt. (orig.)

  12. Virtuelle Nothilfe - Ein Experiment zum Effekt von virtueller Hilfe, Gewalt und Nothilfe auf Hilfe- und Gewaltverhalten

    OpenAIRE

    Mohseni, M. Rohangis

    2013-01-01

    Eine aktuelle Meta-Analyse von Anderson et al. (2010) zeigt, dass Gewaltverhalten in Computerspielen das Gewaltverhalten im realen Leben erhöht, während es prosoziales Verhalten verringert. Daneben führen einige Studien von Greitemeyer und Osswald (2010) sowie von Gentile et al. (2009) zu der Schlussfolgerung, dass das Hilfeverhalten in Computerspielen das Hilfeverhalten im realen Leben erhöht. Bisher gibt es aber keine Studien, die die kombinierte Wirkung von Gewalt und Hilfe in Computerspie...

  13. Der gespielte Ernst des Lebens: Bestandsaufnahme und Potenziale von Serious Games (for Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lampert

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Serious Games werden aktuell im Zusammenhang mit den positiven Potenzialen von Computerspielen in verschiedenen Kontexten diskutiert. Im vorliegenden Beitrag werden die Entwicklung und der Forschungsstand des relativ neuen Konzeptes skizziert und gegenüber anderen Lernkonzepten wie Edutainment, Digital Game-Based Learning und E-learning abgegrenzt. Das Spektrum von Serious Games wird am Beispiel von zwei Spielen aus dem Gesundheitsbereich (Re-Mission und Fatworld dargestellt und die Potenziale und Grenzen von Serious Games (for Health erörtert. Da bislang nur wenige empirische Befunde zur Wirkung von Serious Games vorliegen, plädieren die Autoren für eine umfassende Grundlagen- und Wirkungsforschung.

  14. Bioinformatische Analyse und funktionelle Charakterisierung von strukturellen Genvarianten in ADME-Genen in humaner Leber

    OpenAIRE

    Tremmel, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Die Pharmakogenetik beschreibt die Untersuchung von interindividuellen genetischen Unterschieden, welche die Wirkung von Medikamenten und die Reaktion auf xenobioti-sche Substanzen beeinflussen. Ein Großteil dieser Variabilität beruht auf Unterschieden im hepatischen Arzneimittelmetabolismus. Die daran beteiligten Enzyme, Transporter und Rezeptoren sind in die Prozesse der Absorption, der Distribution, des Metabolismus und der Exkretion involviert und werden als ADME-Gengruppe zusammengefasst...

  15. Studies of volatile secondary molasses constituents with inhibitory effect on yeast fermentation. Pt. 1. Determination of molasses and yeast components by GC and HPLC; Untersuchungen ueber fluechtige Nebenbestandteile der Melasse mit inhibitorischer Wirkung auf die Hefegaerung. T. 1. Bestimmung von Melasse- und Hefeinhaltsstoffen mittels GC und HPLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fattohi, N.

    1994-07-20

    Hefegaerung wurden ermittelt. Dabei zeigte sich, dass im Fall der Inhibitorwirkung auf die Gaerung die MHK-Werte sehr hoch liegen; sie werden praktisch von den einzelnen Carbonsaeure- und Alkanolgehalten der Problemmelassen nicht erreicht. Jedoch weisen diese Saeuren und Alkohole deutliche Synergieeffekte auf, was durch Ermittlung der MHK-Werte von Gemischen belegt wurde. Vor allem die Gehalte der Problemmelassen an Buttersaeure + Kaprylsaeure + Hexanol und Heptanol sind fuer die Hemmwirkung bei der Hefegaerung verantwortlich. (orig.)

  16. Optimierung der Osteoporosetherapie - Kombination von Alfacalcidol und Alendronat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dambacher MA

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Osteoporose mit dem primären "Outcome"-Problem der Frakturen ist eine multifaktorielle Erkrankung, charakterisiert durch eine niedere Knochendichte (BMD, eine verminderte Knochenqualität sowie durch neuromuskuläre Defizite und ein dadurch erhöhtes Sturzrisiko. In unseren wachsenden Bestrebungen, die BMD zu erhöhen und die Wirkung mit kontinuierlich verbesserten Techniken zu messen, wurden von den behandelnden Ärzten andere wichtige pathologische Faktoren, wie z. B. die Knochenqualität, oftmals unterbewertet. Die besonders relevanten Faktoren bei älteren Patienten, nämlich die reduzierte Muskelleistung sowie Gleichgewichtsstörungen und das daraus resultierende erhöhte Sturzrisiko, wurde nahezu vollständig vernachlässigt. Die Korrelationen zwischen den Organen Muskel und Knochen, welche eine Einheit bilden, sind erst jetzt wieder im Fokus der modernen Forschung. Die Basis einer zukünftigen, optimalen Therapie zur Prävention der klinisch besonders relevanten, nicht-vertebralen Frakturen ist sowohl die Verbesserung der Knochenfestigkeit als auch die Reduktion von Stürzen. Die Kombination von Alfacalcidol und Alendronat garantiert eine optimale Wirkung auf die Knochenfestigkeit basierend auf den beiden komplett unterschiedlichen und sich ergänzenden Wirkungsmechanismen auf den Knochen. Der Hauptsynergismus liegt in der Tatsache begründet, daß die duale Wirkung von Alfacalcidol auf Knochen und Muskeln die Muskelleistung und die neuromuskuläre Koordination bei älteren osteoporotischen Patienten verbessert, so daß dadurch Stürze und nicht-vertebrale Frakturen vermehrt reduziert werden können.

  17. Killing of salmonella in the biogas process; Abtoetung von Salmonellen im Biogasprozess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froeschle, Bianca; Lebuhn, Michael

    2012-08-15

    Pathogenic Salmonella are used in ordinances as an indicator for assessing microbial reduction in biogas plants and for the epidemic-hygienic condition of digestate. This brochure presents results of a study that examined the hygienic effect of the biogas process on Salmonella. [German] Krankheitserregende Salmonellen werden in relevanten Rechtsverordnungen als Indikator zur Beurteilung der Keimreduzierung in Biogasanlagen und des seuchenhygienischen Zustands von Gaerresten herangezogen. Die vorliegende Broschuere stellt Ergebnisse einer Studie dar, die die hygienisierende Wirkung des Biogasprozesses auf Salmonellen untersuchte.

  18. Analgetische Wirkungen lokalanästhetischer Salbe bei der Kryotherapie von Warzen: eine Meta-analyse randomisierter Studien.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chin-Yu; Tung, Tao-Hsin; Liu, Chia-Yu; Wang, Shu-Hui; Chi, Ching-Chi

    2018-03-01

    Lokalanästhetische Creme (LAC) wird zur Analgesie bei verschiedenen Verfahren angewendet. Ihre analgetische Wirkung bei der Kryotherapie von Warzen ist jedoch unklar. Wir untersuchten die Wirkung von LAC bei der Kryotherapie von Warzen. Wir erstellten eine systematische Übersicht und Meta-analyse randomisierter kontrollierter Studien (RCTs) zu Wirkungen von LAC bei der Kryotherapie von Warzen. Dazu haben wir MEDLINE, CENTRAL und EMBASE am 31. März 2017 nach relevanten RCTs durchsucht. Zwei Autoren wählten unabhängig voneinander die Studien aus, schätzten das Verzerrungsrisiko ab und extrahierten Daten. Meinungsdifferenzen wurden durch Diskussion mit einem dritten Autor gelöst. Wir schlossen drei RCTs mit 228 Teilnehmern ein. Zwei dieser RCTs bergen ein hohes Risiko einer selektiven Berichterstattung (reporting bias), wobei bei einer der beiden Studien auch das Risiko anderer Bias hoch ist. Lokalanästhetische Creme senkte bei Kindern den Schmerz bei der Kryotherapie von Warzen auf verhornter Haut (visuelle Analogskala, mittlere Differenz -20,80; 95 % - Konfidenzintervall -40,71 bis -0,89), jedoch nicht bei Erwachsenen oder auf nicht verhornter Haut von Erwachsenen oder Kindern. Die routinemäßige Verwendung von LAC ≤ 60 min bei der Kryotherapie von Warzen wird nicht durch Literaturbelege gestützt. © 2018 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Regulationsmechanismen der Ausprägung von Chemotypen in Thymian (Thymus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schimmel, Jette

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Das ätherische Öl von Thymianarten hat aufgrund seiner starken antibakteriellen Wirkung vielfältige Anwendungen in der Pharmazie und der Lebensmittelindustrie. Die wertvollsten antibakteriellen Inhaltstoffe des ätherischen Öls, die Monoterpenalkohole Carvacrol und Thymol, werden nur in einigen Kultivaren des Thymians gebildet und unterliegen einer komplizierten genetischen Kontrolle. Wir wollen die Regulation der Terpenproduktion in Thymian mit molekularen Methoden aufklären und die Züchtung von Thymianarten mit genau definiertem Terpengehalt ermöglichen.

  20. Carbohydrates and gibberellins relationship in potato tuberization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ševčíková, H.; Mašková, P.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Mašek, T.; Lipavská, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 214, JUL (2017), s. 53-63 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-34792S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Carbohydrate distribution * Gibberellin * Photoautotrophic cultivation * Potato * Tuberization Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.121, year: 2016

  1. Strömungsmechanische Analyse von Hochgeschwindigkeits-Flüssigmetall Targets mit freien Oberflächen für kerntechnische Anwendungen

    OpenAIRE

    Gordeev, Sergej

    2008-01-01

    Das Ziel dieser Arbeit ist die Bereitstellung validierter Berechnungsverfahren zur Auslegung und Optimierung von Flüssigmetall betriebenen Targets mit freien Oberflächen. Mit Hilfe der beschriebenen Methodik kann die Wirkung spezifischer hydraulischer Effekte auf die Stabilität der freien Oberfläche abgeschätzt werden. Anhand dieser Abschätzungen und der daraus resultierenden Beschränkung des Anwendungsbereiches können geeignete validierte Turbulenzmodelle bestimmt werden.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging. Recent studies on biological effects of static magnetic and high-frequency electromagnetic fields; Magnetresonanztomographie. Neuere Studien zur biologischen Wirkung statischer Magnetfelder und hochfrequenter elektromagnetischer Felder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pophof, B. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Abteilung fuer Wirkungen und Risiken ionisierender und nichtionisierender Strahlung, Oberschleissheim/Neuherberg (Germany); Brix, G. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Abteilung fuer medizinischen und beruflichen Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim/Neuherberg (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    der MRT wurden recherchiert und bewertet. Neue Studien bestaetigen aeltere Arbeiten, die bereits Wirkungen statischer Magnetfelder auf Sinnesorgane und das zentrale Nervensystem, begleitet von Sinneswahrnehmungen, beschrieben haben. Ein neues Ergebnis ist die direkte Wirkung von Lorentz-Kraeften auf Ionenstroeme in den semizirkulaeren Kanaelen des Gleichgewichtsorgans. Aktuelle Untersuchungen zu thermischen Wirkungen hochfrequenter Felder fokussierten auf die Entwicklung anatomisch realistischer Koerpermodelle und eine genauere Simulation von Expositionsszenarien. Starke statische Magnetfelder koennen unangenehme Wahrnehmungen, insbesondere Schwindel, hervorrufen. Darueber hinaus koennen sie die Leistungsfaehigkeit des medizinischen Personals beeinflussen und dadurch potenziell die Patientensicherheit gefaehrden. Vorsorglich sollte sich das medizinische Personal im Feldgradienten langsam bewegen. Hochfrequente elektromagnetische Felder fuehren bei Patienten zur Erwaermung von Geweben und Organen. Dies ist insbesondere bei Patienten mit eingeschraenkter Thermoregulation sowie bei Schwangeren und Neugeborenen zu beruecksichtigen; die Exposition ist in diesen Faellen moeglichst gering zu halten. (orig.)

  3. Numerical simulations on the effect of aerosols on tropospheric chemistry and range of sight; Numerische Simulationen zur Wirkung des Aerosols auf die troposphaerische Chemie und die Sichtweite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemer, N.

    2002-05-01

    In this study the mesoscale KAMM/DRAS model system was extended by an MADE aerosol module with a view to studying tropospheric aerosols in terms of composition and size distribution in the greatest possible detail. In particular, the MADE aerosol module was supplemented by a routine for soot. This routine involves the parameterisation of the ageing process of soot through coagulation of soot particles with soluble particles and condensation of sulphuric acid on the soot particles. This transforms the soot from an external into an internal mixture and changes its hygroscopic properties. Thus extended the model system was used to study two aspects of the effects of aerosols on the physical and chemical environment of the troposphere. The first of these two tasks was to quantify the influence of heterogeneous hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N{sub 2}O{sub 5}) on tropospheric chemistry under summer smog conditions. The second was to study the optical properties of aerosols. The paper shows a way of deriving extinction coefficients from the calculated aerosol distributions. This is then used as a starting point for developing a method for determining range of sight. [German] Das mesoskalige Modellsystem KAMM/DRAIS wird im Rahmen dieser Arbeit um das Aerosolmodul MADE erweitert, um das troposphaerische Aerosol sowohl bezueglich seiner Zusammensetzung als auch bezueglich seiner Groessenverteilung moeglichst detailliert zu behandeln. Insbesondere wird das Aerosolmodul MADE um die Behandlung der Substanz Russ ergaenzt. Hierbei wird der Alterungsprozess von Russ durch Koagulation der Russteilchen mit loeslichen Partikeln und durch Kondensation von Schwefelsaeure auf den Russpartikeln, wodurch der Russ von einer externen in eine interne Mischung uebergeht und seine hygroskopischen Eigenschaften aendert, parametrisiert. Mit dem so erweiterten Modellsystem wird fuer zwei Themenschwerpunkte die Wirkung des Aerosols auf die physikalischen und chemischen Bedingungen in der

  4. The impact of climate change on managed forests in Central Europe; Wirkung von Klimaveraenderungen in mitteleuropaeischen Wirtschaftswaeldern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, M.

    1998-07-01

    The projected change in global climate may have various impacts on forest ecosystems. Changes in the growth of different forest species will also influence the competitive relationships between species, the potential species composition in unmanaged forest and the choice of species in managed forests. While impacts of climate change on physiological processes and the potential natural species composition in forests have been intensively investigated in the last few years, there has been hardly any research on possible consequences in managed forests. (orig.)

  5. The impact of Fukushima on the energy policy in France; Die Wirkung von Fukushima auf die Energiepolitik in Frankreich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerry, Anais

    2012-06-15

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the impact of Fukushima on the energy policy in France under consideration of the following aspects. (1) The direct political reaction on Fukushima; (2) The position of the political parties in France and Fukushima; (3) The reaction of the publicity; (4) The specific measures of the actors of the energy policy in France and Fukushima.

  6. Zur Entstehung, Konzeption und Wirkung des "Don Quijote" in der europäischen Literatur

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer-Minnemann, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Wie kein zweiter Roman zieht der "Don Quijote" von Miguel de Cervantes seit nunmehr vier Jahrhunderten Generationen von Lesern immer wieder neu in seinen Bann. Abgefasst im Spanien des frühen 17. Jahrhunderts, das zu jener Zeit die Geschicke Europas wesentlich mitbestimmte, wurde der Roman bald zum Inbegriff der spanischen Literatur und Kultur. Von Madrid aus hat er auf den Rest Europas ausgestrahlt und Denker, Dichter, Künstler, Komponisten und später auch Filmemacher zur Auseinandersetzung ...

  7. Multivariate analysis of factors influencing the effect of radiosynovectomy; Multivariate Analyse der Einflussfaktoren auf die Wirkung der Radiosynoviorthese bei entzuendlichen Gelenkerkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahati, J.; Schulz, G.; Koerber, C.; Geling, M.; Schmeider, P.; Reiners, Chr. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Wendler, J. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Innere Medizin III; Kenn, W. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik; Reidemeister, C. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Innere Medizin

    2002-04-01

    behandelten Gelenks befragt. Zur Ermittlung der Zeit bis zur Remission diente die Kaplan-Meier-Survivorship-Funktion. Der Einfluss der Prognoseparameter auf die Zeit bis zur Schmerzlinderung wurde mit der multivariaten Diskriminanzanalyse untersucht. Ergebnisse: Die Wahrscheinlichkeit der Schmerzlinderung um mehr als 20% lag nach 6 Monaten bei 78%. Sie war entscheidend vom Alter des Patienten (p = 0,02) und der Erkrankungsdauer (p = 0,05) abhaengig, nicht jedoch von Geschlecht (p = 0,17), Grunderkrankung (p = 0,23) und Gelenktyp (p = 0,69). Schlussfolgerung: Unabhaengig vom Geschlecht, Gelenktyp und der Grunderkrankung kann durch die RSO bei 78% der Patienten mit Synovialitis eine merkliche Schmerzlinderung erreicht werden, wobei die Wirkung mit dem Alter und der Erkrankungsdauer abnimmt. (orig.)

  8. Strigolactone versus gibberellin signaling: reemerging concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Eva-Sophie; López-Salmerón, Vadir; Greb, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    In this review, we compare knowledge about the recently discovered strigolactone signaling pathway and the well established gibberellin signaling pathway to identify gaps of knowledge and putative research directions in strigolactone biology. Communication between and inside cells is integral for the vitality of living organisms. Hormonal signaling cascades form a large part of this communication and an understanding of both their complexity and interactive nature is only beginning to emerge. In plants, the strigolactone (SL) signaling pathway is the most recent addition to the classically acting group of hormones and, although fundamental insights have been made, knowledge about the nature and impact of SL signaling is still cursory. This narrow understanding is in spite of the fact that SLs influence a specific spectrum of processes, which includes shoot branching and root system architecture in response, partly, to environmental stimuli. This makes these hormones ideal tools for understanding the coordination of plant growth processes, mechanisms of long-distance communication and developmental plasticity. Here, we summarize current knowledge about SL signaling and employ the well-characterized gibberellin (GA) signaling pathway as a scaffold to highlight emerging features as well as gaps in our knowledge in this context. GA signaling is particularly suitable for this comparison because both signaling cascades share key features of hormone perception and of immediate downstream events. Therefore, our comparative view demonstrates the possible level of complexity and regulatory interfaces of SL signaling.

  9. Effects of combustion particles - Comparison of health relevance of wood fires and diesel engines; Wirkung von Verbrennungspartikeln. Vergleich der Gesundheitsrelevanz von Holzfeuerungen und Dieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klippel, N.; Nussbaumer, T.

    2007-03-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the relevance of fine-dust particles (PM10, particulate matter smaller than 10 microns) emitted from wood-fired boilers in comparison with soot from diesel engines. Medicinal basics with reference to the particles concerned are explained, including the physiology of the human respiratory system, its defence mechanisms against fine dust as well as detrimental health effects to the nose, lungs and cardio-vascular system. Also, allergic reactions and effects at cell level are discussed. The mechanisms involved in the emission of the particles in ovens and diesel engines are examined and compared. The methods used to take samples of the particles are explained and the results of cell-tests are presented and discussed. Estimates of the particle concentrations in the lung are presented and comparisons are made of loading during smog-periods. The report is rounded off with a comprehensive list of literature on the subject.

  10. Effects of gibberellin mutations on in vitro shoot bud regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hormone in regulating plant growth and development. It is interesting to know the effects of gibberellin and its signalling pathway on plant regeneration. In this report Arabidopsis thaliana landsberg (wild type), ga1-3 (gibberellin biosynthesis deficiency mutant), gai (gibberellin insensitive mutant), penta mutant (lacking GA1, ...

  11. Auxins and gibberellins in embryonic shoots of Scots pine in relation to flower sex differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kulikowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Flower sex differentiation in Scots pine is correlated with endogenous balance of auxins to gibberellins. Male flower primordia initiation is connected with high amounts of gibberellins whereas the initiation of female ones is associated with a high level of auxins and a low content of gibberellins.

  12. Auxins and gibberellins in embryonic shoots of Scots pine in relation to flower sex differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    H. Kulikowska; J. Kopcewicz; Z. Zatorska; T. Szcześniak

    2015-01-01

    Flower sex differentiation in Scots pine is correlated with endogenous balance of auxins to gibberellins. Male flower primordia initiation is connected with high amounts of gibberellins whereas the initiation of female ones is associated with a high level of auxins and a low content of gibberellins.

  13. Gibberellins and gravitropism in maize shoots: endogenous gibberellin-like substances and movement and metabolism of [3]gibberellin A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rood, S.B.; Kaufman, P.B.; Abe, H.; Pharis, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    [ 3 H]Gibberellin A 20 (GA 20 ) of high specific radioactivity was applied equilaterally in a ring of microdrops to the internodal pulvinus of shoots of 3-week-old vertical normal maize (Zea mays L.), and to a pleiogravitropic (prostrate) maize mutant, lazy (la). All plants converted the [ 3 H]GA 1 - and [ 3 H]GA 29 -like metabolites as well as to several metabolites with the partitioning and chromatographic behavior of glucosyl conjugates of [ 3 H]GA 1 [ 3 H]GA 29 , and [ 3 H]GA 8 . The tentative identification of these putative [ 3 H]GA glucosyl conjugates was further supported by the release of the free [ 3 H]GA moiety after cleavage with cellulase. Within 12 hours of the [ 3 H]GA 20 feed, there was a significantly higher proportion of total radioactivity in lower than in upper halves of internode and leaf sheaf pulvini in gravistimulated normal maize. Further, there was a significantly higher proportion of putative free GA metabolites of [ 3 H]GA 20 , especially [ 3 H] GA 1 , in the lower halves of normal maize relative to upper halves. The differential localization of the metabolites between upper and lower halves was not apparent in the pleiogravitropic mutant, la. Endogenous GA-like substances were also examined in gravistimulated maize shoots. Forty-eight hours after gravistimulation of 3-week-old maize seedlings, endogenous free GA-like substances in upper and lower leaf sheath and internode pulvini halves were extracted, chromatographed, and bioassayed using the Tanginbozu dwarf rice microdroassay. Lower halves contained higher total levels of GA-like activity

  14. Endophytic fungi: resource for gibberellins and crop abiotic stress resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Hussain, Javid; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al-Rawahi, Ahmed; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-03-01

    The beneficial effects of endophytes on plant growth are important for agricultural ecosystems because they reduce the need for fertilizers and decrease soil and water pollution while compensating for environmental perturbations. Endophytic fungi are a novel source of bioactive secondary metabolites; moreover, recently they have been found to produce physiologically active gibberellins as well. The symbiosis of gibberellins producing endophytic fungi with crops can be a promising strategy to overcome the adverse effects of abiotic stresses. The association of such endophytes has not only increased plant biomass but also ameliorated plant-growth during extreme environmental conditions. Endophytic fungi represent a trove of unexplored biodiversity and a frequently overlooked component of crop ecology. The present review describes the role of gibberellins producing endophytic fungi, suggests putative mechanisms involved in plant endophyte stress interactions and discusses future prospects in this field.

  15. von Neumann Morgenstern Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems......von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems...

  16. von Neumann Morgenstern Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    2000-01-01

    von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems......von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems...

  17. Gibberellins – terpenoid plant hormones: Biological importance and chemical analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urbanová, Terezie; Tarkowská, Danuše; Strnad, Miroslav; Hedden, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 12 (2011), s. 1669-1686 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801; GA MŠk ED0007/01/01 Keywords : Gibberellins * Biosynthesis * Signaling * Profiling * Extraction * Purification * Mass spectrometry * Liquid chromatography Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.283, year: 2011

  18. Interplay between cytochrome c and gibberellins during Arabidopsis vegetative development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Racca, S.; Welchen, E.; Gras, D. E.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Turečková, Veronika; Maurino, V. G.; Gonzalez, D. H.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 1 (2018), s. 105-121 ISSN 0960-7412 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Arabidopsis thaliana * cytochrome c * DELLA protein * gibberellin * mitochondrion Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 5.901, year: 2016

  19. Regulation effects of exogenous gibberellin acid (GA 3 ) on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To fully understand the regulation effects of gibberellin on tomato (Solanum Lycoperscium) ovary locule formation and the fasciated transcription, two varieties: multi-locule 'MLK1' and few- locule 'FL1' which were highly different in locule number and fasciated transcriptional levels, were used in this study. By spraying GA3 ...

  20. Opposing effects of external gibberellin and Daminozide on Stevia growth and metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mojtaba; Hashemi, Javad; Ahmadi, Ali; Abbasi, Alireza; Pompeiano, Antonio; Tavarini, Silvia; Guglielminetti, Lorenzo; Angelini, Luciana G

    2015-01-01

    Steviol glycosides (SVglys) and gibberellins are originated from the shared biosynthesis pathway in Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni). In this research, two experiments were conducted to study the opposing effects of external gibberellin (GA3) and Daminozide (a gibberellin inhibitor) on Stevia growth and metabolites. Results showed that GA3 significantly increased the stem length and stem dry weight in Stevia. Total soluble sugar content increased while the SVglys biosynthesis was decreased by external GA3 applying in Stevia leaves. In another experiment, the stem length was reduced by Daminozide spraying on Stevia shoots. The Daminozide did not affect the total SVglys content, while in 30 ppm concentration, significantly increased the soluble sugar production in Stevia leaves. Although the gibberellins biosynthesis pathway has previously invigorated in Stevia leaf, the Stevia response to external gibberellins implying on high precision regulation of gibberellins biosynthesis in Stevia and announces that Stevia is able to kept endogenous gibberellins in a low quantity away from SVglys production. Moreover, the assumption that the internal gibberellins were destroyed by Daminozide, lack of Daminozide effects on SVglys production suggests that gibberellins biosynthesis could not act as a competitive factor for SVglys production in Stevia leaves.

  1. Gibberellin mediates the development of gelatinous fibres in the tension wood of inclined Acacia mangium seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Widyanto Dwi; Nakaba, Satoshi; Yamagishi, Yusuke; Begum, Shahanara; Marsoem, Sri Nugroho; Ko, Jae-Heung; Jin, Hyun-O; Funada, Ryo

    2013-11-01

    Gibberellin stimulates negative gravitropism and the formation of tension wood in tilted Acacia mangium seedlings, while inhibitors of gibberellin synthesis strongly inhibit the return to vertical growth and suppress the formation of tension wood. To characterize the role of gibberellin in tension wood formation and gravitropism, this study investigated the role of gibberellin in the development of gelatinous fibres and in the changes in anatomical characteristics of woody elements in Acacia mangium seedlings exposed to a gravitational stimulus. Gibberellin, paclobutrazol and uniconazole-P were applied to the soil in which seedlings were growing, using distilled water as the control. Three days after the start of treatment, seedlings were inclined at 45 ° to the vertical and samples were harvested 2 months later. The effects of the treatments on wood fibres, vessel elements and ray parenchyma cells were analysed in tension wood in the upper part of inclined stems and in the opposite wood on the lower side of inclined stems. Application of paclobutrazol or uniconazole-P inhibited the increase in the thickness of gelatinous layers and prevented the elongation of gelatinous fibres in the tension wood of inclined stems. By contrast, gibberellin stimulated the elongation of these fibres. Application of gibberellin and inhibitors of gibberellin biosynthesis had only minor effects on the anatomical characteristics of vessel and ray parenchyma cells. The results suggest that gibberellin is important for the development of gelatinous fibres in the tension wood of A. mangium seedlings and therefore in gravitropism.

  2. Exposure to red light, temperature and exogenous gibberellins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Red light, temperature and gibberellins are well known for their capacity to induce higher germination in dormant seeds of several plant species. In the current study, we investigated the effect of various temperature (10, 13, 16, 19, 22 and 25°C) and gibberellic acid (GA3) and GA4+7 concentrations (0.1, 1, 10, and 100 uM) ...

  3. Rheologie von Beschichtungen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäffler, Michael

    Die Rheologie beschreibt die Fließ- und Deformationseigenschaften von Materialien. Der Begriff Rheologie ist aus dem Griechischen abgeleitet: rhein - fließen. Erst im Jahre 1930 entwickelte E.C. Bingham und M. Reiner in Easton (USA) die Rheologie zu einer eigenständigen Wissenschaft. Aber bereits seit dem 17. Jahrhundert wurden wesentliche Einzelbeiträge zu Fließphänomenen veröffentlich, so z.B. 1676 von R. Hooke (Hookesches Gesetz) und 1687 von I. Newton (Newtonsches Gesetz). Die Rheologie hat sich bis heute immer mehr zu einer interdisziplinären Wissenschaft entwickelt, die die mechanischen Eigenschaften von Materialien charakterisiert.

  4. Gibberellin biosynthesis in cell-free extracts from developing Cucurbita maxima embryos and the identification of new endogenous gibberellins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, T; Hedden, P; Graebe, J E

    1993-03-01

    Gibberellin (GA) biosynthetic pathways from GA12-aldehyde, GA12 and GA53 were investigated in cell-free systems from developing embryos of Cucurbita maxima L. Gibberellin A12-aldehyde and GA12 were converted to GA25, putative 12α-hydroxyGA25, GA13 and GA39 as main products. Minor products were GA4, GA34 and, when GA12 was the substrate, putative 12α-hydroxyGA12. The intermediates GA15 and GA24 accumulated at low protein concentrations. The influence of various factors on GA12 metabolism was examined. At low 2-oxoglutarate and ascorbate concentrations, or at acid pH, 3β-hydroxylated products predominated, whereas with increasing 2-oxoglutarate and ascorbate concentrations, or at neutral pH, the yield of 12α-hydroxylated GAs increased. Gibberellin A53 was metabolised mainly to the C20-GAs GA44, GA19, GA17, GA23 and GA28, with the C19-GAs GA20, GA1 and GA8 as minor products. Only C19-GAs were 2β-hydroxylated, which is a main characteristic of the embryo systems. In addition to GA13, GA25, GA39, GA43, GA49, GA58, GA74, 12α-hydroxyGA25 and GA39 3-isovalerate, which were known previously from embryos of C. maxima, GA1, GA4, GA17, GA28, GA37, GA38, GA48, GA85, 12α-hydroxyGA37 and putative 12α-hydroxyGA43 were identified as endogenous components by full-scan capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and Kovats retention indices. Evidence for putative 2β-hydroxyGA28 and GA23 was also obtained but it was less conclusive because of contamination.

  5. Effects of auxin transport inhibitors on gibberellins in pea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of the auxin transport inhibitors 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), 9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylic acid (HFCA), and 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) on gibberellins (GAs) in the garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) were studied. Application of these compounds to elongating internodes of intact wild type plants reduced markedly the endogenous level of the bioactive gibberellin A1. (GA1) below the application site. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels were also reduced, as was internode elongation. The auxin transport inhibitors did not affect the level of endogenous GA1 above the application site markedly, nor that of GA1 precursors above or below it. When plants were treated with [13C,3H]GA20, TIBA reduced dramatically the level of [13C,3H]GA1 recovered below the TIBA application site. The internodes treated with auxin transport inhibitors appeared to be still in the phase where endogenous GA1 affects elongation, as indicated by the strong response to applied GA1 by internodes of a GA1-deficient line at the same stage of expansion. On the basis of the present results it is suggested that caution be exercised when attributing the developmental effects of auxin transport inhibitors to changes in IAA level alone

  6. Von Triers kristendom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Leif

    2009-01-01

    Lars von Trier er i hans film Antichrist i sin negation af kristendommen stærkt bundet til kristendommens dualistiske verdensbillede. Samtidig er filmen kvindefjendsk. Udgivelsesdato: 2. september......Lars von Trier er i hans film Antichrist i sin negation af kristendommen stærkt bundet til kristendommens dualistiske verdensbillede. Samtidig er filmen kvindefjendsk. Udgivelsesdato: 2. september...

  7. Chemical screening and development of novel gibberellin mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kai; Shimotakahara, Hiroaki; Luo, Ming; Otani, Masato; Nakamura, Hidemitsu; Moselhy, Said Salama; Abualnaja, Khalid Omer; Al-Malki, Abdulrahman Labeed; Kumosani, Taha Abduallah; Kitahata, Nobutaka; Nakano, Takeshi; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Asami, Tadao

    2017-08-15

    Gibberellin (GA) plays versatile roles in the regulation of plant growth and development and therefore is widely used as a regulator in agriculture. We performed a chemical library screening and identified a chemical, named 67D, as a stimulator of seed germination that was suppressed by paclobutrazol (PAC), a GA biosynthesis inhibitor. In vitro binding assays indicated that 67D binds to the GID1 receptor. Further studies on the structure-activity relationship identified a chemical, named chemical 6, that strongly promoted seed germination suppressed by PAC. Chemical 6 was further confirmed to promote the degradation of RGA (for repressor of ga1-3), a DELLA protein, and suppress the expression levels of GA3ox1 in the same manner as GA does. 67D and its analogs are supposed to be agonists of GID1 and are expected to be utilized in agriculture and basic research as an alternative to GA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular biology of gibberellins signaling in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Hironori; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2008-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs), a large family of tetracyclic, diterpenoid plant hormones, play an important role in regulating diverse processes throughout plant development. In recent years, significant advances have been made in the isolation of GA signaling components and GA-responsive genes. All available data have indicated that DELLA proteins are an essential negative regulator in the GA signaling pathway and GA derepresses DELLA-mediated growth suppression by inducing degradation of DELLA proteins through the ubiquitin-26S proteasome proteolytic pathway. Identification of GID1, a gene encoding an unknown protein with similarity to hormone-sensitive lipases, has revealed that GID1 acts as a functional GA receptor with a reasonable binding affinity to biologically active GAs. Furthermore, the GID1 receptor interacts with DELLA proteins in a GA-dependent manner. These results suggest that formation of a GID1-GA-DELLA protein complex targets DELLA protein into the ubiquitin-26S proteasome pathway for degradation.

  9. Studies of the mechanism of removal of nitric oxides in plasma reactors. Final report; Laserdiagnostische und plasmatechnologische Grundlagen zur Verminderung von Emissionen und Kraftstoffverbrauch bei DI-Verbrennungsmotoren. Teilvorhaben: Untersuchung der Abbaumechanismen von Stickoxiden in Plasmareaktoren. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miessner, H.; Leonhardt, J.

    2000-09-01

    The oxidative potential of a cold plasma in off-gases from engines with oxygen excess results in an effective conversion of NO to NO{sub 2}, that can be converted synergetically to molecular nitrogen with appropriate catalysts in a selective catalystic reduction (SCR) of NOx, both with NH{sub 3} and hydrocarbons. The combination of SCR and cold plasma enhances the overall reaction and allows an effective removal of NOx at relatively low temperatures. Without any reductive material, the plasmacatalytic abatement of NOx in excess oxygen containing off-gases is not satisfying. The analysis of the isotopic distribution in the reaction products using labelled compounds as starting materials allows conclusions regarding the mechanism of the removal as well as of the new formation of NOx. Also the production of undesired byproducts can be analysed in detail. (orig.) [German] Die oxidative Wirkung des kalten Plasmas in einem Motorengas mit Sauerstoffueberschuss fuehrt zu einer effektiven Umwandlung des NO zu NO{sub 2}, das in synergetischer Weise mit geeigneten Katalysatoren in einer selektiven katalytischen Reduktion (SCR) sowohl mit NH{sub 3} als auch mit Kohlenwasserstoffen zu molekularem Stickstoff abgebaut werden kann. Die Kombination von SCR und kaltem Plasma beschleunigt die Gesamtreaktion und ermoeglicht einen effektiven Abbau von NOx bei vergleichsweise geringen Temperaturen. Ohne zusaetzliche Reduktionsmittel ist der plasmakatalytische Abbau von NOx in O{sub 2}-haltigen Abgasen unbefriedigend. Die Analyse der Isotopenverteilung in den Reaktionsprodukten gestattet beim Einsatz markierter Ausgangsverbindungen Rueckschluesse auf den Mechanismus des Abbaus und ggf. auch der Neubildung von NOx sowie der Bildung von unerwuenschten Nebenprodukten. (orig.)

  10. Carl von Clausewitz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højrup, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Forskningsbaseret præsentation af Carl von Clausewitz' krigsteori og dens betydning for statsbegrebet og udviklingen af teori om statsdannelse og statssystem. Krigsbegrebets betydning for politikbegrebet ekspliciteres, og de indre relationer imellem de to begreber demonstreres med konkrete eksemp...

  11. Ellis Von Creveld Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshar H

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available One patient with Ellis Von Creveld syndrome contains: dwarfism, congenital heart"ndisease, ectodermal dysplasia, polyductyly, an abnormally wide labial frenum and maxillary"nmolars with single root.

  12. Evidence for the Translocation of Gibberellin A_3 and Gibberellin-Like Substances in Grafts between Normal, Dwarf_1 and Dwarf_5 Seedlings of Zea mays L.

    OpenAIRE

    M., Katsumi; D.E., Foard; B.O., Phinney; Biology Department, International Christian University; Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University; Department of Biology, University of California

    1983-01-01

    Approach grafts were made between the cut surfaces of mesocotyls from normal and dwarf seedlings of Zea mays L. (maize). The dwarfs were the non-allelic single gene gibberellin mutants, dwarf_1 and dwarf_5. The graft combinations were normal-normal, normal-dwarf_1, normal-dwarf_5, dwarf_1-dwarf_1, dwarf_5-dwarf_5, and dwarf_1-dwarf_5. The grafts were used to demonstrate the movement of gibberellin-like substances across the union. GA_3, added to one member of the graft, resulted in leaf-sheat...

  13. Lars von Triers film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lisbeth Overgaard

    2007-01-01

    Afhandlingen undersøger Lars von Triers filmæstetik, som den kommer til udtryk i spillefilmene fra perioden 1984-2007. Afhandlingen analyserer de enkelte films stil, virkningsstrategi og betydningsdannelse.......Afhandlingen undersøger Lars von Triers filmæstetik, som den kommer til udtryk i spillefilmene fra perioden 1984-2007. Afhandlingen analyserer de enkelte films stil, virkningsstrategi og betydningsdannelse....

  14. Influence of the operating modes of wood-fired stoves on particle emissions; Einfluss der Betriebsweise auf die Partikelemissionen von Holzoefen. Projektzusatz 1+2 zum Projekt Wirkung von Verbrennungspartikeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klippel, N.; Nussbaumer, T.

    2007-03-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the influence of the operating characteristics of wood-fired stoves on their particle emissions. Four types of stove are compared: A metal stove with small combustion chamber and a low mass of ceramic lining, a stove with a large combustion chamber and heavier ceramic lining, a newly designed stove with two-stage combustion using gasification and gas oxidation in a separate combustion chamber using secondary air and a modern pellet-fired stove operated with wood and straw pellets. The report describes the measurement programme and presents the results obtained using gravimetric measurements. The spectrum of particle emissions measured for the four types of stove are presented and discussed. The correlation of carbon monoxide and fine-dust emissions is examined. The results of biological tests and the chemical analysis of the dust are discussed.

  15. Lars von Triers filmterapeutiske laboratorium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Erik Exe

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer det parataktiske som dramaturgisk princip i forhold til Lars von Triers film.......Artiklen diskuterer det parataktiske som dramaturgisk princip i forhold til Lars von Triers film....

  16. Plant hormones in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses: an emerging role for gibberellins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Eloise; Ross, John J.; Jones, William T.; Reid, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses are important for nutrient acquisition in >80 % of terrestrial plants. Recently there have been major breakthroughs in understanding the signals that regulate colonization by the fungus, but the roles of the known plant hormones are still emerging. Here our understanding of the roles of abscisic acid, ethylene, auxin, strigolactones, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid is discussed, and the roles of gibberellins and brassinosteroids examined. Methods Pea mutants deficient in gibberellins, DELLA proteins and brassinosteroids are used to determine whether fungal colonization is altered by the level of these hormones or signalling compounds. Expression of genes activated during mycorrhizal colonization is also monitored. Key Results Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of pea roots is substantially increased in gibberellin-deficient na-1 mutants compared with wild-type plants. This is reversed by application of GA3. Mutant la cry-s, which lacks gibberellin signalling DELLA proteins, shows reduced colonization. These changes were parallelled by changes in the expression of genes associated with mycorrhizal colonization. The brassinosteroid-deficient lkb mutant showed no change in colonization. Conclusions Biologically active gibberellins suppress arbuscule formation in pea roots, and DELLA proteins are essential for this response, indicating that this role occurs within the root cells. PMID:23508650

  17. Functional analysis of synthetic DELLA domain peptides and bioactive gibberellin assay using surface plasmon resonance technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhuoya; Xing, Zenan; Zhou, Min; Chen, Yi; Li, Chenzhong; Wang, Ruozhong; Xu, Wenzhong; Ma, Mi

    2015-11-01

    DELLA proteins and phytohormone gibberellin act together to control convergence point of plant development. A gibberellin-bound nuclear receptor that interacts with the N-terminal domain of DELLA proteins is required for gibberellin induced degradation of DELLA proteins. N-terminal DELLA domain includes two conserved motifs: DELLA and VHYNP. However, their respective functions remain unclear. Meanwhile, the identification and detection of several bioactive gibberellins from the more than 100 gibberellin metabolites are overwhelmingly difficult for their similar structures. Using in vitro biochemical approach, our work demonstrates for the first time that the synthetic GAI N-terminal DELLA domain peptides have similar bioactive function as the expressed protein to interact with AtGID1a receptor. Furthermore, our results reveal that DELLA motif is vitally important region and DELLA segment is essentially required region to recognize AtGID1a receptor. Finally, based on bioactive GA-dependent of the interaction between AtGID1a and DELLA protein, we generated a new method that could identify and detect bioactive GAs accurately and rapidly with surface plasmon resonance assays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. GROWTH RETARDANTS: Effects on Gibberellin Biosynthesis and Other Metabolic Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademacher, Wilhelm

    2000-06-01

    Plant growth retardants are applied in agronomic and horticultural crops to reduce unwanted longitudinal shoot growth without lowering plant productivity. Most growth retardants act by inhibiting gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis. To date, four different types of such inhibitors are known: (a) Onium compounds, such as chlormequat chloride, mepiquat chloride, chlorphonium, and AMO-1618, which block the cyclases copalyl-diphosphate synthase and ent-kaurene synthase involved in the early steps of GA metabolism. (b) Compounds with an N-containing heterocycle, e.g. ancymidol, flurprimidol, tetcyclacis, paclobutrazol, uniconazole-P, and inabenfide. These retardants block cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases, thereby inhibiting oxidation of ent-kaurene into ent-kaurenoic acid. (c) Structural mimics of 2-oxoglutaric acid, which is the co-substrate of dioxygenases that catalyze late steps of GA formation. Acylcyclohexanediones, e.g. prohexadione-Ca and trinexapac-ethyl and daminozide, block particularly 3ss-hydroxylation, thereby inhibiting the formation of highly active GAs from inactive precursors, and (d) 16,17-Dihydro-GA5 and related structures act most likely by mimicking the GA precursor substrate of the same dioxygenases. Enzymes, similar to the ones involved in GA biosynthesis, are also of importance in the formation of abscisic acid, ethylene, sterols, flavonoids, and other plant constituents. Changes in the levels of these compounds found after treatment with growth retardants can mostly be explained by side activities on such enzymes.

  19. Adventitious staminate flower formation in gibberellin treated gynoecious cucumber plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, E.; Atsmon, D.; Halevy, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    Single gibberellin (A sub(4 + 7)) treatments induced the appearance of staminate floral buds in several consecutive nodes on the main stem of genetically female cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). The staminate buds appeared next to pistillate buds which showed various degrees of degeneration. Similarly, repeated GA treatments induced the appearance of staminate flowers in otherwise strictly hermaphrodite plants, next to bisexual flowers. However, the bisexual buds, unlike the pistillate ones, did not show any deleterious effects of the GA treatment. Therefore, it is inferred that the hormonally induced staminate buds did not develop by sexual reversion of would-be pistillate or bisexual buds, but rather, represent adventitious buds which, in normally grown female or hermaphrodite plants, never develop. It thus seems that predetermined pistillate or bisexual buds do not change into staminate ones, while change in the reverse direction has been demonstrated in the past (at least for the gynoecious ones). The effectiveness of the GA treatment in the gynoecious plants showed an acropetal gradient both within the affected region, as well as along the main stem. Autoradiographic histological examinations showed that the course of development of the induced staminate floral bud did not differ from that of normally developing buds. (auth.)

  20. Thermoinductive regulation of gibberellin metabolism in Thlaspi arvense L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazebroek, J.P.; Metzger, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) is a winter annual crucifer with a cold requirement for stem elongation and flowering. In the present study, the metabolism of exogenous [ 2 H]-ent-kaurenoic acid (KA) and [ 14 C]-gibberellin A 12 -aldehyde (GA 12 -aldehyde) was compared in thermo- and noninduced plants. Thermoinduction greatly altered both quantitative and qualitative aspects of [ 2 H]-KA metabolism in the shoot tips. The rate of disappearance of the parent compound was much greater in thermoinduced shoot tips. These results are consistent with the suggestion that the conversion of KA in to GAs is under thermoinductive control only in the shoot tip, the site of perception for thermoinductive temperatures in field pennycress. There were essentially no differences in the qualitative or quantitative distribution of metabolites formed following the application of [ 14 C]GA 12 -aldehyde to the shoot tips of thermo- or noninduced plants. Thus, the apparent thermoinductive regulation of the KA metabolism into GAs is probably limited to the two metabolic steps involved in converting KA to GA 12 -aldehyde

  1. Potenzial von Fahrgemeinschaften

    OpenAIRE

    Mühlethaler, Franz; Axhausen, Kay W.; Ciari, Francesco; Tschannen-Süess, Monika; Gertsch-Jossi, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    Wenn eine Person für eine Fahrt, welche sie ohnehin durchführt, in ihrem Auto andere Personen mitnimmt, dann spricht man von einer Fahrgemeinschaft oder im englischen Sprachgebrauch von Car Pooling. Die Idee, diese Mobilitätsform durch Vermittlung ge- zielt zu fördern, stammt aus der Zeit des „Ölschocks“ in den Siebzigerjahren des letzten Jahrhunderts und wurde seither in vielen Ländern auf unterschiedliche Art verfolgt. Trotz einigen Erfolgen bleibt der Eindruck, dass Car Pooling sein vorhan...

  2. Changes in endogenous gibberellin-like substances in onion bulbs (Allium cepa L. cv. Sochaczewska during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Kielak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Onions cv. Sochaczewska were dried up under an umbrella roof till October 15th or till November 15th and thereafter stored in a cold room at 0-1°C until May 15th. During 4-year of experiment gibberellin activity was determined each month during storage. Three periods of high activity of gibberellins were found in most cases: in December, in February-March and in late spring. In general, onions dried longer (till November 15th, showed lower gibberellin activity than onions dried shorter. Gibberellin-like substances under investigation are localized in almost all Rf zones of chromatogram. Sprouting and rooting was related to gibberellin activity.

  3. Gibberellins and Seed Development in Maize. I. Evidence That Gibberellin/Abscisic Acid Balance Governs Germination versus Maturation Pathways1

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Constance N.; Proebsting, William M.; Hedden, Peter; Rivin, Carol J.

    2000-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is required for the regulation of seed maturation in maize (Zea mays L.). Mutants blocked in ABA synthesis (such as viviparous-5) do not mature to quiescent, desiccation-tolerant seeds, but germinate on the ear midway through kernel development. Because gibberellins (GA) and ABA act antagonistically in many aspects of plant development, we hypothesized that ABA antagonizes a positive GA signal for precocious germination in maize. In these experiments, we show that a GA deficiency early in seed development, induced genetically or via biosynthesis inhibitors, suppresses vivipary in ABA-deficient developing kernels. The resulting seeds have both desiccation tolerance and storage longevity. Temporal analysis of GA accumulation in wild-type kernels revealed the accumulation of bioactive GA1 and GA3 prior to the peak in ABA content. We speculate that these GAs stimulate a developmental program leading to vivipary in the absence of normal amounts of ABA, and that a reduction of GA content re-establishes an ABA/GA ratio appropriate for suppression of germination and induction of maturation. In contrast, the induction of a GA deficiency did not suppress vivipary in viviparous-1 mutant kernels, suggesting that VP1 acts downstream of both GA and ABA in programming seed development. PMID:10759503

  4. Biologischer Anbau von Strauchbeeren

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Andi

    2004-01-01

    Das Merkblatt enthält auf Österreich angepasste, praxisnahe Informationen zur Produktion von hochwertigen Strauchbeeren wie Himbeeren, Brombeeren, Johannisbeeren, Stachelbeeren und Heidelbeeren. Weiterhin: übersichtliche Hinweise zur Planung, Standortwahl, Sortenauswahl, Bodenvorbereitung und Pflanzung, Bewässerung, Nährstoffversorgung, Witterungsschutz, Beikrautregulierung, Ernte und Lagerung. (Diese Publikation enthält spezifische Informationen für Österreich)

  5. Rhizostomeen von Manila

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiasny, G.

    1924-01-01

    Die hier beschriebene kleine Scyphomedusen-Sammlung wurde von Herrn Director P. B. Sivickis, Dept. of Zoology, University of Philippines, Manila, dem Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie in Leiden überwiesen. Das Material wurde im December 1922 in Manila-bay gefischt und befindet sich in bestem

  6. Energetische Verwertung von Biomasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoransky, Richard; Allelein, Hans-Josef; Bollin, Elmar; Oehler, Helmut; Schelling, Udo

    Etwa 0,1% der Solarenergie wandeln sich durch Photosynthese aus dem Kohlendioxid der Luft in Biomasse um. Die Biomassen sind als Festbrennstoff nutzbar oder zu gasförmigen Brennstoffen weiterverarbeitbar. Zwei Arten von Biomassen sind zu unterscheiden: Anfallende Biomasse

  7. Justus Freiherr von Liebig

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 8. Justus Freiherr von Liebig. Gopalpur Nagendrappa. General Article Volume 18 Issue 8 August 2013 pp 691-711. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/018/08/0691-0711. Keywords.

  8. Justus Freiherr von Liebig

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    He is currently in Jain Univer- sity, Bangalore. He continues to teach and do research. His work is in the area of organosilicon chemistry, synthetic and ... always openly for truth, who is recognised as supreme not only in his own field, but in the whole realm of thought. Justus von Liebig is his name”. These were the words by ...

  9. Investigations of time-dependent water pollution effects of overburden dumps - partial project 1. Final report; Untersuchungen gewaesserrelevanter Einfluesse von Bergbauhalden in Abhaengigkeit von der Standzeit - Teilprojekt 1. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuge, P.; Dunger, C.; Mibus, J.; Starke, R.

    1998-02-01

    Management of overburden dumps necessitates careful stocktaking and precise definitions of pollutant emissions so that, if necessary, conclusions can be drawn concerning sanitation concepts in consideration of emission limits and environmental balances. In view of the large number of overburden dumps in Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia caused the authors to restrict their investigations to ore mines and to select elements characteristic of the worked deposits and their potential environmental effects. The following problems were investigated: Are overburden dumps significant emitters of elements at all? Which elements are emitted in what concentrations, in what form and up to what distance from the dump? Are there really different patterns for gangue and impregnation types? How big is the real reaction space of the dump? Should the whole dump be assumed to be a reservoir of elements for emission or just parts of it? What are the factors that most strongly influence element mobilisation and/or retention? What measures should be recommended for emission reduction or prevention from the aspects of necessity, economic efficiency and long-term stability? (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Es ergibt sich fuer den Umgang mit Halden die Notwendigkeit einer gruendlichen Bilanzierung und schaerferen Definition von Schadstoffemission aus ihnen, um daraus Konsequenzen fuer eventuell erforderliche Sanierungskonzeptionen unter Beruecksichtigung von Grenzwerteinhaltung und Umweltbilanz abzuleiten. Der Umfang der einzelnen Fragestellungen und die Bedeutung der Halden in Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt und Thueringen sowie Anzahl und ihr Inhalt fuehrte zur Beschraenkung auf den Erzbergbau und auf die Kontrolle ausgewaehlter Elemente, die fuer den jeweils abgebauten Lagerstaetteninhalt charakteristisch und fuer die Wirkung auf die Umwelt von Bedeutung sind. Folgende konkrete Fragestellungen sollen verfolgt werden: - Sind Halden ueberhaupt nennenswerte Emittenten von Elementen? - Welche Elemente werden

  10. Photocontrol of gibberellin metabolism in situ in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rood, S.B.; Beall, F.D.; Pharis, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    Mature maize seeds were labeled with 10 to 100 pg per seed of [ 3 H] gibberellins (GA) and [ 3 H]GA glucosyl conjugate-like substances by feeding [ 3 H]GA 20 of high specific activity (2.3 Curies per millimole) during seed maturation. The dry seeds, which contained 14% [ 3 H]GA 20 , 7% putative [ 3 H]GA 1 and 78% [ 3 H]GA glucosyl conjugate-like metabolites, were imbibed and germinated in the dark and under incandescent light. In both light and dark the proportion of [ 3 H]GA conjugate-like metabolities declined (relative to that in the mature dry seeds) during imbibition and up to germination at hour 36. This decline was accompanied by increases in the proportions of [ 3 H]GA 20 and putative [ 3 H]GA 1 thereby indicating hydrolysis, which was greater in the dark than in the light. The proportions of [ 3 H]GA conjugate-like substances in light-grown germinants were higher (121 and 141% of dark-grown) at 24 and 48 hour harvests and this statistically significant pattern was sustained up to 120 hours after imbibition. Conversely, the proportions of [ 3 H]GA 20 and putative [ 3 H]GA 1 were lower in the light-grown seedlings. Thus, during imbibition, hydrolysis (de-conjugation) of [ 3 H]GA glucosyl conjugate-like substances apparently occurred, and occurred more rapidly in the dark than in the light. Subsequently, during germination the reformation of [ 3 H]GA conjugate-like substances was less rapid in the dark than in the light

  11. A mutant gene that increases gibberellin production in Brassica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rood, S.B.; Williams, P.H.; Pearce, D.; Pharis, R.P.; Murofushi, Noboru; Mander, L.N.

    1990-01-01

    A single gene mutant (elongated internode [ein/ein]) with accelerated shoot elongation was identified from a rapid cycling line of Brassica rapa. Relative to normal plants, mutant plants had slightly accelerated floral development, greater stem dry weights, and particularly, increased internode and inflorescence elongation. The application of the triazole plant growth retardant, paclobutrazol, inhibited shoot elongation, returning ein to a more normal phenotype. Conversely, exogenous gibberellin A 3 (GA 3 ) can convert normal genotypes to a phenotype resembling ein. The content of endogenous GA 1 and GA 3 were estimated by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring using [ 2 H]GA 1 as a quantitative internal standard and at day 14 were 1.5- and 12.1-fold higher per stem, respectively, in ein than in normal plants, although GA concentrations were more similar. The endogenous levels of GA 20 and GA 1 , and the rate of GA 19 metabolism were simultaneously analyzed. Levels of GA 1 and GA 20 were 4.6- and 12.9-fold higher, respectively, and conversions to GA 20 and GA 1 were 8.3 and 1.3 times faster in ein than normal plants. Confirming the enhanced rate of GA 1 biosynthesis in ein, the conversion of [ 3 H]GA 20 to [ 3 H] GA 1 was also faster in ein than in the normal genotype. Thus, the ein allele results in accelerated GA 1 biosynthesis and an elevated content of endogenous GAs, including the dihydroxylated GAs A 1 and A 3

  12. Expression Studies of Gibberellin Oxidases in Developing Pumpkin Seeds1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisse, Andrea; Pimenta, Maria João; Lange, Theo

    2003-01-01

    Two cDNA clones, 3-ox and 2-ox, have been isolated from developing pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) embryos that show significant amino acid homology to gibberellin (GA) 3-oxidases and 2-oxidases, respectively. Recombinant fusion protein of clone 3-ox converted GA12-aldehyde, GA12, GA15, GA24, GA25, and GA9 to GA14-aldehyde, GA14, GA37, GA36, GA13, and GA4, respectively. Recombinant 2-ox protein oxidized GA9, GA4, and GA1 to GA51, GA34, and GA8, respectively. Previously cloned GA 7-oxidase revealed additional 3β-hydroxylation activity of GA12. Transcripts of this gene were identified in endosperm and embryo of the developing seed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and localized in protoderm, root apical meristem, and quiescent center by in situ hybridization. mRNA of the previously cloned GA 20-oxidase from pumpkin seeds was localized in endosperm and in tissues of protoderm, ground meristem, and cotyledons of the embryo. However, transcripts of the recently cloned GA 20-oxidase from pumpkin seedlings were found all over the embryo, and in tissues of the inner seed coat at the micropylar end. Previously cloned GA 2β,3β-hydroxylase mRNA molecules were specifically identified in endosperm tissue. Finally, mRNA molecules of the 3-ox and 2-ox genes were found in the embryo only. 3-ox transcripts were localized in tissues of cotyledons, protoderm, and inner cell layers of the root apical meristem, and 2-ox transcripts were found in all tissues of the embryo except the root tips. These results indicate tissue-specific GA-biosynthetic pathways operating within the developing seed. PMID:12644672

  13. Evolutionary rate patterns of the Gibberellin pathway genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Fu-min

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of molecular evolutionary patterns of different genes within metabolic pathways allows us to determine whether these genes are subject to equivalent evolutionary forces and how natural selection shapes the evolution of proteins in an interacting system. Although previous studies found that upstream genes in the pathway evolved more slowly than downstream genes, the correlation between evolutionary rate and position of the genes in metabolic pathways as well as its implications in molecular evolution are still less understood. Results We sequenced and characterized 7 core structural genes of the gibberellin biosynthetic pathway from 8 representative species of the rice tribe (Oryzeae to address alternative hypotheses regarding evolutionary rates and patterns of metabolic pathway genes. We have detected significant rate heterogeneity among 7 GA pathway genes for both synonymous and nonsynonymous sites. Such rate variation is mostly likely attributed to differences of selection intensity rather than differential mutation pressures on the genes. Unlike previous argument that downstream genes in metabolic pathways would evolve more slowly than upstream genes, the downstream genes in the GA pathway did not exhibited the elevated substitution rate and instead, the genes that encode either the enzyme at the branch point (GA20ox or enzymes catalyzing multiple steps (KO, KAO and GA3ox in the pathway had the lowest evolutionary rates due to strong purifying selection. Our branch and codon models failed to detect signature of positive selection for any lineage and codon of the GA pathway genes. Conclusion This study suggests that significant heterogeneity of evolutionary rate of the GA pathway genes is mainly ascribed to differential constraint relaxation rather than the positive selection and supports the pathway flux theory that predicts that natural selection primarily targets enzymes that have the greatest control on fluxes.

  14. Colonization by the endophyte Piriformospora indica leads to early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana likely by triggering gibberellin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongjin; Abdelaziz, Mohamad E; Ntui, Valentine Otang; Guo, Xiujie; Al-Babili, Salim

    2017-09-02

    Piriformospora indica is an endophytic fungus colonizing roots of a wide variety of plants. Previous studies showed that P. indica promotes early flowering and plant growth in the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii. To determine the impact of P. indica on flowering time in Arabidopsis, we co-cultivated the plants with P. indica under long day condition. P. indica inoculated Arabidopsis plants displayed significant early flowering phenotype. qRT-PCR analysis of colonized plants revealed an up-regulation of flowering regulatory (FLOWERING LOCUS T, LEAFY, and APETALA1) and gibberellin biosynthetic (Gibberellin 20-Oxidase2, Gibberellin 3-Oxidase1 and Gibberellin requiring1) genes, while the flowering-repressing gene FLOWERING LOCUS C was down regulated. Quantification of gibberellins content showed that the colonization with P. indica caused an increase in GA 4 content. Compared to wild-type plants, inoculation of the Arabidopsis ga5 mutant affected in gibberellin biosynthetic gene led to less pronounced changes in the expression of genes regulating flowering and to a lower increase in GA 4 content. Taken together, our data indicate that P. indica promotes early flowering in Arabidopsis likely by increasing gibberellin content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Colonization by the endophyte Piriformospora indica leads to early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana likely by triggering gibberellin biosynthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dongjin

    2017-06-28

    Piriformospora indica is an endophytic fungus colonizing roots of a wide variety of plants. Previous studies showed that P. indica promotes early flowering and plant growth in the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii. To determine the impact of P. indica on flowering time in Arabidopsis, we co-cultivated the plants with P. indica under long day condition. P. indica inoculated Arabidopsis plants displayed significant early flowering phenotype. qRT-PCR analysis of colonized plants revealed an up-regulation of flowering regulatory (FLOWERING LOCUS T, LEAFY, and APETALA1) and gibberellin biosynthetic (Gibberellin 20-Oxidase2, Gibberellin 3-Oxidase1 and Gibberellin requiring1) genes, while the flowering-repressing gene FLOWERING LOCUS C was down regulated. Quantification of gibberellins content showed that the colonization with P. indica caused an increase in GA4 content. Compared to wild-type plants, inoculation of the Arabidopsis ga5 mutant affected in gibberellin biosynthetic gene led to less pronounced changes in the expression of genes regulating flowering and to a lower increase in GA4 content. Taken together, our data indicate that P. indica promotes early flowering in Arabidopsis likely by increasing gibberellin content.

  16. Optimierung von Kommunikationsnetzen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberspächer, Jörg; Kiese, Moritz; Wessäly, Roland

    Die weltweiten Telekommunikationsnetze (Telefon-, Mobilfunknetze, Internet) bilden heute das Nervensystem von Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft. Durch den anhaltenden technologischen Fortschritt in der Elektronik, der Computer- und Kommunikationstechnik steigt nicht nur die Zahl der Teilnehmer in den Netzen ständig, sondern es entstehen auch laufend neue Anwendungen, wie Radio und Fernsehen im Internet, elektronischer Handel und interaktive Spiele im Internet. Auf den Kupfer- und Glasfaserkabeln sowie den Funkstrecken werden gigantische Informationsmengen transportiert. Das Verkehrs-wachstum ist nach wie vor exponentiell.

  17. Kommunikative Konstitution von Organisationen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeneborn, Dennis; Wehmeier, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Beiträge zur Unternehmenskommunikation behandeln in der Regel (strategisch) geplante interne oder externe Kommunikation. Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt einen alternativen Theorieansatz vor, der aktuell im nordamerikanischen Forschungsgebiet „Organizational Communication“ vorherrschend ist....... zunehmende Aufmerksamkeit erhält Der sogenannten „CCO-Perspektive“ („Communicative Constitution of Organizations“) zufolge bestehen Unternehmen aus einer Vielzahl von internen und externen Kommunikationspraktiken, die nur in bedingtem Maße strategisch steuerbar sind. Zugleich sind es eben diese...

  18. Gibberellin hormone signal perception: down-regulating DELLA repressors of plant growth and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gibberellin (GA) hormone signal is perceived by a receptor with homology to hormone sensitive lipases, GID1 (GA-INSENSITIVE DWARF1). This leads to GA-stimulated responses including stem elongation, seed germination, and the transition to flowering. GA-binding enables GID1 to interact with and ...

  19. Gibberellin-Abscisic Acid Balances during Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Formation in Tomato

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martin-Rodriguez, J.A.; Huertas, R.; Ho-Plagaro, T.; Ocampo, J.A.; Turečková, Veronika; Tarkowská, Danuše; Ludwig-Mueller, J.; Garcia-Garrido, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, AUG 23 (2016), s. 1273 ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-34792S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhiza * plant hormones * gibberellins Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.298, year: 2016

  20. Analysis of Transcriptional Responses of the Inflorescence Meristems in Jatropha curcas Following Gibberellin Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Kai Hui

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas L. seeds an oilseed plant with great potential for biodiesel production. However, low seed yield, which was limited by its lower female flowers, was a major drawback for its utilization. Our previous study found that the flower number and female-to-male ratio were increased by gibberellin treatment. Here, we compared the transcriptomic profiles of inflorescence meristem at different time points after gibberellic acid A3 (GA3 treatment. The present study showed that 951 differentially expressed genes were obtained in response to gibberellin treatment, compared with control samples. The 6-h time point was an important phase in the response to exogenous gibberellin. Furthermore, the plant endogenous gibberellin, auxin, ethylene, abscisic acid, and brassinolide-signaling transduction pathways were repressed, whereas the genes associated with cytokinin and jasmonic acid signaling were upregulated for 24-h time point following GA3 treatment. In addition, the floral meristem determinacy genes (JcLFY, JcSOC1 and floral organ identity genes (JcAP3, JcPI, JcSEP1-3 were significantly upregulated, but their negative regulator (JcSVP was downregulated after GA3 treatment. Moreover, the effects of phytohormone, which was induced by exogenous plant growth regulator, mainly acted on the female floral differentiation process. To the best of our knowledge, this data is the first comprehensive analysis of the underlying transcriptional response mechanism of floral differentiation following GA3 treatment in J. curcas, which helps in engineering high-yielding varieties of Jatropha.

  1. Extraktion von Produktfamilienanforderungen aus Benutzerdokumentation

    OpenAIRE

    John, I.; Doerr, J.

    2003-01-01

    Existierende Software wird oft von Dokumentation wie beispielsweise Benutzerhandbüchern begleitet. Diese Dokumentation ist eine wichtige Quelle für eine neue Produktfamilie. Durch das gezielte Nutzen von existierender Dokumentation können Experten entlastet und existierende Systeme reibungsloser integriert werden. Dieses Kapitel beschreibt eine Methode zur strukturierten Extraktion von Anforderungen an eine Produktfamilie aus der Benutzerdokumentation existierender Altsysteme. Mit Hilfe der M...

  2. Use of Fe(III) oxalate for oxidativewastewater treatment; Einsatz von Fe(III)-Oxalat zur chemisch-oxidativen Abwasserbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.M.; Vogelpohl, A. [Clausthal Univ., Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik

    1998-08-01

    Iron(III)-oxalate was used as an iron catalyst for the Photo Fenton reaction. Iron(III) oxalations ([Fe(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}]{sup 3-}) are reduced to Fe(II) by irradiation using near UV-light ({lambda} = 300 - 400 nm) or visible light ({lambda} > 400 nm). At the same time, CO{sub 2}{sup -} or C{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup -}-radicals originate, which cause the secondary reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II). By means of the photolytically regenerated Fe(II) ions, hydroxyl radicals are increasingly formed, so that the degradation of organic substances is accelerated. The work aimed to assess the catalytic effect of Fe(III) oxalate for photochemical oxidation processes and to establish the parameters influencing further treatment of leachate from a municipal waste sanitary landfill by means of technical-scale experiments. (orig.) [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde Eisen(III)-Oxalat als Eisenkatalysator fuer die Photo-Fenton-Reaktion eingesetzt. Eisen(III)-Oxalationen ([Fe(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}]{sup 3-}) werden durch Strahlung mit nahem UV-Licht ({lambda}=300 bis 400 nm) oder mit sichtbarem Licht ({lambda}>400 nm) zu Fe(II) reduziert. Gleichzeitig entstehen CO{sub 2}{sup .-} oder C{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup .-}-Radikale, die eine sekundaere Reduktion von Fe(III) zu Fe(II) bewirken. Mit Hilfe der photolytiisch regenerierten Fe(II)-Ionen werden vermehrt Hydroxylradikale gebildet und damit die Abbaugeschwindigkeit der organischen Substanzen beschleunigt. Ziel der hier vorgestellten Arbeit war es, die katalytische Wirkung von Fe(III)-Oxalat fuer photochemische Oxidationsverfahren abzuschaetzen und die Einflussparameter zur weitergehenden Behandlung eines Deponiesickerwassers aus Hausmuelldeponie anhand von Technikumsversuchen zu ermitteln. (orig.)

  3. Gibberellin is required for the formation of tension wood and stem gravitropism in Acacia mangium seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Widyanto Dwi; Yamagishi, Yusuke; Nakaba, Satoshi; Fukuhara, Shiori; Begum, Shahanara; Marsoem, Sri Nugroho; Ko, Jae-Heung; Jin, Hyun-O; Funada, Ryo

    2012-09-01

    Angiosperm trees generally form tension wood on the upper sides of leaning stems. The formation of tension wood is an important response to gravitational stimulus. Gibberellin appears to be involved in the differentiation of secondary xylem, but it remains unclear whether gibberellin plays a key role in the formation of tension wood and plant gravitropism. Therefore, a study was designed to investigate the effects of gibberellin and of inhibitors of the synthesis of gibberellin, namely paclobutrazole and uniconazole-P, on the formation of tension wood and negative stem gravitropism in Acacia mangium seedlings. Gibberellic acid (GA(3)), paclobutrazole and uniconazole-P were applied to seedlings via the soil in which they were growing. Distilled water was applied similarly as a control. Three days after such treatment, seedlings were tilted at an angle of 45° from the vertical, and samples of stems were collected for analysis 2 weeks, 2 months and 6 months after tilting. The effects of treatments on the stem recovery degree (Rº) were analysed as an index of the negative gravitropism of seedlings, together the width of the region of tension wood in the upper part of inclined stems. It was found that GA(3) stimulated the negative gravitropism of tilted seedling stems of A. mangium, while paclobutrazole and uniconazole-P inhibited recovery to vertical growth. Moreover, GA(3) stimulated the formation of tension wood in tilted A. mangium seedlings, while paclobutrazole and uniconazole-P strongly suppressed the formation of tension wood, as assessed 2 weeks after tilting. The results suggest that gibberellin plays an important role at the initial stages of formation of tension wood and in stem gravitropism in A. mangium seedlings in response to a gravitational stimulus.

  4. Nutzerorientiertes Management von materiellen und immateriellen Informationsobjekten

    OpenAIRE

    Hübsch, Chris

    2001-01-01

    Schaffung einer stabilen, erweiterbaren und skalierbaren Infrastruktur für die Bereitstellung von Diensten im Umfeld von Bibliotheken und ähnlichen wissensanbietenden Einrichtungen unter Verwendung von XML-RPC und Python.

  5. Franzo Kafkos kūrybos recepcija Lietuvoje (1939–1989. Zur Rezeption des Schaffens von Franz Kafka in Litauen (1939–1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadvyga Bajarūnienė

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In diesem Beitrag werden die Eigentümlichkeiten der Rezeption des Schaffens von Franz Kafka in Li­tauen von 1939 bis 1989, d.h. von dem letzten Jahr der Unabhängigeit an bis zum Vorabend der Wieder­herstellung des unabhängigen Litauen überblickt. Das erste Werk von Kafka (die Erzählung „Die Ab­weisung“ erschien auf Litauisch 1939, danach wur­de aber die Veröffentlichung von Kafkas Schriften für eine lange Zeit unterbrochen, da Kafka, wie auch andere westeuropäische Modernisten, als dekadent, das heißt, dem sozialistischen Selbstbewusstsein als schädlich, betrachtet wurde. Den Beginn der Kafka-Rezeption im Sowjetlitauen markiert die Veröffentli­chung der Erzählung („Ein Hungerkünstler“, 1965. Dieses Jahrzehnt war wegen der einsetzenden Libe­ralisierungsprozesse für die Wirkung von Kafka in Litauen relativ günstig (1968 erschien auf Litauisch das Oklahoma-Fragment aus dem Roman „Der Ver­schollene“ sowie ein Kommentar zu Kafkas Briefen an Milena. Jedoch war der Prozess der Verbreitung von Kafkas Schaffen in Litauen, besonders in den 70er Jahren, unsystematisch, auch wurde der Prager Dichter unterschiedlich, widersprüchlich und tenden­ziell bewertet – mal wurde er als ein pessimistischer und somit der „sozialistischen“ Welt fremde Autor gesehen, mal als ein Kritiker der kapitalistischen Ge­sellschaft akzeptiert. Eines der Hauptwerke von Kaf­ka, der Roman „Der Prozess“ wurde ins Litauische erst 1981 übersetzt. Ebenso mit Verspätung konnten die litauischen Leser Kafkas bekannte Erzählungen „Das Urteil“ (lit. 1977, „In der Strafkolonie“ (lit. 1981 sowie „Die Verwandlung“ (lit. 1988 lesen.Erst mit der Wiedererlangung der Unabhängig­keit konnte sich der Prozess der Kafka-Aneignung ohne Hindernisse gestalten. Die bekanntesten Er­zählungen und Romane wurden mehrmals verlegt, es erschienen neue Übersetzungen z.B., „Der Ver­schollene“ (lit. 1997, „Tagebücher 1910–1923“ (lit. 2011

  6. Ultraproducts of von Neumann algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ando, Hiroshi; Haagerup, Uffe

    2014-01-01

    We study several notions of ultraproducts of von Neumann algebras from a unified viewpoint. In particular, we show that for a sigma-finite von Neumann algebra M  , the ultraproduct MωMω introduced by Ocneanu is a corner of the ultraproduct ∏ωM∏ωM introduced by Groh and Raynaud. Using...

  7. Enhancing fuel cell system life by removing ammonia. Final report; Erhoehung der Lebensdauer von Brennstoffzellensystemen durch Ammoniak-Entfernung. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The problem of ammonia production and effects in the gas processor of fuel cell heating systems during steam reforming of hydrogen-containing natural gas was investigated, providing fundamental knowledge on NH{sub 3} formation. The processes of ammonia formation in reformer systems during reformation of nitrogen-containing natural gas were simulated and compared with experimental findings. Laboratory experiments defined the boundary conditions of ammonia synthesis in reformer systems as a function of N{sub 2} concentration in natural gas, temperature, catalysts and load dependence. The effects of ammonia on the catalysts of a steam reformer were investigated as well. It was the intention to develop a simple purification module that will remove ammonia traces from the product gas of reforming processes and can be integrated in fuel cell heating systems. In view of the strongly hydrophylic nature of ammonia, methods for solution and separation of ammonia in liquid water were investigated. Various technical concepts were implemented and investigated in laboratory experiments. The limitations of liquid water based processes were assessed, and options for complete removal of ammonia were investigated. An optimized laboratory version of a purification module was developed which ensures complete purification as well as product gas conditioning (temperature, moisture) for applications in fuel cells. Finally, the purification module was tested in a modified test stand with appropriate peripheral components. (orig./AKB) [German] Im Rahmen des Vorhabens wurde die Ammoniakproblematik hinsichtlich Entstehung und Wirkung im Gasprozessor von Brennstoffzellenheizgeraeten (BZH) bei der Dampfreformierung stickstoffhaltiger Erdgase untersucht und dabei grundlegende Erkenntnisse zur NH{sub 3}-Bildung gewonnen. Es wurden prozesstechnische Simulationen zur Ammoniakbildung im Reformersystem bei der Reformierung stickstoffhaltiger Erdgase durchgefuehrt und mit experimentell gewonnenen

  8. Biosynthesis of 12α-and 13-hydroxylated gibberellins in a cell-free system from Cucurbita maxima endosperm and the identification of new endogenous gibberellins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, T; Hedden, P; Graebe, J E

    1993-03-01

    Gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis in cell-free systems from Cucurbita maxima L. endosperm was reinvestigated using incubation conditions different from those employed in previous work. The metabolism of GA12 yielded GA13, GA43 and 12α-hydroxyGA43 as major products, GA4, GA37, GA39, GA46 and four unidentified compounds as minor products. The intermediates GA15, GA24 and GA25 accumulated at low protein concentrations. The structure of the previously uncharacterised 12α-hydroxyGA43 was inferred from its mass spectrum and by its formation from both GA39 and GA43. Gibberellin A39 and 12α-hydroxyGA43 were formed by a soluble 12α-hydroxylase that had not been detected before. Gibberellin A12-aldehyde was metabolised to essentially the same products as GA12 but with less efficiency. A new 13-hydroxylation pathway was found. Gibberellin A53, formed from GA12 by a microsomal oxidase, was converted by soluble 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxidases to GA1 GA23, GA28, GA44, and putative 2β-hydroxyGA28. Minor products were GA19, GA20, GA38 and three unidentified GAs. Microsomal 13-hydroxylation (the formation of GA53) was suppressed by the cofactors for 2-oxoglutarate-dependent enzymes. Reinvestigation of the endogenous GAs confirmed the significance of the new metabolic products. In addition to the endogenous GAs reported by Blechschmidt et al. (1984, Phytochemistry 23, 553-558), GA1, GA8, GA25, GA28, GA36, GA48 and 12α-hydroxyGA43 were identified by full-scan capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and Kovats retention indices. Thus both the 12α-hydroxylation and the 13-hydroxylation pathways found in the cell-free system operate also in vivo, giving rise to 12α-hydroxyGA43 and GA1 (or GA8), respectively, as their end products. Evidence for endogenous GA20 and GA24 was also obtained but it was less conclusive due to interference.

  9. Gibberellin biosynthetic inhibitors make human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum cells swell and rupture to death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Toyama

    Full Text Available Malaria remains as one of the most devastating infectious disease, and continues to exact an enormous toll in medical cost and days of labor lost especially in the tropics. Effective malaria control and eventual eradication remain a huge challenge, with efficacious antimalarials as important intervention/management tool. Clearly new alternative drugs that are more affordable and with fewer side effects are desirable. After preliminary in vitro assays with plant growth regulators and inhibitors, here, we focus on biosynthetic inhibitors of gibberellin, a plant hormone with many important roles in plant growth, and show their inhibitory effect on the growth of both apicomplexa, Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii. Treatment of P. falciparum cultures with the gibberellin biosynthetic inhibitors resulted in marked morphological changes that can be reversed to a certain degree under hyperosmotic environment. These unique observations suggest that changes in the parasite membrane permeability may explain the pleiotropic effects observed within the intracellular parasites.

  10. Analysis of gibberellins as free acids by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urbanová, Terezie; Tarkowská, Danuše; Novák, Ondřej; Hedden, P.; Strnad, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 2013 (2013), s. 85-94 ISSN 0039-9140 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Gibberellins * Brassica napus * Arabidopsis thaliana Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.511, year: 2013

  11. Alejandro Von Humboldt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Paz Otero

    1965-09-01

    Full Text Available Diverso fue y sigue siéndolo, el destino de los dos hermanos Humboldt, Guillermo y Alejandro. Sino que se inicia con el nacimiento: Guillermo, el mayor, nace el 22 de junio de 1767 en Potsdam, residencia de los emperadores prusianos, la ciudad de los palacios imperiales, el imperio del militarismo germano; su cuna se meció cerca al palacete de Sans-Soussi, donde Federico el Grande forja ba el poderío de Prusia, cultivaba las ciencias y las artes, anfitrionaba a los intelectuales de Europa, y era "vasallo espiritual de Volta ire", según la aguda frase de Goethe. Alejandro viene al mundo dos años después (14 de septiembre de 1769 en Berlín, en la casa burguesa de la Jagerstrasse (calle del cazador que su madre Elizabeth von Humboldt heredara de su primer esposo.

  12. Von der Vielfalt einer Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Kabaum, Marcel; Buck, Marc Fabian

    2013-01-01

    Von der Vielfalt von Universitäten bzw. higher education institutions (HEIs) zu sprechen heißt, sich dem Dickicht an Komplexität zu stellen, das sich zwischen ihren Ideen und Realitäten ausbreitet. Der Text führt in den Sammelband "Ideen und Realitäten von Universitäten" ein und hebt die verschiedenen disziplinären Sichtweisen sowie die internationale Breite - Deutschland, Südamerika, USA, Afghanistan und China - der Beiträge hervor. (DIPF/Orig.)

  13. Von Neumann-Morgenstern Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    REFERENCES von Neumann, John, and Morgenstern , Oskar , Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, 191+4 2nd ed., 1947 3rd ed., 1953. Dresher, M., Kuhn, H...I n I^I.B.IIHI, IJI ■ , m^ »mi ■■! mi m i ■ mm AD/A-005 417 VON NEJMANN- MORGENSTERN SOLUTIONS William F. Lucas Cornell...COMMERCE m^ ^^^mmm II . REPORT OOCUM[ •H AT:O I PAG[ ~ . CiOVT IICCt:~ Technical Report No. 246 VON NEUMANN- MORGENSTERN SOLUTIONS Cornell University

  14. Interactions between ethylene, gibberellins, and brassinosteroids in the development of rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbioses of pea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Eloise; McAdam, Erin L.; Weller, James L.; Reid, James B.

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of arbuscular mycorrhizal development and nodulation involves complex interactions between the plant and its microbial symbionts. In this study, we use the recently identified ethylene-insensitive ein2 mutant in pea (Pisum sativum L.) to explore the role of ethylene in the development of these symbioses. We show that ethylene acts as a strong negative regulator of nodulation, confirming reports in other legumes. Minor changes in gibberellin1 and indole-3-acetic acid levels in ein2 roots appear insufficient to explain the differences in nodulation. Double mutants produced by crosses between ein2 and the severely gibberellin-deficient na and brassinosteroid-deficient lk mutants showed increased nodule numbers and reduced nodule spacing compared with the na and lk single mutants, but nodule numbers and spacing were typical of ein2 plants, suggesting that the reduced number of nodules in na and lk plants is largely due to the elevated ethylene levels previously reported in these mutants. We show that ethylene can also negatively regulate mycorrhizae development when ethylene levels are elevated above basal levels, consistent with a role for ethylene in reducing symbiotic development under stressful conditions. In contrast to the hormone interactions in nodulation, ein2 does not override the effect of lk or na on the development of arbuscular mycorrhizae, suggesting that brassinosteroids and gibberellins influence this process largely independently of ethylene. PMID:26889005

  15. Kleben von Kunststoff mit Metall

    CERN Document Server

    Brockmann, W; Käufer, H

    1989-01-01

    Das Buch behandelt das Kleben von Kunststoffen mit Metallen in einer fur den Praktiker verstandlichen und umsetzbaren Form. Es leitet zu Klebeverfahren an, die optimale Ergebnisse hinsichtlich Qualitat, Dauerhaftigkeit und Wirtschaftlichkeit liefern.

  16. Ueber einige Coelenterata von Australien

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiasny, G.

    1931-01-01

    I. Hydromedusen. *Olindias singularis Browne. II. Scyphomedusen. *Atolla wyvillei Haeckel. *Linuche unguiculata O. Swartz. Pelagia noctiluca Péron u. Lesueur. Cyanea capillata var. annaskala von Lendenfeld. Netrostoma coerulescens Maas. *Versura anadyomene (Maas) Mayer. Catostylus mosaicus L.

  17. Hollow fiber-based liquid-liquid-liquid micro-extraction with osmosis: II. Application to quantification of endogenous gibberellins in rice plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qian; Wu, Dapeng; Duan, Chunfeng; Shen, Zheng; Guan, Yafeng

    2012-11-23

    The phenomenon and benefits of osmosis in hollow fiber-based liquid-liquid-liquid micro-extraction (HF-LLLME) were theoretically discussed in part I of this study. In this work, HF-LLLME with osmosis was coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-triple quadrupole MS/MS) to analyze eight gibberellins (gibberellin A(1), gibberellin A(3), gibberellin A(4), gibberellin A(7), gibberellin A(8), gibberellin A(9), gibberellin A(19) and gibberellin A(20)) in rice plant samples. According to the theory of HF-LLLME with osmosis, single factor experiments, orthogonal design experiments and mass transfer simulation of extraction process were carried out to select the optimal conditions. Cyclohexanol - n-octanol (1:3, v/v) was selected as organic membrane. Donor phase of 12 mL was adjusted to pH 2 and 20% NaCl (w/v) was added. Acceptor phase with an initial volume of 20 μL was the solution of 0.12 mol L(-1) Na(2)CO(3)-NaHCO(3) buffer (pH 9). Temperature was chosen to be 30 °C and extraction time was selected to be 90 min. Under optimized conditions, this method provided good linearity (r, 0.99552-0.99991) and low limits of detection (0.0016-0.061 ng mL(-1)). Finally, this method was applied to the analysis of endogenous gibberellins from plant extract which was obtained with traditional solvent extraction of rice plant tissues, and the relative recoveries were from 62% to 166%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Purification and partial amino-acid sequence of gibberellin 20-oxidase from Cucurbita maxima L. endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, T

    1994-01-01

    Gibberellin (GA) 20-oxidase was purified to apparent homogeneity from Cucurbita maxima endosperm by fractionated ammonium-sulphate precipitation, gel-filtration chromatography and anion-exchange and hydrophobic-interaction high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Average purification after the last step was 55-fold with 3.9% of the activity recovered. The purest single fraction was enriched 101-fold with 0.2% overall recovery. Apparent relative molecular mass of the enzyme was 45 kDa, as determined by gel-filtration HPLC and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, indicating that GA 20-oxidase is probably a monomeric enzyme. The purified enzyme degraded on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, giving two protein spots: a major one corresponding to a molecular mass of 30 kDa and a minor one at 45 kDa. The isoelectric point for both was 5.4. The amino-acid sequences of the amino-terminus of the purified enzyme and of two peptides from a tryptic digest were determined. The purified enzyme catalysed the sequential conversion of [14C]GA12 to [14C]GA15, [14C]GA24 and [14C]GA25, showing that carbon atom 20 was oxidised to the corresponding alcohol, aldehyde and carboxylic acid in three consecutive reactions. [14C]Gibberellin A53 was similarly converted to [14C]GA44, [14C]GA19, [14C]GA17 and small amounts of a fourth product, which was preliminarily identified as [14C]GA20, a C19-gibberellin. All GAs except [14C]GA20 were identified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The cofactor requirements in the absence of dithiothreitol were essentially as in its presence (Lange et al., Planta 195, 98-107, 1994), except that ascorbate was essential for enzyme activity and the optimal concentration of catalase was lower.

  19. Bibliographie der Werke von Herbert Spencer

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Michael (Prof.)

    1991-01-01

    Bibliographie der Werke von Herbert Spencer / bearb., hrsg., mit e. Einl. u. e. Kurzbiogr. vers. von Michael Schmid u. Margit Weihrich. - München : Inst. für Soziologie u. Gesellschaftspolitik, Univ. d. Bundeswehr, 1991. - 159 S.

  20. John von Neumann selected letters

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    John von Neuman was perhaps the most influential mathematician of the twentieth century, especially if his broad influence outside mathematics is included. Not only did he contribute to almost all branches of mathematics and created new fields, but he also changed post-World War II history with his work on the design of computers and with being a sought-after technical advisor to many figures in the U.S. military-political establishment in the 1940s and 1950s. The present volume is the first substantial collection of (previously mainly unpublished) letters written by von Neumann to colleagues, friends, government officials, and others. The letters give us a glimpse of the thinking of John von Neumann about mathematics, physics, computer science, science management, education, consulting, politics, and war. Readers of quite diverse backgrounds will find much of interest in this fascinating first-hand look at one of the towering figures of twentieth century science.

  1. Decorative value of three dahlia cultivars (Dahlia ×cultorum Thorsr. et Reis treated with gibberellin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Pudelska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dahlia (Dalia ×cultorumThorsr. et Reis is a perennial that due to special decorative value, diversity of inflorescences colours and shapes as well as plants height, is widely planted in flowerbeds, borders and different garden containers. Growth regulators play a significant role in ornamental plants cultivation. They influence size and shape of plants, number of inflorescences and flowering earliness. Gibberellins are among substances that are commonly used in plants production. In the years 2010-2011 research on the effect of GA 3 on morphological features of 3 Polish dahlia cultivars of Top-Mix group was conducted.

  2. Entwicklung eines biologischen Pflanzenschutzmittels aus Süßholz mit sicherer Wirkung im Freiland unter Nutzung effizienter Anwendungstechnik; Arbeitsschwerpunkt 1: Industrielle Forschung und Grundlagen

    OpenAIRE

    Bahlo, Julia; Cergel, Sylvia; Faust, Stefanie; Jacobs, Sophie; Kleeberg, Hubertus; Orlik, Marc; Schmitt, Annegret; Treutwein, Jonas; Wehr, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Teilprojekt1: Formulierung, Standardisierung und Extraktionsoptimierung In dem Verbundvorhaben sollte ein praxistaugliches Süßholzpräparat entwickelt und damit Anwendungsstrategien gegen Falschen Mehltau und P. infestans im Freiland an Gurke, Tomate bzw. Kartoffel entworfen werden. Diese sollten eine wirksame Regulierung dieser Schlüssel Pathogene ermöglichen und somit die praxisübliche Anwendung von kupferhaltigen Pflanzenschutzmitteln reduzieren oder sogar ersetzen. In...

  3. Antitumoral action of interferons and interleukins in combination with radiotherapy. Pt. II. Radiobiological and immunologic strategies; Antitumorale Wirkung von Interferonen und Interleukinen in Kombination mit Strahlentherapie. Teil II. Strahlenbiologische und immunologische Strategien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herskind, C. [Dept. of Experimental Clinical Oncology, Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Sektion Strahlentherapie, Mannheim (Germany); Fleckenstein, K.; Wenz, F.; Lohr, F. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Sektion Strahlentherapie, Mannheim (Germany); Lohr, J. [Dept. of Pathology, Univ. of California San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States); Li Chuan-Yuan [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Methods: based on published clinical studies, the results of treatment with interferons in combination with radiotherapy are reviewed. New strategies for antitumoral application of cytokines, illustrated by interleukin-(IL-)2 and IL-12 in preclinical and clinical studies, are presented. Results: the initially high expectations regarding the antitumoral action of IFN-{alpha}, IFN-{beta} and IFN-{gamma} in combination with radiotherapy have, with few exceptions, not been fulfilled. In particular, toxicity has been a problem after systemic application. Recent advances in immunology, however, have emphasized the importance of local interactions between antigen-presenting cells and effector cells such as natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes in the immune reaction against tumors. Preclinical studies with IL-2 und IL-12 have shown efficacy mainly against early metastases, but immune reactions against primary tumors have also been observed. Furthermore, the method and timing of the application have proven to be critical. (orig.)

  4. In vitro investigations on the comparison of the effect of high-dose and low-dose irradiation by means of endothelium cells; In-vitro-Untersuchungen zum Vergleich der Wirkung hoch und niedrig dosierter Bestrahlung anhand von Endothelzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, Steffen

    2014-11-25

    The thesis was aimed to investigate the effect of low-dose irradiation of endothelium cells (H5V) using different in-vitro methods In order to characterize radiation induced modulation of inflammatory reactions. The results were compared with high.-dose irradiation experiments. For the simulation of inflammatory behavior the cells were stimulated by pro-inflammatory Zytokin TNF-alpha. The irradiation was performed with an X-ray device (200 kV) that is usually used for pain relieving therapy (single exposure and fractionated irradiation) in case of benign lesions was used and a linear accelerator (16 MeV). Further studies were performed covering the effect of serum in the medium on the growth, the clonogenic survival and the metabolic activity of the H5V cells.

  5. Reducing available amounts of heavy metals in contaminated soils by adding iron oxides. Final report; Verringerung der Bioverfuegbarkeit von Schwermetallen in kontaminierten Boeden durch Zugabe von Eisenoxiden. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pluquet, E.; Mueller, I.

    1998-02-01

    -Industrie, Wasserwerksschlamm aus der Trinkwasseraufbereitung, Raseneisenstein als natuerliches Fe-Oxid, Eisenkugelschrot, ein Produkt zur Oberflaechenbehandlung und Strahlmittelabfall aus der Entzunderung von Stahlblechen) in einer Aufwandmenge von 1% rein Fe pro kg Boden eingebracht. Die Schwermetallgehalte in den Bodenextrakten (DTPA, NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}) und in den Pflanzen gingen im Gefaessversuch durch die Bodenzusaetze deutlich zurueck und wurden durch die wirksamsten Varianten, insbesondere Wasserwerksschlamm um 40-50% (NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}) 30-40% (DTPA) bzw. 30-40% in den Pflanzen vermindert. Die ueber den Versuchszeitraum andauernde Festlegung der Schwermetalle erfolgte in der Reihenfolge Cd>Pb>Zn>Cu. In den Feldversuchen war die immobilisierende Wirkung der Bodenzusaetze zwar vorhanden, aber wesentlich schwaecher ausgepraegt als in den Gefaessversuchen. Fuer bessere Ergebnisse sollte hier eine tiefere und homogenere Einarbeitung der Bodenzusaetze bei eventuell erhoehten Aufwandmengen erfolgen. (orig.)

  6. An Invitation from Lars von Trier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skadhauge, Troels; Tønder, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Translation of Martin Krasnik interview with Lars von Trier broadcast on DR2, January 12, 2015. The following is an interview of Lars von Trier (LvT) by the Danish journalist Martin Krasnik (MK). The interview took place in Lars von Trier’s home in Brede, a small town just outside Copenhagen. The...

  7. Homopteren von Java, gesammelt von Herrn Edw. Jacobson

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melichar, L.

    1914-01-01

    Herr Edw. Jacobson hat auf Java in den Jahren 1908— 1910 Homopteren gesammelt und mir die Bearbeitung des gesammelten Materiales übertragen. Die Jacobson’sche Ausbeute ist insoferne bemerkenswert, als dieselbe viele Mikrohomopteren enthält, welche von nichtfachkundigen Sammlern gewöhnlich nicht

  8. Gibberellin-induced changes in the populations of translatable mRNAs and accumulated polypeptides in dwarfs of maize and pea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chory, J.; Voytas, D.F.; Olszewski, N.E.; Ausubel, F.M.

    1987-01-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to characterize the molecular mechanism of gibberellin-induced stem elongation in maize and pea. Dwarf mutants of maize and pea lack endogenous gibberellin (GA 1 ) but become phenotypically normal with exogenous applications of this hormone. Sections from either etiolated maize or green pea seedlings were incubated in the presence of [ 35 S] methionine for 3 hours with or without gibberellin. Labeled proteins from soluble and particulate fractions were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and specific changes in the patterns of protein synthesis were observed upon treatment with gibberellin. Polyadenylated mRNAs from etiolated or green maize shoots and green pea epicotyls treated or not with gibberellin (a 0.5 to 16 hour time course) were assayed by translation in a rabbit reticulocyte extract and separation of products by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Both increases and decreases in the levels of specific polypeptides were seen for pea and corn, and these changes were observed within 30 minutes of treatment with gibberellin. Together, these data indicate that gibberellin induces changes in the expression of a subset of gene products within elongating dwarfs. This may be due to changes in transcription rate, mRNA stability, or increased efficiency of translation of certain mRNAs

  9. Further identification of endogenous gibberellins in the shoots of pea, line G2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halinska, A.; Davies, P.J.; Lee, J.W.; Zhu, Yuxian

    1989-01-01

    To interpret the metabolism of radiolabeled gibberellins A 12 -aldehyde and A 12 in shoots of pea (Pisum sativum L.), the identity of the radiolabeled peaks has to be determined and the endogenous presence of the gibberellins demonstrated. High specific activity [ 14 C]GA 12 and [ 14 C]GA 12 -aldehyde were synthesized using a pumpkin endosperm enzyme preparation, and purified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). [ 14 C]GA 12 was supplied to upper shoots of pea, line G2, to produce radiolabeled metabolites on the 13-OH pathway. Endogenous compounds copurifying with the [ 14 C]GAs on HPLC were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The endogenous presence of GA 53 , GA 44 , GA 19 and GA 20 was demonstrated and their HPLC peak identity ascertained. The 14 C was progressively diluted in GAs further down the pathway, proportional to the levels found in the tissue and inversely proportional to the speed of metabolism, ranging from 63% in GA 53 to 4% in GA 20 . Calculated levels of GA 20 , GA 19 , GA 44 , and GA 53 were 42, 8, 10, and 0.5 nanograms/gram, respectively

  10. Von Krahl ON! / Terje Metsavas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Metsavas, Terje

    2008-01-01

    Madli Pesti ja Terje Metsavas kohtusid Von Krahli teatri tehnilise meeskonnaga teatri black-box-saalis. Teatri tehniline meeskond on tehnikadirektor Enar Tarmo, video- ja multimeediaga tegelev Lauri Sepp, tehnikud Janno "John" Jaanus, Oliver Kulpsoo ja Allan Räim. Selles, kuidas sünnivad "tehnikaimed" ja kuidas lahendatakse lavastuslikke projekte

  11. von Hippel-Lindau disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Marie Louise Mølgaard; Gimsing, Steen; Kosteljanetz, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Endolymphatic sac tumours (ELSTs) of the inner ear occur in 16% of patients with the hereditary tumor syndrome von Hippel-Lindau disease (vHL). ELSTs of all sizes can cause irreversible hearing loss which can, however, be prevented through early diagnosis and treatment. We aim to emphasize...

  12. Properties of von Neumann entropy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    disentangled) as seen by moving observers, is used to investigate the properties of von Neumann entropy, as a measure of spin–momentum entanglement. To do so, we partition the total Hilbert space into momentum and spin subspaces so that the ...

  13. The Involvement of Gibberellins in 1,8-Cineole-Mediated Inhibition of Sprout Growth in Russet Burbank Tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The involvement of gibberellins in 1,8-cineole-mediated inhibition of tuber sprout growth was investigated in non-dormant field- and greenhouse-grown tubers of Russet Burbank. Continuous exposure of tubers to cineole in the vapor-phase resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of sprout growth. Comp...

  14. Transformation of a Dwarf "Arabidopsis" Mutant Illustrates Gibberellin Hormone Physiology and the Function of a Green Revolution Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Isabel; Weber, Katrin; Alves Cursino dos Santos, Deborah Y.; Ohlrogge, John

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of dwarfing traits into crops was a major factor in increased grain yields during the "Green Revolution." In most cases those traits were the consequence of altered synthesis or response to the gibberellin (GA) plant hormones. Our current understanding of GA synthesis and physiology has been facilitated by the characterization of…

  15. Hormonal regulation of seed development and germination in tomato : studies on abscisic acid- and gibberellin-deficient mutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S.P.C.

    1987-01-01

    The role of endogenous gibberellins (GAs) and abscisic acid (ABA) in seed development and germination of tomato, was studied with the use of GA- and/or ABA-deficient mutants.

    GAs are indispensable for the development of fertile flowers. Fertility of GA-deficient flowers is restored

  16. [Friedrich Ludwig von Maydelli pildid Baltimaade ajaloost = Friedrich Ludwig von Maydells Baltische Geschichte in Bildern = Friedrich Ludwig von Maydell ́s Baltic history in images] / Ulrike Plath

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Plath, Ulrike, 1972-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Friedrich Ludwig von Maydelli pildid Baltimaade ajaloost = Friedrich Ludwig von Maydells Baltische Geschichte in Bildern = Friedrich Ludwig von Maydell ́s Baltic history in images. Eesti kunstimuuseum, Kadrioru kunstimuuseum. Tallinn 2013

  17. Von den Veranschaulichungsmethoden in den Rundfunkpredigten von der Heiligkreuz- Kirche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Ostafiński

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In der gegenwärtigen Verkündigung des Wortes Gottes spielt die Veranschaulichung der Überlieferung eine nicht zu überschätzende Rolle. Vor diesem Hintergrund wird es sehr wichtig, dass man den Predigern nicht nur auf die Funktion des Bildes in der Verkündigung, sondern auch auf die Art und Weise seines Entstehens auf der narrativen Ebene aufmerksam macht. Während die Kenner der Homiletik die Notwendigkeit des Auftretens der Bildeigenschaften in den Predigten betonen, erinnern sie gleichzeitig daran, dass der moderne, von der „Bild-Zivilisation“ gestaltete Mensch, „immer mehr sehen als hören“ möchte. Der vorliegende, die Rundfunkpredigten von der Heiligkreuz-Kirche analysierende Aufsatz, nimmt auf und bringt zugleich nahe die Problematik der Notwendigkeit des Bildes in der Wort-Gottes-Verkündigung. Der Artikel stellt die Erzählungsform als eine wichtige Möglichkeit der Glaubensüberlieferung dar, behandelt das Problem der Aktualisierung evangelischen Werte, bringt das von den Predigten gestaltete synästhetische Weltbild nahe und analysiert die Rolle des Zitats und Beispiels (exemplum bei der Gestaltung der Bildhaftigkeit einer Predigt. Darüber hinaus überprüft der Aufsatz in seinem letzten Teil die in den gegenwärtigen Rundfunkpredigten meist verwendeten Redefiguren

  18. Experience with needle-shaped conductivity sensors for determining parameters in two-phase flows; Erfahrungen mit nadelfoermigen Leitfaehigkeitssonden zur Bestimmung von Parametern in Zweiphasenstroemungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischer, S.; Hampel, R. [Hochschule fuer Technik, Wirtschaft und Sozialwesen Zittau/Goerlitz, Zittau (Germany). Inst. fuer Prozesstechnik, Prozessautomatisierung und Messtechnik e.V. (IPM)

    1997-12-01

    Two variants were developed. A wire grid sensor has two planes with 16 wires of 0.12 mm diameter each. The wires are arranged evenly over the diameter. The spacing between the two planes is 1.5 mm. The pipelines are covered in the corners of some measuring points. A second type was developed especially for the described pressure surge experiments. The `heavy` grid sensor with rod-shaped electrodes is made of stainless steel. The small rods have a lens-shaped crossection, in order to keep the hydraulic resistance and the effect on flow small. Sensors with 8 x 8 measuring points for NW50 and a sensor with 16 x 16 measuring points for NW100 were produced. They are designed for 7 MPa and a maximum of 150oC. The cavitation behind a fast-closing valve was visualised with the sensors, which is situated at the start of an approx. 200 m long pipeline. [Deutsch] Das Messverfahren mit nadelfoermigen Leitfaehigkeitssonden eignet sich zur lokalen Messung des Gasgehaltes, der Gasphasengeschwindigkeit, der Gasblasengroesse und deren statischen Verteilung. Die hohe zeitliche Aufloesung erlaubt die Messung von transienten Vorgaengen in Zweiphasenstroemungen. Mit dem Einsatz von mehreren Leitfaehigkeitssonden ist eine raeumliche Aufloesung moeglich. Als qualitative Groesse ist mit dem Messverfahren die Stroemungsform detektierbar. Auf Grund des invasiven Charakters des Messverfahren sind Einflussgroessen zu beachten bzw. zu beruecksichtigen. In den durchgefuehrten experimentellen Arbeiten wurde die Wirkung der Einflussgroessen auf das Messergebnis naeher untersucht und Verfahren zur Kalibrierung entwickelt. Die Arbeiten sind in den nachstehenden Literaturangaben dokumentiert. (orig.)

  19. Shock, diaschisis and von Monakow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasz Engelhardt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of shock apparently emerged in the middle of the 18th century (Whyett as an occurrence observed experimentally after spinal cord transection, and identified as "shock" phenomenon one century later (Hall. The concept was extended (Brown-Séquard and it was suggested that brain lesions caused functional rupture in regions distant from the injured one ("action à distance". The term "diaschisis" (von Monakow, proposed as a new modality of shock, had its concept broadened, underpinned by observations of patients, aiming at distinguishing between symptoms of focal brain lesions and transitory effects they produced, attributable to depression of distant parts of the brain connected to the injured area. Presently, diaschisis is related mainly to cerebrovascular lesions and classified according to the connection fibers involved, as proposed by von Monakow. Depression of metabolism and blood flow in regions anatomically separated, but related by connections with the lesion, allows observing diaschisis with neuroimaging.

  20. Evaluierungsbericht Systems Engineer von LBMS

    OpenAIRE

    Herzwurm, Georg

    1994-01-01

    Hersteller von Systems Engineer ist die 1977 gegründete Firma Learmonth and Burchen Management Systems Pie. (LBMS) mit Sitz in London. Systems Engineer ist eine Client-Server-Lösung unter DOS/Windows, die standardmäßig aus den Komponenten Systems Engineer (Analyse und Design, Projektadministration), SE/Repository (Konfigurations management, Entwicklungsdatenmanagement) und SE/Workplace (Dokumentation) besteht. Als jeweils separat zu erwerbende Komponenten werden darüber hinaus Process Enginee...

  1. Didaktische Konzeption von Serious Games: Zur Verknüpfung von Spiel- und Lernangeboten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kerres

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Serious Games versuchen Spielen mit Lernen zu verbinden. Der Beitrag problematisiert die Machbarkeit einer solchen Verknüpfung in digitalen Welten und diskutiert verschiedene didaktische Konzepte einer Nutzbarmachung digitaler Spiele für das Lernen und Lehren. Ausgehend von einer Analyse des Erlernens von Spielen werden drei didaktische Konzepte von Serious Games im Hinblick auf ihre didaktischen Potenziale untersucht: (1 der unmittelbare Transfer von Wissen, das im Spiel erworben wird (keine zusätzliche Didaktisierung, (2 Didaktisierung durch Einbettung des Spiels in einer Lernsituation oder (3 Didaktisierung durch Einbettung von Lernaufgaben in ein Spiel. Ergebnisse zur Nutzung von Spielen, bei denen Lernaufgaben in eine Spielwelt eingebettet sind, zeigen, dass Personen die Aufnahme von Wissen in einem expliziten Lernmodus eher zu reduzieren versuchen, um möglichst zügig wieder in den Spielmodus zu wechseln. Diskutiert werden die Konsequenzen dieser Problematik für die didaktische Konzeption von Serious Games.

  2. Independent Control of Gibberellin Biosynthesis and Flowering Time by the Circadian Clock in Arabidopsis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blázquez, Miguel A.; Trénor, Marta; Weigel, Detlef

    2002-01-01

    Flowering of the facultative long-day plant Arabidopsis is controlled by several endogenous and environmental factors, among them gibberellins (GAs) and day length. The promotion of flowering by long days involves an endogenous clock that interacts with light cues provided by the environment. Light, and specifically photoperiod, is also known to regulate the biosynthesis of GAs, but the effects of GAs and photoperiod on flowering are at least partially separable. Here, we have used a short-period mutant, toc1, to investigate the role of the circadian clock in the control of flowering time by GAs and photoperiod. We show that toc1 affects expression of several floral regulators and a GA biosynthetic gene, but that these effects are independent. PMID:12481060

  3. The Arabidopsis GAI gene defines a signaling pathway that negatively regulates gibberellin responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, J; Carol, P; Richards, D E; King, K E; Cowling, R J; Murphy, G P; Harberd, N P

    1997-12-01

    The Arabidopsis gai mutant allele confers a reduction in gibberellin (GA) responsiveness. Here we report the molecular cloning of GAI and a closely related gene GRS. The predicted GAI (wild-type) and gai (mutant) proteins differ only by the deletion of a 17-amino-acid segment from within the amino-terminal region. GAI and GRS contain nuclear localization signals, a region of homology to a putative transcription factor, and motifs characteristic of transcriptional coactivators. Genetic analysis indicates that GAI is a repressor of GA responses, that GA can release this repression, and that gai is a mutant repressor that is relatively resistant to the effects of GA. Mutations at SPY and GAR2 suppress the gai phenotype, indicating the involvement of GAI, SPY, and GAR2 in a signaling pathway that regulates GA responses negatively. The existence of this pathway suggests that GA modulates plant growth through derepression rather than through simple stimulation.

  4. In Vivo Gibberellin Biosynthesis in Endosperm of Sechium edule Sw. Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Nello; Lorenzi, Roberto

    1990-01-01

    Biosynthesis of gibberellins (GAs) was studied in vivo in endosperms of Sechium edule Sw. Exogenous ent-[14C]kaurene was metabolized into four major products: GA12, GA4, GA7 and 16, 17-dihydro-16-hydroxy-GA15 alcohol glucoside. Other minor metabolites were also observed including ent-kaurenol and ent-kaurenal. Conversion of ent-[14C]kaurene to ent-kaurenol glucoside by endosperm cell-free preparations in the presence of UDPG was observed. However, the finding was not confirmed in in vivo studies and is probably artifactual. Overall evidence coming from the analysis of endogenous GAs and in vitro and in vivo biosynthetic studies are discussed in relation to the possible existence in the Sechium seeds of a different route, along with the known pathway, branching from ent-kaurene or ent-7-α-hydroxykaurenoic acid and this also leading to biologically active GAs. PMID:16667553

  5. In Vivo Gibberellin Biosynthesis in Endosperm of Sechium edule Sw. Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, N; Lorenzi, R

    1990-07-01

    Biosynthesis of gibberellins (GAs) was studied in vivo in endosperms of Sechium edule Sw. Exogenous ent-[(14)C]kaurene was metabolized into four major products: GA(12), GA(4), GA(7) and 16, 17-dihydro-16-hydroxy-GA(15) alcohol glucoside. Other minor metabolites were also observed including ent-kaurenol and ent-kaurenal. Conversion of ent-[(14)C]kaurene to ent-kaurenol glucoside by endosperm cell-free preparations in the presence of UDPG was observed. However, the finding was not confirmed in in vivo studies and is probably artifactual. Overall evidence coming from the analysis of endogenous GAs and in vitro and in vivo biosynthetic studies are discussed in relation to the possible existence in the Sechium seeds of a different route, along with the known pathway, branching from ent-kaurene or ent-7-alpha-hydroxykaurenoic acid and this also leading to biologically active GAs.

  6. Role of Endogenous Plant Growth Regulators in Seed Dormancy of Avena fatua: II. Gibberellins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, J D

    1983-11-01

    Gibberellin A(1) (GA(1)) was identified by combined gas chromatographymass spectrometry as the major biologically active gibberellin (GA) in seeds of wild oat (Avena fatua L.) regardless of the depth of dormany or stage of imbibition. Both unimbibed dormant and nondromant seeds contained similar amounts of GA(1) as estimated by the d5-maize bioassay. During imbibition, the level of GA(1) declined in both dormant and non-dormant seeds, although the decline was more rapid in dormant seeds. Only in imbibing nondormant seeds did the GA biosynthesis inhibitor, 2-chloroethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (CCC), cause a reduction in the level of GA(1) from that observed in control seeds. These results are interpreted as an indication that while afterripening does not cause a direct change in the levels of GAs during dry storage, it does induce a greater capacity for GA biosynthesis during imbibition.Nondormant seeds imbibed in the presence of 50 millimolar CCC germinated equally as well as untreated seeds. When wild oat plants were fed CCC throughout the entire life cycle, viable seeds were produced that lacked detectable GA-like substances. These seeds afterripened at a slightly slower rate than the controls. Moreover, completely afterripened (nondormant) seeds from plants fed CCC continuously contained no detectable GA-like substances, and when these seeds germinated, dwarf seedlings were produced, indicating GA biosynthesis was inhibited during and after germination. In total, these results suggest that the increased capacity for GA biosynthesis observed in imbibing nondormant seeds is not a necessary prerequisite for germination. It is therefore possible that GA biosynthesis in imbibing nondormant seeds is one of many coordinated biochemical events that occur during germination rather than an initiator of the processes leading to germination.

  7. Molecular Characterization of Three GIBBERELLIN-INSENSITIVE DWARF2 Homologous Genes in Common Wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XueYuan Lou

    Full Text Available F-box protein is a core component of the ubiquitin E3 ligase SCF complex and is involved in the gibberellin (GA signaling pathway. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of GA signaling in wheat, three homologous GIBBERELLIN-INSENSITIVE DWARF2 genes, TaGID2s, were isolated from the Chinese Spring wheat variety. A subcellular localization assay in onion epidermal cells and Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts showed that TaGID2s are localized in the nuclei. The expression profiles using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that TaGID2s were downregulated by GA3. The interaction between TaGID2s and TSK1 (homologous to ASK1 in yeast indicated that TaGID2s might function as a component of an E3 ubiquitin-ligase SCF complex. Yeast two-hybrid assays showed that a GA-independent interaction occurred between three TaGID2s and RHT-A1a, RHT-B1a, and RHT-D1a. Furthermore, TaGID2s interact with most RHT-1s, such as RHT-B1h, RHT-B1i, RHT-D1e, RHT-D1f, etc., but cannot interact with RHT-B1b or RHT-B1e, which have a stop codon in the DELLA motif, resulting in a lack of a GRAS domain. In addition, RHT-B1k has a frame-shift mutation in the VHIID motif leading to loss of the LHRII motif in the GRAS domain and RHT-D1h has a missense mutation in the LHRII motif. These results indicate that TaGID2s, novel positive regulators of the GA response, recognize RHT-1s in the LHRII motif resulting in poly-ubiquitination and degradation of the DELLA protein.

  8. Material recycling; Recycling von Werkstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyerer, P. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Chemische Technologie (ICT), Pfinztal-Berghausen (Germany)]|[Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kunststoffpruefung und Kunststoffkunde (IKP)

    1996-12-01

    , menschliches Leben auf der Erde zu sichern. Die Wiederverwertung (Recycling) von Werkstoffen ist dann ein Beitrag zu nachhaltigem Wirtschaften, wenn fuer Rezyklate weniger Ressourcen und Energien benoetigt werden als fuer Primaerwerkstoffe. Sortenrein gesammelte Werkstoffe nach der Demontage von Produkten ergeben Sekundaer- oder Tertiaer-Produkte mit nahezu gleichen Eigenschaften wie das Primaerprodukt. Unspezifische Werkstoffkreislaeufe in Verbindung mit Grossverfahren wie Shredder, Hydrierung oder Mischmuell-Recycling ergeben Rezyklate von niederer Qualitaet und Kosten, die ueber denen von Primaerwerkstoffen liegen. Insbesondere Kunststoffe aus Produkten (Fernseher, Surfbrett, Auto-Waschmaschine usw.) erfordern und erlauben im Gegensatz zu Metallen, Papier und Glaesern differenzierte Wiederverwertungswege. Die Auswahl der im Sinne des nachhaltigen Wirtschaftens optimalen Wiederverwertung von Werkstoffen erfolgt ueber ganzheitliche Bilanzierungen und Bewertungen. (orig.)

  9. Auswirkungen von Online Vermittlungsportalen auf traditionelle Vermittler der Parahotellerie im Wallis am Beispiel von Airbnb

    OpenAIRE

    Tscherrig, Jessica; Schegg, Roland

    2018-01-01

    Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist, herauszufinden, inwiefern sich das Unternehmen Airbnb von traditionellen Anbietern von Ferienwohnungen unterscheidet. Dafür wurden die Geschäftsmodelle, die Motivation der Teilnehmer sowie der Buchungsprozess untersucht. Anhand von wissenschaftlichen Quellen konnten Hintergrundinformationen zu diesen drei Zielen beschafft werden. Fünf Experteninterviews, ausgewertet nach der Methode von Mayring (2002), dienten dazu, tiefere Einblicke in das jeweilige Un...

  10. Entwicklung und Anwendung von Methoden zur Bestimmung von Selen-Spezies in human-biologischem Material

    OpenAIRE

    Jäger, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Selen ist essentieller Bestandteil von mehr als 25 physiologisch wichtigen menschlichen Enzymen. Der tägliche Bedarf wird überwiegend in Form von organischen Selenverbindungen wie Selenmethionin oder Selenocystein aus der Nahrung aufgenommen. Weitere Expositionswege sind die Einnahme von Nahrungsergänzungsmitteln zur Selensupplementation sowie die inhalative oder dermale Aufnahme von in erster Linie anorganischen Selenverbindungen oder elementarem Selen an Arbeitsplätzen der Selen-verarbeiten...

  11. Dr. von Braun Briefing Walt Disney

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Dr. von Braun began his association with Walt Disney in the 1950s when the rocket scientist appeared in three Disney television productions related to the exploration of space. Years later, Dr. von Braun invited Disney and his associates to tour the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. This photograph is dated April 13, 1965. From left are R.J. Schwinghamer from the MSFC, Disney, B.J. Bernight, and Dr. von Braun.

  12. Versuche zur Gewinnung von katalytischen Antikörpern zur Hydrolyse von Arylcarbamaten und Arylharnstoffen. (English Title: Attempts to produce catalytic antibodies for hydrolysis of arylcarbamates and arylureas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Deljana

    2002-05-01

    Umsatzgeschwindigkeit eine lineare Abhängigkeit festgestellt. Die thermodynamische Gleichtgewichtsdissoziationskonstante KD des Abzyms von 2,6 nM zeugt von einer sehr guten Affinität zum ÜZA. Hydrolytisch aktiv waren nur Antikörper, die gegen das Übergangszustandsanalogon Hei3 hergestellt worden waren. Es wird vermutet, dass die Hydrolyse der Benzylphenylcarbamate über einen Additions-Eliminierungsmechanismus unter Ausbildung eines tetraedrischen Übergangszustandes verläuft, dessen analoge Verbindung Hei3 ist. Im Rahmen der Generierung von Nachweisantikörpern zur Detektion der Substratabnahme bei der Hydrolyse wurden Anti-Diuron-Antikörper hergestellt. Einer der Antikörper (B91-CG5) ist spezifisch für das Herbizid Diuron und hat einen IC50-Wert von 0,19 µg/l und eine untere Nachweisgrenze von 0,04 µg/l. Ein anderer Antikörper (B91-KF5) reagiert kreuz mit einer Palette ähnlicher Herbizide. Mit diesen Antikörpern wurde ein empfindlicher Labortest, der ein Monitoring von Diuron auf Grundlage des durch die Trinkwasserverordnung festgeschriebenen Wertes für Pflanzenschutzmittel von 0,1 µg/l erlaubt, aufgebaut. Der Effekt der Anti-Diuron-Antikörper auf die Diuron-inhibierte Photosynthese wurde in vitro und in vivo untersucht. Es wurde nachgewiesen, dass sowohl in isolierten Thylakoiden, als auch in intakten Algen eine Vorinkubation der Anti-Diuron-Antikörper mit Diuron zur Inaktivierung seiner Photosynthese-hemmenden Wirkung führt. Wurde der Elektronentransport in den isolierten Thylakoiden oder in Algen durch Diuron unterbrochen, so führte die Zugabe der Anti-Diuron-Antikörper zur Reaktivierung der Elektronenübertragung. Attempts to produce catalytic antibodies for hydrolysis of arylcarbamates and arylureas: The aim of the investigations was to produce antibodies which are able to cleave herbicides resistant to naturally occuring enzymes. Structurally similar carbamate and urea derivatives were chosen for the experiments. Phosphonate derivatives were synthesized

  13. Modellierung von Anwenderverhalten im Social Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Armin; Höfler, Patrick; Lindstaedt, Stefanie

    Ziel dieses Kapitels ist es, gemeinsame Verwendungsszenarien des Semantic Web und des Social Web zu identifizieren und zu benennen. Dabei wird ein Teilaspekt des Themengebiets im Detail betrachtet: die Nutzung von Services, die Beobachtungen des Verhaltens von Anwendern analysieren, um daraus maschinell interpretierbare Informationen zu erhalten und diese als Modelle zu organisieren. Es werden zunächst einige Eigenschaften und Unterscheidungsmerkmale von Anwenderverhalten und organisierten Modellen dargestellt. Anschließend wird der mögliche wechselseitige Nutzen von Anwenderverhalten und Modellen diskutiert. Den Abschluss bildet eine Betrachtung einiger exemplarischer Software-Services, die heute schon verwendet werden, um Anwenderverhalten in Modelle überzuführen.

  14. Wahrnehmung und Bewältigung von Konflikten und die Stabilität von Partnerschaften

    OpenAIRE

    Arránz Becker, Oliver; Rüssmann, Kirsten; Hill, Paul B.

    2005-01-01

    "Der vorliegende Beitrag untersucht die Auswirkungen von Konflikten auf die wahrgenommene Stabilität von Partnerschaften. Besonderes Augenmerk wird dabei auf die vermittelnde Rolle von Paarinteraktion und Partnerschaftszufriedenheit gelegt. Weiterhin werden Wechselwirkungen zwischen Konflikten und Paarinteraktionen und deren Folgen für den Partnerschaftserfolg betrachtet. Die Kernthese lautet dabei, dass Konflikte Partnerschaften weniger stark beeinträchtigen, wenn ausreichend 'positive' bzw....

  15. Über die Zetafunktion von Formen von Fermatgleichungen

    OpenAIRE

    Brünjes, Lars

    2002-01-01

    Wir untersuchen 'Formen der Fermatgleichung' über einem zunächst beliebigen Körper K, d.h. homogene Gleichungen vom Grad d in n Variablen, die nach einer linearen Variablensubstitution über dem algebraischen Abschluß von K in die Fermatgleichung X_1^d + ... + X_n^d übergehen. Wir klassifizieren diese Gleichungen mit Hilfe der Methode des Galois-Descent und erhalten, da jede kubische Gleichung in zwei Variablen eine Form der Fermatgleichung ist, insbesondere eine vollständige und explizite Kla...

  16. Cloning of gibberellin 3 beta-hydroxylase cDNA and analysis of endogenous gibberellins in the developing seeds in watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hong-Gyu; Jun, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Joonyul; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Kamiya, Yuji; An, Gynheung

    2002-02-01

    We have isolated Cv3h, a cDNA clone from the developing seeds of watermelon, and have demonstrated significant amino acid homology with gibberellin (GA) 3 beta-hydroxylases. This cDNA clone was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein that oxidized GA(9) and GA(12) to GA(4) and GA(14), respectively. The Cv3h protein had the highest similarity with pumpkin GA 2 beta,3 beta-hydroxylase, but did not possess 2 beta-hydroxylation function. RNA blot analysis showed that the gene was expressed primarily in the inner parts of developing seeds, up to 10 d after pollination (DAP). In the parthenocarpic fruits induced by treatment with 1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-3-phenylurea (CPPU), the embryo and endosperm of the seeds were undeveloped, whereas the integumental tissues, of maternal origin, showed nearly normal development. Cv3h mRNA was undetectable in the seeds of CPPU-treated fruits, indicating that the GA 3 beta-hydroxylase gene was expressed in zygotic cells. In our analysis of endogenous GAs from developing seeds, GA(9) and GA(4) were detected at high levels but those of GA(20) and GA(1) were very low. This demonstrates that GA biosynthesis in seeds prefers a non-13-hydroxylation pathway over an early 13-hydroxylation pathway. We also analyzed endogenous GAs from seeds of the parthenocarpic fruits. The level of bioactive GA(4 )was much lower there than in normal seeds, indicating that bioactive GAs, unconnected with Cv3h, exist in integumental tissues during early seed development.

  17. Metabolism of [3H]Gibberellin A20 by plants of Bryophyllum daigremontianum under long- and short-day conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durley, R.C.; Pharis, R.P.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.

    1975-01-01

    [ 3 H]Gibberellin A 20 ([ 3 H]GA 20 ), a native gibberellin of this plant, was injected into mature leaves of Bryophyllum daigremontianum (Hamet et Perr.) Berg. under long- and short-day conditions. It was converted, in order of decreasing yields, to GA 29 , 3-epi-GA 1 (pseudo GA 1 ), C/D-ring-rearranged GA 20 , and two minor, unidentified metabolites. Identifications were made by gas-liquid chromatography with radioactive monitoring using three different phases. Metabolism to 3-epi-GA 1 was greater under short days, particularly in the treated leaf pair, although the absolute amount of GA 29 was greater than that of 3-epi-GA 1 under both photoperiods. The levels of radioactive metabolites in the shoots above the treated leaf pair gradually increased over a 51-day period, GA 29 reaching 5 times the content of 3-epi-GA 1 . (orig.) [de

  18. Gibberellin-to-abscisic acid balances govern development and differentiation of the nucellar projection of barley grains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weier, D.; Thiel, J.; Kohl, S.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Strnad, Miroslav; Schaarschmidt, S.; Weschke, W.; Weber, H.; Hause, B.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 18 (2014), s. 5291-5304 ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LK21306 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Assimilate transfer * barley endosperm * gibberellin-to- abscisic acid balances Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 5.526, year: 2014

  19. On the issue of higher human sensitivity to carcinogenic substances in early childhood; Zur Frage einer hoeheren Empfindlichkeit von Kindern gegenueber krebserzeugenden Stoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K. [comp.

    1998-09-01

    . Woche: 0%, - Exposition ueber 52 Wochen ab 13. Woche: 22%. Inzidenz Hepatome: - Exposition ueber 4 Wochen ab Tag 1: 47,6%, - Exposition ueber 4 Wochen ab 13. Woche: 0%, - Exposition ueber 52 Wochen ab 13. Woche: 1,7%. (B) Diethylnitrosamin, Dyroff et al., 1986: (DEN + Phenobarbital), Hepatokarzinomen nach Exposition von Ratten ueber 6 Wochen: - beginnend im Alter von 4 Wochen: 100% Inzidenz, - beginnend im Alter von 8 Wochen: 0% Inzidenz. (C) Benz(a)pyren, Vesselinovitch et al., 1975: Lebertumoren nach einmaliger parenteraler Applikation an Ratten: - im Alter von 1 Tag: maennl.: 81% weibl.: 18%, - im Alter von 42 Tagen: maennl.: 9%, weibl.: 0%. Wie die Untersuchung von Maltoni et al. (1981) zu Vinylchlorid zeigt, kann bei gleicher Expositionskonzentration eine Exposition junger Tiere ueber einen kurzen Zeitraum zu einer hoeheren Tumorinzidenz fuehren als das Langzeitexperiment mit erwachsenen Tieren. Fuer alle Stoffe mit Ausnahme von Saccharin wurde eine gentoxische Wirkung nachgewiesen. Dies laesst vermuten, dass der Mechanismus der Kanzerogenese wesentlichen Einfluss auf die Altersabhaengigkeit hat. Dies steht in Einklang mit den mechanistischen Ueberlegungen. (orig.)

  20. Diffusion von Leerstelleninseln auf Cu(111)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, Laurens K.; Schlößer, Dietmar; Rosenfeld, Georg

    1998-01-01

    Die zufällige Bewegung von Leerstelleninseln wurde bisher vorwiegend in einem Bild beschrieben, das von der Diffusion einzelner Atome ausgeht. In diesem Bild kann man Inseldiffusion durch die Einstein-Beziehung für Brownsche Bewegung ((Δ r)2 = 4 D Δ t) beschreiben. Für die Diffusionskonstante D wird

  1. Sociologisk filmanalyse og Lars von Trier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Palle Schantz

    2016-01-01

    En præsentation af filmsociologisk metode med en analyse af, hvilke publikumsgrupper der ser - og ikke ser - Lars von Triers film......En præsentation af filmsociologisk metode med en analyse af, hvilke publikumsgrupper der ser - og ikke ser - Lars von Triers film...

  2. Kultuuriakadeemias saab kaeda Von Krahli ime tabamist

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Marianne Kõrver, Jaak Kilmi, Andres Maimik, Marko Raat, Rainer Sarnet ja Arbo Tammiksaar tegid Eduard Vilde näidendist "Tabamata ime" kuus lühimängufilmi Von Krahli teatris ettekandmiseks. 25. mail tuleb Von Krahli Teater Viljandisse ja näitab teatrifilmi Kultuuriakadeemias

  3. The mitochondrial phosphate transporters modulate plant responses to salt stress via affecting ATP and gibberellin metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhu

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial phosphate transporter (MPT plays crucial roles in ATP production in plant cells. Three MPT genes have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we report that the mRNA accumulations of AtMPTs were up-regulated by high salinity stress in A. thaliana seedlings. And the transgenic lines overexpressing AtMPTs displayed increased sensitivity to salt stress compared with the wild-type plants during seed germination and seedling establishment stages. ATP content and energy charge was higher in overexpressing plants than those in wild-type A. thaliana under salt stress. Accordingly, the salt-sensitive phenotype of overexpressing plants was recovered after the exogenous application of atractyloside due to the change of ATP content. Interestingly, Genevestigator survey and qRT-PCR analysis indicated a large number of genes, including those related to gibberellin synthesis could be regulated by the energy availability change under stress conditions in A. thaliana. Moreover, the exogenous application of uniconazole to overexpressing lines showed that gibberellin homeostasis was disturbed in the overexpressors. Our studies reveal a possible link between the ATP content mediated by AtMPTs and gibberellin metabolism in responses to high salinity stress in A. thaliana.

  4. Gibberellin and cytokinin effects on soybean growth Giberelina e citocinina no crescimento da soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Maximino Leite

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is an important crop in Brazil. Nonetheless, there are no reports on the use of plant growth regulator potential in relation to this crop in the national literature. To better understand the role of these compounds, a pot experiment was carried out to study effects of GA3 and cytokinin on the vegetative growth of the soybean. GA3 (50 mg L-1 was applied as seed treatment, leaving plants with water application as control. GA3 (100 mg L-1 and cytokinin (30 mg L-1 were sprayed on leaves at the physiological stage V3/V4, and 15 days after, cytokinin (30 mg L-1, also as foliar spray. Seed treatment decreased plant emergence and initial soybean root growth, but as the season progressed, differences in root growth disappeared; plants were shorter, and presented a decrease in the number of nodes, in stem diameter, in leaf area and in dry matter yield. Conversely, foliar application of GA3 led to an increase in plant height, first node height and stem diameter. Leaf area and dry matter production also increased as a result of GA3 foliar application. There was no effect of exogenous gibberellin and cytokinin on the number of soybean leaves, number of stem branches and root dry matter. Joint application of gibberellin and cytokinin tended to inhibit gibberellin effects. Cytokinin applied to leaves during soybean vegetative growth was not effective in modifying any of the evaluated plant growth variables.A soja é uma das principais culturas no Brasil, porém não há relatos do potencial de utilização dos fitorreguladores nessa cultura na literatura nacional. Para saber mais sobre estes compostos, um experimento em vasos foi conduzido para estudar o efeito do GA3 e citocinina (CK sobre o crescimento vegetativo e floração da soja. GA3 (50 mg L-1 foi aplicado como tratamento de sementes. Plantas somente com aplicação de água foram aplicadas como controle. Foram feitas duas aplicações foliares, sendo na primeira aplicado 100 mg L-1 de GA3

  5. Hyvolution : Entwicklung eines zweistufigen Bioprozesses zur Produktion von Wasserstoff aus Biomasse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Modigell, M.; Schumacher, M.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Wasserstoff wird aufgrund seines emissionsarmen Oxidationsprozesses als einer der möglichen Energieträger der Zukunft angesehen. Um eine nachhaltige Wirkung auf den Treibhauseffekt zu erzielen, muss aber auch der Energiebedarf des Produktionsprozesses möglichst gering gehalten werden. Das

  6. Lars von Triers billeder rammer os lige i maven

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning

    2016-01-01

    Interview om min forskning i Lars von Triers filmværker i anledning af min bogudgivelse på dansk: Lars von Triers fornyelse af filmen 1984-2014.......Interview om min forskning i Lars von Triers filmværker i anledning af min bogudgivelse på dansk: Lars von Triers fornyelse af filmen 1984-2014....

  7. The Digital Von Fahrenheid Pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bura, M.; Janowski, J.; Wężyk, P.; Zięba, K.

    2017-08-01

    3D Scanners Lab from Digital Humanities Laboratory at the University of Warsaw initiated the scientific project, the purpose of which was to call attention to systematically penetrated and devastated pyramid-shaped tomb from the XVIII/XIX century, of family von Fahrenheid in Rapa in Banie Mazurskie commune (NE Poland). By conducting a series of non-invasive studies, such as 3D inventory using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), thermal imaging, georadar measurements (around and inside the tomb) and anthropological research of mummified remains as well - the complete dataset was collected. Through the integration of terrestrial (TLS) and airborne laser scanning (ALS) authors managed to analyse the surroundings of Fahrenheid pyriamid and influence of some objects (like trees) on the condition and visibility of the Pyramids in the landscape.

  8. Alexander von Humboldt: Biblioteca digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Rebok

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Article in Spanish, Abstracts in English, Spanish and German.This article presents a project for the digitization of the works of Alexander von Humboldt, which is being undertaken in collaboration with the Ignacio Larramendi Foundation. Like other projects of this type, its aim is to utilize modern technology to make a significant part of Humboldt’s legacy available to researchers and other readers, thereby facilitating the study and reading of these works. This project will focus on the Spanish translations that have been undertaken over the years. Humboldt’s works in their original French and German versions will subsequently be included alongside their respective Spanish translations. Finally, this edition will be accompanied by a comprehensive introduction devoted to the history of these Spanish translations and the impact they have had in Spain, as well as to the people who have dedicated themselves to the translation and dissemination of these works in this country.

  9. Renaturierung und Management von Heiden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härdtle, Werner; Assmann, Thorsten; van Diggelen, Rudy; von Oheimb, Goddert

    Heiden zählen zu den ältesten und besonders reizvollen Kulturlandschaften Nordwesteuropas. Sie sind bezeichnend für nährstoffarme Böden in wintermilden Gebieten mit hohen Sommerniederschlägen. Während Heiden vor wenigen Jahrhunderten noch weit verbreitet und für manche Landschaften sogar prägend waren, hat sich ihr Areal heute auf wenige, meist in Naturschutzgebieten gelegene Restbestände verkleinert. Zu diesem Rückgang haben maßgeblich Änderungen der Landnutzung, aber auch Nährstoffeinträge aus umgebenden Agrarflächen und atmogene Depositionen beigetragen. In den meisten Ländern der Europäischen Union sind Heiden heute gesetzlich geschützte Ökosysteme, da diese, neben ihrem Erholungswert für den Menschen, Pflanzen- und Tierarten beherbergen, die außerhalb von Heiden nicht oder kaum überlebensfähig sind.

  10. Khazanah: Friedrich Karl von Savigny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atip Latipulhayat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Friedrich Karl von Savigny (1779-1861 adalah ahli hukum Jerman yang juga dianggap sebagai salah satu Bapak hukum Jerman. Savigny adalah tokoh mazhab sejarah (historical school jurisprudence yang dikembangkannya pada paruh pertama abad ke 19. Dia juga dianggap sebagai pelopor kajian mengenai relasi antara perkembangan hukum dan sosial. Sebagai seorang pemikir hukum yang senantiasa kreatif dalam membuat terobosan-terobosan (trail-blazing legal scientist, Savigny memberikan kontribusi penting dalam perkembangan ilmu hukum dan bahkan terhadap ilmu sosial. Dari sekian banyak kontribusinya antara lain teorinya mengenai kontinuitas antara institusi hukum saat ini dengan institusi hukum masa lalu, meletakkan fondasi bagi kajian sosiologi hukum, dan menegaskan mengenai urgensi metode historis dalam kajian hukum.

  11. MADS-box genes and gibberellins regulate bolting in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingyan Han

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bolting in lettuce is promoted by high temperature and bolting resistance is of great economic importance for lettuce production. But how bolting is regulated at the molecular level remains elusive. Here, a bolting resistant line S24 and a bolting sensitive line S39 were selected for morphological, physiological, transcriptomic and proteomic comparisons. A total of 12204 genes were differentially expressed in S39 vs S24. Line S39 was featured with larger leaves, higher levels of chlorophyll, soluble sugar, anthocyanin and auxin, consistent with its up-regulation of genes implicated in photosynthesis, oxidation-reduction and auxin actions. Proteomic analysis identified 30 differentially accumulated proteins in lines S39 and S24 upon heat treatment, and 19 out of the 30 genes showed differential expression in the RNA-Seq data. Exogenous gibberellins (GA treatment promoted bolting in both S39 and S24, while 12 flowering promoting MADS-box genes were specifically induced in line S39, suggesting that although GA regulates bolting in lettuce, it may be the MADS-box genes, not GA, that plays a major role in differing the bolting resistance between these two lettuce lines.

  12. MADS-Box Genes and Gibberellins Regulate Bolting in Lettuce (Lactuca sativaL.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingyan; Chen, Zijing; Lv, Shanshan; Ning, Kang; Ji, Xueliang; Liu, Xueying; Wang, Qian; Liu, Renyi; Fan, Shuangxi; Zhang, Xiaolan

    2016-01-01

    Bolting in lettuce is promoted by high temperature and bolting resistance is of great economic importance for lettuce production. But how bolting is regulated at the molecular level remains elusive. Here, a bolting resistant line S24 and a bolting sensitive line S39 were selected for morphological, physiological, transcriptomic and proteomic comparisons. A total of 12204 genes were differentially expressed in S39 vs. S24. Line S39 was featured with larger leaves, higher levels of chlorophyll, soluble sugar, anthocyanin and auxin, consistent with its up-regulation of genes implicated in photosynthesis, oxidation-reduction and auxin actions. Proteomic analysis identified 30 differentially accumulated proteins in lines S39 and S24 upon heat treatment, and 19 out of the 30 genes showed differential expression in the RNA-Seq data. Exogenous gibberellins (GA) treatment promoted bolting in both S39 and S24, while 12 flowering promoting MADS-box genes were specifically induced in line S39, suggesting that although GA regulates bolting in lettuce, it may be the MADS-box genes, not GA, that plays a major role in differing the bolting resistance between these two lettuce lines.

  13. Comparison of Effect of Brassinosteroid and Gibberellin Biosynthesis Inhibitors on Growth of Rice Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Matusmoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroid (BR and gibberellin (GA are two predominant plant hormones that regulate plant cell elongation. Mutants disrupt the biosynthesis of these hormones and display different degrees of dwarf phenotypes in rice. Although the role of each plant hormone in promoting the longitudinal growth of plants has been extensively studied using genetic methods, their relationship is still poorly understood. In this study, we used two specific inhibitors targeting BR and GA biosynthesis to investigate the roles of BR and GA in growth of rice seedlings. Yucaizol, a specific inhibitor of BR biosynthesis, and Trinexapac-ethyl, a commercially available inhibitor of GA biosynthesis, were used. The effect of Yucaizol on rice seedlings indicated that Yucaizol significantly retarded stem elongation. The IC50 value was found to be approximately 0.8 μmol/L. Yucaizol also induced small leaf angle phenocopy in rice seedlings, similarly to BR-deficient rice, while Trinexapac-ethyl did not. When Yucaizol combined with Trinexapac-ethyl was applied to the rice plants, the mixture of these two inhibitors retarded stem elongation of rice at lower doses. Our results suggest that the use of a BR biosynthesis inhibitor combined with a GA biosynthesis inhibitor may be useful in the development of new technologies for controlling rice plant height.

  14. Gibberellin overproduction promotes sucrose synthase expression and secondary cell wall deposition in cotton fibers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Qin Bai

    Full Text Available Bioactive gibberellins (GAs comprise an important class of natural plant growth regulators and play essential roles in cotton fiber development. To date, the molecular base of GAs' functions in fiber development is largely unclear. To address this question, the endogenous bioactive GA levels in cotton developing fibers were elevated by specifically up-regulating GA 20-oxidase and suppressing GA 2-oxidase via transgenic methods. Higher GA levels in transgenic cotton fibers significantly increased micronaire values, 1000-fiber weight, cell wall thickness and cellulose contents of mature fibers. Quantitative RT-PCR and biochemical analysis revealed that the transcription of sucrose synthase gene GhSusA1 and sucrose synthase activities were significantly enhanced in GA overproducing transgenic fibers, compared to the wild-type cotton. In addition, exogenous application of bioactive GA could promote GhSusA1 expression in cultured fibers, as well as in cotton hypocotyls. Our results suggested that bioactive GAs promoted secondary cell wall deposition in cotton fibers by enhancing sucrose synthase expression.

  15. 2-Oxoglutarate: linking TCA cycle function with amino acid, glucosinolate, flavonoid, alkaloid, and gibberellin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Wagner L; Martins, Auxiliadora O; Fernie, Alisdair R; Tohge, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) is used as an obligatory substrate in a range of oxidative reactions catalyzed by 2-OG-dependent dioxygenases. These enzymes are widespread in nature being involved in several important biochemical processes. We have recently demonstrated that tomato plants in which the TCA cycle enzyme 2-OG dehydrogenase (2-ODD) was antisense inhibited were characterized by early senescence and modified fruit ripening associated with differences in the levels of bioactive gibberellin (GA). Accordingly, there is now compelling evidence that the TCA cycle plays an important role in modulating the rate of flux from 2-OG to amino acid metabolism. Here we discuss recent advances in the biochemistry and molecular biology of 2-OG metabolism occurring in different biological systems indicating the importance of 2-OG and 2-OG dependent dioxygenases not only in glucosinolate, flavonoid and alkaloid metabolism but also in GA and amino acid metabolism. We additionally summarize recent findings regarding the impact of modification of 2-OG metabolism on biosynthetic pathways involving 2-ODDs.

  16. Divergence and adaptive evolution of the gibberellin oxidase genes in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuan; Wang, Xi; Ge, Song; Rao, Guang-Yuan

    2015-09-29

    The important phytohormone gibberellins (GAs) play key roles in various developmental processes. GA oxidases (GAoxs) are critical enzymes in GA synthesis pathway, but their classification, evolutionary history and the forces driving the evolution of plant GAox genes remain poorly understood. This study provides the first large-scale evolutionary analysis of GAox genes in plants by using an extensive whole-genome dataset of 41 species, representing green algae, bryophytes, pteridophyte, and seed plants. We defined eight subfamilies under the GAox family, namely C19-GA2ox, C20-GA2ox, GA20ox,GA3ox, GAox-A, GAox-B, GAox-C and GAox-D. Of these, subfamilies GAox-A, GAox-B, GAox-C and GAox-D are described for the first time. On the basis of phylogenetic analyses and characteristic motifs of GAox genes, we demonstrated a rapid expansion and functional divergence of the GAox genes during the diversification of land plants. We also detected the subfamily-specific motifs and potential sites of some GAox genes, which might have evolved under positive selection. GAox genes originated very early-before the divergence of bryophytes and the vascular plants and the diversification of GAox genes is associated with the functional divergence and could be driven by positive selection. Our study not only provides information on the classification of GAox genes, but also facilitates the further functional characterization and analysis of GA oxidases.

  17. Identification of anther-specific/predominant genes regulated by gibberellin during development of lily anthers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yi-Feng; Tzeng, Jhih-Deng; Liu, Ming-Che; Yei, Fung-Ling; Chung, Mei-Chu; Wang, Co-Shine

    2008-01-01

    We successfully identify anther-specific/predominant genes induced by gibberellin (GA) at the microspore stage of lily (Lilium longiflorum) anthers. We used a suppression-subtractive hybridization strategy to identify 22 individual cDNAs followed by a reverse RNA dot plot to determine their specificities at the microspore stage. Of the 22 genes, 12 are clearly anther-specific and three are anther-predominant. Sequence analysis revealed that five anther-specific/predominant genes are novel. The transcripts of anther-specific/predominant genes were differentially detected at the microspore development phase; some began accumulating in level as early as the occurrence of meiosis. When uniconazole, an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis was applied in young lily plants we found that all of the anther-specific/predominant genes, with the exception of LLA-139, were up-regulated by GAs in the anther while only some were responsive to the exogenous addition of 100 microM GA3. In situ hybridization with antisense riboprobes of selected genes in the anther showed a strong signal localized to the tapetal layer. The different actions of GA on gene expression in anthers are discussed.

  18. Salinity Inhibits Rice Seed Germination by Reducing α-Amylase Activity via Decreased Bioactive Gibberellin Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination plays important roles in the establishment of seedlings and their subsequent growth; however, seed germination is inhibited by salinity, and the inhibitory mechanism remains elusive. Our results indicate that NaCl treatment inhibits rice seed germination by decreasing the contents of bioactive gibberellins (GAs, such as GA1 and GA4, and that this inhibition can be rescued by exogenous bioactive GA application. To explore the mechanism of bioactive GA deficiency, the effect of NaCl on GA metabolic gene expression was investigated, revealing that expression of both GA biosynthetic genes and GA-inactivated genes was up-regulated by NaCl treatment. These results suggest that NaCl-induced bioactive GA deficiency is caused by up-regulated expression of GA-inactivated genes, and the up-regulated expression of GA biosynthetic genes might be a consequence of negative feedback regulation of the bioactive GA deficiency. Moreover, we provide evidence that NaCl-induced bioactive GA deficiency inhibits rice seed germination by decreasing α-amylase activity via down-regulation of α-amylase gene expression. Additionally, exogenous bioactive GA rescues NaCl-inhibited seed germination by enhancing α-amylase activity. Thus, NaCl treatment reduces bioactive GA content through promotion of bioactive GA inactivation, which in turn inhibits rice seed germination by decreasing α-amylase activity via down-regulation of α-amylase gene expression.

  19. 2-Oxoglutarate: linking TCA cycle function with amino acid, glucosinolate, flavonoid, alkaloid and gibberellin biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner L. Araújo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle intermediate 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG is used as an obligatory substrate in a range of oxidative reactions catalyzed by 2-OG-dependent dioxygenases. These enzymes are widespread in nature being involved in several important biochemical processes. We have recently demonstrated that tomato plants in which the TCA cycle enzyme 2-OG dehydrogenase (2-ODD was antisense inhibited were characterized by early senescence and modified fruit ripening associated with differences in the levels of bioactive gibberellin (GA. Accordingly, there is now compelling evidence that the TCA cycle plays an important role in modulating the rate of flux from 2-OG to amino acid metabolism. Here we discuss recent advances in the biochemistry and molecular biology of 2-OG metabolism occurring in different biological systems indicating the importance of 2-OG and 2-OG dependent dioxygenases not only in glucosinolate, flavonoid and alkaloid metabolism but also in GA and amino acid metabolism. We additionally summarize recent findings regarding the impact of modification of 2-OG metabolism on biosynthetic pathways involving 2-ODDs.

  20. CHANGES IN THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ‘PRATA’ BANANA TREATED WITH CYTOKININ AND GIBBERELLIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIANA DOMINGUES LIMA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Plant growth regulators can influence fruit yield and quality. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of cytokinin and gibberelin on the agronomic and physicochemical characteristics of banana fruits cv. ‘Prata’ (Musa spp. AAB, according to the formation period and position in the bunch. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized 2 x 5 factorial design, two periods of bunch development (summer and winter, five treatments and ten replicates. To study the effect of position in the bunch, split plot was adopted, considering in the plot, 2 x 5 factorial and in subplots, hand 1, hand 4 and last hand. Treatments consisted of 2 pulverizations with water, 150 mg L-1 cytokinin, 200 mg L-1 of gibberellic acid, 100 mg L-1 of cytokinin plus 200 mg L-1 of gibberellic acid and 200 mg L-1 of cytokinin plus 200 mg L-1 of gibberellic acid, applied from the fourth to the last hand of the bunch. Cytokinin and gibberellin, alone or associated, regardless of formation period and position, did not affect the size and physicochemical characteristics of fruits, only delayed the bunch harvest.

  1. [Mutual Effect on Determination of Gibberellins and Glyphosate in Groundwater by Spectrophotometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Chen, Liang; Liu, Fei

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, a spectrophotometry method for the simultaneous determination of gibberellins (GA3) and glyphosate in groundwater was established and optimized. In addition, the mutual effect on simultaneous determination of GA3 and glyphosate was studied. Based on the experiment, good linearity (R2 > 0.99) was obtained for GA3 in the range of 0-20 and 0-100 µg and for glyphosate in the range of 0-8 and 5-15 µg. The method's detection limit (MDL) of GA3 and glyphosate was 0.48 and 0.82 µg, respectively; and the recovery rates of 15 to 150 µg GA3 and 3 to 10 µg glyphosate in all samples at a spiked level were 71.3% ± 1.9% and 98.4% ± 8.1%, respectively. No obvious influence of glyphosate (0-100 mg · L(-1)) on the recovery rates of GA3 was observed, but the presence of glyphosate could cause slight determination precision decrease of GA3. Meanwhile, adding 2 mg · L(-1) GA3 can increase the recovery rate of glyphosate.

  2. Exploring the response of rice (Oryza sativa) leaf to gibberellins: a proteomic strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqin; Han, Feng; Yang, Mingfeng; Yang, Pingfang; Shen, Shihua

    2013-07-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are plant-specific hormones that play a central role in the regulation of growth and development with respect to environmental variability. Plants respond to GAs signal through various biochemical and physiological processes. To better understand the response for GA signal, we carried out a proteomic study in rice (Oryza sativa L. spp. japonica) leaf. Through two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectroscopy analysis, we identified 61 proteins as GA-responsive. These proteins were annotated in various biological functions, such as signal transduction and cell growth/division, photosynthesis and energy metabolism, protein stability and defense. Among these, photosynthetic proteins decreased while many catabolic proteins increased. In addition, GA up-regulated a variety of cell growth/division, protein stability and defense proteins such as cell division cycle protein 48, molecular chaperones, and catalases. This is the first report that cell division cycle protein 48 may be responsible for leaf expansion after leaf sensing GA signal. The results presented here provide new insight into the mechanism of rice leaf in response to GA signal.

  3. In vivo gibberellin biosynthesis in endosperm of Sechium edule Sw. seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceccarelli, N.; Lorenzi, R. (Universita degli Studi, Pisa (Italy))

    1990-07-01

    Biosynthesis of gibberellins (GAs) was studied in vivo in endosperms of Sechium edule Sw. Exogenous ent-({sup 14}C)kaurene was metabolized into four major products: GA{sub 12}, GA{sub 4}, GA{sub 7} and 16,17-dihydro-16-hydroxy-GA{sub 15} alcohol glucoside. Other minor metabolites were also observed including ent-kaurenol and ent-kaurenal. Conversion of ent-({sup 14}C)kaurene to ent-karuenol glucoside by endosperm cell-free preparations in the presence of UDPG was observed. However, the finding was not confirmed in in vivo studies and is probably artifactual. Overall evidence coming from the analysis of endogenous GAs and in vitro and in vivo biosynthetic studies are discussed in relation to the possible existence in the Sechium seeds of a different route, along with the known pathway, branching from ent-kaurene or ent-7-{alpha}-hydroxykaurenoic acid and this also leading to biologically active GAs.

  4. Phytochrome, Gibberellins, and Hypocotyl Growth (A Study Using the Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) long hypocotyl Mutant).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Juez, E.; Kobayashi, M.; Sakurai, A.; Kamiya, Y.; Kendrick, R. E.

    1995-01-01

    The possible involvement of gibberellins (GAs) in the regulation of hypocotyl elongation by phytochrome was examined. Under white light the tall long hypocotyl (lh) cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) mutant, deficient in a type B-like phytochrome, shows an increased "responsiveness" (defined as response capability) to applied GA4 (the main endogenous active GA) compared to the wild type. Supplementing far-red irradiation results in a similar increase in responsiveness in the wild type. Experiments involving application of the precursor GA9 and of an inhibitor of GA4 inactivation suggest that both the GA4 activation and inactivation steps are phytochrome independent. Endogenous GA levels of whole seedlings were analyzed by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using deuterated internal standards. The levels of GA4 (and those of GA34, the inactivated GA4) were lower in the lh mutant under low-irradiance fluorescent light compared with the wild type, similar to wild type under higher irradiance light during the initial hypocotyl extension phase, and higher during the phase of sustained growth, in which extension involved an increase in the number of cells in the upper region. In all cases, growth of the lh mutant was more rapid than that of the wild type. It is proposed that GA4 and phytochrome control cell elongation primarily through separate mechanisms that interact at a step close to the terminal response. PMID:12228348

  5. Sugar Repression of a Gibberellin-Dependent Signaling Pathway in Barley Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perata, P.; Matsukura, C.; Vernieri, P.; Yamaguchi, J.

    1997-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that sugars can act as signals affecting plant metabolism and development. Some of the effects of sugars on plant growth and development suggest an interaction of sugar signals with hormonal regulation. We investigated the effects of sugars on the induction of [alpha]-amylase by gibberellic acid in barley embryos and aleurone layers. Our results show that sugar and hormonal signaling interact in the regulation of gibberellic acid-induced gene expression in barley grains. The induction of [alpha]-amylase by gibberellic acid in the aleurone layer is unaffected by the presence of sugars, but repression by carbohydrates is effective in the embryo. [alpha]-Amylase expression in the embryo is localized to the scutellar epithelium and is hormone and sugar modulated. The effects of glucose are independent from the effects of sugars on gibberellin biosynthesis. They are not due to an osmotic effect, they are independent of abscisic acid, and only hexokinase-phosphorylatable glucose analogs are able to trigger gene repression. Overall, the results suggest the existence of an interaction between the hormonal and metabolic regulation of [alpha]-amylase genes in barley grains. PMID:12237356

  6. Karrikins delay soybean seed germination by mediating abscisic acid and gibberellin biogenesis under shaded conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yongjie; Chen, Feng; Shuai, Haiwei; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ding, Jun; Tang, Shengwen; Xu, Shuanshuan; Liu, Jianwei; Liu, Weiguo; Du, Junbo; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Feng; Sun, Xin; Yong, Taiwen; Wang, Xiaochun; Feng, Yuqi; Shu, Kai; Yang, Wenyu

    2016-01-01

    Karrikins (KAR) are a class of signal compounds, discovered in wildfire smoke, which affect seed germination. Currently, numerous studies have focused on the model plant Arabidopsis in the KAR research field, rather than on crops. Thus the regulatory mechanisms underlying KAR regulation of crop seed germination are largely unknown. Here, we report that KAR delayed soybean seed germination through enhancing abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, while impairing gibberellin (GA) biogenesis. Interestingly, KAR only retarded soybean seed germination under shaded conditions, rather than under dark and white light conditions, which differs from in Arabidopsis. Phytohormone quantification showed that KAR enhanced ABA biogenesis while impairing GA biosynthesis during the seed imbibition process, and subsequently, the ratio of active GA4 to ABA was significantly reduced. Further qRT-PCR analysis showed that the transcription pattern of genes involved in ABA and GA metabolic pathways are consistent with the hormonal measurements. Finally, fluridone, an ABA biogenesis inhibitor, remarkably rescued the delayed-germination phenotype of KAR-treatment; and paclobutrazol, a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, inhibited soybean seed germination. Taken together, these evidences suggest that KAR inhibit soybean seed germination by mediating the ratio between GA and ABA biogenesis. PMID:26902640

  7. Jacob Stael von Holstein ja palladionism eesti arhitektuuris / Ants Hein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hein, Ants, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    Sõjaväeinsenerist ja arhitektist Jacob Stael von Holsteinist (1628, Pärnu-1679), tema kavandatud hoonetest ja rollist 17. sajandi II poole arhitektuuris. Fabian von Ferseni Toompeal Lossiplatsil asunud elamust (lammutati 1894) ja Maardu mõisahoonest, Hans von Ferseni Mäo mõisahoonest Järvamaal, Otto Wilhelm von Ferseni majast Toompeal, Axel von Roseni majast Tallinnas Pikk t. 28 (1670-74), Otto Reinhold von Taube majast Tartus (hävinud), J. S. von Holsteini enda hoonetest: majast Tallinnas Toompea 1, Anija mõisahoonest, elamust Riias jm. Bibliograafia lk. 452

  8. Untersuchungen von UAV Technologien im DLR

    OpenAIRE

    Schütte, Andreas; Hanke, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Untersuchungen von UCAV Technologien im DLR Die Eckpunkte für die Entwicklung von UCAV-Konfigurationen definiert ein möglicher Bedarf der Luftwaffen an UCAV‘s (Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle) ab 2020. Diese Eckpunkte sind folgende: • voraussichtliche Entwicklungszeit: 8-10 Jahre • Einsatzzweck: Bekämpfung von mobilen Zielen zu Lande und in der Luft • Maximale Überlebensfähigkeit durch hohe Manövrierfähigkeit und Faserverbundleichtbau • passive Gegenmaßnahmen (minimale Signatur...

  9. Indikatorenbasierte Bewertung von Entwurfsentscheidungen auf Systemebene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freier, M.; Wenzler, A.; Mayer, T.; Gerlach, J.; Rosenstiel, W.

    2013-07-01

    Bei dem Entwurf von anwendungsspezifischen integrierten Schaltungen muss ein Entwickler zusätzliche Funktionen integrieren und die zunehmende Komplexität bewältigen. Für die Reduzierung der Kosten bleibt weiterhin die Verkürzung der benötigten Entwicklungszeit ein Ziel. Ein entscheidender Faktor dabei ist die zuverlässige Absicherung von Entwurfsentscheidungen in einer frühen Entwurfsphase. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird eine Methode vorgestellt, die eine Bewertung von Entwurfsentscheidungen bei Systemmodellen mittels automatisch ermittelter Indikatoren ermöglichen soll. Die Systemmodelle können mit der Entwurfsumgebung MATLAB/Simulink oder in SystemC beschrieben sein.

  10. Neues über das Tertiär von Java und die mesozoischen Schichten von West-Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, K.

    1888-01-01

    Die Monographie, welche unter dem Titel Die Fossilien von Java herausgegeben wird ¹), ist so weit fortgeschritten, dass sich aus den in ihr beschriebenen Gastropoden bereits eine Anzahl von Schlussfolgerungen ableiten lässt, welche für die in Bearbeitung begriffene, geologische Karte von Java von

  11. Eine Analyse des Zusammenhangs zwischen dem Konsum von Alkopops und dem Problemverhalten von Jugendlichen

    OpenAIRE

    Metzner, Cornelia Beate Isabel

    2007-01-01

    Zielsetzung: In dieser Arbeit wird untersucht, ob bei Jugendlichen ein Zusammenhang zwischen dem Konsum von Alkopops einerseits und dem sonstigen Alkoholtrinkverhalten, dem Konsum von Zigaretten und illegalen Drogen sowie weiteren Risikoverhaltensweisen andererseits besteht, ferner ob sich Unterschiede im Verhalten von Jungen und Mädchen ergeben. Theoretischer und empirischer Hintergrund: �Alkopops�, d. h. Mischgetränke diverser Hersteller aus Likör bzw. Schnaps und Limonade sowie wein- ...

  12. Carl Von Clausewitz: Two Letters on Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paret, Peter; Moran, Daniel

    1984-01-01

    This edition of Carl von Clausewitz's Two Letters on Strategy was made possible by the Army War College Foundation and by the Art of War Colloquium of the Army War College, which sponsors the volume...

  13. Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 6. Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer: A Pioneer of Synthetic Organic Chemistry. Gopalpur Nagendrappa. General Article Volume 19 Issue 6 June 2014 pp 489-522 ...

  14. Von Onlineplattformen und mittelalterlichen Märkten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudius Gräbner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mit der zunehmenden Digitalisierung und Vernetzung ökonomischer Systeme haben plattformbasierte Interaktionsbeziehungen stark an Bedeutung gewonnen. Hier werden zwei oder mehr Nutzungsgruppen durch eine dritte Seite, die Plattform, zusammengebracht. Die Interaktion wird in solchen zweiseitigen Märkten von den Plattformbetreibern kontrolliert. Kreditkartensysteme, Softwaremärkte oder werbefinanzierte Online-Communities stellen typische Beispiele dar. Da die Analyse von zweiseitigen Märkten mit Gleichgewichtsmodellen aufgrund der algebraischen Struktur des Problems in der Regel nicht praktikabel ist, präsentieren wir im vorliegenden Beitrag ein agentenbasiertes Modell, welches in einem kürzlich erschienenen Artikel ausführlicher diskutiert wird. Anhand von illustrativen Beispielen verdeutlichen wir die Implikationen eines agentenbasierten Ansatzes für die Innovationsökonomik im Allgemeinen und das Studium von Technologieentwicklung im Besonderen.

  15. The classification problem for von Neumann factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasyk, R.; Törnquist, Asger Dag

    2009-01-01

    We prove that it is not possible to classify separable von Neumann factors of types II, II or III, 0 ≤ λ ≤ 1, up to isomorphism by a Borel measurable assignment of "countable structures" as invariants. In particular the isomorphism relation of type II factors is not smooth. We also prove...... that the isomorphism relation for von Neumann II factors is analytic, but is not Borel....

  16. Hullud päevad von Krahlis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Von Krahli Teatris mängitakse neil päevi neli korda Peeter Jalaka lavastuses Tõnu Kõrvitsa kammeroopereid "Tuliaed" ja "Mu luiged, mu mõtted", mille aluseks on luuletaja Marie Heibergi saatus. Libreto autor on Maarja Kangro. Kammerooperid tulevad lavale Von Krahli Teatri ja Nargen Opera koostöös. Esitavad Kädy Plaas, Helen Lokuta, Nargen Opera koor ja Tallinna Kammerorkester, dirigent Tõnu Kaljuste

  17. 50th birthday of Christian von Ferber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available On May 15, 2011 Christian von Ferber - member of the Editorial Board of "Condensed Matter Physics" and renowned expert in the fields of soft matter physics and complex systems - celebrated his 50th birthday. The Editorial board of CMP, colleagues and friends warmy congratulate Christian von Ferber and wish him and his family continuing good health and to enjoy many adventures and discoveries in his future scientific travels!

  18. Die induzierbare antivirale Immunantwort von Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, Cordula

    2010-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde Drosophila melanogaster als Modell ge- nutzt, um die angeborene Immunantwort gegen virale Infektionen zu studie- ren. Wir untersuchten mit Hilfe von genomweiten microarrays das Transkriptom von Fliegen, welche entweder mit dem Drosophila C Virus (DCV), dem Flock- house Virus (FHV) oder dem Sindbis Virus (SINV) infiziert waren. Infektion mit diesen drei positiv orientierten Einzelstrang RNS Viren führte zu einer starken transkriptionellen Antwort, welche deutlic...

  19. Visualisierung von typisierten Links in Linked Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Neubauer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Das Themengebiet der Arbeit behandelt Visualisierungen von typisierten Links in Linked Data. Die wissenschaftlichen Gebiete, die im Allgemeinen den Inhalt des Beitrags abgrenzen, sind das Semantic Web, das Web of Data und Informationsvisualisierung. Das Semantic Web, das von Tim Berners Lee 2001 erfunden wurde, stellt eine Erweiterung zum World Wide Web (Web 2.0 dar. Aktuelle Forschungen beziehen sich auf die Verknüpfbarkeit von Informationen im World Wide Web. Um es zu ermöglichen, solche Verbindungen wahrnehmen und verarbeiten zu können sind Visualisierungen die wichtigsten Anforderungen als Hauptteil der Datenverarbeitung. Im Zusammenhang mit dem Sematic Web werden Repräsentationen von zuhammenhängenden Informationen anhand von Graphen gehandhabt. Der Grund des Entstehens dieser Arbeit ist in erster Linie die Beschreibung der Gestaltung von Linked Data-Visualisierungskonzepten, deren Prinzipien im Rahmen einer theoretischen Annäherung eingeführt werden. Anhand des Kontexts führt eine schrittweise Erweiterung der Informationen mit dem Ziel, praktische Richtlinien anzubieten, zur Vernetzung dieser ausgearbeiteten Gestaltungsrichtlinien. Indem die Entwürfe zweier alternativer Visualisierungen einer standardisierten Webapplikation beschrieben werden, die Linked Data als Netzwerk visualisiert, konnte ein Test durchgeführt werden, der deren Kompatibilität zum Inhalt hatte. Der praktische Teil behandelt daher die Designphase, die Resultate, und zukünftige Anforderungen des Projektes, die durch die Testung ausgearbeitet wurden.

  20. Stamen-derived bioactive gibberellin is essential for male flower development of Cucurbita maxima L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta Lange, Maria João; Knop, Nicole; Lange, Theo

    2012-04-01

    Gibberellin (GA) signalling during pumpkin male flower development is highly regulated, including biosynthetic, perception, and transduction pathways. GA 20-oxidases, 3-oxidases, and 2-oxidases catalyse the final part of GA synthesis. Additionally, 7-oxidase initiates this part of the pathway in some cucurbits including Cucurbita maxima L. (pumpkin). Expression patterns for these GA-oxidase-encoding genes were examined by competitive reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and endogenous GA levels were determined during pumpkin male flower development. In young flowers, GA20ox3 transcript levels are high in stamens, followed by high levels of the GA precursor GA(9). Later, just before flower opening, transcript levels for GA3ox3 and GA3ox4 increase in the hypanthium and stamens, respectively. In the stamen, following GA3ox4 expression, bioactive GA(4) levels rise dramatically. Accordingly, catabolic GA2ox2 and GA2ox3 transcript levels are low in developing flowers, and increase in mature flowers. Putative GA receptor GID1b and DELLA repressor GAIPb transcript levels do not change in developing flowers, but increase sharply in mature flowers. Emasculation arrests floral development completely and leads to abscission of premature flowers. Application of GA(4) (but not of its precursors GA(12)-aldehyde or GA(9)) restores normal growth of emasculated flowers. These results indicate that de novo GA(4) synthesis in the stamen is under control of GA20ox3 and GA3ox4 genes just before the rapid flower growth phase. Stamen-derived bioactive GA is essential and sufficient for male flower development, including the petal and the pedicel growth.

  1. ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA HOMEOBOX25 uncovers a role for Gibberellins in seed longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueso, Eduardo; Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Campos, Francisco; Brunaud, Veronique; Martínez, Liliam; Sayas, Enric; Ballester, Patricia; Yenush, Lynne; Serrano, Ramón

    2014-02-01

    Seed longevity is crucial for agriculture and plant genetic diversity, but it is limited by cellular damage during storage. Seeds are protected against aging by cellular defenses and by structures such as the seed coat. We have screened an activation-tagging mutant collection of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and selected four dominant mutants with improved seed longevity (isl1-1D to isl4-1D) under both natural and accelerated aging conditions. In the isl1-1D mutant, characterized in this work, overexpression of the transcription factor ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA HOMEOBOX25 (ATHB25; At5g65410) increases the expression of GIBBERELLIC ACID3-OXIDASE2, encoding a gibberellin (GA) biosynthetic enzyme, and the levels of GA1 and GA4 are higher (3.2- and 1.4-fold, respectively) in the mutant than in the wild type. The morphological and seed longevity phenotypes of the athb25-1D mutant were recapitulated in transgenic plants with moderate (4- to 6-fold) overexpression of ATHB25. Simultaneous knockdown of ATHB25, ATHB22, and ATHB31 expression decreases seed longevity, as does loss of ATHB25 and ATHB22 function in a double mutant line. Seeds from wild-type plants treated with GA and from a quintuple DELLA mutant (with constitutive GA signaling) are more tolerant to aging, providing additional evidence for a role of GA in seed longevity. A correlation was observed in several genotypes between seed longevity and mucilage formation at the seed surface, suggesting that GA may act by reinforcing the seed coat. This mechanism was supported by the observation of a maternal effect in reciprocal crosses between the wild type and the athb25-1D mutant.

  2. Isolation and characterisation of a dwarf rice mutant exhibiting defective gibberellins biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, S H; Gururani, M A; Lee, J W; Ahn, B-O; Chun, S-C

    2014-03-01

    We have isolated a severe dwarf mutant derived from a Ds (Dissociation) insertion mutant rice (Oryza sativa var. japonica c.v. Dongjin). This severe dwarf phenotype, has short and dark green leaves, reduced shoot growth early in the seedling stage, and later severe dwarfism with failure to initiate flowering. When treated with bioactive GA3 , mutants are restored to the normal wild-type phenotype. Reverse transcription PCR analyses of 22 candidate genes related to the gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis pathway revealed that among 22 candidate genes tested, a dwarf mutant transcript was not expressed only in one OsKS2 gene. Genetic analysis revealed that the severe dwarf phenotype was controlled by recessive mutation of a single nuclear gene. The putative OsKS2 gene was a chromosome 4-located ent-kaurene synthase (KS), encoding the enzyme that catalyses an early step of the GA biosynthesis pathway. Sequence analysis revealed that osks2 carried a 1-bp deletion in the ORF region of OsKS2, which led to a loss-of-function mutation. The expression pattern of OsKS2 in wild-type cv Dongjin, showed that it is expressed in all organs, most prominently in the stem and floral organs. Morphological characteristics of the dwarf mutant showed dramatic modifications in internal structure and external morphology. We propose that dwarfism in this mutant is caused by a point mutation in OsKS2, which plays a significant role in growth and development of higher plants. Further investigation on OsKS2 and other OsKS-like proteins is underway and may yield better understanding of the putative role of OsKS in severe dwarf mutants. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. Gibberellin mediates daylength-controlled differentiation of vegetative meristems in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytönen, Timo; Elomaa, Paula; Moritz, Thomas; Junttila, Olavi

    2009-02-11

    Differentiation of long and short shoots is an important developmental trait in several species of the Rosaceae family. However, the physiological mechanisms controlling this differentiation are largely unknown. We have studied the role of gibberellin (GA) in regulation of shoot differentiation in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cv. Korona. In strawberry, differentiation of axillary buds to runners (long shoot) or to crown branches (short shoot) is promoted by long-day and short-day conditions, respectively. Formation of crown branches is a prerequisite for satisfactory flowering because inflorescences are formed from the apical meristems of the crown. We found that both prohexadione-calcium and short photoperiod inhibited runner initiation and consequently led to induction of crown branching. In both cases, this correlated with a similar decline in GA1 level. Exogenous GA3 completely reversed the effect of prohexadione-calcium in a long photoperiod, but was only marginally effective in short-day grown plants. However, transfer of GA3-treated plants from short days to long days restored the normal runner formation. This did not occur in plants that were not treated with GA3. We also studied GA signalling homeostasis and found that the expression levels of several GA biosynthetic, signalling and target genes were similarly affected by prohexadione-calcium and short photoperiod in runner tips and axillary buds, respectively. GA is needed for runner initiation in strawberry, and the inhibition of GA biosynthesis leads to the formation of crown branches. Our findings of similar changes in GA levels and in GA signalling homeostasis after prohexadione-calcium and short-day treatments, and photoperiod-dependent responsiveness of the axillary buds to GA indicate that GA plays a role also in the photoperiod-regulated differentiation of axillary buds. We propose that tightly regulated GA activity may control induction of cell division in subapical tissues of axillary

  4. Gibberellin mediates daylength-controlled differentiation of vegetative meristems in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Thomas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentiation of long and short shoots is an important developmental trait in several species of the Rosaceae family. However, the physiological mechanisms controlling this differentiation are largely unknown. We have studied the role of gibberellin (GA in regulation of shoot differentiation in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. cv. Korona. In strawberry, differentiation of axillary buds to runners (long shoot or to crown branches (short shoot is promoted by long-day and short-day conditions, respectively. Formation of crown branches is a prerequisite for satisfactory flowering because inflorescences are formed from the apical meristems of the crown. Results We found that both prohexadione-calcium and short photoperiod inhibited runner initiation and consequently led to induction of crown branching. In both cases, this correlated with a similar decline in GA1 level. Exogenous GA3 completely reversed the effect of prohexadione-calcium in a long photoperiod, but was only marginally effective in short-day grown plants. However, transfer of GA3-treated plants from short days to long days restored the normal runner formation. This did not occur in plants that were not treated with GA3. We also studied GA signalling homeostasis and found that the expression levels of several GA biosynthetic, signalling and target genes were similarly affected by prohexadione-calcium and short photoperiod in runner tips and axillary buds, respectively. Conclusion GA is needed for runner initiation in strawberry, and the inhibition of GA biosynthesis leads to the formation of crown branches. Our findings of similar changes in GA levels and in GA signalling homeostasis after prohexadione-calcium and short-day treatments, and photoperiod-dependent responsiveness of the axillary buds to GA indicate that GA plays a role also in the photoperiod-regulated differentiation of axillary buds. We propose that tightly regulated GA activity may control

  5. Gibberellin mediates daylength-controlled differentiation of vegetative meristems in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytönen, Timo; Elomaa, Paula; Moritz, Thomas; Junttila, Olavi

    2009-01-01

    Background Differentiation of long and short shoots is an important developmental trait in several species of the Rosaceae family. However, the physiological mechanisms controlling this differentiation are largely unknown. We have studied the role of gibberellin (GA) in regulation of shoot differentiation in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) cv. Korona. In strawberry, differentiation of axillary buds to runners (long shoot) or to crown branches (short shoot) is promoted by long-day and short-day conditions, respectively. Formation of crown branches is a prerequisite for satisfactory flowering because inflorescences are formed from the apical meristems of the crown. Results We found that both prohexadione-calcium and short photoperiod inhibited runner initiation and consequently led to induction of crown branching. In both cases, this correlated with a similar decline in GA1 level. Exogenous GA3 completely reversed the effect of prohexadione-calcium in a long photoperiod, but was only marginally effective in short-day grown plants. However, transfer of GA3-treated plants from short days to long days restored the normal runner formation. This did not occur in plants that were not treated with GA3. We also studied GA signalling homeostasis and found that the expression levels of several GA biosynthetic, signalling and target genes were similarly affected by prohexadione-calcium and short photoperiod in runner tips and axillary buds, respectively. Conclusion GA is needed for runner initiation in strawberry, and the inhibition of GA biosynthesis leads to the formation of crown branches. Our findings of similar changes in GA levels and in GA signalling homeostasis after prohexadione-calcium and short-day treatments, and photoperiod-dependent responsiveness of the axillary buds to GA indicate that GA plays a role also in the photoperiod-regulated differentiation of axillary buds. We propose that tightly regulated GA activity may control induction of cell division in

  6. ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA HOMEOBOX25 Uncovers a Role for Gibberellins in Seed Longevity1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueso, Eduardo; Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Campos, Francisco; Brunaud, Veronique; Martínez, Liliam; Sayas, Enric; Ballester, Patricia; Yenush, Lynne; Serrano, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    Seed longevity is crucial for agriculture and plant genetic diversity, but it is limited by cellular damage during storage. Seeds are protected against aging by cellular defenses and by structures such as the seed coat. We have screened an activation-tagging mutant collection of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and selected four dominant mutants with improved seed longevity (isl1-1D to isl4-1D) under both natural and accelerated aging conditions. In the isl1-1D mutant, characterized in this work, overexpression of the transcription factor ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA HOMEOBOX25 (ATHB25; At5g65410) increases the expression of GIBBERELLIC ACID3-OXIDASE2, encoding a gibberellin (GA) biosynthetic enzyme, and the levels of GA1 and GA4 are higher (3.2- and 1.4-fold, respectively) in the mutant than in the wild type. The morphological and seed longevity phenotypes of the athb25-1D mutant were recapitulated in transgenic plants with moderate (4- to 6-fold) overexpression of ATHB25. Simultaneous knockdown of ATHB25, ATHB22, and ATHB31 expression decreases seed longevity, as does loss of ATHB25 and ATHB22 function in a double mutant line. Seeds from wild-type plants treated with GA and from a quintuple DELLA mutant (with constitutive GA signaling) are more tolerant to aging, providing additional evidence for a role of GA in seed longevity. A correlation was observed in several genotypes between seed longevity and mucilage formation at the seed surface, suggesting that GA may act by reinforcing the seed coat. This mechanism was supported by the observation of a maternal effect in reciprocal crosses between the wild type and the athb25-1D mutant. PMID:24335333

  7. Association genetics and transcriptome analysis reveal a gibberellin-responsive pathway involved in regulating photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jianbo; Tian, Jiaxing; Du, Qingzhang; Chen, Jinhui; Li, Ying; Yang, Xiaohui; Li, Bailian; Zhang, Deqiang

    2016-05-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) regulate a wide range of important processes in plant growth and development, including photosynthesis. However, the mechanism by which GAs regulate photosynthesis remains to be understood. Here, we used multi-gene association to investigate the effect of genes in the GA-responsive pathway, as constructed by RNA sequencing, on photosynthesis, growth, and wood property traits, in a population of 435 Populus tomentosa By analyzing changes in the transcriptome following GA treatment, we identified many key photosynthetic genes, in agreement with the observed increase in measurements of photosynthesis. Regulatory motif enrichment analysis revealed that 37 differentially expressed genes related to photosynthesis shared two essential GA-related cis-regulatory elements, the GA response element and the pyrimidine box. Thus, we constructed a GA-responsive pathway consisting of 47 genes involved in regulating photosynthesis, including GID1, RGA, GID2, MYBGa, and 37 photosynthetic differentially expressed genes. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based association analysis showed that 142 SNPs, representing 40 candidate genes in this pathway, were significantly associated with photosynthesis, growth, and wood property traits. Epistasis analysis uncovered interactions between 310 SNP-SNP pairs from 37 genes in this pathway, revealing possible genetic interactions. Moreover, a structural gene-gene matrix based on a time-course of transcript abundances provided a better understanding of the multi-gene pathway affecting photosynthesis. The results imply a functional role for these genes in mediating photosynthesis, growth, and wood properties, demonstrating the potential of combining transcriptome-based regulatory pathway construction and genetic association approaches to detect the complex genetic networks underlying quantitative traits. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights

  8. The gene pat-2, which induces natural parthenocarpy, alters the gibberellin content in unpollinated tomato ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fos, M; Nuez, F; García-Martínez, J L

    2000-02-01

    We investigated the role of gibberellins (GAs) in the effect of pat-2, a recessive mutation that induces facultative parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) using near-isogenic lines with two different genetic backgrounds. Unpollinated wild-type Madrigal (MA/wt) and Cuarenteno (CU/wt) ovaries degenerated, but GA(3) application induced parthenocarpic fruit growth. On the contrary, parthenocarpic growth of MA/pat-2 and CU/pat-2 fruits, which occurs in the absence of pollination and hormone application, was not affected by GA(3). Pollinated MA/wt and parthenocarpic MA/pat-2 ovary development was negated by paclobutrazol, and this inhibitory effect was counteracted by GA(3). The main GAs of the early-13-hydroxylation pathway (GA(1), GA(3), GA(8), GA(19), GA(20), GA(29), GA(44), GA(53), and, tentatively, GA(81)) and two GAs of the non-13-hydroxylation pathway (GA(9) and GA(34)) were identified in MA/wt ovaries by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring. GAs were quantified in unpollinated ovaries at flower bud, pre-anthesis, and anthesis. In unpollinated MA/pat-2 and CU/pat-2 ovaries, the GA(20) content was much higher (up to 160 times higher) and the GA(19) content was lower than in the corresponding non-parthenocarpic ovaries. The application of an inhibitor of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases suggested that GA(20) is not active per se. The pat-2 mutation may increase GA 20-oxidase activity in unpollinated ovaries, leading to a higher synthesis of GA(20), the precursor of an active GA.

  9. Thrombosis and von Willebrand Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Minoo

    2017-01-01

    One of the key players in both hemostasis and thrombosis is von Willebrand factor (vWF), which demonstrates a duality between these two processes. Thrombus is structured by numerous elements, including endothelial cells, platelets, plasma proteins and shear stress alteration. In circulation, once a vessel wall is injured, collagen is exposed and platelets attach to the site of injury. Accordingly, vWF mediates adherence of platelets to the damaged vessel wall by binding both to the collagen and platelet receptor. A growing body of data also indicates a role for neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in human thrombosis as scaffolds for vWF, promoting thrombosis. VWF also mediates the protection of factor VIII, a main cofactor of the intrinsic clotting pathway. Since vWF plays a critical role in both thrombotic and bleeding events, a decreased plasma level of this factor may point to a bleeding disorder, while an elevated plasma level may predict occurrence of thrombosis. Since thrombotic events are the foremost cause of death, inhibiting the vWF activity would be a novel prophylaxis to reduce these events. Though, accumulated data have made vWF a promising focus for research on cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This chapter, however, aims to clarify the role of vWF in thrombus formation and pathogenesis of thrombosis.

  10. Effects of long-term exposure to raod traffic imissions on the pathogenesis of diseases of the skin and respiratory tract in children; Auswirkungen langfristiger Expositionen gegenueber Strassenverkehrsimissionen auf die Entwicklung von Haut- und Atemwegserkrankungen bei Kindern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ising, H. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany); Lange-Asschenfeldt, H. [Bundesministerium fuer Gesundheit, Berlin (Germany); Lieber, G.F.; Weinhold, H.; Eilts, M.

    2002-10-01

    einer Kombinationsbelastung aus verkehrsbedingten Luftverschmutzungen und Laerm auf das Risiko fuer allergische Haut- und Atemwegserkrankungen bei Kindern untersucht. Die aerztlichen Diagnosen von 400 Kindern im Alter von 5-12 Jahren, die innerhalb eines Monats einen der beiden teilnehmenden Kinderaerzte aufsuchten, wurden zusammen mit Angaben der Eltern ueber die Verkehrsbelastung ihrer Wohnungen und ueber andere moegliche Einflussfaktoren ausgewertet. Multiple Regressionsanalysen ergaben fuer Asthma, chronische Bronchitis und Neurodermitis relative Risiken, die mit der Belastung signifikant anstiegen. Ein Vergleich mit der Literatur ueber entsprechende Wirkungen von Luftverschmutzung ergab, dass naechtlicher Verkehrslaerm wahrscheinlich eine verstaerkende (adjuvante) Wirkung bei der Entstehung der genannten Krankheiten hat. (orig.)

  11. Effects of increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations on transpiration of a wheat field in consideration of water and nitrogen limitation; Die Wirkung von erhoehten atmosphaerischen CO{sub 2}-Konzentrationen auf die Transpiration eines Weizenbestandes unter Beruecksichtigung von Wasser- und Stickstofflimitierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman-Clarke, S.

    2000-09-01

    Primary responses of C{sub 3}-plants to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations are an increase in the net assimilation rate, leading to greater biomass, and an associated decrease in the transpiration rate per unit leaf area due to CO{sub 2}-induced stomatal closure. The question has therefore arisen: does canopy transpiration increase because of the greater biomass, or decrease because of the stomatal closure? The direct impact of an elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration of 550 {mu}mol mol{sup -1} on the seasonal course of canopy transpiration of a spring wheat crop was investigated by means of the simulation model DEMETER for production under unlimited water and nutrient supply, production under limited water but unlimited nutrient supply and the production under unlimited water but limited nitrogen supply. Independent data of the free-air carbon dioxide enrichment wheat experiments in Arizona, USA (1993-96) were used to test if the model is able to make reasonable predictions of water use and productivity of the spring wheat crop using only parameters derived from the literature. A model integrating leaf photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and energy fluxes between the plant and the atmosphere was scaled to a canopy level in order to be used in the wheat crop growth model. Temporal changes of the model parameters were considered by describing them as dependent on the changing leaf nitrogen content. Comparison of the simulation and experimental results showed that the applicability of the model approach was limited after anthesis by asynchronous changes in mesophyll and stomatal conductance. Therefore a new model approach was developed describing the interaction between assimilation rate and stomatal conductance during grain filling. The simulation results revealed only small differences in the cumulative sum of canopy transpiration and soil evaporation between elevated CO{sub 2} and control conditions. For potential growth conditions the model simulated a slightly lower water use under elevated CO{sub 2}, while water limitation lead to a slightly higher water use due to the relative increase in root biomass and hence water availability. Under nitrogen limitation elevated CO{sub 2} lead to a stronger decrease of water use than under adequate nitrogen supply. The simulation results confirm the experimental findings that water limitation increases and nitrogen limitation decreases the CO{sub 2}-effect. The qualitative as well as the quantitative behavior of the wheat crop under elevated CO{sub 2} was successfully described by the model for the three production conditions, which makes it possible to use the model with higher confidence for predictions about the future behavior of the crop. (orig.)

  12. Effectiveness of new techniques for the extraction of fine particles from the flue gas of wood-fired boilers; Wirksamkeit neuer Abscheidetechniken in Holzfeuerungsabgasen bezueglich Feinpartikeln. Praxiserhebung zur Wirkung von Sekundaermassnahmen auf die Staubemissionen von Holzfeuerungen unter spezieller Beruecksichtigung des Feinpartikelausstosses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaegauf, Ch.; Schmid, M. [Oekozentrum Langenbruck, Langenbruck (Switzerland); Jenni, A. [Ardens GmbH, Liestal(Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) and the Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests, and Landscape (SAEFL) presents the results of a project carried out by the Centre for Appropriate Technology and Social Ecology, Langenbruck, Switzerland. The project investigated the efficiency of various ways of filtering nano-sized particulate matter (PM) out of the flue gases of wood-fired boilers. The two analytical methods used to monitor PM emissions are described, as are the seven different wood-combustion systems tested along with three different methods of exhaust gas treatment. The results of the investigations, which showed that electrostatic and fabric filter systems displayed a very high particle removal efficiency, are presented. The mechanisms that probably led to the particularly high removal efficiency noted for nano-particles are discussed.

  13. Plant-specific Histone Deacetylases HDT½ Regulate GIBBERELLIN 2-OXIDASE 2 Expression to Control Arabidopsis Root Meristem Cell Number

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huchen

    2017-08-31

    Root growth is modulated by environmental factors and depends on cell production in the root meristem (RM). New cells in the meristem are generated by stem cells and transit-amplifying cells, which together determine RM cell number. Transcription factors and chromatin-remodelling factors have been implicated in regulating the switch from stem cells to transit-amplifying cells. Here we show that two Arabidopsis thaliana paralogs encoding plant-specific histone deacetylases, HDT1 and HDT2, regulate a second switch from transit-amplifying cells to expanding cells. Knockdown of HDT½ (hdt1,2i) results in an earlier switch and causes a reduced RM cell number. Our data show that HDT½ negatively regulate the acetylation level of the C19-GIBBERELLIN 2-OXIDASE 2 (GA2ox2) locus and repress the expression of GA2ox2 in the RM and elongation zone. Overexpression of GA2ox2 in the RM phenocopies the hdt1,2i phenotype. Conversely, knockout of GA2ox2 partially rescues the root growth defect of hdt1,2i. These results suggest that by repressing the expression of GA2ox2, HDT½ likely fine-tune gibberellin metabolism and they are crucial for regulating the switch from cell division to expansion to determine RM cell number. We propose that HDT½ function as part of a mechanism that modulates root growth in response to environmental factors.

  14. Privatiserung von Geschichte. Probleme einer differenzierten Aufarbeitung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birthe Kundrus

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Ausgangspunkt der Untersuchung von Vera Neumann ist die These, daß im Krieg Erlebtes und Erlittenes in den Wiederaufbau- und Wirtschaftswunderjahren Westdeutschlands einem Thematisierungstabu unterlegen sei. Anhand von 50 Interviews, die in den 80er Jahren im Rahmen des von Lutz Niethammer geleiteten Projekts „Lebensgeschichte und Sozialgeschichte im Ruhrgebiet 1930–1960“ (LUSIR entstanden sind und die sie jetzt anhand der Tonbandprotokolle und Abschriften ein zweites Mal auswertet, möchte die Historikerin diese Verschüttungen aufspüren. Im Anschluß an Niethammers These der „Privatisierung von Geschichte“ will sie zeigen, daß seelische und körperliche Kriegsfolgen wie Deprivations- und Überlastungsgefühle, der Verlust von Angehörigen und Kriegsbeschädigungen „privatisiert“, d.h. an die Familien übertragen wurden. Dort seien dann in erster Linie die weiblichen Familienmitglieder mit der Versorgungs- und Pflegearbeit konfrontiert worden. An vier Fallbeispiele schließt sich eine detaillierte Auswertung des gesamten Interviewmaterials an. Diesen Teilen folgt ein Abschnitt zur staatlichen Kriegsopferversorgung in der frühen Bundesrepublik.

  15. Sulfation of von Willebrand factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carew, J.A.; Browning, P.J.; Lynch, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    von Willebrand factor (vWF) is a multimeric adhesive glycoprotein essential for normal hemostasis. We have discovered that cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells incorporate inorganic sulfate into vWF. Following immunoisolation and analysis by polyacrylamide or agarose gel electrophoresis, metabolically labeled vWF was found to have incorporated [35S]-sulfate into all secreted multimer species. The time course of incorporation shows that sulfation occurs late in the biosynthesis of vWF, near the point at which multimerization occurs. Quantitative analysis suggests the presence, on average, of one molecule of sulfate per mature vWF subunit. Virtually all the detectable sulfate is released from the mature vWF subunit by treatment with endoglycosidases that remove asparagine-linked carbohydrates. Sulfated carbohydrate was localized first to the N-terminal half of the mature subunit (amino acids 1 through 1,365) by partial proteolytic digestion with protease V8; and subsequently to a smaller fragment within this region (amino acids 273 through 511) by sequential digestions with protease V8 and trypsin. Thus, the carbohydrate at asparagine 384 and/or 468 appears to be the site of sulfate modification. Sodium chlorate, an inhibitor of adenosine triphosphate-sulfurylase, blocks sulfation of vWF without affecting either the ability of vWF to assemble into high molecular weight multimers or the ability of vWF multimers to enter Weible-Palade bodies. The stability of vWF multimers in the presence of an endothelial cell monolayer also was unaffected by the sulfation state. Additionally, we have found that the cleaved propeptide of vWF is sulfated on asparagine-linked carbohydrate

  16. Doença de von Willebrand e anestesia Enfermedad de von Willebrand y anestesia Von Willebrand's disease and anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Timbó Barbosa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A doença de von Willebrand ocorre devido à mutação no cromossomo 12 e é caracterizada por deficiência qualitativa ou quantitativa do fator de von Willebrand. A diversidade de mutações leva ao aparecimento das mais variadas manifestações clínicas possibilitando a divisão dos pacientes em vários tipos e subtipos clínicos. A coagulopatia se manifesta basicamente através da disfunção plaquetária associada à diminuição dos níveis séricos do fator VIII coagulante. O objetivo dessa revisão foi mostrar os cuidados relacionados aos pacientes portadores da doença de von Willebrand durante o período perioperatório. CONTEÚDO: Foram definidas as características da doença de von Willebrand quanto à fisiopatologia, à classificação, ao diagnóstico laboratorial, ao tratamento atual e aos cuidados com o manuseio do paciente no período perioperatório. CONCLUSÕES: A doença de von Willebrand é o distúrbio hemorrágico hereditário mais comum, porém ela é subdiagnosticada pela complexidade da própria doença. A correta classificação do paciente, o uso apropriado da desmopressina e a transfusão do fator de von Willebrand são medidas fundamentais para a realização do procedimento anestésico bem-sucedido.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La enfermedad de von Willebrand ocurre debido a la mutación en el cromosoma 12 y se caracteriza por la deficiencia cualitativa o cuantitativa del factor de von Willebrand. La diversidad de mutaciones conlleva al aparecimiento de las más variadas manifestaciones clínicas posibilitando la división de los pacientes en varios tipos y subtipos clínicos. La coagulopatía se manifiesta básicamente a través de la disfunción plaquetaria asociada con la disminución de los niveles séricos del factor VIII coagulante. El objetivo de esa revisión fue mostrar los cuidados relacionados con las pacientes portadoras de la enfermedad de von Willebrand durante el per

  17. Transcriptional mechanisms associated with seed dormancy and dormancy loss in the gibberellin-insensitive sly1-2 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    While widespread transcriptome changes have been previously observed with seed dormancy loss, this study specifically characterized transcriptional changes associated with the increased seed dormancy and dormancy loss of the gibberellin (GA) hormone-insensitive sleepy1-2 (sly1-2) mutant. The SLY1 g...

  18. Increased Nicotiana tabacum fitness through positive regulation of carotenoid, gibberellin and chlorophyll pathways promoted by Daucus carota lycopene β-cyclase (Dclcyb1) expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, J C; Cerda, A; Simpson, K; Lopez-Diaz, I; Carrera, E; Handford, M; Stange, C

    2016-04-01

    Carotenoids, chlorophylls and gibberellins are derived from the common precursor geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP). One of the enzymes in carotenoid biosynthesis is lycopene β-cyclase (LCYB) that catalyzes the conversion of lycopene into β-carotene. In carrot, Dclcyb1 is essential for carotenoid synthesis in the whole plant. Here we show that when expressed in tobacco, increments in total carotenoids, β-carotene and chlorophyll levels occur. Furthermore, photosynthetic efficiency is enhanced in transgenic lines. Interestingly, and contrary to previous observations where overexpression of a carotenogenic gene resulted in the inhibition of the synthesis of gibberellins, we found raised levels of active GA4 and the concommitant increases in plant height, leaf size and whole plant biomass, as well as an early flowering phenotype. Moreover, a significant increase in the expression of the key carotenogenic genes, Ntpsy1, Ntpsy2 and Ntlcyb, as well as those involved in the synthesis of chlorophyll (Ntchl), gibberellin (Ntga20ox, Ntcps and Ntks) and isoprenoid precursors (Ntdxs2 and Ntggpps) was observed. These results indicate that the expression of Dclcyb1 induces a positive feedback affecting the expression of isoprenoid gene precursors and genes involved in carotenoid, gibberellin and chlorophyll pathways leading to an enhancement in fitness measured as biomass, photosynthetic efficiency and carotenoid/chlorophyll composition. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  19. Identification and localization of gibberellins in maturing seeds of the cucurbit Sechium edule, and a comparison between this cucurbit and the legume Phaseolus coccineus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albone, K S; Gaskin, P; Macmillan, J; Sponsel, V M

    1984-12-01

    Twenty known gibberellins (GAs) have been identified by combined capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in extracts from less than 10 g fresh weight of maturing seeds of the cucurbit Sechium edule Sw. The GAs are predominantly 3- and-or 13-hydroxylated. This is the first reported identification of non-conjugated 13-hydroxylated GAs in a cucurbit. Gibberellin A8 and gibberellin A8-catabolite are the major GAs in terms of quantity and are largely accumulated in the testa. The catabolites of 2β-hydroxylated GAs are α,β-unsaturated ketones which no longer possess of a γ-lactone. They were hitherto known only in legumes. The presence of GA8-catabolite as a major component of Sechium seeds indicates that the distribution of these GA-catabolites may be more widespread than previously envisaged. The localization of known GAs in maturing seeds of the legume Phaseolus coccineus L. was found to resemble closely that in Sechium. Gibberellin A8, a putative conjugate of GA8 and GA8-catabolite are accumulated in the testa. The localization in the testa of end-products of the GA-biosynthetic pathway, which was first observed in maturing seeds of Pisum sativum, and is now described in Phaseolus and Sechium, may be a general feature of seed development.

  20. Gemeinsam hilfreich oder einsam lästig? Beurteilung von praktikumsbegleitenden Weblogs von angehenden Lehrpersonen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nives Egger

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Weblogs werden an Hochschulen vermehrt zur Unterstützung von Lern- und Reflexionsprozessen eingesetzt, in der Lehrer/innenbildung auch zunehmend während der berufspraktischen Ausbildung. Die Studierenden beurteilen den Einsatz von Weblogs jedoch unterschiedlich. Dabei ist wenig bekannt, welchen Einfluss die Vergabe und das Erhalten von Peerfeedback auf den Beurteilungsprozess von praktikumsbegleitenden Weblogs sowie auf den Umfang von Blogpostings haben. Im folgenden Beitrag wird dieser Frage mittels einer Befragung von 74 angehenden Lehrpersonen nachgegangen, die praktikumsbegleitende Weblogs mit oder ohne Peerfeedback nutzten, um über herausfordernde Ereignisse im Praktikum zu reflektieren. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass Studierende, die Peerfeedback erhielten und andere Blogbeiträge kommentierten, den Weblogeinsatz nützlicher einschätzen sowie eine höhere Motivation und positivere Einstellung gegenüber den Einsatz von Weblogs aufweisen als Studierende, die ohne Peerfeedback bloggen. Keinen Einfluss hat Peerfeedback auf den Umfang der Blogbeiträge und auf die dafür aufgewendete Zeit.

  1. Borel reductibility and classification of von neumann algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasyk, R.; Törnquist, Asger Dag

    2009-01-01

    We announce some new results regarding the classification problem for separable von Neumann algebras. Our results are obtained by applying the notion of Borel reducibility and Hjorth's theory of turbulence to the isomorphism relation for separable von Neumann algebras....

  2. Kerttu Wagner. Die historischen romane von Jaan Kross / Wolfgang Drechsler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Drechsler, Wolfgang, 1963-

    2001-01-01

    Arvustus: Wagner, Kerttu. Die historischen Romane von Jaan Kross : am Beispiel einer Untersuchung der deutschen und englischen Übersetzungen von "Professor Martensi ärasõit" (1984). Frankfurt am Main [etc.] : P. Lang, 2001.

  3. Gasification of liquid manure; Vergasung von Guelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudenau, H.W.; Hoberg, H.; Hirsch, U. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Eisenhuettenkunde

    1996-12-31

    The potential of thermal use of liquid manure is investigated. It is recommended to separate the liquid and solid fraction. While the liquid fraction can be used as fertilizer, the solid fraction can be used for generating a fuel gas for combined heat and power generation. (orig) [Deutsch] Die Untersuchungen haben ergeben, dass in der thermischen Verwertung von Guelle ein bisher nur wenig genutztes Potential vorliegt. Die zum Anbau von Getreide notwendige Duengung kann durch Separation von Guelle in Fest- und Duennfraktion effektiver und kostenguenstiger durchgefuehrt werden. Der Naehrstoffgehalt des Guellefeststoffs sollte durch thermische Aufbereitung aufkonzentriert werden, so dass eine Vermarktung auch mit laengeren Transpoertwegen darstellbar ist. Die bei der thermischen Behandlung gewonnene Waerme kann prozessintern genutzt und ueberschuessige Waerme an Abnehmer in der naeheren Umgebung geliefert werden. Genauso besteht die Moeglichkeit, ein Brenngas zu erzeugen und die Energie mit Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung zu nutzen. (orig)

  4. [Clinical medicine of P. F. von Siebold].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, A

    1995-03-01

    The author elucidates some aspects of the clinical medicine of P.F. von Siebold (1796-1866) by studying a manuscript titled "Rampō-kuden, namely, dictative teaching of Dutch medicine by P.F. von Siebold", which has not been studied enough yet. From this manuscript the author considers the descriptions about cancers, gynecological diseases, syphilitic diseases, urinary diseases, ophthalmic diseases, skin diseases, pulmonary diseases, gastrointestinal diseases and osteo-articular diseases, and thereby shows the concepts and therapeutic techniques of P.F. von Siebold regarding these diseases. To make his therapeutics more clearly understood, the author comments on blood-letting, opiates, emetics, purgatives, peruvian bark, digitalis, physiotherapy, abdominal paracentesis and surgical operations written in this manuscript.

  5. Transcriptional regulatory programs underlying barley germination and regulatory functions of Gibberellin and abscisic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Seed germination is a complex multi-stage developmental process, and mainly accomplished through concerted activities of many gene products and biological pathways that are often subjected to strict developmental regulation. Gibberellins (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) are two key phytohormones regulating seed germination and seedling growth. However, transcriptional regulatory networks underlying seed germination and its associated biological pathways are largely unknown. Results The studies examined transcriptomes of barley representing six distinct and well characterized germination stages and revealed that the transcriptional regulatory program underlying barley germination was composed of early, late, and post-germination phases. Each phase was accompanied with transcriptional up-regulation of distinct biological pathways. Cell wall synthesis and regulatory components including transcription factors, signaling and post-translational modification components were specifically and transiently up-regulated in early germination phase while histone families and many metabolic pathways were up-regulated in late germination phase. Photosynthesis and seed reserve mobilization pathways were up-regulated in post-germination phase. However, stress related pathways and seed storage proteins were suppressed through the entire course of germination. A set of genes were transiently up-regulated within three hours of imbibition, and might play roles in initiating biological pathways involved in seed germination. However, highly abundant transcripts in dry barley and Arabidopsis seeds were significantly conserved. Comparison with transcriptomes of barley aleurone in response to GA and ABA identified three sets of germination responsive genes that were regulated coordinately by GA, antagonistically by ABA, and coordinately by GA but antagonistically by ABA. Major CHO metabolism, cell wall degradation and protein degradation pathways were up-regulated by both GA and seed

  6. Bau eines besseren Krankenhauses. Wertschöpfendes Management & Planung von Immobilien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan van der Zwart

    2015-06-01

    zu definieren, um die Ziele der Interessenvertreter festzustellen, um sie Nachhinein (nachträglich in der Gestaltung zu überprüfen. Diese Untersuchung der Mehrwerte von Krankenhausimmobilien zeigt, dass das Konzept der Wertschöpfung durch Immobilien zu der Praxis von Krankenhäusern passt, die jüngst ein neues Krankenhausgebäude geplant und konstruiert haben. Die Anwendung der Mehrwerte von Immobilien aus der CREM-Literatur auf die Konstruktion neuer Krankenhäuser in den Niederlanden resultierte in einer sektorspezifischen Definition der Mehrwerte der Krankenhausimmobilie und einer Kategorisierung in drei Gruppen. Die erste Gruppe besteht aus Nutzerwerten, wie zum Beispiel die Förderung der Organisationskultur und Patienten- und Mitarbeiterzufriedenheit. Diese Gruppe wird gefolgt durch die eher strategisch orientierten Produktionswerte, wie beispielsweise die Verbesserung der Produktivität, Reduzierung von Einrichtungskosten und die Flexibilität, die physikalische Umgebung an neue Gesundheitsvorsorgeprozesse anzupassen. Die dritte Gruppe umfasst Zukunftswerte, z.B. das Erscheinungsbild des Gebäudes, Nachhaltigkeit, immobilienbezogene Risiken und Möglichkeiten für die Nutzung des finanziellen Werts der Immobilie für die Finanzierung von Hauptprozessen. Zusätzlich zur Definition der Mehrwerte der Krankenhausimmobilie wurde die Wert-Wirkung-Matrix (Tabelle 3 entwickelt, die neun Arten von Mehrwerten (Tabelle 2 mit den Interessen und Bedürfnissen der Interessenvertreter mit Hilfe von vier Perspektiven auf die Immobilie verknüpft: strategisch, finanziell, funktional und physikalisch. Die Wert-Wirkung-Matrix wurde entwickelt, um die Anpassung zwischen den Hauptthemen der Organisation für den Erfolg, den Mehrwerten der Immobilie und den unterschiedlichen Perspektiven der Interessenvertreter auf die Immobilie zu unterstützen. Dieses Instrument ermöglicht es, die Immobilienmehrwerte aus verschiedenen Perspektiven auf die Immobilie (strategisch, finanziell

  7. [Anja Wilhelmi. Lebensweltlen von Frauen der deutschen Oberschicht im Baltikum (1800-1939). Eine Untersuchung anhand von Autobiographien] / Alexander Ewig

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ewig, Alexander, 1980-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Wilhelmi, Anja. Lebenswelten von Frauen der deutschen Oberschicht im Baltikum (1800-1939). Eine Untersuchung anhand von Autobiographien. (Veröffentlichungen des Nordost-Instituts, 10.) (Wiesbaden : HArrassowitz 2008)

  8. Optimisation of pollutant separation and tenside recovery from water/tenside/pollutant mixtures; Optimierung der Schadstoffabtrennung sowie der Rueckgewinnung von Tensiden aus Wasser-Tensid-Schadstoff Mischungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memminger, B.

    2001-01-01

    Hydraulic in-situ remediation technologies have recently become more and more important for removing underground contamination especially in urban districts. To enhance the traditional pump-and-treat, substances such as surfactants can be used which not only dissolve but also mobilize the contaminants. For this method to be cost effective, an optimized waste water treatment is essential. On the one hand the contaminants are to be removed from the extracted ground water and on the other hand the surfactants are to be recycled for re-use in the remediation procedure. So far adsorption of contaminants on activated carbon has been applied to reach this goals. In the frame of this diploma thesis however, more efficient and more economical alternatives to the adsorption method were to be investigated. For this, three different separating techniques to treat water-surfactant-contaminant mixtures containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) as model substances were examined: a membrane technique by using an entrainer on the permeate side, the so called pertraction, the solvent extraction with petroleum ether as a solvent and the adsorption with other adsorbents. (orig.) [German] Hydraulische in-situ Sanierungsverfahren erfahren derzeit im Rahmen der Altlastenbearbeitung eine zunehmende Bedeutung zur Beseitigung von Untergrundkontaminationen, vor allem in innerstaedtischen Bereichen. Um die traditionelle 'pump and treat'-Methode zu optimieren, koennen Hilfsstoffe wie Loesungsvermittler, z.B. Tenside, eingesetzt werden, die eine sowohl solubilisierende als auch mobilisierende Wirkung auf die Schadstoffe haben. Um dieses Verfahren kosteneffektiv zu gestalten, ist eine optimierte Abwasseraufbereitung gefordert. Dabei sind zum einen die Schadstoffe aus dem extrahierten Grundwasser abzutrennen und zum anderen die Tenside fuer das Verfahren zurueckzugewinnen. Zum bisher dafuer angewandten Adsorptionsverfahren unter Einsatz von Aktivkohle sollten im Rahmen dieser

  9. Experimental investigations on inlet flow of ducted turbines. A contribution to turbine intake optimization; Experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Anstroemung von Rohrturbinen. Ein Beitrag zur Optimierung des Turbineneinlaufes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godde, D. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Obernach (Germany). Versuchsanstalt fuer Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft (Oskar-von-Miller-Institut)

    1994-12-31

    In the borderline region between hydraulic engineering and turbine technology, a wide range of conjectures on cause-effect relationships in connection with turbine inflow have existed for quite some time. It is remarkable that these conjectures, which are partly based on observations and `a feeling for hydraulics`, have not as yeet been subject to scientific scrutiny. This is more the remarkable when one considers the requirements specified by turbine manufacturers concerning the quality of the intake flow based upon such uncertain conjectures. However, extensive contructional measures are sometimes necessary to satisfy these requirements, which are also formulated in general terms in numerous publications. Within the scope of this treatise the new investigations in this field - at a model and a turbine test rig - concentrate on the separating pier, the trash rack and the adjoining convergence channel in the intake region of bulb turbines. The experimental results serve to clarify a number of relationships, partly negate or confirm previous assumptions and relativize some of the requirements. Although the results must be assessed in the light of model-specific restrictions and the characteristics of the turbines tested, they are nevertheless generally applicable to a certain degree owing to the wide scope of the investigations. (AKF) [Deutsch] Im Grenzbereich zwischen Wasserbau und Turbinentechnologie besteht seit geraumer Zeit zu Fragen der Turbinenanstroemung eine Reihe von Vermutungen ueber Ursache-Wirkung-Zusammenhaenge. Es ist bemerkenswert, dass diese zum Teil auf Beobachtungen und `hydraulischem Gefuehl` basierenden Deutungen bisher keiner wissenschaftlichen Ueberpruefung unterzogen wurden. Das ist um so bemerkenswerter, als auf der Grundlage solcher unsicheren Vermutungen seitens der Turbinenhersteller nun Anforderungen an die Stroemungsqualitaet im Einlaufbereich erhoben werden. Es erfordert aber mitunter grossen baulichen Aufwand, diese Forderungen zu

  10. Spectral theory and quotients in Von Neumann algebras | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this note we consider to what extent the functional calculus and the spectral theory in von Neumann algebras are preserved by the taking of quotients relative to two-sided ideals of the von Neumann algebra. Keywords:von Neumann algebra, functional calculus, spectral theory, quotient algebras. Quaestiones ...

  11. Catalytically supported reduction of emissions from small-scale biomass furnace systems; Katalytisch unterstuetzte Minderung von Emissionen aus Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Ingo; Lenz, Volker; Schenker, Marian; Thiel, Christian [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Kraus, Markus; Matthes, Mirjam; Roland, Ulf [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung GmbH - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany); Bindig, Rene; Einicke, Wolf-Dietrich [Leipzig Univ. (Germany)

    2011-06-29

    Einhaltung der Grenzwerte geeignet. Dagegen werden im Praxisbetrieb die Schadgasemissionen ohne sekundaere Massnahmen im Normalfall ueberschritten. Die durchgefuehrten experimentellen Untersuchungen zeigen, dass eine Minderung sowohl von CO als auch von organischen Verbindungen durch katalytische Nachverbrennung moeglich ist. Neben der Entwicklung speziell adaptierter Katalysatoren ist es aber notwendig, durch kombinierte Verfahren eine zusaetzliche Staubabscheidung zu erzielen, da herkoemmliche Katalysatoren nicht zur Abscheidung und Zurueckhaltung von Feinstaeuben geeignet sind bzw. ihre Aktivitaet durch Staubablagerungen auf der aktiven Oberflaeche verlieren wuerden, wenn sie gleichzeitig als Filter fungieren muessten. Um ausreichend hohe Reaktionstemperaturen und damit eine Totaloxidation der Schadstoffe zu ermoeglichen, ist im Regelfall eine externe Beheizung, vorzugsweise ueber elektrische Verfahren, notwendig. Damit lassen sich die Schadgasemissionen vor allem in den kritischen An-und Ausbrandphasen weiter senken. Die Untersuchungen zeigen jedoch auch, dass weiterhin ein erheblicher Forschungsbedarf vorhanden ist, um ausreichend aktive und langzeitstabile Katalysatoren verfuegbar zu machen. Die aufgebaute Versuchsanlage erlaubt die Untersuchung der Wirkung und der Alterungserscheinungen von zu charakterisierenden Katalysatoren unter praxisnahen Bedingungen. Die elektrostatische Vorabscheidung der Staeube kann die Staubbelastung des Katalysators deutlich reduzieren. Damit laesst sich eine Verblockung des freien Stroemungsquerschnittes verhindern, wodurch die Standzeit erhoeht und die Reinigungsintervalle verlaengert werden koennen. Ein Einfluss der katalytischen Abgasnachbehandlung auf die Staubzusammensetzung konnte anhand der vorliegenden Untersuchungen nicht eindeutig nachgewiesen werden, ein drastischer Einfluss kann aber auf Grund der Untersuchungen ausgeschlossen werden. Zur detaillierteren Untersuchung ist es jedoch notwendig, die Staubprobenahme auf Basis von

  12. Entwicklung von Methoden zur selektiven Trennung von Scandium, Zirkonium und Zinn für radiopharmazeutische Anwendungen

    OpenAIRE

    Dirks-Fandrei, Carina

    2014-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit befasst sich mit der Entwicklung von schnellen und hoch selektiven Methoden für die Trennung und Aufreinigung von Scandium, Zirkonium und Zinn. Diese Radionuklide können aus potentiellen Targetmaterialien gewonnen werden und können Anwendung in der Nuklearmedizin finden. Es wurden verschiedene Resins (von TrisKem International) auf ihre Extraktionsfähigkeit im Hinblick auf eine breite Anzahl von Kat...

  13. Entwicklung und Validierung eines Fragebogens zum Erleben von Computerspielen : Untersuchung von Transfereffekten zwischen virtueller und realer Welt

    OpenAIRE

    Luthman, Stefanie

    2008-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird die Entwicklung und Validierung eines Fragebogens vorgestellt, der auf den Überlegungen von Fritz (1997) zu einem Wirkungsmodell virtueller Welten basiert. Dieses Selbstbeurteilungsinstrument erfasst mit 40 Items Transferprozesse im Zusammenhang mit dem Spielen von Computer- und Videospielen. Die fünf Skalen des Fragebogens zum Erleben von Computerspielen (FEC) wurden durch faktorenanalytische Untersuchungen an einer repräsentativen Stichprobe von insgesamt 597...

  14. Die Verteilung und Eigenschaften von Bodenformen in der Deutschen Bucht, eine Rekonstruktion der Karten von Ulrich (1973)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Christian; Lefebvre, Alice; Benninghoff, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Entstehung, Gestalt und Dynamik von Bodenformen in vergleichsweise kleinen Untersuchungsgebieten ist die Arbeit von ULRICH (1973) über die Verteilung von Bodenformen in der Deutschen Bucht bis heute die einzige verfügbare zusammenhängende Darstellung für die deutsche Nordseeküste. Die analogen Karten und die...

  15. Erwachsenenbildung im Spannungsfeld von Wissenschaft, Politik und Praxis: Heide von Felden, Christiane Hof und Sabine Schmidt-Lauff (Hrsg.). [Rezension

    OpenAIRE

    Filla, Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    Rezension von: Felden, Heide von/Hof, Christiane/Schmidt-Lauff, Sabine (Hrsg.) (2013): Erwachsenenbildung im Spannungsfeld von Wissenschaft, Politik und Praxis. Dokumentation der Jahrestagung der Sektion Erwachsenenbildung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Erziehungswissenschaften vom 27. bis 29. September 2012. Baltmannsweiler: Schneider Verlag Hohengehren.

  16. Einfluss von dynamischen Komponentenkennwerten auf die Zuverlässigkeitsanalyse von elektrischen Netzen

    OpenAIRE

    Schrammel, Michael

    2017-01-01

    von Michael Schrammel Arbeit an der Bibliothek noch nicht eingelangt - Daten nicht geprueft - Abweichender Titel nach Übersetzung der Verfasserin/des Verfassers Technische Universität Wien, Diplomarbeit, 2017

  17. Von der Medienwirkungsbehauptung zur erziehungswissenschaftlichen Medienrezeptionsforschung. Vorschlag zur Analyse von Filmkommunikaten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Drinck

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Im Hinblick auf die Erforschung spezifischer Zusammenhänge von Medienkonsum und der Herausbildung von Einstellungen und Handlungen wird eine konstruktivistische Theorieorientierung plausibilisiert, indem zunächst auf den Stand der Medienwirkungsforschung eingegangen und vor dem Hintergrund einer begründeten Kritik des Wirkungsverständnisses auf die Notwendigkeit einer medienrezeptionswissenschaftlichen Forschungsalternative hingewiesen wird. Weiterhin wird der Stand der (erziehungswissenschaftlichen Medienrezeptionsforschung erörtert. Sodann werden Elemente einer konstruktivistischen Methodologie von Medienrezeptionsforschung beschrieben, die am Beispiel der Rezeption von Filmen konkretisiert werden. Dabei wird das Konzept des Kommunikates (S.J. Schmidt als Ausgangspunkt genommen, ein Vorschlag für eine Beschreibungssprache für (Film- Kommunikate entwickelt und eine Adaption des Ansatzes filmischer Narration zur Sprache gebracht.

  18. Optimierung von Pseudomonas putida für die Produktion niedermolekularer Verbindungen

    OpenAIRE

    Graf, Nadja

    2013-01-01

    Das Gram-negative Bakterium Pseudomonas putida ist aufgrund seines ausgeprägten Stoffwechsels für aliphatische und aromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe in den letzten Jahren zu einem der wichtigsten Wirtsorganismen in der Biotechnologie geworden. Für die gezielte Manipulation seines Genoms stehen gentechnische Methoden zur Verfügung, die jedoch ineffektiv und nur schwer zu handhaben sind. Basierend auf der Toxizität des Antimetaboliten 5-Fluoruracil und der Wirkung der Uracilphosphoribosyl-Transfer...

  19. Ueberreste vorweltlicher Proboscidier von Java und Banka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, K.

    1884-01-01

    Junghuhn führte in seinem Werke über Java nur einen einzigen Wirbelthierrest, Carcharias megalodon, an (7, IV, pag. 97); es war ihm nicht gelungen bei seinem ersten Aufenthalte auf der Insel Reste von Säugethieren zu finden, so eifrig er auch darnach in den Höhlen des Tertiaergebirges suchte (7, IV,

  20. Alexander von Humboldt and Coenraad Jacob Temminck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raat, A.J.P.

    1976-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In the archives of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie in Leiden there is a map with three letters written by Alexander von Humboldt (17691859) to the first director of the Museum, Coenraad Jacob Temminck (1778-1858). The map, the hard cover of John Gould's "Synopsis of the birds

  1. Alexander von Humboldt: a revolutionary explorer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, Patricia

    2008-03-01

    After he returned from his five-year expedition to the New World, Alexander von Humboldt promoted himself as a Romantic explorer. Although this image pervades British perceptions, political movements have fashioned different heroic versions of Humboldt in Germany and South America.

  2. Soolopartiid Von Krahli katuse all / Kristi Eberhart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eberhart, Kristi

    2007-01-01

    Von Krahli Teatri kolmest lavastusest: "Erki ja Tiina" (lavastaja Mart Kangro, tantsivad Erki Laur ja Tiina Tauraite), "Faust" (J. W. Goethe ainetel tekst ja lavastus Taavi Eelmaa, muusika ja laulud Chalice, osades Jarek Kasar ja Rein Pakk), "Hamletid" (William Shakespeare'i ainetel kontseptsiooni, lavastuse, koreograafia, kujunduse, valguse autor Sasha Pepeljajev, video- ja helikunstnik Taavet Jansen. Esitaja Juhan Ulfsak)

  3. 489 Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Resonance journal of science education. June 2014 Volume 19 Number 6. GENERALARTICLES. 489 Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer. A Pioneer of Synthetic Organic Chemistry. Gopalpur Nagendrappa. 523 Causality in Classical Physics. Asrarul Haque. 538 Physiology of High-Altitude Acclimatization.

  4. Measurements and von Neumann projection/collapse

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    unwanted superpositions of (system + apparatus)-states can be shown to be suppressed, leading eventually to the projection/collapse rule postulated in von Neumann's treatment of measurements [3]. In the next section, the measurement problem in quantum mechanics (QM) is recalled. In §3, some proposed improvements ...

  5. Laue, Prof. Max Theodor Felix von

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1954 Honorary. Laue, Prof. Max Theodor Felix von. Nobel Laureate (Physics) - 1914. Date of birth: 9 October 1897. Date of death: 24 April 1960. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th Mid-year ...

  6. Euler-Chelpin, Prof. Hans von

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1952 Honorary. Euler-Chelpin, Prof. Hans von. Nobel Laureate (Chemistry) - 1929. Date of birth: 15 February 1873. Date of death: 6 November 1964. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th ...

  7. Hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm in von Willebrand's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garaci, Francesco Giuseppe; Gandini, Roberto; Romagnoli, Andrea; Fasoli, Fabrizio; Varrucciu, Viviana; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2003-01-01

    We report a case of hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm which occurred in a patient with von Willebrand's disease. The patient presented with upper abdominal pain and diagnosis was made by US and CT examinations. This case emphasizes the possible association between an established coagulation disorder and pseudoaneurysm. The patient was successfully treated by coil embolization. (orig.)

  8. Active Von Willebrand Factor, thrombocytopenia and thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulstein, J.J.J.

    2006-01-01

    Platelets and von Willebrand factor (VWF) are unable to interact in circulation. To induce an interaction, a conversion of VWF to a platelet-binding conformation is required. At higher shear stresses, the first step in thrombus formation is binding of VWF to the subendothelium. This results in

  9. Euler-Chelpin, Prof. Hans von

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1952 Honorary. Euler-Chelpin, Prof. Hans von. Nobel Laureate (Chemistry) - 1929. Date of birth: 15 February 1873. Date of death: 6 November 1964. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. Theory Of Evolution. Posted on 23 January 2018. Joint Statement by ...

  10. Laue, Prof. Max Theodor Felix von

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1954 Honorary. Laue, Prof. Max Theodor Felix von. Nobel Laureate (Physics) - 1914. Date of birth: 9 October 1897. Date of death: 24 April 1960. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. Theory Of Evolution. Posted on 23 January 2018. Joint Statement by the ...

  11. Ueber eine Anomalie von Acromitus flagellatus (Stiasny)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiasny, G.

    1934-01-01

    Bei erneuter Durchsicht des reichhaltigen Materiales von Acromitus flagellatus (Stiasny) in der Scyphomedusen-Sammlung des Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie in Leiden (vergl. meine Mitteilungen daruber, 1920, Uebersichtstabelle III und 1921, p. 131/136) fand ich ein Exemplar, das eine

  12. Von Kalifornien nach Taxham / Katri Soe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soe, Katri, 1971-

    2005-01-01

    Neljas osa magistritööst "Von Kalifornien nach Taxham: Formen und Strukturen der Kommunikation in Peter Handkes Romanen "Der kurze Brief zum langen Abschied" und "In einer dunklen Nacht ging ich aus meinem stillen Haus"" (Tartu, 2000. Juhendaja: Claus Sommerhage)

  13. Measurements and von Neumann projection/collapse

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    based treatment of quantum measurements, an unambiguous treatment of the apparatus as a quantum system approximated well by a ... leading eventually to the projection/collapse rule postulated in von Neumann's treatment of measurements [3]. ... of Hilbert's sixth problem measurement leaves it in the same state.' In this ...

  14. Von der lernenden Region zur "Smart Region“

    OpenAIRE

    Poschwatta, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    Von der lernenden Region zur "Smart Region“ / M. Hilpert, W. Poschwatta. - In: Nabizadeh-Araghi, Nima : Auf dem Weg zur "Smart Region" : regionale Entwicklung am Beispiel der Pistazienproduktion im Iran. - Augsburg : Müllerdruck, 2004. - S. 5-9. - (Terra facta ; 2)

  15. [Von Willebrand disease. Molecular biology and diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Zamora, Edgar; Zavala-Hernández, Cesar; Quintana-González, Sandra; Reyes-Maldonado, Elba

    2015-01-01

    Von Willebrand disease is the most common inherited disorder of the coagulation proteins in humans. There are three types: 1, 2A, 2B, 2N, 2M and 3. It is associated with mutations on chromosome 12 in the region p13.2, encoding the von Willebrand factor (VWF), which is synthesized in endothelial cells and megakaryocytes. The VWF gene has been characterised using molecular biology techniques, which have acquired an important role in diagnosis von Willebrand disease, as well as in the investigation of alterations in other genes, which may be involved in regulating the synthesis, processing, and secretion of VWF. However, there are still no strategies to integrate the molecular biology diagnostic tests available. Analysis of VWF multimers is a methodology that meets the characteristics for diagnosis, but it is not easy to standardise. Considering that even in tertiary centres in our country, von Willebrand patients do not have a definitive diagnosis, it is necessary to implement these methodologies to study and improve diagnosis. Von Willebrand disease is highly heterogeneous due to the molecular mechanisms that produce the various clinical and laboratory phenotypes. In Mexico there are few studies related to this disease; therefore it is essential to conduct a comprehensive study including clinical, basic, and special testing laboratory tests, in order to establish a correct diagnosis, develop new therapeutic approaches, and offer the appropriate medical care and genetic counselling. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  16. Radioresistance of kohlrabi (Brassicaoleacea L., var. gongylodes L.) seeds in relation to the metabolism of indoles, auxins and gibberellins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vackova, K.; Kutacek, M.

    1976-01-01

    Irradiation of the seeds of radioresistant kohlrabi with gamma-rays at doses 50 to 300 kR resulted in a decrease in growth and a drop in tryptophan (Try) level in seven-day-old plants. The level of glucobrassicin (GLUBR), 3-indolylacetonitrile (IAN) and gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) in the plants increased up to a maximum with a dose of about 150-200 kR, afterwards it decreased. It is assumed that the specific system of auxin synthesis in Brassica plants played an important role in the reparation processes and thus also in the radioresistance of these plants. In contrast to the divergent systems of auxin biosynthesis in other plants which are damaged by lower doses of radiation, the specific system of auxin formation via GLUBR synthesis, under formation of IAN intermediate, is widely not attacked by radiation. Thus, these irradiated plants are supplied with auxins and with gibberellins, the both hormones having a radioprotective effect. (author)

  17. Enterococcus faecium LKE12 Cell-Free Extract Accelerates Host Plant Growth via Gibberellin and Indole-3-Acetic Acid Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ko-Eun; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Kang, Sang-Mo; You, Young-Hyun; Joo, Gil-Jae; Lee, In-Jung; Ko, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Jin-Ho

    2015-09-01

    The use of microbial extracts containing plant hormones is a promising technique to improve crop growth. Little is known about the effect of bacterial cell-free extracts on plant growth promotion. This study, based on phytohormonal analyses, aimed at exploring the potential mechanisms by which Enterococcus faecium LKE12 enhances plant growth in oriental melon. A bacterial strain, LKE12, was isolated from soil, and further identified as E. faecium by 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The plant growth-promoting ability of an LKE12 bacterial culture was tested in a gibberellin (GA)-deficient rice dwarf mutant (waito-C) and a normal GA biosynthesis rice cultivar (Hwayongbyeo). E. faecium LKE12 significantly improved the length and biomass of rice shoots in both normal and dwarf cultivars through the secretion of an array of gibberellins (GA1, GA3, GA7, GA8, GA9, GA12, GA19, GA20, GA24, and GA53), as well as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study indicating that E. faecium can produce GAs. Increases in shoot and root lengths, plant fresh weight, and chlorophyll content promoted by E. faecium LKE12 and its cell-free extract inoculated in oriental melon plants revealed a favorable interaction of E. faecium LKE12 with plants. Higher plant growth rates and nutrient contents of magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron, manganese, silicon, zinc, and nitrogen were found in cell-free extract-treated plants than in control plants. The results of the current study suggest that E. faecium LKE12 promotes plant growth by producing GAs and IAA; interestingly, the exogenous application of its cell-free culture extract can be a potential strategy to accelerate plant growth.

  18. Lung dose depending on exact patient positioning during total body irradiation (TBI) - isoeffective considerations to assess the risk of interstitial pneumonitis after TBI; Lungendosis in Abhaengigkeit von der Lagerungsgenauigkeit bei Ganzkoerperbestrahlungen (TBI). Isoeffektivitaetsueberlegungen zur Einschaetzung des Risikos einer interstitiellen Pneumonitis nach Ganzkoerperbestrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piroth, M.D.; Zierhut, D.; Sroka-Perez, G.; Wannenmacher, M. [Radiologische Klinik der Univ. Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Kampen, M. van [Krankenhaus Nord-West, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Radioonkologische Klinik

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: In this case report, we studied the effect of patient's movements on total lung dose during total body irradiation (TBI). The dose-effect relationship regarding the development of interstitial pneumonitis and the problem of defining a threshold value are discussed. Based on considerations about the isoeffects we calculated the pneumonitis risk in dependence of increasing lung dose. Patient and Method: We calculated dose-volume histograms of the lung for defined lateral deviations (0-3 cm) from the isocenter. Total dose was 12 Gy, given in six fractions over 3 days. Lung shields were used after a total dose of 9 Gy. Lung shields were transferred into the Helax-TMS trademark planning system to quantify the influence of lateral deviation to lung dose. Results: The child's lateral deviation amounted up to 3 cm. Median dose of the whole lung amounted up to 11.64 Gy depending on lateral deviation. Discussion: In TBI, the lung limits the total dose. To estimate the risk of radiation pneumonitis, we calculated the isoeffective lung dose of our TBI regime for a fractionation scheme of 2 Gy daily using a formalism of van Dyk. The increase of median lung dose from 9.76 to 11.64 Gy would isoeffectively correspond to the increase from 19 Gy (no deviation) to 20.9 Gy (3 cm lateral deviation) with conventional fractionation. According to Burman, a pneumonitis risk of approximately 20% could be expected. Conclusion: With an estimated pneumonitis risk of approximately 20%, an indication for irradiation in general anesthesia seems to be reasonable. This is practicable in cooperation with radiation oncologists, anesthesists and pediatricians and should be included into therapeutic concepts. (orig.) [German] Hintergrund: An einem Fallbeispiel werden die Auswirkungen von Lagerungsungenauigkeiten auf die Gesamtlungendosis bei Ganzkoerperbestrahlung eines Kindes erlaeutert. Die Dosis-Wirkungs-Beziehung bezueglich der Entstehung einer interstitiellen Pneumonitis nach

  19. Doença de von Willebrand e anestesia Enfermedad de von Willebrand y anestesia Von Willebrand's disease and anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiano Timbó Barbosa; Rafael Martins da Cunha; Luciano Timbó Barbosa

    2007-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A doença de von Willebrand ocorre devido à mutação no cromossomo 12 e é caracterizada por deficiência qualitativa ou quantitativa do fator de von Willebrand. A diversidade de mutações leva ao aparecimento das mais variadas manifestações clínicas possibilitando a divisão dos pacientes em vários tipos e subtipos clínicos. A coagulopatia se manifesta basicamente através da disfunção plaquetária associada à diminuição dos níveis séricos do fator VIII coagulante. O objet...

  20. Physically founded modelling of transient heat transfer in diesel engine combustion chambers with application of 3D-CFD calculations. Final report; Physikalisch fundierte Modellierung des instationaeren Wandwaermeueberganges im Brennraum von Dieselmotoren mit Applikation an 3D-CFD-Rechnungen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merker, G.P.; Lettmann, H.

    2003-05-01

    A phenomenological wall heat transfer model was developed for diesel engines, enhanced for application of the 3D-CFC code KIVA-3V, and implemented in the code. Further, the heat flow was measurement near the cylinder head, bushel and piston of a DI one-cylinder experimental diesel engine. The influence of soot radiation and convective heat transfer on the wall are modelled separately. The insulating effect of soot deposits on the walls during engine operation is taken into acount as well. The multizone model and the 3D model are in good agreement with the models by Han and Reitz (1997) and with experimental findings. The spatial resolution of heat flow at the wall further shows that both the radiative and convective heat flow are strongly locally dependent. The model presents a physically correct description of the heat flow at the wall of a diesel engine combustion chamber. [German] Im Rahmen des gesamten Forschungsvorhabens wurden ein phaenomenologisches Wandwaermeuebergangsmodell fuer Dieselmotoren entwickelt, dieses wurde fuer die Anwendung in den 3D-CFD-Code KIVA-3V erweitert und in den Code implementiert. Zusaetzlich sind Waermestrommessungen im Brennraum an Zylinderkopf, Laufbuchse und Kolben durchgefuehrt worden. Dafuer stand ein direkteinspritzender Einzylinder-Versuchsdieselmotor zur Verfuegung. Das im Rahmen dieses Vorhabens entwickelte Waermeuebergangsmodell bildet den Einfluss der Russstrahlung und des konvektiven Wandwaermeueberganges separat ab. Die isolierende Wirkung von Russwandablagerungen waehrend des gefeuerten Motorbetriebes wird dabei ebenfalls beruecksichtigt. Das Mehrzonenmodell sowie das 3D-Modell zeigen sehr gute Uebereinstimmungen des raeumlich gemittelten Wandwaermestroms mit den Modellen von Han und Reitz (1997) und den experimentellen Ergebnissen. Die raeumliche Aufloesung der Wandwaermestroeme zeigt weiter, dass auf der Brennraumoberflaeche die Strahlungswaermestroeme und die konvektiven Waermestroeme stark ortsabhaengig sind. Damit

  1. Solar reactors for freshwater treatment in developing countries with high radiation intensity, with particular regard to part-project No. 1: Microbiology, process conception. Final report; Solarreaktoren fuer die Trinkwasseraufbereitung in Entwicklungslaendern mit hoher Sonnenstrahlungsintensitaet unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung von Teilprojekt 1: Mikrobiologie, Verfahrenskonzeption. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watzke, E.; Roth, M.; Hoffmeier, C.

    2000-07-01

    Simple and low-cost systems for freshwater disinfestation for developing countries with high solar radiation intensity were investigated for the purpose of providing freshwater of better microbiological quality to a wider population in order to prevent infectious diseases, especially diarrhoea diseases. The bactericidic effects of short-wave and long-wave solar radiation of the UV and NIR range in combination with heat were investigated. Special glasses with high UV-permeability were developed and tested for their applicability as tube materials in freshwater disinfestation systems. the systems were designed and constructed with a view to utilising the synergistic effects of UV and thermal radiation. For higher efficacy, the water is kept in an insulated tank at elevated temperature for several hours. Further, special-purpose glass vessels with high UV permeability were developed for disinfestation. In a follow-up project, long-term tests will be carried out in practical conditions in developing countries. [German] Das Ziel der Verbundforschung bestand in der Entwicklung einfacher, kostenguenstiger Anlagen und Vorrichtungen zur Trinkwasserentkeimung in Entwicklungslaendern mit hoher Sonnenstrahlungsintensitaet. Es soll damit ein Beitrag zur Bereitstellung von Trinkwasser mit wesentlich verbesserter mikrobiologischer Qualitaet fuer breite Bevoelkerungsschichten geleistet werden, um Infektionskrankheiten, insbesondere Diarrhoeerkrankungen zurueckzudraengen. Die bakterizide Wirkung der kurz- und langwelligen Sonnenstrahlung im UV- bzw. NIR-Bereich in Kombination mit Waermeeinwirkungen wurde untersucht. Spezielle hoch UV-durchlaessige Glaeser wurden entwickelt und ihre Eignung fuer einen Einsatz in Trinkwasserentkeimungsanlagen (TWEA) getestet. Mit hoch UV-druchlaessigen Rohren aus Spezialglaesern ausgeruestete TWEA wurden konstruiert und gebaut, mit denen der synergistische Effekt von UV- und Waermestrahlung der Sonne zur Trinkwasserdesinfektion genutzt wird. Zur

  2. Theodor von Grotthuss’ Contribution to Electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauliukaite, Rasa; Juodkazytė, Jurga; Ramanauskas, Rimantas

    2017-01-01

    Freiherr Christian Johann Dietrich Theodor von Grotthuss (1785-1822) lived and worked in Lithuania. Inspired by Volta's pile he proposed the first theory of water electrolysis, which was published in 1805 in Rome. Michael Faraday acknowledged T. Grotthuss for this theory in his further investigations of electrolysis processes. Having studied in Germany and France Grotthuss brought science to province by establishing his laboratory in Gedučiai village in his mother's real estate. Lithuanian scientists are proud that life of Theodor von Grotthuss was related to this country. Many events to remember this prominent scientist are organised in Vilnius and other places. His works and example provided a good basis for further development of electrochemical science in Lithuania. Grotthuss insights into the mechanism of proton transport still are of great relevance to such areas of modern science as membrane biochemistry, energy conversion and storage.

  3. Evolution equations of von Karman type

    CERN Document Server

    Cherrier, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    In these notes we consider two kinds of nonlinear evolution problems of von Karman type on Euclidean spaces of arbitrary even dimension. Each of these problems consists of a system that results from the coupling of two highly nonlinear partial differential equations, one hyperbolic or parabolic and the other elliptic. These systems take their name from a formal analogy with the von Karman equations in the theory of elasticity in two dimensional space. We establish local (respectively global) results for strong (resp., weak) solutions of these problems and corresponding well-posedness results in the Hadamard sense. Results are found by obtaining regularity estimates on solutions which are limits of a suitable Galerkin approximation scheme. The book is intended as a pedagogical introduction to a number of meaningful application of classical methods in nonlinear Partial Differential Equations of Evolution. The material is self-contained and most proofs are given in full detail. The interested reader will gain a ...

  4. Wir zeigen andere Bilder von Frauen ...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Rulofs

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Der vorliegende Beitrag beleuchtet die Bedeutung der Geschlechterordnung im Prozess der sportmedialen Kommunikation. Im Kern geht es um die Frage, inwiefern im Prozess der medialen Vermittlung von Sport traditionelle Geschlechterstereotype aufrechterhalten werden oder Möglichkeiten der Irritation solcher Stereotype bestehen. Dazu werden verschiedene Ebenen des massenmedialen Kommunikationsprozesses in den Blick genommen: die Medienprodukte, die Öffentlichkeitsarbeit und Selbst-Präsentation der Sportler/innen, die Medienrezeption und die Herstellungsprozesse von Medien in den Sportredaktionen. This article illustrates the relevance of gender in processes of sports media communication. The question in focus is in what way traditional gender stereotypes are perpetuated in the process of media communication in sport and how such stereotypes can be irritated. Therefore different levels of mass media communication are considered: the media products, the public relations of athletes and the presentation of themselves as athletes, the media-reception and the production processes in sport departments of media institutions.

  5. Management of the von Roos operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinar-Tabares, Martin; Castro-Arce, Lamberto; Figueroa-Navarro, Carlos; Campos-Garcia, Julio

    When an electron is inside a semiconductor medium its effective mass rises from the shielding of the crystalline structure. When we have a semiconductor with a constant concentration the effective mass has a fixed value, and in this case, it can be easy to solve the Schrodinger equation of the particle, but if the concentration varies spatially, the effective mass will no longer constant and the solution can be difficult to find. The general form of the kinetic energy operator for a particle with variable mass is proposed for von Roos, this operator is characterized by some parameters whose values are subjected to a restriction. From a numerical solution of the Schrodinger equation we analyze the energies of an electron with position-dependent effective mass working with some values of the parameter of the von Roos operator. We acknowledge the support of SNI CONACYT.

  6. Funktionsanalyse von Hitzestressproteinen aus Lycopersicon esculentum

    OpenAIRE

    Tripp, Joanna

    2005-01-01

    Die Hitzestressantwort stellt einen universellen Schutzmechanismus aller lebenden Organismen dar. Infolge einer Temperaturerhöhung werden Hitzestresstranskriptionsfaktoren (Hsf) aktiviert und bewirken eine gesteigerte Expression von Hitzestressproteinen (Hsp). Als molekulare Chaperone schützen diese die Zelle vor durch Hitze verursachten Schäden. In höheren Pflanzen ist dieses Phänomen sowohl auf der Ebene der Hsf als auch der Hsp besonders komplex. Das Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit war die Un...

  7. Von Herzen receives 1998 Maurice Ewing medal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyeda, Seiya; Von Herzen, Richard P.

    Richard P Von Herzen was awarded the 1998 Maurice Ewing Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, which was held on December 8, 1998, in San Francisco, California. The medal recognizes significant original contributions to understanding physical, geophysical, and geological processes in the ocean; significant original contributions to scientific ocean engineering, technology and instrumentation; and/or outstanding service to marine sciences. This medal is presented jointly by the U.S. Navy and AGU.

  8. La Medea de Lars von Trier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iratxe Fresneda Delgado

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza el modo en el que Lars von Trier recrea para el cine el estereotipo de Medea. Mediante el análisis fílmico de la película y apoyándose en los estudios culturales, el texto se interroga acerca de la importancia y el poder potencial del cine a la hora recuperar el antiguo mito y demostrar su vigencia. El análisis amplía horizontes para la compresión de los mecanismos que articulan el entramado de significados de la película, donde Von Trier aporta una nueva visión del arquetipo de Medea uniéndola, a la tradición pictórica del Romanticismo. Una influencia que habita en las posteriores obras del director danés, donde el paisaje, la naturaleza, se erige en elemento catalizador de las pulsiones humanas, en su cómplice y testigo.This paper explores the way that Lars von Trier’s film recreates the stereotype of Medea. Using film analysis and based on cultural studies the article asks about the importance and potential power of cinema to recover the ancient myth and show their effects. The analysis expands horizons for the understanding of the mechanisms that link the network of meanings of the film, where the author offers a new vision of Medea's archetype attaching it to the pictorial tradition tied to the Romanticism. An influence that can be seen in the later works of Lars von Trier, where the landscape, the nature, stands as a catalyst of human drives, as his accomplice and witness.

  9. Herstellung von Chitosan und einige Anwendungen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struszczyk, Marcin Henryk

    2001-05-01

    1. Die Deacetylierung von crabshell - Chitosan führte gleichzeitig zu einem drastischen Abfall der mittleren viscosimetrischen Molmasse ( Mv), insbesondere wenn die Temperatur und die Konzentration an NaOH erhöht werden. Diese Parameter beeinflussten jedoch nicht den Grad der Deacetylierung (DD). Wichtig ist jedoch die Quelle des Ausgangsmaterials: Chitin aus Pandalus borealis ist ein guter Rohstoff für die Herstellung von Chitosan mit niedrigem DD und gleichzeitig hoher mittlerer Mv, während Krill-Chitin (Euphausia superba) ein gutes Ausgangsmaterial zur Herstellung von Chitosan mit hohem DD und niedrigem Mv ist. Chitosan, das aus Insekten (Calliphora erythrocephala), unter milden Bedingungen (Temperatur: 100°C, NaOH-Konzentration: 40 %, Zeit: 1-2h ) hergestellt wurde, hatte die gleichen Eigenschaften hinsichtlich DD und Mv wie das aus Krill hergestellte Chitosan. Der Bedarf an Zeit, Energie und NaOH ist für die Herstellung von Insekten-Chitosan geringer als für crabshell-Chitosan vergleichbare Resultaten für DD und Mv. 2. Chitosan wurde durch den Schimmelpilz Aspergillus fumigatus zu Chitooligomeren fermentiert. Die Ausbeute beträgt 25%. Die Chitooligomere wurden mit Hilfe von HPLC und MALDI-TOF-Massenspektrmetrie identifiziert. Die Fermentationsmischung fördert die Immunität von Pflanzen gegen Bakterien und Virusinfektion. Die Zunahme der Immunität schwankt jedoch je nach System Pflanze-Pathogen. Die Fermentation von Chitosan durch Aspergillus fumigatus könnte eine schnelle und billige Methode zur Herstellung von Chitooligomeren mit guter Reinheit und Ausbeute sein. Eine partiell aufgereinigte Fermentationsmischung dieser Art könnte in der Landwirtschaft als Pathogeninhibitor genutzt werden. Durch kontrollierte Fermentation, die Chitooligomere in definierter Zusammensetzung (d.h. definierter Verteilung des Depolymerisationsgrades) liefert, könnte man zu Mischungen kommen, die für die jeweilige Anwendung eine optimale Bioaktivität besitzen. 3

  10. Zur Kenntnis von Gnetum neglectum Bl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markgraf, F.

    1960-01-01

    Gnetum neglectum war nicht nur, wie der Name andeutet, bis zu Blumes Zeit übersehen worden, sondern es wurde von Späteren wiederum verkannt, wie ich in Bull. J. B. Buitenzorg 3. Ser. 10 (1930) 474 näher ausgeführt habe. Die echte Art taucht verhältnismässig selten in den Herbarien auf. Sie ist eine

  11. Von Medien, Übertragungen und Automaten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Barberi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Im Zuge der Debatten zum Medialen Habitus wurde vielfach betont, dass die >Theorie der Praxispraxeologischen Medientheorie< des Medialen Habitus avant la lettre gesprochen werden kann. Dieser Artikel untersucht – ausgehend von den Debatten zur "Medienkompetenz" – wie Bourdieu Sprache, Sprechen und Diskurs, sowie Akteure, Felder und Habitus als Medien begreift und betont dabei die Nützlichkeit der Bourdieuschen Bildungssoziologie im Rahmen einer sozialwissenschaftlichen Grundlegung der Medienpädagogik.

  12. Myrigalone A Inhibits Lepidium sativum Seed Germination by Interference with Gibberellin Metabolism and Apoplastic Superoxide Production Required for Embryo Extension Growth and Endosperm Rupture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oracz, K.; Voegele, A.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Jacquemoud, D.; Turečková, Veronika; Urbanová, Terezie; Strnad, Miroslav; Sliwinska, E.; Leubner-Metzger, G.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2012), s. 81-95 ISSN 0032-0781 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801; GA MŠk ED0007/01/01; GA ČR GD522/08/H003 Keywords : Embryo cell extension growth * Endoreduplication * Endosperm rupture * Gibberellin metabolism * Lepidium sativum * Myrica gale * Phytotoxicity * Reactive oxygen species Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.134, year: 2012

  13. Retrospektive Analyse von56 Weichteildefekten nach einzeitiger Rekonstruktion unter Verwendung von Dermisersatzpräparaten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümbel, Denis; Ackerl, Martin; Napp, Matthias; Daeschlein, Georg; Spranger, Nikolai; Stope, Matthias B; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Matthes, Gerrit

    2016-06-01

    Der Verschluss von Wunden mit ausgeprägtem Weichteilschaden stellt eine chirurgische Herausforderung dar und erfordert häufig umfangreiche plastische Operationen sowie freie Lappenplastiken. Die Kombination von Dermisersatzpräparaten und Spalthauttransplantationen ist eine innovative Methode die zur Versorgung von komplexen Verletzungen der Extremitäten angewandt werden kann. Wir haben diese Technik in das Standard-Handwerkszeug bei komplexen Verletzungen der Extremitäten aufgenommen. Die klinischen Ergebnisse von 56 behandelten Patienten werden vorgestellt. In 44 Fällen (78,6 %) wurde die beschriebene Methode an Defekten der unteren Extremitäten verwendet, einschließlich sieben Personen (12,5 %), die sich einer Stumpfdeckung nach Amputation unterzogen. Zwölf Defekte (21,4 %) befanden sich an den oberen Extremitäten. In zwei Fällen (3,6 %) wurde die Matriderm(®) -Matrix verwendet, um Nerven von unmittelbar angrenzenden chirurgischen Implantaten zu schützen. Bei 41 Patienten (73,2 %) kam es zur Einheilung des Transplantats ohne Komplikationen. Fünfzehn Patienten (26,8 %) zeigten eine gestörte Wundheilung nach Defektverschluss, die unter konservativer Therapie zur Ausheilung gebracht werden konnte. Ein Patient (1,8 %) zeigte ein Transplantatversagen, was eine Revisionsoperation erforderlich machte. Umfangreiche plastische Rekonstruktionen mussten bei keinem Patienten angewandt werden. Bei Fällen, in denen ausgedehnte plastische Operationen nicht möglich oder nicht erwünscht sind, ist die Verwendung von Dermisersatzpräparaten in Kombination mit Spalthauttransplantationen eine vielversprechende Alternative zum Wundverschluss bei ausgedehnten Weichteilschäden. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Saage tuttavaks : Elisabeth ja Karl von Hoerschelmann / Mai Levin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levin, Mai, 1942-

    2004-01-01

    Kuraator M. Levin kuni 10. X 2004 Adamson-Ericu muuseumis avatud näitusest "Tuntud ja tundmatud Elisabeth von Rosendorff-Hoerschelmann ja Karl von Hoerschelmann". Enamik töid on kunstnike laste Konstantin Hoerschelmanni ja Anna Röder-Hoerschelmanni omand. Elisabeth Rosendorff (1898-1984) sündis Virumaal Maidlas eesti perekonnas, Karl von Hoerschelmann (1899-1951) Sevastoopolis saksa perekonnas

  15. Gestalt und Funktion von Animal Design : Versuch einer semiotischen Analyse

    OpenAIRE

    Schlüter, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Dissertation zur Gestalt und Funktion von Animal Design (tieranaloges Design). Untersucht wird eine Auswahl an Produkten, die in ihrem Äußeren an Tiere erinnern. Hierbei stehen Aspekte wie die Emotionalisierung von Produkten, demonstrativer Konsum und die soziale Funktion im Fokus der Analyse. Anhand von Abbildungen und Zeichnungen wird u.a. dargestellt, welche Bedeutung die Tiergestalt für das jeweilige Produktdesign hat. Die Objekte werden jeweils unter phänomenologischen, hermeneutischen u...

  16. Untersuchungen zum Emissionsgeschehen von Ammoniak und Methan in der Mastschweinehaltung

    OpenAIRE

    Gronow-Schubert, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Der Anbau von Futtermitteln, die Haltung von Nutztieren, die Verarbeitung der tierischen Produkte und die dadurch ausgeprägte Flächennutzung durch die gesamte landwirtschaftliche Tierhaltung führen weltweit zu Treibhausgasemissionen. In direktem Zusammenhang mit der Haltung von Nutztieren und somit auch in der Mastschweinehaltung stehen die Ammoniak- und Methanemissionen. Das Hauptziel der vorliegenden Arbeit waren Untersuchungen zum Emissionsgeschehen und zu ausgewählten Ansätzen zur Emissio...

  17. Gespiegelte Planeten – Die Anordnung der Pyramiden von Gizeh

    OpenAIRE

    Jelitto, Hans

    2000-01-01

    Antike Bauwerke wurden wiederholt auf astronomische Zusammenhänge hin untersucht, so z. B. ihre Ausrichtung in Bezug auf die Bewegung von Sonne oder Sternen. Vor diesem Hintergrund wurden für die Pyramiden von Gizeh drei ungewöhnliche Gleichungen entdeckt, die die Pyramidengrößen mit einer Genauigkeit von ca. 0,1 % festlegen. Gleichzeitig legen diese drei Gleichungen nahe, die drei Pyramiden in der Reihenfolge Mykerinos-, Chefren- und Cheopspyramide den inneren drei Planeten unseres Sonnensys...

  18. Studien zur Kinetik der Fehlfaltung un Aggregation von Proteinen

    OpenAIRE

    Modler, Andreas Johannes

    2003-01-01

    Diese Arbeit befasst sich mit der Kinetik der Fehlfaltung und Aggregation von Proteinen. Anhand dreier Beispiele, der Phosphoglyceratkinase (PGK) aus Hefe, einer Variante von Barstar und des Prion-Proteins des Syrischen Hamsters (SHaPrP(90-232)) wurde insbesondere die Kinetik der Bildung von Amyloidfibrillen und deren kinetischer Vorläuferstrukturen mittels dynamischer und statischer Lichtstreuung, Circulardichroismus, Infrarotspektroskopie, Elektronenmikroskopie und teilweise analytischer Ch...

  19. Portrait of Dr. Von Braun with Walt Disney, 1954.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1954-01-01

    Marshall Center Director Dr. Wernher Von Braun is pictured with Walt Disney during a visit to the Marshall Space Flight Center in 1954. In the 1950s, Dr. Von Braun while working in California on the Saturn project, also worked with Disney studios as a technical director in making three films about Space Exploration for television. Disney's tour of Marshall in 1965 was Von Braun's hope for a renewed public interest in the future of the Space Program at NASA.

  20. Arbeitszeiten von Professorinnen und Professoren in Deutschland 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Weihs, Claus; Hernández Rodríguez, Tanja; Doeckel, Maximilian; Marty, Christoph; Wormer, Holger

    2018-01-01

    In dieser Studie werden belastbare Prognoseintervalle der wöchentlichen Gesamtarbeitszeit von Universitätsprofessorinnen und -professoren aus Daten einer Umfrage aus dem Jahre 2016 und a-priori Informationen aus früheren Studien bestimmt. Neben der Gesamtarbeitszeit werden auch Teilarbeitszeiten zum Beispiel für Lehre und Forschung ermittelt. Die Ergebnisse von frequentistischer und Bayesianischer Analyse werden verglichen. Aus den gültigen Fragebögen von aktiven Vollzeit arbeitenden Universi...

  1. Verbesserung der seismischen Kapazität von Mauerwerkswänden durch Verwendung von Elastomerlagern

    OpenAIRE

    Aldoghaim, Eyad

    2011-01-01

    Ein großer Teil der Schäden wie auch der Verluste an Gesundheit und Leben im Erdbebenfall hat mit dem frühzeitigen Versagen von Mauerwerksbauten zu tun. Unbewehrtes Mauerwerk, wie es in vielen Ländern üblich ist, weist naturgemäß einen begrenzten Erdbebenwiderstand auf, da Zugspannungen und Zugkräfte nicht wie bei Stahlbeton- oder Stahlbauten aufgenommen werden können. Aus diesem Grund wurde bereits mit verschiedenen Methoden versucht, die Tragfähigkeit von Mauerwerk im Erdbebenfall zu ve...

  2. Untersuchungen zur Farbreaktion von Amilorid, Chlorhexidin und Proguanil mit Hypobromit

    OpenAIRE

    Huth, Silke

    2004-01-01

    Bei der Reaktion von Amiloridhydrochlorid (1· HCl) mit Brom in alkalischer Lösung wird ein gelbbraunes Dehydrierungsprodukt erhalten, daß als 3-(3-Amino-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)-5-chlor-2,6-pyrazindiamin (6) identifiziert werden konnte. Durch Vergleich von Massen- und NMR-Spektren der Verbindung 6 mit Spektren von 1· HCl und Referenzsubstanzen I-III konnte auf die verbindung 6 geschlossen werden. Die Struktur wurde durch eine Röntgenstrukturanalyse abgesichert. Erhitzen von Amiloridhydrochlorid ...

  3. Mapping of a Cellulose-Deficient Mutant Named dwarf1-1 in Sorghum bicolor to the Green Revolution Gene gibberellin20-oxidase Reveals a Positive Regulatory Association between Gibberellin and Cellulose Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Carloalberto; Hirano, Ko; Stork, Jozsef; DeBolt, Seth

    2015-09-01

    Here, we show a mechanism for expansion regulation through mutations in the green revolution gene gibberellin20 (GA20)-oxidase and show that GAs control biosynthesis of the plants main structural polymer cellulose. Within a 12,000 mutagenized Sorghum bicolor plant population, we identified a single cellulose-deficient and male gametophyte-dysfunctional mutant named dwarf1-1 (dwf1-1). Through the Sorghum propinquum male/dwf1-1 female F2 population, we mapped dwf1-1 to a frameshift in GA20-oxidase. Assessment of GAs in dwf1-1 revealed ablation of GA. GA ablation was antagonistic to the expression of three specific cellulose synthase genes resulting in cellulose deficiency and growth dwarfism, which were complemented by exogenous bioactive gibberellic acid application. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we found that GA was positively regulating the expression of a subset of specific cellulose synthase genes. To cross reference data from our mapped Sorghum sp. allele with another monocotyledonous plant, a series of rice (Oryza sativa) mutants involved in GA biosynthesis and signaling were isolated, and these too displayed cellulose deficit. Taken together, data support a model whereby suppressed expansion in green revolution GA genes involves regulation of cellulose biosynthesis. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Aino Lepik von Wiren / Aino Lepik von Wiren ; interv. Kadi Alatalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepik von Wirén, Aino, 1961-

    2007-01-01

    Heinrich Marga eksiilvalitsuse (20.06.1990-7.10.1992) kohtuminister Aino Lepik von Wiren pagulaslapse elust Rootsis, haridusest ja elukutse valikust, tööst eksiilvalitsuses, tööleasumisest Eestisse 1992. aastal, seadusandlikust tegevusest ning aluse panekust välismaalaste- ja kodakondsuspoliitikale, naiste võimalustest poliitilisse tippu tõusmiseks, kodu- ja väliseestlaste vastandamisest

  5. Von den Liven von Oesel / August Ludwig Schlözer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schlözer, August Ludwig

    2008-01-01

    Avaldatud Eberhard Winkleri initsiatiivil A. L. Schlözeri teose põhjal: Gesammelte Nachrichten von den Ueberresten der Liven, in Livland und Kurland. (1770), mis moodustab osa teosest: Schlözer, August Ludwig. M. Johann Joseph Haigold's Beylagen zum Neuveränderten Russland. Zweiter Theil. Riga und Leipzig, 1770

  6. Ööklubi Club von Überlingen = Club von Überlingen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Ööklubi Club von Überlingen (Madara 22A, Tallinn) sisekujundusest. Sisearhitekt: Taavi Aunre (Boom.ee OÜ). Taavi Aunrest, tema tähtsamad tööd. I-II korruse plaan, 11 värv. vaadet, foto T. Aunrest

  7. Wirtschaftlichkeit von Facility Management - Entwicklungen und Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redlein, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Das vorliegende Paper baut auf den jährlichen Umfragen bzw. Studien des Immobilien und Facility Management (IFM der Technischen Universität Wien (TU Wien und der Dissertation von Susanne Hauk aus dem Jahr 2007 auf. Neben der Darstellung allgemeiner Daten konzentriert sich die Arbeit im Wesentlichen auf folgende Forschungsfragen:  In welchen Bereichen können Einsparungen generiert werden?  In welchen Bereichen können Produktivitätssteigerungen lukriert werden?  Mit welchen Problemen/Kostentreibern sind Facility Manager bzw. FM-Abteilungen konfrontiert?  Welche (statistisch signifikanten Zusammenhänge bestehen zwischen verschiedenen Merkmalen/Variablen? Seit dem Jahr 2005 wurden jährlich FM-Verantwortliche von den 500 größten Unternehmen Österreichs befragt. Im Rahmen der Umfrage sollen wissenschaftlich fundiert die obigen Forschungsfragen geklärt werden. Als Werkzeuge für die Datenerhebung wurden das Telefon und/oder elektronische Wege gewählt. Die Umfrage wurde anhand eines standardisierten Fragebogens mit 36 Fragen zu den verschiedensten FM-Bereichen durchgeführt. Im Rahmen der vorliegenden Arbeit sollen die Ergebnisse der aktuellen Umfrage dargestellt und mit den Ergebnissen der Studien der letzten Jahre verglichen werden. Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich vor allem mit jenem Teil der Umfrage, der die oben genannten Forschungsfragen behandelt. Ziel ist dabei, die wichtigsten Parameter und Einflussfaktoren in den Bereichen Einsparungen, Produktivitätssteigerungen und Kostentreiber zu identifizieren und die Entwicklungen und Trends näher darzustellen. Dabei zeigt sich, dass effizientes FM große Potentiale in den Bereichen Einsparungen und Produktivitätssteigerungen lukrieren kann. Auch wenn die Einführung von FM zu Beginn mit Kosten/Problemen verbunden ist, so kann dies durch spätere Einsparungen und Produktivitätssteigerungen kompensiert werden.

  8. Effekte von Hyperoxie und Stickstoffmonoxid beim Neugeborenen

    OpenAIRE

    Höhn, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit sind Untersuchungen vorgestellt, die sich mit Wirkungen und Interaktionen von zwei ubiquitär im menschlichen Körper vorkommenden Gasen befassen, i.e. Sauerstoff und Stickstoffmonoxid. Im Falle beider Substanzen ermöglicht die geringe Größe der Moleküle eine freie Diffusion über Membranen hinweg, eine Eigenschaft, die für die Funktion der Signaltransduktion geradezu prädestiniert. Aus den vorgelegten Untersuchungen lassen sich die folgenden Folgerungen ableiten: * S...

  9. A Metabiography of Alexander von Humboldt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolaas A. Rupke

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Article in English.The author's recently published monograph on Alexander von Humboldt describes the multiple images of this great cultural icon. The book is a metabiographical study that shows how from the middle of the nineteenth century to the present day Humboldt has served as a nucleus of crystallisation for a variety of successive socio-political ideologies, each producing its own distinctive representation of him. The historiographical implications of this biographical diversity are profound and support current attempts to understand historical scholarship in terms of memory cultures.

  10. Unlawfulness of environmental zones; Rechtswidrigkeit von Umweltzonen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbach, Jan

    2016-07-01

    The author examines the new findings on the effectiveness of the environmental zones and, in this context, questions their legitimacy. In addition, the efforts of the European and German legislators are analyzed in order to reduce the particulate matter pollution. In addition, legal protection against the exceeding of limits for particulate matter is critically appreciated. [German] Der Autor beleuchtet die neuen Erkenntnisse zur Wirksamkeit der Umweltzonen und hinterfragt vor diesem Hintergrund deren Rechtmaessigkeit. Darueber hinaus werden die Bemuehungen des europaeischen und deutschen Gesetzgebers analysiert, um die Feinstaubbelastung zu senken. Zudem wird der Rechtsschutz gegen die Ueberschreitung von Feinstaubgrenzwerten kritisch gewuerdigt.

  11. Renaturierung von Waldökosystemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbe, Stefan

    Wälder sind neben der Landwirtschaft und den urban-industriellen Siedlungsflächen flächenmäßig die Hauptnutzungstypen in Mitteleuropa und stellen heute multifunktionale ökosysteme dar. Zusätzlich zur Holzproduktion kommt ihnen eine Regulations-(z.B.Wasserhaushalt), Schutz (z.B. von Biodiversität und gegen Erosion, Lawinen, Immissionen und Lärm) und Erholungsfunktion zu. Zudem haben Wälder als Kohlenstoffsenken auch eine besondere Bedeutung für den Klimaschutz.

  12. Key contributors: Ernst von Glasersfeld's radical constructivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Kenneth

    2007-07-01

    This article reviews the significance of the contributions of Ernst von Glasersfeld to research in science education, especially through his theoretical contributions on radical constructivism. As a field shaper, Glasersfeld's subversive ideas catalyzed debate in the science education community and fuelled transformation of many facets including research methods, ways of thinking about teaching and learning, curriculum, and science teacher education. Perturbations emanating from the debates on constructivism forged new pathways that led to the development and use of many of the sociocultural frameworks employed by authors in Cultural Studies of Science Education.

  13. Green revolution trees: semidwarfism transgenes modify gibberellins, promote root growth, enhance morphological diversity, and reduce competitiveness in hybrid poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Ani A; Busov, Victor B; Kosola, Kevin R; Ma, Cathleen; Etherington, Elizabeth; Shevchenko, Olga; Gandhi, Harish; Pearce, David W; Rood, Stewart B; Strauss, Steven H

    2012-10-01

    Semidwarfism has been used extensively in row crops and horticulture to promote yield, reduce lodging, and improve harvest index, and it might have similar benefits for trees for short-rotation forestry or energy plantations, reclamation, phytoremediation, or other applications. We studied the effects of the dominant semidwarfism transgenes GA Insensitive (GAI) and Repressor of GAI-Like, which affect gibberellin (GA) action, and the GA catabolic gene, GA 2-oxidase, in nursery beds and in 2-year-old high-density stands of hybrid poplar (Populus tremula × Populus alba). Twenty-nine traits were analyzed, including measures of growth, morphology, and physiology. Endogenous GA levels were modified in most transgenic events; GA(20) and GA(8), in particular, had strong inverse associations with tree height. Nearly all measured traits varied significantly among genotypes, and several traits interacted with planting density, including aboveground biomass, root-shoot ratio, root fraction, branch angle, and crown depth. Semidwarfism promoted biomass allocation to roots over shoots and substantially increased rooting efficiency with most genes tested. The increased root proportion and increased leaf chlorophyll levels were associated with changes in leaf carbon isotope discrimination, indicating altered water use efficiency. Semidwarf trees had dramatically reduced growth when in direct competition with wild-type trees, supporting the hypothesis that semidwarfism genes could be effective tools to mitigate the spread of exotic, hybrid, and transgenic plants in wild and feral populations.

  14. Effect of the Application of Gibberellin (GA3 on Tomato Seed Germination (Solanum Lycopersicum L. Variety Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Alexandra Deaquiz-Oyola

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The tomato is one of the most important vegetable, economical and nutritionally, around the world. For this reason the germination process in the tomato is a vital stage in the growth and development of plants. In this study, the effect of different doses of gibberellin over the germination of Santa Cruz variety tomato seeds was evaluated. The seeds were embedded for 24 hours in different concentrations of gibberellic acid, sown in a peat substrate in the screen house of the UPTC. A complete randomized design was used with 4 treatments corresponding to 0, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1 of GAs with three replicates, for a total of 12 experimental units (EU, and each unit with 35 seeds. The treatment of 0 mg L-1 had a favorable impact on the mean germination time (GT, average speed of germination (ASG and germination percentage (GP, showing significant differences with respect to the other treatments. The seeds soaked in 400 mg L-1 of GAs presented the lowest values in the variables GT, ASG and GP, attributed to negative effect this type of hormone over this tomato variety, which delayed the death of the embryo and the seed germination.

  15. Transcriptome profiling reveals the regulatory mechanism underlying pollination dependent and parthenocarpic fruit set mainly mediated by auxin and gibberellin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Deng, Wei; Hu, Guojian; Hu, Nan; Li, Zhengguo

    2015-01-01

    Fruit set is a key process for crop production in tomato which occurs after successful pollination and fertilization naturally. However, parthenocarpic fruit development can be uncoupled from fertilization triggered by exogenous auxin or gibberellins (GAs). Global transcriptome knowledge during fruit initiation would help to characterize the molecular mechanisms by which these two hormones regulate pollination-dependent and -independent fruit set. In this work, digital gene expression tag profiling (DGE) technology was applied to compare the transcriptomes from pollinated and 2, 4-D/GA3-treated ovaries. Activation of carbohydrate metabolism, cell division and expansion as well as the down-regulation of MADS-box is a comprehensive regulatory pathway during pollination-dependent and parthenocarpic fruit set. The signaling cascades of auxin and GA are significantly modulated. The feedback regulations of Aux/IAAs and DELLA genes which functioned to fine-tune auxin and GA response respectively play fundamental roles in triggering fruit initiation. In addition, auxin regulates GA synthesis via up-regulation of GA20ox1 and down-regulation of KNOX. Accordingly, the effect of auxin on fruit set is mediated by GA via ARF2 and IAA9 down-regulation, suggesting that both pollination-dependent and parthenocarpic fruit set depend on the crosstalk between auxin and GA. This study characterizes the transcriptomic features of ovary development and more importantly unravels the integral roles of auxin and GA on pollination-dependent and parthenocarpic fruit set.

  16. Cloning and molecular analyses of a gibberellin 20-oxidase gene expressed specifically in developing seeds of watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H G; Jun, S H; Kim, J; Kawaide, H; Kamiya, Y; An, G

    1999-10-01

    To understand the biosynthesis and functional role of gibberellins (GAs) in developing seeds, we isolated Cv20ox, a cDNA clone from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) that shows significant amino acid homology with GA 20-oxidases. The complementary DNA clone was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein, which oxidized GA(12) at C-20 to the C(19) compound GA(9), a precursor of bioactive GAs. RNA-blot analysis showed that the Cv20ox gene was expressed specifically in developing seeds. The gene was strongly expressed in the integument tissues, and it was also expressed weakly in inner seed tissues. In parthenocarpic fruits induced by 1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-3-phenylurea treatment, the expression pattern of Cv20ox did not change, indicating that the GA 20-oxidase gene is expressed primarily in the maternal cells of developing seeds. The promoter of Cv20ox was isolated and fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene. In a transient expression system, beta-glucuronidase staining was detectable only in the integument tissues of developing watermelon seeds.

  17. Cloning and Molecular Analyses of a Gibberellin 20-Oxidase Gene Expressed Specifically in Developing Seeds of Watermelon1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hong-Gyu; Jun, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Junyul; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Kamiya, Yuji; An, Gynheung

    1999-01-01

    To understand the biosynthesis and functional role of gibberellins (GAs) in developing seeds, we isolated Cv20ox, a cDNA clone from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) that shows significant amino acid homology with GA 20-oxidases. The complementary DNA clone was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein, which oxidized GA12 at C-20 to the C19 compound GA9, a precursor of bioactive GAs. RNA-blot analysis showed that the Cv20ox gene was expressed specifically in developing seeds. The gene was strongly expressed in the integument tissues, and it was also expressed weakly in inner seed tissues. In parthenocarpic fruits induced by 1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-3-phenylurea treatment, the expression pattern of Cv20ox did not change, indicating that the GA 20-oxidase gene is expressed primarily in the maternal cells of developing seeds. The promoter of Cv20ox was isolated and fused to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene. In a transient expression system, β-glucuronidase staining was detectable only in the integument tissues of developing watermelon seeds. PMID:10517828

  18. Silencing of the gibberellin receptor homolog, CsGID1a, affects locule formation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Liu, Xingwang; Yang, Sen; Chen, Chunhua; Xue, Shudan; Cai, Yanling; Wang, Dandan; Yin, Shuai; Gai, Xinshuang; Ren, Huazhong

    2016-04-01

    Gibberellins are phytohormones with many roles, including the regulation of fruit development. However, little is known about the relationship between GA perception and fleshy fruit ontogeny, and particularly locule formation. We characterized the expression of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) GA receptor gene (CsGID1a) using quantitative real-time PCR, in situ hybridization and a promoter::β-glucuronidase (GUS) assay. CsGID1a-RNAi cucumber fruits were observed by dissecting microscope, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Finally, genome-wide gene expression in young fruits from a control and the RNAi line was compared using a digital gene expression (DGE) analysis approach. The expression pattern of CsGID1a was found to be closely correlated with fruit locule formation, and silencing CsGID1a in cucumber resulted in fruits with abnormal carpels and locules. Overexpression of CsGID1a in the Arabidopsis thaliana double mutant (gid1a gid1c) resulted in 'cucumber locule-like' fruits. The DGE analysis suggested that expression of genes related to auxin synthesis and transport, as well as the cell cycle, was altered in CsGID1a-RNAi fruits, a result that was supported by comparing the auxin content and cellular structures of the control and transgenic fruits. This study demonstrates a previously uncharacterized GA signaling pathway that is essential for cucumber fruit locule formation. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Metabolism of Tritiated Gibberellin A9 by Shoots of Dark-grown Dwarf Pea, cv. Meteor 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Railton, Ian D.; Durley, Richard C.; Pharis, Richard P.

    1974-01-01

    Tritium-labeled gibberellin A9 (3H-GA9) was metabolized by etiolated shoots of dwarf pea (Pisum sativum cv. Meteor) to GA20, GA10, 2,3-dihydro-GA31, and a number of highly polar, acidic GA-like substances. Identifications were made by gasliquid radiochromatography and combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Kinetic studies showed that GA30 and 2,3-dihydro-GA31 were produced within 5 hours following 3H-GA9 application to pea shoots. The polar GA-like substances were produced between 5 and 10 hours after 3H-GA9 application. Levels of GA10 increased with time, and since no GA10 was produced during the purification procedures, GA10 was, in all probability, produced from 3H-GA9 within the plant tissue. The radioactive interconversion products produced by pea from 3H-GA9 have chromatographic properties similar to biologically active GA-like substances present in etiolated shoots of dwarf pea. Large scale applications of 3H-GA9 with very low specific activity to etiolated pea shoots showed that the radioactivity of the interconversion products was correlated exactly with biological activity as assayed by dwarf rice (Oryza sativa cv. Tan-ginbozu). PMID:16658838

  20. Transformation of a dwarf Arabidopsis mutant illustrates gibberellin hormone physiology and the function of a Green Revolution gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Isabel; Weber, Katrin; Dos Santos, Déborah Y Alves Cursino; Ohlrogge, John

    2009-05-01

    The introduction of dwarfing traits into crops was a major factor in increased grain yields during the "Green Revolution." In most cases those traits were the consequence of altered synthesis or response to the gibberellin (GA) plant hormones. Our current understanding of GA synthesis and physiology has been facilitated by the characterization of mutants. To introduce concepts about GA hormone physiology and plant transformation in an undergraduate laboratory course we have used ga5, a semi-dwarf Arabidopsis mutant with reduced activity of GA 20-oxidase. In this laboratory exercise, Arabidopsis ga5 mutant plants are transformed by the floral-dip method using Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying plasmid constructs conferring kanamycin resistance and containing the GA5 gene. Within 4 weeks, seeds of transformed plants can be easily screened by antibiotic resistance on plates. After transfer to soil the dwarf mutant plants transformed with a wild-type version of the gene show normal size. In addition to offering a visual understanding of the effect of GA on stem elongation, students learn additional techniques in this experiment, including PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis. This experiment is cost effective and can be completed within a 4-month term. Copyright © 2009 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Transcriptome profiling reveals the regulatory mechanism underlying pollination dependent and parthenocarpic fruit set mainly mediated by auxin and gibberellin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Tang

    Full Text Available Fruit set is a key process for crop production in tomato which occurs after successful pollination and fertilization naturally. However, parthenocarpic fruit development can be uncoupled from fertilization triggered by exogenous auxin or gibberellins (GAs. Global transcriptome knowledge during fruit initiation would help to characterize the molecular mechanisms by which these two hormones regulate pollination-dependent and -independent fruit set.In this work, digital gene expression tag profiling (DGE technology was applied to compare the transcriptomes from pollinated and 2, 4-D/GA3-treated ovaries. Activation of carbohydrate metabolism, cell division and expansion as well as the down-regulation of MADS-box is a comprehensive regulatory pathway during pollination-dependent and parthenocarpic fruit set. The signaling cascades of auxin and GA are significantly modulated. The feedback regulations of Aux/IAAs and DELLA genes which functioned to fine-tune auxin and GA response respectively play fundamental roles in triggering fruit initiation. In addition, auxin regulates GA synthesis via up-regulation of GA20ox1 and down-regulation of KNOX. Accordingly, the effect of auxin on fruit set is mediated by GA via ARF2 and IAA9 down-regulation, suggesting that both pollination-dependent and parthenocarpic fruit set depend on the crosstalk between auxin and GA.This study characterizes the transcriptomic features of ovary development and more importantly unravels the integral roles of auxin and GA on pollination-dependent and parthenocarpic fruit set.

  2. Von Neumann algebras as complemented subspaces of B(H)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik; Wang, Liguang

    2014-01-01

    Let M be a von Neumann algebra of type II1 which is also a complemented subspace of B( H). We establish an algebraic criterion, which ensures that M is an injective von Neumann algebra. As a corollary we show that if M is a complemented factor of type II1 on a Hilbert space H, then M is injective...

  3. An accurate von Neumann's law for three-dimensional foams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Kraynik, Andrew M.; Koehler, Stephan A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2001-01-01

    The diffusive coarsening of 2D soap froths is governed by von Neumann's law. A statistical version of this law for dry 3D foams has long been conjectured. A new derivation, based on a theorem by Minkowski, yields an explicit analytical von Neumann's law in 3D which is in very good agreement with

  4. Erfahrungen an der Schnittstelle von Medienarbeit und Praxisforschung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Holzwarth

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Der Beitrag reflektiert die Verbindung von praktischer Medienarbeit und Forschung am Beispiel eines internationalen EU-Forschungsprojekts zum Thema Medien und Migration. Neben didaktischen Prinzipien und Konzepten für die aktive Medienarbeit im Forschungskontext geht es um die Kooperation von medienpädagogischer Begleitung (MB und wissenschaftlicher Begleitung (WB sowie um deren spezifische Kompetenzen.

  5. Die baltischen Kapitulationen von 1710 : Kontext, Wirkungen, Interpretationen / Marten Seppel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Seppel, Marten, 1979-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Die baltischen Kapitulationen von 1710 : Kontext, Wirkungen, Interpretationen, hrsg. von Karsten Brüggemann, Mati Laur und Pärtel Piirimäe, Queleln und Studien zur baltischen Geschichte, Bd 23 (Köln u.a: Böhlau Verlag, 2014)

  6. Star order and topologies on von Neumann algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Bohata, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the paper is to study a topology generated by the star order on von Neumann algebras. In particular, it is proved that the order topology under investigation is finer than $\\sigma$-strong* topology. On the other hand, we show that it is comparable with the norm topology if and only if the von Neumann algebra is finite-dimensional.

  7. Huldrich Zwingli se Von dem Touff, vom Widertouff und vom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Huldrich Zwingli's 'Von dem Touff, vom Widertouff und vom Kindertouff': Some aspects of Zwringli's theological thought. The aim of this article is to let Zwingli speak for himself as he expresses himself in his treatise on baptism; Von dem Touff, vom Widertouff und vom Kindertouff. The use of secondary literature is avoided in ...

  8. Von Krahli teater mängib Kõrvitsa kammeroopereid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    20. apr. esietenduvad Von Krahli Teatris Peeter Jalaka lavastuses Tõnu Kõrvitsa uued kammerooperid "Tuleaed" ja "Mu luiged, mu mõtted", mille aluseks on luuletaja Marie Heibergi saatus. Libretode autor on Maarja Kangro. Kammerooperid tulevad lavale Von Krahli Teatri ja Nargen Opera koostöös. Esitavad Kädy Plaas, Helen Lokuta, Nargen Opera koor ja Tallinna Kammerorkester, dirigent Tõnu Kaljuste

  9. Von Krahli teatris etenduvad Tõnu Kõrvitsa kammerooperid / Esme Kassak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kassak, Esme

    2006-01-01

    20. apr. esietenduvad Von Krahli Teatris Peeter Jalaka lavastuses Tõnu Kõrvitsa uued kammerooperid "Tuleaed" ja "Mu luiged, mu mõtted", mille aluseks on luuletaja Marie Heibergi saatus. Libretode autor on Maarja Kangro. Kammerooperid tulevad lavale Von Krahli Teatri ja Nargen Opera koostöös. Esitavad Kädy Plaas, Helen Lokuta, Nargen Opera koor ja Tallinna Kammerorkester, dirigent Tõnu Kaljuste

  10. Compliance with periodic surveillance for Von-Hippel-Lindau disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammens, Chantal R. M.; Aaronson, Neil K.; Hes, Frederik J.; Links, Thera P.; Zonnenberg, Bernard A.; Lenders, Jacques W. M.; Majoor-Krakauer, Danielle; Van Os, Theo A. M.; Gomez-Garcia, Encarna B.; de Herder, Wouter; van der Luijt, Rob B.; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; Van Hest, Liselot P.; Verhoef, Senno; Bleiker, Eveline M. A.

    Purpose: To assess compliance with a periodic surveillance regimen for Von Hippel-Lindau disease. Methods: In this nationwide study, Von Hippel-Lindau disease mutation carriers and those at 50% risk were invited to complete a questionnaire assessing (compliance with) advice given for periodic

  11. Compliance with periodic surveillance for Von Hippel-Lindau disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammens, C.R.M.; Aaronson, N.K.; Hes, F.J.; Links, T.P.; Zonnenberg, B.A.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Majoor-Krakauer, D.; van Os, T.A.M.; Gomez-Garcia, E.B.; de Herder, W.; van der Luijt, R.B.; van den Ouweland, A.M.W.; van Hest, L.P.; Verhoef, S.; Bleiker, E.M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess compliance with a periodic surveillance regimen for Von Hippel-Lindau disease. Methods: In this nationwide study, Von Hippel-Lindau disease mutation carriers and those at 50% risk were invited to complete a questionnaire assessing (compliance with) advice given for periodic

  12. Compliance with periodic surveillance for Von-Hippel-Lindau disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammens, C.R.; Aaronson, N.K.; Hes, F.J.; Links, T.P.; Zonnenberg, B.A.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Majoor-Krakauer, D.; Os, T.A. van; Gomez-Garcia, E.B.; Herder, W.W. de; Luijt, R.B. van der; Ouweland, A.M. van den; Hest, L.P. van; Verhoef, S.; Bleiker, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess compliance with a periodic surveillance regimen for Von Hippel-Lindau disease. METHODS: In this nationwide study, Von Hippel-Lindau disease mutation carriers and those at 50% risk were invited to complete a questionnaire assessing (compliance with) advice given for periodic

  13. Compliance with periodic surveillance for Von-Hippel-Lindau disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammens, Chantal R. M.; Aaronson, Neil K.; Hes, Frederik J.; Links, Thera P.; Zonnenberg, Bernard A.; Lenders, Jacques W. M.; Majoor-Krakauer, Danielle; van Os, Theo A. M.; Gomez-Garcia, Encarna B.; de Herder, Wouter; van der Luijt, Rob B.; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; van Hest, Liselot P.; Verhoef, Senno; Bleiker, Eveline M. A.

    2011-01-01

    To assess compliance with a periodic surveillance regimen for Von Hippel-Lindau disease. In this nationwide study, Von Hippel-Lindau disease mutation carriers and those at 50% risk were invited to complete a questionnaire assessing (compliance with) advice given for periodic surveillance. Medical

  14. Polychaeten aus den Zoologischen Museen von Leiden und Amsterdam I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augener, H.

    1933-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit ist die Untersuchung eines sehr umfangreichen Polychaeten-Materials niedergelegt, das mir von Herrn Prof. Dr. E. D. van Oort in Leiden und Herrn Prof. Dr. L. F. de Beaufort in Amsterdam zur Bearbeitung übergeben wurde. Von diesem Material ist der dem Museum in Leiden

  15. Victor or Villain? Wernher von Braun and the Space Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jason L.; Sears, Christine E.

    2011-01-01

    Set during the Cold War and space race, this historical role-play focuses on Wernher von Braun's involvement in and culpability for the use of slave laborers to produce V-2 rockets for Nazi Germany. Students will grapple with two central questions. Should von Braun have been allowed to emigrate to the United States given his affiliation with the…

  16. Auf den Schultern von Riesen und Zwergen Einsteins unvollendete Revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Renn, Jürgen

    2006-01-01

    Dies ist die Geschichte von Einsteins unvollendeter Revolution, einer tiefgreifenden Veränderung unserer Begriffe von Raum, Zeit, Materie und Strahlung. Diese Revolution begann in Einsteins Wunderjahr 1905, wurde durch seine allgemeine Relativitätstheorie aus dem Jahre 1915 fortgesetzt und wirkt in den heutigen Versuchen der Wissenschaft, die Entstehung und das Schicksal des Universums zu verstehen, weiter. Vor dem Hintergrund einer historischen Theorie des wissenschaftlichen Fortschritts wird Einsteins bis heute nicht abgeschlossene Revolution als das Ergebnis einer langfristigen Entwicklung des Wissens verständlich. Anhand der spannenden Geschichte von Einsteins Entdeckungen wird nachvollziehbar, warum große Denker wie Einstein weiter gesehen haben als ihre Vorgänger. Sie standen nicht nur auf den Schultern von Riesen, also den wissenschaftlichen Leistungen einzelner großer Vorgänger wie Newton, sondern auch auf den Schultern von "Zwergen", dem wissenschaftlichen Wissen, dem technischen Wissen, und d...

  17. Die Krakauer Kirche von Karmeliten und Karmelitaninnen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Szymon Wronski

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available 1. Die Klosterkirche der unbeschuhten Karmelitinnen Zum Heiligen Josef. Ein glücklicher Auftakt und somit die charakteristische Einführung in das 20. Jh. für den Kirchenbau von Krakau war die Errichtung der Karmeliterinnen St. Josephs-Kirche an der Lobzowska-Straße 40, in der die Architekten (Tadeusz Stryjeński (1849-1943 - Projektant der Kirche und Franciszek Mączyński (1874-1947 - Ausführer des Bauprojektes mit eigenen Verbesserungen die historisch- eklektizistischen Formen d.h. die mittelalterlichen Formen vor allem des sog. Übergangsstils vereinfachten. Die Kirche, die in den Jahren 1903-1905 errichtet wurde, steht inmitten vom Baukomplex des Klosters, dessen Grundriss das Quadrat ist49. Der Kirchenbau ist ein dem Gesamtbau des Klosters eingefügter Längsraum. Hinter dem Chor liegt das Oratorium des Konvents. Das Material Backstein (mit Verwendung von Stein erinnert an die Baukunst eines der besten Architekten jener Zeit, nämlich Teodor Talowskis (1857-1910, der viele Kirchen in Südpolen, aber auch viele Bürgerhäuser nicht nur in Krakau im ausgehenden 19. Jh. baute. Die Architektur der Karmeliterinnen St. Josephs-Kirche ist immer noch im Malerischen begriffen. Aber die Vereinfachung der historischen Formen führt zu ihrer „Beruhigung” und dadurch zur Wuchtigkeit des Ausdrucks. Bemerkenswert ist die in dieser Zeit (in der Anlage noch seltene ausgewogene Proportionierung des Baukörpers. Das methodische Prinzip jener Zeit ist der Kontrast. Im Kontrast zu den gedrungenen und wuchtigen Formen des Baukörpers stehen z.B. die sich verjüngenden obeliskenförmigen und pylonenartigen Türmchen, die nicht nur die Eingangsfassade der Kirche flankieren, sondern auch an den Ecken des Querhauses der Kirche stehen. Die ingravierten weißen Steine an der Fassade in der Zahl von Zehn erinnern an das Gebot des Karmelterinnenordens: Bete täglich den Rosenkranz und sind zugleich ein Vanitativmotiv. 2. Die Klosterkirche der unbeschuhten

  18. Guy von Dardel 1919-2009

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Guy von Dardel, a well-known figure at CERN and in the international particle physics community, passed away on 28 August. Guy von Dardel came to CERN when it was founded in 1954 and was a full-time staff member until 1964, performing several experiments and working on technical developments. These included the first measurement of the neutral pion’s life-time. Called to Lund University in 1964, he became professor there in 1965 and director of the 1.2 GeV electron accelerator. In the late 1960s, he performed an experiment at CERN’s PS that measured the decays of the Λ. Then, in the early 1970s, he involved the Lund group in a series of experiments at the Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR), where he measured the production of various types of particles. In particular, he participated in a series of experiments that observed the production of a high abundance of particles with large transverse momenta. This required an explanation...

  19. Translational Medicine Advances in von Willebrand Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillicrap, David

    2014-01-01

    Following the recognition of von Willebrand disease (VWD) in 1926 and the cloning of the gene for von Willebrand factor (VWF) in 1985, significant advances have been made in our fundamental knowledge of both the disease and the protein. Some of this new knowledge has also begun to impact the clinical management of VWD. First, the progressive increase in our understanding of the molecular genetic basis of VWD has resulted in rational applications of molecular testing to complement the current range of phenotypic tests for VWD. These molecular genetic strategies are most effectively directed at the prenatal diagnosis of type 3 VWD and confirmatory testing for types 2B and 2N disease. In contrast, the use of molecular testing to clarify the diagnosis of type 1 VWD is of marginal benefit, at best. In terms of VWD therapies, a new recombinant VWF concentrate has recently completed successful clinical trials and is now awaiting more widespread application. There have even been some pre-clinical successes with VWF gene transfer although the clinical rationale for this therapeutic strategy needs careful consideration. Much more remains to be learnt about the biology of VWF and further translational advances for the enhancement of VWD care will inevitably be realized. PMID:23809112

  20. Suitability of tracers; Eignung von Tracern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klotz, D. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrologie

    1999-02-01

    Hydrological tracer techniques are a means of making statements on the direction and speed of underground water. One of the simpler tasks is to find out whether there is hydrological communication between two given points. This requires a determination of the direction of flow, which places less exacting demands on the properties of the tracer than does the task of determining the flow velocity of underground water. Tracer methods can serve to infer from flow velocity the distance (flow) velocity, which is defined as the ratio between the distance between two points located in flow direction and the actual time it takes water to flow from one to the other. [Deutsch] Mit Hilfe der hydrologischen Markierungstechniken koennen Aussagen ueber die Richtung und die Geschwindigkeit von Bewegungen des unterirdischen Wassers gemacht werden. Der einfachere Fall liegt vor, wenn festgestellt werden soll, ob zwischen zwei Punkten eine hydrologische Verbindung besteht. Bei dieser Fliessrichtungsbestimmung sind die Forderungen an die Eigenschaften der einzusetzenden Tracer geringer als bei der Bestimmung der Geschwindigkeit des unterirdischen Wassers. Von den Geschwindigkeiten des unterirdischen Wassers ist die Abstands-(Fliess)geschwindigkeit, die definiert ist durch das Verhaeltnis aus dem Abstand und der wahren Fliesszeit zwischen zwei in Bewegungsrichtung gelegenen Punkten, durch Tracermethoden zu bestimmen. (orig.)

  1. Approximate von Neumann entropy for directed graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Cheng; Wilson, Richard C; Comin, César H; Costa, Luciano da F; Hancock, Edwin R

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we develop an entropy measure for assessing the structural complexity of directed graphs. Although there are many existing alternative measures for quantifying the structural properties of undirected graphs, there are relatively few corresponding measures for directed graphs. To fill this gap in the literature, we explore an alternative technique that is applicable to directed graphs. We commence by using Chung's generalization of the Laplacian of a directed graph to extend the computation of von Neumann entropy from undirected to directed graphs. We provide a simplified form of the entropy which can be expressed in terms of simple node in-degree and out-degree statistics. Moreover, we find approximate forms of the von Neumann entropy that apply to both weakly and strongly directed graphs, and that can be used to characterize network structure. We illustrate the usefulness of these simplified entropy forms defined in this paper on both artificial and real-world data sets, including structures from protein databases and high energy physics theory citation networks.

  2. Coarse Graining Shannon and von Neumann Entropies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alonso-Serrano

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The nature of coarse graining is intuitively “obvious”, but it is rather difficult to find explicit and calculable models of the coarse graining process (and the resulting entropy flow discussed in the literature. What we would like to have at hand is some explicit and calculable process that takes an arbitrary system, with specified initial entropy S, and that monotonically and controllably drives the entropy to its maximum value. This does not have to be a physical process, in fact for some purposes it is better to deal with a gedanken-process, since then it is more obvious how the “hidden information” is hiding in the fine-grain correlations that one is simply agreeing not to look at. We shall present several simple mathematically well-defined and easy to work with conceptual models for coarse graining. We shall consider both the classical Shannon and quantum von Neumann entropies, including models based on quantum decoherence, and analyse the entropy flow in some detail. When coarse graining the quantum von Neumann entropy, we find it extremely useful to introduce an adaptation of Hawking’s super-scattering matrix. These explicit models that we shall construct allow us to quantify and keep clear track of the entropy that appears when coarse graining the system and the information that can be hidden in unobserved correlations (while not the focus of the current article, in the long run, these considerations are of interest when addressing the black hole information puzzle.

  3. [Heinz von zur Mühlen. Das Bürgertum Fordert Blut. Ein Bolschewistiches Flugblatt von 1918] / Paul Kaegbein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaegbein, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Arvustus: Heinz von zur Mühlen. Das Bürgertum Fordert Blut. Ein Bolschewistiches Flugblatt von 1918. In : Ostseeprovinzen, baltische Staaten und das Nationale. Münster : LIT, 2005, lk. 403-414. 1918. aastast pärit lendlehest, mille käekirja järgi otsustades on kirjutanud Viktor Kingissepp

  4. High prevalence of sensitization to gibberellin-regulated protein (peamaclein) in fruit allergies with negative immunoglobulin E reactivity to Bet v 1 homologs and profilin: Clinical pattern, causative fruits and cofactor effect of gibberellin-regulated protein allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Naoko; Miyakawa, Mami; Aihara, Michiko

    2017-07-01

    Gibberellin-regulated protein (GRP) is a new allergen in peach allergy, with an amino acid sequence very well conserved through several botanical species. We investigated the allergenicity of GRP in fruit allergies other than peaches and identified the clinical characteristics of fruit allergy patients with GRP sensitization. One hundred consecutive Japanese patients with fruit allergies were enrolled in the present study. To identify the features of GRP sensitization, we selected patients with negative ImmunoCAP results for Bet v 1 homologs and profilin, which are marker allergens for pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS), or lipid transfer protein. These patients underwent specific immunoglobulin E measurements by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and skin prick tests (SPT) using purified nPru p 7. Twenty of 100 consecutive patients with fruit allergies had negative ImmunoCAP results for Bet v 1 homologs and profilin. Thirteen (65.0%) of the 20 patients had positive ELISA and/or SPT results using nPru p 7, whereas one of the 20 patients had positive ImmunoCAP results for Pru p 3. In 13 nPru p 7-sensitized patients, the causative foods were peaches (92.3%), apricots (61.5%), oranges (46.2%) and apples (30.8%). Ten patients (76.9%) had multiple causative fruits. Frequent symptoms included facial edema (92.3%) and laryngeal tightness (66.7%). In eight patients (61.5%), exercise or aspirin intake enhanced the allergic reaction onset as cofactors. The prevalence of GRP sensitization was high in Japanese fruit allergy patients except for PFAS patients. In conclusion, GRP-sensitized patients may have allergies to multiple fruits and may show peculiar characteristics such as facial swelling and cofactor dependence. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  5. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Biosynthesis and Deactivation of Gibberellin-Dioxygenases Gene Family in Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Pan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Gibberellins (GAs, a class of diterpenoid phytohormones, play a key role in regulating diverse processes throughout the life cycle of plants. Bioactive GA levels are rapidly regulated by Gibberellin-dioxygenases (GAox, which are involved in the biosynthesis and deactivation of gibberellin. In this manuscript, a comprehensive genome-wide analysis was carried out to find all GAox in Camellia sinensis. For the first time in a tea plant, 14 CsGAox genes, containing two domains, DIOX_N (PF14226 and 2OG-FeII_Oxy, were identified (PF03171. These genes all belong to 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (2-ODD, including four CsGA20ox (EC: 1.14.11.12, three CsGA3ox (EC: 1.14.11.15, and seven CsGA2ox (EC: 1.14.11.13. According to the phylogenetic classification as in Arabidopsis, the CsGAox genes spanned five subgroups. Each CsGAox shows tissue-specific expression patterns, although these vary greatly. Some candidate genes, which may play an important role in response to external abiotic stresses, have been identified with regards to patterns, such as CsGA20ox2, CsGA3ox2, CsGA3ox3, CsGA2ox1, CsGA2ox2, and CsGA2ox4. The bioactive GA levels may be closely related to the GA20ox, GA3ox and GA2ox genes. In addition, the candidate genes could be used as marker genes for abiotic stress resistance breeding in tea plants.

  6. Drei Dimensionen von filmischem Archivmaterial. Die Untersuchung von Archivfilmen aus der Zeit des Holocaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Ebbrecht-Hartmann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Filmisches Archivmaterial aus der Zeit des Holocaust ist eine ambivalente Quelle. Daher sind spezifische Ansätze notwendig, um dieses Material zu ‘lesen’. Es geht darum, den besonderen Inhalt der Bilder zu analysieren, den Kontext ihrer Entstehung zu bestimmen, aber auch, ihre spätere Verwendung und Zirkulation in der visuellen Kultur und damit auch ihren wechselnden Status mit einzubeziehen. Am Beispiel ausgewählter Filmfragmente aus dem Warschauer Ghetto und dem Ghetto Theresienstadt skizziert der Artikel einen Ansatz, wie man diese drei Dimensionen von filmischem Archivmaterial analysieren kann und schlägt damit eine entsprechende Historiographie von Archivfilmen aus der Zeit des Holocaust vor.

  7. [Determination of von Willebrand factor multimers in Mexican population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Zamora, Edgar; Zavala-Hernández, Cesar; Viveros-Sandoval, Martha Eva; Ochoa-Rico, Angeles; Martínez-Murillo, Carlos; Reyes-Maldonado, Elba

    2014-01-01

    Von Willebrand disease is an inherited disease in which the structure, function, and concentration of von Willebrand factor are altered, as well as the platelet von Willebrand factor endothelium interaction. In Mexico there are no epidemiological records of the disease. Only a few isolated studies have been reported from the clinical and hematological standpoint. We studied 155 Mexican Mestizos: 75 with presumptive diagnosis of von Willebrand disease, 15 with suspected diagnosis ofhemophilia A and 65 healthy donors (controls). Basic coagulation tests, special tests and classification test (analysis of multimeric composition) were carried out. There were 15 patients with clinical diagnosis of hemophilia A, 75 patients with suspected von Willebrand disease of which 50 were diagnosed as the following types and subtypes: Type 1 (62%), Type 2 (22%) [subtypes: 2A (14%), 2B (2%), and 2N (6%)] and Type 3 (16%). It has been reported that analysis of von Willebrand factor is a method that meets the characteristics for the diagnosis of von Willebrand disease. It is necessary to implement this methodology to study and improve the specific diagnoses.

  8. Die Rolle von RANK-Ligand und Osteoprotegerin bei Osteoporose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofbauer LC

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF- κB ligand (RANKL, sein zellulärer Rezeptor RANK und der Decoy-Rezeptor Osteoprotegerin (OPG stellen ein essentielles Zytokinsystem für die Zellbiologie von Osteoklasten dar. Verschiedene Untersuchungen belegen die Bedeutung von Störungen des OPG/RANKL/RANK-Systems bei der Pathogenese metabolischer Knochenerkrankungen. In dieser Arbeit werden die wichtigsten Störungen des OPG/RANKL/RANK-Systems bei verschiedenen Osteoporoseformen dargestellt. Östrogenrezeptor- (ER- Agonisten wie 17 β-Östradiol, Raloxifen und Genistein stimulieren die osteoblastäre Produktion von OPG durch Aktivierung von ER- α in vitro, während Lymphozyten von Patientinnen mit Östrogenmangel RANKL überexprimieren. Die parenterale Gabe von OPG vermag den mit Östrogenmangel assoziierten Knochenverlust im Tiermodell und in einer kleineren klinischen Studie zu verhindern. Glukokortikoide und Immunsuppressiva steigern gleichzeitig die RANKL-Expression und hemmen die OPG-Produktion in osteoblastären Zellen in vitro. Glukokortikoide sind auch in vivo imstande, die OPG-Serumspiegel deutlich zu reduzieren. Dagegen hemmen biomechanische Reize in vitro die RANKL-Produktion und steigern die OPG-Produktion. Ein Fehlen dieser biomechanischen Reize bei längerer Immobilisierung kann daher den RANKL/OPG-Quotienten steigern, während die tierexperimentelle Immobilisierungs-Osteoporose durch die parenterale Gabe von OPG gemildert werden kann.

  9. DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 mediates a conserved coat-dormancy mechanism for the temperature- and gibberellin-dependent control of seed germination

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Graeber, K.; Linkies, A.; Steinbrecher, T.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Turečková, Veronika; Ignatz, M.; Voegele, A.; Urbanová, Terezie; Strnad, Miroslav; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 34 (2014), E3571-E3580 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD522/08/H003; GA MŠk LK21306; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA ČR GA14-34792S Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : dormancy gene DOG1 * gibberellin metabolism * germination temperature Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.674, year: 2014

  10. Strukturbasierte Entwicklung von Assaysystemen und Charakterisierung von orthosterischen und allosterischen Kinaseinhibitoren

    OpenAIRE

    Klüter, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Die Proteinkinasen stellen eine wichtige Enzymklasse für die Regulation der Signaltransduktion dar. Sie steuern diese diffizil regulierten, intrazellulären Signalkaskaden durch Übertragung der ?-Phosphatgruppe von ATP auf andere Proteine. Fehlregulationen dieser komplexen Stoffwechselwege können Krankheiten wie Krebs, Diabetes oder Autoimunkrankheiten verursachen. Somit gehören die Kinasen in den letzten Jahren zu den wichtigsten Zielproteinen der Pharmaindustrie. Die klassi...

  11. Der Effekt von Akupunktur in der Prävention von Prüfungsangst

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Prüfungsangst ist ein weit verbreitetes gesellschaftliches Phänomen, das bisher in nur wenigen wissenschaftlichen Ansätzen untersucht wurde. Die Zahl der Studenten, die Gehirn - Doping zur Leistungssteigerung und zur Minimierung von Prüfungsangst nutzen, steigt stetig an. In bisherigen Studien wurde Akupunktur an Herz 7 als vielversprechende Behandlungsalternative dargestellt. Basierend auf diesen Ergebnissen, wurde in dieser Arbeit untersucht, ob eine Einzelpunktakupunktur an Herz 7 die ...

  12. Gibberellins regulate iron deficiency-response by influencing iron transport and translocation in rice seedlings (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baolan; Wei, Haifang; Xue, Zhen; Zhang, Wen-Hao

    2017-04-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are a class of plant hormones with diverse functions. However, there has been little information on the role of GAs in response to plant nutrient deficiency. To evaluate the roles of GAs in regulation of Fe homeostasis, the effects of GA on Fe accumulation and Fe translocation in rice seedlings were investigated using wild-type, a rice mutant ( eui1 ) displaying enhnaced endogenous GA concentrations due to a defect in GA deactivation, and transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsEUI . Exposure to Fe-deficient medium significantly reduced biomass of rice plants. Both exogenous application of GA and an endogenous increase of bioactive GA enhanced Fe-deficiency response by exaggerating foliar chlorosis and reducing growth. Iron deficiency significantly suppressed production of GA 1 and GA 4 , the biologically active GAs in rice. Exogenous application of GA significantly decreased leaf Fe concentration regardless of Fe supply. Iron concentration in shoot of eui1 mutants was lower than that of WT plants under both Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient conditions. Paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis, alleviated Fe-deficiency responses, and overexpression of EUI significantly increased Fe concentration in shoots and roots. Furthermore, both exogenous application of GA and endogenous increase in GA resulting from EUI mutation inhibited Fe translocation within shoots by suppressing OsYSL2 expression, which is involved in Fe transport and translocation. The novel findings provide compelling evidence to support the involvement of GA in mediation of Fe homeostasis in strategy II rice plants by negatively regulating Fe transport and translocation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. Bioconversion of Gibberellin Fermentation Residue into Feed Supplement and Organic Fertilizer Employing Housefly (Musca domestica L. Assisted by Corynebacterium variabile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Yang

    Full Text Available The accumulation of a considerable quantity of gibberellin fermentation residue (GFR during gibberellic acid A3 (GA3 production not only results in the waste of many resources, but also poses a potential hazard to the environment, indicating that the safe treatment of GFR has become an urgent issue for GA3 industry. The key to recycle GFR is converting it into an available resource and removing the GA3 residue. To this end, we established a co-bioconversion process in this study using house fly larvae (HFL and microbes (Corynebacterium variabile to convert GFR into insect biomass and organic fertilizer. About 85.5% GA3 in the GFR was removed under the following optimized solid-state fermentation conditions: 60% GFR, 40% rice straw powder, pH 8.5 and 6 days at 26 °C. A total of 371 g housefly larvae meal and 2,064 g digested residue were bio-converted from 3,500 g raw GFR mixture contaning1, 400 g rice straw in the unit of (calculated dry matter. HFL meal derived from GFR contained 56.4% protein, 21.6% fat, and several essential amino acids, suggesting that it is a potential alternative animal feed protein source. Additionally, the digested GFR could be utilized as an organic fertilizer with a content of 3.2% total nitrogen, 2.0% inorganic phosphorus, 1.3% potassium and 91.5% organic matter. This novel GFR bio-conversion method can mitigate potential environmental pollution and recycle the waste resources.

  14. Gibberellins interfere with symbiosis signaling and gene expression and alter colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Naoya; Handa, Yoshihiro; Tsuzuki, Syusaku; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2015-02-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza is a mutualistic plant-fungus interaction that confers great advantages for plant growth. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi enter the host root and form symbiotic structures that facilitate nutrient supplies between the symbionts. The gibberellins (GAs) are phytohormones known to inhibit AM fungal infection. However, our transcriptome analysis and phytohormone quantification revealed GA accumulation in the roots of Lotus japonicus infected with AM fungi, suggesting that de novo GA synthesis plays a role in arbuscular mycorrhiza development. We found pleiotropic effects of GAs on the AM fungal infection. In particular, the morphology of AM fungal colonization was drastically altered by the status of GA signaling in the host root. Exogenous GA treatment inhibited AM hyphal entry into the host root and suppressed the expression of Reduced Arbuscular Mycorrhization1 (RAM1) and RAM2 homologs that function in hyphal entry and arbuscule formation. On the other hand, inhibition of GA biosynthesis or suppression of GA signaling also affected arbuscular mycorrhiza development in the host root. Low-GA conditions suppressed arbuscular mycorrhiza-induced subtilisin-like serine protease1 (SbtM1) expression that is required for AM fungal colonization and reduced hyphal branching in the host root. The reduced hyphal branching and SbtM1 expression caused by the inhibition of GA biosynthesis were recovered by GA treatment, supporting the theory that insufficient GA signaling causes the inhibitory effects on arbuscular mycorrhiza development. Most studies have focused on the negative role of GA signaling, whereas our study demonstrates that GA signaling also positively interacts with symbiotic responses and promotes AM colonization of the host root. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Different Responses of an Invasive Clonal Plant Wedelia trilobata and its Native Congener to Gibberellin: Implications for Biological Invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhi-Cong; Fu, Wei; Qi, Shan-Shan; Zhai, De-Li; Chen, Si-Chong; Wan, Ling-Yun; Huang, Ping; Du, Dao-Lin

    2016-02-01

    The invasive clonal plant Wedelia trilobata contains higher levels of ent-kaurane diterpenes, which are precursors of gibberellins (GAs), and higher rates of clonal growth than its native congener W. chinensis in invaded habitats. We hypothesized that the higher levels of endogenous GAs facilitate greater ramet growth in W. trilobata compared with W. chinensis. We quantified endogenous levels of GA1+3 in the two species and compared their growth responses to the changes of endogenous and exogenous GA3 by using short-term and long-term hydroponics experiments. After a period of homogeneous cultivation, levels of endogenous GA1+3 were higher in W. trilobata than in W. chinensis. The reduction of endogenous GAs repressed the emergence of adventitious roots and the growth of W. trilobata in the initial cultivation stage, and inhibited its shoot elongation and biomass. Levels of endogenous GA1+3 were positively correlated with the length of shoots and adventitious roots of W. trilobata. Adventitious roots of W. trilobata also emerged earlier and grew faster when treated with exogenous GA3. In contrast, exogenous GA3 treatment inhibited the length of adventitious roots in W. chinensis, and levels of endogenous GA1+3 did not correlate with shoot or adventitious root length. Our study suggests that GAs accelerate the rapid clonal growth of W. trilobata, more than that of its native congener W. chinensis, illustrating the relationship between plant hormones and the clonal growth of invasive plants. These findings are important for understanding the mechanisms associated with the invasiveness of clonal plants and their potential management.

  16. Endogenous diterpenes derived from ent-kaurene, a common gibberellin precursor, regulate protonema differentiation of the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Horie, Keisuke; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Hanada, Atsushi; Nakashima, Tamotsu; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Mander, Lewis N; Yamane, Hisakazu; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Nozaki, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are a group of diterpene-type plant hormones biosynthesized from ent-kaurene via ent-kaurenoic acid. GAs are ubiquitously present in seed plants. The GA signal is perceived and transduced by the GID1 GA receptor/DELLA repressor pathway. The lycopod Selaginella moellendorffii biosynthesizes GA and has functional GID1-DELLA signaling components. In contrast, no GAs or functionally orthologous GID1-DELLA components have been found in the moss Physcomitrella patens. However, P. patens produces ent-kaurene, a common precursor for GAs, and possesses a functional ent-kaurene synthase, PpCPS/KS. To assess the biological role of ent-kaurene in P. patens, we generated a PpCPS/KS disruption mutant that does not accumulate ent-kaurene. Phenotypic analysis demonstrates that the mutant has a defect in the protonemal differentiation of the chloronemata to caulonemata. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis shows that P. patens produces ent-kaurenoic acid, an ent-kaurene metabolite in the GA biosynthesis pathway. The phenotypic defect of the disruptant was recovered by the application of ent-kaurene or ent-kaurenoic acid, suggesting that ent-kaurenoic acid, or a downstream metabolite, is involved in protonemal differentiation. Treatment with uniconazole, an inhibitor of ent-kaurene oxidase in GA biosynthesis, mimics the protonemal phenotypes of the PpCPS/KS mutant, which were also restored by ent-kaurenoic acid treatment. Interestingly, the GA(9) methyl ester, a fern antheridiogen, rescued the protonemal defect of the disruption mutant, while GA(3) and GA(4), both of which are active GAs in angiosperms, did not. Our results suggest that the moss P. patens utilizes a diterpene metabolite from ent-kaurene as an endogenous developmental regulator and provide insights into the evolution of GA functions in land plants.

  17. Bioconversion of Gibberellin Fermentation Residue into Feed Supplement and Organic Fertilizer Employing Housefly (Musca domestica L.) Assisted by Corynebacterium variabile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sen; Xie, Jiufeng; Hu, Nan; Liu, Yixiong; Zhang, Jiner; Ye, Xiaobin; Liu, Ziduo

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of a considerable quantity of gibberellin fermentation residue (GFR) during gibberellic acid A3 (GA3) production not only results in the waste of many resources, but also poses a potential hazard to the environment, indicating that the safe treatment of GFR has become an urgent issue for GA3 industry. The key to recycle GFR is converting it into an available resource and removing the GA3 residue. To this end, we established a co-bioconversion process in this study using house fly larvae (HFL) and microbes (Corynebacterium variabile) to convert GFR into insect biomass and organic fertilizer. About 85.5% GA3 in the GFR was removed under the following optimized solid-state fermentation conditions: 60% GFR, 40% rice straw powder, pH 8.5 and 6 days at 26 °C. A total of 371 g housefly larvae meal and 2,064 g digested residue were bio-converted from 3,500 g raw GFR mixture contaning1, 400 g rice straw in the unit of (calculated) dry matter. HFL meal derived from GFR contained 56.4% protein, 21.6% fat, and several essential amino acids, suggesting that it is a potential alternative animal feed protein source. Additionally, the digested GFR could be utilized as an organic fertilizer with a content of 3.2% total nitrogen, 2.0% inorganic phosphorus, 1.3% potassium and 91.5% organic matter. This novel GFR bio-conversion method can mitigate potential environmental pollution and recycle the waste resources.

  18. Roles of Gibberellins and Abscisic Acid in Regulating Germination of Suaeda salsa Dimorphic Seeds Under Salt Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiqiang; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Khan, M Ajmal; An, Ping; Liu, Xiaojing; Tran, Lam-Son P

    2015-01-01

    Seed heteromorphism observed in many halophytes is an adaptive phenomenon toward high salinity. However, the relationship between heteromorphic seed germination and germination-related hormones under salt stress remains elusive. To gain an insight into this relationship, the roles of gibberellins (GAs) and abscisic acid (ABA) in regulating germination of Suaeda salsa dimorphic brown and black seeds under salinity were elucidated by studying the kinetics of the two hormones during germination of the two seed types with or without salinity treatment. Morphological analysis suggested that brown and black are in different development stage. The content of ABA was higher in dry brown than in black seeds, which gradually decreased after imbibition in water and salt solutions. Salt stress induced ABA accumulation in both germinating seed types, with higher induction effect on black than brown seeds. Black seeds showed lower germination percentage than brown seeds under both water and salt stress, which might be attributed to their higher ABA sensitivity rather than the difference in ABA content between black and brown seeds. Bioactive GA4 and its biosynthetic precursors showed higher levels in brown than in black seeds, whereas deactivated GAs showed higher content in black than brown seeds in dry or in germinating water or salt solutions. High salinity inhibited seed germination through decreasing the levels of GA4 in both seeds, and the inhibited effect of salt stress on GA4 level of black seeds was more profound than that of brown seeds. Taken together higher GA4 content, and lower ABA sensitivity contributed to the higher germination percentage of brown seeds than black seeds in water and salinity; increased ABA content and sensitivity, and decreased GA4 content by salinity were more profound in black than brown seeds, which contributed to lower germination of black seeds than brown seeds in salinity. The differential regulation of ABA and GA homeostases by salt

  19. The role of gibberellins in improving the resistance of tebuconazole-coated maize seeds to chilling stress by microencapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lijuan; Yang, Daibin; Yan, Xiaojing; Cui, Li; Wang, Zhenying; Yuan, Huizhu

    2016-11-01

    Chilling stress during germination often causes severe injury. In the present study, maize seed germination and shoot growth under chilling stress were negatively correlated with the dose of tebuconazole in an exponential manner as predicted by the model Y = A + B × e(-x/k). Microencapsulation was an effective means of eliminating potential phytotoxic risk. The gibberellins (GAs) contents were higher after microencapsulation treatment than after conventional treatment when the dose of tebuconazole was higher than 0.12 g AI (active ingredient) kg-1 seed. Further analysis indicated that microencapsulation can stimulate ent-kaurene oxidase (KO) activity to some extent, whereas GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox) and GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox) activities remained similar to those in the control. Genes encoding GA metabolic enzymes exhibited different expression patterns. Transcript levels of ZmKO1 increased in the microcapsule treatments compared to the control. Even when incorporated into microcapsules, tebuconazole led to the upregulation of ZmGA3ox1 at doses of less than 0.12 g AI kg-1 seed and to the upregulation of ZmGA3ox2 when the dose was higher than 0.12 g AI kg-1 seed. With increasing doses of microencapsulated tebuconazole, the transcript levels of ZmGA2ox4, ZmGA2ox5 and ZmGA2ox6 exhibited upward trends, whereas the transcript levels of ZmGA2ox7 exhibited a downward trend.

  20. The Gene pat-2, Which Induces Natural Parthenocarpy, Alters the Gibberellin Content in Unpollinated Tomato Ovaries1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fos, Mariano; Nuez, Fernando; García-Martínez, José L.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the role of gibberellins (GAs) in the effect of pat-2, a recessive mutation that induces facultative parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) using near-isogenic lines with two different genetic backgrounds. Unpollinated wild-type Madrigal (MA/wt) and Cuarenteno (CU/wt) ovaries degenerated, but GA3 application induced parthenocarpic fruit growth. On the contrary, parthenocarpic growth of MA/pat-2 and CU/pat-2 fruits, which occurs in the absence of pollination and hormone application, was not affected by GA3. Pollinated MA/wt and parthenocarpic MA/pat-2 ovary development was negated by paclobutrazol, and this inhibitory effect was counteracted by GA3. The main GAs of the early-13-hydroxylation pathway (GA1, GA3, GA8, GA19, GA20, GA29, GA44, GA53, and, tentatively, GA81) and two GAs of the non-13-hydroxylation pathway (GA9 and GA34) were identified in MA/wt ovaries by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring. GAs were quantified in unpollinated ovaries at flower bud, pre-anthesis, and anthesis. In unpollinated MA/pat-2 and CU/pat-2 ovaries, the GA20 content was much higher (up to 160 times higher) and the GA19 content was lower than in the corresponding non-parthenocarpic ovaries. The application of an inhibitor of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases suggested that GA20 is not active per se. The pat-2 mutation may increase GA 20-oxidase activity in unpollinated ovaries, leading to a higher synthesis of GA20, the precursor of an active GA. PMID:10677440

  1. The role of gibberellins in improving the resistance of tebuconazole-coated maize seeds to chilling stress by microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lijuan; Yang, Daibin; Yan, Xiaojing; Cui, Li; Wang, Zhenying; Yuan, Huizhu

    2016-11-07

    Chilling stress during germination often causes severe injury. In the present study, maize seed germination and shoot growth under chilling stress were negatively correlated with the dose of tebuconazole in an exponential manner as predicted by the model Y = A + B × e (-x/k) . Microencapsulation was an effective means of eliminating potential phytotoxic risk. The gibberellins (GAs) contents were higher after microencapsulation treatment than after conventional treatment when the dose of tebuconazole was higher than 0.12 g AI (active ingredient) kg -1 seed. Further analysis indicated that microencapsulation can stimulate ent-kaurene oxidase (KO) activity to some extent, whereas GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox) and GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox) activities remained similar to those in the control. Genes encoding GA metabolic enzymes exhibited different expression patterns. Transcript levels of ZmKO1 increased in the microcapsule treatments compared to the control. Even when incorporated into microcapsules, tebuconazole led to the upregulation of ZmGA3ox1 at doses of less than 0.12 g AI kg -1 seed and to the upregulation of ZmGA3ox2 when the dose was higher than 0.12 g AI kg -1 seed. With increasing doses of microencapsulated tebuconazole, the transcript levels of ZmGA2ox4, ZmGA2ox5 and ZmGA2ox6 exhibited upward trends, whereas the transcript levels of ZmGA2ox7 exhibited a downward trend.

  2. Role of gibberellins in parthenocarpic fruit development induced by the genetic system pat-3/pat-4 in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fos, Mariano; Proaño, Karina; Nuez, Fernando; García-Martínez, José L.

    2001-04-01

    The role of gibberellins (GAs) in the induction of parthenocarpic fruit-set and growth by the pat-3/pat-4 genetic system in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was investigated using wild type (WT; Cuarenteno) and a near-isogenic line derived from the German line RP75/59 (the source of pat-3/pat-4 parthenocarpy). Unpollinated WT ovaries degenerated but GA3 application induced parthenocarpic fruit growth. On the contrary, parthenocarpic growth of pat-3/pat-4 fruits, which occurs in the absence of pollination and hormone treatment, was not affected by applied GA3. Unpollinated pat-3/pat-4 fruit growth was negated by paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of ent-kaurene oxidase, and this inhibitory effect was negated by GA3. The quantification of the main GAs of the early 13-hydroxylation pathway (GA1, GA8, GA19, GA20, GA29 and GA44) in unpollinated ovaries at 3 developmental stages (flower bud, FB; pre-anthesis, PR; and anthesis, AN), by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring, showed that the concentration of most of them was higher in pat-3/pat-4 than in WT ovaries at PR and AN stages. The concentration of GA1, suggested previously to be the active GA in tomate, was 2-4 times higher. Unpollinated pat-3/pat-4 ovaries at FB, PR and AN stages also contained relatively high amounts (5-12 ng g-1) of GA3, a GA found at less than 0.5 ng g-1 in WT ovaries. It is concluded that the mutations pat-3/pat-4 may induce natural facultative parthenocarpy capacity in tomato by increasing the concentration of GA1 and GA3 in the ovaries before pollination.

  3. Modernisation of ventilation systems; Modernisierung von Lueftungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, W. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Technische Gebaeudeausruestung

    1997-12-31

    When redeveloping buildings it is common to use window constructions with air-tight rabbets which obviate the inflow of fresh air almost entirely. This leads to the well-known structural-physics and hygienic consequences. As an added effect, the distinctly enhanced thermal insulation results in changes in dynamic heat loss. The paper focuses on the issues of how to safeguard the inflow of fresh air, and the heating capacity of radiators. (MSK) [Deutsch] Da die bei Gebaeudesanierungen eingesetzten fugendichten Fensterkonstruktionen die Nachstroemmoeglichkeiten fuer die Zuluft fast ganz unterbinden, fuehrt das zu den bekannten bauphysikalischen und hygienischen Konsequenzen. Dazu kommen veraenderte dynamische Waermverlustverhaeltnisse aufgrund der deutlich verbesserten Waermedaemmung. Im Folgenden wird schwerpunktmaessig auf die Probleme Zuluftsicherung und Waermeleistung von Heizkoerpern eingegangen.

  4. Alexander von Humboldt and the concept of animal electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettenmann, H

    1997-06-01

    More than two hundred years ago, Alexander von Humboldt helped to establish Galvani's view that muscle and nerve tissue are electrically excitable. His 1797 publication was a landmark for establishing the concept of animal electricity. Almost half a century later, von Humboldt became the mentor of the young du Bois-Reymond. With the help of von Humboldt's promotion, du Bois-Reymond demonstrated convincingly that animal tissue has the intrinsic capacity to generate electrical activity, and thus laid the ground for modern electrophysiology.

  5. Power-Sharing in the Local Arena: Man – a Rebel-Held Town in Western Côte d’Ivoire Machtteilung auf lokaler Ebene: Man – eine von Rebellen kontrollierte Stadt im Westen der Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Heitz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, peace agreements with power-sharing provisions are analysed at a national level. This article offers insights into the practices of power-sharing in the local arena of western Côte d’Ivoire, in the town of Man. It investigates what brought about a change towards peace in the region of Man and then presents local forms of power-sharing between the community leaders and the rebels who have established a rather complex system of domination and taxation in the territory they occupy. Moreover, the implementation of a territorial power-sharing device, which is part of the peace agreement negotiated among the warring parties at the national level, is analysed: the redeployment of state administration to the rebel-held zones of the country. The ethnographic data on which the article is based reveals that the actors at the local level have their own strategies to address urgent needs and that they play a more active role in peacemaking than is usually acknowledged. Im Allgemeinen werden Friedensabkommen, die Machtteilungsklauseln vorsehen, im nationalen Rahmen analysiert. Der vorliegende Beitrag vermittelt Einsicht in die praktische Wirkung solcher Klauseln in lokalem Rahmen, und zwar in der Stadt Man im Westen der Côte d’Ivoire. Untersucht wird, wodurch in der umliegenden Region ein Wandel hin zum Frieden erreicht werden konnte. Es werden lokale Formen der Machtteilung zwischen den führenden Persönlichkeiten lokaler Gemeinschaften und den Rebellen ermittelt, die ein komplexes Herrschafts- und Steuersystem in den von ihnen besetzten Gebieten eingerichtet haben. Zudem wird die Durchführung einer territorialen Machtteilungsregelung untersucht, die auf nationaler Ebene als Bestandteil des Friedensabkommens zwischen den Kriegsgegnern ausgehandelt worden war: die Wiedereinsetzung der staatlichen Verwaltung in den von den Rebellen gehaltenen Gebieten des Landes. Das ethnographische Material, auf dem der Artikel basiert, belegt, dass

  6. Microbial reactions in coal and coal relevant structures. Part project: fungal and enzymatic depolarisation of brown coal for the production of low-molecular compounds. Interim report; Mikrobielle Umsetzung an Kohle und kohlenrelevanten Strukturen. Teilvorhaben: Pilzliche und enzymatische Depolymerisation von Braunkohle zur Gewinnung niedermolekularer Verbindungen. Zwischenbericht (Berichtszeitraum 01.01.1998 - 31.12.1998)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegenhagen, D.; Bublitz, F.; Sorge, S.; Ullrich, R.; Hofrichter, M.; Fritsche, W.

    1999-04-29

    The present research project involved a study of the depolymerisation of brown coal constituents. The purpose of the depolymerisation experiments, which were carried out with fungi as well as their (acellular) enzymes, was to obtain products with a potential market value. Research focussed on one of the key enzymes of lignocellulose degradation, namely manganese (II) peroxidase (MnP). The effects of this enzyme on the depolymerisation of brown coal was studied in detail in acellular systems. The insights gained in this way then served as a basis for optimising the fungal and enzymatic depolymerisation processes for maximum yields of low-molecular products. The experiments carried out during the period under review were oriented to finding new types of lignolytically active organisms, isolating lignolytic enzymes and immobilising them on natural support materials, and further examining the action spectrum of MnP. Different model substrates were used in order to gain information on what bond types are MnP-cleavable and on possible reaction products. Substrates were either fixed to silica gel as support material or used without support material. The idea of using substrates fixed to support materials was motivated by the need to distinguish between intracellular and extracellular reactions involving the fungal mycelium. [Deutsch] Im Rahmen des Forschungsvorhabens wird die Depolymerisation von Braunkohle-Bestandteilen untersucht. Ziel der sowohl mit Pilzorganismen als auch mit deren Enzymen (zellfrei) durchgefuehrten Depolymerisationsversuche ist die Gewinnung von Produkten mit potentiellem Werkstoffcharakter. Im Mittelpunkt der Forschung steht eines der Schluesselenzyme des Ligninozellulose-Abbaus: Die Mangan(II)-Peroxidase (MnP). Die Wirkung dieses Enzyms bei der Depolymerisation von Braunkohle (Bk) in zellfreien Systemen wird weitergehend untersucht. Auf Grundlage der gewonnenen Erkenntnisse werden die pilzlichen und enzymatischen Depolymerisationsprozesse so

  7. Messen und Bewerten von Webapplikationen mit der Goal/Question/Metric Methode. Handbuch

    OpenAIRE

    Assmann, D.; Kalmar, R.; Punter, T.

    2002-01-01

    Inhalt: Einleitung: App2Web, Motivation für das ,,Messen und Bewerten von WebApplikationen", Was ist messen? Worauf es beim Messen ankommt, Zweck dieses Handbuchs, Struktur dieses Handbuchs GQM als Methode zum Messen und Bewerten: Einleitung, Der Rahmen eines Messprogramms Messplanung: Definition von Geschäfts- und Verbesserungszielen, Definition von Messzielen, Definition von Fragen, Definition von Metriken Ein Beispiel für eine Frage Messinstrumentierung: Entwicklung des Messplans, Vorberei...

  8. Priority ranking of substances hazardous to the aquatic system according to their exposure and effects for 1993/94; Reihung gewaesserrelevanter, gefaehrlicher Stoffe aufgrund ihrer Exposition und Wirkung fuer 1993/94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrchen, M.; Mueller, M.; Storm, U.; Storm, A.

    1997-10-01

    For the identification of substances occuring in surface waters and being hazardous to the aquatic ecosystem a tiered selection scheme has been developed and applied in a previous project (Application of a selection scheme for the identification of substances hazardous to the acquatic system, No.: 102 04 109). On the first tier, substances occuring in surface waters were identified by comparison with substances in international lists (such as lists I and II of the Directive 76 464 EEC and annex 1A and 1D of the 3. International North Sea Conference). For substances which are detected in monitoring programs but are not listed in the international lists as well as for substances which are detected in monitoring programs but are not listed in the above lists, the second tier was applied. That comprised a substance ranking according to their hazard for aquatic organisms using a scoring system. For the exposure assessment monitored concentrations are used in order to avoid false positive or negative results. For the effect assessment the respective part of the IPS-system (developed within the EU for the ranking of Existing Chemicals) was used. Direct and indirect effects (bioaccumulation) are considered. On the third tier a source identification was performed identifying point and diffuse sources. Within the framework of the actual project an actualisation of the above feasibility study was performed: monitoring data were taken from 1993 and 1994; additionally, data from the North Sea as well as sediment data were considered. The software was improved in order to enable an easy calculation and assessment of the different results (e.g. use of mean or median values as input for the second tier, differentiation according to various streams; consideration of the statement `not detectable`). The software programme also enables a further implementation of actual data in the near future. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Identifizierung von gewaesserrelevanten, gefaehrlichen Stoffen wurde

  9. lndividuelle Zielvereinbarungen im Offentlichen Dienst in Deutschland Empirische Analysen zur Wirkung von Zielvereinbarungen auf die Arbeitsleistung kommunaler Beschaftigter (Individual Target Agreements in the Public Service in Germany-Empirical Analyzes of the Effect of Target Agreements on the Work Performance of Municipal Employees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-30

    erforscht. V gl. hierzu beispielhaft Fishbein/ Ajzen ( 1975), S. 21 ff. 120 , The term performance goal, as we use it, refers to the score one attains on...Public Administration, 41. Jg., H. 1, S. 23-47. Fishbein, M./ Ajzen , I. (1975): Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior: An Intro- duction to Theory

  10. Tierärztliche Betreuung von Greifvögeln: Entwicklungen im Zeitraum von 1985 bis 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Hatt, Jean-Michel; Clauss, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Im Rahmen einer retrospektiven Studie wurden die Patientenakten der an die Klinik für Zoo-, Heim- und Wildtiere der Universität Zürich im Zeitraum von 2009 bis 2015 eingelieferten Greifvögel analysiert und mit den Daten aus einer Studie über den Zeitraum von 1985 bis 1994 verglichen. Im gesamten Zeitraum haben sich die durchschnittlichen Fallzahlen von 55 auf 109 Patienten pro Jahr erhöht. Am meisten Vögel werden in den Monaten Februar sowie Juni/Juli vorgestellt. Chirurgische Probleme war...

  11. Funktionelle Analyse von bakteriellen W-xxx-E Rho GTPasen GEF Mimetika mittels Typ 3 Sekretionssystems von Yersinia enterocolitica

    OpenAIRE

    Wölke, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Die zellulären Rho GTPasen kontrollieren und regulieren zentrale elementare Zellvorgänge wie Phagozytose, Migration und epitheliale Integrität. Aufgrund ihrer zentralen Stellung, interagiert eine Vielzahl von bakteriellen Cytotoxinen und Modulinen mit den Rho GTPasen und wirken so als Pathogenitätsfaktoren. Die zur W-xxx-E Familie gehörenden Effektoren IpgB1 und IpgB2 von Shigella und Map von E. coli (Pathotypen EHEC und EPEC) werden über ein Typ 3 Sekretionssystem (T3SS) in Wirtszellen injiz...

  12. Alexander von Humboldt and the Origins of Landscape Archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathewson, Kent

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the life, theories, and influence of Alexander von Humboldt, the early nineteenth century founder of modern geography. Maintains that Humboldt's novel approaches to the study of landscape antiquities have value for contemporary students in cultural and historical geography. (JDH)

  13. Von Krahli Teatri lavastus pääses tippfestivalile

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Von Krahli Teatri uuendatud lavastus "Eesti mängud. Pulm" esietendub festivalil Theater Der Welt Berliinis. Peeter Jalaka multimeediaetendus Eesti ajaloost ja traditsioonidest osaleb ka suveteatrite festivalil Hamburgis, seejärel antakse kuus etendust Amsterdamis

  14. Pure Jauch-Piron states on von Neumann algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamhalter, J.

    1993-01-01

    We study Jauch-Piron states and two-valued measures on von Neumann algebra. We prove as the main result that, under some set-theoretical assumption, a pure state of a von Neumann algebra A not containing a central abelian portion is Jauch-Piron if and only if it is σ-additive. Moreover, we show that this result holds for type I factor indenpendently on the set-theoretical axiomatics. As a consequence we obtain a lucid characterization of pure Jauch-Piron states on von Neumann algebras acting on a Hilbert space with real-nonmeasurable dimension (this can be viewed as a generalization of the paper). We also characterize the von Neumann algebras whose logic of projections is Jauch-Piron. Finally, we prove that every two-valued measure on the projection logic of A, where A contains no type I 2 central portion, has to be concentrated at an abelian direct summand of A. (orig.)

  15. Von Krahli Teater viis Helsingisse kaks menulavastust / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2003-01-01

    Von Krahli Teater esineb 29. nov. Helsingis "Baltic Circle" festivalil lavastustega "Luikede järv" ja "Taksojuhid". Tutvustatakse lühidalt ka paari olulisemat soome lavastust ("Puksiirabi" ja "Hamlet"), mis tulevad festivalil esitamisele

  16. Lexikon lesbischer Frauen im Film von Daniela Sobek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Windt

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Das Lexikon stellt ein neues Basiswerk über lesbische Figuren im Film dar. Neben zahlreichen Artikeln von Anbeginn der Filmgeschichte bis heute gibt es Features über bekannte Schauspielerinnen und lesbische role models.

  17. Magnus Georg von Paucker (1787-1855) / Eckhard Spring

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Spring, Eckhard

    2013-01-01

    Eestis sündinud ja Tartu Ülikoolis õppinud silmapaistvast baltisaksa teadlasest ja tema lapselapsest Alexandrine Pauckerist. 23. novembril 2012 Jelgavas/Mitaus toimunud Magnus Georg von Pauckerile pühendatud teaduskonverentsist

  18. Bereitstellung von schneller Regelleistung und Momentanreserve durch Batteriespeicher

    OpenAIRE

    Alács, Christian

    2017-01-01

    von Christian Alács Arbeit an der Bibliothek noch nicht eingelangt - Daten nicht geprueft Abweichender Titel nach Übersetzung der Verfasserin/des Verfassers Technische Universität Wien, Univ., Diplomarbeit, 2017

  19. Von Trier ootab maailma lõppu / Kaarel Kressa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kressa, Kaarel, 1983-

    2011-01-01

    Taani režissööri Lars von Trieri filmist "Melanhoolia" ("Melancholia", Taani - Rootsi - Prantsusmaa - Saksamaa, 2011), 8.-13. augustini Tartus toimuva 6. armastusfilmide festivali tARTuFF avafilmist. Festivali kavast

  20. Reappraisal of the brachiopod Acrotreta socialis von Seebach, 1865

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topper, Timothy Paul; Harper, David A. T.; Ahlberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    The acrotretide Acrotreta socialis von Seebach, 1865 has suffered a long and tumultuous history since its original description from the middle Cambrian (Guzhangian Stage) Andrarum Limestone of Bornholm, Denmark. Uncertainties regarding key morphological characters have resulted in numerous revisi...

  1. Warum das Controlling den systematischen Einsatz von Simulationen vorantreiben sollte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spitzner, Jan; Schneider, Melanie L.

    2017-01-01

    Simulationen werden in der Unternehmenssteuerung heutzutage noch nicht systematisch eingesetzt. Dass sich jedoch die existierenden Hemmnisse durchaus überwinden lassen, legen die Antworten von Studienteilnehmern nahe, die Simulationen häufig einsetzen. Dabei kann Controlling eine Vorreiterrolle e...

  2. Frobenius theory for positive maps of von Neumann algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albeverio, S.; Hoegh-Krohn, R.

    1978-01-01

    Frobenius theory about the cyclic structure of eigenvalues of irreducible non negative matrices is extended to the case of positive linear maps of von Neumann algebras. Semigroups of such maps and ergodic properties are also considered. (orig.) [de

  3. Overexpression of Jatropha Gibberellin 2-oxidase 6 (JcGA2ox6) Induces Dwarfism and Smaller Leaves, Flowers and Fruits in Arabidopsis and Jatropha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ying-Xiong; Tao, Yan-Bin; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones that play fundamental roles in plant growth and development. Gibberellin 2-oxidase (GA2ox) plays a direct role in determining the levels of bioactive GAs by catalyzing bioactive GAs or their immediate precursors to inactive forms. In this study, a GA2ox gene, designated JcGA2ox6, was isolated from Jatropha curcas. JcGA2ox6 is expressed in all tissues of adult Jatropha, with the highest expression level in male flowers and the lowest expression level in young leaves. Overexpression of JcGA2ox6 in Arabidopsis resulted in a typical dwarf phenotype, along with late flowering, smaller leaves and flowers, shorter siliques and smaller seeds. Similarly, when JcGA2ox6 was overexpressed in Jatropha, the transgenic plants exhibited a dwarf phenotype with dark-green leaves and smaller inflorescences, flowers, fruits and seeds. However, the flowering time of Jatropha was not affected by overexpression of JcGA2ox6, unlike that in the transgenic Arabidopsis. Moreover, the number of flowers per inflorescence, the weight of 10 seeds and the seed oil content were significantly decreased in transgenic Jatropha. The results indicated that overexpression of JcGA2ox6 had a great impact on the vegetative and reproductive growth of transgenic Jatropha. Furthermore, we found that the dwarf phenotype of transgenic Jatropha was caused by a decrease in endogenous bioactive GA4, which was correlated with the degree of dwarfism. PMID:29312375

  4. Herbivory-induced jasmonates constrain plant sugar accumulation and growth by antagonizing gibberellin signaling and not by promoting secondary metabolite production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Ricardo A R; Baldwin, Ian T; Erb, Matthias

    2017-07-01

    Plants respond to herbivory by reconfiguring hormonal networks, increasing secondary metabolite production and decreasing growth. Furthermore, some plants display a decrease in leaf energy reserves in the form of soluble sugars and starch, leading to the hypothesis that herbivory-induced secondary metabolite production and growth reduction may be linked through a carbohydrate-based resource trade-off. In order to test the above hypothesis, we measured leaf carbohydrates and plant growth in seven genetically engineered Nicotiana attenuata genotypes that are deficient in one or several major herbivore-induced, jasmonate-dependent defensive secondary metabolites and proteins. Furthermore, we manipulated gibberellin and jasmonate signaling, and quantified the impact of these phytohormones on secondary metabolite production, sugar accumulation and growth. Simulated herbivore attack by Manduca sexta specifically reduced leaf sugar concentrations and growth in a jasmonate-dependent manner. These effects were similar or even stronger in defenseless genotypes with intact jasmonate signaling. Gibberellin complementation rescued carbohydrate accumulation and growth in induced plants without impairing the induction of defensive secondary metabolites. These results are consistent with a hormonal antagonism model rather than a resource-cost model to explain the negative relationship between herbivory-induced defenses, leaf energy reserves and growth. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Expression of NAC1 up-stream regulatory region and its relationship to the lateral root initiation induced by gibberellins and auxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youhua; Duan, Liusheng; Lu, Mengzhu; Li, Zhaohu; Wang, Minjie; Zhai, Zhixi

    2006-10-01

    A 1050 bp up-stream regulatory fragment of the transcription factor gene NAC1 in Arabidopsis thaliana was isolated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based techniques. The fragment was used to substitute the 35S promoter of the pBI121 plasmid to construct a beta-glucuronidase gene (GUS) expression system. The construct was introduced into tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum) plants by the Agrobacterium-mediated transferring method. GUS expression pattern was studied by using the transgenic lines. The results showed that the GUS driven by the NAC1 up-stream regulatory region was specifically expressed in the root meristem region, basal areas of the lateral root primordium and the lateral roots. The GUS expression was induced by 3-indolebutyric acid (IBA) and gibberellins (GA3 and GA4+7). The results indicated that the up-stream regulatory fragment of NAC1 responded to plant hormones. The fragment might be involved in both auxins and gibberellins signaling in promoting the development of lateral roots.

  6. Overexpression of Jatropha Gibberellin 2-oxidase 6 (JcGA2ox6 Induces Dwarfism and Smaller Leaves, Flowers and Fruits in Arabidopsis and Jatropha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Xiong Hu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gibberellins (GAs are plant hormones that play fundamental roles in plant growth and development. Gibberellin 2-oxidase (GA2ox plays a direct role in determining the levels of bioactive GAs by catalyzing bioactive GAs or their immediate precursors to inactive forms. In this study, a GA2ox gene, designated JcGA2ox6, was isolated from Jatropha curcas. JcGA2ox6 is expressed in all tissues of adult Jatropha, with the highest expression level in male flowers and the lowest expression level in young leaves. Overexpression of JcGA2ox6 in Arabidopsis resulted in a typical dwarf phenotype, along with late flowering, smaller leaves and flowers, shorter siliques and smaller seeds. Similarly, when JcGA2ox6 was overexpressed in Jatropha, the transgenic plants exhibited a dwarf phenotype with dark-green leaves and smaller inflorescences, flowers, fruits and seeds. However, the flowering time of Jatropha was not affected by overexpression of JcGA2ox6, unlike that in the transgenic Arabidopsis. Moreover, the number of flowers per inflorescence, the weight of 10 seeds and the seed oil content were significantly decreased in transgenic Jatropha. The results indicated that overexpression of JcGA2ox6 had a great impact on the vegetative and reproductive growth of transgenic Jatropha. Furthermore, we found that the dwarf phenotype of transgenic Jatropha was caused by a decrease in endogenous bioactive GA4, which was correlated with the degree of dwarfism.

  7. CvADH1, a member of short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase family, is inducible by gibberellin and sucrose in developing watermelon seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joonyul; Kang, Hong-Gyu; Jun, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Jinwon; Yim, Jieun; An, Gynheung

    2003-01-01

    To understand the molecular mechanisms that control seed formation, we selected a seed-preferential gene (CvADH1) from the ESTs of developing watermelon seeds. RNA blot analysis and in situ localization showed that CvADH1 was preferentially expressed in the nucellar tissue. The CvADH1 protein shared about 50% homology with short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase including ABA2 in Arabidopsis thaliana, stem secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase in Forsythia intermedia, and 3beta-hydroxysterol dehydrogenase in Digitalis lanata. We investigated gene-expression levels in seeds from both normally pollinated fruits and those made parthenocarpic via N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N'-phenylurea treatment, the latter of which lack zygotic tissues. Whereas the transcripts of CvADH1 rapidly started to accumulate from about the pre-heart stage in normal seeds, they were not detectable in the parthenocarpic seeds. Treating the parthenogenic fruit with GA(3) strongly induced gene expression, up to the level accumulated in pollinated seeds. These results suggest that the CvADH1 gene is induced in maternal tissues by signals made in the zygotic tissues, and that gibberellin might be one of those signals. We also observed that CvADH1 expression was induced by sucrose in the parthenocarpic seeds. Therefore, we propose that the CvADH1 gene is inducible by gibberellin, and that sucrose plays an important role in the maternal tissues of watermelon during early seed development.

  8. Hormonal regulation of gluconeogenesis in cereal aleurone is strongly cultivar-dependent and gibberellin action involves SLENDER1 but not GAMYB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastmond, Peter J; Jones, Russell L

    2005-11-01

    Storage oil is a major constituent in the cereal aleurone layer. The aim of this study was to investigate how gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) regulate conversion of oil to sugar in barley aleurone. The activity of the glyoxylate cycle enzyme isocitrate lyase (ICL) was surveyed in eight barley cultivars. Surprisingly, some cultivars do not require GA for the induction of ICL (e.g. Himalaya), whereas some do (e.g. Golden Promise). Furthermore, in Golden Promise, GA also stimulates triacylglycerol breakdown and enhances the net flux of carbon from acetate to sugar. In contrast, ABA strongly represses ICL activity and the flux of carbon from oil to sugar in both Golden Promise and Himalaya. Biolistics using a promoter reporter showed that GA and ABA regulate ICL at the level of transcription. Studies using barley and rice mutants and pharmacological agents show that GA-dependent induction of ICL activity is mediated by SLENDER1 and requires cGMP, but does not involve the transcription factor GAMYB. Gibberellin and ABA therefore act antagonistically to regulate gluconeogenesis in the aleurone layer as well as controlling the production and secretion of hydrolases into the starchy endosperm. We suggest that the variation between different barley cultivars might be a result of selective breeding to alter seed dormancy.

  9. Modulares Leistungsberechnungsverfahren zur automatisierten modellbasierten Leistungsanalyse von Gasturbinen

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Die Entwicklung moderner Gasturbinen wird durch ein umfangreiches Versuchsprogramm mit Prototypen begleitet. Zur Bewertung des Leistungs- und Betriebsverhaltens werden diese mit einer Vielzahl von Messwertaufnehmern bestückt, mit denen Drücke, Temperaturen, Drehzahlen usw. gemessen werden. Die Auswertung der Meßdaten erfolgt mit Hilfe von Analyseverfahren, die nicht gemessene Größen, wie z. B. Wirkungsgrade der Gasturbinenkomponenten und Turbinentemperaturen, unter Verwendung bekannter Zusamm...

  10. Nash y von Neumann: mundos posibles y juegos de lenguaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar , Boris

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo emplea las nociones de juego de lenguaje y de equivalencia entre juegos para examinar la decisión de John Nash de no jugar el juego coalicional que propuso John von Neumann. El argumento central es que Nash concibió una clase de mundos posibles incompatible con la de von Neumann, y que en el origen de esa divergencia estarían sus distintas nociones de racionalidad.

  11. Kommunale Versorgung, Verortung und Steuerung von Risiken psychischer Gesundheit

    OpenAIRE

    Warner, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    Das Risikokonzept ist heute zentral für alle Bereiche von gesundheitlicher und sozialer Wohlfahrt in Großbritannien. Im Bereich psychischer Gesundheit und insbesondere seit den Maßnahmen zur kommunalen Versorgung in den 1990er Jahren kommt dem Konzept jedoch besondere Aufmerksamkeit zu. Dabei kamen bisher vor allem die Risiken in den Blick, die von Personen mit psychischen Erkrankungen oder in psychischer Not ausgehen, aber nicht die Risiken, mit denen diese selbst konfrontiert sind. Der vorl...

  12. Bioverfügbarkeit und Metabolismus von Flavonoiden

    OpenAIRE

    Wittig, Jörg

    2002-01-01

    Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit war die Entwicklung, Optimierung und Validierung von phyto- und bioanalytischen Analysemethoden. Dabei wurden exemplarische Fragestellungen aus dem Themenkreis Phytotherapie bzw. Bioverfügbarkeit und Metabolismus von einfachen und Polyphenolen bearbeitet. Quercetin und seine Derivate: Zur qualitativen Analyse der Flavonoide und -derivate in einem Trockenextraktgemisch aus Birkenblättern, Goldrutenkraut und Orthosiphonblättern wurde eine HPLC- UV/VIS Methode entwic...

  13. Räumliche Aspekte von Transformationsproblemen aus systemtheoretischer Perspektive

    OpenAIRE

    Klüter, Helmut

    2000-01-01

    Der mit dem Topos "Transformation von Wirtschafts- und Gesellschaftssystemen" axiomatisch angenommene Unvereinbarkeit sozialistischer und marktwirtschaftlicher Strukturen ist aus raumwissenschaftlicher Sicht nicht nachvollziehbar. Zum einen gibt es in Wirtschaftsgeographie und Infrastrukturtheorie eine ganze Reihe von Gemeinsamkeiten und Berührungspunkten, die man für den konstruktiven Systemumbau nutzen kann. Zum andern benötigt der Umbau selbst eine räumliche Infrastruktur. Und zum dritten ...

  14. Identifikation von uniparentaler Disomie bei mikrosatellitenstabilen und mikrosatelliteninstabilen kolorektalen Karzinomen

    OpenAIRE

    Zopf, Waltraud

    2012-01-01

    Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurden Gewebe von jeweils 15 kolorektalen MSI- und CSIPrimärtumoren, sowie 3 MSI- und 2 CSI-Tumorzelllinien mittels SNP-Arrayanalyse molekulargenetisch auf uniparentale Disomie (UPD) untersucht. Es konnte bestätigt werden, dass die uniparentale Disomie ein wichtiger Mechanismus zur Inaktivierung von Tumorsuppressorgenen zu sein scheint. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass nicht nur in MSI-Tumoren, sondern auch in CSI-Tumoren UPD nachgewiesen werden konnte, wobei der UPD-Anteil...

  15. Von Neumann's impossibility proof: Mathematics in the service of rhetorics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieks, Dennis

    2017-11-01

    According to what has become a standard history of quantum mechanics, in 1932 von Neumann persuaded the physics community that hidden variables are impossible as a matter of principle, after which leading proponents of the Copenhagen interpretation put the situation to good use by arguing that the completeness of quantum mechanics was undeniable. This state of affairs lasted, so the story continues, until Bell in 1966 exposed von Neumann's proof as obviously wrong. The realization that von Neumann's proof was fallacious then rehabilitated hidden variables and made serious foundational research possible again. It is often added in recent accounts that von Neumann's error had been spotted almost immediately by Grete Hermann, but that her discovery was of no effect due to the dominant Copenhagen Zeitgeist. We shall attempt to tell a story that is more historically accurate and less ideologically charged. Most importantly, von Neumann never claimed to have shown the impossibility of hidden variables tout court, but argued that hidden-variable theories must possess a structure that deviates fundamentally from that of quantum mechanics. Both Hermann and Bell appear to have missed this point; moreover, both raised unjustified technical objections to the proof. Von Neumann's argument was basically that hidden-variables schemes must violate the ;quantum principle; that physical quantities are to be represented by operators in a Hilbert space. As a consequence, hidden-variables schemes, though possible in principle, necessarily exhibit a certain kind of contextuality. As we shall illustrate, early reactions to Bohm's theory are in agreement with this account. Leading physicists pointed out that Bohm's theory has the strange feature that pre-existing particle properties do not generally reveal themselves in measurements, in accordance with von Neumann's result. They did not conclude that the ;impossible was done; and that von Neumann had been shown wrong.

  16. Politische Bildung im Kontext von Regierung, Unterricht und Zucht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Rucker

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841 gilt als der Begründer der wissenschaftlichen Pädagogik. In diesem Beitrag wird zu zeigen versucht, dass Herbart die Unterstützung politischer Bildung als eine Aufgabe von Regierung, Unterricht und Zucht bestimmt und in seinem Werk wichtige „Bausteine“ für eine Theorie der politischen Bildung unter den Bedingungen von Erziehung vorlegt hat. Nach Herbart ist das politische Selbst- und Weltverhältnis auf Sachverhalte bezogen, die nicht nur die Lebensführung einzelner Menschen, sondern die Lebensführung einer Mehrzahl von Menschen betreffen. Nicht das Zusammenleben von Menschen generell ist jedoch Orientierungsgesichtspunkt des politischen Selbst- und Weltverhältnisses, sondern nur das problematisch gewordene Zusammenleben. Politik ergibt sich nach Herbart aus einem Konflikt hinsichtlich der Frage, wie das Zusammenleben von Menschen geregelt sein sollte. Während die Regierung lediglich mittelbar einen Beitrag zur politischen Bildung leistet, indem sie die Voraussetzungen für Unterricht und Zucht bereitstellt, fungieren die beiden zuletzt genannten Formen von Erziehung als die eigentlichen Medien, in denen die politische Bildung im Sinne Herbarts ihren Ort hat.

  17. Electronic Resource Management System. Vernetzung von Lizenzinformationen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Selbach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In den letzten zehn Jahren spielen elektronische Ressourcen im Bereich der Erwerbung eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle: Eindeutig lässt sich hier ein Wandel in den Bibliotheken (fort vom reinen Printbestand zu immer größeren E-Only-Beständen feststellen. Die stetig wachsende Menge an E-Ressourcen und deren Heterogenität stellt Bibliotheken vor die Herausforderung, die E-Ressourcen effizient zu verwalten. Nicht nur Bibliotheken, sondern auch verhandlungsführende Institutionen von Konsortial- und Allianzlizenzen benötigen ein geeignetes Instrument zur Verwaltung von Lizenzinformationen, welches den komplexen Anforderungen moderner E-Ressourcen gerecht wird. Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG unterstützt ein Projekt des Hochschulbibliothekszentrums des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (hbz, der Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg, der Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes (GBV und der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt, in dem ein bundesweit verfügbares Electronic Ressource Managementsystem (ERMS aufgebaut werden soll. Ein solches ERMS soll auf Basis einer zentralen Knowledge Base eine einheitliche Nutzung von Daten zur Lizenzverwaltung elektronischer Ressourcen auf lokaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene ermöglichen. Statistische Auswertungen, Rechteverwaltung für alle angeschlossenen Bibliotheken, kooperative Datenpflege sowie ein über standardisierte Schnittstellen geführter Datenaustausch stehen bei der Erarbeitung der Anforderungen ebenso im Fokus wie die Entwicklung eines Daten- und Funktionsmodells. In the last few years the importance of electronic resources in library acquisitions has increased significantly. There has been a shift from mere print holdings to both e- and print combinations and even e-only subscriptions. This shift poses a double challenge for libraries: On the one hand they have to provide their e-resource collections to library users in an appealing way, on the other hand they have to manage these

  18. Effects of gibberellin A4/7, 6-benzylaminopurine and chlormequat chloride on the number of male and female strobili and immature cones in Chinese pine (Pinus tabuliformis) with foliar sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng Zhao; Jun-feng Fan; Shuo-xin Zhang; Zhong-lian Huang; Pei-hua Yang; Zhen-Hua Ma; Keith W Woeste

    2011-01-01

    Three kinds of plant growth regulators, gibberellinA4/7 (GA4/7), 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), and chlormequat chloride (CCC), were evaluated for their ability to promote strobilus and cone production in a Chinese pine (Pinus tabuliformis Carr.) clonal seed orchard. Treatments (0, 250, 500, or 1000 mg⋅L

  19. Prophylaxis escalation in severe von Willebrand disease: A prospective study from the von Willebrand Disease Prophylaxis Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C. Abshire (Thomas Calvin); J. Cox-Gill; C.L. Kempton; F.W.G. Leebeek (Frank); M. Carcao (M.); P. Kouides (P.); S. Donfield (S.); E. Berntorp

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Treatment of mucosal bleeding (epistaxis, gastrointestinal bleeding, and menorrhagia) and joint bleeding remains problematic in clinically severe von Willebrand disease (VWD). Patients are often unresponsive to treatment (e.g. desmopressin or antifibrinolytic therapy) and may

  20. Von Roll RCP method - first experiences; Von Roll RCP - Verfahren. Erste Erfahrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capitaine, P.; Engweiler, J. [Roll Umwelttechnik AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-09-01

    The RCP method was designed as a residue-optimised alternative to the thermally optimised grate firing of residual wastes. Its technical realisation and development to market maturity took no more than 5 years. In the first process stage the waste is converted to high-carbon pyrolysis charcoal and high-rank gas in the absence of oxygen. In the second stage these substances are oxidised by addition of oxygen. The resulting temperature causes the non-combustible constituents of the slag to melt. In a third, optional, stage this molten slag can be liberated of (heavy) metals to such an extent that it can subsequently be used directly as additive for grinding. Further exhaust gas treatment is facilitated by the use of a circulatory fluidised-bed secondary combustion chamber. Despite the reduced flue gas volume and resultant higher pollutant concentrations in the crude gas, overall emissions are lower than in conventional plants. [Deutsch] Das reststoffoptimierte RCP Verfahren ist als Alternative zur thermisch optimierten Rostverbrennung von Restabfaellen konzipiert. In nur fuenf Jahren wurde das Verfahren technisch umgesetzt und zur Marktreife entwickelt. In einer ersten Stufe des Verfahrens wird der Abfall unter Luftabschluss in einen kohlenstoffreichen Pyrolysekoks und eine heizwertreiches Gas umgesetzt. Im zweiten Schritt werden diese Stoffe unter Zugabe von Sauerstoff oxidiert. Dabei treten Temperaturen auf, bei denen die nichtbrennbaren Bestandteile der Schlacke schmelzen. Optional wird diese Schmelzschlacke in einem dritten Schritt derart von (Schwer-) Metallen befreit, dass sie anschliessend direkt als Zement-Zumahlstoff eingesetzt werden kann. Die Nutzung der zirkulierenden Wirbelschicht - Nachbrennkammer zur Abgasbehandlung vereinfacht die weitergehende Abgasbehandlung. Trotz verringertem Rauchgasvolumen und damit hoeheren Schadstoffkonzentrationen im Rohgas werden die Gesamtemissionen gegenueber konventionellen Anlagen verringert. (orig./SR)

  1. GFRP life in wind rotor blades; Lebensdauer von GFK im Holmgurt und im Schubsteg von Rotorblaettern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kensche, C.W. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Bauweisen- und Konstruktionsforschung

    1999-07-01

    Lives of GFRP rotor blade components were calculated on the basis of Woehler curves and the wind power specific standard WISPERX using the linear Palmgren-Miner rule. The Calculations were based on experiments with belts made of the L20/SL epoxy resin system at pressure ratios R=0.1, and -1 and with torsionally stressed GFRP tubes of linen tissue with the epoxy resing GE162/C260 at R=0.1 and -1. The results were incorporated into Haigh diagrams, from which the damage from the collective load was calculated by linear interpolation of the averaged stresses and amplitudes resp. the lines of constant life. The life curves calculated for different maximum stress horizons are in good agreement with experimental collective loads. A comparison of life curves showed that the linen tissue material was more fatigue-sensitive than the belt material. [German] Fuer GFK-Gurte und Schubstege von Rotorblaettern wurden Lebensdauerberechnungen auf der Basis von Woehlerkurven und dem windenergiespezifischen Standard WISPERX unter Anwendung der linearen Palmgren-Miner Regel durchgefuehrt. Bei der Betrachtung der Gurte wurde auf Versuche an UD-Proben mit dem Epoxidharzsystem L20/SL zurueckgegriffen, die bei Spannungsverhaeltnissen von R=0.1, -1 und 10 durchgefuehrt worden waren. Grundlage fuer die Lebensdauerbestimmung der Schubstege waren Ermuedungsversuche an torsionsbelasteten GFK-Rohren aus Leinengewebe mit dem Epoxidharz GE162/C260 bei R=0.1 und -1. In den daraus konstruierten Haighdiagrammen wurden die Schaedigungen durch das Lastkollektiv mittels linearer Interpolation der Mittelspannungen und Amplituden bzw. der Linien konstanter Lebensdauer ermittelt. Die Lebensdauerkurven, die fuer verschiedene Maximalspannungshorizonte ermittelt wurden, stimmen gut mit experimentellen Lastkollektivergebnissen ueberein. Beim Vergleich der Lebensdauerkurven zeigt sich, dass ein Leinengewebesteg erheblich ermuedungsgefaehrdeter ist als ein Gurt. (orig.)

  2. Entwicklung von Extraktions- und Absorptionssystemen auf Basis ionischer Flüssigkeiten für die Entschwefelung von Kohlenwasserstoffen

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhlmann, Esther

    2008-01-01

    Da die Anforderungen an den Schwefelgehalt der fossilen Brennstoffe - nicht zuletzt durch gesetzliche Richtlinien bezüglich der Schadstoffemissionen - im Laufe der Zeit ständig gestiegen sind, sind effektive Entschwefelungsverfahren für fossile Brennstoffe von hohem Interesse. Die derzeitige Entschwefelungstechnologie basiert auf dem HDS-Verfahren, alternative Verfahren sind aber wünschenswert, insbesondere wenn Anwendungen einen Schwefelgehalt von weit unter 10 ppm erforderlich machen. Daher...

  3. Heterologous expression and transcript analysis of gibberellin biosynthetic genes of grasses reveals novel functionality in the GA3ox family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Stephen; Huttly, Alison K; Prosser, Ian M; Li, Yi-dan; Vaughan, Simon P; Gallova, Barbora; Patil, Archana; Coghill, Jane A; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Hedden, Peter; Phillips, Andrew L

    2015-06-05

    The gibberellin (GA) pathway plays a central role in the regulation of plant development, with the 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (2-ODDs: GA20ox, GA3ox, GA2ox) that catalyse the later steps in the biosynthetic pathway of particularly importance in regulating bioactive GA levels. Although GA has important impacts on crop yield and quality, our understanding of the regulation of GA biosynthesis during wheat and barley development remains limited. In this study we identified or assembled genes encoding the GA 2-ODDs of wheat, barley and Brachypodium distachyon and characterised the wheat genes by heterologous expression and transcript analysis. The wheat, barley and Brachypodium genomes each contain orthologous copies of the GA20ox, GA3ox and GA2ox genes identified in rice, with the exception of OsGA3ox1 and OsGA2ox5 which are absent in these species. Some additional paralogs of 2-ODD genes were identified: notably, a novel gene in the wheat B genome related to GA3ox2 was shown to encode a GA 1-oxidase, named as TaGA1ox-B1. This enzyme is likely to be responsible for the abundant 1β-hydroxylated GAs present in developing wheat grains. We also identified a related gene in barley, located in a syntenic position to TaGA1ox-B1, that encodes a GA 3,18-dihydroxylase which similarly accounts for the accumulation of unusual GAs in barley grains. Transcript analysis showed that some paralogs of the different classes of 2-ODD were expressed mainly in a single tissue or at specific developmental stages. In particular, TaGA20ox3, TaGA1ox1, TaGA3ox3 and TaGA2ox7 were predominantly expressed in developing grain. More detailed analysis of grain-specific gene expression showed that while the transcripts of biosynthetic genes were most abundant in the endosperm, genes encoding inactivation and signalling components were more highly expressed in the seed coat and pericarp. The comprehensive expression and functional characterisation of the multigene families encoding the 2-ODD

  4. "Die Toten reiten schnelle." Literarische Zitate in Briefen von und an Alexander von Humboldt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Schwarz

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Article in GermanAbstract in English and GermanAlexander von Humboldt and his correspondents liked to enrich or embellish their letters with quotations from classic works of ancient literature as well as from recent poems, plays, or novels. This paper tries to show that references to literature were very often used in order to express thoughts and feelings more clearly not so much for impressing the recipients of letters with high education. In educated circles a good knowledge of ancient and modern works of literature was a standard requirement, which often allowed the letter writers to use quotations in a playful manner.

  5. Hypercontractivity in group Von Neumann algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Junge, Marius; Parcet, Javier

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the authors provide a combinatorial/numerical method to establish new hypercontractivity estimates in group von Neumann algebras. They illustrate their method with free groups, triangular groups and finite cyclic groups, for which they obtain optimal time hypercontractive L_2 \\to L_q inequalities with respect to the Markov process given by the word length and with q an even integer. Interpolation and differentiation also yield general L_p \\to L_q hypercontrativity for 1 < p \\le q < \\infty via logarithmic Sobolev inequalities. The authors' method admits further applications to other discrete groups without small loops as far as the numerical part-which varies from one group to another-is implemented and tested on a computer. The authors also develop another combinatorial method which does not rely on computational estimates and provides (non-optimal) L_p \\to L_q hypercontractive inequalities for a larger class of groups/lengths, including any finitely generated group equipped with a condit...

  6. Richard von Volkmann: surgeon and Renaissance man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willy, Christian; Schneider, Peter; Engelhardt, Michael; Hargens, Alan R; Mubarak, Scott J

    2008-02-01

    Richard von Volkmann (1830-1889), one of the most important surgeons of the 19(th) century, is regarded as one of the fathers of orthopaedic surgery. He was a contemporary of Langenbeck, Esmarch, Lister, Billroth, Kocher, and Trendelenburg. He was head of the Department of Surgery at the University of Halle, Germany (1867-1889). His popularity attracted doctors and patients from all over the world. He was the lead physician for the German military during two wars. From this experience, he compared the mortality of civilian and war injuries and investigated the general poor hygienic conditions in civilian hospitals. This led him to introduce the "antiseptic technique" to Germany that was developed by Lister. His powers of observation and creativity led him to findings and achievements that to this day bear his name: Volkmann's contracture and the Hueter-Volkmann law. Additionally, he was a gifted writer; he published not only scientific literature but also books of children's fairy tales and poems under the pen name of Richard Leander, assuring him a permanent place in the world of literature as well as orthopaedics.

  7. Geschichte der Natur bei Alexander von Humboldt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Helmreich

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Article in German, Abstracts in English, German and French.This article analyses the importance of an historical view of nature in the works of Alexander von Humboldt. In several of his first writings, Humboldt seems to outline the importance of what one may call history of nature. But even before his famous American travel, his position changed and he became reluctant to accept the seriousness of historical enquiry in the area of natural sciences: if we want to reconstruct the past state of nature, we cannot rely on empirical proofs; and history of nature is therefore necessarily based on uncertain hypotheses. Humboldt kept his sceptical attitude in the first decades of the 19th century, despite the positive results of the palaeontological researches of his scientific colleagues. However, he gradually convinced himself of the scientific interest of historical investigations in the natural sciences. The Cosmos paradoxally displays two apparently conflicting points of view: in his methodological remarks, Humboldt maintains that precise accounts of the past state of nature are out of reach of human knowledge, yet elsewhere in the same Cosmos he gives broad and rather vivid descriptions of the eventful history of nature.

  8. Hypercontractivity in group von neumann algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Junge, Marius; Parcet, Javier

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the authors provide a combinatorial/numerical method to establish new hypercontractivity estimates in group von Neumann algebras. They illustrate their method with free groups, triangular groups and finite cyclic groups, for which they obtain optimal time hypercontractive L_2 \\to L_q inequalities with respect to the Markov process given by the word length and with q an even integer. Interpolation and differentiation also yield general L_p \\to L_q hypercontrativity for 1 < p \\le q < \\infty via logarithmic Sobolev inequalities. The authors' method admits further applications to other discrete groups without small loops as far as the numerical part-which varies from one group to another-is implemented and tested on a computer. The authors also develop another combinatorial method which does not rely on computational estimates and provides (non-optimal) L_p \\to L_q hypercontractive inequalities for a larger class of groups/lengths, including any finitely generated group equipped with a condit...

  9. Transparenz von Subskriptionskosten in der Schweiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Gutknecht

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dieser Beitrag handelt von dem Versuch, die Subskriptionszahlungen aller Schweizer Hochschulbibliotheken an Elsevier, Springer und Wiley in Erfahrung zu bringen. Zeitschriftenlizenzen beanspruchen bei den meisten wissenschaftlichen Bibliotheken den grössten Teil des Erwerbungsbudget. Trotzdem gibt es wenig öffentliche Daten zu den detaillierten Ausgaben. Bibliotheken vereinbaren mit den Verlagen für gewöhnlich Vertraulichkeit über den Preis und die Vertragsbedinungen. Diese Vertraulichkeit ist unnötig und verhindert eine datenbasierte Diskussion über Open Access. Zudem verträgt sie sich nicht mit dem in der Schweiz auf Bundesebene und in vielen Kantonen gesetzlich verankerten Öffentlichkeitsprinzip. This article is about the attempt to disclose the subscription costs to Elsevier, Springer and Wiley from all Swiss academic libraries. The costs for journal subscriptions usually make the largest share of the acquisition budget of an academic library. Yet there is little public data about the specific costs. Usually libraries sign non disclosure agreements about the price and content of the contract with the publishers. This confidentiality is actually not necessary and does hinder the discussion about Open Access based on data. Additionally it is not compatible with Swiss law, where on federal level and in most cantons public access to documents is guaranteed to citizens.

  10. Zur Struktur und Funktion von Synonymen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Zorman

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Der Artikel behandelt die Synonyme im Licht der funktionell-strukturellen Sprachtheorie Coserius. 1 Die Wahl der theoretischen Grundsätze wurde durch die Festellung diktiert, daß die bisherigen Erkenntnisse über die Synonymie widersprüchlich sind und daß auch schon über alle Feststellungen berechtigte Einsprüche erhoben wurden. Deshalb wird in dieser Arbeit auf der genannten theoretischen Grundlage, die verschiedene Gesichtspunkte des Problems verbindet, anstatt sie zu trennen (s. Punkt 2, ein Modell für die Analyse von Synonymen vorgestellt (3, das die klassischen Schwächen der Semantikforschung (zu geringe Menge tatsächlicher Daten, Subjektivität und Introspektion durch eine empirische Untersuchung in einem Textkorpus zu ersetzen versucht. In die Analyse sind drei Inhaltsebenen einbezogen (Bezeichnung, Bedeutung und Sinn und ihnen sind jeweils entsprechende Untersuchungsmethoden zugeordnet. Im Sinne des Modells wurden in der Arbeit Zorman 1997 zwei slowenische Synonympaare (kuverta - ovojnica und borba - boj analysiert, die als Beispiele reiner (und totaler Synonymie gelten können. Die Analyse wird aus Platzgründen an dieser Stelle nicht detailliert dargestellt,2 veranschaulicht werden nur ihre Tragweite und die Ergebnisse (4. Im letzten Teil (5 werden die Leistungen der vorgeschlagenen Methode bewertet und einige Annahmen dargestellt, die der weiteren Erforschung der Synonyme dienen könnten. Die objektive Behandlung der Synonymie unter unterschiedlichen Gesichtspunkten scheint einige Dogmen über Synonyme in Frage zu  stellen.

  11. Modelling and mapping of spatial differentiated impacts of nitrogen input to ecosystems within the framework of the UNECE-Convention of Air Pollution Prevention. Part III. Modelling the effects of N-deposition on the biodiversity of plant communities in temperate forests; Modellierung und Kartierung raeumlich differenzierter Wirkungen von Stickstoffeintraegen in Oekosysteme im Rahmen der UNECE-Luftreinhaltekonvention. Teilbericht III. Modellierung der Wirkung der Stickstoff-Deposition auf die biologische Vielfalt der Pflanzengesellschaften von Waeldern der gemaessigten Breiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenssen, Martin [Waldkunde-Institut Eberswalde GmbH - W.I.E., Bad Freienwalde (Oder) (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Semi-natural ecosystems are exposed to high atmospheric deposition for decades. In contrary to sulphur deposition which could be significantly reduced due to international conventions on air pollution prevention during the last decades, deposition of both, reduced and oxidized nitrogen is still on a very high level in average 40 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in forest ecosystems in Germany. The FuE-Project ''Modelling and mapping of spatial differentiated impacts of nitrogen input to ecosystems within the framework of the UNECE - Convention of Air Pollution Prevention'' was jointly conducted by 4 partner institutions and studied impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition and climate change on physico-chemical properties of forest soils, nutrient storage and nutrient export (Karlsruhe Research Centre, IMK-IFU) as well as biodiversity of vegetation (OeKO-DATA and Institute for Forest Science Eberswalde) and soil organisms (Giessen University). Work carried out at the Institute for Forest Science Eberswalde concentrated on modeling the effect of N-deposition on plant biodiversity in forests of the Northeast German lowlands. The model approach is based on 722 probability density functions modeling the distribution of about 400 plant species over chemical top-soil parameters C/N-ratio and pH-value. On this base an indicator value model was developed and applied to the analysis of forest vegetation dynamics due to N-deposition-induced top soil dynamics since the middle of the last century. Threshold values for deposition-induced changes of top soil were derived for most important forest ecosystems types on sites not influenced by ground water. These threshold values correspond to four different classes of endangering of plant biodiversity. Coupling with the biogeochemical process model of IMK-IFU yielded projections of endangering of plant biodiversity for selected forest sites up to the year 2050. (orig.)

  12. Inhibition of growth of microcultured Hancornia speciosa shoots by 3beta-hydroxylated gibberellins and one of their C-3 deoxy precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Netto, A B; McCown, B H; Pharis, R P

    2003-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) A(1), A(3), A(4) and A(7), all 3beta-hydroxylated, growth-active GAs, significantly inhibited shoot elongation and the formation of nodes in in vitro-grown Hancornia speciosa, as did GA(20), a 3-deoxy precursor of GA(1). Ancymidol, an early-stage inhibitor of GA biosynthesis, significantly retarded shoot elongation without affecting the formation of nodes. Co-application of ancymidol and GA(1 )did not overcome the ancymidol-induced growth retardation. Trinexapac-ethyl, which can inhibit 3beta-hydroxylation (GA activation) and 2beta-hydroxylation (GA inactivation), gave no significant response on either shoot elongation or node formation, while two isomers of 16,17-dihydro GA(5), also inhibitors of GA 3beta-hydroxylation, significantly inhibited both shoot growth and the formation of nodes. These unusual results may indicate a unique metabolism for GAs in microcultured shoots of H. speciosa.

  13. Effect of gibberellin, auxin and kinetin treatments combined with foliar applied NPK on the yield of Capsicum annuum L. fruits and their capsaicin content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz J. Nowak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Wrocław version of hydroponic culture was applied. Under optimal conditions of root fertilization the plants were sprayed with growth regulators sueh as gibberellins, auxins and kinetins, and .their mixtures. Each growth regulator treatment was applied with or without NPK added. The influence of these treatments on the fresh and dry weight of the fruit, percentage of ripe fruits and content and yield of capsaicin was studied. The highest yield of fruits and capsaicin. was obtained from plants sprayed with gibberellic acid and kinetin (in concentrations of 10 and 5 mg/l, respectively together with NPK foliar application. No influence of ,growth regulators and foliar-applied NPK was noted on capsaicin content and dry weight of fruits.

  14. Effects of gibberellin A(4/7), root pruning and cytokinins on seed and pollen cone production in black spruce (Picea mariana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ron; Greenwood, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Stem injections of 8-9-year-old black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) trees with gibberellin A(4/7) (GA(4/7)) alone and in combination with root pruning increased both seed and pollen cone production in both 1991 and 1992. Combining GA(4/7) and root pruning produced a larger increase in reproductive bud production than either treatment alone, but the complementary effects were less during the warm dry summer in 1991 than during the wet summer in 1992. Cytokinin applications reduced the stimulatory effects of GA(4/7) and root pruning, and the degree of reduction varied with the amount and timing of application. Reduced reproductive bud production was attributed to cytokinin countering the effects of root pruning and natural drought on the GA(4/7) response.

  15. Familienpolitik, Bildung und Berufskarrieren von Müttern in Deutschland, USA und Schweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunow, D.; Aisenbrey, S.; Evertsson, M.

    2011-01-01

    Dieser Beitrag widmet sich der beruflichen Entwicklung von Müttern mit ungleichen Bildungsressourcen in international vergleichender Perspektive. Wir untersuchen die Strategien zur Vereinbarkeit von Berufskarrieren und Elternschaft in Deutschland, USA und Schweden für Frauen mit unterschiedlichem

  16. Applikation von fermentierter Soja bei Krebspatienten zur Verminderung von Kachexie und Erhöhung der Apoptose - eine prospektive Pilotstudie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob U

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Kachexie ist eine Begleiterkrankung von Krebs, Aids oder rheumatoider Arthritis. Andere Symptome dieser Erkrankungen sind Depression sowie chronische Erschöpfung. Für alle diese Begleiterkrankungen, die die Lebensqualität der schwererkrankten Patienten negativ beeinflussen, wird eine Erhöhung von Entzündungsmediatoren (z.B. IL-6 und TNF-α verantwortlich gemacht. Für Krebs wird eine Erniedrigung der Apoptose, ausgelöst durch eine Erhöhung von NFκB verantwortlich gemacht. Eine Gabe eines fermentierten Soja-Produktes, das in den USA seit 10 Jahren zur Verbesserung der Lebensqualität von Krebspatienten eingesetzt wird, wurde in einer prospektiven Studie untersucht: Für je 5 Patienten, die unter Prostata-, Ovar- oder Brustkrebs litten, konnte eine signifikante Verminderung von Kachexie, Stress und Depression festgestellt werden. Gleichzeitig konnte man für Prostata- und Ovarkrebs-Patienten eine Erhöhung der Genexpression apoptotischer Marker disseminierter Tumorzellen feststellen. Zusätzlich wurde eine starke Erhöhung der Genexpression des Tumorsuppressorgens p21 festgestellt. Auch wenn die prospektive Studie präliminär ist und die Anzahl der untersuchten Patienten zu klein, so widerspricht sie nicht unserer Annahme, dass es einen direkten Zusammenhang zwischen Krebs und Begleiterkrankungen, besonders der Kachexie, gibt.

  17. Proof of pipeline strength based on measurements of inspection pigs; Festigkeitsnachweis von Pipelines aufgrund der Messergebnisse von Pruefmolchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Camp, H.J.; Feser, G.; Hofmann, A.; Wolf, B.; Schmidt, H. [TUeV Sueddeutschland Bau und Betrieb GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Herforth, H.E.; Juengling, K.H.; Schmidt, W. [TUeV Anlagentechnik GmbH, Berlin-Schoeneberg (Germany). Unternehmensgruppe TUeV Rheinland/Berlin-Brandenburg

    2002-01-01

    The report is aimed at collecting and documenting the state of the art and the extensive know how of experts and pipeline operators with regard to judging the structural integrity of pipelines. In order to assess the actual mechanical strength of pipelines based on measurement results obtained by inspection pigs, guidance is given for future processing, which eventually can be used as a basis for an industry standard. A literature study of the commercially available types of inspection pigs describes and synoptically lists the respective pros and cons. In essence the report comprises besides check lists of operating data for the pipeline and the pig runs mainly the evaluation of defects and respective calculating procedures. Included are recommendations regarding maintenance planning, verification of defects as well as repetition of pig runs. (orig.) [German] Ziel des Berichtes ist die Erfassung und Dokumentation zum derzeitigen Stand der Technik und des vorhandenen umfangreichen Know-how von Sachverstaendigen und Pipelinebetreibern auf dem Gebiet der sicherheitstechnischen Beurteilung von Pipelines. Fuer den Festigkeitsnachweis von Pipelines aufgrund der Messergebnisse von Pruefmolchen wurde ein Leitfaden als Basis fuer die zukuenftige Vorgehensweise erstellt, der eventuell die Grundlage eines normativen Regelwerkes bilden kann. In einer Literaturstudie wurden die auf dem Markt befindlichen Pruefmolchtypen zusammenfassend beschrieben und ihre Vor- und Nachteile tabellarisch gegenuebergestellt und bewertet. Neben der Erstellung von Checklisten fuer notwendige Daten zum Betrieb der Pipeline und der Molchlaeufe bildet die Fehlerbewertung mit entsprechenden Berechnungsverfahren den Hauptteil dieses Berichtes. Hinweise zur Instandhaltungsplanung (Fehlerverifikation und Molchlaufwiederholung) werden gegeben. (orig.)

  18. The effects of benzil amino purin (BAP and gibberellin with in vitro seedling growth of pulesari (Alyxia reinwardtii Bl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Sudrajad

    2016-12-01

    vulnerable status. The high price and high market demand made the over harvested beyond regeneration capacity of the plant while the conservation efforts are terribly limited. Presentage of seed germination is not only very low but also time consuming, therefore we conducting preliminary study on in vitro propagation using  seed  Alyxia reinwardtii Bl. Methods: The research was conducted in laboratory tissue culture of Medicinal Plant and Traditional Medicine Research and Development Center Tawangmangu for three months. Seeds of A. reinwardtii Bl. obtained from Pringgondani Forest, Tawangmangu Central Java.  Seeds were peeled and air dryed for five days, washed using steril aquadest, soaked on 0.5% Agrept (5 minutes then on 2.125% sodium hypochloride (5 minutes and rinsed using sterile distilled water. This study uses a Murashige and Skoog (MS with a completely randomized design (CRD factorial design.. The first factor is   BAP at a concentration of 3, 4, 5 mg.L-1 and the second factor is giberelin concentration of 1, 2, 3 mg.L-1. MS media  with addition of BAP the concentration of 3, 4, 5 mg.L-1 and gibberellin the concentration of 1, 2, 3 mg.L-1 obtained 9 treatment combination. Results: The results showed the combination treatment of growth regulators BAP (4 mg.L-1 and giberelin (2 mg.L-1 is formed shoots and roots. The shoots were formed  30 days after planting with a height of 2 cm and the roots appear at 45 days after planting. Conclusion: Pulasari (Alyxia reinwardtii Bl. can be propagated through tissue culture using seeds as explants.Keywords: pulesari, Alyxia reinwardtii BI, BAP and giberelin 

  19. Seed-borne endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 produces gibberellins and regulates endogenous phytohormones of Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Raheem; Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Asaf, Sajjad; Khan, Muhammad Aaqil; Kang, Sang-Mo; Yun, Byung-Wook; Lee, In-Jung

    2016-09-01

    Some microorganisms are adapted to an endophytic mode, living symbiotically with plants through vertical transmission in seeds. The role of plant growth-promoting endophytes has been well studied, but those of seed-associated endophytic bacteria are less understood. The current study aimed to isolate and identify bacterial endophytes associated with rice (Oryza sativa L. 'Jin so mi') seeds, their potential to produce gibberellins (GAs), and role in improving host-plant physiology. The isolated bacterial endophyte RWL-1 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by using 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The pure culture of B. amyloliquefaciens RWL-1, supplied with deuterated internal standards, was subjected to gas chromatography and mass spectrometric selected ion monitoring (GC-MS/SIM) for quantification of GAs. Results showed the presence of GAs in various quantities (ng/mL) viz., GA20 (17.88 ± 4.04), GA36 (5.75 ± 2.36), GA24 (5.64 ± 2.46), GA4 (1.02 ± 0.16), GA53 (0.772 ± 0.20), GA9 (0.12 ± 0.09), GA19 (0.093 ± 0.13), GA5 (0.08 ± 0.04), GA12 (0.014 ± 0.34), and GA8 (0.013 ± 0.01). Since endogenous seed GAs are essential for prolonged seed growth and subsequent plant development, we used exogenous GA3 as a positive control and water as a negative control for comparative analysis of the application of B. amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 to rice plants. The growth parameters of rice plants treated with endophytic bacterial cell application was significantly increased compared to the plants treated with exogenous GA3 and water. This was also revealed by the significant up-regulation of endogenous GA1 (17.54 ± 2.40 ng), GA4 (310 ± 5.41 ng), GA7 (192.60 ± 3.32 ng), and GA9 (19.04 ± 2.49 ng) as compared to results of the positive and negative control treatments. Rice plants inoculated with B. amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 exhibited significantly higher endogenous salicylic acid (1615.06 ± 10.81 μg), whereas

  20. The ultrastructural localization of von Willebrand factor in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warhol, M J; Sweet, J M

    1984-11-01

    Factor VIII-related antigen was localized ultrastructurally in a variety of human tissues (smooth muscle, skeletal muscle, breast, capillary hemangioma) with the use of a low-temperature embedding protein A-gold technique with both polyclonal and monoclonal antisera directed against von Willebrand factor. All endothelial cells examined localized the anti-von Willebrand factor to Weibel-Palade bodies. Cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum, and cytoplasmic vacuoles were also labeled. These results establish the distribution of factor VIII-related antigen at the subcellular level. The observed distribution suggests that the endothelial cells synthesize von Willebrand factor, store it in Weibel-Palade bodies, and release it by exocytosis. These observations provide in vivo confirmation for previous biochemical and immunocytochemical data obtained from studies on cultured endothelial cells.

  1. Snobismus und neue deutsche Popliteratur am Beispiel von Benjamin von Stuckrad-Barre

    OpenAIRE

    Strasser, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    Soloalbum, roman de Benjamin von Stuckrad-Barre, décrit la façon de vivre des jeunes adultes dans les années quatre-vingt-dix du xxe siècle en Allemagne. Cette génération apolitique vit repliée sur elle-même. Le narrateur est le personnage principal du roman. Il n’a pas de nom. Il décrit dans une langue marquée par une « rhétorique d’exclusion » la vie qu’il mène après avoir été quitté par son amie Katharina. Toutes ses tentatives pour accepter son départ et la remplacer échouent à cause de s...

  2. Genexpression der überaktiven Blase am Beispiel von Smoothelin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maake C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Einleitung: Faktoren, welche zur Pathoätiologie der überaktiven Blase beitragen, sind bisher nur unzureichend bekannt. Die vorliegende Studie befaßt sich mit dem Kompartiment der glatten Muskulatur und möglichen Änderungen von Smoothelin, einem Markerprotein für glatte Muskelzellen des kontraktilen Phänotyps. Patienten und Methoden: Detrusorbiopsien wurden von überaktiven (n = 13 und von normokontraktilen, nichtobstruktiven Blasen (n = 8 gesammelt. Es wurde eine Urodynamik durchgeführt und bei Patienten mit Blasenüberaktivität eine Unterteilung in überaktive instabile Blasen (n = 7 und überaktive stabile Blasen (n = 6 vorgenommen. Gefrorene Biopsien wurden mit den Methoden der Immunfluoreszenz und der Reverse Transcriptase (RT Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR analysiert. Außerdem wurden aus Gefrierschnitten mittels Laser Capture Microdissection Areale von Detrusormuskulatur isoliert und mit real-time PCR unter Verwendung von Primer/Probes für Smoothelin Varianten untersucht. Ergebnisse: Immunhistochemische und RT-PCR-Analysen zeigten, daß im menschlichen Detrusor Smoothelin exprimiert wird. Von den drei Varianten waren allerdings nur Varianten 1 und 2 detektierbar. Im Vergleich zu den Kontrollen war in Patienten mit überaktiver Blase im Detrusor signifikant mehr Smoothelin der Variante 1 vorhanden. Dieses Ergebnis war in Patienten mit überaktiver instabiler Blase noch deutlicher ausgeprägt als in Patienten mit überaktiver stabiler Blase. Die Differenz zwischen beiden Patientengruppen war aber statistisch nicht signifikant. Schlußfolgerungen: Unsere Ergebnisse weisen darauf hin, daß das Syndrom der überaktiven Blase mit Veränderungen myogener Parameter, wie eine erhöhte Smoothelinexpression, einhergehen. Unsere Studie untermauert außerdem die neue Definition des "overactive bladder syndrome" der International Continence Society, nach welcher "sensory urge" und "detrusor instability" eine gemeinsame klinische Entit

  3. Eine grüne Route der selektiven Hydrierung von Benzol zu Cyclohexen

    OpenAIRE

    Schwab, Frederick

    2014-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde die Hydrierung von Benzol mit dem Ziel der selektiven Bildung von Cyclohexen untersucht. Die selektive Umsetzung von Benzol zu Cyclohexen könnte die Produktion der Monomere von Polyamiden vereinfachen, da Cyclohexen hydratisiert und anschließend wieder in den bestehenden Prozess eingespeist werden könnte. Hierfür wurden geträgerte Rutheniumkatalysatoren verwendet. Die Katalysatorsysteme sind im Einklang mit den Prinzipien der grünen Chemie, da die notwendigen...

  4. Wirksamkeit von Bitumenemulsionen bei der Wiederverwertung pechhaltiger Materialien im Straßenbau

    OpenAIRE

    Metz, Georg

    2009-01-01

    Die Wirksamkeit von Bitumenemulsionen bei der Wiederverwertung pechhaltiger Straßenausbaustoffe hängt von ihrer Fähigkeit zur Immobilisierung der im Pech enthaltenen PAK und Phenole sowie von ihrer bautechnischen Eignung bei der Verarbeitung eines konkreten Straßenausbaustoffes ab. Die Arbeit befasst sich mit der Untersuchung und modellhaften Beschreibung des Brechverhaltens handelsüblicher Bitumenemulsionen sowie anhand von pechhaltigem Modellmischgut mit deren Fähigkeiten bei der Einkapselu...

  5. Batteriespeicher in Haushalten unter Berücksichtigung von Photovoltaik, Elektrofahrzeugen und Nachfragesteuerung

    OpenAIRE

    Kaschub, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In dieser Dissertation wird die Wirtschaftlichkeit von stationären Batteriespeicher-Systemen (SBS) in Kombination mit einer Photovoltaik-Anlage (PVA) und unter Berücksichtigung von Elektro-Pkw in Haushalten untersucht. Dabei wird auch das Potenzial für Lastverlagerung von E-Pkw und SBS betrachtet sowie die Auswirkungen von verschiedenen Stromtarifen oder Rahmenbedingungen evaluiert. Hierfür wurde ein Optimierungsmodell als gemischt-ganzzahliges lineares Programm entwickelt, welches mo...

  6. Batteriespeicher in Haushalten unter Berücksichtigung von Photovoltaik, Elektrofahrzeugen und Nachfragesteuerung

    OpenAIRE

    Kaschub, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit wird die Wirtschaftlichkeit von stationären Batteriespeicher-Systemen (SBS) in Kombination mit einer Photovoltaik-Anlage (PVA) und unter Berücksichtigung von E-Pkw in Haushalten untersucht. Die Anlagengrößen von PVA und SBS werden dabei im Optimierungsmodell modellendogen bestimmt sowie deren Kapitalwert maximiert. Der Kapitalwert wird stark beeinflusst durch Lastverlagerungspotenziale von E-Pkw und SBS, Stromtarifdesign und weiteren Rahmenbedingungen.

  7. KK -theory and spectral flow in von Neumann algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaad, Jens; Nest, Ryszard; Rennie, Adam

    2012-01-01

    We present a definition of spectral flow for any norm closed ideal J in any von Neumann algebra N. Given a path of selfadjoint operators in N which are invertible in N/J, the spectral flow produces a class in Ko (J). Given a semifinite spectral triple (A, H, D) relative to (N, t) with A separable......, we construct a class [D] ¿ KK1 (A, K(N)). For a unitary u ¿ A, the von Neumann spectral flow between D and u*Du is equal to the Kasparov product [u] A[D], and is simply related to the numerical spectral flow, and a refined C* -spectral flow....

  8. Die Bundesstatistik als Anbieter und Nutzer von raumbezogenen Daten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Humbel

    Einige konkrete und potentielle Anwendungen der vorhandenen Daten sollen das Potential und die Breite der Fragestellungen, die damit angegangen werden können, illustrieren. Eine besondere Stellung dürfte in Zukunft aber auch die Satellitenfernerkundung erhalten, deren Daten und Auswertungen eine willkommene Ergänzung für die eher traditionellen GIS-Datensätze bilden werden. Ein erster Pilotversuch wurde vor wenigen Monaten im BFS gestartet, der zum Ziel hat, die Machbarkeit einer gesamtschweizerischen Unterscheidung von Laub-, Nadel- und Mischwald als Ergänzung der auf der Grundlage von konventionellen Luftbildern erhobenen Arealstatistik nachzuweisen.

  9. The smooth entropy formalism for von Neumann algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berta, Mario; Furrer, Fabian; Scholz, Volkher B.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss information-theoretic concepts on infinite-dimensional quantum systems. In particular, we lift the smooth entropy formalism as introduced by Renner and collaborators for finite-dimensional systems to von Neumann algebras. For the smooth conditional min- and max-entropy, we recover similar characterizing properties and information-theoretic operational interpretations as in the finite-dimensional case. We generalize the entropic uncertainty relation with quantum side information of Tomamichel and Renner and discuss applications to quantum cryptography. In particular, we prove the possibility to perform privacy amplification and classical data compression with quantum side information modeled by a von Neumann algebra

  10. Design of inside cut von koch fractal UWB MIMO antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharani, V.; Shanmuga Priya, N.; Rajesh, A.

    2017-11-01

    An Inside Cut Hexagonal Von Koch fractal MIMO antenna is designed for UWB applications and its characteristics behaviour are studied. Self-comparative and space filling properties of Koch fractal structure are utilized in the antenna design which leads to the desired miniaturization and wideband characteristics. The hexagonal shaped Von Koch Fractal antenna with Defected Ground Structure (DGS) is designed on FR4 substrate with a compact size of 30mm x 20mm x 1.6mm. The antenna achieves a maximum of -44dB and -51dB at 7.1GHz for 1-element and 2-element case respectively.

  11. The smooth entropy formalism for von Neumann algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berta, Mario, E-mail: berta@caltech.edu [Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Furrer, Fabian, E-mail: furrer@eve.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan and Institute for Theoretical Physics, Leibniz University Hanover, Hanover (Germany); Scholz, Volkher B., E-mail: scholz@phys.ethz.ch [Institute for Theoretical Physics, ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-01-15

    We discuss information-theoretic concepts on infinite-dimensional quantum systems. In particular, we lift the smooth entropy formalism as introduced by Renner and collaborators for finite-dimensional systems to von Neumann algebras. For the smooth conditional min- and max-entropy, we recover similar characterizing properties and information-theoretic operational interpretations as in the finite-dimensional case. We generalize the entropic uncertainty relation with quantum side information of Tomamichel and Renner and discuss applications to quantum cryptography. In particular, we prove the possibility to perform privacy amplification and classical data compression with quantum side information modeled by a von Neumann algebra.

  12. Vergleich verschiedener Methoden zur Haftkraftmessung von Dentinadhäsiven

    OpenAIRE

    Schwertner, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    Zur Bestimmung der Haftkraft von Adhäsiven stehen verschiedene Methoden zur Verfügung. Ziel dieser Studie war es, vier gebräuchliche in vitro Haftkraftmessmethoden (Tensile Bond Strength Test, Shear Bond Strength Test, Microtensile Bond Strength Test, Push-out Bond Strength Test) an drei unterschiedlichen Adhäsivsystemen (Syntac, Clearfil SE Bond, Adper Scotchbond Multi Purpose) zu testen und die Ergebnisse zu vergleichen. Die Haftkräfte sind abhängig von der verwendeten Messmethode. Viele Pa...

  13. Dr. Space the life of Wernher von Braun

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Bob

    2013-01-01

    Written by veteran aerospace journalist Bob Ward, who spent years investigating his subject, this biography presents a revealing but even-handed portrait of the father of modern rocketry. As he chronicles Wernher von Braun's life, Ward explodes many myths and misconceptions about the controversial genius who was a hero to some, a villain to others. The picture of von Braun that emerges is of a brilliant scientist with limitless curiosity and a drive to achieve his goals at almost any price from, developing the world's first ballistic missile used against the Allies in World War II to help

  14. RTLOpen Plattform Handbuch. Teil 3 - Softwareentwicklung von Echtzeitsystemen

    OpenAIRE

    Elberzhager, Frank; Kalmar, Ralf; Keuler, Thorsten; Meininger, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    In diesem Dokument wird der Gesamtprozess zur Entwicklung von Software für Echtzeitsysteme beschrieben. Dabei ist der Prozess der Vorgehensweise an das Prinzip des V-Modells angelehnt. Das 3-Ebenen-Vorgehensmodell aus dem EQUAL-Projekt [Ben+05] unterstützt dabei die qualitätsorientierte multidisziplinäre Entwicklung von mechatronischen Echtzeitsystemen. Die ProMiS Methode ("Projektmanagement für interdisziplinäre Systeme") kann dabei als Projektmanagementmethode herangezogen werden. Zusätzlic...

  15. Das Surfgramm als grafische Darstellung von Surfwegen im Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Schuegraf

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Das folgend vorgestellte Instrument zur Analyse und Darstellung von Surfwegen im Internet, die durch ihre Nutzerinnen und Nutzer vollzogen werden, kann und soll nicht als ein technisch komplexes und «objektive» Daten lieferndes Methodeninstrumentarium betrachtet werden. Es ist vielmehr eine Methode, um im Bereich der qualitativen (Internet-Forschung in einer strukturierenden und fassbaren Weise Handlungsformen im Internet sichtbar und auf diese Weise auswertbar zu machen. Diese Form der Auswertung geht über die reine Interpretation der Transkripttexte von Interviews hinaus, sollte aber damit trianguliert werden.

  16. Computer-pictures of blowing-ups. (Computerbilder von Aufblasungen.)

    OpenAIRE

    Brodmann, M

    1995-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit stellen wir einige Computerbilder von Aufblasungen vor und beschreiben die Methode, mit der diese Bilder hergestellt wurden. Zugleich erläutern wir das für die algebraische Geometrie sehr wichtige Konzept der Aufblasung. Bei unseren Bildern beschränken wir uns auf Aufblasungen einer Kreisscheibe bezüglich zweier Polynome. Schon in diesem einfachen Fall erhält man eine erstaunliche Vielfalt von ästetisch sehr ansprechenden Flächen. In augenfälliger Weise zeigt sich so etwas vo...

  17. Von-Neumann and Beyond: Memristor Architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Naous, Rawan

    2017-05-01

    An extensive reliance on technology, an abundance of data, and increasing processing requirements have imposed severe challenges on computing and data processing. Moreover, the roadmap for scaling electronic components faces physical and reliability limits that hinder the utilization of the transistors in conventional systems and promotes the need for faster, energy-efficient, and compact nano-devices. This work thus capitalizes on emerging non-volatile memory technologies, particularly the memristor for steering novel design directives. Moreover, aside from the conventional deterministic operation, a temporal variability is encountered in the devices functioning. This inherent stochasticity is addressed as an enabler for endorsing the stochastic electronics field of study. We tackle this approach of design by proposing and verifying a statistical approach to modelling the stochastic memristors behaviour. This mode of operation allows for innovative computing designs within the approximate computing and beyond Von-Neumann domains. In the context of approximate computing, sacrificing functional accuracy for the sake of energy savings is proposed based on inherently stochastic electronic components. We introduce mathematical formulation and probabilistic analysis for Boolean logic operators and correspondingly incorporate them into arithmetic blocks. Gate- and system-level accuracy of operation is presented to convey configurability and the different effects that the unreliability of the underlying memristive components has on the intermediary and overall output. An image compression application is presented to reflect the efficiency attained along with the impact on the output caused by the relative precision quantification. In contrast, in neuromorphic structures the memristors variability is mapped onto abstract models of the noisy and unreliable brain components. In one approach, we propose using the stochastic memristor as an inherent source of variability in

  18. Access to Resources and Predictability in Armed Rebellion: The FAPC’s Short-lived “Monaco” in Eastern Congo Zugang zu Ressourcen und Berechenbarkeit von bewaffneten Rebellionen: Das kurzlebige “Monaco” der FAPC im östlichen Kongo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristof Titeca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the impact of economic resources on the behaviour of an armed group. The availability of resources, and the presence of “lootable” resources in particular, is presumed to have a negative impact on the way an armed group behaves toward the civilian population. The case of the Armed Forces of the Congolese People (Forces Armées du Peuple Congolais, FAPC in eastern Congo strongly suggests that it is necessary to look beyond this monocausal argument so as to witness the range of other factors at work. In this vein, first, the article demonstrates how the political economy literature underestimates the ease of accessibility of lootable resources. The paper then shows how the behaviour of this armed group was tied to a particular economic interest: In order to access these lootable goods, the FAPC was dependent on pre-established trading networks, so it had to increase the predictability of economic interactions through the construction of a minimum of social and economic order. Second, the article reveals how the political economy literature can underestimate the specific conflict dynamics. Military security in particular has a strong impact in this context.Dieser Beitrag widmet sich der Bedeutung von ökonomischen Ressourcen für das Verhalten bewaffneter Gruppierungen. Angenommen wird, dass der Zugang zu Ressourcen, und insbesondere zu verwertbarem Beutegut, negative Wirkung auf das Verhalten einer bewaffneten Gruppierung der Zivilbevölkerung gegenüber hat. Demgegenüber belegt der Fall der FAPC (Forces Armées du Peuple Congolais im Osten Kongos, dass es notwendig ist, jenseits dieses monokausalen Arguments nach weiteren Einflussfaktoren zu suchen. Der Autor diskutiert zunächst, inwieweit polit-ökonomische Ansätze Zugriffsmöglichkeiten auf Kriegsbeute unterschätzen. Er zeigt auf, dass sich das Verhalten der FAPC auf ein ganz bestimmtes ökonomisches Interesse zurückführen lässt: Um Zugang zu vermarktbarem

  19. Muuga / Mary von Grünewaldt ; tõlk. Mati Sirkel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grünewaldt, Mary von

    2004-01-01

    Leo Zoegelt ostetud Muuga mõisahoone korrastamisest ja uue hoone ehitamisest C. T. von Neffi kunstikogu paigutamise tarbeks. Tütre mälestused. Tõlgitud raamatust: Skizzen und Bilder aus dem Leben Carl Timoleon von Neff / Mary von Grünewaldt. Darmstadt, 1887

  20. Die grossen Physiker und ihre Entdeckungen von den fallenden Körpern zu den Quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Segrè, Emilio

    1998-01-01

    Von Galileo Galilei bis zu Richard Feynman und Murray Gell-Mann - von den fallenden Körpern zu den Quarks: Der Physiknobelpreisträger Emilio Segre hat seine ganz persönliche Geschichte der Physik geschrieben. Er erzählt von den großen Gestalten und deren wichtigen Entdeckungen mit großer Anschaulichkeit und Lebendigkeit.

  1. Analyse der pharmazeutischen Versorgungssituation von Patienten mit Psoriasis-Arthritis auf Basis von Routinedaten der Gesetzlichen Krankenversicherung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondermann, Wiebke; Ventzke, Julia; Matusiewicz, David; Körber, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    Die Psoriasis-Arthritis (PsA) gehört zu den chronisch entzündlichen Gelenkerkrankungen. Trotz zahlreicher versorgungswissenschaftlicher Studien in Deutschland liegen zur pharmazeutischen Versorgungssituation von PsA-Patienten bisher kaum aktuelle Ergebnisse vor. Mit Hilfe einer systematischen Literaturrecherche sowie anhand von Routinedaten der Allgemeinen Ortskrankenkasse (AOK) Rheinland/Hamburg wird ein aktueller Überblick über die pharmazeutische Versorgung von PsA-Patienten in Deutschland gegeben. Selektiert wurden Versicherte aus dem ambulanten und stationären Bereich, die im 1. und 2. Quartal des Jahres 2014 die gesicherte Abrechnungsdiagnose Psoriasis-Arthritis L40.5+ aufwiesen. Anschließend wurden auf Basis dieser "vorab definierten" Kohorte die Arzneimitteldaten für 5 Jahre (01.01.2010-31.12.2014) abgerufen. Es konnten insgesamt n  =  3205 Versicherte (45 % männlich, 55 % weiblich) der AOK Rheinland/Hamburg mit einer gesicherten PsA-Diagnose selektiert werden. Das Durchschnittsalter betrug 58,9 Jahre. 53,7 % der PsA-Patienten wurden mit systemischen PsA-relevanten Arzneimitteln versorgt. Nichtsteroidale Antirheumatika (NSAR) wurden am häufigsten verordnet, gefolgt von systemischen Glucocorticoiden. Von den selektierten PsA-Patienten, die eine Systemtherapie erhielten, wurden 72,1 % mittels einer Disease-modifying-antirheumatic-Drug (DMARD)-Monotherapie behandelt, gefolgt von der Kombinationstherapie aus DMARDs und Biologika (20,9 %). Die pharmakologische Therapie der PsA muss eine Gewährleistung zwischen adäquater Versorgung der PsA mit Verhinderung der Krankheitsprogression und ökonomischer Verantwortung darstellen. © 2018 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Paleo-oil and gas fields in the red sandstone of the North German Basin: Effects of hydrocarbon migration on storage quality development. Fluid flow, diagenesis and storage quality in the red sandstone strata of northern Germany; Palaeo-Oel- und -Gasfelder im Rotliegenden des Norddeutschen Beckens: Wirkung der KW-Migration auf die Speicherqualitaets-Entwicklung. Fluidfluss, Diagenese und Speicherqualitaet im Rotliegend Norddeutschlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solms, M. [SGC, Lehrte (Germany); Gaupp, R. [Jena Univ. (Germany); Littke, R.; Schwarzer, D. [RWTH Aachen (Germany); Schubarth-Engelschall, J.; Trappe, H. [TEEC, Isernhagen (Germany); Krawczyk, C.; Tanner, D.; Oncken, O. [GFZ, Potsdam (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    This sub-project was aimed at improving the geological concept of the development of storage quality, at the development of a model for monitoring and reconstruction of the structural development and restructuring of reservoirs, and at obtaining information on hydrocarbon origins, migration pathways and filling chronology. Drill core data were combined with 3D seismic data in order to obtain a deeper understanding of the processes involved. [German] Im Rahmen des DGMK-Forschungsprogrammes ''Tight Gas Reservoirs'' (Projekt 593-8) wurden von der Arbeitsgruppe Sedimentologie 43 Bohrungen aus dem Rotliegend Nordwestdeutschlands untersucht. Die vorgestellten Ergebnisse schliessen sich an den Vortrag ''Einfluss von Fazies und Diagenese auf die Speicher-Qualitaets-Entwicklung von Rotliegendsandsteinen NW Deutschlands'' (SOLMS et al., DGMK-Fruehjahrstagung 2002). Ziel dieses Teilprojektes ist die Verbesserung des geologischen Konzeptes zur Entwicklung der Speicherqualitaet, die Entwicklung eines Modells zur Erfassung und Rekonstruktion der strukturellen Entwicklung und Restrukturierung von Lagerstaetten sowie die Klaerung von KW-Herkunftsgebieten, Migrationswegen und Fuellungschronologien. Durch die Verknuepfung der Kerndaten mit 3D seismischen Daten soll eine verbesserte Einschaetzung der Speicherqualitaeten aus dem 3D seismischen Abbild erreicht werden. (orig.)

  3. Der Zusammenhang von Partnermarktopportunitäten aus dem Freundeskreis und der Stabilität von Paarbeziehungen : Eine Analyse mit den Daten des Partnermarktsurvey

    OpenAIRE

    Häring, Armando

    2014-01-01

    "Der Beitrag analysiert den Zusammenhang zwischen Partnermarktoportunitäten aus dem Freundeskreis und der Stabilität von Paarbeziehungen. Unter Verwendung des theoretischen Konzepts der Theorie der Interaktionsgelegenheiten sowie von Annahmen der Austauschtheorie und der Familienökonomie, werden mögliche Zusammenhänge zwischen gemeinsamen Freundeskreisen mit dem Partner, Partnermarktgelegenheiten aus dem Freundeskreis (sex ratio) und der Stabilität von Paarbeziehungen diskutiert. Der Beitrag ...

  4. ERWERB VON EIGENTUMSRECHTEN DURCH ERSITZUNG VON IMMOBILIEN IN SOZIALEM EIGENTUM IM KONTEXT DER NEUEN PRAXIS DES EUROPÄISCHEN GERICHTSHOFS FÜR MENSCHENRECHTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Kontrec

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dieser Artikel befasst sich mit der Ersitzung von Immobilien als einer Art des Erwerbs des Eigentumsrecht im gesellschaftlichen Eigentum. Er weist auf drei wichtige Entscheidungen des Europäischen Gerichtshofs für Menschenrechte gegen die Republik Kroatien hin, die einen direkten Einfl uss auf das Rechtsdenken der ordentlichen Gerichte in der Republik Kroatien in Bezug auf den Erwerb von Eigentumsrecht durch Ersitzung von Immobilien in sozialem Eigentum haben.

  5. Einflüsse von Trennung und neuer Partnerschaft der Eltern. Ein Vergleich von Jungen und Mädchen in Ost- und Westdeutschland

    OpenAIRE

    Walper, Sabine

    2002-01-01

    Die vorliegende Studie vergleicht die Befindlichkeit, Sozial- und Kompetenzentwicklung von Kindern und Jugendlichen aus Kern-, Mutter- und Stieffamilien. Hierbei wird zunächst nach differentiellen Effekten des Familientyps in West- und Ostdeutschland sowie in Abhängigkeit von Alter und Geschlecht gefragt. Danach wird geprüft, inwieweit verschiedene familiäre Belastungsfaktoren mögliche Effekte des Familientyps erklären. Die Daten stammen aus standardisierten Befragungen von 654 Kindern und Ju...

  6. Lars von Triers fornyelse af filmen 1984-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning

    Bogen undersøger Lars von Triers affektskabende og etisk involverende stil med udgangspunkt i hans værker over en 30-årig periode (1984-2014). Centralt i bogens læsninger står væsentlige analytiske begreber som det haptiske, det affektive, det diagrammatiske og det signaletiske materiale, der med...

  7. Enfermedad de Von Gierke: Reporte de tres casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Espinosa

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad de Von Gierke es un defecto en la glucosa 6 fosfatasa, degrada el glucógeno en el hígado, riñón e intestino. Asociada con hipoglicemia, acidosis láctica e hiperuricemia.

  8. Spin–momenta entanglement in moving frames: Properties of von ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    disentangled) as seen by moving observers, is used to investigate the properties of von Neumann entropy, as a measure of spin–momentum entanglement. To do so, we partition the total Hilbert space into momentum and spin subspaces so that the ...

  9. Sakslased tulevad! Ärevad ajad Tallinnas Von Krahli Teatris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Von Krahli Teater ja Showcase Beat Le Mot valmistuvad oma esimeseks koostööprojektiks - lavastuseks "Pirates", kus osalevad mõlema teatri näitlejad ja tehnikud. Ühisprojekti toetavad Goethe Instituut, Hamburgi Linnavalitsus ja Eesti Kultuurkapital

  10. Eritrea : Von der Befreiung zur Unterdrückung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Reisen, Mirjam; Buck, K.D.

    2015-01-01

    Über das heutige Eritrea ist nur wenig bekannt. Als das kleine Land am Horn von Afrika 1993 die Unabhängigkeit erlangte, waren nicht nur im Land selbst die Hoffnungen groß, dass nach dem dreißig Jahre dauernden Befreiungskampf gegen Äthiopien eine bessere und friedliche Zukunft für alle beginnen

  11. C. J. Ebhardi ja Balthasar von Campenhauseni projektid / Toivo Meikar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meikar, Toivo, 1947-

    2005-01-01

    Lisatud: C. J. Ebhardi Eesti- ja Liivimaa metsa- ja jahiseaduse projekt (valmis hiljemalt aastaks 1770), lk. 199-222 ; Härra maanõuniku parun von Campenhauseni ettepanekud kõikide metsade nõuetekohaseks korralduseks (4. juuli 1778), lk. 223-233

  12. Minimum Moduli in Von Neumann Algebras | Gopalraj | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we answer a question raised in [12] in the affirmative, namely that the essential minimum modulus of an element in a von. Neumann algebra, relative to any norm closed two-sided ideal, is equal to the minimum modulus of the element perturbed by an element from the ideal. As a corollary of this result, we ...

  13. A von Neumann type inequality for certain domains in Cn

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ambrozie, Calin-Grigore; Timotin, D.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 3 (2002), s. 859-869 ISSN 0002-9939 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/03/0041 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : von Neumann inequality * multioperators * Nevanlinna-Pick problem Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.334, year: 2002

  14. Characterizing ξ-Lie Multiplicative Isomorphisms on Von Neumann Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamin Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Let ℳ and be von Neumann algebras without central summands of type I1. Assume that ξ∈ℂ with ξ≠1. In this paper, all maps Φ:ℳ→ satisfying ΦAB-ξBA=ΦAΦB-ξΦBΦ(A are characterized.

  15. A bicategorical approach to Morita equivalence for Von Neumann algebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M. Brouwer (Rachel)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe relate Morita equivalence for von Neumann algebras to the ``Connes fusion'' tensor product between correspondences. In the purely algebraic setting, it is well known that rings are Morita equivalent if and only if they are equivalent objects in a bicategory whose 1-cells are

  16. A paradox of rationality à la von Neumann-Morgenstern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismail, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    We show that there are games and decision situations in which it is not possible for the decision maker to be rational a la von Neumann-Morgenstern in both situations simultaneously, which is the source of the paradox presented in this note. We provide an assumption which is the necessary and

  17. Spin–momenta entanglement in moving frames: Properties of von ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Relativistic entanglement; reduced von Neumann entropy; Gaussian distributions. PACS Nos 03.67.Mn; 03.65.Yz; 03.67.Bg. 1. Introduction. It is well known that any information processing scheme involves a part emitting the information and a part measuring the received information. The emitted information, as.

  18. Alexander von Humboldt's invention of the natural landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwa, C.

    2005-01-01

    Landscape took on a new meaning through the new science of plant geography of Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1857). In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, "landscape" was foremost a painterly genre. Slowly, painted landscapes came to bear on natural surroundings, but by 1800 it was still not

  19. Wilhelm von Humboldt's Idea of "Bildung" and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Elsina

    The importance of Wilhelm von Humboldt's work in educational philosophy is little known outside of Germany and even there he is more often criticized than praised. This is unfortunate because his contributions to education and other areas had an important impact on other philosophers of his period and are well worth considering today. In his main…

  20. Von Willebrand Factor Gene Variants Associate with Herpes simplex Encephalitis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abdelmagid, N.; Bereczky-Veress, B.; Atanur, S.; Musilová, Alena; Zídek, Václav; Saba, L.; Warnecke, A.; Khademi, M.; Studahl, M.; Aurelius, E.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Garcia-Dias, A.; Denis, C. V.; Bergström, T.; Sköldenberg, B.; Kockum, I.; Aitman, T.; Hübner, N.; Olsson, T.; Pravenec, Michal; Diez, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 5 (2016), e0155832 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E10067; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Von Willebrand Factor gene * Herpes simplex encephalitis * rat * humans Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  1. Rezension: Kafka von David Zane Mairowitz u. Robert Crumb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Lenhart

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Die inzwischen schon fast als Klassiker gehandelte Comicadaption von Franz Kafkas Leben und Werk wird zwanzig Jahre nach Erscheinen neu aufgelegt. Johanna Lenhart rezensierte für die MEDIENIMPULSE die visuelle Einführung des Autorenduos Crumb/Mairowitz in Kafkas Welt.

  2. Computed tomography of von Meyenburg complex simulating micro-abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sada, P.N.; Ramakrishna, B.

    1994-01-01

    A case is presented of a bile duct hamartoma in a 44 year old man being evaluated for abdominal pain. The computed tomography (CT) findings suggested micro-abscesses in the liver and a CT guided tru-cut biopsy showed von Meyenburg complex. 9 refs., 3 figs

  3. Dr. von Braun With a Model of a Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1950-01-01

    Dr. von Braun stands beside a model of the upper stage (Earth-returnable stage) of the three-stage launch vehicle built for the series of the motion picture productions of space flight produced by Walt Disney in the mid-1950's.

  4. Molecular characterization of exon 28 of von Willebrand's factor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Polymorphisms in von Willebrand factor (VWF) gene are an important contributor to the expression of VWF gene and differences in ethnic distribution of these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) exists. Aims: Our objective was to molecularly characterize the exon 28 of the VWF gene in the three major ...

  5. Seminario para el estudio de Carl Von Clausewitz

    OpenAIRE

    Darío Mesa

    2008-01-01

    Este es el programa del seminario que a propuesta y bajo la dirección del profesor Darío Mesa se realizó en el Departamento de Sociología, entre marzo y septiembre de 1981 sobre el libro de La Guerra del Militar y Teórico Prusiano Cari Von Clausewitz (178

  6. Seminario para el estudio de Carl Von Clausewitz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Mesa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este es el programa del seminario que a propuesta y bajo la dirección del profesor Darío Mesa se realizó en el Departamento de Sociología, entre marzo y septiembre de 1981 sobre el libro de La Guerra del Militar y Teórico Prusiano Cari Von Clausewitz (178

  7. Playing the Waves : Lars von Trier's Game Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Dogma95 werd toegejuicht als een Europees alternatief voor de Hollywoodblockbuster. Voor veel critici en filmliefhebbers is Dogma95 gaan staan voor de begrippen waarmee de kunstzinnige film gebruikelijk in verband wordt gebracht: low budget en realisme. Von Triers benadering van filmen voert film

  8. Ernst von Glasersfeld's Radical Constructivism and Truth as Disclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joldersma, Clarence W.

    2011-01-01

    In this essay Clarence Joldersma explores radical constructivism through the work of its most well-known advocate, Ernst von Glasersfeld, who combines a sophisticated philosophical discussion of knowledge and truth with educational practices. Joldersma uses Joseph Rouse's work in philosophy of science to criticize the antirealism inherent in…

  9. The education of Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus (1651-1708).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Jacob

    2015-02-01

    Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus, mathematician, inventor, and correspondent of Spinoza, is often thought to have studied medicine at Leiden, though documentation of this fact has been lacking. Tschirnhaus' medical education is here documented, along with the nature of his medical practice. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. lessons from Auzoux's and von Hagens's anatomical models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-12-09

    Dec 9, 2009 ... A variety of materials, such as wax, wood, papier-mâché, or glass, have long been used to construct animal and plant models. In the case of the human body, the most innovative, yet controversial, method of preservation has been plastination, invented by the German physician Gunther von Hagens, ...

  11. Lars von Trier ja kombekuse riismed / Kadri Kõusaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kõusaar, Kadri, 1980-

    2011-01-01

    Taani filmilavastaja Lars von Trieri Cannes'is persona non grata'ks kuulutamisest tema filmi "Melanhoolia" esilinastusele järgnenud pressikonverentsil öeldu pärast. Autor ja tema teos tuleb hoida lahus. Trieri filmid jäävad sama raputavateks meistriteosteks, kui nad olid enne

  12. Primary carcinoma of the lung in von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis (NF-1 is the most common inherited syndrome predisposing to neoplasia, particularly neural crest-derived tumors. However, lung malignancies reported in association with neurofibromatosis are sparse. We present a case of a 48-year-old man with NF-1 that manifested as carcinoma of lung, in order to discuss the linkage between these two entities.

  13. Mollusken aus posttertiären Schichten von Celebes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepman, M.M.

    1912-01-01

    Die im Folgenden behandelten Mollusken stammen aus der Nähe von Kajoe ragi auf Celebes, woselbst sie durch R. FENNEMA aus denselben Schichten ausgelesen wurden, aus denen früher durch J. G. DE MAN einige brachyure Krebse beschrieben sind. Es darf deswegen betreffs näherer Angaben über die Herkunft

  14. Semiparametric Bernstein-von Mises for the error standard deviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, R.; van Zanten, H.

    2013-01-01

    We study Bayes procedures for nonparametric regression problems with Gaussian errors, giving conditions under which a Bernstein-von Mises result holds for the marginal posterior distribution of the error standard deviation. We apply our general results to show that a single Bayes procedure using a

  15. Von Kármán between Aachen and Pasadena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Egon; Kalkmann, Ulrich

    2013-05-01

    In the Introduction the reader is referred back to the academic ceremonials held after Theodore von Kármán's death in Aachen in May 1963. His work as the first director of the Aerodynamisches Institut (Institute of Aerodynamics) of the RWTH Aachen University of Technology from 1913 on and his initiative to re-establish international cooperation after World War I, resulting in the International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (IUTAM), are commented on. The following chapter describes von Kármán's relation to his former teacher Ludwig Prandtl. Some of von Kármán's scientific contributions during his time in Aachen are briefly reviewed. Thereafter, his first contacts to the California Institute of Technology are covered. Finally, the scientific and political circumstances, which led to von Kármán's decision to leave Germany in the early thirties, are elucidated in some detail. The English translation of the titles of the Aachen papers is given in Appendix I.

  16. Über die Gyriniden (Col.) von Guiana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochs, Georg

    1962-01-01

    Von 14 Taumelkäfer-Arten, die bislang für Guiana nachgewiesen waren, kannte man aus Suriname lediglich 2. Dank der Sammeltätigkeit der Naturwissenschaftlichen Suriname Expedition 1949 in den Nassau Gebergte erhöhen sich diese Zahlen um 3 neue Arten und 2 Unterarten, die hierunter beschrieben werden,

  17. De identiteit van Portulaca advena Reichg. & Von Poellnitz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geesink, R.

    1969-01-01

    Portulaca advena Reichg. & Von Poellnitz (1939), based on adventive specimens collected near Erp, prov. N.-Brabant, Netherlands, and afterwards cultivated in a garden at Nijmegen, appears to be identical with the South American P. papulosa Schldl. (1853). The adventive species of Portulaca found in

  18. Die Rolle von Osteoklasten bei der arthritischen Knochenerosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schett G

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Knöcherne Erosionen stellen eine wesentliche Ursache für die funktionelle Einschränkung von Patienten mit rheumatoider Arthritis dar. Bis vor kurzem war über den Pathomechanismus dieser Veränderungen nur wenig bekannt. Dieser Review faßt die letzten Erkenntnisse über die Ausbildung einer Knochenschädigung bei entzündlichen Gelenkerkrankungen zusammen und fokussiert insbesondere die Rolle von Osteoklasten. Es wird ein Überblickzu den Hinweisen für eine Präsenz von Osteoklasten im entzündlich veränderten Gelenk gegeben. Weiters werden die Faktoren diskutiert, die die Osteoklastogenese im Rahmen einer Gelenkentzündung aktivieren können. Hier wird im besonderen auf die Rolle von Receptor-Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa B Ligand (RANKL eingegangen. Im weiteren werden die Auswirkungen einer Osteoklastenhemmung in den verschiedenen Arthritismodellen zusammengefaßt und Möglichkeiten einer therapeutischen Nutzung bei rheumatoider Arthritis diskutiert.

  19. Die filmstilistische Darstellung von Klaras Gehbehinderung im Kinderfilm "Heidi"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ohrfandl

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dieser Beitrag soll die Forschungslücke zur Darstellung von Behinderungen speziell im Kinderfilm im deutschsprachigen Raum füllen. Auf Basis einer neoformalistisch orientierten Filmanalyse nach Bordwell und Thompson (2008, wird anhand von drei Filmsequenzen eine mögliche Lesart des Kinderfilms "Heidi" (Marcus 2005 entwickelt, um die filmstilistische Darstellung der Gehbehinderung des Mädchens Klara zu untersuchen. Die Ergebnisse werden mit theoretischen Überlegungen zur Problematik der Begriffsbestimmung von Körperbehinderung sowie zur Mobilität und Selbstbestimmung von Menschen mit Körperbehinderungen in Bezug gesetzt. Dabei zeigt sich im Wesentlichen, dass im Kinderfilm "Heidi" (Marcus 2005 Klaras Gehbehinderung als 'heilbare Krankheit' und der Rollstuhl als Einschränkung von Mobilität begriffen wird. Außerdem unterliegt Klara aufgrund ihrer Körperbehinderung überwiegend der Fremdbestimmung von Erwachsenen. Zur Klärung wahrscheinlicher filmischer Bildungspotenziale werden die Ergebnisse schließlich anhand der von Jörissen und Marotzki (2009 entwickelten Orientierungsdimensionen "Wissens-, Handlungs-, Grenz- und Biographiebezug" diskutiert. This article aims to bridge a knowledge gap by showing ways of representing disabilities in the German children film genre. Using Bordwell and Thomson's (2008 neoformalistically orientated film analysis approach, the movie "Heidi" (Marcus 2005 is analysed. Bordwell and Thompson's (2008 method is applied to three sequences of "Heidi" in order to present an interpretation and to discuss the representation of Clara's walking impediment. The results are then associated with theoretical considerations regarding the mobility and self-determination of people with disabilities and problematic definitions of the term 'physical disability'. It is shown that characters in the children's film "Heidi" (Marcus 2005 regard Clara's walking impediment as a 'curable disease' and the wheelchair as a limitation

  20. Einfluss von Ernährungsfaktoren im ersten Lebensjahr auf die Entwicklung von Diabetes- und Zöliakie-assoziierter Autoimmunität

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Doris

    2005-01-01

    Eine Modulation von Ernährungsfaktoren wurde als möglicher Einflussfaktor auf das Risiko für Typ 1 Diabetes-assoziierte Autoimmunität vermutet. Ziel der Arbeit war es, festzustellen, ob die Stilldauer, die Einführung von industriell hergestellter Säuglingsmilchnahrung, das Zufüttern von Beikost oder der Zeitpunkt der erstmaligen Gabe glutenhaltiger Nahrungsmittel Einfluss auf die Entwicklung von Diabetes- oder Zöliakie-assoziierten Autoantikörper haben. Als Studienkollektiv dienten 1610 Kinde...

  1. Eine selbstkonsistente Carleman Linearisierung zur Analyse von Oszillatoren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Weber

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Die Analyse nichtlinearer dynamischer Schaltungen ist bis heute eine herausfordernde Aufgabe, da nur selten analytische Lösungen angegeben werden können. Daher wurden eine Vielzahl von Methoden entwickelt, um eine qualitative oder quantitative Näherung für die Lösungen der Netzwerkgleichung zu erhalten. Oftmals wird beispielsweise eine Kleinsignalanalyse mit Hilfe einer Taylorreihe in einem Arbeitspunkt durchgeführt, die nach den Gliedern erster Ordnung abgebrochen wird. Allerdings ist diese Linearisierung nur in der Nähe des stabilen Arbeitspunktes für hyperbolische Systeme gültig. Besonders für die Analyse des dynamischen Verhaltens von Oszillatoren treten jedoch nicht-hyperbolische Systeme auf, sodass diese Methode nicht angewendet werden kann Mathis(2000. Carleman hat gezeigt, dass nichtlineare Differentialgleichungen mit polynomiellen Nichtlinearitäten in ein unendliches System von linearen Differentialgleichungen transformiert werden können Carleman(1932. Wird das unendlichdimensionale Gleichungssystem für numerische Zwecke abgebrochen, kann bei Oszillatoren der Übergang in eine stationäre Schwingung (Grenzzyklus nicht wiedergegeben werden.In diesem Beitrag wird eine selbstkonsistente Carleman Linearisierung zur Untersuchung von Oszillatoren vorgestellt, die auch dann anwendbar ist, wenn die Nichtlinearitäten keinen Polynomen entsprechen. Anstelle einer linearen Näherung um einen Arbeitspunkt, erfolgt mit Hilfe der Carleman Linearisierung eine Approximation auf einem vorgegebenen Gebiet. Da es jedoch mit der selbstkonsistenten Technik nicht möglich ist, das stationäre Verhalten von Oszillatoren zu beschreiben, wird die Berechnung einer Poincaré-Abbildung durchgeführt. Mit dieser ist eine anschließende Analyse des Oszillators möglich.

  2. Optimierung der Gesichtsklassifikation bei der Erkennung von Akromegalie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frohner R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In vorausgegangenen Studien konnte gezeigt werden, dass eine Gesichtsklassifikation mittels Gesichtsphotographien zur Diagnostik von Akromegalie mit guten Ergebnissen eingesetzt werden kann. In diesem Artikel werden die grundlegende Vorgehensweise der Klassifikation mittels der Software FIDA erläutert sowie Optimierungsansätze mit dem Ziel diskutiert, diese Methode näher an den klinischen Einsatz zu bringen. Die Gesichtsklassifikation basiert auf „Knotenpunkten“, die verteilt über die jeweilige Frontal- und/oder Seitenansicht des Gesichts platziert werden und den so genannten „Graphen“ bilden. Mittels mathematischer Verfahren erfolgt eine Analyse der zugrunde liegenden Textur des Bildes sowie die Auswertung geometrischer Informationen. Untersucht wird, wie sich die Reduktion von als irrelevant eingestuften Knoten auf das Klassifikationsergebnis auswirkt. Ebenso wird untersucht, wie sich neu definierte Knoten, die die typischen morphologischen Veränderungen der akromegalen Erkrankung im Gesicht berücksichtigen, auf die Klassifizierungsergebnisse auswirken. Die interne Validierung erfolgt an einem Datenset bestehend aus 57 an Akromegalie erkrankten Probanden (29 weiblich, 28 männlich sowie 59 Kontrollen (29 weiblich, 30 männlich. Die externe Validierung wird an einer weiteren Stichprobe gemessen, die zum Zeitpunkt der Präsentation auf der Tagung der European Neuroendocrine Association 2012 in Wien 13 akromegale Patienten (7 weiblich, 6 männlich sowie 45 Kontrollen (25 weiblich, 20 männlich umfasste. Die Datenbank wird ständig durch neue Probanden aus verschiedenen Quellen erweitert. Erste Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Verwendung von Graphen mit reduzierten Knoten und von neuen Sets von Knoten unter Einbeziehung typischer morphologischer Veränderungen des Gesichts die Klassifizierung weiter verbessert. Diese Ergebnisse ermutigen zu weiteren Untersuchungen an einer erweiterten Datenbank.

  3. Eine selbstkonsistente Carleman Linearisierung zur Analyse von Oszillatoren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Harry; Mathis, Wolfgang

    2017-09-01

    Die Analyse nichtlinearer dynamischer Schaltungen ist bis heute eine herausfordernde Aufgabe, da nur selten analytische Lösungen angegeben werden können. Daher wurden eine Vielzahl von Methoden entwickelt, um eine qualitative oder quantitative Näherung für die Lösungen der Netzwerkgleichung zu erhalten. Oftmals wird beispielsweise eine Kleinsignalanalyse mit Hilfe einer Taylorreihe in einem Arbeitspunkt durchgeführt, die nach den Gliedern erster Ordnung abgebrochen wird. Allerdings ist diese Linearisierung nur in der Nähe des stabilen Arbeitspunktes für hyperbolische Systeme gültig. Besonders für die Analyse des dynamischen Verhaltens von Oszillatoren treten jedoch nicht-hyperbolische Systeme auf, sodass diese Methode nicht angewendet werden kann Mathis (2000). Carleman hat gezeigt, dass nichtlineare Differentialgleichungen mit polynomiellen Nichtlinearitäten in ein unendliches System von linearen Differentialgleichungen transformiert werden können Carleman (1932). Wird das unendlichdimensionale Gleichungssystem für numerische Zwecke abgebrochen, kann bei Oszillatoren der Übergang in eine stationäre Schwingung (Grenzzyklus) nicht wiedergegeben werden. In diesem Beitrag wird eine selbstkonsistente Carleman Linearisierung zur Untersuchung von Oszillatoren vorgestellt, die auch dann anwendbar ist, wenn die Nichtlinearitäten keinen Polynomen entsprechen. Anstelle einer linearen Näherung um einen Arbeitspunkt, erfolgt mit Hilfe der Carleman Linearisierung eine Approximation auf einem vorgegebenen Gebiet. Da es jedoch mit der selbstkonsistenten Technik nicht möglich ist, das stationäre Verhalten von Oszillatoren zu beschreiben, wird die Berechnung einer Poincaré-Abbildung durchgeführt. Mit dieser ist eine anschließende Analyse des Oszillators möglich.

  4. An N-terminal region of a Myb-like protein is involved in its intracellular localization and activation of a gibberellin-inducible proteinase gene in germinated rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutoh, Keita; Washio, Kenji; Imai, Ryozo; Wada, Masamitsu; Nakai, Tomonori; Yamauchi, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    The expression of the gene for a proteinase (Rep1) is upregulated by gibberellins. The CAACTC regulatory element (CARE) of the Rep1 promoter is involved in the gibberellin response. We isolated a cDNA for a CARE-binding protein containing a Myb domain in its carboxyl-terminal region and designated the gene Carboxyl-terminal Myb1 (CTMyb1). This gene encodes two polypeptides of two distinctive lengths, CTMyb1L and CTMyb1S, which include or exclude 213 N-terminal amino acid residues, respectively. CTMyb1S transactivated the Rep1 promoter in the presence of OsGAMyb, but not CTMyb1L. We observed an interaction between CTMyb1S and the rice prolamin box-binding factor (RPBF). A bimolecular fluorescence complex analysis detected the CTMyb1S and RPBF complex in the nucleus, but not the CTMyb1L and RPBF complex. The results suggest that the arrangement of the transfactors is involved in gibberellin-inducible expression of Rep1.

  5. No evidence for a direct effect of von Willebrand factor's ABH blood group antigens on von Willebrand factor clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, D J; van Bekkum, T; Cheung, K L; Dirven, R J; Castaman, G; Reitsma, P H; van Vlijmen, B; Eikenboom, J

    BACKGROUND: One of the major determinants of von Willebrand factor (VWF) plasma levels is ABO blood group status, and individuals with blood group O have ~ 25% lower plasma levels. The exact mechanism behind this relationship remains unknown, although effects on clearance have been postulated.

  6. Charakterisierung von dotierten Zinnoxidschichten für die Detektion von Gasen durch ellipsometrische Messung der Oberflächenplasmonenresonanz

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Dissertation wird die Verbesserung von Gassensoren durch Beschichtung mit dotierten Zinnoxidschichten untersucht, wobei zur Messung der Gase die Methode der oberflächenplasmonenresonanzverstärkten Ellipsometrie (SPREE) angewendet wurde. Die vorgestellten Ergebnisse unterteilen sich dabei in drei Schritte: Herstellung der Schichtsysteme, Analyse der chemischen, strukturellen und optischen Eigenschaften, sowie die Anwendung in der SPREE Gasmessung. Die dotierten Zinnoxid...

  7. Zum 215. Gebutstag von Admiral Ferdinand Baron von Wrangell : (29. Dezember 1797 - 25. 25. Mai 1870) / Peter Krienitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krienitz, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Admiral Ferdinand Baron von Wrangellist tema 215. sünniaastapäeva puhul. Silmapaistavast Kirde-Siberi uurijast. Tema poliitilisest tegevusest ja elust Roela mõisas. Ferdinand Baroni poolt seatud viisil tähistati jõulusid Roelas kuni 1944. aasta lõpuni.

  8. Otto von Habsburg : III maailmasõda on läbi / Otto von Habsburg ; interv. Marianne Mikko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Habsburg, Otto von, 1912-2011

    2002-01-01

    Otto von Habsburg vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Euroopa konvendi presidendi teadet, et Türgi koht ei ole EL-is, Iraagi võimalikku ründamist, Hiina ja Venemaa suhteid, Tšetšeeniat, tshetsheene ja terrorismi, Venemaa, EL-i ja USA suhteid, III maailmasõda, Eesti Vabariigi tulevikku

  9. Modellierung von Quanteneffekten in einem ladungsbasierten MOS-Transistor-Modell zur Simulation von nanoskalierten CMOS-Analogschaltungen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Stegemann

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Aufgrund der fortschreitenden Miniaturisierung der Bauelemente in CMOS-Schaltungen und den dadurch erreichten Strukturgrößen nehmen quantenmechanische Effekte zunehmenden Einfluss auf die Funktion von Transistoren und damit auf die gesamte Schaltung. Unter Einbeziehung der Energiequantisierung an der Si/SiO2-Grenzfläche wird untersucht, wie sich durch eine Modifikation der Beschreibung des Oberflächenpotenzials die Inversionsladung quantenmechanisch formulieren lässt. Im Hinblick auf den Entwurf und die Simulation von CMOS-Analogschaltungen wird dazu ein ladungsbasiertes MOS-Transistor-Modell zugrunde gelegt. Die sich daraus ergebenden Veränderungen für die Kapazitäten und die Inversionsladung werden dabei für die Modellierung des quasiballistischen Drain-Source-Stromes verwendet. Dazu wird innerhalb dieses Modells ein Streufaktor berechnet, mit dem nanoskalierte MOS-Transistoren mit einer Kanallänge von unter 20 nm simuliert werden können. Ausgehend von Parametern eines CMOS-Prozesses werden mit MATLAB die Einflüsse der quantenmechanischen Effekte bei der Skalierung des Transistors analysiert.

  10. Methanation of abattoir by-products and wastes from catering services; Methanisierung von Schlachtnebenprodukten und von Grosskuechenabfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Membrez [EREP S.A., Aclens (Switzerland); Schwitzguebel [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Dubois; Descloux; Wellinger [Nova Energie GmbH, Ettenhausen (Switzerland); Disetti

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this research project, which was promoted by the Swiss Energy Economy Agency, was to develop and test a specific concept for processing abattoir by-products and wastes from catering services. The system under study involves the separation of fluid and solid fractions following sterilisation. The liquid phase, which contains a large proportion of suspended organic matter, is treated by fermentation in hybrid reactors, while the solid residues are processed and then fed to pigs. The results obtained after a nine-month laboratory phase and a pilot-scale 5-month trial phase have shown to be very promising. The present technical and economic assessment of the concept has made it possible to dimension an industrial-scale plant and to determine the strong points of the concept. [German] Das Ziel dieses seitens des Eidgenoessischen Amtes fuer Energiewirtschaft unterstuetzten Forschungsprojekts bestand darin, ein spezifisches Konzept zur Aufbereitung von Schlachtnebenprodukten und von Abfaellen aus den Grosskuechen zu entwickeln und zu testen. Das vorgeschlagene System besteht darin, die Fluessig- und Feststofffraktionen der vorher sterilisierten Abfaelle zu trennen. Die sich durch ein hohes Mass an schwebenden organischen Stoffen auszeichnende Fluessigphase wird mittels Vergaerung in Hybridreaktoren verarbeitet, waehrend die festen Rueckstaende, nach Aufbereitung, fuer die Schweinefuetterung verwendet werden. Die Ergebnisse, die im Laufe von 9 Monaten Labortests und 5 Monaten Testzeit in einem Pilotmassstab erzielt wurden, haben sich als besonders vielversprechend erwiesen. Die technisch-oekonomische Bewertung dieses Konzepts hat es ermoeglicht, eine Anlage von industrieller Groesse zu dimensionieren und die Vorteile des Konzepts hervorzuheben. (orig.)

  11. DIE SPRACHE VON "BAŠĆANSKA PLOČA" (DIE STEINTAFEL VON BAŠKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepan Damjanović

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In einer Mehrzahl von Abhandlungen über Bašćanska ploča berücksichtigen die Verfasser auch die Sprache, in der Regel kurz, nur in einem oder zwei Sätzen. Die größten Bemühungen sind auf die Rekonstruirung der unlesbaren Teilen gerichtet, dagegen nicht weinger interessanter lesbarer Teil regte eine Sprachanalyse selten an. Gewöhnlich wird festgestellt, daß die Tafel in der kroatischen Sprache geschrieben ist, während die philologisch gut unterrichtete Forscher vermeiden diesartige Nenunngen, indem sie das Vorhandensein der altslawischen und altkroatischen Sprachelemente entdeckten. Man versuchte noch nicht in einer Analyse sprachliche Grundschichte und darauf geschichtete Sprachelemente zu bestimmen. Nach dem ersten Eindruck wurde bestimmt, ob es sich um "die kroatische Srpache mit den Elementen der alten slawischen liturgischen Sprache" handelt oder um "die altslawische in der manche kroatische Spracheigenschaften hereingekommen sind". Die Analyse mancher Spracheinzelheiten (Halblaute und "Jat" weist auf altslawische Grundschicht hin. Der Verfasser hat sich trotzdem nicht entschieden den Fachausdruck "kroatische Redaktion des altslawischen" zu verwenden, weil er neue Analyse und neue Begriffsbestimmungen als nötig hält, wie z.B. "Redaktion", "Rezension" usw, um mit Sicherkeit sagen zu können, ob es um kroatische Redaktion des altslawischen oder um andere Formen der altslawischen - alt kroatischen Interferenz geht.

  12. Digitale Rekonstruktion von historischem Bibliotheksgut. Projektvorstellung Leibniz-Fragmente und Massendigitalisierung von Flachware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Wehry

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Der Universalgelehrte Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz verwendete eine besondere Form der Wissensordnung: Teile seiner Manuskripte und Arbeitspapiere, z.B. Abschriften und Exzerpte, wurden von ihm zerschnitten und in einem so genannten „Zettel-Schrancken“, einem großen Zettelkasten, geordnet. Im vorgestellten Projekt wurde ein automatisiertes virtuelles Assistenzsystem erarbeitet, um die ursprünglichen Zusammenhänge der Notata im Augenblick ihrer Entstehung wiederherzustellen. Das Ergebnis des Projektes ist ein innovatives Massenverfahren zum Puzzeln und Scannen historischer handschriftlicher Dokumente. The polymath Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz used a specific technique for knowledge organisation: He cut parts of his manuscripts and working papers, e.g., copies and excerpts, in pieces and filed them systematically in a so called “Zettel-Schrancken”, a hugh slipbox. In the project presented in this paper, an automated virtual reconstruction of the notes’ initial context at the moment of origin was developed. The result of the project is an innovative mass processing method for puzzling and scanning historical handwritten documents

  13. DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS IN PATIENT WITH VON WILLEBRAND DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Elykomov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify the possible factors of thrombogenic risk and ways of its prevention in patients with von Willebrand disease.Case description. Patient X., 42 years old, who suffers from von Willebrand disease type 3 with 5-years of age. Asked on reception to the traumatologist in the polyclinic of the Regional Hospital with pain in the left hip joint. Recommended planned operative treatment in the Altai Regional Clinical Hospital. Preoperative preparation included the infusion of concentrate of von Willebrand factor and coagulation factor VIII. Operation – cement total arthroplasty of the left hip joint. In the postoperative period analgesic treatment, elastic compression of the lower extremities, iron supplements, also conducted infusion of concentrate of von Willebrand factor and coagulation factor VIII for 20 days and thromboprophylactic with dabigatran. On the 3rd day after the operation the patient revealed deep vein thrombosis of the femoral segment (floating clot.Results. The patient was operated for emergency indications in the Department of endovascular surgery – installation of venous cava filter “Volan”. Dabigatran is cancelled, appointed clexane for 3 months. In our clinical example the patient lacked risk factors of pulmonary embolism as obesity, age, smoking, prolonged immobilization, estrogen therapy. Overdose of factor VIII were not observed – the level of factor did not exceed 135 % on transfusions. At the same time, the patient was found polymorphisms in the genes ITGA2, FGB, MTHFR, MTR – heterozygote, MTRR – mutant homozygote, which may indicate the genetic factors of thrombogenic risk. Also a significant risk factor was massive surgical intervention (total hip replacement. Despite preventive measures (elastic compression, thromboprophylactic dabigatran, early activation we cannot to avoid thrombotic complications.Conclusion. This article presents a case demonstrating a thrombotic complication in patients

  14. [Die baltischen Kapitulationen von 1710. Kontext - Wirkungen - Interpretationen. Hrsg. von Karsten Brüggemann, Mati Laur und Pärtel Piirimäe] / Maretn Seppel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Seppel, Marten, 1979-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Die baltischen Kapitulationen von 1710. Kontext - Wirkungen - Interpretationen. Hrsg. von Karsten Brüggemann, Mati Laur und Pärtel Piirimäe. (Quellen und Studien zur baltischen Geschichte. Bd. 23). Köln [etc.] : Böhlau, 2014

  15. Jakob von Uexküll : tuleb hakata taas koos oma planeediga elama / Jakob von Uexküll ; interv. Andris Feldmanis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uexküll, Jakob von

    2007-01-01

    Jakob von Uexküll vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad postkapitalismi, kapitalismi vajakajäämisi, praegust kapitalismi, postkapitalismi n.-ö. filosoofilist süsteemi, samuti kohtumist president Toomas Hendrik Ilvesega. J. von Uexküll esitles Eesti presidendile Maailma Tuleviku Nõukogu (World Future Council) projekti

  16. Entwicklung von in situ Nachweisverfahren für die humanpathogenen Lebensmittelkontaminanten Listeria, Salmonella und Campylobacter, sowie phylogenetische Analysen der Gattung Listeria und Feindifferenzierung von L. monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Michael Wilhelm

    2007-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit wurden rRNS-gerichtete Gensonden zur spezifischen in situ Detektion der pathogenen Mikroorganismen Salmonella, Campylobacter und Listeria konstruiert. Durch vergleichende Sequenzanalyse verschiedener Gene konnte die Evolution der Virulenz der Gattung Listeria aufgeklärt werden. Zudem gelang es, anhand phylogenetischer Analysen von Virulenzgenen innerhalb der Art L. monocytogenes drei Entwicklungslinien zu ermitteln. Zur Feindifferenzierung von L. monocytogenes wurden weiterhi...

  17. Von Willebrand's disease in the German shepherd dog : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Lobetti

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Two litters of Germanshepherd dogs were evaluated for a haemorrhagic tendency that was characterised by excessive bleeding from the umbilicus at birth, haemorrhage and haematoma formation at vaccination, excessive bruising, and lameness due to haemarthrosis. Platelet counts, clotting times and Von Willebrand's factor (VWF assays were assessed in all dogs. Factor VIII determination was performed in 1 puppy and its parents. Based on the clotting times and VWF assay, 6 puppies (4 male and 2 female showed type I Von Willebrand's disease (VWD, 5 (4 male and 1 female possible type II VWD, and 4 were unaffected. One puppy with possible type II VWD had very low factor VIII activity; its sire had a normal factor activity, whereas the dam was in the low-normal range. This article reports type I and possible type II VWD in 2 related litters of German shepherd dogs, the latter being rare in German shepherd dogs.

  18. Doença de von Willebrand e anestesia

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Fabiano Timbó; Cunha, Rafael Martins da; Barbosa, Luciano Timbó

    2007-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A doença de von Willebrand ocorre devido à mutação no cromossomo 12 e é caracterizada por deficiência qualitativa ou quantitativa do fator de von Willebrand. A diversidade de mutações leva ao aparecimento das mais variadas manifestações clínicas possibilitando a divisão dos pacientes em vários tipos e subtipos clínicos. A coagulopatia se manifesta basicamente através da disfunção plaquetária associada à diminuição dos níveis séricos do fator VIII coagulante. O objet...

  19. Von eingebetteten Systemen zu Cyber-Physical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedde, Rorst F.; Lehnhoff, Sebastian; Rehtanz, Christian; Krause, Olav

    Das Hauptanliegen des Papiers ist, ein Paradigma für Probleme mit neuartigen Integrationsanforderungen für Forschung und Entwicklung in verteilten eingebetteten Echtzeitsystemen zu motivieren und vorzustellen, nämlich den Begriff Cyber-Physical Systems. Bei einer in letzter Zeit stark zunehmenden Anzahl von Realzeitanwendungen können ohne die Berücksichtigung solcher Forderungen keine praktisch brauchbaren Lösungen erwartet werden. Einige Anwendungsfelder werden angesprochen. Im Einzelnen werden dann für Elektroautos, die mit erneuerbaren Energien betrieben werden sollen, einerseits die Management-, verteilte Verhandlungs- und Verteilungsprobleme der benötigten Energie in einem bottom-up Ansatz gelöst. Andererseits wird als Teil unserer Projektarbeit die Bereitstellung von Reserveenergie für den allgemeinen Bedarf durch Autobatterien vorgestellt. Es zeigt sich, dass dies effizienter und wesentlich kurzfristiger in unserem verteilten Vorgehen geschehen kann als in traditionellen Verfahren.

  20. Up-to-date der Betreuung von Chorionkarzinompatientinnen - ein Fallbeispiel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söhnchen N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Das Chorionkarzinom tritt in Europa bei einer von 30.000 Schwangerschaften auf. Betroffen sind vor allem junge und ältere Mütter sowie Patientinnen mit einer positiven Anamnese für Trophoblasterkrankungen. Kardinalsymptome sind persistierende vaginale Blutungen nach der Geburt. Bei Diagnosestellung liegen häufig bereits pulmonale Metastasen vor. In der Behandlung spielt die Chirurgie nur eine untergeordnete Rolle. Der rasche und ununterbrochene Beginn einer Chemotherapie ist hingegen entscheidend. Oft reicht eine Monochemotherapie aus. Hochrisikopatienten werden hingegen mit einer Kombinationschemotherapie (EMA/CO behandelt. Das Ansprechen auf diese Therapie ist ausgesprochen gut. Wichtig sind die weiteren Kontrollen der Patientinnen mithilfe von biochemischen Markern und radiologischer Diagnostik. Kinder betroffener Frauen sollten ebenfalls kontrolliert werden, da es auch bei ihnen zu einer intrauterinen Metastasierung gekommen sein kann. Wir stellen das diagnostische und therapeutische Vorgehen anhand eines aktuellen Fallbeispiels aus unserer Klinik dar.

  1. Diurnal variation of von Willebrand factor in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm, Annette; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Jørgensen, Henrik L

    2014-01-01

    thoroughly tested. OBJECTIVES: We examined whether VWF antigen and VWF activity in plasma display a diurnal profile in healthy young males, and whether such variation is related to changes in release or elimination. METHODS: Plasma from 20 healthy young males was collected at 9 time-points over 24 h (15 h......BACKGROUND: Quantitation of von Willebrand factor (VWF) in plasma is a central element in assessing von Willebrand disease (VWD). VWF activity is known to vary, which has partly been ascribed to biological and preanalytical variation. However, a possible diurnal expression of VWF has not been...... of light and 9 h of darkness); the plasma concentration of melatonin was used as an internal control to confirm the normal 24-h rhythms of the individual participants. RESULTS: The data, analyzed by rhythmometric statistics, revealed a significant variation (P = 0.02) and total amplitude of 22.6% in VWF...

  2. Rezension von: Gabriele Dietze: Weiße Frauen in Bewegung. Genealogien und Konkurrenzen von Race- und Genderpolitiken. Bielefeld: transcript Verlag 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Dorestal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Gabriele Dietze zeichnet das Verhältnis der Kategorien Race und Gender innerhalb der US-amerikanischen Geschichte von der Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts bis zur Präsidentschaftswahl von Barack Obama nach. Dabei demonstriert sie anhand von zentralen Figuren der weißen Frauenbewegung deren ambivalente Positionen, die oftmals für progressive Inhalte wie das Eintreten für Frauenrechte stehen, gleichzeitig aber dann Anliegen von African Americans nicht artikulieren oder gar zum Schweigen bringen. Ebenso zeigt Dietze mithilfe von Texten einiger schwarzer Autor_innen sowie anhand berühmter Gerichtsprozesse, dass schwarze Emanzipation nicht notwendigerweise mit feministischen Positionen einhergehen musste, sondern sich vielmehr eine Konkurrenzsituation zwischen Race und Gender entspann.

  3. Oberflächenmodifizierung von Wirkstoffen zur Inhalation

    OpenAIRE

    Stank, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird die Anwendung des „dry particle coating“ für die Oberflächenmodifizierung von mikronisiertem Salbutamolsulfat zur Inhalation beschrieben. Bei diesem Verfahren wird der Wirkstoff durch einen mechanischen Energieeintrag mit einem Hilfsstoff verbunden, um dadurch Veränderungen der Oberflächeneigenschaften zu erzielen. Der Einfluss der Oberflächenmodifizierung wurde sowohl für trägerfreie Pulverformulierungen als auch für suspensionsbasierte Dosieraerosole untersuc...

  4. Von Krahl klaarib piraadina asju euroliidus / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2006-01-01

    Von Krahli Teatri selle hooaja eelviimane esietendus "Europiraadid" on 17. mail Düsseldorfis, koostöös Saksamaa teatrirühmaga Showcase Beat Le Mot. (Varem on tehtud sama teatrirühmaga koostöös "Piraadid", mida mängiti nii Eestis kui Saksamaal). Eesti poole pealt teevad kaasa Juhan Ulfsak, Taavi Eelmaa, Maarja Jakobson ja Rain Tolk. Sakslaste poole pealt on tegijad Nikola Duric, Thorsten Eibler, Dariusz Kostyra ja Veit Spengler

  5. Modellbildung und Realisierung von holografischen Aufprojektionsflächen

    OpenAIRE

    Schmiedchen, Marc

    2006-01-01

    Konventionelle Projektionssysteme sind systembedingt auf gute Streueigenschaften des Materials angewiesen, auf das projiziert wird. Dies bewirkt bei Vorhandensein von Umgebungslicht eine dramatische Reduktion der erreichbaren Kontrastverhältnisse und der Farbsättigung; typische Lichtverhältnisse in einem abgedunkelten Konferenzraum sind bereits ausreichend, um das verbleibende Kontrastverhältnis auf Werte unter 20:1 zu drücken. In dieser Arbeit wird ein Ansatz präsentiert, diese Einschränkung...

  6. Johann Baptist von Schweitzer: the queer Marx loved to hate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, H

    1995-01-01

    Despite his conviction on a morals charge involving a boy, the early German Social Democrat Johann Baptist von Schweitzer went on to have a successful political career. His life furnishes the context to present remarks by his political opponents Marx and Engels, which reveal their deep-seated homophobia. It is pointed out that this has been glossed over by the translations of the recently published Marx/Engels Collected Works. Some remarks on boy-love and anarchism are appended.

  7. Gender-Dynamiken in der Rekonstruktion von Bildungsprozessen in Medienprojekten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Stauber

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Dieser Beitrag basiert auf Erfahrungen aus einem aktuellen Praxisforschungsprojekt des tifs (Tübinger Institut für frauenpolitische Sozialforschung. Es wurde in Auftrag gegeben von der Landesstiftung Baden-Württemberg zur Evaluation ihres Programms «Jugend und verantwortungsvolle Mediennutzung», mit dem sie medienpädagogische Projekte in unterschiedlichen Jugendhilfe-Kontexten (Projekte der offenen und der verbandlichen Jugendarbeit, der Hilfen zur Erziehung, der Jugendberatung etc. förderte.

  8. Von Neuman representations on self-dual Hilbert W* moduli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, M.

    1987-01-01

    Von Neumann algebras M of bounded operators on self-dual Hilbert W* moduli H possessing a cyclic-separating element x-bar in H are considered. The close relation of them to certain real subspaces of H is established. Under the supposition that the underlying W*-algebra is commutative, a Tomita-Takesaki type theorem is stated. The natural cone in H arising from the pair (M, x-bar) is investigated and its properties are obtained

  9. Osteoporose bei Spondylitis ankylosans - Einfluß von Lebensgewohnheiten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aglas F

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Krankheitsbedingte Artefakte können bei der SpA (Spondylitis ankylosans; Mb. Bechterew die Sensitivität einer Knochendichtemessung im Lumbalbereich beeinträchtigen. Das bei dieser rheumatischen Erkrankung bekannte Osteoporoserisiko ist neben genetischen Faktoren und Entzündungsmechanismen auch von verschiedenen exogenen Einflüssen abhängig. An 47 SpA-Patienten wurde mittels DEXA eine vergleichende Knochendichtemessung (BMD an der Hüfte (Schenkelhals und Ward'sches Dreieck sowie im Bereich der Wirbelsäule (L1-L4 vorgenommen. Zusätzlich erfolgte eine Erhebung der Lebens-Ernährungsgewohnheiten der SpA-Patienten in bezug auf die BMD, um exogene Einflüsse erfassen zu können. Die Knochendichtemessungen ergaben an der LWS wesentlich häufiger eine BMD im Normbereich als am proximalen Femur. Besonders deutliche Unterschiede traten im höheren Lebensalter auf, bei dem aufgrund von Kalzifizierungsvorgängen und Syndesmophyten an der LWS fälschlicherweise eine Dichtezunahme vorgetäuscht wird. Es kann daher bei SpA empfohlen werden, die wesentlich sensitivere Dichtemessung am Schenkelhals durchzuführen. Die über einen Zeitraum von 3 Jahren beobachteten, signifikant erhöhten, medianen CRP-Spiegel zeigen, daß eine permanente Aktivierung von Entzündungsprozessen bei SpA auch einen negativen Faktor betreffend des Knochenmasseverlustes darstellt. Die Analyse der Lebensgewohnheiten ergab, daß SpA-Patienten mit normaler BMD ausnahmslos regelmäßig kalziumreiche Nahrungsmittel zu sich nehmen; bei verminderter BMD wurde in der Mehrheit ein fehlender Konsum an Milchprodukten beobachtet. Leider war auch mit abnehmender BMD eine Verminderung der bei SpA empfohlenen Bewegungsübungen festzustellen. Aufgrund der Resultate ergibt sich eine generelle Empfehlung zu regelmäßigen Bewegungsübungen plus Osteoporosediät bei allen Bechterew-Patienten.

  10. Zum Verhältnis von Nachhaltigkeit, Gerechtigkeit und Bildung

    OpenAIRE

    Jürgen Deuschle; Marco Sonnberger

    2009-01-01

    Gerechtigkeit ist eine der Voraussetzungen für Nachhaltigkeit. Eine der wichtigsten Aufgaben der Bildung ist deshalb die Vermittlung von Gerechtigkeitsstandards. Was aber ist Gerechtigkeit? Unter Bezugnahme auf philosophische Betrachtungen sowie auf Forschungsergebnisse aus Soziologie, Sozialpsychologie und Neurobiologie kommt die vorliegende Untersuchung zu dem Ergebnis, das Gerechtigkeit eine Synthese aus Verstand, Vernunft und Gefühl ist, die sich auf die Freiheitsbeschränkung individuelle...

  11. Untersuchung zur Fixierung von Knorpelgewebe mittels laserinduzierter Koagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    Philipp Hoffmann Untersuchung zur Fixierung von Knorpelgewebe mittels laserinduzierter Koagulation Aus der Chirurgischen Tierklinik der Veterinärmedizinische Fakultät der Universität Leipzig, angefertigt im Forschungszentrum für Medizintechnik und Biotechnologie GmbH, Bad Langensalza Eingereicht im Januar 2012 97 Seiten, 59 Abbildungen, 9 Tabellen, 318 Literaturangaben 10 Seiten Anhang Schlüsselwörter: Laser, Löten, Knorpelgewebe, Zugfestigkeit, thermische Schäden Gelenkerk...

  12. Expression und Funktion Apoptose modulierender Gene von Orthopockenviren

    OpenAIRE

    Witkowski, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Dipl.-Ing. Peter Witkowski Abstract zur Dissertation „Expression und Funktion Apoptose regulierender Gene von Orthopockenviren“ Nach der Eradikation des humanpathogenen Variolavirus durch das WHO-Impfprogramm im 20. Jahrhundert treten andere Orthopockenviren (OPV) gehäuft als Erreger humaner Infektionen in Erscheinung. Weniger gefährlich als die humanen Pocken, können Kuhpocken- oder Vacciniaviren dennoch Menschen infizieren und zu schweren Komplikationen führen. OPV besitzen Erbinformationen...

  13. A von Neumann algebra approach to quantum metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Kuperberg, Greg; Weaver, Nik

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new definition of quantum metric spaces, or W*-metric spaces, in the setting of von Neumann algebras. Our definition effectively reduces to the classical notion in the atomic abelian case, has both concrete and intrinsic characterizations, and admits a wide variety of tractable examples. A natural application and motivation of our theory is a mutual generalization of the standard models of classical and quantum error correction.

  14. Bible and Philology: Gerhard von Rad regarding the Wisdom Books

    OpenAIRE

    Lase, Norma Haydeé

    2015-01-01

    Theology, through its history, has always been related to Philology, because its source is the Holy Scriptures. This reason has stimulated my further consideration of the exegeta Gerhard von Rad “Wisdom in Israel” a “symbol” of modern interest for the Wisdom books. Inserted in the philologic German trend of the history of tradition and history of editing and forms, it is opposed to positivists interpretation and installs a new comprehension of the OT traditions. Its hermeneutica, without dete...

  15. La esclavitud norteamericana vista por Lars von Trier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto PRIETO ARCINIEGA

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available El eje de la comunicación corresponderá a la película Manderley, pero se tendrá en cuenta, como precedente, la película Dogville y el texto de Jean Paulhan, La bonheur dans l´esclavage, que inspiró a Lars von Trier para la elaboración de su propio y peculiar guión.

  16. Fibrolipoma en un paciente con la enfermedad de Von Recklinghausen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando L Rodríguez Calzadilla

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente, con antecedente de padecer de la enfermedad de Von Recklinghausen, el cual fue valorado y su conducta terapéutica fue diferida, por sospechar la presencia de un tumor neurofibromatoso. El paciente se remitió a la consulta externa de nuestro servicio y una vez concluido sus estudios, se realizó su tratamiento quirúrgco. El paciente no presentó complicaciones transoperatorias y posoperatorias; su estadía fue de 3 días. Anatomía patológica informó la presencia de un fibrolipoma (neoplasia mesodérmica. El control a los 3 años de operado mostró un paciente asintomático y sin recidiva local. En la literatura médica revisada no se informaron otros casos similares de pacientes con la presencia de un fibrolipoma en la enfermedad de Von Recklinghausen.The case of a patient who suffers from Von Recklinghausen´s disease is reported. The patient was evaluated and his therapeutic conduct was deferred because the presence of a neurofibromatous tumor was suspected. The patient was referred to the outpatient department of our service and once the studies were concluded, he underwent surgical treatment. The patient had no transoperative or postoperative complications. He stayed in hospital only 3 days. The Department of Pathological Anatomy reported the presence of a fibrolipoma (mesodermic neoplasia. 3 years later the patient proved to be asymptomatic and without local relapse. Similar cases of patients with a fibrolipoma in Von Recklinghausen´s disease are not reported in the reviewed medical literature.

  17. Neue Konzepte zur Reinigung von Siliciumoberflächen

    OpenAIRE

    Leopold, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit wurde eine modifizierte einstufige RCA-Reinigung entwickelt. Die Untersuchungen mit den besonders kritischen Metallen bei der Wafer- und Halbleiterbauelementherstellung Al, Ca, Fe, Ni und Zn zeigten deutliche Vorteile bei der Reinigung gegenüber herkömmlichen Methoden. Durch die Verwendung von Komplexbildnern konnte eine Abscheidung der Metalle auf die Siliciumoberfläche verhindert bzw. stark reduziert werden. Während bei den bekannten Reinigungsverfahren mehrere Schritte für...

  18. Semiparametric Bernstein–von Mises for the error standard deviation

    OpenAIRE

    de Jonge, René; van Zanten, Harry

    2013-01-01

    We study Bayes procedures for nonparametric regression problems with Gaussian errors, giving conditions under which a Bernstein–von Mises result holds for the marginal posterior distribution of the error standard deviation. We apply our general results to show that a single Bayes procedure using a hierarchical spline-based prior on the regression function and an independent prior on the error variance, can simultaneously achieve adaptive, rate-optimal estimation of a smooth, multivariate regr...

  19. Põlvkondade triloogia Von Krahli teatris / Hedi-Liis Toome

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Toome, Hedi-Liis

    2010-01-01

    Von Krahli teatri lavastustest: William Shakespeare "Kuningas Lear", mängib Viljandi Kultuuriakadeemia 8. lend, lavastaja Peeter Jalakas (esietendus 30. jaan. 2010); "The End" - autorid, lavastajad ja näitlejad: Mari Abel, Tiina Tauraite, Riina Maidre, Erki Laur, Taavi Eelmaa, Juhan Ulfsak (esietendus 19. märts 2010); "Mehed lumes" Peter Freucheni jutustuse "Olavi lugu" ainetel lavastanud Mart Koldits ja Kristjan Sarv, kes ka ise mängivad (17. aprill 2010)

  20. Weiterverarbeitung von WPC für technische Anwendungen

    OpenAIRE

    Clauß, Brit; Gehde, Michael; Nendel, Klaus; Eichhorn, Sven

    2010-01-01

    Die im Folgenden vorgestellten Arbeiten sollen zur Erweiterung der Einsatzmöglichkeiten von WPC-Bauteilen beitragen, wobei die Untersuchung möglicher Fügetechnologien und ein praxisnahes Anwendungsbeispiel die Schwerpunkte bilden. Mittels Heizelement- und Vibrationsschweißens ist es gelungen, WPC-Bauteile sowohl mit gleichen Materialien als auch mit dem jeweiligen reinen Matrixmaterialien in Mischbauweisen zu verbinden. Deutlich werden hierbei verfahrensbedingte Einflüsse der Temperaturen...

  1. Baron von Zach's business relations with the Munich entrepreneur Joseph von Utzschneider (German Title: Geschäftsbeziehungen des Barons von Zach zu dem Münchner Unternehmer Joseph von Utzschneider)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ivo

    The relationship between the astronomer von Zach on the one side and the entrepreneur Joseph von Utzschneider and his partner Georg von Reichenbach on the other dates presumably from the year 1807 when Zach spent two months in Munich. Already in the same year Zach had ordered an instrument for himself and began to solicit business for the institute of Reichenbach, Utzschneider, and Liebherr, which was founded in 1804. One of the clients canvassed by Zach was the director of the observatory in Naples Zuccari. Zuccari had ordered the whole equipment for the new observatory from this institute in 1813. The instruments for Naples, which were completed in 1814, were sent accompanied by Reichenbach by land and sea to their destination where Reichenbach supervised their setup. At that time Reichenbach had separated from Utzschneider who kept the optical institute in Benediktbeuern with his new partner Joseph von Fraunhofer whereas Reichenbach became owner of the mathematical-mechanical institute in Munich. For personal and economical reasons Utzschneider began soon after to produce not only optical glass but also optical devices similar to those offered by Reichenbach. As soon as two institutes in Munich competed against each other on the market for sophisticated geodetical and astronomical instruments Zach sided with Utzschneider. Zach's main professional argument for this decision was that both competitors got the optical glass for their instruments from Utzschneider's optical institute in Benediktbeuern. This meant that Utzschneider had first choice and so the optical part of his instruments could be considered as better than that of Reichenbach`s instruments. Zach's role as an agent in Italy and France for the sale of products coming from Utzschneider's manufactories is highlighted by three of Zach's letters to Utzschneider from 1817 and 1818, two of which are reproduced here for the first time.

  2. Synergism between demethylation inhibitor fungicides or gibberellin inhibitor plant growth regulators and bifenthrin in a pyrethroid-resistant population of Listronotus maculicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoutar, D; Cowles, R S; Requintina, E; Alm, S R

    2010-10-01

    In 2007-2008, the "annual bluegrass weevil," Listronotus maculicollis Kirby (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a serious pest of Poa annua L. (Poales: Poaceae) on U.S. golf courses, was shown to be resistant to two pyrethroids, bifenthrin and lambda-cyhalothrin. In 2008, we showed that bifenthrin resistance was principally mediated by oxidase detoxification (cytochrome P450 [P450]). P450s can be inhibited by demethylation inhibitor fungicides and gibberellin inhibitor plant growth regulators, both of which are commonly used on golf courses. We tested these compounds for synergistic activity with bifenthin against a pyrethroid-resistant population of L. maculicollis. The LD50 value for bifenthrin was significantly reduced from 87 ng per insect (without synergists) to 9.6-40 ng per insect after exposure to the fungicides fenarimol, fenpropimorph, prochloraz, propiconazole, and pyrifenox and the plant growth regulators flurprimidol, paclobutrazol, and trinexapac-ethyl. Simulated field exposure with formulated products registered for use on turf revealed enhanced mortality when adult weevils were exposed to bifenthrin (25% mortality, presented alone) combined with field dosages of propiconizole, fenarimol, flurprimidol, or trinexapac-ethyl (range, 49-70% mortality).

  3. Biosynthetic origin of gibberellins A sub 3 and A sub 7 in cell-free preparations from seeds of Marah macrocarpus and Malus domestica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albone, K.S.; Gaskin, P.; MacMillan, J.; Willis, C.L. (Univ. of Bristol (England)); Phinney, B.O. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

    1990-09-01

    Cell-free preparations from seeds of Marah macrocarpus L. and Malus domestica L. catalyzed the conversion of gibberellin A{sub 9} (GA{sub 9}) and 2,3-dehydroGA{sub 9} to GA{sub 7}; GA{sub 9} was also metabolized to GA{sub 4} in a branch pathway. The preparation from Marah seeds also metabolized GA{sub 5} to GA{sub 3} in high yield; GA{sub 6} was a minor product and was not metabolized to GA{sub 3}. Using substrates stereospecifically labeled with deuterium, it was shown that the metabolism of GA{sub 5} to GA{sub 3} and of 2,3-dehydroGA{sub 9} to GA{sub 7} occurs with the loss of the 1{beta}-hydrogen. In cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, mutant B1-41a, (1{beta},2{beta}-{sup 2}H{sub 2})GA{sub 4}, was metabolized to (1,2-{sup 2}H{sub 2})GA{sub 3} with the loss of the 1{alpha}- and 2{alpha}-hydrogens. These results provide further evidence that the biosynthetic origin of GA{sub 3} and GA{sub 7} in higher plants is different from that in the fungus Gibberella fujikuroi.

  4. Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding the gibberellin biosynthetic enzyme ent-kaurene synthase B from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, S; Saito, T; Abe, H; Yamane, H; Murofushi, N; Kamiya, Y

    1996-08-01

    The first committed step in the formation of diterpenoids leading to gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis is the conversion of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP) to ent-kaurene. ent-Kaurene synthase A (KSA) catalyzes the conversion of GGDP to copalyl diphosphate (CDP), which is subsequently converted to ent-kaurene by ent-kaurene synthase B (KSB). A full-length KSB cDNA was isolated from developing cotyledons in immature seeds of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.). Degenerate oligonucleotide primers were designed from the amino acid sequences obtained from the purified protein to amplify a cDNA fragment, which was used for library screening. The isolated full-length cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein, which demonstrated the KSB activity to cyclize [3H]CDP to [3H]ent-kaurene. The KSB transcript was most abundant in growing tissues, but was detected in every organ in pumpkin seedlings. The deduced amino acid sequence shares significant homology with other terpene cyclases, including the conserved DDXXD motif, a putative divalent metal ion-diphosphate complex binding site. A putative transit peptide sequence that may target the translated product into the plastids is present in the N-terminal region.

  5. Differential expression of gibberellin- and abscisic acid-related genes implies their roles in the bud activity-dormancy transition of tea plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Chuan; Cao, Hongli; Hao, Xinyuan; Zeng, Jianming; Qian, Wenjun; Guo, Yuqiong; Ye, Naixing; Yang, Yajun; Wang, Xinchao

    2018-03-01

    Thirty genes involved in GA and ABA metabolism and signalling were identified, and the expression profiles indicated that they play crucial roles in the bud activity-dormancy transition in tea plants. Gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) are fundamental phytohormones that extensively regulate plant growth and development, especially bud dormancy and sprouting transition in perennial plants. However, there is little information on GA- and ABA-related genes and their expression profiles during the activity-dormancy transition in tea plants. In the present study, 30 genes involved in the metabolism and signalling pathways of GA and ABA were first identified, and their expression patterns in different tissues were assessed. Further evaluation of the expression patterns of selected genes in response to GA 3 and ABA application showed that CsGA3ox, CsGA20ox, CsGA2ox, CsZEP and CsNCED transcripts were differentially expressed after exogenous treatment. The expression profiles of the studied genes during winter dormancy and spring sprouting were investigated, and somewhat diverse expression patterns were found for GA- and ABA-related genes. This diversity was associated with the bud activity-dormancy cycle of tea plants. These results indicate that the genes involved in the metabolism and signalling of GA and ABA are important for regulating the bud activity-dormancy transition in tea plants.

  6. Endogenous gibberellins in Arabidopsis thaliana and possible steps blocked in the biosynthetic pathways of the semidwarf ga4 and ga5 mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talon, M.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.; Koornneef, M.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty gibberellins (GAs) have been identified in extracts from shoots of the Landsberg erecta line of Arabidopsis thaliana by full-scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and Kovats retention indices. Eight of them are members of the early-13-hydroxylation pathway (GA 53 , GA 44 , GA 19 , GA 17 , GA 20 , GA 1 , GA 29 , and GA 8 ), six are members of the early-3-hydroxylation pathway (GA 37 , GA 27 , GA 36 , GA 13 , GA 4 , and GA 34 ), and the remaining six are members of the non-3,13-hydroxylation pathway (GA 12 , GA 15 , GA 24 , GA 25 , GA 9 , and GFA 51 ). Seven of these GAs were quantified in the Landsberg erecta line of Arabidopsis and in the semidwarf ga4 and ga5 mutants by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring (SIM) using internal standards. The relative levels of the remaining 13 GAs were compared by the use of ion intensities only. The growth-response data, as well as the accumulation of GA 9 in the ga4 mutant, indicate that GA 9 is not active in Arabidopsis, but it must be 3β-hydroxytlated to GA 4 to become bioactive. It is concluded that the reduced levels of the 3β-hydroxy-GAs, GA 1 and GA 4 , are the cause of the semidwarf growth habit of both mutants

  7. Gene Co-Expression Analysis Inferring the Crosstalk of Ethylene and Gibberellin in Modulating the Transcriptional Acclimation of Cassava Root Growth in Different Seasons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treenut Saithong

    Full Text Available Cassava is a crop of hope for the 21st century. Great advantages of cassava over other crops are not only the capacity of carbohydrates, but it is also an easily grown crop with fast development. As a plant which is highly tolerant to a poor environment, cassava has been believed to own an effective acclimation process, an intelligent mechanism behind its survival and sustainability in a wide range of climates. Herein, we aimed to investigate the transcriptional regulation underlying the adaptive development of a cassava root to different seasonal cultivation climates. Gene co-expression analysis suggests that AP2-EREBP transcription factor (ERF1 orthologue (D142 played a pivotal role in regulating the cellular response to exposing to wet and dry seasons. The ERF shows crosstalk with gibberellin, via ent-Kaurene synthase (D106, in the transcriptional regulatory network that was proposed to modulate the downstream regulatory system through a distinct signaling mechanism. While sulfur assimilation is likely to be a signaling regulation for dry crop growth response, calmodulin-binding protein is responsible for regulation in the wet crop. With our initiative study, we hope that our findings will pave the way towards sustainability of cassava production under various kinds of stress considering the future global climate change.

  8. A Zinc Finger Protein Regulates Flowering Time and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Chrysanthemum by Modulating Gibberellin Biosynthesis[C][W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yingjie; Ma, Chao; Xu, Yanjie; Wei, Qian; Imtiaz, Muhammad; Lan, Haibo; Gao, Shan; Cheng, Lina; Wang, Meiyan; Fei, Zhangjun; Hong, Bo; Gao, Junping

    2014-01-01

    Flowering time and an ability to tolerate abiotic stresses are important for plant growth and development. We characterized BBX24, a zinc finger transcription factor gene, from Chrysanthemum morifolium and found it to be associated with both flowering time and stress tolerance. Transgenic lines with suppressed expression of Cm-BBX24 (Cm-BBX24-RNAi) flowered earlier than wild-type plants and showed decreased tolerance to freezing and drought stresses. Global expression analysis revealed that genes associated with both photoperiod and gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis pathways were upregulated in Cm-BBX24-RNAi lines, relative to the wild type. By contrast, genes that were upregulated in overexpressing lines (Cm-BBX24-OX), but downregulated in Cm-BBX24-RNAi lines (both relative to the wild type), included genes related to compatible solutes and carbohydrate metabolism, both of which are associated with abiotic stress. Cm-BBX24 expression was also influenced by daylength and GA4/7 application. Under long days, changes in endogenous GA1, GA4, GA19, and GA20 levels occurred in young leaves of transgenic lines, relative to the wild type. Regulation of flowering involves the FLOWERING TIME gene, which integrates photoperiod and GA biosynthesis pathways. We postulate that Cm-BBX24 plays a dual role, modulating both flowering time and abiotic stress tolerance in chrysanthemum, at least in part by influencing GA biosynthesis. PMID:24858937

  9. RNA sequencing reveals high resolution expression change of major plant hormone pathway genes after young seedless grape berries treated with gibberellin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Lijuan; Li, Yanmei; Chen, Shangwu; Perl, Avihai; Zhao, Fengxia; Ma, Huiqin

    2014-12-01

    Seedless varieties are of particular importance to the table-grape and raisin industries. Gibberellin (GA) application is widely used in the early stages of seedless berry development to increase berry size and economic value. However, the underlying mechanism of GA induction of berry enlargement is not well understood. Here, RNA-sequencing analysis of 'Centennial Seedless' (Vitis vinifera L.) berries treated with GA3 12 days after flowering is reported. Pair-wise comparison of GA3-treated and control samples detected 165, 444, 463 genes with an over two-fold change in expression 1, 3, and 7 days after GA3 treatment, respectively. The number of differentially expressed genes increased with time after GA3 treatment, and the differential expression was dominated by downregulation. Significantly modulated expression included genes encoding synthesis and catabolism to manage plant hormone homeostasis, hormone transporters, receptors and key components in signaling pathways; exogenous GA3 induced multipoint cross talk with auxin, cytokinin, brassinosteroid, ABA and ethylene. The temporal gene-expression patterns of cell-wall-modification enzymes, cytoskeleton and membrane components and transporters revealed a pivotal role for cell-wall-relaxation genes in GA3-induced berry enlargement. Our results provide the first sequential transcriptomic atlas of exogenous GA3-induced berry enlargement and reveal the complexity of GA3's effect on berry sizing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. One-pot preparation of a mixed-mode organic-silica hybrid monolithic capillary column and its application in determination of endogenous gibberellins in plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng; Hao, Yan-Hong; Ding, Jun; Xu, Sheng-Nan; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2015-10-16

    A newly improved one-pot method, based on "thiol-ene" click chemistry and sol-gel approach in microemulsion system, was developed for the preparation of C8/PO(OH)2-silica hybrid monolithic capillary column. The prepared monolith possesses large specific surface area, narrow mesopore size distribution and high column efficiency. The monolithic column was demonstrated to have cation exchange/reversed-phase (CX/RP) mixed-mode retention for analytes on nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC). On the basis of the developed nano-LC system with MS detector coupled to pipette tip solid phase extraction (PT-SPE) and derivatization process, we then realized simultaneous determination of 10 gibberellins (GAs) with low limits of detection (LODs, 0.003-0.025 ng/mL). Furthermore, 6 endogenous GAs in only 5mg rice leaves (fresh weight) were successfully detected and quantified. The developed PT-SPE-nano-LC-MS strategy may offer promising applications in the determination of low abundant bioactive molecules from complex matrix. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ueber die bildung von lymphzellen bei rhinocricus padbergii (Diplopoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Barth

    1968-01-01

    Full Text Available In den aktiven Amoebozyten der Haemolymphe des Diplopoden Rhinocricus padbergii finden sich keine Mitosen oder andere Anzeichen von Zellvermehrung. In Haeutungsstadien findet sich im hinteren Winkel der Doppelsegmente eine Hypodermiszone, von deren Zellen einige amitotisch junge Amoebozyten hervorbringen. Nach der amitotischen Teilung bildet der distale Tochterkern den zukuenftigen Hypodermiszellkern; der proximale teilt sich nochmals amitotisch beide produkte dieses Vorganges umgeben sich mit einem Teil des Protoplasmakoerpers und verlassen, die Basalmembran durchbrechend, das Epithel. Sie bilden neue Amoebozyten. Waehrend alle Organe durch eine Bindegewebsmembran gegen die Haemolymphe abgegrenzt sind, findet sich in dem Raum hinter der Intersegmentalmembran der Segmente keine solche Membran. Diese fasert sich unmittelbar hinter der Intersegmentalmembran schichtenweise auf und bildet eine gitterfoermige Sperre, so dass keine aelteren phagozytierenden Amoebozyten in den hinteren Raum der Segmente gelangen. Durch Muskelkontraktion kann der Raum verkleinert werden, wodurch die jungen Amoebozyten in die Hauptleibeshoehle transportiert werden. Es wird vermutet, dass die Bindegewebsmembran im Sinne von Hoyle (1952 und Twarog und Roeder (1956 die Organe vor ploetzlichen Veraenderungen der Jonenkonzentration und des osmotischen Wertes der Haemolymphe schuetzt; die amoebozytogene Hypodermis ist aus diesem System ausgeschlossen, so dass die jungen Amoebozyten die erwaehnten Schwankungen in der Zusammensetzung der Haemolymphe begleiten koennen.

  12. Plasma product treatment in various types of von Willebrand's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntorp, E

    1994-01-01

    Four different virus-inactivated factor VIII concentrates (Haemate P, Behring; Profilate, Alpha, FVIII-VHP-vWF, CRTS), near-pure von Willebrand factor (Facteur Willebrand, CRTS) or one recombinant FVIII preparation (Recombinate, Baxter) were given to one or more patients with different forms of von Willebrand's disease. Duke bleeding time, VIII:C, vWF:Ag, RC of activity, and the multimeric pattern of plasma vWF were monitored. Both Duke bleeding time and the multimeric pattern were normalized after treatment with Haemate P, FVIII-VHP-vWF, or Facteur Willebrand, and to a lesser extent after Profilate. Except in one case, the reduction in bleeding time lasted longer after Haemate P than after the other concentrates. Recombinate had no effect on primary hemostasis, and the half-life of VIII:C was very short. If prompt hemostasis is required, and when pharmacological correction of the defect is impossible, we recommend a concentrate containing both FVIII and the full complement of vWF multimers, but for prophylactic treatment pure von Willebrand factor may be used.

  13. Die Problematik der Inklusion von Religion in das Schulsystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Lindner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: This paper wants to point out, what it might mean to include religion in educational systems. The diversity of religion is a fact insociety and schools today. However, the issue of the proper role of religion in public schools continues to be a subject of greatcontroversy. So it is with inclusion in education, which has taken firm root in many school systems so far. Though, the relationshipof religion to inclusion in the public school is little well known, because schools have failed to recognize the problem ofreligious inclusion, while focusing on other forms of racial, gendered and socio-economic forms of exclusion and inclusion. DEUTSCH: Unter den Fragen, die Schule heute im Besonderen herausfordern, nimmt diejenige nach der Inklusion von Religion zweifelsohneeine Sonderstellung ein. Geht es um die Verhandlung von Differenz in der Migrationsgesellschaft, werden sowohl der Inklusionsbegriffals auch Religion in ihrer Vielfalt in unterschiedlichen Diskursen prominent erörtert. Dabei bleibt zu klären, welche Rolleder Religion vor dem Hintergrund pluraler Gesellschaften in inklusiven Schulen zukommen soll. In diesem Beitrag werden daherunterschiedliche Aspekte und Ansätze von Inklusion mit Blick auf Religion diskutiert und Überlegungen für den schulischenUmgang mit religiöser Heterogenität resümiert.

  14. Acquired Von Willebrand’s Syndrome in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Taveras Alam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS is an uncommon, underdiagnosed, and heterogeneous disease which is increasingly recognized as a cause of bleeding diatheses. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an infrequent cause of AVWS. Herein, we report a case of AVWS diagnosed during the initial presentation of SLE in a previously healthy young man with no family history of bleeding diathesis who presented with worsening epistaxis, gastrointestinal bleeding, and anasarca. He was found to have severe anemia and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT with severely decreased levels of von Willebrand factor (VWF measurements in addition to markedly decreased factor VIII levels. Further evaluation revealed nephrotic syndrome and interstitial lung disease due to SLE. He initially received combination therapy with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG and von Willebrand factor/factor VIII concentrates without significant improvement. Treatment with steroids, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab was followed by clinical improvement evidenced by cessation of bleeding. The short follow-up did not allow us to definitely prove the therapeutic effect of immunosuppressive treatment on AVWS in SLE patients. This case adds to the literature supporting the relationship between AVWS and SLE and highlights the importance of combination therapy in the treatment of severe AVWS as well as the role of IVIG, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab in AVWS associated with SLE.

  15. Compliance with periodic surveillance for Von-Hippel-Lindau disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammens, Chantal R M; Aaronson, Neil K; Hes, Frederik J; Links, Thera P; Zonnenberg, Bernard A; Lenders, Jacques W M; Majoor-Krakauer, Danielle; Van Os, Theo A M; Gomez-Garcia, Encarna B; de Herder, Wouter; van der Luijt, Rob B; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; Van Hest, Liselot P; Verhoef, Senno; Bleiker, Eveline M A

    2011-06-01

    To assess compliance with a periodic surveillance regimen for Von Hippel-Lindau disease. In this nationwide study, Von Hippel-Lindau disease mutation carriers and those at 50% risk were invited to complete a questionnaire assessing (compliance with) advice given for periodic surveillance. Medical record data on compliance with recommended radiologic surveillance examinations were also collected. Of the 84 (77%) participants, 78 indicated having received advice to undergo periodic surveillance. Of these, 71 reported being fully compliant with that advice. In 64% of the cases, this advice was only partially consistent with published guidelines. Based on medical record data, between one quarter and one third of individuals did not undergo surveillance as recommended in the guidelines for central nervous system lesions and one half for visceral lesions. Screening delay for central nervous system lesions was significantly higher in one hospital and in those cases where "the advice given" deviated from the guidelines. The majority of those with or at risk of Von Hippel-Lindau disease reported having received and being fully compliant with screening advice. However, in many cases, the advice given was only partially consistent with published guidelines, and screening delays were observed. Efforts should be undertaken to stimulate guideline-based surveillance advice and to minimize screening delay.

  16. Christian Enichlmayr, Leiter der Oberösterreichischen Landesbibliothek von 1999 bis 2015, beantwortet 10 Fragen von Bruno Bauer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Enichlmayr

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Christian Enichlmayr beantwortet Fragen über seinen Start ins Berufsleben in der Verlagsbranche, seine Zeit an der Universitätsbibliothek Linz und seinen Wechsel an die Oberösterreichische Landesbibliothek. 1999 bis 2015 war er als deren Leiter auch in führender Position für die Transformation der Bundesstaatlichen Studienbibliothek zur Landesbibliothek sowie die Sanierung und Erweiterung des Bibliotheksgebäudes verantwortlich. Weitere Themen, die in den vergangenen 17 Jahren an der Landesbibliothek stark forciert wurden, erstrecken sich von der NS-Provenienzforschung über die Entwicklung der digitalen Landesbibliothek bis zur Stärkung der Rolle der Landesbibliothek im oberösterreichischen Kulturleben. Zuletzt spricht Enichlmayr über die Bedeutung von Kooperationen im Bibliothekswesen, die Ausrichtung des Bibliothekartages der Vereinigung Österreichischer Bibliothekarinnen und Bibliothekare 2004 in Linz sowie die Perspektive für Bibliotheken.

  17. Berechnung von Gleichgewichtskonstanten mit Hilfe der Quantenchemie und Vergleich mit experimentellen Daten bei der Bildung von Halbacetalen

    OpenAIRE

    Jaubert, Silke

    2012-01-01

    Mischungen aus Aldehyden und Alkoholen sind für zahlreiche technische Prozesse von Bedeutung. Bei der Auslegung solcher Prozesse muss berücksichtigt werden, dass Aldehyde mit Alkoholen in einer Additions-Eliminierungsreaktion zu Halbacetalen reagieren. Zurzeit erhält man genaue Angaben zum Reaktionsgleichgewicht, die für technische Anwendungen ausreichend sind, fast ausschließlich aus experimentellen Untersuchungen. Eine Vorhersage solcher Gleichgewichtskonstanten (für Reaktionen in der Ga...

  18. Isolation, Charakterisierung und Einsatzmöglichkeiten von hitzeadaptierten Protozoen in der thermalen Abwasseraufbereitung von Prozesswasser-Kreislaufsystemen

    OpenAIRE

    Feuersänger, Grischa Peter

    2009-01-01

    Protozoen werden bereits seit vielen Jahren in Belebungsanlagen städtischer Klärwerke zur biologischen Aufbereitung von sanitären Abwässern als Bakterienkonsumenten eingesetzt. Bei den hier vorgestellten Arbeiten wurden die Einsatzmöglichkeiten ausgewählter Protozoenarten in einer erweiterten biologischen Reinigungsstufe im Anschluss an eine kombinierte anaerobe/aerobe Prozesswasseraufbereitung am Beispiel der Altpapier verarbeitenden Industrie untersucht. Prägend für die Umweltbedingungen in...

  19. BELASTUNGEN VON ANGEHÖRIGEN IM KONTEXT PSYCHISCHER TRAUMATISIERUNGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Rose

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychische Erkrankungen haben in der bundesdeutschen Bevölkerung einen hohen Stellenwert und erreichen eine 12-Monatsprävalenz von ca. 30%. Dazu gehören auch posttraumatische Störungsbilder, die durch Einwirkung von Extrembelastungen aus dem beruflichen (wie beispielsweise bei Einsatzkräften oder privaten Kontext (Raubüberfälle, Vergewaltigung etc. entstehen können (Wittchen & Jacobi, 2012. In der Bundeswehr ergab eine kürzlich zum Abschluss gebrachte epidemiologische Studie eine 12-Monatsprävalenz psychischer Erkrankungen für Einsatzsoldaten von 21,4% und für Nicht-Einsatzkräfte von 22,5%. Die Posttraumatische Belastungsstörung war mit 2,9% vertreten, Angststörungen mit 10,8%, ebenso wie affektive Störungen, von einer Alkoholerkrankung waren 3,4% betroffen (Wittchen u.a., 2012. Die zunächst überraschend höhere Prävalenzrate in der Gruppe ohne Einsatz ist dabei durch Gesundheitsuntersuchungen der Bundeswehr vor dem Einsatz erklärbar, wodurch in einigen Fällen ein Einsatz zumindest vorübergehend unterbleiben muss, beispielsweise bei laufender Psychotherapie (Wittchen u.a. ,2012. „Das Leben mit einem psychisch erkrankten Menschen kann für die Angehörigen eine starke emotionale Belastung hervorrufen (Manguno-Mire u.a., 2007. Jede psychische Erkrankung greift nicht nur in die gewohnten Abläufe sondern auch in die ungeschriebenen Gesetze einer Partnerschaft ein und löst häufig ein Schwanken zwischen Hoffnung und Enttäuschung, Zuversicht und Resignation aus (Bischkopf, 2010. Auf der anderen Seite scheint familiäre Unterstützung ein protektiver Faktor gegen Langzeitstress zu sein (Stevens u.a. 2013 und den Verlauf posttraumatischer psychischer Erkrankungen positiv zu beeinflussen (Price u.a. 2013“ ( Wesemann u.a.,2015, S. 3 Die supportive therapeutische Arbeit mit Angehörigen lässt daher positive Effekte sowohl für diese selbst als auch für die originär Erkrankten erwarten.

  20. Zur Diagnose von isolierten und kombinierten Leseproblemen: Definitionen, Operationalisierungen und Vorkommenshäufigkeiten

    OpenAIRE

    Valtin, Renate; Voss, Andreas; Bos, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    Aufgrund einer Vielzahl von Definitionen und Operationalisierungen gibt es keine verlässlichen Zahlen über die Vorkommenshäufigkeiten isolierter oder kombinierter Leseprobleme, auch bedingt durch das Fehlen repräsentativer Studien. Anhand des für Deutschland repräsentativen Datensatzes von IGLU und TIMSS 2011 wurde die Vorkommenshäufigkeit von isolierten und kombinierten Leseproblemen in kompetenzorientierten Tests bestimmt. Insgesamt weisen die Ergebnisse darauf hin, dass Leseprobleme selten...