WorldWideScience

Sample records for wirkung von gibberellin

  1. Charakterisierung von Antikörpern und ihrer immunsuppressiven Wirkung im präklinischen Transplantationsmodell des Hundes

    OpenAIRE

    Zorn, Julia

    2007-01-01

    Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit war die Charakterisierung von Antikörpern und ihrer immunsuppressiven Wirkung im präklinischen Hundemodell. Dazu wurde eine T-Zelldepletionsmethode mit dem caninen CD6-Antikörper MT-606 und Kaninchen-komplement zur alleinigen GvHD-Prophylaxe bei der allogenen Knochenmark-transplantation entwickelt. Zusätzlich sollten die regulatorischen Eigenschaften von CD6-depletierten Knochenmarkzellen in vitro in der gemischten Lymphozytenkultur untersucht werden. Mit Hi...

  2. Die Wirkung von Work-Life Balance Initiativen auf das Mitarbeitercommitment: Eine empirische Untersuchung in der Unternehmensberatungsbranche

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, Stephan; Ringlstetter, Max; Reindl, Cornelia U.; Stolz, Martin Lothar

    2010-01-01

    Der vorliegende Beitrag untersucht die Wirkung von unternehmerischen Work-Life Balance Initiativen für die emotionale Bindung der Mitarbeiter zum Unternehmen, d. h. das organisationale Commitment von Mitarbeitern im Kontext der Unternehmensberatung. Dazu wurde eine Untersuchung mit insgesamt 275 Unternehmensberaterinnen und -beratern durchgeführt. Die Datenanalyse erfolgte anhand eines PLSStrukturgleichungsmodells (Partial-Least-Squares-Ansatz). Die Ergebnisse weisen darauf hin, dass auch in ...

  3. Untersuchungen zur Wirkung von Pfefferminzöl, Kümmelöl und Miglyol auf die gastrale und duodenale Motilität

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Oliver

    2000-01-01

    Die nicht-ulzerative Dyspepsie ist eine häufige Ausschlußdiagnose bei Oberbauchbeschwerden ohne objektivierbare organische Läsion. Pathogenetisch werden unter anderem Motilitätsstörungen des Gastrointestinaltraktes beobachtet und angenommen. In einer prospektiven, offenen, kontollierten Studie wurde die Wirkung von Pfefferminzöl, Kümmelöl und Miglyol auf die gastrale und duodenale Motilität an gesunden Probanden untersucht. Als standardisiertes Meßverfahren wurde die antroduode...

  4. Die Wirkung von Desacetylcefotaxin, einem Metaboliten von Cefotaxim, in vitro und auf die experimentelle Infektion mit Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Wirbelauer, J.; Hof, H.; Hacker, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    Die MHK-Werte von Desacetylcefotaxim gegen verschiedene, z. T. ampicillinresistente Stämme von Escherichia coH, die mit Hilfe einer Agardilutionsmethode erhoben wurden, waren höher als die von Cefotaxim und Ceftriaxon, jedoch niedriger als die von Cefoxitin. In einem Modell der systemischen Infektion der Maus mit einem plasmidtragenden, betalactamaseproduzierenden Stamm von E. coli führte die Therapie mit Desacetylcefotaxim zu einer starken Reduktion der Keime pro Leber. Im Vergleich zur Ther...

  5. Beeinflussung der Wirkung von Ernährungsinformation durch Framing: Analyse am Beispiel von Folsäure

    OpenAIRE

    Lensch, Kathrin; Hartmann, Monika; Simons, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Die Bereitstellung und verbrauchergerechte Aufbereitung von Informationen stellt eine Möglichkeit dar, Konsumenten darin zu unterstützen, Gesundheitsaspekte vermehrt in das Kauf- und Essverhalten zu integrieren. In der Verhaltensökonomik gelten Framing-Effekte als wichtige Bestimmungsfaktoren für die Wahrnehmung von Informationen. Im Rahmen des vorliegenden Beitrags werden Framing-Effekte am Beispiel von Ernährungsinformationen über Folsäure mit Hilfe eines Experiments untersucht. Die Ergebni...

  6. Wirkung mineralischer N-Düngung auf Blatterträge und Scopolamingehalte von Duboisia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oster, Sabine

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Duboisia wird als Rohstofflieferant für Scopolamin verwendet. Dieses Tropanalkaloid wird aus dem Blattmaterial von Duboisia Arthybriden gewonnen und dient als Wirkstoff zur Therapie der Reisekrankheit sowie als Ausgangsstoff für partialsynthetische Anticholinergika. Für die effiziente Produktion sind hohe Erträge an Biomasse bei möglichst hohem Wirkstoffgehalt wünschenswert. Eine der abiotischen Einflussgrößen ist die Stickstoffernährung. Der hier beschriebene Freilandversuch stellt den Einfluss von vier unterschiedlich hohen N-Düngungsgaben (0 kg N/ha, 100 kg N/ha, 200 kg N/ha, 100+100 kg N/ha mit Kalkammonsalpeter (KAS auf drei Genotypen dar. Die N-Düngung zeigte keinen Einfluss auf den Scopolamingehalt, jedoch stieg mit erhöhter N-Menge die Biomasse signifikant an.

  7. Hydrogen effects in nitrogen-alloyed austenitic steels; Wirkung von Wasserstoff in stickstofflegierten austenitischen Staehlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlemann, M.; Mummert, K. [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung Dresden e.V. (Germany); Shehata, M.F. [National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt)

    1998-12-31

    Hydrogen increases the yield strength of nitrogen-alloyed steels, but on the other hand adversely affects properties such as tensile strength and elongation to fracture. The effect is enhanced with increasing nitrogen and hydrogen contents. Under the effect of hydrogen addition, the discontinuous stress-strain characteristic and the distinct elongation limit of hydrogen-free, nitrogen containing steels is no longer observed in the material. This change of mechanical properties is attributed to an interatomic interaction of nitrogen and hydrogen in the lattice, which is shown for instance by such effects as reduction of hydrogen velocity, high solubility, and a particularly strong lattice expansion. The nature of this interaction of nitrogen and hydrogen in the fcc lattice remains to be identified. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Wasserstoff fuehrt in stickstofflegierten Staehlen zu einer Erhoehung der Streckgrenze, aber gleichzeitig zu einer Abnahme der Zugfestigkeit und Bruchdehnung. Dieser Effekt verstaerkt sich mit zunehmenden Stickstoff- und Wasserstoffgehalten. Ein diskontinuierlicher Spannungs-Dehnungsverlauf mit einer ausgepraegten Streckgrenze in wasserstofffreien hochstickstoffhaltigen Staehlen wird nach Wasserstoffeinfluss nicht mehr beobachtet. Die Aenderung der mechanischen Eigenschaften, wird auf eine interatomare Wechselwirkung von Stickstoff und Wasserstoff im Gitter zurueckgefuehrt, die sich u.a. in geringer Wasserstoffdiffusionsgeschwindigkeit, hoher Loeslichkeit und vor allem in extremer Gitteraufweitung aeussert. Insgesamt ist die Natur der Wechselwirkung zwischen Stickstoff und Wasserstoff im kfz Gitter noch nicht aufgeklaert. (orig.)

  8. Antimikrobielle Wirkung von Kaffee

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    Moderne Lebensmittelverbraucher erwarten qualitativ hochwertige und sichere Lebensmittel mit einem möglichst langen Haltbarkeitsdatum. Die zahlreichen lebensmittelbedingten Krankheitsausbrüche der letzten Jahre verstärkten diesen Sicherheitsgedanken noch. Die Mehrzahl solcher Ausbrüche ist auf Bakterien zurückzuführen, die sich während der Lagerung im Lebensmittel vermehren, dabei Toxine bilden können und häufig auch zum Verderb der Lebensmittel führen. Deshalb ist es das Ziel vieler Konservi...

  9. Studies on oxygen depletion and the toxic effect of sediments; Untersuchungen zur Sauerstoffzehrung und toxischen Wirkung von Sedimenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfitzner, S.; Giest, B.; Wotzka, J. [Bundesanstalt fuer Gewaesserkunde, Berlin (Germany)

    2000-11-01

    Depending on their composition and how they were formed, water sediments contain varying amounts of oxygen-depleting substances. Their portion is particularly high in fine sediment and sediments formed in conjunction with exposure to a high level of wastewater. Particularly in current-free areas like old arms, indentations, sluices and outer ports, sediment forms with a high fine grain content and a correspondingly higher potential for depletion. If, for instance, the sediments are moved and stirred up during dredging, this may impair their oxygen content since oxygen consumption is far higher in a suspended sediment than when it is undisturbed on the water bottom. The very rapid spontaneous chemical oxidation and biological oxidation of reduced substances are possible oxygen-consuming processes. (orig.) [German] Gewaessersedimente enthalten in Abhaengigkeit von ihrer Zusammensetzung und der Art ihrer Entstehung unterschiedliche Mengen an Sauerstoff zehrenden Substanzen. Ihr Anteil ist besonders hoch in Feinsedimenten und solchen, die sich unter starkem Abwassereinfluss bilden konnten. Insbesondere in stroemungsberuhigten Gebieten, wie Altarmen, Ausbuchtungen sowie Schleusen und deren Vorhaefen, reichern sich Sedimente mit hohem Feinkornanteil und dementsprechend hoher potenzieller Zehrungsfaehigkeit an. Werden die Sedimente beispielsweise durch Baggermassnahmen bewegt und aufgewirbelt, kann es zur Beeintraechtigung des Sauerstoffhaushaltes kommen, da der Sauerstoffverbrauch eines Sedimentes bei Suspension um ein Vielfaches hoeher als bei ungestoerter Lagerung am Gewaesserboden sein kann. Als Sauerstoff verbrauchende Prozesse kommen die sehr schnell verlaufende spontane chemische Oxidation sowie die biologische Oxidation reduzierter Substanzen in Betracht. (orig.)

  10. Effects of noxious environmental particulate matter on the immune response of monocyte cells; Wirkung von partikulaeren Umweltnoxen auf die Immunabwehr monozytaerer Zellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofer, T.

    2000-07-01

    The effects of ultrafine particles on the immune response of alveolar macrophages of mice was investigated. The findings are presented and discussed in this report. [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde die Wirkung ultrafeiner Partikel auf die Immunabwehr an Alveolarmakrophagen der Maus untersucht. Die Ergebnisse werden dargestellt und diskutiert. (orig/MG)

  11. About the effect of melted zinc mass additives on the formation on layers during hot galvanizing; Zur Wirkung von Zusaetzen zur Zinkschmelze auf die Schichtbildung beim Feuerverzinken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, P.; Schulz, W.D. [Institut fuer Korrosionsschutz Dresden GmbH, Gostritzer Str. 61-63, D-01217 Dresden (Germany)

    2002-09-01

    The influence of various melted zinc mass additives on the galvanizing behaviour of steels is examined by way of comparison. The mechanisms influencing the formation of layers are very different. In case tin is added, a material barrier of enriched tin develops in the zinc coating, which inhibits the iron transport. The mechanisms of Ni, Ti and Al in the melted zinc mass are explained by means of a new theory on the formation of layers, which is based on the influence of the growth of layers via hydrogen escaping from the steel surface during hot galvanizing. This behaviour makes it clear why the single melted mass additives only have a layer-thickness reducing effect on steels with very definite Si contents. The different inhibitions of the growth of the layer during hot galvanizing are discussed. (Abstract Copyright[2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Der Einfluss unterschiedlicher Zinkschmelzezusaetze auf das Verzinkungsverhalten der Staehle wird vergleichend untersucht. Die Mechanismen der Einflussnahme auf die Schichtbildung sind sehr unterschiedlich. Bei Zusatz von Zinn entsteht im Zinkueberzug eine Materialbarriere aus angereichertem Zinn, die den Eisentransport hemmt. Die Wirkungsweise von Ni, Ti und Al in der Zinkschmelze wird mit Hilfe einer neuen Theorie der Schichtbildung erklaert. Diese beruht auf der Beeinflussung des Schichtwachstums durch Wasserstoff, der waehrend des Feuerverzinkens aus der Stahloberflaeche austritt. Diese Erklaerung macht verstaendlich, warum die einzelnen Schmelzezusaetze nur bei Staehlen mit ganz bestimmten Si-Gehalten schichtdickenreduzierend wirken. Die unterschiedlichen Hemmungen des Schichtwachstums beim Feuerverzinken werden diskutiert. (Abstract Copyright[2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. The effect of ozone exposure on the airway response to inhaled allergens; Die Wirkung der Einatmung von Ozon auf die allergische Reaktion des Bronchialsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joerres, R. [Krankenhaus Grosshansdorf (Germany). Zentrum fuer Pneumologie und Thoraxchirurgie; Nowak, D. [Krankenhaus Grosshansdorf (Germany). Zentrum fuer Pneumologie und Thoraxchirurgie; Magnussen, H. [Krankenhaus Grosshansdorf (Germany). Zentrum fuer Pneumologie und Thoraxchirurgie

    1995-06-01

    The aim of our study was to determine whether a short-term exposure to ozone enhances the bronchial response to allergens in subjects with allergic asthma, or facilitates a bronchial response in subjects with allergic rhinitis. In the first part of the study we investigated 57 subjects with mild stable asthma, 29 subjects with allergic rhinitis only and 32 healthy subjects. They were exposed to 250 ppb ozone for 3 hrs of intermittent exercise. The effects of ozone on symptoms, lung function parameters and methacholine responsiveness were no markedly different between groups. Twenty-four subjects with asthma and a proven bronchial response to an inhaled allergen, 12 subjects with allergic rhinitis and 10 healthy subjects participated in the second part of the study. In randomized order, subjects breathed 250 ppb ozone or filtered air (FA) for 3 hrs of intermittent exercise. Lung function and airway responsiveness to methacholine were determined before and after exposures, and allergen inhalation challenges were performed 3 hrs after exposures. The 5 subjects with asthma showed increased airway responsiveness to the inhaled allergen after ozone. The subjects with rhinitis showed a slight bronchial response when a high dose of allergen was inhalated after ozone exposure. The changes in lung function, methacholine and allergen responsiveness induced by ozone did not correlate with each other. Our data suggest that a short-term exposure to ozone can increase bronchial allergen responsiveness in subjects with asymptomatic to mild asthma and that this effect is not directly related to other functional changes induced by ozone. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Unsere Untersuchung widmete sich der Frage, ob die Einatmung von Ozon das Auftreten oder die Auspraegung einer allergischen Reaktion der Atemwege beeinflussen kann. Zunaechst prueften wir 57 Probanden mit allergischem Asthma bronchiale, 29 mit allergischer Rhinitis ohne Asthma und 32 gesunde Kontrollpersonen auf die

  13. Soil ecological investigations into the effect and distribution of organic groups of compounds (PAHs, PCBs) in ecosystems typical of agglomerations.. Joint final report; Bodenoekologische Untersuchungen zur Wirkung und Verteilung von organischen Stoffgruppen (PAK, PCB) in ballungsraumtypischen Oekosystemen. Gemeinsamer Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, M.; Klementz, D.; Reese-Staehler, G.; Luedersdorf, M. [Biologische Bundesanstalt fuer Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Berlin (Germany); Achazi, R.; Kratz, W.; Heck, M.; Beylich, A.; Neumeister, H.; Hesse, M.; Quader, S. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Metz, R.; Dorn, J. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany); Schuphan, I.; Maier-Gaipl, S.; Herlitz, E. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany); Wilke, B.M.; Koch, C.; Marschner, B.; Brose, A.; Doering, U.; Peters, M.; Pieper, S.; Baschien, C. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    In this interdisciplinary complex of matched field and laboratory experiments, the effects of defined pollutant loads were analysed by means of suitable representatives of different groups of soil organisms (soil fauna and soil micro-organisms) and by means of soil processes depending on them (for instance, enzyme activities, degradation of litter, nitrification, feeding damage). Similarly, the influence of selected organic pollutants, part of them in combination with heavy metals, on the soil-plant system was studied in selected herbaceous and ligneous types of plants in different development stages. Further, the possibility of developing a test battery was investigated which would indicate the toxicity of soil by means of watery and organic extracts. (orig.) [Deutsch] In diesem interdisziplinaeren Verbund von abgestimmten Freiland- und Laborversuchen wurde anhand repraesentativer Vertreter verschiedener Bodenorganismengruppen (Bodenfauna und Bodenmikroorganismen) und von durch sie bestimmten Bodenprozessen (z.B. Enzymaktivitaeten, Streuabbau, Nitrifikation, Frass) die Wirkungen von definierten Schadstoffbelastungen analysiert. In der gleichen Weise wurde der Einfluss von ausgewaehlten organischen Schadstoffen, z.T. in Kombination mit Schwermetallen auf das System Boden-Pflanze an ausgewaehlten krautigen und holzigen Pflanzenarten in unterschiedlichen Entwicklungsstadien untersucht. Darueberhinaus wurde ueberprueft ob sich eine Testbatterie entwickeln laesst, die die Toxizitaet von Boeden aufgrund von waessrigen und organischen Extrakten anzeigt. (orig.)

  14. Investigations to single and combined effects of organic pollutants (PAH, PCB) and heavy metals (Cd, Cu) on biomass production and soil-plant transfer by cultivation of raw and energy plants. Final report; Bodenoekologische Untersuchungen zur Wirkung und Verteilung von organischen Stoffgruppen (PAK, PCB) in ballungsraumtypischen Oekosystemen. Untersuchungen zu Einzel- und Kombinationswirkungen von organischen Schadstoffen (PAK, PCB) und Schwermetallen (Cd, Cu) auf Biomasseertrag und Boden-Pflanze-Transfer beim Anbau von Rohstoff- und Energiepflanzen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, R.; Dorn, J.; Sauer, W.

    1997-05-01

    Vertreter einer Stoffgruppe untersucht. Ursache fuer Ertragsdepressionen und Minderungen der mikrobiellen Aktivitaet auf hocheblasteten Flaechen ist aber immer eine Komplexwirkung der verschiedenen Bodeninhaltsstoffe, so dass sich synergistische Effekte einstellen koennen. Im vorliegenden Bericht wird daher die kombinierte Wirkung ausgewaehlter organischer Schadstoffe (Benzo-a-pyren, 2,2`, 5,5` Tetrachlorbiphenyl) sowie relevanter Schwermetalle (Cadmium, Kupfer) auf bodenmikrobiologische Parameter, Biomasseproduktion und Schadstoffpflanzenaufnahme erfasst und aufgetrennt. Veraenderungen von CO{sub 2}-Freisetzung, Cellulosezersetzung und N-Mineralisierung in einem schwachbelasteten Rieselfeldboden nach dessen Einzelstoff- bzw. Mischanreicherung mit den genannten Schadstoffen in Konzentrationen, wie sie in hochbelasteten Rieselfeldern vorliegen, werden dargestellt. Desweiteren erfolgt eine umfangreiche Auswertung der Daten zu Ertraegen und Schadstoffgehalten der auf den Versuchsboeden geprueften Pflanzen (Roggen, Mais und Kartoffeln). Oekotoxikologische Risiken der untersuchten Schadstoffe und ihre Wechselbeziehungen untereinander werden diskutiert. (orig.)

  15. Bioinformatische Analyse und funktionelle Charakterisierung von strukturellen Genvarianten in ADME-Genen in humaner Leber

    OpenAIRE

    Tremmel, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Die Pharmakogenetik beschreibt die Untersuchung von interindividuellen genetischen Unterschieden, welche die Wirkung von Medikamenten und die Reaktion auf xenobioti-sche Substanzen beeinflussen. Ein Großteil dieser Variabilität beruht auf Unterschieden im hepatischen Arzneimittelmetabolismus. Die daran beteiligten Enzyme, Transporter und Rezeptoren sind in die Prozesse der Absorption, der Distribution, des Metabolismus und der Exkretion involviert und werden als ADME-Gengruppe zusammengefasst...

  16. Prediction of the pharmacological effect of octreotide in acromegaly by means of {sup 111}In-pentetreotide scintigraphy and calculation of a pituitary uptake index; Praediktion der pharmakologischen Wirkung von Octreotid bei Akromegalie mittels {sup 111}In-Pentetreotid-Szintigraphie und Berechnung eines hypophysaeren Uptake-Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerges, R. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Cordes, U. [Arbeitsgemeinschaft Niedergelassener Endokrinologen, Mainz/Darmstadt (Germany); Engelbach, M. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). III. Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik; Bartelt, K.M. [Arbeitsgemeinschaft Niedergelassener Endokrinologen, Mainz/Darmstadt (Germany); Haberern, G. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Hey, O. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Neurochirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik; Beyer, J. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). III. Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik; Bockisch, A. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1997-06-01

    Aim: The aim of our prospective study was to optimize the determination of the pituitary somatostatin receptor status by means of 111-In-pentetreotide scintigraphy and to compare it intraindividually with the pharmacological effect of octreotide in active acromegaly. Methods: In n=22 patients with growth hormone (GH) secreting pituitary adenoma, 111-In-penetreotide scintigraphy was performed, and the specific radionuclide accumulation in the pituitary area (evaluation visually as well as semiquantitatively by means of ROI technique and calculation of various uptake indices) was correlated with the acute drop of GH after administration of 100 {mu}g octreotide s.c. (octreotide acute test). Results: The uptake index we propose (cts/pixel-ratio circular pituitary ROI: Irregular cerebrum ROI after background correction in the sagittal SPECT slice with maximum pituitary uptake 24 h p.i.) correlates best with the pharmacological effect (acute decrease of GH levels) of octreotide; its upper normal limit amounts of 3.5. Conclusion: As often the normal pituitary gland can be visualized scintigraphically, the purely visual differentiation between a normal and pathological receptor status sometimes is equivocal. A pituitary uptake index, calculated by means of a standardized ROI technique, facilitates this discrimination and so contributes to select possible responders for a treatment with octreotide. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Ziel unserer prospektiven Studie war die optimierte Bestimmung des hypophysaeren Somatostatin-Rezeptorstatus in der 111-In-Pentetreotid-Szintigraphie und der intraindividuelle Vergleich mit dem pharmakologischen Effekt von Octreotid bei florider Akromegalie. Methoden: Bei n=22 Patienten mit Wachstumshormon-(GH)-sezernierendem Hypophysenadenom wurde eine 111-In-Pentetreotid-Szintigraphie durchgefuehrt und die spezifische Nuklidakkumulation in der Hypophysenregion (Auswertung sowohl visuell als auch semiquantitativ mittels ROI-Technik und Berechnung

  17. Studies of volatile secondary molasses constituents with inhibitory effect on yeast fermentation. Pt. 1. Determination of molasses and yeast components by GC and HPLC; Untersuchungen ueber fluechtige Nebenbestandteile der Melasse mit inhibitorischer Wirkung auf die Hefegaerung. T. 1. Bestimmung von Melasse- und Hefeinhaltsstoffen mittels GC und HPLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fattohi, N.

    1994-07-20

    Hefegaerung wurden ermittelt. Dabei zeigte sich, dass im Fall der Inhibitorwirkung auf die Gaerung die MHK-Werte sehr hoch liegen; sie werden praktisch von den einzelnen Carbonsaeure- und Alkanolgehalten der Problemmelassen nicht erreicht. Jedoch weisen diese Saeuren und Alkohole deutliche Synergieeffekte auf, was durch Ermittlung der MHK-Werte von Gemischen belegt wurde. Vor allem die Gehalte der Problemmelassen an Buttersaeure + Kaprylsaeure + Hexanol und Heptanol sind fuer die Hemmwirkung bei der Hefegaerung verantwortlich. (orig.)

  18. Examples of sediment assessment on the Elbe: contamination and ecotoxic effect; Beispiele der Sedimentbewertung an der Elbe: Schadstoffbelastung und oekotoxische Wirkung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claus, E.; Heininger, P.; Pfitzner, S. [Bundesanstalt fuer Gewaesserkunde, Berlin (Germany)

    2000-11-01

    It is now an undisputed fact that comprehensive sediment assessment is only possible through a combination of chemical studies on contamination, ecotoxicological tests and in situ studies. The effect of chemicals on the aquatic environment can be determined in the sediment itself and in the derived compartments. The batteries of biotests proposed for this purpose and also used for Elbe sediments encompass studies on the whole sediment, in the elutriate and in extracts with methanol. The test battery presented here is more extensive and also includes pore water studies. For the tests with the whole sediment, the following test organisms were used: D. magna (DA), C. riparius (CR), T. tubifex (TT), B. cereus (BC) and C. elegans (NE). The toxic effect of pore waters and elutriates were tested with daphnia, green algae (Scenedesmus subspicatus) and luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri). Luminescent bacteria alone were used for the ecotoxicological study. For this studies eight fresh sediment samples were selected from one reference site Alte Elbe (AE, km 252) and the two anthropogenic influenced sampling sites Meissen harbour (HM, km 83.2) and Fahlberg-List Magdeburg (FL, km 319.4) on the Elbe and the reference site Freienbrink (FB, km 21.5) on the Spree (Fig. 1). The samples were taken in June and October 1997. (orig.) [German] Mittlerweile unbestritten ist die Tatsache, dass nur die Kombination aus chemischen Untersuchungen zur Schadstoffbelastung, oekotoxikologischen Tests und in situ-Untersuchungen eine umfassende Sedimentbewertung moeglich macht. Die Wirkung von Chemikalien auf die aquatische Umwelt laesst sich im Sediment selbst und in daraus abgeleiteten Kompartimenten nachweisen. Fuer den Zweck vorgeschlagene und auch auf Elbe-Sedimente angewandte Batterien von Biotests umfassen Untersuchungen im Gesamtsediment, im Eluat und in Extrakten mit Methanol. Die hier vorgestellte Testbatterie ist umfangreicher und um Porenwasseruntersuchungen erweitert worden. Fuer

  19. Computerspielgewalt und Aggression: Längsschnittliche Untersuchung von Selektions- und Wirkungseffekten

    OpenAIRE

    Staude-Müller, Frithjof

    2011-01-01

    Auf Grundlage sozialkognitiver Aggressionsmodelle wurde die Beziehung zwischen Computerspielgewohnheiten und der Aggressionsneigung sowie Verzerrungen in der sozialen Informationsverarbeitung untersucht. Dazu wurden 499 Schüler/innen weiterführender Schulen (6.-8. Kl. Gymnasium, Haupt- und Realschule) in zwei Erhebungen mit einem Intervall von einem Jahr befragt. Mit hierarchischen Regressionsanalysen wurden Wirkungs- und Selektionseffekte geprüft, wobei relevante Drittvariablen (Monitoring u...

  20. Killing of salmonella in the biogas process; Abtoetung von Salmonellen im Biogasprozess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froeschle, Bianca; Lebuhn, Michael

    2012-08-15

    Pathogenic Salmonella are used in ordinances as an indicator for assessing microbial reduction in biogas plants and for the epidemic-hygienic condition of digestate. This brochure presents results of a study that examined the hygienic effect of the biogas process on Salmonella. [German] Krankheitserregende Salmonellen werden in relevanten Rechtsverordnungen als Indikator zur Beurteilung der Keimreduzierung in Biogasanlagen und des seuchenhygienischen Zustands von Gaerresten herangezogen. Die vorliegende Broschuere stellt Ergebnisse einer Studie dar, die die hygienisierende Wirkung des Biogasprozesses auf Salmonellen untersuchte.

  1. Bacterial Gibberellins Induce Systemic Resistance of Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. FEKLISTOVA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is generally agreed today that some rhizosphere bacteria can ensure induced systemic resistance to pathogens. In this paper we tested the ability of gibberellins produced by rhizosphere non-pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas aurantiaca to induce systemic resistance to alternariosis agent – Alternaria brassicicola – in oilseed rape plants.Oilseed rape (Brássica nápus is one of the most promising oil-bearing croppers. It allows improving the supply of population with vegetable oil, animal and poultry industries with high quality vegetable protein. It is used for biofuel production as well.Gibberellin preparation was isolated from liquid culture of strain Pseudomonas aurantiaca grown in 250 mL of M9 medium (48 h, 28 °C under darkroom conditions. Gibberellins were extracted according procedure described by Tien et al. (1979. Gibberellins concentration in the medium was determined by fluorometric method.Elicitor activity of bacterial metabolites – gibberellins – was analyzed in model system of artificial inoculation of oilseed rape germs with phytopathogenic fungi Alternaria brassicicola. The elicitor action efficiency was evaluated on the 15th day of oilseed rape cultivation based on the percentage of leaf surface covered by necrotic lesions.Gibberellins were shown to induce systemic resistance resulted in decreasing of oil seed plants   vulnerability by 52.7%.It is known that under the unfavorable conditions plants synthesis the reactive oxygen intermediates   which activate destructive processes. One of the first organism reactions to stress action is the change of the lipid peroxidation level. It was shown that treatment of the soil with gibberellins resulted in decreasing of the lipid peroxidation level twofold.Gibberellins were shown to have a similar effect on permeability of cell membranes for free nucleotides. The permeability of cell membranes in leaves decreased 2.8-fold at room temperature. We suggest that gibberellins

  2. Helminthosporic acid functions as an agonist for gibberellin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Sho; Jiang, Kai; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Asami, Tadao; Nakajima, Masatoshi

    2017-11-01

    Helminthosporol was isolated from a fungus, Helminthosporium sativum, as a natural plant growth regulator in 1963. It showed gibberellin-like bioactivity that stimulated the growth of the second leaf sheath of rice. After studying the structure-activity relationship between the compound and some synthesized analogs, it was found that helminthosporic acid (H-acid) has higher gibberellin-like activity and chemical stability than helminthosporol. In this study, we showed that (1) H-acid displays gibberellin-like activities not only in rice but also in Arabidopsis, (2) it regulates the expression of gibberellin-related genes, (3) it induces DELLA degradation through binding with a gibberellin receptor (GID1), and (4) it forms the GID1-(H-acid)-DELLA complex to transduce the gibberellin signal in the same manner as gibberellin. This work shows that the H-acid mode of action acts as an agonist for gibberellin receptor.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging. Recent studies on biological effects of static magnetic and high-frequency electromagnetic fields; Magnetresonanztomographie. Neuere Studien zur biologischen Wirkung statischer Magnetfelder und hochfrequenter elektromagnetischer Felder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pophof, B. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Abteilung fuer Wirkungen und Risiken ionisierender und nichtionisierender Strahlung, Oberschleissheim/Neuherberg (Germany); Brix, G. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Abteilung fuer medizinischen und beruflichen Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim/Neuherberg (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    der MRT wurden recherchiert und bewertet. Neue Studien bestaetigen aeltere Arbeiten, die bereits Wirkungen statischer Magnetfelder auf Sinnesorgane und das zentrale Nervensystem, begleitet von Sinneswahrnehmungen, beschrieben haben. Ein neues Ergebnis ist die direkte Wirkung von Lorentz-Kraeften auf Ionenstroeme in den semizirkulaeren Kanaelen des Gleichgewichtsorgans. Aktuelle Untersuchungen zu thermischen Wirkungen hochfrequenter Felder fokussierten auf die Entwicklung anatomisch realistischer Koerpermodelle und eine genauere Simulation von Expositionsszenarien. Starke statische Magnetfelder koennen unangenehme Wahrnehmungen, insbesondere Schwindel, hervorrufen. Darueber hinaus koennen sie die Leistungsfaehigkeit des medizinischen Personals beeinflussen und dadurch potenziell die Patientensicherheit gefaehrden. Vorsorglich sollte sich das medizinische Personal im Feldgradienten langsam bewegen. Hochfrequente elektromagnetische Felder fuehren bei Patienten zur Erwaermung von Geweben und Organen. Dies ist insbesondere bei Patienten mit eingeschraenkter Thermoregulation sowie bei Schwangeren und Neugeborenen zu beruecksichtigen; die Exposition ist in diesen Faellen moeglichst gering zu halten. (orig.)

  4. Numerical simulations on the effect of aerosols on tropospheric chemistry and range of sight; Numerische Simulationen zur Wirkung des Aerosols auf die troposphaerische Chemie und die Sichtweite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemer, N.

    2002-05-01

    In this study the mesoscale KAMM/DRAS model system was extended by an MADE aerosol module with a view to studying tropospheric aerosols in terms of composition and size distribution in the greatest possible detail. In particular, the MADE aerosol module was supplemented by a routine for soot. This routine involves the parameterisation of the ageing process of soot through coagulation of soot particles with soluble particles and condensation of sulphuric acid on the soot particles. This transforms the soot from an external into an internal mixture and changes its hygroscopic properties. Thus extended the model system was used to study two aspects of the effects of aerosols on the physical and chemical environment of the troposphere. The first of these two tasks was to quantify the influence of heterogeneous hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N{sub 2}O{sub 5}) on tropospheric chemistry under summer smog conditions. The second was to study the optical properties of aerosols. The paper shows a way of deriving extinction coefficients from the calculated aerosol distributions. This is then used as a starting point for developing a method for determining range of sight. [German] Das mesoskalige Modellsystem KAMM/DRAIS wird im Rahmen dieser Arbeit um das Aerosolmodul MADE erweitert, um das troposphaerische Aerosol sowohl bezueglich seiner Zusammensetzung als auch bezueglich seiner Groessenverteilung moeglichst detailliert zu behandeln. Insbesondere wird das Aerosolmodul MADE um die Behandlung der Substanz Russ ergaenzt. Hierbei wird der Alterungsprozess von Russ durch Koagulation der Russteilchen mit loeslichen Partikeln und durch Kondensation von Schwefelsaeure auf den Russpartikeln, wodurch der Russ von einer externen in eine interne Mischung uebergeht und seine hygroskopischen Eigenschaften aendert, parametrisiert. Mit dem so erweiterten Modellsystem wird fuer zwei Themenschwerpunkte die Wirkung des Aerosols auf die physikalischen und chemischen Bedingungen in der

  5. Carbohydrates and gibberellins relationship in potato tuberization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ševčíková, H.; Mašková, P.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Mašek, T.; Lipavská, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 214, JUL (2017), s. 53-63 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-34792S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Carbohydrate distribution * Gibberellin * Photoautotrophic cultivation * Potato * Tuberization Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.121, year: 2016

  6. The impact of climate change on managed forests in Central Europe; Wirkung von Klimaveraenderungen in mitteleuropaeischen Wirtschaftswaeldern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindner, M

    1998-07-01

    The projected change in global climate may have various impacts on forest ecosystems. Changes in the growth of different forest species will also influence the competitive relationships between species, the potential species composition in unmanaged forest and the choice of species in managed forests. While impacts of climate change on physiological processes and the potential natural species composition in forests have been intensively investigated in the last few years, there has been hardly any research on possible consequences in managed forests. (orig.)

  7. Multivariate analysis of factors influencing the effect of radiosynovectomy; Multivariate Analyse der Einflussfaktoren auf die Wirkung der Radiosynoviorthese bei entzuendlichen Gelenkerkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahati, J.; Schulz, G.; Koerber, C.; Geling, M.; Schmeider, P.; Reiners, Chr. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Wendler, J. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Innere Medizin III; Kenn, W. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik; Reidemeister, C. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Innere Medizin

    2002-04-01

    behandelten Gelenks befragt. Zur Ermittlung der Zeit bis zur Remission diente die Kaplan-Meier-Survivorship-Funktion. Der Einfluss der Prognoseparameter auf die Zeit bis zur Schmerzlinderung wurde mit der multivariaten Diskriminanzanalyse untersucht. Ergebnisse: Die Wahrscheinlichkeit der Schmerzlinderung um mehr als 20% lag nach 6 Monaten bei 78%. Sie war entscheidend vom Alter des Patienten (p = 0,02) und der Erkrankungsdauer (p = 0,05) abhaengig, nicht jedoch von Geschlecht (p = 0,17), Grunderkrankung (p = 0,23) und Gelenktyp (p = 0,69). Schlussfolgerung: Unabhaengig vom Geschlecht, Gelenktyp und der Grunderkrankung kann durch die RSO bei 78% der Patienten mit Synovialitis eine merkliche Schmerzlinderung erreicht werden, wobei die Wirkung mit dem Alter und der Erkrankungsdauer abnimmt. (orig.)

  8. Biological effect and tumor risk of diagnostic x-rays. The ''war of the theories''; Biologische Wirkung und Tumorrisiko diagnostischer Roentgenstrahlen. Der ''Krieg der Modelle''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selzer, E.; Hebar, A. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Abteilung fuer Strahlenbiologie, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Wien (Austria)

    2012-10-15

    typischerweise nach strahlentherapeutischen Behandlungen oder nuklearen Unfaellen beobachtet werden. Der derzeitige Stand der ''Krieg der Theorien'' kann folgendermassen zusammengefasst werden: die eine Partei von Wissenschaftlern und Vertretern der Gesundheitsbehoerden bevorzugt die Hypothese, dass es keine Grenzdosis (''linear no threshold hypothesis [LNT] of radiation'') gibt, welche als sicher betrachtet werden kann. Die Kritiker dieser Hypothese schlagen jedoch vor, dass die Risiken unterhalb von 50 mSv nicht messbar oder ueberhaupt von klinischer Signifikanz sind und ausserdem nicht durch eine lineare Dosis-Wirkungs-Beziehung beschrieben werden koennen. Das Ziel dieses Artikels ist es, die wichtigsten nicht geklaerten Fragen auf diesem Gebiet zusammen zu fassen. Argumente werden praesentiert, warum die Gueltigkeit des LNT-Modells im Niedrigdosisbereich als zumindest inkonsistent und fragwuerdig betrachtet werden sollte. (orig.)

  9. Effects of combustion particles - Comparison of health relevance of wood fires and diesel engines; Wirkung von Verbrennungspartikeln. Vergleich der Gesundheitsrelevanz von Holzfeuerungen und Dieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klippel, N.; Nussbaumer, T.

    2007-03-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the relevance of fine-dust particles (PM10, particulate matter smaller than 10 microns) emitted from wood-fired boilers in comparison with soot from diesel engines. Medicinal basics with reference to the particles concerned are explained, including the physiology of the human respiratory system, its defence mechanisms against fine dust as well as detrimental health effects to the nose, lungs and cardio-vascular system. Also, allergic reactions and effects at cell level are discussed. The mechanisms involved in the emission of the particles in ovens and diesel engines are examined and compared. The methods used to take samples of the particles are explained and the results of cell-tests are presented and discussed. Estimates of the particle concentrations in the lung are presented and comparisons are made of loading during smog-periods. The report is rounded off with a comprehensive list of literature on the subject.

  10. On the effects of endotoxin in previously irradiated mice and their time relationships. Ueber die Wirkung von Endotoxin auf vorbestrahlte Maeuse in Abhaeengigkeit von der Zeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moenig, H; Oehlert, W [Institut fuer Pathologie, Histologie und Zytologie, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Oehlert, M [Institut fuer Pathologie, Histologie und Zytologie, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Konermann, G [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Biophysik und Strahlenbiologie

    1993-01-01

    Adult mice were subjected to non-lethal wholebody irradiation with doses of 2.5 and 5.0 Gy. Non-irradiated animals served as controls. Following periods varying from one day to one year after irradiation, the animals were once administered endotoxin (LPS from S. abortus equi) using doses of 100, 200 or 400 [mu]g. Twelve to 48 hours following the single administration of endotoxin the animals were sacrificed and examined for changes to the liver, lungs, kidneys, small intestine and stomach. It was confirmed on a histological basis that the causes of death differed between irradiated and non-irradiated animals. The studies have shown that the responsiveness to endotoxin subsequent to irradiation was characterized by considerable fluctuations over time. Histology further provided evidence to prove that regenerative processes were in progress in the liver as well as the intestinal and gastric mucosae, with the number of differentiated cells determined here being lower than that of mitotic cells. To summarize it can be stated that wholebody irradiation with 2.5 Gy to 5 Gy in the course of weeks or months clearly adds to the damage already done by endotoxin. Conversely, irradiation a few days prior to administration of endotoxin provides protection against those damaging influences. (orig./MG)

  11. Helminthosporic acid functions as an agonist for gibberellin receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Miyazaki, Sho; Jiang, Kai; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Asami, Tadao; Nakajima, Masatoshi

    2017-01-01

    Helminthosporol was isolated from a fungus, Helminthosporium sativum, as a natural plant growth regulator in 1963. It showed gibberellin-like bioactivity that stimulated the growth of the second leaf sheath of rice. After studying the structure–activity relationship between the compound and some synthesized analogs, it was found that helminthosporic acid (H-acid) has higher gibberellin-like activity and chemical stability than helminthosporol. In this study, we showed that (1) H-acid displays...

  12. Modifying action of gibberellin on the cytogenetic effect of radiation in Crepis capillaris L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avakyan, V.A.; Vardanyan, A.A.

    1979-01-01

    Radioprotactive properties of gibberellin were studied during treating the Crepic capillaris seeds before irradiation. The radioprotective effect observed did not depend on the interphase stage. Gibberellin was shown to unduce no chromosome mutations

  13. Effects of gibberellin mutations on in vitro shoot bud regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hormone in regulating plant growth and development. It is interesting to know the effects of gibberellin and its signalling pathway on plant regeneration. In this report Arabidopsis thaliana landsberg (wild type), ga1-3 (gibberellin biosynthesis deficiency mutant), gai (gibberellin insensitive mutant), penta mutant (lacking GA1, ...

  14. Expression of novel rice gibberellin 2-oxidase gene is under homeostatic regulation by biologically active gibberellins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Miho; Sakamoto, Tomoaki; Saito, Tamio; Matsuoka, Makoto; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masatomo

    2003-04-01

    We have cloned two genes for gibberellin (GA) 2-oxidase from rice ( Oryza sativa L.). Expression of OsGA2ox2 was not observed. The other gene, OsGA2ox3, was expressed in every tissue examined and was enhanced by the application of biologically active GA. Recombinant OsGA2ox3 protein catalyzed the metabolism of GA(1) to GA(8) and GA(20) to GA(29)-catabolite. These results indicate that OsGA2ox3 is involved in the homeostatic regulation of the endogenous level of biologically active GA in rice.

  15. Regulation of Strigolactone Biosynthesis by Gibberellin Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shinsaku; Yamagami, Daichi; Umehara, Mikihisa; Hanada, Atsushi; Yoshida, Satoko; Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Yajima, Shunsuke; Kyozuka, Junko; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Matsuoka, Makoto; Shirasu, Ken; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Asami, Tadao

    2017-06-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) are a class of plant hormones that regulate diverse physiological processes, including shoot branching and root development. They also act as rhizosphere signaling molecules to stimulate the germination of root parasitic weeds and the branching of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Although various types of cross talk between SLs and other hormones have been reported in physiological analyses, the cross talk between gibberellin (GA) and SLs is poorly understood. We screened for chemicals that regulate the level of SLs in rice ( Oryza sativa ) and identified GA as, to our knowledge, a novel SL-regulating molecule. The regulation of SL biosynthesis by GA is dependent on the GA receptor GID1 and F-box protein GID2. GA treatment also reduced the infection of rice plants by the parasitic plant witchers weed ( Striga hermonthica ). These data not only demonstrate, to our knowledge, the novel plant hormone cross talk between SL and GA, but also suggest that GA can be used to control parasitic weed infections. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  16. von Neumann Morgenstern Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems......von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems...

  17. von Neumann Morgenstern Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    2000-01-01

    von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems......von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems...

  18. Gibberellin A3 Is Biosynthesized from Gibberellin A20 via Gibberellin A5 in Shoots of Zea mays L. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Shozo; Yamane, Hisakazu; Spray, Clive R.; Phinney, Bernard O.; Gaskin, Paul; MacMillan, Jake; Takahashi, Nobutaka

    1990-01-01

    [17-13C,3H]-Labeled gibberellin A20 (GA20), GA5, and GA1 were fed to homozygous normal (+/+), heterozygous dominant dwarf (D8/+), and homozygous dominant dwarf (D8/D8) seedlings of Zea mays L. (maize). 13C-Labeled GA29, GA8, GA5, GA1, and 3-epi-GA1, as well as unmetabolized [13C]GA20, were identified by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring (GC-SIM) from feeds of [17-13C, 3H]GA20 to all three genotypes. 13C-Labeled GA8 and 3-epi-G1, as well as unmetabolized [13C]GA1, were identified by GC-SIM from feeds of [17-13C, 3H]GA1 to all three genotypes. From feeds of [17-13C, 3H]GA5, 13C-labeled GA3 and the GA3-isolactone, as well as unmetabolized [13C]GA5, were identified by GC-SIM from +/+ and D8/D8, and by full scan GC-MS from D8/+. No evidence was found for the metabolism of [17-13C, 3H]GA5 to [13C]GA1, either by full scan GC-mass spectrometry or by GC-SIM. The results demonstrate the presence in maize seedlings of three separate branches from GA20, as follows: (a) GA20 → GA1 → GA8; (b) GA20 → GA5 → GA3; and (c) GA20 → GA29. The in vivo biogenesis of GA3 from GA5, as well as the origin of GA5 from GA20, are conclusively established for the first time in a higher plant (maize shoots). PMID:16667678

  19. Gibberellins and gravitropism in maize shoots: endogenous gibberellin-like substances and movement and metabolism of [3]gibberellin A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rood, S.B.; Kaufman, P.B.; Abe, H.; Pharis, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    [ 3 H]Gibberellin A 20 (GA 20 ) of high specific radioactivity was applied equilaterally in a ring of microdrops to the internodal pulvinus of shoots of 3-week-old vertical normal maize (Zea mays L.), and to a pleiogravitropic (prostrate) maize mutant, lazy (la). All plants converted the [ 3 H]GA 1 - and [ 3 H]GA 29 -like metabolites as well as to several metabolites with the partitioning and chromatographic behavior of glucosyl conjugates of [ 3 H]GA 1 [ 3 H]GA 29 , and [ 3 H]GA 8 . The tentative identification of these putative [ 3 H]GA glucosyl conjugates was further supported by the release of the free [ 3 H]GA moiety after cleavage with cellulase. Within 12 hours of the [ 3 H]GA 20 feed, there was a significantly higher proportion of total radioactivity in lower than in upper halves of internode and leaf sheaf pulvini in gravistimulated normal maize. Further, there was a significantly higher proportion of putative free GA metabolites of [ 3 H]GA 20 , especially [ 3 H] GA 1 , in the lower halves of normal maize relative to upper halves. The differential localization of the metabolites between upper and lower halves was not apparent in the pleiogravitropic mutant, la. Endogenous GA-like substances were also examined in gravistimulated maize shoots. Forty-eight hours after gravistimulation of 3-week-old maize seedlings, endogenous free GA-like substances in upper and lower leaf sheath and internode pulvini halves were extracted, chromatographed, and bioassayed using the Tanginbozu dwarf rice microdroassay. Lower halves contained higher total levels of GA-like activity

  20. Two rice GRAS family genes responsive to N -acetylchitooligosaccharide elicitor are induced by phytoactive gibberellins: evidence for cross-talk between elicitor and gibberellin signaling in rice cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, R Bradley; Tanabe, Shigeru; Koshioka, Masaji; Mitsui, Toshiaki; Itoh, Hironori; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Matsuoka, Makoto; Kaku, Hanae; Shibuya, Naoto; Minami, Eiichi

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we present data showing that two members of the GRAS family of genes from rice, CIGR1 and CIGR2 (chitin-inducible gibberellin-responsive), inducible by the potent elicitor N -acetylchitooligosaccharide (GN), are rapidly induced by exogenous gibberellins. The pattern of mRNA accumulation was dependent on the dose and biological activity of the gibberellins, suggesting that the induction of the genes by gibberellin is mediated by a biological receptor capable of specific recognition and signal transduction upon perception of the phytoactive compounds. Further pharmacological analysis revealed that the CIGR1 and CIGR2 mRNA accumulation by treatment with gibberellin is dependent upon protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation events. In rice calli derived from slender rice 1, a constitutive gibberellin-responsive mutant, or d1, a mutant deficient in the alpha -subunit of the heterotrimeric G-protein, CIGR1 and CIGR2 were induced by a GN elicitor, yet not by gibberellin. Neither gibberellin nor GN showed related activities in defense or development, respectively. These results strongly suggested that the signal transduction cascade from gibberellin is independent of that from GN, and further implied that CIGR1 and CIGR2 have dual, distinct roles in defense and development.

  1. Interplay between cytochrome c and gibberellins during Arabidopsis vegetative development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Racca, S.; Welchen, E.; Gras, D. E.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Turečková, Veronika; Maurino, V. G.; Gonzalez, D. H.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 1 (2018), s. 105-121 ISSN 0960-7412 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Arabidopsis thaliana * cytochrome c * DELLA protein * gibberellin * mitochondrion Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 5.901, year: 2016

  2. Regulation effects of exogenous gibberellin acid (GA 3 ) on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To fully understand the regulation effects of gibberellin on tomato (Solanum Lycoperscium) ovary locule formation and the fasciated transcription, two varieties: multi-locule 'MLK1' and few- locule 'FL1' which were highly different in locule number and fasciated transcriptional levels, were used in this study. By spraying GA3 ...

  3. Evolutionary conservation of plant gibberellin signalling pathway components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reski Ralf

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Gibberellins (GA are plant hormones that can regulate germination, elongation growth, and sex determination. They ubiquitously occur in seed plants. The discovery of gibberellin receptors, together with advances in understanding the function of key components of GA signalling in Arabidopsis and rice, reveal a fairly short GA signal transduction route. The pathway essentially consists of GID1 gibberellin receptors that interact with F-box proteins, which in turn regulate degradation of downstream DELLA proteins, suppressors of GA-controlled responses. Results: Arabidopsis sequences of the gibberellin signalling compounds were used to screen databases from a variety of plants, including protists, for homologues, providing indications for the degree of conservation of the pathway. The pathway as such appears completely absent in protists, the moss Physcomitrella patens shares only a limited homology with the Arabidopsis proteins, thus lacking essential characteristics of the classical GA signalling pathway, while the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii contains a possible ortholog for each component. The occurrence of classical GA responses can as yet not be linked with the presence of homologues of the signalling pathway. Alignments and display in neighbour joining trees of the GA signalling components confirm the close relationship of gymnosperms, monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants, as suggested from previous studies. Conclusion: Homologues of the GA-signalling pathway were mainly found in vascular plants. The GA signalling system may have its evolutionary molecular onset in Physcomitrella patens, where GAs at higher concentrations affect gravitropism and elongation growth.

  4. Gibberellins – terpenoid plant hormones: Biological importance and chemical analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urbanová, Terezie; Tarkowská, Danuše; Strnad, Miroslav; Hedden, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 12 (2011), s. 1669-1686 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801; GA MŠk ED0007/01/01 Keywords : Gibberellins * Biosynthesis * Signaling * Profiling * Extraction * Purification * Mass spectrometry * Liquid chromatography Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.283, year: 2011

  5. Interaktive Visualisierung von Abständen und Ausdehnungen anatomischer Strukturen für die Interventionsplanung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössling, Ivo; Cyrus, Christian; Dornheim, Lars; Hahn, Peter; Preim, Bernhard; Boehm, Andreas

    Im Rahmen der Interventionsplanung muss der Chirurg therapierelevante Entscheidungen auf Basis räumlicher Relationen anatomischer Strukturen treffen. Interaktive 3D-Visualisierungen unterstützen diesen Prozess qualitativ. Quantitative Fragestellungen (Tumorausdehnung, Infiltrationstiefe, etc.) erfordern die Integration einer Bemaßung, deren Nutzen wesentlich von einer geeigneten Darstellung abhängt. In dieser Arbeit haben wir allgemeine Kriterien für die Eignung von Visualisierungen von Bemaßungen in interaktiven 3D-Szenen erarbeitet. Daran orientierend haben wir verschiedene Varianten der Darstellung von Abständen und Ausdehnungen anatomischer Strukturen betrachtet und ihr Erscheinungsbild hierzu zweckmäßig parametrisiert. Die Ausprägungen dieser Darstellungsparameter wurden in einer Studie auf ihre visuellen Wirkung hin an Chirurgen evaluiert. Es zeigte sich, dass die befragten Mediziner höchsten Wert auf Kohärenz und klare Zuordnung der Bemaßung setzten und überraschenderweise dafür sogar Abstriche in der direkten Lesbarkeit in Kauf nahmen.

  6. Gibberellin influence on the morphogenesis of the moss Bryum argenteum Hedw. in in vitro conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Sabovljević Aneta; Sabovljević Marko; Grubišić D.

    2010-01-01

    The moss Bryum argenteum Hedw. was treated with gibberellins as well as some inhibitors of gibberellin biosynthesis in order to investigate their influence on B. argenteum morphogenesis. Generally, gibberellins have not been chemically identified in bryophytes, while other groups of classical phytohormones (auxins, cytokinins, abscisic acid and ethylene) have been chemically identified in these plants. The in vitro culture of the moss Bryum argenteum was established from sterilized spores. Th...

  7. Cryptochrome and Phytochrome Cooperatively but Independently Reduce Active Gibberellin Content in Rice Seedlings under Light Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Hirose, Fumiaki; Inagaki, Noritoshi; Hanada, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Kamiya, Yuji; Miyao, Akio; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Takano, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to a wealth of knowledge about the photoregulation of gibberellin metabolism in dicots, that in monocots remains largely unclear. In this study, we found that a blue light signal triggers reduction of active gibberellin content in rice seedlings with simultaneous repression of two gibberellin 20-oxidase genes (OsGA20ox2 and OsGA20ox4) and acute induction of four gibberellin 2-oxidase genes (OsGA2ox4–OsGA2ox7). For further examination of the regulation of these genes, we establishe...

  8. Opposing effects of external gibberellin and Daminozide on Stevia growth and metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mojtaba; Hashemi, Javad; Ahmadi, Ali; Abbasi, Alireza; Pompeiano, Antonio; Tavarini, Silvia; Guglielminetti, Lorenzo; Angelini, Luciana G

    2015-01-01

    Steviol glycosides (SVglys) and gibberellins are originated from the shared biosynthesis pathway in Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni). In this research, two experiments were conducted to study the opposing effects of external gibberellin (GA3) and Daminozide (a gibberellin inhibitor) on Stevia growth and metabolites. Results showed that GA3 significantly increased the stem length and stem dry weight in Stevia. Total soluble sugar content increased while the SVglys biosynthesis was decreased by external GA3 applying in Stevia leaves. In another experiment, the stem length was reduced by Daminozide spraying on Stevia shoots. The Daminozide did not affect the total SVglys content, while in 30 ppm concentration, significantly increased the soluble sugar production in Stevia leaves. Although the gibberellins biosynthesis pathway has previously invigorated in Stevia leaf, the Stevia response to external gibberellins implying on high precision regulation of gibberellins biosynthesis in Stevia and announces that Stevia is able to kept endogenous gibberellins in a low quantity away from SVglys production. Moreover, the assumption that the internal gibberellins were destroyed by Daminozide, lack of Daminozide effects on SVglys production suggests that gibberellins biosynthesis could not act as a competitive factor for SVglys production in Stevia leaves.

  9. Exposure to red light, temperature and exogenous gibberellins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Red light, temperature and gibberellins are well known for their capacity to induce higher germination in dormant seeds of several plant species. In the current study, we investigated the effect of various temperature (10, 13, 16, 19, 22 and 25°C) and gibberellic acid (GA3) and GA4+7 concentrations (0.1, 1, 10, and 100 uM) ...

  10. The Effect of Gibberellin on Plant Growth and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-11-04

    8217P? 1O cerh bi; ncv tnd the ntanber of berries In e-.c ch bunch. The &ver-r.j? c -vjeirht of-’a berry ::wes then derived for each bt/mchyaoD...gibberellin web strongly in evidence. In the " :* : control bunches/of the Mrran|P’variety the^er/age/weight : ,of .8. berry was 1.08 g,: fend

  11. Effect of cotyledons and epicotyl upon the activity of endogenous gibberellins in roots of flax (Linum usitatissimum L. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna M. Janas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 11-day-old flax seedlings, the level of endogenous gibberellins in roots decreased within 12 hours after the excision of cotyledons and the epicotyl; however, 24 to 48 hours after excision the gibberellin level increased again. The decrease in the gibberellin level within the first 12 hours after excision suggests a participation of the cotyledons and the epicotyl in the biosynthesis of endogenous gibberellins.

  12. Participation of gibberellin in the control of apical dominance in soybean and redwood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruddat, M.; Pharis, R.P.

    1966-01-01

    Loss of apical dominance in soybeans and redwood was increased when the plants were treated with the growth retardant AMO-1618. Simultaneous application of gibberellin reduced the number of elongating buds and promoted growth of the first or second uppermost auxillary bud, thus restoring apical dominance. It is concluded that gibberellin participates in the expression of apical dominance. 30 references, 2 tables.

  13. Pengaruh Gibberellin (GA4 terhadap Waktu Perkecambahan dan Pertumbuhan Tinggi Semai Cendana (Santalum Album Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asri Insiana Putri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Gibberellins (GA4 on Germination Time and Height of Cendana (Santalum album Linn.  The hemiparasite Santalum album Linn. (cendana grows very slow, in nature the rare and difficult seeds need stimulation to germinate. Gibberellins (including GA4 are growth regulators, usually used to increase growth as well as to break seed dormancy. The objectives of this research were to investigate the influence of gibberellins on germination percentage and height of cendana growth. Experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design with 3 replicates of 300 seeds for germination percentage and 3 replicates of 10 seeds for seedling growth. Gibberellin was applied as treatment with 100, 300, and 500 ppm. The seed germination was recorded until 9 weeks, and height of plants measured until 8 months at the greenhouse. The results showed that the addition of gibberellins at all treatment increased the percentage of germination and caused the seeds germinated four weeks earlier than the control. In the first 4 months, 500 ppm gibberellins gave the highest acceleration of germination, afterward all treatments have relatively the same influences. Gibberellins gave positive effect on height of cendana growth. After 7 months, the growth decreased although all gibberellin treatments gave higher growth than the control.

  14. Control of gibberellin A(l) levels by 2, beta-hydroxylation during growth of dwarf Oryza sativa L. var. Tan-ginbozu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Railton, I.D.

    1978-01-01

    Seedlings of dwarf rice (Oryza sativa L. var. Tan-ginbozu) exhibit a marked growth response to applied gibberellin A(1) and convert this compound into gibberellin A(8). In this study attempts were made to correlate the metabolism of 1,2[ 3 H] gibberellin A(1) and in particular the production of gibberellin A(8) with rice leaf sheath growth

  15. The effect of bonus/malus systems on the sales of new vehicles; Wirkung von Bonus-Malus-Systemen beim Neuwagenkauf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haan, P. de

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Peter de Haan from the Institute for Environmental Decisions at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich takes a look at the effects of bonus/malus systems on the sales of new vehicles. The author notes that in spite of technological progress made, increasing car size, weight and mileage along with increased motor power has eaten up two-thirds of energy-efficiency progress made. The effect of the long lifetime of modern vehicles is commented on. The results of a survey made are presented and discussed, as are the results of simulations. Further aspects discussed include effects on the motor trade and road safety and the indirect effects of bonuses. Finally, trends in the area are noted.

  16. Was bedeutet Trägheit? Begriff und Wirkung der Trägheit im Rahmen des Wechselverhaltens von Konsumenten im Strommarkt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henseler, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    In Wissenschaft und Praxis wird die Trägheit der Konsumenten als Ursache der geringen Wechselrate im deutschen Strommarkt für Haushaltskunden diskutiert. Der vorliegende Beitrag arbeitet heraus, dass es sich bei dieser Argumentation entweder um eine Tautologie oder ein Synomym für den Verbleib in

  17. The effects of low alcohol beers on the blood alcohol concentration. [Die Wirkung von Bier mit geringem Alkoholgehalt auf die Blutalkoholkonzentration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuteboom, W. & Vis, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    During the last decade the consumption of low alcohol beers has increased considerably in the Netherlands. The improved taste and appearance of these beers, compared to those of previous years, combined with a more general trend for a healthier life-style might explain this increase. The permanent

  18. Cryptochrome and phytochrome cooperatively but independently reduce active gibberellin content in rice seedlings under light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Fumiaki; Inagaki, Noritoshi; Hanada, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Kamiya, Yuji; Miyao, Akio; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Takano, Makoto

    2012-09-01

    In contrast to a wealth of knowledge about the photoregulation of gibberellin metabolism in dicots, that in monocots remains largely unclear. In this study, we found that a blue light signal triggers reduction of active gibberellin content in rice seedlings with simultaneous repression of two gibberellin 20-oxidase genes (OsGA20ox2 and OsGA20ox4) and acute induction of four gibberellin 2-oxidase genes (OsGA2ox4-OsGA2ox7). For further examination of the regulation of these genes, we established a series of cryptochrome-deficient lines through reverse genetic screening from a Tos17 mutant population and construction of knockdown lines based on an RNA interference technique. By using these lines and phytochrome mutants, we elucidated that cryptochrome 1 (cry1), consisting of two species in rice plants (cry1a and cry1b), is indispensable for robust induction of the GA2ox genes. On the other hand, repression of the GA20ox genes is mediated by phytochromes. In addition, we found that the phytochromes also mediate the repression of a gibberellin 3-oxidase gene (OsGA3ox2) in the light. These results imply that, in rice seedlings, phytochromes mediate the repression of gibberellin biosynthesis capacity, while cry1 mediates the induction of gibberellin inactivation capacity. The cry1 action was demonstrated to be dominant in the reduction of active gibberellin content, but, in rice seedlings, the cumulative effects of these independent actions reduced active gibberellin content in the light. This pathway design in which different types of photoreceptors independently but cooperatively regulate active gibberellin content is unique from the viewpoint of dicot research. This redundancy should provide robustness to the response in rice plants.

  19. Patientenakzeptanz und Verträglichkeit von Risedronat zur Osteoporosetherapie - Ergebnisse einer Phase IV-Studie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pusch HH

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Anwendungsbeobachtungen (Phase IV-Studien haben nach den erfolgreich absolvierten klinischen Prüfungen (Phase III den Zweck, die Verträglichkeit, Sicherheit, Compliance und Akzeptanz eines Präparates in der täglichen praktischen Medizin zu erfassen und auszuwerten. Eine AWB ist prospektiv aufgebaut. Die 1121 in dieser Studie erfaßten Patienten stellen ein solides Fundament für die statistische Aufarbeitung der erhobenen Daten dar. Die Ergebnisse zu den Themen Patientendaten, Diagnosestellung, Risikofaktoren, Frakturen und Mobilität zeigen deutlich, daß hier ein spezielles Patientengut vorliegt: Der Patient mit Osteoporose mit den typischen alterskorrelierten Begleiterkrankungen. Die Osteoporose verläuft, so lange keine Frakturen eintreten, praktisch schmerzfrei - ein Grund, warum diese Erkrankung so oft und so lange ignoriert wird. Begleitende Beschwerden gehen nach der derzeitigen Lehrmeinung stets auf degenerative oder entzündlich-rheumatische Prozesse am Bewegungsapparat zurück. Aus diesem Blickwinkel bieten die Ergebnisse dieser Studie eine Überraschung: Die im Bereich der Wirbelsäule beobachtete und statistisch hochsignifikante Schmerzlinderung. Sie läßt sich jedoch mit der Hemmung des Knochenabbaues durch Risedronat alleine nicht befriedigend erklären. Möglicherweise liegen hier andere, bisher unbekannte pharmakologische Effekte dieser Substanz vor. Zusätzliche Hinweise ergeben sich daraus, daß beim Mb. Paget ähnliche Wirkungen auf die Begleitschmerzen bei Bisphosphonatbehandlung berichtet wurden. Die analgetische Wirkung von Calcitonin ist bekannt, sie beruht auf einer zentralnervösen Wirkung, ebenso wie auf der Hemmung der Freisetzung von freien Kalzium-Ionen, die als Schmerzmediator angesehen werden, aus dem Knochen. Vielleicht liegen hier vergleichbare Effekte vor, die in den Phase II und III Studien nicht zutage treten konnten. Diese überraschenden Ergebnisse sollten Anlaß für weitere Forschungen sein. Die

  20. Gibberellin Promotes Shoot Branching in the Perennial Woody Plant Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jun; Gao, Congcong; Chen, Mao-Sheng; Pan, Bang-Zhen; Ye, Kaiqin; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2015-08-01

    Strigolactone (SL), auxin and cytokinin (CK) interact to regulate shoot branching. CK has long been considered to be the only key phytohormone to promote lateral bud outgrowth. Here we report that gibberellin also acts as a positive regulator in the control of shoot branching in the woody plant Jatropha curcas. We show that gibberellin and CK synergistically promote lateral bud outgrowth, and that both hormones influence the expression of putative branching regulators, J. curcas BRANCHED1 and BRANCHED2, which are key transcription factors maintaining bud dormancy. Moreover, treatment with paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of de novo gibberellin biosynthesis, significantly reduced the promotion of bud outgrowth by CK, suggesting that gibberellin is required for CK-mediated axillary bud outgrowth. In addition, SL, a plant hormone involved in the repression of shoot branching, acted antagonistically to both gibberellin and CK in the control of lateral bud outgrowth. Consistent with this, the expression of JcMAX2, a J. curcas homolog of Arabidopsis MORE AXILLARY GROWTH 2 encoding an F-box protein in the SL signaling pathway, was repressed by gibberellin and CK treatment. We also provide physiological evidence that gibberellin also induces shoot branching in many other trees, such as papaya, indicating that a more complicated regulatory network occurs in the control of shoot branching in some perennial woody plants. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  1. Gibberellin biosynthesis in cell-free extracts from developing Cucurbita maxima embryos and the identification of new endogenous gibberellins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, T; Hedden, P; Graebe, J E

    1993-03-01

    Gibberellin (GA) biosynthetic pathways from GA12-aldehyde, GA12 and GA53 were investigated in cell-free systems from developing embryos of Cucurbita maxima L. Gibberellin A12-aldehyde and GA12 were converted to GA25, putative 12α-hydroxyGA25, GA13 and GA39 as main products. Minor products were GA4, GA34 and, when GA12 was the substrate, putative 12α-hydroxyGA12. The intermediates GA15 and GA24 accumulated at low protein concentrations. The influence of various factors on GA12 metabolism was examined. At low 2-oxoglutarate and ascorbate concentrations, or at acid pH, 3β-hydroxylated products predominated, whereas with increasing 2-oxoglutarate and ascorbate concentrations, or at neutral pH, the yield of 12α-hydroxylated GAs increased. Gibberellin A53 was metabolised mainly to the C20-GAs GA44, GA19, GA17, GA23 and GA28, with the C19-GAs GA20, GA1 and GA8 as minor products. Only C19-GAs were 2β-hydroxylated, which is a main characteristic of the embryo systems. In addition to GA13, GA25, GA39, GA43, GA49, GA58, GA74, 12α-hydroxyGA25 and GA39 3-isovalerate, which were known previously from embryos of C. maxima, GA1, GA4, GA17, GA28, GA37, GA38, GA48, GA85, 12α-hydroxyGA37 and putative 12α-hydroxyGA43 were identified as endogenous components by full-scan capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and Kovats retention indices. Evidence for putative 2β-hydroxyGA28 and GA23 was also obtained but it was less conclusive because of contamination.

  2. Gibberellin influence on the morphogenesis of the moss Bryum argenteum Hedw. in in vitro conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabovljević Aneta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The moss Bryum argenteum Hedw. was treated with gibberellins as well as some inhibitors of gibberellin biosynthesis in order to investigate their influence on B. argenteum morphogenesis. Generally, gibberellins have not been chemically identified in bryophytes, while other groups of classical phytohormones (auxins, cytokinins, abscisic acid and ethylene have been chemically identified in these plants. The in vitro culture of the moss Bryum argenteum was established from sterilized spores. The apical shoots of untreated gametophytes grown in vitro were used to investigate the influence of different substances on secondary protonema and on the growth and multiplication of the gametophytes. B. argenteum reacts differently to the growth regulators applied. Both gibberellins applied in vitro (GA3 and GA7 have a positive effect on B. argenteum morphogenesis. Shoot multiplication was negatively affected by three tested growth retardants (ancymidol, BX-112 and chlorocholine chloride, while these substances did not have such strong effects on the moss protonema development.

  3. Ellis Von Creveld Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshar H

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available One patient with Ellis Von Creveld syndrome contains: dwarfism, congenital heart"ndisease, ectodermal dysplasia, polyductyly, an abnormally wide labial frenum and maxillary"nmolars with single root.

  4. Lars von Triers film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lisbeth Overgaard

    2007-01-01

    Afhandlingen undersøger Lars von Triers filmæstetik, som den kommer til udtryk i spillefilmene fra perioden 1984-2007. Afhandlingen analyserer de enkelte films stil, virkningsstrategi og betydningsdannelse.......Afhandlingen undersøger Lars von Triers filmæstetik, som den kommer til udtryk i spillefilmene fra perioden 1984-2007. Afhandlingen analyserer de enkelte films stil, virkningsstrategi og betydningsdannelse....

  5. Gibberellins and gravitropism in maize shoots: endogenous gibberellin-like substances and movement and metabolism of [3H]Gibberellin A20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, S. B.; Kaufman, P. B.; Abe, H.; Pharis, R. P.

    1987-01-01

    [3H]Gibberellin A20 (GA20) of high specific radioactivity (49.9 gigabecquerel per millimole) was applied equilaterally in a ring of microdrops to the internodal pulvinus of shoots of 3-week-old gravistimulated and vertical normal maize (Zea mays L.), and to a pleiogravitropic (prostrate) maize mutant, lazy (la). All plants converted the [3H]GA20 to [3H]GA1- and [3H]GA29-like metabolites as well as to several metabolites with the partitioning and chromatographic behavior of glucosyl conjugates of [3H]GA1, [3H]GA29, and [3H]GA8. The tentative identification of these putative [3H]GA glucosyl conjugates was further supported by the release of the free [3H]GA moiety after cleavage with cellulase. Within 12 hours of the [3H]GA20 feed, there was a significantly higher proportion of total radioactivity in lower than in upper halves of internode and leaf sheath pulvini in gravistimulated normal maize. Further, there was a significantly higher proportion of putative free GA metabolites of [3H]GA20, especially [3H]GA1, in the lower halves of normal maize relative to upper halves. The differential localization of the metabolites between upper and lower halves was not apparent in the pleiogravitropic mutant, la. Endogenous GA-like substances were also examined in gravistimulated maize shoots. Forty-eight hours after gravistimulation of 3-week-old maize seedlings, endogenous free GA-like substances in upper and lower leaf sheath and internode pulvini halves were extracted, chromatographed, and bioassayed using the "Tanginbozu" dwarf rice microdrop assay. Lower halves contained consistently higher total levels of GA-like activity. The qualitative elution profile of GA-like substances differed consistently, upper halves containing principally a GA20-like substance and lower halves containing principally a GA20-like substance and lower halves containing mainly GA1-like and GA19-like substances. Gibberellins A1 (10 nanograms per gram) and A20 (5 nanograms per gram) were identified

  6. [Effects of fluridone, gibberellin acid and germination temperature on dormancy-breaking for Epimedium wushanense].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, He; Wang, Yue; Yang, Yang; Dong, Xue-Hui

    2016-07-01

    We introduced Epimedium wushanense seed which has been stratified for 90 days at 10/20 ℃ as experimental materials, with which we studied the effects of fluridone, gibberellin acid and temperature on E. wushanense germination. The results were suggested as shown below. ①Temperature, fluridone and gibberellin acid can both solely or jointly affect germination energy, germination rate significantly. Among those factors, fluridone affect germination rate and germination energy the most, followed by gibberellin acid and temperature. The highest germination rate under 4 ℃ and 10/20 ℃ stratification are 79.3%, 72.0% respectively, which resulted from treatment of F10GA300 and F20GA200 respectively. The highest germination energy under 4 ℃ and 10/20 ℃ stratification are 52.7%, 52.0%, respectively, which both resulted from F20GA200. ②Compared with 4 ℃ germination, seed could not germinate at 10/20 ℃ germination. Nontheless, application of fluridone can lead E. wushanense seeds to germinating.③The effects of gibberellin acid and interaction between gibberellin acid and fluridone significantly affect seed rotten rate during germination. In addition, soaking is another remarkable factor which increased seed rotten rate. As a result, it is feasible to promote E. wushanense dormancy releasing with gibberellin acid and fluridone associating with a proper germination temperature. Further, it is necessary taking actions to avoid seed rotten rate for saving E. wushanense nurseries'cost. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  7. Gibberellin control of stamen development: a fertile field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plackett, Andrew R G; Thomas, Stephen G; Wilson, Zoe A; Hedden, Peter

    2011-10-01

    Stamen development is governed by a conserved genetic pathway, within which the role of hormones has been the subject of considerable recent research. Our understanding of the involvement of gibberellin (GA) signalling in this developmental process is further advanced than for the other phytohormones, and here we review recent experimental results in rice (Oryza sativa) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that have provided insight into the timing and mechanisms of GA regulation of stamen development, identifying the tapetum and developing pollen as major targets. GA signalling governs both tapetum secretory functions and entry into programmed cell death via the GAMYB class of transcription factor, the targets of which integrate with the established genetic framework for the regulation of tapetum function at multiple hierarchical levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical screening and development of novel gibberellin mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kai; Shimotakahara, Hiroaki; Luo, Ming; Otani, Masato; Nakamura, Hidemitsu; Moselhy, Said Salama; Abualnaja, Khalid Omer; Al-Malki, Abdulrahman Labeed; Kumosani, Taha Abduallah; Kitahata, Nobutaka; Nakano, Takeshi; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Asami, Tadao

    2017-08-15

    Gibberellin (GA) plays versatile roles in the regulation of plant growth and development and therefore is widely used as a regulator in agriculture. We performed a chemical library screening and identified a chemical, named 67D, as a stimulator of seed germination that was suppressed by paclobutrazol (PAC), a GA biosynthesis inhibitor. In vitro binding assays indicated that 67D binds to the GID1 receptor. Further studies on the structure-activity relationship identified a chemical, named chemical 6, that strongly promoted seed germination suppressed by PAC. Chemical 6 was further confirmed to promote the degradation of RGA (for repressor of ga1-3), a DELLA protein, and suppress the expression levels of GA3ox1 in the same manner as GA does. 67D and its analogs are supposed to be agonists of GID1 and are expected to be utilized in agriculture and basic research as an alternative to GA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evidence for the Translocation of Gibberellin A_3 and Gibberellin-Like Substances in Grafts between Normal, Dwarf_1 and Dwarf_5 Seedlings of Zea mays L.

    OpenAIRE

    M., Katsumi; D.E., Foard; B.O., Phinney; Biology Department, International Christian University; Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University; Department of Biology, University of California

    1983-01-01

    Approach grafts were made between the cut surfaces of mesocotyls from normal and dwarf seedlings of Zea mays L. (maize). The dwarfs were the non-allelic single gene gibberellin mutants, dwarf_1 and dwarf_5. The graft combinations were normal-normal, normal-dwarf_1, normal-dwarf_5, dwarf_1-dwarf_1, dwarf_5-dwarf_5, and dwarf_1-dwarf_5. The grafts were used to demonstrate the movement of gibberellin-like substances across the union. GA_3, added to one member of the graft, resulted in leaf-sheat...

  10. Gibberellin homeostasis and plant height control by EUI and a role for gibberellin in root gravity responses in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingying; Zhu, Yongyou; Peng, Yu; Yan, Dawei; Li, Qun; Wang, Jianjun; Wang, Linyou; He, Zuhua

    2008-03-01

    The rice Eui (ELONGATED UPPERMOST INTERNODE) gene encodes a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase that deactivates bioactive gibberellins (GAs). In this study, we investigated controlled expression of the Eui gene and its role in plant development. We found that Eui was differentially induced by exogenous GAs and that the Eui promoter had the highest activity in the vascular bundles. The eui mutant was defective in starch granule development in root caps and Eui overexpression enhanced starch granule generation and gravity responses, revealing a role for GA in root starch granule development and gravity responses. Experiments using embryoless half-seeds revealed that RAmy1A and GAmyb were highly upregulated in eui aleurone cells in the absence of exogenous GA. In addition, the GA biosynthesis genes GA3ox1 and GA20ox2 were downregulated and GA2ox1 was upregulated in eui seedlings. These results indicate that EUI is involved in GA homeostasis, not only in the internodes at the heading stage, but also in the seedling stage, roots and seeds. Disturbing GA homeostasis affected the expression of the GA signaling genes GID1 (GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF 1), GID2 and SLR1. Transgenic RNA interference of the Eui gene effectively increased plant height and improved heading performance. By contrast, the ectopic expression of Eui under the promoters of the rice GA biosynthesis genes GA3ox2 and GA20ox2 significantly reduced plant height. These results demonstrate that a slight increase in Eui expression could dramatically change rice morphology, indicating the practical application of the Eui gene in rice molecular breeding for a high yield potential.

  11. Präbiotikasupplementation Schwangerer und ihre Wirkung auf die mütterliche und kindliche Darmflora sowie auf ausgewählte fetale Immunparameter - eine randomisierte, doppelblinde, placebo-kontrollierte Pilotstudie

    OpenAIRE

    Shadid, Rania

    2007-01-01

    Diese Studie ist die erste, randomisierte, doppel-blinde, placebo-kontrollierte Langzeitpilotstudie, welche die Wirkung der Präbiotika-Supplementation während der Schwangerschaft auf die Zusammensetzung der mütterlichen und kindlichen Darmmikroflora untersucht. Die Präbiotika-Supplementation im letzten Trimenon der Schwangerschaft zeigte eine gute Verträglichkeit und einen bifidogenen Effekt auf die Darmflora Schwangerer. Im Gegensatz dazu, hatte die Präbiotika-Supplementation keinen signifik...

  12. Posttranscriptional regulation of alpha-amylase II-4 expression by gibberellin in germinating rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjo, Yohei; Asatsuma, Satoru; Itoh, Kimiko; Hori, Hidetaka; Mitsui, Toshiaki; Fujisawa, Yukiko

    2004-06-01

    Hormonal regulation of expression of alpha-amylase II-4 that lacks the gibberellin-response cis-element (GARE) in the promoter region of the gene was studied in germinating rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds. Temporal and spatial expression of alpha-amylase II-4 in the aleurone layer were essentially identical to those of alpha-amylase I-1 whose gene contains GARE, although these were distinguishable in the embryo tissues at the early stage of germination. The gibberellin-responsible expression of alpha-amylase II-4 was also similar to that of alpha-amylase I-1. However, the level of alpha-amylase II-4 mRNA was not increased by gibberellin, indicating that the transcriptional enhancement of alpha-amylase II-4 expression did not occur in the aleurone. Gibberellin stimulated the accumulation of 45Ca2+ into the intracellular secretory membrane system. In addition, several inhibitors for Ca2+ signaling, such as EGTA, neomycin, ruthenium red (RuR), and W-7 prevented the gibberellin-induced expression of alpha-amylase II-4 effectively. While the gibberellin-induced expression of alpha-amylase II-4 occurred normally in the aleurone layer of a rice dwarf mutant d1 which is defective in the alpha subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein. Based on these results, it was concluded that the posttranscriptional regulation of alpha-amylase II-4 expression by gibberellin operates in the aleurone layer of germinating rice seed, which is mediated by Ca2+ but not the G protein.

  13. Investigations of time-dependent water pollution effects of overburden dumps - partial project 1. Final report; Untersuchungen gewaesserrelevanter Einfluesse von Bergbauhalden in Abhaengigkeit von der Standzeit - Teilprojekt 1. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuge, P.; Dunger, C.; Mibus, J.; Starke, R.

    1998-02-01

    Management of overburden dumps necessitates careful stocktaking and precise definitions of pollutant emissions so that, if necessary, conclusions can be drawn concerning sanitation concepts in consideration of emission limits and environmental balances. In view of the large number of overburden dumps in Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia caused the authors to restrict their investigations to ore mines and to select elements characteristic of the worked deposits and their potential environmental effects. The following problems were investigated: Are overburden dumps significant emitters of elements at all? Which elements are emitted in what concentrations, in what form and up to what distance from the dump? Are there really different patterns for gangue and impregnation types? How big is the real reaction space of the dump? Should the whole dump be assumed to be a reservoir of elements for emission or just parts of it? What are the factors that most strongly influence element mobilisation and/or retention? What measures should be recommended for emission reduction or prevention from the aspects of necessity, economic efficiency and long-term stability? (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Es ergibt sich fuer den Umgang mit Halden die Notwendigkeit einer gruendlichen Bilanzierung und schaerferen Definition von Schadstoffemission aus ihnen, um daraus Konsequenzen fuer eventuell erforderliche Sanierungskonzeptionen unter Beruecksichtigung von Grenzwerteinhaltung und Umweltbilanz abzuleiten. Der Umfang der einzelnen Fragestellungen und die Bedeutung der Halden in Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt und Thueringen sowie Anzahl und ihr Inhalt fuehrte zur Beschraenkung auf den Erzbergbau und auf die Kontrolle ausgewaehlter Elemente, die fuer den jeweils abgebauten Lagerstaetteninhalt charakteristisch und fuer die Wirkung auf die Umwelt von Bedeutung sind. Folgende konkrete Fragestellungen sollen verfolgt werden: - Sind Halden ueberhaupt nennenswerte Emittenten von Elementen? - Welche Elemente werden

  14. Influence of the operating modes of wood-fired stoves on particle emissions; Einfluss der Betriebsweise auf die Partikelemissionen von Holzoefen. Projektzusatz 1+2 zum Projekt Wirkung von Verbrennungspartikeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klippel, N.; Nussbaumer, T.

    2007-03-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the influence of the operating characteristics of wood-fired stoves on their particle emissions. Four types of stove are compared: A metal stove with small combustion chamber and a low mass of ceramic lining, a stove with a large combustion chamber and heavier ceramic lining, a newly designed stove with two-stage combustion using gasification and gas oxidation in a separate combustion chamber using secondary air and a modern pellet-fired stove operated with wood and straw pellets. The report describes the measurement programme and presents the results obtained using gravimetric measurements. The spectrum of particle emissions measured for the four types of stove are presented and discussed. The correlation of carbon monoxide and fine-dust emissions is examined. The results of biological tests and the chemical analysis of the dust are discussed.

  15. Rhizostomeen von Manila

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiasny, G.

    1924-01-01

    Die hier beschriebene kleine Scyphomedusen-Sammlung wurde von Herrn Director P. B. Sivickis, Dept. of Zoology, University of Philippines, Manila, dem Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie in Leiden überwiesen. Das Material wurde im December 1922 in Manila-bay gefischt und befindet sich in bestem

  16. Schmetterlinge von Madeira

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, K.

    1941-01-01

    Wer auf einer ozeanischen Insel Schmetterlinge sammeln will, darf seine Erwartungen nicht zu hoch spannen; aber dennoch waren meine Frau und ich sehr enttäuscht, als uns auf einer Reise nach Madeira von einer dort angesessenen, gebildeten Dame gesagt wurde, sie habe auf der Insel niemals einen

  17. Biologischer Anbau von Strauchbeeren

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Andi

    2004-01-01

    Das Merkblatt enthält auf Österreich angepasste, praxisnahe Informationen zur Produktion von hochwertigen Strauchbeeren wie Himbeeren, Brombeeren, Johannisbeeren, Stachelbeeren und Heidelbeeren. Weiterhin: übersichtliche Hinweise zur Planung, Standortwahl, Sortenauswahl, Bodenvorbereitung und Pflanzung, Bewässerung, Nährstoffversorgung, Witterungsschutz, Beikrautregulierung, Ernte und Lagerung. (Diese Publikation enthält spezifische Informationen für Österreich)

  18. Changes in endogenous gibberellin-like substances in onion bulbs (Allium cepa L. cv. Sochaczewska during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Kielak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Onions cv. Sochaczewska were dried up under an umbrella roof till October 15th or till November 15th and thereafter stored in a cold room at 0-1°C until May 15th. During 4-year of experiment gibberellin activity was determined each month during storage. Three periods of high activity of gibberellins were found in most cases: in December, in February-March and in late spring. In general, onions dried longer (till November 15th, showed lower gibberellin activity than onions dried shorter. Gibberellin-like substances under investigation are localized in almost all Rf zones of chromatogram. Sprouting and rooting was related to gibberellin activity.

  19. EUI1, encoding a putative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, regulates internode elongation by modulating gibberellin responses in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Anding; Qian, Qian; Yin, Hengfu; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Yin, Changxi; Lan, Ying; Tang, Jiuyou; Tang, Zuoshun; Cao, Shouyun; Wang, Xiujie; Xia, Kai; Fu, Xiangdong; Luo, Da; Chu, Chengcai

    2006-02-01

    Elongation of rice internodes is one of the most important agronomic traits, which determines the plant height and underlies the grain yield. It has been shown that the elongation of internodes is under genetic control, and various factors are implicated in the process. Here, we report a detailed characterization of an elongated uppermost internode1 (eui1) mutant, which has been used in hybrid rice breeding. In the eui1-2 mutant, the cell lengths in the uppermost internodes are significantly longer than that of wild type and thus give rise to the elongated uppermost internode. It was found that the level of active gibberellin was elevated in the mutant, whereas its growth in response to gibberellin is similar to that of the wild type, suggesting that the higher level accumulation of gibberellin in the eui1 mutant causes the abnormal elongation of the uppermost internode. Consistently, the expression levels of several genes which encode gibberellin biosynthesis enzymes were altered. We cloned the EUI1 gene, which encodes a putative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, by map-based cloning and found that EUI1 was weakly expressed in most tissues, but preferentially in young panicles. To confirm its function, transgenic experiments with different constructs of EUI1 were conducted. Overexpression of EUI1 gave rise to the gibberellin-deficient-like phenotypes, which could be partially reversed by supplementation with gibberellin. Furthermore, apart from the alteration of expression levels of the gibberellin biosynthesis genes, accumulation of SLR1 protein was found in the overexpressing transgenic plants, indicating that the expression level of EUI1 is implicated in both gibberellin-mediated SLR1 destruction and a feedback regulation in gibberellin biosynthesis. Therefore, we proposed that EUI1 plays a negative role in gibberellin-mediated regulation of cell elongation in the uppermost internode of rice.

  20. In vitro gibberellin A1 binding in Zea mays L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, B.; Rappaport, L.

    1987-01-01

    The first and second leaf sheaths of Zea mays L. cv Golden Jubilee were extracted and the extract centrifuged at 100,000g to yield a supernatant or cytosol fraction. Binding of [ 3 H]gibberellin A 1 (GA 1 ) to a soluble macromolecular component present in the cytosol was demonstrated at 4 0 C by Sephadex G-200 chromatography. The binding component was of high molecular weight (HMW) and greater than 500 kilodaltons. The HMW component was shown to be a protein and the 3 H-activity bound to this protein was largely [ 3 H]GA 1 and not a metabolite. Binding was pH sensitive but only a small percentage (20%) appeared to be exchangeable on addition of unlabeled GA 1 . Both biologically active and inactive GAs and non-GAs were able to inhibit GA 1 binding. [ 3 H]GA 1 binding to an intermediate molecular weight (IMW) fraction (40-100 kilodaltons) was also detected, provided cytosol was first desalted using Sephadex G-200 chromatography. Gel filtration studies suggest that the HMW binding component is an aggregate derived from the IMW fraction. The HMW binding fraction can be separated into two components using anion exchange chromatography

  1. Regulation of Strigolactone Biosynthesis by Gibberellin Signaling1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shinsaku; Yamagami, Daichi; Umehara, Mikihisa; Hanada, Atsushi; Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Yajima, Shunsuke; Kyozuka, Junko; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Matsuoka, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro

    2017-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) are a class of plant hormones that regulate diverse physiological processes, including shoot branching and root development. They also act as rhizosphere signaling molecules to stimulate the germination of root parasitic weeds and the branching of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Although various types of cross talk between SLs and other hormones have been reported in physiological analyses, the cross talk between gibberellin (GA) and SLs is poorly understood. We screened for chemicals that regulate the level of SLs in rice (Oryza sativa) and identified GA as, to our knowledge, a novel SL-regulating molecule. The regulation of SL biosynthesis by GA is dependent on the GA receptor GID1 and F-box protein GID2. GA treatment also reduced the infection of rice plants by the parasitic plant witchers weed (Striga hermonthica). These data not only demonstrate, to our knowledge, the novel plant hormone cross talk between SL and GA, but also suggest that GA can be used to control parasitic weed infections. PMID:28404726

  2. Brassinosteroid regulates cell elongation by modulating gibberellin metabolism in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Hongning; Xiao, Yunhua; Liu, Dapu; Gao, Shaopei; Liu, Linchuan; Yin, Yanhai; Jin, Yun; Qian, Qian; Chu, Chengcai

    2014-11-01

    Brassinosteroid (BR) and gibberellin (GA) are two predominant hormones regulating plant cell elongation. A defect in either of these leads to reduced plant growth and dwarfism. However, their relationship remains unknown in rice (Oryza sativa). Here, we demonstrated that BR regulates cell elongation by modulating GA metabolism in rice. Under physiological conditions, BR promotes GA accumulation by regulating the expression of GA metabolic genes to stimulate cell elongation. BR greatly induces the expression of D18/GA3ox-2, one of the GA biosynthetic genes, leading to increased GA1 levels, the bioactive GA in rice seedlings. Consequently, both d18 and loss-of-function GA-signaling mutants have decreased BR sensitivity. When excessive active BR is applied, the hormone mostly induces GA inactivation through upregulation of the GA inactivation gene GA2ox-3 and also represses BR biosynthesis, resulting in decreased hormone levels and growth inhibition. As a feedback mechanism, GA extensively inhibits BR biosynthesis and the BR response. GA treatment decreases the enlarged leaf angles in plants with enhanced BR biosynthesis or signaling. Our results revealed a previously unknown mechanism underlying BR and GA crosstalk depending on tissues and hormone levels, which greatly advances our understanding of hormone actions in crop plants and appears much different from that in Arabidopsis thaliana. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  3. Methylation of Gibberellins by Arabidopsis GAMT1 and GAMT2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varbanova,M.; Yamaguchi, S.; Yang, Y.; McKelvey, K.; Hanada, A.; Borochov, R.; Yu, F.; Jikumaru, Y.; Ross, J.; et al

    2007-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana GAMT1 and GAMT2 encode enzymes that catalyze formation of the methyl esters of gibberellins (GAs). Ectopic expression of GAMT1 or GAMT2 in Arabidopsis, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), and petunia (Petunia hybrida) resulted in plants with GA deficiency and typical GA deficiency phenotypes, such as dwarfism and reduced fertility. GAMT1 and GAMT2 are both expressed mainly in whole siliques (including seeds), with peak transcript levels from the middle until the end of silique development. Within whole siliques, GAMT2 was previously shown to be expressed mostly in developing seeds, and we show here that GAMT1 expression is also localized mostly to seed, suggesting a role in seed development. Siliques of null single GAMT1 and GAMT2 mutants accumulated high levels of various GAs, with particularly high levels of GA1 in the double mutant. Methylated GAs were not detected in wild-type siliques, suggesting that methylation of GAs by GAMT1 and GAMT2 serves to deactivate GAs and initiate their degradation as the seeds mature. Seeds of homozygous GAMT1 and GAMT2 null mutants showed reduced inhibition of germination, compared with the wild type, when placed on plates containing the GA biosynthesis inhibitor ancymidol, with the double mutant showing the least inhibition. These results suggest that the mature mutant seeds contained higher levels of active GAs than wild-type seeds.

  4. Adventitious staminate flower formation in gibberellin treated gynoecious cucumber plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, E.; Atsmon, D.; Halevy, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    Single gibberellin (A sub(4 + 7)) treatments induced the appearance of staminate floral buds in several consecutive nodes on the main stem of genetically female cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). The staminate buds appeared next to pistillate buds which showed various degrees of degeneration. Similarly, repeated GA treatments induced the appearance of staminate flowers in otherwise strictly hermaphrodite plants, next to bisexual flowers. However, the bisexual buds, unlike the pistillate ones, did not show any deleterious effects of the GA treatment. Therefore, it is inferred that the hormonally induced staminate buds did not develop by sexual reversion of would-be pistillate or bisexual buds, but rather, represent adventitious buds which, in normally grown female or hermaphrodite plants, never develop. It thus seems that predetermined pistillate or bisexual buds do not change into staminate ones, while change in the reverse direction has been demonstrated in the past (at least for the gynoecious ones). The effectiveness of the GA treatment in the gynoecious plants showed an acropetal gradient both within the affected region, as well as along the main stem. Autoradiographic histological examinations showed that the course of development of the induced staminate floral bud did not differ from that of normally developing buds. (auth.)

  5. Gibberellins in shoots and developing capsules of Populus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, David W; Hutt, Oliver E; Rood, Stewart B; Mander, Lewis N

    2002-03-01

    Extracts of stems of growing shoots of Populus deltoides and P. trichocarpa, and developing capsules of P. deltoides were analysed for gibberellins (GAs) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The following known GAs were identified by comparison of their Kovats retention indices (KRIs) and mass spectra with those of standards: GA1, GA8, GA9, GA19, GA20, 16 beta,17-dihydro-17-hydroxy GA20, GA23, GA28, GA29, GA34, GA44, and GA97. Several of these have not been previously reported from Populus. In addition, two new GAs were identified as 12 beta-hydroxy GA53 (GA127) and 16 beta,17-dihydro-17-hydroxy GA53 and their structures were confirmed by partial synthesis. Evidence was found of 16,17-dihydro-16,17-dihydroxy GA9, 16,17-dihydro-16,17-dihydroxy GA12, 12-hydroxy GA14, and GA34-catabolite by comparison of mass spectra and KRIs with published data. Several putative GAs (hydroxy- and dihydroxy-GA12-like) were also found. The catabolites of active GAs or of key precursors, hydroxylated at C-2 in stems and either C-2, C-12, C-17, or C-16,17 in capsules, were the major proportion of the GAs.

  6. Use of Fe(III) oxalate for oxidativewastewater treatment; Einsatz von Fe(III)-Oxalat zur chemisch-oxidativen Abwasserbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.M.; Vogelpohl, A. [Clausthal Univ., Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik

    1998-08-01

    Iron(III)-oxalate was used as an iron catalyst for the Photo Fenton reaction. Iron(III) oxalations ([Fe(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}]{sup 3-}) are reduced to Fe(II) by irradiation using near UV-light ({lambda} = 300 - 400 nm) or visible light ({lambda} > 400 nm). At the same time, CO{sub 2}{sup -} or C{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup -}-radicals originate, which cause the secondary reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II). By means of the photolytically regenerated Fe(II) ions, hydroxyl radicals are increasingly formed, so that the degradation of organic substances is accelerated. The work aimed to assess the catalytic effect of Fe(III) oxalate for photochemical oxidation processes and to establish the parameters influencing further treatment of leachate from a municipal waste sanitary landfill by means of technical-scale experiments. (orig.) [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde Eisen(III)-Oxalat als Eisenkatalysator fuer die Photo-Fenton-Reaktion eingesetzt. Eisen(III)-Oxalationen ([Fe(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}]{sup 3-}) werden durch Strahlung mit nahem UV-Licht ({lambda}=300 bis 400 nm) oder mit sichtbarem Licht ({lambda}>400 nm) zu Fe(II) reduziert. Gleichzeitig entstehen CO{sub 2}{sup .-} oder C{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup .-}-Radikale, die eine sekundaere Reduktion von Fe(III) zu Fe(II) bewirken. Mit Hilfe der photolytiisch regenerierten Fe(II)-Ionen werden vermehrt Hydroxylradikale gebildet und damit die Abbaugeschwindigkeit der organischen Substanzen beschleunigt. Ziel der hier vorgestellten Arbeit war es, die katalytische Wirkung von Fe(III)-Oxalat fuer photochemische Oxidationsverfahren abzuschaetzen und die Einflussparameter zur weitergehenden Behandlung eines Deponiesickerwassers aus Hausmuelldeponie anhand von Technikumsversuchen zu ermitteln. (orig.)

  7. Nutzerorientiertes Management von materiellen und immateriellen Informationsobjekten

    OpenAIRE

    Hübsch, Chris

    2001-01-01

    Schaffung einer stabilen, erweiterbaren und skalierbaren Infrastruktur für die Bereitstellung von Diensten im Umfeld von Bibliotheken und ähnlichen wissensanbietenden Einrichtungen unter Verwendung von XML-RPC und Python.

  8. Colonization by the endophyte Piriformospora indica leads to early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana likely by triggering gibberellin biosynthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dongjin; Abdelaziz, Mohamad E.; Ntui, Valentine Otang; Guo, Xiujie; Al-Babili, Salim

    2017-01-01

    Piriformospora indica is an endophytic fungus colonizing roots of a wide variety of plants. Previous studies showed that P. indica promotes early flowering and plant growth in the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii. To determine the impact of P. indica on flowering time in Arabidopsis, we co-cultivated the plants with P. indica under long day condition. P. indica inoculated Arabidopsis plants displayed significant early flowering phenotype. qRT-PCR analysis of colonized plants revealed an up-regulation of flowering regulatory (FLOWERING LOCUS T, LEAFY, and APETALA1) and gibberellin biosynthetic (Gibberellin 20-Oxidase2, Gibberellin 3-Oxidase1 and Gibberellin requiring1) genes, while the flowering-repressing gene FLOWERING LOCUS C was down regulated. Quantification of gibberellins content showed that the colonization with P. indica caused an increase in GA4 content. Compared to wild-type plants, inoculation of the Arabidopsis ga5 mutant affected in gibberellin biosynthetic gene led to less pronounced changes in the expression of genes regulating flowering and to a lower increase in GA4 content. Taken together, our data indicate that P. indica promotes early flowering in Arabidopsis likely by increasing gibberellin content.

  9. Colonization by the endophyte Piriformospora indica leads to early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana likely by triggering gibberellin biosynthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dongjin

    2017-06-28

    Piriformospora indica is an endophytic fungus colonizing roots of a wide variety of plants. Previous studies showed that P. indica promotes early flowering and plant growth in the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii. To determine the impact of P. indica on flowering time in Arabidopsis, we co-cultivated the plants with P. indica under long day condition. P. indica inoculated Arabidopsis plants displayed significant early flowering phenotype. qRT-PCR analysis of colonized plants revealed an up-regulation of flowering regulatory (FLOWERING LOCUS T, LEAFY, and APETALA1) and gibberellin biosynthetic (Gibberellin 20-Oxidase2, Gibberellin 3-Oxidase1 and Gibberellin requiring1) genes, while the flowering-repressing gene FLOWERING LOCUS C was down regulated. Quantification of gibberellins content showed that the colonization with P. indica caused an increase in GA4 content. Compared to wild-type plants, inoculation of the Arabidopsis ga5 mutant affected in gibberellin biosynthetic gene led to less pronounced changes in the expression of genes regulating flowering and to a lower increase in GA4 content. Taken together, our data indicate that P. indica promotes early flowering in Arabidopsis likely by increasing gibberellin content.

  10. Evolutionary rate patterns of the Gibberellin pathway genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Fu-min

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of molecular evolutionary patterns of different genes within metabolic pathways allows us to determine whether these genes are subject to equivalent evolutionary forces and how natural selection shapes the evolution of proteins in an interacting system. Although previous studies found that upstream genes in the pathway evolved more slowly than downstream genes, the correlation between evolutionary rate and position of the genes in metabolic pathways as well as its implications in molecular evolution are still less understood. Results We sequenced and characterized 7 core structural genes of the gibberellin biosynthetic pathway from 8 representative species of the rice tribe (Oryzeae to address alternative hypotheses regarding evolutionary rates and patterns of metabolic pathway genes. We have detected significant rate heterogeneity among 7 GA pathway genes for both synonymous and nonsynonymous sites. Such rate variation is mostly likely attributed to differences of selection intensity rather than differential mutation pressures on the genes. Unlike previous argument that downstream genes in metabolic pathways would evolve more slowly than upstream genes, the downstream genes in the GA pathway did not exhibited the elevated substitution rate and instead, the genes that encode either the enzyme at the branch point (GA20ox or enzymes catalyzing multiple steps (KO, KAO and GA3ox in the pathway had the lowest evolutionary rates due to strong purifying selection. Our branch and codon models failed to detect signature of positive selection for any lineage and codon of the GA pathway genes. Conclusion This study suggests that significant heterogeneity of evolutionary rate of the GA pathway genes is mainly ascribed to differential constraint relaxation rather than the positive selection and supports the pathway flux theory that predicts that natural selection primarily targets enzymes that have the greatest control on fluxes.

  11. Gibberellin regulates pollen viability and pollen tube growth in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhun, Tory; Aya, Koichiro; Asano, Kenji; Yamamoto, Eiji; Morinaka, Yoichi; Watanabe, Masao; Kitano, Hidemi; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Matsuoka, Makoto; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako

    2007-12-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) play many biological roles in higher plants. We collected and performed genetic analysis on rice (Oryza sativa) GA-related mutants, including GA-deficient and GA-insensitive mutants. Genetic analysis of the mutants revealed that rice GA-deficient mutations are not transmitted as Mendelian traits to the next generation following self-pollination of F1 heterozygous plants, although GA-insensitive mutations are transmitted normally. To understand these differences in transmission, we examined the effect of GA on microsporogenesis and pollen tube elongation in rice using new GA-deficient and GA-insensitive mutants that produce semifertile flowers. Phenotypic analysis revealed that the GA-deficient mutant reduced pollen elongation1 is defective in pollen tube elongation, resulting in a low fertilization frequency, whereas the GA-insensitive semidominant mutant Slr1-d3 is mainly defective in viable pollen production. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that GA biosynthesis genes tested whose mutations are transmitted to the next generation at a lower frequency are preferentially expressed after meiosis during pollen development, but expression is absent or very low before the meiosis stage, whereas GA signal-related genes are actively expressed before meiosis. Based on these observations, we predict that the transmission of GA-signaling genes occurs in a sporophytic manner, since the protein products and/or mRNA transcripts of these genes may be introduced into pollen-carrying mutant alleles, whereas GA synthesis genes are transmitted in a gametophytic manner, since these genes are preferentially expressed after meiosis.

  12. Light Regulation of Gibberellin Biosynthesis and Mode of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martinez, José Luis; Gil, Joan

    2001-12-01

    Some phenotypic effects produced in plants by light are very similar to those induced by hormones. In this review, the light-gibberellin (GA) interaction in germination, de-etiolation, stem growth, and tuber formation (process regulated by GAs) are discussed. Germination of lettuce and Arabidopsis seeds depends on red irradiation (R), which enhances the expression of GA 3-oxidase genes (GA3ox) and leads to an increase in active GA content. De-etiolation of pea seedling alters the expression of GA20ox and GA3ox genes and induces a rapid decrease of GA1 content. Stem growth of green plants is also affected by diverse light irradiation characteristics. Low light intensity increases stem elongation and active GA content in pea and Brassica. Photoperiod controls active GA levels in long-day rosette (spinach and Silene) and in woody plants (Salix and hybrid aspen) by regulating different steps of GA biosynthesis, mainly through transcript levels of GA20ox and GA3ox genes. Light modulation of stem elongation in light-grown plants is controlled by phytochrome, which modifies GA biosynthesis and catabolism (tobacco, potato, cowpea, Arabidopsis) and GA-response (pea, cucumber, Arabidopsis). In Arabidopsis and tobacco, ATH1 (a gene encoding an homeotic transcription factor) is a positive mediator of a phyB-specific signal transduction cascade controlling GA levels by regulating the expression of GA20ox and GA3ox. Tuber formation in potato is controlled by photoperiod (through phyB) and GAs. Inductive short-day conditions alter the diurnal rhythm of GA20ox transcript abundance, and increases the expression of a new protein (PHOR1) that plays a role in the photoperiod-GA interaction.

  13. Expression Studies of Gibberellin Oxidases in Developing Pumpkin Seeds1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisse, Andrea; Pimenta, Maria João; Lange, Theo

    2003-01-01

    Two cDNA clones, 3-ox and 2-ox, have been isolated from developing pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) embryos that show significant amino acid homology to gibberellin (GA) 3-oxidases and 2-oxidases, respectively. Recombinant fusion protein of clone 3-ox converted GA12-aldehyde, GA12, GA15, GA24, GA25, and GA9 to GA14-aldehyde, GA14, GA37, GA36, GA13, and GA4, respectively. Recombinant 2-ox protein oxidized GA9, GA4, and GA1 to GA51, GA34, and GA8, respectively. Previously cloned GA 7-oxidase revealed additional 3β-hydroxylation activity of GA12. Transcripts of this gene were identified in endosperm and embryo of the developing seed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and localized in protoderm, root apical meristem, and quiescent center by in situ hybridization. mRNA of the previously cloned GA 20-oxidase from pumpkin seeds was localized in endosperm and in tissues of protoderm, ground meristem, and cotyledons of the embryo. However, transcripts of the recently cloned GA 20-oxidase from pumpkin seedlings were found all over the embryo, and in tissues of the inner seed coat at the micropylar end. Previously cloned GA 2β,3β-hydroxylase mRNA molecules were specifically identified in endosperm tissue. Finally, mRNA molecules of the 3-ox and 2-ox genes were found in the embryo only. 3-ox transcripts were localized in tissues of cotyledons, protoderm, and inner cell layers of the root apical meristem, and 2-ox transcripts were found in all tissues of the embryo except the root tips. These results indicate tissue-specific GA-biosynthetic pathways operating within the developing seed. PMID:12644672

  14. Auxin-induced nitric oxide, cGMP and gibberellins were involved in the gravitropism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weiming; Hu, Liwei; Hu, Xiangyang; Cui, Dayong; Cai, Weiming

    Gravitropism is the asymmetric growth or curvature of plant organs in response to gravistimulation. There is a complex signal transduction cascade which involved in the differential growth of plants in response to changes in the gravity vector. The role of auxin in gravitropism has been demonstrated by many experiments, but little is known regarding the molecular details of such effects. In our studies before, mediation of the gravitropic bending of soybean roots and rice leaf sheath bases by nitric oxide, cGMP and gibberellins, are induced by auxin. The asymmetrical distribution of nitric oxide, cGMP and gibberellins resulted from the asymmetrical synthesis of them in bending sites. In soybean roots, inhibitions of NO and cGMP synthesis reduced differential NO and cGMP accumulation respectively, which both of these effects can lead to the reduction of gravitropic bending. Gibberellin-induced OsXET, OsEXPA4 and OsRWC3 were also found involved in the gravitropic bending. These data indicated that auxin-induced nitric oxide, cGMP and gibberellins were involved in the gravitropism. More experiments need to prove the more detailed mechanism of them.

  15. Analysis of Transcriptional Responses of the Inflorescence Meristems in Jatropha curcas Following Gibberellin Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Kai Hui

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas L. seeds an oilseed plant with great potential for biodiesel production. However, low seed yield, which was limited by its lower female flowers, was a major drawback for its utilization. Our previous study found that the flower number and female-to-male ratio were increased by gibberellin treatment. Here, we compared the transcriptomic profiles of inflorescence meristem at different time points after gibberellic acid A3 (GA3 treatment. The present study showed that 951 differentially expressed genes were obtained in response to gibberellin treatment, compared with control samples. The 6-h time point was an important phase in the response to exogenous gibberellin. Furthermore, the plant endogenous gibberellin, auxin, ethylene, abscisic acid, and brassinolide-signaling transduction pathways were repressed, whereas the genes associated with cytokinin and jasmonic acid signaling were upregulated for 24-h time point following GA3 treatment. In addition, the floral meristem determinacy genes (JcLFY, JcSOC1 and floral organ identity genes (JcAP3, JcPI, JcSEP1-3 were significantly upregulated, but their negative regulator (JcSVP was downregulated after GA3 treatment. Moreover, the effects of phytohormone, which was induced by exogenous plant growth regulator, mainly acted on the female floral differentiation process. To the best of our knowledge, this data is the first comprehensive analysis of the underlying transcriptional response mechanism of floral differentiation following GA3 treatment in J. curcas, which helps in engineering high-yielding varieties of Jatropha.

  16. Gibberellin requirement for Arabidopsis seed germination is determined both by testa characteristics and embryonic abscisic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debeaujon, I.; Koornneef, M.

    2000-01-01

    The mechanisms imposing a gibberellin (GA) requirement to promote the germination of dormant and non-dormant Arabidopsis seeds were analyzed using the GA-deficient mutant ga1, several seed coat pigmentation and structure mutants, and the abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient mutant aba1. Testa mutants,

  17. Gibberellin hormone signal perception: down-regulating DELLA repressors of plant growth and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gibberellin (GA) hormone signal is perceived by a receptor with homology to hormone sensitive lipases, GID1 (GA-INSENSITIVE DWARF1). This leads to GA-stimulated responses including stem elongation, seed germination, and the transition to flowering. GA-binding enables GID1 to interact with and ...

  18. Gibberellin-Abscisic Acid Balances during Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Formation in Tomato

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martin-Rodriguez, J.A.; Huertas, R.; Ho-Plagaro, T.; Ocampo, J.A.; Turečková, Veronika; Tarkowská, Danuše; Ludwig-Mueller, J.; Garcia-Garrido, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, AUG 23 (2016), s. 1273 ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-34792S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhiza * plant hormones * gibberellins Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.298, year: 2016

  19. Detection of endogenous gibberellins and their relationship to hypocotyl elongation in soybean seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensen, R.J.; Beall, F.D.; Mullet, J.E.; Morgan, P.W.

    1990-01-01

    Four gibberellins, GA 53 , GA 19 , GA 20 , and GA 1 , were detected by bioassay, chromatography in two HPLC systems, and combined gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy-selected ion monitoring (GC-MS-SIM) in etiolated soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) hypocotyls. GC-MS-SIM employed [ 2 H 2 ]-labeled standards for each endogenous gibberellin detected, and quantities estimated from bioassays and GC-MS-SIM were similar. This result plus the tentative detection of GA 44 and GA 8 (standards not available) indicates that the early-C-13-hydroxylation pathway for gibberellin biosynthesis predominates in soybean hypocotyls. Other gibberellins were not detected. Growth rates decreased after transfer to low water potential (ψ w ) vermiculite and were completely arrested 24 hours after transfer. The GA 1 content in the elongating region of hypocotyls had declined to 38% of the 0 time value at 24 hours after transfer to low ψ w vermiculite, a level which was only 13% of the GA 1 content in control seedlings at the same time (24 hours posttransfer). Seedlings were growth responsive to exogenous GA 3 , and this GA 3 -promoted growth was inhibited by exogenous ABA. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that changes in GA 1 and ABA levels play a role in adjusting hypocotyl elongation rates. However, the changes observed are not of sufficient magnitude nor do they occur rapidly enough to suggest they are the primary regulators of elongation rate responses to rapidly changing plant water status

  20. CYP714B1 and CYP714B2 encode gibberellin 13-oxidases that reduce gibberellin activity in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magome, Hiroshi; Nomura, Takahito; Hanada, Atsushi; Takeda-Kamiya, Noriko; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Shinma, Yuko; Katsumata, Takumi; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Kamiya, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro

    2013-01-29

    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) control many aspects of growth and development in plants. GA(1) has been the most frequently found bioactive GA in various tissues of flowering plants, but the enzymes responsible for GA(1) biosynthesis have not been fully elucidated due to the enzymes catalyzing the 13-hydroxylation step not being identified. Because of the lack of mutants defective in this enzyme, biological significance of GA 13-hydroxylation has been unknown. Here, we report that two cytochrome P450 genes, CYP714B1 and CYP714B2, encode GA 13-oxidase in rice. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants that overexpress CYP714B1 or CYP714B2 show semidwarfism. There was a trend that the levels of 13-OH GAs including GA(1) were increased in these transgenic plants. Functional analysis using yeast or insect cells shows that recombinant CYP714B1 and CYP714B2 proteins can convert GA(12) into GA(53) (13-OH GA(12)) in vitro. Moreover, the levels of 13-OH GAs including GA(1) were decreased, whereas those of 13-H GAs including GA(4) (which is more active than GA(1)) were increased, in the rice cyp714b1 cyp714b2 double mutant. These results indicate that CYP714B1 and CYP714B2 play a predominant role in GA 13-hydroxylation in rice. The double mutant plants appear phenotypically normal until heading, but show elongated uppermost internode at the heading stage. Moreover, CYP714B1 and CYP714B2 expression was up-regulated by exogenous application of bioactive GAs. Our results suggest that GA 13-oxidases play a role in fine-tuning plant growth by decreasing GA bioactivity in rice and that they also participate in GA homeostasis.

  1. Heterosis in rice seedlings: its relationship to gibberellin content and expression of gibberellin metabolism and signaling genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qian; Hedden, Peter; Zhang, Qifa

    2011-08-01

    Despite the accumulation of data on the genetic and molecular understanding of heterosis, there is little information on the regulation of heterosis at the physiological level. In this study, we performed a quantitative analysis of endogenous gibberellin (GA) content and expression profiling of the GA metabolism and signaling genes to investigate the possible relationship between GA signaling and heterosis for seedling development in rice (Oryza sativa). The materials used were an incomplete diallele set of 3 × 3 crosses and the six parents. In the growing shoots of the seedlings at 20 d after sowing, significant positive correlations between the contents of some GA species and performance and heterosis based on shoot dry mass were detected. Expression analyses of GA-related genes by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that 13 out of the 16 GA-related genes examined exhibited significant differential expression among the F1 hybrid and its parents, acting predominantly in the modes of overdominance and positive dominance. Expression levels of nine genes in the hybrids displayed significant positive correlations with the heterosis of shoot dry mass. These results imply that GAs play a positive role in the regulation of heterosis for rice seedling development. In shoots plus root axes of 4-d-old germinating seeds that had undergone the deetiolation, mimicking normal germination in soil, the axis dry mass was positively correlated with the content of GA₂₉ but negatively correlated with that of GA₁₉. Our findings provide supporting evidence for GAs playing an important regulatory role in heterosis for rice seedling development.

  2. Development of biotest assays using cell cultures from fish for the demonstration of lethal and sublethal damage to organisms due to environmental pollutants in water. Cellular biomarkers in fish cell cultures; Entwicklung von Biotestverfahren mit Zellkulturen aus Fischen zum Nachweis letaler und subletaler Schaeden von Organismen durch Umweltschadstoffe im Wasser. Zellulaere Biomarker in Fischzellkulturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braunbeck, T [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Zoologisches Inst. 1

    1994-06-01

    Methoden zum Nachweis des (oeko-)toxikologischen Potential von Schadstoffen dar. In allen Experimenten konnten klare Zeit-Wirkungs- und Dosis-Wirkungs-Beziehungen aufgestellt werden. Isolierte Hepatocyten aus der Leber der Regebogenforelle reagieren empfindlicher als die parallel untersuchten permanenten Zellinien R1 und RTG-2. In Cytotoxizitaetstests mit den bibrocytischen Fischzellinien R1 und RTG-2 aus der Leber bzw. der Gonade der Regenbogenforelle wurden fuer verschiedene organische Schadstoffe und organische und anorganische Schwermetallverbindungen Cytotoxizitaetsdaten erhoben. Diese Erkenntnisse wurden einem Konzept fuer den Einsatz von mehrstugigen Zelltests zur Abschaetzung des oekotoxikologischen Potentials von Umweltschadstoffen zugrunde gelegt, das hier vorgestellt wird. (orig./VHE)

  3. Plant growth enhancement and associated physiological responses are coregulated by ethylene and gibberellin in response to harpin protein Hpa1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojie; Han, Bing; Xu, Manyu; Han, Liping; Zhao, Yanying; Liu, Zhilan; Dong, Hansong; Zhang, Chunling

    2014-04-01

    The harpin protein Hpa1 produced by the bacterial blight pathogen of rice induces several growth-promoting responses in plants, activating the ethylene signaling pathway, increasing photosynthesis rates and EXPANSIN (EXP) gene expression levels, and thereby enhancing the vegetative growth. This study was attempted to analyze any mechanistic connections among the above and the role of gibberellin in these responses. Hpa1-induced growth enhancement was evaluated in Arabidopsis, tomato, and rice. And growth-promoting responses were determined mainly as an increase of chlorophyll a/b ratio, which indicates a potential elevation of photosynthesis rates, and enhancements of photosynthesis and EXP expression in the three plant species. In Arabidopsis, Hpa1-induced growth-promoting responses were partially compromised by a defect in ethylene perception or gibberellin biosynthesis. In tomato and rice, compromises of Hpa1-induced growth-promoting responses were caused by a pharmacological treatment with an ethylene perception inhibitor or a gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor. In the three plant species, moreover, Hpa1-induced growth-promoting responses were significantly impaired, but not totally eliminated, by abolishing ethylene perception or gibberellin synthesis. However, simultaneous nullifications in both ethylene perception and gibberellin biosynthesis almost canceled the full effects of Hpa1 on plant growth, photosynthesis, and EXP2 expression. Theses results suggest that ethylene and gibberellin coregulate Hpa1-induced plant growth enhancement and associated physiological and molecular responses.

  4. Von der Vielfalt einer Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Kabaum, Marcel; Buck, Marc Fabian

    2013-01-01

    Von der Vielfalt von Universitäten bzw. higher education institutions (HEIs) zu sprechen heißt, sich dem Dickicht an Komplexität zu stellen, das sich zwischen ihren Ideen und Realitäten ausbreitet. Der Text führt in den Sammelband "Ideen und Realitäten von Universitäten" ein und hebt die verschiedenen disziplinären Sichtweisen sowie die internationale Breite - Deutschland, Südamerika, USA, Afghanistan und China - der Beiträge hervor. (DIPF/Orig.)

  5. Alejandro Von Humboldt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Paz Otero

    1965-09-01

    Full Text Available Diverso fue y sigue siéndolo, el destino de los dos hermanos Humboldt, Guillermo y Alejandro. Sino que se inicia con el nacimiento: Guillermo, el mayor, nace el 22 de junio de 1767 en Potsdam, residencia de los emperadores prusianos, la ciudad de los palacios imperiales, el imperio del militarismo germano; su cuna se meció cerca al palacete de Sans-Soussi, donde Federico el Grande forja ba el poderío de Prusia, cultivaba las ciencias y las artes, anfitrionaba a los intelectuales de Europa, y era "vasallo espiritual de Volta ire", según la aguda frase de Goethe. Alejandro viene al mundo dos años después (14 de septiembre de 1769 en Berlín, en la casa burguesa de la Jagerstrasse (calle del cazador que su madre Elizabeth von Humboldt heredara de su primer esposo.

  6. Biosynthesis of 12α-and 13-hydroxylated gibberellins in a cell-free system from Cucurbita maxima endosperm and the identification of new endogenous gibberellins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, T; Hedden, P; Graebe, J E

    1993-03-01

    Gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis in cell-free systems from Cucurbita maxima L. endosperm was reinvestigated using incubation conditions different from those employed in previous work. The metabolism of GA12 yielded GA13, GA43 and 12α-hydroxyGA43 as major products, GA4, GA37, GA39, GA46 and four unidentified compounds as minor products. The intermediates GA15, GA24 and GA25 accumulated at low protein concentrations. The structure of the previously uncharacterised 12α-hydroxyGA43 was inferred from its mass spectrum and by its formation from both GA39 and GA43. Gibberellin A39 and 12α-hydroxyGA43 were formed by a soluble 12α-hydroxylase that had not been detected before. Gibberellin A12-aldehyde was metabolised to essentially the same products as GA12 but with less efficiency. A new 13-hydroxylation pathway was found. Gibberellin A53, formed from GA12 by a microsomal oxidase, was converted by soluble 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxidases to GA1 GA23, GA28, GA44, and putative 2β-hydroxyGA28. Minor products were GA19, GA20, GA38 and three unidentified GAs. Microsomal 13-hydroxylation (the formation of GA53) was suppressed by the cofactors for 2-oxoglutarate-dependent enzymes. Reinvestigation of the endogenous GAs confirmed the significance of the new metabolic products. In addition to the endogenous GAs reported by Blechschmidt et al. (1984, Phytochemistry 23, 553-558), GA1, GA8, GA25, GA28, GA36, GA48 and 12α-hydroxyGA43 were identified by full-scan capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and Kovats retention indices. Thus both the 12α-hydroxylation and the 13-hydroxylation pathways found in the cell-free system operate also in vivo, giving rise to 12α-hydroxyGA43 and GA1 (or GA8), respectively, as their end products. Evidence for endogenous GA20 and GA24 was also obtained but it was less conclusive due to interference.

  7. Evaluation of the water hazard potential of solid wastes. Pt. 1. Experimental results; Untersuchung von Abfaellen mit biologischen Testverfahren zur Bewertung der Wassergefaehrdung. T. 1. Experimentelle Ergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brackemann, H.; Hahn, J.; Vogel, U. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany); Hagendorf, U. [Umweltbundesamt, Langen (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Wastes from three different types of waste treatment facilities (slag from a municipal waste incineration plant, slag granules from a pilot plant combining carbonization and incineration, mechanical and biological treated wastes) were examined to determine their hazard potential to different waters sites. The process temperature is seen to be the main difference between the three treatment processes. The wastes were extracted with water according to the German standard DIN 38414 S 4 and additionally at a constant pH value of 4. The leachates were investigated in a battery of aquatic bioassays and characterised physically and chemically. Every leachate revealed in a toxic effect at least in one test. The toxicity of the leachates prepared at a pH of 4 was significantly higher than the toxicity of the leachates prepared by extraction with water without pH adjustment. The leachates of the slag granules showed the lowest toxicity. On the basis of these experimental results, a scheme to derive Water Hazard Classes of wastes, which is presented in part II of this publication, was developed. (orig.) [German] Zur Bestimmung der wassergefaehrdenden Eigenschaften wurden die Eluate von Abfaellen/Rueckstaenden aus drei verschiedenen Abfallbehandlungsanlagen untersucht (Schlacke aus einer Abfallverbrennungsanlage (Rostfeuerung), Schmelzgranulat aus einer Versuchsanlage mit kombinierter Verschwelung und Hochtemperaturverbrennung sowie biologisch-mechanisch behandelter Abfall). Ein wesentlicher Unterschied dieser drei Verfahren liegt in der Behandlungstemperatur. Die Rueckstaende wurden nach DIN 38414, Teil 4 sowie bei einem konstant eingestellten pH-Wert von 4 eluiert. Die Eluate wurden mit verschiedenen aquatischen Biotests untersucht sowie physikalisch-chemisch charakterisiert. Dabei zeigte sich, dass jedes untersuchte Eluat in mindestens einem Test eine toxische Wirkung aufwies; die Toxizitaet der bei saurem pH-Wert durchgefuehrten Elutionen war deutlich erhoeht. Die Eluate

  8. Kleben von Kunststoff mit Metall

    CERN Document Server

    Brockmann, W; Käufer, H

    1989-01-01

    Das Buch behandelt das Kleben von Kunststoffen mit Metallen in einer fur den Praktiker verstandlichen und umsetzbaren Form. Es leitet zu Klebeverfahren an, die optimale Ergebnisse hinsichtlich Qualitat, Dauerhaftigkeit und Wirtschaftlichkeit liefern.

  9. Studies on the role of gibberellins in the regulation of spermatogenesis in Chara vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kwiatkowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antheridia from isolated nodes of Chara vulgaris, developing in the presence of either AMO-1618 or GA3, were studied. AMO-1618 which lowers the level of endogenous gibberellins causes a significant, proportional to the concentration, reduction in: 1 the number of antheridial filaments formed in antheridia, 2 spermatid number within a filament, as a result of eliminating one mitotic division at the first stage of spermatogenesis. Exogenous GA3 at the concentration 10-5 M evokes opposite effect i.e. increase in the number of antheridial filaments and increase in the number of spermatids within filament. Total number of spermatids within an antheridium decreases under the influence of 10-4M AMO-1618 three times in comparison with the control, whereas it increases twice following 10-5M GA3 treatment. It has been suggested that the normal course of spermatogenesis requires precisely determined level of endogenous gibberellins.

  10. Comparison of Effect of Brassinosteroid and Gibberellin Biosynthesis Inhibitors on Growth of Rice Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Matusmoto, Tadashi; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Yoshizawa, Yuko; Oh, Keimei

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroid (BR) and gibberellin (GA) are two predominant plant hormones that regulate plant cell elongation. Mutants disrupt the biosynthesis of these hormones and display different degrees of dwarf phenotypes in rice. Although the role of each plant hormone in promoting the longitudinal growth of plants has been extensively studied using genetic methods, their relationship is still poorly understood. In this study, we used two specific inhibitors targeting BR and GA biosynthesis to inve...

  11. QTL analysis of internode elongation in response to gibberellin in deepwater rice

    OpenAIRE

    Nagai, Keisuke; Kondo, Yuma; Kitaoka, Takuya; Noda, Tomonori; Kuroha, Takeshi; Angeles-Shim, Rosalyn B.; Yasui, Hideshi; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Ashikari, Motoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Gibberellin (GA) is a plant hormone that has important roles in numerous plant developmental phases. Rice plants known as deepwater rice respond to flooding by elongating their internodes to avoid anoxia. Previous studies reported that GA is essential for internode elongation in deepwater rice. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses identified QTLs regulating internode elongation in response to deepwater conditions. However, the interaction between internode elongation and regulators of GA s...

  12. Microarray and Proteomic Analysis of Brassinosteroid- and Gibberellin-Regulated Gene and Protein Expression in Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Guangxiao; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroid (BR) and gibberellin (GA) are two groups of plant growth regulators essential for normal plant growth and development. To gain insight into the molecular mechanism by which BR and GA regulate the growth and development of plants, especially the monocot plant rice, it is necessary to identify and analyze more genes and proteins that are regulated by them. With the availability of draft sequences of two major types, japonica and indica rice, it has become possible to analyze exp...

  13. Functional Characterization of Gibberellin-Regulated Genes in Rice Using Microarray System

    OpenAIRE

    Jan, Asad; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2006-01-01

    Gibberellin (GA) is collectively referred to a group of diterpenoid acids, some of which act as plant hormones and are essential for normal plant growth and development. DNA microarray technology has become the standard tool for the parallel quantification of large numbers of messenger RNA transcripts. The power of this approach has been demonstrated in dissecting plant physiology and development, and in unraveling the underlying cellular signaling pathways. To understand the molecular mechan...

  14. Karrikins delay soybean seed germination by mediating abscisic acid and gibberellin biogenesis under shaded conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Yongjie; Chen, Feng; Shuai, Haiwei; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ding, Jun; Tang, Shengwen; Xu, Shuanshuan; Liu, Jianwei; Liu, Weiguo; Du, Junbo; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Feng; Sun, Xin; Yong, Taiwen; Wang, Xiaochun

    2016-01-01

    Karrikins (KAR) are a class of signal compounds, discovered in wildfire smoke, which affect seed germination. Currently, numerous studies have focused on the model plant Arabidopsis in the KAR research field, rather than on crops. Thus the regulatory mechanisms underlying KAR regulation of crop seed germination are largely unknown. Here, we report that KAR delayed soybean seed germination through enhancing abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, while impairing gibberellin (GA) biogenesis. Interest...

  15. Analysis of gibberellins as free acids by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urbanová, Terezie; Tarkowská, Danuše; Novák, Ondřej; Hedden, P.; Strnad, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 2013 (2013), s. 85-94 ISSN 0039-9140 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Gibberellins * Brassica napus * Arabidopsis thaliana Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.511, year: 2013

  16. Interactions between ethylene, gibberellins, and brassinosteroids in the development of rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbioses of pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Eloise; McAdam, Erin L; Weller, James L; Reid, James B

    2016-04-01

    The regulation of arbuscular mycorrhizal development and nodulation involves complex interactions between the plant and its microbial symbionts. In this study, we use the recently identified ethylene-insensitive ein2 mutant in pea (Pisum sativum L.) to explore the role of ethylene in the development of these symbioses. We show that ethylene acts as a strong negative regulator of nodulation, confirming reports in other legumes. Minor changes in gibberellin1 and indole-3-acetic acid levels in ein2 roots appear insufficient to explain the differences in nodulation. Double mutants produced by crosses between ein2 and the severely gibberellin-deficient na and brassinosteroid-deficient lk mutants showed increased nodule numbers and reduced nodule spacing compared with the na and lk single mutants, but nodule numbers and spacing were typical of ein2 plants, suggesting that the reduced number of nodules innaandlkplants is largely due to the elevated ethylene levels previously reported in these mutants. We show that ethylene can also negatively regulate mycorrhizae development when ethylene levels are elevated above basal levels, consistent with a role for ethylene in reducing symbiotic development under stressful conditions. In contrast to the hormone interactions in nodulation, ein2 does not override the effect of lk or na on the development of arbuscular mycorrhizae, suggesting that brassinosteroids and gibberellins influence this process largely independently of ethylene. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  17. OsDOG, a gibberellin-induced A20/AN1 zinc-finger protein, negatively regulates gibberellin-mediated cell elongation in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaju; Xu, Yunyuan; Xiao, Jun; Ma, Qibin; Li, Dan; Xue, Zhen; Chong, Kang

    2011-07-01

    The A20/AN1 zinc-finger proteins (ZFPs) play pivotal roles in animal immune responses and plant stress responses. From previous gibberellin (GA) microarray data and A20/AN1 ZFP family member association, we chose Oryza sativa dwarf rice with overexpression of gibberellin-induced gene (OsDOG) to examine its function in the GA pathway. OsDOG was induced by gibberellic acid (GA(3)) and repressed by the GA-synthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol. Different transgenic lines with constitutive expression of OsDOG showed dwarf phenotypes due to deficiency of cell elongation. Additional GA(1) and real-time PCR quantitative assay analyses confirmed that the decrease of GA(1) in the overexpression lines resulted from reduced expression of GA3ox2 and enhanced expression of GA2ox1 and GA2ox3. Adding exogenous GA rescued the constitutive expression phenotypes of the transgenic lines. OsDOG has a novel function in regulating GA homeostasis and in negative maintenance of plant cell elongation in rice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Richard von Volkmann

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willy, Christian; Schneider, Peter; Engelhardt, Michael; Hargens, Alan R.

    2008-01-01

    Richard von Volkmann (1830–1889), one of the most important surgeons of the 19th century, is regarded as one of the fathers of orthopaedic surgery. He was a contemporary of Langenbeck, Esmarch, Lister, Billroth, Kocher, and Trendelenburg. He was head of the Department of Surgery at the University of Halle, Germany (1867–1889). His popularity attracted doctors and patients from all over the world. He was the lead physician for the German military during two wars. From this experience, he compared the mortality of civilian and war injuries and investigated the general poor hygienic conditions in civilian hospitals. This led him to introduce the “antiseptic technique” to Germany that was developed by Lister. His powers of observation and creativity led him to findings and achievements that to this day bear his name: Volkmann’s contracture and the Hueter-Volkmann law. Additionally, he was a gifted writer; he published not only scientific literature but also books of children’s fairy tales and poems under the pen name of Richard Leander, assuring him a permanent place in the world of literature as well as orthopaedics. PMID:18196438

  19. Rare sugar D-allose suppresses gibberellin signaling through hexokinase-dependent pathway in Oryza sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Takeshi; Kano, Akihito; Ohtani, Kouhei; Yamasaki-Kokudo, Yumiko; Kim, Bong-Gyu; Hosotani, Kouji; Saito, Miu; Shirakawa, Chikage; Tajima, Shigeyuki; Izumori, Ken; Ohara, Toshiaki; Shigematsu, Yoshio; Tanaka, Keiji; Ishida, Yutaka; Nishizawa, Yoko; Tada, Yasuomi; Ichimura, Kazuya; Gomi, Kenji; Akimitsu, Kazuya

    2011-12-01

    One of the rare sugars, D-allose, which is the epimer of D-glucose at C3, has an inhibitory effect on rice growth, but the molecular mechanisms of the growth inhibition by D-allose were unknown. The growth inhibition caused by D-allose was prevented by treatment with hexokinase inhibitors, D-mannoheptulose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. Furthermore, the Arabidopsis glucose-insensitive2 (gin2) mutant, which is a loss-of-function mutant of the glucose sensor AtHXK1, showed a D-allose-insensitive phenotype. D-Allose strongly inhibited the gibberellin-dependent responses such as elongation of the second leaf sheath and induction of α-amylase in embryo-less half rice seeds. The growth of the slender rice1 (slr1) mutant, which exhibits a constitutive gibberellin-responsive phenotype, was also inhibited by D-allose, and the growth inhibition of the slr1 mutant by D-allose was also prevented by D-mannoheptulose treatment. The expressions of gibberellin-responsive genes were down-regulated by D-allose treatment, and the down-regulations of gibberellin-responsive genes were also prevented by D-mannoheptulose treatment. These findings reveal that D-allose inhibits the gibberellin-signaling through a hexokinase-dependent pathway.

  20. The differential gene expression of key enzyme in the gibberellin pathway in the potato (solanum tuberosum) mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, J.B.; Ye, G.J.; Yang, Y.Z.; Wang, F.; Zhou, Y; Wang, J.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the expression patterns of the key genes in the gibberellin synthesis pathway in the potato dwarf mutant M4P-9 were detected using quantitative real-time PCR. Using Actin as an internal control, CPS1, KS, KO, GA20ox1, and GA2ox1, genes for key gibberellin synthesis enzymes, were evaluated, along with a gibberellin receptor gene. The standard curves were obtained from dilutions of PCR product; the correlation coefficient for Actin was 0.995, and those for the target genes varied from 0.994 to 1.000. The expression patterns of gibberellin pathway genes in different growth stages and tissues were calculated according to the method of Pfaffl. These genes showed expression patterns that varied based on growth stage and tissue type. The higher expression levels of CPS1 and GA2ox1 in roots, the lower expression levels of GA20ox1 in roots during tuber formation stage; as well as the increased expression of GA20ox1 and GA2ox1 genes in stems during the tuber formation stage, likely play key roles in the plant height phenotype in M4P-9 mutant materials. This article provides a basis for researching the mechanism of gibberellin synthesis in potato. (author)

  1. Aggregation und Management von Metadaten im Kontext von Europeana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Koch

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mit dem In-Beziehung-Setzen und Verlinken von Daten im Internet wird der Weg zur Umsetzung des semantischen Webs geebnet. Erst die semantische Verbindung von heterogenen Datenbeständen ermöglicht übergreifende Suchvorgänge und späteres „Machine Learning“. Im Artikel werden die Aktivitäten der Europäischen Digitalen Bibliothek im Bereich des Metadatenmanagements und der semantischen Verlinkung von Daten skizziert. Dabei wird einerseits ein kurzer Überblick zu aktuellen Forschungsschwerpunkten und Umsetzungsstrategien gegeben, und darüber hinaus werden einzelne Projekte und maßgeschneiderte Serviceangebote für naturhistorische Daten, regionale Kultureinrichtungen und Audiosammlungen beschrieben.

  2. Reducing available amounts of heavy metals in contaminated soils by adding iron oxides. Final report; Verringerung der Bioverfuegbarkeit von Schwermetallen in kontaminierten Boeden durch Zugabe von Eisenoxiden. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pluquet, E; Mueller, I

    1998-02-01

    -Industrie, Wasserwerksschlamm aus der Trinkwasseraufbereitung, Raseneisenstein als natuerliches Fe-Oxid, Eisenkugelschrot, ein Produkt zur Oberflaechenbehandlung und Strahlmittelabfall aus der Entzunderung von Stahlblechen) in einer Aufwandmenge von 1% rein Fe pro kg Boden eingebracht. Die Schwermetallgehalte in den Bodenextrakten (DTPA, NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}) und in den Pflanzen gingen im Gefaessversuch durch die Bodenzusaetze deutlich zurueck und wurden durch die wirksamsten Varianten, insbesondere Wasserwerksschlamm um 40-50% (NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}) 30-40% (DTPA) bzw. 30-40% in den Pflanzen vermindert. Die ueber den Versuchszeitraum andauernde Festlegung der Schwermetalle erfolgte in der Reihenfolge Cd>Pb>Zn>Cu. In den Feldversuchen war die immobilisierende Wirkung der Bodenzusaetze zwar vorhanden, aber wesentlich schwaecher ausgepraegt als in den Gefaessversuchen. Fuer bessere Ergebnisse sollte hier eine tiefere und homogenere Einarbeitung der Bodenzusaetze bei eventuell erhoehten Aufwandmengen erfolgen. (orig.)

  3. Environmental effects on fatigue of steels for structural parts in water-steam-circuits of light water reactors. Considerations concerning the question of transferability of results from laboratory tests to real operating conditions; Der Einfluss des Mediums auf Ermuedungsvorgaenge in Staehlen fuer Strukturbauteile in Wasser-Dampf-Kreislaeufen von Leichtwasserreaktoren. Ueberlegungen zur Frage der Uebertragbarkeit von Ergebnissen aus Laborversuchen auf den realen Anlagenbetrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Armin [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Based on material science and physical chemistry it seems plausible that a corrosive medium can influence the fatigue behaviour of structural materials, i.e. steels. It has been shown decades before that high temperature water has significant effects on the fatigue behaviour of steels, decreasing the crack initiation time or increasing the growth rate of existing cracks. At the beginning of nuclear regulations this expected influence of the medium on fatigue of components of nuclear power plants was worldwide not accounted for in the relevant standards (for instance ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, section III). There was a general consideration of medium effects on the da/dN crack growth curves in the ASME Code, section XI for the assessment of the surface flaw behaviour during operation. Historically, these regulations were implemented long before the experimental observation of medium effects on crack initiation and crack growth during fatigue of steels in high-temperature water. Besides this fact there have been worldwide no generic, systematic damages of medium containing components in light-water reactors due to corrosion fatigue. Singular damages with significant medium influenced fatigue features could always be explained by not specified operational transients, like thermal stratification or local flow-induced vibrations. The contribution provides considerations that explain the discrepancy between to worldwide positive operational experience and the definitive experimental indication of a medium-enhanced fatigue. Based on these considerations the author scrutinizes critically the US NRC Regulatory Guide 1.207 with respect to the medium influence on the component's fatigue behaviour. Possibilities for experimental assessment of the discussed hypothesis are shown. [German] Es erscheint aus werkstoffkundlichen und physikalisch-chemischen Gruenden grundsaetzlich plausibel, dass ein korrosives Medium das Ermuedungsverhalten von Strukturwerkstoffen, z

  4. Hollow fiber-based liquid-liquid-liquid micro-extraction with osmosis: II. Application to quantification of endogenous gibberellins in rice plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qian; Wu, Dapeng; Duan, Chunfeng; Shen, Zheng; Guan, Yafeng

    2012-11-23

    The phenomenon and benefits of osmosis in hollow fiber-based liquid-liquid-liquid micro-extraction (HF-LLLME) were theoretically discussed in part I of this study. In this work, HF-LLLME with osmosis was coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-triple quadrupole MS/MS) to analyze eight gibberellins (gibberellin A(1), gibberellin A(3), gibberellin A(4), gibberellin A(7), gibberellin A(8), gibberellin A(9), gibberellin A(19) and gibberellin A(20)) in rice plant samples. According to the theory of HF-LLLME with osmosis, single factor experiments, orthogonal design experiments and mass transfer simulation of extraction process were carried out to select the optimal conditions. Cyclohexanol - n-octanol (1:3, v/v) was selected as organic membrane. Donor phase of 12 mL was adjusted to pH 2 and 20% NaCl (w/v) was added. Acceptor phase with an initial volume of 20 μL was the solution of 0.12 mol L(-1) Na(2)CO(3)-NaHCO(3) buffer (pH 9). Temperature was chosen to be 30 °C and extraction time was selected to be 90 min. Under optimized conditions, this method provided good linearity (r, 0.99552-0.99991) and low limits of detection (0.0016-0.061 ng mL(-1)). Finally, this method was applied to the analysis of endogenous gibberellins from plant extract which was obtained with traditional solvent extraction of rice plant tissues, and the relative recoveries were from 62% to 166%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. John von Neumann selected letters

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    John von Neuman was perhaps the most influential mathematician of the twentieth century, especially if his broad influence outside mathematics is included. Not only did he contribute to almost all branches of mathematics and created new fields, but he also changed post-World War II history with his work on the design of computers and with being a sought-after technical advisor to many figures in the U.S. military-political establishment in the 1940s and 1950s. The present volume is the first substantial collection of (previously mainly unpublished) letters written by von Neumann to colleagues, friends, government officials, and others. The letters give us a glimpse of the thinking of John von Neumann about mathematics, physics, computer science, science management, education, consulting, politics, and war. Readers of quite diverse backgrounds will find much of interest in this fascinating first-hand look at one of the towering figures of twentieth century science.

  6. Automatisierung von HiL Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Asbach, Lennart; Ebrecht, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Automatisierung von HiL Tests. Darstellung und Bewertung einer praktischen Umsetzung. Das Poster zeigt die Motivation, die Durchführung, einen aktuellen Stand und einen Ausblick der Testautomatisierung im Bahnlabor RailSiTe. Als Beispiel dient der Konformitätstest von ETCS-Onboard Zugrechnern, um die Einführung von ETCS zu unterstützen.

  7. Homopteren von Java, gesammelt von Herrn Edw. Jacobson

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melichar, L.

    1914-01-01

    Herr Edw. Jacobson hat auf Java in den Jahren 1908— 1910 Homopteren gesammelt und mir die Bearbeitung des gesammelten Materiales übertragen. Die Jacobson’sche Ausbeute ist insoferne bemerkenswert, als dieselbe viele Mikrohomopteren enthält, welche von nichtfachkundigen Sammlern gewöhnlich nicht

  8. Investigations of the effect of exogenous gibberellin on the electrophoretic repair of plant DNA damaged by the gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryukova, L.M.; Medvedkova, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    Effect of the exogenous gibberellin on the DNA of plants irradiated with high doses of γ-radiation is studied. Repair of the molecular weight of DNA can be judged on according to electrophoretic mobility in 1% agar sludge of DNA samples denaturated in alkaline. Investigation results reaffirm that exogenous gibberellin promotes to the repair of the DNA of plants damaged with high doses of radiation. The mechanism of the effect of the hormone is not yet studied, but it is supposed that physiological action of the phytohormone is realized through the ferment systems of plants [ru

  9. Purification and partial amino-acid sequence of gibberellin 20-oxidase from Cucurbita maxima L. endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, T

    1994-01-01

    Gibberellin (GA) 20-oxidase was purified to apparent homogeneity from Cucurbita maxima endosperm by fractionated ammonium-sulphate precipitation, gel-filtration chromatography and anion-exchange and hydrophobic-interaction high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Average purification after the last step was 55-fold with 3.9% of the activity recovered. The purest single fraction was enriched 101-fold with 0.2% overall recovery. Apparent relative molecular mass of the enzyme was 45 kDa, as determined by gel-filtration HPLC and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, indicating that GA 20-oxidase is probably a monomeric enzyme. The purified enzyme degraded on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, giving two protein spots: a major one corresponding to a molecular mass of 30 kDa and a minor one at 45 kDa. The isoelectric point for both was 5.4. The amino-acid sequences of the amino-terminus of the purified enzyme and of two peptides from a tryptic digest were determined. The purified enzyme catalysed the sequential conversion of [14C]GA12 to [14C]GA15, [14C]GA24 and [14C]GA25, showing that carbon atom 20 was oxidised to the corresponding alcohol, aldehyde and carboxylic acid in three consecutive reactions. [14C]Gibberellin A53 was similarly converted to [14C]GA44, [14C]GA19, [14C]GA17 and small amounts of a fourth product, which was preliminarily identified as [14C]GA20, a C19-gibberellin. All GAs except [14C]GA20 were identified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The cofactor requirements in the absence of dithiothreitol were essentially as in its presence (Lange et al., Planta 195, 98-107, 1994), except that ascorbate was essential for enzyme activity and the optimal concentration of catalase was lower.

  10. The occurrence of gibberellin-binding protein(s) in pea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z.H.

    1988-01-01

    In vitro gibberellin (GA) binding properties of a cytosol fraction from epicotyls of dwarf pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Progress No. 9) and tall pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) were investigated using ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} in a DEAE filter paper assay at 0-3 C. The binding obtained is saturable, reversible, and temperature labile in dwarf pea, and has a half-life of dissociation of 5-6 min. By varying the concentration of ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} in the incubation medium the Kd was estimated to be 120-140 nM in dwarf pea and 70 nM in tall pea. The number of binding sites (n) was estimated to be 0.66 and 0.43 pmole mg{sup {minus}1} soluble protein in dwarf pea and in tall pea, respectively. In competition binding assays, biologically active GAs, such as GA{sub 3} and GA{sub 4} could reduce the level of ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} binding much more than the biologically inactive GA{sub 4} methyl ester and epi-GA{sub 4}. Changes in gibberellin-binding protein(s) were studied during seed germination. While the Kd of the binding protein(s) for ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 4} remained the same, there was a marked increase in the number of binding sites from 24 h soaked seed to 8-day old seedlings. Also, the Kd and the number of binding sites in the GA-responsive apical part and in the nonresponsive basal part in the epicotyl were similar. The effect of light on gibberellin-binding protein in dwarf pea was also studied. The GA-binding protein in dwarf pea was partially purified by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography.

  11. Arabidopsis scaffold protein RACK1A modulates rare sugar D-allose regulated gibberellin signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Fennell, Herman; Olawin, Abdulquadri; Mizanur, Rahman M.; Izumori, Ken; Chen, Jin-Gui; Ullah, Hemayet

    2012-01-01

    As energy sources and structural components, sugars are the central regulators of plant growth and development. In addition to the abundant natural sugars in plants, more than 50 different kinds of rare sugars exist in nature, several of which show distinct roles in plant growth and development. Recently, one of the rare sugars, D-allose, an epimer of D-glucose at C3, is found to suppress plant hormone gibberellin (GA) signaling in rice. Scaffold protein RACK1A in the model plant Arabidopsis ...

  12. Gibberellin deficiency pleiotropically induces culm bending in sorghum: an insight into sorghum semi-dwarf breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Ordonio, Reynante L.; Ito, Yusuke; Hatakeyama, Asako; Ohmae-Shinohara, Kozue; Kasuga, Shigemitsu; Tokunaga, Tsuyoshi; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Kitano, Hidemi; Matsuoka, Makoto; Sazuka, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of symmetrical cell growth in the culm is important for proper culm development. So far, the involvement of gibberellin (GA) in this process has not yet been demonstrated in sorghum. Here, we show that GA deficiency resulting from any loss-of-function mutation in four genes (SbCPS1, SbKS1, SbKO1, SbKAO1) involved in the early steps of GA biosynthesis, not only results in severe dwarfism but also in abnormal culm bending. Histological analysis of the bent culm revealed that the intr...

  13. Properties of von Neumann entropy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    disentangled) as seen by moving observers, is used to investigate the properties of von Neumann entropy, as a measure of spin–momentum entanglement. To do so, we partition the total Hilbert space into momentum and spin subspaces so that the ...

  14. von Hippel-Lindau disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Marie Louise Mølgaard; Gimsing, Steen; Kosteljanetz, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Endolymphatic sac tumours (ELSTs) of the inner ear occur in 16% of patients with the hereditary tumor syndrome von Hippel-Lindau disease (vHL). ELSTs of all sizes can cause irreversible hearing loss which can, however, be prevented through early diagnosis and treatment. We aim to emphasize the ch...

  15. [Friedrich Ludwig von Maydelli pildid Baltimaade ajaloost = Friedrich Ludwig von Maydells Baltische Geschichte in Bildern = Friedrich Ludwig von Maydell ́s Baltic history in images] / Ulrike Plath

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Plath, Ulrike, 1972-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Friedrich Ludwig von Maydelli pildid Baltimaade ajaloost = Friedrich Ludwig von Maydells Baltische Geschichte in Bildern = Friedrich Ludwig von Maydell ́s Baltic history in images. Eesti kunstimuuseum, Kadrioru kunstimuuseum. Tallinn 2013

  16. Gibberellin-induced changes in the populations of translatable mRNAs and accumulated polypeptides in dwarfs of maize and pea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chory, J.; Voytas, D.F.; Olszewski, N.E.; Ausubel, F.M.

    1987-01-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to characterize the molecular mechanism of gibberellin-induced stem elongation in maize and pea. Dwarf mutants of maize and pea lack endogenous gibberellin (GA 1 ) but become phenotypically normal with exogenous applications of this hormone. Sections from either etiolated maize or green pea seedlings were incubated in the presence of [ 35 S] methionine for 3 hours with or without gibberellin. Labeled proteins from soluble and particulate fractions were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and specific changes in the patterns of protein synthesis were observed upon treatment with gibberellin. Polyadenylated mRNAs from etiolated or green maize shoots and green pea epicotyls treated or not with gibberellin (a 0.5 to 16 hour time course) were assayed by translation in a rabbit reticulocyte extract and separation of products by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Both increases and decreases in the levels of specific polypeptides were seen for pea and corn, and these changes were observed within 30 minutes of treatment with gibberellin. Together, these data indicate that gibberellin induces changes in the expression of a subset of gene products within elongating dwarfs. This may be due to changes in transcription rate, mRNA stability, or increased efficiency of translation of certain mRNAs

  17. The effect of organolead and -tin compounds on signal transduction in vitro: Investigations on the cytosolic free calcium concentration; Der Einfluss von organischen Blei- und Zinnverbindungen auf die Signaltransduktion in vitro: Untersuchungen zur Veraenderung der zytosolischen freien Calciumkonzentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ade, T.

    1996-03-01

    zytosolischen freien Calciumkonzentration. Mechanistische Studien mit EGTA, dem Calciumkanalblocker Nickel und der Untersuchung der intrazellulaeren Speicher in den HL-60 Zellen ergaben, dass ausschliesslich das extrazellulaere Calcium fuer den organometall-induzierten Anstieg der zytosolischen freien Calciumkonzentration verantworlich ist. Die Bleiverbindungen sowie das Tributylzinn fuehrten zur Oeffnung von Calciumkanaelen in der Plasmamembran. Die Experimente mit den NG108-15 Zellen belegen diese Ergebnisse. Durch den Einsatz von Mangan (Mn{sup 2+}) und Verapamil wurde nachgewiesen, dass der von Triethylblei und Tributylzinn induzierte Calciuminflux auch hier durch Calciumkanaele erfolgt. Waehrend bestimmte rezeptor-aktivierte Signalwege durch die Organometalle nicht induziert werden, konnte die Hemmung von Ca{sup 2+}-ATPasen ebenfalls beschrieben werden. Die Wirkung der Blei- und Zinnverbindungen resultierte in calcium-vermittelten Folgereaktionen, wie die Aktivierung der cPLA{sub 2} oder eventuell der Induktion der Apoptose. Die durch die Metallverbindungen veraenderte Regulation der zytosolischen freien Calciumkonzentration war auch von anderen Ionengradienten an der Plasmamembran, wie Na{sup +}, Cl{sup -}, oder H{sup +} abhaengig. Mit dieser Arbeit wurde ein Beitrag zur Aufklaerung der biochemischen Mechanismen und zum Verstaendnis der zellschaedigenden Wirkung von Organometallen geleistet. (orig.)

  18. Interaction of a gibberellin-induced factor with the upstream region of an alpha-amylase gene in rice aleurone tissue.

    OpenAIRE

    Ou-Lee, T M; Turgeon, R; Wu, R

    1988-01-01

    The interaction between the DNA sequences of an alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) gene and a tissue-specific factor induced in rice (Oryza sativa L.) aleurone tissue by gibberellin was studied. DNA mobility-shift during electrophoresis indicated that a 500-base-pair sequence (HS500) of a rice alpha-amylase genomic clone (OSamy-a) specifically interacted with a factor from gibberellin-induced rice aleurone tissue. The amount of complex formed between the HS500 DNA fragment and the gibberellin-induced...

  19. The development of a high performance liquid chromatograph with a sensitive on-stream radioactivity monitor for the analysis of 3H- and 14C-labelled gibberellins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeve, D.R.; Yokota, T.; Nash, L.; Crozier, A.

    1976-01-01

    The development of a high performance liquid chromatograph for the separation of gibberellins is described. The system combines high efficiency, peak capacity, and sample capacity with rapid speed of analysis. In addition, the construction details of a sensitive on-stream radioactivity monitor are outlined. The overall versatility of the chromatograph has been demonstrated by the separation of a range of 3 H- and 14 C-labelled gibberellins and gibberellin precursors. The system also has considerable potential for the analysis of abscisic acid and acidic and neutral indoles. (author)

  20. A novel class of gibberellin 2-oxidases control semidwarfism, tillering, and root development in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shuen-Fang; Yang, Show-Ya; Chen, Ku-Ting; Hsing, Yue-Ie; Zeevaart, Jan A D; Chen, Liang-Jwu; Yu, Su-May

    2008-10-01

    Gibberellin 2-oxidases (GA2oxs) regulate plant growth by inactivating endogenous bioactive gibberellins (GAs). Two classes of GA2oxs inactivate GAs through 2beta-hydroxylation: a larger class of C(19) GA2oxs and a smaller class of C(20) GA2oxs. In this study, we show that members of the rice (Oryza sativa) GA2ox family are differentially regulated and act in concert or individually to control GA levels during flowering, tillering, and seed germination. Using mutant and transgenic analysis, C(20) GA2oxs were shown to play pleiotropic roles regulating rice growth and architecture. In particular, rice overexpressing these GA2oxs exhibited early and increased tillering and adventitious root growth. GA negatively regulated expression of two transcription factors, O. sativa homeobox 1 and TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, which control meristem initiation and axillary bud outgrowth, respectively, and that in turn inhibited tillering. One of three conserved motifs unique to the C(20) GA2oxs (motif III) was found to be important for activity of these GA2oxs. Moreover, C(20) GA2oxs were found to cause less severe GA-defective phenotypes than C(19) GA2oxs. Our studies demonstrate that improvements in plant architecture, such as semidwarfism, increased root systems and higher tiller numbers, could be induced by overexpression of wild-type or modified C(20) GA2oxs.

  1. Further identification of endogenous gibberellins in the shoots of pea, line G2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halinska, A.; Davies, P.J.; Lee, J.W.; Zhu, Yuxian

    1989-01-01

    To interpret the metabolism of radiolabeled gibberellins A 12 -aldehyde and A 12 in shoots of pea (Pisum sativum L.), the identity of the radiolabeled peaks has to be determined and the endogenous presence of the gibberellins demonstrated. High specific activity [ 14 C]GA 12 and [ 14 C]GA 12 -aldehyde were synthesized using a pumpkin endosperm enzyme preparation, and purified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). [ 14 C]GA 12 was supplied to upper shoots of pea, line G2, to produce radiolabeled metabolites on the 13-OH pathway. Endogenous compounds copurifying with the [ 14 C]GAs on HPLC were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The endogenous presence of GA 53 , GA 44 , GA 19 and GA 20 was demonstrated and their HPLC peak identity ascertained. The 14 C was progressively diluted in GAs further down the pathway, proportional to the levels found in the tissue and inversely proportional to the speed of metabolism, ranging from 63% in GA 53 to 4% in GA 20 . Calculated levels of GA 20 , GA 19 , GA 44 , and GA 53 were 42, 8, 10, and 0.5 nanograms/gram, respectively

  2. Role of gibberellins and cytokinins in regulation of germination during development and ripening of Triticale caryopses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Weidner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The germination of caryopses of M-T3 Triticale generation, which were freshly harvested in different growth and developmental phases has been studied. A significant influence of the abscisic acid (ABA accumulation on the increment of number of germinating caryopses has been found. Already in the first phase af the embryogenesis considerable stimulating effects of kinetin and gibberellin-A3 (GA3 on the germination of embryos which were isolated from freshly collected grains have been shown. When both stimulators were used together marked synergetic reaction occurred. It has been also determined that in the initial period of embryogensis premature germination occurs, to a higher extent, under the action of cytokinins than! Whether in the further phases of the caryopse development, when embryo develop mainly through the cell elongation, mostly gibberellins seem to be responsible for the activation of germination processes. The more mature were seeds the quicker germinated whole caryopses and embryos isolated from them at different ripeness, after 3-month storage. The highest stimulation of germination by phytohormones has been found for the most mature caryopses. The action of gibberellic acid has been particulary strong.

  3. Interactive Effects of Jasmonic Acid, Salicylic Acid, and Gibberellin on Induction of Trichomes in Arabidopsis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traw, M. Brian; Bergelson, Joy

    2003-01-01

    Leaf trichomes protect plants from attack by insect herbivores and are often induced following damage. Hormonal regulation of this plant induction response has not been previously studied. In a series of experiments, we addressed the effects of artificial damage, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and gibberellin on induction of trichomes in Arabidopsis. Artificial damage and jasmonic acid caused significant increases in trichome production of leaves. The jar1-1 mutant exhibited normal trichome induction following treatment with jasmonic acid, suggesting that adenylation of jasmonic acid is not necessary. Salicylic acid had a negative effect on trichome production and consistently reduced the effect of jasmonic acid, suggesting negative cross-talk between the jasmonate and salicylate-dependent defense pathways. Interestingly, the effect of salicylic acid persisted in the nim1-1 mutant, suggesting that the Npr1/Nim1 gene is not downstream of salicylic acid in the negative regulation of trichome production. Last, we found that gibberellin and jasmonic acid had a synergistic effect on the induction of trichomes, suggesting important interactions between these two compounds. PMID:14551332

  4. Transformation of a Dwarf "Arabidopsis" Mutant Illustrates Gibberellin Hormone Physiology and the Function of a Green Revolution Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Isabel; Weber, Katrin; Alves Cursino dos Santos, Deborah Y.; Ohlrogge, John

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of dwarfing traits into crops was a major factor in increased grain yields during the "Green Revolution." In most cases those traits were the consequence of altered synthesis or response to the gibberellin (GA) plant hormones. Our current understanding of GA synthesis and physiology has been facilitated by the characterization of…

  5. Exogenous gibberellins inhibit coffee (Coffea arabica cv. Rubi) seed germination and cause cell death in the embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Da E.A.A.; Toorop, P.E.; Nijsse, J.; Bewley, J.D.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of inhibition of coffee (Coffea arabica cv. Rubi) seed germination by exogenous gibberellins (GAs) and the requirement of germination for endogenous GA were studied. Exogenous GA4+7 inhibited coffee seed germination. The response to GA4+7 showed two sensitivity thresholds: a lower one

  6. Proteomics of Arabidopsis Seed Germination : a Comparative Study of Wild-Type and Gibberellin-Deficient Seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallardo, K.; Job, C.; Groot, S.P.C.; Puype, M.; Vandekerckhove, J.; Job, D.

    2002-01-01

    We examined the role of gibberellins (GAs) in germination of Arabidopsis seeds by a proteomic approach. For that purpose, we used two systems. The first system consisted of seeds of the GA-deficient ga1 mutant, and the second corresponded to wild-type seeds incubated in paclobutrazol, a specific GA

  7. Hormonal regulation of seed development and germination in tomato : studies on abscisic acid- and gibberellin-deficient mutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S.P.C.

    1987-01-01

    The role of endogenous gibberellins (GAs) and abscisic acid (ABA) in seed development and germination of tomato, was studied with the use of GA- and/or ABA-deficient mutants.

    GAs are indispensable for the development of fertile flowers. Fertility of GA-deficient flowers is restored

  8. Hormonal control of seed development in gibberellin- and ABA-deficient tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Moneymaker) mutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, de R.D.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Developing seeds of tomato gibberellin (GA)-deficient gib1 and abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient sitw mutants enabled us to analyze the role of GA in the regulation of embryo histo-differentiation, and the role of ABA in the regulation of maturation and quiescence. Our data show that DNA synthesis and

  9. Hot gas filtration: Investigations to remove gaseous pollutant components out of flue gas during hot gas filtration. Final report; HGR: Untersuchung zur Minimierung von gasfoermigen Schadstoffen aus Rauchgasen bei der Heissgasfiltration. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, A; Gross, R; Renz, U

    1998-07-01

    Power plants with gas and steam turbines in pressurized fluidized bed or pressurized gasification processes enable power generation of coal with high efficiency and little emissions. To run these plants the cleaning of the flue gas is necessary before entering the turbines under the conditions of high temperature and pressure. Ceramic filter elements are the most probable method for hot gas cleaning. A simultaneous reduction of gaseous pollutant components under these conditions could help to make the whole process more efficient. The aim of the project is to integrate the catalytic reduction of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitric oxides into the hot gas filtration with ceramic filter elements as a one step mecanism. The project is focused on: - the catalytic behaviour of ferruginous ashes of brown coal, - the effectiveness of calcinated aluminates as a catalyst to remove uncombusted hydrocarbons in a hot gas filtration unit, - numerical simulation of the combined removal of particles and gaseous pollutant components out of the flue gas. (orig.) [Deutsch] Gas- und Dampfturbinen-Kraftwerke mit Druckwirbelschicht- oder mit Druckvergasungsverfahren ermoeglichen die Verstromung von Kohle mit hohem Wirkungsgrad und niedrigen Emissionen. Eine Voraussetzung fuer den Betrieb dieser Anlagen ist die Entstaubung der Rauchgase bei hohen Temperaturen und Druecken. Abreinigungsfilter mit keramischen Elementen werden dazu eingesetzt. Eine Reduzierung gasfoermiger Schadstoffe unter den gleichen Bedingungen koennte die Rauchgaswaesche ersetzen. Ziel des Gesamtvorhabens ist es, die Integration von Heissgasfiltration und katalytischem Abbau der Schadstoffe Kohlenmonoxid, Kohlenwasserstoffe und Stickoxide in einem Verfahrensschritt zu untersuchen. Die Arbeitsschwerpunkte dieses Teilvorhabens betreffen - die katalytische Wirkung eisenhaltiger Braunkohlenaschen, - die Wirksamkeit des Calciumaluminats als Katalysator des Abbaus unverbrannter Kohlenwasserstoffe im Heissgasfilter

  10. Shock, diaschisis and von Monakow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasz Engelhardt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of shock apparently emerged in the middle of the 18th century (Whyett as an occurrence observed experimentally after spinal cord transection, and identified as "shock" phenomenon one century later (Hall. The concept was extended (Brown-Séquard and it was suggested that brain lesions caused functional rupture in regions distant from the injured one ("action à distance". The term "diaschisis" (von Monakow, proposed as a new modality of shock, had its concept broadened, underpinned by observations of patients, aiming at distinguishing between symptoms of focal brain lesions and transitory effects they produced, attributable to depression of distant parts of the brain connected to the injured area. Presently, diaschisis is related mainly to cerebrovascular lesions and classified according to the connection fibers involved, as proposed by von Monakow. Depression of metabolism and blood flow in regions anatomically separated, but related by connections with the lesion, allows observing diaschisis with neuroimaging.

  11. Von Hippel–Lindau disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhara Haron

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Von Hippel–Lindau (VHL disease is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited multisystem disorder characterised by the development of a variety of benign and malignant tumours. We report a case of VHL disease that was inherited by a daughter from her father, who both presented at a young age with progressive headache and were found to have a posterior fossa haemangioblastoma (HB on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Multiple benign pancreatic and renal cysts were also noted in both patients.

  12. Microfinance als Geflecht von Anreizproblemen

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Reinhard H.; Tschach, Ingo E.

    2001-01-01

    Während sich die Entwicklungsfinanzierung in Theorie und Praxis generell mit dem Finanzwesen in Entwicklungs- und Transformationsländern befasst, steht im Teilgebiet der Microfinance die Frage im Vordergrund, wie in diesen Ländern der Zugang ärmerer Bevölkerungsgruppen und speziell von Klein- und Kleinstunternehmer(innen), Kleinbauern und sonstigen wirtschaftlich Selbständigen aus eher niedrigen sozialen Schichten zu Kredit und anderen Finanzdiensleistungen verbessert werden kann. Obwohl es e...

  13. Moose von Inselbergen in Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Frahm, Jan-Peter; Porembski, Stefan

    1998-01-01

    Acht Leber- und zehn Laubmoosarten werden von Inselbergen aus Benin angegeben. Fünf der Lebermoose (Acrolejeunea emergens, Riccia atropurpurea, R. congoana, R. discolor, R. moenkemeyeri) und alle Laubmoose (Archidium ohioense, Brachymenium acuminatum, B. exile, Bryum arachnoideum, B. argenteum, Bryum deperssum, Garckea moenkemeyeri, Hyophila involuta, Philonotis mniobryoides und Weissia cf. edentula) werden neu für Benin angegeben. Eight liverworts and ten mosses are reported from inselber...

  14. Entwicklung und Anwendung von Methoden zur Bestimmung von Selen-Spezies in human-biologischem Material

    OpenAIRE

    Jäger, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Selen ist essentieller Bestandteil von mehr als 25 physiologisch wichtigen menschlichen Enzymen. Der tägliche Bedarf wird überwiegend in Form von organischen Selenverbindungen wie Selenmethionin oder Selenocystein aus der Nahrung aufgenommen. Weitere Expositionswege sind die Einnahme von Nahrungsergänzungsmitteln zur Selensupplementation sowie die inhalative oder dermale Aufnahme von in erster Linie anorganischen Selenverbindungen oder elementarem Selen an Arbeitsplätzen der Selen-verarbeiten...

  15. Dr. von Braun Briefing Walt Disney

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Dr. von Braun began his association with Walt Disney in the 1950s when the rocket scientist appeared in three Disney television productions related to the exploration of space. Years later, Dr. von Braun invited Disney and his associates to tour the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. This photograph is dated April 13, 1965. From left are R.J. Schwinghamer from the MSFC, Disney, B.J. Bernight, and Dr. von Braun.

  16. Wohnquartiersbeschreibung: ein Instrument zur Regionalisierung von Nachbarschaften

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmeyer-Zlotnik, Jürgen H. P.

    2001-01-01

    'Ausgehend von der Annahme, daß soziale Differenzierung sich in räumlicher Differenzierung niederschlägt, bietet eine Beschreibung der Struktur des näheren Wohnumfeldes die Möglichkeit, das Wohnquartier als Handlungsraum und Sozialisationsinstanz zur Interpretation von Umfragedaten zu nutzen. Das vorliegende Instrumentarium erlaubt es, das Wohnquartier unabhängig von Zensusdaten über Merkmale, die in der eigenen Umfrage erhoben werden, zu charakterisieren.' (Autorenreferat) 'The general hy...

  17. Transient gibberellin application promotes Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyl cell elongation without maintaining transverse orientation of microtubules on the outer tangential wall of epidermal cells

    KAUST Repository

    Sauret-Gü eto, Susanna; Calder, Grant; Harberd, Nicholas P.

    2011-01-01

    The phytohormone gibberellin (GA) promotes plant growth by stimulating cellular expansion. Whilst it is known that GA acts by opposing the growth-repressing effects of DELLA proteins, it is not known how these events promote cellular expansion. Here

  18. On the issue of higher human sensitivity to carcinogenic substances in early childhood; Zur Frage einer hoeheren Empfindlichkeit von Kindern gegenueber krebserzeugenden Stoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K [comp.

    1998-09-01

    . Woche: 0%, - Exposition ueber 52 Wochen ab 13. Woche: 22%. Inzidenz Hepatome: - Exposition ueber 4 Wochen ab Tag 1: 47,6%, - Exposition ueber 4 Wochen ab 13. Woche: 0%, - Exposition ueber 52 Wochen ab 13. Woche: 1,7%. (B) Diethylnitrosamin, Dyroff et al., 1986: (DEN + Phenobarbital), Hepatokarzinomen nach Exposition von Ratten ueber 6 Wochen: - beginnend im Alter von 4 Wochen: 100% Inzidenz, - beginnend im Alter von 8 Wochen: 0% Inzidenz. (C) Benz(a)pyren, Vesselinovitch et al., 1975: Lebertumoren nach einmaliger parenteraler Applikation an Ratten: - im Alter von 1 Tag: maennl.: 81% weibl.: 18%, - im Alter von 42 Tagen: maennl.: 9%, weibl.: 0%. Wie die Untersuchung von Maltoni et al. (1981) zu Vinylchlorid zeigt, kann bei gleicher Expositionskonzentration eine Exposition junger Tiere ueber einen kurzen Zeitraum zu einer hoeheren Tumorinzidenz fuehren als das Langzeitexperiment mit erwachsenen Tieren. Fuer alle Stoffe mit Ausnahme von Saccharin wurde eine gentoxische Wirkung nachgewiesen. Dies laesst vermuten, dass der Mechanismus der Kanzerogenese wesentlichen Einfluss auf die Altersabhaengigkeit hat. Dies steht in Einklang mit den mechanistischen Ueberlegungen. (orig.)

  19. Identification of gibberellin acid-responsive proteins in rice leaf sheath using proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jia-Yu; Wang, Ye; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Shi-Hua; Gao, Yin; An, Cheng-Cai

    2010-06-01

    The phytohormone gibberellin acid (GA) controls many aspects of plant development. In this study, we identified proteins that are differentially expressed between the rice (Oryza sativa L.) GA-deficient cultivar, Aijiaonante, and its parental line, Nante. Proteins were extracted from rice leaf sheath and examined by 2DGE. Among more than 1200 protein spots reproducibly detected on each gel, 29 were found to be highly up-regulated by GAs in Nante, and 6 were down-regulated by GAs in Aijiaonante. These 35 proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF MS and were classified into three groups based on their putative function in metabolism, stress/defense processes and signal transduction. These data suggest that metabolic pathways are the main target of regulation by GAs during rice development. Our results provide new information about the involvement of GAs in rice development.

  20. Comprehensive gene expression analysis of rice aleurone cells: probing the existence of an alternative gibberellin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Kenji; Aya, Koichiro; Hirano, Ko; Ordonio, Reynante Lacsamana; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2015-02-01

    Current gibberellin (GA) research indicates that GA must be perceived in plant nuclei by its cognate receptor, GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1). Recognition of GA by GID1 relieves the repression mediated by the DELLA protein, a model known as the GID1-DELLA GA perception system. There have been reports of potential GA-binding proteins in the plasma membrane that perceive GA and induce α-amylase expression in cereal aleurone cells, which is mechanistically different from the GID1-DELLA system. Therefore, we examined the expression of the rice (Oryza sativa) α-amylase genes in rice mutants impaired in the GA receptor (gid1) and the DELLA repressor (slender rice1; slr1) and confirmed their lack of response to GA in gid1 mutants and constitutive expression in slr1 mutants. We also examined the expression of GA-regulated genes by genome-wide microarray and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses and confirmed that all GA-regulated genes are modulated by the GID1-DELLA system. Furthermore, we studied the regulatory network involved in GA signaling by using a set of mutants defective in genes involved in GA perception and gene expression, namely gid1, slr1, gid2 (a GA-related F-box protein mutant), and gamyb (a GA-related trans-acting factor mutant). Almost all GA up-regulated genes were regulated by the four named GA-signaling components. On the other hand, GA down-regulated genes showed different expression patterns with respect to GID2 and GAMYB (e.g. a considerable number of genes are not controlled by GAMYB or GID2 and GAMYB). Based on these observations, we present a comprehensive discussion of the intricate network of GA-regulated genes in rice aleurone cells. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Characterization of the molecular mechanism underlying gibberellin perception complex formation in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Ko; Asano, Kenji; Tsuji, Hiroyuki; Kawamura, Mayuko; Mori, Hitoshi; Kitano, Hidemi; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2010-08-01

    The DELLA protein SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1) is a repressor of gibberellin (GA) signaling in rice (Oryza sativa), and most of the GA-associated responses are induced upon SLR1 degradation. It is assumed that interaction between GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1) and the N-terminal DELLA/TVHYNP motif of SLR1 triggers F-box protein GID2-mediated SLR1 degradation. We identified a semidominant dwarf mutant, Slr1-d4, which contains a mutation in the region encoding the C-terminal GRAS domain of SLR1 (SLR1(G576V)). The GA-dependent degradation of SLR1(G576V) was reduced in Slr1-d4, and compared with SLR1, SLR1(G576V) showed reduced interaction with GID1 and almost none with GID2 when tested in yeast cells. Surface plasmon resonance of GID1-SLR1 and GID1-SLR1(G576V) interactions revealed that the GRAS domain of SLR1 functions to stabilize the GID1-SLR1 interaction by reducing its dissociation rate and that the G576V substitution in SLR1 diminishes this stability. These results suggest that the stable interaction of GID1-SLR1 through the GRAS domain is essential for the recognition of SLR1 by GID2. We propose that when the DELLA/TVHYNP motif of SLR1 binds with GID1, it enables the GRAS domain of SLR1 to interact with GID1 and that the stable GID1-SLR1 complex is efficiently recognized by GID2.

  2. Reduction of gibberellin by low temperature disrupts pollen development in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Tadashi; Oda, Susumu; Tsunaga, Yuta; Shomura, Hikaru; Kawagishi-Kobayashi, Makiko; Aya, Koichiro; Saeki, Kenichi; Endo, Takashi; Nagano, Kuniaki; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Masao; Matsuoka, Makoto; Higashitani, Atsushi

    2014-04-01

    Microsporogenesis in rice (Oryza sativa) plants is susceptible to moderate low temperature (LT; approximately 19°C) that disrupts pollen development and causes severe reductions in grain yields. Although considerable research has been invested in the study of cool-temperature injury, a full understanding of the molecular mechanism has not been achieved. Here, we show that endogenous levels of the bioactive gibberellins (GAs) GA4 and GA7, and expression levels of the GA biosynthesis genes GA20ox3 and GA3ox1, decrease in the developing anthers by exposure to LT. By contrast, the levels of precursor GA12 were higher in response to LT. In addition, the expression of the dehydration-responsive element-binding protein DREB2B and SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1)/DELLA was up-regulated in response to LT. Mutants involved in GA biosynthetic and response pathways were hypersensitive to LT stress, including the semidwarf mutants sd1 and d35, the gain-of-function mutant slr1-d, and gibberellin insensitive dwarf1. The reduction in the number of sporogenous cells and the abnormal enlargement of tapetal cells occurred most severely in the GA-insensitive mutant. Application of exogenous GA significantly reversed the male sterility caused by LT, and simultaneous application of exogenous GA with sucrose substantially improved the extent of normal pollen development. Modern rice varieties carrying the sd1 mutation are widely cultivated, and the sd1 mutation is considered one of the greatest achievements of the Green Revolution. The protective strategy achieved by our work may help sustain steady yields of rice under global climate change.

  3. The rice YABBY4 gene regulates plant growth and development through modulating the gibberellin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Ma, Yamei; Li, Jianxiong

    2016-10-01

    YABBY genes encode seed plant-specific transcription factors that play pivotal roles in diverse aspects of leaf, shoot, and flower development. Members of the YABBY gene family are primarily expressed in lateral organs in a polar manner and function to specify abaxial cell fate in dicotyledons, but this polar expression is not conserved in monocotyledons. The function of YABBY genes is therefore not well understood in monocotyledons. Here we show that overexpression of the rice (Oryza sativa L.) YABBY4 gene (OsYABBY4) leads to a semi-dwarf phenotype, abnormal development in the uppermost internode, an increased number of floral organs, and insensitivity to gibberellin (GA) treatment. We report on an important role for OsYABBY4 in negative control of the expression of a GA biosynthetic gene by binding to the promoter region of the gibberellin 20-oxidase 2 gene (GA20ox2), which is a direct target of SLR1 (the sole DELLA protein negatively controlling GA responses in rice). OsYABBY4 also suppresses the expression level of SLR1 and interacts with SLR1 protein. The interaction inhibits GA-dependent degradation of SLR1 and therefore leads to GA insensitivity. These data together suggest that OsYABBY4 serves as a DNA-binding intermediate protein for SLR1 and is associated with the GA signaling pathway regulating gene expression during plant growth and development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Characterization of the Molecular Mechanism Underlying Gibberellin Perception Complex Formation in Rice[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Ko; Asano, Kenji; Tsuji, Hiroyuki; Kawamura, Mayuko; Mori, Hitoshi; Kitano, Hidemi; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    The DELLA protein SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1) is a repressor of gibberellin (GA) signaling in rice (Oryza sativa), and most of the GA-associated responses are induced upon SLR1 degradation. It is assumed that interaction between GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1) and the N-terminal DELLA/TVHYNP motif of SLR1 triggers F-box protein GID2-mediated SLR1 degradation. We identified a semidominant dwarf mutant, Slr1-d4, which contains a mutation in the region encoding the C-terminal GRAS domain of SLR1 (SLR1G576V). The GA-dependent degradation of SLR1G576V was reduced in Slr1-d4, and compared with SLR1, SLR1G576V showed reduced interaction with GID1 and almost none with GID2 when tested in yeast cells. Surface plasmon resonance of GID1-SLR1 and GID1-SLR1G576V interactions revealed that the GRAS domain of SLR1 functions to stabilize the GID1-SLR1 interaction by reducing its dissociation rate and that the G576V substitution in SLR1 diminishes this stability. These results suggest that the stable interaction of GID1-SLR1 through the GRAS domain is essential for the recognition of SLR1 by GID2. We propose that when the DELLA/TVHYNP motif of SLR1 binds with GID1, it enables the GRAS domain of SLR1 to interact with GID1 and that the stable GID1-SLR1 complex is efficiently recognized by GID2. PMID:20716699

  5. Reduction of Gibberellin by Low Temperature Disrupts Pollen Development in Rice1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Tadashi; Oda, Susumu; Tsunaga, Yuta; Shomura, Hikaru; Kawagishi-Kobayashi, Makiko; Aya, Koichiro; Saeki, Kenichi; Endo, Takashi; Nagano, Kuniaki; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Masao; Matsuoka, Makoto; Higashitani, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    Microsporogenesis in rice (Oryza sativa) plants is susceptible to moderate low temperature (LT; approximately 19°C) that disrupts pollen development and causes severe reductions in grain yields. Although considerable research has been invested in the study of cool-temperature injury, a full understanding of the molecular mechanism has not been achieved. Here, we show that endogenous levels of the bioactive gibberellins (GAs) GA4 and GA7, and expression levels of the GA biosynthesis genes GA20ox3 and GA3ox1, decrease in the developing anthers by exposure to LT. By contrast, the levels of precursor GA12 were higher in response to LT. In addition, the expression of the dehydration-responsive element-binding protein DREB2B and SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1)/DELLA was up-regulated in response to LT. Mutants involved in GA biosynthetic and response pathways were hypersensitive to LT stress, including the semidwarf mutants sd1 and d35, the gain-of-function mutant slr1-d, and gibberellin insensitive dwarf1. The reduction in the number of sporogenous cells and the abnormal enlargement of tapetal cells occurred most severely in the GA-insensitive mutant. Application of exogenous GA significantly reversed the male sterility caused by LT, and simultaneous application of exogenous GA with sucrose substantially improved the extent of normal pollen development. Modern rice varieties carrying the sd1 mutation are widely cultivated, and the sd1 mutation is considered one of the greatest achievements of the Green Revolution. The protective strategy achieved by our work may help sustain steady yields of rice under global climate change. PMID:24569847

  6. Von Willebrand disease protects against arterial thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Y.V.; Eikenboom, J.C.; De Wee, E.M.; Van Der Bom, J.G.; Cnossen, M.H.; Degenaar-Dujardin, M.E.; Fijnvandraat, K.; Kamphuisen, P.W.; Laros-Van Gorkum, B.A.; Meijer, K.; Mauser -Bunschoten, E.P.; Leebee k, F.W.

    Background and Aims: Von Willebrand disease (VWD) is caused by reduced levels of or dysfunctional von Willebrand factor (VWF) and is characterized by a bleeding tendency. It is well known that individuals with high VWF levels have a higher risk for arterial thrombosis. Although it has never been

  7. Research, design and education, Von Humboldt revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bax, M.F.T.; Doevendans, C.H.; Trum, H.M.G.J.; Langenhuizen, Anja; Ouwerkerk, Marieke van; Rosemann, Jurgen

    2001-01-01

    This paper is a result of reflection on the interrelation design-research-cultivation, and on the interpretation of Von Humboldt's maxim: 'Einheit von Forschung und Lehre', which governed the academic world in the past two centuries. It is argued that 'Forschung' should be interpreted as 'Research

  8. Diffusion von Leerstelleninseln auf Cu(111)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, Laurens K.; Schlößer, Dietmar; Rosenfeld, Georg

    1998-01-01

    Die zufällige Bewegung von Leerstelleninseln wurde bisher vorwiegend in einem Bild beschrieben, das von der Diffusion einzelner Atome ausgeht. In diesem Bild kann man Inseldiffusion durch die Einstein-Beziehung für Brownsche Bewegung ((Δ r)2 = 4 D Δ t) beschreiben. Für die Diffusionskonstante D wird

  9. Deposition of radon decay products on the skin of balneotherapy patients in Gastein; Anlagerung von Radon-Folgeprodukten auf der Haut von Patienten bei der Baedertherapie in Gastein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempfer, H.; Schober, A.; Lettner, H.; Hofmann, W. [Inst. fuer Physik und Biophysik, Univ. Salzburg (Austria); Foisner, W. [Thermentempel Bad Hofgastein (Austria); Steger, F. [Oesterreichisches Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf GesmbH (Austria)

    2001-07-01

    ). Eine der Anwendungen des Thermalwassers ist die Exposition der Patienten in einer 450 1 fassenden Wanne (Best'sche Wanne) mit anschliessender Ruhephase. Um die Hypothese, dass die Zerfallsprodukte des Radons eine wichtige Rolle bei der therapeutischen Wirkung spielen, zu ueberpruefen, sollte das Anlagerungsverhalten der Rn-Folgeprodukte untersucht werden. Nach einem Aufenthalt der Testpersonen von 20 Minuten in der Wanne wurde der Aktivitaetsverlauf an verschiedenen Punkten des Koerpers (Unterarme, Bauch, Unterschenkel) alpha-spektrometrisch gemessen. Aus den Spektren und den Zerfallskurven koennen die Aktivitaeten der einzelnen Folgeprodukte {sup 218}Po, {sup 214}Pb und {sup 214}Bi/{sup 214}Po unterschieden werden. Um den zeitlichen Verlauf der Zerfallsproduktanlagerung zu untersuchen, wurde eine Versuchsperson dem Wasser jeweils fuer 10, 20, 30, 40 und 60 Minuten ausgesetzt; danach wurde wieder der Aktivitaetsverlauf ueber 30 Minuten aufgezeichnet. Die Messungen zeigten, dass sich die Aktivitaeten der einzelnen Zerfallsprodukte auf der Haut stark unterscheiden. Einerseits scheint die Verteilung am Koerper keineswegs homogen zu sein, andererseits konnten individuelle Unterschiede zwischen den einzelnen Person beobachtet werden. So schwankten die Mittelwerte der Aktivitaeten auf der Haut zwischen 1,2 Bq/cm{sup 2} und 4,1 Bq/cm{sup 2}. Die Exposition und Messung von Kupfer- und PVC-Platten bestaetigten fruehere Ergebnisse, nach denen sich Radonzerfallsprodukte auf unbelebten Flaechen weniger stark anlagern als auf belebten. Aus der Tatsache, dass die Zerfallsprodaktivitaeten auf der Haut bemerkenswert hoch sind, erscheint ein moeglicher Zusammenhang mit der Heilwirkung seht wahrscheinlich. (orig.)

  10. Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hes Frederik J

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A germline mutation in the Von-Hippel Lindau (VHL gene predisposes carriers to development of abundantly vascularised tumours in the retina, cerebellum, spine, kidney, adrenal gland and pancreas. Most VHL patients die from the consequences of cerebellar haemangioblastoma or renal cell carcinoma. The VHL gene is a tumour suppressor gene and is involved in angiogenesis by regulation of the activity of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α (HIF1-α. Clinical diagnosis of VHL can be confirmed by molecular genetic analysis of the VHL gene, which is informative in virtually all VHL families. A patient with (suspicion for VHL is an indication for genetic counselling and periodical examination.

  11. Melatonin - a key to the evaluation of the effects of electric; Melatonin - Schluessel fuer die Bewertung der Wirkung elektrischer und magnetischer Felder?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunstorf, B.; Lichtenberg, W. [Fachhochschule Hamburg (Germany). Fachbereich Oekotrophologie; Boikat, U. [BAGS, Amt fuer Gesundheit, Hamburg (Germany)

    2000-09-01

    The human pineal gland produces melatonin in a circadian rhythm. The substance has different functions - as a hormone, as an antioxidant and as a neurotransmitter. The secretion of melatonin and its tumor inhibition function can be influenced by electric and magnetic fields. Investigations have been carried out with rodents which have a melatonin rhythm similar to humans; nevertheless, they show a high variability between the species. The present state of knowledge only allows limited use of melatonin as an indicator for the impact of electric and magnetic fields. (orig.) [German] In der Epiphyse des Menschen wird in circadianem Rhythmus Melatonin produziert und ausgeschuettet. Die Substanz hat unterschiedliche Funktionen - als Hormon, Antioxidans und Neurotransmitter. Seine Ausschuettung und seine tumorhemmende Funktion koennen durch elektrische und magnetische Felder beeinflusst werden. Anhand von Nagern, die einen dem Menschen aehnlichen Melatoninrhythmus haben, allerdings eine hohe Speziesvarianz aufweisen, wurden diese Funktionen untersucht. Nach dem jetzigen Kenntnisstand eignet sich Melatonin nur bedingt als Indikator fuer die Wirkungen elektrischer und magnetischer Felder. (orig.)

  12. Influence of gibberellin and daminozide on the expression of terpene synthases and on monoterpenes in common sage (Salvia officinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiderer, Corinna; Grausgruber-Gröger, Sabine; Grassi, Paolo; Steinborn, Ralf; Novak, Johannes

    2010-07-01

    Common sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is one of the most important medicinal and aromatic plants, with antioxidant, antimicrobial, spasmolytic, astringent, antihidrotic and specific sensorial properties. The essential oil of the plant, composed mainly of the monoterpenes 1,8-cineole, alpha-thujone, beta-thujone and camphor, is responsible for some of these effects. Gibberellins regulate diverse physiological processes in plants, such as seed germination, shoot elongation and cell division. In this study, we analyzed the effect of exogenously applied plant growth regulators, namely gibberellic acid (GA(3)) and daminozide, on leaf morphology and essential oil formation of two leaf stages during the period of leaf expansion. Essential oil content increased with increasing levels of gibberellins and decreased when gibberellin biosynthesis was blocked with daminozide. With increasing levels of gibberellins, 1,8-cineole and camphor contents increased. Daminozide blocked the accumulation of alpha- and beta-thujone. GA(3) at the highest level applied also led to a significant decrease of alpha- and beta-thujone. Monoterpene synthases are a class of enzymes responsible for the first step in monoterpene biosynthesis, competing for the same substrate geranylpyrophosphate. The levels of gene expression of the three most important monoterpene synthases in sage were investigated, 1,8-cineole synthase leading directly to 1,8-cineole, (+)-sabinene synthase responsible for the first step in the formation of alpha- and beta-thujone, and (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, the first step in camphor biosynthesis. The foliar application of GA(3) increased, while daminozide significantly decreased gene expression of the monoterpene synthases. The amounts of two of the end products, 1,8-cineole and camphor, were directly correlated with the levels of gene expression of the respective monoterpene synthases, indicating transcriptional control, while the formation of alpha- and beta

  13. Plant growth enhancement and associated physiological responses are coregulated by ethylene and gibberellin in response to harpin protein Hpa1

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaojie; Han, Bing; Xu, Manyu; Han, Liping; Zhao, Yanying; Liu, Zhilan; Dong, Hansong; Zhang, Chunling

    2014-01-01

    The harpin protein Hpa1 produced by the bacterial blight pathogen of rice induces several growth-promoting responses in plants, activating the ethylene signaling pathway, increasing photosynthesis rates and EXPANSIN (EXP) gene expression levels, and thereby enhancing the vegetative growth. This study was attempted to analyze any mechanistic connections among the above and the role of gibberellin in these responses. Hpa1-induced growth enhancement was evaluated in Arabidopsis, tomato, and rice...

  14. Exogenous auxin represses soybean seed germination through decreasing the gibberellin/abscisic acid (GA/ABA) ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Shuai, Haiwei; Meng, Yongjie; Luo, Xiaofeng; Chen, Feng; Zhou, Wenguan; Dai, Yujia; Qi, Ying; Du, Junbo; Yang, Feng; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Wenyu; Shu, Kai

    2017-01-01

    Auxin is an important phytohormone which mediates diverse development processes in plants. Published research has demonstrated that auxin induces seed dormancy. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the effect of auxin on seed germination need further investigation, especially the relationship between auxins and both abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs), the latter two phytohormones being the key regulators of seed germination. Here we report that exogenous auxin treatment represse...

  15. Microwave synthesis of gibberellin acid 3 magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer beads for the trace analysis of gibberellin acids in plant samples by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuomin; Tan, Wei; Hu, Yuling; Li, Gongke; Zan, Song

    2012-02-21

    In this study, novel GA3 magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (mag-MIP) beads were synthesized by a microwave irradiation method, and the beads were applied for the trace analysis of gibberellin acids (GAs) in plant samples including rice and cucumber coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The microwave synthetic procedure was optimized in detail. In particular, the interaction between GA3 and functional monomers was further studied for the selection of the optimal functional monomers during synthesis. It can be seen that the interaction between GA3 and acrylamide (AM) finally selected was stronger than that between GA3 and other functional monomers. GA3 mag-MIP beads were characterized by a series of physical tests. GA3 mag-MIP beads had a porous and homogeneous surface morphology with stable chemical, thermal and magnetic properties. Moreover, GA3 mag-MIP beads demonstrated selective and specific absorption behavior for the target compounds during unsaturated extraction, which resulted in a higher extraction capacity (∼708.4 pmol for GA3) and selectivity than GA3 mag-non-imprinted polymer beads. Finally, an analytical method of GA3 mag-AM-MIP bead extraction coupled with HPLC-MS detection was established and applied for the determination of trace GA1, GA3, GA4 and GA7 in rice and cucumber samples. It was satisfactory that GA4 could be actually found to be 121.5 ± 1.4 μg kg(-1) in real rice samples by this novel analytical method. The recoveries of spiked rice and cucumber samples were found to be 76.0-109.1% and 79.9-93.6% with RSDs of 2.8-8.8% and 3.1-7.7% (n = 3), respectively. The proposed method is efficient and applicable for the trace analysis of GAs in complicated plant samples.

  16. Heterosis in Rice Seedlings: Its Relationship to Gibberellin Content and Expression of Gibberellin Metabolism and Signaling Genes1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma (马谦), Qian; Hedden, Peter; Zhang (张启发), Qifa

    2011-01-01

    Despite the accumulation of data on the genetic and molecular understanding of heterosis, there is little information on the regulation of heterosis at the physiological level. In this study, we performed a quantitative analysis of endogenous gibberellin (GA) content and expression profiling of the GA metabolism and signaling genes to investigate the possible relationship between GA signaling and heterosis for seedling development in rice (Oryza sativa). The materials used were an incomplete diallele set of 3 × 3 crosses and the six parents. In the growing shoots of the seedlings at 20 d after sowing, significant positive correlations between the contents of some GA species and performance and heterosis based on shoot dry mass were detected. Expression analyses of GA-related genes by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that 13 out of the 16 GA-related genes examined exhibited significant differential expression among the F1 hybrid and its parents, acting predominantly in the modes of overdominance and positive dominance. Expression levels of nine genes in the hybrids displayed significant positive correlations with the heterosis of shoot dry mass. These results imply that GAs play a positive role in the regulation of heterosis for rice seedling development. In shoots plus root axes of 4-d-old germinating seeds that had undergone the deetiolation, mimicking normal germination in soil, the axis dry mass was positively correlated with the content of GA29 but negatively correlated with that of GA19. Our findings provide supporting evidence for GAs playing an important regulatory role in heterosis for rice seedling development. PMID:21693671

  17. Cloning of gibberellin 3 beta-hydroxylase cDNA and analysis of endogenous gibberellins in the developing seeds in watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hong-Gyu; Jun, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Joonyul; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Kamiya, Yuji; An, Gynheung

    2002-02-01

    We have isolated Cv3h, a cDNA clone from the developing seeds of watermelon, and have demonstrated significant amino acid homology with gibberellin (GA) 3 beta-hydroxylases. This cDNA clone was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein that oxidized GA(9) and GA(12) to GA(4) and GA(14), respectively. The Cv3h protein had the highest similarity with pumpkin GA 2 beta,3 beta-hydroxylase, but did not possess 2 beta-hydroxylation function. RNA blot analysis showed that the gene was expressed primarily in the inner parts of developing seeds, up to 10 d after pollination (DAP). In the parthenocarpic fruits induced by treatment with 1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-3-phenylurea (CPPU), the embryo and endosperm of the seeds were undeveloped, whereas the integumental tissues, of maternal origin, showed nearly normal development. Cv3h mRNA was undetectable in the seeds of CPPU-treated fruits, indicating that the GA 3 beta-hydroxylase gene was expressed in zygotic cells. In our analysis of endogenous GAs from developing seeds, GA(9) and GA(4) were detected at high levels but those of GA(20) and GA(1) were very low. This demonstrates that GA biosynthesis in seeds prefers a non-13-hydroxylation pathway over an early 13-hydroxylation pathway. We also analyzed endogenous GAs from seeds of the parthenocarpic fruits. The level of bioactive GA(4 )was much lower there than in normal seeds, indicating that bioactive GAs, unconnected with Cv3h, exist in integumental tissues during early seed development.

  18. The mitochondrial phosphate transporters modulate plant responses to salt stress via affecting ATP and gibberellin metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhu

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial phosphate transporter (MPT plays crucial roles in ATP production in plant cells. Three MPT genes have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we report that the mRNA accumulations of AtMPTs were up-regulated by high salinity stress in A. thaliana seedlings. And the transgenic lines overexpressing AtMPTs displayed increased sensitivity to salt stress compared with the wild-type plants during seed germination and seedling establishment stages. ATP content and energy charge was higher in overexpressing plants than those in wild-type A. thaliana under salt stress. Accordingly, the salt-sensitive phenotype of overexpressing plants was recovered after the exogenous application of atractyloside due to the change of ATP content. Interestingly, Genevestigator survey and qRT-PCR analysis indicated a large number of genes, including those related to gibberellin synthesis could be regulated by the energy availability change under stress conditions in A. thaliana. Moreover, the exogenous application of uniconazole to overexpressing lines showed that gibberellin homeostasis was disturbed in the overexpressors. Our studies reveal a possible link between the ATP content mediated by AtMPTs and gibberellin metabolism in responses to high salinity stress in A. thaliana.

  19. Jacob Stael von Holstein ja palladionism eesti arhitektuuris / Ants Hein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hein, Ants, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    Sõjaväeinsenerist ja arhitektist Jacob Stael von Holsteinist (1628, Pärnu-1679), tema kavandatud hoonetest ja rollist 17. sajandi II poole arhitektuuris. Fabian von Ferseni Toompeal Lossiplatsil asunud elamust (lammutati 1894) ja Maardu mõisahoonest, Hans von Ferseni Mäo mõisahoonest Järvamaal, Otto Wilhelm von Ferseni majast Toompeal, Axel von Roseni majast Tallinnas Pikk t. 28 (1670-74), Otto Reinhold von Taube majast Tartus (hävinud), J. S. von Holsteini enda hoonetest: majast Tallinnas Toompea 1, Anija mõisahoonest, elamust Riias jm. Bibliograafia lk. 452

  20. The von Meyenburg complex; Der von Meyenburg Komplex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, S.A.; Bautz, W.; Uder, M.; Kuefner, M.A. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2008-07-01

    The von Meyenburg complex (VMC) describes bile duct hamartomas and presents a rare, benign incidental finding in liver imaging. We report on a 61-year-old man, who was referred for a follow up study 14 years after remission of Hodgkin's disease. Computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple hypodense lesions throughout the liver, primary suggesting recurrent Hodgkin's disease. Previous CT-examinations, which were obtained at a later date, showed those lesions in identical distribution and morphology over the years, leading to diagnosis of multiple bile duct hamartomas (VMC). Making imaging-based diagnosis of VMC including ultrasound, CT and magnetic resonance imaging is a challenging task for the radiologist. Based on literature research findings, the impact of different modalities in the diagnostic work-up of VMC is discussed. (orig.)

  1. Neues über das Tertiär von Java und die mesozoischen Schichten von West-Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, K.

    1888-01-01

    Die Monographie, welche unter dem Titel Die Fossilien von Java herausgegeben wird ¹), ist so weit fortgeschritten, dass sich aus den in ihr beschriebenen Gastropoden bereits eine Anzahl von Schlussfolgerungen ableiten lässt, welche für die in Bearbeitung begriffene, geologische Karte von Java von

  2. Eine Analyse des Zusammenhangs zwischen dem Konsum von Alkopops und dem Problemverhalten von Jugendlichen

    OpenAIRE

    Metzner, Cornelia Beate Isabel

    2007-01-01

    Zielsetzung: In dieser Arbeit wird untersucht, ob bei Jugendlichen ein Zusammenhang zwischen dem Konsum von Alkopops einerseits und dem sonstigen Alkoholtrinkverhalten, dem Konsum von Zigaretten und illegalen Drogen sowie weiteren Risikoverhaltensweisen andererseits besteht, ferner ob sich Unterschiede im Verhalten von Jungen und Mädchen ergeben. Theoretischer und empirischer Hintergrund: �Alkopops�, d. h. Mischgetränke diverser Hersteller aus Likör bzw. Schnaps und Limonade sowie wein- ...

  3. Analytik von Minorlipiden: Ferulasäureester von Phytosterolen (gamma-Oryzanol) in Reis

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Ferulasäureestern von Phytosterolen (γ-Oryzanol) werden antioxidative und cholesterinsenkende Eigenschaften zugeschrieben. Bisher beschriebene Methoden zur Analytik von γ-Oryzanol in Reis erforderten eine aufwendige Aufreinigung des Probenextrakts. In dieser Arbeit wurde basierend auf der on-line LC-GC eine Methode entwickelt, die die simultane Bestimmung von γ-Oryzanol-Gehalt und Sterylferulat-Verteilung ohne Aufreinigung des Probenextrakts erlaubt. Mit Hilfe der Technik wurden die natürlich...

  4. Redoxspeziation von endlagerrelevanten Elementen mit Hilfe von Trennmethoden gekoppelt an ein Massenspektrometer mit induktiv gekoppeltem Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Graser, Carl-Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurden Redoxspeziationsanalysen von Eisen, Neptunium und Plutonium per CE-SF-ICP-MS durchgeführt. Durch Optimierung der Trennparameter konnten Trennungen der Pu Oxidationsstufen III bis VI und Trennungen der Np Oxidationsstufen IV bis VI binnen 15 Minuten mit einer Nachweisgrenze von 10-12 M durchgeführt werden. Die Trennung der Fe Oxidationsstufen II und III gelang in weniger als 5 Minuten mit einer Nachweisgrenze von 5-10-8 M.

  5. THE DIGITAL VON FAHRENHEID PYRAMID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bura

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available 3D Scanners Lab from Digital Humanities Laboratory at the University of Warsaw initiated the scientific project, the purpose of which was to call attention to systematically penetrated and devastated pyramid-shaped tomb from the XVIII/XIX century, of family von Fahrenheid in Rapa in Banie Mazurskie commune (NE Poland. By conducting a series of non-invasive studies, such as 3D inventory using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS, thermal imaging, georadar measurements (around and inside the tomb and anthropological research of mummified remains as well - the complete dataset was collected. Through the integration of terrestrial (TLS and airborne laser scanning (ALS authors managed to analyse the surroundings of Fahrenheid pyriamid and influence of some objects (like trees on the condition and visibility of the Pyramids in the landscape.

  6. VON WISPR Family Processors: Volume 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wagstaff, Ronald

    1997-01-01

    ...) and the background noise they are embedded in. Processors utilizing those fluctuations such as the von WISPR Family Processors discussed herein, are methods or algorithms that preferentially attenuate the fluctuating signals and noise...

  7. Von Onlineplattformen und mittelalterlichen Märkten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudius Gräbner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mit der zunehmenden Digitalisierung und Vernetzung ökonomischer Systeme haben plattformbasierte Interaktionsbeziehungen stark an Bedeutung gewonnen. Hier werden zwei oder mehr Nutzungsgruppen durch eine dritte Seite, die Plattform, zusammengebracht. Die Interaktion wird in solchen zweiseitigen Märkten von den Plattformbetreibern kontrolliert. Kreditkartensysteme, Softwaremärkte oder werbefinanzierte Online-Communities stellen typische Beispiele dar. Da die Analyse von zweiseitigen Märkten mit Gleichgewichtsmodellen aufgrund der algebraischen Struktur des Problems in der Regel nicht praktikabel ist, präsentieren wir im vorliegenden Beitrag ein agentenbasiertes Modell, welches in einem kürzlich erschienenen Artikel ausführlicher diskutiert wird. Anhand von illustrativen Beispielen verdeutlichen wir die Implikationen eines agentenbasierten Ansatzes für die Innovationsökonomik im Allgemeinen und das Studium von Technologieentwicklung im Besonderen.

  8. Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 6. Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer: A Pioneer of Synthetic Organic Chemistry. Gopalpur Nagendrappa. General Article Volume 19 Issue 6 June 2014 pp 489-522 ...

  9. Activation of gibberellin 2-oxidase 6 decreases active gibberellin levels and creates a dominant semi-dwarf phenotype in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Tang, Ding; Shen, Yi; Qin, Baoxiang; Hong, Lilan; You, Aiqing; Li, Ming; Wang, Xin; Yu, Hengxiu; Gu, Minghong; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2010-01-01

    Gibberellin (GA) 2-oxidase plays a key role in the GA catabolic pathway through 2beta-hydroxylation. In the present study, we isolated a CaMV 35S-enhancer activation tagged mutant, H032. This mutant exhibited a dominant dwarf and GA-deficient phenotype, with a final stature that was less than half of its wild-type counterpart. The endogenous bioactive GAs are markedly decreased in the H032 mutant, and application of bioactive GAs (GA(3) or GA(4)) can reverse the dwarf phenotype. The integrated T-DNA was detected 12.8 kb upstream of the OsGA2ox6 in the H032 genome by TAIL-PCR. An increased level of OsGA2ox6 mRNA was detected at a high level in the H032 mutant, which might be due to the enhancer role of the CaMV 35S promoter. RNAi and ectopic expression analysis of OsGA2ox6 indicated that the dwarf trait and the decreased levels of bioactive GAs in the H032 mutant were a result of the up-regulation of the OsGA2ox6 gene. BLASTP analysis revealed that OsGA2ox6 belongs to the class III of GA 2-oxidases, which is a novel type of GA2ox that uses C20-GAs (GA(12) and/or GA(53)) as the substrates. Interestingly, we found that a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, paclobutrazol, positively regulated the OsGA2ox6 gene. Unlike the over-expression of OsGA2ox1, which led to a high rate of seed abortion, the H032 mutant retained normal flowering and seed production. These results indicate that OsGA2ox6 mainly affects plant stature, and the dominant dwarf trait of the H032 mutant can be used as an efficient dwarf resource in rice breeding. Copyright 2010 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology and the Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Titanisierung von Implantatoberflächen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Hanngörg; Heinlein, Markus; Guldner, Norbert W.

    Titan gilt seit Jahrzehnten als einer der wichtigsten Implantatwerkstoffe in der Medizin. Neben den guten mechanischen Eigenschaften (Leichtigkeit, hohe Festigkeit etc.), besitzen Titanimplantate vor allem eine hervorragende Körperverträglichkeit, so dass die Implantate optimal in den humanen Organismus integriert werden [1]. Ist jedoch aufgrund der Anforderungen an das Implantat eine hohe Flexibilität und/ oder Elastizität gefragt, so scheidet der Werkstoff Titan aufgrund seiner spröden und unflexiblen Materialeigenschaften aus. Die Folge ist der Einsatz von Implantatmaterialien, sowohl künstlichen als auch biologischen Ursprungs, welche nicht selten eine unzureichende Biokompatibilität aufweisen und somit zu Fremdköper- und immunologischen Reaktionen und Einkapselung des Implantates führen können. Die Erhöhung der Körperverträglichkeit, eine Adaption an das biologische Umfeld und eine hohe Biokompatibilität sind demzufolge die wichtigsten Eigenschaften bei der bedarfsgerechten Herstellung von Implantaten und Implantatoberflächen. Zur Gestaltung von innovativen, biokompatiblen Oberflächen stehen unterschiedliche technische Lösungsansätze zur Verfügung. Zum einen besteht die Möglichkeit, geeignete Oberflächeneigenschaften aus dem Grundmaterial selbst zu optimieren. Dies geschieht unter anderem durch Modifikation der Werkstoffoberflächen in Form von Texturierungen und Oberflächenrauhigkeiten. Zum anderen können die Oberflächeneigenschaften unabhängig von denen des Trägermaterials gestaltet werden. Durch Funktionalisierung der Oberflächen mit geeigneten Beschichtungen oder der Zugabe von Medikamenten (Drug Eluting) werden die Kunststoffimplantate dahingehend verändert, dass eine Steigerung der Körperakzeptanz erreicht wird. Die Titanbeschichtung von Implantatoberflächen kombiniert die positiven Materialeigenschaften von Titan und Polymer.

  11. 50th birthday of Christian von Ferber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available On May 15, 2011 Christian von Ferber - member of the Editorial Board of "Condensed Matter Physics" and renowned expert in the fields of soft matter physics and complex systems - celebrated his 50th birthday. The Editorial board of CMP, colleagues and friends warmy congratulate Christian von Ferber and wish him and his family continuing good health and to enjoy many adventures and discoveries in his future scientific travels!

  12. The classification problem for von Neumann factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasyk, R.; Törnquist, Asger Dag

    2009-01-01

    We prove that it is not possible to classify separable von Neumann factors of types II, II or III, 0 ≤ λ ≤ 1, up to isomorphism by a Borel measurable assignment of "countable structures" as invariants. In particular the isomorphism relation of type II factors is not smooth. We also prove...... that the isomorphism relation for von Neumann II factors is analytic, but is not Borel....

  13. Hullud päevad von Krahlis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Von Krahli Teatris mängitakse neil päevi neli korda Peeter Jalaka lavastuses Tõnu Kõrvitsa kammeroopereid "Tuliaed" ja "Mu luiged, mu mõtted", mille aluseks on luuletaja Marie Heibergi saatus. Libreto autor on Maarja Kangro. Kammerooperid tulevad lavale Von Krahli Teatri ja Nargen Opera koostöös. Esitavad Kädy Plaas, Helen Lokuta, Nargen Opera koor ja Tallinna Kammerorkester, dirigent Tõnu Kaljuste

  14. Bedeutung von Umwelt- und Organismusfaktoren bei Autoaggressionen

    OpenAIRE

    Rohmann, Ulrich H.; Elbing, Ulrich; Hartmann, Hellmut

    1988-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden übergeordnete Hypothesen zu autoaggressiven Verhaltensweisen formuliert, wobei prozeßhafte Abläufe von umweltbezogenen und organischen Variablen angenommen werden. Eine solche dynamische Beziehung hat ihre Bedeutung sowohl für verursachende als auch aufrechterhaltende Faktoren. In einer Querschnittuntersuchung lassen sich Korrelationen von Tageszeit- und Tätigkeitscharakteristiken (umweltbezogene Variablen) zur Autoaggressionshäufigkeit und Pulsfrequenz (Orga...

  15. Effects of long-term exposure to raod traffic imissions on the pathogenesis of diseases of the skin and respiratory tract in children; Auswirkungen langfristiger Expositionen gegenueber Strassenverkehrsimissionen auf die Entwicklung von Haut- und Atemwegserkrankungen bei Kindern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ising, H. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany); Lange-Asschenfeldt, H. [Bundesministerium fuer Gesundheit, Berlin (Germany); Lieber, G.F.; Weinhold, H.; Eilts, M.

    2002-10-01

    einer Kombinationsbelastung aus verkehrsbedingten Luftverschmutzungen und Laerm auf das Risiko fuer allergische Haut- und Atemwegserkrankungen bei Kindern untersucht. Die aerztlichen Diagnosen von 400 Kindern im Alter von 5-12 Jahren, die innerhalb eines Monats einen der beiden teilnehmenden Kinderaerzte aufsuchten, wurden zusammen mit Angaben der Eltern ueber die Verkehrsbelastung ihrer Wohnungen und ueber andere moegliche Einflussfaktoren ausgewertet. Multiple Regressionsanalysen ergaben fuer Asthma, chronische Bronchitis und Neurodermitis relative Risiken, die mit der Belastung signifikant anstiegen. Ein Vergleich mit der Literatur ueber entsprechende Wirkungen von Luftverschmutzung ergab, dass naechtlicher Verkehrslaerm wahrscheinlich eine verstaerkende (adjuvante) Wirkung bei der Entstehung der genannten Krankheiten hat. (orig.)

  16. Visualisierung von typisierten Links in Linked Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Neubauer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Das Themengebiet der Arbeit behandelt Visualisierungen von typisierten Links in Linked Data. Die wissenschaftlichen Gebiete, die im Allgemeinen den Inhalt des Beitrags abgrenzen, sind das Semantic Web, das Web of Data und Informationsvisualisierung. Das Semantic Web, das von Tim Berners Lee 2001 erfunden wurde, stellt eine Erweiterung zum World Wide Web (Web 2.0 dar. Aktuelle Forschungen beziehen sich auf die Verknüpfbarkeit von Informationen im World Wide Web. Um es zu ermöglichen, solche Verbindungen wahrnehmen und verarbeiten zu können sind Visualisierungen die wichtigsten Anforderungen als Hauptteil der Datenverarbeitung. Im Zusammenhang mit dem Sematic Web werden Repräsentationen von zuhammenhängenden Informationen anhand von Graphen gehandhabt. Der Grund des Entstehens dieser Arbeit ist in erster Linie die Beschreibung der Gestaltung von Linked Data-Visualisierungskonzepten, deren Prinzipien im Rahmen einer theoretischen Annäherung eingeführt werden. Anhand des Kontexts führt eine schrittweise Erweiterung der Informationen mit dem Ziel, praktische Richtlinien anzubieten, zur Vernetzung dieser ausgearbeiteten Gestaltungsrichtlinien. Indem die Entwürfe zweier alternativer Visualisierungen einer standardisierten Webapplikation beschrieben werden, die Linked Data als Netzwerk visualisiert, konnte ein Test durchgeführt werden, der deren Kompatibilität zum Inhalt hatte. Der praktische Teil behandelt daher die Designphase, die Resultate, und zukünftige Anforderungen des Projektes, die durch die Testung ausgearbeitet wurden.

  17. Strigolactones Stimulate Internode Elongation Independently of Gibberellins1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saint Germain, Alexandre; Ligerot, Yasmine; Dun, Elizabeth A.; Pillot, Jean-Paul; Ross, John J.; Beveridge, Christine A.; Rameau, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Strigolactone (SL) mutants in diverse species show reduced stature in addition to their extensive branching. Here, we show that this dwarfism in pea (Pisum sativum) is not attributable to the strong branching of the mutants. The continuous supply of the synthetic SL GR24 via the root system using hydroponics can restore internode length of the SL-deficient rms1 mutant but not of the SL-response rms4 mutant, indicating that SLs stimulate internode elongation via RMS4. Cytological analysis of internode epidermal cells indicates that SLs control cell number but not cell length, suggesting that SL may affect stem elongation by stimulating cell division. Consequently, SLs can repress (in axillary buds) or promote (in the stem) cell division in a tissue-dependent manner. Because gibberellins (GAs) increase internode length by affecting both cell division and cell length, we tested if SLs stimulate internode elongation by affecting GA metabolism or signaling. Genetic analyses using SL-deficient and GA-deficient or DELLA-deficient double mutants, together with molecular and physiological approaches, suggest that SLs act independently from GAs to stimulate internode elongation. PMID:23943865

  18. Karrikins delay soybean seed germination by mediating abscisic acid and gibberellin biogenesis under shaded conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yongjie; Chen, Feng; Shuai, Haiwei; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ding, Jun; Tang, Shengwen; Xu, Shuanshuan; Liu, Jianwei; Liu, Weiguo; Du, Junbo; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Feng; Sun, Xin; Yong, Taiwen; Wang, Xiaochun; Feng, Yuqi; Shu, Kai; Yang, Wenyu

    2016-01-01

    Karrikins (KAR) are a class of signal compounds, discovered in wildfire smoke, which affect seed germination. Currently, numerous studies have focused on the model plant Arabidopsis in the KAR research field, rather than on crops. Thus the regulatory mechanisms underlying KAR regulation of crop seed germination are largely unknown. Here, we report that KAR delayed soybean seed germination through enhancing abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, while impairing gibberellin (GA) biogenesis. Interestingly, KAR only retarded soybean seed germination under shaded conditions, rather than under dark and white light conditions, which differs from in Arabidopsis. Phytohormone quantification showed that KAR enhanced ABA biogenesis while impairing GA biosynthesis during the seed imbibition process, and subsequently, the ratio of active GA4 to ABA was significantly reduced. Further qRT-PCR analysis showed that the transcription pattern of genes involved in ABA and GA metabolic pathways are consistent with the hormonal measurements. Finally, fluridone, an ABA biogenesis inhibitor, remarkably rescued the delayed-germination phenotype of KAR-treatment; and paclobutrazol, a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, inhibited soybean seed germination. Taken together, these evidences suggest that KAR inhibit soybean seed germination by mediating the ratio between GA and ABA biogenesis. PMID:26902640

  19. Transcriptomic Analysis of Gibberellin- and Paclobutrazol-Treated Rice Seedlings under Submergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xiang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Submergence stress is a limiting factor for rice growing in rainfed lowland areas of the world. It is known that the phytohormone gibberellin (GA has negative effects on submergence tolerance in rice, while its inhibitor paclobutrazol (PB does the opposite. However, the physiological and molecular basis underlying the GA- and PB-regulated submergence response remains largely unknown. In this study, we reveal that PB could significantly enhance rice seedling survival by retaining a higher level of chlorophyll content and alcohol dehydrogenase activity, and decelerating the consumption of non-structure carbohydrate when compared with the control and GA-treated samples. Further transcriptomic analysis identified 3936 differentially expressed genes (DEGs among the GA- and PB-treated samples and control, which are extensively involved in the submergence and other abiotic stress responses, phytohormone biosynthesis and signaling, photosynthesis, and nutrient metabolism. The results suggested that PB enhances rice survival under submergence through maintaining the photosynthesis capacity and reducing nutrient metabolism. Taken together, the current study provided new insight into the mechanism of phytohormone-regulated submergence response in rice.

  20. Rice homeobox transcription factor HOX1a positively regulates gibberellin responses by directly suppressing EL1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bi-Qing; Xing, Mei-Qing; Zhang, Hua; Dai, Cheng; Xue, Hong-Wei

    2011-11-01

    Homeobox transcription factors are involved in various aspects of plant development, including maintenance of the biosynthesis and signaling pathways of different hormones. However, few direct targets of homeobox proteins have been identified. We here show that overexpression of rice homeobox gene HOX1a resulted in enhanced gibberellin (GA) response, indicating a positive effect of HOX1a in GA signaling. HOX1a is induced by GA and encodes a homeobox transcription factor with transcription repression activity. In addition, HOX1a suppresses the transcription of early flowering1 (EL1), a negative regulator of GA signaling, and further electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that HOX1a directly bound to the promoter region of EL1 to suppress its expression and stimulate GA signaling. These results demonstrate that HOX1a functions as a positive regulator of GA signaling by suppressing EL1, providing informative hints on the study of GA signaling. © 2011 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. Comparison of Effect of Brassinosteroid and Gibberellin Biosynthesis Inhibitors on Growth of Rice Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Matusmoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroid (BR and gibberellin (GA are two predominant plant hormones that regulate plant cell elongation. Mutants disrupt the biosynthesis of these hormones and display different degrees of dwarf phenotypes in rice. Although the role of each plant hormone in promoting the longitudinal growth of plants has been extensively studied using genetic methods, their relationship is still poorly understood. In this study, we used two specific inhibitors targeting BR and GA biosynthesis to investigate the roles of BR and GA in growth of rice seedlings. Yucaizol, a specific inhibitor of BR biosynthesis, and Trinexapac-ethyl, a commercially available inhibitor of GA biosynthesis, were used. The effect of Yucaizol on rice seedlings indicated that Yucaizol significantly retarded stem elongation. The IC50 value was found to be approximately 0.8 μmol/L. Yucaizol also induced small leaf angle phenocopy in rice seedlings, similarly to BR-deficient rice, while Trinexapac-ethyl did not. When Yucaizol combined with Trinexapac-ethyl was applied to the rice plants, the mixture of these two inhibitors retarded stem elongation of rice at lower doses. Our results suggest that the use of a BR biosynthesis inhibitor combined with a GA biosynthesis inhibitor may be useful in the development of new technologies for controlling rice plant height.

  2. OsGSR1 is involved in crosstalk between gibberellins and brassinosteroids in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Wang, Zhen; Xu, Yunyuan; Joo, Se-Hwan; Kim, Seong-Ki; Xue, Zhen; Xu, Zhihong; Wang, Zhiyong; Chong, Kang

    2009-02-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) and brassinosteroids (BRs), two growth-promoting phytohormones, regulate many common physiological processes. Their interactions at the molecular level remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that OsGSR1, a member of the GAST (GA-stimulated transcript) gene family, is induced by GA and repressed by BR. RNA interference (RNAi) transgenic rice plants with reduced OsGSR1 expression show phenotypes similar to plants deficient in BR, including short primary roots, erect leaves and reduced fertility. The OsGSR1 RNAi transgenic rice shows a reduced level of endogenous BR, and the dwarf phenotype could be rescued by the application of brassinolide. The yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that OsGSR1 interacts with DIM/DWF1, an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion from 24-methylenecholesterol to campesterol in BR biosynthesis. These results suggest that OsGSR1 activates BR synthesis by directly regulating a BR biosynthetic enzyme at the post-translational level. Furthermore, OsGSR1 RNAi plants show a reduced sensitivity to GA treatment, an increased expression of the GA biosynthetic gene OsGA20ox2, which is feedback inhibited by GA signaling, and an elevated level of endogenous GA: together, these suggest that OsGSR1 is a positive regulator of GA signaling. These results demonstrate that OsGSR1 plays important roles in both BR and GA pathways, and also mediates an interaction between the two signaling pathways.

  3. A Gibberellin-Mediated DELLA-NAC Signaling Cascade Regulates Cellulose Synthesis in Rice[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Debao; Wang, Shaogan; Zhang, Baocai; Shang-Guan, Keke; Shi, Yanyun; Zhang, Dongmei; Liu, Xiangling; Wu, Kun; Xu, Zuopeng; Fu, Xiangdong; Zhou, Yihua

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose, which can be converted into numerous industrial products, has important impacts on the global economy. It has long been known that cellulose synthesis in plants is tightly regulated by various phytohormones. However, the underlying mechanism of cellulose synthesis regulation remains elusive. Here, we show that in rice (Oryza sativa), gibberellin (GA) signals promote cellulose synthesis by relieving the interaction between SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1), a DELLA repressor of GA signaling, and NACs, the top-layer transcription factors for secondary wall formation. Mutations in GA-related genes and physiological treatments altered the transcription of CELLULOSE SYNTHASE genes (CESAs) and the cellulose level. Multiple experiments demonstrated that transcription factors NAC29/31 and MYB61 are CESA regulators in rice; NAC29/31 directly regulates MYB61, which in turn activates CESA expression. This hierarchical regulation pathway is blocked by SLR1-NAC29/31 interactions. Based on the results of anatomical analysis and GA content examination in developing rice internodes, this signaling cascade was found to be modulated by varied endogenous GA levels and to be required for internode development. Genetic and gene expression analyses were further performed in Arabidopsis thaliana GA-related mutants. Altogether, our findings reveal a conserved mechanism by which GA regulates secondary wall cellulose synthesis in land plants and provide a strategy for manipulating cellulose production and plant growth. PMID:26002868

  4. Gibberellin biosynthesis and signal transduction is essential for internode elongation in deepwater rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayano, Madoka; Kani, Takahiro; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kitaoka, Takuya; Kuroha, Takeshi; Angeles-Shim, Rosalyn B; Kitano, Hidemi; Nagai, Keisuke; Ashikari, Motoyuki

    2014-10-01

    Under flooded conditions, the leaves and internodes of deepwater rice can elongate above the water surface to capture oxygen and prevent drowning. Our previous studies showed that three major quantitative trait loci (QTL) regulate deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. In this study, we investigated the age-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. We also investigated the relationship between deepwater-dependent internode elongation and the phytohormone gibberellin (GA) by physiological and genetic approach using a QTL pyramiding line (NIL-1 + 3 + 12). Deepwater rice did not show internode elongation before the sixth leaf stage under deepwater condition. Additionally, deepwater-dependent internode elongation occurred on the sixth and seventh internodes during the sixth leaf stage. These results indicate that deepwater rice could not start internode elongation until the sixth leaf stage. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the phytohormone contents showed a deepwater-dependent GA1 and GA4 accumulation in deepwater rice. Additionally, a GA inhibitor abolished deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. On the contrary, GA feeding mimicked internode elongation under ordinary growth conditions. However, mutations in GA biosynthesis and signal transduction genes blocked deepwater-dependent internode elongation. These data suggested that GA biosynthesis and signal transduction are essential for deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. © 2014 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A Gibberellin-Mediated DELLA-NAC Signaling Cascade Regulates Cellulose Synthesis in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Debao; Wang, Shaogan; Zhang, Baocai; Shang-Guan, Keke; Shi, Yanyun; Zhang, Dongmei; Liu, Xiangling; Wu, Kun; Xu, Zuopeng; Fu, Xiangdong; Zhou, Yihua

    2015-06-01

    Cellulose, which can be converted into numerous industrial products, has important impacts on the global economy. It has long been known that cellulose synthesis in plants is tightly regulated by various phytohormones. However, the underlying mechanism of cellulose synthesis regulation remains elusive. Here, we show that in rice (Oryza sativa), gibberellin (GA) signals promote cellulose synthesis by relieving the interaction between SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1), a DELLA repressor of GA signaling, and NACs, the top-layer transcription factors for secondary wall formation. Mutations in GA-related genes and physiological treatments altered the transcription of CELLULOSE SYNTHASE genes (CESAs) and the cellulose level. Multiple experiments demonstrated that transcription factors NAC29/31 and MYB61 are CESA regulators in rice; NAC29/31 directly regulates MYB61, which in turn activates CESA expression. This hierarchical regulation pathway is blocked by SLR1-NAC29/31 interactions. Based on the results of anatomical analysis and GA content examination in developing rice internodes, this signaling cascade was found to be modulated by varied endogenous GA levels and to be required for internode development. Genetic and gene expression analyses were further performed in Arabidopsis thaliana GA-related mutants. Altogether, our findings reveal a conserved mechanism by which GA regulates secondary wall cellulose synthesis in land plants and provide a strategy for manipulating cellulose production and plant growth. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  6. Brassinosteroid Regulates Cell Elongation by Modulating Gibberellin Metabolism in Rice[C][W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Hongning; Xiao, Yunhua; Liu, Dapu; Gao, Shaopei; Liu, Linchuan; Yin, Yanhai; Jin, Yun; Qian, Qian; Chu, Chengcai

    2014-01-01

    Brassinosteroid (BR) and gibberellin (GA) are two predominant hormones regulating plant cell elongation. A defect in either of these leads to reduced plant growth and dwarfism. However, their relationship remains unknown in rice (Oryza sativa). Here, we demonstrated that BR regulates cell elongation by modulating GA metabolism in rice. Under physiological conditions, BR promotes GA accumulation by regulating the expression of GA metabolic genes to stimulate cell elongation. BR greatly induces the expression of D18/GA3ox-2, one of the GA biosynthetic genes, leading to increased GA1 levels, the bioactive GA in rice seedlings. Consequently, both d18 and loss-of-function GA-signaling mutants have decreased BR sensitivity. When excessive active BR is applied, the hormone mostly induces GA inactivation through upregulation of the GA inactivation gene GA2ox-3 and also represses BR biosynthesis, resulting in decreased hormone levels and growth inhibition. As a feedback mechanism, GA extensively inhibits BR biosynthesis and the BR response. GA treatment decreases the enlarged leaf angles in plants with enhanced BR biosynthesis or signaling. Our results revealed a previously unknown mechanism underlying BR and GA crosstalk depending on tissues and hormone levels, which greatly advances our understanding of hormone actions in crop plants and appears much different from that in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:25371548

  7. The rice YABBY1 gene is involved in the feedback regulation of gibberellin metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Mingqiu; Zhao, Yu; Ma, Qian; Hu, Yongfeng; Hedden, Peter; Zhang, Qifa; Zhou, Dao-Xiu

    2007-05-01

    Gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis is regulated by feedback control providing a mechanism for GA homeostasis in plants. However, regulatory elements involved in the feedback control are not known. In this report, we show that a rice (Oryza sativa) YABBY1 (YAB1) gene had a similar expression pattern as key rice GA biosynthetic genes GA3ox2 and GA20ox2. Overexpression of YAB1 in transgenic rice resulted in a semidwarf phenotype that could be fully rescued by applied GA. Quantification of the endogenous GA content revealed increases of GA(20) and decreases of GA(1) levels in the overexpression plants, in which the transcripts of the biosynthetic gene GA3ox2 were decreased. Cosuppression of YAB1 in transgenic plants induced expression of GA3ox2. The repression of GA3ox2 could be obtained upon treatment by dexamethasone of transgenic plants expressing a YAB1-glucocorticoid receptor fusion. Importantly, we show that YAB1 bound to a GA-responsive element within the GA3ox2 promoter. In addition, the expression of YAB1 was deregulated in GA biosynthesis and signaling mutants and could be either transiently induced by GA or repressed by a GA inhibitor. Finally, either overexpression or cosuppression of YAB1 impaired GA-mediated repression of GA3ox2. These data together suggest that YAB1 is involved in the feedback regulation of GA biosynthesis in rice.

  8. Gibberellin modulates anther development in rice via the transcriptional regulation of GAMYB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aya, Koichiro; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Kondo, Maki; Hamada, Kazuki; Yano, Kentaro; Nishimura, Mikio; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2009-05-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) play important roles in regulating reproductive development, especially anther development. Our previous studies revealed that the MYB transcriptional factor GAMYB, an important component of GA signaling in cereal aleurone cells, is also important for anther development. Here, we examined the physiological functions of GA during anther development through phenotypic analyses of rice (Oryza sativa) GA-deficient, GA-insensitive, and gamyb mutants. The mutants exhibited common defects in programmed cell death (PCD) of tapetal cells and formation of exine and Ubisch bodies. Microarray analysis using anther RNAs of these mutants revealed that rice GAMYB is involved in almost all instances of GA-regulated gene expression in anthers. Among the GA-regulated genes, we focused on two lipid metabolic genes, a cytochrome P450 hydroxylase CYP703A3 and beta-ketoacyl reductase, both of which might be involved in providing a substrate for exine and Ubisch body. GAMYB specifically interacted with GAMYB binding motifs in the promoter regions in vitro, and mutation of these motifs in promoter-beta-glucuronidase (GUS) transformants caused reduced GUS expression in anthers. Furthermore, a knockout mutant for CYP703A3 showed gamyb-like defects in exine and Ubisch body formation. Together, these results suggest that GA regulates exine formation and the PCD of tapetal cells and that direct activation of CYP703A3 by GAMYB is key to exine formation.

  9. Rice early flowering1, a CKI, phosphorylates DELLA protein SLR1 to negatively regulate gibberellin signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Cheng; Xue, Hong-Wei

    2010-06-02

    The plant hormone gibberellin (GA) is crucial for multiple aspects of plant growth and development. To study the relevant regulatory mechanisms, we isolated a rice mutant earlier flowering1, el1, which is deficient in a casein kinase I that has critical roles in both plants and animals. el1 had an enhanced GA response, consistent with the suppression of EL1 expression by exogenous GA(3). Biochemical characterization showed that EL1 specifically phosphorylates the rice DELLA protein SLR1, proving a direct evidence for SLR1 phosphorylation. Overexpression of SLR1 in wild-type plants caused a severe dwarf phenotype, which was significantly suppressed by EL1 deficiency, indicating the negative effect of SLR1 on GA signalling requires the EL1 function. Further studies showed that the phosphorylation of SLR1 is important for maintaining its activity and stability, and mutation of the candidate phosphorylation site of SLR1 results in the altered GA signalling. This study shows EL1 a novel and key regulator of the GA response and provided important clues on casein kinase I activities in GA signalling and plant development.

  10. APETALA 2-domain-containing transcription factors: focusing on abscisic acid and gibberellins antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Kai; Zhou, Wenguan; Yang, Wenyu

    2018-02-01

    The phytohormones abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) antagonistically mediate diverse plant developmental processes including seed dormancy and germination, root development, and flowering time control, and thus the optimal balance between ABA and GA is essential for plant growth and development. Although more than a half and one century have passed since the initial discoveries of ABA and GA, respectively, the precise mechanisms underlying ABA-GA antagonism still need further investigation. Emerging evidence indicates that two APETALA 2 (AP2)-domain-containing transcription factors (ATFs), ABI4 in Arabidopsis and OsAP2-39 in rice, play key roles in ABA and GA antagonism. These two transcription factors precisely regulate the transcription pattern of ABA and GA biosynthesis or inactivation genes, mediating ABA and GA levels. In this Viewpoint article, we try to shed light on the effects of ATFs on ABA-GA antagonism, and summarize the overlapping but distinct biological functions of these ATFs in the antagonism between ABA and GA. Finally, we strongly propose that further research is needed into the detailed roles of additional numerous ATFs in ABA and GA crosstalk, which will improve our understanding of the antagonism between these two phytohormones. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. [Mutual Effect on Determination of Gibberellins and Glyphosate in Groundwater by Spectrophotometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Chen, Liang; Liu, Fei

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, a spectrophotometry method for the simultaneous determination of gibberellins (GA3) and glyphosate in groundwater was established and optimized. In addition, the mutual effect on simultaneous determination of GA3 and glyphosate was studied. Based on the experiment, good linearity (R2 > 0.99) was obtained for GA3 in the range of 0-20 and 0-100 µg and for glyphosate in the range of 0-8 and 5-15 µg. The method's detection limit (MDL) of GA3 and glyphosate was 0.48 and 0.82 µg, respectively; and the recovery rates of 15 to 150 µg GA3 and 3 to 10 µg glyphosate in all samples at a spiked level were 71.3% ± 1.9% and 98.4% ± 8.1%, respectively. No obvious influence of glyphosate (0-100 mg · L(-1)) on the recovery rates of GA3 was observed, but the presence of glyphosate could cause slight determination precision decrease of GA3. Meanwhile, adding 2 mg · L(-1) GA3 can increase the recovery rate of glyphosate.

  12. Arabidopsis scaffold protein RACK1A modulates rare sugar D-allose regulated gibberellin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Herman; Olawin, Abdulquadri; Mizanur, Rahman M; Izumori, Ken; Chen, Jin-Gui; Ullah, Hemayet

    2012-11-01

    As energy sources and structural components, sugars are the central regulators of plant growth and development. In addition to the abundant natural sugars in plants, more than 50 different kinds of rare sugars exist in nature, several of which show distinct roles in plant growth and development. Recently, one of the rare sugars, D-allose, an epimer of D-glucose at C3, is found to suppress plant hormone gibberellin (GA) signaling in rice. Scaffold protein RACK1A in the model plant Arabidopsis is implicated in the GA pathway as rack1a knockout mutants show insensitivity to GA in GA-induced seed germination. Using genetic knockout lines and a reporter gene, the functional role of RACK1A in the D-allose pathway was investigated. It was found that the rack1a knockout seeds showed hypersensitivity to D-allose-induced inhibition of seed germination, implicating a role for RACK1A in the D-allose mediated suppression of seed germination. On the other hand, a functional RACK1A in the background of the double knockout mutations in the other two RACK1 isoforms, rack1b/rack1c, showed significant resistance to the D-allose induced inhibition of seed germination. The collective results implicate the RACK1A in the D-allose mediated seed germination inhibition pathway. Elucidation of the rare sugar signaling mechanism will help to advance understanding of this less studied but important cellular signaling pathway.

  13. Divergence and adaptive evolution of the gibberellin oxidase genes in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuan; Wang, Xi; Ge, Song; Rao, Guang-Yuan

    2015-09-29

    The important phytohormone gibberellins (GAs) play key roles in various developmental processes. GA oxidases (GAoxs) are critical enzymes in GA synthesis pathway, but their classification, evolutionary history and the forces driving the evolution of plant GAox genes remain poorly understood. This study provides the first large-scale evolutionary analysis of GAox genes in plants by using an extensive whole-genome dataset of 41 species, representing green algae, bryophytes, pteridophyte, and seed plants. We defined eight subfamilies under the GAox family, namely C19-GA2ox, C20-GA2ox, GA20ox,GA3ox, GAox-A, GAox-B, GAox-C and GAox-D. Of these, subfamilies GAox-A, GAox-B, GAox-C and GAox-D are described for the first time. On the basis of phylogenetic analyses and characteristic motifs of GAox genes, we demonstrated a rapid expansion and functional divergence of the GAox genes during the diversification of land plants. We also detected the subfamily-specific motifs and potential sites of some GAox genes, which might have evolved under positive selection. GAox genes originated very early-before the divergence of bryophytes and the vascular plants and the diversification of GAox genes is associated with the functional divergence and could be driven by positive selection. Our study not only provides information on the classification of GAox genes, but also facilitates the further functional characterization and analysis of GA oxidases.

  14. CHANGES IN THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ‘PRATA’ BANANA TREATED WITH CYTOKININ AND GIBBERELLIN

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    JULIANA DOMINGUES LIMA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Plant growth regulators can influence fruit yield and quality. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of cytokinin and gibberelin on the agronomic and physicochemical characteristics of banana fruits cv. ‘Prata’ (Musa spp. AAB, according to the formation period and position in the bunch. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized 2 x 5 factorial design, two periods of bunch development (summer and winter, five treatments and ten replicates. To study the effect of position in the bunch, split plot was adopted, considering in the plot, 2 x 5 factorial and in subplots, hand 1, hand 4 and last hand. Treatments consisted of 2 pulverizations with water, 150 mg L-1 cytokinin, 200 mg L-1 of gibberellic acid, 100 mg L-1 of cytokinin plus 200 mg L-1 of gibberellic acid and 200 mg L-1 of cytokinin plus 200 mg L-1 of gibberellic acid, applied from the fourth to the last hand of the bunch. Cytokinin and gibberellin, alone or associated, regardless of formation period and position, did not affect the size and physicochemical characteristics of fruits, only delayed the bunch harvest.

  15. An unusual spliced variant of DELLA protein, a negative regulator of gibberellin signaling, in lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Yoshiaki; Umetsu, Asami; Komatsu, Yuki; Kitamura, Jun; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Asami, Tadao; Fukuda, Machiko; Honda, Ichiro; Mitsuhashi, Wataru; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Toyomasu, Tomonobu

    2012-01-01

    DELLA proteins are negative regulators of the signaling of gibberellin (GA), a phytohormone regulating plant growth. DELLA degradation is triggered by its interaction with GID1, a soluble GA receptor, in the presence of bioactive GA. We isolated cDNA from a spliced variant of LsDELLA1 mRNA in lettuce, and named it LsDELLA1sv. It was deduced that LsDELLA1sv encodes truncated LsDELLA1, which has DELLA and VHYNP motifs at the N terminus but lacks part of the C-terminal GRAS domain. The recombinant LsDELLA1sv protein interacted with both Arabidopsis GID1 and lettuce GID1s in the presence of GA. A yeast two-hybrid assay suggested that LsDELLA1sv interacted with LsDELLA1. The ratio of LsDELLA1sv to LsDELLA1 transcripts was higher in flower samples at the late reproductive stage and seed samples (dry seeds and imbibed seeds) than in the other organ samples examined. This study suggests that LsDELLA1sv is a possible modulator of GA signaling in lettuce.

  16. Karrikins delay soybean seed germination by mediating abscisic acid and gibberellin biogenesis under shaded conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yongjie; Chen, Feng; Shuai, Haiwei; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ding, Jun; Tang, Shengwen; Xu, Shuanshuan; Liu, Jianwei; Liu, Weiguo; Du, Junbo; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Feng; Sun, Xin; Yong, Taiwen; Wang, Xiaochun; Feng, Yuqi; Shu, Kai; Yang, Wenyu

    2016-02-23

    Karrikins (KAR) are a class of signal compounds, discovered in wildfire smoke, which affect seed germination. Currently, numerous studies have focused on the model plant Arabidopsis in the KAR research field, rather than on crops. Thus the regulatory mechanisms underlying KAR regulation of crop seed germination are largely unknown. Here, we report that KAR delayed soybean seed germination through enhancing abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, while impairing gibberellin (GA) biogenesis. Interestingly, KAR only retarded soybean seed germination under shaded conditions, rather than under dark and white light conditions, which differs from in Arabidopsis. Phytohormone quantification showed that KAR enhanced ABA biogenesis while impairing GA biosynthesis during the seed imbibition process, and subsequently, the ratio of active GA4 to ABA was significantly reduced. Further qRT-PCR analysis showed that the transcription pattern of genes involved in ABA and GA metabolic pathways are consistent with the hormonal measurements. Finally, fluridone, an ABA biogenesis inhibitor, remarkably rescued the delayed-germination phenotype of KAR-treatment; and paclobutrazol, a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, inhibited soybean seed germination. Taken together, these evidences suggest that KAR inhibit soybean seed germination by mediating the ratio between GA and ABA biogenesis.

  17. 2-Oxoglutarate: linking TCA cycle function with amino acid, glucosinolate, flavonoid, alkaloid, and gibberellin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Wagner L; Martins, Auxiliadora O; Fernie, Alisdair R; Tohge, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) is used as an obligatory substrate in a range of oxidative reactions catalyzed by 2-OG-dependent dioxygenases. These enzymes are widespread in nature being involved in several important biochemical processes. We have recently demonstrated that tomato plants in which the TCA cycle enzyme 2-OG dehydrogenase (2-ODD) was antisense inhibited were characterized by early senescence and modified fruit ripening associated with differences in the levels of bioactive gibberellin (GA). Accordingly, there is now compelling evidence that the TCA cycle plays an important role in modulating the rate of flux from 2-OG to amino acid metabolism. Here we discuss recent advances in the biochemistry and molecular biology of 2-OG metabolism occurring in different biological systems indicating the importance of 2-OG and 2-OG dependent dioxygenases not only in glucosinolate, flavonoid and alkaloid metabolism but also in GA and amino acid metabolism. We additionally summarize recent findings regarding the impact of modification of 2-OG metabolism on biosynthetic pathways involving 2-ODDs.

  18. Gibberellins Promote Brassinosteroids Action and Both Increase Heterosis for Plant Height in Maize (Zea mays L.

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    Songlin Hu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BRs and Gibberellins (GAs are two classes of plant hormones affecting plant height (PHT. Thus, manipulation of BR and GA levels or signaling enables optimization of crop grain and biomass yields. We established backcross (BC families, selected for increased PHT, in two elite maize inbred backgrounds. Various exotic accessions used in the germplasm enhancement in maize project served as donors. BC1-derived doubled haploid lines in the same two elite maize inbred backgrounds established without selection for plant height were included for comparison. We conducted genome-wide association studies to explore the genetic control of PHT by BR and GA. In addition, we used BR and GA inhibitors to compare the relationship between PHT, BR, and GA in inbred lines and heterozygotes from a physiological and biological perspective. A total of 73 genomic loci were discovered to be associated with PHT, with seven co-localized with GA, and two co-localized with BR candidate genes. PHT determined in field trials was significantly correlated with seedling stage BR and GA inhibitor responses. However, this observation was only true for maize heterozygotes, not for inbred lines. Path analysis results suggest that heterozygosity increases GA levels, which in turn promote BR levels. Thus, at least part of heterosis for PHT in maize can be explained by increased GA and BR levels, and seedling stage hormone inhibitor response is promising to predict heterosis for PHT.

  19. Characterization of ent-kaurene synthase and kaurene oxidase involved in gibberellin biosynthesis from Scoparia dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Yoshimi; Taguchi, Yukari; Ichitani, Kei; Umebara, Io; Ohshita, Ayako; Kurosaki, Fumiya; Lee, Jung-Bum

    2018-03-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are ubiquitous diterpenoids in higher plants, whereas some higher plants produce unique species-specific diterpenoids. In GA biosynthesis, ent-kaurene synthase (KS) and ent-kaurene oxidase (KO) are key players which catalyze early step(s) of the cyclization and oxidation reactions. We have studied the functional characterization of gene products of a KS (SdKS) and two KOs (SdKO1 and SdKO2) involved in GA biosynthesis in Scoparia dulcis. Using an in vivo heterologous expression system of Escherichia coli, we found that SdKS catalyzed a cyclization reaction from ent-CPP to ent-kaurene and that the SdKOs oxidized ent-kaurene to ent-kaurenoic acid after modification of the N-terminal region for adaptation to the E. coli expression system. The real-time PCR results showed that the SdKS, SdKO1 and SdKO2 genes were mainly expressed in the root and lateral root systems, which are elongating tissues. Based on these results, we suggest that these three genes may be responsible for the metabolism of GAs in S. dulcis.

  20. Influence of water table decline on growth allocation and endogenous gibberellins in black cottonwood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood, S.B.; Zanewich, K.; Stefura, C. [Lethbridge Univ., Lethbridge, AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Mahoney, J.M. [Alberta Environmental Protection, Lethbridge, AB (Canada)

    2000-06-01

    Cottonwoods have shown an adaptation to the riparian zone by coordinating root elongation to maintain contact with the water table, whose depth varies with the elevation of the adjacent river. The rate of water decline on growth allocation and concentrations of endogenous gibberellins (GAs) in black cottonwood saplings were studied at the University of Lethbridge, Alberta. Water declines were achieved by using rhizopods, and root elongation approximately doubled in response whereas leaf area was reduced. At some point, a greater water decline rate led to water stress resulting in reduced growth, increased leaf diffusive resistance, decreased water potential, and leaf senescence and abscission. After extraction of endogenous GAs, they were purified and analysed by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring with internal ({sup 2}H{sub 2})GA standards. The results showed that GAs were higher in shoot tips and sequentially lower in basal stems, root tips, leaves and upper roots. Noticeable relationships did not appear between GA concentration and growth allocation across the water decline treatments. Only GA{sub 8} showed a consistent reduction in plants experiencing water table decline. This research did not permit the authors to conclude whether endogenous GAs play a primary role in the regulation of root elongation in response to water table decline. 7 figs., 25 refs.

  1. Gibberellin overproduction promotes sucrose synthase expression and secondary cell wall deposition in cotton fibers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Qin Bai

    Full Text Available Bioactive gibberellins (GAs comprise an important class of natural plant growth regulators and play essential roles in cotton fiber development. To date, the molecular base of GAs' functions in fiber development is largely unclear. To address this question, the endogenous bioactive GA levels in cotton developing fibers were elevated by specifically up-regulating GA 20-oxidase and suppressing GA 2-oxidase via transgenic methods. Higher GA levels in transgenic cotton fibers significantly increased micronaire values, 1000-fiber weight, cell wall thickness and cellulose contents of mature fibers. Quantitative RT-PCR and biochemical analysis revealed that the transcription of sucrose synthase gene GhSusA1 and sucrose synthase activities were significantly enhanced in GA overproducing transgenic fibers, compared to the wild-type cotton. In addition, exogenous application of bioactive GA could promote GhSusA1 expression in cultured fibers, as well as in cotton hypocotyls. Our results suggested that bioactive GAs promoted secondary cell wall deposition in cotton fibers by enhancing sucrose synthase expression.

  2. Abscisic Acid and Gibberellins Antagonistically Mediate Plant Development and Abiotic Stress Responses

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    Kai Shu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytohormones regulate numerous important biological processes in plant development and biotic/abiotic stress response cascades. More than 50 and 100 years have passed since the initial discoveries of the phytohormones abscisic acid (ABA and gibberellins (GA, respectively. Over the past several decades, numerous elegant studies have demonstrated that ABA and GA antagonistically regulate many plant developmental processes, including seed maturation, seed dormancy and germination, root initiation, hypocotyl and stem elongation, and floral transition. Furthermore, as a well-established stress hormone, ABA plays a key role in plant responses to abiotic stresses, such as drought, flooding, salinity and low temperature. Interestingly, recent evidence revealed that GA are also involved in plant response to adverse environmental conditions. Consequently, the complex crosstalk networks between ABA and GA, mediated by diverse key regulators, have been extensively investigated and documented. In this updated mini-review, we summarize the most recent advances in our understanding of the antagonistically regulatory roles of ABA and GA in different stages of plant development and in various plant–environment interactions, focusing on the crosstalk between ABA and GA at the levels of phytohormone metabolism and signal transduction.

  3. A local maximum in gibberellin levels regulates maize leaf growth by spatial control of cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Hilde; Rymen, Bart; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Demuynck, Kirin; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke; Kamiya, Yuji; Inzé, Dirk; Beemster, Gerrit T S

    2012-07-10

    Plant growth rate is largely determined by the transition between the successive phases of cell division and expansion. A key role for hormone signaling in determining this transition was inferred from genetic approaches and transcriptome analysis in the Arabidopsis root tip. We used the developmental gradient at the maize leaf base as a model to study this transition, because it allows a direct comparison between endogenous hormone concentrations and the transitions between dividing, expanding, and mature tissue. Concentrations of auxin and cytokinins are highest in dividing tissues, whereas bioactive gibberellins (GAs) show a peak at the transition zone between the division and expansion zone. Combined metabolic and transcriptomic profiling revealed that this GA maximum is established by GA biosynthesis in the division zone (DZ) and active GA catabolism at the onset of the expansion zone. Mutants defective in GA synthesis and signaling, and transgenic plants overproducing GAs, demonstrate that altering GA levels specifically affects the size of the DZ, resulting in proportional changes in organ growth rates. This work thereby provides a novel molecular mechanism for the regulation of the transition from cell division to expansion that controls organ growth and size. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Salinity Inhibits Rice Seed Germination by Reducing α-Amylase Activity via Decreased Bioactive Gibberellin Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination plays important roles in the establishment of seedlings and their subsequent growth; however, seed germination is inhibited by salinity, and the inhibitory mechanism remains elusive. Our results indicate that NaCl treatment inhibits rice seed germination by decreasing the contents of bioactive gibberellins (GAs, such as GA1 and GA4, and that this inhibition can be rescued by exogenous bioactive GA application. To explore the mechanism of bioactive GA deficiency, the effect of NaCl on GA metabolic gene expression was investigated, revealing that expression of both GA biosynthetic genes and GA-inactivated genes was up-regulated by NaCl treatment. These results suggest that NaCl-induced bioactive GA deficiency is caused by up-regulated expression of GA-inactivated genes, and the up-regulated expression of GA biosynthetic genes might be a consequence of negative feedback regulation of the bioactive GA deficiency. Moreover, we provide evidence that NaCl-induced bioactive GA deficiency inhibits rice seed germination by decreasing α-amylase activity via down-regulation of α-amylase gene expression. Additionally, exogenous bioactive GA rescues NaCl-inhibited seed germination by enhancing α-amylase activity. Thus, NaCl treatment reduces bioactive GA content through promotion of bioactive GA inactivation, which in turn inhibits rice seed germination by decreasing α-amylase activity via down-regulation of α-amylase gene expression.

  5. Effects of increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations on transpiration of a wheat field in consideration of water and nitrogen limitation; Die Wirkung von erhoehten atmosphaerischen CO{sub 2}-Konzentrationen auf die Transpiration eines Weizenbestandes unter Beruecksichtigung von Wasser- und Stickstofflimitierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman-Clarke, S

    2000-09-01

    Primary responses of C{sub 3}-plants to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations are an increase in the net assimilation rate, leading to greater biomass, and an associated decrease in the transpiration rate per unit leaf area due to CO{sub 2}-induced stomatal closure. The question has therefore arisen: does canopy transpiration increase because of the greater biomass, or decrease because of the stomatal closure? The direct impact of an elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration of 550 {mu}mol mol{sup -1} on the seasonal course of canopy transpiration of a spring wheat crop was investigated by means of the simulation model DEMETER for production under unlimited water and nutrient supply, production under limited water but unlimited nutrient supply and the production under unlimited water but limited nitrogen supply. Independent data of the free-air carbon dioxide enrichment wheat experiments in Arizona, USA (1993-96) were used to test if the model is able to make reasonable predictions of water use and productivity of the spring wheat crop using only parameters derived from the literature. A model integrating leaf photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and energy fluxes between the plant and the atmosphere was scaled to a canopy level in order to be used in the wheat crop growth model. Temporal changes of the model parameters were considered by describing them as dependent on the changing leaf nitrogen content. Comparison of the simulation and experimental results showed that the applicability of the model approach was limited after anthesis by asynchronous changes in mesophyll and stomatal conductance. Therefore a new model approach was developed describing the interaction between assimilation rate and stomatal conductance during grain filling. The simulation results revealed only small differences in the cumulative sum of canopy transpiration and soil evaporation between elevated CO{sub 2} and control conditions. For potential growth conditions the model simulated a slightly lower water use under elevated CO{sub 2}, while water limitation lead to a slightly higher water use due to the relative increase in root biomass and hence water availability. Under nitrogen limitation elevated CO{sub 2} lead to a stronger decrease of water use than under adequate nitrogen supply. The simulation results confirm the experimental findings that water limitation increases and nitrogen limitation decreases the CO{sub 2}-effect. The qualitative as well as the quantitative behavior of the wheat crop under elevated CO{sub 2} was successfully described by the model for the three production conditions, which makes it possible to use the model with higher confidence for predictions about the future behavior of the crop. (orig.)

  6. Development of fog exposure chambers for field experiments under analytically controlled conditions in order to investigate the effect of hydrogen-peroxide-containing fog on spruces (Picea abies Karst. ). Entwicklung von Benebelungskammern fuer Freilandexperimente unter analytisch kontrollierten Bedingungen zur Untersuchung der Wirkung von wasserstoffperoxidhaltigem Nebel auf Fichten (Picea abies Karst. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duelme, W.

    1990-01-12

    This thesis investigated the effect of hydrogen-peroxide-containing fog on spruces (Picea abies Karst.) in a field experiment. Under the influence of hydrogen-peroxide-containing fog, primary needles show an increase in wax contents. This entails reduced water loss through cuticular transpiration and premature aging of needles. The pigment contents of the spruce needles reveal an increase in the contents of xanthophylls and chlorophyll B. Especially the increase in oxygenated carotinoids must be interpreted as an indication of advanced senescence. Regarding phenols, too, changes in the composition of individual classes of substances were established. These point to a shift in biosynthesis in favour of higher phenols. (orig./MG)

  7. ˝FLUMINENSIA˝ VON FRAN KURELAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldina Veronika Banaš

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Das Buch "Fluminensia" (1862 von Fran Kurelac enthält die für die Schulfestlichkeiten geschriebenen Reden, Gelegenheitsgedichte - Ehrengedichte den bedeutenden und verdienstvollen Zeitgenossen gewidmet: dem Bischof von Senj und Modrus" Mirko Ožegović, Bartol Zmajic von Bakar, dem kroatischen Ban Josip Jelačić u.a. Danach folgen Aufrufe ("Proglasi" aus stürmischem 1848, gerichtet auf die Granzlandbewohner, Deutscher, ungarische Kroaten, Rumänen und Slawonier. Die Aufrufe wurden von Kurelac im Namen der Banalregierung beschrieben. Am Ende des Buches steht eine sprachwissenschaftliche Abhandlung über die ubstantivbiegung. Die für die Schulfestlichkeiten geschreibenen Reden sind wissenschaftliche Inhalte, essaystisch-didaktisch gestalltet, mit der Meldung über die Bedeutung der Wisenschaft, über die Bedeutung und Rolle der Sprache und des Buches für den Fortschritt des Volkes. Der Verfasser widmete dieses Buch seinen ehemaligen Schülern. "Fluminensia" nimmt eine wichtige Stelle in literarischer und sprachwissenschaftlicher Schöpfung auf dem Gebiet von Rijeka und Kroatien im 19. Jahrhundert ein.

  8. Privatiserung von Geschichte. Probleme einer differenzierten Aufarbeitung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birthe Kundrus

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Ausgangspunkt der Untersuchung von Vera Neumann ist die These, daß im Krieg Erlebtes und Erlittenes in den Wiederaufbau- und Wirtschaftswunderjahren Westdeutschlands einem Thematisierungstabu unterlegen sei. Anhand von 50 Interviews, die in den 80er Jahren im Rahmen des von Lutz Niethammer geleiteten Projekts „Lebensgeschichte und Sozialgeschichte im Ruhrgebiet 1930–1960“ (LUSIR entstanden sind und die sie jetzt anhand der Tonbandprotokolle und Abschriften ein zweites Mal auswertet, möchte die Historikerin diese Verschüttungen aufspüren. Im Anschluß an Niethammers These der „Privatisierung von Geschichte“ will sie zeigen, daß seelische und körperliche Kriegsfolgen wie Deprivations- und Überlastungsgefühle, der Verlust von Angehörigen und Kriegsbeschädigungen „privatisiert“, d.h. an die Familien übertragen wurden. Dort seien dann in erster Linie die weiblichen Familienmitglieder mit der Versorgungs- und Pflegearbeit konfrontiert worden. An vier Fallbeispiele schließt sich eine detaillierte Auswertung des gesamten Interviewmaterials an. Diesen Teilen folgt ein Abschnitt zur staatlichen Kriegsopferversorgung in der frühen Bundesrepublik.

  9. Catalytically supported reduction of emissions from small-scale biomass furnace systems; Katalytisch unterstuetzte Minderung von Emissionen aus Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Ingo; Lenz, Volker; Schenker, Marian; Thiel, Christian [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Kraus, Markus; Matthes, Mirjam; Roland, Ulf [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung GmbH - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany); Bindig, Rene; Einicke, Wolf-Dietrich [Leipzig Univ. (Germany)

    2011-06-29

    Einhaltung der Grenzwerte geeignet. Dagegen werden im Praxisbetrieb die Schadgasemissionen ohne sekundaere Massnahmen im Normalfall ueberschritten. Die durchgefuehrten experimentellen Untersuchungen zeigen, dass eine Minderung sowohl von CO als auch von organischen Verbindungen durch katalytische Nachverbrennung moeglich ist. Neben der Entwicklung speziell adaptierter Katalysatoren ist es aber notwendig, durch kombinierte Verfahren eine zusaetzliche Staubabscheidung zu erzielen, da herkoemmliche Katalysatoren nicht zur Abscheidung und Zurueckhaltung von Feinstaeuben geeignet sind bzw. ihre Aktivitaet durch Staubablagerungen auf der aktiven Oberflaeche verlieren wuerden, wenn sie gleichzeitig als Filter fungieren muessten. Um ausreichend hohe Reaktionstemperaturen und damit eine Totaloxidation der Schadstoffe zu ermoeglichen, ist im Regelfall eine externe Beheizung, vorzugsweise ueber elektrische Verfahren, notwendig. Damit lassen sich die Schadgasemissionen vor allem in den kritischen An-und Ausbrandphasen weiter senken. Die Untersuchungen zeigen jedoch auch, dass weiterhin ein erheblicher Forschungsbedarf vorhanden ist, um ausreichend aktive und langzeitstabile Katalysatoren verfuegbar zu machen. Die aufgebaute Versuchsanlage erlaubt die Untersuchung der Wirkung und der Alterungserscheinungen von zu charakterisierenden Katalysatoren unter praxisnahen Bedingungen. Die elektrostatische Vorabscheidung der Staeube kann die Staubbelastung des Katalysators deutlich reduzieren. Damit laesst sich eine Verblockung des freien Stroemungsquerschnittes verhindern, wodurch die Standzeit erhoeht und die Reinigungsintervalle verlaengert werden koennen. Ein Einfluss der katalytischen Abgasnachbehandlung auf die Staubzusammensetzung konnte anhand der vorliegenden Untersuchungen nicht eindeutig nachgewiesen werden, ein drastischer Einfluss kann aber auf Grund der Untersuchungen ausgeschlossen werden. Zur detaillierteren Untersuchung ist es jedoch notwendig, die Staubprobenahme auf Basis von

  10. Catalytically supported reduction of emissions from small-scale biomass furnace systems; Katalytisch unterstuetzte Minderung von Emissionen aus Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Ingo; Lenz, Volker; Schenker, Marian; Thiel, Christian [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Kraus, Markus; Matthes, Mirjam; Roland, Ulf [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung GmbH - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany); Bindig, Rene; Einicke, Wolf-Dietrich [Leipzig Univ. (Germany)

    2011-06-29

    Einhaltung der Grenzwerte geeignet. Dagegen werden im Praxisbetrieb die Schadgasemissionen ohne sekundaere Massnahmen im Normalfall ueberschritten. Die durchgefuehrten experimentellen Untersuchungen zeigen, dass eine Minderung sowohl von CO als auch von organischen Verbindungen durch katalytische Nachverbrennung moeglich ist. Neben der Entwicklung speziell adaptierter Katalysatoren ist es aber notwendig, durch kombinierte Verfahren eine zusaetzliche Staubabscheidung zu erzielen, da herkoemmliche Katalysatoren nicht zur Abscheidung und Zurueckhaltung von Feinstaeuben geeignet sind bzw. ihre Aktivitaet durch Staubablagerungen auf der aktiven Oberflaeche verlieren wuerden, wenn sie gleichzeitig als Filter fungieren muessten. Um ausreichend hohe Reaktionstemperaturen und damit eine Totaloxidation der Schadstoffe zu ermoeglichen, ist im Regelfall eine externe Beheizung, vorzugsweise ueber elektrische Verfahren, notwendig. Damit lassen sich die Schadgasemissionen vor allem in den kritischen An-und Ausbrandphasen weiter senken. Die Untersuchungen zeigen jedoch auch, dass weiterhin ein erheblicher Forschungsbedarf vorhanden ist, um ausreichend aktive und langzeitstabile Katalysatoren verfuegbar zu machen. Die aufgebaute Versuchsanlage erlaubt die Untersuchung der Wirkung und der Alterungserscheinungen von zu charakterisierenden Katalysatoren unter praxisnahen Bedingungen. Die elektrostatische Vorabscheidung der Staeube kann die Staubbelastung des Katalysators deutlich reduzieren. Damit laesst sich eine Verblockung des freien Stroemungsquerschnittes verhindern, wodurch die Standzeit erhoeht und die Reinigungsintervalle verlaengert werden koennen. Ein Einfluss der katalytischen Abgasnachbehandlung auf die Staubzusammensetzung konnte anhand der vorliegenden Untersuchungen nicht eindeutig nachgewiesen werden, ein drastischer Einfluss kann aber auf Grund der Untersuchungen ausgeschlossen werden. Zur detaillierteren Untersuchung ist es jedoch notwendig, die Staubprobenahme auf Basis von

  11. Experimental investigations on inlet flow of ducted turbines. A contribution to turbine intake optimization; Experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Anstroemung von Rohrturbinen. Ein Beitrag zur Optimierung des Turbineneinlaufes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godde, D. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Obernach (Germany). Versuchsanstalt fuer Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft (Oskar-von-Miller-Institut)

    1994-12-31

    In the borderline region between hydraulic engineering and turbine technology, a wide range of conjectures on cause-effect relationships in connection with turbine inflow have existed for quite some time. It is remarkable that these conjectures, which are partly based on observations and `a feeling for hydraulics`, have not as yeet been subject to scientific scrutiny. This is more the remarkable when one considers the requirements specified by turbine manufacturers concerning the quality of the intake flow based upon such uncertain conjectures. However, extensive contructional measures are sometimes necessary to satisfy these requirements, which are also formulated in general terms in numerous publications. Within the scope of this treatise the new investigations in this field - at a model and a turbine test rig - concentrate on the separating pier, the trash rack and the adjoining convergence channel in the intake region of bulb turbines. The experimental results serve to clarify a number of relationships, partly negate or confirm previous assumptions and relativize some of the requirements. Although the results must be assessed in the light of model-specific restrictions and the characteristics of the turbines tested, they are nevertheless generally applicable to a certain degree owing to the wide scope of the investigations. (AKF) [Deutsch] Im Grenzbereich zwischen Wasserbau und Turbinentechnologie besteht seit geraumer Zeit zu Fragen der Turbinenanstroemung eine Reihe von Vermutungen ueber Ursache-Wirkung-Zusammenhaenge. Es ist bemerkenswert, dass diese zum Teil auf Beobachtungen und `hydraulischem Gefuehl` basierenden Deutungen bisher keiner wissenschaftlichen Ueberpruefung unterzogen wurden. Das ist um so bemerkenswerter, als auf der Grundlage solcher unsicheren Vermutungen seitens der Turbinenhersteller nun Anforderungen an die Stroemungsqualitaet im Einlaufbereich erhoben werden. Es erfordert aber mitunter grossen baulichen Aufwand, diese Forderungen zu

  12. Optimisation of pollutant separation and tenside recovery from water/tenside/pollutant mixtures; Optimierung der Schadstoffabtrennung sowie der Rueckgewinnung von Tensiden aus Wasser-Tensid-Schadstoff Mischungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memminger, B.

    2001-01-01

    Hydraulic in-situ remediation technologies have recently become more and more important for removing underground contamination especially in urban districts. To enhance the traditional pump-and-treat, substances such as surfactants can be used which not only dissolve but also mobilize the contaminants. For this method to be cost effective, an optimized waste water treatment is essential. On the one hand the contaminants are to be removed from the extracted ground water and on the other hand the surfactants are to be recycled for re-use in the remediation procedure. So far adsorption of contaminants on activated carbon has been applied to reach this goals. In the frame of this diploma thesis however, more efficient and more economical alternatives to the adsorption method were to be investigated. For this, three different separating techniques to treat water-surfactant-contaminant mixtures containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) as model substances were examined: a membrane technique by using an entrainer on the permeate side, the so called pertraction, the solvent extraction with petroleum ether as a solvent and the adsorption with other adsorbents. (orig.) [German] Hydraulische in-situ Sanierungsverfahren erfahren derzeit im Rahmen der Altlastenbearbeitung eine zunehmende Bedeutung zur Beseitigung von Untergrundkontaminationen, vor allem in innerstaedtischen Bereichen. Um die traditionelle 'pump and treat'-Methode zu optimieren, koennen Hilfsstoffe wie Loesungsvermittler, z.B. Tenside, eingesetzt werden, die eine sowohl solubilisierende als auch mobilisierende Wirkung auf die Schadstoffe haben. Um dieses Verfahren kosteneffektiv zu gestalten, ist eine optimierte Abwasseraufbereitung gefordert. Dabei sind zum einen die Schadstoffe aus dem extrahierten Grundwasser abzutrennen und zum anderen die Tenside fuer das Verfahren zurueckzugewinnen. Zum bisher dafuer angewandten Adsorptionsverfahren unter Einsatz von Aktivkohle sollten im Rahmen dieser

  13. A new von Mises probabilistic formula for quartet invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacovazzo, C.; Camalli, M.; Spagna, R.

    1989-01-01

    Von Mises formulas for quartet invariants, even is useful in most cases of practical interest, suffer from some systematic errors. A new von Mises formula is suggested with better theoretical features. (orig.)

  14. Kerttu Wagner. Die historischen romane von Jaan Kross / Wolfgang Drechsler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Drechsler, Wolfgang, 1963-

    2001-01-01

    Arvustus: Wagner, Kerttu. Die historischen Romane von Jaan Kross : am Beispiel einer Untersuchung der deutschen und englischen Übersetzungen von "Professor Martensi ärasõit" (1984). Frankfurt am Main [etc.] : P. Lang, 2001.

  15. IAS 25, Bilanzierung von Finanzinvestitionen (Accounting for Investments)

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, Manfred

    1997-01-01

    IAS 25, Bilanzierung von Finanzinvestitionen (Accounting for Investments). - In: Rechnungslegung nach International Accounting Standards (IAS) / hrsg. von Jörg Baetge ... - Stuttgart : Schäffer-Poeschel, 1997. - S. 923-953

  16. Borel reductibility and classification of von neumann algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasyk, R.; Törnquist, Asger Dag

    2009-01-01

    We announce some new results regarding the classification problem for separable von Neumann algebras. Our results are obtained by applying the notion of Borel reducibility and Hjorth's theory of turbulence to the isomorphism relation for separable von Neumann algebras....

  17. Medien und Berufsvorstellungen von Kindern: eine experimentelle Studie zum Einfluss von Kinderbüchern auf das Berufsspektrum von Kindergartenkindern

    OpenAIRE

    Brüggemann, Tim; Gehrau, Volker; Handrup, Jutta

    2015-01-01

    "Der Beitrag thematisiert zunächst den Stand der beruflichen Orientierung von Jugendlichen sowie die pädagogischen Bemühungen beim Übergang Schule-Beruf, insbesondere im Hinblick auf eine Erweiterung des häufig engen Spektrums von Berufen, die bei der Berufswahl berücksichtig werden. Dabei richten sich die Bestrebungen, diesem Problem entgegenzuwirken, bislang vor allem auf Jugendliche. Anschließend wird anhand vorliegender Ergebnisse aus der Medienforschung diskutiert, in welcher Weise Masse...

  18. Doença de von Willebrand e anestesia Enfermedad de von Willebrand y anestesia Von Willebrand's disease and anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Timbó Barbosa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A doença de von Willebrand ocorre devido à mutação no cromossomo 12 e é caracterizada por deficiência qualitativa ou quantitativa do fator de von Willebrand. A diversidade de mutações leva ao aparecimento das mais variadas manifestações clínicas possibilitando a divisão dos pacientes em vários tipos e subtipos clínicos. A coagulopatia se manifesta basicamente através da disfunção plaquetária associada à diminuição dos níveis séricos do fator VIII coagulante. O objetivo dessa revisão foi mostrar os cuidados relacionados aos pacientes portadores da doença de von Willebrand durante o período perioperatório. CONTEÚDO: Foram definidas as características da doença de von Willebrand quanto à fisiopatologia, à classificação, ao diagnóstico laboratorial, ao tratamento atual e aos cuidados com o manuseio do paciente no período perioperatório. CONCLUSÕES: A doença de von Willebrand é o distúrbio hemorrágico hereditário mais comum, porém ela é subdiagnosticada pela complexidade da própria doença. A correta classificação do paciente, o uso apropriado da desmopressina e a transfusão do fator de von Willebrand são medidas fundamentais para a realização do procedimento anestésico bem-sucedido.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La enfermedad de von Willebrand ocurre debido a la mutación en el cromosoma 12 y se caracteriza por la deficiencia cualitativa o cuantitativa del factor de von Willebrand. La diversidad de mutaciones conlleva al aparecimiento de las más variadas manifestaciones clínicas posibilitando la división de los pacientes en varios tipos y subtipos clínicos. La coagulopatía se manifiesta básicamente a través de la disfunción plaquetaria asociada con la disminución de los niveles séricos del factor VIII coagulante. El objetivo de esa revisión fue mostrar los cuidados relacionados con las pacientes portadoras de la enfermedad de von Willebrand durante el per

  19. Rice PLASTOCHRON genes regulate leaf maturation downstream of the gibberellin signal transduction pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Manaki; Nagato, Yasuo; Itoh, Jun-Ichi

    2012-05-01

    Rice PLASTOCHRON 1 (PLA1) and PLA2 genes regulate leaf maturation and plastochron, and their loss-of-function mutants exhibit small organs and rapid leaf emergence. They encode a cytochrome P450 protein CYP78A11 and an RNA-binding protein, respectively. Their homologs in Arabidopsis and maize are also associated with plant development/organ size. Despite the importance of PLA genes in plant development, their molecular functions remain unknown. Here, we investigated how PLA1 and PLA2 genes are related to phytohormones. We found that gibberellin (GA) is the major phytohormone that promotes PLA1 and PLA2 expression. GA induced PLA1 and PLA2 expression, and conversely the GA-inhibitor uniconazole suppressed PLA1 and PLA2 expression. In pla1-4 and pla2-1 seedlings, expression levels of GA biosynthesis genes and the signal transduction gene were similar to those in wild-type seedlings. GA treatment slightly down-regulated the GA biosynthesis gene GA20ox2 and up-regulated the GA-catabolizing gene GA2ox4, whereas the GA biosynthesis inhibitor uniconazole up-regulated GA20ox2 and down-regulated GA2ox4 both in wild-type and pla mutants, suggesting that the GA feedback mechanism is not impaired in pla1 and pla2. To reveal how GA signal transduction affects the expression of PLA1 and PLA2, PLA expression in GA-signaling mutants was examined. In GA-insensitive mutant, gid1 and less-sensitive mutant, Slr1-d1, PLA1 and PLA2 expression was down-regulated. On the other hand, the expression levels of PLA1 and PLA2 were highly enhanced in a GA-constitutive-active mutant, slr1-1, causing ectopic overexpression. These results indicate that both PLA1 and PLA2 act downstream of the GA signal transduction pathway to regulate leaf development.

  20. Isolation and characterisation of a dwarf rice mutant exhibiting defective gibberellins biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, S H; Gururani, M A; Lee, J W; Ahn, B-O; Chun, S-C

    2014-03-01

    We have isolated a severe dwarf mutant derived from a Ds (Dissociation) insertion mutant rice (Oryza sativa var. japonica c.v. Dongjin). This severe dwarf phenotype, has short and dark green leaves, reduced shoot growth early in the seedling stage, and later severe dwarfism with failure to initiate flowering. When treated with bioactive GA3 , mutants are restored to the normal wild-type phenotype. Reverse transcription PCR analyses of 22 candidate genes related to the gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis pathway revealed that among 22 candidate genes tested, a dwarf mutant transcript was not expressed only in one OsKS2 gene. Genetic analysis revealed that the severe dwarf phenotype was controlled by recessive mutation of a single nuclear gene. The putative OsKS2 gene was a chromosome 4-located ent-kaurene synthase (KS), encoding the enzyme that catalyses an early step of the GA biosynthesis pathway. Sequence analysis revealed that osks2 carried a 1-bp deletion in the ORF region of OsKS2, which led to a loss-of-function mutation. The expression pattern of OsKS2 in wild-type cv Dongjin, showed that it is expressed in all organs, most prominently in the stem and floral organs. Morphological characteristics of the dwarf mutant showed dramatic modifications in internal structure and external morphology. We propose that dwarfism in this mutant is caused by a point mutation in OsKS2, which plays a significant role in growth and development of higher plants. Further investigation on OsKS2 and other OsKS-like proteins is underway and may yield better understanding of the putative role of OsKS in severe dwarf mutants. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  1. Stamen-derived bioactive gibberellin is essential for male flower development of Cucurbita maxima L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta Lange, Maria João; Knop, Nicole; Lange, Theo

    2012-04-01

    Gibberellin (GA) signalling during pumpkin male flower development is highly regulated, including biosynthetic, perception, and transduction pathways. GA 20-oxidases, 3-oxidases, and 2-oxidases catalyse the final part of GA synthesis. Additionally, 7-oxidase initiates this part of the pathway in some cucurbits including Cucurbita maxima L. (pumpkin). Expression patterns for these GA-oxidase-encoding genes were examined by competitive reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and endogenous GA levels were determined during pumpkin male flower development. In young flowers, GA20ox3 transcript levels are high in stamens, followed by high levels of the GA precursor GA(9). Later, just before flower opening, transcript levels for GA3ox3 and GA3ox4 increase in the hypanthium and stamens, respectively. In the stamen, following GA3ox4 expression, bioactive GA(4) levels rise dramatically. Accordingly, catabolic GA2ox2 and GA2ox3 transcript levels are low in developing flowers, and increase in mature flowers. Putative GA receptor GID1b and DELLA repressor GAIPb transcript levels do not change in developing flowers, but increase sharply in mature flowers. Emasculation arrests floral development completely and leads to abscission of premature flowers. Application of GA(4) (but not of its precursors GA(12)-aldehyde or GA(9)) restores normal growth of emasculated flowers. These results indicate that de novo GA(4) synthesis in the stamen is under control of GA20ox3 and GA3ox4 genes just before the rapid flower growth phase. Stamen-derived bioactive GA is essential and sufficient for male flower development, including the petal and the pedicel growth.

  2. Gibberellin mediates daylength-controlled differentiation of vegetative meristems in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Thomas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentiation of long and short shoots is an important developmental trait in several species of the Rosaceae family. However, the physiological mechanisms controlling this differentiation are largely unknown. We have studied the role of gibberellin (GA in regulation of shoot differentiation in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. cv. Korona. In strawberry, differentiation of axillary buds to runners (long shoot or to crown branches (short shoot is promoted by long-day and short-day conditions, respectively. Formation of crown branches is a prerequisite for satisfactory flowering because inflorescences are formed from the apical meristems of the crown. Results We found that both prohexadione-calcium and short photoperiod inhibited runner initiation and consequently led to induction of crown branching. In both cases, this correlated with a similar decline in GA1 level. Exogenous GA3 completely reversed the effect of prohexadione-calcium in a long photoperiod, but was only marginally effective in short-day grown plants. However, transfer of GA3-treated plants from short days to long days restored the normal runner formation. This did not occur in plants that were not treated with GA3. We also studied GA signalling homeostasis and found that the expression levels of several GA biosynthetic, signalling and target genes were similarly affected by prohexadione-calcium and short photoperiod in runner tips and axillary buds, respectively. Conclusion GA is needed for runner initiation in strawberry, and the inhibition of GA biosynthesis leads to the formation of crown branches. Our findings of similar changes in GA levels and in GA signalling homeostasis after prohexadione-calcium and short-day treatments, and photoperiod-dependent responsiveness of the axillary buds to GA indicate that GA plays a role also in the photoperiod-regulated differentiation of axillary buds. We propose that tightly regulated GA activity may control

  3. Association genetics and transcriptome analysis reveal a gibberellin-responsive pathway involved in regulating photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jianbo; Tian, Jiaxing; Du, Qingzhang; Chen, Jinhui; Li, Ying; Yang, Xiaohui; Li, Bailian; Zhang, Deqiang

    2016-05-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) regulate a wide range of important processes in plant growth and development, including photosynthesis. However, the mechanism by which GAs regulate photosynthesis remains to be understood. Here, we used multi-gene association to investigate the effect of genes in the GA-responsive pathway, as constructed by RNA sequencing, on photosynthesis, growth, and wood property traits, in a population of 435 Populus tomentosa By analyzing changes in the transcriptome following GA treatment, we identified many key photosynthetic genes, in agreement with the observed increase in measurements of photosynthesis. Regulatory motif enrichment analysis revealed that 37 differentially expressed genes related to photosynthesis shared two essential GA-related cis-regulatory elements, the GA response element and the pyrimidine box. Thus, we constructed a GA-responsive pathway consisting of 47 genes involved in regulating photosynthesis, including GID1, RGA, GID2, MYBGa, and 37 photosynthetic differentially expressed genes. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based association analysis showed that 142 SNPs, representing 40 candidate genes in this pathway, were significantly associated with photosynthesis, growth, and wood property traits. Epistasis analysis uncovered interactions between 310 SNP-SNP pairs from 37 genes in this pathway, revealing possible genetic interactions. Moreover, a structural gene-gene matrix based on a time-course of transcript abundances provided a better understanding of the multi-gene pathway affecting photosynthesis. The results imply a functional role for these genes in mediating photosynthesis, growth, and wood properties, demonstrating the potential of combining transcriptome-based regulatory pathway construction and genetic association approaches to detect the complex genetic networks underlying quantitative traits. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights

  4. Gibberellins inhibit adventitious rooting in hybrid aspen and Arabidopsis by affecting auxin transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauriat, Mélanie; Petterle, Anna; Bellini, Catherine; Moritz, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge of processes involved in adventitious rooting is important to improve both fundamental understanding of plant physiology and the propagation of numerous plants. Hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × tremuloïdes) plants overexpressing a key gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis gene (AtGA20ox1) grow rapidly but have poor rooting efficiency, which restricts their clonal propagation. Therefore, we investigated the molecular basis of adventitious rooting in Populus and the model plant Arabidopsis. The production of adventitious roots (ARs) in tree cuttings is initiated from the basal stem region, and involves the interplay of several endogenous and exogenous factors. The roles of several hormones in this process have been characterized, but the effects of GAs have not been fully investigated. Here, we show that a GA treatment negatively affects the numbers of ARs produced by wild-type hybrid aspen cuttings. Furthermore, both hybrid aspen plants and intact Arabidopsis seedlings overexpressing AtGA20ox1, PttGID1.1 or PttGID1.3 genes (with a 35S promoter) produce few ARs, although ARs develop from the basal stem region of hybrid aspen and the hypocotyl of Arabidopsis. In Arabidopsis, auxin and strigolactones are known to affect AR formation. Our data show that the inhibitory effect of GA treatment on adventitious rooting is not mediated by perturbation of the auxin signalling pathway, or of the strigolactone biosynthetic and signalling pathways. Instead, GAs appear to act by perturbing polar auxin transport, in particular auxin efflux in hybrid aspen, and both efflux and influx in Arabidopsis. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Reactivation of meristem activity and sprout growth in potato tubers require both cytokinin and gibberellin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Anja; Senning, Melanie; Hedden, Peter; Sonnewald, Uwe; Sonnewald, Sophia

    2011-02-01

    Reactivation of dormant meristems is of central importance for plant fitness and survival. Due to their large meristem size, potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers serve as a model system to study the underlying molecular processes. The phytohormones cytokinins (CK) and gibberellins (GA) play important roles in releasing potato tuber dormancy and promoting sprouting, but their mode of action in these processes is still obscure. Here, we established an in vitro assay using excised tuber buds to study the dormancy-releasing capacity of GA and CK and show that application of gibberellic acid (GA(3)) is sufficient to induce sprouting. In contrast, treatment with 6-benzylaminopurine induced bud break but did not support further sprout growth unless GA(3) was administered additionally. Transgenic potato plants expressing Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) GA 20-oxidase or GA 2-oxidase to modify endogenous GA levels showed the expected phenotypical changes as well as slight effects on tuber sprouting. The isopentenyltransferase (IPT) from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and the Arabidopsis cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase1 (CKX) were exploited to modify the amounts of CK in transgenic potato plants. IPT expression promoted earlier sprouting in vitro. Strikingly, CKX-expressing tubers exhibited a prolonged dormancy period and did not respond to GA(3). This supports an essential role of CK in terminating tuber dormancy and indicates that GA is not sufficient to break dormancy in the absence of CK. GA(3)-treated wild-type and CKX-expressing tuber buds were subjected to a transcriptome analysis that revealed transcriptional changes in several functional groups, including cell wall metabolism, cell cycle, and auxin and ethylene signaling, denoting events associated with the reactivation of dormant meristems.

  6. Gemeinsam hilfreich oder einsam lästig? Beurteilung von praktikumsbegleitenden Weblogs von angehenden Lehrpersonen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nives Egger

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Weblogs werden an Hochschulen vermehrt zur Unterstützung von Lern- und Reflexionsprozessen eingesetzt, in der Lehrer/innenbildung auch zunehmend während der berufspraktischen Ausbildung. Die Studierenden beurteilen den Einsatz von Weblogs jedoch unterschiedlich. Dabei ist wenig bekannt, welchen Einfluss die Vergabe und das Erhalten von Peerfeedback auf den Beurteilungsprozess von praktikumsbegleitenden Weblogs sowie auf den Umfang von Blogpostings haben. Im folgenden Beitrag wird dieser Frage mittels einer Befragung von 74 angehenden Lehrpersonen nachgegangen, die praktikumsbegleitende Weblogs mit oder ohne Peerfeedback nutzten, um über herausfordernde Ereignisse im Praktikum zu reflektieren. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass Studierende, die Peerfeedback erhielten und andere Blogbeiträge kommentierten, den Weblogeinsatz nützlicher einschätzen sowie eine höhere Motivation und positivere Einstellung gegenüber den Einsatz von Weblogs aufweisen als Studierende, die ohne Peerfeedback bloggen. Keinen Einfluss hat Peerfeedback auf den Umfang der Blogbeiträge und auf die dafür aufgewendete Zeit.

  7. Von Willebrand protein binds to extracellular matrices independently of collagen.

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, D D; Urban-Pickering, M; Marder, V J

    1984-01-01

    Von Willebrand protein is present in the extracellular matrix of endothelial cells where it codistributes with fibronectin and types IV and V collagen. Bacterial collagenase digestion of endothelial cells removed fibrillar collagen, but the pattern of fibronectin and of von Willebrand protein remained undisturbed. Exogenous von Willebrand protein bound to matrices of different cells, whether rich or poor in collagen. von Willebrand protein also decorated the matrix of cells grown in the prese...

  8. [Anja Wilhelmi. Lebensweltlen von Frauen der deutschen Oberschicht im Baltikum (1800-1939). Eine Untersuchung anhand von Autobiographien] / Alexander Ewig

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ewig, Alexander, 1980-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Wilhelmi, Anja. Lebenswelten von Frauen der deutschen Oberschicht im Baltikum (1800-1939). Eine Untersuchung anhand von Autobiographien. (Veröffentlichungen des Nordost-Instituts, 10.) (Wiesbaden : HArrassowitz 2008)

  9. Gasification of liquid manure; Vergasung von Guelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudenau, H.W.; Hoberg, H.; Hirsch, U. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Eisenhuettenkunde

    1996-12-31

    The potential of thermal use of liquid manure is investigated. It is recommended to separate the liquid and solid fraction. While the liquid fraction can be used as fertilizer, the solid fraction can be used for generating a fuel gas for combined heat and power generation. (orig) [Deutsch] Die Untersuchungen haben ergeben, dass in der thermischen Verwertung von Guelle ein bisher nur wenig genutztes Potential vorliegt. Die zum Anbau von Getreide notwendige Duengung kann durch Separation von Guelle in Fest- und Duennfraktion effektiver und kostenguenstiger durchgefuehrt werden. Der Naehrstoffgehalt des Guellefeststoffs sollte durch thermische Aufbereitung aufkonzentriert werden, so dass eine Vermarktung auch mit laengeren Transpoertwegen darstellbar ist. Die bei der thermischen Behandlung gewonnene Waerme kann prozessintern genutzt und ueberschuessige Waerme an Abnehmer in der naeheren Umgebung geliefert werden. Genauso besteht die Moeglichkeit, ein Brenngas zu erzeugen und die Energie mit Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung zu nutzen. (orig)

  10. Gasification of liquid manure; Vergasung von Guelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudenau, H W; Hoberg, H; Hirsch, U [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Eisenhuettenkunde

    1997-12-31

    The potential of thermal use of liquid manure is investigated. It is recommended to separate the liquid and solid fraction. While the liquid fraction can be used as fertilizer, the solid fraction can be used for generating a fuel gas for combined heat and power generation. (orig) [Deutsch] Die Untersuchungen haben ergeben, dass in der thermischen Verwertung von Guelle ein bisher nur wenig genutztes Potential vorliegt. Die zum Anbau von Getreide notwendige Duengung kann durch Separation von Guelle in Fest- und Duennfraktion effektiver und kostenguenstiger durchgefuehrt werden. Der Naehrstoffgehalt des Guellefeststoffs sollte durch thermische Aufbereitung aufkonzentriert werden, so dass eine Vermarktung auch mit laengeren Transpoertwegen darstellbar ist. Die bei der thermischen Behandlung gewonnene Waerme kann prozessintern genutzt und ueberschuessige Waerme an Abnehmer in der naeheren Umgebung geliefert werden. Genauso besteht die Moeglichkeit, ein Brenngas zu erzeugen und die Energie mit Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung zu nutzen. (orig)

  11. Spectral theory and quotients in Von Neumann algebras | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this note we consider to what extent the functional calculus and the spectral theory in von Neumann algebras are preserved by the taking of quotients relative to two-sided ideals of the von Neumann algebra. Keywords:von Neumann algebra, functional calculus, spectral theory, quotient algebras. Quaestiones ...

  12. Der Einfluss von sozialer Ungleichheit und kulturellen Unterschieden auf die Wahrnehmung von finanziellen und Arbeitsplatzrisiken: Überlegungen zur Risikogesellschaft

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, David; Quilgars, Deborah; Jones, Anwen

    2006-01-01

    Der vorliegende Artikel beruht auf Daten einer Studie, die sich mit der Frage beschäftigt, wie verschiedene soziale und kulturelle Gruppen die Risiken von Einkommens- und Arbeitsplatzverlust wahrnehmen und darauf reagieren. Autoren wie LASH, DOUGLAS und LUPTON betonten die Bedeutung von Gruppenzugehörigkeit und sozialen Kategorien für die Strukturierung der Reaktionsweisen auf verschiedene Risikoarten. Sie sprechen daher lieber von Risikokulturen als von der Risikogesellschaft. Trotzdem erken...

  13. Bewertung von Fahrzeuggeräuschen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuit, Klaus; Schulte-Fortkamp, Brigitte; Fiebig, André; Haverkamp, Michael

    Bei der Wahrnehmung und Beurteilung eines Automobils sind unzählige Merkmale und Eigenschaften von Bedeutung. Dabei können Merkmale objektiv-technisch beschrieben werden, wie Angaben zur Motorisierung, Höchstgeschwindigkeit, Drehmoment, zulässige Zuladung, Verbrauch usw. Daneben sind weitere Eigenschaften von Bedeutung, die sich einer einfachen objektiv-technischen Beschreibung entziehen. Hier sind Begriffe zu nennen, wie Sicherheit, allgemeine Qualitätsanmutung, Design, Ergonomie, Komfort, Haptik, Fahrdynamik, Zuverlässigkeit, die deutlich schwieriger objektiv erfassbar und beschreibbar sind (Abb. 4.1).

  14. Asymptotic analysis of a von Koch beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpinteri, Alberto; Pugno, Nicola; Sapora, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Fractal geometry is used in diverse research areas, being an useful tool in describing the mechanical behaviour of natural and man-made structures. In this paper, the structural behaviour of a von Koch cantilever beam is analyzed in the small deformations regime. Analytical recursive formulae for the strain energy scaling are derived, which have been found in good agreement with numerical simulations. Energy considerations suggest a peculiar scaling for the beam rigidity in order to prevent compliance divergence. The results are then extended to evaluate the stiffness matrix of a von Koch beam.

  15. Von Mumien, Cyborgs und Röntgenbildern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Schleicher

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Unter dem Titel Techniken der Reproduktion liegt ein Sammelband vor, der die Beiträge einer Tagung an der Universität Paderborn vom Dezember 2001 enthält. In enger Verknüpfung verschiedener disziplinärer Perspektiven werden Schlaglichter auf eine Vielzahl von Themen geworfen, die sich mit dem Begriff „Reproduktion“ verbinden. Dabei wird deutlich, wie eng die Geschichte der Medien und die Entwicklung von Technologien der biologischen Fortpflanzung miteinander verzahnt sind.

  16. Plant-specific Histone Deacetylases HDT½ Regulate GIBBERELLIN 2-OXIDASE 2 Expression to Control Arabidopsis Root Meristem Cell Number

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huchen

    2017-08-31

    Root growth is modulated by environmental factors and depends on cell production in the root meristem (RM). New cells in the meristem are generated by stem cells and transit-amplifying cells, which together determine RM cell number. Transcription factors and chromatin-remodelling factors have been implicated in regulating the switch from stem cells to transit-amplifying cells. Here we show that two Arabidopsis thaliana paralogs encoding plant-specific histone deacetylases, HDT1 and HDT2, regulate a second switch from transit-amplifying cells to expanding cells. Knockdown of HDT½ (hdt1,2i) results in an earlier switch and causes a reduced RM cell number. Our data show that HDT½ negatively regulate the acetylation level of the C19-GIBBERELLIN 2-OXIDASE 2 (GA2ox2) locus and repress the expression of GA2ox2 in the RM and elongation zone. Overexpression of GA2ox2 in the RM phenocopies the hdt1,2i phenotype. Conversely, knockout of GA2ox2 partially rescues the root growth defect of hdt1,2i. These results suggest that by repressing the expression of GA2ox2, HDT½ likely fine-tune gibberellin metabolism and they are crucial for regulating the switch from cell division to expansion to determine RM cell number. We propose that HDT½ function as part of a mechanism that modulates root growth in response to environmental factors.

  17. Transcriptional mechanisms associated with seed dormancy and dormancy loss in the gibberellin-insensitive sly1-2 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    While widespread transcriptome changes have been previously observed with seed dormancy loss, this study specifically characterized transcriptional changes associated with the increased seed dormancy and dormancy loss of the gibberellin (GA) hormone-insensitive sleepy1-2 (sly1-2) mutant. The SLY1 g...

  18. Rice Ethylene-Response AP2/ERF Factor OsEATB Restricts Internode Elongation by Down-Regulating a Gibberellin Biosynthetic Gene1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Weiwei; Sun, Fan; Wang, Qianjie; Chen, Mingluan; Huang, Yunqing; Feng, Yu-Qi; Luo, Xiaojin; Yang, Jinshui

    2011-01-01

    Plant height is a decisive factor in plant architecture. Rice (Oryza sativa) plants have the potential for rapid internodal elongation, which determines plant height. A large body of physiological research has shown that ethylene and gibberellin are involved in this process. The APETALA2 (AP2)/Ethylene-Responsive Element Binding Factor (ERF) family of transcriptional factors is only present in the plant kingdom. This family has various developmental and physiological functions. A rice AP2/ERF gene, OsEATB (for ERF protein associated with tillering and panicle branching) was cloned from indica rice variety 9311. Bioinformatic analysis suggested that this ERF has a potential new function. Ectopic expression of OsEATB showed that the cross talk between ethylene and gibberellin, which is mediated by OsEATB, might underlie differences in rice internode elongation. Analyses of gene expression demonstrated that OsEATB restricts ethylene-induced enhancement of gibberellin responsiveness during the internode elongation process by down-regulating the gibberellin biosynthetic gene, ent-kaurene synthase A. Plant height is negatively correlated with tiller number, and higher yields are typically obtained from dwarf crops. OsEATB reduces rice plant height and panicle length at maturity, promoting the branching potential of both tillers and spikelets. These are useful traits for breeding high-yielding crops. PMID:21753115

  19. Rice ethylene-response AP2/ERF factor OsEATB restricts internode elongation by down-regulating a gibberellin biosynthetic gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Weiwei; Sun, Fan; Wang, Qianjie; Chen, Mingluan; Huang, Yunqing; Feng, Yu-Qi; Luo, Xiaojin; Yang, Jinshui

    2011-09-01

    Plant height is a decisive factor in plant architecture. Rice (Oryza sativa) plants have the potential for rapid internodal elongation, which determines plant height. A large body of physiological research has shown that ethylene and gibberellin are involved in this process. The APETALA2 (AP2)/Ethylene-Responsive Element Binding Factor (ERF) family of transcriptional factors is only present in the plant kingdom. This family has various developmental and physiological functions. A rice AP2/ERF gene, OsEATB (for ERF protein associated with tillering and panicle branching) was cloned from indica rice variety 9311. Bioinformatic analysis suggested that this ERF has a potential new function. Ectopic expression of OsEATB showed that the cross talk between ethylene and gibberellin, which is mediated by OsEATB, might underlie differences in rice internode elongation. Analyses of gene expression demonstrated that OsEATB restricts ethylene-induced enhancement of gibberellin responsiveness during the internode elongation process by down-regulating the gibberellin biosynthetic gene, ent-kaurene synthase A. Plant height is negatively correlated with tiller number, and higher yields are typically obtained from dwarf crops. OsEATB reduces rice plant height and panicle length at maturity, promoting the branching potential of both tillers and spikelets. These are useful traits for breeding high-yielding crops.

  20. AtGA3ox2, a key gene responsible for bioactive gibberellin biosynthesis, is regulated during embryogenesis by LEAFY COTYLEDON2 and FUSCA3 in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curaba, J.; Moritz, T.; Blervaque, R.; Parcy, F.; Raz, V.; Herzog, M.; Vachon, G.

    2004-01-01

    Embryonic regulators LEC2 (LEAFY COTYLEDON2) and FUS3 (FUSCA3) are involved in multiple aspects of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed development, including repression of leaf traits and premature germination and activation of seed storage protein genes. In this study, we show that gibberellin

  1. Features of gas exchange and use of reserve substances in pumpkin seedlings in conditions of skoto- and photomorphogenesis under the influence of gibberellin and chlormequat-chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Poprotska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of gibberellin and the antigibberellic agent chlormequat-chloride on gas exchange and use of reserve substances in pumpkin seedlings during germination in the light and in the dark. We established that an artificial strengthening or growth inhibition of pumpkin seedlings in conditions of skotomorphogenesis caused an increase in of respiration intensity. Gibberellin treatment increased the proportion of assimilation processes in carbon dioxide gas exchange of seedlings, and growth inhibition by retardant caused an increase in respiratory costs when the nutrition type switches in the light from heterotrophic to autotrophic. The formation by seedlings of the demand for reserve assimilates from cotyledons was largely determined by change of activity of subapical meristems, which is manifested in the acceleration of seed germination, enhancing of histogenesis for the actions of gibberellin and in the weakening of these processes under the influence of retardants. Reserve substances used both oil and nitrogen-containing compounds. The content of protein nitrogen in pumpkin cotyledons decreased more in the light than in the dark, moreover growth inhibition by the retardant slowed down and growth increase by gibberellin accelerated this process both in conditions of photomorphogenesis and skotomorphogenesis.

  2. Die Verteilung und Eigenschaften von Bodenformen in der Deutschen Bucht, eine Rekonstruktion der Karten von Ulrich (1973)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Christian; Lefebvre, Alice; Benninghoff, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Entstehung, Gestalt und Dynamik von Bodenformen in vergleichsweise kleinen Untersuchungsgebieten ist die Arbeit von ULRICH (1973) über die Verteilung von Bodenformen in der Deutschen Bucht bis heute die einzige verfügbare zusammenhängende Darstellung für die deutsche Nordseeküste. Die analogen Karten und die...

  3. Evaluation von Bildungssoftware im Spannungsfeld von Objektivität und praktischer Anwendung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Biffi

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Das Angebot an Bildungs- bzw. Lernsoftware umfasst eine breite Palette von sehr unterschiedlichen Produkten. Eigentliche Unterrichtssoftware, die speziell für den Unterricht hergestellt und auf Lehrmittel und Curriculum abgestimmt ist, gibt es kaum. Im Projekt «Lernsoftware Evaluation» des Pestalozzianums Zürich ermitteln Lehrpersonen die Qualität von Bildungssoftware, indem sie diese im Unterricht einsetzen und anhand eines Kriterienrasters beurteilen. Eine Analyse der in der Evaluation generierten Daten belegt die Problematik des Anspruchs einer objektiven Qualitätsbeurteilung. Es werden die Probleme bei der Anwendung von Kriterienraster und Beurteilungsmodus aufgezeigt und ermittelt, worin die subjektiven Qualitätsmassstäbe der Evaluierenden begründet sind. Diese Ausführungen sind Teil eines Forschungsprojekts für die Weiterentwicklung einer theoretisch fundierten, aber dennoch praxisnahen Evaluation von Bildungssoftware.

  4. Von der Medienwirkungsbehauptung zur erziehungswissenschaftlichen Medienrezeptionsforschung. Vorschlag zur Analyse von Filmkommunikaten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Drinck

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Im Hinblick auf die Erforschung spezifischer Zusammenhänge von Medienkonsum und der Herausbildung von Einstellungen und Handlungen wird eine konstruktivistische Theorieorientierung plausibilisiert, indem zunächst auf den Stand der Medienwirkungsforschung eingegangen und vor dem Hintergrund einer begründeten Kritik des Wirkungsverständnisses auf die Notwendigkeit einer medienrezeptionswissenschaftlichen Forschungsalternative hingewiesen wird. Weiterhin wird der Stand der (erziehungswissenschaftlichen Medienrezeptionsforschung erörtert. Sodann werden Elemente einer konstruktivistischen Methodologie von Medienrezeptionsforschung beschrieben, die am Beispiel der Rezeption von Filmen konkretisiert werden. Dabei wird das Konzept des Kommunikates (S.J. Schmidt als Ausgangspunkt genommen, ein Vorschlag für eine Beschreibungssprache für (Film- Kommunikate entwickelt und eine Adaption des Ansatzes filmischer Narration zur Sprache gebracht.

  5. Erzeugung gleichverteilter Stichproben von Lozenge-Teilungen mittels Kopplung von Markovketten

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Aus dem Inhalt: 1 Einleitung 2 Eigenschaften der Lozengeteilungen 3 Coupling From The Past (CFTP) 4 Simulation von uniform verteilten Lozengeteilungen 5 Programmlisting und Diskussion der Implementierung 6 Ausblick A Anhang

  6. Der Briefwechsel zwischen Alexander von Humboldt und Karl Ernst von Baer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Schmuck

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Zusammenfassung Der kurze, nicht vollständig erhaltene Briefwechsel zwischen Alexander von Humboldt und Karl Ernst von Baer behandelt sehr verschiedene Themen: Politik, Kriegsgefahr, den Wissenschaftsbetrieb, Auszeichnungen und Tagungen, Embryologie und Cholera. Gemeinsam mit Briefen und Reden ergibt sich dabei ein differenziertes Bild der Beurteilung der beiden Wissenschaftler durch den jeweils anderen. Während Baer sich als Bewunderer Humboldts erweist, erscheint umgekehrt Humboldts Einschätzung Baers als ambivalent. Abstract The short, not completely preserved correspondence between Alexander von Humboldt and Karl Ernst von Baer deals with a wide range of subjects: politics and the danger of war, academic activities, scientific awards and conferences, aspects of embryology and the cholera. Letters to third persons and speeches, together with the correspondence between Humboldt and Baer show a differentiated pattern of mutual appraisal: While Baer always remained an admirer of the elder naturalist, Humboldt’s estimation was characterized by ambivalence.

  7. Untersuchungen zur Entwicklung von Satellitengalaxien

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Björn

    2002-01-01

    Gleichgewichtsmodelle ein- und zweikomponentiger Satellitengalaxien werden erzeugt und die Gezeiteneinwirkungen der als starres äußeres Potential angenommenen Milchstraße auf sie betrachtet. Eine erste Reihe von Simulationen mit anfänglich kugelsymmetrischen einkomponentigen Satelliten zeigt, daß sich nach elliptischer Deformation ein Balken und Schweife ungleicher Länge ausbilden, deren Aussehen sich periodisch ändert. Mithilfe von Vergleichssimulationen wurden folgende Phänomene am Satelliten entdeckt: (1) Hochdichtebereiche in den Schweifen, (2) Niedrigdichtebereiche um den Kern bzw. Balken und (3) ein oft verdeckter Balken. Analysiert wird das Erscheinungsbild in Zeitabhängigkeit. Die Teilchen gehen dem Kern über den Balken verloren und bewegen sich entlang gewisser stets gleich aussehender charakteristischer Strukturen in die Schweife. Nach einer Herleitung allgemeiner Größen des mehrkomponentigen Kingprofils werden drei stabile Standardmodelle zweikomponentiger Satellitengalaxien mit Massenverhältnis 1:10 (baryonische zu dunkle Materie) und unterschiedlicher Verteilung der dunklen und sichtbaren Materie gefunden. Ohne die Allgemeinheit der Ergebnisse zu beeinträchtigen, wurde dabei die Große Magellanische Wolke als Grundlage der Modelle genommen. Nach geeigneter Wahl der Bahn, zu der der Gezeitenradius des verwendeten dreikomponentigen Milchstraßenpotentials sowohl analytisch als auch numerisch berechnet wird, werden Simulationen der Modelle analysiert. Hauptaugenmerk ist das unterschiedliche Verhalten der Komponenten. Hauptergebnisse: (1) Es ist möglich, große Anteile dunkler, jedoch nur geringe sichtbarer Materie abzulösen. Dunkle und sichtbare Materie können unterschiedliche morphologische Strukturen bilden. (2) Je nach Konzentration der Komponenten ist die Eigengravitation der Teilchen mehr oder weniger für das Aussehen bestimmend. (3) Die Kernauflösung des Satelliten findet im Perigalaktikum (PG), sein Zerfall aber erst im

  8. A note on derivations of Murray–von Neumann algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadison, Richard V.; Liu, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    A Murray–von Neumann algebra is the algebra of operators affiliated with a finite von Neumann algebra. In this article, we first present a brief introduction to the theory of derivations of operator algebras from both the physical and mathematical points of view. We then describe our recent work on derivations of Murray–von Neumann algebras. We show that the “extended derivations” of a Murray–von Neumann algebra, those that map the associated finite von Neumann algebra into itself, are inner. In particular, we prove that the only derivation that maps a Murray–von Neumann algebra associated with a factor of type II1 into that factor is 0. Those results are extensions of Singer’s seminal result answering a question of Kaplansky, as applied to von Neumann algebras: The algebra may be noncommutative and may even contain unbounded elements. PMID:24469831

  9. A note on derivations of Murray-von Neumann algebras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadison, Richard V; Liu, Zhe

    2014-02-11

    A Murray-von Neumann algebra is the algebra of operators affiliated with a finite von Neumann algebra. In this article, we first present a brief introduction to the theory of derivations of operator algebras from both the physical and mathematical points of view. We then describe our recent work on derivations of Murray-von Neumann algebras. We show that the "extended derivations" of a Murray-von Neumann algebra, those that map the associated finite von Neumann algebra into itself, are inner. In particular, we prove that the only derivation that maps a Murray-von Neumann algebra associated with a factor of type II1 into that factor is 0. Those results are extensions of Singer's seminal result answering a question of Kaplansky, as applied to von Neumann algebras: The algebra may be noncommutative and may even contain unbounded elements.

  10. Soolopartiid Von Krahli katuse all / Kristi Eberhart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eberhart, Kristi

    2007-01-01

    Von Krahli Teatri kolmest lavastusest: "Erki ja Tiina" (lavastaja Mart Kangro, tantsivad Erki Laur ja Tiina Tauraite), "Faust" (J. W. Goethe ainetel tekst ja lavastus Taavi Eelmaa, muusika ja laulud Chalice, osades Jarek Kasar ja Rein Pakk), "Hamletid" (William Shakespeare'i ainetel kontseptsiooni, lavastuse, koreograafia, kujunduse, valguse autor Sasha Pepeljajev, video- ja helikunstnik Taavet Jansen. Esitaja Juhan Ulfsak)

  11. Alexander von Humboldt and Coenraad Jacob Temminck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raat, A.J.P.

    1976-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In the archives of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie in Leiden there is a map with three letters written by Alexander von Humboldt (17691859) to the first director of the Museum, Coenraad Jacob Temminck (1778-1858). The map, the hard cover of John Gould's "Synopsis of the birds

  12. Differential functional von Foerster equations with renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Leszczyński

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural iterative methods converge to the exact solution of a differential-functional von Foerster-type equation which describes a single population dependent on its past time and state densities as well as on its total size. On the lateral boundary we impose a renewal condition.

  13. Wege zur Entdeckung von Communities in Folksonomies

    OpenAIRE

    Jäschke, Robert; Hotho, Andreas; Schmitz, Christoph; Stumme, Gerd

    2006-01-01

    Ein wichtiger Baustein des neu entdeckten World Wide Web - des "Web 2.0" - stellen Folksonomies dar. In diesen Systemen können Benutzer gemeinsam Ressourcen verwalten und mit Schlagwörtern versehen. Die dadurch entstehenden begrifflichen Strukturen stellen ein interessantes Forschungsfeld dar. Dieser Artikel untersucht Ansätze und Wege zur Entdeckung und Strukturierung von Nutzergruppen ("Communities") in Folksonomies.

  14. Hans von Engel and the ICPIG Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, R.

    2000-01-01

    The history of the, organized by Hans von Engel, International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases is presented: Oxford (1953), Delft (1955), Venice (1957), Uppsala (1959), Munich (1961), Oxford (1971) and Berlin (1977). Some organizational aspects, financial support and remarkable events like international prizes in field of plasma physics are given

  15. Guido von Pirquet: Austrian pioneer of astronautics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykora, F.

    1977-01-01

    The works of Guido von Pirquet, Austrian pioneer of rocketry, were assessed. Major emphasis was given to Pirquet's calculation of the route to Venus which in fact was followed by the first Russian rocket to Venus. Of interest also is Pirquet's valuable construction of a space station and his analysis of interstellar space flight.

  16. Ueberreste vorweltlicher Proboscidier von Java und Banka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, K.

    1884-01-01

    Junghuhn führte in seinem Werke über Java nur einen einzigen Wirbelthierrest, Carcharias megalodon, an (7, IV, pag. 97); es war ihm nicht gelungen bei seinem ersten Aufenthalte auf der Insel Reste von Säugethieren zu finden, so eifrig er auch darnach in den Höhlen des Tertiaergebirges suchte (7, IV,

  17. Active Von Willebrand Factor, thrombocytopenia and thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulstein, J.J.J.

    2006-01-01

    Platelets and von Willebrand factor (VWF) are unable to interact in circulation. To induce an interaction, a conversion of VWF to a platelet-binding conformation is required. At higher shear stresses, the first step in thrombus formation is binding of VWF to the subendothelium. This results in

  18. Ueber eine Anomalie von Acromitus flagellatus (Stiasny)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiasny, G.

    1934-01-01

    Bei erneuter Durchsicht des reichhaltigen Materiales von Acromitus flagellatus (Stiasny) in der Scyphomedusen-Sammlung des Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie in Leiden (vergl. meine Mitteilungen daruber, 1920, Uebersichtstabelle III und 1921, p. 131/136) fand ich ein Exemplar, das eine

  19. Von Kalifornien nach Taxham / Katri Soe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soe, Katri, 1971-

    2005-01-01

    Neljas osa magistritööst "Von Kalifornien nach Taxham: Formen und Strukturen der Kommunikation in Peter Handkes Romanen "Der kurze Brief zum langen Abschied" und "In einer dunklen Nacht ging ich aus meinem stillen Haus"" (Tartu, 2000. Juhendaja: Claus Sommerhage)

  20. Von der lernenden Region zur "Smart Region“

    OpenAIRE

    Poschwatta, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    Von der lernenden Region zur "Smart Region“ / M. Hilpert, W. Poschwatta. - In: Nabizadeh-Araghi, Nima : Auf dem Weg zur "Smart Region" : regionale Entwicklung am Beispiel der Pistazienproduktion im Iran. - Augsburg : Müllerdruck, 2004. - S. 5-9. - (Terra facta ; 2)

  1. Transcriptional regulatory programs underlying barley germination and regulatory functions of Gibberellin and abscisic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Seed germination is a complex multi-stage developmental process, and mainly accomplished through concerted activities of many gene products and biological pathways that are often subjected to strict developmental regulation. Gibberellins (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) are two key phytohormones regulating seed germination and seedling growth. However, transcriptional regulatory networks underlying seed germination and its associated biological pathways are largely unknown. Results The studies examined transcriptomes of barley representing six distinct and well characterized germination stages and revealed that the transcriptional regulatory program underlying barley germination was composed of early, late, and post-germination phases. Each phase was accompanied with transcriptional up-regulation of distinct biological pathways. Cell wall synthesis and regulatory components including transcription factors, signaling and post-translational modification components were specifically and transiently up-regulated in early germination phase while histone families and many metabolic pathways were up-regulated in late germination phase. Photosynthesis and seed reserve mobilization pathways were up-regulated in post-germination phase. However, stress related pathways and seed storage proteins were suppressed through the entire course of germination. A set of genes were transiently up-regulated within three hours of imbibition, and might play roles in initiating biological pathways involved in seed germination. However, highly abundant transcripts in dry barley and Arabidopsis seeds were significantly conserved. Comparison with transcriptomes of barley aleurone in response to GA and ABA identified three sets of germination responsive genes that were regulated coordinately by GA, antagonistically by ABA, and coordinately by GA but antagonistically by ABA. Major CHO metabolism, cell wall degradation and protein degradation pathways were up-regulated by both GA and seed

  2. Transcriptional regulatory programs underlying barley germination and regulatory functions of Gibberellin and abscisic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seed germination is a complex multi-stage developmental process, and mainly accomplished through concerted activities of many gene products and biological pathways that are often subjected to strict developmental regulation. Gibberellins (GA and abscisic acid (ABA are two key phytohormones regulating seed germination and seedling growth. However, transcriptional regulatory networks underlying seed germination and its associated biological pathways are largely unknown. Results The studies examined transcriptomes of barley representing six distinct and well characterized germination stages and revealed that the transcriptional regulatory program underlying barley germination was composed of early, late, and post-germination phases. Each phase was accompanied with transcriptional up-regulation of distinct biological pathways. Cell wall synthesis and regulatory components including transcription factors, signaling and post-translational modification components were specifically and transiently up-regulated in early germination phase while histone families and many metabolic pathways were up-regulated in late germination phase. Photosynthesis and seed reserve mobilization pathways were up-regulated in post-germination phase. However, stress related pathways and seed storage proteins were suppressed through the entire course of germination. A set of genes were transiently up-regulated within three hours of imbibition, and might play roles in initiating biological pathways involved in seed germination. However, highly abundant transcripts in dry barley and Arabidopsis seeds were significantly conserved. Comparison with transcriptomes of barley aleurone in response to GA and ABA identified three sets of germination responsive genes that were regulated coordinately by GA, antagonistically by ABA, and coordinately by GA but antagonistically by ABA. Major CHO metabolism, cell wall degradation and protein degradation pathways were up

  3. Solar reactors for freshwater treatment in developing countries with high radiation intensity, with particular regard to part-project No. 1: Microbiology, process conception. Final report; Solarreaktoren fuer die Trinkwasseraufbereitung in Entwicklungslaendern mit hoher Sonnenstrahlungsintensitaet unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung von Teilprojekt 1: Mikrobiologie, Verfahrenskonzeption. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watzke, E.; Roth, M.; Hoffmeier, C.

    2000-07-01

    Simple and low-cost systems for freshwater disinfestation for developing countries with high solar radiation intensity were investigated for the purpose of providing freshwater of better microbiological quality to a wider population in order to prevent infectious diseases, especially diarrhoea diseases. The bactericidic effects of short-wave and long-wave solar radiation of the UV and NIR range in combination with heat were investigated. Special glasses with high UV-permeability were developed and tested for their applicability as tube materials in freshwater disinfestation systems. the systems were designed and constructed with a view to utilising the synergistic effects of UV and thermal radiation. For higher efficacy, the water is kept in an insulated tank at elevated temperature for several hours. Further, special-purpose glass vessels with high UV permeability were developed for disinfestation. In a follow-up project, long-term tests will be carried out in practical conditions in developing countries. [German] Das Ziel der Verbundforschung bestand in der Entwicklung einfacher, kostenguenstiger Anlagen und Vorrichtungen zur Trinkwasserentkeimung in Entwicklungslaendern mit hoher Sonnenstrahlungsintensitaet. Es soll damit ein Beitrag zur Bereitstellung von Trinkwasser mit wesentlich verbesserter mikrobiologischer Qualitaet fuer breite Bevoelkerungsschichten geleistet werden, um Infektionskrankheiten, insbesondere Diarrhoeerkrankungen zurueckzudraengen. Die bakterizide Wirkung der kurz- und langwelligen Sonnenstrahlung im UV- bzw. NIR-Bereich in Kombination mit Waermeeinwirkungen wurde untersucht. Spezielle hoch UV-durchlaessige Glaeser wurden entwickelt und ihre Eignung fuer einen Einsatz in Trinkwasserentkeimungsanlagen (TWEA) getestet. Mit hoch UV-druchlaessigen Rohren aus Spezialglaesern ausgeruestete TWEA wurden konstruiert und gebaut, mit denen der synergistische Effekt von UV- und Waermestrahlung der Sonne zur Trinkwasserdesinfektion genutzt wird. Zur

  4. Gibberellin-regulated gene in the basal region of rice leaf sheath encodes basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Setsuko; Takasaki, Hironori

    2009-07-01

    Genes regulated by gibberellin (GA) during leaf sheath elongation in rice seedlings were identified using the transcriptome approach. mRNA from the basal regions of leaf sheaths treated with GA3 was analyzed by high-coverage gene expression profiling. 33,004 peaks were detected, and 30 transcripts showed significant changes in the presence of GA3. Among these, basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor (AK073385) was significantly upregulated. Quantitative PCR analysis confirmed that expression of AK073385 was controlled by GA3 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor (AK073385) is therefore involved in the regulation of gene expression by GA3.

  5. A gibberellin-stimulated transcript, OsGASR1, controls seedling growth and α-amylase expression in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Choon; Kim, Soo-Jin; Han, Soon-Ki; An, Gynheung; Kim, Seong-Ryong

    2017-07-01

    From a T-DNA-tagging population in rice, we identified OsGASR1 (LOC_Os03g55290), a member of the GAST (gibberellin (GA)-Stimulated Transcript) family that is induced by salt stress and ABA treatment. This gene was highly expressed in the regions of cell proliferation and panicle development, as revealed by a GUS assay of the mutant line. In the osgasr1 mutants, the second leaf blades were much longer than those of the segregating wild type due to an increase in cell length. In addition, five α-amylase genes were up-regulated in the mutants, implying that OsGASR1 is a negative regulator of those genes. These results suggest that OsGASR1 plays important roles in seedling growth and α-amylase gene expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Antagonism between abscisic acid and gibberellins is partially mediated by ascorbic acid during seed germination in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Nenghui; Zhang, Jianhua

    2012-05-01

    The antagonism between abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) plays a key role in controlling seed germination, but the mechanism of antagonism during this process is not known. In the associated study, we investigated the relationship among ABA, reactive oxygen species (ROS), ascorbic acid (ASC) and GA during rice seed germination. ROS production is reduced by ABA, which hence results in decreasing ASC accumulation during imbibition. GA accumulation was also suppressed by a reduced ROS and ASC level, whereas application of exogenous ASC can partially rescue seed germination from ABA treatment. Further results show that production of ASC, which acts as a substrate in GA biosynthesis, was significantly inhibited by lycorine which thus suppressed the accumulation of GA. Consequently, expression of GA biosynthesis genes was suppressed by the low levels of ROS and ASC in ABA-treated seeds. These studies reveal a new role for ASC in mediating the antagonism between ABA and GA during seed germination in rice.

  7. Comprehensive Gene Expression Analysis of Rice Aleurone Cells: Probing the Existence of an Alternative Gibberellin Receptor1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Kenji; Aya, Koichiro; Hirano, Ko; Ordonio, Reynante Lacsamana; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Current gibberellin (GA) research indicates that GA must be perceived in plant nuclei by its cognate receptor, GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1). Recognition of GA by GID1 relieves the repression mediated by the DELLA protein, a model known as the GID1-DELLA GA perception system. There have been reports of potential GA-binding proteins in the plasma membrane that perceive GA and induce α-amylase expression in cereal aleurone cells, which is mechanistically different from the GID1-DELLA system. Therefore, we examined the expression of the rice (Oryza sativa) α-amylase genes in rice mutants impaired in the GA receptor (gid1) and the DELLA repressor (slender rice1; slr1) and confirmed their lack of response to GA in gid1 mutants and constitutive expression in slr1 mutants. We also examined the expression of GA-regulated genes by genome-wide microarray and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses and confirmed that all GA-regulated genes are modulated by the GID1-DELLA system. Furthermore, we studied the regulatory network involved in GA signaling by using a set of mutants defective in genes involved in GA perception and gene expression, namely gid1, slr1, gid2 (a GA-related F-box protein mutant), and gamyb (a GA-related trans-acting factor mutant). Almost all GA up-regulated genes were regulated by the four named GA-signaling components. On the other hand, GA down-regulated genes showed different expression patterns with respect to GID2 and GAMYB (e.g. a considerable number of genes are not controlled by GAMYB or GID2 and GAMYB). Based on these observations, we present a comprehensive discussion of the intricate network of GA-regulated genes in rice aleurone cells. PMID:25511432

  8. Enzymatic and structural characterization of hydrolysis of gibberellin A4 glucosyl ester by a rice β-D-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yanling; Sansenya, Sompong; Saetang, Chiraporn; Wakuta, Shinji; Ketudat Cairns, James R

    2013-09-01

    In order to identify a rice gibberellin ester β-D-glucosidase, gibberellin A4 β-D-glucosyl ester (GA4-GE) was synthesized and used to screen rice β-glucosidases. Os3BGlu6 was found to have the highest hydrolysis activity to GA4-GE among five recombinantly expressed rice glycoside hydrolase family GH1 enzymes from different phylogenic clusters. The kinetic parameters of Os3BGlu6 and its mutants E178Q, E178A, E394D, E394Q and M251N for hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl β-D-glucopyranoside (pNPGlc) and GA4-GE confirmed the roles of the catalytic acid/base and nucleophile for hydrolysis of both substrates and suggested M251 contributes to binding hydrophobic aglycones. The activities of the Os3BGlu6 E178Q and E178A acid/base mutants were rescued by azide, which they transglucosylate to produce β-D-glucopyranosyl azide, in a pH-dependent manner, while acetate also rescued Os3BGlu6 E178A at low pH. High concentrations of sodium azide (200-400 mM) inhibited Os3BGlu6 E178Q but not Os3BGlu6 E178A. The structures of Os3BGlu6 E178Q crystallized with either GA4-GE or pNPGlc had a native α-D-glucosyl moiety covalently linked to the catalytic nucleophile, E394, which showed the hydrogen bonding to the 2-hydroxyl in the covalent intermediate. These data suggest that a GH1 β-glucosidase uses the same retaining catalytic mechanism to hydrolyze 1-O-acyl glucose ester and glucoside. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Enterococcus faecium LKE12 Cell-Free Extract Accelerates Host Plant Growth via Gibberellin and Indole-3-Acetic Acid Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ko-Eun; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Kang, Sang-Mo; You, Young-Hyun; Joo, Gil-Jae; Lee, In-Jung; Ko, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Jin-Ho

    2015-09-01

    The use of microbial extracts containing plant hormones is a promising technique to improve crop growth. Little is known about the effect of bacterial cell-free extracts on plant growth promotion. This study, based on phytohormonal analyses, aimed at exploring the potential mechanisms by which Enterococcus faecium LKE12 enhances plant growth in oriental melon. A bacterial strain, LKE12, was isolated from soil, and further identified as E. faecium by 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The plant growth-promoting ability of an LKE12 bacterial culture was tested in a gibberellin (GA)-deficient rice dwarf mutant (waito-C) and a normal GA biosynthesis rice cultivar (Hwayongbyeo). E. faecium LKE12 significantly improved the length and biomass of rice shoots in both normal and dwarf cultivars through the secretion of an array of gibberellins (GA1, GA3, GA7, GA8, GA9, GA12, GA19, GA20, GA24, and GA53), as well as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study indicating that E. faecium can produce GAs. Increases in shoot and root lengths, plant fresh weight, and chlorophyll content promoted by E. faecium LKE12 and its cell-free extract inoculated in oriental melon plants revealed a favorable interaction of E. faecium LKE12 with plants. Higher plant growth rates and nutrient contents of magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron, manganese, silicon, zinc, and nitrogen were found in cell-free extract-treated plants than in control plants. The results of the current study suggest that E. faecium LKE12 promotes plant growth by producing GAs and IAA; interestingly, the exogenous application of its cell-free culture extract can be a potential strategy to accelerate plant growth.

  10. RhHB1 mediates the antagonism of gibberellins to ABA and ethylene during rose (Rosa hybrida) petal senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Peitao; Zhang, Changqing; Liu, Jitao; Liu, Xiaowei; Jiang, Guimei; Jiang, Xinqiang; Khan, Muhammad Ali; Wang, Liangsheng; Hong, Bo; Gao, Junping

    2014-05-01

    Rose (Rosa hybrida) is one of the most important ornamental plants worldwide; however, senescence of its petals terminates the ornamental value of the flower, resulting in major economic loss. It is known that the hormones abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene promote petal senescence, while gibberellins (GAs) delay the process. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the antagonistic effects amongst plant hormones during petal senescence are still unclear. Here we isolated RhHB1, a homeodomain-leucine zipper I transcription factor gene, from rose flowers. Quantitative RT-PCR and GUS reporter analyses showed that RhHB1 was strongly expressed in senescing petals, and its expression was induced by ABA or ethylene in petals. ABA or ethylene treatment clearly accelerated rose petal senescence, while application of the gibberellin GA3 delayed the process. However, silencing of RhHB1 delayed the ABA- or ethylene-mediated senescence, and resulted in higher petal anthocyanin levels and lower expression of RhSAG12. Moreover, treatment with paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis, repressed these delays. In addition, silencing of RhHB1 blocked the ABA- or ethylene-induced reduction in expression of the GA20 oxidase encoded by RhGA20ox1, a gene in the GA biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, RhHB1 directly binds to the RhGA20ox1 promoter, and silencing of RhGA20ox1 promoted petal senescence. Eight senescence-related genes showed substantial differences in expression in petals after treatment with GA3 or paclobutrazol. These results suggest that RhHB1 mediates the antagonistic effect of GAs on ABA and ethylene during rose petal senescence, and that the promotion of petal senescence by ABA or ethylene operates through an RhHB1-RhGA20ox1 regulatory checkpoint. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Mechanism of internal browning of pineapple: The role of gibberellins catabolism gene (AcGA2ox) and GAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qin; Rao, Xiuwen; Zhang, Lubin; He, Congcong; Yang, Fang; Zhu, Shijiang

    2016-01-01

    Internal browning (IB), a physiological disorder (PD) that causes severe losses in harvested pineapple, can be induced by exogenous gibberellins (GAs). Over the years, studies have focused on roles of Gibberellin 2-oxidase (GA2oxs), the major GAs catabolic enzyme in plants, in the regulation of changes in morphology or biomass. However, whether GA2oxs could regulate PD has not been reported. Here, a full-length AcGA2ox cDNA was isolated from pineapple, with the putative protein sharing 23.59% to 72.92% identity with GA2oxs from five other plants. Pineapples stored at 5 °C stayed intact, while those stored at 20 °C showed severe IB. Storage at 5 °C enhanced AcGA2ox expression and decreased levels of a GAs (GA4) ‘compared with storage at 20 °C. However, at 20 °C, exogenous application of abscisic acid (ABA) significantly suppressed IB. ABA simultaneously upregulated AcGA2ox and reduced GA4. Ectopic expression of AcGA2ox in Arabidopsis resulted in reduced GA4, lower seed germination, and shorter hypocotyls and roots, all of which were restored by exogenous GA4/7. Moreover, in pineapple, GA4/7 upregulated polyphenol oxidase, while storage at 5 °C and ABA downregulated it. These results strongly suggest the involvement of AcGA2ox in regulation of GAs levels and a role of AcGA2ox in regulating IB. PMID:27982026

  12. Wir zeigen andere Bilder von Frauen ...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Rulofs

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Der vorliegende Beitrag beleuchtet die Bedeutung der Geschlechterordnung im Prozess der sportmedialen Kommunikation. Im Kern geht es um die Frage, inwiefern im Prozess der medialen Vermittlung von Sport traditionelle Geschlechterstereotype aufrechterhalten werden oder Möglichkeiten der Irritation solcher Stereotype bestehen. Dazu werden verschiedene Ebenen des massenmedialen Kommunikationsprozesses in den Blick genommen: die Medienprodukte, die Öffentlichkeitsarbeit und Selbst-Präsentation der Sportler/innen, die Medienrezeption und die Herstellungsprozesse von Medien in den Sportredaktionen. This article illustrates the relevance of gender in processes of sports media communication. The question in focus is in what way traditional gender stereotypes are perpetuated in the process of media communication in sport and how such stereotypes can be irritated. Therefore different levels of mass media communication are considered: the media products, the public relations of athletes and the presentation of themselves as athletes, the media-reception and the production processes in sport departments of media institutions.

  13. The Molecular Genetics of von Willebrand Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergül Berber

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative and/or qualitative deficiency of von Willebrand factor (vWF is associated with the most common inherited bleeding disease von Willebrand disease (vWD. vWD is a complex disease with clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Incomplete penetrance and variable expression due to genetic and environmental factors contribute to its complexity. vWD also has a complex molecular pathogenesis. Some vWF gene mutations are associated with the affected vWF biosynthesis and multimerization, whereas others are associated with increased clearance and functional impairment. Moreover, in addition to a particular mutation, type O blood may result in the more severe phenotype. The present review aimed to provide a summary of the current literature on the molecular genetics of vWD.

  14. The molecular genetics of von Willebrand disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, Ergül

    2012-12-01

    Quantitative and/or qualitative deficiency of von Willebrand factor (vWF) is associated with the most common inherited bleeding disease von Willebrand disease (vWD). vWD is a complex disease with clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Incomplete penetrance and variable expression due to genetic and environmental factors contribute to its complexity. vWD also has a complex molecular pathogenesis. Some vWF gene mutations are associated with the affected vWF biosynthesis and multimerization, whereas others are associated with increased clearance and functional impairment. Moreover, in addition to a particular mutation, type O blood may result in the more severe phenotype. The present review aimed to provide a summary of the current literature on the molecular genetics of vWD. None declared.

  15. von Neumann's hypothesis concerning coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zak, J

    2003-01-01

    An orthonormal basis of modified coherent states is constructed. Each member of the basis is an infinite sum of coherent states on a von Neumann lattice. A single state is assigned to each unit cell of area h (Planck constant) in the phase plane. The uncertainties of the coordinate x and the square of the momentum p 2 for these states are shown to be similar to those for the usual coherent states. Expansions in the newly established set are discussed and it is shown that any function in the kq-representation can be written as a sum of two fixed kq-functions. Approximate commuting operators for x and p 2 are defined on a lattice in phase plane according to von Neumann's prescription. (leeter to the editor)

  16. Theodor von Grotthuss’ Contribution to Electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauliukaite, Rasa; Juodkazytė, Jurga; Ramanauskas, Rimantas

    2017-01-01

    Freiherr Christian Johann Dietrich Theodor von Grotthuss (1785-1822) lived and worked in Lithuania. Inspired by Volta's pile he proposed the first theory of water electrolysis, which was published in 1805 in Rome. Michael Faraday acknowledged T. Grotthuss for this theory in his further investigations of electrolysis processes. Having studied in Germany and France Grotthuss brought science to province by establishing his laboratory in Gedučiai village in his mother's real estate. Lithuanian scientists are proud that life of Theodor von Grotthuss was related to this country. Many events to remember this prominent scientist are organised in Vilnius and other places. His works and example provided a good basis for further development of electrochemical science in Lithuania. Grotthuss insights into the mechanism of proton transport still are of great relevance to such areas of modern science as membrane biochemistry, energy conversion and storage.

  17. Inattentional blindness and the von Restorff effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stephen R; Schmidt, Constance R

    2015-02-01

    Sometimes we fail to notice distinctive or unusual items (inattentional blindness), while other times we remember distinctive items more than expected items (the von Restorff effect). A three-factor framework is presented and tested in two experiments in an attempt to reconcile these seemingly contradictory phenomena. Memory for different types of unexpected stimuli was tested after an easy or difficult Stroop color-naming task. Highly arousing taboo words were well remembered even when the difficult Stroop task limited attentional resources. However, a conceptual isolation effect was only observed when the nature of the category change was highlighted by the Stroop task, the Stroop task was easy, and/or the isolated targets enjoyed a retrieval advantage relative to comparison targets. As proposed in the three-factor framework, the arousing qualities of the stimuli, the attentional demands of the primary task, and the relevance of isolated features at encoding and retrieval combine to produce inattentional blindness and the von Restorff effect.

  18. Verbesserung der Symmetrie von Hirnaufnahmen entlang der Sagittalebene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ens, Konstantin; Wenzel, Fabian; Fischer, Bernd

    Die lokale Symmetrie von Hirnscans entlang der Sagittalebene zu ermitteln und zu modizifieren, ist für eine Reihe neurologischer Anwendungen interessant. Beispielsweise kann der voxelweise Vergleich von rechter und linker Hirnhälfte nur dann Aufschluss über die Lokalisierung von Läsionen geben, wenn durch Transformation ein Hirnscan eine möglichst hohe Symmetrie aufweist. Ein weiteres Anwendungsgebiet ist die Visualisierung von medialen Hirnschnitten, für die die Trennfläche beider Hirnhälfte möglichst eben sein sollte. Diese Arbeit stellt die Entwicklung eines Verfahrens vor, mit dessen Hilfe die Symmetrie von Hirnaufnahmen entlang der Sagittalebene verbessert werden kann. Dies geschieht unter Verwendung von aktiven Konturen, die mit Hilfe einer neuartigen Kostenfunktion gesteuert werden. Experimente am Ende der Arbeit mit strukturellen Kernspinaufnahmen demonstrieren die Leistungsfähigkeit des Verfahrens.

  19. Rohlin flows on Von Neumann algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Masuda, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    The authors will classify Rohlin flows on von Neumann algebras up to strong cocycle conjugacy. This result provides alternative approaches to some preceding results such as Kawahigashi's classification of flows on the injective type II_1 factor, the classification of injective type III factors due to Connes, Krieger and Haagerup and the non-fullness of type III_0 factors. Several concrete examples are also studied.

  20. Marktorientierte Vertriebs-Reorganisation von Energieversorgungsunternehmen

    OpenAIRE

    Beutin, Nikolas; Scholl, Michael; Fürst, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Seit der Liberalisierung des Energiemarktes im Jahre 1998 sehen sich Energieversorgungsunternehmen (EVUs) einer veränderten Markt- und Wettbewerbssituation gegenüber. Neben Risiken, wie dem Eintritt von Wettbewerbern in das vormals geschützte Gebiet, eröffnete sich ihnen hierdurch aber auch die Chance, außerhalb des eigenen Netzbereiches neue Kunden zu gewinnen. Um sowohl dem Margenverfall als auch der direkten Vergleichbarkeit mit ...

  1. La Medea de Lars von Trier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iratxe Fresneda Delgado

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza el modo en el que Lars von Trier recrea para el cine el estereotipo de Medea. Mediante el análisis fílmico de la película y apoyándose en los estudios culturales, el texto se interroga acerca de la importancia y el poder potencial del cine a la hora recuperar el antiguo mito y demostrar su vigencia. El análisis amplía horizontes para la compresión de los mecanismos que articulan el entramado de significados de la película, donde Von Trier aporta una nueva visión del arquetipo de Medea uniéndola, a la tradición pictórica del Romanticismo. Una influencia que habita en las posteriores obras del director danés, donde el paisaje, la naturaleza, se erige en elemento catalizador de las pulsiones humanas, en su cómplice y testigo.This paper explores the way that Lars von Trier’s film recreates the stereotype of Medea. Using film analysis and based on cultural studies the article asks about the importance and potential power of cinema to recover the ancient myth and show their effects. The analysis expands horizons for the understanding of the mechanisms that link the network of meanings of the film, where the author offers a new vision of Medea's archetype attaching it to the pictorial tradition tied to the Romanticism. An influence that can be seen in the later works of Lars von Trier, where the landscape, the nature, stands as a catalyst of human drives, as his accomplice and witness.

  2. Visuelle Analyse von E-mail-Verkehr

    OpenAIRE

    Mansmann, Florian

    2003-01-01

    Diese Arbeit beschreibt Methoden zur visuellen geographischen Analyse von E-mail Verkehr.Aus dem Header einer E-mail können Hostadressen und IP-Adressen herausgefiltert werden. Anhand einer Datenbank werden diesen Host- und IP-Adressen geographische Koordinaten zugeordnet.Durch eine Visualisierung werden in übersichtlicher Art und Weise mehrere tausend E-mail Routen dargestellt. Zusätzlich dazu wurden interktive Manipulationsmöglichkeiten vorgestellt, welche eine visuelle Exploration der Date...

  3. Zur Kenntnis von Gnetum neglectum Bl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markgraf, F.

    1960-01-01

    Gnetum neglectum war nicht nur, wie der Name andeutet, bis zu Blumes Zeit übersehen worden, sondern es wurde von Späteren wiederum verkannt, wie ich in Bull. J. B. Buitenzorg 3. Ser. 10 (1930) 474 näher ausgeführt habe. Die echte Art taucht verhältnismässig selten in den Herbarien auf. Sie ist eine

  4. Von Medien, Übertragungen und Automaten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Barberi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Im Zuge der Debatten zum Medialen Habitus wurde vielfach betont, dass die >Theorie der Praxispraxeologischen Medientheorie< des Medialen Habitus avant la lettre gesprochen werden kann. Dieser Artikel untersucht – ausgehend von den Debatten zur "Medienkompetenz" – wie Bourdieu Sprache, Sprechen und Diskurs, sowie Akteure, Felder und Habitus als Medien begreift und betont dabei die Nützlichkeit der Bourdieuschen Bildungssoziologie im Rahmen einer sozialwissenschaftlichen Grundlegung der Medienpädagogik.

  5. Portrait of Dr. Von Braun with Walt Disney, 1954.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1954-01-01

    Marshall Center Director Dr. Wernher Von Braun is pictured with Walt Disney during a visit to the Marshall Space Flight Center in 1954. In the 1950s, Dr. Von Braun while working in California on the Saturn project, also worked with Disney studios as a technical director in making three films about Space Exploration for television. Disney's tour of Marshall in 1965 was Von Braun's hope for a renewed public interest in the future of the Space Program at NASA.

  6. Gespiegelte Planeten – Die Anordnung der Pyramiden von Gizeh

    OpenAIRE

    Jelitto, Hans

    2000-01-01

    Antike Bauwerke wurden wiederholt auf astronomische Zusammenhänge hin untersucht, so z. B. ihre Ausrichtung in Bezug auf die Bewegung von Sonne oder Sternen. Vor diesem Hintergrund wurden für die Pyramiden von Gizeh drei ungewöhnliche Gleichungen entdeckt, die die Pyramidengrößen mit einer Genauigkeit von ca. 0,1 % festlegen. Gleichzeitig legen diese drei Gleichungen nahe, die drei Pyramiden in der Reihenfolge Mykerinos-, Chefren- und Cheopspyramide den inneren drei Planeten unseres Sonnensys...

  7. Saage tuttavaks : Elisabeth ja Karl von Hoerschelmann / Mai Levin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levin, Mai, 1942-

    2004-01-01

    Kuraator M. Levin kuni 10. X 2004 Adamson-Ericu muuseumis avatud näitusest "Tuntud ja tundmatud Elisabeth von Rosendorff-Hoerschelmann ja Karl von Hoerschelmann". Enamik töid on kunstnike laste Konstantin Hoerschelmanni ja Anna Röder-Hoerschelmanni omand. Elisabeth Rosendorff (1898-1984) sündis Virumaal Maidlas eesti perekonnas, Karl von Hoerschelmann (1899-1951) Sevastoopolis saksa perekonnas

  8. Arbeitszeiten von Professorinnen und Professoren in Deutschland 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Weihs, Claus; Hernández Rodríguez, Tanja; Doeckel, Maximilian; Marty, Christoph; Wormer, Holger

    2018-01-01

    In dieser Studie werden belastbare Prognoseintervalle der wöchentlichen Gesamtarbeitszeit von Universitätsprofessorinnen und -professoren aus Daten einer Umfrage aus dem Jahre 2016 und a-priori Informationen aus früheren Studien bestimmt. Neben der Gesamtarbeitszeit werden auch Teilarbeitszeiten zum Beispiel für Lehre und Forschung ermittelt. Die Ergebnisse von frequentistischer und Bayesianischer Analyse werden verglichen. Aus den gültigen Fragebögen von aktiven Vollzeit arbeitenden Universi...

  9. Untersuchungen zur Farbreaktion von Amilorid, Chlorhexidin und Proguanil mit Hypobromit

    OpenAIRE

    Huth, Silke

    2004-01-01

    Bei der Reaktion von Amiloridhydrochlorid (1· HCl) mit Brom in alkalischer Lösung wird ein gelbbraunes Dehydrierungsprodukt erhalten, daß als 3-(3-Amino-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)-5-chlor-2,6-pyrazindiamin (6) identifiziert werden konnte. Durch Vergleich von Massen- und NMR-Spektren der Verbindung 6 mit Spektren von 1· HCl und Referenzsubstanzen I-III konnte auf die verbindung 6 geschlossen werden. Die Struktur wurde durch eine Röntgenstrukturanalyse abgesichert. Erhitzen von Amiloridhydrochlorid ...

  10. Chancen und Gefahren von Global-Marketing-Konzepten

    OpenAIRE

    Berndt, Ulrike

    1990-01-01

    Chancen und Gefahren von Global-Marketing-Konzepten. - Augsburg : Förderges. Marketing, 1990. - 57, XII S. - Zugl: Augsburg, Univ., Diplomarb. - (Arbeitspapiere zur Schriftenreihe Schwerpunkt Marketing ; 29)

  11. A bicategorical approach to Morita equivalence for von Neumann algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, R. M.

    2003-01-01

    We relate Morita equivalence for von Neumann algebras to the ''Connes fusion'' tensor product between correspondences. In the purely algebraic setting, it is well known that rings are Morita equivalent if they are equivalent objects in a bicategory whose 1-cells are bimodules. We present a similar result for von Neumann algebras. We show that von Neumann algebras form a bicategory, having Connes's correspondences as 1-morphisms, and (bounded) intertwiners as 2-morphisms. Further, we prove that two von Neumann algebras are Morita equivalent iff they are equivalent objects in the bicategory. The proofs make extensive use of the Tomita-Takesaki modular theory

  12. The Effect of Salicylic Acid and Gibberellin on Seed Reserve Utilization, Germination and Enzyme Activity of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Seeds Under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayyeh Sheykhbaglou

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Seed priming methods have been used to increases germination characteristics under stress conditions. The study aimed was to determine the effect of salicylic acid and gibberellin on seed reserve utilization, germination and enzyme activity of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. seeds under drought stress. Factorial experiment was carried out in completely randomized design with three replications. The first factor was the seed treatments (unpriming, salicylic acid and gibberellin and the second factor was drought stress (0, -4, -8 and -12 bar. The results indicated that for these traits: germination percentage, germination index, weight of utilized (mobilized seed, seed reserve utilization efficiency, seedling dry weight and seed reserve depletion percentage was a significant treatment Ч drought interaction. Thus priming improved study traits in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. seeds under drought stress. Also, priming improves enzyme activity as compared to the unprimed seeds.

  13. Der Einfluß der Ablauforganisation auf die Effizienz von Entscheidungen: Eine empirische Untersuchung am Beispiel von Bilanzanalysen

    OpenAIRE

    Gemünden, Hans Georg

    1987-01-01

    Der vorliegende Beitrag widmet sich einem in der Organisationstheorie stark vernachlässigten Problem: der Ablauforganisation von Entscheidungen. Am Beispiel von Bilanzanalysen wird empirisch geprüft, in welcher Weise eine Gliederung des Prozesses nach Verrichtungen oder Objekten die Qualität der Analyse beeinflußt. Hierzu wird ein validiertes Konzept zur Messung der Qualität von Bilanzanalysen entwickelt. Es wird gezeigt, wie man mittels prozeßbegleitender experimenteller Organisationsforschu...

  14. Myrigalone A Inhibits Lepidium sativum Seed Germination by Interference with Gibberellin Metabolism and Apoplastic Superoxide Production Required for Embryo Extension Growth and Endosperm Rupture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oracz, K.; Voegele, A.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Jacquemoud, D.; Turečková, Veronika; Urbanová, Terezie; Strnad, Miroslav; Sliwinska, E.; Leubner-Metzger, G.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2012), s. 81-95 ISSN 0032-0781 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801; GA MŠk ED0007/01/01; GA ČR GD522/08/H003 Keywords : Embryo cell extension growth * Endoreduplication * Endosperm rupture * Gibberellin metabolism * Lepidium sativum * Myrica gale * Phytotoxicity * Reactive oxygen species Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.134, year: 2012

  15. Philologie im Horizont der Geschichtlichkeit von Sprache und Text: zum Tagungsband von Wulf Oesterreicher und Maria Selig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Müller

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wulf Oesterreicher und Maria Selig, Hrsg., Geschichtlichkeit von Sprache und Text: Philologien – Disziplingenese – Wissenschaftshistoriographie (Paderborn: Wilhelm Fink, 2014, 332 S.

  16. Developmental landmarks during floral ontogeny of jalapeño chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and the effect of gibberellin on ovary growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Oliveros, R; Guevara-Olvera, L; Beltrán, J P; Gómez-Mena, C; Acosta-García, G

    2017-09-01

    Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an important horticultural crop in many regions of the world. The final shape and size of the fruit are known to be determined at a very early step of flower development. During flower development hormonal treatments using gibberellins seem to promote growth resulting in higher yield and fruit quality. However, the morphological changes that occur in the pepper flowers after these treatments are largely unknown. In the present study, we provide a description of floral development landmarks of jalapeño chili pepper (cultivar Huichol), divided in nine representative stages from its initiation until the opening of the bud. We established a correlation among external flower development and the time and pattern of reproductive organogenesis. Male and female gametogenesis progression was used to define specific landmarks during flower maturation. The pattern of expression of key genes involved in gibberellin metabolism and response was also evaluated in the nine flower stages. The proposed development framework was used to analyze the effect of gibberellin treatments in the development of the flower. We observed both an effect of the treatment in the histology of the ovary tissue and an increase in the level of expression of CaGA2ox1 and CaGID1b genes. The developmental stages we defined for this species are very useful to analyze the molecular and morphological changes after hormonal treatments.

  17. Von den Liven von Oesel / August Ludwig Schlözer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schlözer, August Ludwig

    2008-01-01

    Avaldatud Eberhard Winkleri initsiatiivil A. L. Schlözeri teose põhjal: Gesammelte Nachrichten von den Ueberresten der Liven, in Livland und Kurland. (1770), mis moodustab osa teosest: Schlözer, August Ludwig. M. Johann Joseph Haigold's Beylagen zum Neuveränderten Russland. Zweiter Theil. Riga und Leipzig, 1770

  18. Aino Lepik von Wiren / Aino Lepik von Wiren ; interv. Kadi Alatalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepik von Wirén, Aino, 1961-

    2007-01-01

    Heinrich Marga eksiilvalitsuse (20.06.1990-7.10.1992) kohtuminister Aino Lepik von Wiren pagulaslapse elust Rootsis, haridusest ja elukutse valikust, tööst eksiilvalitsuses, tööleasumisest Eestisse 1992. aastal, seadusandlikust tegevusest ning aluse panekust välismaalaste- ja kodakondsuspoliitikale, naiste võimalustest poliitilisse tippu tõusmiseks, kodu- ja väliseestlaste vastandamisest

  19. Ööklubi Club von Überlingen = Club von Überlingen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Ööklubi Club von Überlingen (Madara 22A, Tallinn) sisekujundusest. Sisearhitekt: Taavi Aunre (Boom.ee OÜ). Taavi Aunrest, tema tähtsamad tööd. I-II korruse plaan, 11 värv. vaadet, foto T. Aunrest

  20. Polychaeten aus den Zoologischen Museen von Leiden und Amsterdam I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augener, H.

    1933-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit ist die Untersuchung eines sehr umfangreichen Polychaeten-Materials niedergelegt, das mir von Herrn Prof. Dr. E. D. van Oort in Leiden und Herrn Prof. Dr. L. F. de Beaufort in Amsterdam zur Bearbeitung übergeben wurde. Von diesem Material ist der dem Museum in Leiden

  1. [Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen. Saksa Simplicissimuse seiklused] / Meelis Friedenthal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Friedenthal, Meelis, 1973-

    2011-01-01

    Tutvustus: Grimmelshausen, Hans Jakob Christoffel von. Saksa Simplicissimuse seiklused, teisisõnu: ühe veidra vagabundi elulugu, kel Melchior Sternfels von Fuchshaim nimeks, et kus ja mis moel ta siia ilma sündis ning mida siin nägi, õppis, oma nahal tunda sai ja kannatas, nagu sellestki, miks ta siinsest ilmast vabatahtlikult loobub. [Tallinn] : Pegasus, c2010

  2. Von Neumann algebras as complemented subspaces of B(H)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik; Wang, Liguang

    2014-01-01

    Let M be a von Neumann algebra of type II1 which is also a complemented subspace of B( H). We establish an algebraic criterion, which ensures that M is an injective von Neumann algebra. As a corollary we show that if M is a complemented factor of type II1 on a Hilbert space H, then M is injective...

  3. An accurate von Neumann's law for three-dimensional foams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Kraynik, Andrew M.; Koehler, Stephan A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2001-01-01

    The diffusive coarsening of 2D soap froths is governed by von Neumann's law. A statistical version of this law for dry 3D foams has long been conjectured. A new derivation, based on a theorem by Minkowski, yields an explicit analytical von Neumann's law in 3D which is in very good agreement with

  4. Erfahrungen an der Schnittstelle von Medienarbeit und Praxisforschung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Holzwarth

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Der Beitrag reflektiert die Verbindung von praktischer Medienarbeit und Forschung am Beispiel eines internationalen EU-Forschungsprojekts zum Thema Medien und Migration. Neben didaktischen Prinzipien und Konzepten für die aktive Medienarbeit im Forschungskontext geht es um die Kooperation von medienpädagogischer Begleitung (MB und wissenschaftlicher Begleitung (WB sowie um deren spezifische Kompetenzen.

  5. Die baltischen Kapitulationen von 1710 : Kontext, Wirkungen, Interpretationen / Marten Seppel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Seppel, Marten, 1979-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Die baltischen Kapitulationen von 1710 : Kontext, Wirkungen, Interpretationen, hrsg. von Karsten Brüggemann, Mati Laur und Pärtel Piirimäe, Queleln und Studien zur baltischen Geschichte, Bd 23 (Köln u.a: Böhlau Verlag, 2014)

  6. [Precocious puberty and von Recklinghausen's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barg, Ewa; Wikiera, Beata; Basiak, Aleksander; Głab, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    Von Recklinghausen's disease belongs to a group of neurocutaneous syndromes and is characterised by skin, nerve and bone abnormalities. We present a case of von Recklinghausen's disease and precocious puberty in 7-year-old boy. At the age of three café au lait spots on the skin and an incranial tumour situated near the optic chiasm--qualified as inoperable--were discovered. At the age of 7 first signs of precocious puberty appeared (pubic hair P3 and enlargement of the testes (15 ml) and penis). Laboratory measurements included: LH 7.5 mIU/ml, FSH 1.1 mIU/ml, testosterone 183 ng/ml, assessment of bone age: 9 years. The response to LHRH stimulation was characteristic for true precocious puberty (LH 15.9 mIU/ml and FSH 1.5 mIU/ml after 30 minutes). The MRI of the brain showed a tumour of the suprasellar region with compression of pituitary stalk. True precocious puberty was diagnosed. Treatment with Diphereline was introduced. At present the boy is 9 years old and has been treated with Diphereline for 16 months. The volume of the testicles has decreased to 7 ml and loss of pubic hair was noted. The MRI does not show any progression in tumour growth. The authors would like to underline the need of close observation of children with von Reclinghausen disease with regard to possibility of uncovering true precocious puberty which is critical for rapid diagnosis and introduction of correct treatment.

  7. Unlawfulness of environmental zones; Rechtswidrigkeit von Umweltzonen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbach, Jan

    2016-07-01

    The author examines the new findings on the effectiveness of the environmental zones and, in this context, questions their legitimacy. In addition, the efforts of the European and German legislators are analyzed in order to reduce the particulate matter pollution. In addition, legal protection against the exceeding of limits for particulate matter is critically appreciated. [German] Der Autor beleuchtet die neuen Erkenntnisse zur Wirksamkeit der Umweltzonen und hinterfragt vor diesem Hintergrund deren Rechtmaessigkeit. Darueber hinaus werden die Bemuehungen des europaeischen und deutschen Gesetzgebers analysiert, um die Feinstaubbelastung zu senken. Zudem wird der Rechtsschutz gegen die Ueberschreitung von Feinstaubgrenzwerten kritisch gewuerdigt.

  8. A Metabiography of Alexander von Humboldt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolaas A. Rupke

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Article in English.The author's recently published monograph on Alexander von Humboldt describes the multiple images of this great cultural icon. The book is a metabiographical study that shows how from the middle of the nineteenth century to the present day Humboldt has served as a nucleus of crystallisation for a variety of successive socio-political ideologies, each producing its own distinctive representation of him. The historiographical implications of this biographical diversity are profound and support current attempts to understand historical scholarship in terms of memory cultures.

  9. Die Biopsie von Knochen- und Weichteiltumoren

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, B

    2008-01-01

    Technisch stellt die Biopsie von Knochen- und Weichteiltumoren einen simplen Akt dar, intellektuell aber ist die Planung einer Biopsie höchst anspruchsvoll. Zu häufig werden heutzutage immer noch Biopsien unsachgemäss durchgeführt, so dass die Behandlung - im besten Fall - erschwert wird. Eine unsachgemäss durchgeführte Biopsie führt häufig zu negativen funktionellen Konsequenzen für den Patienten, im schlimmsten Fall kann es die Prognose direkt beeinträchtigen. Aus diesem Grund soll...

  10. Die Altäre von Selinunt

    OpenAIRE

    Voigts, Clemens

    2014-01-01

    In der Dissertation wurden die Altäre von Selinunt, einer griechischen Kolonie auf Sizilien, mit den Methoden der Bauforschung untersucht. Die neun behandelten Brandopferaltäre sind monumentale Quaderbauten, die bis zu 20 m Länge erreichen. Sie stammen aus der Blütezeit Selinunts, dem 6. und 5. Jh. v. Chr. Die Bauten waren bereits im 19. und 20. Jh. freigelegt worden und wurden nun in Bauaufnahmen dokumentiert, zeichnerisch rekonstruiert und zeitlich eingeordnet. Dabei ließ sich an ihnen eine...

  11. Alexander von Humboldt’s footnotes

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Alexander von Humboldts Fußnoten waren ihrer Zeit weit voraus, obwohl sie kaum den heutigen akademischen Standards entsprechen. Dieser Artikel untersucht die Fußnoten in Humboldts Essai politique sur l‘île de Cuba (1826). Zwar ist es nicht immer leicht, die manchmal recht geheimnisvollen Verweise zu entschlüsseln, dennoch lohnt sich der Versuch: Humboldts Fußnoten geben nicht nur Auskunft über seine umfassenden Netzwerke des Wissens. Sie verweisen auch auf Auseinandersetzungen verschiedener G...

  12. [Heinz von zur Mühlen. Das Bürgertum Fordert Blut. Ein Bolschewistiches Flugblatt von 1918] / Paul Kaegbein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaegbein, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Arvustus: Heinz von zur Mühlen. Das Bürgertum Fordert Blut. Ein Bolschewistiches Flugblatt von 1918. In : Ostseeprovinzen, baltische Staaten und das Nationale. Münster : LIT, 2005, lk. 403-414. 1918. aastast pärit lendlehest, mille käekirja järgi otsustades on kirjutanud Viktor Kingissepp

  13. Mapping of a Cellulose-Deficient Mutant Named dwarf1-1 in Sorghum bicolor to the Green Revolution Gene gibberellin20-oxidase Reveals a Positive Regulatory Association between Gibberellin and Cellulose Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Carloalberto; Hirano, Ko; Stork, Jozsef; DeBolt, Seth

    2015-09-01

    Here, we show a mechanism for expansion regulation through mutations in the green revolution gene gibberellin20 (GA20)-oxidase and show that GAs control biosynthesis of the plants main structural polymer cellulose. Within a 12,000 mutagenized Sorghum bicolor plant population, we identified a single cellulose-deficient and male gametophyte-dysfunctional mutant named dwarf1-1 (dwf1-1). Through the Sorghum propinquum male/dwf1-1 female F2 population, we mapped dwf1-1 to a frameshift in GA20-oxidase. Assessment of GAs in dwf1-1 revealed ablation of GA. GA ablation was antagonistic to the expression of three specific cellulose synthase genes resulting in cellulose deficiency and growth dwarfism, which were complemented by exogenous bioactive gibberellic acid application. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we found that GA was positively regulating the expression of a subset of specific cellulose synthase genes. To cross reference data from our mapped Sorghum sp. allele with another monocotyledonous plant, a series of rice (Oryza sativa) mutants involved in GA biosynthesis and signaling were isolated, and these too displayed cellulose deficit. Taken together, data support a model whereby suppressed expansion in green revolution GA genes involves regulation of cellulose biosynthesis. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Was kommt nach dem Handel? Umnutzung von Einzelhandelsflächen und deren Beitrag zur Stadtentwicklung

    OpenAIRE

    Sperle, Tilman

    2012-01-01

    In der Stadt europäischen Typs sind Stadt und Handel eng miteinander verwoben. Die Bedeutung des Handels geht weit über dessen originäre Versorgungsfunktion hinaus. Für die städtischen Zentren und Nebenzentren übernimmt er sowohl gestaltende als auch soziale Funktionen und trägt mit seiner belebenden Wirkung maßgeblich zum urbanen Leben bei. Mit dem tief greifenden Strukturwandel im Einzelhandel verändert sich diese Beziehung zwischen Stadt und Handel dramatisch, Trading-down-Prozesse geh...

  15. Guy von Dardel 1919-2009

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Guy von Dardel, a well-known figure at CERN and in the international particle physics community, passed away on 28 August. Guy von Dardel came to CERN when it was founded in 1954 and was a full-time staff member until 1964, performing several experiments and working on technical developments. These included the first measurement of the neutral pion’s life-time. Called to Lund University in 1964, he became professor there in 1965 and director of the 1.2 GeV electron accelerator. In the late 1960s, he performed an experiment at CERN’s PS that measured the decays of the Λ. Then, in the early 1970s, he involved the Lund group in a series of experiments at the Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR), where he measured the production of various types of particles. In particular, he participated in a series of experiments that observed the production of a high abundance of particles with large transverse momenta. This required an explanation...

  16. Translational Medicine Advances in von Willebrand Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillicrap, David

    2014-01-01

    Following the recognition of von Willebrand disease (VWD) in 1926 and the cloning of the gene for von Willebrand factor (VWF) in 1985, significant advances have been made in our fundamental knowledge of both the disease and the protein. Some of this new knowledge has also begun to impact the clinical management of VWD. First, the progressive increase in our understanding of the molecular genetic basis of VWD has resulted in rational applications of molecular testing to complement the current range of phenotypic tests for VWD. These molecular genetic strategies are most effectively directed at the prenatal diagnosis of type 3 VWD and confirmatory testing for types 2B and 2N disease. In contrast, the use of molecular testing to clarify the diagnosis of type 1 VWD is of marginal benefit, at best. In terms of VWD therapies, a new recombinant VWF concentrate has recently completed successful clinical trials and is now awaiting more widespread application. There have even been some pre-clinical successes with VWF gene transfer although the clinical rationale for this therapeutic strategy needs careful consideration. Much more remains to be learnt about the biology of VWF and further translational advances for the enhancement of VWD care will inevitably be realized. PMID:23809112

  17. Die Krakauer Kirche von Karmeliten und Karmelitaninnen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Szymon Wronski

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available 1. Die Klosterkirche der unbeschuhten Karmelitinnen Zum Heiligen Josef. Ein glücklicher Auftakt und somit die charakteristische Einführung in das 20. Jh. für den Kirchenbau von Krakau war die Errichtung der Karmeliterinnen St. Josephs-Kirche an der Lobzowska-Straße 40, in der die Architekten (Tadeusz Stryjeński (1849-1943 - Projektant der Kirche und Franciszek Mączyński (1874-1947 - Ausführer des Bauprojektes mit eigenen Verbesserungen die historisch- eklektizistischen Formen d.h. die mittelalterlichen Formen vor allem des sog. Übergangsstils vereinfachten. Die Kirche, die in den Jahren 1903-1905 errichtet wurde, steht inmitten vom Baukomplex des Klosters, dessen Grundriss das Quadrat ist49. Der Kirchenbau ist ein dem Gesamtbau des Klosters eingefügter Längsraum. Hinter dem Chor liegt das Oratorium des Konvents. Das Material Backstein (mit Verwendung von Stein erinnert an die Baukunst eines der besten Architekten jener Zeit, nämlich Teodor Talowskis (1857-1910, der viele Kirchen in Südpolen, aber auch viele Bürgerhäuser nicht nur in Krakau im ausgehenden 19. Jh. baute. Die Architektur der Karmeliterinnen St. Josephs-Kirche ist immer noch im Malerischen begriffen. Aber die Vereinfachung der historischen Formen führt zu ihrer „Beruhigung” und dadurch zur Wuchtigkeit des Ausdrucks. Bemerkenswert ist die in dieser Zeit (in der Anlage noch seltene ausgewogene Proportionierung des Baukörpers. Das methodische Prinzip jener Zeit ist der Kontrast. Im Kontrast zu den gedrungenen und wuchtigen Formen des Baukörpers stehen z.B. die sich verjüngenden obeliskenförmigen und pylonenartigen Türmchen, die nicht nur die Eingangsfassade der Kirche flankieren, sondern auch an den Ecken des Querhauses der Kirche stehen. Die ingravierten weißen Steine an der Fassade in der Zahl von Zehn erinnern an das Gebot des Karmelterinnenordens: Bete täglich den Rosenkranz und sind zugleich ein Vanitativmotiv. 2. Die Klosterkirche der unbeschuhten

  18. Suitability of tracers; Eignung von Tracern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klotz, D. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrologie

    1999-02-01

    Hydrological tracer techniques are a means of making statements on the direction and speed of underground water. One of the simpler tasks is to find out whether there is hydrological communication between two given points. This requires a determination of the direction of flow, which places less exacting demands on the properties of the tracer than does the task of determining the flow velocity of underground water. Tracer methods can serve to infer from flow velocity the distance (flow) velocity, which is defined as the ratio between the distance between two points located in flow direction and the actual time it takes water to flow from one to the other. [Deutsch] Mit Hilfe der hydrologischen Markierungstechniken koennen Aussagen ueber die Richtung und die Geschwindigkeit von Bewegungen des unterirdischen Wassers gemacht werden. Der einfachere Fall liegt vor, wenn festgestellt werden soll, ob zwischen zwei Punkten eine hydrologische Verbindung besteht. Bei dieser Fliessrichtungsbestimmung sind die Forderungen an die Eigenschaften der einzusetzenden Tracer geringer als bei der Bestimmung der Geschwindigkeit des unterirdischen Wassers. Von den Geschwindigkeiten des unterirdischen Wassers ist die Abstands-(Fliess)geschwindigkeit, die definiert ist durch das Verhaeltnis aus dem Abstand und der wahren Fliesszeit zwischen zwei in Bewegungsrichtung gelegenen Punkten, durch Tracermethoden zu bestimmen. (orig.)

  19. Kontextualisierung von Queer Theory Contextualizing Queer Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Voigt

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Christine M. Klapeer legt in diesem Einführungsband dar, aus welchen politischen und theoretischen Kontexten heraus sich ‚queer‘ zu einem Begriff mit besonderem politischem und theoretischem Gehalt entwickelt hat. Wesentlich zielt sie dabei auf eine kritische Kontextualisierung von „queer theory”. Die Autorin geht zunächst auf das Gay Liberation Movement ein, grenzt die Queer Theory vom Poststrukturalismus, von feministischen Theorien und den Lesbian and Gay Studies ab, beleuchtet Eckpunkte queeren Denkens und zeichnet schließlich die Entwicklungen in Österreich sowohl politisch-rechtlich als auch bewegungsgeschichtlich und in der Wissenschaftslandschaft nach.Christine M. Klapeer’s introductory volume demonstrates the manner in which ‘queer’ grew out of various political and theoretical contexts to become a term with special political and theoretical content. She focuses primarily on a critical contextualization of “queer theory.” The author begins by approaching the Gay Liberation Movement and then distinguishes Queer Theory from poststructuralism, from feminist theories, and from Lesbian and Gay Studies. She continues on to illuminate the key aspects of queer thought and concludes by sketching the development in Austria in terms of politics and the law, the history of movements, and within the landscape of knowledge.

  20. Microbial reactions in coal and coal relevant structures. Part project: fungal and enzymatic depolarisation of brown coal for the production of low-molecular compounds. Interim report; Mikrobielle Umsetzung an Kohle und kohlenrelevanten Strukturen. Teilvorhaben: Pilzliche und enzymatische Depolymerisation von Braunkohle zur Gewinnung niedermolekularer Verbindungen. Zwischenbericht (Berichtszeitraum 01.01.1998 - 31.12.1998)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegenhagen, D.; Bublitz, F.; Sorge, S.; Ullrich, R.; Hofrichter, M.; Fritsche, W.

    1999-04-29

    The present research project involved a study of the depolymerisation of brown coal constituents. The purpose of the depolymerisation experiments, which were carried out with fungi as well as their (acellular) enzymes, was to obtain products with a potential market value. Research focussed on one of the key enzymes of lignocellulose degradation, namely manganese (II) peroxidase (MnP). The effects of this enzyme on the depolymerisation of brown coal was studied in detail in acellular systems. The insights gained in this way then served as a basis for optimising the fungal and enzymatic depolymerisation processes for maximum yields of low-molecular products. The experiments carried out during the period under review were oriented to finding new types of lignolytically active organisms, isolating lignolytic enzymes and immobilising them on natural support materials, and further examining the action spectrum of MnP. Different model substrates were used in order to gain information on what bond types are MnP-cleavable and on possible reaction products. Substrates were either fixed to silica gel as support material or used without support material. The idea of using substrates fixed to support materials was motivated by the need to distinguish between intracellular and extracellular reactions involving the fungal mycelium. [Deutsch] Im Rahmen des Forschungsvorhabens wird die Depolymerisation von Braunkohle-Bestandteilen untersucht. Ziel der sowohl mit Pilzorganismen als auch mit deren Enzymen (zellfrei) durchgefuehrten Depolymerisationsversuche ist die Gewinnung von Produkten mit potentiellem Werkstoffcharakter. Im Mittelpunkt der Forschung steht eines der Schluesselenzyme des Ligninozellulose-Abbaus: Die Mangan(II)-Peroxidase (MnP). Die Wirkung dieses Enzyms bei der Depolymerisation von Braunkohle (Bk) in zellfreien Systemen wird weitergehend untersucht. Auf Grundlage der gewonnenen Erkenntnisse werden die pilzlichen und enzymatischen Depolymerisationsprozesse so

  1. Power-Sharing in the Local Arena: Man – a Rebel-Held Town in Western Côte d’Ivoire Machtteilung auf lokaler Ebene: Man – eine von Rebellen kontrollierte Stadt im Westen der Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Heitz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, peace agreements with power-sharing provisions are analysed at a national level. This article offers insights into the practices of power-sharing in the local arena of western Côte d’Ivoire, in the town of Man. It investigates what brought about a change towards peace in the region of Man and then presents local forms of power-sharing between the community leaders and the rebels who have established a rather complex system of domination and taxation in the territory they occupy. Moreover, the implementation of a territorial power-sharing device, which is part of the peace agreement negotiated among the warring parties at the national level, is analysed: the redeployment of state administration to the rebel-held zones of the country. The ethnographic data on which the article is based reveals that the actors at the local level have their own strategies to address urgent needs and that they play a more active role in peacemaking than is usually acknowledged. Im Allgemeinen werden Friedensabkommen, die Machtteilungsklauseln vorsehen, im nationalen Rahmen analysiert. Der vorliegende Beitrag vermittelt Einsicht in die praktische Wirkung solcher Klauseln in lokalem Rahmen, und zwar in der Stadt Man im Westen der Côte d’Ivoire. Untersucht wird, wodurch in der umliegenden Region ein Wandel hin zum Frieden erreicht werden konnte. Es werden lokale Formen der Machtteilung zwischen den führenden Persönlichkeiten lokaler Gemeinschaften und den Rebellen ermittelt, die ein komplexes Herrschafts- und Steuersystem in den von ihnen besetzten Gebieten eingerichtet haben. Zudem wird die Durchführung einer territorialen Machtteilungsregelung untersucht, die auf nationaler Ebene als Bestandteil des Friedensabkommens zwischen den Kriegsgegnern ausgehandelt worden war: die Wiedereinsetzung der staatlichen Verwaltung in den von den Rebellen gehaltenen Gebieten des Landes. Das ethnographische Material, auf dem der Artikel basiert, belegt, dass

  2. Ludwig Leichhardt und Alexander von Humboldt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliya-Katarina Südfels

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Zusammenfassung Im Juli des Jahres 1841 kommt es zu einem Treffen zwischen zwei Männern, das zunächst belanglos erscheint, sich aber Jahre später als wichtige historische Begebenheit herausstellen wird. In seinem Pariser Büro empfängt der 71jährige Naturforscher Alexander von Humboldt den jungen Preußen Ludwig Leichhardt. Der angehende Naturwissenschaftler erhofft sich Zuspruch und Empfehlung des berühmten Alexander von Humboldts. Die Unterredung ist kurz und verläuft für Leichhardt ergebnislos. Es wird das einzige Treffen der beiden Naturwissenschaftler bleiben. Aus heutiger Sicht unverständlich, da Ludwig Leichhardt und Alexander von Humboldt mehr verband, als ihre Leidenschaft für die Naturwissenschaften. Viel zu wenig ist sich bis jetzt den biographischen Analogien und den vergleichbaren geographischen Leistungen der beiden Preußen gewidmet worden. Abstract During July 1841 a meeting between two men takes place, which seems to have been extraneous, but turns out to be a significant historical incident. 71 year old natural scientist Alexander von Humboldt welcomes young Ludwig Leichhardt from Prussia in his office in Paris. The prospective young scientist expects help and references from famous Alexander von Humboldt. The conversation is short and ends from Leichhardt’s point of view without results. Unfortunately this is going to be the only meeting between the two scientists even though the two Prussians have more in common than their passion for the natural sciences. Way too seldomly have biographical analogy and geographical productivity of the two men been compared. Résumé En juillet 1841 une rencontre entre deux hommes a lieu, qui au premier abord semble sans importance, mais qui des années plus tard est considéré comme un événement historique majeur. Dans son bureau parisien, le naturaliste Alexandre de Humboldt, alors âgé de 71 ans, reçoit le jeune Prussien Ludwig Leichhardt. Le jeune scientifique en devenir

  3. The semidry acid-anhydrite process (the use of flue gas desulphurization (FGD) gypsum by development of a new process for the production of FGD anhydrite); Das quasitrockene Saeure-Anhydrit-Verfahren (Erweiterung der Verwendungsmoeglichkeiten von REA-Gips durch Entwicklung eines Verfahrens zur Herstellung von REA-Anhydrit aus REA-Gips)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirsching, F. [Gebr. Knauf, Westdeutsche Gipswerke, Iphofen (Germany); Hueller, R. [Gebr. Knauf, Westdeutsche Gipswerke, Iphofen (Germany); Limmer, B. [Gebr. Knauf, Westdeutsche Gipswerke, Iphofen (Germany)

    1994-10-01

    -Anhydrit untersucht. Die Reaktion erfolgt mit feuchtem, feinteiligem REA-Gips unter der katalytischen Wirkung kleiner Mengen Schwefelsaeure bei Temperaturen um 100 bis 200 C. Es wird wasserfreier REA-Anhydrit mit orthorhombischer Kristallstruktur erhalten. Die Umwandlung des Kristallgitters von Calciumsulfat-Dihydrat in Calciumsulfat-Anhydrit II vollzieht sich dabei direkt durch Mineralneubildung. Diese Umwandlung wird zu einem Verfahren entwickelt und als `Quasitrockenes Saeure-Anydrit-Verfahren` bezeichnet. Die Reaktion und ihr Mechanismus wurde zuerst in Laborversuchen untersucht. Als Ausgangsstoff ist jedes feinteilige Calciumsulfat-Dihydrat geeignet. Der bereits im Kraftwerk feinteilig-kristallin erzeugte REA-Gips mit 10% Restfeuchte ist besonders vorteilhaft, da er fuer diese Verwendung vorher nicht getrocknet und nicht gemahlen werden muss. Die Verfahrensentwicklung wurde bis in den halbtechnischen Massstab durchgefuehrt und Auslegungsgrundlagen fuer Grossanlagen an Kraftwerksstandorten erarbeitet. Als Reaktionsaggregat zeigte sich der direkt beheizte Drehrohrofen geeignet. Der REA-Anhydrit wird in diesem Verfahren als trockenes feinteiliges Produkt mit reproduzierbaren Teilchengroessen um 2 Mikron erhalten und besitzt neuartige technologische Eigenschaften. Seine Verwendungsmoeglichkeit wurde fuer die Zementindustrie sowie als Rohstoff zur Herstellung von Fuellstoffen untersucht. Fuer die Zementindustrie ist er grundsaetzlich geeignet. Der Einsatz als Fuellstoff ermoeglicht eine erweiterte Verwendung des REA-Gipses ausserhalb der traditionellen Bereiche der Gipsindustrie. Erste Versuche erlauben die Schlussfolgerung, dass der REA-Anhydrit nach einer Aufbereitung, die ebenfalls labormaessig neu entwickelt wurde, die fuer einen hochwertigen Fuellstoff notwendigen guten Eigenschaftsmerkmale hat. (orig.)

  4. CD31-Expression am Primärtumor und Nachweis hämatogen disseminierter Tumorzellen im Knochenmark von Brustkrebspatientinnen

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenmann, Petra

    2005-01-01

    Der Nachweis von disseminierten Tumorzellen im Knochenmark von Patientinnen mit primärem Mammakarzinom ist ein wichtiger prognostischer Parameter. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde der Nachweis von CD31 am Primärtumor Mammakarzinom mit dem Auftreten von Mikrometastasen im Knochenmark korreliert. Ferner wurde die prognostische Bedeutung von disseminierten Tumorzellen im Knochenmark und die prognostische Bedeutung von CD31 evaluiert. Bei 50 Patientinnen des Gesamtkollektivs von 195 (25,6%) wu...

  5. SHOEBOX Modulates Root Meristem Size in Rice through Dose-Dependent Effects of Gibberellins on Cell Elongation and Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jintao; Zhao, Yu; Chu, Huangwei; Wang, Likai; Fu, Yanru; Liu, Ping; Upadhyaya, Narayana; Chen, Chunli; Mou, Tongmin; Feng, Yuqi; Kumar, Prakash; Xu, Jian

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about how the size of meristem cells is regulated and whether it participates in the control of meristem size in plants. Here, we report our findings on shoebox (shb), a mild gibberellin (GA) deficient rice mutant that has a short root meristem size. Quantitative analysis of cortical cell length and number indicates that shb has shorter, rather than fewer, cells in the root meristem until around the fifth day after sowing, from which the number of cortical cells is also reduced. These defects can be either corrected by exogenous application of bioactive GA or induced in wild-type roots by a dose-dependent inhibitory effect of paclobutrazol on GA biosynthesis, suggesting that GA deficiency is the primary cause of shb mutant phenotypes. SHB encodes an AP2/ERF transcription factor that directly activates transcription of the GA biosynthesis gene KS1. Thus, root meristem size in rice is modulated by SHB-mediated GA biosynthesis that regulates the elongation and proliferation of meristem cells in a developmental stage-specific manner.

  6. Cadophora malorum Cs-8-1 as a new fungal strain producing gibberellins isolated from Calystegia soldanella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Young-Hyun; Yoon, Hyeokjun; Kang, Sang-Mo; Woo, Ju-Ri; Choo, Yeon-Sik; Lee, In-Jung; Shin, Jae-Ho; Kim, Jong-Guk

    2013-07-01

    Fourteen endophytic fungi with different colony morphologies were isolated from the roots of Calystegia soldanella. Endophytic fungi isolated from C. soldanella were identified by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. To verify plant growth promotion (PGP), culture filtrates of isolated endophytic fungi were treated in Waito-c rice (WR) and C. soldanella seedlings. Culture filtrates of Cs-8-1 fungal strain had advanced PGP activity. The presence of physiologically bioactive gibberellins (GA) GA(1) (1.213 ng ml(-1)), GA(3) (1.292 ng ml(-1)), GA(4) (3.6 ng ml(-1)), GA(7) (1.328 ng ml(-1)), other inactive GA(9) (0.796 ng ml(-1)) and GA(12) (0.417 ng ml(-1)), GA(20) (0.302 ng ml(-1)), GA(24) (1.351 ng ml(-1)), GA(34) (0.076 ng ml(-1)), and GA(53) (0.051 ng ml(-1)) in culture filtrates of Cs-8-1 fungal strain was detected. The Cs-8-1 fungal strain was confirmed as a producer of GAs. Molecular analysis of sequences showed high similarity of 99% to Cadophora malorum. Consequentially, the Cs-8-1 fungal strain was identified as a new C. malorum producing GAs. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. SHOEBOX Modulates Root Meristem Size in Rice through Dose-Dependent Effects of Gibberellins on Cell Elongation and Proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jintao Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about how the size of meristem cells is regulated and whether it participates in the control of meristem size in plants. Here, we report our findings on shoebox (shb, a mild gibberellin (GA deficient rice mutant that has a short root meristem size. Quantitative analysis of cortical cell length and number indicates that shb has shorter, rather than fewer, cells in the root meristem until around the fifth day after sowing, from which the number of cortical cells is also reduced. These defects can be either corrected by exogenous application of bioactive GA or induced in wild-type roots by a dose-dependent inhibitory effect of paclobutrazol on GA biosynthesis, suggesting that GA deficiency is the primary cause of shb mutant phenotypes. SHB encodes an AP2/ERF transcription factor that directly activates transcription of the GA biosynthesis gene KS1. Thus, root meristem size in rice is modulated by SHB-mediated GA biosynthesis that regulates the elongation and proliferation of meristem cells in a developmental stage-specific manner.

  8. A Novel Gibberellin-Induced Gene from Rice and Its Potential Regulatory Role in Stem Growth1

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Knaap, Esther; Kim, Jeong Hoe; Kende, Hans

    2000-01-01

    Os-GRF1 (Oryza sativa-GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR1) was identified in a search for genes that are differentially expressed in the intercalary meristem of deepwater rice (Oryza sativa L.) internodes in response to gibberellin (GA). Os-GRF1 displays general features of transcription factors, contains a functional nuclear localization signal, and has three regions with similarities to sequences in the database. One of these regions is similar to a protein interaction domain of SWI2/SNF2, which is a subunit of a chromatin-remodeling complex in yeast. The two other domains are novel and found only in plant proteins of unknown function. To study its role in plant growth, Os-GRF1 was expressed in Arabidopsis. Stem elongation of transformed plants was severely inhibited, and normal growth could not be recovered by the application of GA. Our results indicate that Os-GRF1 belongs to a novel class of plant proteins and may play a regulatory role in GA-induced stem elongation. PMID:10712532

  9. New approach to increasing rice lodging resistance and biomass yield through the use of high gibberellin producing varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayako Okuno

    Full Text Available Traditional breeding for high-yielding rice has been dependent on the widespread use of fertilizers and the cultivation of gibberellin (GA-deficient semi-dwarf varieties. The use of semi-dwarf plants facilitates high grain yield since these varieties possess high levels of lodging resistance, and thus could support the high grain weight. Although this approach has been successful in increasing grain yield, it is desirable to further improve grain production and also to breed for high biomass. In this study, we re-examined the effect of GA on rice lodging resistance and biomass yield using several GA-deficient mutants (e.g. having defects in the biosynthesis or perception of GA, and high-GA producing line or mutant. GA-deficient mutants displayed improved bending-type lodging resistance due to their short stature; however they showed reduced breaking-type lodging resistance and reduced total biomass. In plants producing high amounts of GA, the bending-type lodging resistance was inferior to the original cultivars. The breaking-type lodging resistance was improved due to increased lignin accumulation and/or larger culm diameters. Further, these lines had an increase in total biomass weight. These results show that the use of rice cultivars producing high levels of GA would be a novel approach to create higher lodging resistance and biomass.

  10. New approach to increasing rice lodging resistance and biomass yield through the use of high gibberellin producing varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Ayako; Hirano, Ko; Asano, Kenji; Takase, Wakana; Masuda, Reiko; Morinaka, Yoichi; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Kitano, Hidemi; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Traditional breeding for high-yielding rice has been dependent on the widespread use of fertilizers and the cultivation of gibberellin (GA)-deficient semi-dwarf varieties. The use of semi-dwarf plants facilitates high grain yield since these varieties possess high levels of lodging resistance, and thus could support the high grain weight. Although this approach has been successful in increasing grain yield, it is desirable to further improve grain production and also to breed for high biomass. In this study, we re-examined the effect of GA on rice lodging resistance and biomass yield using several GA-deficient mutants (e.g. having defects in the biosynthesis or perception of GA), and high-GA producing line or mutant. GA-deficient mutants displayed improved bending-type lodging resistance due to their short stature; however they showed reduced breaking-type lodging resistance and reduced total biomass. In plants producing high amounts of GA, the bending-type lodging resistance was inferior to the original cultivars. The breaking-type lodging resistance was improved due to increased lignin accumulation and/or larger culm diameters. Further, these lines had an increase in total biomass weight. These results show that the use of rice cultivars producing high levels of GA would be a novel approach to create higher lodging resistance and biomass.

  11. Effects of abscisic acid, gibberellin, ethylene and their interactions on production of phenolic acids in salvia miltiorrhiza bunge hairy roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zongsuo; Ma, Yini; Xu, Tao; Cui, Beimi; Liu, Yan; Guo, Zhixin; Yang, Dongfeng

    2013-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza is one of the most important traditional Chinese medicinal plants because of its excellent performance in treating coronary heart disease. Phenolic acids mainly including caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B are a group of active ingredients in S. miltiorrhiza. Abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellin (GA) and ethylene are three important phytohormones. In this study, effects of the three phytohormones and their interactions on phenolic production in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots were investigated. The results showed that ABA, GA and ethylene were all effective to induce production of phenolic acids and increase activities of PAL and TAT in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots. Effects of phytohormones were reversed by their biosynthetic inhibitors. Antagonistic actions between the three phytohormones played important roles in the biosynthesis of phenolic acids. GA signaling is necessary for ABA and ethylene-induced phenolic production. Yet, ABA and ethylene signaling is probably not necessary for GA3-induced phenolic production. The complex interactions of phytohormones help us reveal regulation mechanism of secondary metabolism and scale-up production of active ingredients in plants.

  12. Action of Gibberellins on Growth and Metabolism of Arabidopsis Plants Associated with High Concentration of Carbon Dioxide1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Dimas M.; Araújo, Wagner L.; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Schippers, Jos H.M.; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Although the positive effect of elevated CO2 concentration [CO2] on plant growth is well known, it remains unclear whether global climate change will positively or negatively affect crop yields. In particular, relatively little is known about the role of hormone pathways in controlling the growth responses to elevated [CO2]. Here, we studied the impact of elevated [CO2] on plant biomass and metabolism in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) in relation to the availability of gibberellins (GAs). Inhibition of growth by the GA biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol (PAC) at ambient [CO2] (350 µmol CO2 mol−1) was reverted by elevated [CO2] (750 µmol CO2 mol−1). Thus, we investigated the metabolic adjustment and modulation of gene expression in response to changes in growth of plants imposed by varying the GA regime in ambient and elevated [CO2]. In the presence of PAC (low-GA regime), the activities of enzymes involved in photosynthesis and inorganic nitrogen assimilation were markedly increased at elevated [CO2], whereas the activities of enzymes of organic acid metabolism were decreased. Under ambient [CO2], nitrate, amino acids, and protein accumulated upon PAC treatment; however, this was not the case when plants were grown at elevated [CO2]. These results suggest that only under ambient [CO2] is GA required for the integration of carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism underlying optimal biomass determination. Our results have implications concerning the action of the Green Revolution genes in future environmental conditions. PMID:23090585

  13. Effect of the Application of Gibberellin (GA3 on Tomato Seed Germination (Solanum Lycopersicum L. Variety Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Alexandra Deaquiz-Oyola

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The tomato is one of the most important vegetable, economical and nutritionally, around the world. For this reason the germination process in the tomato is a vital stage in the growth and development of plants. In this study, the effect of different doses of gibberellin over the germination of Santa Cruz variety tomato seeds was evaluated. The seeds were embedded for 24 hours in different concentrations of gibberellic acid, sown in a peat substrate in the screen house of the UPTC. A complete randomized design was used with 4 treatments corresponding to 0, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1 of GAs with three replicates, for a total of 12 experimental units (EU, and each unit with 35 seeds. The treatment of 0 mg L-1 had a favorable impact on the mean germination time (GT, average speed of germination (ASG and germination percentage (GP, showing significant differences with respect to the other treatments. The seeds soaked in 400 mg L-1 of GAs presented the lowest values in the variables GT, ASG and GP, attributed to negative effect this type of hormone over this tomato variety, which delayed the death of the embryo and the seed germination.

  14. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Abscisic Acid/Gibberellin Balance in the Control of Seed Dormancy and Germination in Cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham A. Tuan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Seed dormancy is an adaptive trait that does not allow the germination of an intact viable seed under favorable environmental conditions. Non-dormant seeds or seeds with low level of dormancy can germinate readily under optimal environmental conditions, and such a trait leads to preharvest sprouting, germination of seeds on the mother plant prior to harvest, which significantly reduces the yield and quality of cereal crops. High level of dormancy, on the other hand, may lead to non-uniform germination and seedling establishment. Therefore, intermediate dormancy is considered to be a desirable trait as it prevents the problems of sprouting and allows uniformity of postharvest germination of seeds. Induction, maintenance, and release of seed dormancy are complex physiological processes that are influenced by a wide range of endogenous and environmental factors. Plant hormones, mainly abscisic acid (ABA and gibberellin (GA, are the major endogenous factors that act antagonistically in the control of seed dormancy and germination; ABA positively regulates the induction and maintenance of dormancy, while GA enhances germination. Significant progress has been made in recent years in the elucidation of molecular mechanisms regulating ABA/GA balance and thereby dormancy and germination in cereal seeds, and this review summarizes the current state of knowledge on the topic.

  15. Exogenous auxin represses soybean seed germination through decreasing the gibberellin/abscisic acid (GA/ABA) ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Haiwei; Meng, Yongjie; Luo, Xiaofeng; Chen, Feng; Zhou, Wenguan; Dai, Yujia; Qi, Ying; Du, Junbo; Yang, Feng; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Wenyu; Shu, Kai

    2017-10-03

    Auxin is an important phytohormone which mediates diverse development processes in plants. Published research has demonstrated that auxin induces seed dormancy. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the effect of auxin on seed germination need further investigation, especially the relationship between auxins and both abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs), the latter two phytohormones being the key regulators of seed germination. Here we report that exogenous auxin treatment represses soybean seed germination by enhancing ABA biosynthesis, while impairing GA biogenesis, and finally decreasing GA 1 /ABA and GA 4 /ABA ratios. Microscope observation showed that auxin treatment delayed rupture of the soybean seed coat and radicle protrusion. qPCR assay revealed that transcription of the genes involved in ABA biosynthetic pathway was up-regulated by application of auxin, while expression of genes involved in GA biosynthetic pathway was down-regulated. Accordingly, further phytohormone quantification shows that auxin significantly increased ABA content, whereas the active GA 1 and GA 4 levels were decreased, resulting insignificant decreases in the ratiosGA 1 /ABA and GA 4 /ABA.Consistent with this, ABA biosynthesis inhibitor fluridone reversed the delayed-germination phenotype associated with auxin treatment, while paclobutrazol, a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, inhibited soybean seed germination. Altogether, exogenous auxin represses soybean seed germination by mediating ABA and GA biosynthesis.

  16. Cloning and molecular analyses of a gibberellin 20-oxidase gene expressed specifically in developing seeds of watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H G; Jun, S H; Kim, J; Kawaide, H; Kamiya, Y; An, G

    1999-10-01

    To understand the biosynthesis and functional role of gibberellins (GAs) in developing seeds, we isolated Cv20ox, a cDNA clone from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) that shows significant amino acid homology with GA 20-oxidases. The complementary DNA clone was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein, which oxidized GA(12) at C-20 to the C(19) compound GA(9), a precursor of bioactive GAs. RNA-blot analysis showed that the Cv20ox gene was expressed specifically in developing seeds. The gene was strongly expressed in the integument tissues, and it was also expressed weakly in inner seed tissues. In parthenocarpic fruits induced by 1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-3-phenylurea treatment, the expression pattern of Cv20ox did not change, indicating that the GA 20-oxidase gene is expressed primarily in the maternal cells of developing seeds. The promoter of Cv20ox was isolated and fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene. In a transient expression system, beta-glucuronidase staining was detectable only in the integument tissues of developing watermelon seeds.

  17. Cloning and Molecular Analyses of a Gibberellin 20-Oxidase Gene Expressed Specifically in Developing Seeds of Watermelon1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hong-Gyu; Jun, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Junyul; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Kamiya, Yuji; An, Gynheung

    1999-01-01

    To understand the biosynthesis and functional role of gibberellins (GAs) in developing seeds, we isolated Cv20ox, a cDNA clone from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) that shows significant amino acid homology with GA 20-oxidases. The complementary DNA clone was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein, which oxidized GA12 at C-20 to the C19 compound GA9, a precursor of bioactive GAs. RNA-blot analysis showed that the Cv20ox gene was expressed specifically in developing seeds. The gene was strongly expressed in the integument tissues, and it was also expressed weakly in inner seed tissues. In parthenocarpic fruits induced by 1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-3-phenylurea treatment, the expression pattern of Cv20ox did not change, indicating that the GA 20-oxidase gene is expressed primarily in the maternal cells of developing seeds. The promoter of Cv20ox was isolated and fused to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene. In a transient expression system, β-glucuronidase staining was detectable only in the integument tissues of developing watermelon seeds. PMID:10517828

  18. Resilience of Penicillium resedanum LK6 and exogenous gibberellin in improving Capsicum annuum growth under abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Waqas, Muhammad; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-03-01

    Understanding how endophytic fungi mitigate abiotic stresses in plants will be important in a changing global climate. A few endophytes can produce phytohormones, but their ability to induce physiological changes in host plants during extreme environmental conditions are largely unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the ability of Penicillium resedanum LK6 to produce gibberellins and its role in improving the growth of Capsicum annuum L. under salinity, drought, and heat stresses. These effects were compared with exogenous application of gibberellic acid (GA3). Endophyte treatment significantly increased shoot length, biomass, chlorophyll content, and the photosynthesis rate compared with the uninfected control during abiotic stresses. The endophyte and combined endophyte + GA3 treatments significantly ameliorated the negative effects of stresses compared with the control. Stress-responsive endogenous abscisic acid and its encoding genes, such as zeaxanthin epoxidase, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 3, and ABA aldehyde oxidase 3, were significantly reduced in endophyte-treated plants under stress. Conversely, salicylic acid and biosynthesis-related gene (isochorismate synthase) had constitutive expressions while pathogenesis related (PR1 and PR5) genes showed attenuated responses during endophyte treatment under abiotic stresses. The present findings suggest that endophytes have effects comparable to those of exogenous GA3; both can significantly increase plant growth and yield under changing environmental conditions by reprogramming the host plant's physiological responses.

  19. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Abscisic Acid/Gibberellin Balance in the Control of Seed Dormancy and Germination in Cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Pham A.; Kumar, Rohit; Rehal, Pawanpuneet K.; Toora, Parneet K.; Ayele, Belay T.

    2018-01-01

    Seed dormancy is an adaptive trait that does not allow the germination of an intact viable seed under favorable environmental conditions. Non-dormant seeds or seeds with low level of dormancy can germinate readily under optimal environmental conditions, and such a trait leads to preharvest sprouting, germination of seeds on the mother plant prior to harvest, which significantly reduces the yield and quality of cereal crops. High level of dormancy, on the other hand, may lead to non-uniform germination and seedling establishment. Therefore, intermediate dormancy is considered to be a desirable trait as it prevents the problems of sprouting and allows uniformity of postharvest germination of seeds. Induction, maintenance, and release of seed dormancy are complex physiological processes that are influenced by a wide range of endogenous and environmental factors. Plant hormones, mainly abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA), are the major endogenous factors that act antagonistically in the control of seed dormancy and germination; ABA positively regulates the induction and maintenance of dormancy, while GA enhances germination. Significant progress has been made in recent years in the elucidation of molecular mechanisms regulating ABA/GA balance and thereby dormancy and germination in cereal seeds, and this review summarizes the current state of knowledge on the topic. PMID:29875780

  20. Clarifying the link between von Neumann and thermodynamic entropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Alain; Deville, Yannick

    2013-01-01

    The state of a quantum system being described by a density operator ρ, quantum statistical mechanics calls the quantity - kTr( ρln ρ), introduced by von Neumann, its von Neumann or statistical entropy. A 1999 Shenker's paper initiated a debate about its link with the entropy of phenomenological thermodynamics. Referring to Gibbs's and von Neumann's founding texts, we replace von Neumann's 1932 contribution in its historical context, after Gibbs's 1902 treatise and before the creation of the information entropy concept, which places boundaries into the debate. Reexamining von Neumann's reasoning, we stress that the part of his reasoning implied in the debate mainly uses thermodynamics, not quantum mechanics, and identify two implicit postulates. We thoroughly examine Shenker's and ensuing papers, insisting upon the presence of open thermodynamical subsystems, imposing us the use of the chemical potential concept. We briefly mention Landau's approach to the quantum entropy. On the whole, it is shown that von Neumann's viewpoint is right, and why Shenker's claim that von Neumann entropy "is not the quantum-mechanical correlate of thermodynamic entropy" can't be retained.

  1. Die Rolle von RANK-Ligand und Osteoprotegerin bei Osteoporose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofbauer LC

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF- κB ligand (RANKL, sein zellulärer Rezeptor RANK und der Decoy-Rezeptor Osteoprotegerin (OPG stellen ein essentielles Zytokinsystem für die Zellbiologie von Osteoklasten dar. Verschiedene Untersuchungen belegen die Bedeutung von Störungen des OPG/RANKL/RANK-Systems bei der Pathogenese metabolischer Knochenerkrankungen. In dieser Arbeit werden die wichtigsten Störungen des OPG/RANKL/RANK-Systems bei verschiedenen Osteoporoseformen dargestellt. Östrogenrezeptor- (ER- Agonisten wie 17 β-Östradiol, Raloxifen und Genistein stimulieren die osteoblastäre Produktion von OPG durch Aktivierung von ER- α in vitro, während Lymphozyten von Patientinnen mit Östrogenmangel RANKL überexprimieren. Die parenterale Gabe von OPG vermag den mit Östrogenmangel assoziierten Knochenverlust im Tiermodell und in einer kleineren klinischen Studie zu verhindern. Glukokortikoide und Immunsuppressiva steigern gleichzeitig die RANKL-Expression und hemmen die OPG-Produktion in osteoblastären Zellen in vitro. Glukokortikoide sind auch in vivo imstande, die OPG-Serumspiegel deutlich zu reduzieren. Dagegen hemmen biomechanische Reize in vitro die RANKL-Produktion und steigern die OPG-Produktion. Ein Fehlen dieser biomechanischen Reize bei längerer Immobilisierung kann daher den RANKL/OPG-Quotienten steigern, während die tierexperimentelle Immobilisierungs-Osteoporose durch die parenterale Gabe von OPG gemildert werden kann.

  2. Das Geschäftsmodell von Retail Banken im Wandel der Digitalisierung

    OpenAIRE

    Messikommer, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    Der Prozess der Digitalisierung führt in unterschiedlichen Branchen zu tiefgreifenden Veränderungen. Dazu gehört auch der Finanzsektor, dessen Umfeld von erodierenden Margen und Tiefstzinsen geprägt ist. Die Digitalisierung hat weitreichende Auswirkungen auf die Geschäftsmodelle von Banken und speziell von Retail Banken. Deren Basisdienstleistungen werden zunehmend von neuen Mitbewerbern mit modernster Internet-Technologie angeboten. Damit sind wesentliche Teile der Wertschöpfungskette von Re...

  3. Strukturbasierte Entwicklung von Assaysystemen und Charakterisierung von orthosterischen und allosterischen Kinaseinhibitoren

    OpenAIRE

    Klüter, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Die Proteinkinasen stellen eine wichtige Enzymklasse für die Regulation der Signaltransduktion dar. Sie steuern diese diffizil regulierten, intrazellulären Signalkaskaden durch Übertragung der ?-Phosphatgruppe von ATP auf andere Proteine. Fehlregulationen dieser komplexen Stoffwechselwege können Krankheiten wie Krebs, Diabetes oder Autoimunkrankheiten verursachen. Somit gehören die Kinasen in den letzten Jahren zu den wichtigsten Zielproteinen der Pharmaindustrie. Die klassi...

  4. Der Effekt von Akupunktur in der Prävention von Prüfungsangst

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Prüfungsangst ist ein weit verbreitetes gesellschaftliches Phänomen, das bisher in nur wenigen wissenschaftlichen Ansätzen untersucht wurde. Die Zahl der Studenten, die Gehirn - Doping zur Leistungssteigerung und zur Minimierung von Prüfungsangst nutzen, steigt stetig an. In bisherigen Studien wurde Akupunktur an Herz 7 als vielversprechende Behandlungsalternative dargestellt. Basierend auf diesen Ergebnissen, wurde in dieser Arbeit untersucht, ob eine Einzelpunktakupunktur an Herz 7 die ...

  5. [Albert Reder Ritter von Schellmann (1826-1904)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, G; Holubar, K

    1990-01-01

    Albert Reder von Schellmann (1826-1904) was an important syphilidologist of the Vienna Medical School in the second half of the nineteenth century. He went in for the dualistic concept of the origin of syphilis and ulcer caused by soft chancre. In 1870 - Reder became head of a third dermato-syphilidologic department in the "Josephinum" in Vienna, where military surgeons got their medical education. At the same time the two full professorships of dermatosyphilidology in the Vienna General Hospital were held by Ferdinand von Hebra (1816-1880) and Carl Ludwig Sigmund von Ilanor (1810-1883).

  6. Speziation von Gadolinium-MRT-Kontrastmitteln in Umweltmatrizes

    OpenAIRE

    Lindner, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Gd-Kontrastmittel werden in der Medizin für die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) benötigt, um einen besseren Bildkontrast zu erzielen. Nach der Anwendung gelangen diese Arzneimittel über das Abwasser in die Klärwerke und von dort in die jeweiligen anliegenden Oberflächengewässer. Somit wird es notwendig, den Verbleib der Gd-MRT-Kontrastmittel in der Umwelt zu verfolgen und aufzuklären. In dieser Arbeit werden für die Analyse von Umweltproben Methoden zur Speziesanalytik von Gd-Kontrastmitteln ...

  7. Modernisation of ventilation systems; Modernisierung von Lueftungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, W. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermodynamik und Technische Gebaeudeausruestung

    1997-12-31

    When redeveloping buildings it is common to use window constructions with air-tight rabbets which obviate the inflow of fresh air almost entirely. This leads to the well-known structural-physics and hygienic consequences. As an added effect, the distinctly enhanced thermal insulation results in changes in dynamic heat loss. The paper focuses on the issues of how to safeguard the inflow of fresh air, and the heating capacity of radiators. (MSK) [Deutsch] Da die bei Gebaeudesanierungen eingesetzten fugendichten Fensterkonstruktionen die Nachstroemmoeglichkeiten fuer die Zuluft fast ganz unterbinden, fuehrt das zu den bekannten bauphysikalischen und hygienischen Konsequenzen. Dazu kommen veraenderte dynamische Waermverlustverhaeltnisse aufgrund der deutlich verbesserten Waermedaemmung. Im Folgenden wird schwerpunktmaessig auf die Probleme Zuluftsicherung und Waermeleistung von Heizkoerpern eingegangen.

  8. Of von Willebrand factor and platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryckaert, Marijke; Rosa, Jean-Philippe; Denis, Cécile V; Lenting, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Hemostasis and pathological thrombus formation are dynamic processes that require multiple adhesive receptor-ligand interactions, with blood platelets at the heart of such events. Many studies have contributed to shed light on the importance of von Willebrand factor (VWF) interaction with its platelet receptors, glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX-V and αIIbβ3 integrin, in promoting primary platelet adhesion and aggregation following vessel injury. This review will recapitulate our current knowledge on the subject from the rheological aspect to the spatio-temporal development of thrombus formation. We will also discuss the signaling events generated by VWF/GPIb-IX-V interaction, leading to platelet activation. Additionally, we will review the growing body of evidence gathered from the recent development of pathological mouse models suggesting that VWF binding to GPIb-IX-V is a promising target in arterial and venous pathological thrombosis. Finally, the pathological aspects of VWF and its impact on platelets will be addressed.

  9. Ex-ante Evaluation von Investitionsalternativen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Müller

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Der Beitrag zeigt, wie mit Hilfe der Methode der agentenbasierten Modellierung und Simulation (ABMS ein Beitrag zur ex-ante Policy-Beratung geleistet werden kann. Anhand eines exemplarischen Anwendungsfalls, der VISIBLE Simulationsumgebung („Virtual Simulation Lab for the Analysis of Investments in Learning and Education“, diskutieren wir die Konsequenzen unterschiedlicher Kooperationsförderinstrumente für Wissensdiffusionsprozesse in Netzwerken am Beispiel der Region Heilbronn-Franken. Die Simulationsergebnisse zeigen, dass die strukturelle Konfiguration eines regionalen Innovationssystems eine zentrale Bedeutung für die Gestaltung von Kooperationsfördermaßnahmen hat und dass Interventionen, die darauf abzielen, Wissenstransfer zwischen den Akteuren anzuregen, genau die entgegengesetzten Wirkungen entfalten können.

  10. Budke, Alexandra; Kanwischer, Detlef; Pott, Andreas (Hg.), Internetgeographien : Beobachtungen zum Verhältnis von Internet, Raum und Gesellschaft / [rezensiert von] Helmut Klüter

    OpenAIRE

    Klüter, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    Rezensiertes Werk: Internetgeographien : Beobachtungen zum Verhältnis von Internet, Raum und Gesellschaft / hrsg. von Alexandra Budke ... - Stuttgart : Steiner, 2004. - 192 S. : Ill., graph. Darst., Kt. - (Erdkundliches Wissen ; 136) ISBN 3-515-08506-8

  11. Priority ranking of substances hazardous to the aquatic system according to their exposure and effects for 1993/94; Reihung gewaesserrelevanter, gefaehrlicher Stoffe aufgrund ihrer Exposition und Wirkung fuer 1993/94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrchen, M.; Mueller, M.; Storm, U.; Storm, A.

    1997-10-01

    For the identification of substances occuring in surface waters and being hazardous to the aquatic ecosystem a tiered selection scheme has been developed and applied in a previous project (Application of a selection scheme for the identification of substances hazardous to the acquatic system, No.: 102 04 109). On the first tier, substances occuring in surface waters were identified by comparison with substances in international lists (such as lists I and II of the Directive 76 464 EEC and annex 1A and 1D of the 3. International North Sea Conference). For substances which are detected in monitoring programs but are not listed in the international lists as well as for substances which are detected in monitoring programs but are not listed in the above lists, the second tier was applied. That comprised a substance ranking according to their hazard for aquatic organisms using a scoring system. For the exposure assessment monitored concentrations are used in order to avoid false positive or negative results. For the effect assessment the respective part of the IPS-system (developed within the EU for the ranking of Existing Chemicals) was used. Direct and indirect effects (bioaccumulation) are considered. On the third tier a source identification was performed identifying point and diffuse sources. Within the framework of the actual project an actualisation of the above feasibility study was performed: monitoring data were taken from 1993 and 1994; additionally, data from the North Sea as well as sediment data were considered. The software was improved in order to enable an easy calculation and assessment of the different results (e.g. use of mean or median values as input for the second tier, differentiation according to various streams; consideration of the statement `not detectable`). The software programme also enables a further implementation of actual data in the near future. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Identifizierung von gewaesserrelevanten, gefaehrlichen Stoffen wurde

  12. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Biosynthesis and Deactivation of Gibberellin-Dioxygenases Gene Family in Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Pan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Gibberellins (GAs, a class of diterpenoid phytohormones, play a key role in regulating diverse processes throughout the life cycle of plants. Bioactive GA levels are rapidly regulated by Gibberellin-dioxygenases (GAox, which are involved in the biosynthesis and deactivation of gibberellin. In this manuscript, a comprehensive genome-wide analysis was carried out to find all GAox in Camellia sinensis. For the first time in a tea plant, 14 CsGAox genes, containing two domains, DIOX_N (PF14226 and 2OG-FeII_Oxy, were identified (PF03171. These genes all belong to 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (2-ODD, including four CsGA20ox (EC: 1.14.11.12, three CsGA3ox (EC: 1.14.11.15, and seven CsGA2ox (EC: 1.14.11.13. According to the phylogenetic classification as in Arabidopsis, the CsGAox genes spanned five subgroups. Each CsGAox shows tissue-specific expression patterns, although these vary greatly. Some candidate genes, which may play an important role in response to external abiotic stresses, have been identified with regards to patterns, such as CsGA20ox2, CsGA3ox2, CsGA3ox3, CsGA2ox1, CsGA2ox2, and CsGA2ox4. The bioactive GA levels may be closely related to the GA20ox, GA3ox and GA2ox genes. In addition, the candidate genes could be used as marker genes for abiotic stress resistance breeding in tea plants.

  13. High prevalence of sensitization to gibberellin-regulated protein (peamaclein) in fruit allergies with negative immunoglobulin E reactivity to Bet v 1 homologs and profilin: Clinical pattern, causative fruits and cofactor effect of gibberellin-regulated protein allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Naoko; Miyakawa, Mami; Aihara, Michiko

    2017-07-01

    Gibberellin-regulated protein (GRP) is a new allergen in peach allergy, with an amino acid sequence very well conserved through several botanical species. We investigated the allergenicity of GRP in fruit allergies other than peaches and identified the clinical characteristics of fruit allergy patients with GRP sensitization. One hundred consecutive Japanese patients with fruit allergies were enrolled in the present study. To identify the features of GRP sensitization, we selected patients with negative ImmunoCAP results for Bet v 1 homologs and profilin, which are marker allergens for pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS), or lipid transfer protein. These patients underwent specific immunoglobulin E measurements by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and skin prick tests (SPT) using purified nPru p 7. Twenty of 100 consecutive patients with fruit allergies had negative ImmunoCAP results for Bet v 1 homologs and profilin. Thirteen (65.0%) of the 20 patients had positive ELISA and/or SPT results using nPru p 7, whereas one of the 20 patients had positive ImmunoCAP results for Pru p 3. In 13 nPru p 7-sensitized patients, the causative foods were peaches (92.3%), apricots (61.5%), oranges (46.2%) and apples (30.8%). Ten patients (76.9%) had multiple causative fruits. Frequent symptoms included facial edema (92.3%) and laryngeal tightness (66.7%). In eight patients (61.5%), exercise or aspirin intake enhanced the allergic reaction onset as cofactors. The prevalence of GRP sensitization was high in Japanese fruit allergy patients except for PFAS patients. In conclusion, GRP-sensitized patients may have allergies to multiple fruits and may show peculiar characteristics such as facial swelling and cofactor dependence. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  14. DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 mediates a conserved coat-dormancy mechanism for the temperature- and gibberellin-dependent control of seed germination

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Graeber, K.; Linkies, A.; Steinbrecher, T.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Turečková, Veronika; Ignatz, M.; Voegele, A.; Urbanová, Terezie; Strnad, Miroslav; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 34 (2014), E3571-E3580 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD522/08/H003; GA MŠk LK21306; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA ČR GA14-34792S Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : dormancy gene DOG1 * gibberellin metabolism * germination temperature Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.674, year: 2014

  15. Entwicklung der Reglementierung von 10 MEM-Berufen im Kontext von Bildungsreformen und dem Wandel in der Arbeitswelt: Eine Kurzstudie im Auftrag von LIBS: Eine Kurzstudie im Auftrag von LIBS Industrielle Berufslehren Schweiz, Baden

    OpenAIRE

    Egg, Maria Esther; Renold, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Im Auftrag der LIBS Industrielle Berufslehren Schweiz, hat die KOF die Entwicklung von 10 MEM1-Berufsbildern seit dem ersten Berufsbildungsgesetz dargestellt und diese eingebettet in eine kurze Zusammenfassung der wichtigsten Etappenschritte des Schweizer Berufsbildungssystems.

  16. Magnus Georg von Paucker (1787-1855) / Eckhard Spring

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Spring, Eckhard

    2013-01-01

    Eestis sündinud ja Tartu Ülikoolis õppinud silmapaistvast baltisaksa teadlasest ja tema lapselapsest Alexandrine Pauckerist. 23. novembril 2012 Jelgavas/Mitaus toimunud Magnus Georg von Pauckerile pühendatud teaduskonverentsist

  17. Warum das Controlling den systematischen Einsatz von Simulationen vorantreiben sollte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spitzner, Jan; Schneider, Melanie L.

    2017-01-01

    Simulationen werden in der Unternehmenssteuerung heutzutage noch nicht systematisch eingesetzt. Dass sich jedoch die existierenden Hemmnisse durchaus überwinden lassen, legen die Antworten von Studienteilnehmern nahe, die Simulationen häufig einsetzen. Dabei kann Controlling eine Vorreiterrolle e...

  18. Pharmakobotanische Untersuchungen von Lavendelsorten auf dem Plattensee- Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth, Frida

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Auf dem Hof Dörgicsei Levendula Major GmbH wurden 9 Lavendelsorten (6 Sorten von Lavandula angustifolia und 3 Sorten von Lavandula x intermedia untersucht. Neben den morphologischen und Wachstumseigenschaften wurden auch Frisch- und Trockengewichte bewertet. Quantitative und qualitative Untersuchungen von den Blüten- und Ätherischöldrogen wurden auch durchgeführt. Die statistische Analyse zeigte signifikant höhere Erträge bei den Sorten L. angustifolia ’Essence Purple’ und L. x intermedia ’Edelweiss’. Gehalt und Zusammensetzung von ätherischem Öl war eindeutig bei der Sorte L. angustifolia ’Ellagance Purple’ am günstigsten.

  19. Pure Jauch-Piron states on von Neumann algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamhalter, J.

    1993-01-01

    We study Jauch-Piron states and two-valued measures on von Neumann algebra. We prove as the main result that, under some set-theoretical assumption, a pure state of a von Neumann algebra A not containing a central abelian portion is Jauch-Piron if and only if it is σ-additive. Moreover, we show that this result holds for type I factor indenpendently on the set-theoretical axiomatics. As a consequence we obtain a lucid characterization of pure Jauch-Piron states on von Neumann algebras acting on a Hilbert space with real-nonmeasurable dimension (this can be viewed as a generalization of the paper). We also characterize the von Neumann algebras whose logic of projections is Jauch-Piron. Finally, we prove that every two-valued measure on the projection logic of A, where A contains no type I 2 central portion, has to be concentrated at an abelian direct summand of A. (orig.)

  20. Von Krahli Teater toob Eestisse erakordse auhinna / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2004-01-01

    Bessie-auhinna puhul, millega New Yorgis pärjati Von Krahli Teatri lavastust "Luikede järv." Mõjukuselt on seda võrreldud Broadway teatriauhinna Tonyga. Lisatud lühiandmed P. Jalaka ja S. Pepeljajevi kohta

  1. Frobenius theory for positive maps of von Neumann algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albeverio, S.; Hoegh-Krohn, R.

    1978-01-01

    Frobenius theory about the cyclic structure of eigenvalues of irreducible non negative matrices is extended to the case of positive linear maps of von Neumann algebras. Semigroups of such maps and ergodic properties are also considered. (orig.) [de

  2. Optimized sampling of hydroperoxides and investigations of the water vapour dependence of hydroperoxide formation during ozonolysis of alkenes; Optimierung der Probenahme von Hydroperoxiden und Untersuchungen zur Wasserdampfabhaengigkeit der Bildung von Hydroperoxiden bei der Ozonolyse von Alkenen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, K.H.; Plagens, H.

    1997-06-01

    There are several sampling methods for hydroperoxides none of which is particularly reliable. The authors therefore tested three new methods in order to optimize hydroperoxide sampling and, using the optimized sampling procedure, to investigate the water vapour dependence of hydroperoxide formation during ozonolysis of alkenes. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer die Probenahme von Hydroperoxiden existieren verschiedene Verfahren, von denen bisher keines als besonders zuverlaessig angesehen werden konnte. Daher wurden in dieser Arbeit drei Verfahren getestet, um die Probenahme von Hydroperoxiden zu optimieren und mit dem entsprechenden Verfahren die Wasserdampfabhaengigkeit der Bildung von Hydroperoxiden bei der Ozonolyse von Alkenen zu untersuchen. (orig.)

  3. Effect of thallium in cement oven dusts on the growth and thallium uptake of several culture plants for the determination of thallium thresholds in plants and soils. Wirkung des Thallium in Zementofenstaeuben auf Wachstum und Thallium-Aufnahme mehrerer Kulturpflanzen zur Ermittlung von Thallium-Grenzwerten in Pflanzen und Boeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makridis, H

    1987-02-27

    After preliminary experiments in the methodology of Tl-analysis in plants and soils, phytotoxic Tl-concentrations and specific toxicity symptoms of different crops (beans, rape) have been determined in hydroponic culture with TlCl/sub 3/.H/sub 2/O. In pot experiments, critical Tl-levels were evaluated with regard to yield and Tl-uptake of plants on different soils, as a basis for the classification of soilcontamination by Tl originating form cement klink dust. The latter is a main source of Tl-emissions. Thus, several dusts with differing Tl-concentrations were tested in extensive two-year pot-experiments with different plants, and critical levels for lime- and potash- containing dusts have been elaborated. (orig./MG)

  4. On the effect of small radiation doses: Desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis and DNA repair of thymus, spleen, and bone marrow cells in the rat after fractionated total body X-ray irradiation. Zur Wirkung kleiner Strahlendosen: Desoxyribonukleinsaeure-(DNA-)Synthese und DNA-Reparatur von Thymus-, Milz- und Knochenmarkszellen der Ratte nach fraktionierter Ganzkoerperroentgenbestrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempel, K.; Ehling, G. (Muenchen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Pharmakologie, Toxikologie und Pharmazie)

    1989-09-01

    After three to seven days following to fractionated total body X-ray irradiation (TBI) (four expositions with doses of 0.3 to 5.0 cGy per fraction at intervals of 24 hours), a maximum 50 percent stimulation of the semiconservative DNA synthesis (SDS) of spleen cells was measured in vitro. This was not dependent of the fact if an acute high-dose (400 and/or 800 cGy) unique irradiation was applied after the fractionated TBI at the moment of stimulation. A significant increase of {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation into the DNA of bone marrow and thymus cells was only found when doses of 1.25 cGy per fraction had been used. After fractionated TBI with doses of {ge}5 cGy per fraction, an increase of DNA synthesis resistant to hydroxyurea ('unprogrammed' DNA synthesis, UDS) was demonstrated in spleen cells. The UV-simulated UDS decreased proportionately. The sedimentation of thymus, spleen, and bone marrow nucleoids in a neutral saccharose gradient gave no evidence of an increased DNA repair capacity after fractionated TBI. Whereas the SDS stimulation by fractionated TBI with small doses can be explained by a modified proliferation behavior of exposed cells, the UDS behavior of spleen cells after considerably higher radiation doses suggests regenerative processes correlated with an increased number of cells resistant to hydroxyurea and cells presenting an UV repair deficiency. These findings can be considered to be a further proof of the assumed immune-stimulating effect of small radiation doses. (orig.).

  5. In vitro and in vivo studies of the carcinogenic, toxic and genotoxic activities of the air pollutants SO2 and NOx, separately and in combination with carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and N-nitrosamines. In vivo- und in vitro-Studien zur carcinogenen, toxischen und genschaedigenden Wirkung von Luftschadstoffen (SO sub 2 , NO sub x , PAH, N-Nitrosoverbindungen, allein und in Kombination)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmezer, P; Zeller, W J; Klein, R G; Pool-Zobel, B L [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Toxikologie und Chemotherapie

    1990-04-01

    Previous studies with different in vitro cell systems had shown that the DNA-damaging activity of several carcinogens may be decreased by SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Experiments to elucidate possible mechanisms responsible for the observed effects were conducted. Comparative studies with the DNA-repair inhibitor novobiocin revealed that the reduction of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) induced DNA-single strand breaks (DNA-SSB) in fetal hamster lung cells (FHLC) is probably caused by an inhibition of DNA-repair processes. Experiments with the Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity assay showed that neither SO{sub 2} nor NO{sub x} influence the overall rate of BaP metabolism. Although it has been shown that both gases are able to influence appropriate enzyme activities, the net yield of mutagenic BaP metabolites is not altered. Finally, new investigations with primary rat hepatocytes revealed that no decrease of N-nitrosamine genotoxicity (DNA-SBB) was observed following simultaneous gas and nitrosamine exposure. With this system experiments are underway to elucidate if, in contrast, local influences (lung, nasal mucosa) are triggered by the in vivo combination treatment (SO{sub 2} and N-nitrosodimethylamine, NDMA). The present status of an ongoing inhalation study for carcinogenic activity of NDMA with and without the simultaneous application of the air pollutants is reported. The histopathological analysiss of the treatment groups receiving only NDMA exposure showed that even with an exposure as low as 0.04 ppm NDMA in the breathing air, which leads to a daily intake of 10 {mu}g NDMA/kg during 207 days of application, a 36% rate of tumor induction was observed.

  6. Numerical Analysis Of Buckling Of Von Mises Planar Truss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Martin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A computational algorithm of a discrete model of von Mises planar steel truss is presented. The structure deformation is evaluated by seeking the minimal potential energy. The critical force invented by mathematical solution was compared with solution by computer algorithm. Symmetric and asymmetric effects of initial shape of geometric imperfection of axis of struts are used in model. The shapes of buckling of von Mises planar truss of selected vertical displacement of top joint are shown.

  7. Analytische und Effektor-Studien von N-Acyl-Ethanolaminphosphaten

    OpenAIRE

    Ates, Ebru

    2011-01-01

    Bei N-Acyl-Ethanolaminphosphaten handelt es sich um eine bislang wenig untersuchte Klasse polarer Substanzen, deren Erforschung aufgrund ihrer strukturellen Analogie zu apolaren, physiologisch wirksamen N-Acyl-Ethanolaminen von Interesse ist. Zu bear-beiten waren analytische Fragestellungen, die auch synthetische Aufgaben beinhalteten, wie Methodenentwicklung und Versuche zur Erfassung von N-Acyl-Ethanolamin-phosphaten in ausgewählten Lebensmitteln sowie strukturelle Studien zur „Bioaktivität...

  8. Spurenstoffuntersuchungen zur Bildung und Ausbreitung von Wassermassen im subpolaren Nordatlantik

    OpenAIRE

    Hildebrandt, Hauke

    2001-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde ein umfangreicher Spurenstoffdatensatz aus dem subpolaren Nordatlantik erstellt und ausgewertet, der Tritium-, Helium- und Neon- sowie O-18-Messungen umfaßt. Das Hauptaugenmerk galt dabei der Bildung und Ausbreitung der tiefen Wassermassen und deren Variabilität auf Zeitskalen von einigen Jahren. Anhand von Tracermittelwerten, die mit Hilfe eines optimierten Interpolationsverfahrens gewonnen wurden, konnte gezeigt werden, daß die konvektive Neubildung de...

  9. Nash y von Neumann: mundos posibles y juegos de lenguaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar , Boris

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo emplea las nociones de juego de lenguaje y de equivalencia entre juegos para examinar la decisión de John Nash de no jugar el juego coalicional que propuso John von Neumann. El argumento central es que Nash concibió una clase de mundos posibles incompatible con la de von Neumann, y que en el origen de esa divergencia estarían sus distintas nociones de racionalidad.

  10. Von Neumann's impossibility proof: Mathematics in the service of rhetorics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieks, Dennis

    2017-11-01

    According to what has become a standard history of quantum mechanics, in 1932 von Neumann persuaded the physics community that hidden variables are impossible as a matter of principle, after which leading proponents of the Copenhagen interpretation put the situation to good use by arguing that the completeness of quantum mechanics was undeniable. This state of affairs lasted, so the story continues, until Bell in 1966 exposed von Neumann's proof as obviously wrong. The realization that von Neumann's proof was fallacious then rehabilitated hidden variables and made serious foundational research possible again. It is often added in recent accounts that von Neumann's error had been spotted almost immediately by Grete Hermann, but that her discovery was of no effect due to the dominant Copenhagen Zeitgeist. We shall attempt to tell a story that is more historically accurate and less ideologically charged. Most importantly, von Neumann never claimed to have shown the impossibility of hidden variables tout court, but argued that hidden-variable theories must possess a structure that deviates fundamentally from that of quantum mechanics. Both Hermann and Bell appear to have missed this point; moreover, both raised unjustified technical objections to the proof. Von Neumann's argument was basically that hidden-variables schemes must violate the ;quantum principle; that physical quantities are to be represented by operators in a Hilbert space. As a consequence, hidden-variables schemes, though possible in principle, necessarily exhibit a certain kind of contextuality. As we shall illustrate, early reactions to Bohm's theory are in agreement with this account. Leading physicists pointed out that Bohm's theory has the strange feature that pre-existing particle properties do not generally reveal themselves in measurements, in accordance with von Neumann's result. They did not conclude that the ;impossible was done; and that von Neumann had been shown wrong.

  11. Räumliche Aspekte von Transformationsproblemen aus systemtheoretischer Perspektive

    OpenAIRE

    Klüter, Helmut

    2000-01-01

    Der mit dem Topos "Transformation von Wirtschafts- und Gesellschaftssystemen" axiomatisch angenommene Unvereinbarkeit sozialistischer und marktwirtschaftlicher Strukturen ist aus raumwissenschaftlicher Sicht nicht nachvollziehbar. Zum einen gibt es in Wirtschaftsgeographie und Infrastrukturtheorie eine ganze Reihe von Gemeinsamkeiten und Berührungspunkten, die man für den konstruktiven Systemumbau nutzen kann. Zum andern benötigt der Umbau selbst eine räumliche Infrastruktur. Und zum dritten ...

  12. Integration von 3D-Kamerasystemen am Gabelstapler

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinert, Steffen; Overmeyer, Ludger

    2013-01-01

    Dieser Beitrag beschreibt die Integration von laufzeitmessenden 3D Kamerasystemen in die Gabelzinkenspitzen eines Flurförderzeugs. Mit Hilfe der integrierten Kameras und deren ausgewerteter Aufnahmen wurde ein Assistenzsystem für die Handhabung von Ladungsträgern realisiert, das dem Fahrer des Flurförderzeugs Verfahrempfehlungen für die Optimierung der Relativposition zwischen Gabelzinken und Ladungsträger bzw. Lagerplatz ausgibt. Neben der Vorstellung der verwendeten Kamera-Hardware und der ...

  13. Die Darstellung von guten und schlechten Beziehungen in Kinderzeichnungen

    OpenAIRE

    Gramel, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    Nach welchen Kriterien sich Bilder, auf denen Kinder eine positive Beziehung darstellen, von Bildern unterscheiden, auf denen negative Beziehungen dargestellt sind, wurde an einer Stichprobe von 45 Kindern zwischen 4;6 und 11;6 Jahren untersucht. Die Kinder fertigten jeweils ein positives und ein negatives Beziehungsbild an. Es zeigte sich, dass die Kinder in beiden Beziehungskategorien zum großen Teil Gleichaltrige darstellten. Sie benannten für ihre Bilder Kriterien, anhand derer man die po...

  14. Zur Dialektik von Soft Skills und fachlicher Kompetenz

    OpenAIRE

    Jendrowiak, Hans-Werner

    2010-01-01

    [Der Autor stellt folgende Thesen zur Dialektik von Soft Skills und fachlicher Bildung auf:] 1. Soft Skills sind normale Bildungskategorien und Teil einer Allgemeinen Bildung. […] 2. Soft Skills sind als personalgebundene Kriterien auch immer schon Gegenstand bildungstheoretischer Debatten. […] 3. Soft Skills ist eine trendorientierte Bezeichnung für Bildung. […] 4. Soft Skills sind Ausdruck von Vorstellungen, Ideen und Theorien (Schulkultur, Unternehmenskultur, Unternehmensphilosophie). 5. S...

  15. The role of phytochrome A and gibberellins in growth under long and short day conditions: Studies in hybrid aspen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, M.E. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology

    2000-07-01

    This thesis addresses questions concerning the regulation of growth and, specifically, the cessation of growth in response to short days in deciduous tree species. The model tree used in the studies was hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. x P. tremuloides Michx.). We have exploited the possibility of transforming this species to modulate the level of expression of target genes using over-expression and antisense techniques. The target genes in the studies were the photoreceptor phytochrome A (phyA) and gibberellin 20-oxidase (GA 20-oxidase), the latter being a highly regulated enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of gibberellins (GAs). The photoreceptor phyA has been implicated in photoperiodic regulation of growth, while GAs may regulate the physiological response further downstream. The endogenous expression of these genes has been investigated in parallel with studies of various plants with ectopic and reduced levels of expression. The main focus has been on the early stages of induction of growth cessation and its physiological and molecular mechanisms. Studies of hybrid aspen plants with an increased or reduced expression of phyA, show this receptor to mediate the photoperiodic regulation of growth. Plants with ectopic expression could not stop growing despite drastically shortened photoperiods, while the antisense plants showed the reverse phenotype, with a higher sensitivity resulting in earlier cessation of growth. The role of GAs in growth inhibition was also addressed using plants with a reduction in GA levels. These plants showed early cessation of growth and dormancy, and thus an increased sensitivity toward daylength. Conversely, plants with increased rates of GA biosynthesis showed increased growth and stopped growing much later. Furthermore, increases in GA biosynthesis, resulting in high levels of GAs have a major impact on growth. Plants with high GA levels have increased elongation and diameter growth, due to higher rates of cell production in the

  16. Politische Bildung im Kontext von Regierung, Unterricht und Zucht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Rucker

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841 gilt als der Begründer der wissenschaftlichen Pädagogik. In diesem Beitrag wird zu zeigen versucht, dass Herbart die Unterstützung politischer Bildung als eine Aufgabe von Regierung, Unterricht und Zucht bestimmt und in seinem Werk wichtige „Bausteine“ für eine Theorie der politischen Bildung unter den Bedingungen von Erziehung vorlegt hat. Nach Herbart ist das politische Selbst- und Weltverhältnis auf Sachverhalte bezogen, die nicht nur die Lebensführung einzelner Menschen, sondern die Lebensführung einer Mehrzahl von Menschen betreffen. Nicht das Zusammenleben von Menschen generell ist jedoch Orientierungsgesichtspunkt des politischen Selbst- und Weltverhältnisses, sondern nur das problematisch gewordene Zusammenleben. Politik ergibt sich nach Herbart aus einem Konflikt hinsichtlich der Frage, wie das Zusammenleben von Menschen geregelt sein sollte. Während die Regierung lediglich mittelbar einen Beitrag zur politischen Bildung leistet, indem sie die Voraussetzungen für Unterricht und Zucht bereitstellt, fungieren die beiden zuletzt genannten Formen von Erziehung als die eigentlichen Medien, in denen die politische Bildung im Sinne Herbarts ihren Ort hat.

  17. Gibberellin 20-oxidase gene OsGA20ox3 regulates plant stature and disease development in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xue; Liu, Jun Hua; Zhao, Wen Sheng; Chen, Xu Jun; Guo, Ze Jian; Peng, You Liang

    2013-02-01

    Gibberellin (GA) 20-oxidase (GA20ox) catalyses consecutive steps of oxidation in the late part of the GA biosynthetic pathway. A T-DNA insertion mutant (17S-14) in rice, with an elongated phenotype, was isolated. Analysis of the flanking sequences of the T-DNA insertion site revealed that an incomplete T-DNA integration resulted in enhanced constitutively expression of downstream OsGA20ox3 in the mutant. The accumulation of bioactive GA(1) and GA(4) were increased in the mutant in comparison with the wild-type plant. Transgenic plants overexpressing OsGA20ox3 showed phenotypes similar to those of the 17S-14 mutant, and the RNA interference (RNAi) lines that had decreased OsGA20ox3 expression exhibited a semidwarf phenotype. Expression of OsGA20ox3 was detected in the leaves and roots of young seedlings, immature panicles, anthers, and pollens, based on β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity staining in transgenic plants expressing the OsGA20ox3 promoter fused to the GUS gene. The OsGA20ox3 RNAi lines showed enhanced resistance against rice pathogens Magnaporthe oryzae (causing rice blast) and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (causing bacterial blight) and increased expression of defense-related genes. Conversely, OsGA20ox3-overexpressing plants were more susceptible to these pathogens comparing with the wild-type plants. The susceptibility of wild-type plants to X. oryzae pv. oryzae was increased by exogenous application of GA(3) and decreased by S-3307 treatment. Together, the results provide direct evidence for a critical role of OsGA20ox3 in regulating not only plant stature but also disease resistance in rice.

  18. Bioconversion of Gibberellin Fermentation Residue into Feed Supplement and Organic Fertilizer Employing Housefly (Musca domestica L. Assisted by Corynebacterium variabile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Yang

    Full Text Available The accumulation of a considerable quantity of gibberellin fermentation residue (GFR during gibberellic acid A3 (GA3 production not only results in the waste of many resources, but also poses a potential hazard to the environment, indicating that the safe treatment of GFR has become an urgent issue for GA3 industry. The key to recycle GFR is converting it into an available resource and removing the GA3 residue. To this end, we established a co-bioconversion process in this study using house fly larvae (HFL and microbes (Corynebacterium variabile to convert GFR into insect biomass and organic fertilizer. About 85.5% GA3 in the GFR was removed under the following optimized solid-state fermentation conditions: 60% GFR, 40% rice straw powder, pH 8.5 and 6 days at 26 °C. A total of 371 g housefly larvae meal and 2,064 g digested residue were bio-converted from 3,500 g raw GFR mixture contaning1, 400 g rice straw in the unit of (calculated dry matter. HFL meal derived from GFR contained 56.4% protein, 21.6% fat, and several essential amino acids, suggesting that it is a potential alternative animal feed protein source. Additionally, the digested GFR could be utilized as an organic fertilizer with a content of 3.2% total nitrogen, 2.0% inorganic phosphorus, 1.3% potassium and 91.5% organic matter. This novel GFR bio-conversion method can mitigate potential environmental pollution and recycle the waste resources.

  19. The α-Amylase Induction in Endosperm during Rice Seed Germination Is Caused by Gibberellin Synthesized in Epithelium1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Miyuki; Itoh, Hironori; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2002-01-01

    We recently isolated two genes (OsGA3ox1 and OsGA3ox2) from rice (Oryza sativa) encoding 3β-hydroxylase, which catalyzes the final step of active gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis (H. Itoh, M. Ueguchi-Tanaka, N. Sentoku, H. Kitano, M. Matsuoka, M. Kobayashi [2001] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98: 8909–8914). Using these cloned cDNAs, we analyzed the temporal and spatial expression patterns of the 3β-hydroxylase genes and also an α-amylase gene (RAmy1A) during rice seed germination to investigate the relationship between GA biosynthesis and α-amylase expression. Northern-blot analyses revealed that RAmy1A expression in the embryo occurs before the induction of 3β-hydroxylase expression, whereas in the endosperm, a high level of RAmy1A expression occurs 1 to 2 d after the peak of OsGA3ox2 expression and only in the absence of uniconazol. Based on the analysis of an OsGA3ox2 null mutant (d18-Akibare dwarf), we determined that 3β-hydroxylase produced by OsGA3ox2 is important for the induction of RAmy1A expression and that the OsGA3ox1 product is not essential for α-amylase induction. The expression of OsGA3ox2 was localized to the shoot region and epithelium of the embryo, strongly suggesting that active GA biosynthesis occurs in these two regions. The synthesis of active GA in the epithelium is important for α-amylase expression in the endosperm, because an embryonic mutant defective in shoot formation, but which developed epithelium cells, induced α-amylase expression in the endosperm, whereas a mutant defective in epithelium development did not. PMID:11950975

  20. Comparison of the role of gibberellins and ethylene in response to submergence of two lowland rice cultivars, Senia and Bomba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Vincent; Moritz, Thomas; García-Martínez, José L

    2011-02-15

    We examined the gibberellin (GA) and ethylene regulation of submergence-induced elongation in seedlings of the submergence-tolerant lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) cvs Senia and Bomba. Elongation was enhanced after germination to facilitate water escape and reach air. We found that submergence-induced elongation depends on GA because it was counteracted by paclobutrazol (an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis), an effect that was negated by GA(3). Moreover, in the cv Senia, submergence increased the content of active GA(1) and its immediate precursors (GA(53), GA(19) and GA(20)) by enhancing expression of several GA biosynthesis genes (OsGA20ox1 and -2, and OsGA3ox2), but not by decreasing expression of several OsGA2ox (GA inactivating genes). Senia seedlings, in contrast to Bomba seedlings, did not elongate in response to ethylene or 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic-acid (ACC; an ethylene precursor) application, and submergence-induced elongation was not reduced in the presence of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; an ethylene perception inhibitor). Ethylene emanation was similar in Senia seedlings grown in air and in submerged-grown seedlings following de-submergence, while it increased in Bomba. The expression of ethylene biosynthesis genes (OsACS1, -2 and -3, and OsACO1) was not affected in Senia, but expression of OsACS5 was rapidly enhanced in Bomba upon submergence. Our results support the conclusion that submergence elongation enhancement of lowland rice is due to alteration of GA metabolism leading to an increase in active GA (GA(1)) content. Interestingly, in the cv Senia, in contrast to cv Bomba, this was triggered through an ethylene-independent mechanism. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Gibberellins regulate iron deficiency-response by influencing iron transport and translocation in rice seedlings (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baolan; Wei, Haifang; Xue, Zhen; Zhang, Wen-Hao

    2017-04-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are a class of plant hormones with diverse functions. However, there has been little information on the role of GAs in response to plant nutrient deficiency. To evaluate the roles of GAs in regulation of Fe homeostasis, the effects of GA on Fe accumulation and Fe translocation in rice seedlings were investigated using wild-type, a rice mutant ( eui1 ) displaying enhnaced endogenous GA concentrations due to a defect in GA deactivation, and transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsEUI . Exposure to Fe-deficient medium significantly reduced biomass of rice plants. Both exogenous application of GA and an endogenous increase of bioactive GA enhanced Fe-deficiency response by exaggerating foliar chlorosis and reducing growth. Iron deficiency significantly suppressed production of GA 1 and GA 4 , the biologically active GAs in rice. Exogenous application of GA significantly decreased leaf Fe concentration regardless of Fe supply. Iron concentration in shoot of eui1 mutants was lower than that of WT plants under both Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient conditions. Paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis, alleviated Fe-deficiency responses, and overexpression of EUI significantly increased Fe concentration in shoots and roots. Furthermore, both exogenous application of GA and endogenous increase in GA resulting from EUI mutation inhibited Fe translocation within shoots by suppressing OsYSL2 expression, which is involved in Fe transport and translocation. The novel findings provide compelling evidence to support the involvement of GA in mediation of Fe homeostasis in strategy II rice plants by negatively regulating Fe transport and translocation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  2. A negative regulator encoded by a rice WRKY gene represses both abscisic acid and gibberellins signaling in aleurone cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhong-Lin; Shin, Margaret; Zou, Xiaolu; Huang, Jianzhi; Ho, Tun-hua David; Shen, Qingxi J

    2009-05-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs) control several developmental processes including seed maturation, dormancy, and germination. The antagonism of these two hormones is well-documented. However, recent data from transcription profiling studies indicate that they can function as agonists in regulating the expression of many genes although the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here we report a rice WRKY gene, OsWRKY24, which encodes a protein that functions as a negative regulator of both GA and ABA signaling. Overexpression of OsWRKY24 via particle bombardment-mediated transient expression in aleurone cells represses the expression of two reporter constructs: the beta-glucuronidase gene driven by the GA-inducible Amy32b alpha-amylase promoter (Amy32b-GUS) and the ABA-inducible HVA22 promoter (HVA22-GUS). OsWRKY24 is unlikely a general repressor because it has little effect on the expression of the luciferase reporter gene driven by a constitutive ubiquitin promoter (UBI-Luciferase). As to the GA signaling, OsWRKY24 differs from OsWRKY51 and -71, two negative regulators specifically function in the GA signaling pathway, in several ways. First, OsWRKY24 contains two WRKY domains while OsWRKY51 and -71 have only one; both WRKY domains are essential for the full repressing activity of OsWRKY24. Second, binding of OsWRKY24 to the Amy32b promoter appears to involve sequences in addition to the TGAC cores of the W-boxes. Third, unlike OsWRKY71, OsWRKY24 is stable upon GA treatment. Together, these data demonstrate that OsWRKY24 is a novel type of transcriptional repressor that inhibits both GA and ABA signaling.

  3. Bioconversion of Gibberellin Fermentation Residue into Feed Supplement and Organic Fertilizer Employing Housefly (Musca domestica L.) Assisted by Corynebacterium variabile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sen; Xie, Jiufeng; Hu, Nan; Liu, Yixiong; Zhang, Jiner; Ye, Xiaobin; Liu, Ziduo

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of a considerable quantity of gibberellin fermentation residue (GFR) during gibberellic acid A3 (GA3) production not only results in the waste of many resources, but also poses a potential hazard to the environment, indicating that the safe treatment of GFR has become an urgent issue for GA3 industry. The key to recycle GFR is converting it into an available resource and removing the GA3 residue. To this end, we established a co-bioconversion process in this study using house fly larvae (HFL) and microbes (Corynebacterium variabile) to convert GFR into insect biomass and organic fertilizer. About 85.5% GA3 in the GFR was removed under the following optimized solid-state fermentation conditions: 60% GFR, 40% rice straw powder, pH 8.5 and 6 days at 26°C. A total of 371g housefly larvae meal and 2,064g digested residue were bio-converted from 3,500g raw GFR mixture contaning1, 400g rice straw in the unit of (calculated) dry matter. HFL meal derived from GFR contained 56.4% protein, 21.6% fat, and several essential amino acids, suggesting that it is a potential alternative animal feed protein source. Additionally, the digested GFR could be utilized as an organic fertilizer with a content of 3.2% total nitrogen, 2.0% inorganic phosphorus, 1.3% potassium and 91.5% organic matter. This novel GFR bio-conversion method can mitigate potential environmental pollution and recycle the waste resources. PMID:25992605

  4. Role of gibberellins in parthenocarpic fruit development induced by the genetic system pat-3/pat-4 in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fos, Mariano; Proaño, Karina; Nuez, Fernando; García-Martínez, José L.

    2001-04-01

    The role of gibberellins (GAs) in the induction of parthenocarpic fruit-set and growth by the pat-3/pat-4 genetic system in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was investigated using wild type (WT; Cuarenteno) and a near-isogenic line derived from the German line RP75/59 (the source of pat-3/pat-4 parthenocarpy). Unpollinated WT ovaries degenerated but GA3 application induced parthenocarpic fruit growth. On the contrary, parthenocarpic growth of pat-3/pat-4 fruits, which occurs in the absence of pollination and hormone treatment, was not affected by applied GA3. Unpollinated pat-3/pat-4 fruit growth was negated by paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of ent-kaurene oxidase, and this inhibitory effect was negated by GA3. The quantification of the main GAs of the early 13-hydroxylation pathway (GA1, GA8, GA19, GA20, GA29 and GA44) in unpollinated ovaries at 3 developmental stages (flower bud, FB; pre-anthesis, PR; and anthesis, AN), by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring, showed that the concentration of most of them was higher in pat-3/pat-4 than in WT ovaries at PR and AN stages. The concentration of GA1, suggested previously to be the active GA in tomate, was 2-4 times higher. Unpollinated pat-3/pat-4 ovaries at FB, PR and AN stages also contained relatively high amounts (5-12 ng g-1) of GA3, a GA found at less than 0.5 ng g-1 in WT ovaries. It is concluded that the mutations pat-3/pat-4 may induce natural facultative parthenocarpy capacity in tomato by increasing the concentration of GA1 and GA3 in the ovaries before pollination.

  5. Roles of gibberellins and abscisic acid in regulating germination of Suaeda salsa dimorphic seeds under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqiang eLi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed heteromorphism observed in many halophytes is an adaptive phenomenon toward high salinity. However, the relationship between heteromorphic seed germination and germination-related hormones under salt stress remains elusive. To gain an insight into this relationship, the roles of gibberellins (GAs and abscisic acid (ABA in regulating germination of Suaeda salsa dimorphic brown and black seeds under salinity were elucidated by studying the kinetics of the two hormones during germination of the two seed types with or without salinity treatment. Morphological analysis suggested that brown and black are in different development stage. The content of ABA was higher in dry brown than in black seeds, which gradually decreased after imbibition in water and salt solutions. Salt stress induced ABA accumulation in both germinating seed types, with higher induction effect on black than brown seeds. Black seeds showed lower germination percentage than brown seeds under both water and salt stress, which might be attributed to their higher ABA sensitivity rather than the difference in ABA content between black and brown seeds. Bioactive GA4 and its biosynthetic precursors showed higher levels in brown than in black seeds, whereas deactivated GAs showed higher content in black than brown seeds in dry or in germinating water or salt solutions. High salinity inhibited seed germination through decreasing the levels of GA4 in both seeds, and the inhibited effect of salt stress on GA4 level of black seeds was more profound than that of brown seeds. Taken together higher GA4 content, and lower ABA sensitivity contributed to the higher germination percentage of brown seeds than black seeds in water and salinity; increased ABA content and sensitivity, and decreased GA4 content by salinity were more profound in black than brown seeds, which contributed to lower germination of black seeds than brown seeds in salinity. The differential regulation of ABA and GA

  6. Tall or short? Slender or thick? A plant strategy for regulating elongation growth of roots by low concentrations of gibberellin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Eiichi

    2012-07-01

    Since the plant hormone gibberellin (GA) was discovered as a fungal toxin that caused abnormal elongation of rice shoots, the physiological function of GA has mainly been investigated in relation to the regulation of plant height. However, an indispensable role for GA in root growth has been elucidated by using severely GA-depleted plants, either with a gene mutation in GA biosynthesis or which have been treated by an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis. The molecular sequence of GA signalling has also been studied to understand GA functions in root growth. This review addresses research progress on the physiological functions of GA in root growth. Concentration-dependent stimulation of elongation growth by GA is important for the regulation of plant height and root length. Thus the endogenous level of GA and/or the GA sensitivity of shoots and roots plays a role in determining the shoot-to-root ratio of the plant body. Since the shoot-to-root ratio is an important parameter for agricultural production, control of GA production and GA sensitivity may provide a strategy for improving agricultural productivity. The sequence of GA signal transduction has recently been unveiled, and some component molecules are suggested as candidate in planta regulatory sites and as points for the artificial manipulation of GA-mediated growth control. This paper reviews: (1) the breakthrough dose-response experiments that show that root growth is regulated by GA in a lower concentration range than is required for shoot growth; (2) research on the regulation of GA biosynthesis pathways that are known predominantly to control shoot growth; and (3) recent research on GA signalling pathways, including GA receptors, which have been suggested to participate in GA-mediated growth regulation. This provides useful information to suggest a possible strategy for the selective control of shoot and root growth, and to explain how GA plays a role in rosette and liana plants with tall or short, and slender

  7. A Study of Gibberellin Homeostasis and Cryptochrome-Mediated Blue Light Inhibition of Hypocotyl Elongation1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoying; Yu, Xuhong; Foo, Eloise; Symons, Gregory M.; Lopez, Javier; Bendehakkalu, Krishnaprasad T.; Xiang, Jing; Weller, James L.; Liu, Xuanming; Reid, James B.; Lin, Chentao

    2007-01-01

    Cryptochromes mediate blue light-dependent photomorphogenic responses, such as inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. To investigate the underlying mechanism, we analyzed a genetic suppressor, scc7-D (suppressors of cry1cry2), which suppressed the long-hypocotyl phenotype of the cry1cry2 (cryptochrome1/cryptochrome2) mutant in a light-dependent but wavelength-independent manner. scc7-D is a gain-of-expression allele of the GA2ox8 gene encoding a gibberellin (GA)-inactivating enzyme, GA 2-oxidase. Although scc7-D is hypersensitive to light, transgenic seedlings expressing GA2ox at a level higher than scc7-D showed a constitutive photomorphogenic phenotype, confirming a general role of GA2ox and GA in the suppression of hypocotyl elongation. Prompted by this result, we investigated blue light regulation of mRNA expression of the GA metabolic and catabolic genes. We demonstrated that cryptochromes are required for the blue light regulation of GA2ox1, GA20ox1, and GA3ox1 expression in transient induction, continuous illumination, and photoperiodic conditions. The kinetics of cryptochrome induction of GA2ox1 expression and cryptochrome suppression of GA20ox1 or GA3ox1 expression correlate with the cryptochrome-dependent transient reduction of GA4 in etiolated wild-type seedlings exposed to blue light. Therefore we propose that in deetiolating seedlings, cryptochromes mediate blue light regulation of GA catabolic/metabolic genes, which affect GA levels and hypocotyl elongation. Surprisingly, no significant change in the GA4 content was detected in the whole shoot samples of the wild-type or cry1cry2 seedlings grown in the dark or continuous blue light, suggesting that cryptochromes may also regulate GA responsiveness and/or trigger cell- or tissue-specific changes of the level of bioactive GAs. PMID:17644628

  8. Gibberellins Interfere with Symbiosis Signaling and Gene Expression and Alter Colonization by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Lotus japonicus1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Naoya; Handa, Yoshihiro; Tsuzuki, Syusaku; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza is a mutualistic plant-fungus interaction that confers great advantages for plant growth. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi enter the host root and form symbiotic structures that facilitate nutrient supplies between the symbionts. The gibberellins (GAs) are phytohormones known to inhibit AM fungal infection. However, our transcriptome analysis and phytohormone quantification revealed GA accumulation in the roots of Lotus japonicus infected with AM fungi, suggesting that de novo GA synthesis plays a role in arbuscular mycorrhiza development. We found pleiotropic effects of GAs on the AM fungal infection. In particular, the morphology of AM fungal colonization was drastically altered by the status of GA signaling in the host root. Exogenous GA treatment inhibited AM hyphal entry into the host root and suppressed the expression of Reduced Arbuscular Mycorrhization1 (RAM1) and RAM2 homologs that function in hyphal entry and arbuscule formation. On the other hand, inhibition of GA biosynthesis or suppression of GA signaling also affected arbuscular mycorrhiza development in the host root. Low-GA conditions suppressed arbuscular mycorrhiza-induced subtilisin-like serine protease1 (SbtM1) expression that is required for AM fungal colonization and reduced hyphal branching in the host root. The reduced hyphal branching and SbtM1 expression caused by the inhibition of GA biosynthesis were recovered by GA treatment, supporting the theory that insufficient GA signaling causes the inhibitory effects on arbuscular mycorrhiza development. Most studies have focused on the negative role of GA signaling, whereas our study demonstrates that GA signaling also positively interacts with symbiotic responses and promotes AM colonization of the host root. PMID:25527715

  9. Gibberellins interfere with symbiosis signaling and gene expression and alter colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Naoya; Handa, Yoshihiro; Tsuzuki, Syusaku; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2015-02-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza is a mutualistic plant-fungus interaction that confers great advantages for plant growth. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi enter the host root and form symbiotic structures that facilitate nutrient supplies between the symbionts. The gibberellins (GAs) are phytohormones known to inhibit AM fungal infection. However, our transcriptome analysis and phytohormone quantification revealed GA accumulation in the roots of Lotus japonicus infected with AM fungi, suggesting that de novo GA synthesis plays a role in arbuscular mycorrhiza development. We found pleiotropic effects of GAs on the AM fungal infection. In particular, the morphology of AM fungal colonization was drastically altered by the status of GA signaling in the host root. Exogenous GA treatment inhibited AM hyphal entry into the host root and suppressed the expression of Reduced Arbuscular Mycorrhization1 (RAM1) and RAM2 homologs that function in hyphal entry and arbuscule formation. On the other hand, inhibition of GA biosynthesis or suppression of GA signaling also affected arbuscular mycorrhiza development in the host root. Low-GA conditions suppressed arbuscular mycorrhiza-induced subtilisin-like serine protease1 (SbtM1) expression that is required for AM fungal colonization and reduced hyphal branching in the host root. The reduced hyphal branching and SbtM1 expression caused by the inhibition of GA biosynthesis were recovered by GA treatment, supporting the theory that insufficient GA signaling causes the inhibitory effects on arbuscular mycorrhiza development. Most studies have focused on the negative role of GA signaling, whereas our study demonstrates that GA signaling also positively interacts with symbiotic responses and promotes AM colonization of the host root. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Gibberellins producing Bacillus methylotrophicus KE2 supports plant growth and enhances nutritional metabolites and food values of lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Lee, In-Jung

    2016-12-01

    The nutritional quality of green leafy vegetables can be enhanced by application of plant beneficial micro-organisms. The present study was aimed to increase the food values of lettuce leaves by bacterial treatment. We isolated bacterial strain KE2 from Kimchi food and identified as Bacillus methylotrophicus by phylogenetic analysis. The beneficial effect of B. methylotrophicus KE2 on plants was confirmed by increasing the percentage of seed germination of Lactuca sativa L., Cucumis melo L., Glycine max L. and Brassica juncea L. It might be the secretion of array of gibberellins (GA 1 , GA 3 , GA 7 , GA 8 , GA 9 , GA 12 , GA 19 , GA 20 , GA 24 , GA 34 and GA 53 ) and indole-acetic acid from B. methylotrophicus KE2. The mechanism of plant growth promotion via their secreted metabolites was confirmed by a significant increase of GA deficient mutant rice plant growth. Moreover, the bacterial association was favor to enhance shoot length, shoot fresh weight and leaf width of lettuce. The higher concentration of protein, amino acids (Asp, Thr, Ser, Glu, Gly, Ala, Leu, Tyr and His), gama-aminobutric acid and fructose was found in bacterial culture (KE2) applied plants. The macro and micro minerals such as K, Mg, Na, P, Fe, Zn and N were also detected as significantly higher quantities in bacteria treated plants than untreated control plants. In addition, the carotenoids and chlorophyll a were also increased in lettuce at bacterial inoculation. The results of this study suggest that B. methylotrophicus KE2 application to soil helps to increase the plant growth and food values of lettuce. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of gibberellins in improving the resistance of tebuconazole-coated maize seeds to chilling stress by microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lijuan; Yang, Daibin; Yan, Xiaojing; Cui, Li; Wang, Zhenying; Yuan, Huizhu

    2016-11-07

    Chilling stress during germination often causes severe injury. In the present study, maize seed germination and shoot growth under chilling stress were negatively correlated with the dose of tebuconazole in an exponential manner as predicted by the model Y = A + B × e (-x/k) . Microencapsulation was an effective means of eliminating potential phytotoxic risk. The gibberellins (GAs) contents were higher after microencapsulation treatment than after conventional treatment when the dose of tebuconazole was higher than 0.12 g AI (active ingredient) kg -1 seed. Further analysis indicated that microencapsulation can stimulate ent-kaurene oxidase (KO) activity to some extent, whereas GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox) and GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox) activities remained similar to those in the control. Genes encoding GA metabolic enzymes exhibited different expression patterns. Transcript levels of ZmKO1 increased in the microcapsule treatments compared to the control. Even when incorporated into microcapsules, tebuconazole led to the upregulation of ZmGA3ox1 at doses of less than 0.12 g AI kg -1 seed and to the upregulation of ZmGA3ox2 when the dose was higher than 0.12 g AI kg -1 seed. With increasing doses of microencapsulated tebuconazole, the transcript levels of ZmGA2ox4, ZmGA2ox5 and ZmGA2ox6 exhibited upward trends, whereas the transcript levels of ZmGA2ox7 exhibited a downward trend.

  12. Prophylaxis escalation in severe von Willebrand disease: A prospective study from the von Willebrand Disease Prophylaxis Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C. Abshire (Thomas Calvin); J. Cox-Gill; C.L. Kempton; F.W.G. Leebeek (Frank); M. Carcao (M.); P. Kouides (P.); S. Donfield (S.); E. Berntorp

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Treatment of mucosal bleeding (epistaxis, gastrointestinal bleeding, and menorrhagia) and joint bleeding remains problematic in clinically severe von Willebrand disease (VWD). Patients are often unresponsive to treatment (e.g. desmopressin or antifibrinolytic therapy) and may

  13. Entwicklung von Extraktions- und Absorptionssystemen auf Basis ionischer Flüssigkeiten für die Entschwefelung von Kohlenwasserstoffen

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhlmann, Esther

    2008-01-01

    Da die Anforderungen an den Schwefelgehalt der fossilen Brennstoffe - nicht zuletzt durch gesetzliche Richtlinien bezüglich der Schadstoffemissionen - im Laufe der Zeit ständig gestiegen sind, sind effektive Entschwefelungsverfahren für fossile Brennstoffe von hohem Interesse. Die derzeitige Entschwefelungstechnologie basiert auf dem HDS-Verfahren, alternative Verfahren sind aber wünschenswert, insbesondere wenn Anwendungen einen Schwefelgehalt von weit unter 10 ppm erforderlich machen. Daher...

  14. Electronic Resource Management System. Vernetzung von Lizenzinformationen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Selbach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In den letzten zehn Jahren spielen elektronische Ressourcen im Bereich der Erwerbung eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle: Eindeutig lässt sich hier ein Wandel in den Bibliotheken (fort vom reinen Printbestand zu immer größeren E-Only-Beständen feststellen. Die stetig wachsende Menge an E-Ressourcen und deren Heterogenität stellt Bibliotheken vor die Herausforderung, die E-Ressourcen effizient zu verwalten. Nicht nur Bibliotheken, sondern auch verhandlungsführende Institutionen von Konsortial- und Allianzlizenzen benötigen ein geeignetes Instrument zur Verwaltung von Lizenzinformationen, welches den komplexen Anforderungen moderner E-Ressourcen gerecht wird. Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG unterstützt ein Projekt des Hochschulbibliothekszentrums des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (hbz, der Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg, der Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes (GBV und der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt, in dem ein bundesweit verfügbares Electronic Ressource Managementsystem (ERMS aufgebaut werden soll. Ein solches ERMS soll auf Basis einer zentralen Knowledge Base eine einheitliche Nutzung von Daten zur Lizenzverwaltung elektronischer Ressourcen auf lokaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene ermöglichen. Statistische Auswertungen, Rechteverwaltung für alle angeschlossenen Bibliotheken, kooperative Datenpflege sowie ein über standardisierte Schnittstellen geführter Datenaustausch stehen bei der Erarbeitung der Anforderungen ebenso im Fokus wie die Entwicklung eines Daten- und Funktionsmodells. In the last few years the importance of electronic resources in library acquisitions has increased significantly. There has been a shift from mere print holdings to both e- and print combinations and even e-only subscriptions. This shift poses a double challenge for libraries: On the one hand they have to provide their e-resource collections to library users in an appealing way, on the other hand they have to manage these

  15. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: von Willebrand病 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term von Willebrand病 名詞 一般 * * * * von Willebrand...病 ... MeSH D014842 200906053707829497 C LS51 UNKNOWN_2 von Willebrand 病

  16. Von Roll RCP method - first experiences; Von Roll RCP - Verfahren. Erste Erfahrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capitaine, P.; Engweiler, J. [Roll Umwelttechnik AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-09-01

    The RCP method was designed as a residue-optimised alternative to the thermally optimised grate firing of residual wastes. Its technical realisation and development to market maturity took no more than 5 years. In the first process stage the waste is converted to high-carbon pyrolysis charcoal and high-rank gas in the absence of oxygen. In the second stage these substances are oxidised by addition of oxygen. The resulting temperature causes the non-combustible constituents of the slag to melt. In a third, optional, stage this molten slag can be liberated of (heavy) metals to such an extent that it can subsequently be used directly as additive for grinding. Further exhaust gas treatment is facilitated by the use of a circulatory fluidised-bed secondary combustion chamber. Despite the reduced flue gas volume and resultant higher pollutant concentrations in the crude gas, overall emissions are lower than in conventional plants. [Deutsch] Das reststoffoptimierte RCP Verfahren ist als Alternative zur thermisch optimierten Rostverbrennung von Restabfaellen konzipiert. In nur fuenf Jahren wurde das Verfahren technisch umgesetzt und zur Marktreife entwickelt. In einer ersten Stufe des Verfahrens wird der Abfall unter Luftabschluss in einen kohlenstoffreichen Pyrolysekoks und eine heizwertreiches Gas umgesetzt. Im zweiten Schritt werden diese Stoffe unter Zugabe von Sauerstoff oxidiert. Dabei treten Temperaturen auf, bei denen die nichtbrennbaren Bestandteile der Schlacke schmelzen. Optional wird diese Schmelzschlacke in einem dritten Schritt derart von (Schwer-) Metallen befreit, dass sie anschliessend direkt als Zement-Zumahlstoff eingesetzt werden kann. Die Nutzung der zirkulierenden Wirbelschicht - Nachbrennkammer zur Abgasbehandlung vereinfacht die weitergehende Abgasbehandlung. Trotz verringertem Rauchgasvolumen und damit hoeheren Schadstoffkonzentrationen im Rohgas werden die Gesamtemissionen gegenueber konventionellen Anlagen verringert. (orig./SR)

  17. Hormonal regulation of gluconeogenesis in cereal aleurone is strongly cultivar-dependent and gibberellin action involves SLENDER1 but not GAMYB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastmond, Peter J; Jones, Russell L

    2005-11-01

    Storage oil is a major constituent in the cereal aleurone layer. The aim of this study was to investigate how gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) regulate conversion of oil to sugar in barley aleurone. The activity of the glyoxylate cycle enzyme isocitrate lyase (ICL) was surveyed in eight barley cultivars. Surprisingly, some cultivars do not require GA for the induction of ICL (e.g. Himalaya), whereas some do (e.g. Golden Promise). Furthermore, in Golden Promise, GA also stimulates triacylglycerol breakdown and enhances the net flux of carbon from acetate to sugar. In contrast, ABA strongly represses ICL activity and the flux of carbon from oil to sugar in both Golden Promise and Himalaya. Biolistics using a promoter reporter showed that GA and ABA regulate ICL at the level of transcription. Studies using barley and rice mutants and pharmacological agents show that GA-dependent induction of ICL activity is mediated by SLENDER1 and requires cGMP, but does not involve the transcription factor GAMYB. Gibberellin and ABA therefore act antagonistically to regulate gluconeogenesis in the aleurone layer as well as controlling the production and secretion of hydrolases into the starchy endosperm. We suggest that the variation between different barley cultivars might be a result of selective breeding to alter seed dormancy.

  18. Overexpression of Jatropha Gibberellin 2-oxidase 6 (JcGA2ox6 Induces Dwarfism and Smaller Leaves, Flowers and Fruits in Arabidopsis and Jatropha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Xiong Hu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gibberellins (GAs are plant hormones that play fundamental roles in plant growth and development. Gibberellin 2-oxidase (GA2ox plays a direct role in determining the levels of bioactive GAs by catalyzing bioactive GAs or their immediate precursors to inactive forms. In this study, a GA2ox gene, designated JcGA2ox6, was isolated from Jatropha curcas. JcGA2ox6 is expressed in all tissues of adult Jatropha, with the highest expression level in male flowers and the lowest expression level in young leaves. Overexpression of JcGA2ox6 in Arabidopsis resulted in a typical dwarf phenotype, along with late flowering, smaller leaves and flowers, shorter siliques and smaller seeds. Similarly, when JcGA2ox6 was overexpressed in Jatropha, the transgenic plants exhibited a dwarf phenotype with dark-green leaves and smaller inflorescences, flowers, fruits and seeds. However, the flowering time of Jatropha was not affected by overexpression of JcGA2ox6, unlike that in the transgenic Arabidopsis. Moreover, the number of flowers per inflorescence, the weight of 10 seeds and the seed oil content were significantly decreased in transgenic Jatropha. The results indicated that overexpression of JcGA2ox6 had a great impact on the vegetative and reproductive growth of transgenic Jatropha. Furthermore, we found that the dwarf phenotype of transgenic Jatropha was caused by a decrease in endogenous bioactive GA4, which was correlated with the degree of dwarfism.

  19. CvADH1, a member of short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase family, is inducible by gibberellin and sucrose in developing watermelon seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joonyul; Kang, Hong-Gyu; Jun, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Jinwon; Yim, Jieun; An, Gynheung

    2003-01-01

    To understand the molecular mechanisms that control seed formation, we selected a seed-preferential gene (CvADH1) from the ESTs of developing watermelon seeds. RNA blot analysis and in situ localization showed that CvADH1 was preferentially expressed in the nucellar tissue. The CvADH1 protein shared about 50% homology with short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase including ABA2 in Arabidopsis thaliana, stem secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase in Forsythia intermedia, and 3beta-hydroxysterol dehydrogenase in Digitalis lanata. We investigated gene-expression levels in seeds from both normally pollinated fruits and those made parthenocarpic via N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N'-phenylurea treatment, the latter of which lack zygotic tissues. Whereas the transcripts of CvADH1 rapidly started to accumulate from about the pre-heart stage in normal seeds, they were not detectable in the parthenocarpic seeds. Treating the parthenogenic fruit with GA(3) strongly induced gene expression, up to the level accumulated in pollinated seeds. These results suggest that the CvADH1 gene is induced in maternal tissues by signals made in the zygotic tissues, and that gibberellin might be one of those signals. We also observed that CvADH1 expression was induced by sucrose in the parthenocarpic seeds. Therefore, we propose that the CvADH1 gene is inducible by gibberellin, and that sucrose plays an important role in the maternal tissues of watermelon during early seed development.

  20. Einfluss von Informationskompetenz-Veranstaltungen auf die Qualität von Masterarbeiten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Seitz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Am Geographischen Institut der Universität Zürich haben die Studierenden, welche als erster Jahrgang die IK-Veranstaltung als Pflichtmodul absolvierten, ihre Masterarbeit abgeschlossen. Mit einer quantitativen Auswertung wird untersucht, ob sich die Qualität der Quellen in den Masterarbeiten verbessert hat. Dazu werden die Literaturverzeichnisse einer bibliometrischen Analyse unterzogen. Anschliessend werden die erhaltenen Werte mit denjenigen verglichen, welche von Arbeiten ohne IK-Schulung erhoben wurden. Diese Methodik könnte ein Werkzeug darstellen, um Informationskompetenz-Veranstaltungen bezüglich ihrer Relevanz für wissenschaftliches Arbeiten evaluieren zu können.

  1. "Die Toten reiten schnelle." Literarische Zitate in Briefen von und an Alexander von Humboldt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Schwarz

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Article in GermanAbstract in English and GermanAlexander von Humboldt and his correspondents liked to enrich or embellish their letters with quotations from classic works of ancient literature as well as from recent poems, plays, or novels. This paper tries to show that references to literature were very often used in order to express thoughts and feelings more clearly not so much for impressing the recipients of letters with high education. In educated circles a good knowledge of ancient and modern works of literature was a standard requirement, which often allowed the letter writers to use quotations in a playful manner.

  2. Richard von Volkmann: surgeon and Renaissance man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willy, Christian; Schneider, Peter; Engelhardt, Michael; Hargens, Alan R; Mubarak, Scott J

    2008-02-01

    Richard von Volkmann (1830-1889), one of the most important surgeons of the 19(th) century, is regarded as one of the fathers of orthopaedic surgery. He was a contemporary of Langenbeck, Esmarch, Lister, Billroth, Kocher, and Trendelenburg. He was head of the Department of Surgery at the University of Halle, Germany (1867-1889). His popularity attracted doctors and patients from all over the world. He was the lead physician for the German military during two wars. From this experience, he compared the mortality of civilian and war injuries and investigated the general poor hygienic conditions in civilian hospitals. This led him to introduce the "antiseptic technique" to Germany that was developed by Lister. His powers of observation and creativity led him to findings and achievements that to this day bear his name: Volkmann's contracture and the Hueter-Volkmann law. Additionally, he was a gifted writer; he published not only scientific literature but also books of children's fairy tales and poems under the pen name of Richard Leander, assuring him a permanent place in the world of literature as well as orthopaedics.

  3. Geschichte der Natur bei Alexander von Humboldt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Helmreich

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Article in German, Abstracts in English, German and French.This article analyses the importance of an historical view of nature in the works of Alexander von Humboldt. In several of his first writings, Humboldt seems to outline the importance of what one may call history of nature. But even before his famous American travel, his position changed and he became reluctant to accept the seriousness of historical enquiry in the area of natural sciences: if we want to reconstruct the past state of nature, we cannot rely on empirical proofs; and history of nature is therefore necessarily based on uncertain hypotheses. Humboldt kept his sceptical attitude in the first decades of the 19th century, despite the positive results of the palaeontological researches of his scientific colleagues. However, he gradually convinced himself of the scientific interest of historical investigations in the natural sciences. The Cosmos paradoxally displays two apparently conflicting points of view: in his methodological remarks, Humboldt maintains that precise accounts of the past state of nature are out of reach of human knowledge, yet elsewhere in the same Cosmos he gives broad and rather vivid descriptions of the eventful history of nature.

  4. Hypercontractivity in group Von Neumann algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Junge, Marius; Parcet, Javier

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the authors provide a combinatorial/numerical method to establish new hypercontractivity estimates in group von Neumann algebras. They illustrate their method with free groups, triangular groups and finite cyclic groups, for which they obtain optimal time hypercontractive L_2 \\to L_q inequalities with respect to the Markov process given by the word length and with q an even integer. Interpolation and differentiation also yield general L_p \\to L_q hypercontrativity for 1 < p \\le q < \\infty via logarithmic Sobolev inequalities. The authors' method admits further applications to other discrete groups without small loops as far as the numerical part-which varies from one group to another-is implemented and tested on a computer. The authors also develop another combinatorial method which does not rely on computational estimates and provides (non-optimal) L_p \\to L_q hypercontractive inequalities for a larger class of groups/lengths, including any finitely generated group equipped with a condit...

  5. Modelling and mapping of spatial differentiated impacts of nitrogen input to ecosystems within the framework of the UNECE-Convention of Air Pollution Prevention. Part III. Modelling the effects of N-deposition on the biodiversity of plant communities in temperate forests; Modellierung und Kartierung raeumlich differenzierter Wirkungen von Stickstoffeintraegen in Oekosysteme im Rahmen der UNECE-Luftreinhaltekonvention. Teilbericht III. Modellierung der Wirkung der Stickstoff-Deposition auf die biologische Vielfalt der Pflanzengesellschaften von Waeldern der gemaessigten Breiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenssen, Martin [Waldkunde-Institut Eberswalde GmbH - W.I.E., Bad Freienwalde (Oder) (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Semi-natural ecosystems are exposed to high atmospheric deposition for decades. In contrary to sulphur deposition which could be significantly reduced due to international conventions on air pollution prevention during the last decades, deposition of both, reduced and oxidized nitrogen is still on a very high level in average 40 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in forest ecosystems in Germany. The FuE-Project ''Modelling and mapping of spatial differentiated impacts of nitrogen input to ecosystems within the framework of the UNECE - Convention of Air Pollution Prevention'' was jointly conducted by 4 partner institutions and studied impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition and climate change on physico-chemical properties of forest soils, nutrient storage and nutrient export (Karlsruhe Research Centre, IMK-IFU) as well as biodiversity of vegetation (OeKO-DATA and Institute for Forest Science Eberswalde) and soil organisms (Giessen University). Work carried out at the Institute for Forest Science Eberswalde concentrated on modeling the effect of N-deposition on plant biodiversity in forests of the Northeast German lowlands. The model approach is based on 722 probability density functions modeling the distribution of about 400 plant species over chemical top-soil parameters C/N-ratio and pH-value. On this base an indicator value model was developed and applied to the analysis of forest vegetation dynamics due to N-deposition-induced top soil dynamics since the middle of the last century. Threshold values for deposition-induced changes of top soil were derived for most important forest ecosystems types on sites not influenced by ground water. These threshold values correspond to four different classes of endangering of plant biodiversity. Coupling with the biogeochemical process model of IMK-IFU yielded projections of endangering of plant biodiversity for selected forest sites up to the year 2050. (orig.)

  6. Acquired von Willebrand syndrome: A rare disorder of heterogeneous etiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kasatkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS is a rare bleeding disorder that mimics the inherited form of von Willebrand disease (VWD in terms of laboratory findings and clinical presentation. Aims: To study the etiology of acquired VWD. Settings and Design: The patients referred from various hospitals in and out of Mumbai were included in the study. Materials and Methods: Six patients with AVWS diagnosed at this center over the last 10 years were analyzed against 171 patients with inherited VWD. The differential diagnosis of AVWS was made based on reduced levels of von Willebrand antigen and von Willebrand ristocetin cofactor, decrease in ristocetin induced platelet aggregation, absence of correction in mixing studies with no prior history of bleeding problems and a negative family history for bleeding disorders. Results: In three patients, the disease was associated with systematic lupus erythematosus, out of which one was also associated with Kikuchi lymphadenitis and second with autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Fourth case was associated with hypothyroidism and fifth was a case of dermatitis and vitiligo. The last patient was a case of hemophilia A with Burkitts lymphoma, who developed autoantibodies to von Willebrand factor. Except two patients, all other patients responded to immune suppressive therapy with corticosteroids, while the patient with hypothyroidism responded to oral thyroxine. Conclusion: AVWS is a rare condition and may often be missed or diagnosed as inherited disease associated with heterogeneous disease conditions.

  7. Ecobalance of natural gas vehicles; Oekobilanz von Erdgasfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigge, K.M. [Simon, Kucher und Partners Strategy und Marketing Consultants GmbH, Bonn (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The impacts on human health and the natural environment of using natural gas, Diesel and petrol as fuels for city buses and passenger cars are compared in a Life Cycle Assessment. In addition to the burning of the fuels in the engines, this assessment also comprises the upstream processes of the fuel supply chain. Despite the increased energy demand of the vehicles, natural gas is associated with the lowest impacts overall for both city buses and passenger cars. The health impacts that can be avoided through the use of natural gas instead of Diesel or petrol thereby differ only weakly between the use of the vehicles in cities of various sizes within Germany. From the perspective of environmental protection, the market introduction of natural gas vehicles therefore does not need remain limited to large cities within agglomerated regions. (orig.) [German] Die Auswirkungen der Verwendung von Erdgas, Diesel und Benzin als Kraftstoffe fuer Stadtbusse und Pkw auf die menschliche Gesundheit und die natuerliche Umwelt werden in einer Oekobilanz verglichen. Diese umfasst neben der motorischen Verbrennung der Kraftstoffe auch die vorgelagerten Prozessketten der Kraftstoffbereitstellung. Sowohl fuer Stadtbusse als auch fuer Pkw schneidet Erdgas trotz eines energetischen Mehrbedarfes der Fahrzeuge insgesamt am guenstigsten ab. Die durch den Einsatz von Erdgas anstelle von Diesel oder Benzin vermeidbaren Gesundheitsschaeden unterscheiden sich dabei zwischen einem Einsatz der Fahrzeuge in Staedten verschiedener Groesse innerhalb von Deutschland nur wenig. Die Markteinfuehrung von Erdgasfahrzeugen muss also aus Sicht des Umweltschutzes nicht auf grosse Staedte in Ballungsgebieten beschraenkt bleiben. (orig.)

  8. Heterologous expression and transcript analysis of gibberellin biosynthetic genes of grasses reveals novel functionality in the GA3ox family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Stephen; Huttly, Alison K; Prosser, Ian M; Li, Yi-dan; Vaughan, Simon P; Gallova, Barbora; Patil, Archana; Coghill, Jane A; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Hedden, Peter; Phillips, Andrew L

    2015-06-05

    The gibberellin (GA) pathway plays a central role in the regulation of plant development, with the 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (2-ODDs: GA20ox, GA3ox, GA2ox) that catalyse the later steps in the biosynthetic pathway of particularly importance in regulating bioactive GA levels. Although GA has important impacts on crop yield and quality, our understanding of the regulation of GA biosynthesis during wheat and barley development remains limited. In this study we identified or assembled genes encoding the GA 2-ODDs of wheat, barley and Brachypodium distachyon and characterised the wheat genes by heterologous expression and transcript analysis. The wheat, barley and Brachypodium genomes each contain orthologous copies of the GA20ox, GA3ox and GA2ox genes identified in rice, with the exception of OsGA3ox1 and OsGA2ox5 which are absent in these species. Some additional paralogs of 2-ODD genes were identified: notably, a novel gene in the wheat B genome related to GA3ox2 was shown to encode a GA 1-oxidase, named as TaGA1ox-B1. This enzyme is likely to be responsible for the abundant 1β-hydroxylated GAs present in developing wheat grains. We also identified a related gene in barley, located in a syntenic position to TaGA1ox-B1, that encodes a GA 3,18-dihydroxylase which similarly accounts for the accumulation of unusual GAs in barley grains. Transcript analysis showed that some paralogs of the different classes of 2-ODD were expressed mainly in a single tissue or at specific developmental stages. In particular, TaGA20ox3, TaGA1ox1, TaGA3ox3 and TaGA2ox7 were predominantly expressed in developing grain. More detailed analysis of grain-specific gene expression showed that while the transcripts of biosynthetic genes were most abundant in the endosperm, genes encoding inactivation and signalling components were more highly expressed in the seed coat and pericarp. The comprehensive expression and functional characterisation of the multigene families encoding the 2-ODD

  9. ABI4 regulates primary seed dormancy by regulating the biogenesis of abscisic acid and gibberellins in arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Shu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed dormancy is an important economic trait for agricultural production. Abscisic acid (ABA and Gibberellins (GA are the primary factors that regulate the transition from dormancy to germination, and they regulate this process antagonistically. The detailed regulatory mechanism involving crosstalk between ABA and GA, which underlies seed dormancy, requires further elucidation. Here, we report that ABI4 positively regulates primary seed dormancy, while negatively regulating cotyledon greening, by mediating the biogenesis of ABA and GA. Seeds of the Arabidopsis abi4 mutant that were subjected to short-term storage (one or two weeks germinated significantly more quickly than Wild-Type (WT, and abi4 cotyledons greened markedly more quickly than WT, while the rates of germination and greening were comparable when the seeds were subjected to longer-term storage (six months. The ABA content of dry abi4 seeds was remarkably lower than that of WT, but the amounts were comparable after stratification. Consistently, the GA level of abi4 seeds was increased compared to WT. Further analysis showed that abi4 was resistant to treatment with paclobutrazol (PAC, a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, during germination, while OE-ABI4 was sensitive to PAC, and exogenous GA rescued the delayed germination phenotype of OE-ABI4. Analysis by qRT-PCR showed that the expression of genes involved in ABA and GA metabolism in dry and germinating seeds corresponded to hormonal measurements. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation qPCR (ChIP-qPCR and transient expression analysis showed that ABI4 repressed CYP707A1 and CYP707A2 expression by directly binding to those promoters, and the ABI4 binding elements are essential for this repression. Accordingly, further genetic analysis showed that abi4 recovered the delayed germination phenotype of cyp707a1 and cyp707a2 and further, rescued the non-germinating phenotype of ga1-t. Taken together, this study suggests that ABI4 is a key

  10. Gibberellin Is Involved in Inhibition of Cucumber Growth and Nitrogen Uptake at Suboptimal Root-Zone Temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longqiang Bai

    Full Text Available Suboptimal temperature stress often causes heavy yield losses of vegetables by suppressing plant growth during winter and early spring. Gibberellin acid (GA has been reported to be involved in plant growth and acquisition of mineral nutrients. However, no studies have evaluated the role of GA in the regulation of growth and nutrient acquisition by vegetables under conditions of suboptimal temperatures in greenhouse. Here, we investigated the roles of GA in the regulation of growth and nitrate acquisition of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. plants under conditions of short-term suboptimal root-zone temperatures (Tr. Exposure of cucumber seedlings to a Tr of 16°C led to a significant reduction in root growth, and this inhibitory effect was reversed by exogenous application of GA. Expression patterns of several genes encoding key enzymes in GA metabolism were altered by suboptimal Tr treatment, and endogenous GA concentrations in cucumber roots were significantly reduced by exposure of cucumber plants to 16°C Tr, suggesting that inhibition of root growth by suboptimal Tr may result from disruption of endogenous GA homeostasis. To further explore the mechanism underlying the GA-dependent cucumber growth under suboptimal Tr, we studied the effect of suboptimal Tr and GA on nitrate uptake, and found that exposure of cucumber seedlings to 16°C Tr led to a significant reduction in nitrate uptake rate, and exogenous application GA can alleviate the down-regulation by up regulating the expression of genes associated with nitrate uptake. Finally, we demonstrated that N accumulation in cucumber seedlings under suboptimal Tr conditions was improved by exogenous application of GA due probably to both enhanced root growth and nitrate absorption activity. These results indicate that a reduction in endogenous GA concentrations in roots due to down-regulation of GA biosynthesis at transcriptional level may be a key event to underpin the suboptimal Tr

  11. Proof of pipeline strength based on measurements of inspection pigs; Festigkeitsnachweis von Pipelines aufgrund der Messergebnisse von Pruefmolchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Camp, H.J.; Feser, G.; Hofmann, A.; Wolf, B.; Schmidt, H. [TUeV Sueddeutschland Bau und Betrieb GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Herforth, H.E.; Juengling, K.H.; Schmidt, W. [TUeV Anlagentechnik GmbH, Berlin-Schoeneberg (Germany). Unternehmensgruppe TUeV Rheinland/Berlin-Brandenburg

    2002-01-01

    The report is aimed at collecting and documenting the state of the art and the extensive know how of experts and pipeline operators with regard to judging the structural integrity of pipelines. In order to assess the actual mechanical strength of pipelines based on measurement results obtained by inspection pigs, guidance is given for future processing, which eventually can be used as a basis for an industry standard. A literature study of the commercially available types of inspection pigs describes and synoptically lists the respective pros and cons. In essence the report comprises besides check lists of operating data for the pipeline and the pig runs mainly the evaluation of defects and respective calculating procedures. Included are recommendations regarding maintenance planning, verification of defects as well as repetition of pig runs. (orig.) [German] Ziel des Berichtes ist die Erfassung und Dokumentation zum derzeitigen Stand der Technik und des vorhandenen umfangreichen Know-how von Sachverstaendigen und Pipelinebetreibern auf dem Gebiet der sicherheitstechnischen Beurteilung von Pipelines. Fuer den Festigkeitsnachweis von Pipelines aufgrund der Messergebnisse von Pruefmolchen wurde ein Leitfaden als Basis fuer die zukuenftige Vorgehensweise erstellt, der eventuell die Grundlage eines normativen Regelwerkes bilden kann. In einer Literaturstudie wurden die auf dem Markt befindlichen Pruefmolchtypen zusammenfassend beschrieben und ihre Vor- und Nachteile tabellarisch gegenuebergestellt und bewertet. Neben der Erstellung von Checklisten fuer notwendige Daten zum Betrieb der Pipeline und der Molchlaeufe bildet die Fehlerbewertung mit entsprechenden Berechnungsverfahren den Hauptteil dieses Berichtes. Hinweise zur Instandhaltungsplanung (Fehlerverifikation und Molchlaufwiederholung) werden gegeben. (orig.)

  12. Ein „neuer" javanischer Fundort von Phrynoglossus laevis laevis ( Gthr.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brongersma, L.D.

    1935-01-01

    In der herpetologischen Sammlung, die dem Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden, vor etwa hundert Jahre von Boie und Macklot übersandt wurde, befanden sich zwei Exemplare von Phrynoglossus laevis laevis (Gthr.). Diese Stücke wurden von Van Kampen (1923, p. 232 Fussnote: Oxyglossus laevis) in

  13. Neuro- und Gliotoxizität von Wolframcarbid-basierten Nanopartikeln in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Bastian, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Die Anzahl neurodegenerativer Erkrankungen nimmt in unserer Gesellschaft stetig zu. Obwohl inzwischen eine Reihe genetischer Ursachen identifiziert worden sind, wird auch der Einfluss von Umweltfaktoren bei der Pathogenese dieser Erkrankungen zunehmend in Betracht gezogen. Der Beitrag von ultrafeinen Partikeln aus Industrie und Umwelt auf neurodegenerative Erkrankungen steht daher zunehmend im Fokus der Forschung. Die Translokation von ultrafeinen Partikeln bzw. Nanopartikeln ins Gehirn ist b...

  14. Muuga / Mary von Grünewaldt ; tõlk. Mati Sirkel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grünewaldt, Mary von

    2004-01-01

    Leo Zoegelt ostetud Muuga mõisahoone korrastamisest ja uue hoone ehitamisest C. T. von Neffi kunstikogu paigutamise tarbeks. Tütre mälestused. Tõlgitud raamatust: Skizzen und Bilder aus dem Leben Carl Timoleon von Neff / Mary von Grünewaldt. Darmstadt, 1887

  15. Die grossen Physiker und ihre Entdeckungen von den fallenden Körpern zu den Quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Segrè, Emilio

    1998-01-01

    Von Galileo Galilei bis zu Richard Feynman und Murray Gell-Mann - von den fallenden Körpern zu den Quarks: Der Physiknobelpreisträger Emilio Segre hat seine ganz persönliche Geschichte der Physik geschrieben. Er erzählt von den großen Gestalten und deren wichtigen Entdeckungen mit großer Anschaulichkeit und Lebendigkeit.

  16. Vergleich verschiedener Methoden zur Haftkraftmessung von Dentinadhäsiven

    OpenAIRE

    Schwertner, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    Zur Bestimmung der Haftkraft von Adhäsiven stehen verschiedene Methoden zur Verfügung. Ziel dieser Studie war es, vier gebräuchliche in vitro Haftkraftmessmethoden (Tensile Bond Strength Test, Shear Bond Strength Test, Microtensile Bond Strength Test, Push-out Bond Strength Test) an drei unterschiedlichen Adhäsivsystemen (Syntac, Clearfil SE Bond, Adper Scotchbond Multi Purpose) zu testen und die Ergebnisse zu vergleichen. Die Haftkräfte sind abhängig von der verwendeten Messmethode. Viele Pa...

  17. The smooth entropy formalism for von Neumann algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berta, Mario; Furrer, Fabian; Scholz, Volkher B.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss information-theoretic concepts on infinite-dimensional quantum systems. In particular, we lift the smooth entropy formalism as introduced by Renner and collaborators for finite-dimensional systems to von Neumann algebras. For the smooth conditional min- and max-entropy, we recover similar characterizing properties and information-theoretic operational interpretations as in the finite-dimensional case. We generalize the entropic uncertainty relation with quantum side information of Tomamichel and Renner and discuss applications to quantum cryptography. In particular, we prove the possibility to perform privacy amplification and classical data compression with quantum side information modeled by a von Neumann algebra

  18. Dr. Space the life of Wernher von Braun

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Bob

    2013-01-01

    Written by veteran aerospace journalist Bob Ward, who spent years investigating his subject, this biography presents a revealing but even-handed portrait of the father of modern rocketry. As he chronicles Wernher von Braun's life, Ward explodes many myths and misconceptions about the controversial genius who was a hero to some, a villain to others. The picture of von Braun that emerges is of a brilliant scientist with limitless curiosity and a drive to achieve his goals at almost any price from, developing the world's first ballistic missile used against the Allies in World War II to help

  19. Die Bundesstatistik als Anbieter und Nutzer von raumbezogenen Daten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Humbel

    Einige konkrete und potentielle Anwendungen der vorhandenen Daten sollen das Potential und die Breite der Fragestellungen, die damit angegangen werden können, illustrieren. Eine besondere Stellung dürfte in Zukunft aber auch die Satellitenfernerkundung erhalten, deren Daten und Auswertungen eine willkommene Ergänzung für die eher traditionellen GIS-Datensätze bilden werden. Ein erster Pilotversuch wurde vor wenigen Monaten im BFS gestartet, der zum Ziel hat, die Machbarkeit einer gesamtschweizerischen Unterscheidung von Laub-, Nadel- und Mischwald als Ergänzung der auf der Grundlage von konventionellen Luftbildern erhobenen Arealstatistik nachzuweisen.

  20. The smooth entropy formalism for von Neumann algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berta, Mario, E-mail: berta@caltech.edu [Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Furrer, Fabian, E-mail: furrer@eve.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan and Institute for Theoretical Physics, Leibniz University Hanover, Hanover (Germany); Scholz, Volkher B., E-mail: scholz@phys.ethz.ch [Institute for Theoretical Physics, ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-01-15

    We discuss information-theoretic concepts on infinite-dimensional quantum systems. In particular, we lift the smooth entropy formalism as introduced by Renner and collaborators for finite-dimensional systems to von Neumann algebras. For the smooth conditional min- and max-entropy, we recover similar characterizing properties and information-theoretic operational interpretations as in the finite-dimensional case. We generalize the entropic uncertainty relation with quantum side information of Tomamichel and Renner and discuss applications to quantum cryptography. In particular, we prove the possibility to perform privacy amplification and classical data compression with quantum side information modeled by a von Neumann algebra.

  1. Kodierung von Metadaten digitaler Briefeditionen in TEI-XML

    OpenAIRE

    Dumont, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Folien zu einem Vortrag im Rahmen des Digital-Humanities-Kolloquium an der BBAW am 7.7.2017. Der Vortrag erläutert, ausgehend von editionswissenschaftlichen Entwicklungen der 1980er und 1990er Jahre, wie die "Kopfdaten" eines Briefes nach den Richtlinien der Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) kodiert werden können. Insbesondere wird auf das TEI-Element correspDesc eingegangen und die Kodierung anhand eines Beispiels veranschaulicht. Darüber hinaus wird der Mehrwert von Briefmetadaten sowohl für d...

  2. Paleo-oil and gas fields in the red sandstone of the North German Basin: Effects of hydrocarbon migration on storage quality development. Fluid flow, diagenesis and storage quality in the red sandstone strata of northern Germany; Palaeo-Oel- und -Gasfelder im Rotliegenden des Norddeutschen Beckens: Wirkung der KW-Migration auf die Speicherqualitaets-Entwicklung. Fluidfluss, Diagenese und Speicherqualitaet im Rotliegend Norddeutschlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solms, M. [SGC, Lehrte (Germany); Gaupp, R. [Jena Univ. (Germany); Littke, R.; Schwarzer, D. [RWTH Aachen (Germany); Schubarth-Engelschall, J.; Trappe, H. [TEEC, Isernhagen (Germany); Krawczyk, C.; Tanner, D.; Oncken, O. [GFZ, Potsdam (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    This sub-project was aimed at improving the geological concept of the development of storage quality, at the development of a model for monitoring and reconstruction of the structural development and restructuring of reservoirs, and at obtaining information on hydrocarbon origins, migration pathways and filling chronology. Drill core data were combined with 3D seismic data in order to obtain a deeper understanding of the processes involved. [German] Im Rahmen des DGMK-Forschungsprogrammes ''Tight Gas Reservoirs'' (Projekt 593-8) wurden von der Arbeitsgruppe Sedimentologie 43 Bohrungen aus dem Rotliegend Nordwestdeutschlands untersucht. Die vorgestellten Ergebnisse schliessen sich an den Vortrag ''Einfluss von Fazies und Diagenese auf die Speicher-Qualitaets-Entwicklung von Rotliegendsandsteinen NW Deutschlands'' (SOLMS et al., DGMK-Fruehjahrstagung 2002). Ziel dieses Teilprojektes ist die Verbesserung des geologischen Konzeptes zur Entwicklung der Speicherqualitaet, die Entwicklung eines Modells zur Erfassung und Rekonstruktion der strukturellen Entwicklung und Restrukturierung von Lagerstaetten sowie die Klaerung von KW-Herkunftsgebieten, Migrationswegen und Fuellungschronologien. Durch die Verknuepfung der Kerndaten mit 3D seismischen Daten soll eine verbesserte Einschaetzung der Speicherqualitaeten aus dem 3D seismischen Abbild erreicht werden. (orig.)

  3. Analyse der pharmazeutischen Versorgungssituation von Patienten mit Psoriasis-Arthritis auf Basis von Routinedaten der Gesetzlichen Krankenversicherung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondermann, Wiebke; Ventzke, Julia; Matusiewicz, David; Körber, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    Die Psoriasis-Arthritis (PsA) gehört zu den chronisch entzündlichen Gelenkerkrankungen. Trotz zahlreicher versorgungswissenschaftlicher Studien in Deutschland liegen zur pharmazeutischen Versorgungssituation von PsA-Patienten bisher kaum aktuelle Ergebnisse vor. Mit Hilfe einer systematischen Literaturrecherche sowie anhand von Routinedaten der Allgemeinen Ortskrankenkasse (AOK) Rheinland/Hamburg wird ein aktueller Überblick über die pharmazeutische Versorgung von PsA-Patienten in Deutschland gegeben. Selektiert wurden Versicherte aus dem ambulanten und stationären Bereich, die im 1. und 2. Quartal des Jahres 2014 die gesicherte Abrechnungsdiagnose Psoriasis-Arthritis L40.5+ aufwiesen. Anschließend wurden auf Basis dieser "vorab definierten" Kohorte die Arzneimitteldaten für 5 Jahre (01.01.2010-31.12.2014) abgerufen. Es konnten insgesamt n  =  3205 Versicherte (45 % männlich, 55 % weiblich) der AOK Rheinland/Hamburg mit einer gesicherten PsA-Diagnose selektiert werden. Das Durchschnittsalter betrug 58,9 Jahre. 53,7 % der PsA-Patienten wurden mit systemischen PsA-relevanten Arzneimitteln versorgt. Nichtsteroidale Antirheumatika (NSAR) wurden am häufigsten verordnet, gefolgt von systemischen Glucocorticoiden. Von den selektierten PsA-Patienten, die eine Systemtherapie erhielten, wurden 72,1 % mittels einer Disease-modifying-antirheumatic-Drug (DMARD)-Monotherapie behandelt, gefolgt von der Kombinationstherapie aus DMARDs und Biologika (20,9 %). Die pharmakologische Therapie der PsA muss eine Gewährleistung zwischen adäquater Versorgung der PsA mit Verhinderung der Krankheitsprogression und ökonomischer Verantwortung darstellen. © 2018 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Jasmonic Acid, Abscisic Acid, and Salicylic Acid Are Involved in the Phytoalexin Responses of Rice to Fusarium fujikuroi, a High Gibberellin Producer Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Amaral Carneiro, Greice; Spadaro, Davide; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2015-09-23

    Fusarium fujikuroi, the causal agent of bakanae disease, is the main seedborne pathogen on rice. To understand the basis of rice resistance, a quantitative method to simultaneously detect phytohormones and phytoalexins was developed by using HPLC-MS/MS. With this method dynamic profiles and possible interactions of defense-related phytohormones and phytoalexins were investigated on two rice cultivars, inoculated or not with F. fujikuroi. In the resistant cultivar Selenio, the presence of pathogen induced high production of phytoalexins, mainly sakuranetin, and symptoms of bakanae were not observed. On the contrary, in the susceptible genotype Dorella, the pathogen induced the production of gibberellin and abscisic acid and inhibited jasmonic acid production, phytoalexins were very low, and bakanae symptoms were observed. The results suggested that a wide range of secondary metabolites are involved in plant defense against pathogens and phytoalexin synthesis could be an important factor for rice resistance against bakanae disease.

  5. Examination of two lowland rice cultivars reveals that gibberellin-dependent early response to submergence is not necessarily mediated by ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Vincent; Moritz, Thomas; García-Martínez, José L

    2011-01-01

    Using two lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars we found that in both cases submerged-induced elongation early after germination depends on gibberellins (GAs). Submergence increases the content of the active GA 1 by enhancing the expression of GA biosynthesis genes, thus facilitating the seedlings to escape from the water and preventing asphyxiation. However, the two cultivars differ in their response to ethylene. The cultivar Senia (short), by contrast to cultivar Bomba (tall), does not elongate after ethylene application, and submerged-induced elongation is not negated by an inhibitor of ethylene perception. Also, while ethylene emanation in Senia is not altered by submergence, Bomba seedlings emanate more ethylene upon de-submergence, associated with enhanced expression of the ethylene biosynthesis gene OsACS5. The cultivar Senia thus allows the possibility of clarifying the role of ethylene and other factors as triggers of GA biosynthesis enhancement in rice seedlings under submergence.

  6. Effect of gibberellin, auxin and kinetin treatments combined with foliar applied NPK on the yield of Capsicum annuum L. fruits and their capsaicin content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz J. Nowak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Wrocław version of hydroponic culture was applied. Under optimal conditions of root fertilization the plants were sprayed with growth regulators sueh as gibberellins, auxins and kinetins, and .their mixtures. Each growth regulator treatment was applied with or without NPK added. The influence of these treatments on the fresh and dry weight of the fruit, percentage of ripe fruits and content and yield of capsaicin was studied. The highest yield of fruits and capsaicin. was obtained from plants sprayed with gibberellic acid and kinetin (in concentrations of 10 and 5 mg/l, respectively together with NPK foliar application. No influence of ,growth regulators and foliar-applied NPK was noted on capsaicin content and dry weight of fruits.

  7. Entwicklung von Antikörper-Mikroarray : von Biophysik der Mikrospot-Reaktion bis zur Hochdurchsatzanalyse der Proteine

    OpenAIRE

    Kusnezow, Wlad

    2007-01-01

    Obwohl Protein-Mikroarrays ursprünglich aus dem gut entwickelten und fest etablierten DNA-Pendant entstanden sind, repräsentierte jedoch die Umstellung der Mikroarray-Technik von der DNA- auf die Proteinanalyse aufgrund der enormen physikalisch-chemischen Variabilität der Proteine, deren relativ niedrigen Stabilität und der komplexen Mikrospot-Kinetik eine große technologische Herausforderung. Deshalb setzt das Vorhaben, die Technik der Antikörper–Mikroarrays von ihrem konzeptuellen Zustand a...

  8. Automatische Ableitung und Anwendung von Regeln für die Rekonstruktion von Fassaden aus heterogenen Sensordaten

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    3D-Stadtmodelle finden seit einigen Jahren in immer stärkerem Maß und in den verschiedensten Bereichen Verwendung. Sie bilden unter anderem die Grundlage bei Stadtplanungen, für virtuelle Stadtrundgänge oder für die Berechnung von Simulationen. Internetdiensten wie Google Earth oder Microsoft Bing Maps ist es zu verdanken, dass 3D-Darstellungen von Gebäuden mittlerweile auch für eine breite Öffentlichkeit allgegenwärtig sind. Die erhöhte Nachfrage nach 3D-Gebäudemodellen verlangt nach effizie...

  9. Von-Neumann and Beyond: Memristor Architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Naous, Rawan

    2017-05-01

    An extensive reliance on technology, an abundance of data, and increasing processing requirements have imposed severe challenges on computing and data processing. Moreover, the roadmap for scaling electronic components faces physical and reliability limits that hinder the utilization of the transistors in conventional systems and promotes the need for faster, energy-efficient, and compact nano-devices. This work thus capitalizes on emerging non-volatile memory technologies, particularly the memristor for steering novel design directives. Moreover, aside from the conventional deterministic operation, a temporal variability is encountered in the devices functioning. This inherent stochasticity is addressed as an enabler for endorsing the stochastic electronics field of study. We tackle this approach of design by proposing and verifying a statistical approach to modelling the stochastic memristors behaviour. This mode of operation allows for innovative computing designs within the approximate computing and beyond Von-Neumann domains. In the context of approximate computing, sacrificing functional accuracy for the sake of energy savings is proposed based on inherently stochastic electronic components. We introduce mathematical formulation and probabilistic analysis for Boolean logic operators and correspondingly incorporate them into arithmetic blocks. Gate- and system-level accuracy of operation is presented to convey configurability and the different effects that the unreliability of the underlying memristive components has on the intermediary and overall output. An image compression application is presented to reflect the efficiency attained along with the impact on the output caused by the relative precision quantification. In contrast, in neuromorphic structures the memristors variability is mapped onto abstract models of the noisy and unreliable brain components. In one approach, we propose using the stochastic memristor as an inherent source of variability in

  10. Der Zusammenhang von Partnermarktopportunitäten aus dem Freundeskreis und der Stabilität von Paarbeziehungen : Eine Analyse mit den Daten des Partnermarktsurvey

    OpenAIRE

    Häring, Armando

    2014-01-01

    "Der Beitrag analysiert den Zusammenhang zwischen Partnermarktoportunitäten aus dem Freundeskreis und der Stabilität von Paarbeziehungen. Unter Verwendung des theoretischen Konzepts der Theorie der Interaktionsgelegenheiten sowie von Annahmen der Austauschtheorie und der Familienökonomie, werden mögliche Zusammenhänge zwischen gemeinsamen Freundeskreisen mit dem Partner, Partnermarktgelegenheiten aus dem Freundeskreis (sex ratio) und der Stabilität von Paarbeziehungen diskutiert. Der Beitrag ...

  11. The rice dwarf virus P2 protein interacts with ent-kaurene oxidases in vivo, leading to reduced biosynthesis of gibberellins and rice dwarf symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shifeng; Gao, Feng; Cao, Xuesong; Chen, Mao; Ye, Gongyin; Wei, Chunhong; Li, Yi

    2005-12-01

    The mechanisms of viral diseases are a major focus of biology. Despite intensive investigations, how a plant virus interacts with host factors to cause diseases remains poorly understood. The Rice dwarf virus (RDV), a member of the genus Phytoreovirus, causes dwarfed growth phenotypes in infected rice (Oryza sativa) plants. The outer capsid protein P2 is essential during RDV infection of insects and thus influences transmission of RDV by the insect vector. However, its role during RDV infection within the rice host is unknown. By yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation assays, we report that P2 of RDV interacts with ent-kaurene oxidases, which play a key role in the biosynthesis of plant growth hormones gibberellins, in infected plants. Furthermore, the expression of ent-kaurene oxidases was reduced in the infected plants. The level of endogenous GA1 (a major active gibberellin in rice vegetative tissues) in the RDV-infected plants was lower than that in healthy plants. Exogenous application of GA3 to RDV-infected rice plants restored the normal growth phenotypes. These results provide evidence that the P2 protein of RDV interferes with the function of a cellular factor, through direct physical interactions, that is important for the biosynthesis of a growth hormone leading to symptom expression. In addition, the interaction between P2 and rice ent-kaurene oxidase-like proteins may decrease phytoalexin biosynthesis and make plants more competent for virus replication. Moreover, P2 may provide a novel tool to investigate the regulation of GA metabolism for plant growth and development.

  12. A Rice gid1 Suppressor Mutant Reveals That Gibberellin Is Not Always Required for Interaction between Its Receptor, GID1, and DELLA Proteins[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yuko; Hirai, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Eiji; Kawamura, Mayuko; Sato, Tomomi; Kitano, Hidemi; Matsuoka, Makoto; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako

    2010-01-01

    To investigate gibberellin (GA) signaling using the rice (Oryza sativa) GA receptor GIBBERELLIN-INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1) mutant gid1-8, we isolated a suppressor mutant, Suppressor of gid1-1 (Sgd-1). Sgd-1 is an intragenic mutant containing the original gid1-8 mutation (L45F) and an additional amino acid substitution (P99S) in the loop region. GID1P99S interacts with the rice DELLA protein SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1), even in the absence of GA. Substitution of the 99th Pro with other amino acids revealed that substitution with Ala (P99A) caused the highest level of GA-independent interaction. Physicochemical analysis using surface plasmon resonance revealed that GID1P99A has smaller Ka (association) and Kd (dissociation) values for GA4 than does wild-type GID1. This suggests that the GID1P99A lid is at least partially closed, resulting in both GA-independent and GA-hypersensitive interactions with SLR1. One of the three Arabidopsis thaliana GID1s, At GID1b, can also interact with DELLA proteins in the absence of GA, so we investigated whether GA-independent interaction of At GID1b depends on a mechanism similar to that of rice GID1P99A. Substitution of the loop region or a few amino acids of At GID1b with those of At GID1a diminished its GA-independent interaction with GAI while maintaining the GA-dependent interaction. Soybean (Glycine max) and Brassica napus also have GID1s similar to At GID1b, indicating that these unique GID1s occur in various dicots and may have important functions in these plants. PMID:21098733

  13. A rice gid1 suppressor mutant reveals that gibberellin is not always required for interaction between its receptor, GID1, and DELLA proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yuko; Hirai, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Eiji; Kawamura, Mayuko; Sato, Tomomi; Kitano, Hidemi; Matsuoka, Makoto; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako

    2010-11-01

    To investigate gibberellin (GA) signaling using the rice (Oryza sativa) GA receptor GIBBERELLIN-INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1) mutant gid1-8, we isolated a suppressor mutant, Suppressor of gid1-1 (Sgd-1). Sgd-1 is an intragenic mutant containing the original gid1-8 mutation (L45F) and an additional amino acid substitution (P99S) in the loop region. GID1(P99S) interacts with the rice DELLA protein SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1), even in the absence of GA. Substitution of the 99th Pro with other amino acids revealed that substitution with Ala (P99A) caused the highest level of GA-independent interaction. Physicochemical analysis using surface plasmon resonance revealed that GID1(P99A) has smaller K(a) (association) and K(d) (dissociation) values for GA(4) than does wild-type GID1. This suggests that the GID1(P99A) lid is at least partially closed, resulting in both GA-independent and GA-hypersensitive interactions with SLR1. One of the three Arabidopsis thaliana GID1s, At GID1b, can also interact with DELLA proteins in the absence of GA, so we investigated whether GA-independent interaction of At GID1b depends on a mechanism similar to that of rice GID1(P99A). Substitution of the loop region or a few amino acids of At GID1b with those of At GID1a diminished its GA-independent interaction with GAI while maintaining the GA-dependent interaction. Soybean (Glycine max) and Brassica napus also have GID1s similar to At GID1b, indicating that these unique GID1s occur in various dicots and may have important functions in these plants.

  14. The Rice Dwarf Virus P2 Protein Interacts with ent-Kaurene Oxidases in Vivo, Leading to Reduced Biosynthesis of Gibberellins and Rice Dwarf Symptoms1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shifeng; Gao, Feng; Cao, Xuesong; Chen, Mao; Ye, Gongyin; Wei, Chunhong; Li, Yi

    2005-01-01

    The mechanisms of viral diseases are a major focus of biology. Despite intensive investigations, how a plant virus interacts with host factors to cause diseases remains poorly understood. The Rice dwarf virus (RDV), a member of the genus Phytoreovirus, causes dwarfed growth phenotypes in infected rice (Oryza sativa) plants. The outer capsid protein P2 is essential during RDV infection of insects and thus influences transmission of RDV by the insect vector. However, its role during RDV infection within the rice host is unknown. By yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation assays, we report that P2 of RDV interacts with ent-kaurene oxidases, which play a key role in the biosynthesis of plant growth hormones gibberellins, in infected plants. Furthermore, the expression of ent-kaurene oxidases was reduced in the infected plants. The level of endogenous GA1 (a major active gibberellin in rice vegetative tissues) in the RDV-infected plants was lower than that in healthy plants. Exogenous application of GA3 to RDV-infected rice plants restored the normal growth phenotypes. These results provide evidence that the P2 protein of RDV interferes with the function of a cellular factor, through direct physical interactions, that is important for the biosynthesis of a growth hormone leading to symptom expression. In addition, the interaction between P2 and rice ent-kaurene oxidase-like proteins may decrease phytoalexin biosynthesis and make plants more competent for virus replication. Moreover, P2 may provide a novel tool to investigate the regulation of GA metabolism for plant growth and development. PMID:16299167

  15. Isolation and characterization of a Ds-tagged rice (Oryza sativa L.) GA-responsive dwarf mutant defective in an early step of the gibberellin biosynthesis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margis-Pinheiro, Marcia; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Zhu, Qian-Hao; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Upadhyaya, Narayana M

    2005-03-01

    We have isolated a severe dwarf transposon (Ds) insertion mutant in rice (Oryza sativa L.), which could be differentiated early in the seedling stage by reduced shoot growth and dark green leaves, and later by severe dwarfism and failure to initiate flowering. These mutants, however, showed normal seed germination and root growth. One of the sequences flanking Ds, rescued from the mutant, was of a chromosome 4-located putative ent-kaurene synthase (KS) gene, encoding the enzyme catalyzing the second step of the gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis pathway. Dwarf mutants were always homozygous for this Ds insertion and no normal plants homozygous for this mutation were recovered in the segregating progeny, indicating that the Ds insertion mutation is recessive. As mutations in three recently reported rice GA-responsive dwarf mutant alleles and the dwarf mutation identified in this study mapped to the same locus, we designate the corresponding gene OsKS1. The osks1 mutant seedlings were responsive to exogenous gibberellin (GA3). OsKS1 transcripts of about 2.3 kb were detected in leaves and stem of wild-type plants, but not in germinating seeds or roots, suggesting that OsKS1 is not involved in germination or root growth. There are at least five OsKS1-like genes in the rice genome, four of which are also represented in rice expressed sequence tag (EST) databases. All OsKS1-like genes are transcribed with different expression patterns. ESTs corresponding to all six OsKS genes are represented in other cereal databases including barley, wheat and maize, suggesting that they are biologically active.

  16. Dormancy in Peach (Prunus persica L.) Flower Buds : I. Floral Morphogenesis and Endogenous Gibberellins at the End of the Dormancy Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, V; Lorenzo, E; Reinoso, H; Tordable, M C; Abdala, G; Pharis, R P; Bottini, R

    1990-05-01

    Flower buds of peach (Prunus persica L.) trees, cv Novedad de Cordoba (Argentina), were collected near the end of the dormant period and immediately before anthesis. After removal of scale leaves, morphological observations of representative buds, made on transverse and longitudinal microtome sections, showed that all verticils making up the flower are present in an undifferentiated form during the dormant period (June). Flower buds collected at the end of dormant period (August) showed additional growth and differentiation, at which time formation of two ovules was beginning in the unicarpelar gynoecium. Dehiscence of anthers had not yet occurred 10 days before full bloom, and the ovules were still developing. Free endogenous gibberellin (GA)-like substances were quantified by bioassay (Tan-ginbozu dwarf rice microdrop) after SiO(2) partition column chromatography, reversed phase C18-high performance liquid chromatography, and finally Nucleosil [N(CH(3))(2)]high performance liquid chromatography. Bioactive fractions were then subjected to capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring (GC-MS-SIM). Gibberellins A(1), A(3), and A(8) were tentatively identified in peach flower buds using GC-SIM and Kovat's retention indices, and relative amounts approximated by GC-SIM (2:8:6 for GA(1), GA(3), and GA(8), respectively). The highest concentration (330 nanograms per gram dry weight) of free GA(1)/GA(3) was found in dormant buds (June) and diminished thereafter. The concentration free of GA(1)/GA(3) did not increase immediately prior to bud break. However, high GA(1)/GA(3) concentrations occurred during stages where rate of growth and cellular differentiation of (mainly fertile) verticils can be influenced.

  17. Gibberellic Acid-Stimulated Arabidopsis6 Serves as an Integrator of Gibberellin, Abscisic Acid, and Glucose Signaling during Seed Germination in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chunmei; Xu, Hao; Ye, Siting; Wang, Shiyi; Li, Lingfei; Zhang, Shengchun; Wang, Xiaojing

    2015-11-01

    The DELLA protein REPRESSOR OF ga1-3-LIKE2 (RGL2) plays an important role in seed germination under different conditions through a number of transcription factors. However, the functions of the structural genes associated with RGL2-regulated germination are less defined. Here, we report the role of an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) cell wall-localized protein, Gibberellic Acid-Stimulated Arabidopsis6 (AtGASA6), in functionally linking RGL2 and a cell wall loosening expansin protein (Arabidopsis expansin A1 [AtEXPA1]), resulting in the control of embryonic axis elongation and seed germination. AtGASA6-overexpressing seeds showed precocious germination, whereas transfer DNA and RNA interference mutant seeds displayed delayed seed germination under abscisic acid, paclobutrazol, and glucose (Glc) stress conditions. The differences in germination rates resulted from corresponding variation in cell elongation in the hypocotyl-radicle transition region of the embryonic axis. AtGASA6 was down-regulated by RGL2, GLUCOSE INSENSITIVE2, and ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE5 genes, and loss of AtGASA6 expression in the gasa6 mutant reversed the insensitivity shown by the rgl2 mutant to paclobutrazol and the gin2 mutant to Glc-induced stress, suggesting that it is involved in regulating both the gibberellin and Glc signaling pathways. Furthermore, it was found that the promotion of seed germination and length of embryonic axis by AtGASA6 resulted from a promotion of cell elongation at the embryonic axis mediated by AtEXPA1. Taken together, the data indicate that AtGASA6 links RGL2 and AtEXPA1 functions and plays a role as an integrator of gibberellin, abscisic acid, and Glc signaling, resulting in the regulation of seed germination through a promotion of cell elongation. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Von Kármán between Aachen and Pasadena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Egon; Kalkmann, Ulrich

    2013-05-01

    In the Introduction the reader is referred back to the academic ceremonials held after Theodore von Kármán's death in Aachen in May 1963. His work as the first director of the Aerodynamisches Institut (Institute of Aerodynamics) of the RWTH Aachen University of Technology from 1913 on and his initiative to re-establish international cooperation after World War I, resulting in the International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (IUTAM), are commented on. The following chapter describes von Kármán's relation to his former teacher Ludwig Prandtl. Some of von Kármán's scientific contributions during his time in Aachen are briefly reviewed. Thereafter, his first contacts to the California Institute of Technology are covered. Finally, the scientific and political circumstances, which led to von Kármán's decision to leave Germany in the early thirties, are elucidated in some detail. The English translation of the titles of the Aachen papers is given in Appendix I.

  19. Wernher von Braun: Reflections on His Contributions to Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Arthur E.

    2012-01-01

    In 1950, Dr. Wernher von Braun and approximately 100 of his team members came to Huntsville, Alabama, to begin work with the Army on what would later become America's historic space program. He would later serve as the first director of the Marshall Space Flight Center and led the development of the Saturn V launch vehicle that launched seven crewed American mission to the moon, as well as America s first space station, Skylab. Von Braun is best known for his team s technical achievements. He realized his dream of exploring outer space by helping place humans on the moon. His engineering and managerial talent during the Apollo era had contributed to a technological revolution. He was by all accounts a good engineer, but he was only one among many. What set Von Braun apart were his charisma, his vision, and his leadership skills. He inspired loyalty and dedication in the people around him. He understood the importance of communicating his vision to his team, to political and business leaders and the public. Today, the Marshall Center continues his vision by pursuing engineering and scientific projects that will continue to open space to exploration. This presentation will discuss Von Braun's impact on Huntsville, the Marshall Center, the nation and the world and look at his contributions in context of where world space exploration is today.

  20. Nonlinear von Neumann equations for quantum dissipative systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messer, J.; Baumgartner, B.

    1978-01-01

    For pure states nonlinear Schroedinger equations, the so-called Schroedinger-Langevin equations are well-known to model quantum dissipative systems of the Langevin type. For mixtures it is shown that these wave equations do not extend to master equations, but to corresponding nonlinear von Neumann equations. Solutions for the damped harmonic oscillator are discussed. (Auth.)

  1. Nonlinear von Neumann equations for quantum dissipative systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messer, J.; Baumgartner, B.

    For pure states nonlinear Schroedinger equations, the so-called Schroedinger-Langevin equations are well-known to model quantum dissipative systems of the Langevin type. For mixtures it is shown that these wave equations do not extend to master equations, but to corresponding nonlinear von Neumann equations. Solutions for the damped harmonic oscillator are discussed. (Author)

  2. Dr. von Braun With a Model of a Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1950-01-01

    Dr. von Braun stands beside a model of the upper stage (Earth-returnable stage) of the three-stage launch vehicle built for the series of the motion picture productions of space flight produced by Walt Disney in the mid-1950's.

  3. Ernst von Glasersfeld's Radical Constructivism and Truth as Disclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joldersma, Clarence W.

    2011-01-01

    In this essay Clarence Joldersma explores radical constructivism through the work of its most well-known advocate, Ernst von Glasersfeld, who combines a sophisticated philosophical discussion of knowledge and truth with educational practices. Joldersma uses Joseph Rouse's work in philosophy of science to criticize the antirealism inherent in…

  4. Eritrea : Von der Befreiung zur Unterdrückung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Reisen, Mirjam; Buck, K.D.

    2015-01-01

    Über das heutige Eritrea ist nur wenig bekannt. Als das kleine Land am Horn von Afrika 1993 die Unabhängigkeit erlangte, waren nicht nur im Land selbst die Hoffnungen groß, dass nach dem dreißig Jahre dauernden Befreiungskampf gegen Äthiopien eine bessere und friedliche Zukunft für alle beginnen

  5. Sakslased tulevad! Ärevad ajad Tallinnas Von Krahli Teatris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Von Krahli Teater ja Showcase Beat Le Mot valmistuvad oma esimeseks koostööprojektiks - lavastuseks "Pirates", kus osalevad mõlema teatri näitlejad ja tehnikud. Ühisprojekti toetavad Goethe Instituut, Hamburgi Linnavalitsus ja Eesti Kultuurkapital

  6. Professor Oberth and Dr. von Braun at ARS Banquet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1961-01-01

    Dr. Wernher von Braun holds the coveted Hermarn Oberth award presented to him by Professor Oberth during the banquet hosted by the Alabama Section of the American Rocket Society (ARS), on October 19, 1961. The Oberth award was given for outstanding technical contributions to the field of astronautics or for the promotion and advancement of astronautical sciences.

  7. Semiparametric Bernstein–von Mises for the error standard deviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de R.; Zanten, van J.H.

    2013-01-01

    We study Bayes procedures for nonparametric regression problems with Gaussian errors, giving conditions under which a Bernstein–von Mises result holds for the marginal posterior distribution of the error standard deviation. We apply our general results to show that a single Bayes procedure using a

  8. Semiparametric Bernstein-von Mises for the error standard deviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, R.; van Zanten, H.

    2013-01-01

    We study Bayes procedures for nonparametric regression problems with Gaussian errors, giving conditions under which a Bernstein-von Mises result holds for the marginal posterior distribution of the error standard deviation. We apply our general results to show that a single Bayes procedure using a

  9. De identiteit van Portulaca advena Reichg. & Von Poellnitz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geesink, R.

    1969-01-01

    Portulaca advena Reichg. & Von Poellnitz (1939), based on adventive specimens collected near Erp, prov. N.-Brabant, Netherlands, and afterwards cultivated in a garden at Nijmegen, appears to be identical with the South American P. papulosa Schldl. (1853). The adventive species of Portulaca found in

  10. Alexander von Humboldt's invention of the natural landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwa, C.

    2005-01-01

    Landscape took on a new meaning through the new science of plant geography of Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1857). In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, "landscape" was foremost a painterly genre. Slowly, painted landscapes came to bear on natural surroundings, but by 1800 it was still not

  11. KK -theory and spectral flow in von Neumann algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaad, Jens; Nest, Ryszard; Rennie, Adam

    2012-01-01

    We present a definition of spectral flow for any norm closed ideal J in any von Neumann algebra N. Given a path of selfadjoint operators in N which are invertible in N/J, the spectral flow produces a class in Ko (J). Given a semifinite spectral triple (A, H, D) relative to (N, t) with A separable...

  12. Enfermedad de Von Gierke: Reporte de tres casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Espinosa

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad de Von Gierke es un defecto en la glucosa 6 fosfatasa, degrada el glucógeno en el hígado, riñón e intestino. Asociada con hipoglicemia, acidosis láctica e hiperuricemia.

  13. A von Neumann type inequality for certain domains in Cn

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ambrozie, Calin-Grigore; Timotin, D.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 3 (2002), s. 859-869 ISSN 0002-9939 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/03/0041 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : von Neumann inequality * multioperators * Nevanlinna-Pick problem Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.334, year: 2002

  14. Characterizing ξ-Lie Multiplicative Isomorphisms on Von Neumann Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamin Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Let ℳ and be von Neumann algebras without central summands of type I1. Assume that ξ∈ℂ with ξ≠1. In this paper, all maps Φ:ℳ→ satisfying ΦAB-ξBA=ΦAΦB-ξΦBΦ(A are characterized.

  15. A bicategorical approach to Morita equivalence for Von Neumann algebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M. Brouwer (Rachel)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe relate Morita equivalence for von Neumann algebras to the ``Connes fusion'' tensor product between correspondences. In the purely algebraic setting, it is well known that rings are Morita equivalent if and only if they are equivalent objects in a bicategory whose 1-cells are

  16. A paradox of rationality à la von Neumann-Morgenstern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismail, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    We show that there are games and decision situations in which it is not possible for the decision maker to be rational a la von Neumann-Morgenstern in both situations simultaneously, which is the source of the paradox presented in this note. We provide an assumption which is the necessary and

  17. Extensions of von Neumann's method for generating random variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monahan, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Von Neumann's method of generating random variables with the exponential distribution and Forsythe's method for obtaining distributions with densities of the form e/sup -G//sup( x/) are generalized to apply to certain power series representations. The flexibility of the power series methods is illustrated by algorithms for the Cauchy and geometric distributions

  18. Computed tomography of von Meyenburg complex simulating micro-abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sada, P.N.; Ramakrishna, B.

    1994-01-01

    A case is presented of a bile duct hamartoma in a 44 year old man being evaluated for abdominal pain. The computed tomography (CT) findings suggested micro-abscesses in the liver and a CT guided tru-cut biopsy showed von Meyenburg complex. 9 refs., 3 figs

  19. Ueber die arten und den Skelettbau von Culcita

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartlaub, Clemens

    1892-01-01

    Das Genus Culcita Agass. zählt durch die merkwürdige Form und die ansehnliche Grösse seiner Arten zu den interessantesten Asteriden, und gut conservirte Exemplare davon gehören zu den Zierden unsrer Museen. Um so bedauerlicher erschien es mir, als ich vor einiger Zeit den Versuch machte die von

  20. Mollusken aus posttertiären Schichten von Celebes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepman, M.M.

    1912-01-01

    Die im Folgenden behandelten Mollusken stammen aus der Nähe von Kajoe ragi auf Celebes, woselbst sie durch R. FENNEMA aus denselben Schichten ausgelesen wurden, aus denen früher durch J. G. DE MAN einige brachyure Krebse beschrieben sind. Es darf deswegen betreffs näherer Angaben über die Herkunft

  1. Die Korallenfauna des Perm von Timor und die permische Vereisung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerth, H.

    1926-01-01

    Bei den zahlreichen Rekonstruktionen der klimatologischen Verhältnisse, die man für das Ende des Palaeozoikums gemacht hat, ist man fast immer von der Kohlenbildung, der Florenverbreitung und den Vereisungserscheinungen ausgegangen. Der marinen Tierwelt hat man bei der Behandlung dieser Fragen meist

  2. Ueber einige Entwicklungsstadien von Rhopilema hispidum (Vanhoeffen) Maas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiasny, G.

    1933-01-01

    Gelegentlich der Durchsicht einiger älterer Planktonfänge aus dem malayischen Archipel in den Sammlungen des Rijks Museum van Natuurlijke Historie in Leiden fanden sich zahlreiche Entwicklungsstadien von Rhopilema hispidum (VANH.) MAAS vor, über die ich hier kurz berichten will. Ueber die

  3. Fossile Säugethierreste von Java und Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, K.

    1884-01-01

    Die Beschreibung eines Stegodontenzahnes von Java in der vorhergehenden Abhandlung dieses Bandes ist die Veranlassung geworden, dass De Koninklijke Natuurkundige Vereeniging in Nederlandsch Indië eine grosse Sammlung fossiler Säugethierreste dem Geologischen Museum in Leiden übersandte. Es befinden

  4. Minimum Moduli in Von Neumann Algebras | Gopalraj | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we answer a question raised in [12] in the affirmative, namely that the essential minimum modulus of an element in a von. Neumann algebra, relative to any norm closed two-sided ideal, is equal to the minimum modulus of the element perturbed by an element from the ideal. As a corollary of this result, we ...

  5. Die Rolle von Osteoklasten bei der arthritischen Knochenerosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schett G

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Knöcherne Erosionen stellen eine wesentliche Ursache für die funktionelle Einschränkung von Patienten mit rheumatoider Arthritis dar. Bis vor kurzem war über den Pathomechanismus dieser Veränderungen nur wenig bekannt. Dieser Review faßt die letzten Erkenntnisse über die Ausbildung einer Knochenschädigung bei entzündlichen Gelenkerkrankungen zusammen und fokussiert insbesondere die Rolle von Osteoklasten. Es wird ein Überblickzu den Hinweisen für eine Präsenz von Osteoklasten im entzündlich veränderten Gelenk gegeben. Weiters werden die Faktoren diskutiert, die die Osteoklastogenese im Rahmen einer Gelenkentzündung aktivieren können. Hier wird im besonderen auf die Rolle von Receptor-Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa B Ligand (RANKL eingegangen. Im weiteren werden die Auswirkungen einer Osteoklastenhemmung in den verschiedenen Arthritismodellen zusammengefaßt und Möglichkeiten einer therapeutischen Nutzung bei rheumatoider Arthritis diskutiert.

  6. Von Willebrand Factor Gene Variants Associate with Herpes simplex Encephalitis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abdelmagid, N.; Bereczky-Veress, B.; Atanur, S.; Musilová, Alena; Zídek, Václav; Saba, L.; Warnecke, A.; Khademi, M.; Studahl, M.; Aurelius, E.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Garcia-Dias, A.; Denis, C. V.; Bergström, T.; Sköldenberg, B.; Kockum, I.; Aitman, T.; Hübner, N.; Olsson, T.; Pravenec, Michal; Diez, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 5 (2016), e0155832 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E10067; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Von Willebrand Factor gene * Herpes simplex encephalitis * rat * humans Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  7. Seed-borne endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 produces gibberellins and regulates endogenous phytohormones of Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Raheem; Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Asaf, Sajjad; Khan, Muhammad Aaqil; Kang, Sang-Mo; Yun, Byung-Wook; Lee, In-Jung

    2016-09-01

    Some microorganisms are adapted to an endophytic mode, living symbiotically with plants through vertical transmission in seeds. The role of plant growth-promoting endophytes has been well studied, but those of seed-associated endophytic bacteria are less understood. The current study aimed to isolate and identify bacterial endophytes associated with rice (Oryza sativa L. 'Jin so mi') seeds, their potential to produce gibberellins (GAs), and role in improving host-plant physiology. The isolated bacterial endophyte RWL-1 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by using 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The pure culture of B. amyloliquefaciens RWL-1, supplied with deuterated internal standards, was subjected to gas chromatography and mass spectrometric selected ion monitoring (GC-MS/SIM) for quantification of GAs. Results showed the presence of GAs in various quantities (ng/mL) viz., GA20 (17.88 ± 4.04), GA36 (5.75 ± 2.36), GA24 (5.64 ± 2.46), GA4 (1.02 ± 0.16), GA53 (0.772 ± 0.20), GA9 (0.12 ± 0.09), GA19 (0.093 ± 0.13), GA5 (0.08 ± 0.04), GA12 (0.014 ± 0.34), and GA8 (0.013 ± 0.01). Since endogenous seed GAs are essential for prolonged seed growth and subsequent plant development, we used exogenous GA3 as a positive control and water as a negative control for comparative analysis of the application of B. amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 to rice plants. The growth parameters of rice plants treated with endophytic bacterial cell application was significantly increased compared to the plants treated with exogenous GA3 and water. This was also revealed by the significant up-regulation of endogenous GA1 (17.54 ± 2.40 ng), GA4 (310 ± 5.41 ng), GA7 (192.60 ± 3.32 ng), and GA9 (19.04 ± 2.49 ng) as compared to results of the positive and negative control treatments. Rice plants inoculated with B. amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 exhibited significantly higher endogenous salicylic acid (1615.06 ± 10.81 μg), whereas

  8. The effects of benzil amino purin (BAP and gibberellin with in vitro seedling growth of pulesari (Alyxia reinwardtii Bl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Sudrajad

    2016-12-01

    vulnerable status. The high price and high market demand made the over harvested beyond regeneration capacity of the plant while the conservation efforts are terribly limited. Presentage of seed germination is not only very low but also time consuming, therefore we conducting preliminary study on in vitro propagation using  seed  Alyxia reinwardtii Bl. Methods: The research was conducted in laboratory tissue culture of Medicinal Plant and Traditional Medicine Research and Development Center Tawangmangu for three months. Seeds of A. reinwardtii Bl. obtained from Pringgondani Forest, Tawangmangu Central Java.  Seeds were peeled and air dryed for five days, washed using steril aquadest, soaked on 0.5% Agrept (5 minutes then on 2.125% sodium hypochloride (5 minutes and rinsed using sterile distilled water. This study uses a Murashige and Skoog (MS with a completely randomized design (CRD factorial design.. The first factor is   BAP at a concentration of 3, 4, 5 mg.L-1 and the second factor is giberelin concentration of 1, 2, 3 mg.L-1. MS media  with addition of BAP the concentration of 3, 4, 5 mg.L-1 and gibberellin the concentration of 1, 2, 3 mg.L-1 obtained 9 treatment combination. Results: The results showed the combination treatment of growth regulators BAP (4 mg.L-1 and giberelin (2 mg.L-1 is formed shoots and roots. The shoots were formed  30 days after planting with a height of 2 cm and the roots appear at 45 days after planting. Conclusion: Pulasari (Alyxia reinwardtii Bl. can be propagated through tissue culture using seeds as explants.Keywords: pulesari, Alyxia reinwardtii BI, BAP and giberelin 

  9. Die filmstilistische Darstellung von Klaras Gehbehinderung im Kinderfilm "Heidi"

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    Maria Ohrfandl

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dieser Beitrag soll die Forschungslücke zur Darstellung von Behinderungen speziell im Kinderfilm im deutschsprachigen Raum füllen. Auf Basis einer neoformalistisch orientierten Filmanalyse nach Bordwell und Thompson (2008, wird anhand von drei Filmsequenzen eine mögliche Lesart des Kinderfilms "Heidi" (Marcus 2005 entwickelt, um die filmstilistische Darstellung der Gehbehinderung des Mädchens Klara zu untersuchen. Die Ergebnisse werden mit theoretischen Überlegungen zur Problematik der Begriffsbestimmung von Körperbehinderung sowie zur Mobilität und Selbstbestimmung von Menschen mit Körperbehinderungen in Bezug gesetzt. Dabei zeigt sich im Wesentlichen, dass im Kinderfilm "Heidi" (Marcus 2005 Klaras Gehbehinderung als 'heilbare Krankheit' und der Rollstuhl als Einschränkung von Mobilität begriffen wird. Außerdem unterliegt Klara aufgrund ihrer Körperbehinderung überwiegend der Fremdbestimmung von Erwachsenen. Zur Klärung wahrscheinlicher filmischer Bildungspotenziale werden die Ergebnisse schließlich anhand der von Jörissen und Marotzki (2009 entwickelten Orientierungsdimensionen "Wissens-, Handlungs-, Grenz- und Biographiebezug" diskutiert. This article aims to bridge a knowledge gap by showing ways of representing disabilities in the German children film genre. Using Bordwell and Thomson's (2008 neoformalistically orientated film analysis approach, the movie "Heidi" (Marcus 2005 is analysed. Bordwell and Thompson's (2008 method is applied to three sequences of "Heidi" in order to present an interpretation and to discuss the representation of Clara's walking impediment. The results are then associated with theoretical considerations regarding the mobility and self-determination of people with disabilities and problematic definitions of the term 'physical disability'. It is shown that characters in the children's film "Heidi" (Marcus 2005 regard Clara's walking impediment as a 'curable disease' and the wheelchair as a limitation

  10. Optimierung der Gesichtsklassifikation bei der Erkennung von Akromegalie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frohner R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In vorausgegangenen Studien konnte gezeigt werden, dass eine Gesichtsklassifikation mittels Gesichtsphotographien zur Diagnostik von Akromegalie mit guten Ergebnissen eingesetzt werden kann. In diesem Artikel werden die grundlegende Vorgehensweise der Klassifikation mittels der Software FIDA erläutert sowie Optimierungsansätze mit dem Ziel diskutiert, diese Methode näher an den klinischen Einsatz zu bringen. Die Gesichtsklassifikation basiert auf „Knotenpunkten“, die verteilt über die jeweilige Frontal- und/oder Seitenansicht des Gesichts platziert werden und den so genannten „Graphen“ bilden. Mittels mathematischer Verfahren erfolgt eine Analyse der zugrunde liegenden Textur des Bildes sowie die Auswertung geometrischer Informationen. Untersucht wird, wie sich die Reduktion von als irrelevant eingestuften Knoten auf das Klassifikationsergebnis auswirkt. Ebenso wird untersucht, wie sich neu definierte Knoten, die die typischen morphologischen Veränderungen der akromegalen Erkrankung im Gesicht berücksichtigen, auf die Klassifizierungsergebnisse auswirken. Die interne Validierung erfolgt an einem Datenset bestehend aus 57 an Akromegalie erkrankten Probanden (29 weiblich, 28 männlich sowie 59 Kontrollen (29 weiblich, 30 männlich. Die externe Validierung wird an einer weiteren Stichprobe gemessen, die zum Zeitpunkt der Präsentation auf der Tagung der European Neuroendocrine Association 2012 in Wien 13 akromegale Patienten (7 weiblich, 6 männlich sowie 45 Kontrollen (25 weiblich, 20 männlich umfasste. Die Datenbank wird ständig durch neue Probanden aus verschiedenen Quellen erweitert. Erste Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Verwendung von Graphen mit reduzierten Knoten und von neuen Sets von Knoten unter Einbeziehung typischer morphologischer Veränderungen des Gesichts die Klassifizierung weiter verbessert. Diese Ergebnisse ermutigen zu weiteren Untersuchungen an einer erweiterten Datenbank.

  11. Eine selbstkonsistente Carleman Linearisierung zur Analyse von Oszillatoren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Weber

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Die Analyse nichtlinearer dynamischer Schaltungen ist bis heute eine herausfordernde Aufgabe, da nur selten analytische Lösungen angegeben werden können. Daher wurden eine Vielzahl von Methoden entwickelt, um eine qualitative oder quantitative Näherung für die Lösungen der Netzwerkgleichung zu erhalten. Oftmals wird beispielsweise eine Kleinsignalanalyse mit Hilfe einer Taylorreihe in einem Arbeitspunkt durchgeführt, die nach den Gliedern erster Ordnung abgebrochen wird. Allerdings ist diese Linearisierung nur in der Nähe des stabilen Arbeitspunktes für hyperbolische Systeme gültig. Besonders für die Analyse des dynamischen Verhaltens von Oszillatoren treten jedoch nicht-hyperbolische Systeme auf, sodass diese Methode nicht angewendet werden kann Mathis(2000. Carleman hat gezeigt, dass nichtlineare Differentialgleichungen mit polynomiellen Nichtlinearitäten in ein unendliches System von linearen Differentialgleichungen transformiert werden können Carleman(1932. Wird das unendlichdimensionale Gleichungssystem für numerische Zwecke abgebrochen, kann bei Oszillatoren der Übergang in eine stationäre Schwingung (Grenzzyklus nicht wiedergegeben werden.In diesem Beitrag wird eine selbstkonsistente Carleman Linearisierung zur Untersuchung von Oszillatoren vorgestellt, die auch dann anwendbar ist, wenn die Nichtlinearitäten keinen Polynomen entsprechen. Anstelle einer linearen Näherung um einen Arbeitspunkt, erfolgt mit Hilfe der Carleman Linearisierung eine Approximation auf einem vorgegebenen Gebiet. Da es jedoch mit der selbstkonsistenten Technik nicht möglich ist, das stationäre Verhalten von Oszillatoren zu beschreiben, wird die Berechnung einer Poincaré-Abbildung durchgeführt. Mit dieser ist eine anschließende Analyse des Oszillators möglich.

  12. Eine selbstkonsistente Carleman Linearisierung zur Analyse von Oszillatoren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Harry; Mathis, Wolfgang

    2017-09-01

    Die Analyse nichtlinearer dynamischer Schaltungen ist bis heute eine herausfordernde Aufgabe, da nur selten analytische Lösungen angegeben werden können. Daher wurden eine Vielzahl von Methoden entwickelt, um eine qualitative oder quantitative Näherung für die Lösungen der Netzwerkgleichung zu erhalten. Oftmals wird beispielsweise eine Kleinsignalanalyse mit Hilfe einer Taylorreihe in einem Arbeitspunkt durchgeführt, die nach den Gliedern erster Ordnung abgebrochen wird. Allerdings ist diese Linearisierung nur in der Nähe des stabilen Arbeitspunktes für hyperbolische Systeme gültig. Besonders für die Analyse des dynamischen Verhaltens von Oszillatoren treten jedoch nicht-hyperbolische Systeme auf, sodass diese Methode nicht angewendet werden kann Mathis (2000). Carleman hat gezeigt, dass nichtlineare Differentialgleichungen mit polynomiellen Nichtlinearitäten in ein unendliches System von linearen Differentialgleichungen transformiert werden können Carleman (1932). Wird das unendlichdimensionale Gleichungssystem für numerische Zwecke abgebrochen, kann bei Oszillatoren der Übergang in eine stationäre Schwingung (Grenzzyklus) nicht wiedergegeben werden. In diesem Beitrag wird eine selbstkonsistente Carleman Linearisierung zur Untersuchung von Oszillatoren vorgestellt, die auch dann anwendbar ist, wenn die Nichtlinearitäten keinen Polynomen entsprechen. Anstelle einer linearen Näherung um einen Arbeitspunkt, erfolgt mit Hilfe der Carleman Linearisierung eine Approximation auf einem vorgegebenen Gebiet. Da es jedoch mit der selbstkonsistenten Technik nicht möglich ist, das stationäre Verhalten von Oszillatoren zu beschreiben, wird die Berechnung einer Poincaré-Abbildung durchgeführt. Mit dieser ist eine anschließende Analyse des Oszillators möglich.

  13. Otto von Habsburg : III maailmasõda on läbi / Otto von Habsburg ; interv. Marianne Mikko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Habsburg, Otto von, 1912-2011

    2002-01-01

    Otto von Habsburg vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Euroopa konvendi presidendi teadet, et Türgi koht ei ole EL-is, Iraagi võimalikku ründamist, Hiina ja Venemaa suhteid, Tšetšeeniat, tshetsheene ja terrorismi, Venemaa, EL-i ja USA suhteid, III maailmasõda, Eesti Vabariigi tulevikku

  14. No evidence for a direct effect of von Willebrand factor's ABH blood group antigens on von Willebrand factor clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, D J; van Bekkum, T; Cheung, K L; Dirven, R J; Castaman, G; Reitsma, P H; van Vlijmen, B; Eikenboom, J

    BACKGROUND: One of the major determinants of von Willebrand factor (VWF) plasma levels is ABO blood group status, and individuals with blood group O have ~ 25% lower plasma levels. The exact mechanism behind this relationship remains unknown, although effects on clearance have been postulated.

  15. Zum 215. Gebutstag von Admiral Ferdinand Baron von Wrangell : (29. Dezember 1797 - 25. 25. Mai 1870) / Peter Krienitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krienitz, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Admiral Ferdinand Baron von Wrangellist tema 215. sünniaastapäeva puhul. Silmapaistavast Kirde-Siberi uurijast. Tema poliitilisest tegevusest ja elust Roela mõisas. Ferdinand Baroni poolt seatud viisil tähistati jõulusid Roelas kuni 1944. aasta lõpuni.

  16. An N-terminal region of a Myb-like protein is involved in its intracellular localization and activation of a gibberellin-inducible proteinase gene in germinated rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutoh, Keita; Washio, Kenji; Imai, Ryozo; Wada, Masamitsu; Nakai, Tomonori; Yamauchi, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    The expression of the gene for a proteinase (Rep1) is upregulated by gibberellins. The CAACTC regulatory element (CARE) of the Rep1 promoter is involved in the gibberellin response. We isolated a cDNA for a CARE-binding protein containing a Myb domain in its carboxyl-terminal region and designated the gene Carboxyl-terminal Myb1 (CTMyb1). This gene encodes two polypeptides of two distinctive lengths, CTMyb1L and CTMyb1S, which include or exclude 213 N-terminal amino acid residues, respectively. CTMyb1S transactivated the Rep1 promoter in the presence of OsGAMyb, but not CTMyb1L. We observed an interaction between CTMyb1S and the rice prolamin box-binding factor (RPBF). A bimolecular fluorescence complex analysis detected the CTMyb1S and RPBF complex in the nucleus, but not the CTMyb1L and RPBF complex. The results suggest that the arrangement of the transfactors is involved in gibberellin-inducible expression of Rep1.

  17. Identifizierung Apoptose-induzierender Alkaloide der Pflanze Chelidonium Majus und des Präparates Ukrain in einem Lymphom-Modell

    OpenAIRE

    Habermehl, Daniel Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    Für das Krebsmedikament Ukrain, von Herstellerseite als semisynthetisches Derivat aus dem Schöllkraut-Alkaloid Chelidonin und dem Alkylanz Thiotepa beschrieben, wurde eine selektive zytotoxische Wirkung auf humane Tumor-Zelllinien in vitro beschrieben. Auch einige klinische Studien berichten über eine positive Wirkung des Präparates in der onkologischen Therapie. Allerdings werden Wirksamkeit und Zusammensetzung des Präparates kontrovers diskutiert. Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit war die An...

  18. Cytoprotection with amifostine in radiotherapy or combined radio-chemotherapy of head and neck cancer; Zytoprotektion mit Amifostin in der Strahlentherapie bzw. Strahlen-/Chemotherapie von Kopf-Hals-Tumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmann, S.; Hoffmanns, H. [Krankenhaus Maria-Hilf, Moenchengladbach (Germany). Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie

    1999-11-01

    Background: A considerable amount of experimental and clinical data prove the cytoprotective effect of amifostine on normal tissue exposed to different types of antineoplastic treatments. The present study examines its influence on the short-term toxicity of either radiotherapy alone or combined radio-chemotherapy in patients with advanced head and neck cancer. Patients and methods: Twenty-three patients with advanced head and neck cancer, mainly Stage III and IV, were treated with preoperative radiation (n=1), pre- as well as postoperative radiotherapy (n=5), postoperative radiation (n=9) or combined postoperative radio-chemotherapy (n=6). Before each radiation application a total dose of 500 mg amifostine was administered intravenously over 15 minutes. The documentation of this unselected patient group was compared retrospectively to a historical control group comprising 17 patients. Results: In 15 patients (65%) of the amifostine group, therapy induced side effects such as mucositis and dermatitis of WHO Grade {<=}2 were detected, requiring interruptions of the radiotherapy (mean: 6.5, maximum 17 days). No mucosa or dermatologic toxicity of WHO Grade 3 or 4 was observed in this group. Significantly more acute toxicity was detected in the historical control group. Stomatitis or epitheliolysis of WHO Grade 3 occurred in 7 patients (41%). The side effects induced by the antineoplastic therapy caused an interruption of treatment in 15 patients (88%) (mean: 16, maximum 40 days; p=0.0016). Conclusion: The application of amifostine before each radiation treatment seems to result in a distinct reduction of short-term toxicity of radiotherapy or combined radio-chemotherapy in patients with head and neck cancer, allowing for a better adherence to the planned radiation time schedule. (orig.) [German] Hintergrund: Zahlreiche experimentelle und klinische Daten belegen die zytoprotektive Wirkung von Amifostin auf gesundes Gewebe bei Anwendung verschiedener antineoplastischer

  19. Diagnosis and management of von Willebrand disease: guidelines for primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawn, Barbara; Nichols, William L; Rick, Margaret E

    2009-12-01

    Von Willebrand disease is an inherited condition characterized by deficiency of von Willebrand factor, which is essential in hemostasis. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute has released new evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis and management of the disease. There are three major subtypes of von Willebrand disease, classified as partial quantitative deficiency (low levels) of von Willebrand factor (type 1), qualitative deficiency (type 2), or virtually complete deficiency (type 3). Diagnosis is usually made by reviewing the patient's personal and family history of bleeding and by clinical evaluation for more common reasons for bleeding, supplemented with laboratory tests. Assessment may be used to determine bleeding risk before surgery and other invasive procedures, and to diagnose reasons for unexplained hemorrhaging. Von Willebrand factor levels of 30 IU per dL or lower are required for the definite diagnosis of inherited von Willebrand disease. Persons with levels of 30 to 50 IU per dL may not have the disease, but may need agents to increase von Willebrand factor levels during invasive procedures or childbirth. Treatment is tailored to the subtype of the disease: increasing plasma concentration of von Willebrand factor by releasing endogenous stores with desmopressin or replacing nonexistent or ineffective von Willebrand factor by using human plasma-derived, viral-inactivated concentrates; treatment is often combined with hemostatic agents that have mechanisms other than increasing von Willebrand factor. Regular prophylaxis is seldom required, and treatment is initiated before planned invasive procedures or in response to bleeding.

  20. DIE SPRACHE VON "BAŠĆANSKA PLOČA" (DIE STEINTAFEL VON BAŠKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepan Damjanović

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In einer Mehrzahl von Abhandlungen über Bašćanska ploča berücksichtigen die Verfasser auch die Sprache, in der Regel kurz, nur in einem oder zwei Sätzen. Die größten Bemühungen sind auf die Rekonstruirung der unlesbaren Teilen gerichtet, dagegen nicht weinger interessanter lesbarer Teil regte eine Sprachanalyse selten an. Gewöhnlich wird festgestellt, daß die Tafel in der kroatischen Sprache geschrieben ist, während die philologisch gut unterrichtete Forscher vermeiden diesartige Nenunngen, indem sie das Vorhandensein der altslawischen und altkroatischen Sprachelemente entdeckten. Man versuchte noch nicht in einer Analyse sprachliche Grundschichte und darauf geschichtete Sprachelemente zu bestimmen. Nach dem ersten Eindruck wurde bestimmt, ob es sich um "die kroatische Srpache mit den Elementen der alten slawischen liturgischen Sprache" handelt oder um "die altslawische in der manche kroatische Spracheigenschaften hereingekommen sind". Die Analyse mancher Spracheinzelheiten (Halblaute und "Jat" weist auf altslawische Grundschicht hin. Der Verfasser hat sich trotzdem nicht entschieden den Fachausdruck "kroatische Redaktion des altslawischen" zu verwenden, weil er neue Analyse und neue Begriffsbestimmungen als nötig hält, wie z.B. "Redaktion", "Rezension" usw, um mit Sicherkeit sagen zu können, ob es um kroatische Redaktion des altslawischen oder um andere Formen der altslawischen - alt kroatischen Interferenz geht.