High Speed Frame Synchronization and Viterbi Decoding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Paaske, Erik; Justesen, Jørn; Larsen, Knud J.
1996-01-01
The purpose of Phase 1 of the study is to describe the system structure and algorithms in sufficient detail to allow drawing the high level architecture of units containing frame synchronization and Viterbi decoding. The systems we consider are high data rate space communication systems. Also...... components. Node synchronization performed within a Viterbi decoder is discussed, and algorithms for frame synchronization are described and analyzed. We present a list of system configurations that we find potentially useful. Further, the high level architecture of units that contain frame synchronization...... and various other functions needed in a complete system is presented. Two such units are described, one for placement before the Viterbi decoder and another for placement after the decoder. The high level architectures of three possible implementations of Viterbi decoders are described: The first...
High Speed Frame Synchronization and Viterbi Decoding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Paaske, Erik; Justesen, Jørn; Larsen, Knud J.
1998-01-01
The study has been divided into two phases. The purpose of Phase 1 of the study was to describe the system structure and algorithms in sufficient detail to allow drawing the high level architecture of units containing frame synchronization and Viterbi decoding. After selection of which specific...... potentially useful.Algorithms for frame synchronization are described and analyzed. Further, the high level architecture of units that contain frame synchronization and various other functions needed in a complete system is presented. Two such units are described, one for placement before the Viterbi decoder...... towards a realization in an FPGA.Node synchronization performed within a Viterbi decoder is discussed, and the high level architectures of three possible implementations of Viterbi decoders are described: The first implementation uses a number of commercially available decoders while the the two others...
FPGA Realization of Memory 10 Viterbi Decoder
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Paaske, Erik; Bach, Thomas Bo; Andersen, Jakob Dahl
1997-01-01
sequence mode when feedback from the Reed-Solomon decoder is available. The Viterbi decoder is realized using two Altera FLEX 10K50 FPGA's. The overall operating speed is 30 kbit/s, and since up to three iterations are performed for each frame and only one decoder is used, the operating speed...
A quantum algorithm for Viterbi decoding of classical convolutional codes
Grice, Jon R.; Meyer, David A.
2014-01-01
We present a quantum Viterbi algorithm (QVA) with better than classical performance under certain conditions. In this paper the proposed algorithm is applied to decoding classical convolutional codes, for instance; large constraint length $Q$ and short decode frames $N$. Other applications of the classical Viterbi algorithm where $Q$ is large (e.g. speech processing) could experience significant speedup with the QVA. The QVA exploits the fact that the decoding trellis is similar to the butter...
Design and Implementation of Viterbi Decoder Using VHDL
Thakur, Akash; Chattopadhyay, Manju K.
2018-03-01
A digital design conversion of Viterbi decoder for ½ rate convolutional encoder with constraint length k = 3 is presented in this paper. The design is coded with the help of VHDL, simulated and synthesized using XILINX ISE 14.7. Synthesis results show a maximum frequency of operation for the design is 100.725 MHz. The requirement of memory is less as compared to conventional method.
A quantum algorithm for Viterbi decoding of classical convolutional codes
Grice, Jon R.; Meyer, David A.
2015-07-01
We present a quantum Viterbi algorithm (QVA) with better than classical performance under certain conditions. In this paper, the proposed algorithm is applied to decoding classical convolutional codes, for instance, large constraint length and short decode frames . Other applications of the classical Viterbi algorithm where is large (e.g., speech processing) could experience significant speedup with the QVA. The QVA exploits the fact that the decoding trellis is similar to the butterfly diagram of the fast Fourier transform, with its corresponding fast quantum algorithm. The tensor-product structure of the butterfly diagram corresponds to a quantum superposition that we show can be efficiently prepared. The quantum speedup is possible because the performance of the QVA depends on the fanout (number of possible transitions from any given state in the hidden Markov model) which is in general much less than . The QVA constructs a superposition of states which correspond to all legal paths through the decoding lattice, with phase as a function of the probability of the path being taken given received data. A specialized amplitude amplification procedure is applied one or more times to recover a superposition where the most probable path has a high probability of being measured.
Convolutional Encoder and Viterbi Decoder Using SOPC For Variable Constraint Length
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kulkarni, Anuradha; Dnyaneshwar, Mantri; Prasad, Neeli R.
2013-01-01
Convolution encoder and Viterbi decoder are the basic and important blocks in any Code Division Multiple Accesses (CDMA). They are widely used in communication system due to their error correcting capability But the performance degrades with variable constraint length. In this context to have...... detailed analysis, this paper deals with the implementation of convolution encoder and Viterbi decoder using system on programming chip (SOPC). It uses variable constraint length of 7, 8 and 9 bits for 1/2 and 1/3 code rates. By analyzing the Viterbi algorithm it is seen that our algorithm has a better...
A Fully Parallel VLSI-implementation of the Viterbi Decoding Algorithm
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sparsø, Jens; Jørgensen, Henrik Nordtorp; Paaske, Erik
1989-01-01
In this paper we describe the implementation of a K = 7, R = 1/2 single-chip Viterbi decoder intended to operate at 10-20 Mbit/sec. We propose a general, regular and area efficient floor-plan that is also suitable for implementation of decoders for codes with different generator polynomials...
An area-efficient path memory structure for VLSI Implementation of high speed Viterbi decoders
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Paaske, Erik; Pedersen, Steen; Sparsø, Jens
1991-01-01
Path storage and selection methods for Viterbi decoders are investigated with special emphasis on VLSI implementations. Two well-known algorithms, the register exchange, algorithm, REA, and the trace back algorithm, TBA, are considered. The REA requires the smallest number of storage elements...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rachmad Vidya Wicaksana Putra
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Convolutional encoding and data decoding are fundamental processes in convolutional error correction. One of the most popular error correction methods in decoding is the Viterbi algorithm. It is extensively implemented in many digital communication applications. Its VLSI design challenges are about area, speed, power, complexity and configurability. In this research, we specifically propose a VLSI architecture for a configurable and low-complexity design of a hard-decision Viterbi decoding algorithm. The configurable and low-complexity design is achieved by designing a generic VLSI architecture, optimizing each processing element (PE at the logical operation level and designing a conditional adapter. The proposed design can be configured for any predefined number of trace-backs, only by changing the trace-back parameter value. Its computational process only needs N + 2 clock cycles latency, with N is the number of trace-backs. Its configurability function has been proven for N = 8, N = 16, N = 32 and N = 64. Furthermore, the proposed design was synthesized and evaluated in Xilinx and Altera FPGA target boards for area consumption and speed performance.
Kalson, S.
1986-01-01
Previous work in the area of choosing channel quantization levels for a additive white Gaussian noise channel composed of one receiver-demodulator is reviewed, and how this applies to the Deep Space Network composed of several receiver-demodulators (space diversity reception) is shown. Viterbi decoding for the resulting quantized channel is discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu Yu-Sun
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract The performance of the wrap-around Viterbi decoding algorithm with finite truncation depth and fixed decoding trellis length is investigated for tail-biting convolutional codes in the mobile WiMAX standard. Upper bounds on the error probabilities induced by finite truncation depth and the uncertainty of the initial state are derived for the AWGN channel. The truncation depth and the decoding trellis length that yield negligible performance loss are obtained for all transmission rates over the Rayleigh channel using computer simulations. The results show that the circular decoding algorithm with an appropriately chosen truncation depth and a decoding trellis just a fraction longer than the original received code words can achieve almost the same performance as the optimal maximum likelihood decoding algorithm in mobile WiMAX. A rule of thumb for the values of the truncation depth and the trellis tail length is also proposed.
Design and Implementation of Convolutional Encoder and Viterbi Decoder Using FPGA.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Riham Ali Zbaid
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Keeping the fineness of data is the most significant thing in communication.There are many factors that affect the accuracy of the data when it is transmitted over the communication channel such as noise etc. to overcome these effects are encoding channels encryption.In this paper is used for one type of channel coding is convolutional codes. Convolution encoding is a Forward Error Correction (FEC method used in incessant one-way and real time communication links .It can offer a great development in the error bit rates so that small, low energy, and devices cheap transmission when used in applications such as satellites. In this paper highlight the design, simulation and implementation of convolution encoder and Viterbi decoder by using MATLAB- program (2011. SIMULINK HDL coder is used to convert MATLAB-SIMULINK models to VHDL using plates Altera Cyclone II code DE2-70. Simulation and evaluation of the implementation of the results coincided with the results of the design show the coinciding with the designed results.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Kalavathi Devi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Convolutional codes are comprehensively used as Forward Error Correction (FEC codes in digital communication systems. For decoding of convolutional codes at the receiver end, Viterbi decoder is often used to have high priority. This decoder meets the demand of high speed and low power. At present, the design of a competent system in Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI technology requires these VLSI parameters to be finely defined. The proposed asynchronous method focuses on reducing the power consumption of Viterbi decoder for various constraint lengths using asynchronous modules. The asynchronous designs are based on commonly used Quasi Delay Insensitive (QDI templates, namely, Precharge Half Buffer (PCHB and Weak Conditioned Half Buffer (WCHB. The functionality of the proposed asynchronous design is simulated and verified using Tanner Spice (TSPICE in 0.25 µm, 65 nm, and 180 nm technologies of Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacture Company (TSMC. The simulation result illustrates that the asynchronous design techniques have 25.21% of power reduction compared to synchronous design and work at a speed of 475 MHz.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sparsø, Jens; Jørgensen, Henrik Nordtorp; Paaske, Erik
1991-01-01
A topology for single-chip implementation of computing structures based on shuffle-exchange (SE)-type interconnection networks is presented. The topology is suited for structures with a small number of processing elements (i.e. 32-128) whose area cannot be neglected compared to the area required....... The topology has been used in a VLSI implementation of the add-compare-select (ACS) module of a fully parallel K=7, R=1/2 Viterbi decoder. Both the floor-planning issues and some of the important algorithm and circuit-level aspects of this design are discussed. The chip has been designed and fabricated in a 2....... The interconnection network occupies 32% of the area.>...
Vedadi, Farhang; Shirani, Shahram
2014-01-01
A new method of image resolution up-conversion (image interpolation) based on maximum a posteriori sequence estimation is proposed. Instead of making a hard decision about the value of each missing pixel, we estimate the missing pixels in groups. At each missing pixel of the high resolution (HR) image, we consider an ensemble of candidate interpolation methods (interpolation functions). The interpolation functions are interpreted as states of a Markov model. In other words, the proposed method undergoes state transitions from one missing pixel position to the next. Accordingly, the interpolation problem is translated to the problem of estimating the optimal sequence of interpolation functions corresponding to the sequence of missing HR pixel positions. We derive a parameter-free probabilistic model for this to-be-estimated sequence of interpolation functions. Then, we solve the estimation problem using a trellis representation and the Viterbi algorithm. Using directional interpolation functions and sequence estimation techniques, we classify the new algorithm as an adaptive directional interpolation using soft-decision estimation techniques. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm yields images with higher or comparable peak signal-to-noise ratios compared with some benchmark interpolation methods in the literature while being efficient in terms of implementation and complexity considerations.
Kong, Gyuyeol; Choi, Sooyong
2017-09-01
An enhanced 2/3 four-ary modulation code using soft-decision Viterbi decoding is proposed for four-level holographic data storage systems. While the previous four-ary modulation codes focus on preventing maximum two-dimensional intersymbol interference patterns, the proposed four-ary modulation code aims at maximizing the coding gains for better bit error rate performances. For achieving significant coding gains from the four-ary modulation codes, we design a new 2/3 four-ary modulation code in order to enlarge the free distance on the trellis through extensive simulation. The free distance of the proposed four-ary modulation code is extended from 1.21 to 2.04 compared with that of the conventional four-ary modulation code. The simulation result shows that the proposed four-ary modulation code has more than 1 dB gains compared with the conventional four-ary modulation code.
Rice, R. F.; Hilbert, E. E. (Inventor)
1976-01-01
A space communication system incorporating a concatenated Reed Solomon Viterbi coding channel is discussed for transmitting compressed and uncompressed data from a spacecraft to a data processing center on Earth. Imaging (and other) data are first compressed into source blocks which are then coded by a Reed Solomon coder and interleaver, followed by a convolutional encoder. The received data is first decoded by a Viterbi decoder, followed by a Reed Solomon decoder and deinterleaver. The output of the latter is then decompressed, based on the compression criteria used in compressing the data in the spacecraft. The decompressed data is processed to reconstruct an approximation of the original data-producing condition or images.
Real-time minimal-bit-error probability decoding of convolutional codes
Lee, L.-N.
1974-01-01
A recursive procedure is derived for decoding of rate R = 1/n binary convolutional codes which minimizes the probability of the individual decoding decisions for each information bit, subject to the constraint that the decoding delay be limited to Delta branches. This new decoding algorithm is similar to, but somewhat more complex than, the Viterbi decoding algorithm. A real-time, i.e., fixed decoding delay, version of the Viterbi algorithm is also developed and used for comparison to the new algorithm on simulated channels. It is shown that the new algorithm offers advantages over Viterbi decoding in soft-decision applications, such as in the inner coding system for concatenated coding.
Real-time minimal bit error probability decoding of convolutional codes
Lee, L. N.
1973-01-01
A recursive procedure is derived for decoding of rate R=1/n binary convolutional codes which minimizes the probability of the individual decoding decisions for each information bit subject to the constraint that the decoding delay be limited to Delta branches. This new decoding algorithm is similar to, but somewhat more complex than, the Viterbi decoding algorithm. A real-time, i.e. fixed decoding delay, version of the Viterbi algorithm is also developed and used for comparison to the new algorithm on simulated channels. It is shown that the new algorithm offers advantages over Viterbi decoding in soft-decision applications such as in the inner coding system for concatenated coding.
Adaptive decoding of convolutional codes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Hueske
2007-06-01
Full Text Available Convolutional codes, which are frequently used as error correction codes in digital transmission systems, are generally decoded using the Viterbi Decoder. On the one hand the Viterbi Decoder is an optimum maximum likelihood decoder, i.e. the most probable transmitted code sequence is obtained. On the other hand the mathematical complexity of the algorithm only depends on the used code, not on the number of transmission errors. To reduce the complexity of the decoding process for good transmission conditions, an alternative syndrome based decoder is presented. The reduction of complexity is realized by two different approaches, the syndrome zero sequence deactivation and the path metric equalization. The two approaches enable an easy adaptation of the decoding complexity for different transmission conditions, which results in a trade-off between decoding complexity and error correction performance.
Adaptive decoding of convolutional codes
Hueske, K.; Geldmacher, J.; Götze, J.
2007-06-01
Convolutional codes, which are frequently used as error correction codes in digital transmission systems, are generally decoded using the Viterbi Decoder. On the one hand the Viterbi Decoder is an optimum maximum likelihood decoder, i.e. the most probable transmitted code sequence is obtained. On the other hand the mathematical complexity of the algorithm only depends on the used code, not on the number of transmission errors. To reduce the complexity of the decoding process for good transmission conditions, an alternative syndrome based decoder is presented. The reduction of complexity is realized by two different approaches, the syndrome zero sequence deactivation and the path metric equalization. The two approaches enable an easy adaptation of the decoding complexity for different transmission conditions, which results in a trade-off between decoding complexity and error correction performance.
Improved decoding for a concatenated coding system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Paaske, Erik
1990-01-01
The concatenated coding system recommended by CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) uses an outer (255,233) Reed-Solomon (RS) code based on 8-b symbols, followed by the block interleaver and an inner rate 1/2 convolutional code with memory 6. Viterbi decoding is assumed. Two new...... decoding procedures based on repeated decoding trials and exchange of information between the two decoders and the deinterleaver are proposed. In the first one, where the improvement is 0.3-0.4 dB, only the RS decoder performs repeated trials. In the second one, where the improvement is 0.5-0.6 dB, both...... decoders perform repeated decoding trials and decoding information is exchanged between them...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Keibler, Evan; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan; Brent, Michael R
2007-01-01
MOTIVATION: Hidden Markov models (HMMs) and generalized HMMs been successfully applied to many problems, but the standard Viterbi algorithm for computing the most probable interpretation of an input sequence (known as decoding) requires memory proportional to the length of the sequence, which can...... be prohibitive. Existing approaches to reducing memory usage either sacrifice optimality or trade increased running time for reduced memory. RESULTS: We developed two novel decoding algorithms, Treeterbi and Parallel Treeterbi, and implemented them in the TWINSCAN/N-SCAN gene-prediction system. The worst case...... asymptotic space and time are the same as for standard Viterbi, but in practice, Treeterbi optimally decodes arbitrarily long sequences with generalized HMMs in bounded memory without increasing running time. Parallel Treeterbi uses the same ideas to split optimal decoding across processors, dividing latency...
Trellises and Trellis-Based Decoding Algorithms for Linear Block Codes
Lin, Shu
1998-01-01
A code trellis is a graphical representation of a code, block or convolutional, in which every path represents a codeword (or a code sequence for a convolutional code). This representation makes it possible to implement Maximum Likelihood Decoding (MLD) of a code with reduced decoding complexity. The most well known trellis-based MLD algorithm is the Viterbi algorithm. The trellis representation was first introduced and used for convolutional codes [23]. This representation, together with the Viterbi decoding algorithm, has resulted in a wide range of applications of convolutional codes for error control in digital communications over the last two decades. There are two major reasons for this inactive period of research in this area. First, most coding theorists at that time believed that block codes did not have simple trellis structure like convolutional codes and maximum likelihood decoding of linear block codes using the Viterbi algorithm was practically impossible, except for very short block codes. Second, since almost all of the linear block codes are constructed algebraically or based on finite geometries, it was the belief of many coding theorists that algebraic decoding was the only way to decode these codes. These two reasons seriously hindered the development of efficient soft-decision decoding methods for linear block codes and their applications to error control in digital communications. This led to a general belief that block codes are inferior to convolutional codes and hence, that they were not useful. Chapter 2 gives a brief review of linear block codes. The goal is to provide the essential background material for the development of trellis structure and trellis-based decoding algorithms for linear block codes in the later chapters. Chapters 3 through 6 present the fundamental concepts, finite-state machine model, state space formulation, basic structural properties, state labeling, construction procedures, complexity, minimality, and
The Viterbi Algorithm expressed in Constraint Handling Rules
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Henning; Have, Christian Theil; Lassen, Ole Torp
2010-01-01
The Viterbi algorithm is a classical example of a dynamic programming algorithm, in which pruning reduces the search space drastically, so that an otherwise exponential time complexity is reduced to linearity. The central steps of the algorithm, expansion and pruning, can be expressed in a concis...
High-speed architecture for the decoding of trellis-coded modulation
Osborne, William P.
1992-01-01
Since 1971, when the Viterbi Algorithm was introduced as the optimal method of decoding convolutional codes, improvements in circuit technology, especially VLSI, have steadily increased its speed and practicality. Trellis-Coded Modulation (TCM) combines convolutional coding with higher level modulation (non-binary source alphabet) to provide forward error correction and spectral efficiency. For binary codes, the current stare-of-the-art is a 64-state Viterbi decoder on a single CMOS chip, operating at a data rate of 25 Mbps. Recently, there has been an interest in increasing the speed of the Viterbi Algorithm by improving the decoder architecture, or by reducing the algorithm itself. Designs employing new architectural techniques are now in existence, however these techniques are currently applied to simpler binary codes, not to TCM. The purpose of this report is to discuss TCM architectural considerations in general, and to present the design, at the logic gate level, or a specific TCM decoder which applies these considerations to achieve high-speed decoding.
Symbol synchronization for the TDRSS decoder
Costello, D. J., Jr.
1983-01-01
Each 8 bits out of the Viterbi decoder correspond to one symbol of the R/S code. Synchronization must be maintained here so that each 8-bit symbol delivered to the R/S decoder corresponds to an 8-bit symbol from the R/S encoder. Lack of synchronization, would cause an error in almost every R/S symbol since even a - 1-bit sync slip shifts every bit in each 8-bit symbol by one position, therby confusing the mapping betweeen 8-bit sequences and symbols. The error correcting capability of the R/S code would be exceeded. Possible ways to correcting this condition include: (1) designing the R/S decoder to recognize the overload and shifting the output sequence of the inner decoder to establish a different sync state; (2) using the characteristics of the inner decoder to establish symbol synchronization for the outer code, with or without a deinterleaver and an interleaver; and (3) modifying the encoder to alternate periodically between two sets of generators.
Moses, David A.; Mesgarani, Nima; Leonard, Matthew K.; Chang, Edward F.
2016-10-01
Objective. The superior temporal gyrus (STG) and neighboring brain regions play a key role in human language processing. Previous studies have attempted to reconstruct speech information from brain activity in the STG, but few of them incorporate the probabilistic framework and engineering methodology used in modern speech recognition systems. In this work, we describe the initial efforts toward the design of a neural speech recognition (NSR) system that performs continuous phoneme recognition on English stimuli with arbitrary vocabulary sizes using the high gamma band power of local field potentials in the STG and neighboring cortical areas obtained via electrocorticography. Approach. The system implements a Viterbi decoder that incorporates phoneme likelihood estimates from a linear discriminant analysis model and transition probabilities from an n-gram phonemic language model. Grid searches were used in an attempt to determine optimal parameterizations of the feature vectors and Viterbi decoder. Main results. The performance of the system was significantly improved by using spatiotemporal representations of the neural activity (as opposed to purely spatial representations) and by including language modeling and Viterbi decoding in the NSR system. Significance. These results emphasize the importance of modeling the temporal dynamics of neural responses when analyzing their variations with respect to varying stimuli and demonstrate that speech recognition techniques can be successfully leveraged when decoding speech from neural signals. Guided by the results detailed in this work, further development of the NSR system could have applications in the fields of automatic speech recognition and neural prosthetics.
On decoding of multi-level MPSK modulation codes
Lin, Shu; Gupta, Alok Kumar
1990-01-01
The decoding problem of multi-level block modulation codes is investigated. The hardware design of soft-decision Viterbi decoder for some short length 8-PSK block modulation codes is presented. An effective way to reduce the hardware complexity of the decoder by reducing the branch metric and path metric, using a non-uniform floating-point to integer mapping scheme, is proposed and discussed. The simulation results of the design are presented. The multi-stage decoding (MSD) of multi-level modulation codes is also investigated. The cases of soft-decision and hard-decision MSD are considered and their performance are evaluated for several codes of different lengths and different minimum squared Euclidean distances. It is shown that the soft-decision MSD reduces the decoding complexity drastically and it is suboptimum. The hard-decision MSD further simplifies the decoding while still maintaining a reasonable coding gain over the uncoded system, if the component codes are chosen properly. Finally, some basic 3-level 8-PSK modulation codes using BCH codes as component codes are constructed and their coding gains are found for hard decision multistage decoding.
Muhammad Asif; H.M.Rehan Afzal
2015-01-01
Convolutional codes are also known as Turbo codes because of their error correction capability. These codes are also awarded as Super product codes, because these codes have replaced the backward error correction codes. Turbo codes are much more efficient than previous backward error correction codes because these are Forward error correction (FEC) codes and there is no need for a feedback link to request the transmitter for retransmission of data, when bits are corrupted in the i...
Performance Analysis of M-QAM With Viterbi Soft-Decision Decoding
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Manso, Rogerio
2003-01-01
...) in Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) and Nakagami-m channels. Performance analyses for 16-QAM, 64-QAM, QPSK and BPSK associated with up to three convolutional codes, including the one used by the IEEE...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmed Abdulkadhim Hamad
2017-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper, different techniques are used to improve the turbo decoding of regular repeat accumulate (RA and irregular repeat accumulate (IRA codes. The adaptive scaling of a-posteriori information produced by Soft-output Viterbi decoder (SOVA is proposed. The encoded pilots are another scheme that applied for short length RA codes. This work also suggests a simple and a fast method to generate a random interleaver having a free 4 cycle Tanner graph. Progressive edge growth algorithm (PEG is also studied and simulated to create the Tanner graphs which have a great girth.
Keibler, Evan; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan; Brent, Michael R
2007-03-01
Hidden Markov models (HMMs) and generalized HMMs been successfully applied to many problems, but the standard Viterbi algorithm for computing the most probable interpretation of an input sequence (known as decoding) requires memory proportional to the length of the sequence, which can be prohibitive. Existing approaches to reducing memory usage either sacrifice optimality or trade increased running time for reduced memory. We developed two novel decoding algorithms, Treeterbi and Parallel Treeterbi, and implemented them in the TWINSCAN/N-SCAN gene-prediction system. The worst case asymptotic space and time are the same as for standard Viterbi, but in practice, Treeterbi optimally decodes arbitrarily long sequences with generalized HMMs in bounded memory without increasing running time. Parallel Treeterbi uses the same ideas to split optimal decoding across processors, dividing latency to completion by approximately the number of available processors with constant average overhead per processor. Using these algorithms, we were able to optimally decode all human chromosomes with N-SCAN, which increased its accuracy relative to heuristic solutions. We also implemented Treeterbi for Pairagon, our pair HMM based cDNA-to-genome aligner. The TWINSCAN/N-SCAN/PAIRAGON open source software package is available from http://genes.cse.wustl.edu.
STACK DECODING OF LINEAR BLOCK CODES FOR DISCRETE MEMORYLESS CHANNEL USING TREE DIAGRAM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Prashantha Kumar
2012-03-01
Full Text Available The boundaries between block and convolutional codes have become diffused after recent advances in the understanding of the trellis structure of block codes and the tail-biting structure of some convolutional codes. Therefore, decoding algorithms traditionally proposed for decoding convolutional codes have been applied for decoding certain classes of block codes. This paper presents the decoding of block codes using tree structure. Many good block codes are presently known. Several of them have been used in applications ranging from deep space communication to error control in storage systems. But the primary difficulty with applying Viterbi or BCJR algorithms to decode of block codes is that, even though they are optimum decoding methods, the promised bit error rates are not achieved in practice at data rates close to capacity. This is because the decoding effort is fixed and grows with block length, and thus only short block length codes can be used. Therefore, an important practical question is whether a suboptimal realizable soft decision decoding method can be found for block codes. A noteworthy result which provides a partial answer to this question is described in the following sections. This result of near optimum decoding will be used as motivation for the investigation of different soft decision decoding methods for linear block codes which can lead to the development of efficient decoding algorithms. The code tree can be treated as an expanded version of the trellis, where every path is totally distinct from every other path. We have derived the tree structure for (8, 4 and (16, 11 extended Hamming codes and have succeeded in implementing the soft decision stack algorithm to decode them. For the discrete memoryless channel, gains in excess of 1.5dB at a bit error rate of 10-5 with respect to conventional hard decision decoding are demonstrated for these codes.
Iterative channel decoding of FEC-based multiple-description codes.
Chang, Seok-Ho; Cosman, Pamela C; Milstein, Laurence B
2012-03-01
Multiple description coding has been receiving attention as a robust transmission framework for multimedia services. This paper studies the iterative decoding of FEC-based multiple description codes. The proposed decoding algorithms take advantage of the error detection capability of Reed-Solomon (RS) erasure codes. The information of correctly decoded RS codewords is exploited to enhance the error correction capability of the Viterbi algorithm at the next iteration of decoding. In the proposed algorithm, an intradescription interleaver is synergistically combined with the iterative decoder. The interleaver does not affect the performance of noniterative decoding but greatly enhances the performance when the system is iteratively decoded. We also address the optimal allocation of RS parity symbols for unequal error protection. For the optimal allocation in iterative decoding, we derive mathematical equations from which the probability distributions of description erasures can be generated in a simple way. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated over an orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing system. The results show that the performance of the multiple description codes is significantly enhanced.
Comparative investigation into Viterbi based and multiple hypothesis based track stitching
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Van der Merwe, LJ
2016-12-01
Full Text Available . A sequential Viterbi data association algorithm is then used to solve the trellis and associate track fragments with each other. A Kalman filter is used to determine the possible associations as well as the probabilities of the associations between...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom; Hjaltason, Johan
2005-01-01
We analyze the relation between iterative decoding and the extended parity check matrix. By considering a modified version of bit flipping, which produces a list of decoded words, we derive several relations between decodable error patterns and the parameters of the code. By developing a tree...... of codewords at minimal distance from the received vector, we also obtain new information about the code....
Emulating Wired Backhaul with Wireless Network Coding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, Henning; De Carvalho, Elisabeth; Popovski, Petar
2014-01-01
In this paper we address the need for wireless network densification. We propose a solution wherein the wired backhaul employed in heterogeneous cellular networks is replaced with wireless links, while maintaining the rate requirements of the uplink and downlink traffic of each user. The first...... of the two-way protocol. The transmit power is set high enough to enable successive decoding at the small cell base station where the downlink data to the user is first decoded and its contribution removed from the received signal followed by the uplink data from the user. The decoding of the second layer......, the uplink traffic to the user, remains identical to the one performed in a wired system. In the broadcast phase, the decoding of the downlink traffic can also be guaranteed to remain identical. Hence, our solution claims an emulation of a wired backhaul with wireless network coding with same performance. We...
A Novel Method for Decoding Any High-Order Hidden Markov Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fei Ye
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel method for decoding any high-order hidden Markov model. First, the high-order hidden Markov model is transformed into an equivalent first-order hidden Markov model by Hadar’s transformation. Next, the optimal state sequence of the equivalent first-order hidden Markov model is recognized by the existing Viterbi algorithm of the first-order hidden Markov model. Finally, the optimal state sequence of the high-order hidden Markov model is inferred from the optimal state sequence of the equivalent first-order hidden Markov model. This method provides a unified algorithm framework for decoding hidden Markov models including the first-order hidden Markov model and any high-order hidden Markov model.
Forced Sequence Sequential Decoding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Ole Riis
In this thesis we describe a new concatenated decoding scheme based on iterations between an inner sequentially decoded convolutional code of rate R=1/4 and memory M=23, and block interleaved outer Reed-Solomon codes with non-uniform profile. With this scheme decoding with good performance...... is possible as low as Eb/No=0.6 dB, which is about 1.7 dB below the signal-to-noise ratio that marks the cut-off rate for the convolutional code. This is possible since the iteration process provides the sequential decoders with side information that allows a smaller average load and minimizes the probability...... of computational overflow. Analytical results for the probability that the first Reed-Solomon word is decoded after C computations are presented. This is supported by simulation results that are also extended to other parameters....
Decoding Problem Gamblers' Signals: A Decision Model for Casino Enterprises.
Ifrim, Sandra
2015-12-01
The aim of the present study is to offer a validated decision model for casino enterprises. The model enables those users to perform early detection of problem gamblers and fulfill their ethical duty of social cost minimization. To this end, the interpretation of casino customers' nonverbal communication is understood as a signal-processing problem. Indicators of problem gambling recommended by Delfabbro et al. (Identifying problem gamblers in gambling venues: final report, 2007) are combined with Viterbi algorithm into an interdisciplinary model that helps decoding signals emitted by casino customers. Model output consists of a historical path of mental states and cumulated social costs associated with a particular client. Groups of problem and non-problem gamblers were simulated to investigate the model's diagnostic capability and its cost minimization ability. Each group consisted of 26 subjects and was subsequently enlarged to 100 subjects. In approximately 95% of the cases, mental states were correctly decoded for problem gamblers. Statistical analysis using planned contrasts revealed that the model is relatively robust to the suppression of signals performed by casino clientele facing gambling problems as well as to misjudgments made by staff regarding the clients' mental states. Only if the last mentioned source of error occurs in a very pronounced manner, i.e. judgment is extremely faulty, cumulated social costs might be distorted.
Un calcul de Viterbi pour un Modèle de Markov Caché Contraint
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petit, Matthieu; Christiansen, Henning
2009-01-01
A hidden Markov model (HMM) is a statistical model in which the system being modeled is assumed to be a Markov process with hidden states. This model has been widely used in speech recognition and biological sequence analysis. Viterbi algorithm has been proposed to compute the most probable value....... Several constraint techniques are used to reduce the search of the most probable value of hidden states of a constrained HMM. An implementation based on PRISM, a logic programming language for statistical modeling, is presented....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren
1999-01-01
MPEG-2 video decoding is examined. A unified approach to quality improvement, chrominance upsampling, de-interlacing and superresolution is presented. The information over several frames is combined as part of the processing....
Forced Sequence Sequential Decoding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Ole Riis; Paaske, Erik
1998-01-01
We describe a new concatenated decoding scheme based on iterations between an inner sequentially decoded convolutional code of rate R=1/4 and memory M=23, and block interleaved outer Reed-Solomon (RS) codes with nonuniform profile. With this scheme decoding with good performance is possible as low...... as Eb/N0=0.6 dB, which is about 1.25 dB below the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) that marks the cutoff rate for the full system. Accounting for about 0.45 dB due to the outer codes, sequential decoding takes place at about 1.7 dB below the SNR cutoff rate for the convolutional code. This is possible since...... the iteration process provides the sequential decoders with side information that allows a smaller average load and minimizes the probability of computational overflow. Analytical results for the probability that the first RS word is decoded after C computations are presented. These results are supported...
Decoding communities in networks
Radicchi, Filippo
2018-02-01
According to a recent information-theoretical proposal, the problem of defining and identifying communities in networks can be interpreted as a classical communication task over a noisy channel: memberships of nodes are information bits erased by the channel, edges and nonedges in the network are parity bits introduced by the encoder but degraded through the channel, and a community identification algorithm is a decoder. The interpretation is perfectly equivalent to the one at the basis of well-known statistical inference algorithms for community detection. The only difference in the interpretation is that a noisy channel replaces a stochastic network model. However, the different perspective gives the opportunity to take advantage of the rich set of tools of coding theory to generate novel insights on the problem of community detection. In this paper, we illustrate two main applications of standard coding-theoretical methods to community detection. First, we leverage a state-of-the-art decoding technique to generate a family of quasioptimal community detection algorithms. Second and more important, we show that the Shannon's noisy-channel coding theorem can be invoked to establish a lower bound, here named as decodability bound, for the maximum amount of noise tolerable by an ideal decoder to achieve perfect detection of communities. When computed for well-established synthetic benchmarks, the decodability bound explains accurately the performance achieved by the best community detection algorithms existing on the market, telling us that only little room for their improvement is still potentially left.
Decoding communities in networks.
Radicchi, Filippo
2018-02-01
According to a recent information-theoretical proposal, the problem of defining and identifying communities in networks can be interpreted as a classical communication task over a noisy channel: memberships of nodes are information bits erased by the channel, edges and nonedges in the network are parity bits introduced by the encoder but degraded through the channel, and a community identification algorithm is a decoder. The interpretation is perfectly equivalent to the one at the basis of well-known statistical inference algorithms for community detection. The only difference in the interpretation is that a noisy channel replaces a stochastic network model. However, the different perspective gives the opportunity to take advantage of the rich set of tools of coding theory to generate novel insights on the problem of community detection. In this paper, we illustrate two main applications of standard coding-theoretical methods to community detection. First, we leverage a state-of-the-art decoding technique to generate a family of quasioptimal community detection algorithms. Second and more important, we show that the Shannon's noisy-channel coding theorem can be invoked to establish a lower bound, here named as decodability bound, for the maximum amount of noise tolerable by an ideal decoder to achieve perfect detection of communities. When computed for well-established synthetic benchmarks, the decodability bound explains accurately the performance achieved by the best community detection algorithms existing on the market, telling us that only little room for their improvement is still potentially left.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Rasmus Refslund
2002-01-01
This paper describes an efficient decoding method for a recent construction of good linear codes as well as an extension to the construction. Furthermore, asymptotic properties and list decoding of the codes are discussed.......This paper describes an efficient decoding method for a recent construction of good linear codes as well as an extension to the construction. Furthermore, asymptotic properties and list decoding of the codes are discussed....
Coding and decoding with dendrites.
Papoutsi, Athanasia; Kastellakis, George; Psarrou, Maria; Anastasakis, Stelios; Poirazi, Panayiota
2014-02-01
Since the discovery of complex, voltage dependent mechanisms in the dendrites of multiple neuron types, great effort has been devoted in search of a direct link between dendritic properties and specific neuronal functions. Over the last few years, new experimental techniques have allowed the visualization and probing of dendritic anatomy, plasticity and integrative schemes with unprecedented detail. This vast amount of information has caused a paradigm shift in the study of memory, one of the most important pursuits in Neuroscience, and calls for the development of novel theories and models that will unify the available data according to some basic principles. Traditional models of memory considered neural cells as the fundamental processing units in the brain. Recent studies however are proposing new theories in which memory is not only formed by modifying the synaptic connections between neurons, but also by modifications of intrinsic and anatomical dendritic properties as well as fine tuning of the wiring diagram. In this review paper we present previous studies along with recent findings from our group that support a key role of dendrites in information processing, including the encoding and decoding of new memories, both at the single cell and the network level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Shannon limit of the channel. Among the earliest discovered codes that approach the. Shannon limit were the low density parity check (LDPC) codes. The term low density arises from the property of the parity check matrix defining the code. We will now define this matrix and the role that it plays in decoding. 2. Linear Codes.
Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.
1967-01-01
Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber.Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.
Proportional multi-wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle. Proportional wire chambers allow a much quicker reading than the optical or magnetoscriptive readout wire chambers.
A Novel Entropy-Based Decoding Algorithm for a Generalized High-Order Discrete Hidden Markov Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jason Chin-Tiong Chan
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The optimal state sequence of a generalized High-Order Hidden Markov Model (HHMM is tracked from a given observational sequence using the classical Viterbi algorithm. This classical algorithm is based on maximum likelihood criterion. We introduce an entropy-based Viterbi algorithm for tracking the optimal state sequence of a HHMM. The entropy of a state sequence is a useful quantity, providing a measure of the uncertainty of a HHMM. There will be no uncertainty if there is only one possible optimal state sequence for HHMM. This entropy-based decoding algorithm can be formulated in an extended or a reduction approach. We extend the entropy-based algorithm for computing the optimal state sequence that was developed from a first-order to a generalized HHMM with a single observational sequence. This extended algorithm performs the computation exponentially with respect to the order of HMM. The computational complexity of this extended algorithm is due to the growth of the model parameters. We introduce an efficient entropy-based decoding algorithm that used reduction approach, namely, entropy-based order-transformation forward algorithm (EOTFA to compute the optimal state sequence of any generalized HHMM. This EOTFA algorithm involves a transformation of a generalized high-order HMM into an equivalent first-order HMM and an entropy-based decoding algorithm is developed based on the equivalent first-order HMM. This algorithm performs the computation based on the observational sequence and it requires OTN~2 calculations, where N~ is the number of states in an equivalent first-order model and T is the length of observational sequence.
On minimizing the maximum broadcast decoding delay for instantly decodable network coding
Douik, Ahmed S.; Sorour, Sameh; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ai-Naffouri, Tareq Y.
2014-01-01
In this paper, we consider the problem of minimizing the maximum broadcast decoding delay experienced by all the receivers of generalized instantly decodable network coding (IDNC). Unlike the sum decoding delay, the maximum decoding delay as a
CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit; Antonerakis, S E
2002-01-01
Decoding the Human genome is a very up-to-date topic, raising several questions besides purely scientific, in view of the two competing teams (public and private), the ethics of using the results, and the fact that the project went apparently faster and easier than expected. The lecture series will address the following chapters: Scientific basis and challenges. Ethical and social aspects of genomics.
1985-01-01
Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.
Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.
Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.
Was used in ISR (Intersecting Storage Ring) split field magnet experiment. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.
Decoding Facial Expressions: A New Test with Decoding Norms.
Leathers, Dale G.; Emigh, Ted H.
1980-01-01
Describes the development and testing of a new facial meaning sensitivity test designed to determine how specialized are the meanings that can be decoded from facial expressions. Demonstrates the use of the test to measure a receiver's current level of skill in decoding facial expressions. (JMF)
High-Speed Soft-Decision Decoding of Two Reed-Muller Codes
Lin, Shu; Uehara, Gregory T.
1996-01-01
In his research, we have proposed the (64, 40, 8) subcode of the third-order Reed-Muller (RM) code to NASA for high-speed satellite communications. This RM subcode can be used either alone or as an inner code of a concatenated coding system with the NASA standard (255, 233, 33) Reed-Solomon (RS) code as the outer code to achieve high performance (or low bit-error rate) with reduced decoding complexity. It can also be used as a component code in a multilevel bandwidth efficient coded modulation system to achieve reliable bandwidth efficient data transmission. This report will summarize the key progress we have made toward achieving our eventual goal of implementing a decoder system based upon this code. In the first phase of study, we investigated the complexities of various sectionalized trellis diagrams for the proposed (64, 40, 8) RNI subcode. We found a specific 8-trellis diagram for this code which requires the least decoding complexity with a high possibility of achieving a decoding speed of 600 M bits per second (Mbps). The combination of a large number of states and a hi ch data rate will be made possible due to the utilization of a high degree of parallelism throughout the architecture. This trellis diagram will be presented and briefly described. In the second phase of study which was carried out through the past year, we investigated circuit architectures to determine the feasibility of VLSI implementation of a high-speed Viterbi decoder based on this 8-section trellis diagram. We began to examine specific design and implementation approaches to implement a fully custom integrated circuit (IC) which will be a key building block for a decoder system implementation. The key results will be presented in this report. This report will be divided into three primary sections. First, we will briefly describe the system block diagram in which the proposed decoder is assumed to be operating and present some of the key architectural approaches being used to
List Decoding of Algebraic Codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Johan Sebastian Rosenkilde
We investigate three paradigms for polynomial-time decoding of Reed–Solomon codes beyond half the minimum distance: the Guruswami–Sudan algorithm, Power decoding and the Wu algorithm. The main results concern shaping the computational core of all three methods to a problem solvable by module...... Hermitian codes using Guruswami–Sudan or Power decoding faster than previously known, and we show how to Wu list decode binary Goppa codes....... to solve such using module minimisation, or using our new Demand–Driven algorithm which is also based on module minimisation. The decoding paradigms are all derived and analysed in a self-contained manner, often in new ways or examined in greater depth than previously. Among a number of new results, we...
Bogler, Carsten; Mehnert, Jan; Steinbrink, Jens; Haynes, John-Dylan
2014-01-01
Sustained, long-term cognitive workload is associated with variations and decrements in performance. Such fluctuations in vigilance can be a risk factor especially during dangerous attention demanding activities. Functional MRI studies have shown that attentional performance is correlated with BOLD-signals, especially in parietal and prefrontal cortical regions. An interesting question is whether these BOLD-signals could be measured in real-world scenarios, say to warn in a dangerous workplace whenever a subjects' vigilance is low. Because fMRI lacks the mobility needed for such applications, we tested whether the monitoring of vigilance might be possible using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS). NIRS is a highly mobile technique that measures hemodynamics in the surface of the brain. We demonstrate that non-invasive NIRS signals correlate with vigilance. These signals carry enough information to decode subjects' reaction times at a single trial level.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carsten Bogler
Full Text Available Sustained, long-term cognitive workload is associated with variations and decrements in performance. Such fluctuations in vigilance can be a risk factor especially during dangerous attention demanding activities. Functional MRI studies have shown that attentional performance is correlated with BOLD-signals, especially in parietal and prefrontal cortical regions. An interesting question is whether these BOLD-signals could be measured in real-world scenarios, say to warn in a dangerous workplace whenever a subjects' vigilance is low. Because fMRI lacks the mobility needed for such applications, we tested whether the monitoring of vigilance might be possible using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS. NIRS is a highly mobile technique that measures hemodynamics in the surface of the brain. We demonstrate that non-invasive NIRS signals correlate with vigilance. These signals carry enough information to decode subjects' reaction times at a single trial level.
Astrophysics Decoding the cosmos
Irwin, Judith A
2007-01-01
Astrophysics: Decoding the Cosmos is an accessible introduction to the key principles and theories underlying astrophysics. This text takes a close look at the radiation and particles that we receive from astronomical objects, providing a thorough understanding of what this tells us, drawing the information together using examples to illustrate the process of astrophysics. Chapters dedicated to objects showing complex processes are written in an accessible manner and pull relevant background information together to put the subject firmly into context. The intention of the author is that the book will be a 'tool chest' for undergraduate astronomers wanting to know the how of astrophysics. Students will gain a thorough grasp of the key principles, ensuring that this often-difficult subject becomes more accessible.
Neural Decoder for Topological Codes
Torlai, Giacomo; Melko, Roger G.
2017-07-01
We present an algorithm for error correction in topological codes that exploits modern machine learning techniques. Our decoder is constructed from a stochastic neural network called a Boltzmann machine, of the type extensively used in deep learning. We provide a general prescription for the training of the network and a decoding strategy that is applicable to a wide variety of stabilizer codes with very little specialization. We demonstrate the neural decoder numerically on the well-known two-dimensional toric code with phase-flip errors.
Fast decoding algorithms for geometric coded apertures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Byard, Kevin
2015-01-01
Fast decoding algorithms are described for the class of coded aperture designs known as geometric coded apertures which were introduced by Gourlay and Stephen. When compared to the direct decoding method, the algorithms significantly reduce the number of calculations required when performing the decoding for these apertures and hence speed up the decoding process. Experimental tests confirm the efficacy of these fast algorithms, demonstrating a speed up of approximately two to three orders of magnitude over direct decoding.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Neng-Sheng Pai
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper applied speech recognition and RFID technologies to develop an omni-directional mobile robot into a robot with voice control and guide introduction functions. For speech recognition, the speech signals were captured by short-time processing. The speaker first recorded the isolated words for the robot to create speech database of specific speakers. After the speech pre-processing of this speech database, the feature parameters of cepstrum and delta-cepstrum were obtained using linear predictive coefficient (LPC. Then, the Hidden Markov Model (HMM was used for model training of the speech database, and the Viterbi algorithm was used to find an optimal state sequence as the reference sample for speech recognition. The trained reference model was put into the industrial computer on the robot platform, and the user entered the isolated words to be tested. After processing by the same reference model and comparing with previous reference model, the path of the maximum total probability in various models found using the Viterbi algorithm in the recognition was the recognition result. Finally, the speech recognition and RFID systems were achieved in an actual environment to prove its feasibility and stability, and implemented into the omni-directional mobile robot.
DNA base-calling from a nanopore using a Viterbi algorithm.
Timp, Winston; Comer, Jeffrey; Aksimentiev, Aleksei
2012-05-16
Nanopore-based DNA sequencing is the most promising third-generation sequencing method. It has superior read length, speed, and sample requirements compared with state-of-the-art second-generation methods. However, base-calling still presents substantial difficulty because the resolution of the technique is limited compared with the measured signal/noise ratio. Here we demonstrate a method to decode 3-bp-resolution nanopore electrical measurements into a DNA sequence using a Hidden Markov model. This method shows tremendous potential for accuracy (~98%), even with a poor signal/noise ratio. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fransson, S.G.
1993-01-01
Evaluation of pacemaker wires were performed by comparing Advanced Multiple Beam Equalization Radiography (AMBER) with conventional chest radiography. The scanning equalization technique of the AMBER unit makes it superior to conventional technique in the depiction of different structures in the mediastinum or in the pleural sinuses. So far motion artifacts have not been considered clinically important. The longer exposure time, however, may impair the assessment of pacemaker wires. The motion artifact described may not only make adequate evaluation impossible but may even give a false impression of a lead fracture. The difference between the two systems was significant. (orig.)
Decoding bipedal locomotion from the rat sensorimotor cortex
Rigosa, J.; Panarese, A.; Dominici, N.; Friedli, L.; van den Brand, R.; Carpaneto, J.; DiGiovanna, J.; Courtine, G.; Micera, S.
2015-10-01
Objective. Decoding forelimb movements from the firing activity of cortical neurons has been interfaced with robotic and prosthetic systems to replace lost upper limb functions in humans. Despite the potential of this approach to improve locomotion and facilitate gait rehabilitation, decoding lower limb movement from the motor cortex has received comparatively little attention. Here, we performed experiments to identify the type and amount of information that can be decoded from neuronal ensemble activity in the hindlimb area of the rat motor cortex during bipedal locomotor tasks. Approach. Rats were trained to stand, step on a treadmill, walk overground and climb staircases in a bipedal posture. To impose this gait, the rats were secured in a robotic interface that provided support against the direction of gravity and in the mediolateral direction, but behaved transparently in the forward direction. After completion of training, rats were chronically implanted with a micro-wire array spanning the left hindlimb motor cortex to record single and multi-unit activity, and bipolar electrodes into 10 muscles of the right hindlimb to monitor electromyographic signals. Whole-body kinematics, muscle activity, and neural signals were simultaneously recorded during execution of the trained tasks over multiple days of testing. Hindlimb kinematics, muscle activity, gait phases, and locomotor tasks were decoded using offline classification algorithms. Main results. We found that the stance and swing phases of gait and the locomotor tasks were detected with accuracies as robust as 90% in all rats. Decoded hindlimb kinematics and muscle activity exhibited a larger variability across rats and tasks. Significance. Our study shows that the rodent motor cortex contains useful information for lower limb neuroprosthetic development. However, brain-machine interfaces estimating gait phases or locomotor behaviors, instead of continuous variables such as limb joint positions or speeds
Orientation decoding: Sense in spirals?
Clifford, Colin W G; Mannion, Damien J
2015-04-15
The orientation of a visual stimulus can be successfully decoded from the multivariate pattern of fMRI activity in human visual cortex. Whether this capacity requires coarse-scale orientation biases is controversial. We and others have advocated the use of spiral stimuli to eliminate a potential coarse-scale bias-the radial bias toward local orientations that are collinear with the centre of gaze-and hence narrow down the potential coarse-scale biases that could contribute to orientation decoding. The usefulness of this strategy is challenged by the computational simulations of Carlson (2014), who reported the ability to successfully decode spirals of opposite sense (opening clockwise or counter-clockwise) from the pooled output of purportedly unbiased orientation filters. Here, we elaborate the mathematical relationship between spirals of opposite sense to confirm that they cannot be discriminated on the basis of the pooled output of unbiased or radially biased orientation filters. We then demonstrate that Carlson's (2014) reported decoding ability is consistent with the presence of inadvertent biases in the set of orientation filters; biases introduced by their digital implementation and unrelated to the brain's processing of orientation. These analyses demonstrate that spirals must be processed with an orientation bias other than the radial bias for successful decoding of spiral sense. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Khorasani, Abed; Heydari Beni, Nargess; Shalchyan, Vahid; Daliri, Mohammad Reza
2016-10-21
Local field potential (LFP) signals recorded by intracortical microelectrodes implanted in primary motor cortex can be used as a high informative input for decoding of motor functions. Recent studies show that different kinematic parameters such as position and velocity can be inferred from multiple LFP signals as precisely as spiking activities, however, continuous decoding of the force magnitude from the LFP signals in freely moving animals has remained an open problem. Here, we trained three rats to press a force sensor for getting a drop of water as a reward. A 16-channel micro-wire array was implanted in the primary motor cortex of each trained rat, and obtained LFP signals were used for decoding of the continuous values recorded by the force sensor. Average coefficient of correlation and the coefficient of determination between decoded and actual force signals were r = 0.66 and R 2 = 0.42, respectively. We found that LFP signal on gamma frequency bands (30-120 Hz) had the most contribution in the trained decoding model. This study suggests the feasibility of using low number of LFP channels for the continuous force decoding in freely moving animals resembling BMI systems in real life applications.
Soft-decision decoding of RS codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Justesen, Jørn
2005-01-01
By introducing a few simplifying assumptions we derive a simple condition for successful decoding using the Koetter-Vardy algorithm for soft-decision decoding of RS codes. We show that the algorithm has a significant advantage over hard decision decoding when the code rate is low, when two or more...
Toric Codes, Multiplicative Structure and Decoding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Johan Peder
2017-01-01
Long linear codes constructed from toric varieties over finite fields, their multiplicative structure and decoding. The main theme is the inherent multiplicative structure on toric codes. The multiplicative structure allows for \\emph{decoding}, resembling the decoding of Reed-Solomon codes and al...
Decoding intention at sensorimotor timescales.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mathew Salvaris
Full Text Available The ability to decode an individual's intentions in real time has long been a 'holy grail' of research on human volition. For example, a reliable method could be used to improve scientific study of voluntary action by allowing external probe stimuli to be delivered at different moments during development of intention and action. Several Brain Computer Interface applications have used motor imagery of repetitive actions to achieve this goal. These systems are relatively successful, but only if the intention is sustained over a period of several seconds; much longer than the timescales identified in psychophysiological studies for normal preparation for voluntary action. We have used a combination of sensorimotor rhythms and motor imagery training to decode intentions in a single-trial cued-response paradigm similar to those used in human and non-human primate motor control research. Decoding accuracy of over 0.83 was achieved with twelve participants. With this approach, we could decode intentions to move the left or right hand at sub-second timescales, both for instructed choices instructed by an external stimulus and for free choices generated intentionally by the participant. The implications for volition are considered.
Dynamics of intracellular information decoding
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobayashi, Tetsuya J; Kamimura, Atsushi
2011-01-01
A variety of cellular functions are robust even to substantial intrinsic and extrinsic noise in intracellular reactions and the environment that could be strong enough to impair or limit them. In particular, of substantial importance is cellular decision-making in which a cell chooses a fate or behavior on the basis of information conveyed in noisy external signals. For robust decoding, the crucial step is filtering out the noise inevitably added during information transmission. As a minimal and optimal implementation of such an information decoding process, the autocatalytic phosphorylation and autocatalytic dephosphorylation (aPadP) cycle was recently proposed. Here, we analyze the dynamical properties of the aPadP cycle in detail. We describe the dynamical roles of the stationary and short-term responses in determining the efficiency of information decoding and clarify the optimality of the threshold value of the stationary response and its information-theoretical meaning. Furthermore, we investigate the robustness of the aPadP cycle against the receptor inactivation time and intrinsic noise. Finally, we discuss the relationship among information decoding with information-dependent actions, bet-hedging and network modularity
Dynamics of intracellular information decoding.
Kobayashi, Tetsuya J; Kamimura, Atsushi
2011-10-01
A variety of cellular functions are robust even to substantial intrinsic and extrinsic noise in intracellular reactions and the environment that could be strong enough to impair or limit them. In particular, of substantial importance is cellular decision-making in which a cell chooses a fate or behavior on the basis of information conveyed in noisy external signals. For robust decoding, the crucial step is filtering out the noise inevitably added during information transmission. As a minimal and optimal implementation of such an information decoding process, the autocatalytic phosphorylation and autocatalytic dephosphorylation (aPadP) cycle was recently proposed. Here, we analyze the dynamical properties of the aPadP cycle in detail. We describe the dynamical roles of the stationary and short-term responses in determining the efficiency of information decoding and clarify the optimality of the threshold value of the stationary response and its information-theoretical meaning. Furthermore, we investigate the robustness of the aPadP cycle against the receptor inactivation time and intrinsic noise. Finally, we discuss the relationship among information decoding with information-dependent actions, bet-hedging and network modularity.
Human Genome Research: Decoding DNA
dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis Human Genome Research: Decoding DNA Resources with of the DNA double helix during April 2003. James D. Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins were company Celera announced the completion of a "working draft" reference DNA sequence of the human
Liu, K. Y.
1986-01-01
High-speed decoder intended for use with Reed-Solomon (RS) codes of long code length and high error-correcting capability. Design based on algorithm that includes high-radix Fermat transform procedure, which is most efficient for high speeds. RS code in question has code-word length of 256 symbols, of which 224 are information symbols and 32 are redundant.
On Decoding Interleaved Chinese Remainder Codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Wenhui; Sidorenko, Vladimir; Nielsen, Johan Sebastian Rosenkilde
2013-01-01
We model the decoding of Interleaved Chinese Remainder codes as that of finding a short vector in a Z-lattice. Using the LLL algorithm, we obtain an efficient decoding algorithm, correcting errors beyond the unique decoding bound and having nearly linear complexity. The algorithm can fail...... with a probability dependent on the number of errors, and we give an upper bound for this. Simulation results indicate that the bound is close to the truth. We apply the proposed decoding algorithm for decoding a single CR code using the idea of “Power” decoding, suggested for Reed-Solomon codes. A combination...... of these two methods can be used to decode low-rate Interleaved Chinese Remainder codes....
Iterative decoding of SOVA and LDPC product code for bit-patterned media recoding
Jeong, Seongkwon; Lee, Jaejin
2018-05-01
The demand for high-density storage systems has increased due to the exponential growth of data. Bit-patterned media recording (BPMR) is one of the promising technologies to achieve the density of 1Tbit/in2 and higher. To increase the areal density in BPMR, the spacing between islands needs to be reduced, yet this aggravates inter-symbol interference and inter-track interference and degrades the bit error rate performance. In this paper, we propose a decision feedback scheme using low-density parity check (LDPC) product code for BPMR. This scheme can improve the decoding performance using an iterative approach with extrinsic information and log-likelihood ratio value between iterative soft output Viterbi algorithm and LDPC product code. Simulation results show that the proposed LDPC product code can offer 1.8dB and 2.3dB gains over the one LDPC code at the density of 2.5 and 3 Tb/in2, respectively, when bit error rate is 10-6.
Application of irradiated wire
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uda, I.; Kozima, K.; Suzuki, S.; Tada, S.; Torisu, S.; Veno, K.
1984-01-01
Rubber insulated wires are still useful for internal wiring in motor vehicles and electrical equipment because of flexibility and toughness. Irradiated cross-linked rubber materials have been successfully introduced for use with fusible link wire and helically coiled cord
Amaral, Barbara; Cabello, Adán; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Aolita, Leandro
2018-03-01
Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory necessary for certain models of quantum computation and communication. Serious steps have therefore been taken towards a formal framework for contextuality as an operational resource. However, the main ingredient of a resource theory—a concrete, explicit form of free operations of contextuality—was still missing. Here we provide such a component by introducing noncontextual wirings: a class of contextuality-free operations with a clear operational interpretation and a friendly parametrization. We characterize them completely for general black-box measurement devices with arbitrarily many inputs and outputs. As applications, we show that the relative entropy of contextuality is a contextuality monotone and that maximally contextual boxes that serve as contextuality bits exist for a broad class of scenarios. Our results complete a unified resource-theoretic framework for contextuality and Bell nonlocality.
LDPC Decoding on GPU for Mobile Device
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yiqin Lu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A flexible software LDPC decoder that exploits data parallelism for simultaneous multicode words decoding on the mobile device is proposed in this paper, supported by multithreading on OpenCL based graphics processing units. By dividing the check matrix into several parts to make full use of both the local memory and private memory on GPU and properly modify the code capacity each time, our implementation on a mobile phone shows throughputs above 100 Mbps and delay is less than 1.6 millisecond in decoding, which make high-speed communication like video calling possible. To realize efficient software LDPC decoding on the mobile device, the LDPC decoding feature on communication baseband chip should be replaced to save the cost and make it easier to upgrade decoder to be compatible with a variety of channel access schemes.
A class of Sudan-decodable codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Rasmus Refslund
2000-01-01
In this article, Sudan's algorithm is modified into an efficient method to list-decode a class of codes which can be seen as a generalization of Reed-Solomon codes. The algorithm is specialized into a very efficient method for unique decoding. The code construction can be generalized based...... on algebraic-geometry codes and the decoding algorithms are generalized accordingly. Comparisons with Reed-Solomon and Hermitian codes are made....
Interior point decoding for linear vector channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wadayama, T
2008-01-01
In this paper, a novel decoding algorithm for low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes based on convex optimization is presented. The decoding algorithm, called interior point decoding, is designed for linear vector channels. The linear vector channels include many practically important channels such as inter-symbol interference channels and partial response channels. It is shown that the maximum likelihood decoding (MLD) rule for a linear vector channel can be relaxed to a convex optimization problem, which is called a relaxed MLD problem
Interior point decoding for linear vector channels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wadayama, T [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi, 466-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: wadayama@nitech.ac.jp
2008-01-15
In this paper, a novel decoding algorithm for low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes based on convex optimization is presented. The decoding algorithm, called interior point decoding, is designed for linear vector channels. The linear vector channels include many practically important channels such as inter-symbol interference channels and partial response channels. It is shown that the maximum likelihood decoding (MLD) rule for a linear vector channel can be relaxed to a convex optimization problem, which is called a relaxed MLD problem.
Video encoder/decoder for encoding/decoding motion compensated images
1996-01-01
Video encoder and decoder, provided with a motion compensator for motion-compensated video coding or decoding in which a picture is coded or decoded in blocks in alternately horizontal and vertical steps. The motion compensator is provided with addressing means (160) and controlled multiplexers
Using Wireless Network Coding to Replace a Wired with Wireless Backhaul
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, Henning; De Carvalho, Elisabeth; Popovski, Petar
2014-01-01
of wireless emulated wire (WEW), based on two-way relaying and network coding. This setup leads to a new type of broadcast problem, with decoding conditions that are specific to the requirement for equivalence to the wired backhaul. We formulate and solve the associated optimization problems. The proposed...... approach is a convincing argument that wireless backhauling solutions should be designed and optimized for two-way communication....
Evaluation framework for K-best sphere decoders
Shen, Chungan; Eltawil, Ahmed M.; Salama, Khaled N.
2010-01-01
or receive antennas. Tree-searching type decoder structures such as Sphere decoder and K-best decoder present an interesting trade-off between complexity and performance. Many algorithmic developments and VLSI implementations have been reported in literature
Concatenated coding system with iterated sequential inner decoding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Ole Riis; Paaske, Erik
1995-01-01
We describe a concatenated coding system with iterated sequential inner decoding. The system uses convolutional codes of very long constraint length and operates on iterations between an inner Fano decoder and an outer Reed-Solomon decoder......We describe a concatenated coding system with iterated sequential inner decoding. The system uses convolutional codes of very long constraint length and operates on iterations between an inner Fano decoder and an outer Reed-Solomon decoder...
Application of Beyond Bound Decoding for High Speed Optical Communications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Bomin; Larsen, Knud J.; Vegas Olmos, Juan José
2013-01-01
This paper studies the application of beyond bound decoding method for high speed optical communications. This hard-decision decoding method outperforms traditional minimum distance decoding method, with a total net coding gain of 10.36 dB.......This paper studies the application of beyond bound decoding method for high speed optical communications. This hard-decision decoding method outperforms traditional minimum distance decoding method, with a total net coding gain of 10.36 dB....
Wire breakage in SLC wire profile monitors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Field, C.; McCormick, D.; Raimondi, P.; Ross, M.
1998-05-01
Wire scanning beam profile monitors are used at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) for emittance preservation control and beam optics optimization. Twenty such scanners have proven most useful for this purpose and have performed a total of 1.5 million scans in the 4 to 6 years since their installation. Most of the essential scanners are equipped with 20 to 40 microm tungsten wires. SLC bunch intensities and sizes often exceed 2 x 10 7 particles/microm 2 (3C/m 2 ). The authors believe that this has caused a number of tungsten wire failures that appear at the ends of the wire, near the wire support points, after a few hundred scans are accumulated. Carbon fibers, also widely used at SLAC, have been substituted in several scanners and have performed well. In this paper, the authors present theories for the wire failure mechanism and techniques learned in reducing the failures
On minimizing the maximum broadcast decoding delay for instantly decodable network coding
Douik, Ahmed S.
2014-09-01
In this paper, we consider the problem of minimizing the maximum broadcast decoding delay experienced by all the receivers of generalized instantly decodable network coding (IDNC). Unlike the sum decoding delay, the maximum decoding delay as a definition of delay for IDNC allows a more equitable distribution of the delays between the different receivers and thus a better Quality of Service (QoS). In order to solve this problem, we first derive the expressions for the probability distributions of maximum decoding delay increments. Given these expressions, we formulate the problem as a maximum weight clique problem in the IDNC graph. Although this problem is known to be NP-hard, we design a greedy algorithm to perform effective packet selection. Through extensive simulations, we compare the sum decoding delay and the max decoding delay experienced when applying the policies to minimize the sum decoding delay and our policy to reduce the max decoding delay. Simulations results show that our policy gives a good agreement among all the delay aspects in all situations and outperforms the sum decoding delay policy to effectively minimize the sum decoding delay when the channel conditions become harsher. They also show that our definition of delay significantly improve the number of served receivers when they are subject to strict delay constraints.
Best linear decoding of random mask images
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woods, J.W.; Ekstrom, M.P.; Palmieri, T.M.; Twogood, R.E.
1975-01-01
In 1968 Dicke proposed coded imaging of x and γ rays via random pinholes. Since then, many authors have agreed with him that this technique can offer significant image improvement. A best linear decoding of the coded image is presented, and its superiority over the conventional matched filter decoding is shown. Experimental results in the visible light region are presented. (U.S.)
Oppositional Decoding as an Act of Resistance.
Steiner, Linda
1988-01-01
Argues that contributors to the "No Comment" feature of "Ms." magazine are engaging in oppositional decoding and speculates on why this is a satisfying group process. Also notes such decoding presents another challenge to the idea that mass media has the same effect on all audiences. (SD)
Base Information Transport Infrastructure Wired (BITI Wired)
2016-03-01
2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Base Information Transport Infrastructure Wired (BITI Wired) Defense Acquisition Management...Combat Information Transport System program was restructured into two pre-Major Automated Information System (pre-MAIS) components: Information...Major Automated Information System MAIS OE - MAIS Original Estimate MAR – MAIS Annual Report MDA - Milestone Decision Authority MDD - Materiel
Wire bonding in microelectronics
Harman, George G
2010-01-01
Wire Bonding in Microelectronics, Third Edition, has been thoroughly revised to help you meet the challenges of today's small-scale and fine-pitch microelectronics. This authoritative guide covers every aspect of designing, manufacturing, and evaluating wire bonds engineered with cutting-edge techniques. In addition to gaining a full grasp of bonding technology, you'll learn how to create reliable bonds at exceedingly high yields, test wire bonds, solve common bonding problems, implement molecular cleaning methods, and much more. Coverage includes: Ultrasonic bonding systems and technologies, including high-frequency systems Bonding wire metallurgy and characteristics, including copper wire Wire bond testing Gold-aluminum intermetallic compounds and other interface reactions Gold and nickel-based bond pad plating materials and problems Cleaning to improve bondability and reliability Mechanical problems in wire bonding High-yield, fine-pitch, specialized-looping, soft-substrate, and extreme-temperature wire bo...
Porada, S.; Sales, B.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Biesheuvel, P.M.
2012-01-01
We show the significant potential of water desalination using a novel capacitive wire-based technology in which anode/cathode wire pairs are constructed from coating a thin porous carbon electrode layer on top of electrically conducting rods (or wires). By alternately dipping an array of electrode
Fast decoders for qudit topological codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anwar, Hussain; Brown, Benjamin J; Campbell, Earl T; Browne, Dan E
2014-01-01
Qudit toric codes are a natural higher-dimensional generalization of the well-studied qubit toric code. However, standard methods for error correction of the qubit toric code are not applicable to them. Novel decoders are needed. In this paper we introduce two renormalization group decoders for qudit codes and analyse their error correction thresholds and efficiency. The first decoder is a generalization of a ‘hard-decisions’ decoder due to Bravyi and Haah (arXiv:1112.3252). We modify this decoder to overcome a percolation effect which limits its threshold performance for many-level quantum systems. The second decoder is a generalization of a ‘soft-decisions’ decoder due to Poulin and Duclos-Cianci (2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 104 050504), with a small cell size to optimize the efficiency of implementation in the high dimensional case. In each case, we estimate thresholds for the uncorrelated bit-flip error model and provide a comparative analysis of the performance of both these approaches to error correction of qudit toric codes. (paper)
Iterative Decoding of Concatenated Codes: A Tutorial
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Phillip A. Regalia
2005-05-01
Full Text Available The turbo decoding algorithm of a decade ago constituted a milestone in error-correction coding for digital communications, and has inspired extensions to generalized receiver topologies, including turbo equalization, turbo synchronization, and turbo CDMA, among others. Despite an accrued understanding of iterative decoding over the years, the Ã¢Â€Âœturbo principleÃ¢Â€Â remains elusive to master analytically, thereby inciting interest from researchers outside the communications domain. In this spirit, we develop a tutorial presentation of iterative decoding for parallel and serial concatenated codes, in terms hopefully accessible to a broader audience. We motivate iterative decoding as a computationally tractable attempt to approach maximum-likelihood decoding, and characterize fixed points in terms of a Ã¢Â€ÂœconsensusÃ¢Â€Â property between constituent decoders. We review how the decoding algorithm for both parallel and serial concatenated codes coincides with an alternating projection algorithm, which allows one to identify conditions under which the algorithm indeed converges to a maximum-likelihood solution, in terms of particular likelihood functions factoring into the product of their marginals. The presentation emphasizes a common framework applicable to both parallel and serial concatenated codes.
Decoding small surface codes with feedforward neural networks
Varsamopoulos, Savvas; Criger, Ben; Bertels, Koen
2018-01-01
Surface codes reach high error thresholds when decoded with known algorithms, but the decoding time will likely exceed the available time budget, especially for near-term implementations. To decrease the decoding time, we reduce the decoding problem to a classification problem that a feedforward neural network can solve. We investigate quantum error correction and fault tolerance at small code distances using neural network-based decoders, demonstrating that the neural network can generalize to inputs that were not provided during training and that they can reach similar or better decoding performance compared to previous algorithms. We conclude by discussing the time required by a feedforward neural network decoder in hardware.
The serial message-passing schedule for LDPC decoding algorithms
Liu, Mingshan; Liu, Shanshan; Zhou, Yuan; Jiang, Xue
2015-12-01
The conventional message-passing schedule for LDPC decoding algorithms is the so-called flooding schedule. It has the disadvantage that the updated messages cannot be used until next iteration, thus reducing the convergence speed . In this case, the Layered Decoding algorithm (LBP) based on serial message-passing schedule is proposed. In this paper the decoding principle of LBP algorithm is briefly introduced, and then proposed its two improved algorithms, the grouped serial decoding algorithm (Grouped LBP) and the semi-serial decoding algorithm .They can improve LBP algorithm's decoding speed while maintaining a good decoding performance.
Fast decoding algorithms for coded aperture systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Byard, Kevin
2014-01-01
Fast decoding algorithms are described for a number of established coded aperture systems. The fast decoding algorithms for all these systems offer significant reductions in the number of calculations required when reconstructing images formed by a coded aperture system and hence require less computation time to produce the images. The algorithms may therefore be of use in applications that require fast image reconstruction, such as near real-time nuclear medicine and location of hazardous radioactive spillage. Experimental tests confirm the efficacy of the fast decoding techniques
Decoding Algorithms for Random Linear Network Codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heide, Janus; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk; Fitzek, Frank
2011-01-01
We consider the problem of efficient decoding of a random linear code over a finite field. In particular we are interested in the case where the code is random, relatively sparse, and use the binary finite field as an example. The goal is to decode the data using fewer operations to potentially...... achieve a high coding throughput, and reduce energy consumption.We use an on-the-fly version of the Gauss-Jordan algorithm as a baseline, and provide several simple improvements to reduce the number of operations needed to perform decoding. Our tests show that the improvements can reduce the number...
Three phase full wave dc motor decoder
Studer, P. A. (Inventor)
1977-01-01
A three phase decoder for dc motors is disclosed which employs an extremely simple six transistor circuit to derive six properly phased output signals for fullwave operation of dc motors. Six decoding transistors are coupled at their base-emitter junctions across a resistor network arranged in a delta configuration. Each point of the delta configuration is coupled to one of three position sensors which sense the rotational position of the motor. A second embodiment of the invention is disclosed in which photo-optical isolators are used in place of the decoding transistors.
1970-01-01
A wire chamber used at CERN's Proton Synchrotron accelerator in the 1970s. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.
Effect of wire shape on wire array discharge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shimomura, N.; Tanaka, Y.; Yushita, Y.; Nagata, M. [University of Tokushima, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tokushima (Japan); Teramoto, Y.; Katsuki, S.; Akiyama, H. [Kumamoto University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kumamoto (Japan)
2001-09-01
Although considerable investigations have been reported on z-pinches to achieve nuclear fusion, little attention has been given from the point of view of how a wire array consisting of many parallel wires explodes. Instability existing in the wire array discharge has been shown. In this paper, the effect of wire shape in the wire array on unstable behavior of the wire array discharge is represented by numerical analysis. The claws on the wire formed in installation of wire may cause uniform current distribution on wire array. The effect of error of wire diameter in production is computed by Monte Carlo Method. (author)
Effect of wire shape on wire array discharge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shimomura, N.; Tanaka, Y.; Yushita, Y.; Nagata, M.; Teramoto, Y.; Katsuki, S.; Akiyama, H.
2001-01-01
Although considerable investigations have been reported on z-pinches to achieve nuclear fusion, little attention has been given from the point of view of how a wire array consisting of many parallel wires explodes. Instability existing in the wire array discharge has been shown. In this paper, the effect of wire shape in the wire array on unstable behavior of the wire array discharge is represented by numerical analysis. The claws on the wire formed in installation of wire may cause uniform current distribution on wire array. The effect of error of wire diameter in production is computed by Monte Carlo Method. (author)
Improved Power Decoding of One-Point Hermitian Codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Puchinger, Sven; Bouw, Irene; Rosenkilde, Johan Sebastian Heesemann
2017-01-01
We propose a new partial decoding algorithm for one-point Hermitian codes that can decode up to the same number of errors as the Guruswami–Sudan decoder. Simulations suggest that it has a similar failure probability as the latter one. The algorithm is based on a recent generalization of the power...... decoding algorithm for Reed–Solomon codes and does not require an expensive root-finding step. In addition, it promises improvements for decoding interleaved Hermitian codes....
Decoding of interleaved Reed-Solomon codes using improved power decoding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Puchinger, Sven; Rosenkilde ne Nielsen, Johan
2017-01-01
We propose a new partial decoding algorithm for m-interleaved Reed-Solomon (IRS) codes that can decode, with high probability, a random error of relative weight 1 − Rm/m+1 at all code rates R, in time polynomial in the code length n. For m > 2, this is an asymptotic improvement over the previous...... state-of-the-art for all rates, and the first improvement for R > 1/3 in the last 20 years. The method combines collaborative decoding of IRS codes with power decoding up to the Johnson radius....
Low-Power Bitstream-Residual Decoder for H.264/AVC Baseline Profile Decoding
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xu Ke
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract We present the design and VLSI implementation of a novel low-power bitstream-residual decoder for H.264/AVC baseline profile. It comprises a syntax parser, a parameter decoder, and an Inverse Quantization Inverse Transform (IQIT decoder. The syntax parser detects and decodes each incoming codeword in the bitstream under the control of a hierarchical Finite State Machine (FSM; the IQIT decoder performs inverse transform and quantization with pipelining and parallelism. Various power reduction techniques, such as data-driven based on statistic results, nonuniform partition, precomputation, guarded evaluation, hierarchical FSM decomposition, TAG method, zero-block skipping, and clock gating , are adopted and integrated throughout the bitstream-residual decoder. With innovative architecture, the proposed design is able to decode QCIF video sequences of 30 fps at a clock rate as low as 1.5 MHz. A prototype H.264/AVC baseline decoding chip utilizing the proposed decoder is fabricated in UMC 0.18 m 1P6M CMOS technology. The proposed design is measured under 1 V 1.8 V supply with 0.1 V step. It dissipates 76 W at 1 V and 253 W at 1.8 V.
Decoding Dyslexia, a Common Learning Disability
... if they continue to struggle. Read More "Dyslexic" Articles In Their Own Words: Dealing with Dyslexia / Decoding Dyslexia, a Common Learning Disability / What is Dyslexia? / Special Education and Research ...
Multiuser Random Coding Techniques for Mismatched Decoding
Scarlett, Jonathan; Martinez, Alfonso; Guillén i Fàbregas, Albert
2016-01-01
This paper studies multiuser random coding techniques for channel coding with a given (possibly suboptimal) decoding rule. For the mismatched discrete memoryless multiple-access channel, an error exponent is obtained that is tight with respect to the ensemble average, and positive within the interior of Lapidoth's achievable rate region. This exponent proves the ensemble tightness of the exponent of Liu and Hughes in the case of maximum-likelihood decoding. An equivalent dual form of Lapidoth...
A novel parallel pipeline structure of VP9 decoder
Qin, Huabiao; Chen, Wu; Yi, Sijun; Tan, Yunfei; Yi, Huan
2018-04-01
To improve the efficiency of VP9 decoder, a novel parallel pipeline structure of VP9 decoder is presented in this paper. According to the decoding workflow, VP9 decoder can be divided into sub-modules which include entropy decoding, inverse quantization, inverse transform, intra prediction, inter prediction, deblocking and pixel adaptive compensation. By analyzing the computing time of each module, hotspot modules are located and the causes of low efficiency of VP9 decoder can be found. Then, a novel pipeline decoder structure is designed by using mixed parallel decoding methods of data division and function division. The experimental results show that this structure can greatly improve the decoding efficiency of VP9.
Adamatzky, Andrew
2014-01-01
In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate a new architecture for photovoltaic devices based on nanotechnology: photovoltaic wire. The...
Charpak hemispherical wire chamber
1970-01-01
pieces. Mesures are of the largest one. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.
1998 wire development workshop proceedings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1998-04-01
This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development
1998 wire development workshop proceedings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1998-04-01
This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development.
Coder and decoder of fractal signals of comb-type structure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Politanskyi R. L.
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The article presents a coder and decoder of fractal signals of comb-type structure (FSCS based on microcontrollers (MC. The coder and decoder consist of identical control modules, while their managed modules have different schematic constructions. The control module performs forming or recognition of signals, and also carries out the function of information exchange with a computer. The basic element of the control module is a PIC18F2550 microcontroller from MicroChip. The coder of the system forms fractal signals of a given order according to the information bits coming from the computer. Samples of the calculated values of the amplitudes of elementary rectangular pulses that constitute the structure of fractal pulses are stored in the memory of the microcontroller as a table. Minimum bit capacity of the DAC necessary for the generation of FSCS of fourth order is four bits. The operation algorithm, "wired" into the controller of the program, provides for encoding of the transmitted information by two-bit symbols. Recognition of the start of transmission of each byte in communication channel is performed by the transmission of the timing signal. In a decoder the microcontroller carries out reception and decoding of the received fractal signals which are then transmitted to the computer. The developed algorithm of the program for the microcontroller of the decoder is carried out by determination of order of fractal impulse after the value of sum of amplitudes of elementary impulses, constituents fractal signal. The programs for coder and decoder are written in "C". In the most critical places of the program influencing on the fast-acting of chart “assembler” insertions are done. The blocks of the coder and decoder were connected with a coaxial 10 meters long cable with an impendance of 75 Ohm. The signals generated by the developed coder of FSCS, were studied using a digital oscillograph. On the basis of the obtained spectrums, it is possible
Turner-Evans, Dan
Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction
FPGA implementation of low complexity LDPC iterative decoder
Verma, Shivani; Sharma, Sanjay
2016-07-01
Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, proposed by Gallager, emerged as a class of codes which can yield very good performance on the additive white Gaussian noise channel as well as on the binary symmetric channel. LDPC codes have gained lots of importance due to their capacity achieving property and excellent performance in the noisy channel. Belief propagation (BP) algorithm and its approximations, most notably min-sum, are popular iterative decoding algorithms used for LDPC and turbo codes. The trade-off between the hardware complexity and the decoding throughput is a critical factor in the implementation of the practical decoder. This article presents introduction to LDPC codes and its various decoding algorithms followed by realisation of LDPC decoder by using simplified message passing algorithm and partially parallel decoder architecture. Simplified message passing algorithm has been proposed for trade-off between low decoding complexity and decoder performance. It greatly reduces the routing and check node complexity of the decoder. Partially parallel decoder architecture possesses high speed and reduced complexity. The improved design of the decoder possesses a maximum symbol throughput of 92.95 Mbps and a maximum of 18 decoding iterations. The article presents implementation of 9216 bits, rate-1/2, (3, 6) LDPC decoder on Xilinx XC3D3400A device from Spartan-3A DSP family.
Performance breakdown in optimal stimulus decoding.
Lubomir Kostal; Lansky, Petr; Pilarski, Stevan
2015-06-01
One of the primary goals of neuroscience is to understand how neurons encode and process information about their environment. The problem is often approached indirectly by examining the degree to which the neuronal response reflects the stimulus feature of interest. In this context, the methods of signal estimation and detection theory provide the theoretical limits on the decoding accuracy with which the stimulus can be identified. The Cramér-Rao lower bound on the decoding precision is widely used, since it can be evaluated easily once the mathematical model of the stimulus-response relationship is determined. However, little is known about the behavior of different decoding schemes with respect to the bound if the neuronal population size is limited. We show that under broad conditions the optimal decoding displays a threshold-like shift in performance in dependence on the population size. The onset of the threshold determines a critical range where a small increment in size, signal-to-noise ratio or observation time yields a dramatic gain in the decoding precision. We demonstrate the existence of such threshold regions in early auditory and olfactory information coding. We discuss the origin of the threshold effect and its impact on the design of effective coding approaches in terms of relevant population size.
Modified Decoding Algorithm of LLR-SPA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhongxun Wang
2014-09-01
Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks, the energy consumption is mainly occurred in the stage of information transmission. The Low Density Parity Check code can make full use of the channel information to save energy. Because of the widely used decoding algorithm of the Low Density Parity Check code, this paper proposes a new decoding algorithm which is based on the LLR-SPA (Sum-Product Algorithm in Log-Likelihood-domain to improve the accuracy of the decoding algorithm. In the modified algorithm, a piecewise linear function is used to approximate the complicated Jacobi correction term in LLR-SPA decoding algorithm. Construct the tangent by the tangency point to the function of Jacobi correction term, which is based on the first order Taylor Series. In this way, the proposed piecewise linear approximation offers almost a perfect match to the function of Jacobi correction term. Meanwhile, the proposed piecewise linear approximation could avoid the operation of logarithmic which is more suitable for practical application. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm could improve the decoding accuracy greatly without noticeable variation of the computational complexity.
Commercial and Industrial Wiring.
Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary
This module is the third in a series of three wiring publications, includes additional technical knowledge and applications required for job entry in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. The module contains 15 instructional units that cover the following topics: blueprint reading and load calculations; tools and equipment; service;…
Completion time reduction in instantly decodable network coding through decoding delay control
Douik, Ahmed S.
2014-12-01
For several years, the completion time and the decoding delay problems in Instantly Decodable Network Coding (IDNC) were considered separately and were thought to completely act against each other. Recently, some works aimed to balance the effects of these two important IDNC metrics but none of them studied a further optimization of one by controlling the other. In this paper, we study the effect of controlling the decoding delay to reduce the completion time below its currently best known solution. We first derive the decoding-delay-dependent expressions of the users\\' and their overall completion times. Although using such expressions to find the optimal overall completion time is NP-hard, we use a heuristic that minimizes the probability of increasing the maximum of these decoding-delay-dependent completion time expressions after each transmission through a layered control of their decoding delays. Simulation results show that this new algorithm achieves both a lower mean completion time and mean decoding delay compared to the best known heuristic for completion time reduction. The gap in performance becomes significant for harsh erasure scenarios.
Completion time reduction in instantly decodable network coding through decoding delay control
Douik, Ahmed S.; Sorour, Sameh; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.
2014-01-01
For several years, the completion time and the decoding delay problems in Instantly Decodable Network Coding (IDNC) were considered separately and were thought to completely act against each other. Recently, some works aimed to balance the effects of these two important IDNC metrics but none of them studied a further optimization of one by controlling the other. In this paper, we study the effect of controlling the decoding delay to reduce the completion time below its currently best known solution. We first derive the decoding-delay-dependent expressions of the users' and their overall completion times. Although using such expressions to find the optimal overall completion time is NP-hard, we use a heuristic that minimizes the probability of increasing the maximum of these decoding-delay-dependent completion time expressions after each transmission through a layered control of their decoding delays. Simulation results show that this new algorithm achieves both a lower mean completion time and mean decoding delay compared to the best known heuristic for completion time reduction. The gap in performance becomes significant for harsh erasure scenarios.
NP-hardness of decoding quantum error-correction codes
Hsieh, Min-Hsiu; Le Gall, François
2011-05-01
Although the theory of quantum error correction is intimately related to classical coding theory and, in particular, one can construct quantum error-correction codes (QECCs) from classical codes with the dual-containing property, this does not necessarily imply that the computational complexity of decoding QECCs is the same as their classical counterparts. Instead, decoding QECCs can be very much different from decoding classical codes due to the degeneracy property. Intuitively, one expects degeneracy would simplify the decoding since two different errors might not and need not be distinguished in order to correct them. However, we show that general quantum decoding problem is NP-hard regardless of the quantum codes being degenerate or nondegenerate. This finding implies that no considerably fast decoding algorithm exists for the general quantum decoding problems and suggests the existence of a quantum cryptosystem based on the hardness of decoding QECCs.
NP-hardness of decoding quantum error-correction codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsieh, Min-Hsiu; Le Gall, Francois
2011-01-01
Although the theory of quantum error correction is intimately related to classical coding theory and, in particular, one can construct quantum error-correction codes (QECCs) from classical codes with the dual-containing property, this does not necessarily imply that the computational complexity of decoding QECCs is the same as their classical counterparts. Instead, decoding QECCs can be very much different from decoding classical codes due to the degeneracy property. Intuitively, one expects degeneracy would simplify the decoding since two different errors might not and need not be distinguished in order to correct them. However, we show that general quantum decoding problem is NP-hard regardless of the quantum codes being degenerate or nondegenerate. This finding implies that no considerably fast decoding algorithm exists for the general quantum decoding problems and suggests the existence of a quantum cryptosystem based on the hardness of decoding QECCs.
Generalized Sudan's List Decoding for Order Domain Codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Geil, Hans Olav; Matsumoto, Ryutaroh
2007-01-01
We generalize Sudan's list decoding algorithm without multiplicity to evaluation codes coming from arbitrary order domains. The number of correctable errors by the proposed method is larger than the original list decoding without multiplicity....
Partially blind instantly decodable network codes for lossy feedback environment
Sorour, Sameh; Douik, Ahmed S.; Valaee, Shahrokh; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2014-01-01
an expression for the expected decoding delay increment for any arbitrary transmission. This expression is then used to find the optimal policy that reduces the decoding delay in such lossy feedback environment. Results show that our proposed solutions both
Neuroprosthetic Decoder Training as Imitation Learning.
Merel, Josh; Carlson, David; Paninski, Liam; Cunningham, John P
2016-05-01
Neuroprosthetic brain-computer interfaces function via an algorithm which decodes neural activity of the user into movements of an end effector, such as a cursor or robotic arm. In practice, the decoder is often learned by updating its parameters while the user performs a task. When the user's intention is not directly observable, recent methods have demonstrated value in training the decoder against a surrogate for the user's intended movement. Here we show that training a decoder in this way is a novel variant of an imitation learning problem, where an oracle or expert is employed for supervised training in lieu of direct observations, which are not available. Specifically, we describe how a generic imitation learning meta-algorithm, dataset aggregation (DAgger), can be adapted to train a generic brain-computer interface. By deriving existing learning algorithms for brain-computer interfaces in this framework, we provide a novel analysis of regret (an important metric of learning efficacy) for brain-computer interfaces. This analysis allows us to characterize the space of algorithmic variants and bounds on their regret rates. Existing approaches for decoder learning have been performed in the cursor control setting, but the available design principles for these decoders are such that it has been impossible to scale them to naturalistic settings. Leveraging our findings, we then offer an algorithm that combines imitation learning with optimal control, which should allow for training of arbitrary effectors for which optimal control can generate goal-oriented control. We demonstrate this novel and general BCI algorithm with simulated neuroprosthetic control of a 26 degree-of-freedom model of an arm, a sophisticated and realistic end effector.
Neuroprosthetic Decoder Training as Imitation Learning.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Josh Merel
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Neuroprosthetic brain-computer interfaces function via an algorithm which decodes neural activity of the user into movements of an end effector, such as a cursor or robotic arm. In practice, the decoder is often learned by updating its parameters while the user performs a task. When the user's intention is not directly observable, recent methods have demonstrated value in training the decoder against a surrogate for the user's intended movement. Here we show that training a decoder in this way is a novel variant of an imitation learning problem, where an oracle or expert is employed for supervised training in lieu of direct observations, which are not available. Specifically, we describe how a generic imitation learning meta-algorithm, dataset aggregation (DAgger, can be adapted to train a generic brain-computer interface. By deriving existing learning algorithms for brain-computer interfaces in this framework, we provide a novel analysis of regret (an important metric of learning efficacy for brain-computer interfaces. This analysis allows us to characterize the space of algorithmic variants and bounds on their regret rates. Existing approaches for decoder learning have been performed in the cursor control setting, but the available design principles for these decoders are such that it has been impossible to scale them to naturalistic settings. Leveraging our findings, we then offer an algorithm that combines imitation learning with optimal control, which should allow for training of arbitrary effectors for which optimal control can generate goal-oriented control. We demonstrate this novel and general BCI algorithm with simulated neuroprosthetic control of a 26 degree-of-freedom model of an arm, a sophisticated and realistic end effector.
Decoding of concatenated codes with interleaved outer codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom; Thommesen, Christian
2004-01-01
Recently Bleichenbacher et al. proposed a decoding algorithm for interleaved (N, K) Reed-Solomon codes, which allows close to N-K errors to be corrected in many cases. We discuss the application of this decoding algorithm to concatenated codes.......Recently Bleichenbacher et al. proposed a decoding algorithm for interleaved (N, K) Reed-Solomon codes, which allows close to N-K errors to be corrected in many cases. We discuss the application of this decoding algorithm to concatenated codes....
Binary Systematic Network Coding for Progressive Packet Decoding
Jones, Andrew L.; Chatzigeorgiou, Ioannis; Tassi, Andrea
2015-01-01
We consider binary systematic network codes and investigate their capability of decoding a source message either in full or in part. We carry out a probability analysis, derive closed-form expressions for the decoding probability and show that systematic network coding outperforms conventional net- work coding. We also develop an algorithm based on Gaussian elimination that allows progressive decoding of source packets. Simulation results show that the proposed decoding algorithm can achieve ...
Decoding Hermitian Codes with Sudan's Algorithm
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Høholdt, Tom; Nielsen, Rasmus Refslund
1999-01-01
We present an efficient implementation of Sudan's algorithm for list decoding Hermitian codes beyond half the minimum distance. The main ingredients are an explicit method to calculate so-called increasing zero bases, an efficient interpolation algorithm for finding the Q-polynomial, and a reduct......We present an efficient implementation of Sudan's algorithm for list decoding Hermitian codes beyond half the minimum distance. The main ingredients are an explicit method to calculate so-called increasing zero bases, an efficient interpolation algorithm for finding the Q...
Decoding Interleaved Gabidulin Codes using Alekhnovich's Algorithm
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Puchinger, Sven; Müelich, Sven; Mödinger, David
2017-01-01
We prove that Alekhnovich's algorithm can be used for row reduction of skew polynomial matrices. This yields an O(ℓ3n(ω+1)/2log(n)) decoding algorithm for ℓ-Interleaved Gabidulin codes of length n, where ω is the matrix multiplication exponent.......We prove that Alekhnovich's algorithm can be used for row reduction of skew polynomial matrices. This yields an O(ℓ3n(ω+1)/2log(n)) decoding algorithm for ℓ-Interleaved Gabidulin codes of length n, where ω is the matrix multiplication exponent....
Decoding LDPC Convolutional Codes on Markov Channels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kashyap Manohar
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes a pipelined iterative technique for joint decoding and channel state estimation of LDPC convolutional codes over Markov channels. Example designs are presented for the Gilbert-Elliott discrete channel model. We also compare the performance and complexity of our algorithm against joint decoding and state estimation of conventional LDPC block codes. Complexity analysis reveals that our pipelined algorithm reduces the number of operations per time step compared to LDPC block codes, at the expense of increased memory and latency. This tradeoff is favorable for low-power applications.
Decoding LDPC Convolutional Codes on Markov Channels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chris Winstead
2008-04-01
Full Text Available This paper describes a pipelined iterative technique for joint decoding and channel state estimation of LDPC convolutional codes over Markov channels. Example designs are presented for the Gilbert-Elliott discrete channel model. We also compare the performance and complexity of our algorithm against joint decoding and state estimation of conventional LDPC block codes. Complexity analysis reveals that our pipelined algorithm reduces the number of operations per time step compared to LDPC block codes, at the expense of increased memory and latency. This tradeoff is favorable for low-power applications.
Decoding algorithm for vortex communications receiver
Kupferman, Judy; Arnon, Shlomi
2018-01-01
Vortex light beams can provide a tremendous alphabet for encoding information. We derive a symbol decoding algorithm for a direct detection matrix detector vortex beam receiver using Laguerre Gauss (LG) modes, and develop a mathematical model of symbol error rate (SER) for this receiver. We compare SER as a function of signal to noise ratio (SNR) for our algorithm and for the Pearson correlation algorithm. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive treatment of a decoding algorithm of a matrix detector for an LG receiver.
On Lattice Sequential Decoding for The Unconstrained AWGN Channel
Abediseid, Walid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2013-01-01
channel has been studied only under the use of the minimum Euclidean distance decoder that is commonly referred to as the \\textit{lattice decoder}. Lattice decoders based on solutions to the NP-hard closest vector problem are very complex to implement
Image transmission system using adaptive joint source and channel decoding
Liu, Weiliang; Daut, David G.
2005-03-01
In this paper, an adaptive joint source and channel decoding method is designed to accelerate the convergence of the iterative log-dimain sum-product decoding procedure of LDPC codes as well as to improve the reconstructed image quality. Error resilience modes are used in the JPEG2000 source codec, which makes it possible to provide useful source decoded information to the channel decoder. After each iteration, a tentative decoding is made and the channel decoded bits are then sent to the JPEG2000 decoder. Due to the error resilience modes, some bits are known to be either correct or in error. The positions of these bits are then fed back to the channel decoder. The log-likelihood ratios (LLR) of these bits are then modified by a weighting factor for the next iteration. By observing the statistics of the decoding procedure, the weighting factor is designed as a function of the channel condition. That is, for lower channel SNR, a larger factor is assigned, and vice versa. Results show that the proposed joint decoding methods can greatly reduce the number of iterations, and thereby reduce the decoding delay considerably. At the same time, this method always outperforms the non-source controlled decoding method up to 5dB in terms of PSNR for various reconstructed images.
Decoding and Encoding Facial Expressions in Preschool-Age Children.
Zuckerman, Miron; Przewuzman, Sylvia J.
1979-01-01
Preschool-age children drew, decoded, and encoded facial expressions depicting five different emotions. Accuracy of drawing, decoding and encoding each of the five emotions was consistent across the three tasks; decoding ability was correlated with drawing ability among female subjects, but neither of these abilities was correlated with encoding…
Adamatzky, Andrew
2014-08-01
In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self-growing wetware circuits and devices, and integration of plant-based electronic components into future and emergent bio-hybrid systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thermosonic wire bonding of IC devices using palladium wire
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shze, J.H.; Poh, M.T.; Tan, R.M.
1996-01-01
The feasibility of replacing gold wire by palladium wire in thermosonic wire bonding of CMOS and bipolar devices are studied in terms of the manufacturability, physical, electrical and assembly performance. The results that palladium wire is a viable option for bonding the bipolar devices but not the CMOS devices
On Rational Interpolation-Based List-Decoding and List-Decoding Binary Goppa Codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Beelen, Peter; Høholdt, Tom; Nielsen, Johan Sebastian Rosenkilde
2013-01-01
We derive the Wu list-decoding algorithm for generalized Reed–Solomon (GRS) codes by using Gröbner bases over modules and the Euclidean algorithm as the initial algorithm instead of the Berlekamp–Massey algorithm. We present a novel method for constructing the interpolation polynomial fast. We gi...... and a duality in the choice of parameters needed for decoding, both in the case of GRS codes and in the case of Goppa codes....
Bayesian population decoding of spiking neurons.
Gerwinn, Sebastian; Macke, Jakob; Bethge, Matthias
2009-01-01
The timing of action potentials in spiking neurons depends on the temporal dynamics of their inputs and contains information about temporal fluctuations in the stimulus. Leaky integrate-and-fire neurons constitute a popular class of encoding models, in which spike times depend directly on the temporal structure of the inputs. However, optimal decoding rules for these models have only been studied explicitly in the noiseless case. Here, we study decoding rules for probabilistic inference of a continuous stimulus from the spike times of a population of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons with threshold noise. We derive three algorithms for approximating the posterior distribution over stimuli as a function of the observed spike trains. In addition to a reconstruction of the stimulus we thus obtain an estimate of the uncertainty as well. Furthermore, we derive a 'spike-by-spike' online decoding scheme that recursively updates the posterior with the arrival of each new spike. We use these decoding rules to reconstruct time-varying stimuli represented by a Gaussian process from spike trains of single neurons as well as neural populations.
Faster 2-regular information-set decoding
Bernstein, D.J.; Lange, T.; Peters, C.P.; Schwabe, P.; Chee, Y.M.
2011-01-01
Fix positive integers B and w. Let C be a linear code over F 2 of length Bw. The 2-regular-decoding problem is to find a nonzero codeword consisting of w length-B blocks, each of which has Hamming weight 0 or 2. This problem appears in attacks on the FSB (fast syndrome-based) hash function and
Bayesian population decoding of spiking neurons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sebastian Gerwinn
2009-10-01
Full Text Available The timing of action potentials in spiking neurons depends on the temporal dynamics of their inputs and contains information about temporal fluctuations in the stimulus. Leaky integrate-and-fire neurons constitute a popular class of encoding models, in which spike times depend directly on the temporal structure of the inputs. However, optimal decoding rules for these models have only been studied explicitly in the noiseless case. Here, we study decoding rules for probabilistic inference of a continuous stimulus from the spike times of a population of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons with threshold noise. We derive three algorithms for approximating the posterior distribution over stimuli as a function of the observed spike trains. In addition to a reconstruction of the stimulus we thus obtain an estimate of the uncertainty as well. Furthermore, we derive a `spike-by-spike' online decoding scheme that recursively updates the posterior with the arrival of each new spike. We use these decoding rules to reconstruct time-varying stimuli represented by a Gaussian process from spike trains of single neurons as well as neural populations.
Sequential decoders for large MIMO systems
Ali, Konpal S.; Abediseid, Walid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2014-01-01
the Sequential Decoder using the Fano Algorithm for large MIMO systems. A parameter called the bias is varied to attain different performance-complexity trade-offs. Low values of the bias result in excellent performance but at the expense of high complexity
2010-10-01
..., satellite, public switched telephone network, or any other source that uses the EAS protocol. (2) Valid..., analog radio and television broadcast stations, analog cable systems and wireless cable systems may... program data must be retained even with power removed. (7) Outputs. Decoders shall have the following...
Older Adults Have Difficulty in Decoding Sarcasm
Phillips, Louise H.; Allen, Roy; Bull, Rebecca; Hering, Alexandra; Kliegel, Matthias; Channon, Shelley
2015-01-01
Younger and older adults differ in performance on a range of social-cognitive skills, with older adults having difficulties in decoding nonverbal cues to emotion and intentions. Such skills are likely to be important when deciding whether someone is being sarcastic. In the current study we investigated in a life span sample whether there are…
Bounded-Angle Iterative Decoding of LDPC Codes
Dolinar, Samuel; Andrews, Kenneth; Pollara, Fabrizio; Divsalar, Dariush
2009-01-01
Bounded-angle iterative decoding is a modified version of conventional iterative decoding, conceived as a means of reducing undetected-error rates for short low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. For a given code, bounded-angle iterative decoding can be implemented by means of a simple modification of the decoder algorithm, without redesigning the code. Bounded-angle iterative decoding is based on a representation of received words and code words as vectors in an n-dimensional Euclidean space (where n is an integer).
A Scalable Architecture of a Structured LDPC Decoder
Lee, Jason Kwok-San; Lee, Benjamin; Thorpe, Jeremy; Andrews, Kenneth; Dolinar, Sam; Hamkins, Jon
2004-01-01
We present a scalable decoding architecture for a certain class of structured LDPC codes. The codes are designed using a small (n,r) protograph that is replicated Z times to produce a decoding graph for a (Z x n, Z x r) code. Using this architecture, we have implemented a decoder for a (4096,2048) LDPC code on a Xilinx Virtex-II 2000 FPGA, and achieved decoding speeds of 31 Mbps with 10 fixed iterations. The implemented message-passing algorithm uses an optimized 3-bit non-uniform quantizer that operates with 0.2dB implementation loss relative to a floating point decoder.
Wire chambers: Trends and alternatives
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Regler, Meinhard
1992-05-15
The subtitle of this year's Vienna Wire Chamber Conference - 'Recent Trends and Alternative Techniques' - signalled that it covered a wide range of science and technology. While an opening Vienna talk by wire chamber pioneer Georges Charpak many years ago began 'Les funerailles des chambres a fils (the burial of wire chambers)', the contrary feeling this year was that wire chambers are very much alive!.
Chauhan, Preeti S; Zhong, ZhaoWei; Pecht, Michael G
2014-01-01
This critical volume provides an in-depth presentation of copper wire bonding technologies, processes and equipment, along with the economic benefits and risks. Due to the increasing cost of materials used to make electronic components, the electronics industry has been rapidly moving from high cost gold to significantly lower cost copper as a wire bonding material. However, copper wire bonding has several process and reliability concerns due to its material properties. Copper Wire Bonding book lays out the challenges involved in replacing gold with copper as a wire bond material, and includes the bonding process changes—bond force, electric flame off, current and ultrasonic energy optimization, and bonding tools and equipment changes for first and second bond formation. In addition, the bond–pad metallurgies and the use of bare and palladium-coated copper wires on aluminum are presented, and gold, nickel and palladium surface finishes are discussed. The book also discusses best practices and re...
Decoding subjective mental states from fMRI activity patterns
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tamaki, Masako; Kamitani, Yukiyasu
2011-01-01
In recent years, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) decoding has emerged as a powerful tool to read out detailed stimulus features from multi-voxel brain activity patterns. Moreover, the method has been extended to perform a primitive form of 'mind-reading,' by applying a decoder 'objectively' trained using stimulus features to more 'subjective' conditions. In this paper, we first introduce basic procedures for fMRI decoding based on machine learning techniques. Second, we discuss the source of information used for decoding, in particular, the possibility of extracting information from subvoxel neural structures. We next introduce two experimental designs for decoding subjective mental states: the 'objective-to-subjective design' and the 'subjective-to-subjective design.' Then, we illustrate recent studies on the decoding of a variety of mental states, such as, attention, awareness, decision making, memory, and mental imagery. Finally, we discuss the challenges and new directions of fMRI decoding. (author)
SYMBOL LEVEL DECODING FOR DUO-BINARY TURBO CODES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yogesh Beeharry
2017-05-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the performance of three different symbol level decoding algorithms for Duo-Binary Turbo codes. Explicit details of the computations involved in the three decoding techniques, and a computational complexity analysis are given. Simulation results with different couple lengths, code-rates, and QPSK modulation reveal that the symbol level decoding with bit-level information outperforms the symbol level decoding by 0.1 dB on average in the error floor region. Moreover, a complexity analysis reveals that symbol level decoding with bit-level information reduces the decoding complexity by 19.6 % in terms of the total number of computations required for each half-iteration as compared to symbol level decoding.
Belief propagation decoding of quantum channels by passing quantum messages
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Renes, Joseph M
2017-01-01
The belief propagation (BP) algorithm is a powerful tool in a wide range of disciplines from statistical physics to machine learning to computational biology, and is ubiquitous in decoding classical error-correcting codes. The algorithm works by passing messages between nodes of the factor graph associated with the code and enables efficient decoding of the channel, in some cases even up to the Shannon capacity. Here we construct the first BP algorithm which passes quantum messages on the factor graph and is capable of decoding the classical–quantum channel with pure state outputs. This gives explicit decoding circuits whose number of gates is quadratic in the code length. We also show that this decoder can be modified to work with polar codes for the pure state channel and as part of a decoder for transmitting quantum information over the amplitude damping channel. These represent the first explicit capacity-achieving decoders for non-Pauli channels. (fast track communication)
Belief propagation decoding of quantum channels by passing quantum messages
Renes, Joseph M.
2017-07-01
The belief propagation (BP) algorithm is a powerful tool in a wide range of disciplines from statistical physics to machine learning to computational biology, and is ubiquitous in decoding classical error-correcting codes. The algorithm works by passing messages between nodes of the factor graph associated with the code and enables efficient decoding of the channel, in some cases even up to the Shannon capacity. Here we construct the first BP algorithm which passes quantum messages on the factor graph and is capable of decoding the classical-quantum channel with pure state outputs. This gives explicit decoding circuits whose number of gates is quadratic in the code length. We also show that this decoder can be modified to work with polar codes for the pure state channel and as part of a decoder for transmitting quantum information over the amplitude damping channel. These represent the first explicit capacity-achieving decoders for non-Pauli channels.
Lin, Shu; Fossorier, Marc
1998-01-01
In a coded communication system with equiprobable signaling, MLD minimizes the word error probability and delivers the most likely codeword associated with the corresponding received sequence. This decoding has two drawbacks. First, minimization of the word error probability is not equivalent to minimization of the bit error probability. Therefore, MLD becomes suboptimum with respect to the bit error probability. Second, MLD delivers a hard-decision estimate of the received sequence, so that information is lost between the input and output of the ML decoder. This information is important in coded schemes where the decoded sequence is further processed, such as concatenated coding schemes, multi-stage and iterative decoding schemes. In this chapter, we first present a decoding algorithm which both minimizes bit error probability, and provides the corresponding soft information at the output of the decoder. This algorithm is referred to as the MAP (maximum aposteriori probability) decoding algorithm.
On Lattice Sequential Decoding for The Unconstrained AWGN Channel
Abediseid, Walid
2013-04-04
In this paper, the performance limits and the computational complexity of the lattice sequential decoder are analyzed for the unconstrained additive white Gaussian noise channel. The performance analysis available in the literature for such a channel has been studied only under the use of the minimum Euclidean distance decoder that is commonly referred to as the \\\\textit{lattice decoder}. Lattice decoders based on solutions to the NP-hard closest vector problem are very complex to implement, and the search for low complexity receivers for the detection of lattice codes is considered a challenging problem. However, the low computational complexity advantage that sequential decoding promises, makes it an alternative solution to the lattice decoder. In this work, we characterize the performance and complexity tradeoff via the error exponent and the decoding complexity, respectively, of such a decoder as a function of the decoding parameter --- the bias term. For the above channel, we derive the cut-off volume-to-noise ratio that is required to achieve a good error performance with low decoding complexity.
On Lattice Sequential Decoding for The Unconstrained AWGN Channel
Abediseid, Walid
2012-10-01
In this paper, the performance limits and the computational complexity of the lattice sequential decoder are analyzed for the unconstrained additive white Gaussian noise channel. The performance analysis available in the literature for such a channel has been studied only under the use of the minimum Euclidean distance decoder that is commonly referred to as the lattice decoder. Lattice decoders based on solutions to the NP-hard closest vector problem are very complex to implement, and the search for low complexity receivers for the detection of lattice codes is considered a challenging problem. However, the low computational complexity advantage that sequential decoding promises, makes it an alternative solution to the lattice decoder. In this work, we characterize the performance and complexity tradeoff via the error exponent and the decoding complexity, respectively, of such a decoder as a function of the decoding parameter --- the bias term. For the above channel, we derive the cut-off volume-to-noise ratio that is required to achieve a good error performance with low decoding complexity.
Video coding for decoding power-constrained embedded devices
Lu, Ligang; Sheinin, Vadim
2004-01-01
Low power dissipation and fast processing time are crucial requirements for embedded multimedia devices. This paper presents a technique in video coding to decrease the power consumption at a standard video decoder. Coupled with a small dedicated video internal memory cache on a decoder, the technique can substantially decrease the amount of data traffic to the external memory at the decoder. A decrease in data traffic to the external memory at decoder will result in multiple benefits: faster real-time processing and power savings. The encoder, given prior knowledge of the decoder"s dedicated video internal memory cache management scheme, regulates its choice of motion compensated predictors to reduce the decoder"s external memory accesses. This technique can be used in any standard or proprietary encoder scheme to generate a compliant output bit stream decodable by standard CPU-based and dedicated hardware-based decoders for power savings with the best quality-power cost trade off. Our simulation results show that with a relatively small amount of dedicated video internal memory cache, the technique may decrease the traffic between CPU and external memory over 50%.
On Lattice Sequential Decoding for The Unconstrained AWGN Channel
Abediseid, Walid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2012-01-01
In this paper, the performance limits and the computational complexity of the lattice sequential decoder are analyzed for the unconstrained additive white Gaussian noise channel. The performance analysis available in the literature for such a channel has been studied only under the use of the minimum Euclidean distance decoder that is commonly referred to as the lattice decoder. Lattice decoders based on solutions to the NP-hard closest vector problem are very complex to implement, and the search for low complexity receivers for the detection of lattice codes is considered a challenging problem. However, the low computational complexity advantage that sequential decoding promises, makes it an alternative solution to the lattice decoder. In this work, we characterize the performance and complexity tradeoff via the error exponent and the decoding complexity, respectively, of such a decoder as a function of the decoding parameter --- the bias term. For the above channel, we derive the cut-off volume-to-noise ratio that is required to achieve a good error performance with low decoding complexity.
Decoding spikes in a spiking neuronal network
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feng Jianfeng [Department of Informatics, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Ding, Mingzhou [Department of Mathematics, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431 (United States)
2004-06-04
We investigate how to reliably decode the input information from the output of a spiking neuronal network. A maximum likelihood estimator of the input signal, together with its Fisher information, is rigorously calculated. The advantage of the maximum likelihood estimation over the 'brute-force rate coding' estimate is clearly demonstrated. It is pointed out that the ergodic assumption in neuroscience, i.e. a temporal average is equivalent to an ensemble average, is in general not true. Averaging over an ensemble of neurons usually gives a biased estimate of the input information. A method on how to compensate for the bias is proposed. Reconstruction of dynamical input signals with a group of spiking neurons is extensively studied and our results show that less than a spike is sufficient to accurately decode dynamical inputs.
Decoding spikes in a spiking neuronal network
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feng Jianfeng; Ding, Mingzhou
2004-01-01
We investigate how to reliably decode the input information from the output of a spiking neuronal network. A maximum likelihood estimator of the input signal, together with its Fisher information, is rigorously calculated. The advantage of the maximum likelihood estimation over the 'brute-force rate coding' estimate is clearly demonstrated. It is pointed out that the ergodic assumption in neuroscience, i.e. a temporal average is equivalent to an ensemble average, is in general not true. Averaging over an ensemble of neurons usually gives a biased estimate of the input information. A method on how to compensate for the bias is proposed. Reconstruction of dynamical input signals with a group of spiking neurons is extensively studied and our results show that less than a spike is sufficient to accurately decode dynamical inputs
Neural decoding of visual imagery during sleep.
Horikawa, T; Tamaki, M; Miyawaki, Y; Kamitani, Y
2013-05-03
Visual imagery during sleep has long been a topic of persistent speculation, but its private nature has hampered objective analysis. Here we present a neural decoding approach in which machine-learning models predict the contents of visual imagery during the sleep-onset period, given measured brain activity, by discovering links between human functional magnetic resonance imaging patterns and verbal reports with the assistance of lexical and image databases. Decoding models trained on stimulus-induced brain activity in visual cortical areas showed accurate classification, detection, and identification of contents. Our findings demonstrate that specific visual experience during sleep is represented by brain activity patterns shared by stimulus perception, providing a means to uncover subjective contents of dreaming using objective neural measurement.
Power decoding Reed-Solomon codes up to the Johnson radius
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rosenkilde, Johan Sebastian Heesemann
2018-01-01
Power decoding, or "decoding using virtual interleaving" is a technique for decoding Reed-Solomon codes up to the Sudan radius. Since the method's inception, it has been an open question if it is possible to use this approach to decode up to the Johnson radius - the decoding radius of the Guruswami...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harty, R.B.
1991-01-01
The development of the wire core system for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) that took place from 1963 to 1965 is discussed. A wire core consists of a fuel wire with spacer wires. It's an annular flow core having a central control rod. There are actually four of these, with beryllium solid reflectors on both ends and all the way around. Much of the information on the concept is given in viewgraph form. Viewgraphs are presented on design details of the wire core, the engine design, engine weight vs. thrust, a technique used to fabricate the wire fuel element, and axial temperature distribution
Resource Efficient LDPC Decoders for Multimedia Communication
Chandrasetty, Vikram Arkalgud; Aziz, Syed Mahfuzul
2013-01-01
Achieving high image quality is an important aspect in an increasing number of wireless multimedia applications. These applications require resource efficient error correction hardware to detect and correct errors introduced by the communication channel. This paper presents an innovative flexible architecture for error correction using Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) codes. The proposed partially-parallel decoder architecture utilizes a novel code construction technique based on multi-level H...
Decoding divergent series in nonparaxial optics.
Borghi, Riccardo; Gori, Franco; Guattari, Giorgio; Santarsiero, Massimo
2011-03-15
A theoretical analysis aimed at investigating the divergent character of perturbative series involved in the study of free-space nonparaxial propagation of vectorial optical beams is proposed. Our analysis predicts a factorial divergence for such series and provides a theoretical framework within which the results of recently published numerical experiments concerning nonparaxial propagation of vectorial Gaussian beams find a meaningful interpretation in terms of the decoding operated on such series by the Weniger transformation.
Sequential decoders for large MIMO systems
Ali, Konpal S.
2014-05-01
Due to their ability to provide high data rates, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems have become increasingly popular. Decoding of these systems with acceptable error performance is computationally very demanding. In this paper, we employ the Sequential Decoder using the Fano Algorithm for large MIMO systems. A parameter called the bias is varied to attain different performance-complexity trade-offs. Low values of the bias result in excellent performance but at the expense of high complexity and vice versa for higher bias values. Numerical results are done that show moderate bias values result in a decent performance-complexity trade-off. We also attempt to bound the error by bounding the bias, using the minimum distance of a lattice. The variations in complexity with SNR have an interesting trend that shows room for considerable improvement. Our work is compared against linear decoders (LDs) aided with Element-based Lattice Reduction (ELR) and Complex Lenstra-Lenstra-Lovasz (CLLL) reduction. © 2014 IFIP.
Markov source model for printed music decoding
Kopec, Gary E.; Chou, Philip A.; Maltz, David A.
1995-03-01
This paper describes a Markov source model for a simple subset of printed music notation. The model is based on the Adobe Sonata music symbol set and a message language of our own design. Chord imaging is the most complex part of the model. Much of the complexity follows from a rule of music typography that requires the noteheads for adjacent pitches to be placed on opposite sides of the chord stem. This rule leads to a proliferation of cases for other typographic details such as dot placement. We describe the language of message strings accepted by the model and discuss some of the imaging issues associated with various aspects of the message language. We also point out some aspects of music notation that appear problematic for a finite-state representation. Development of the model was greatly facilitated by the duality between image synthesis and image decoding. Although our ultimate objective was a music image model for use in decoding, most of the development proceeded by using the evolving model for image synthesis, since it is computationally far less costly to image a message than to decode an image.
Kernel Temporal Differences for Neural Decoding
Bae, Jihye; Sanchez Giraldo, Luis G.; Pohlmeyer, Eric A.; Francis, Joseph T.; Sanchez, Justin C.; Príncipe, José C.
2015-01-01
We study the feasibility and capability of the kernel temporal difference (KTD)(λ) algorithm for neural decoding. KTD(λ) is an online, kernel-based learning algorithm, which has been introduced to estimate value functions in reinforcement learning. This algorithm combines kernel-based representations with the temporal difference approach to learning. One of our key observations is that by using strictly positive definite kernels, algorithm's convergence can be guaranteed for policy evaluation. The algorithm's nonlinear functional approximation capabilities are shown in both simulations of policy evaluation and neural decoding problems (policy improvement). KTD can handle high-dimensional neural states containing spatial-temporal information at a reasonable computational complexity allowing real-time applications. When the algorithm seeks a proper mapping between a monkey's neural states and desired positions of a computer cursor or a robot arm, in both open-loop and closed-loop experiments, it can effectively learn the neural state to action mapping. Finally, a visualization of the coadaptation process between the decoder and the subject shows the algorithm's capabilities in reinforcement learning brain machine interfaces. PMID:25866504
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jepsen, Kim Sune Karrasch; Bertilsson, Margareta
2017-01-01
dimension of life science through a notion of public politics adopted from the political theory of John Dewey. We show how cochlear implantation engages different social imaginaries on the collective and individual levels and we suggest that users share an imaginary of being “wired to freedom” that involves...... new access to social life, continuous communicative challenges, common practices, and experiences. In looking at their lives as “wired to freedom,” we hope to promote a wider spectrum of civic participation in the benefit of future life science developments within and beyond the field of Cochlear...
Coker, A J
1992-01-01
Electric Wiring: Domestic, Tenth Edition, is a clear and reliable guide to the practical aspects of domestic electric wiring. Intended for electrical contractors, installation engineers, wiremen and students, its aim is to provide essential up to date information on modern methods and materials in a simple, clear, and concise manner. The main changes in this edition are those necessary to bring the work into line with the 16th Edition of the Regulations for Electrical Installations issued by the Institution of Electrical Engineers. The book begins by introducing the basic features of domestic
Steward, W E
2012-01-01
Continuously in print since 1952, Modern Wiring Practice has now been fully revised to provide an up-to-date source of reference to building services design and installation in the 21st century. This compact and practical guide addresses wiring systems design and electrical installation together in one volume, creating a comprehensive overview of the whole process for contractors and architects, as well as electricians and other installation engineers. Best practice is incorporated throughout, combining theory and practice with clear and accessible explanation, all
Deep Learning Methods for Improved Decoding of Linear Codes
Nachmani, Eliya; Marciano, Elad; Lugosch, Loren; Gross, Warren J.; Burshtein, David; Be'ery, Yair
2018-02-01
The problem of low complexity, close to optimal, channel decoding of linear codes with short to moderate block length is considered. It is shown that deep learning methods can be used to improve a standard belief propagation decoder, despite the large example space. Similar improvements are obtained for the min-sum algorithm. It is also shown that tying the parameters of the decoders across iterations, so as to form a recurrent neural network architecture, can be implemented with comparable results. The advantage is that significantly less parameters are required. We also introduce a recurrent neural decoder architecture based on the method of successive relaxation. Improvements over standard belief propagation are also observed on sparser Tanner graph representations of the codes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the neural belief propagation decoder can be used to improve the performance, or alternatively reduce the computational complexity, of a close to optimal decoder of short BCH codes.
Decoding Delay Controlled Completion Time Reduction in Instantly Decodable Network Coding
Douik, Ahmed
2016-06-27
For several years, the completion time and the decoding delay problems in Instantly Decodable Network Coding (IDNC) were considered separately and were thought to act completely against each other. Recently, some works aimed to balance the effects of these two important IDNC metrics but none of them studied a further optimization of one by controlling the other. This paper investigates the effect of controlling the decoding delay to reduce the completion time below its currently best-known solution in both perfect and imperfect feedback with persistent erasure channels. To solve the problem, the decodingdelay- dependent expressions of the users’ and overall completion times are derived in the complete feedback scenario. Although using such expressions to find the optimal overall completion time is NP-hard, the paper proposes two novel heuristics that minimizes the probability of increasing the maximum of these decoding-delay-dependent completion time expressions after each transmission through a layered control of their decoding delays. Afterward, the paper extends the study to the imperfect feedback scenario in which uncertainties at the sender affects its ability to anticipate accurately the decoding delay increase at each user. The paper formulates the problem in such environment and derives the expression of the minimum increase in the completion time. Simulation results show the performance of the proposed solutions and suggest that both heuristics achieves a lower mean completion time as compared to the best-known heuristics for the completion time reduction in perfect and imperfect feedback. The gap in performance becomes more significant as the erasure of the channel increases.
Decoding Delay Controlled Completion Time Reduction in Instantly Decodable Network Coding
Douik, Ahmed S.; Sorour, Sameh; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2016-01-01
For several years, the completion time and the decoding delay problems in Instantly Decodable Network Coding (IDNC) were considered separately and were thought to act completely against each other. Recently, some works aimed to balance the effects of these two important IDNC metrics but none of them studied a further optimization of one by controlling the other. This paper investigates the effect of controlling the decoding delay to reduce the completion time below its currently best-known solution in both perfect and imperfect feedback with persistent erasure channels. To solve the problem, the decodingdelay- dependent expressions of the users’ and overall completion times are derived in the complete feedback scenario. Although using such expressions to find the optimal overall completion time is NP-hard, the paper proposes two novel heuristics that minimizes the probability of increasing the maximum of these decoding-delay-dependent completion time expressions after each transmission through a layered control of their decoding delays. Afterward, the paper extends the study to the imperfect feedback scenario in which uncertainties at the sender affects its ability to anticipate accurately the decoding delay increase at each user. The paper formulates the problem in such environment and derives the expression of the minimum increase in the completion time. Simulation results show the performance of the proposed solutions and suggest that both heuristics achieves a lower mean completion time as compared to the best-known heuristics for the completion time reduction in perfect and imperfect feedback. The gap in performance becomes more significant as the erasure of the channel increases.
Observations on Polar Coding with CRC-Aided List Decoding
2016-09-01
TECHNICAL REPORT 3041 September 2016 Observations on Polar Coding with CRC-Aided List Decoding David Wasserman Approved for public release. SSC...described in [2, 3]. In FY15 and FY16 we used cyclic redundancy check (CRC)-aided polar list decoding [4]. Section 2 describes the basics of polar coding ...and gives details of the encoders and decoders we used. In the course of our research, we performed simulations of polar codes in hundreds of cases
Polar Coding with CRC-Aided List Decoding
2015-08-01
TECHNICAL REPORT 2087 August 2015 Polar Coding with CRC-Aided List Decoding David Wasserman Approved...list decoding . RESULTS Our simulation results show that polar coding can produce results very similar to the FEC used in the Digital Video...standard. RECOMMENDATIONS In any application for which the DVB-S2 FEC is considered, polar coding with CRC-aided list decod - ing with N = 65536
Design of a VLSI Decoder for Partially Structured LDPC Codes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fabrizio Vacca
2008-01-01
of their parity matrix can be partitioned into two disjoint sets, namely, the structured and the random ones. For the proposed class of codes a constructive design method is provided. To assess the value of this method the constructed codes performance are presented. From these results, a novel decoding method called split decoding is introduced. Finally, to prove the effectiveness of the proposed approach a whole VLSI decoder is designed and characterized.
Interpolation decoding method with variable parameters for fractal image compression
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Chuanjiang; Li Gaoping; Shen Xiaona
2007-01-01
The interpolation fractal decoding method, which is introduced by [He C, Yang SX, Huang X. Progressive decoding method for fractal image compression. IEE Proc Vis Image Signal Process 2004;3:207-13], involves generating progressively the decoded image by means of an interpolation iterative procedure with a constant parameter. It is well-known that the majority of image details are added at the first steps of iterations in the conventional fractal decoding; hence the constant parameter for the interpolation decoding method must be set as a smaller value in order to achieve a better progressive decoding. However, it needs to take an extremely large number of iterations to converge. It is thus reasonable for some applications to slow down the iterative process at the first stages of decoding and then to accelerate it afterwards (e.g., at some iteration as we need). To achieve the goal, this paper proposed an interpolation decoding scheme with variable (iteration-dependent) parameters and proved the convergence of the decoding process mathematically. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme has really achieved the above-mentioned goal
Joint Decoding of Concatenated VLEC and STTC System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chen Huijun
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract We consider the decoding of wireless communication systems with both source coding in the application layer and channel coding in the physical layer for high-performance transmission over fading channels. Variable length error correcting codes (VLECs and space time trellis codes (STTCs are used to provide bandwidth efficient data compression as well as coding and diversity gains. At the receiver, an iterative joint source and space time decoding scheme are developed to utilize redundancy in both STTC and VLEC to improve overall decoding performance. Issues such as the inseparable systematic information in the symbol level, the asymmetric trellis structure of VLEC, and information exchange between bit and symbol domains have been considered in the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP decoding algorithm. Simulation results indicate that the developed joint decoding scheme achieves a significant decoding gain over the separate decoding in fading channels, whether or not the channel information is perfectly known at the receiver. Furthermore, how rate allocation between STTC and VLEC affects the performance of the joint source and space-time decoder is investigated. Different systems with a fixed overall information rate are studied. It is shown that for a system with more redundancy dedicated to the source code and a higher order modulation of STTC, the joint decoding yields better performance, though with increased complexity.
Joint Decoding of Concatenated VLEC and STTC System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huijun Chen
2008-07-01
Full Text Available We consider the decoding of wireless communication systems with both source coding in the application layer and channel coding in the physical layer for high-performance transmission over fading channels. Variable length error correcting codes (VLECs and space time trellis codes (STTCs are used to provide bandwidth efficient data compression as well as coding and diversity gains. At the receiver, an iterative joint source and space time decoding scheme are developed to utilize redundancy in both STTC and VLEC to improve overall decoding performance. Issues such as the inseparable systematic information in the symbol level, the asymmetric trellis structure of VLEC, and information exchange between bit and symbol domains have been considered in the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP decoding algorithm. Simulation results indicate that the developed joint decoding scheme achieves a significant decoding gain over the separate decoding in fading channels, whether or not the channel information is perfectly known at the receiver. Furthermore, how rate allocation between STTC and VLEC affects the performance of the joint source and space-time decoder is investigated. Different systems with a fixed overall information rate are studied. It is shown that for a system with more redundancy dedicated to the source code and a higher order modulation of STTC, the joint decoding yields better performance, though with increased complexity.
Grasp movement decoding from premotor and parietal cortex.
Townsend, Benjamin R; Subasi, Erk; Scherberger, Hansjörg
2011-10-05
Despite recent advances in harnessing cortical motor-related activity to control computer cursors and robotic devices, the ability to decode and execute different grasping patterns remains a major obstacle. Here we demonstrate a simple Bayesian decoder for real-time classification of grip type and wrist orientation in macaque monkeys that uses higher-order planning signals from anterior intraparietal cortex (AIP) and ventral premotor cortex (area F5). Real-time decoding was based on multiunit signals, which had similar tuning properties to cells in previous single-unit recording studies. Maximum decoding accuracy for two grasp types (power and precision grip) and five wrist orientations was 63% (chance level, 10%). Analysis of decoder performance showed that grip type decoding was highly accurate (90.6%), with most errors occurring during orientation classification. In a subsequent off-line analysis, we found small but significant performance improvements (mean, 6.25 percentage points) when using an optimized spike-sorting method (superparamagnetic clustering). Furthermore, we observed significant differences in the contributions of F5 and AIP for grasp decoding, with F5 being better suited for classification of the grip type and AIP contributing more toward decoding of object orientation. However, optimum decoding performance was maximal when using neural activity simultaneously from both areas. Overall, these results highlight quantitative differences in the functional representation of grasp movements in AIP and F5 and represent a first step toward using these signals for developing functional neural interfaces for hand grasping.
Sub-quadratic decoding of one-point hermitian codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Johan Sebastian Rosenkilde; Beelen, Peter
2015-01-01
We present the first two sub-quadratic complexity decoding algorithms for one-point Hermitian codes. The first is based on a fast realization of the Guruswami-Sudan algorithm using state-of-the-art algorithms from computer algebra for polynomial-ring matrix minimization. The second is a power...... decoding algorithm: an extension of classical key equation decoding which gives a probabilistic decoding algorithm up to the Sudan radius. We show how the resulting key equations can be solved by the matrix minimization algorithms from computer algebra, yielding similar asymptotic complexities....
Fielding, Randall
2000-01-01
Presents a debate on which technology will be in tomorrow's classrooms and the pros and cons of wiring classrooms and using a wireless network. Concluding comments address the likelihood, and desirability, of placing computers throughout the entire educational process and what types of computers and capabilities are needed. (GR)
Panettieri, Joseph C.
2006-01-01
The wireless bandwagon is rolling across Mississippi, picking up a fresh load of converts and turning calamity into opportunity. Traditional wired school networks, many of which unraveled during Hurricane Katrina, are giving way to advanced wireless mesh networks that frequently include voice-over-IP (VoIP) capabilities. Vendor funding is helping…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jordi, Moréton; F, Escribano; J. L., Farias
This document is a general report on the implementation of gamification in 3D Wire 2015 event. As the second gamification experience in this event, we have delved deeply in the previous objectives (attracting public areas less frequented exhibition in previous years and enhance networking) and have...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bartl, W.; Neuhofer, G.; Regler, M.
1986-02-01
This booklet contains program and the abstracts of the papers presented at the conference, most of them dealing with performance testing of various types of wire chambers. The publication of proceedings is planned as a special issue of 'Nuclear instruments and methods' later on. All abstracts are in English. An author index for the book of abstracts is given. (A.N.)
Wire EDM for Refractory Materials
Zellars, G. R.; Harris, F. E.; Lowell, C. E.; Pollman, W. M.; Rys, V. J.; Wills, R. J.
1982-01-01
In an attempt to reduce fabrication time and costs, Wire Electrical Discharge Machine (Wire EDM) method was investigated as tool for fabricating matched blade roots and disk slots. Eight high-strength nickel-base superalloys were used. Computer-controlled Wire EDM technique provided high quality surfaces with excellent dimensional tolerances. Wire EDM method offers potential for substantial reductions in fabrication costs for "hard to machine" alloys and electrically conductive materials in specific high-precision applications.
Miller, Henry A
2013-01-01
Practical Wiring, Volume 1 is a 13-chapter book that first describes some of the common hand tools used in connection with sheathed wiring. Subsequent chapters discuss the safety in wiring, cables, conductor terminations, insulating sheathed wiring, conductor sizes, and consumer's control equipments. Other chapters center on socket outlets, plugs, lighting subcircuits, lighting accessories, bells, and primary and secondary cells. This book will be very valuable to students involved in this field of interest.
Wire chambers: Trends and alternatives
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Regler, Meinhard
1992-01-01
The subtitle of this year's Vienna Wire Chamber Conference - 'Recent Trends and Alternative Techniques' - signalled that it covered a wide range of science and technology. While an opening Vienna talk by wire chamber pioneer Georges Charpak many years ago began 'Les funerailles des chambres a fils (the burial of wire chambers)', the contrary feeling this year was that wire chambers are very much alive!
Sudan-decoding generalized geometric Goppa codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heydtmann, Agnes Eileen
2003-01-01
Generalized geometric Goppa codes are vector spaces of n-tuples with entries from different extension fields of a ground field. They are derived from evaluating functions similar to conventional geometric Goppa codes, but allowing evaluation in places of arbitrary degree. A decoding scheme...... for these codes based on Sudan's improved algorithm is presented and its error-correcting capacity is analyzed. For the implementation of the algorithm it is necessary that the so-called increasing zero bases of certain spaces of functions are available. A method to obtain such bases is developed....
Memory-efficient decoding of LDPC codes
Kwok-San Lee, Jason; Thorpe, Jeremy; Hawkins, Jon
2005-01-01
We present a low-complexity quantization scheme for the implementation of regular (3,6) LDPC codes. The quantization parameters are optimized to maximize the mutual information between the source and the quantized messages. Using this non-uniform quantized belief propagation algorithm, we have simulated that an optimized 3-bit quantizer operates with 0.2dB implementation loss relative to a floating point decoder, and an optimized 4-bit quantizer operates less than 0.1dB quantization loss.
[Modulation of Metacognition with Decoded Neurofeedback].
Koizumi, Ai; Cortese, Aurelio; Amano, Kaoru; Kawato, Mitsuo; Lau, Hakwan
2017-12-01
Humans often assess their confidence in their own perception, e.g., feeling "confident" or "certain" of having seen a friend, or feeling "uncertain" about whether the phone rang. The neural mechanism underlying the metacognitive function that reflects subjective perception still remains under debate. We have previously used decoded neurofeedback (DecNef) to demonstrate that manipulating the multivoxel activation patterns in the frontoparietal network modulates perceptual confidence without affecting perceptual performance. The results provided clear evidence for a dissociation between perceptual confidence and performance and suggested a distinct role of the frontoparietal network in metacognition.
Maximum a posteriori decoder for digital communications
Altes, Richard A. (Inventor)
1997-01-01
A system and method for decoding by identification of the most likely phase coded signal corresponding to received data. The present invention has particular application to communication with signals that experience spurious random phase perturbations. The generalized estimator-correlator uses a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator to generate phase estimates for correlation with incoming data samples and for correlation with mean phases indicative of unique hypothesized signals. The result is a MAP likelihood statistic for each hypothesized transmission, wherein the highest value statistic identifies the transmitted signal.
Instantly Decodable Network Coding: From Centralized to Device-to-Device Communications
Douik, Ahmed S.
2015-05-01
From its introduction to its quindecennial, network coding have built a strong reputation in enhancing packet recovery process and achieving maximum information flow in both wires and wireless networks. Traditional studies focused on optimizing the throughput of the network by proposing complex schemes that achieve optimal delay. With the shift toward distributed computing at mobile devices, throughput and complexity become both critical factors that affect the efficiency of a coding scheme. Instantly decodable network coding imposed itself as a new paradigm in network coding that trades off this two aspects. This paper presents a survey of instantly decodable network coding schemes that are proposed in the literature. The various schemes are identified, categorized and evaluated. Two categories can be distinguished namely the conventional centralized schemes and the distributed or cooperative schemes. For each scheme, the comparison is carried out in terms of reliability, performance, complexity and packet selection methodology. Although the performance is generally inversely proportional to the computation complexity, numerous successful schemes from both the performance and complexity viewpoint are identified.
Instantly Decodable Network Coding: From Centralized to Device-to-Device Communications
Douik, Ahmed S.
2015-01-01
From its introduction to its quindecennial, network coding have built a strong reputation in enhancing packet recovery process and achieving maximum information flow in both wires and wireless networks. Traditional studies focused on optimizing the throughput of the network by proposing complex schemes that achieve optimal delay. With the shift toward distributed computing at mobile devices, throughput and complexity become both critical factors that affect the efficiency of a coding scheme. Instantly decodable network coding imposed itself as a new paradigm in network coding that trades off this two aspects. This paper presents a survey of instantly decodable network coding schemes that are proposed in the literature. The various schemes are identified, categorized and evaluated. Two categories can be distinguished namely the conventional centralized schemes and the distributed or cooperative schemes. For each scheme, the comparison is carried out in terms of reliability, performance, complexity and packet selection methodology. Although the performance is generally inversely proportional to the computation complexity, numerous successful schemes from both the performance and complexity viewpoint are identified.
Vectorization of Reed Solomon decoding and mapping on the EVP
Kumar, A.; Berkel, van C.H.
2008-01-01
Reed Solomon (RS) codes are used in a variety of (wireless) communication systems. Although commonly implemented in dedicated hardware, this paper explores the mapping of high-throughput RS decoding on vector DSPs. The four modules of such a decoder, viz. Syndrome Computation, Key Equation Solver,
LDPC Codes--Structural Analysis and Decoding Techniques
Zhang, Xiaojie
2012-01-01
Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes have been the focus of much research over the past decade thanks to their near Shannon limit performance and to their efficient message-passing (MP) decoding algorithms. However, the error floor phenomenon observed in MP decoding, which manifests itself as an abrupt change in the slope of the error-rate curve,…
IQ Predicts Word Decoding Skills in Populations with Intellectual Disabilities
Levy, Yonata
2011-01-01
This is a study of word decoding in adolescents with Down syndrome and in adolescents with Intellectual Deficits of unknown etiology. It was designed as a replication of studies of word decoding in English speaking and in Hebrew speaking adolescents with Williams syndrome ([0230] and [0235]). Participants' IQ was matched to IQ in the groups with…
Word Processing in Dyslexics: An Automatic Decoding Deficit?
Yap, Regina; Van Der Leu, Aryan
1993-01-01
Compares dyslexic children with normal readers on measures of phonological decoding and automatic word processing. Finds that dyslexics have a deficit in automatic phonological decoding skills. Discusses results within the framework of the phonological deficit and the automatization deficit hypotheses. (RS)
Role of Gender and Linguistic Diversity in Word Decoding Development
Verhoeven, Ludo; van Leeuwe, Jan
2011-01-01
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of gender and linguistic diversity in the growth of Dutch word decoding skills throughout elementary school for a representative sample of children living in the Netherlands. Following a longitudinal design, the children's decoding abilities for (1) regular CVC words, (2) complex…
Decoding bipedal locomotion from the rat sensorimotor cortex
Rigosa, J.; Panarese, A.; Dominici, N.; Friedli, L.; van den Brand, R.; Carpaneto, J.; DiGiovanna, J.; Courtine, G.; Micera, S.
2015-01-01
Objective. Decoding forelimb movements from the firing activity of cortical neurons has been interfaced with robotic and prosthetic systems to replace lost upper limb functions in humans. Despite the potential of this approach to improve locomotion and facilitate gait rehabilitation, decoding lower
Vienna Wire Chamber Conference
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1983-01-01
After those of 1978 and 1980, a third Wire Chamber Conference was held from 15-18 February in the Technical University of Vienna. Eight invited speakers covered the field from sophisticated applications in biology and medicine, via software, to the state of the art of gaseous detectors. In some forty other talks the speakers tackled in more detail the topics of gaseous detectors, calorimetry and associated electronics and software
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adeva, B.; Gomez, F.; Pazos, A.; Pfau, R.; Plo, M.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Vazquez, P.; Labbe, J.C.
1999-01-01
We present the performance of a new proportional gas detector. Its geometry consists of a cathode plane with 70x70 μm 2 apertures, crossed by 25 μm anode strips to which it is attached by 50 μm kapton spacers. In the region where the avalanche takes place, the anode strips are suspended in the gas mixture as in a standard wire chamber. This detector exhibits high rate capability and large gains, introducing very little material. (author)
Schuller, Ivan K.; Ketterson, John B.; Banerjee, Indrajit
1986-01-01
A superconducting tape or wire with an improved critical field is formed of alternating layers of a niobium-containing superconductor such as Nb, NbTi, Nb.sub.3 Sn or Nb.sub.3 Ge with a thickness in the range of about 0.5-1.5 times its coherence length, supported and separated by layers of copper with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170-600 .ANG..
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gharibyan, V.; Delfs, A.; Koruptchenkov, I.; Noelle, D.; Tiessen, H.; Werner, M.; Wittenburg, K.
2012-11-15
A new type of 'two-in-one' wire scanner is proposed. Recent advances in linear motors' technology make it possible to combine translational and rotational movements. This will allow to scan the beam in two perpendicular directions using a single driving motor and a special fork attached to it. Vertical or horizontal mounting will help to escape problems associated with the 45 deg scanners. Test results of the translational part with linear motors is presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gharibyan, V.; Delfs, A.; Koruptchenkov, I.; Noelle, D.; Tiessen, H.; Werner, M.; Wittenburg, K.
2012-11-01
A new type of 'two-in-one' wire scanner is proposed. Recent advances in linear motors' technology make it possible to combine translational and rotational movements. This will allow to scan the beam in two perpendicular directions using a single driving motor and a special fork attached to it. Vertical or horizontal mounting will help to escape problems associated with the 45 deg scanners. Test results of the translational part with linear motors is presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Va'vra, J.
1992-04-01
In this paper, we describe new developments in gas mixtures which have occurred during the last 3--4 years. In particular, we discuss new results on the measurement and modeling of electron drift parameters, the modeling of drift chamber resolution, measurements of primary ionization and the choice of gas for applications such as tracking, single electron detection, X-ray detection and visual imaging. In addition, new results are presented on photon feedback, breakdown and wire aging
Multi-stage decoding of multi-level modulation codes
Lin, Shu; Kasami, Tadao; Costello, Daniel J., Jr.
1991-01-01
Various types of multi-stage decoding for multi-level modulation codes are investigated. It is shown that if the component codes of a multi-level modulation code and types of decoding at various stages are chosen properly, high spectral efficiency and large coding gain can be achieved with reduced decoding complexity. Particularly, it is shown that the difference in performance between the suboptimum multi-stage soft-decision maximum likelihood decoding of a modulation code and the single-stage optimum soft-decision decoding of the code is very small, only a fraction of dB loss in signal to noise ratio at a bit error rate (BER) of 10(exp -6).
Iterative List Decoding of Concatenated Source-Channel Codes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hedayat Ahmadreza
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Whenever variable-length entropy codes are used in the presence of a noisy channel, any channel errors will propagate and cause significant harm. Despite using channel codes, some residual errors always remain, whose effect will get magnified by error propagation. Mitigating this undesirable effect is of great practical interest. One approach is to use the residual redundancy of variable length codes for joint source-channel decoding. In this paper, we improve the performance of residual redundancy source-channel decoding via an iterative list decoder made possible by a nonbinary outer CRC code. We show that the list decoding of VLC's is beneficial for entropy codes that contain redundancy. Such codes are used in state-of-the-art video coders, for example. The proposed list decoder improves the overall performance significantly in AWGN and fully interleaved Rayleigh fading channels.
Decoding magnetoencephalographic rhythmic activity using spectrospatial information.
Kauppi, Jukka-Pekka; Parkkonen, Lauri; Hari, Riitta; Hyvärinen, Aapo
2013-12-01
We propose a new data-driven decoding method called Spectral Linear Discriminant Analysis (Spectral LDA) for the analysis of magnetoencephalography (MEG). The method allows investigation of changes in rhythmic neural activity as a result of different stimuli and tasks. The introduced classification model only assumes that each "brain state" can be characterized as a combination of neural sources, each of which shows rhythmic activity at one or several frequency bands. Furthermore, the model allows the oscillation frequencies to be different for each such state. We present decoding results from 9 subjects in a four-category classification problem defined by an experiment involving randomly alternating epochs of auditory, visual and tactile stimuli interspersed with rest periods. The performance of Spectral LDA was very competitive compared with four alternative classifiers based on different assumptions concerning the organization of rhythmic brain activity. In addition, the spectral and spatial patterns extracted automatically on the basis of trained classifiers showed that Spectral LDA offers a novel and interesting way of analyzing spectrospatial oscillatory neural activity across the brain. All the presented classification methods and visualization tools are freely available as a Matlab toolbox. © 2013.
Unsupervised learning of facial emotion decoding skills
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jan Oliver Huelle
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Research on the mechanisms underlying human facial emotion recognition has long focussed on genetically determined neural algorithms and often neglected the question of how these algorithms might be tuned by social learning. Here we show that facial emotion decoding skills can be significantly and sustainably improved by practise without an external teaching signal. Participants saw video clips of dynamic facial expressions of five different women and were asked to decide which of four possible emotions (anger, disgust, fear and sadness was shown in each clip. Although no external information about the correctness of the participant’s response or the sender’s true affective state was provided, participants showed a significant increase of facial emotion recognition accuracy both within and across two training sessions two days to several weeks apart. We discuss several similarities and differences between the unsupervised improvement of facial decoding skills observed in the current study, unsupervised perceptual learning of simple stimuli described in previous studies and practise effects often observed in cognitive tasks.
Unsupervised learning of facial emotion decoding skills.
Huelle, Jan O; Sack, Benjamin; Broer, Katja; Komlewa, Irina; Anders, Silke
2014-01-01
Research on the mechanisms underlying human facial emotion recognition has long focussed on genetically determined neural algorithms and often neglected the question of how these algorithms might be tuned by social learning. Here we show that facial emotion decoding skills can be significantly and sustainably improved by practice without an external teaching signal. Participants saw video clips of dynamic facial expressions of five different women and were asked to decide which of four possible emotions (anger, disgust, fear, and sadness) was shown in each clip. Although no external information about the correctness of the participant's response or the sender's true affective state was provided, participants showed a significant increase of facial emotion recognition accuracy both within and across two training sessions two days to several weeks apart. We discuss several similarities and differences between the unsupervised improvement of facial decoding skills observed in the current study, unsupervised perceptual learning of simple stimuli described in previous studies and practice effects often observed in cognitive tasks.
Decoding suprathreshold stochastic resonance with optimal weights
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Liyan; Vladusich, Tony; Duan, Fabing; Gunn, Lachlan J.; Abbott, Derek; McDonnell, Mark D.
2015-01-01
We investigate an array of stochastic quantizers for converting an analog input signal into a discrete output in the context of suprathreshold stochastic resonance. A new optimal weighted decoding is considered for different threshold level distributions. We show that for particular noise levels and choices of the threshold levels optimally weighting the quantizer responses provides a reduced mean square error in comparison with the original unweighted array. However, there are also many parameter regions where the original array provides near optimal performance, and when this occurs, it offers a much simpler approach than optimally weighting each quantizer's response. - Highlights: • A weighted summing array of independently noisy binary comparators is investigated. • We present an optimal linearly weighted decoding scheme for combining the comparator responses. • We solve for the optimal weights by applying least squares regression to simulated data. • We find that the MSE distortion of weighting before summation is superior to unweighted summation of comparator responses. • For some parameter regions, the decrease in MSE distortion due to weighting is negligible
Bayer image parallel decoding based on GPU
Hu, Rihui; Xu, Zhiyong; Wei, Yuxing; Sun, Shaohua
2012-11-01
In the photoelectrical tracking system, Bayer image is decompressed in traditional method, which is CPU-based. However, it is too slow when the images become large, for example, 2K×2K×16bit. In order to accelerate the Bayer image decoding, this paper introduces a parallel speedup method for NVIDA's Graphics Processor Unit (GPU) which supports CUDA architecture. The decoding procedure can be divided into three parts: the first is serial part, the second is task-parallelism part, and the last is data-parallelism part including inverse quantization, inverse discrete wavelet transform (IDWT) as well as image post-processing part. For reducing the execution time, the task-parallelism part is optimized by OpenMP techniques. The data-parallelism part could advance its efficiency through executing on the GPU as CUDA parallel program. The optimization techniques include instruction optimization, shared memory access optimization, the access memory coalesced optimization and texture memory optimization. In particular, it can significantly speed up the IDWT by rewriting the 2D (Tow-dimensional) serial IDWT into 1D parallel IDWT. Through experimenting with 1K×1K×16bit Bayer image, data-parallelism part is 10 more times faster than CPU-based implementation. Finally, a CPU+GPU heterogeneous decompression system was designed. The experimental result shows that it could achieve 3 to 5 times speed increase compared to the CPU serial method.
Squires, Katie Ellen
2013-01-01
This study investigated the differential contribution of auditory-verbal and visuospatial working memory (WM) on decoding skills in second- and fifth-grade children identified with poor decoding. Thirty-two second-grade students and 22 fifth-grade students completed measures that assessed simple and complex auditory-verbal and visuospatial memory,…
Dual wire welding torch and method
Diez, Fernando Martinez; Stump, Kevin S.; Ludewig, Howard W.; Kilty, Alan L.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Egland, Keith M.
2009-04-28
A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.
Right wire in orthodontics: a review
Ali, Hashim
2015-01-01
Quality of orthodontic wire such as stiffness, hardness, resiliency, elasticity and working range are important determinants of the effectivenes of tooth movement. Commonly used types of orthodontic arch wire:1) stainless steel(ss) wire, 2) conventional nickel- titanium (NiTi)alloy wire,3) improved super elastic NiTi- alloy wire( also called low hysteresis(LH)wire), and titanium molybdenum alloy(TMA) wire.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Va'Vra, J.
1986-02-01
This paper makes an overview of the wire chamber aging problems as a function of various chamber design parameters. It emphasizes the chemistry point of view and many examples are drawn from the plasma chemistry field as a guidance for a possible effort in the wire chamber field. The paper emphasizes the necessity of variable tuning, the importance of purity of the wire chamber environment, as well as it provides a practical list of presently known recommendations. In addition, several models of the wire chamber aging are qualitatively discussed. The paper is based on a summary talk given at the Wire Chamber Aging Workshop held at LBL, Berkeley on January 16-17, 1986. Presented also at Wire Chamber Conference, Vienna, February 25-28, 1986. 74 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs
Wire communication engineering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Son, Byeong Tae
1997-02-01
This book describes wire telecommunication engineering/ It is divided into eleven chapter, which deal with Introduction with development of telecommunication, voice and sound wave and communication network, Telegraphy with summary of telegraphy, code of telegraphy, communication speed, morse and telex, Telephone on structure, circuit and image telephone, Traffic on telecommunication traffic, transmission of line about theory, cable line and loaded cable, carrier communication with carrier telegraphy and carrier telephone, optical communication with types, structure, specialty, laser and equipment, DATA, Mobile telecommunication on summary, mobile telephone, radio paging and digital mobile telecommunication, ISDN with channel of ISDN, and service of ISDN, and design of telecommunication.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adeva, B.; Gomez, F.; Pazos, A.; Pfau, R.; Plo, M. E-mail: maximo.plo@cern.ch; Rodriguez, J.M.; Vazquez, P.; Labbe, J.C
1999-10-11
We present the performance of a new proportional gas detector. Its geometry consists of a cathode plane with 70x70 {mu}m{sup 2} apertures, crossed by 25 {mu}m anode strips to which it is attached by 50 {mu}m kapton spacers. In the region where the avalanche takes place, the anode strips are suspended in the gas mixture as in a standard wire chamber. This detector exhibits high rate capability and large gains, introducing very little material. (author)
Tricker, Ray
2012-01-01
Tired of trawling through the Wiring Regs?Perplexed by Part P?Confused by cables, conductors and circuits?Then look no further! This handy guide provides an on-the-job reference source for Electricians, Designers, Service Engineers, Inspectors, Builders, Students, DIY enthusiastsTopic-based chapters link areas of working practice - such as cables, installations, testing and inspection, special locations - with the specifics of the Regulations themselves. This allows quick and easy identification of the official requirements relating to the situati
Stabilized superconductive wires
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Randall, R.N.; Wong, J.
1976-01-01
A stable, high field, high current conductor is produced by packing multiple, multi-layer rods of a bronze core and niobium or vanadium inner jacket and copper outer jacket into a pure copper tube or other means for forming a pure copper matrix, sealing, working the packed tube to a wire, and by diffusion, heat treating to form a type II superconducting, Beta-Wolfram structure, intermetallic compound as a layer within each of several filaments derived from the rods. The layer of Beta-Wolfram structure compound may be formed in less than 2 h of diffusion heat treatment in a thickness of 0.5--2μ
O2-GIDNC: Beyond instantly decodable network coding
Aboutorab, Neda
2013-06-01
In this paper, we are concerned with extending the graph representation of generalized instantly decodable network coding (GIDNC) to a more general opportunistic network coding (ONC) scenario, referred to as order-2 GIDNC (O2-GIDNC). In the O2-GIDNC scheme, receivers can store non-instantly decodable packets (NIDPs) comprising two of their missing packets, and use them in a systematic way for later decodings. Once this graph representation is found, it can be used to extend the GIDNC graph-based analyses to the proposed O2-GIDNC scheme with a limited increase in complexity. In the proposed O2-GIDNC scheme, the information of the stored NIDPs at the receivers and the decoding opportunities they create can be exploited to improve the broadcast completion time and decoding delay compared to traditional GIDNC scheme. The completion time and decoding delay minimizing algorithms that can operate on the new O2-GIDNC graph are further described. The simulation results show that our proposed O2-GIDNC improves the completion time and decoding delay performance of the traditional GIDNC. © 2013 IEEE.
Encoder-decoder optimization for brain-computer interfaces.
Merel, Josh; Pianto, Donald M; Cunningham, John P; Paninski, Liam
2015-06-01
Neuroprosthetic brain-computer interfaces are systems that decode neural activity into useful control signals for effectors, such as a cursor on a computer screen. It has long been recognized that both the user and decoding system can adapt to increase the accuracy of the end effector. Co-adaptation is the process whereby a user learns to control the system in conjunction with the decoder adapting to learn the user's neural patterns. We provide a mathematical framework for co-adaptation and relate co-adaptation to the joint optimization of the user's control scheme ("encoding model") and the decoding algorithm's parameters. When the assumptions of that framework are respected, co-adaptation cannot yield better performance than that obtainable by an optimal initial choice of fixed decoder, coupled with optimal user learning. For a specific case, we provide numerical methods to obtain such an optimized decoder. We demonstrate our approach in a model brain-computer interface system using an online prosthesis simulator, a simple human-in-the-loop pyschophysics setup which provides a non-invasive simulation of the BCI setting. These experiments support two claims: that users can learn encoders matched to fixed, optimal decoders and that, once learned, our approach yields expected performance advantages.
Encoder-decoder optimization for brain-computer interfaces.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Josh Merel
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Neuroprosthetic brain-computer interfaces are systems that decode neural activity into useful control signals for effectors, such as a cursor on a computer screen. It has long been recognized that both the user and decoding system can adapt to increase the accuracy of the end effector. Co-adaptation is the process whereby a user learns to control the system in conjunction with the decoder adapting to learn the user's neural patterns. We provide a mathematical framework for co-adaptation and relate co-adaptation to the joint optimization of the user's control scheme ("encoding model" and the decoding algorithm's parameters. When the assumptions of that framework are respected, co-adaptation cannot yield better performance than that obtainable by an optimal initial choice of fixed decoder, coupled with optimal user learning. For a specific case, we provide numerical methods to obtain such an optimized decoder. We demonstrate our approach in a model brain-computer interface system using an online prosthesis simulator, a simple human-in-the-loop pyschophysics setup which provides a non-invasive simulation of the BCI setting. These experiments support two claims: that users can learn encoders matched to fixed, optimal decoders and that, once learned, our approach yields expected performance advantages.
Hard decoding algorithm for optimizing thresholds under general Markovian noise
Chamberland, Christopher; Wallman, Joel; Beale, Stefanie; Laflamme, Raymond
2017-04-01
Quantum error correction is instrumental in protecting quantum systems from noise in quantum computing and communication settings. Pauli channels can be efficiently simulated and threshold values for Pauli error rates under a variety of error-correcting codes have been obtained. However, realistic quantum systems can undergo noise processes that differ significantly from Pauli noise. In this paper, we present an efficient hard decoding algorithm for optimizing thresholds and lowering failure rates of an error-correcting code under general completely positive and trace-preserving (i.e., Markovian) noise. We use our hard decoding algorithm to study the performance of several error-correcting codes under various non-Pauli noise models by computing threshold values and failure rates for these codes. We compare the performance of our hard decoding algorithm to decoders optimized for depolarizing noise and show improvements in thresholds and reductions in failure rates by several orders of magnitude. Our hard decoding algorithm can also be adapted to take advantage of a code's non-Pauli transversal gates to further suppress noise. For example, we show that using the transversal gates of the 5-qubit code allows arbitrary rotations around certain axes to be perfectly corrected. Furthermore, we show that Pauli twirling can increase or decrease the threshold depending upon the code properties. Lastly, we show that even if the physical noise model differs slightly from the hypothesized noise model used to determine an optimized decoder, failure rates can still be reduced by applying our hard decoding algorithm.
Diagnostics for exploding wires (abstract)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moosman, B.; Bystritskii, V.; Wessel, F.J.; Van Drie, A.
1999-01-01
Two diagnostics, capable of imaging fast, high temperature, plasmas were used on exploding wire experiments at UC Irvine. An atmospheric pressure nitrogen laser (λ=337.1 nm) was used to generate simultaneous shadow and shearing interferogram images with a temporal resolution of ∼1 ns and a spatial resolution of 10 μm. An x-ray backlighter imaged the exploding wire 90 degree with respect to the laser and at approximately the same instant in time. The backlighter spatial resolution as determined by geometry and film resolution was 25 μm. Copper wires of diameters (25, 50, and 100 μm) and steel wire d=25 μm were exploded in vacuum (10 -5 Torr) at a maximum current level of 12 kA, by a rectified marx bank at a voltage of 50 kV and a current rise time (quarter period) of 900 ns. Copper wires which were cleaned and then resistively heated under vacuum to incandescence for several hours prior to high current initiation, exhibited greater expansion velocities at peak current than wires which had not been heated prior to discharge. Axial variations on the surface of the wire observed with the laser were found to correlate with bulk axial mass differences from x-ray backlighting. High electron density, measured near the opaque surface of the exploding wire, suggests that much of the current is shunted outward away from the bulk of the wire. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics
Reliability Criteria for Thick Bonding Wire.
Dagdelen, Turker; Abdel-Rahman, Eihab; Yavuz, Mustafa
2018-04-17
Bonding wire is one of the main interconnection techniques. Thick bonding wire is widely used in power modules and other high power applications. This study examined the case for extending the use of traditional thin wire reliability criteria, namely wire flexure and aspect ratio, to thick wires. Eleven aluminum (Al) and aluminum coated copper (CucorAl) wire samples with diameter 300 μm were tested experimentally. The wire response was measured using a novel non-contact method. High fidelity FEM models of the wire were developed and validated. We found that wire flexure is not correlated to its stress state or fatigue life. On the other hand, aspect ratio is a consistent criterion of thick wire fatigue life. Increasing the wire aspect ratio lowers its critical stress and increases its fatigue life. Moreover, we found that CucorAl wire has superior performance and longer fatigue life than Al wire.
Reliability Criteria for Thick Bonding Wire
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Turker Dagdelen
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Bonding wire is one of the main interconnection techniques. Thick bonding wire is widely used in power modules and other high power applications. This study examined the case for extending the use of traditional thin wire reliability criteria, namely wire flexure and aspect ratio, to thick wires. Eleven aluminum (Al and aluminum coated copper (CucorAl wire samples with diameter 300 μm were tested experimentally. The wire response was measured using a novel non-contact method. High fidelity FEM models of the wire were developed and validated. We found that wire flexure is not correlated to its stress state or fatigue life. On the other hand, aspect ratio is a consistent criterion of thick wire fatigue life. Increasing the wire aspect ratio lowers its critical stress and increases its fatigue life. Moreover, we found that CucorAl wire has superior performance and longer fatigue life than Al wire.
Reliability Criteria for Thick Bonding Wire
Yavuz, Mustafa
2018-01-01
Bonding wire is one of the main interconnection techniques. Thick bonding wire is widely used in power modules and other high power applications. This study examined the case for extending the use of traditional thin wire reliability criteria, namely wire flexure and aspect ratio, to thick wires. Eleven aluminum (Al) and aluminum coated copper (CucorAl) wire samples with diameter 300 μm were tested experimentally. The wire response was measured using a novel non-contact method. High fidelity FEM models of the wire were developed and validated. We found that wire flexure is not correlated to its stress state or fatigue life. On the other hand, aspect ratio is a consistent criterion of thick wire fatigue life. Increasing the wire aspect ratio lowers its critical stress and increases its fatigue life. Moreover, we found that CucorAl wire has superior performance and longer fatigue life than Al wire. PMID:29673194
Decoding emotional valence from electroencephalographic rhythmic activity.
Celikkanat, Hande; Moriya, Hiroki; Ogawa, Takeshi; Kauppi, Jukka-Pekka; Kawanabe, Motoaki; Hyvarinen, Aapo
2017-07-01
We attempt to decode emotional valence from electroencephalographic rhythmic activity in a naturalistic setting. We employ a data-driven method developed in a previous study, Spectral Linear Discriminant Analysis, to discover the relationships between the classification task and independent neuronal sources, optimally utilizing multiple frequency bands. A detailed investigation of the classifier provides insight into the neuronal sources related with emotional valence, and the individual differences of the subjects in processing emotions. Our findings show: (1) sources whose locations are similar across subjects are consistently involved in emotional responses, with the involvement of parietal sources being especially significant, and (2) even though the locations of the involved neuronal sources are consistent, subjects can display highly varying degrees of valence-related EEG activity in the sources.
Decoding the mechanisms of Antikythera astronomical device
Lin, Jian-Liang
2016-01-01
This book presents a systematic design methodology for decoding the interior structure of the Antikythera mechanism, an astronomical device from ancient Greece. The historical background, surviving evidence and reconstructions of the mechanism are introduced, and the historical development of astronomical achievements and various astronomical instruments are investigated. Pursuing an approach based on the conceptual design of modern mechanisms and bearing in mind the standards of science and technology at the time, all feasible designs of the six lost/incomplete/unclear subsystems are synthesized as illustrated examples, and 48 feasible designs of the complete interior structure are presented. This approach provides not only a logical tool for applying modern mechanical engineering knowledge to the reconstruction of the Antikythera mechanism, but also an innovative research direction for identifying the original structures of the mechanism in the future. In short, the book offers valuable new insights for all...
Academic Training - Bioinformatics: Decoding the Genome
Chris Jones
2006-01-01
ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURE SERIES 27, 28 February 1, 2, 3 March 2006 from 11:00 to 12:00 - Auditorium, bldg. 500 Decoding the Genome A special series of 5 lectures on: Recent extraordinary advances in the life sciences arising through new detection technologies and bioinformatics The past five years have seen an extraordinary change in the information and tools available in the life sciences. The sequencing of the human genome, the discovery that we possess far fewer genes than foreseen, the measurement of the tiny changes in the genomes that differentiate us, the sequencing of the genomes of many pathogens that lead to diseases such as malaria are all examples of completely new information that is now available in the quest for improved healthcare. New tools have allowed similar strides in the discovery of the associated protein structures, providing invaluable information for those searching for new drugs. New DNA microarray chips permit simultaneous measurement of the state of expression of tens...
Vibration of signal wires in wire detectors under irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bojko, I.R.; Shelkov, G.A.; Dodonov, V.I.; Ignatenko, M.A.; Nikolenko, M.Yu.
1995-01-01
Radiation-induced vibration of signal wires in wire detectors is found and explained. The phenomenon is based on repulsion of a signal wire with a positive potential and a cloud of positive ions that remains after neutralization of the electron part of the avalanche formed in the course of gas amplification. Vibration with a noticeable amplitude may arise from fluctuations of repulsive forces, which act on the wire and whose sources are numerous ion clusters. A formula is obtained which allows wire oscillations to be estimated for all types of wire detectors. Calculation shows that oscillations of signal wires can be substantial for the coordinate accuracy of a detector working in the limited streamer mode at fluxes over 10 5 particles per second per wire. In the proportional mode an average oscillation amplitude can be as large as 20-30 μm at some detector parameters and external radiation fluxes over 10 5 . The experimental investigations show that the proposed model well describes the main features of the phenomenon. 6 refs., 8 figs
Corrosion of Wires on Wooden Wire-Bound Packaging Crates
Samuel L. Zelinka; Stan Lebow
2015-01-01
Wire-bound packaging crates are used by the US Army to transport materials. Because these crates may be exposed to harsh environments, they are dip-treated with a wood preservative (biocide treatment). For many years, zinc-naphthenate was the most commonly used preservative for these packaging crates and few corrosion problems with the wires were observed. Recently,...
Multiple LDPC decoding for distributed source coding and video coding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forchhammer, Søren; Luong, Huynh Van; Huang, Xin
2011-01-01
Distributed source coding (DSC) is a coding paradigm for systems which fully or partly exploit the source statistics at the decoder to reduce the computational burden at the encoder. Distributed video coding (DVC) is one example. This paper considers the use of Low Density Parity Check Accumulate...... (LDPCA) codes in a DSC scheme with feed-back. To improve the LDPC coding performance in the context of DSC and DVC, while retaining short encoder blocks, this paper proposes multiple parallel LDPC decoding. The proposed scheme passes soft information between decoders to enhance performance. Experimental...
Locally decodable codes and private information retrieval schemes
Yekhanin, Sergey
2010-01-01
Locally decodable codes (LDCs) are codes that simultaneously provide efficient random access retrieval and high noise resilience by allowing reliable reconstruction of an arbitrary bit of a message by looking at only a small number of randomly chosen codeword bits. Local decodability comes with a certain loss in terms of efficiency - specifically, locally decodable codes require longer codeword lengths than their classical counterparts. Private information retrieval (PIR) schemes are cryptographic protocols designed to safeguard the privacy of database users. They allow clients to retrieve rec
Neural network decoder for quantum error correcting codes
Krastanov, Stefan; Jiang, Liang
Artificial neural networks form a family of extremely powerful - albeit still poorly understood - tools used in anything from image and sound recognition through text generation to, in our case, decoding. We present a straightforward Recurrent Neural Network architecture capable of deducing the correcting procedure for a quantum error-correcting code from a set of repeated stabilizer measurements. We discuss the fault-tolerance of our scheme and the cost of training the neural network for a system of a realistic size. Such decoders are especially interesting when applied to codes, like the quantum LDPC codes, that lack known efficient decoding schemes.
EXIT Chart Analysis of Binary Message-Passing Decoders
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lechner, Gottfried; Pedersen, Troels; Kramer, Gerhard
2007-01-01
Binary message-passing decoders for LDPC codes are analyzed using EXIT charts. For the analysis, the variable node decoder performs all computations in the L-value domain. For the special case of a hard decision channel, this leads to the well know Gallager B algorithm, while the analysis can...... be extended to channels with larger output alphabets. By increasing the output alphabet from hard decisions to four symbols, a gain of more than 1.0 dB is achieved using optimized codes. For this code optimization, the mixing property of EXIT functions has to be modified to the case of binary message......-passing decoders....
Turbo decoder architecture for beyond-4G applications
Wong, Cheng-Chi
2013-01-01
This book describes the most recent techniques for turbo decoder implementation, especially for 4G and beyond 4G applications. The authors reveal techniques for the design of high-throughput decoders for future telecommunication systems, enabling designers to reduce hardware cost and shorten processing time. Coverage includes an explanation of VLSI implementation of the turbo decoder, from basic functional units to advanced parallel architecture. The authors discuss both hardware architecture techniques and experimental results, showing the variations in area/throughput/performance with respec
Encoding and Decoding Models in Cognitive Electrophysiology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christopher R. Holdgraf
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Cognitive neuroscience has seen rapid growth in the size and complexity of data recorded from the human brain as well as in the computational tools available to analyze this data. This data explosion has resulted in an increased use of multivariate, model-based methods for asking neuroscience questions, allowing scientists to investigate multiple hypotheses with a single dataset, to use complex, time-varying stimuli, and to study the human brain under more naturalistic conditions. These tools come in the form of “Encoding” models, in which stimulus features are used to model brain activity, and “Decoding” models, in which neural features are used to generated a stimulus output. Here we review the current state of encoding and decoding models in cognitive electrophysiology and provide a practical guide toward conducting experiments and analyses in this emerging field. Our examples focus on using linear models in the study of human language and audition. We show how to calculate auditory receptive fields from natural sounds as well as how to decode neural recordings to predict speech. The paper aims to be a useful tutorial to these approaches, and a practical introduction to using machine learning and applied statistics to build models of neural activity. The data analytic approaches we discuss may also be applied to other sensory modalities, motor systems, and cognitive systems, and we cover some examples in these areas. In addition, a collection of Jupyter notebooks is publicly available as a complement to the material covered in this paper, providing code examples and tutorials for predictive modeling in python. The aim is to provide a practical understanding of predictive modeling of human brain data and to propose best-practices in conducting these analyses.
Study of bifurcation behavior of two-dimensional turbo product code decoders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Yejun; Lau, Francis C.M.; Tse, Chi K.
2008-01-01
Turbo codes, low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes and turbo product codes (TPCs) are high performance error-correction codes which employ iterative algorithms for decoding. Under different conditions, the behaviors of the decoders are different. While the nonlinear dynamical behaviors of turbo code decoders and LDPC decoders have been reported in the literature, the dynamical behavior of TPC decoders is relatively unexplored. In this paper, we investigate the behavior of the iterative algorithm of a two-dimensional TPC decoder when the input signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) varies. The quantity to be measured is the mean square value of the posterior probabilities of the information bits. Unlike turbo decoders or LDPC decoders, TPC decoders do not produce a clear 'waterfall region'. This is mainly because the TPC decoding algorithm does not converge to 'indecisive' fixed points even at very low SNR values
Study of bifurcation behavior of two-dimensional turbo product code decoders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
He Yejun [Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hunghom, Hong Kong (China); Lau, Francis C.M. [Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hunghom, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: encmlau@polyu.edu.hk; Tse, Chi K. [Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hunghom, Hong Kong (China)
2008-04-15
Turbo codes, low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes and turbo product codes (TPCs) are high performance error-correction codes which employ iterative algorithms for decoding. Under different conditions, the behaviors of the decoders are different. While the nonlinear dynamical behaviors of turbo code decoders and LDPC decoders have been reported in the literature, the dynamical behavior of TPC decoders is relatively unexplored. In this paper, we investigate the behavior of the iterative algorithm of a two-dimensional TPC decoder when the input signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) varies. The quantity to be measured is the mean square value of the posterior probabilities of the information bits. Unlike turbo decoders or LDPC decoders, TPC decoders do not produce a clear 'waterfall region'. This is mainly because the TPC decoding algorithm does not converge to 'indecisive' fixed points even at very low SNR values.
Architecture for time or transform domain decoding of reed-solomon codes
Shao, Howard M. (Inventor); Truong, Trieu-Kie (Inventor); Hsu, In-Shek (Inventor); Deutsch, Leslie J. (Inventor)
1989-01-01
Two pipeline (255,233) RS decoders, one a time domain decoder and the other a transform domain decoder, use the same first part to develop an errata locator polynomial .tau.(x), and an errata evaluator polynominal A(x). Both the time domain decoder and transform domain decoder have a modified GCD that uses an input multiplexer and an output demultiplexer to reduce the number of GCD cells required. The time domain decoder uses a Chien search and polynomial evaluator on the GCD outputs .tau.(x) and A(x), for the final decoding steps, while the transform domain decoder uses a transform error pattern algorithm operating on .tau.(x) and the initial syndrome computation S(x), followed by an inverse transform algorithm in sequence for the final decoding steps prior to adding the received RS coded message to produce a decoded output message.
Improved superconducting magnet wire
Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.
1983-08-16
This invention is directed to a superconducting tape or wire composed of alternating layers of copper and a niobium-containing superconductor such as niobium of NbTi, Nb/sub 3/Sn or Nb/sub 3/Ge. In general, each layer of the niobium-containing superconductor has a thickness in the range of about 0.05 to 1.5 times its coherence length (which for Nb/sub 3/Si is 41 A) with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170 to 600 A. With the use of very thin layers of the niobium composition having a thickness within the desired range, the critical field (H/sub c/) may be increased by factors of 2 to 4. Also, the thin layers of the superconductor permit the resulting tape or wire to exhibit suitable ductility for winding on a magnet core. These compositions are also characterized by relatively high values of critical temperature and therefore will exhibit a combination of useful properties as superconductors.
Annual coded wire tag program (Washington) missing production groups : annual report 2000; ANNUAL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dammers, Wolf; Mills, Robin D.
2002-01-01
The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funds the ''Annual Coded-wire Tag Program - Missing Production Groups for Columbia River Hatcheries'' project. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) all operate salmon and steelhead rearing programs in the Columbia River basin. The intent of the funding is to coded-wire tag at least one production group of each species at each Columbia Basin hatchery to provide a holistic assessment of survival and catch distribution over time and to meet various measures of the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NWPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program. The WDFW project has three main objectives: (1) coded-wire tag at least one production group of each species at each Columbia Basin hatchery to enable evaluation of survival and catch distribution over time, (2) recover coded-wire tags from the snouts of fish tagged under objective 1 and estimate survival, contribution, and stray rates for each group, and (3) report the findings under objective 2 for all broods of chinook, and coho released from WDFW Columbia Basin hatcheries. Objective 1 for FY-00 was met with few modifications to the original FY-00 proposal. Under Objective 2, snouts containing coded-wire tags that were recovered during FY-00 were decoded. Under Objective 3, this report summarizes available recovery information through 2000 and includes detailed information for brood years 1989 to 1994 for chinook and 1995 to 1997 for coho
Welding wire pressure sensor assembly
Morris, Timothy B. (Inventor); Milly, Peter F., Sr. (Inventor); White, J. Kevin (Inventor)
1994-01-01
The present invention relates to a device which is used to monitor the position of a filler wire relative to a base material being welded as the filler wire is added to a welding pool. The device is applicable to automated welding systems wherein nonconsumable electrode arc welding processes are utilized in conjunction with a filler wire which is added to a weld pool created by the electrode arc. The invention senses pressure deviations from a predetermined pressure between the filler wire and the base material, and provides electrical signals responsive to the deviations for actuating control mechanisms in an automatic welding apparatus so as to minimize the pressure deviation and to prevent disengagement of the contact between the filler wire and the base material.
Construction and decoding of a class of algebraic geometry codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Justesen, Jørn; Larsen, Knud J.; Jensen, Helge Elbrønd
1989-01-01
A class of codes derived from algebraic plane curves is constructed. The concepts and results from algebraic geometry that were used are explained in detail; no further knowledge of algebraic geometry is needed. Parameters, generator and parity-check matrices are given. The main result is a decod...... is a decoding algorithm which turns out to be a generalization of the Peterson algorithm for decoding BCH decoder codes......A class of codes derived from algebraic plane curves is constructed. The concepts and results from algebraic geometry that were used are explained in detail; no further knowledge of algebraic geometry is needed. Parameters, generator and parity-check matrices are given. The main result...
Toward a universal decoder of linguistic meaning from brain activation.
Pereira, Francisco; Lou, Bin; Pritchett, Brianna; Ritter, Samuel; Gershman, Samuel J; Kanwisher, Nancy; Botvinick, Matthew; Fedorenko, Evelina
2018-03-06
Prior work decoding linguistic meaning from imaging data has been largely limited to concrete nouns, using similar stimuli for training and testing, from a relatively small number of semantic categories. Here we present a new approach for building a brain decoding system in which words and sentences are represented as vectors in a semantic space constructed from massive text corpora. By efficiently sampling this space to select training stimuli shown to subjects, we maximize the ability to generalize to new meanings from limited imaging data. To validate this approach, we train the system on imaging data of individual concepts, and show it can decode semantic vector representations from imaging data of sentences about a wide variety of both concrete and abstract topics from two separate datasets. These decoded representations are sufficiently detailed to distinguish even semantically similar sentences, and to capture the similarity structure of meaning relationships between sentences.
Illustrative examples in a bilingual decoding dictionary: An (un ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Keywords: Illustrative Examples, Bilingual Decoding Dictionary, Semantic Differences Between Source Language (Sl) And Target Language (Tl), Grammatical Differences Between Sl And Tl, Translation Of Examples, Transposition, Context-Dependent Translation, One-Word Equivalent, Zero Equivalent, Idiomatic ...
Decoding Reed-Solomon Codes beyond half the minimum distance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Høholdt, Tom; Nielsen, Rasmus Refslund
1999-01-01
We describe an efficient implementation of M.Sudan"s algorithm for decoding Reed-Solomon codes beyond half the minimum distance. Furthermore we calculate an upper bound of the probabilty of getting more than one codeword as output...
Forming Refractory Insulation On Copper Wire
Setlock, J.; Roberts, G.
1995-01-01
Alternative insulating process forms flexible coat of uncured refractory insulating material on copper wire. Coated wire formed into coil or other complex shape. Wire-coating apparatus forms "green" coat on copper wire. After wire coiled, heating converts "green" coat to refractory electrical insulator. When cured to final brittle form, insulating material withstands temperatures above melting temperature of wire. Process used to make coils for motors, solenoids, and other electrical devices to be operated at high temperatures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McCauley, T.M.; Eskinazi, M.; Henson, L.L.
1989-01-01
This paper discusses the changes in electrical document requirements that occur when construction is complete and a generating station starts commercial operation. The needs of operations and maintenance (O and M) personnel are analyzed and contrasted with those of construction to illustrate areas in which the construction documents (drawings, diagrams, and databases) are difficult to use for work at an operating station. The paper discusses the O and M electrical documents that the Arizona Nuclear Power Project (ANPP) believes are most beneficial for the three operating units at Palo Verde; these are control wiring diagrams and an associated document cross-reference list. The benefits offered by these new, station O and M-oriented documents are weighted against the cost of their creation and their impact on drawing maintenance
An overview of turbo decoding on fading channels
ATILGAN, Doğan
2009-01-01
A review of turbo coding and decoding has been presented in the literature [1]. In that paper, turbo coding and decoding on AWGN (Additive White Gaussian Noise) channels has been elaborated. In wireless communications, a phenomennon called multipath fading is frequently encountered. Therefore, investigation of efficient techniques to tackle with the destructive effects of fading is essential. Turbo coding has been proven as an efficient channel coding technique for AWGN channels. Some of the ...
Performance Analysis of a Decoding Algorithm for Algebraic Geometry Codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Helge Elbrønd; Nielsen, Rasmus Refslund; Høholdt, Tom
1998-01-01
We analyse the known decoding algorithms for algebraic geometry codes in the case where the number of errors is greater than or equal to [(dFR-1)/2]+1, where dFR is the Feng-Rao distance......We analyse the known decoding algorithms for algebraic geometry codes in the case where the number of errors is greater than or equal to [(dFR-1)/2]+1, where dFR is the Feng-Rao distance...
Recent results in the decoding of Algebraic geometry codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Høholdt, Tom; Jensen, Helge Elbrønd; Nielsen, Rasmus Refslund
1998-01-01
We analyse the known decoding algorithms for algebraic geometry codes in the case where the number of errors is [(dFR-1)/2]+1, where dFR is the Feng-Rao distance......We analyse the known decoding algorithms for algebraic geometry codes in the case where the number of errors is [(dFR-1)/2]+1, where dFR is the Feng-Rao distance...
Effect of video decoder errors on video interpretability
Young, Darrell L.
2014-06-01
The advancement in video compression technology can result in more sensitivity to bit errors. Bit errors can propagate causing sustained loss of interpretability. In the worst case, the decoder "freezes" until it can re-synchronize with the stream. Detection of artifacts enables downstream processes to avoid corrupted frames. A simple template approach to detect block stripes and a more advanced cascade approach to detect compression artifacts was shown to correlate to the presence of artifacts and decoder messages.
Electroplated superconducting wire
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peger, C.H.
1991-01-01
A hard chromium solution has been considered the least efficient of all plating solutions. This is not exactly true if the correct plating conditions are used. The accepted efficiency is only 12% but that is only true for the parameters that were used long ago to make the determination. At 12% efficiency it would be impossible to plate Superconductor wire. The world's chromium plating shops have been plating at a .001 (.025u) per hour rate since the turn of the century. Shops in the Cleveland, Ohio area have been limiting their plating rate to .006 (152u) since 1935. A few have used .012 (304u) to .030 (762u) per hour for specialized jobs. These figures would indicate the apparent efficiency of the old 100 to 1 chromium, sulfate solution can be higher than 60%. The industry uses a 3 bus bar tank with wide spacing between anode and cathode. This results in high solution resistance and high heat generation and consequently slow plating rates. The Reversible Rack 2 Bus Bar System uses very close anode to cathode spacings. This results in the high plating rates with improved quality deposits. When first asked to chromium plate pure nickel wire reel to reel in long lengths, companies making reel to reel machines were asked if chromium plating was practical. In every case, the answer was it couldn't be done. Gold, tin and zinc plating was being done reel to reel. Using the same parameters that were used to determine a chromium solution efficiency was only 12%, these other metal solutions check out close to 100%
Electrophysiological difference between mental state decoding and mental state reasoning.
Cao, Bihua; Li, Yiyuan; Li, Fuhong; Li, Hong
2012-06-29
Previous studies have explored the neural mechanism of Theory of Mind (ToM), but the neural correlates of its two components, mental state decoding and mental state reasoning, remain unclear. In the present study, participants were presented with various photographs, showing an actor looking at 1 of 2 objects, either with a happy or an unhappy expression. They were asked to either decode the emotion of the actor (mental state decoding task), predict which object would be chosen by the actor (mental state reasoning task), or judge at which object the actor was gazing (physical task), while scalp potentials were recorded. Results showed that (1) the reasoning task elicited an earlier N2 peak than the decoding task did over the prefrontal scalp sites; and (2) during the late positive component (240-440 ms), the reasoning task elicited a more positive deflection than the other two tasks did at the prefrontal scalp sites. In addition, neither the decoding task nor the reasoning task has no left/right hemisphere difference. These findings imply that mental state reasoning differs from mental state decoding early (210 ms) after stimulus onset, and that the prefrontal lobe is the neural basis of mental state reasoning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Evaluation framework for K-best sphere decoders
Shen, Chungan
2010-08-01
While Maximum-Likelihood (ML) is the optimum decoding scheme for most communication scenarios, practical implementation difficulties limit its use, especially for Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) systems with a large number of transmit or receive antennas. Tree-searching type decoder structures such as Sphere decoder and K-best decoder present an interesting trade-off between complexity and performance. Many algorithmic developments and VLSI implementations have been reported in literature with widely varying performance to area and power metrics. In this semi-tutorial paper we present a holistic view of different Sphere decoding techniques and K-best decoding techniques, identifying the key algorithmic and implementation trade-offs. We establish a consistent benchmark framework to investigate and compare the delay cost, power cost, and power-delay-product cost incurred by each method. Finally, using the framework, we propose and analyze a novel architecture and compare that to other published approaches. Our goal is to explicitly elucidate the overall advantages and disadvantages of each proposed algorithms in one coherent framework. © 2010 World Scientific Publishing Company.
Partially blind instantly decodable network codes for lossy feedback environment
Sorour, Sameh
2014-09-01
In this paper, we study the multicast completion and decoding delay minimization problems for instantly decodable network coding (IDNC) in the case of lossy feedback. When feedback loss events occur, the sender falls into uncertainties about packet reception at the different receivers, which forces it to perform partially blind selections of packet combinations in subsequent transmissions. To determine efficient selection policies that reduce the completion and decoding delays of IDNC in such an environment, we first extend the perfect feedback formulation in our previous works to the lossy feedback environment, by incorporating the uncertainties resulting from unheard feedback events in these formulations. For the completion delay problem, we use this formulation to identify the maximum likelihood state of the network in events of unheard feedback and employ it to design a partially blind graph update extension to the multicast IDNC algorithm in our earlier work. For the decoding delay problem, we derive an expression for the expected decoding delay increment for any arbitrary transmission. This expression is then used to find the optimal policy that reduces the decoding delay in such lossy feedback environment. Results show that our proposed solutions both outperform previously proposed approaches and achieve tolerable degradation even at relatively high feedback loss rates.
Lei, Ted Chih-Wei; Tseng, Fan-Shuo
2017-07-01
This paper addresses the problem of high-computational complexity decoding in traditional Wyner-Ziv video coding (WZVC). The key focus is the migration of two traditionally high-computationally complex encoder algorithms, namely motion estimation and mode decision. In order to reduce the computational burden in this process, the proposed architecture adopts the partial boundary matching algorithm and four flexible types of block mode decision at the decoder. This approach does away with the need for motion estimation and mode decision at the encoder. The experimental results show that the proposed padding block-based WZVC not only decreases decoder complexity to approximately one hundredth that of the state-of-the-art DISCOVER decoding but also outperforms DISCOVER codec by up to 3 to 4 dB.
Plasma chemistry in wire chambers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wise, J.
1990-05-01
The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an 55 Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed
Singer product apertures—A coded aperture system with a fast decoding algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Byard, Kevin; Shutler, Paul M.E.
2017-01-01
A new type of coded aperture configuration that enables fast decoding of the coded aperture shadowgram data is presented. Based on the products of incidence vectors generated from the Singer difference sets, we call these Singer product apertures. For a range of aperture dimensions, we compare experimentally the performance of three decoding methods: standard decoding, induction decoding and direct vector decoding. In all cases the induction and direct vector methods are several orders of magnitude faster than the standard method, with direct vector decoding being significantly faster than induction decoding. For apertures of the same dimensions the increase in speed offered by direct vector decoding over induction decoding is better for lower throughput apertures.
An FPGA Implementation of (3,6-Regular Low-Density Parity-Check Code Decoder
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tong Zhang
2003-05-01
Full Text Available Because of their excellent error-correcting performance, low-density parity-check (LDPC codes have recently attracted a lot of attention. In this paper, we are interested in the practical LDPC code decoder hardware implementations. The direct fully parallel decoder implementation usually incurs too high hardware complexity for many real applications, thus partly parallel decoder design approaches that can achieve appropriate trade-offs between hardware complexity and decoding throughput are highly desirable. Applying a joint code and decoder design methodology, we develop a high-speed (3,k-regular LDPC code partly parallel decoder architecture based on which we implement a 9216-bit, rate-1/2(3,6-regular LDPC code decoder on Xilinx FPGA device. This partly parallel decoder supports a maximum symbol throughput of 54 Mbps and achieves BER 10Ã¢ÂˆÂ’6 at 2 dB over AWGN channel while performing maximum 18 decoding iterations.
Singer product apertures—A coded aperture system with a fast decoding algorithm
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Byard, Kevin, E-mail: kevin.byard@aut.ac.nz [School of Economics, Faculty of Business, Economics and Law, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Shutler, Paul M.E. [National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore)
2017-06-01
A new type of coded aperture configuration that enables fast decoding of the coded aperture shadowgram data is presented. Based on the products of incidence vectors generated from the Singer difference sets, we call these Singer product apertures. For a range of aperture dimensions, we compare experimentally the performance of three decoding methods: standard decoding, induction decoding and direct vector decoding. In all cases the induction and direct vector methods are several orders of magnitude faster than the standard method, with direct vector decoding being significantly faster than induction decoding. For apertures of the same dimensions the increase in speed offered by direct vector decoding over induction decoding is better for lower throughput apertures.
Decoding reality the universe as quantum information
Vedral, Vlatko
2010-01-01
In Decoding Reality, Vlatko Vedral offers a mind-stretching look at the deepest questions about the universe--where everything comes from, why things are as they are, what everything is. The most fundamental definition of reality is not matter or energy, he writes, but information--and it is the processing of information that lies at the root of all physical, biological, economic, and social phenomena. This view allows Vedral to address a host of seemingly unrelated questions: Why does DNA bind like it does? What is the ideal diet for longevity? How do you make your first million dollars? We can unify all through the understanding that everything consists of bits of information, he writes, though that raises the question of where these bits come from. To find the answer, he takes us on a guided tour through the bizarre realm of quantum physics. At this sub-sub-subatomic level, we find such things as the interaction of separated quantum particles--what Einstein called "spooky action at a distance." In fact, V...
Statistical coding and decoding of heartbeat intervals.
Lucena, Fausto; Barros, Allan Kardec; Príncipe, José C; Ohnishi, Noboru
2011-01-01
The heart integrates neuroregulatory messages into specific bands of frequency, such that the overall amplitude spectrum of the cardiac output reflects the variations of the autonomic nervous system. This modulatory mechanism seems to be well adjusted to the unpredictability of the cardiac demand, maintaining a proper cardiac regulation. A longstanding theory holds that biological organisms facing an ever-changing environment are likely to evolve adaptive mechanisms to extract essential features in order to adjust their behavior. The key question, however, has been to understand how the neural circuitry self-organizes these feature detectors to select behaviorally relevant information. Previous studies in computational perception suggest that a neural population enhances information that is important for survival by minimizing the statistical redundancy of the stimuli. Herein we investigate whether the cardiac system makes use of a redundancy reduction strategy to regulate the cardiac rhythm. Based on a network of neural filters optimized to code heartbeat intervals, we learn a population code that maximizes the information across the neural ensemble. The emerging population code displays filter tuning proprieties whose characteristics explain diverse aspects of the autonomic cardiac regulation, such as the compromise between fast and slow cardiac responses. We show that the filters yield responses that are quantitatively similar to observed heart rate responses during direct sympathetic or parasympathetic nerve stimulation. Our findings suggest that the heart decodes autonomic stimuli according to information theory principles analogous to how perceptual cues are encoded by sensory systems.
Rate Aware Instantly Decodable Network Codes
Douik, Ahmed
2016-02-26
This paper addresses the problem of reducing the delivery time of data messages to cellular users using instantly decodable network coding (IDNC) with physical-layer rate awareness. While most of the existing literature on IDNC does not consider any physical layer complications, this paper proposes a cross-layer scheme that incorporates the different channel rates of the various users in the decision process of both the transmitted message combinations and the rates with which they are transmitted. The completion time minimization problem in such scenario is first shown to be intractable. The problem is, thus, approximated by reducing, at each transmission, the increase of an anticipated version of the completion time. The paper solves the problem by formulating it as a maximum weight clique problem over a newly designed rate aware IDNC (RA-IDNC) graph. Further, the paper provides a multi-layer solution to improve the completion time approximation. Simulation results suggest that the cross-layer design largely outperforms the uncoded transmissions strategies and the classical IDNC scheme. © 2015 IEEE.
Encoding and decoding messages with chaotic lasers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alsing, P.M.; Gavrielides, A.; Kovanis, V.; Roy, R.; Thornburg, K.S. Jr.
1997-01-01
We investigate the structure of the strange attractor of a chaotic loss-modulated solid-state laser utilizing return maps based on a combination of intensity maxima and interspike intervals, as opposed to those utilizing Poincare sections defined by the intensity maxima of the laser (I=0,Ie<0) alone. We find both experimentally and numerically that a simple, intrinsic relationship exists between an intensity maximum and the pair of preceding and succeeding interspike intervals. In addition, we numerically investigate encoding messages on the output of a chaotic transmitter laser and its subsequent decoding by a similar receiver laser. By exploiting the relationship between the intensity maxima and the interspike intervals, we demonstrate that the method utilized to encode the message is vital to the system close-quote s ability to hide the signal from unwanted deciphering. In this work alternative methods are studied in order to encode messages by modulating the magnitude of pumping of the transmitter laser and also by driving its loss modulation with more than one frequency. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Fast mental states decoding in mixed reality.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniele eDe Massari
2014-11-01
Full Text Available The combination of Brain-Computer Interface technology, allowing online monitoring and decoding of brain activity, with virtual and mixed reality systems may help to shape and guide implicit and explicit learning using ecological scenarios. Real-time information of ongoing brain states acquired through BCI might be exploited for controlling data presentation in virtual environments. In this context, assessing to what extent brain states can be discriminated during mixed reality experience is critical for adapting specific data features to contingent brain activity. In this study we recorded EEG data while participants experienced a mixed reality scenario implemented through the eXperience Induction Machine (XIM. The XIM is a novel framework modeling the integration of a sensing system that evaluates and measures physiological and psychological states with a number of actuators and effectors that coherently reacts to the user's actions. We then assessed continuous EEG-based discrimination of spatial navigation, reading and calculation performed in mixed reality, using LDA and SVM classifiers. Dynamic single trial classification showed high accuracy of LDA and SVM classifiers in detecting multiple brain states as well as in differentiating between high and low mental workload, using a 5 s time-window shifting every 200 ms. Our results indicate overall better performance of LDA with respect to SVM and suggest applicability of our approach in a BCI-controlled mixed reality scenario. Ultimately, successful prediction of brain states might be used to drive adaptation of data representation in order to boost information processing in mixed reality.
Decoding P4-ATPase substrate interactions.
Roland, Bartholomew P; Graham, Todd R
Cellular membranes display a diversity of functions that are conferred by the unique composition and organization of their proteins and lipids. One important aspect of lipid organization is the asymmetric distribution of phospholipids (PLs) across the plasma membrane. The unequal distribution of key PLs between the cytofacial and exofacial leaflets of the bilayer creates physical surface tension that can be used to bend the membrane; and like Ca 2+ , a chemical gradient that can be used to transduce biochemical signals. PL flippases in the type IV P-type ATPase (P4-ATPase) family are the principle transporters used to set and repair this PL gradient and the asymmetric organization of these membranes are encoded by the substrate specificity of these enzymes. Thus, understanding the mechanisms of P4-ATPase substrate specificity will help reveal their role in membrane organization and cell biology. Further, decoding the structural determinants of substrate specificity provides investigators the opportunity to mutationally tune this specificity to explore the role of particular PL substrates in P4-ATPase cellular functions. This work reviews the role of P4-ATPases in membrane biology, presents our current understanding of P4-ATPase substrate specificity, and discusses how these fundamental aspects of P4-ATPase enzymology may be used to enhance our knowledge of cellular membrane biology.
Fast mental states decoding in mixed reality.
De Massari, Daniele; Pacheco, Daniel; Malekshahi, Rahim; Betella, Alberto; Verschure, Paul F M J; Birbaumer, Niels; Caria, Andrea
2014-01-01
The combination of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) technology, allowing online monitoring and decoding of brain activity, with virtual and mixed reality (MR) systems may help to shape and guide implicit and explicit learning using ecological scenarios. Real-time information of ongoing brain states acquired through BCI might be exploited for controlling data presentation in virtual environments. Brain states discrimination during mixed reality experience is thus critical for adapting specific data features to contingent brain activity. In this study we recorded electroencephalographic (EEG) data while participants experienced MR scenarios implemented through the eXperience Induction Machine (XIM). The XIM is a novel framework modeling the integration of a sensing system that evaluates and measures physiological and psychological states with a number of actuators and effectors that coherently reacts to the user's actions. We then assessed continuous EEG-based discrimination of spatial navigation, reading and calculation performed in MR, using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. Dynamic single trial classification showed high accuracy of LDA and SVM classifiers in detecting multiple brain states as well as in differentiating between high and low mental workload, using a 5 s time-window shifting every 200 ms. Our results indicate overall better performance of LDA with respect to SVM and suggest applicability of our approach in a BCI-controlled MR scenario. Ultimately, successful prediction of brain states might be used to drive adaptation of data representation in order to boost information processing in MR.
Observing human movements helps decoding environmental forces.
Zago, Myrka; La Scaleia, Barbara; Miller, William L; Lacquaniti, Francesco
2011-11-01
Vision of human actions can affect several features of visual motion processing, as well as the motor responses of the observer. Here, we tested the hypothesis that action observation helps decoding environmental forces during the interception of a decelerating target within a brief time window, a task intrinsically very difficult. We employed a factorial design to evaluate the effects of scene orientation (normal or inverted) and target gravity (normal or inverted). Button-press triggered the motion of a bullet, a piston, or a human arm. We found that the timing errors were smaller for upright scenes irrespective of gravity direction in the Bullet group, while the errors were smaller for the standard condition of normal scene and gravity in the Piston group. In the Arm group, instead, performance was better when the directions of scene and target gravity were concordant, irrespective of whether both were upright or inverted. These results suggest that the default viewer-centered reference frame is used with inanimate scenes, such as those of the Bullet and Piston protocols. Instead, the presence of biological movements in animate scenes (as in the Arm protocol) may help processing target kinematics under the ecological conditions of coherence between scene and target gravity directions.
Rate Aware Instantly Decodable Network Codes
Douik, Ahmed; Sorour, Sameh; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2016-01-01
This paper addresses the problem of reducing the delivery time of data messages to cellular users using instantly decodable network coding (IDNC) with physical-layer rate awareness. While most of the existing literature on IDNC does not consider any physical layer complications, this paper proposes a cross-layer scheme that incorporates the different channel rates of the various users in the decision process of both the transmitted message combinations and the rates with which they are transmitted. The completion time minimization problem in such scenario is first shown to be intractable. The problem is, thus, approximated by reducing, at each transmission, the increase of an anticipated version of the completion time. The paper solves the problem by formulating it as a maximum weight clique problem over a newly designed rate aware IDNC (RA-IDNC) graph. Further, the paper provides a multi-layer solution to improve the completion time approximation. Simulation results suggest that the cross-layer design largely outperforms the uncoded transmissions strategies and the classical IDNC scheme. © 2015 IEEE.
Statistical coding and decoding of heartbeat intervals.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fausto Lucena
Full Text Available The heart integrates neuroregulatory messages into specific bands of frequency, such that the overall amplitude spectrum of the cardiac output reflects the variations of the autonomic nervous system. This modulatory mechanism seems to be well adjusted to the unpredictability of the cardiac demand, maintaining a proper cardiac regulation. A longstanding theory holds that biological organisms facing an ever-changing environment are likely to evolve adaptive mechanisms to extract essential features in order to adjust their behavior. The key question, however, has been to understand how the neural circuitry self-organizes these feature detectors to select behaviorally relevant information. Previous studies in computational perception suggest that a neural population enhances information that is important for survival by minimizing the statistical redundancy of the stimuli. Herein we investigate whether the cardiac system makes use of a redundancy reduction strategy to regulate the cardiac rhythm. Based on a network of neural filters optimized to code heartbeat intervals, we learn a population code that maximizes the information across the neural ensemble. The emerging population code displays filter tuning proprieties whose characteristics explain diverse aspects of the autonomic cardiac regulation, such as the compromise between fast and slow cardiac responses. We show that the filters yield responses that are quantitatively similar to observed heart rate responses during direct sympathetic or parasympathetic nerve stimulation. Our findings suggest that the heart decodes autonomic stimuli according to information theory principles analogous to how perceptual cues are encoded by sensory systems.
Efficient universal computing architectures for decoding neural activity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benjamin I Rapoport
Full Text Available The ability to decode neural activity into meaningful control signals for prosthetic devices is critical to the development of clinically useful brain- machine interfaces (BMIs. Such systems require input from tens to hundreds of brain-implanted recording electrodes in order to deliver robust and accurate performance; in serving that primary function they should also minimize power dissipation in order to avoid damaging neural tissue; and they should transmit data wirelessly in order to minimize the risk of infection associated with chronic, transcutaneous implants. Electronic architectures for brain- machine interfaces must therefore minimize size and power consumption, while maximizing the ability to compress data to be transmitted over limited-bandwidth wireless channels. Here we present a system of extremely low computational complexity, designed for real-time decoding of neural signals, and suited for highly scalable implantable systems. Our programmable architecture is an explicit implementation of a universal computing machine emulating the dynamics of a network of integrate-and-fire neurons; it requires no arithmetic operations except for counting, and decodes neural signals using only computationally inexpensive logic operations. The simplicity of this architecture does not compromise its ability to compress raw neural data by factors greater than [Formula: see text]. We describe a set of decoding algorithms based on this computational architecture, one designed to operate within an implanted system, minimizing its power consumption and data transmission bandwidth; and a complementary set of algorithms for learning, programming the decoder, and postprocessing the decoded output, designed to operate in an external, nonimplanted unit. The implementation of the implantable portion is estimated to require fewer than 5000 operations per second. A proof-of-concept, 32-channel field-programmable gate array (FPGA implementation of this portion
A real-time MPEG software decoder using a portable message-passing library
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwong, Man Kam; Tang, P.T. Peter; Lin, Biquan
1995-12-31
We present a real-time MPEG software decoder that uses message-passing libraries such as MPL, p4 and MPI. The parallel MPEG decoder currently runs on the IBM SP system but can be easil ported to other parallel machines. This paper discusses our parallel MPEG decoding algorithm as well as the parallel programming environment under which it uses. Several technical issues are discussed, including balancing of decoding speed, memory limitation, 1/0 capacities, and optimization of MPEG decoding components. This project shows that a real-time portable software MPEG decoder is feasible in a general-purpose parallel machine.
Aydoğdu, A; Frasca, P; D'Apice, C; Manzo, R; Thornton, J M; Gachomo, B; Wilson, T; Cheung, B; Tariq, U; Saidel, W; Piccoli, B
2017-02-21
In this paper we introduce a mathematical model to study the group dynamics of birds resting on wires. The model is agent-based and postulates attraction-repulsion forces between the interacting birds: the interactions are "topological", in the sense that they involve a given number of neighbors irrespective of their distance. The model is first mathematically analyzed and then simulated to study its main properties: we observe that the model predicts birds to be more widely spaced near the borders of each group. We compare the results from the model with experimental data, derived from the analysis of pictures of pigeons and starlings taken in New Jersey: two different image elaboration protocols allow us to establish a good agreement with the model and to quantify its main parameters. We also discuss the potential handedness of the birds, by analyzing the group organization features and the group dynamics at the arrival of new birds. Finally, we propose a more refined mathematical model that describes landing and departing birds by suitable stochastic processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Inhomogeneous wire explosion in water
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hwangbo, C.K.; Kong, H.J.; Lee, S.S.
1980-01-01
Inhomogeneous processes are observed in underwater copper wire explosion induced by a condensed capacitor discharge. The wire used is 0.1 mm in diameter and 10 mm long, and the capacitor of 2 μF is charged to 5 KV. A N 2 laser is used for the diagnostic of spatial extension of exploding copper vapour. The photographs obtained in this experiment show unambiguously the inhomogeneous explosion along the exploding wire. The quenching of plasma by the surrounding water inhibits the expansion of the vapour. It is believed the observed inhomogeneous explosion along the wire is located and localized around Goronkin's striae, which was first reported by Goronkin and discussed by Froengel as a pre-breakdown phenomenon. (author)
Topology Optimized Photonic Wire Splitters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Borel, Peter Ingo; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard
2006-01-01
Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm.......Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm....
Composite conductor containing superconductive wires
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Larson, W.L.; Wong, J.
1974-03-26
A superconductor cable substitute made by coworking multiple rods of superconductive niobium--titanium or niobium--zirconium alloy with a common copper matrix to extend the copper and rods to form a final elongated product which has superconductive wires distributed in a reduced cross-section copper conductor with a complete metallurgical bond between the normal-conductive copper and the superconductor wires contained therein is described. The superconductor cable can be in the form of a tube.
HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1994-07-01
The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.
Wire Scanner Motion Control Card
Forde, S E
2006-01-01
Scientists require a certain beam quality produced by the accelerator rings at CERN. The discovery potential of LHC is given by the reachable luminosity at its interaction points. The luminosity is maximized by minimizing the beam size. Therefore an accurate beam size measurement is required for optimizing the luminosity. The wire scanner performs very accurate profile measurements, but as it can not be used at full intensity in the LHC ring, it is used for calibrating other profile monitors. As the current wire scanner system, which is used in the present CERN accelerators, has not been made for the required specification of the LHC, a new design of a wire scanner motion control card is part of the LHC wire scanner project. The main functions of this card are to control the wire scanner motion and to acquire the position of the wire. In case of further upgrades at a later stage, it is required to allow an easy update of the firmware, hence the programmable features of FPGAs will be used for this purpose. The...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Rutherford, Brian Milne
2013-05-01
In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.
Mapping visual stimuli to perceptual decisions via sparse decoding of mesoscopic neural activity.
Sajda, Paul
2010-01-01
In this talk I will describe our work investigating sparse decoding of neural activity, given a realistic mapping of the visual scene to neuronal spike trains generated by a model of primary visual cortex (V1). We use a linear decoder which imposes sparsity via an L1 norm. The decoder can be viewed as a decoding neuron (linear summation followed by a sigmoidal nonlinearity) in which there are relatively few non-zero synaptic weights. We find: (1) the best decoding performance is for a representation that is sparse in both space and time, (2) decoding of a temporal code results in better performance than a rate code and is also a better fit to the psychophysical data, (3) the number of neurons required for decoding increases monotonically as signal-to-noise in the stimulus decreases, with as little as 1% of the neurons required for decoding at the highest signal-to-noise levels, and (4) sparse decoding results in a more accurate decoding of the stimulus and is a better fit to psychophysical performance than a distributed decoding, for example one imposed by an L2 norm. We conclude that sparse coding is well-justified from a decoding perspective in that it results in a minimum number of neurons and maximum accuracy when sparse representations can be decoded from the neural dynamics.
Robust pattern decoding in shape-coded structured light
Tang, Suming; Zhang, Xu; Song, Zhan; Song, Lifang; Zeng, Hai
2017-09-01
Decoding is a challenging and complex problem in a coded structured light system. In this paper, a robust pattern decoding method is proposed for the shape-coded structured light in which the pattern is designed as grid shape with embedded geometrical shapes. In our decoding method, advancements are made at three steps. First, a multi-template feature detection algorithm is introduced to detect the feature point which is the intersection of each two orthogonal grid-lines. Second, pattern element identification is modelled as a supervised classification problem and the deep neural network technique is applied for the accurate classification of pattern elements. Before that, a training dataset is established, which contains a mass of pattern elements with various blurring and distortions. Third, an error correction mechanism based on epipolar constraint, coplanarity constraint and topological constraint is presented to reduce the false matches. In the experiments, several complex objects including human hand are chosen to test the accuracy and robustness of the proposed method. The experimental results show that our decoding method not only has high decoding accuracy, but also owns strong robustness to surface color and complex textures.
Optimal and efficient decoding of concatenated quantum block codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poulin, David
2006-01-01
We consider the problem of optimally decoding a quantum error correction code--that is, to find the optimal recovery procedure given the outcomes of partial ''check'' measurements on the system. In general, this problem is NP hard. However, we demonstrate that for concatenated block codes, the optimal decoding can be efficiently computed using a message-passing algorithm. We compare the performance of the message-passing algorithm to that of the widespread blockwise hard decoding technique. Our Monte Carlo results using the five-qubit and Steane's code on a depolarizing channel demonstrate significant advantages of the message-passing algorithms in two respects: (i) Optimal decoding increases by as much as 94% the error threshold below which the error correction procedure can be used to reliably send information over a noisy channel; and (ii) for noise levels below these thresholds, the probability of error after optimal decoding is suppressed at a significantly higher rate, leading to a substantial reduction of the error correction overhead
Distributed coding/decoding complexity in video sensor networks.
Cordeiro, Paulo J; Assunção, Pedro
2012-01-01
Video Sensor Networks (VSNs) are recent communication infrastructures used to capture and transmit dense visual information from an application context. In such large scale environments which include video coding, transmission and display/storage, there are several open problems to overcome in practical implementations. This paper addresses the most relevant challenges posed by VSNs, namely stringent bandwidth usage and processing time/power constraints. In particular, the paper proposes a novel VSN architecture where large sets of visual sensors with embedded processors are used for compression and transmission of coded streams to gateways, which in turn transrate the incoming streams and adapt them to the variable complexity requirements of both the sensor encoders and end-user decoder terminals. Such gateways provide real-time transcoding functionalities for bandwidth adaptation and coding/decoding complexity distribution by transferring the most complex video encoding/decoding tasks to the transcoding gateway at the expense of a limited increase in bit rate. Then, a method to reduce the decoding complexity, suitable for system-on-chip implementation, is proposed to operate at the transcoding gateway whenever decoders with constrained resources are targeted. The results show that the proposed method achieves good performance and its inclusion into the VSN infrastructure provides an additional level of complexity control functionality.
Ignition and spread of electrical wire fires
Huang, Xinyan
2012-01-01
Ignition of electrical wires by external heating is investigated in order to gain a better understanding of the initiation of electrical-wire fires. An ignition-to- spread model is developed to systematically explain ignition and the following transition to spread. The model predicts that for a higher-conductance wire it is more difficult to achieve ignition and the weak flame may extinguish during the transition phase because of a large conductive heat loss along the wire core. Wires with tw...
High-speed test of SFQ-shift register files using PTL wiring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujiwara, K.; Yamashiro, Y.; Yoshikawa, N.; Hashimoto, Y.; Yorozu, S.; Terai, H.; Fujimaki, A.
2004-01-01
We have been developing an SFQ shift register memory, which is one candidate to realize high-throughput and high-density superconductive memories. We have modified our memory architecture in order to adapt it to our SFQ microprocessor, CORE1. The new version of the shift register memory is composed of shift registers with non-destructive readout operation, which have an internal feedback. We have also studied the availability of passive transmission line (PTL) wiring in the memory system at high speed. The tested circuit is a 4-byte shift register file, where four kinds of wiring circuits are used between a decoder and shift registers. We have measured the dependences of the DC bias margin on the operating frequency for all wiring methods, and obtained almost the same dependences, which shows the availability of the PTL wiring in the memory system. We have used the NEC 2.5 kA/cm 2 Nb standard process and the CONNECT cell library
Lexical decoder for continuous speech recognition: sequential neural network approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iooss, Christine
1991-01-01
The work presented in this dissertation concerns the study of a connectionist architecture to treat sequential inputs. In this context, the model proposed by J.L. Elman, a recurrent multilayers network, is used. Its abilities and its limits are evaluated. Modifications are done in order to treat erroneous or noisy sequential inputs and to classify patterns. The application context of this study concerns the realisation of a lexical decoder for analytical multi-speakers continuous speech recognition. Lexical decoding is completed from lattices of phonemes which are obtained after an acoustic-phonetic decoding stage relying on a K Nearest Neighbors search technique. Test are done on sentences formed from a lexicon of 20 words. The results are obtained show the ability of the proposed connectionist model to take into account the sequentiality at the input level, to memorize the context and to treat noisy or erroneous inputs. (author) [fr
Systolic array processing of the sequential decoding algorithm
Chang, C. Y.; Yao, K.
1989-01-01
A systolic array processing technique is applied to implementing the stack algorithm form of the sequential decoding algorithm. It is shown that sorting, a key function in the stack algorithm, can be efficiently realized by a special type of systolic arrays known as systolic priority queues. Compared to the stack-bucket algorithm, this approach is shown to have the advantages that the decoding always moves along the optimal path, that it has a fast and constant decoding speed and that its simple and regular hardware architecture is suitable for VLSI implementation. Three types of systolic priority queues are discussed: random access scheme, shift register scheme and ripple register scheme. The property of the entries stored in the systolic priority queue is also investigated. The results are applicable to many other basic sorting type problems.
Analysis of Minimal LDPC Decoder System on a Chip Implementation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Palenik
2015-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a practical method of potential replacement of several different Quasi-Cyclic Low-Density Parity-Check (QC-LDPC codes with one, with the intention of saving as much memory as required to implement the LDPC encoder and decoder in a memory-constrained System on a Chip (SoC. The presented method requires only a very small modification of the existing encoder and decoder, making it suitable for utilization in a Software Defined Radio (SDR platform. Besides the analysis of the effects of necessary variable-node value fixation during the Belief Propagation (BP decoding algorithm, practical standard-defined code parameters are scrutinized in order to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed LDPC setup simplification. Finally, the error performance of the modified system structure is evaluated and compared with the original system structure by means of simulation.
Analysis and Design of Binary Message-Passing Decoders
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lechner, Gottfried; Pedersen, Troels; Kramer, Gerhard
2012-01-01
Binary message-passing decoders for low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes are studied by using extrinsic information transfer (EXIT) charts. The channel delivers hard or soft decisions and the variable node decoder performs all computations in the L-value domain. A hard decision channel results...... message-passing decoders. Finally, it is shown that errors on cycles consisting only of degree two and three variable nodes cannot be corrected and a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a cycle-free subgraph is derived....... in the well-know Gallager B algorithm, and increasing the output alphabet from hard decisions to two bits yields a gain of more than 1.0 dB in the required signal to noise ratio when using optimized codes. The code optimization requires adapting the mixing property of EXIT functions to the case of binary...
Error-correction coding and decoding bounds, codes, decoders, analysis and applications
Tomlinson, Martin; Ambroze, Marcel A; Ahmed, Mohammed; Jibril, Mubarak
2017-01-01
This book discusses both the theory and practical applications of self-correcting data, commonly known as error-correcting codes. The applications included demonstrate the importance of these codes in a wide range of everyday technologies, from smartphones to secure communications and transactions. Written in a readily understandable style, the book presents the authors’ twenty-five years of research organized into five parts: Part I is concerned with the theoretical performance attainable by using error correcting codes to achieve communications efficiency in digital communications systems. Part II explores the construction of error-correcting codes and explains the different families of codes and how they are designed. Techniques are described for producing the very best codes. Part III addresses the analysis of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, primarily to calculate their stopping sets and low-weight codeword spectrum which determines the performance of these codes. Part IV deals with decoders desi...
The fast decoding of Reed-Solomon codes using Fermat theoretic transforms and continued fractions
Reed, I. S.; Scholtz, R. A.; Welch, L. R.; Truong, T. K.
1978-01-01
It is shown that Reed-Solomon (RS) codes can be decoded by using a fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm over finite fields GF(F sub n), where F sub n is a Fermat prime, and continued fractions. This new transform decoding method is simpler than the standard method for RS codes. The computing time of this new decoding algorithm in software can be faster than the standard decoding method for RS codes.
Joint Estimation and Decoding of Space-Time Trellis Codes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang Jianqiu
2002-01-01
Full Text Available We explore the possibility of using an emerging tool in statistical signal processing, sequential importance sampling (SIS, for joint estimation and decoding of space-time trellis codes (STTC. First, we provide background on SIS, and then we discuss its application to space-time trellis code (STTC systems. It is shown through simulations that SIS is suitable for joint estimation and decoding of STTC with time-varying flat-fading channels when phase ambiguity is avoided. We used a design criterion for STTCs and temporally correlated channels that combats phase ambiguity without pilot signaling. We have shown by simulations that the design is valid.
Efficient decoding of random errors for quantum expander codes
Fawzi , Omar; Grospellier , Antoine; Leverrier , Anthony
2017-01-01
We show that quantum expander codes, a constant-rate family of quantum LDPC codes, with the quasi-linear time decoding algorithm of Leverrier, Tillich and Z\\'emor can correct a constant fraction of random errors with very high probability. This is the first construction of a constant-rate quantum LDPC code with an efficient decoding algorithm that can correct a linear number of random errors with a negligible failure probability. Finding codes with these properties is also motivated by Gottes...
Min-Max decoding for non binary LDPC codes
Savin, Valentin
2008-01-01
Iterative decoding of non-binary LDPC codes is currently performed using either the Sum-Product or the Min-Sum algorithms or slightly different versions of them. In this paper, several low-complexity quasi-optimal iterative algorithms are proposed for decoding non-binary codes. The Min-Max algorithm is one of them and it has the benefit of two possible LLR domain implementations: a standard implementation, whose complexity scales as the square of the Galois field's cardinality and a reduced c...
Decoding ensemble activity from neurophysiological recordings in the temporal cortex.
Kreiman, Gabriel
2011-01-01
We study subjects with pharmacologically intractable epilepsy who undergo semi-chronic implantation of electrodes for clinical purposes. We record physiological activity from tens to more than one hundred electrodes implanted in different parts of neocortex. These recordings provide higher spatial and temporal resolution than non-invasive measures of human brain activity. Here we discuss our efforts to develop hardware and algorithms to interact with the human brain by decoding ensemble activity in single trials. We focus our discussion on decoding visual information during a variety of visual object recognition tasks but the same technologies and algorithms can also be directly applied to other cognitive phenomena.
Linear-time general decoding algorithm for the surface code
Darmawan, Andrew S.; Poulin, David
2018-05-01
A quantum error correcting protocol can be substantially improved by taking into account features of the physical noise process. We present an efficient decoder for the surface code which can account for general noise features, including coherences and correlations. We demonstrate that the decoder significantly outperforms the conventional matching algorithm on a variety of noise models, including non-Pauli noise and spatially correlated noise. The algorithm is based on an approximate calculation of the logical channel using a tensor-network description of the noisy state.
Technical innovation: Wire guided ductography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aslam, Muhammad Ovais; Ramadan, Salwa; Al-Adwani, Muneera
2012-01-01
To introduce an easy and improved technique for performing ductography using inexpensive easily available intravenous cannula. Guide wire: Prolene/Surgipro 3-0 (Polypropylene mono filament non-absorbable surgical suture). A plastic 26 G intravenous cannula. Disposable syringe 2 ml. Non-ionic contrast (low density like Omnipaque 240 mg I/I). The guide wire (Prolene 3-0) is introduced into the orifice of the duct heaving discharge and 26 G intravenous plastic cannula is then passed over the guide wire. The cannula is advanced in the duct over guide wire by spinning around it. When the cannula is in place the guide wire is removed. Any air bubbles present in the hub of the cannula can be displaced by filling the hub from bottom upwards with needle attached to contrast filled syringe. 0.2–0.4 ml non-ionic contrast is gently injected. Injection is stopped if the patient has pain or burning. Magnified cranio-caudal view is obtained with cannula tapped in place and gentle compression is applied with the patient sitting. If duct filling is satisfactory a 90* lateral view is obtained. A successful adaptation of the technique for performing ductography is presented. The materials required for the technique are easily available in most radiology departments and are inexpensive, thus making the procedure comfortable for the patient and radiologist with considerable cost effectiveness.
Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2014-08-01
The recovery of ^{252}Cf from palladium-^{252}Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO_{3} and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60°C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, which ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of ^{153}Gd, a surrogate for ^{252}Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David G. Daut
2007-03-01
Full Text Available A joint source-channel decoding method is designed to accelerate the iterative log-domain sum-product decoding procedure of LDPC codes as well as to improve the reconstructed image quality. Error resilience modes are used in the JPEG2000 source codec making it possible to provide useful source decoded information to the channel decoder. After each iteration, a tentative decoding is made and the channel decoded bits are then sent to the JPEG2000 decoder. The positions of bits belonging to error-free coding passes are then fed back to the channel decoder. The log-likelihood ratios (LLRs of these bits are then modified by a weighting factor for the next iteration. By observing the statistics of the decoding procedure, the weighting factor is designed as a function of the channel condition. Results show that the proposed joint decoding methods can greatly reduce the number of iterations, and thereby reduce the decoding delay considerably. At the same time, this method always outperforms the nonsource controlled decoding method by up to 3 dB in terms of PSNR.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu Weiliang
2007-01-01
Full Text Available A joint source-channel decoding method is designed to accelerate the iterative log-domain sum-product decoding procedure of LDPC codes as well as to improve the reconstructed image quality. Error resilience modes are used in the JPEG2000 source codec making it possible to provide useful source decoded information to the channel decoder. After each iteration, a tentative decoding is made and the channel decoded bits are then sent to the JPEG2000 decoder. The positions of bits belonging to error-free coding passes are then fed back to the channel decoder. The log-likelihood ratios (LLRs of these bits are then modified by a weighting factor for the next iteration. By observing the statistics of the decoding procedure, the weighting factor is designed as a function of the channel condition. Results show that the proposed joint decoding methods can greatly reduce the number of iterations, and thereby reduce the decoding delay considerably. At the same time, this method always outperforms the nonsource controlled decoding method by up to 3 dB in terms of PSNR.
Performance-complexity tradeoff in sequential decoding for the unconstrained AWGN channel
Abediseid, Walid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2013-01-01
channel has been studied only under the use of the minimum Euclidean distance decoder that is commonly referred to as the lattice decoder. Lattice decoders based on solutions to the NP-hard closest vector problem are very complex to implement
Construction and decoding of matrix-product codes from nested codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hernando, Fernando; Lally, Kristine; Ruano, Diego
2009-01-01
We consider matrix-product codes [C1 ... Cs] · A, where C1, ..., Cs are nested linear codes and matrix A has full rank. We compute their minimum distance and provide a decoding algorithm when A is a non-singular by columns matrix. The decoding algorithm decodes up to half of the minimum distance....
Adaptive decoding of MPEG-4 sprites for memory-constrained embedded systems
Pastrnak, M.; Farin, D.S.; With, de P.H.N.; Cardinal, J.; Cerf, N.; Delgrnage, O.
2005-01-01
Background sprite decoding is an essential part of object-based video coding.The composition and rendering of a final scene involves the placing of individual video objects in a predefined way superimposed on the decoded background image. The MPEG-4 standard includes the decoding algorithm for
Decoding sound level in the marmoset primary auditory cortex.
Sun, Wensheng; Marongelli, Ellisha N; Watkins, Paul V; Barbour, Dennis L
2017-10-01
Neurons that respond favorably to a particular sound level have been observed throughout the central auditory system, becoming steadily more common at higher processing areas. One theory about the role of these level-tuned or nonmonotonic neurons is the level-invariant encoding of sounds. To investigate this theory, we simulated various subpopulations of neurons by drawing from real primary auditory cortex (A1) neuron responses and surveyed their performance in forming different sound level representations. Pure nonmonotonic subpopulations did not provide the best level-invariant decoding; instead, mixtures of monotonic and nonmonotonic neurons provided the most accurate decoding. For level-fidelity decoding, the inclusion of nonmonotonic neurons slightly improved or did not change decoding accuracy until they constituted a high proportion. These results indicate that nonmonotonic neurons fill an encoding role complementary to, rather than alternate to, monotonic neurons. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Neurons with nonmonotonic rate-level functions are unique to the central auditory system. These level-tuned neurons have been proposed to account for invariant sound perception across sound levels. Through systematic simulations based on real neuron responses, this study shows that neuron populations perform sound encoding optimally when containing both monotonic and nonmonotonic neurons. The results indicate that instead of working independently, nonmonotonic neurons complement the function of monotonic neurons in different sound-encoding contexts. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.
Complete ML Decoding orf the (73,45) PG Code
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom; Hjaltason, Johan
2005-01-01
Our recent proof of the completeness of decoding by list bit flipping is reviewed. The proof is based on an enumeration of all cosets of low weight in terms of their minimum weight and syndrome weight. By using a geometric description of the error patterns we characterize all remaining cosets....
Decoding Representations: How Children with Autism Understand Drawings
Allen, Melissa L.
2009-01-01
Young typically developing children can reason about abstract depictions if they know the intention of the artist. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who are notably impaired in social, "intention monitoring" domains, may have great difficulty in decoding vague representations. In Experiment 1, children with ASD are unable to use…
The Fluid Reading Primer: Animated Decoding Support for Emergent Readers.
Zellweger, Polle T.; Mackinlay, Jock D.
A prototype application called the Fluid Reading Primer was developed to help emergent readers with the process of decoding written words into their spoken forms. The Fluid Reading Primer is part of a larger research project called Fluid Documents, which is exploring the use of interactive animation of typography to show additional information in…
Adaptive Combined Source and Channel Decoding with Modulation ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper, an adaptive system employing combined source and channel decoding with modulation is proposed for slow Rayleigh fading channels. Huffman code is used as the source code and Convolutional code is used for error control. The adaptive scheme employs a family of Convolutional codes of different rates ...
Tracking Perceptual and Memory Decisions by Decoding Brain Activity
van Vugt, Marieke; Brandt, Armin; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas
2017-01-01
Decision making is thought to involve a process of evidence accumulation, modelled as a drifting diffusion process. This modeling framework suggests that all single-stage decisions involve a similar evidence accumulation process. In this paper we use decoding by machine learning classifiers on
Peeling Decoding of LDPC Codes with Applications in Compressed Sensing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Weijun Zeng
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We present a new approach for the analysis of iterative peeling decoding recovery algorithms in the context of Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC codes and compressed sensing. The iterative recovery algorithm is particularly interesting for its low measurement cost and low computational complexity. The asymptotic analysis can track the evolution of the fraction of unrecovered signal elements in each iteration, which is similar to the well-known density evolution analysis in the context of LDPC decoding algorithm. Our analysis shows that there exists a threshold on the density factor; if under this threshold, the recovery algorithm is successful; otherwise it will fail. Simulation results are also provided for verifying the agreement between the proposed asymptotic analysis and recovery algorithm. Compared with existing works of peeling decoding algorithm, focusing on the failure probability of the recovery algorithm, our proposed approach gives accurate evolution of performance with different parameters of measurement matrices and is easy to implement. We also show that the peeling decoding algorithm performs better than other schemes based on LDPC codes.
High-throughput GPU-based LDPC decoding
Chang, Yang-Lang; Chang, Cheng-Chun; Huang, Min-Yu; Huang, Bormin
2010-08-01
Low-density parity-check (LDPC) code is a linear block code known to approach the Shannon limit via the iterative sum-product algorithm. LDPC codes have been adopted in most current communication systems such as DVB-S2, WiMAX, WI-FI and 10GBASE-T. LDPC for the needs of reliable and flexible communication links for a wide variety of communication standards and configurations have inspired the demand for high-performance and flexibility computing. Accordingly, finding a fast and reconfigurable developing platform for designing the high-throughput LDPC decoder has become important especially for rapidly changing communication standards and configurations. In this paper, a new graphic-processing-unit (GPU) LDPC decoding platform with the asynchronous data transfer is proposed to realize this practical implementation. Experimental results showed that the proposed GPU-based decoder achieved 271x speedup compared to its CPU-based counterpart. It can serve as a high-throughput LDPC decoder.
Real Time Decoding of Color Symbol for Optical Positioning System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdul Waheed Malik
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the design and real-time decoding of a color symbol that can be used as a reference marker for optical navigation. The designed symbol has a circular shape and is printed on paper using two distinct colors. This pair of colors is selected based on the highest achievable signal to noise ratio. The symbol is designed to carry eight bit information. Real time decoding of this symbol is performed using a heterogeneous combination of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA and a microcontroller. An image sensor having a resolution of 1600 by 1200 pixels is used to capture images of symbols in complex backgrounds. Dynamic image segmentation, component labeling and feature extraction was performed on the FPGA. The region of interest was further computed from the extracted features. Feature data belonging to the symbol was sent from the FPGA to the microcontroller. Image processing tasks are partitioned between the FPGA and microcontroller based on data intensity. Experiments were performed to verify the rotational independence of the symbols. The maximum distance between camera and symbol allowing for correct detection and decoding was analyzed. Experiments were also performed to analyze the number of generated image components and sub-pixel precision versus different light sources and intensities. The proposed hardware architecture can process up to 55 frames per second for accurate detection and decoding of symbols at two Megapixels resolution. The power consumption of the complete system is 342mw.
Fast decoding of codes from algebraic plane curves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Justesen, Jørn; Larsen, Knud J.; Jensen, Helge Elbrønd
1992-01-01
Improvement to an earlier decoding algorithm for codes from algebraic geometry is presented. For codes from an arbitrary regular plane curve the authors correct up to d*/2-m2 /8+m/4-9/8 errors, where d* is the designed distance of the code and m is the degree of the curve. The complexity of finding...
Name that tune: decoding music from the listening brain.
Schaefer, R.S.; Farquhar, J.D.R.; Blokland, Y.M.; Sadakata, M.; Desain, P.W.M.
2011-01-01
In the current study we use electroencephalography (EEG) to detect heard music from the brain signal, hypothesizing that the time structure in music makes it especially suitable for decoding perception from EEG signals. While excluding music with vocals, we classified the perception of seven
Name that tune: Decoding music from the listening brain
Schaefer, R.S.; Farquhar, J.D.R.; Blokland, Y.M.; Sadakata, M.; Desain, P.W.M.
2011-01-01
In the current study we use electroencephalography (EEG) to detect heard music from the brain signal, hypothesizing that the time structure in music makes it especially suitable for decoding perception from EEG signals. While excluding music with vocals, we classified the perception of seven
Decoding English Alphabet Letters Using EEG Phase Information
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
YiYan Wang
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Increasing evidence indicates that the phase pattern and power of the low frequency oscillations of brain electroencephalograms (EEG contain significant information during the human cognition of sensory signals such as auditory and visual stimuli. Here, we investigate whether and how the letters of the alphabet can be directly decoded from EEG phase and power data. In addition, we investigate how different band oscillations contribute to the classification and determine the critical time periods. An English letter recognition task was assigned, and statistical analyses were conducted to decode the EEG signal corresponding to each letter visualized on a computer screen. We applied support vector machine (SVM with gradient descent method to learn the potential features for classification. It was observed that the EEG phase signals have a higher decoding accuracy than the oscillation power information. Low-frequency theta and alpha oscillations have phase information with higher accuracy than do other bands. The decoding performance was best when the analysis period began from 180 to 380 ms after stimulus presentation, especially in the lateral occipital and posterior temporal scalp regions (PO7 and PO8. These results may provide a new approach for brain-computer interface techniques (BCI and may deepen our understanding of EEG oscillations in cognition.
O2-GIDNC: Beyond instantly decodable network coding
Aboutorab, Neda; Sorour, Sameh; Sadeghi, Parastoo
2013-01-01
In this paper, we are concerned with extending the graph representation of generalized instantly decodable network coding (GIDNC) to a more general opportunistic network coding (ONC) scenario, referred to as order-2 GIDNC (O2-GIDNC). In the O2-GIDNC
EEG source imaging assists decoding in a face recognition task
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Rasmus S.; Eliasen, Anders U.; Pedersen, Nicolai
2017-01-01
of face recognition. This task concerns the differentiation of brain responses to images of faces and scrambled faces and poses a rather difficult decoding problem at the single trial level. We implement the pipeline using spatially focused features and show that this approach is challenged and source...
LDPC-based iterative joint source-channel decoding for JPEG2000.
Pu, Lingling; Wu, Zhenyu; Bilgin, Ali; Marcellin, Michael W; Vasic, Bane
2007-02-01
A framework is proposed for iterative joint source-channel decoding of JPEG2000 codestreams. At the encoder, JPEG2000 is used to perform source coding with certain error-resilience (ER) modes, and LDPC codes are used to perform channel coding. During decoding, the source decoder uses the ER modes to identify corrupt sections of the codestream and provides this information to the channel decoder. Decoding is carried out jointly in an iterative fashion. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method requires fewer iterations and improves overall system performance.
On Lattice Sequential Decoding for Large MIMO Systems
Ali, Konpal S.
2014-04-01
Due to their ability to provide high data rates, Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) wireless communication systems have become increasingly popular. Decoding of these systems with acceptable error performance is computationally very demanding. In the case of large overdetermined MIMO systems, we employ the Sequential Decoder using the Fano Algorithm. A parameter called the bias is varied to attain different performance-complexity trade-offs. Low values of the bias result in excellent performance but at the expense of high complexity and vice versa for higher bias values. We attempt to bound the error by bounding the bias, using the minimum distance of a lattice. Also, a particular trend is observed with increasing SNR: a region of low complexity and high error, followed by a region of high complexity and error falling, and finally a region of low complexity and low error. For lower bias values, the stages of the trend are incurred at lower SNR than for higher bias values. This has the important implication that a low enough bias value, at low to moderate SNR, can result in low error and low complexity even for large MIMO systems. Our work is compared against Lattice Reduction (LR) aided Linear Decoders (LDs). Another impressive observation for low bias values that satisfy the error bound is that the Sequential Decoder\\'s error is seen to fall with increasing system size, while it grows for the LR-aided LDs. For the case of large underdetermined MIMO systems, Sequential Decoding with two preprocessing schemes is proposed – 1) Minimum Mean Square Error Generalized Decision Feedback Equalization (MMSE-GDFE) preprocessing 2) MMSE-GDFE preprocessing, followed by Lattice Reduction and Greedy Ordering. Our work is compared against previous work which employs Sphere Decoding preprocessed using MMSE-GDFE, Lattice Reduction and Greedy Ordering. For the case of large systems, this results in high complexity and difficulty in choosing the sphere radius. Our schemes
Multi-stage decoding for multi-level block modulation codes
Lin, Shu
1991-01-01
In this paper, we investigate various types of multi-stage decoding for multi-level block modulation codes, in which the decoding of a component code at each stage can be either soft-decision or hard-decision, maximum likelihood or bounded-distance. Error performance of codes is analyzed for a memoryless additive channel based on various types of multi-stage decoding, and upper bounds on the probability of an incorrect decoding are derived. Based on our study and computation results, we find that, if component codes of a multi-level modulation code and types of decoding at various stages are chosen properly, high spectral efficiency and large coding gain can be achieved with reduced decoding complexity. In particular, we find that the difference in performance between the suboptimum multi-stage soft-decision maximum likelihood decoding of a modulation code and the single-stage optimum decoding of the overall code is very small: only a fraction of dB loss in SNR at the probability of an incorrect decoding for a block of 10(exp -6). Multi-stage decoding of multi-level modulation codes really offers a way to achieve the best of three worlds, bandwidth efficiency, coding gain, and decoding complexity.
Real-time SHVC software decoding with multi-threaded parallel processing
Gudumasu, Srinivas; He, Yuwen; Ye, Yan; He, Yong; Ryu, Eun-Seok; Dong, Jie; Xiu, Xiaoyu
2014-09-01
This paper proposes a parallel decoding framework for scalable HEVC (SHVC). Various optimization technologies are implemented on the basis of SHVC reference software SHM-2.0 to achieve real-time decoding speed for the two layer spatial scalability configuration. SHVC decoder complexity is analyzed with profiling information. The decoding process at each layer and the up-sampling process are designed in parallel and scheduled by a high level application task manager. Within each layer, multi-threaded decoding is applied to accelerate the layer decoding speed. Entropy decoding, reconstruction, and in-loop processing are pipeline designed with multiple threads based on groups of coding tree units (CTU). A group of CTUs is treated as a processing unit in each pipeline stage to achieve a better trade-off between parallelism and synchronization. Motion compensation, inverse quantization, and inverse transform modules are further optimized with SSE4 SIMD instructions. Simulations on a desktop with an Intel i7 processor 2600 running at 3.4 GHz show that the parallel SHVC software decoder is able to decode 1080p spatial 2x at up to 60 fps (frames per second) and 1080p spatial 1.5x at up to 50 fps for those bitstreams generated with SHVC common test conditions in the JCT-VC standardization group. The decoding performance at various bitrates with different optimization technologies and different numbers of threads are compared in terms of decoding speed and resource usage, including processor and memory.
Transparency in nanophotonic quantum wires
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, Mahi R [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London N6A 3K7 (Canada)
2009-03-28
We have studied the quantum optics of a photonic quantum nanowire doped with an ensemble of three-level nanoparticles. The wire is made from two photonic crystals A and B. Crystal A is embedded within crystal B and acts as a photonic nanowire. It is considered that the conduction band of crystal A lies below that of crystal B. As a result, photons are confined in crystal A and are reflected from crystal B. The bound states of the confined photons are calculated using the transfer matrix method. It is found that the number of bound states in the wire depends on the size of the wire and the energy difference between the conduction band extrema of crystals A and B. The absorption coefficient of the system has also been calculated using the Schroedinger equation method. It is considered that the nanoparticles interact with the photonic bound states. Numerical simulations show that when one of the resonance energies lies near the bound state, the system becomes transparent. However, when the resonance energy lies away from the bound state the crystal reverts to an absorbing state. Similarly, when the radius of the dielectric spheres is changed the location of the transparency peak is shifted. This means that the present system can be switched between two states by changing the size of the wire and the transition energy. These findings can be used to make new types of optical devices.
Transparency in nanophotonic quantum wires
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, Mahi R
2009-01-01
We have studied the quantum optics of a photonic quantum nanowire doped with an ensemble of three-level nanoparticles. The wire is made from two photonic crystals A and B. Crystal A is embedded within crystal B and acts as a photonic nanowire. It is considered that the conduction band of crystal A lies below that of crystal B. As a result, photons are confined in crystal A and are reflected from crystal B. The bound states of the confined photons are calculated using the transfer matrix method. It is found that the number of bound states in the wire depends on the size of the wire and the energy difference between the conduction band extrema of crystals A and B. The absorption coefficient of the system has also been calculated using the Schroedinger equation method. It is considered that the nanoparticles interact with the photonic bound states. Numerical simulations show that when one of the resonance energies lies near the bound state, the system becomes transparent. However, when the resonance energy lies away from the bound state the crystal reverts to an absorbing state. Similarly, when the radius of the dielectric spheres is changed the location of the transparency peak is shifted. This means that the present system can be switched between two states by changing the size of the wire and the transition energy. These findings can be used to make new types of optical devices.
Fabrication of tungsten wire needles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roder, A.
1983-02-01
Fine point needles for field emissoin are conventionally produced by electrolytically or chemically etching tungsten wire. Points formed in this manner have a typical tip radius of about 0.5 microns and a cone angle of some 30 degrees. The construction of needle matrix detector chambers has created a need for tungsten needles whose specifications are: 20 mil tungsten wire, 1.5 inch total length, 3 mm-long taper (resulting in a cone angle of about 5 degrees), and 25 micron-radius point (similar to that found on sewing needles). In the process described here for producing such needles, tungsten wire, immersed in a NaOH solution and in the presence of an electrode, is connected first to an ac voltage and then to a dc supply, to form a taper and a point on the end of the wire immersed in the solution. The process parameters described here are for needles that will meet the above specifications. Possible variations will be discussed under each approprite heading
Low Complexity Approach for High Throughput Belief-Propagation based Decoding of LDPC Codes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
BOT, A.
2013-11-01
Full Text Available The paper proposes a low complexity belief propagation (BP based decoding algorithm for LDPC codes. In spite of the iterative nature of the decoding process, the proposed algorithm provides both reduced complexity and increased BER performances as compared with the classic min-sum (MS algorithm, generally used for hardware implementations. Linear approximations of check-nodes update function are used in order to reduce the complexity of the BP algorithm. Considering this decoding approach, an FPGA based hardware architecture is proposed for implementing the decoding algorithm, aiming to increase the decoder throughput. FPGA technology was chosen for the LDPC decoder implementation, due to its parallel computation and reconfiguration capabilities. The obtained results show improvements regarding decoding throughput and BER performances compared with state-of-the-art approaches.
Low Power LDPC Code Decoder Architecture Based on Intermediate Message Compression Technique
Shimizu, Kazunori; Togawa, Nozomu; Ikenaga, Takeshi; Goto, Satoshi
Reducing the power dissipation for LDPC code decoder is a major challenging task to apply it to the practical digital communication systems. In this paper, we propose a low power LDPC code decoder architecture based on an intermediate message-compression technique which features as follows: (i) An intermediate message compression technique enables the decoder to reduce the required memory capacity and write power dissipation. (ii) A clock gated shift register based intermediate message memory architecture enables the decoder to decompress the compressed messages in a single clock cycle while reducing the read power dissipation. The combination of the above two techniques enables the decoder to reduce the power dissipation while keeping the decoding throughput. The simulation results show that the proposed architecture improves the power efficiency up to 52% and 18% compared to that of the decoder based on the overlapped schedule and the rapid convergence schedule without the proposed techniques respectively.
Design of FBG En/decoders in Coherent 2-D Time-polarization OCDMA Systems
Hou, Fen-fei; Yang, Ming
2012-12-01
A novel fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based en/decoder for the two-dimensional (2-D) time-spreading and polarization multiplexer optical coding is proposed. Compared with other 2-D en/decoders, the proposed en/decoding for an optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) system uses a single phase-encoded FBG and coherent en/decoding. Furthermore, combined with reconstruction-equivalent-chirp technology, such en/decoders can be realized with a conventional simple fabrication setup. Experimental results of such en/decoders and the corresponding system test at a data rate of 5 Gbit/s demonstrate that this kind of 2-D FBG-based en/decoders could improve the performances of OCDMA systems.
[Mechanics analysis of fracture of orthodontic wires].
Wang, Yeping; Sun, Xiaoye; Zhang, Longqi
2003-03-01
Fracture problem of orthodontic wires was discussed in this paper. The calculation formulae of bending stress and tensile stress were obtained. All main factors that affect bending stress and tensile stress of orthodontic wires were analyzed and discussed. It was concluded that the main causes of fracture of orthodontic wires were fatigue and static disruption. Some improving proposals for preventing fracture of orthodontic wires were put forward.
49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.
2010-10-01
... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury. The...
49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.
2010-10-01
... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY... of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical...
Detection of a buried wire with two resistively loaded wire antennas
Vossen, S.H.J.A.; Tijhuis, A.G.; Lepelaars, E.S.A.M.; Zwamborn, A.P.M.
2002-01-01
The use of two identical straight thin-wire antennas for the detection of a buried wire is analyzed with the aid of numerical calculations. The buried wire is located below an interface between two homogeneous half-spaces. The detection setup, which is formed by a transmitting and a receiving wire,
One century of Kirschner wires and Kirschner wire insertion techniques : A historical review
Franssen, Bas B. G. M.; Schuurman, Arnold H.; Van der Molen, Aebele Mink; Kon, Moshe
A century ago, in 1909, Martin Kirschner (1879-942) introduced a smooth pin, presently known as the Kirschner wire (K-wire). The K-wire was initiallly used for skeletal traction and is now currently used for many different goals. The development of the K-wire and its insertion devices were mainly
Pre-wired systems prove their worth.
2012-03-01
The 'new generation' of modular wiring systems from Apex Wiring Solutions have been specified for two of the world's foremost teaching hospitals - the Royal London and St Bartholomew's Hospital, as part of a pounds sterling 1 billion redevelopment project, to cut electrical installation times, reduce on-site waste, and provide a pre-wired, factory-tested, power and lighting system. HEJ reports.
49 CFR 393.28 - Wiring systems.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wiring systems. 393.28 Section 393.28 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.28 Wiring systems...
Getting "Wired" for McLuhan's Cyberculture.
McMurdo, George
1995-01-01
Examines the introduction of the computing magazine, "Wired", into the United Kingdom's (UK) market. Presents conversations with the founder and editorial staff of the UK edition, and discusses the accessibility of "Wired" via the World Wide Web. Describes 10 articles from United States "Wired" back-issues and…
Decoding the genome with an integrative analysis tool: combinatorial CRM Decoder.
Kang, Keunsoo; Kim, Joomyeong; Chung, Jae Hoon; Lee, Daeyoup
2011-09-01
The identification of genome-wide cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) and characterization of their associated epigenetic features are fundamental steps toward the understanding of gene regulatory networks. Although integrative analysis of available genome-wide information can provide new biological insights, the lack of novel methodologies has become a major bottleneck. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis tool called combinatorial CRM decoder (CCD), which utilizes the publicly available information to identify and characterize genome-wide CRMs in a species of interest. CCD first defines a set of the epigenetic features which is significantly associated with a set of known CRMs as a code called 'trace code', and subsequently uses the trace code to pinpoint putative CRMs throughout the genome. Using 61 genome-wide data sets obtained from 17 independent mouse studies, CCD successfully catalogued ∼12 600 CRMs (five distinct classes) including polycomb repressive complex 2 target sites as well as imprinting control regions. Interestingly, we discovered that ∼4% of the identified CRMs belong to at least two different classes named 'multi-functional CRM', suggesting their functional importance for regulating spatiotemporal gene expression. From these examples, we show that CCD can be applied to any potential genome-wide datasets and therefore will shed light on unveiling genome-wide CRMs in various species.
Annual coded wire tag program (Washington) missing production groups: annual report for 1997; ANNUAL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Byrne, J.; Fuss, H.; Ashbrook, C.
1998-01-01
The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funds the ''Annual Coded Wire Tag Program - Missing Production Groups for Columbia River Hatcheries'' project. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) all operate salmon and steelhead rearing programs in the Columbia River basin. The intent of the funding is to coded-wire tag at least one production group of each species at each Columbia Basin hatchery to provide a holistic assessment of survival and catch distribution over time and to meet various measures of the Northwest Power Planning Councils (NWPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program. The WDFW project has three main objectives: (1) coded-wire tag at least one production group of each species at each Columbia Basin hatchery to enable evaluation of survival and catch distribution over time, (2) recover coded-wire tags from the snouts of fish tagged under objective 1 and estimate survival, contribution, and stray rates for each group, and (3) report the findings under objective 2 for all broods of chinook, and coho released from WDFW Columbia Basin hatcheries. Objective 1 for FY-97 was met with few modifications to the original FY-97 proposal. Under Objective 2, snouts containing coded-wire tags that were recovered during FY-97 were decoded. Under Objective 3, survival, contribution and stray rate estimates for the 1991-96 broods of chinook and 1993-96 broods of coho have not been made because recovery data for 1996-97 fisheries and escapement are preliminary. This report summarizes recovery information through 1995
Clinical bending of nickel titanium wires
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephen Chain
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Since the evolution and the involvement of Nickel Titanium wires in the field of Orthodontics. The treatment plan has evolved with the use of low force Nickel Titanium wires. Because of their high springback, low stiffness, they are the key initial wires in leveling and alignment but have poor formability. Since poor formability limits its ability to create variable arch forms thus; limits the form of treatment. We have devised a method to bend the Nickel Titanium wires to help in our inventory but also customized the wire according to the treatment.
Energy Deposition in a Septum Wire
Ferioli, G; Knaus, P; Koopman, J; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LHC Division
2001-01-01
The present note describes a machine development (MD) aimed to confirm experimentally the need for protection of the extraction wire septum ZS in SPS long straight section LSS6 during LHC operation. Single wires identical to the ones mounted on the extraction septum were fixed on a fast wire scanner and put into the beam path. The beam heated the wire until it broke after a measured number of turns. The maximum single shot intensity the septum wires could withstand was thus calculated and compared with simulation results.
Electrodeposition of nickel nano wire arrays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Kok Kuan Ying; Ng Inn Khuan; Nurazila Mat Zali; Siti Salwa Zainal Abidin
2010-01-01
Synthesis, characterization and assembly of one-dimensional nickel nano wires prepared by template directed electrodeposition are discussed in this paper. Parallel arrays of high aspect ratio nickel nano wires were electrodeposited using electrolytes with different cations and pH. The nano wires were characterized using X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the orientations of the electro deposited Ni nano wires were governed by the deposition current and the electrolyte conditions. Free standing nickel nano wires can be obtained by dissolving the template. Due to the magnetic nature of the nano wires, magnetic alignment was employed to assemble and position the free standing nano wires in the device structure. (author)
Performance-complexity tradeoff in sequential decoding for the unconstrained AWGN channel
Abediseid, Walid
2013-06-01
In this paper, the performance limits and the computational complexity of the lattice sequential decoder are analyzed for the unconstrained additive white Gaussian noise channel. The performance analysis available in the literature for such a channel has been studied only under the use of the minimum Euclidean distance decoder that is commonly referred to as the lattice decoder. Lattice decoders based on solutions to the NP-hard closest vector problem are very complex to implement, and the search for low complexity receivers for the detection of lattice codes is considered a challenging problem. However, the low computational complexity advantage that sequential decoding promises, makes it an alternative solution to the lattice decoder. In this work, we characterize the performance and complexity tradeoff via the error exponent and the decoding complexity, respectively, of such a decoder as a function of the decoding parameter - the bias term. For the above channel, we derive the cut-off volume-to-noise ratio that is required to achieve a good error performance with low decoding complexity. © 2013 IEEE.
Sheikh, Alireza; Amat, Alexandre Graell i.; Liva, Gianluigi
2017-12-01
We analyze the achievable information rates (AIRs) for coded modulation schemes with QAM constellations with both bit-wise and symbol-wise decoders, corresponding to the case where a binary code is used in combination with a higher-order modulation using the bit-interleaved coded modulation (BICM) paradigm and to the case where a nonbinary code over a field matched to the constellation size is used, respectively. In particular, we consider hard decision decoding, which is the preferable option for fiber-optic communication systems where decoding complexity is a concern. Recently, Liga \\emph{et al.} analyzed the AIRs for bit-wise and symbol-wise decoders considering what the authors called \\emph{hard decision decoder} which, however, exploits \\emph{soft information} of the transition probabilities of discrete-input discrete-output channel resulting from the hard detection. As such, the complexity of the decoder is essentially the same as the complexity of a soft decision decoder. In this paper, we analyze instead the AIRs for the standard hard decision decoder, commonly used in practice, where the decoding is based on the Hamming distance metric. We show that if standard hard decision decoding is used, bit-wise decoders yield significantly higher AIRs than symbol-wise decoders. As a result, contrary to the conclusion by Liga \\emph{et al.}, binary decoders together with the BICM paradigm are preferable for spectrally-efficient fiber-optic systems. We also design binary and nonbinary staircase codes and show that, in agreement with the AIRs, binary codes yield better performance.
Dipole model slice made in 1994 by Ansaldo. The high magnetic fields needed for guiding particles around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring are created by passing 12’500 amps of current through coils of superconducting wiring. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC is the largest superconducting installation ever built. The magnetic field must also be extremely uniform. This means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Indeed, nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. 50’000 tonnes of steel sheets are used to make the magnet yokes that keep the wiring firmly in place. The yokes constitute approximately 80% of the accelerator's weight and, placed side by side, stretch over 20 km!
Modifications in straight wire treatment.
Cardona, Alvin
2010-01-01
Orthodontic treatments have been modified with each new generation of clinicians. Today the emphasis is on facial esthetics and healthy temporomandibular joints. With orthopedic treatment, we can develop dental arches to get the necessary space to align the teeth and we can reach adequate function and esthetics, all within relatively good stability. By combining two-phase treatment with low friction fixed orthodontics and super elastic wires we produce light but continuous forces and we can provide better treatment than before. These types of forces cause physiological and functional orthopedic orthodontic reactions. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate our fixed orthopedic and orthodontic approach called "Modified Straight Wire" or "Physiologic Arch Technique." This technique is very successful with our patients because it can exert slow and continuous forces with minimal patient cooperation.
Vibrating wire for beam profile scanning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. G. Arutunian
1999-12-01
Full Text Available A method that measures the transverse profile (emittance of the bunch by detecting radiation arising at the scattering of the bunch on scanning wire is widely used. In this work information about bunch scattering is obtained by measuring the oscillation frequency of the tightened scanning wire. In such a way, the system of radiation (or secondary particles extraction and measurement can be removed. The entire unit consists of a compact fork with tightened wire and a scanning system. Normal oscillation frequency of a wire depends on wire tension, its geometric parameters, and, in a second approximation, its elastic characteristics. Normal oscillations are generated by interaction of an alternating current through the wire with magnetic field of a permanent magnet. In this case, it is suggested that the magnetic field of the accelerator (field of dipole magnets or quadrupole magnets be used for excitation of oscillations. The dependence of oscillation frequency on beam scattering is determined by several factors, including changes of wire tension caused by transverse force of the beam and influence of beam self-field. Preliminary calculations show that the influence of wire heating will dominate. We have studied strain gauges on the basis of vibrating wire from various materials (tungsten, beryl bronze, and niobium zirconium alloys. A scheme of normal oscillation generation by alternating current in autogeneration circuit with automatic frequency adjustment was selected. A special method of wire fixation and elimination of transverse degrees of freedom allows us to achieve relative stability better than 10^{-5} during several days at a relative resolution of 10^{-6}. Experimental results and estimates of wire heating of existing scanners show that the wire heats up to a few hundred grades, which is enough for measurements. The usage of wire of micrometer thickness diminishes the problem of wire thermalization speed during the scanning of the bunch.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spellman, G P
2004-01-01
A meeting to discuss the current pin wire coating problems was held at the Reynolds plant in Los Angeles on 2MAR04. The attendance list for Reynolds personnel is attached. there was an initial presentation which gave a brief history and the current status of pin wire coating at Reynolds. There was a presentation by Lori Primus on the requirements and issues for the coating. There was a presentation by Jim Smith of LANL on the chemistry and to some extent process development done to date. There was a long session covering what steps should be taken in the short term and, to a lesser extent, the long term. The coating currently being used is a blend of two polymers, polyethersulfone and polyparabanic acid (PPA) and some TiO2 filler. This system was accepted and put into production when the pin wire coating was outsourced to another company in 1974. When that company no longer was interested, the wire coating was brought in-house to Reynolds. At that time polyparabanic acid was actually a commercial product available from Exxon under the trade name Tradlon. However, it appears that the material used at Reynolds was synthesized locally. Also, it appears that a single large batch was synthesized in that time period and used up to 1997 when the supply ran out. The reason for the inclusion of TiO2 is not known although it does act as a rheological thickener. However, a more controlled thickening can be obtained with materials such as fumed silica. This material would have less likelihood of causing point imperfections in the coatings. Also, the mixing technique being used for all stages of the process is a relatively low shear ball mill process and the author recommends a high shear process such as a three roll paint mill, at least for the final mixing. Since solvent is added to the powder at Reynolds, it may be that they need to have the paint mill there
Ingels, F. M.; Mo, C. D.
1978-01-01
An empirical study of the performance of the Viterbi decoders in bursty channels was carried out and an improved algebraic decoder for nonsystematic codes was developed. The hybrid algorithm was simulated for the (2,1), k = 7 code on a computer using 20 channels having various error statistics, ranging from pure random error to pure bursty channels. The hybrid system outperformed both the algebraic and the Viterbi decoders in every case, except the 1% random error channel where the Viterbi decoder had one bit less decoding error.
Decoding thalamic afferent input using microcircuit spiking activity.
Sederberg, Audrey J; Palmer, Stephanie E; MacLean, Jason N
2015-04-01
A behavioral response appropriate to a sensory stimulus depends on the collective activity of thousands of interconnected neurons. The majority of cortical connections arise from neighboring neurons, and thus understanding the cortical code requires characterizing information representation at the scale of the cortical microcircuit. Using two-photon calcium imaging, we densely sampled the thalamically evoked response of hundreds of neurons spanning multiple layers and columns in thalamocortical slices of mouse somatosensory cortex. We then used a biologically plausible decoder to characterize the representation of two distinct thalamic inputs, at the level of the microcircuit, to reveal those aspects of the activity pattern that are likely relevant to downstream neurons. Our data suggest a sparse code, distributed across lamina, in which a small population of cells carries stimulus-relevant information. Furthermore, we find that, within this subset of neurons, decoder performance improves when noise correlations are taken into account. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.
Codes on the Klein quartic, ideals, and decoding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Johan P.
1987-01-01
descriptions as left ideals in the group-algebra GF(2^{3})[G]. This description allows for easy decoding. For instance, in the case of the single error correcting code of length21and dimension16with minimal distance3. decoding is obtained by multiplication with an idempotent in the group algebra.......A sequence of codes with particular symmetries and with large rates compared to their minimal distances is constructed over the field GF(2^{3}). In the sequence there is, for instance, a code of length 21 and dimension10with minimal distance9, and a code of length21and dimension16with minimal...... distance3. The codes are constructed from algebraic geometry using the dictionary between coding theory and algebraic curves over finite fields established by Goppa. The curve used in the present work is the Klein quartic. This curve has the maximal number of rational points over GF(2^{3})allowed by Serre...
Soft decoding a self-dual (48, 24; 12) code
Solomon, G.
1993-01-01
A self-dual (48,24;12) code comes from restricting a binary cyclic (63,18;36) code to a 6 x 7 matrix, adding an eighth all-zero column, and then adjoining six dimensions to this extended 6 x 8 matrix. These six dimensions are generated by linear combinations of row permutations of a 6 x 8 matrix of weight 12, whose sums of rows and columns add to one. A soft decoding using these properties and approximating maximum likelihood is presented here. This is preliminary to a possible soft decoding of the box (72,36;15) code that promises a 7.7-dB theoretical coding under maximum likelihood.
DECODING OF ACADEMIC CONTENT BY THE 1st GRADE STUDENTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kamil Błaszczyński
2017-07-01
Full Text Available In the paper a comparative study conducted on the 1st grade students of sociology and pedagogy is discussed. The study was focused on the language skills of students. The most important skills tested were the abilities to decode academic content. The study shows that the students have very poor language skills in decoding the academic content on every level of its complexity. They also have noticeable problems with the definition of basic academic terms. The significance of the obtained results are high because of the innovative topic and character of the study, which was the first such study conducted on students of a Polish university. Results are also valuable for academic teachers who are interested in such problems as effective communication with students.
Decoding Signal Processing at the Single-Cell Level
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wiley, H. Steven
2017-12-01
The ability of cells to detect and decode information about their extracellular environment is critical to generating an appropriate response. In multicellular organisms, cells must decode dozens of signals from their neighbors and extracellular matrix to maintain tissue homeostasis while still responding to environmental stressors. How cells detect and process information from their surroundings through a surprisingly limited number of signal transduction pathways is one of the most important question in biology. Despite many decades of research, many of the fundamental principles that underlie cell signal processing remain obscure. However, in this issue of Cell Systems, Gillies et al present compelling evidence that the early response gene circuit can act as a linear signal integrator, thus providing significant insight into how cells handle fluctuating signals and noise in their environment.
Reaction Decoder Tool (RDT): extracting features from chemical reactions.
Rahman, Syed Asad; Torrance, Gilliean; Baldacci, Lorenzo; Martínez Cuesta, Sergio; Fenninger, Franz; Gopal, Nimish; Choudhary, Saket; May, John W; Holliday, Gemma L; Steinbeck, Christoph; Thornton, Janet M
2016-07-01
Extracting chemical features like Atom-Atom Mapping (AAM), Bond Changes (BCs) and Reaction Centres from biochemical reactions helps us understand the chemical composition of enzymatic reactions. Reaction Decoder is a robust command line tool, which performs this task with high accuracy. It supports standard chemical input/output exchange formats i.e. RXN/SMILES, computes AAM, highlights BCs and creates images of the mapped reaction. This aids in the analysis of metabolic pathways and the ability to perform comparative studies of chemical reactions based on these features. This software is implemented in Java, supported on Windows, Linux and Mac OSX, and freely available at https://github.com/asad/ReactionDecoder : asad@ebi.ac.uk or s9asad@gmail.com. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.
Fast decoder for local quantum codes using Groebner basis
Haah, Jeongwan
2013-03-01
Based on arXiv:1204.1063. A local translation-invariant quantum code has a description in terms of Laurent polynomials. As an application of this observation, we present a fast decoding algorithm for translation-invariant local quantum codes in any spatial dimensions using the straightforward division algorithm for multivariate polynomials. The running time is O (n log n) on average, or O (n2 log n) on worst cases, where n is the number of physical qubits. The algorithm improves a subroutine of the renormalization-group decoder by Bravyi and Haah (arXiv:1112.3252) in the translation-invariant case. This work is supported in part by the Insitute for Quantum Information and Matter, an NSF Physics Frontier Center, and the Korea Foundation for Advanced Studies.
[Efficacy of decoding training for children with difficulty reading hiragana].
Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Daisuke; Seki, Ayumi; Wakamiya, Eiji; Hirasawa, Noriko; Iketani, Naotake; Kato, Ken; Koeda, Tatsuya
2013-05-01
The present study aimed to clarify the efficacy of decoding training focusing on the correspondence between written symbols and their readings for children with difficulty reading hiragana (Japanese syllabary). Thirty-five children with difficulty reading hiragana were selected from among 367 first-grade elementary school students using a reading aloud test and were then divided into intervention (n=15) and control (n=20) groups. The intervention comprised 5 minutes of decoding training each day for a period of 3 weeks using an original program on a personal computer. Reading time and number of reading errors in the reading aloud test were compared between the groups. The intervention group showed a significant shortening of reading time (F(1,33)=5.40, phiragana.
Iterative demodulation and decoding of coded non-square QAM
Li, L.; Divsalar, D.; Dolinar, S.
2003-01-01
Simulation results show that, with iterative demodulation and decoding, coded NS-8QAM performs 0.5 dB better than standard 8QAM and 0.7 dB better than 8PSK at BER= 10(sup -5), when the FEC code is the (15, 11) Hamming code concatenated with a rate-1 accumulator code, while coded NS-32QAM performs 0.25 dB better than standard 32QAM.
Maximum likelihood convolutional decoding (MCD) performance due to system losses
Webster, L.
1976-01-01
A model for predicting the computational performance of a maximum likelihood convolutional decoder (MCD) operating in a noisy carrier reference environment is described. This model is used to develop a subroutine that will be utilized by the Telemetry Analysis Program to compute the MCD bit error rate. When this computational model is averaged over noisy reference phase errors using a high-rate interpolation scheme, the results are found to agree quite favorably with experimental measurements.
Decoding Gimmicks of Financial Shenanigans in Telecom Sector in India
Sandeep GOEL
2013-01-01
Major corporate financial shenanigans get away in the name of creative accounting. But, they need to be studied for lessons learned and strategies to avoid or reduce the incidence of such frauds in the future. It is essential for shareholders, particularly the common man who does not have any access to the company except reported financial numbers. This paper aims to decode the level of financial shenanigans practices in corporate enterprises in telecom sector in India. The reason being is th...
Fast Transform Decoding Of Nonsystematic Reed-Solomon Codes
Truong, Trieu-Kie; Cheung, Kar-Ming; Shiozaki, A.; Reed, Irving S.
1992-01-01
Fast, efficient Fermat number transform used to compute F'(x) analogous to computation of syndrome in conventional decoding scheme. Eliminates polynomial multiplications and reduces number of multiplications in reconstruction of F'(x) to n log (n). Euclidean algorithm used to evaluate F(x) directly, without going through intermediate steps of solving error-locator and error-evaluator polynomials. Algorithm suitable for implementation in very-large-scale integrated circuits.
Efficient algorithms for maximum likelihood decoding in the surface code
Bravyi, Sergey; Suchara, Martin; Vargo, Alexander
2014-09-01
We describe two implementations of the optimal error correction algorithm known as the maximum likelihood decoder (MLD) for the two-dimensional surface code with a noiseless syndrome extraction. First, we show how to implement MLD exactly in time O (n2), where n is the number of code qubits. Our implementation uses a reduction from MLD to simulation of matchgate quantum circuits. This reduction however requires a special noise model with independent bit-flip and phase-flip errors. Secondly, we show how to implement MLD approximately for more general noise models using matrix product states (MPS). Our implementation has running time O (nχ3), where χ is a parameter that controls the approximation precision. The key step of our algorithm, borrowed from the density matrix renormalization-group method, is a subroutine for contracting a tensor network on the two-dimensional grid. The subroutine uses MPS with a bond dimension χ to approximate the sequence of tensors arising in the course of contraction. We benchmark the MPS-based decoder against the standard minimum weight matching decoder observing a significant reduction of the logical error probability for χ ≥4.
Biological 2-Input Decoder Circuit in Human Cells
2015-01-01
Decoders are combinational circuits that convert information from n inputs to a maximum of 2n outputs. This operation is of major importance in computing systems yet it is vastly underexplored in synthetic biology. Here, we present a synthetic gene network architecture that operates as a biological decoder in human cells, converting 2 inputs to 4 outputs. As a proof-of-principle, we use small molecules to emulate the two inputs and fluorescent reporters as the corresponding four outputs. The experiments are performed using transient transfections in human kidney embryonic cells and the characterization by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. We show a clear separation between the ON and OFF mean fluorescent intensity states. Additionally, we adopt the integrated mean fluorescence intensity for the characterization of the circuit and show that this metric is more robust to transfection conditions when compared to the mean fluorescent intensity. To conclude, we present the first implementation of a genetic decoder. This combinational system can be valuable toward engineering higher-order circuits as well as accommodate a multiplexed interface with endogenous cellular functions. PMID:24694115
An Area-Efficient Reconfigurable LDPC Decoder with Conflict Resolution
Zhou, Changsheng; Huang, Yuebin; Huang, Shuangqu; Chen, Yun; Zeng, Xiaoyang
Based on Turbo-Decoding Message-Passing (TDMP) and Normalized Min-Sum (NMS) algorithm, an area efficient LDPC decoder that supports both structured and unstructured LDPC codes is proposed in this paper. We introduce a solution to solve the memory access conflict problem caused by TDMP algorithm. We also arrange the main timing schedule carefully to handle the operations of our solution while avoiding much additional hardware consumption. To reduce the memory bits needed, the extrinsic message storing strategy is also optimized. Besides the extrinsic message recover and the accumulate operation are merged together. To verify our architecture, a LDPC decoder that supports both China Multimedia Mobile Broadcasting (CMMB) and Digital Terrestrial/ Television Multimedia Broadcasting (DTMB) standards is developed using SMIC 0.13µm standard CMOS process. The core area is 4.75mm2 and the maximum operating clock frequency is 200MHz. The estimated power consumption is 48.4mW at 25MHz for CMMB and 130.9mW at 50MHz for DTMB with 5 iterations and 1.2V supply.
Biological 2-input decoder circuit in human cells.
Guinn, Michael; Bleris, Leonidas
2014-08-15
Decoders are combinational circuits that convert information from n inputs to a maximum of 2(n) outputs. This operation is of major importance in computing systems yet it is vastly underexplored in synthetic biology. Here, we present a synthetic gene network architecture that operates as a biological decoder in human cells, converting 2 inputs to 4 outputs. As a proof-of-principle, we use small molecules to emulate the two inputs and fluorescent reporters as the corresponding four outputs. The experiments are performed using transient transfections in human kidney embryonic cells and the characterization by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. We show a clear separation between the ON and OFF mean fluorescent intensity states. Additionally, we adopt the integrated mean fluorescence intensity for the characterization of the circuit and show that this metric is more robust to transfection conditions when compared to the mean fluorescent intensity. To conclude, we present the first implementation of a genetic decoder. This combinational system can be valuable toward engineering higher-order circuits as well as accommodate a multiplexed interface with endogenous cellular functions.
Symbol Stream Combining in a Convolutionally Coded System
Mceliece, R. J.; Pollara, F.; Swanson, L.
1985-01-01
Symbol stream combining has been proposed as a method for arraying signals received at different antennas. If convolutional coding and Viterbi decoding are used, it is shown that a Viterbi decoder based on the proposed weighted sum of symbol streams yields maximum likelihood decisions.
The basis of orientation decoding in human primary visual cortex: fine- or coarse-scale biases?
Maloney, Ryan T
2015-01-01
Orientation signals in human primary visual cortex (V1) can be reliably decoded from the multivariate pattern of activity as measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The precise underlying source of these decoded signals (whether by orientation biases at a fine or coarse scale in cortex) remains a matter of some controversy, however. Freeman and colleagues (J Neurosci 33: 19695-19703, 2013) recently showed that the accuracy of decoding of spiral patterns in V1 can be predicted by a voxel's preferred spatial position (the population receptive field) and its coarse orientation preference, suggesting that coarse-scale biases are sufficient for orientation decoding. Whether they are also necessary for decoding remains an open question, and one with implications for the broader interpretation of multivariate decoding results in fMRI studies. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.
Emotion Decoding and Incidental Processing Fluency as Antecedents of Attitude Certainty.
Petrocelli, John V; Whitmire, Melanie B
2017-07-01
Previous research demonstrates that attitude certainty influences the degree to which an attitude changes in response to persuasive appeals. In the current research, decoding emotions from facial expressions and incidental processing fluency, during attitude formation, are examined as antecedents of both attitude certainty and attitude change. In Experiment 1, participants who decoded anger or happiness during attitude formation expressed their greater attitude certainty, and showed more resistance to persuasion than participants who decoded sadness. By manipulating the emotion decoded, the diagnosticity of processing fluency experienced during emotion decoding, and the gaze direction of the social targets, Experiment 2 suggests that the link between emotion decoding and attitude certainty results from incidental processing fluency. Experiment 3 demonstrated that fluency in processing irrelevant stimuli influences attitude certainty, which in turn influences resistance to persuasion. Implications for appraisal-based accounts of attitude formation and attitude change are discussed.
Coding/decoding two-dimensional images with orbital angular momentum of light.
Chu, Jiaqi; Li, Xuefeng; Smithwick, Quinn; Chu, Daping
2016-04-01
We investigate encoding and decoding of two-dimensional information using the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light. Spiral phase plates and phase-only spatial light modulators are used in encoding and decoding of OAM states, respectively. We show that off-axis points and spatial variables encoded with a given OAM state can be recovered through decoding with the corresponding complimentary OAM state.
A Low-Complexity Joint Detection-Decoding Algorithm for Nonbinary LDPC-Coded Modulation Systems
Wang, Xuepeng; Bai, Baoming; Ma, Xiao
2010-01-01
In this paper, we present a low-complexity joint detection-decoding algorithm for nonbinary LDPC codedmodulation systems. The algorithm combines hard-decision decoding using the message-passing strategy with the signal detector in an iterative manner. It requires low computational complexity, offers good system performance and has a fast rate of decoding convergence. Compared to the q-ary sum-product algorithm (QSPA), it provides an attractive candidate for practical applications of q-ary LDP...
Decoding using back-project algorithm from coded image in ICF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang shaoen; Liu Zhongli; Zheng Zhijian; Tang Daoyuan
1999-01-01
The principle of the coded imaging and its decoding in inertial confinement fusion is described simply. The authors take ring aperture microscope for example and use back-project (BP) algorithm to decode the coded image. The decoding program has been performed for numerical simulation. Simulations of two models are made, and the results show that the accuracy of BP algorithm is high and effect of reconstruction is good. Thus, it indicates that BP algorithm is applicable to decoding for coded image in ICF experiments
Analysis of Iterated Hard Decision Decoding of Product Codes with Reed-Solomon Component Codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom
2007-01-01
Products of Reed-Solomon codes are important in applications because they offer a combination of large blocks, low decoding complexity, and good performance. A recent result on random graphs can be used to show that with high probability a large number of errors can be corrected by iterating...... minimum distance decoding. We present an analysis related to density evolution which gives the exact asymptotic value of the decoding threshold and also provides a closed form approximation to the distribution of errors in each step of the decoding of finite length codes....
VLSI Architectures for Sliding-Window-Based Space-Time Turbo Trellis Code Decoders
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Georgios Passas
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The VLSI implementation of SISO-MAP decoders used for traditional iterative turbo coding has been investigated in the literature. In this paper, a complete architectural model of a space-time turbo code receiver that includes elementary decoders is presented. These architectures are based on newly proposed building blocks such as a recursive add-compare-select-offset (ACSO unit, A-, B-, Γ-, and LLR output calculation modules. Measurements of complexity and decoding delay of several sliding-window-technique-based MAP decoder architectures and a proposed parameter set lead to defining equations and comparison between those architectures.
A new LDPC decoding scheme for PDM-8QAM BICM coherent optical communication system
Liu, Yi; Zhang, Wen-bo; Xi, Li-xia; Tang, Xian-feng; Zhang, Xiao-guang
2015-11-01
A new log-likelihood ratio (LLR) message estimation method is proposed for polarization-division multiplexing eight quadrature amplitude modulation (PDM-8QAM) bit-interleaved coded modulation (BICM) optical communication system. The formulation of the posterior probability is theoretically analyzed, and the way to reduce the pre-decoding bit error rate ( BER) of the low density parity check (LDPC) decoder for PDM-8QAM constellations is presented. Simulation results show that it outperforms the traditional scheme, i.e., the new post-decoding BER is decreased down to 50% of that of the traditional post-decoding algorithm.
Multiple-Symbol Noncoherent Decoding of Uncoded and Convolutionally Codes Continous Phase Modulation
Divsalar, D.; Raphaeli, D.
2000-01-01
Recently, a method for combined noncoherent detection and decoding of trellis-codes (noncoherent coded modulation) has been proposed, which can practically approach the performance of coherent detection.
Firing rate estimation using infinite mixture models and its application to neural decoding.
Shibue, Ryohei; Komaki, Fumiyasu
2017-11-01
Neural decoding is a framework for reconstructing external stimuli from spike trains recorded by various neural recordings. Kloosterman et al. proposed a new decoding method using marked point processes (Kloosterman F, Layton SP, Chen Z, Wilson MA. J Neurophysiol 111: 217-227, 2014). This method does not require spike sorting and thereby improves decoding accuracy dramatically. In this method, they used kernel density estimation to estimate intensity functions of marked point processes. However, the use of kernel density estimation causes problems such as low decoding accuracy and high computational costs. To overcome these problems, we propose a new decoding method using infinite mixture models to estimate intensity. The proposed method improves decoding performance in terms of accuracy and computational speed. We apply the proposed method to simulation and experimental data to verify its performance. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We propose a new neural decoding method using infinite mixture models and nonparametric Bayesian statistics. The proposed method improves decoding performance in terms of accuracy and computation speed. We have successfully applied the proposed method to position decoding from spike trains recorded in a rat hippocampus. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.
Parallel iterative decoding of transform domain Wyner-Ziv video using cross bitplane correlation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Luong, Huynh Van; Huang, Xin; Forchhammer, Søren
2011-01-01
decoding scheme is proposed to improve the coding efficiency of TDWZ video codecs. The proposed parallel iterative LDPC decoding scheme is able to utilize cross bitplane correlation during decoding, by iteratively refining the soft-input, updating a modeled noise distribution and thereafter enhancing......In recent years, Transform Domain Wyner-Ziv (TDWZ) video coding has been proposed as an efficient Distributed Video Coding (DVC) solution, which fully or partly exploits the source statistics at the decoder to reduce the computational burden at the encoder. In this paper, a parallel iterative LDPC...
Visual perception as retrospective Bayesian decoding from high- to low-level features.
Ding, Stephanie; Cueva, Christopher J; Tsodyks, Misha; Qian, Ning
2017-10-24
When a stimulus is presented, its encoding is known to progress from low- to high-level features. How these features are decoded to produce perception is less clear, and most models assume that decoding follows the same low- to high-level hierarchy of encoding. There are also theories arguing for global precedence, reversed hierarchy, or bidirectional processing, but they are descriptive without quantitative comparison with human perception. Moreover, observers often inspect different parts of a scene sequentially to form overall perception, suggesting that perceptual decoding requires working memory, yet few models consider how working-memory properties may affect decoding hierarchy. We probed decoding hierarchy by comparing absolute judgments of single orientations and relative/ordinal judgments between two sequentially presented orientations. We found that lower-level, absolute judgments failed to account for higher-level, relative/ordinal judgments. However, when ordinal judgment was used to retrospectively decode memory representations of absolute orientations, striking aspects of absolute judgments, including the correlation and forward/backward aftereffects between two reported orientations in a trial, were explained. We propose that the brain prioritizes decoding of higher-level features because they are more behaviorally relevant, and more invariant and categorical, and thus easier to specify and maintain in noisy working memory, and that more reliable higher-level decoding constrains less reliable lower-level decoding. Published under the PNAS license.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tom Baines
2018-04-01
Full Text Available CdTe wires have been fabricated via a catalyst free method using the industrially scalable physical vapor deposition technique close space sublimation. Wire growth was shown to be highly dependent on surface roughness and deposition pressure, with only low roughness surfaces being capable of producing wires. Growth of wires is highly (111 oriented and is inferred to occur via a vapor-solid-solid growth mechanism, wherein a CdTe seed particle acts to template the growth. Such seed particles are visible as wire caps and have been characterized via energy dispersive X-ray analysis to establish they are single phase CdTe, hence validating the self-catalysation route. Cathodoluminescence analysis demonstrates that CdTe wires exhibited a much lower level of recombination when compared to a planar CdTe film, which is highly beneficial for semiconductor applications.
Phosphorus in antique iron music wire.
Goodway, M
1987-05-22
Harpsichords and other wire-strung musical instruments were made with longer strings about the beginning of the 17th century. This change required stronger music wire. Although these changes coincided with the introduction of the first mass-produced steel (iron alloyed with carbon), carbon was not found in samples of antique iron harpsichord wire. The wire contained an amount of phosphorus sufficient to have impeded its conversion to steel, and may have been drawn from iron rejected for this purpose. The method used to select pig iron for wire drawing ensured the highest possible phosphorus content at a time when its presence in iron was unsuspected. Phosphorus as an alloying element has had the reputation for making steel brittle when worked cold. Nevertheless, in replicating the antique wire, it was found that lowcarbon iron that contained 0.16 percent phosphorus was easily drawn to appropriate gauges and strengths for restringing antique harpsichords.
Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures
Chui, S T
2013-01-01
Despite the recent development and interest in the photonics of metallic wire structures, the relatively simple concepts and physics often remain obscured or poorly explained to those who do not specialize in the field. Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures provides a clear and coherent guide to understanding these phenomena without excessive numerical calculations. Including both background material and detailed derivations of the various different formulae applied, Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures describes how to extend basic circuit theory relating to voltages, currents, and resistances of metallic wire networks to include situations where the currents are no longer spatially uniform along the wire. This lays a foundation for a deeper understanding of the many new phenomena observed in meta-electromagnetic materials. Examples of applications are included to support this new approach making Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures a comprehensive and ...
Electro-mechanics of drift tube wires
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milburn, R.H.
1997-01-01
The position and stability of the sense wires in very long drift tubes are affected by both gravitational and electrostatic forces, as well as by the wire tension. For a tube to be used as an element of a high-resolution detector all these forces and their effects must be understood in appropriately precise detail. In addition, the quality control procedures applied during manufacture and detector installation must be adequate to ensure that the internal wire positions remain within tolerances. It may be instructive to practitioners to review the simple theory of a taut wire in the presence of anisotropic gravitational and electrostatic fields to illustrate the conditions for stability, the equilibrium wire displacement from straightness, and the effect of the fields on the mechanical vibration frequencies. These last may be used to monitor the wire configuration externally. A number of practical formulae result and these are applied to illustrative examples. (orig.)
IEE wiring regulations explained and illustrated
Scaddan, Brian
2013-01-01
The IEE Wiring Regulations Explained and Illustrated, Second Edition discusses the recommendations of the IEE Regulations for the Electrical Equipment of Buildings for the safe selection or erection of wiring installations. The book emphasizes earthing, bonding, protection, and circuit design of electrical wirings. The text reviews the fundamental requirements for safety, earthing systems, the earth fault loop impedance, and supplementary bonding. The book also describes the different types of protection, such as protection against mechanical damage, overcurrent, under voltage (which prevents
Radiofrequency Wire Recanalization of Chronically Thrombosed TIPS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Majdalany, Bill S., E-mail: bmajdala@med.umich.edu [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Elliott, Eric D., E-mail: eric.elliott@osumc.edu [The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Michaels, Anthony J., E-mail: Anthony.michaels@osumc.edu; Hanje, A. James, E-mail: James.Hanje@osumc.edu [The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine (United States); Saad, Wael E. A., E-mail: wsaad@med.umich.edu [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States)
2016-07-15
Radiofrequency (RF) guide wires have been applied to cardiac interventions, recanalization of central venous thromboses, and to cross biliary occlusions. Herein, the use of a RF wire technique to revise chronically occluded transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) is described. In both cases, conventional TIPS revision techniques failed to revise the chronically thrombosed TIPS. RF wire recanalization was successfully performed through each of the chronically thrombosed TIPS, demonstrating initial safety and feasibility in this application.
Minimisation of the wire position uncertainties of the new CERN vacuum wire scanner
AUTHOR|(CDS)2069346; Barjau Condomines, A
In the next years the luminosity of the LHC will be significantly increased. This will require a much higher accuracy of beam profile measurement than actually achievable by the current wire scanner. The new fast wire scanner is foreseen to measure small emittance beams throughout the LHC injector chain, which demands a wire travelling speed up to 20 ms-1 and position measurement accuracy of the order of a few microns. The vibrations of the mechanical parts of the system, and particularly the vibrations of the thin carbon wire, were identified as the major error sources of wire position uncertainty. Therefore the understanding of the wire vibrations is a high priority for the design and operation of the new device. This document presents the work performed to understand the main causes of the wire vibrations observed in one of the existing wire scanner and the new proposed design.
Hot wire radicals and reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng Wengang; Gallagher, Alan
2006-01-01
Threshold ionization mass spectroscopy is used to measure radical (and stable gas) densities at the substrate of a tungsten hot wire (HW) reactor. We report measurements of the silane reaction probability on the HW and the probability of Si and H release from the HW. We describe a model for the atomic H release, based on the H 2 dissociation model. We note major variations in silicon-release, with dependence on prior silane exposure. Measured radical densities versus silane pressure yield silicon-silane and H-silane reaction rate coefficients, and the dominant radical fluxes to the substrate
DETECTORS: Vienna - beyond the wire
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krammer, Manfred; Regler, Meinhard
1995-01-01
In 1986, at the fourth Vienna Wire Chamber Conference, Georges Charpak, the inventor of the multiwire proportional chamber, had confidently announced ''Les funérailles des chambres à fils''. Was this the writing on the wall for the conference series as well as this type of detector technology? The demand for detector innovation, coupled with imaginative thinking on the part of the organizers, have kept the Vienna venue at the forefront of the physics calendar. An additional boost to the success of the series was certainly the Nobel Prize awarded to Georges Charpak in 1992. While the major topic naturally is still wire chambers, alternative technologies are also covered. However in fields like calorimetry or ring imaging Cherenkovs, a sample of only a few prominent detectors were presented, giving some participants the impression of a biased selection. The fact that silicon detectors, electronics and track reconstruction strategies were, with the exception of the invited talks, restricted to poster presentations led to the same conclusion. As a result the organizing committee saw that it will have to revise its brief for the next conference. The conference opened with philosophical thoughts by Nobel Prizewinner Georges Charpak. The first day at Vienna is traditionally devoted to applications of gaseous detectors outside high energy physics. L. Shektman gave an overview of wire chambers for medical imaging. Further applications in medicine and in other fields like biology and space science were described by subsequent speakers. The exciting idea of flying a spectrometer on a balloon to study the fraction of electrons and positrons in cosmic rays attracted a lot of attention. The next day covered wire chambers in general. V. Polychronakos presented applications of cathode strip chambers in muon spectrometers for experiments at CERN's LHC proton-proton detector. Certainly the challenges of LHC for detector development dominated many
Wire alignment system for ATF LINAC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayano, H.; Takeda, S.; Matsumoto, H.; Matsui, T.
1994-01-01
A wire based alignment system is adopted to make less than 40μm precision alignment for injector linac of Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). The system consists of two stretched SUS wires, pickup coils and active mover stages. The position of pickup coils in a mount which will be installed into LINAC stages is set to the calculated wire position prior to installation. All of LINAC stages are then moved to keep the calculated position by the active mover. The test results of wire position detection in a long term are described. (author)
Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL)
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) provides a variety of research, design engineering and prototype fabrication services...
Nickel contaminated titanium weld wire study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coffin, G.R.; Sumstine, R.L.
1979-01-01
Attachment of thermocouples to fuel rod welding problems at Exxon Nuclear Company and INEL prompted an investigation study of the titanium filler wire material. It was found that the titanium filler wire was contaminated with nickel which was jacketed on the wire prior to the drawing process at the manufacturers. A method was developed to 100% inspect all filler wire for future welding application. This method not only indicates the presence of nickel contamination but indicates quantity of contamination. The process is capable of high speed inspection necessary for various high speed manufacturing processes
submitter Dynamical Models of a Wire Scanner
Barjau, Ana; Dehning, Bernd
2016-01-01
The accuracy of the beam profile measurements achievable by the current wire scanners at CERN is limited by the vibrations of their mechanical parts. In particular, the vibrations of the carbon wire represent the major source of wire position uncertainty which limits the beam profile measurement accuracy. In the coming years, due to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, a wire traveling speed up to 20 $m s^{−1}$ and a position measurement accuracy of the order of 1 μm will be required. A new wire scanner design based on the understanding of the wire vibration origin is therefore needed. We present the models developed to understand the main causes of the wire vibrations observed in an existing wire scanner. The development and tuning of those models are based on measurements and tests performed on that CERN proton synchrotron (PS) scanner. The final model for the (wire + fork) system has six degrees-of-freedom (DOF). The wire equations contain three different excitation terms: inertia...
FE modeling of Cu wire bond process and reliability
Yuan, C.A.; Weltevreden, E.R.; Akker, P. van den; Kregting, R.; Vreugd, J. de; Zhang, G.Q.
2011-01-01
Copper based wire bonding technology is widely accepted by electronic packaging industry due to the world-wide cost reduction actions (compared to gold wire bond). However, the mechanical characterization of copper wire differs from the gold wire; hence the new wire bond process setting and new bond
THERMO-MECHANICALLY PROCESSED ROLLED WIRE FOR HIGH-STRENGTH ON-BOARD WIRE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. A. Lutsenko
2011-01-01
Full Text Available It is shown that at twisting of wire of diameter 1,83 mm, produced by direct wire drawing of thermomechanically processed rolled wire of diameter 5,5 mm of steel 90, metal stratification is completely eliminated at decrease of carbon, manganese and an additional alloying of chrome.
An Improved Unscented Kalman Filter Based Decoder for Cortical Brain-Machine Interfaces.
Li, Simin; Li, Jie; Li, Zheng
2016-01-01
Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) seek to connect brains with machines or computers directly, for application in areas such as prosthesis control. For this application, the accuracy of the decoding of movement intentions is crucial. We aim to improve accuracy by designing a better encoding model of primary motor cortical activity during hand movements and combining this with decoder engineering refinements, resulting in a new unscented Kalman filter based decoder, UKF2, which improves upon our previous unscented Kalman filter decoder, UKF1. The new encoding model includes novel acceleration magnitude, position-velocity interaction, and target-cursor-distance features (the decoder does not require target position as input, it is decoded). We add a novel probabilistic velocity threshold to better determine the user's intent to move. We combine these improvements with several other refinements suggested by others in the field. Data from two Rhesus monkeys indicate that the UKF2 generates offline reconstructions of hand movements (mean CC 0.851) significantly more accurately than the UKF1 (0.833) and the popular position-velocity Kalman filter (0.812). The encoding model of the UKF2 could predict the instantaneous firing rate of neurons (mean CC 0.210), given kinematic variables and past spiking, better than the encoding models of these two decoders (UKF1: 0.138, p-v Kalman: 0.098). In closed-loop experiments where each monkey controlled a computer cursor with each decoder in turn, the UKF2 facilitated faster task completion (mean 1.56 s vs. 2.05 s) and higher Fitts's Law bit rate (mean 0.738 bit/s vs. 0.584 bit/s) than the UKF1. These results suggest that the modeling and decoder engineering refinements of the UKF2 improve decoding performance. We believe they can be used to enhance other decoders as well.
Spin correlations in quantum wires
Sun, Chen; Pokrovsky, Valery L.
2015-04-01
We consider theoretically spin correlations in a one-dimensional quantum wire with Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction (RDI). The correlations of noninteracting electrons display electron spin resonance at a frequency proportional to the RDI coupling. Interacting electrons, upon varying the direction of the external magnetic field, transit from the state of Luttinger liquid (LL) to the spin-density wave (SDW) state. We show that the two-time total-spin correlations of these states are significantly different. In the LL, the projection of total spin to the direction of the RDI-induced field is conserved and the corresponding correlator is equal to zero. The correlators of two components perpendicular to the RDI field display a sharp electron-spin resonance driven by the RDI-induced intrinsic field. In contrast, in the SDW state, the longitudinal projection of spin dominates, whereas the transverse components are suppressed. This prediction indicates a simple way for an experimental diagnostic of the SDW in a quantum wire. We point out that the Luttinger model does not respect the spin conservation since it assumes the infinite Fermi sea. We propose a proper cutoff to correct this failure.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Farr, M.
2003-09-30
Bird mortality as a result of contact with power lines is discussed. U. S. statistics are cited, according to which 174 million birds annually die as a result of contact with power lines, specifically when birds touch two phases of current at the same time. Raptors are particularly vulnerable to power-line electrocution due to their habit of perching on the highest vantage point available as they survey the ground for prey. Hydro lines located in agricultural areas, with bodies of water on one side and fields on the other, also obstruct flight of waterfowl as dusk and dawn when visibility is low. Various solutions designed to minimize the danger to birds are discussed. Among these are: changing the configuration of wires and cross arms to make them more visible to birds in flight and less tempting as perches, and adding simple wire markers such as flags, balloons, and coloured luminescent clips that flap and twirl in the wind. There is no evidence of any coordinated effort to deal with this problem in Ontario. However, a report is being prepared for submission to Environment Canada outlining risks to birds associated with the growing number of wind turbine power generators (negligible compared with power lines and communications towers), and offering suggestions on remedial measures. The Fatal Light Awareness Program (FLAP) also plans to lobby the Canadian Wildlife Service to discuss the possibility of coordinating efforts to monitor, educate about and ultimately reduce this form of bird mortality.
Research on coding and decoding method for digital levels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tu Lifen; Zhong Sidong
2011-01-20
A new coding and decoding method for digital levels is proposed. It is based on an area-array CCD sensor and adopts mixed coding technology. By taking advantage of redundant information in a digital image signal, the contradiction that the field of view and image resolution restrict each other in a digital level measurement is overcome, and the geodetic leveling becomes easier. The experimental results demonstrate that the uncertainty of measurement is 1mm when the measuring range is between 2m and 100m, which can meet practical needs.
Research on coding and decoding method for digital levels.
Tu, Li-fen; Zhong, Si-dong
2011-01-20
A new coding and decoding method for digital levels is proposed. It is based on an area-array CCD sensor and adopts mixed coding technology. By taking advantage of redundant information in a digital image signal, the contradiction that the field of view and image resolution restrict each other in a digital level measurement is overcome, and the geodetic leveling becomes easier. The experimental results demonstrate that the uncertainty of measurement is 1 mm when the measuring range is between 2 m and 100 m, which can meet practical needs.
Central Decoding for Multiple Description Codes based on Domain Partitioning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Spiertz
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Multiple Description Codes (MDC can be used to trade redundancy against packet loss resistance for transmitting data over lossy diversity networks. In this work we focus on MD transform coding based on domain partitioning. Compared to Vaishampayan’s quantizer based MDC, domain based MD coding is a simple approach for generating different descriptions, by using different quantizers for each description. Commonly, only the highest rate quantizer is used for reconstruction. In this paper we investigate the benefit of using the lower rate quantizers to enhance the reconstruction quality at decoder side. The comparison is done on artificial source data and on image data.
An LDPC decoder architecture for wireless sensor network applications.
Biroli, Andrea Dario Giancarlo; Martina, Maurizio; Masera, Guido
2012-01-01
The pervasive use of wireless sensors in a growing spectrum of human activities reinforces the need for devices with low energy dissipation. In this work, coded communication between a couple of wireless sensor devices is considered as a method to reduce the dissipated energy per transmitted bit with respect to uncoded communication. Different Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes are considered to this purpose and post layout results are shown for a low-area low-energy decoder, which offers percentage energy savings with respect to the uncoded solution in the range of 40%-80%, depending on considered environment, distance and bit error rate.
Optimized iterative decoding method for TPC coded CPM
Ma, Yanmin; Lai, Penghui; Wang, Shilian; Xie, Shunqin; Zhang, Wei
2018-05-01
Turbo Product Code (TPC) coded Continuous Phase Modulation (CPM) system (TPC-CPM) has been widely used in aeronautical telemetry and satellite communication. This paper mainly investigates the improvement and optimization on the TPC-CPM system. We first add the interleaver and deinterleaver to the TPC-CPM system, and then establish an iterative system to iteratively decode. However, the improved system has a poor convergence ability. To overcome this issue, we use the Extrinsic Information Transfer (EXIT) analysis to find the optimal factors for the system. The experiments show our method is efficient to improve the convergence performance.
Synthesizer for decoding a coded short wave length irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1976-01-01
The system uses point irradiation source, typically an X-ray emitter, which illuminates a three dimensional object consisting of a set of parallel planes, each of which acts as a source of coded information. The secondary source images are superimposed on a common flat screen. The decoding system comprises an imput light-screen detector, a picture screen amplifier, a beam deflector, on output picture screen, an optical focussing unit including three lenses, a masking unit, an output light screen detector and a video signal reproduction unit of cathode ray tube from, or similar, to create a three dimensional image of the object. (G.C.)
New decoding methods of interleaved burst error-correcting codes
Nakano, Y.; Kasahara, M.; Namekawa, T.
1983-04-01
A probabilistic method of single burst error correction, using the syndrome correlation of subcodes which constitute the interleaved code, is presented. This method makes it possible to realize a high capability of burst error correction with less decoding delay. By generalizing this method it is possible to obtain probabilistic method of multiple (m-fold) burst error correction. After estimating the burst error positions using syndrome correlation of subcodes which are interleaved m-fold burst error detecting codes, this second method corrects erasure errors in each subcode and m-fold burst errors. The performance of these two methods is analyzed via computer simulation, and their effectiveness is demonstrated.
An LDPC Decoder Architecture for Wireless Sensor Network Applications
Giancarlo Biroli, Andrea Dario; Martina, Maurizio; Masera, Guido
2012-01-01
The pervasive use of wireless sensors in a growing spectrum of human activities reinforces the need for devices with low energy dissipation. In this work, coded communication between a couple of wireless sensor devices is considered as a method to reduce the dissipated energy per transmitted bit with respect to uncoded communication. Different Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes are considered to this purpose and post layout results are shown for a low-area low-energy decoder, which offers percentage energy savings with respect to the uncoded solution in the range of 40%–80%, depending on considered environment, distance and bit error rate. PMID:22438724
Video semaphore decoding for free-space optical communication
Last, Matthew; Fisher, Brian; Ezekwe, Chinwuba; Hubert, Sean M.; Patel, Sheetal; Hollar, Seth; Leibowitz, Brian S.; Pister, Kristofer S. J.
2001-04-01
Using teal-time image processing we have demonstrated a low bit-rate free-space optical communication system at a range of more than 20km with an average optical transmission power of less than 2mW. The transmitter is an autonomous one cubic inch microprocessor-controlled sensor node with a laser diode output. The receiver is a standard CCD camera with a 1-inch aperture lens, and both hardware and software implementations of the video semaphore decoding algorithm. With this system sensor data can be reliably transmitted 21 km form San Francisco to Berkeley.
Simulation of the color vision: decoding quantum-electric transduction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Élgion Lúcio da Silva Loreto
2008-08-01
Full Text Available We propose an experimental simulation, using accessible and low cost materials, on the biophysical mechanism of the color vision in accordance with the Young-Helmholtz s Trichromatic Theory, approaching mainly the coding and decoding process of electric signs that arrive to the cerebral cortex. The stimulus that unchains this process is given through transformation of the quantized energy of a light photon that takes place in the photocells of the retina of the human eye. The construction of a simple system of collection and analysis of data, using a multimeter, filters, LDR and LEDs allows us to establish connections between the visual system and the simulation model.
A Novel Modified Algorithm with Reduced Complexity LDPC Code Decoder
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Song Yang
2014-10-01
Full Text Available A novel efficient decoding algorithm reduced the sum-product algorithm (SPA Complexity with LPDC code is proposed. Base on the hyperbolic tangent rule, modified the Check node update with two horizontal process, which have similar calculation, Motivated by the finding that sun- min (MS algorithm reduce the complexity reducing the approximation error in the horizontal process, simplify the information weight small part. Compared with the exiting approximations, the proposed method is less computational complexity than SPA algorithm. Simulation results show that the author algorithm can achieve performance very close SPA.
Abediseid, Walid
2012-01-01
complexity of sphere decoding for the quasi- static, lattice space-time (LAST) coded MIMO channel. Specifically, we drive an upper bound of the tail distribution of the decoder's computational complexity. We show that when the computational complexity exceeds
Fluorescent silver nanoparticles via exploding wire technique
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Pure silver nanoparticles in double distilled water were generated via simple physical method using pure (99.9%) silver wires with 0.2 mm diameter. These wires have been exploded in water by bringing them into sudden contact with pure (99.9%) silver plate when subjected to a potential difference of 36 V DC. High current.
WIRED magazine announces rave awards nominees
2002-01-01
WIRED Magazine has anounced the nominees for its fourth annual WIRED Rave Awards, celebrating innovation and the individuals transforming commerce and culture. Jeffrey Hangst of the University of Aarhus has been nominated in the science category, for his work on the ATHENA Experiment, CERN (1/2 page).
75 FR 4584 - Wire Decking From China
2010-01-28
... Decking From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of the final... subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of wire decking, provided for in subheadings 9403.90... China of wire decking, and that such [[Page 4585
Lansce Wire Scanning Diagnostics Device Mechanical Design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio; Batygin, Yuri K.; Gilpatrick, John D.; Gruchalla, Michael E.; Maestas, Alfred J.; Pillai, Chandra; Raybun, Joseph L.; Sattler, F.D.; Sedillo, James Daniel; Smith, Brian G.
2011-01-01
The Accelerator Operations and Technology Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory operates a linear particle accelerator which utilizes 110 wire scanning diagnostics devices to gain position and intensity information of the proton beam. In the upcoming LANSCE improvements, 51 of these wire scanners are to be replaced with a new design, up-to-date technology and off-the-shelf components. This document outlines the requirements for the mechanical design of the LANSCE wire scanner and presents the recently developed linac wire scanner prototype. Additionally, this document presents the design modifications that have been implemented into the fabrication and assembly of this first linac wire scanner prototype. Also, this document will present the design for the second, third, and fourth wire scanner prototypes being developed. Prototypes 2 and 3 belong to a different section of the particle accelerator and therefore have slightly different design specifications. Prototype 4 is a modification of a previously used wire scanner in our facility. Lastly, the paper concludes with a plan for future work on the wire scanner development.
Lansce Wire Scanning Diagnostics Device Mechanical Design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batygin, Yuri K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gruchalla, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maestas, Alfred J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pillai, Chandra [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Raybun, Joseph L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sattler, F. D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sedillo, James Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Brian G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2011-01-01
The Accelerator Operations & Technology Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory operates a linear particle accelerator which utilizes 110 wire scanning diagnostics devices to gain position and intensity information of the proton beam. In the upcoming LANSCE improvements, 51 of these wire scanners are to be replaced with a new design, up-to-date technology and off-the-shelf components. This document outlines the requirements for the mechanical design of the LANSCE wire scanner and presents the recently developed linac wire scanner prototype. Additionally, this document presents the design modifications that have been implemented into the fabrication and assembly of this first linac wire scanner prototype. Also, this document will present the design for the second, third, and fourth wire scanner prototypes being developed. Prototypes 2 and 3 belong to a different section of the particle accelerator and therefore have slightly different design specifications. Prototype 4 is a modification of a previously used wire scanner in our facility. Lastly, the paper concludes with a plan for future work on the wire scanner development.
Pretinning Nickel-Plated Wire Shields
Igawa, J. A.
1985-01-01
Nickel-plated copper shielding for wires pretinned for subsequent soldering with help of activated rosin flux. Shield cut at point 0.25 to 0.375 in. (6 to 10 mm) from cut end of outer jacket. Loosened end of shield straightened and pulled toward cut end. Insulation of inner wires kept intact during pretinning.
Steer-by-wire innovations and demonstrator
Lupker, H.A.; Zuurbier, J.; Verschuren, R.M.A.F.; Jansen, S.T.H.; Willemsen, D.M.C.
2002-01-01
Arguments for 'by-wire' systems include production costs, packaging and traffic safety. Innovations concern both product and development process e.g. combined virtual engineering and Hardware-in-the-loop testing. Three Steer-by-wire systems are discussed: a steering system simulator used as a
Flywheel system using wire-wound rotor
Chiao, Edward Young; Bender, Donald Arthur; Means, Andrew E.; Snyder, Philip K.
2016-06-07
A flywheel is described having a rotor constructed of wire wound onto a central form. The wire is prestressed, thus mitigating stresses that occur during operation. In another aspect, the flywheel incorporates a low-loss motor using electrically non-conducting permanent magnets.
Wire compensation: Performance, SPS MDs, pulsed system
Dorda, U
2008-01-01
A wire compensation (BBLR) scheme has been proposed in order to improve the long range beam-beam performance of the nominal LHC and its phase 1 and phase 2 upgrades[1]. In this paper we present experimental experience of the CERN SPS wires (BBLR) and report on progress with the RF BBLR.
Decoding and finding the minimum distance with Gröbner bases : history and new insights
Bulygin, S.; Pellikaan, G.R.; Woungang, I.; Misra, S.; Misra, S.C.
2010-01-01
In this chapter, we discuss decoding techniques and finding the minimum distance of linear codes with the use of Grobner bases. First, we give a historical overview of decoding cyclic codes via solving systems polynominal equations over finite fields. In particular, we mention papers of Cooper,.
Video coding and decoding devices and methods preserving ppg relevant information
2013-01-01
The present invention relates to a video encoding device (10) for encoding video data and a corresponding video decoding device, wherein during decoding PPG relevant information shall be preserved. For this purpose the video coding device (10) comprises a first encoder (20) for encoding input video
Multi-Trial Guruswami–Sudan Decoding for Generalised Reed–Solomon Codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Johan Sebastian Rosenkilde; Zeh, Alexander
2013-01-01
An iterated refinement procedure for the Guruswami–Sudan list decoding algorithm for Generalised Reed–Solomon codes based on Alekhnovich’s module minimisation is proposed. The method is parametrisable and allows variants of the usual list decoding approach. In particular, finding the list...
The Three Stages of Coding and Decoding in Listening Courses of College Japanese Specialty
Yang, Fang
2008-01-01
The main focus of research papers on listening teaching published in recent years is the theoretical meanings of decoding on the training of listening comprehension ability. Although in many research papers the bottom-up approach and top-down approach, information processing mode theory, are applied to illustrate decoding and to emphasize the…
A Parallel Decoding Algorithm for Short Polar Codes Based on Error Checking and Correcting
Pan, Xiaofei; Pan, Kegang; Ye, Zhan; Gong, Chao
2014-01-01
We propose a parallel decoding algorithm based on error checking and correcting to improve the performance of the short polar codes. In order to enhance the error-correcting capacity of the decoding algorithm, we first derive the error-checking equations generated on the basis of the frozen nodes, and then we introduce the method to check the errors in the input nodes of the decoder by the solutions of these equations. In order to further correct those checked errors, we adopt the method of modifying the probability messages of the error nodes with constant values according to the maximization principle. Due to the existence of multiple solutions of the error-checking equations, we formulate a CRC-aided optimization problem of finding the optimal solution with three different target functions, so as to improve the accuracy of error checking. Besides, in order to increase the throughput of decoding, we use a parallel method based on the decoding tree to calculate probability messages of all the nodes in the decoder. Numerical results show that the proposed decoding algorithm achieves better performance than that of some existing decoding algorithms with the same code length. PMID:25540813
Gupta, Neha; Parihar, Priyanka; Neema, Vaibhav
2018-04-01
Researchers have proposed many circuit techniques to reduce leakage power dissipation in memory cells. If we want to reduce the overall power in the memory system, we have to work on the input circuitry of memory architecture i.e. row and column decoder. In this research work, low leakage power with a high speed row and column decoder for memory array application is designed and four new techniques are proposed. In this work, the comparison of cluster DECODER, body bias DECODER, source bias DECODER, and source coupling DECODER are designed and analyzed for memory array application. Simulation is performed for the comparative analysis of different DECODER design parameters at 180 nm GPDK technology file using the CADENCE tool. Simulation results show that the proposed source bias DECODER circuit technique decreases the leakage current by 99.92% and static energy by 99.92% at a supply voltage of 1.2 V. The proposed circuit also improves dynamic power dissipation by 5.69%, dynamic PDP/EDP 65.03% and delay 57.25% at 1.2 V supply voltage.
The Contribution of Attentional Control and Working Memory to Reading Comprehension and Decoding
Arrington, C. Nikki; Kulesz, Paulina A.; Francis, David J.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Barnes, Marcia A.
2014-01-01
Little is known about how specific components of working memory, namely, attentional processes including response inhibition, sustained attention, and cognitive inhibition, are related to reading decoding and comprehension. The current study evaluated the relations of reading comprehension, decoding, working memory, and attentional control in…
Fast N-Gram Language Model Look-Ahead for Decoders With Static Pronunciation Prefix Trees
Huijbregts, M.A.H.; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.
2008-01-01
Decoders that make use of token-passing restrict their search space by various types of token pruning. With use of the Language Model Look-Ahead (LMLA) technique it is possible to increase the number of tokens that can be pruned without loss of decoding precision. Unfortunately, for token passing
Scaffolding Students’ Independent Decoding of Unfamiliar Text with a Prototype of an eBook-Feature
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gissel, Stig Toke
2015-01-01
the relevant spelling patterns and in generalizing, in order to strengthen their decoding skills. The prototype was evaluated with Danish students in the second grade to see how and under what circumstances students can use the feature in ways that strengthen their decoding skills and support them in reading...
Hamilton, Stephen; Freed, Erin; Long, Debra L.
2016-01-01
The aim of this study was to examine predictions derived from a proposal about the relation between word-decoding skill and working memory capacity, called verbal efficiency theory. The theory states that poor word representations and slow decoding processes consume resources in working memory that would otherwise be used to execute high-level…
Horikawa, Tomoyasu; Kamitani, Yukiyasu
2017-01-01
Dreaming is generally thought to be generated by spontaneous brain activity during sleep with patterns common to waking experience. This view is supported by a recent study demonstrating that dreamed objects can be predicted from brain activity during sleep using statistical decoders trained with stimulus-induced brain activity. However, it remains unclear whether and how visual image features associated with dreamed objects are represented in the brain. In this study, we used a deep neural network (DNN) model for object recognition as a proxy for hierarchical visual feature representation, and DNN features for dreamed objects were analyzed with brain decoding of fMRI data collected during dreaming. The decoders were first trained with stimulus-induced brain activity labeled with the feature values of the stimulus image from multiple DNN layers. The decoders were then used to decode DNN features from the dream fMRI data, and the decoded features were compared with the averaged features of each object category calculated from a large-scale image database. We found that the feature values decoded from the dream fMRI data positively correlated with those associated with dreamed object categories at mid- to high-level DNN layers. Using the decoded features, the dreamed object category could be identified at above-chance levels by matching them to the averaged features for candidate categories. The results suggest that dreaming recruits hierarchical visual feature representations associated with objects, which may support phenomenal aspects of dream experience.
Decoding error-correcting codes with Gröbner bases
Bulygin, S.; Pellikaan, G.R.; Veldhuis, R.; Cronie, H.; Hoeksema, H.
2007-01-01
The decoding of arbitrary linear block codes is accomplished by solving a system of quadratic equations by means of Buchberger’s algorithm for finding a Gröbner basis. This generalizes the algorithm of Berlekamp-Massey for decoding Reed Solomon, Goppa and cyclic codes up to half the true minimum
Bounded distance decoding of linear error-correcting codes with Gröbner bases
Bulygin, S.; Pellikaan, G.R.
2009-01-01
The problem of bounded distance decoding of arbitrary linear codes using Gröbner bases is addressed. A new method is proposed, which is based on reducing an initial decoding problem to solving a certain system of polynomial equations over a finite field. The peculiarity of this system is that, when
A lossy graph model for delay reduction in generalized instantly decodable network coding
Douik, Ahmed S.; Sorour, Sameh; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2014-01-01
, arising from lossy feedback events, when the expected decoding delay of XORing them among themselves or with other certain packets is lower than that expected when sending these packets separately. We compare the decoding delay performance of LG-IDNC and G
Error Recovery Properties and Soft Decoding of Quasi-Arithmetic Codes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christine Guillemot
2007-08-01
Full Text Available This paper first introduces a new set of aggregated state models for soft-input decoding of quasi arithmetic (QA codes with a termination constraint. The decoding complexity with these models is linear with the sequence length. The aggregation parameter controls the tradeoff between decoding performance and complexity. It is shown that close-to-optimal decoding performance can be obtained with low values of the aggregation parameter, that is, with a complexity which is significantly reduced with respect to optimal QA bit/symbol models. The choice of the aggregation parameter depends on the synchronization recovery properties of the QA codes. This paper thus describes a method to estimate the probability mass function (PMF of the gain/loss of symbols following a single bit error (i.e., of the difference between the number of encoded and decoded symbols. The entropy of the gain/loss turns out to be the average amount of information conveyed by a length constraint on both the optimal and aggregated state models. This quantity allows us to choose the value of the aggregation parameter that will lead to close-to-optimal decoding performance. It is shown that the optimum position for the length constraint is not the last time instant of the decoding process. This observation leads to the introduction of a new technique for robust decoding of QA codes with redundancy which turns out to outperform techniques based on the concept of forbidden symbol.
Using convolutional decoding to improve time delay and phase estimation in digital communications
Ormesher, Richard C [Albuquerque, NM; Mason, John J [Albuquerque, NM
2010-01-26
The time delay and/or phase of a communication signal received by a digital communication receiver can be estimated based on a convolutional decoding operation that the communication receiver performs on the received communication signal. If the original transmitted communication signal has been spread according to a spreading operation, a corresponding despreading operation can be integrated into the convolutional decoding operation.
Padeliadu, Susana; Antoniou, Faye
2014-01-01
Experts widely consider decoding and fluency as the basis of reading comprehension, while at the same time consistently documenting problems in these areas as major characteristics of students with learning disabilities. However, scholars have developed most of the relevant research within phonologically deep languages, wherein decoding problems…
Tingerthal, John Steven
2013-01-01
Using case study methodology and autoethnographic methods, this study examines a process of curricular development known as "Decoding the Disciplines" (Decoding) by documenting the experience of its application in a construction engineering mechanics course. Motivated by the call to integrate what is known about teaching and learning…
Method of preparing composite superconducting wire
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verhoeven, J. D.; Finnemore, D. K.; Gibson, E. D.; Ostenson, J. E.; Schmidt, F. A.
1985-01-01
An improved method of preparing composite multifilament superconducting wire of Nb 3 Sn in a copper matrix which eliminates the necessity of coating the drawn wire with tin. A generalized cylindrical billet of an alloy of copper containing at least 15 weight percent niobium, present in the copper as discrete, randomly distributed and oriented dendritic-shaped particles, is provided with at least one longitudinal opening which is filled with tin to form a composite drawing rod. The drawing rod is then drawn to form a ductile composite multifilament wire containing a filament of tin. The ductile wire containing the tin can then be wound into magnet coils or other devices before heating to diffuse the tin through the wire to react with the niobium forming Nb 3 Sn. Also described is an improved method for making large billets of the copper-niobium alloy by consumable-arc casting
Wiring Damage Analyses for STS OV-103
Thomas, Walter, III
2006-01-01
This study investigated the Shuttle Program s belief that Space Transportation System (STS) wiring damage occurrences are random, that is, a constant occurrence rate. Using Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA)-derived data for STS Space Shuttle OV-103, wiring damage was observed to increase over the vehicle s life. Causal factors could include wiring physical deterioration, maintenance and inspection induced damage, and inspection process changes resulting in more damage events being reported. Induced damage effects cannot be resolved with existent data. Growth analysis (using Crow-AMSAA, or CA) resolved maintenance/inspection effects (e.g., heightened awareness) on all wire damages and indicated an overall increase since Challenger Return-to-Flight (RTF). An increasing failure or occurrence rate per flight cycle was seen for each wire damage mode; these (individual) rates were not affected by inspection process effects, within statistical error.
An Optimized Three-Level Design of Decoder Based on Nanoscale Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata
Seyedi, Saeid; Navimipour, Nima Jafari
2018-03-01
Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) has been potentially considered as a supersede to Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) because of its inherent advantages. Many QCA-based logic circuits with smaller feature size, improved operating frequency, and lower power consumption than CMOS have been offered. This technology works based on electron relations inside quantum-dots. Due to the importance of designing an optimized decoder in any digital circuit, in this paper, we design, implement and simulate a new 2-to-4 decoder based on QCA with low delay, area, and complexity. The logic functionality of the 2-to-4 decoder is verified using the QCADesigner tool. The results have shown that the proposed QCA-based decoder has high performance in terms of a number of cells, covered area, and time delay. Due to the lower clock pulse frequency, the proposed 2-to-4 decoder is helpful for building QCA-based sequential digital circuits with high performance.
Row Reduction Applied to Decoding of Rank Metric and Subspace Codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Puchinger, Sven; Nielsen, Johan Sebastian Rosenkilde; Li, Wenhui
2017-01-01
We show that decoding of ℓ-Interleaved Gabidulin codes, as well as list-ℓ decoding of Mahdavifar–Vardy (MV) codes can be performed by row reducing skew polynomial matrices. Inspired by row reduction of F[x] matrices, we develop a general and flexible approach of transforming matrices over skew...... polynomial rings into a certain reduced form. We apply this to solve generalised shift register problems over skew polynomial rings which occur in decoding ℓ-Interleaved Gabidulin codes. We obtain an algorithm with complexity O(ℓμ2) where μ measures the size of the input problem and is proportional...... to the code length n in the case of decoding. Further, we show how to perform the interpolation step of list-ℓ-decoding MV codes in complexity O(ℓn2), where n is the number of interpolation constraints....
Locating and decoding barcodes in fuzzy images captured by smart phones
Deng, Wupeng; Hu, Jiwei; Liu, Quan; Lou, Ping
2017-07-01
With the development of barcodes for commercial use, people's requirements for detecting barcodes by smart phone become increasingly pressing. The low quality of barcode image captured by mobile phone always affects the decoding and recognition rates. This paper focuses on locating and decoding EAN-13 barcodes in fuzzy images. We present a more accurate locating algorithm based on segment length and high fault-tolerant rate algorithm for decoding barcodes. Unlike existing approaches, location algorithm is based on the edge segment length of EAN -13 barcodes, while our decoding algorithm allows the appearance of fuzzy region in barcode image. Experimental results are performed on damaged, contaminated and scratched digital images, and provide a quite promising result for EAN -13 barcode location and decoding.
Efficient Dual Domain Decoding of Linear Block Codes Using Genetic Algorithms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmed Azouaoui
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A computationally efficient algorithm for decoding block codes is developed using a genetic algorithm (GA. The proposed algorithm uses the dual code in contrast to the existing genetic decoders in the literature that use the code itself. Hence, this new approach reduces the complexity of decoding the codes of high rates. We simulated our algorithm in various transmission channels. The performance of this algorithm is investigated and compared with competitor decoding algorithms including Maini and Shakeel ones. The results show that the proposed algorithm gives large gains over the Chase-2 decoding algorithm and reach the performance of the OSD-3 for some quadratic residue (QR codes. Further, we define a new crossover operator that exploits the domain specific information and compare it with uniform and two point crossover. The complexity of this algorithm is also discussed and compared to other algorithms.
Wiring of electronic evaluation circuits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bauer, R.; Svoboda, Z.
1977-01-01
The wiring is described of electronic evaluation circuits for the automatic viewing of photographic paper strip negatives on which line tracks with an angular scatter relative to the spectrograph longitudinal axis were recorded during the oblique flight of nuclear particles during exposure in the spectrograph. In coincidence evaluation, the size of the angular scatter eventually requires that evaluation dead time be increased. The equipment consists of minimally two fixed registers and a block of logic circuits whose output is designed such as will allow connection to equipment for recording signals corresponding to the number of tracks on the film. The connection may be implemented using integrated circuits guaranteeing high operating reliability and life. (J.B.)
Single wire drift chamber design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krider, J.
1987-01-01
This report summarizes the design and prototype tests of single wire drift chambers to be used in Fermilab test beam lines. The goal is to build simple, reliable detectors which require a minimum of electronics. Spatial resolution should match the 300 μm rms resolution of the 1 mm proportional chambers that they will replace. The detectors will be used in beams with particle rates up to 20 KHz. Single track efficiency should be at least 99%. The first application will be in the MT beamline, which has been designed for calibration of CDF detectors. A set of four x-y modules will be used to track and measure the momentum of beam particles
Iterative Decoding for an Optical CDMA based Laser communication System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Eun Cheol; Cha, Jae Sang
2008-01-01
An optical CDMA(code division multiple access)based Laser communication system has attracted much attention since it requires minimal optical Laser signal processing and it is virtually delay free, while from the theoretical point of view, its performance depends on the auto and cross correlation properties of employed sequences. Various kinds of channel coding schemes for optical CDMA based Laser communication systems have been proposed and analyzed to compensate nonideal channel and receiver conditions in impaired photon channels. In this paper, we propose and analyze an iterative decoding of optical CDMA based Laser communication signals for both shot noise limited and thermal noise limited systems. It is assumed that optical channel is an intensity modulated (IM)channel and direct detection scheme is employed to detect the received optical signal. The performance is evaluated in terms of bit error probability and throughput. It is demonstrated that the BER and throughput performance is substantially improved with interleaver length for a fixed code rate and with alphabet size of PPM (pulse position modulation). Also, the BER and throughput performance is significantly enhanced with the number of iterations for decoding process. The results in this paper can be applied to the optical CDMA based Laser communication network with multiple access applications
Neural signatures of attention: insights from decoding population activity patterns.
Sapountzis, Panagiotis; Gregoriou, Georgia G
2018-01-01
Understanding brain function and the computations that individual neurons and neuronal ensembles carry out during cognitive functions is one of the biggest challenges in neuroscientific research. To this end, invasive electrophysiological studies have provided important insights by recording the activity of single neurons in behaving animals. To average out noise, responses are typically averaged across repetitions and across neurons that are usually recorded on different days. However, the brain makes decisions on short time scales based on limited exposure to sensory stimulation by interpreting responses of populations of neurons on a moment to moment basis. Recent studies have employed machine-learning algorithms in attention and other cognitive tasks to decode the information content of distributed activity patterns across neuronal ensembles on a single trial basis. Here, we review results from studies that have used pattern-classification decoding approaches to explore the population representation of cognitive functions. These studies have offered significant insights into population coding mechanisms. Moreover, we discuss how such advances can aid the development of cognitive brain-computer interfaces.
Iterative Decoding for an Optical CDMA based Laser communication System
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Eun Cheol [Kwangwoon Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Jae Sang [Seoul National Univ. of Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2008-11-15
An optical CDMA(code division multiple access)based Laser communication system has attracted much attention since it requires minimal optical Laser signal processing and it is virtually delay free, while from the theoretical point of view, its performance depends on the auto and cross correlation properties of employed sequences. Various kinds of channel coding schemes for optical CDMA based Laser communication systems have been proposed and analyzed to compensate nonideal channel and receiver conditions in impaired photon channels. In this paper, we propose and analyze an iterative decoding of optical CDMA based Laser communication signals for both shot noise limited and thermal noise limited systems. It is assumed that optical channel is an intensity modulated (IM)channel and direct detection scheme is employed to detect the received optical signal. The performance is evaluated in terms of bit error probability and throughput. It is demonstrated that the BER and throughput performance is substantially improved with interleaver length for a fixed code rate and with alphabet size of PPM (pulse position modulation). Also, the BER and throughput performance is significantly enhanced with the number of iterations for decoding process. The results in this paper can be applied to the optical CDMA based Laser communication network with multiple access applications.
Discrete decoding based ultrafast multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei, Zhiliang; Lin, Liangjie; Ye, Qimiao; Li, Jing; Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Zhong
2015-01-01
The three-dimensional (3D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy constitutes an important and powerful tool in analyzing chemical and biological systems. However, the abundant 3D information arrives at the expense of long acquisition times lasting hours or even days. Therefore, there has been a continuous interest in developing techniques to accelerate recordings of 3D NMR spectra, among which the ultrafast spatiotemporal encoding technique supplies impressive acquisition speed by compressing a multidimensional spectrum in a single scan. However, it tends to suffer from tradeoffs among spectral widths in different dimensions, which deteriorates in cases of NMR spectroscopy with more dimensions. In this study, the discrete decoding is proposed to liberate the ultrafast technique from tradeoffs among spectral widths in different dimensions by focusing decoding on signal-bearing sites. For verifying its feasibility and effectiveness, we utilized the method to generate two different types of 3D spectra. The proposed method is also applicable to cases with more than three dimensions, which, based on the experimental results, may widen applications of the ultrafast technique
Discrete decoding based ultrafast multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Wei, Zhiliang; Lin, Liangjie; Ye, Qimiao; Li, Jing; Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Zhong
2015-07-01
The three-dimensional (3D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy constitutes an important and powerful tool in analyzing chemical and biological systems. However, the abundant 3D information arrives at the expense of long acquisition times lasting hours or even days. Therefore, there has been a continuous interest in developing techniques to accelerate recordings of 3D NMR spectra, among which the ultrafast spatiotemporal encoding technique supplies impressive acquisition speed by compressing a multidimensional spectrum in a single scan. However, it tends to suffer from tradeoffs among spectral widths in different dimensions, which deteriorates in cases of NMR spectroscopy with more dimensions. In this study, the discrete decoding is proposed to liberate the ultrafast technique from tradeoffs among spectral widths in different dimensions by focusing decoding on signal-bearing sites. For verifying its feasibility and effectiveness, we utilized the method to generate two different types of 3D spectra. The proposed method is also applicable to cases with more than three dimensions, which, based on the experimental results, may widen applications of the ultrafast technique.
Artificial spatiotemporal touch inputs reveal complementary decoding in neocortical neurons.
Oddo, Calogero M; Mazzoni, Alberto; Spanne, Anton; Enander, Jonas M D; Mogensen, Hannes; Bengtsson, Fredrik; Camboni, Domenico; Micera, Silvestro; Jörntell, Henrik
2017-04-04
Investigations of the mechanisms of touch perception and decoding has been hampered by difficulties in achieving invariant patterns of skin sensor activation. To obtain reproducible spatiotemporal patterns of activation of sensory afferents, we used an artificial fingertip equipped with an array of neuromorphic sensors. The artificial fingertip was used to transduce real-world haptic stimuli into spatiotemporal patterns of spikes. These spike patterns were delivered to the skin afferents of the second digit of rats via an array of stimulation electrodes. Combined with low-noise intra- and extracellular recordings from neocortical neurons in vivo, this approach provided a previously inaccessible high resolution analysis of the representation of tactile information in the neocortical neuronal circuitry. The results indicate high information content in individual neurons and reveal multiple novel neuronal tactile coding features such as heterogeneous and complementary spatiotemporal input selectivity also between neighboring neurons. Such neuronal heterogeneity and complementariness can potentially support a very high decoding capacity in a limited population of neurons. Our results also indicate a potential neuroprosthetic approach to communicate with the brain at a very high resolution and provide a potential novel solution for evaluating the degree or state of neurological disease in animal models.
Hardwarearchitektur für einen universellen LDPC Decoder
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Beuschel
2009-05-01
Full Text Available Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird eine universelle Decoderarchitektur für einen Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC Code Decoder vorgestellt. Anders als bei den in der Literatur häufig beschriebenen Architekturen für strukturierte Codes ist die hier vorgestellte Architektur frei programmierbar, so dass jeder beliebige LDPC Code durch eine Änderung der Initialisierung des Speichers für die Prüfmatrix mit derselben Hardware decodiert werden kann. Die größte Herausforderung beim Entwurf von teilparallelen LDPC Decoder Architekturen liegt im konfliktfreien Datenaustausch zwischen mehreren parallelen Speichern und Berechnungseinheiten, wozu ein Mapping und Scheduling Algorithmus benötigt wird. Der hier vorgestellte Algorithmus stützt sich auf Graphentheorie und findet für jeden beliebigen LDPC Code eine für die Architektur optimale Lösung. Damit sind keine Wartezyklen notwendig und die Parallelität der Architektur wird zu jedem Zeitpunkt voll ausgenutzt.
Frame Decoder for Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS)
Reyes, Miguel A. De Jesus
2014-01-01
GNU Radio is a free and open source development toolkit that provides signal processing to implement software radios. It can be used with low-cost external RF hardware to create software defined radios, or without hardware in a simulation-like environment. GNU Radio applications are primarily written in Python and C++. The Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP) is a computer-hosted software radio designed by Ettus Research. The USRP connects to a host computer via high-speed Gigabit Ethernet. Using the open source Universal Hardware Driver (UHD), we can run GNU Radio applications using the USRP. An SDR is a "radio in which some or all physical layer functions are software defined"(IEEE Definition). A radio is any kind of device that wirelessly transmits or receives radio frequency (RF) signals in the radio frequency. An SDR is a radio communication system where components that have been typically implemented in hardware are implemented in software. GNU Radio has a generic packet decoder block that is not optimized for CCSDS frames. Using this generic packet decoder will add bytes to the CCSDS frames and will not permit for bit error correction using Reed-Solomon. The CCSDS frames consist of 256 bytes, including a 32-bit sync marker (0x1ACFFC1D). This frames are generated by the Space Data Processor and GNU Radio will perform the modulation and framing operations, including frame synchronization.
Mapping of MPEG-4 decoding on a flexible architecture platform
van der Tol, Erik B.; Jaspers, Egbert G.
2001-12-01
In the field of consumer electronics, the advent of new features such as Internet, games, video conferencing, and mobile communication has triggered the convergence of television and computers technologies. This requires a generic media-processing platform that enables simultaneous execution of very diverse tasks such as high-throughput stream-oriented data processing and highly data-dependent irregular processing with complex control flows. As a representative application, this paper presents the mapping of a Main Visual profile MPEG-4 for High-Definition (HD) video onto a flexible architecture platform. A stepwise approach is taken, going from the decoder application toward an implementation proposal. First, the application is decomposed into separate tasks with self-contained functionality, clear interfaces, and distinct characteristics. Next, a hardware-software partitioning is derived by analyzing the characteristics of each task such as the amount of inherent parallelism, the throughput requirements, the complexity of control processing, and the reuse potential over different applications and different systems. Finally, a feasible implementation is proposed that includes amongst others a very-long-instruction-word (VLIW) media processor, one or more RISC processors, and some dedicated processors. The mapping study of the MPEG-4 decoder proves the flexibility and extensibility of the media-processing platform. This platform enables an effective HW/SW co-design yielding a high performance density.
A method for decoding the neurophysiological spike-response transform.
Stern, Estee; García-Crescioni, Keyla; Miller, Mark W; Peskin, Charles S; Brezina, Vladimir
2009-11-15
Many physiological responses elicited by neuronal spikes-intracellular calcium transients, synaptic potentials, muscle contractions-are built up of discrete, elementary responses to each spike. However, the spikes occur in trains of arbitrary temporal complexity, and each elementary response not only sums with previous ones, but can itself be modified by the previous history of the activity. A basic goal in system identification is to characterize the spike-response transform in terms of a small number of functions-the elementary response kernel and additional kernels or functions that describe the dependence on previous history-that will predict the response to any arbitrary spike train. Here we do this by developing further and generalizing the "synaptic decoding" approach of Sen et al. (1996). Given the spike times in a train and the observed overall response, we use least-squares minimization to construct the best estimated response and at the same time best estimates of the elementary response kernel and the other functions that characterize the spike-response transform. We avoid the need for any specific initial assumptions about these functions by using techniques of mathematical analysis and linear algebra that allow us to solve simultaneously for all of the numerical function values treated as independent parameters. The functions are such that they may be interpreted mechanistically. We examine the performance of the method as applied to synthetic data. We then use the method to decode real synaptic and muscle contraction transforms.
Decoding rule search domain in the left inferior frontal gyrus
Babcock, Laura; Vallesi, Antonino
2018-01-01
Traditionally, the left hemisphere has been thought to extract mainly verbal patterns of information, but recent evidence has shown that the left Inferior Frontal Gyrus (IFG) is active during inductive reasoning in both the verbal and spatial domains. We aimed to understand whether the left IFG supports inductive reasoning in a domain-specific or domain-general fashion. To do this we used Multi-Voxel Pattern Analysis to decode the representation of domain during a rule search task. Thirteen participants were asked to extract the rule underlying streams of letters presented in different spatial locations. Each rule was either verbal (letters forming words) or spatial (positions forming geometric figures). Our results show that domain was decodable in the left prefrontal cortex, suggesting that this region represents domain-specific information, rather than processes common to the two domains. A replication study with the same participants tested two years later confirmed these findings, though the individual representations changed, providing evidence for the flexible nature of representations. This study extends our knowledge on the neural basis of goal-directed behaviors and on how information relevant for rule extraction is flexibly mapped in the prefrontal cortex. PMID:29547623
Successful decoding of famous faces in the fusiform face area.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vadim Axelrod
Full Text Available What are the neural mechanisms of face recognition? It is believed that the network of face-selective areas, which spans the occipital, temporal, and frontal cortices, is important in face recognition. A number of previous studies indeed reported that face identity could be discriminated based on patterns of multivoxel activity in the fusiform face area and the anterior temporal lobe. However, given the difficulty in localizing the face-selective area in the anterior temporal lobe, its role in face recognition is still unknown. Furthermore, previous studies limited their analysis to occipito-temporal regions without testing identity decoding in more anterior face-selective regions, such as the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. In the current high-resolution functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study, we systematically examined the decoding of the identity of famous faces in the temporo-frontal network of face-selective and adjacent non-face-selective regions. A special focus has been put on the face-area in the anterior temporal lobe, which was reliably localized using an optimized scanning protocol. We found that face-identity could be discriminated above chance level only in the fusiform face area. Our results corroborate the role of the fusiform face area in face recognition. Future studies are needed to further explore the role of the more recently discovered anterior face-selective areas in face recognition.
Position-sensitive proportional counter with low-resistance metal-wire anode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kopp, M.K.
1980-01-01
A position-sensitive proportional counter circuit is provided which uses a conventional (low-resistance, metal-wire anode) proportional counter for spatial resolution of an ionizing event along the anode of the counther. A pair of specially designed activecapacitance preamplifiers terminate the anode ends wherein the anode is treated as an RC line. The preamplifiers act as stabilized active capacitance loads and each is composed of a series-feedback, lownoise amplifier, a unity-gain, shunt-feedback amplifier whose output is connected through a feedback capacitor to the series-feedback amplifier input. The stabilized capacitance loading of the anode allows distributed RC-line position encoding and subsequent time difference decoding by sensing the difference in rise times of pulses at te anode ends where the difference is primarily in response to the distributed capacitance along the anode. This allows the use of lower resistance wire anodes for spatial radiation detection which simplifies the counter construction and handling of the anodes, and stabilizes the anode resistivity at high count rates
LANSCE wire scanning diagnostics device mechanical design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio
2010-01-01
The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is one of the major experimental science facilities at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The core of LANSCE's work lies in the operation of a powerful linear accelerator, which accelerates protons up to 84% the speed oflight. These protons are used for a variety of purposes, including materials testing, weapons research and isotopes production. To assist in guiding the proton beam, a series of over one hundred wire scanners are used to measure the beam profile at various locations along the half-mile length of the particle accelerator. A wire scanner is an electro-mechanical device that moves a set of wires through a particle beam and measures the secondary emissions from the resulting beam-wire interaction to obtain beam intensity information. When supplemented with data from a position sensor, this information is used to determine the cross-sectional profile of the beam. This measurement allows beam operators to adjust parameters such as acceleration, beam steering, and focus to ensure that the beam reaches its destination as effectively as possible. Some of the current wire scanners are nearly forty years old and are becoming obsolete. The problem with current wire scanners comes in the difficulty of maintenance and reliability. The designs of these wire scanners vary making it difficult to keep spare parts that would work on all designs. Also many of the components are custom built or out-dated technology and are no longer in production.
LANSCE wire scanning diagnostics device mechanical design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2010-01-01
The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is one of the major experimental science facilities at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The core of LANSCE's work lies in the operation of a powerful linear accelerator, which accelerates protons up to 84% the speed oflight. These protons are used for a variety of purposes, including materials testing, weapons research and isotopes production. To assist in guiding the proton beam, a series of over one hundred wire scanners are used to measure the beam profile at various locations along the half-mile length of the particle accelerator. A wire scanner is an electro-mechanical device that moves a set of wires through a particle beam and measures the secondary emissions from the resulting beam-wire interaction to obtain beam intensity information. When supplemented with data from a position sensor, this information is used to determine the cross-sectional profile of the beam. This measurement allows beam operators to adjust parameters such as acceleration, beam steering, and focus to ensure that the beam reaches its destination as effectively as possible. Some of the current wire scanners are nearly forty years old and are becoming obsolete. The problem with current wire scanners comes in the difficulty of maintenance and reliability. The designs of these wire scanners vary making it difficult to keep spare parts that would work on all designs. Also many of the components are custom built or out-dated technology and are no longer in production.
Wire-rope emplacement of diagnostics systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burden, W.L.
1982-01-01
The study reported here was initiated to determine if, with the Cable Downhole System (CDS) currently under development, there is an advantage to using continuous wire rope to lower the emplacement package to the bottom of the hole. A baseline design using two wire ropes as well as several alternatives are discussed in this report. It was concluded that the advantages of the wire-rope emplacement system do not justify the cost of converting to such a system, especially for LLNL's maximum emplacement package weights
Welding wires for high-tensile steels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laz'ko, V.E.; Starova, L.L.; Koval'chuk, V.G.; Maksimovich, T.L.; Labzina, I.E.; Yadrov, V.M.
1993-01-01
Strength of welded joints in arc welding of high-tensile steels of mean and high thickness by welding wires is equal to approximately 1300 MPa in thermohardened state and approximately 600 MPa without heat treatment. Sv-15Kh2NMTsRA-VI (EhK44-VI) -Sv-30Kh2NMTsRA-VI (EkK47-VI) welding wires are suggested for welding of medium-carbon alloyed steels. These wires provide monotonous growth of ultimate strength of weld metal in 1250-1900 MPa range with increase of C content in heat-treated state
Plastic deformation of 2D crumpled wires
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomes, M A F; Donato, C C; Brito, V P; Coelho, A S O
2008-01-01
When a single long piece of elastic wire is injected through channels into a confining two-dimensional cavity, a complex structure of hierarchical loops is formed. In the limit of maximum packing density, these structures are described by several scaling laws. In this paper this packing process is investigated but using plastic wires which give rise to completely irreversible structures of different morphology. In particular, the plastic deformation from circular to oblate configurations of crumpled wires is experimentally studied, obtained by the application of an axial strain. Among other things, it is shown that in spite of plasticity, irreversibility and very large deformations, scaling is still observed.
Fast wire scanner for intense electron beams
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Moore
2014-02-01
Full Text Available We have developed a cost-effective, fast rotating wire scanner for use in accelerators where high beam currents would otherwise melt even carbon wires. This new design uses a simple planetary gear setup to rotate a carbon wire, fixed at one end, through the beam at speeds in excess of 20 m/s. We present results from bench tests, as well as transverse beam profile measurements taken at Cornell’s high-brightness energy recovery linac photoinjector, for beam currents up to 35 mA.
Resonant tunneling of electrons in quantum wires
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krive, I.V.; Shekhter, R.I.; Jonson, M.; Krive, I.V.
2010-01-01
We considered resonant electron tunneling in various nanostructures including single wall carbon nanotubes, molecular transistors and quantum wires formed in two-dimensional electron gas. The review starts with a textbook description of resonant tunneling of noninteracting electrons through a double-barrier structure. The effects of electron-electron interaction in sequential and resonant electron tunneling are studied by using Luttinger liquid model of electron transport in quantum wires. The experimental aspects of the problem (fabrication of quantum wires and transport measurements) are also considered. The influence of vibrational and electromechanical effects on resonant electron tunneling in molecular transistors is discussed.
Fabrication of FFTF fuel pin wire wrap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Epperson, E.M.
1980-06-01
Lateral spacing between FFTF fuel pins is required to provide a passageway for the sodium coolant to flow over each pin to remove heat generated by the fission process. This spacing is provided by wrapping each fuel pin with type 316 stainless steel wire. This wire has a 1.435mm (0.0565 in.) to 1.448mm (0.0570 in.) diameter, contains 17 +- 2% cold work and was fabricated and tested to exacting RDT Standards. About 500 kg (1100 lbs) or 39 Km (24 miles) of fuel pin wrap wire is used in each core loading. Fabrication procedures and quality assurance tests are described
Problems associated with iridium-192 wire implants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnott, S.J.; Law, J.; Ash, D.; Flynn, A.; Paine, C.H.; Durrant, K.R.; Barber, C.D.; Dixon-Brown, A.
1985-01-01
Three incidents are reported, from different radiotherapy centres, in which an implanted iridium-192 wire remained in the tissues of a patient after withdrawal of the plastic tubing in which it was contained. In each case the instrument used to cut the wire had probably formed a hook on the end of the wire which caused it to catch in the tissues. Detailed recommendations are made for avoiding such incidents in the future, the most important of which is that the patient should be effectively monitored after the supposed removal of all radioactive sources. (author)
Investigation of wire motion in superconducting magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ogitsu, T.; Tsuchiya, K.; Devred, A.
1990-09-01
The large Lorentz forces occuring during the excitation of superconducting magnets can provoke sudden motions of wire, which eventually release enough energy to trigger a quench. These wire motions are accompanied by two electromagnetic effects: an induced emf along the moved wire, and a local change in flux caused by the minute dislocation of current. Both effects cause spikes in the coil voltage. Voltage data recorded during the excitation of a superconducting quadrupole magnet which early exhibit such events are here reported. Interpretations of the voltage spikes in terms of energy release are also presented, leading to insights on the spectrum of the disturbances which occur in real magnets. 15 refs
Joint Carrier-Phase Synchronization and LDPC Decoding
Simon, Marvin; Valles, Esteban
2009-01-01
A method has been proposed to increase the degree of synchronization of a radio receiver with the phase of a suppressed carrier signal modulated with a binary- phase-shift-keying (BPSK) or quaternary- phase-shift-keying (QPSK) signal representing a low-density parity-check (LDPC) code. This method is an extended version of the method described in Using LDPC Code Constraints to Aid Recovery of Symbol Timing (NPO-43112), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 10 (October 2008), page 54. Both methods and the receiver architectures in which they would be implemented belong to a class of timing- recovery methods and corresponding receiver architectures characterized as pilotless in that they do not require transmission and reception of pilot signals. The proposed method calls for the use of what is known in the art as soft decision feedback to remove the modulation from a replica of the incoming signal prior to feeding this replica to a phase-locked loop (PLL) or other carrier-tracking stage in the receiver. Soft decision feedback refers to suitably processed versions of intermediate results of iterative computations involved in the LDPC decoding process. Unlike a related prior method in which hard decision feedback (the final sequence of decoded symbols) is used to remove the modulation, the proposed method does not require estimation of the decoder error probability. In a basic digital implementation of the proposed method, the incoming signal (having carrier phase theta theta (sub c) plus noise would first be converted to inphase (I) and quadrature (Q) baseband signals by mixing it with I and Q signals at the carrier frequency [wc/(2 pi)] generated by a local oscillator. The resulting demodulated signals would be processed through one-symbol-period integrate and- dump filters, the outputs of which would be sampled and held, then multiplied by a soft-decision version of the baseband modulated signal. The resulting I and Q products consist of terms proportional to the cosine
Low Complexity List Decoding for Polar Codes with Multiple CRC Codes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jong-Hwan Kim
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Polar codes are the first family of error correcting codes that provably achieve the capacity of symmetric binary-input discrete memoryless channels with low complexity. Since the development of polar codes, there have been many studies to improve their finite-length performance. As a result, polar codes are now adopted as a channel code for the control channel of 5G new radio of the 3rd generation partnership project. However, the decoder implementation is one of the big practical problems and low complexity decoding has been studied. This paper addresses a low complexity successive cancellation list decoding for polar codes utilizing multiple cyclic redundancy check (CRC codes. While some research uses multiple CRC codes to reduce memory and time complexity, we consider the operational complexity of decoding, and reduce it by optimizing CRC positions in combination with a modified decoding operation. Resultingly, the proposed scheme obtains not only complexity reduction from early stopping of decoding, but also additional reduction from the reduced number of decoding paths.
On the decoding process in ternary error-correcting output codes.
Escalera, Sergio; Pujol, Oriol; Radeva, Petia
2010-01-01
A common way to model multiclass classification problems is to design a set of binary classifiers and to combine them. Error-Correcting Output Codes (ECOC) represent a successful framework to deal with these type of problems. Recent works in the ECOC framework showed significant performance improvements by means of new problem-dependent designs based on the ternary ECOC framework. The ternary framework contains a larger set of binary problems because of the use of a "do not care" symbol that allows us to ignore some classes by a given classifier. However, there are no proper studies that analyze the effect of the new symbol at the decoding step. In this paper, we present a taxonomy that embeds all binary and ternary ECOC decoding strategies into four groups. We show that the zero symbol introduces two kinds of biases that require redefinition of the decoding design. A new type of decoding measure is proposed, and two novel decoding strategies are defined. We evaluate the state-of-the-art coding and decoding strategies over a set of UCI Machine Learning Repository data sets and into a real traffic sign categorization problem. The experimental results show that, following the new decoding strategies, the performance of the ECOC design is significantly improved.
Cellular automaton decoders of topological quantum memories in the fault tolerant setting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herold, Michael; Eisert, Jens; Kastoryano, Michael J; Campbell, Earl T
2017-01-01
Active error decoding and correction of topological quantum codes—in particular the toric code—remains one of the most viable routes to large scale quantum information processing. In contrast, passive error correction relies on the natural physical dynamics of a system to protect encoded quantum information. However, the search is ongoing for a completely satisfactory passive scheme applicable to locally interacting two-dimensional systems. Here, we investigate dynamical decoders that provide passive error correction by embedding the decoding process into local dynamics. We propose a specific discrete time cellular-automaton decoder in the fault tolerant setting and provide numerical evidence showing that the logical qubit has a survival time extended by several orders of magnitude over that of a bare unencoded qubit. We stress that (asynchronous) dynamical decoding gives rise to a Markovian dissipative process. We hence equate cellular-automaton decoding to a fully dissipative topological quantum memory, which removes errors continuously. In this sense, uncontrolled and unwanted local noise can be corrected for by a controlled local dissipative process. We analyze the required resources, commenting on additional polylogarithmic factors beyond those incurred by an ideal constant resource dynamical decoder. (paper)
Fast and Flexible Successive-Cancellation List Decoders for Polar Codes
Hashemi, Seyyed Ali; Condo, Carlo; Gross, Warren J.
2017-11-01
Polar codes have gained significant amount of attention during the past few years and have been selected as a coding scheme for the next generation of mobile broadband standard. Among decoding schemes, successive-cancellation list (SCL) decoding provides a reasonable trade-off between the error-correction performance and hardware implementation complexity when used to decode polar codes, at the cost of limited throughput. The simplified SCL (SSCL) and its extension SSCL-SPC increase the speed of decoding by removing redundant calculations when encountering particular information and frozen bit patterns (rate one and single parity check codes), while keeping the error-correction performance unaltered. In this paper, we improve SSCL and SSCL-SPC by proving that the list size imposes a specific number of bit estimations required to decode rate one and single parity check codes. Thus, the number of estimations can be limited while guaranteeing exactly the same error-correction performance as if all bits of the code were estimated. We call the new decoding algorithms Fast-SSCL and Fast-SSCL-SPC. Moreover, we show that the number of bit estimations in a practical application can be tuned to achieve desirable speed, while keeping the error-correction performance almost unchanged. Hardware architectures implementing both algorithms are then described and implemented: it is shown that our design can achieve 1.86 Gb/s throughput, higher than the best state-of-the-art decoders.
ESVD: An Integrated Energy Scalable Framework for Low-Power Video Decoding Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wen Ji
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Video applications using mobile wireless devices are a challenging task due to the limited capacity of batteries. The higher complex functionality of video decoding needs high resource requirements. Thus, power efficient control has become more critical design with devices integrating complex video processing techniques. Previous works on power efficient control in video decoding systems often aim at the low complexity design and not explicitly consider the scalable impact of subfunctions in decoding process, and seldom consider the relationship with the features of compressed video date. This paper is dedicated to developing an energy-scalable video decoding (ESVD strategy for energy-limited mobile terminals. First, ESVE can dynamically adapt the variable energy resources due to the device aware technique. Second, ESVD combines the decoder control with decoded data, through classifying the data into different partition profiles according to its characteristics. Third, it introduces utility theoretical analysis during the resource allocation process, so as to maximize the resource utilization. Finally, it adapts the energy resource as different energy budget and generates the scalable video decoding output under energy-limited systems. Experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach.
Prior Knowledge Improves Decoding of Finger Flexion from Electrocorticographic (ECoG Signals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zuoguan eWang
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs use brain signals to convey a user's intent. Some BCI approaches begin by decoding kinematic parameters of movements from brain signals, and then proceed to using these signals, in absence of movements, to allow a user to control an output. Recent results have shown that electrocorticographic (ECoG recordings from the surface of the brain in humans can give information about kinematic parameters (eg{} hand velocity or finger flexion. The decoding approaches in these studies usually employed classical classification/regression algorithms that derive a linear mapping between brain signals and outputs. However, they typically only incorporate little prior information about the target movement parameter. In this paper, we incorporate prior knowledge using a Bayesian decoding method, and use it to decode finger flexion from ECoG signals. Specifically, we exploit the anatomic constraints and dynamic constraints that govern finger flexion and incorporate these constraints in the construction, structure, and the probabilistic functions of the prior model of a switched non-parametric dynamic system (SNDS. Given a measurement model resulting from a traditional linear regression method, we decoded finger flexion using posterior estimation that combined the prior and measurement models. Our results show that the application of the Bayesian decoding model, which incorporates prior knowledge, improves decoding performance compared to the application of a linear regression model, which does not incorporate prior knowledge. Thus, the results presented in this paper may ultimately lead to neurally controlled hand prostheses with full fine-grained finger articulation.
Clusterless Decoding of Position From Multiunit Activity Using A Marked Point Process Filter
Deng, Xinyi; Liu, Daniel F.; Kay, Kenneth; Frank, Loren M.; Eden, Uri T.
2016-01-01
Point process filters have been applied successfully to decode neural signals and track neural dynamics. Traditionally, these methods assume that multiunit spiking activity has already been correctly spike-sorted. As a result, these methods are not appropriate for situations where sorting cannot be performed with high precision such as real-time decoding for brain-computer interfaces. As the unsupervised spike-sorting problem remains unsolved, we took an alternative approach that takes advantage of recent insights about clusterless decoding. Here we present a new point process decoding algorithm that does not require multiunit signals to be sorted into individual units. We use the theory of marked point processes to construct a function that characterizes the relationship between a covariate of interest (in this case, the location of a rat on a track) and features of the spike waveforms. In our example, we use tetrode recordings, and the marks represent a four-dimensional vector of the maximum amplitudes of the spike waveform on each of the four electrodes. In general, the marks may represent any features of the spike waveform. We then use Bayes’ rule to estimate spatial location from hippocampal neural activity. We validate our approach with a simulation study and with experimental data recorded in the hippocampus of a rat moving through a linear environment. Our decoding algorithm accurately reconstructs the rat’s position from unsorted multiunit spiking activity. We then compare the quality of our decoding algorithm to that of a traditional spike-sorting and decoding algorithm. Our analyses show that the proposed decoding algorithm performs equivalently or better than algorithms based on sorted single-unit activity. These results provide a path toward accurate real-time decoding of spiking patterns that could be used to carry out content-specific manipulations of population activity in hippocampus or elsewhere in the brain. PMID:25973549
Decoding the Nature of Emotion in the Brain.
Kragel, Philip A; LaBar, Kevin S
2016-06-01
A central, unresolved problem in affective neuroscience is understanding how emotions are represented in nervous system activity. After prior localization approaches largely failed, researchers began applying multivariate statistical tools to reconceptualize how emotion constructs might be embedded in large-scale brain networks. Findings from pattern analyses of neuroimaging data show that affective dimensions and emotion categories are uniquely represented in the activity of distributed neural systems that span cortical and subcortical regions. Results from multiple-category decoding studies are incompatible with theories postulating that specific emotions emerge from the neural coding of valence and arousal. This 'new look' into emotion representation promises to improve and reformulate neurobiological models of affect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Probabilistic Amplitude Shaping With Hard Decision Decoding and Staircase Codes
Sheikh, Alireza; Amat, Alexandre Graell i.; Liva, Gianluigi; Steiner, Fabian
2018-05-01
We consider probabilistic amplitude shaping (PAS) as a means of increasing the spectral efficiency of fiber-optic communication systems. In contrast to previous works in the literature, we consider probabilistic shaping with hard decision decoding (HDD). In particular, we apply the PAS recently introduced by B\\"ocherer \\emph{et al.} to a coded modulation (CM) scheme with bit-wise HDD that uses a staircase code as the forward error correction code. We show that the CM scheme with PAS and staircase codes yields significant gains in spectral efficiency with respect to the baseline scheme using a staircase code and a standard constellation with uniformly distributed signal points. Using a single staircase code, the proposed scheme achieves performance within $0.57$--$1.44$ dB of the corresponding achievable information rate for a wide range of spectral efficiencies.
Coding and decoding for code division multiple user communication systems
Healy, T. J.
1985-01-01
A new algorithm is introduced which decodes code division multiple user communication signals. The algorithm makes use of the distinctive form or pattern of each signal to separate it from the composite signal created by the multiple users. Although the algorithm is presented in terms of frequency-hopped signals, the actual transmitter modulator can use any of the existing digital modulation techniques. The algorithm is applicable to error-free codes or to codes where controlled interference is permitted. It can be used when block synchronization is assumed, and in some cases when it is not. The paper also discusses briefly some of the codes which can be used in connection with the algorithm, and relates the algorithm to past studies which use other approaches to the same problem.
Efficiency turns the table on neural encoding, decoding and noise.
Deneve, Sophie; Chalk, Matthew
2016-04-01
Sensory neurons are usually described with an encoding model, for example, a function that predicts their response from the sensory stimulus using a receptive field (RF) or a tuning curve. However, central to theories of sensory processing is the notion of 'efficient coding'. We argue here that efficient coding implies a completely different neural coding strategy. Instead of a fixed encoding model, neural populations would be described by a fixed decoding model (i.e. a model reconstructing the stimulus from the neural responses). Because the population solves a global optimization problem, individual neurons are variable, but not noisy, and have no truly invariant tuning curve or receptive field. We review recent experimental evidence and implications for neural noise correlations, robustness and adaptation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Brief report: decoding representations: how children with autism understand drawings.
Allen, Melissa L
2009-03-01
Young typically developing children can reason about abstract depictions if they know the intention of the artist. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who are notably impaired in social, 'intention monitoring' domains, may have great difficulty in decoding vague representations. In Experiment 1, children with ASD are unable to use another person's eye gaze as a cue for figuring out what an abstract picture represents. In contrast, when the participants themselves are the artists (Experiment 2), children with ASD are equally proficient as controls at identifying their own perceptually identical pictures (e.g. lollipop and balloon) after a delay, based upon what they intended them to be. Results are discussed in terms of intention and understanding of visual representation in autism.
Decoding Computer Games: Studying “Special Operation 85”
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bahareh Jalalzadeh
2009-11-01
Full Text Available As other media, computer games convey messages which have tow features: explicit and implicit. Semiologically studying computer games and comparing them with narrative structures, the present study attempts to discover the messages they convey. Therefore we have studied and decoded “Special operation 85” as a semiological text. Results show that the game’s features, as naming, interests and motivations of the engaged people, and the events narrated, all lead the producers to their goals of introducing and publicizing Iranian-Islamic cultural values. Although this feature makes “Special Opreation 85” a unique game, it fails in its attempt to produce a mythical personage in Iranian-Islamic cultural context.
Exact performance analysis of decode-and-forward opportunistic relaying
Tourki, Kamel
2010-06-01
In this paper, we investigate a dual-hop decode-and-forward opportunistic relaying scheme where the source may or may not be able to communicate directly with the destination. In our study, we consider a regenerative relaying scheme in which the decision to cooperate takes into account the effect of the possible erroneously detected and transmitted data at the best relay. We derive an exact closed-form expression for the end-to-end bit-error rate (BER) of binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation based on the exact statistics of each hop. Unlike existing works where the analysis focused on high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime, such results are important to enable the designers to take decisions regarding practical systems that operate at low SNR regime. We show that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results.
Decoding a combined amplitude modulated and frequency modulated signal
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2015-01-01
The present disclosure relates to a method for decoding a combined AM/FM encoded signal, comprising the steps of: combining said encoded optical signal with light from a local oscillator configured with a local oscillator frequency; converting the combined local oscillator and encoded optical...... signal into one or more electrical signals by means of at least one opto-electrical converter having a predefined frequency bandwidth, thereby providing an amplified and encoded electrical signal having one or more encoded signal current(s), where one type of states have a higher oscillation frequency...... than other type of states; rectifying the encoded signal current(s), thereby obtaining an encoded power spectrum, wherein said power spectrum has different states, such as "0"-states and "1"-states, with different power levels such that they can be discriminated, said local oscillator frequency...
Selection combining for noncoherent decode-and-forward relay networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nguyen Ha
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract This paper studies a new decode-and-forward relaying scheme for a cooperative wireless network composed of one source, K relays, and one destination and with binary frequency-shift keying modulation. A single threshold is employed to select retransmitting relays as follows: a relay retransmits to the destination if its decision variable is larger than the threshold; otherwise, it remains silent. The destination then performs selection combining for the detection of transmitted information. The average end-to-end bit-error-rate (BER is analytically determined in a closed-form expression. Based on the derived BER, the problem of choosing an optimal threshold or jointly optimal threshold and power allocation to minimize the end-to-end BER is also investigated. Both analytical and simulation results reveal that the obtained optimal threshold scheme or jointly optimal threshold and power-allocation scheme can significantly improve the BER performance compared to a previously proposed scheme.
Motor-commands decoding using peripheral nerve signals: a review
Hong, Keum-Shik; Aziz, Nida; Ghafoor, Usman
2018-06-01
During the last few decades, substantial scientific and technological efforts have been focused on the development of neuroprostheses. The major emphasis has been on techniques for connecting the human nervous system with a robotic prosthesis via natural-feeling interfaces. The peripheral nerves provide access to highly processed and segregated neural command signals from the brain that can in principle be used to determine user intent and control muscles. If these signals could be used, they might allow near-natural and intuitive control of prosthetic limbs with multiple degrees of freedom. This review summarizes the history of neuroprosthetic interfaces and their ability to record from and stimulate peripheral nerves. We also discuss the types of interfaces available and their applications, the kinds of peripheral nerve signals that are used, and the algorithms used to decode them. Finally, we explore the prospects for future development in this area.
Outage analysis of opportunistic decode-and-forward relaying
Tourki, Kamel
2010-09-01
In this paper, we investigate a dual-hop opportunistic decode-and-forward relaying scheme where the source may or not be able to communicate directly with the destination. We first derive statistics based on exact probability density function (PDF) of each hop. Then, the PDFs are used to determine closed-form outage probability expression for a transmission rate R. Furthermore, we evaluate the asymptotic outage performance and the diversity order is deduced. Unlike existing works where the analysis focused on high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime, such results are important to enable the designers to take decisions regarding practical systems that operate at low SNR regime. We show that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results under practical assumption of unbalanced hops. © 2010 IEEE.