WorldWideScience

Sample records for wiring methods load

  1. Transient Analysis of Lumped Circuit Networks Loaded Thin Wires By DGTD Method

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping

    2016-03-31

    With the purpose of avoiding very fine mesh cells in the proximity of a thin wire, the modified telegrapher’s equations (MTEs) are employed to describe the thin wire voltage and current distributions, which consequently results in reduced number of unknowns and augmented Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) number. As hyperbolic systems, both the MTEs and the Maxwell’s equations are solved by the discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) method. In realistic situations, the thin wires could be either driven or loaded by circuit networks. The thin wire-circuit interface performs as a boundary condition for the thin wire solver, where the thin wire voltage and current used for the incoming flux evaluation involved in the DGTD analyzed MTEs are not available. To obtain this voltage and current, an auxiliary current flowing through the thin wire-circuit interface is introduced at each interface. Corresponding auxiliary equations derived from the invariable property of characteristic variable for hyperbolic systems are developed and solved together with the circuit equations established by the modified nodal analysis (MNA) modality. Furthermore, in order to characterize the field and thin wire interactions, a weighted electric field and a volume current density are added into the MTEs and Maxwell-Ampere’s law equation, respectively. To validate the proposed algorithm, three representative examples are presented.

  2. Deflection load characteristics of laser-welded orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Etsuko; Stigall, Garrett; Elshahawy, Waleed; Watanabe, Ikuya

    2012-07-01

    To compare the deflection load characteristics of homogeneous and heterogeneous joints made by laser welding using various types of orthodontic wires. Four kinds of straight orthodontic rectangular wires (0.017 inch × 0.025 inch) were used: stainless-steel (SS), cobalt-chromium-nickel (Co-Cr-Ni), beta-titanium alloy (β-Ti), and nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti). Homogeneous and heterogeneous end-to-end joints (12 mm long each) were made by Nd:YAG laser welding. Two types of welding methods were used: two-point welding and four-point welding. Nonwelded wires were also used as a control. Deflection load (N) was measured by conducting the three-point bending test. The data (n  =  5) were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance/Tukey test (P wires measured were as follows: SS: 21.7 ± 0.8 N; Co-Cr-Ni: 20.0 ± 0.3 N; β-Ti: 13.9 ± 1.3 N; and Ni-Ti: 6.6 ± 0.4 N. All of the homogeneously welded specimens showed lower deflection loads compared to corresponding control wires and exhibited higher deflection loads compared to heterogeneously welded combinations. For homogeneous combinations, Co-Cr-Ni/Co-Cr-Ni showed a significantly (P wires provide a deflection load that is comparable to that of homogeneously welded orthodontic wires.

  3. Dual wire welding torch and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Fernando Martinez; Stump, Kevin S.; Ludewig, Howard W.; Kilty, Alan L.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Egland, Keith M.

    2009-04-28

    A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

  4. Effect of electrical spot welding on load deflection rate of orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Shiva; Abrishami, Arezoo

    2015-01-01

    One of the methods used for joining metals together is welding, which can be carried out using different techniques such as electric spot welding. This study evaluated the effect of electric spot welding on the load deflection rate of stainless steel and chromium-cobalt orthodontic wires. In this experimental-laboratory study, load deflection rate of 0.016 × 0.022 inch stainless steel and chromium cobalt wires were evaluated in five groups (n =18): group one: Stainless steel wires, group two: chromium-cobalt wires, group three: stainless steel wires welded to stainless steel wires, group four: Stainless steel wires welded to chromium-cobalt wires, group five: chromium-cobalt wire welded to chromium-cobalt wires. Afterward, the forces induced by the samples in 0.5 mm, 1 mm, 1.5 mm deflection were measured using a universal testing machine. Then mean force measured for each group was compared with other groups. The data were analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA), one-way ANOVA, and paired t-test by the SPSS software. The significance level was set as 0.05. The Tukey test showed that there were significant differences between the load deflection rates of welded groups compared to control ones (P wires increased their load deflection rates.

  5. Determinación del límite de rotura de un cable por Método de los Elementos Finitos. // Determination of resistance load on steel wire rope by Finite Elements Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Aguilar Parés

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En ocasiones, se desconocen las características originales de un cable de acero. En estos casos, generalmente se estima ellímite de rotura de un cable a partir del límite de rotura de un alambre del cable. En el presente trabajo, se propone emplearun método para estimar el límite de rotura del cable en base al modelado del cordón mediante elementos finitos. En elcontenido se explica detalladamente el procedimiento y es ejemplificado. El procedimiento es iniciado con el dibujo delcable en un programa de diseño gráfico parámetrico y posteriormente se describen las características generales delmodelado con un programa especializado en el Método de Elementos Finitos. En el análisis se incluye la influencia delcontacto entre los alambres que forman el cordón. Por último, se comparan los resultados obtenidos para el límite de roturadel cable con los datos declarados por el fabricante. Con este procedimiento fueron obtenidos valores mediante modeladodel cable con diferencias entre el 11% al 2,5% en relación al límite de rotura declarado por los fabricantes. Las diferenciasfueron evidenciadas en dependencia de la calidad del mallado empleado.Palabras claves: Cables de acero, elementos finitos, carga límite de rotura._________________________________________________________________________Abstract:In occasions, the original characteristics of steel wire rope are unknown. In these cases, could be estimated the resistanceof the wire rope knowing the wire resistance. In this proposal method for estimating the resistance load of steel wire thecord of the wire rope is modelling using finite elements. Procedure is explained and a sample with a selected wire rope ispresented. It is started with the drawing of the wire rope by professional software. General characteristics of themodelling are described with FEM software. In the analysis, the contact influence in the wires of the cord is included.Lastly, the obtained results of the resistance

  6. Load-Deflection and Friction Properties of PEEK Wires as Alternative Orthodontic Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Yoshifumi; Hayakawa, Tohru; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2017-08-09

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is now attracting attention as an alternative to metal alloys in the dental field. In the present study, we evaluated the load-deflection characteristics of PEEK wires in addition to their frictional properties. Three types of PEEK wires are used: two sizes of rectangular shape, 0.016 × 0.022 in² and 0.019 × 0.025 in² (19-25PEEK), and rounded shape, diameter 0.016 in (16PEEK). As a control, Ni-Ti orthodontic wire, diameter 0.016 in, was used. The three-point bending properties were evaluated in a modified three-point bending system for orthodontics. The static friction between the orthodontic wire and the bracket was also measured. The load-deflection curves were similar among Ni-Ti and PEEK wires, except for 16PEEK with slot-lid ligation. The bending force of 19-25PEEK wire was comparable with that of Ni-Ti wire. 19-25PEEK showed the highest load at the deflection of 1500 μm ( p 0.05). No significant difference was seen in static friction between all three PEEK wires and Ni-Ti wire ( p > 0.05). It is suggested that 19-25PEEK will be applicable for orthodontic treatment with the use of slot-lid ligation.

  7. Load-deflection characteristics of superelastic nickel-titanium wires.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartzela, T.; Senn, C.; Wichelhaus, A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the mechanical properties of commercially available thermodynamic wires and to classify these wires mathematically into different groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The samples examined were 48 nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy orthodontic wires commercially available from five

  8. Load-Deflection and Friction Properties of PEEK Wires as Alternative Orthodontic Wires

    OpenAIRE

    Tada, Yoshifumi; Hayakawa, Tohru; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2017-01-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is now attracting attention as an alternative to metal alloys in the dental field. In the present study, we evaluated the load-deflection characteristics of PEEK wires in addition to their frictional properties. Three types of PEEK wires are used: two sizes of rectangular shape, 0.016 ? 0.022 in2 and 0.019 ? 0.025 in2 (19-25PEEK), and rounded shape, diameter 0.016 in (16PEEK). As a control, Ni-Ti orthodontic wire, diameter 0.016 in, was used. The three-point bendin...

  9. Measurement of wire deflection on loading may indicate union in Ilizarov constructs, an in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineham, Beth; Stewart, Todd; Harwood, Paul

    2018-02-02

    No entirely reliable method exists for assessing union during Ilizarov treatment. Premature removal results in potential treatment failure; hence, alternative methods warrant investigation. Wire deflection might provide an indication of fracture site deformation on weight bearing, indicating progress towards union. This study aimed to test a method for assessing wire deflection within an Ilizarov frame. (1) To assess the repeatability of our novel measurement method in measuring wire deflection within an Ilizarov frame in vitro. (2) To compare the amount of wire deflection in an unstable model with that in an intact bone model. (3) To assess accuracy of this method by comparing wire deflection measured with overall machine extension. Tests were performed on clinical grade-tensioned fine wire 4-ring Ilizarov constructs stabilising a simulated fracture, with and without an unstable defect. Models were sequentially loaded to 700 N using an Instron testing machine. A digital depth gauge attached to the superior ring measured relative wire displacement at the ring closest to the fracture. Tests were repeated 3 times. (1) Both unstable and stable bone models produced highly repeatable load deformation curves (R 2  = 0.98 and 0.99). (2) In the unstable model, wires tensioned at 882 and 1274 N produced mean maximum deflections of 2.41 and 2.69 mm compared with 0.05 and 0.04 mm in the intact bone model (significant p measurable difference in wire deflection between stable and unstable situations exists using this method which appears accurate and repeatable, with clear correlation between displacement and load and displacement and machine extension. This approach might be clinically applicable, and further clinical testing is required.

  10. Superconducting wires and methods of making thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xingchen; Sumption, Michael D.; Peng, Xuan

    2018-03-13

    Disclosed herein are superconducting wires. The superconducting wires can comprise a metallic matrix and at least one continuous subelement embedded in the matrix. Each subelement can comprise a non-superconducting core, a superconducting layer coaxially disposed around the non-superconducting core, and a barrier layer coaxially disposed around the superconducting layer. The superconducting layer can comprise a plurality of Nb.sub.3Sn grains stabilized by metal oxide particulates disposed therein. The Nb.sub.3Sn grains can have an average grain size of from 5 nm to 90 nm (for example, from 15 nm to 30 nm). The superconducting wire can have a high-field critical current density (J.sub.c) of at least 5,000 A/mm.sup.2 at a temperature of 4.2 K in a magnetic field of 12 T. Also described are superconducting wire precursors that can be heat treated to prepare superconducting wires, as well as methods of making superconducting wires.

  11. High Hydrogen Loading of Thin Palladium Wires Through

    CERN Document Server

    Celani, F; Marini, P; Di Stefano, V; Nakamura, M; Pace, S; Vecchione, A; Mancini, A; Tripodi, P; Di Gioacchino, D

    2000-01-01

    A new protocol for the electrolytic loading of hydrogen (H) in thin palladium (Pd) wires has been developed. In order to increase the cathodic overvoltage, which is known to be the main parameter capable to enhance the electrolytic $9 H loading of Pd, the catalytic action of the Pd surface versus H-H recombination has been strongly reduced by precipitation of a thin layer of alkaline-earth carbonates on the cathode. A set of electrolytes has been employed, $9 containing small amounts of hydrochloric or sulphuric acid and strontium or calcium ions. The H loading has been continuously evaluated through ac measurements of the Pd wire resistance. Uncommonly low resistivity values, leading to $9 an estimate of exceptionally high H loading, have been observed. Evidence of the existence of a new phase in the very high H content region of the Pd-H system has been inferred on the basis of the determination of the temperature $9 coefficient of the electrical resistivity. For this purpose a thin layer of Hg was galvanic...

  12. METHOD OF MAKING WIRE FUEL ELEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrow, J.L.

    1960-08-01

    A method is given for making a nuclear reactor fuel element in the form of a uranium-bearing wire clad with zirconium. A uranium bar is enclosed in a zirconium sheath which is coated with an oxide of magnesium, beryllium, or zirconium. The sheathed bar is then placed in a steel tube and reduced to the desired diameter by swaging at 800 to 900 deg C, after which the steel and oxide are removed.

  13. 46 CFR 28.370 - Wiring methods and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wiring methods and materials. 28.370 Section 28.370... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.370 Wiring methods and materials. (a) All cable and... not more than 10 percent. (c) Cable and wiring not serving equipment in a high risk fire area such as...

  14. 46 CFR 28.865 - Wiring methods and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wiring methods and materials. 28.865 Section 28.865... FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.865 Wiring methods and materials. (a) All cable... terminals is not more than 10 percent. (c) Cable and wiring not serving equipment in high risk fire areas...

  15. MDT WIRE TENSION MEASUREMENT USING AN ELECTROSTATIC METHOD

    CERN Document Server

    Balla, A; Esposito, B; Felici, G; Nedosekin, A; Ponzio, B; Russo, V; Spitalieri, M C

    1998-01-01

    An automated system to measure wire tension in MDT tubes is presented.The method uses electrostatic forces between wire and tube to excite mechanical oscillation around the wire harmonic resonance. A LC oscillating circuit is used to measure capacitance variation due towire oscillation. Wire tension is determined by the frequency at which the wirereaches the maximum oscillation amplitude. Both the excitation and measuring circuits are controlled by a computer.

  16. 250 kA compact linear transformer driver for wire array z-pinch loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Bott

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We present the application of a short rise (∼150  ns 250 kA linear transformer driver (LTD to wire array z-pinch loads for the first time. The generator is a modification of a previous driver in which a new conical power feed provides a low inductance coupling to wire loads. Performance of the new design using both short circuit and plasma loads is presented and discussed. The final design delivers ∼200  kA to a wire array load which is in good agreement with SCREAMER calculations using a simplified representative circuit. Example results demonstrate successful experiments using cylindrical, conical, and inverse wire arrays as well as previously published work on x-pinch loads.

  17. Load-deflection characteristics of superelastic and thermal nickel-titanium wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Elda; Matarese, Giovanni; Di Bella, Guido; Nucera, Riccardo; Borsellino, Chiara; Cordasco, Giancarlo

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanical properties of superelastic and thermal nickel-titanium (NiTi) archwires for correct selection of orthodontic wires. Seven different NiTi wires of two different sizes (0.014 and 0.016 inches), commonly used during the alignment phase, were tested. A three-point bending test was carried out to evaluate the load-deflection characteristics. The archwires were subjected to bending at a constant temperature of 37°C and deflections of 2 and 4 mm. Analysis of variance showed that thermal NiTi wires exerted significantly lower working forces than superelastic wires of the same size in all experimental tests (P Wire size had a significant effect on the forces produced: with an increase in archwire dimension, the released strength increased for both thermal and superelastic wires. Superelastic wires showed, at a deflection of 2 mm, narrow and steep hysteresis curves in comparison with the corresponding thermal wires, which presented a wide interval between loading and unloading forces. During unloading at 4 mm of deflection, all wires showed curves with a wider plateau when compared with 2 mm deflection. Such a difference for the superelastic wires was caused by the martensite stress induced at higher deformation levels. A comprehensive understanding of mechanical characteristics of orthodontic wires is essential and selection should be undertaken in accordance with the behaviour of the different wires. It is also necessary to take into account the biomechanics used. In low-friction mechanics, thermal NiTi wires are to be preferred to superelastic wires, during the alignment phase due to their lower working forces. In conventional straightwire mechanics, a low force archwire would be unable to overcome the resistance to sliding.

  18. System and method for evaluating a wire conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panozzo, Edward; Parish, Harold

    2013-10-22

    A method of evaluating an electrically conductive wire segment having an insulated intermediate portion and non-insulated ends includes passing the insulated portion of the wire segment through an electrically conductive brush. According to the method, an electrical potential is established on the brush by a power source. The method also includes determining a value of electrical current that is conducted through the wire segment by the brush when the potential is established on the brush. The method additionally includes comparing the value of electrical current conducted through the wire segment with a predetermined current value to thereby evaluate the wire segment. A system for evaluating an electrically conductive wire segment is also disclosed.

  19. Using active power filter to compensate the current component of asymmetrical non-linear load in the four wire network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Руслан Володимирович Власенко

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Electricity quality improving is extremely relevant nowadays. With such industrial loads as induction motors, induction furnaces, welding machines, controlled or uncontrolled rectifiers, frequency converters and others reactive power, harmonics and unbalance are generated in power grid. Reactive power, higher harmonic currents and asymmetry loads influence the functioning of electric devices and electrical mains. An effective technical solution is the use of new compensating devices, that is active power filters. The emergence of consumers with a unit capacity of four wire networks requires a new approach to building system control active power filter. When designing the active power filter control system the current flowing in the neutral wire must be taken into account. To assess the power balance in the four wire active power filter, scientists have proposed to apply pqr theory of power based on the Clarke transformation. There are different topologies of three-phase four wire active power filters. A visual simulation of Matlab / Simulink model with an active power filter based on pqr theory of power has been created. A method of pulse width modulation with four control channels was used as pulses forming systems with transistor keys. Operating conditions of three-phase four wire active power filter with asymmetry, non-sinosoidal voltage source and asymmetric load have been studied. The correction taking into account the means improving the active power filter has been offered as pqr theory of power does not take into account non-sinosoidal voltage

  20. Evaluation of the Loading, Unloading, and Permanent Deformation of Newly Available Epoxy Resin Coated Ni-Ti Wires Using Self-Ligating Brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garro-Piña, Hazel; Jiménez-Cervantes, María Cristina; Justus, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate the load and unload deflection and permanent deformation of round 0.016′′ and rectangular 0.016′′ × 0.022′′ regular and coated Ni-Ti wires. Materials and Methods Ni-Ti archwires produced by two manufacturers were evaluated. Both regular and coated round and rectangular Ni-Ti wire segments (n = 15) from each group were submitted to a three-point bending test. Both types of wires were evaluated for permanent deformation at the end of a recovery cycle. Results The coated round 0.016′′ Ni-Ti wires produced a significantly lower force in loading (p wires of the same manufacturer and size. There was no significant difference in permanent deformation between coated and regular round Ni-Ti wires from the same company. For rectangular 0.016 × 0.022′′ Ni-Ti wires, there was a significant difference in the loading evaluation, but the unloading test presented no significant differences. The permanent deformation of the rectangular wires revealed no significant difference between them. Conclusion The addition of an esthetic coating to these new Ni-Ti wires produced changes in their mechanical properties, manifested as a reduction in the applied force, which should be considered in clinical management. PMID:28630624

  1. Evaluation of the Loading, Unloading, and Permanent Deformation of Newly Available Epoxy Resin Coated Ni-Ti Wires Using Self-Ligating Brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel Garro-Piña

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the load and unload deflection and permanent deformation of round 0.016′′ and rectangular 0.016′′×0.022′′ regular and coated Ni-Ti wires. Materials and Methods. Ni-Ti archwires produced by two manufacturers were evaluated. Both regular and coated round and rectangular Ni-Ti wire segments (n=15 from each group were submitted to a three-point bending test. Both types of wires were evaluated for permanent deformation at the end of a recovery cycle. Results. The coated round 0.016′′ Ni-Ti wires produced a significantly lower force in loading (p<0.01 and unloading (p<0.01 than regular wires of the same manufacturer and size. There was no significant difference in permanent deformation between coated and regular round Ni-Ti wires from the same company. For rectangular 0.016×0.022′′ Ni-Ti wires, there was a significant difference in the loading evaluation, but the unloading test presented no significant differences. The permanent deformation of the rectangular wires revealed no significant difference between them. Conclusion. The addition of an esthetic coating to these new Ni-Ti wires produced changes in their mechanical properties, manifested as a reduction in the applied force, which should be considered in clinical management.

  2. Ratcheting of 316L stainless steel thin wire under tension-torsion loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sichao Fu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of cyclic tension-torsion tests under symmetric shear strain and asymmetric axial stress control in various loading paths are conducted on 100 μm-diameter 316L steel wires applying a micro tensiontorsion fatigue testing apparatus. The ratcheting strain of the thin wire increases with increasing axial mean stress and decreases in a sequence of linear, rhombic and circular paths. The macro-scale based cyclic plastic constitutive models with kinematic hardening rules of the Ohno-Wang (OW and the Chen-Jiao-Kim (C-J-K are evaluated for the thin wire. Comparing with the O-W, the C-J-K predicts more accurately under high axial stress. While the loading path effects on ratcheting for wire specimens are basically simulated, the macro-based models tend to under-estimate the effect of phase difference between axial and torsional loadings and the ratcheting evolution in the initial 50 cycles

  3. Investigation of method for Stainless Steel Welding Wire as a Replacement for Arc Wire Comsumables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koiprasert, H.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Arc spraying as a coating method is being employed in various industrial applications as a part of maintenance service, and also as a surface engineering technique for many machine parts and components. The major cost in producing the arc spray coating is, however, based on the cost of the arc wire comsumables. This project was carried out to investigate the use of the commercially-available gas metal arc welding wire (GMAW wire as a cheaper alternative to the special-purpose arc wire comsumables. The wire material chosen for this early study is the 316L stainless steel, due to its popularity in many applications as a built-up coating for worn parts. The physical properties of the coatings produced from the two sets of 316L stainless steel wire were determined to be different in the percentage of porosity and the oxide content. The mechanical properties, including the tensile bond strength and the wear rate of the coatings produced from the two types of sprayed wire, were also different. This will, in turn, result in a slight difference in the performance of thecoatings.

  4. A new method for cerclage wire fixation to maximal pre-tension with minimal elongation to failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Dominik C; Ramseier, Leo E; Lajtai, Georg; Nötzli, Hubert

    2003-12-01

    To develop and test a new cerclage wire tightening technique, yielding reproducibly maximal pre-tension, load to failure and minimal elongation to failure of the wire junction. Laboratory bench study. Cerclage wire fixation is difficult to perform by hand with reproducible quality and tightening tension, which are required for optimal performance. With the new technique, 1, 1.25 and 1.5 mm steel wires were passed through a 9 x 18 mm steel tube, grasped using a modified ASIF wire-tightener and tightened by twisting until spontaneous failure of the wires in the tube. These fixations were compared to wires pre-tightened by hand to controlled high or low pre-tension using the simple twist, the knot twist and twist secured against untwisting, loaded to failure on a testing machine. The tests assessed pre-tension, ultimate failure load and elongation to failure. Wire twists performed with the new technique were always perfectly symmetrical and may be tightened to maximal pre-tension without weakening of the wire. The twist secured against untwisting combined high stiffness with high failure load. The knot twist elongates to an unacceptable degree, unlike the secured twist. The simple twist untwists under little tension. The new technique allows to obtain maximal pre-tension and thus minimal elongation to failure of simple wire twists, without having to worry about breaking the wire at the base of the twist due to over-tightening. Cerclage wire fixation is an effective and cheap method to perform osteosynthesis. For adequate performance, maximal pre-tension, symmetrical twisting and high load to failure are necessary. The here presented technique combines all of these pre-requisites in a simple fashion.

  5. Evaluation of load-deflection properties of fiber-reinforced composites and its comparison with stainless steel wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Alavi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of common sized fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs to different deflections due to bending forces and comparing it with stainless steel (SS wires. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, two FRC groups with 0.75 mm and 1.2 mm diameters (Everstick Ortho, Stick Tech, Finland and three SS groups with 0.016 × 0.022 inch, 0.0215 × 0.028 inch and 0.7 mm diameters (3M Uniteck, Monrovia, California, USA were tested. Each group contained 10 samples that were tested according to a three point bending test. Each group was tested at deflections of 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mm and the data was analyzed using the repeated measure ANOVA by SPSS software (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, IBM SPSS, Inc. in Chicago, Illinois, USA. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The highest recorded load belonged to the 1.2 mm FRC and after that 0.7 mm SS wire, 0.75 mm FRC, 0.0215 × 0.028 inch SS wire and finally 0.016 × 0.022 inch SS wire. The 0.7 mm SS wire and 0.75 mm FRC were compared as retainers and the results showed the 0.7 mm SS wire showed significantly higher load compared with 0.75 mm FRC (P < 0.05. The 1.2 mm FRC had significantly higher load compared to 0.0215 × 0.028 inch and 0.016 × 0.022 inch SS wires (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The results showed that the 1.2 mm FRC group had significantly higher load compared to SS wires and other FRC groups under the 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mm deflections. Therefore, it can be suggested that FRC can be used as an esthetic replacement for SS wires for active and passive purposes in orthodontics.

  6. Method and apparatus for diamond wire cutting of metal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsells, Robert; Gettelfinger, Geoff; Perry, Erik; Rule, Keith

    2005-04-19

    A method and apparatus for diamond wire cutting of metal structures, such as nuclear reactor vessels, is provided. A diamond wire saw having a plurality of diamond beads with beveled or chamfered edges is provided for sawing into the walls of the metal structure. The diamond wire is guided by a plurality of support structures allowing for a multitude of different cuts. The diamond wire is cleaned and cooled by CO.sub.2 during the cutting process to prevent breakage of the wire and provide efficient cutting. Concrete can be provided within the metal structure to enhance cutting efficiency and reduce airborne contaminants. The invention can be remotely controlled to reduce exposure of workers to radioactivity and other hazards.

  7. A hybrid DGTD scheme for transient analysis of electromagnetic field interactions on microwave systems loaded with thin wires

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping

    2015-10-15

    Use of the discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) method for analyzing electromagnetic field interactions on microwave structures loaded with thin wires has been very limited despite its well-known advantages. Direct application of the three dimensional (3D) DGTD method to such structures calls for very fine volumetric discretizations in the proximity of the thin wires. In this work, to avoid this possible source of computational inefficiency, electromagnetic field interactions on thin wires and the rest of the structures are modeled separately using the modified telegrapher and Maxwell equations, respectively. Then, 1D and 3D DGTD methods are used to discretize them. The coupling between the two resulting matrix systems is realized by introducing equivalent source terms in each equation set. A weighted electric field obtained from the 3D discretization around the wire is introduced as a voltage source in the telegrapher equations. A volume current density obtained from the 1D discretization on the wire is introduced as a current source in the Ampere law equation. © 2015 IEEE.

  8. Cyclic long-term loading of a bilateral fixed-angle plate in comparison with tension band wiring with K-wires or cannulated screws in transverse patella fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Simon; Schneppendahl, Johannes; Baumgärtner, Ralf; Eichler, Christian; Koebke, Jürgen; Betsch, Marcel; Hakimi, Mohssen; Windolf, Joachim; Wild, Michael

    2013-02-01

    A bilateral fixed-angle plate was biomechanically compared to the two currently preferred methods of osteosynthesis for transverse patella fractures. It was hypothesized that the new angle-stable implant would provide a secure and sustainable fracture fixation, superior to the established standard techniques. Twenty-one identical patellae made of polyurethane foam (Sawbones(®)), osteotomized to create a transverse two-part fracture, were fixed with modified anterior tension wiring, cannulated lag screws with anterior tension wiring or bilateral polyaxial 2.7-mm fixed-angle plates. The testing protocol consisted of 10,000 repetitive cycles using a non-destructive physiological load between 100 and 300 N at a simulated knee flexion of 60°. All 21 Sawbone(®)-patellae sustained repetitive loading up to 10,000 cycles without failing. The anterior tension wire group displayed significant displacement of the fracture gap (0.7 ± 0.2 mm) during cyclic loading, while both lag screws with tension wiring and bilateral fixed-angle plates showed no fracture gap widening at all (p wiring preserved a constantly reduced fracture gap over 10,000 tensile cycles in contrast to modified anterior tension wiring, which exhibited significant widening of the gap after initial loading. Results of in vitro testing indicate that bilateral fixed-angle plates provide sustainable fixation stability offering a promising new option in the treatment for transverse patella fractures.

  9. Comparison of the Load Deflection Characteristics of Esthetic and Metal Orthodontic Wires on Ceramic Brackets using Three Point Bending Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umal Hiralal Doshi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Steel wires showed highest strength values, requiring the incorporation of loops and folds to reduce the load/deflection. NiTi and GFRPC wires produced more deflection at low levels of force, however the esthetic wire was shown to fracture and break.

  10. Microwave Wire Interrogation Method Mapping Pressure under High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyong Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that wireless reading for in-situ mapping of pressure under high-temperature environments is the most feasible method, because it is not subject to frequent heterogeneous jointing failures and electrical conduction deteriorating, or even disappearing, under heat load. However, in this article, we successfully demonstrate an in-situ pressure sensor with wire interrogation for high-temperature applications. In this proof-of-concept study of the pressure sensor, we used a microwave resonator as a pressure-sensing component and a microwave transmission line as a pressure characteristic interrogation tunnel. In the sensor, the line and resonator are processed into a monolith, avoiding a heterogeneous jointing failure; further, microwave signal transmission does not depend on electrical conduction, and consequently, the sensor does not suffer from the heat load. We achieve pressure monitoring under 400 °C when employing the sensor simultaneously. Our sensor avoids restrictions that exist in wireless pressure interrogations, such as environmental noise and interference, signal leakage and security, low transfer efficiency, and so on.

  11. Evaluation of bond strength and load deflection rate of multi-stranded fixed retainer wires: An In-Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Sarah Samson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fixed orthodontic retainers must be well retained on the tooth surfaces, allow physiologic movement of teeth and exert minimal forces on the teeth to be retained. Previous studies analyzed the bond strength and amount of deflection caused due to the debonding force but not the magnitude of force needed for unit deformation. Aims: This study aims to evaluate and compare the bond strength and load deflection rate (LDR of three different fixed retainer wires. Materials and Methods: The wires were divided into three Groups: A – three-stranded twisted ligature wire, B – Bond-A-Braid (Reliance Orthodontics, and C – three-stranded twisted lingual retainer wire (3M Unitek. Twenty models were prepared for each group with a passive 15 mm long lingual retainer wire bonded to two lower incisors. An occlusogingival force was applied to the wire until it debonded. For LDR, three-point bending test was done at 0.5 mm deflection. These forces were measured using a Universal Instron Testing Machine. Statistical Analysis: Mean bond strength/LDR and pairwise comparisons were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey's honest significant difference post hoc test, respectively. Results: Group C exhibited the highest mean bond strength and LDR of 101.17N and 1.84N, respectively. The intergroup comparisons were all statistically significant. Conclusion: Compared to the other two wire types, Group C might be better retained on the teeth due to its higher bond strength. With its relatively higher LDR value, it may resist deformation from occlusal forces, thereby reducing inadvertent tooth movement and yet remain flexible enough to allow physiologic tooth movements.

  12. Thermal analysis methods for LMFBR wire wrapped bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todreas, N.E.

    1976-11-01

    A note is presented which was written to stimulate an awareness and discussion of the fundamental differences in the formulation of certain existing analysis codes for LMFBR wire wrap bundles. The contention of the note is that for those array types where data exists (one wire per pin, equal start angles), the ENERGY method results for coolant temperature under forced convection conditions provide benchmarks of reliability equal to the results of codes COBRA and TH1-3D

  13. Synthesise of Zn O nano wires by direct oxidation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farbod, M.; Ahangarpour, A.

    2007-01-01

    Zn O is a semiconductor which has a direct and wide energy band which is about 3.37 eV at room temperature. It has various applications from UV lasers, sensitive sensors, solar cells to photo catalysis applications. Zn O has different nano structures such as nanoparticles, nano wires, nano rods, nano tubes and nano belts. The one dimensional Zn O nano structures such as nano wires are very important because of their applications in nano electronics and nano photonics so different methods have been proposed to synthesize them. In this work large scale of Zn O nano wires are produced by direct oxidation a Zn substrate (which was cleaned by chemical methods) in air or oxygen atmosphere at 400 d eg C . Nano wires were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray measurements. Their diameter is about 30-150 nanometer and their length is about several micrometer. This method which acts without any catalyst is a convenient method to synthesis semiconductor nano wires.

  14. Modelling of coil-loaded wire antenna using composite multiple domain basis functions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lysko, AA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available –ciency in modeling of the above-mentioned types of geometrical structures with a traditional method of moments (MoM). The reduction in the number of variables is accomplished by a logical aggregation/grouping of the individual straight wire segments... of the antenna is shown in Figure 1. The drawing shows the two straight wire segments joined by a helical coil. Both straight segments as well as the coil are modeled by straight thin wire sub-segments. The monopole is fed with a 1-Volt delta gap generator...

  15. Developing a reliable signal wire attachment method for rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a better attachment method for rail signal wires to improve the reliability of signaling : systems. EWI conducted basic research into the failure mode of current attachment methods and developed and tested a ne...

  16. Dynamic forces and an actual load of a wire rope during its operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritók Juraj

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Wire ropes are stressed by static and dynamic forces during their operation. The calculation of the wire ropes is based on their static stress.The dynamic forces are influenced by a higher value of safety. The intensity of the dynamic forces can be determined by a calculation, and by a practical measurement. The measurement was realized by the indicator of tension „Talaten“. The experimental work were caried out using the tensometric principle. The out-put of the obtained values is a graphical presentation with using a special software on PC. The dynamic forces and loads were measured on the hoisting wire rope. From measured data, the value of dynamic coeficient of rope was determined. The obtained measured values were compared with the results of empirical calculations.The knowledge of dynamic forces of ropes is of great importance for their safe operation, service life and economoc effect for users.

  17. The Role of Overloading on the Reduction of Residual Stress by Cyclic Loading in Cold-Drawn Prestressing Steel Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Toribio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prestressing steel wires are commonly used as reinforcement elements in structures bearing fatigue loads. These wires are obtained by a conforming process called cold drawing, where a progressive reduction of the wire diameter is produced, causing residual stress in the commercial wire. The aim of this paper is to analyze the effect of diverse in-service cyclic loading conditions (cyclic loading and cyclic loading with overload on such a residual stress field. To achieve this goal, firstly, a numerical simulation of the wire drawing process of a commercial prestressing steel wire was carried out to reveal the residual stress state induced by the manufacture technique. Afterwards, a numerical simulation was performed of the in-service loading conditions of a prestressing steel wire in which the previously calculated residual stress state is included. The analysis of the obtained results shows a significant reduction of the residual stress state of about 50% for common in-service loadings and as high as 90% for certain cases undergoing overloads during cyclic loading. Therefore, an improvement of the mechanical performance of these structural components during their life in-service can be achieved.

  18. Tunable dual-band subwavelength imaging with a wire medium slab loaded with nanostructured graphene metasurfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Forouzmand

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate that a wire medium slab loaded with graphene-nanopatch metasurfaces (GNMs enables the enhancement of evanescent waves for the subwavelength imaging at terahertz (THz frequencies. The analysis is based on the nonlocal homogenization model for wire medium with the additional boundary condition at the connection of wires to graphene. The physical mechanism behind this lens can be described as the surface plasmons excitement at the lower and upper GNMs which are coupled by an array of metallic wires. The dual nature (capacitive/inductive of the GNM is utilized in order to design a dual-band lens in which the unique controllable properties of graphene and the structural parameters of wire medium (WM slab provide more degrees of freedom in controlling two operating frequency bands. The lens can support the subwavelength imaging simultaneously at two tunable distinct frequencies with the resolution better than λ/6 even if the distance between GNMs is a significant fraction of wavelength (>λ/5.5. The major future challenges in the fabrication of the lens have been demonstrated and a promising approach for the practical configuration of the lens has been proposed.

  19. Analysis of pulsed wire method for field integral measurements in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we present a theoretical analysis of this technique by finding out the analytic solution of the differential equation for the forced vibration of the wire taking dispersion due to stiffness into account. Method of images is used to extend these solutions to include reflections at the ends. For long undulators, the effect of ...

  20. Analysis of pulsed wire method for field integral measurements in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of the acoustic wave in the wire could be significant and our analysis provides a method for the evaluation of the magnetic field profile even in such cases taking the effect due to dispersion into account in an exact way. Keywords. Undulator; free-electron laser; synchrotron radiation source; magnetic char- acterization.

  1. Electrically isolated, high melting point, metal wire arrays and method of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, John T.; Cunningham, Joseph P.; D'Urso, Brian R.; Hendricks, Troy R.; Schaeffer, Daniel A.

    2016-01-26

    A method of making a wire array includes the step of providing a tube of a sealing material and having an interior surface, and positioning a wire in the tube, the wire having an exterior surface. The tube is heated to soften the tube, and the softened tube is drawn and collapsed by a mild vacuum to bring the interior surface of the tube into contact with the wire to create a coated wire. The coated wires are bundled. The bundled coated wires are heated under vacuum to fuse the tube material coating the wires and create a fused rod with a wire array embedded therein. The fused rod is cut to form a wire array. A wire array is also disclosed.

  2. Quench detection method for 2G HTS wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchevsky, M; Xie, Y-Y; Selvamanickam, V

    2010-01-01

    2G HTS conductors are increasingly used in various commercial applications and their thermal and electrical stability is an important reliability factor. Detection and prevention of quenches in 2G wire-based cables and solenoids has proven to be a difficult engineering task. This is largely due to a very slow normal zone propagation in coated conductors that leads to formation of localized hotspots while the rest of the conductor remains in the superconducting state. We propose an original method of quench and hotspot detection for 2G wires and coils that is based upon local magnetic sensing and takes advantage of 2G wire planar geometry. We demonstrate our technique experimentally and show that its sensitivity is superior to the known voltage detection scheme. A unique feature of the method is its capability to remotely detect instant degradation of the wire critical current even before a normal zone is developed within the conductor. Various modifications of the method applicable to practical device configurations are discussed.

  3. Quench detection method for 2G HTS wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchevsky, M; Xie, Y-Y; Selvamanickam, V, E-mail: maxmarche@gmail.co, E-mail: yxie@superpower-inc.co [SuperPower, Inc., 450 Duane Avenue, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    2G HTS conductors are increasingly used in various commercial applications and their thermal and electrical stability is an important reliability factor. Detection and prevention of quenches in 2G wire-based cables and solenoids has proven to be a difficult engineering task. This is largely due to a very slow normal zone propagation in coated conductors that leads to formation of localized hotspots while the rest of the conductor remains in the superconducting state. We propose an original method of quench and hotspot detection for 2G wires and coils that is based upon local magnetic sensing and takes advantage of 2G wire planar geometry. We demonstrate our technique experimentally and show that its sensitivity is superior to the known voltage detection scheme. A unique feature of the method is its capability to remotely detect instant degradation of the wire critical current even before a normal zone is developed within the conductor. Various modifications of the method applicable to practical device configurations are discussed.

  4. Joining characteristics of titanium-based orthodontic wires connected by laser and electrical welding methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Junko; Watanabe, Ikuya; Nakao, Noriko; Watanabe, Etsuko; Elshahawy, Waleed; Yoshida, Noriaki

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility of electrical and laser welding to connect titanium-based alloy (beta-titanium and nickel-titanium) wires and stainless-steel or cobalt-chromium alloy wires for fabrication of combination arch-wires. Four kinds of straight orthodontic rectangular wires (0.017 × 0.025 inch) were used: stainless-steel (S-S), cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr), beta-titanium alloy (β-Ti), and nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti). Homogeneous and heterogeneous end-to-end joints (15 mm long each) were made by electrical welding and laser welding. Non-welded wires (30 mm long) were also used as a control. Maximum loads at fracture (N) and elongation (%) were measured by conducting tensile test. The data (n = 10) were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance/Tukey test (P < 0.05).The S-S/S-S and Co-Cr/Co-Cr specimens showed significantly higher values of the maximum load (ML) at fracture and elongation (EL) than those of the Ni-Ti/Ni-Ti and β-Ti/β-Ti specimens for electrical welding and those of the S-S/S-S and Co-Cr/Co-Cr specimens welded by laser. On the other hand, the laser-welded Ni-Ti/Ni-Ti and β-Ti/β-Ti specimens exhibited higher values of the ML and EL compared to those of the corresponding specimens welded by electrical method. In the heterogeneously welded combinations, the electrically welded Ni-Ti/S-S, β-Ti/S-S and β-Ti/Co-Cr specimens showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher ML and EL than those of the corresponding specimens welded by laser. Electrical welding exhibited the higher values of maximum load at fracture and elongation for heterogeneously welded combinations than laser-welding.

  5. Effect of dry heat and steam sterilization on load-deflection characteristics of β-titanium wires: An in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Shiva; Sinaee, Neda

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sterilization techniques could affect the characteristics of orthodontic wires. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of steam and dry heat sterilization techniques on load-deflection behavior of five types of β-titanium alloy wires. Materials and Methods: The samples consisted of 30 straight lengths of five types of β-titanium alloy wires: Titanium Molybdenum Alloy (TMA) Low Friction (TMAL), TMA Low Friction Colored (HONE), Resolve (RES), BetaForce (BETA), and BETA CNA (CNA). Thirty wire segments were divided into three groups of 10. Group 1 was the control group and the group 2 samples were sterilized by dry heat in an oven (60 minutes at 160°C) and group 3 by steam in an autoclave (15 minutes at 121°C). Then all the wire samples underwent a three-point bending test in a testing machine to evaluate load-deflection properties. Data was analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA and Scheffé's test (α = 0.05). Results: The results showed that dry heat sterilization significantly increased force levels during both loading and unloading of CNA, BETA and RES and during loading of HONE (P 0.05). Conclusion: It appears dry heat sterilization increases stiffness of RES, BETA, CNA and HONE but autoclave sterilization did not have any effect on load-deflection characteristics of most of the β-titanium wires tested, indicating that clinicians who want to provide maximum safety for their patients can autoclave TMAL, RES and CNA before applying them. PMID:23559917

  6. Method for loading resin beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.; Rainey, R.H.; Greene, C.W.; Shockley, W.E.

    1978-01-01

    An improved method of preparing nuclear reactor fuel by carbonizing a uranium loaded cation exchange resin provided by contacting a H+ loaded resin with a uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate, comprises providing the nitrate deficient solution by a method comprising the steps of reacting in a reaction zone maintained between about 145 to 200 0 C, a first aqueous component comprising a uranyl nitrate solution having a boiling point of at least 145 0 C with a second aqueous component to provide a gaseous phase containing HNO 3 and a reaction product comprising an aqueous uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate

  7. Stress distribution and lattice distortions in Nb3Sn multifilament wires under uniaxial tensile loading at 4.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheuerlein, C; Flükiger, R; Kadar, J; Bordini, B; Ballarino, A; Bottura, L; Di Michiel, M; Buta, F; Seeber, B; Senatore, C; Siegrist, T; Besara, T

    2014-01-01

    The lattice parameter changes in three types of Nb 3 Sn superconducting wires during uniaxial stress–strain measurements at 4.2 K have been measured by high-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The nearly-stress-free Nb 3 Sn lattice parameter has been determined using extracted filaments, and the elastic strain in the axial and transverse wire directions in the different wire phases has been calculated. The mechanical properties of the PIT and RRP wire are mainly determined by the properties of Nb 3 Sn and unreacted Nb. This is in contrast to the bronze route wire, where the matrix can carry substantial loads. In straight wires the axial Nb 3 Sn pre-strain is strongest in the bronze route wire, its value being smaller in the PIT and RRP wires. A strong reduction of the non-Cu elastic modulus of about 30% is observed during cool-down from ambient temperature to 4.2 K. The Nb 3 Sn Poisson ratio at 4.2 K measured in the untwisted bronze route wire is 0.35. The present study also shows that the process route has a strong influence on the Nb 3 Sn texture. (paper)

  8. Comparative analysis of load/deflection ratios of conventional and heat-activated rectangular NiTi wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Schemann-Miguel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study compared the load-deflection ratios between 0.019 x 0.025-in rectangular orthodontic wires using 5 conventional preformed nickel-titanium (NiTi and 5 heat-activated NiTi archwires from four different manufacturers (Abzil, Morelli, 3M Unitek and Ormco, totaling 40 archwires. The archwires were placed in typodonts without tooth # 11 and tested using a universal testing machine connected to a computer. RESULTS: The comparisons of mean load-deflection values of conventional NiTi wires revealed that the lowest mean-deflection ratio was found for 3M Unitek, followed by Ormco, Morelli and Abzil. Regarding the heat-activated wires, the lowest load-deflection ratio was found for Ormco, followed by 3M Unitek, Abzil, and Morelli. CONCLUSION: The comparison of mean load-deflection ratios revealed that the heat-activated wires had lowest mean load-deflection ratios, and this trend was seen during all the study. However, at 2-mm deflection, mean load-deflection ratios for heat-activated Morelli and conventional 3M Unitek wires were very similar, and this difference was not statistically significant.

  9. A subspace thermodynamic model for shape memory alloy wire elements undergoing combined thermo-mechanical axial and torsional loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumanth, D.; Preetish, K. L.; Srinivasan, S. M.

    2014-08-01

    Given that most applications of shape memory alloys (SMA) are in the wire form, a reduced order model and analysis has been attempted in this paper. It takes into account the fact that the predominant actions are axial (bending inclusive) and torsional. A thermodynamic framework is first developed to simulate the behaviour of the SMA material under thermo-mechanical loading that is a combination of axial and shear stresses arising at a point in a wire due to axial and torsional loads applied to the wire. Since only a few variants relevant to axial-torsion are going to be active in transformation under this kind of loading, a reduced order model that tracks the evolution of four martensite variants and an austenite variant is proposed. It is shown through simulations that these five model parameters amply form a minimal set of model parameters sufficient for simulating response under tension-torsion loading excursions. The model is further applied to the structural member, in this case, a wire of circular cross-section subject to a twist and an axial extension and the capability of the model to simulate the kind of response expected in wires. Incorporation of this model into a large deformation space frame nonlinear analysis will help in the design and analysis of several applications where SMA wire forms are used.

  10. A subspace thermodynamic model for shape memory alloy wire elements undergoing combined thermo-mechanical axial and torsional loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumanth, D; Preetish, K L; Srinivasan, S M

    2014-01-01

    Given that most applications of shape memory alloys (SMA) are in the wire form, a reduced order model and analysis has been attempted in this paper. It takes into account the fact that the predominant actions are axial (bending inclusive) and torsional. A thermodynamic framework is first developed to simulate the behaviour of the SMA material under thermo-mechanical loading that is a combination of axial and shear stresses arising at a point in a wire due to axial and torsional loads applied to the wire. Since only a few variants relevant to axial-torsion are going to be active in transformation under this kind of loading, a reduced order model that tracks the evolution of four martensite variants and an austenite variant is proposed. It is shown through simulations that these five model parameters amply form a minimal set of model parameters sufficient for simulating response under tension–torsion loading excursions. The model is further applied to the structural member, in this case, a wire of circular cross-section subject to a twist and an axial extension and the capability of the model to simulate the kind of response expected in wires. Incorporation of this model into a large deformation space frame nonlinear analysis will help in the design and analysis of several applications where SMA wire forms are used. (paper)

  11. The anchors of steel wire ropes, testing methods and their results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Krešák

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper introduces an application of the acoustic and thermographic method in the defectoscopic testing of immobile steel wire ropes at the most critical point, the anchor. First measurements and their results by these new defectoscopic methods are shown. In defectoscopic tests at the anchor, the widely used magnetic method gives unreliable results, and therefore presents a problem for steel wire defectoscopy. Application of the two new methods in the steel wire defectoscopy at the anchor point will enable increased safety measures at the anchor of steel wire ropes in bridge, roof, tower and aerial cable lift constructions.

  12. Method for producing superconducting wire and products of the same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marancik, W.G.; Ormand, F.T.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described for producing a composite superconducting wire including one or more strands of high-field Type II superconductor embedded in a conductive matrix of normal material. A composite body is prepared which includes a matrix in which are embedded one or more rods of a metal which is capable of forming a high-field Type II superconductor upon high temperature extruded to an intermediate diameter, and then is hot-drawn to a final diameter at temperatures exceeding about 100 0 C, by multiple passes through drawing dies, the composite being reduced in cross-sectional area approximately 15 to 20 percent per draw. In a preferred mode of practicing the invention, the rods comprise vanadium or niobium, with the matrix being respectively gallium--bronze or tin--bronze, and the superconductive strands being formed by high temperature diffusion of the gallium or tin into the rods subsequent to drawing

  13. 46 CFR 111.105-17 - Wiring methods for hazardous locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wiring methods for hazardous locations. 111.105-17 Section 111.105-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-17 Wiring methods for...

  14. Force level of small diameter nickel-titanium orthodontic wires ligated with different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Hitoshi Higa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare the deflection force in conventional and thermally activated nickel-titanium (NiTi wires in passive (Damon Q and active (Bioquick self-ligating brackets (SLB and in conventional brackets (CB tied by two different methods: elastomeric ligature (EL and metal ligature (ML. Methods Two wire diameters (0.014 and 0.016 in. and 10 specimens per group were used. The specimens were assembled in a clinical simulation device and tested in an Instron Universal Testing Machine, with a load cell of 10 N. For the testing procedures, the acrylic block representative of the right maxillary central incisor was palatally moved, with readings of the force at 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 mm, at a constant speed of 2 mm/min and temperature of 36.5 °C. Results The conventional NiTi released higher forces than the thermally activated NiTi archwires in large deflections. In general, the SLB showed lower forces, while the ML had higher forces, with both showing a similar force release behavior, constantly decreasing as the deflection decreased. The EL showed an irregular behavior. The active SLB showed smaller forces than passive, in large deflections. Conclusions The SLB and the ML exhibit standard force patterns during unloading, while the elastomeric ligatures exhibit a randomly distributed force release behavior.

  15. Growth and Characterization of Indium Doped ZnO Nano wires Using Thermal Evaporation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrar Ismardi; Dee, C.F.; Majlis, B.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Indium doped ZnO nano wires were grown on silicon substrate using vapor thermal deposition method without using any catalyst. Morphological structures were extensively investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and show that the nano wires have uniformly hexagonal nano structures with diameters less than 100 nm and lengths from one to a few microns. The sample was measured for elemental composition with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, Zn, In and O elements were found on the sample. XRD spectrum of indium doped ZnO nano wires revealed that the nano wires have a high crystalline structure. (author)

  16. The influence of the manufacturing method on the microstructure and drawing properties of copper wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, A.; Jeglitsch, F.

    1982-01-01

    Copper is the third most important common metal from production figures after iron and aluminium and is largely used as pure metal in the electroindustry mainly here in the form of wires of different sizes due to its excellent electrical properties. Therefore all factors influencing the drawing ability are very important. The following work deals with the influence of impurity measurements as well as of the microstructure on the deformation or recrystallization behaviour in manufacturing continuous casting and rolling wire and dip-forming wire, and gives a rupture cause specific to each manufacturing method in the wire drawing process. (orig.) [de

  17. Efficient Load Scheduling Method For Power Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijo M Joy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An efficient load scheduling method to meet varying power supply needs is presented in this paper. At peak load times the power generation system fails due to its instability. Traditionally we use load shedding process. In load shedding process disconnect the unnecessary and extra loads. The proposed method overcomes this problem by scheduling the load based on the requirement. Artificial neural networks are used for this optimal load scheduling process. For generate economic scheduling artificial neural network has been used because generation of power from each source is economically different. In this the total load required is the inputs of this network and the power generation from each source and power losses at the time of transmission are the output of the neural network. Training and programming of the artificial neural networks are done using MATLAB.

  18. Effect of Stress Ratio and Loading Frequency on the Corrosion Fatigue Behavior of Smooth Steel Wire in Different Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songquan Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effects of loading condition and corrosion solution on the corrosion fatigue behavior of smooth steel wire were discussed. The results of polarization curves and weight loss curves showed that the corrosion of steel wire in acid solution was more severe than that in neutral and alkaline solutions. With the extension of immersion time in acid solution, the cathodic reaction of steel wire gradually changed from the reduction of hydrogen ion to the reduction of oxygen, but was always the reduction of hydrogen ion in neutral and alkaline solutions. The corrosion kinetic parameters and equivalent circuits of steel wires were also obtained by simulating the Nyquist diagrams. In corrosion fatigue test, the effect of stress ratio and loading frequency on the crack initiation mechanism was emphasized. The strong corrosivity of acid solution could accelerate the nucleation of crack tip. The initiation mechanism of crack under different conditions was summarized according to the side and fracture surface morphologies. For the crack initiation mechanism of anodic dissolution, the stronger the corrosivity of solution was, the more easily the fatigue crack source formed, while, for the crack initiation mechanism of deformation activation, the lower stress ratio and higher frequency would accelerate the generation of corrosion fatigue crack source.

  19. Application of Hot-wire Method for Measuring Thermal Conductivity of Fine Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangxi WANG

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic substrate is preferred in high density packaging due to its high electrical resistivity and moderate expansion coefficient. The thermal conductivity is a key parameter for packaging substrates. There are two common methods to measure the thermal conductivity, which are the hot-wire method and the laser-flash method. Usually, the thermal conductivities of porcelain is low and meet the measurement range of hot-wire method, and the measured value by hot-wire method has little difference with that by laser-flash method. In recent years, with the requirement of high-powered LED lighting, some kinds of ceramic substrates with good thermal conductivity have been developed and their thermal conductivity always measured by the means of laser flash method, which needs expensive instrument. In this paper, in order to detect the thermal conductivity of fine ceramic with convenience and low cost, the feasibility of replacing the laser flash method with hot wire method to measure thermal conductivity of ceramic composites was studied. The experiment results showed that the thermal conductivity value of fine ceramics measured by the hot-wire method is severely lower than that by the laser-flash method. However, there is a positive relationship between them. It is possible to measure the thermal conductivity of fine ceramic workpiece instantly by hot-wire method via a correction formula.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.4.12543

  20. Method of making Nb3Sn composite wires and cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanlan, R.M.; Fietz, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    By providing a nickel or copper overcoat to a tin coating on a niobium-copper multifilamentary composite wire, one can avoid the necessity for choosing between poor superconducting properties due to tin droplet formation and substantially increasing production costs by adding a number of special processing steps. 9 claims, 1 figure

  1. Load Carrying Capacity of Keyed Joints Reinforced with High Strength Wire Rope Loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Hoang, Linh Cao

    Vertical shear connections between precast concrete wall elements are usually made as keyed joints reinforced with overlapping U-bars. The overlapping U-bars form a cylindrical core in which the locking bar is placed and the connection is subsequently grouted with mortar. A more construction...... friendly shear connection can be obtained by replacing the U-bars with high strength looped wire ropes. The wire ropes have the advantage of being flexible (they have virtually no bending stiffness) which makes installation of wall elements much easier. The looped wire ropes are usually pre-installed in so...

  2. Load carrying capacity of keyed joints reinforced with high strength wire rope loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik B.; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2015-01-01

    -called wire boxes which are embedded in the precast wall elements. Once the joint is grouted with mortar, the boxes will function as shear keys and the overlapping wire loops will function as transverse reinforcement that replaces the U-bars. This paper presents a rigid-plastic upper bound model to determine......, so-called multi-body mechanisms have to be considered. It is shown that calculations based on multi-body mechanisms lead to results that agree well with experiments....

  3. Load Carrying Capacity of Shear Wall T-Connections Reinforced with High Strength Wire Ropes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Bryndum, Thor; Larsen, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, U-bar loop connections with keyed joints have been used in vertical shear connections between precast concrete wall elements. However, in the recent years, connections with looped high strength wire ropes instead of U-bar loops have proven to be a much more construction-friendly so......Traditionally, U-bar loop connections with keyed joints have been used in vertical shear connections between precast concrete wall elements. However, in the recent years, connections with looped high strength wire ropes instead of U-bar loops have proven to be a much more construction......-friendly solution. The wire ropes have no bending stiffness and therefore allow for an easier vertical installation of the wall elements. During the last 10 – 15 years, a number of shear tests on plane wire rope connections have been carried out. However, to the best knowledge of the authors, tests on wire rope...... connections for assembly of precast elements in different planes, such as T- and L-connections, have not yet been published. This paper presents the results of a large test series recently conducted at the University of Southern Denmark to study the shear behaviour of high strength wire rope T...

  4. Load carrying capacity of shear wall t-connections reinforced with high strength wire ropes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik B.; Bryndom, Thor; Larsen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, U-bar loop connections with keyed joints have been used in vertical shear connections between precast concrete wall elements. However, in the recent years, connections with looped high strength wire ropes instead of U-bar loops have proven to be a much more construction-friendly so......Traditionally, U-bar loop connections with keyed joints have been used in vertical shear connections between precast concrete wall elements. However, in the recent years, connections with looped high strength wire ropes instead of U-bar loops have proven to be a much more construction......-friendly solution. The wire ropes have no bending stiffness and therefore allow for an easier vertical installation of the wall elements. During the last 10 – 15 years, a number of shear tests on plane wire rope connections have been carried out. However, to the best knowledge of the authors, tests on wire rope...... connections for assembly of precast elements in different planes, such as T- and L-connections, have not yet been published. This paper presents the results of a large test series recently conducted at the University of Southern Denmark to study the shear behaviour of high strength wire rope T...

  5. Method for wiring allocation and switch configuration in a multiprocessor environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aridor, Yariv [Zichron Ya'akov, IL; Domany, Tamar [Kiryat Tivon, IL; Frachtenberg, Eitan [Jerusalem, IL; Gal, Yoav [Haifa, IL; Shmueli, Edi [Haifa, IL; Stockmeyer, legal representative, Robert E.; Stockmeyer, Larry Joseph [San Jose, CA

    2008-07-15

    A method for wiring allocation and switch configuration in a multiprocessor computer, the method including employing depth-first tree traversal to determine a plurality of paths among a plurality of processing elements allocated to a job along a plurality of switches and wires in a plurality of D-lines, and selecting one of the paths in accordance with at least one selection criterion.

  6. Strength of stainless steel surgical wire in various fixation modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, R S; Boger, J W; Dunn, H K

    1985-09-01

    Although wire is a commonly used fixation device in orthopedics, little is known about the effects of fastening methods and configurations on the strength of wiring systems. Three sizes of stainless steel surgical wire were tested in noncyclic tensile loading. Load failure levels increased with enlarging wire diameter. Fastening twists were stronger than knots or the ASIF bend technique. The failure mode for twists was untwisting. More than two twists gave no additional strength to the system. Two commercial wire tightening devices gave stronger and more reproducible twists than did ordinary pliers. The addition of a tension equalizing loop opposite the fastening loop weakened the wire system by 10%-15%. The combination of two single wire loops was stronger than a continuous double loop of wire. The results from this study are intended to help the orthopedic surgeon optimize the use of wire.

  7. Pile Load Capacity – Calculation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrana Bogumił

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is a review of the current problems of the foundation pile capacity calculations. The article considers the main principles of pile capacity calculations presented in Eurocode 7 and other methods with adequate explanations. Two main methods are presented: α – method used to calculate the short-term load capacity of piles in cohesive soils and β – method used to calculate the long-term load capacity of piles in both cohesive and cohesionless soils. Moreover, methods based on cone CPTu result are presented as well as the pile capacity problem based on static tests.

  8. Nickel release from orthodontic retention wires: the action of mechanical loading and pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milheiro, A.; Kleverlaan, C.; Muris, J.; Feilzer, A.; Pallav, P.

    2012-01-01

    Nickel (Ni) is a potent sensitizer and may induce innate and adaptive immune responses. Ni is an important component of orthodontic appliances (8-50 wt%). Due to chemical and mechanical factors in the oral environment, Ni is released from these appliances. Retention wires are in situ for a long

  9. Loading method of core constituting elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Shigeo

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a remote-controlled replacing method for core constituting elements in a liquid-metal cooling fast breeder, wherein particularly, the core constituting elements are prevented from being loaded on the core position other than as designated. Constitution: The method comprises a first step which determines a position of a suitable neutron shielding body in order to measure a reference level of complete insertion of the core constituting elements, a second step which inserts a gripper for a fuel exchanger, a third step which decides stroke dimensions of the complete insertion, and a fourth step which discriminates the core constituting elements to begin handling of fuel rods. The method further comprises a fifth step which determines a loading position of fuel rod, and a sixth step which inserts and loads fuel rods into the core. The method still further comprises a seventh step which compares and judges the dimension of loading stroke and the dimension of complete inserting stroke so that when coincided, loading is completed, and when not coincided, loading is not completed and then the cycle of the fourth step is repeated. (Kawakami, Y.)

  10. Radio Frequency Power Load and Associated Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V. Karthik (Inventor); Freestone, Todd M. (Inventor); Sims, William Herbert, III (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A radio frequency power load and associated method. A radio frequency power load apparatus may include a container with an ionized fluid therein. The apparatus may include one conductor immersed in a fluid and another conductor electrically connected to the container. A radio frequency transmission system may include a radio frequency transmitter, a radio frequency amplifier connected to the transmitter and a radio frequency power load apparatus connected to the amplifier. The apparatus may include a fluid having an ion source therein, one conductor immersed in a fluid, and another conductor electrically connected to the container. A method of dissipating power generated by a radio frequency transmission system may include constructing a waveguide with ionized fluid in a container and connecting the waveguide to an amplifier of the transmission system.

  11. Grain-resolved analysis of localized deformation in nickel-titanium wire under tensile load

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedmák, P.; Pilch, Jan; Heller, Luděk; Kopeček, Jaromír; Wright, J.; Sedlák, Petr; Frost, Miroslav; Šittner, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 353, č. 6299 (2016), 559-562 ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015088; GA ČR GA14-15264S; GA ČR GAP107/12/0800; GA ČR GPP108/12/P111 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388998 Keywords : martensitic transformation * 3D x-ray diffraction * shape memory alloys * internal stress * NiTi wire * localized deformation * tension Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; BI - Acoustics (UT-L) Impact factor: 37.205, year: 2016

  12. Static and free vibration analysis of carbon nano wires based on Timoshenko beam theory using differential quadrature method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziar Janghorban

    Full Text Available Static and free vibration analysis of carbon nano wires with rectangular cross section based on Timoshenko beam theory is studied in this research. Differential quadrature method (DQM is employed to solve the governing equations. From the knowledge of author, it is the first time that free vibration of nano wires is investigated. It is also the first time that differential quadrature method is used for bending analysis of nano wires.

  13. Curable off-loading footwear and methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    Custom footbed devices, methods of constructing the devices and kits for constructing custom footbeds are disclosed that may be particularly advantageous in the treatment of plantar ulcers. The devices offer the advantage of off-loading pressure from the plantar ulcers in a device that is easy...... to construct, reusable, lightweight, and custom-made to improve patient comfort. The footbeds are constructed using a curable substrate that is formed to the plantar surface of the foot except in the areas occupied by spacers designed to off-load wounds on the bottom of the foot....

  14. A study on direct alloying with molybdenum oxides by feed wire method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Zou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Direct alloying with molybdenum oxides has been regarded in years; the main addition methods are adding to the bottom of electric arc furnace (EAF with scrap, adding to the ladle during the converter tapping and mixing molybdenum oxide, lime and reductant to prepare pellet added to basic oxygen furnace (BOF. In this paper, a new method for direct alloying with molybdenum trioxide is proposed, adding molybdenum trioxide molten steel by feeding wire method in ladle furnace (LF refining process. The feasibility of molybdenum oxide reduction, the influence rules of bottom-blown on liquid steel fluidity and the yield of molybdenum by feeding wire method were analyzed. Results show that molybdenum oxide can be reduced by [Al], [Si], [C], and even [Fe] in molten steel. Bottom blowing position has a significant influence on the flow of molten steel when the permeable brick is located in 1/2 radius. The yields of Mo are higher than 97% for the experiments with feed wire method, the implementation of direct alloying with molybdenum trioxide by feed wire method works even better than that uses of ferromolybdenum in the traditional process.

  15. Analytical methods to characterize heterogeneous raw material for thermal spray process: cored wire Inconel 625

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, T.; Bonebeau, S.; Drehmann, R.; Grund, T.; Pawlowski, L.; Lampke, T.

    2016-03-01

    In wire arc spraying, the raw material needs to exhibit sufficient formability and ductility in order to be processed. By using an electrically conductive, metallic sheath, it is also possible to handle non-conductive and/or brittle materials such as ceramics. In comparison to massive wire, a cored wire has a heterogeneous material distribution. Due to this fact and the complex thermodynamic processes during wire arc spraying, it is very difficult to predict the resulting chemical composition in the coating with sufficient accuracy. An Inconel 625 cored wire was used to investigate this issue. In a comparative study, the analytical results of the raw material were compared to arc sprayed coatings and droplets, which were remelted in an arc furnace under argon atmosphere. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis were used to determine the chemical composition. The phase determination was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results were related to the manufacturer specifications and evaluated in respect to differences in the chemical composition. The comparison between the feedstock powder, the remelted droplets and the thermally sprayed coatings allows to evaluate the influence of the processing methods on the resulting chemical and phase composition.

  16. A New Method to Fabricate Bulk PCMs from Continuous Wires and the Mechanical Behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Hyun; Choi, Ji Eun; Jeon, In Su; Kang, Ki Ju

    2007-01-01

    Since the new millennium, truss PCMs(Periodic Cellular Metals) have drawn attention because of their superior specific stiffness, strength and multi-functionality. Prior studies have focused on the structural design and optimization. Kagome truss PCM has been proved to have the higher resistance to plastic buckling, more plastic deformation energy and lower anisotropy than other truss PCMs. In this study, we introduce a new idea to fabricate multi-layered Kagome truss PCM from continuous wires which can gain high strength as in piano wires and can be controlled to be defect free owing to drawing process. The relative density, the stiffness and the strength under bending and compressive load are estimated through elementary mechanics and compared with the results from experiments and FEA. The failure mechanisms are analyzed, and also mechanical performance and production are discussed

  17. Inductive method to measure very small joint resistances of superconducting wires

    CERN Document Server

    Herzog, R

    1998-01-01

    In the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which is currently being developed at CERN, about 50,000 connections of superconducting wire will be necessary to implement all circuits for powering 6000 corrector magnets with a maximum current of 600 A. To minimise the generation of ohmic heat in the cryogenic system, it is necessary to reduce the contact resistance of these connections as much as possible. This paper describes a method to measure contact resistances of splices of superconducting wires, which has been used to optimise such connections. Additionally we present results of a number of measurements on different types of connections. (2 refs).

  18. Analysis of pulsed wire method for field integral measurements in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [2] P V Bousine, S V Tolmachev and A A Varfolomeev, Nucl. Instrum. Methods in Phys. A393, 414 (1997). [3] T C Fan et al, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1430 (2002). [4] O Shahal and R Rohtagi, Nucl. Instrum. Methods in Phys. A285, 299 (1989). [5] O Shahal, B V Elkonin and J S Sokolowski, Nucl. Instrum. Methods in Phys. A296,.

  19. A controller design method for 3 phase 4 wire grid connected VSI ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 40; Issue 5. A controller design method for 3 phase 4 wire grid connected VSI with LCL filter. Anirban Ghoshal Vinod ... Asymptotic frequency response plot and gain bandwidth requirements of the system have been used for current control and voltage controller design. A simplified lower ...

  20. Testing of tunnel support: dynamic load testing of rock support containment systems (eg wire mesh).

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ortlepp, WD

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project was to determine the performance characteristics of containment elements of tunnel support in common use in South African mines under dynamic loading. The magnitude of the energy levels in this testing had...

  1. The Terminal Responses of the Two-Wire Line in Multiaperture Cavities Based on Electromagnetic Topology and Method of Moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A simulation technique based on electromagnetic topology (EMT theory is proposed for analyzing electromagnetic interference (EMI coupling through apertures onto the two-transmission line enclosed within metallic structures. The electromagnetic interactions between apertures and the external-internal interactions were treated through the topological decomposition and the multistep iterative method. Then, the load responses of the two-wire transmission line are resolved by the the Baum-Liu-Tesche (BLT equation. The simulation results both without and with the electromagnetic interaction are presented for the frequency range from 100 MHz to 3 GHz. These numerical results obtained by two methods imply that the electromagnetic interaction cannot be simply ignored, especially for the frequency range up to 1 GHz.

  2. Grid-forming VSC control in four-wire systems with unbalanced nonlinear loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lliuyacca, Ruben; Mauricioa, Juan M.; Gomez-Exposito, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    A grid-forming voltage source converter (VSC) is responsible to hold voltage and frequency in autonomous operation of isolated systems. In the presence of unbalanced loads, a fourth leg is added to provide current path for neutral currents. In this paper, a novel control scheme for a four-leg VSC...... feeding unbalanced linear and nonlinear loads is proposed. The control is based on two control blocks. A main control commands the switching sequence to the three-phase VSC ensuring balanced three-phase voltage at the output; and an independent control to the fourth leg drives neutral currents that might...

  3. Application of statistical methods at copper wire manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Hajduová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Six Sigma is a method of management that strives for near perfection. The Six Sigma methodology uses data and rigorous statistical analysis to identify defects in a process or product, reduce variability and achieve as close to zero defects as possible. The paper presents the basic information on this methodology.

  4. METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING A SINGLE CRYSTAL NANO-WIRE.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Berg, Albert; Bomer, Johan; Carlen Edwin, Thomas; Chen, Songyue; Kraaijenhagen Roderik, Adriaan; Pinedo Herbert, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A method for manufacturing a single crystal nano-structure is provided comprising the steps of providing a device layer with a 100 structure on a substrate; providing a stress layer onto the device layer; patterning the stress layer along the 110 direction of the device layer; selectively removing

  5. METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING A SINGLE CRYSTAL NANO-WIRE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Berg, Albert; Bomer, Johan; Carlen Edwin, Thomas; Chen, Songyue; Kraaijenhagen Roderik, Adriaan; Pinedo Herbert, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A method for manufacturing a single crystal nano-structure includes providing a device layer with a 100 structure on a substrate; providing a stress layer onto the device layer; patterning the stress layer along the 110 direction of the device layer; selectively removing parts of the stress layer to

  6. Analysis of Different Positions of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Retainers versus Multistrand Wire Retainers Using the Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Jahanbin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to evaluate root displacement of the lower incisors fixed with FRC in different positions versus FSW retainers using the finite element method. Materials and Methods. 3D finite element models were designed for a mandibular anterior segment: Model 1: flexible spiral wire bonded to the lingual teeth surfaces, Model 2: FRC bonded to the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces, and Model 3: FRC bonded to the middle third. FE analysis was performed for three models and then tooth displacements were evaluated. Results. In contrast to lateral incisors and canines, the FSW retainer caused the central teeth to move more than the teeth bonded with FRC in both loadings. Comparison between Models 2 and 3 (in vertical loading showed that FRC retainers that bonded at the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces made central and canine teeth move less than FRC retainers bonded at the middle third; however, for lateral teeth it was the opposite. Conclusion. FRC retainers bonded at the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces make central and canine teeth move less than FRC retainers bonded at the middle third in vertical loading; however, for lateral teeth it was the opposite.

  7. Analysis of Different Positions of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Retainers versus Multistrand Wire Retainers Using the Finite Element Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanbin, Arezoo; Abtahi, Mostafa; Heravi, Farzin; Hoseini, Mohsen; Shafaee, Hooman

    2014-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to evaluate root displacement of the lower incisors fixed with FRC in different positions versus FSW retainers using the finite element method. Materials and Methods. 3D finite element models were designed for a mandibular anterior segment: Model 1: flexible spiral wire bonded to the lingual teeth surfaces, Model 2: FRC bonded to the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces, and Model 3: FRC bonded to the middle third. FE analysis was performed for three models and then tooth displacements were evaluated. Results. In contrast to lateral incisors and canines, the FSW retainer caused the central teeth to move more than the teeth bonded with FRC in both loadings. Comparison between Models 2 and 3 (in vertical loading) showed that FRC retainers that bonded at the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces made central and canine teeth move less than FRC retainers bonded at the middle third; however, for lateral teeth it was the opposite. Conclusion. FRC retainers bonded at the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces make central and canine teeth move less than FRC retainers bonded at the middle third in vertical loading; however, for lateral teeth it was the opposite.

  8. Preparation methods and parameters for the optimization of superconducting and mechanical properties of Chevrel phase wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimikis, E.

    1991-01-01

    The Chevrel phase compounds based on SnMo 6 S 8 , PbMo 6 S 8 and Pb 1,2-x Sn x Mo 6 S 8 were prepared using HIP-prereacted, partly HIP-prereacted starting materials or unreacted powder mixtures. The application of various powder metallurgical methods for fabricating improved superconducting monofilamentary wires supplied an enhancement of the critical current densities up to the highest presently known values of J c (4,2 K)=2.10 8 Am -2 and J c (1,8 K)=3,5.10 8 Am -2 . This is mainly due to an improved flux pinning behavior which correlates with the average grain diameter of the Chevrel phase material. A considerable reduction of the necessary reaction time and a correlated reduction of the grain growth were observed as a consequence of the significant diminuation of the impurity content (O 2 , C) in the samples. Using microstructural investigations by means of Auger electron spectroscopy, inhomogeneities in the Chevrel phase compounds could be specified. The results of these analysis indicate future possibilities for improving the performance of Chevrel phase wires. The wire configuration developed in this work is oriented towards technical application. The Chevrel phase is enclosed in a Ta or Nb barrier material separating it from a stabilizing Cu section which is in turn enclosed by a stainless steel jacket for mechanical stabilization, thus yielding a fully stable superconducting wire. (orig.) [de

  9. Analysis of Steel Wire Rope Diagnostic Data Applying Multi-Criteria Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius Čereška

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Steel ropes are complex flexible structures used in many technical applications, such as elevators, cable cars, and funicular cabs. Due to the specific design and critical safety requirements, diagnostics of ropes remains an important issue. Broken wire number in the steel ropes is limited by safety standards when they are used in the human lifting and carrying installations. There are some practical issues on loose wires—firstly, it shows end of lifetime of the entire rope, independently of wear, lubrication or wrong winding on the drums or through pulleys; and, secondly, it can stick in the tight pulley—support gaps and cause deterioration of rope structure up to birdcage formations. Normal rope operation should not generate broken wires, so increasing of their number shows a need for rope installation maintenance. This paper presents a methodology of steel rope diagnostics and the results of analysis using multi-criteria analysis methods. The experimental part of the research was performed using an original test bench to detect broken wires on the rope surface by its vibrations. Diagnostics was performed in the range of frequencies from 60 to 560 Hz with a pitch of 50 Hz. The obtained amplitudes of the broken rope wire vibrations, different from the entire rope surface vibration parameters, was the significant outcome. Later analysis of the obtained experimental results revealed the most significant values of the diagnostic parameters. The evaluation of the power of the diagnostics was implemented by using multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM methods. Various decision-making methods are necessary due to unknown efficiencies with respect to the physical phenomena of the evaluated processes. The significance of the methods was evaluated using objective methods from the structure of the presented data. Some of these methods were proposed by authors of this paper. Implementation of MCDM in diagnostic data analysis and definition of the

  10. Load forecasting method considering temperature effect for distribution network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Xiao Fang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the accuracy of load forecasting, the temperature factor was introduced into the load forecasting in this paper. This paper analyzed the characteristics of power load variation, and researched the rule of the load with the temperature change. Based on the linear regression analysis, the mathematical model of load forecasting was presented with considering the temperature effect, and the steps of load forecasting were given. Used MATLAB, the temperature regression coefficient was calculated. Using the load forecasting model, the full-day load forecasting and time-sharing load forecasting were carried out. By comparing and analyzing the forecast error, the results showed that the error of time-sharing load forecasting method was small in this paper. The forecasting method is an effective method to improve the accuracy of load forecasting.

  11. A novel method for harmless disposal and resource reutilization of steel wire rope sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Yang-Sheng

    2016-10-01

    Rapid development of steel wire rope industry has led to the generation of large quantities of pickling sludge, which causes significant ecological problems and considerable negative environmental effects. In this study, a novel method was proposed for harmless disposal and resource reutilization of the steel wire rope sludge. Based on the method, two steel wire rope sludges (the Pb sludge and the Zn sludge) were firstly extracted by hydrochloric or sulfuric acid and then mixed with the hydrochloride acid extracting solution of aluminum skimmings to produce composite polyaluminum ferric flocculants. The optimum conditions (acid concentration, w/v ratio, reaction time, and reaction temperature) for acid extraction of the sludges were studied. Results showed that 97.03 % of Pb sludge and 96.20 % of Zn sludge were extracted. Leaching potential of the residues after acid extraction was evaluated, and a proposed treatment for the residues had been instructed. The obtained flocculant products were used to purify the real domestic wastewater and showed an equivalent or better performance than the commercial ones. This method is environmental-friendly and cost-effective when compared with the conventional sludge treatments.

  12. Load power device, system and method of load control and management employing load identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yi; Luebke, Charles John; Schoepf, Thomas J.

    2018-01-09

    A load power device includes a power input, at least one power output for at least one load, a plurality of sensors structured to sense voltage and current at the at least one power output, and a processor. The processor provides: (a) load identification based upon the sensed voltage and current, and (b) load control and management based upon the load identification.

  13. Research regarding stiffness optimization of wires used for joints actuation from an elephant's trunk robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofu, C.; Stan, G.

    2016-11-01

    Elephant's trunk robotic arms driven by wires and pulley mechanisms have issues with wires stiffness because of the entailed elastic deformations that is causing errors of positioning. Static and dynamic loads from each joint of the robotic arm affect the stiffness of driving wires and precision positioning. The influence of wires elastic deformation on precision positioning decreases with the increasing of wires stiffness by using different pre-tensioning devices. In this paper, we analyze the variation of driving wires stiffness particularly to each wire driven joint. We obtain optimum wires stiffness variation by using an analytical method that highlights the efficiency of pre-tensioning mechanism. The analysis of driving wires stiffness is necessary for taking appropriate optimization measures of robotic arm dynamic behavior and, thus, for decreasing positioning errors of the elephant's trunk robotic arm with inner actuation through wires/cables.

  14. Transient Response of Thin Wire above a Layered Half-Space Using TDIE/FDTD Hybrid Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Wei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The TDIE/FDTD hybrid method is applied to calculate the transient responses of thin wire above a lossy layered half-space. The time-domain reflection of the layered half space is computed by one-dimensional modified FDTD method. Then, transient response of thin wire induced by two excitation sources (the incident wave and reflected wave is calculated by TDIE method. Finally numerical results are given to illustrate the feasibility and high efficiency of the presented scheme.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of copper nanoparticles by using the exploding wire method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Rashmita; Das, Basanta Kumar; Shyam, Anurag

    2012-01-01

    During the past few years, the synthesis of copper nanoparticles has attracted much attention because of their huge potential for replacing the expensive nano silver inks utilized in conductive printing. This opens a new possibility in printed electronics. Copper-based inkjet inks can be used to form various devices such as solar cells, RF identification tags and electroluminescence devices. This paper describes controlled synthesis of pure copper nanoparticles, mainly by using the exploding wire method. A wire of 0.26 mm in diameter was exploded in a nitrogen environment. The sample was characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). XRD revealed the presence of pure copper and AFM revealed the presence of nanoparticles with an average size of 55 nm.

  16. DGTD analysis of EM interactions on microwave systems loaded with circuit interfaced thin wires

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping

    2016-11-16

    The discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) method is gaining popularity among computational electromagnetics (CEM) practitioners. This can be attributed to the fact that it has several advantages over the classical finite element method. The DGTD method realizes “information exchange” between neighboring spatial discretization elements using numerical flux. Therefore all spatial operations are localized within a given element leading to a block-diagonal mass matrix which is inverted very efficiently only once before the time marching starts. Consequently, if an explicit time integrator is used, the DGTD method becomes high compact and efficient.

  17. Further elucidation of nanofluid thermal conductivity measurement using a transient hot-wire method apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Donghoon; Lee, Joohyun; Lee, Byeongchan; Kwon, Suyong; Koo, Junemo

    2018-02-01

    The Transient Hot-Wire Method (THWM) was developed to measure the absolute thermal conductivity of gases, liquids, melts, and solids with low uncertainty. The majority of nanofluid researchers used THWM to measure the thermal conductivity of test fluids. Several reasons have been suggested for the discrepancies in these types of measurements, including nanofluid generation, nanofluid stability, and measurement challenges. The details of the transient hot-wire method such as the test cell size, the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and the sampling number are further investigated to improve the accuracy and consistency of the measurements of different researchers. It was observed that smaller test apparatuses were better because they can delay the onset of natural convection. TCR values of a coated platinum wire were measured and statistically analyzed to reduce the uncertainty in thermal conductivity measurements. For validation, ethylene glycol (EG) and water thermal conductivity were measured and analyzed in the temperature range between 280 and 310 K. Furthermore, a detailed statistical analysis was conducted for such measurements, and the results confirmed the minimum number of samples required to achieve the desired resolution and precision of the measurements. It is further proposed that researchers fully report the information related to their measurements to validate the measurements and to avoid future inconsistent nanofluid data.

  18. A Method for Avoiding Numerical Instability in FDTD-based Surge Simulations and its Application to Representation of Thin Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatematsu, Akiyoshi; Noda, Taku

    The FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) method, which is used for the computation of electromagnetic fields, is a useful tool for surge problems in three-dimensional arrangements, which cannot be rigorously treated by simulation methods such as EMTP (Electromagnetic Transients Programs) based on circuit theory. In the FDTD method, thin wires such as power lines are often represented by forcing the electric fields along the wires to zero. If a thin wire is represented in this way, its radius is determined by the size of the cells surrounding the wire. Although the technique for simulating an arbitrary radius has already been proposed, numerical instability often occurs in simulations when the wire radius is much smaller than the size of the cells surrounding the wire. As a conventional countermeasure against such numerical instability, the time discretization is often set to a smaller value than that based on Courant's condition. However, the smaller time discretization results in an increase in the calculation time. We propose a new technique for avoiding the numerical instability. Using this technique, in only a part of an analysis space where the numerical instability may occur, the time discretization is set to a value smaller than that based on Courant's condition, while the time discretization is set to a value close to that based on Courant's condition in the other part of the analysis space. We performed an FDTD-based simulation of a thin wire using the proposed numerical stabilization technique for validation.

  19. Study of corrosion behavior of carbon steel under seawater film using the wire beam electrode method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zaijian; Wang, Wei; Wang, Jia; Peng, Xin; Wang, Yanhua; Zhang, Penghui; Wang, Haijie; Gao, Congjie

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion behavior of carbon steel under seawater film with various thickness was investigated by the wire beam electrode (WBE) method. It was found that the corrosion rate of carbon steel increased significantly under thin seawater film than it was immersed in seawater. The current variation under seawater film indicated that the thickness of diffusion layer of oxygen was about 500 μm, and the maximal current appeared around 40 μm, at which corrosion rate transited from cathodic control to anodic control. The results suggest that WBE method is helpful to study the corrosion process under thin electrolyte film

  20. Measurements of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of hen egg-white lysozyme crystals using a short hot wire method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Seiji; Maki, Syou; Tanaka, Seiichi; Maekawa, Ryunosuke; Masuda, Tomoki; Hagiwara, Masayuki

    2017-07-01

    Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) crystals were examined by using the transient short hot wire method. This method is based on the conventional hot wire method, but improved by using a wire that is much shorter than conventional ones. The magneto-Archimedes levitation technique was utilized to attach the HEWL crystals onto the wire. Owing to the upward magnetic force, the HEWL crystals were deposited at the air-liquid interface of the protein buffer solution where the short hot wire was preliminarily fixed. In situ observation clarified that the wire was completely buried into the HEWL crystals. By means of these techniques, the measurement of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of HEWL crystals was realized for the first time. Gadolinium chloride (a paramagnetic subject) was used as a precipitant agent of crystallization. Crystal growth was carried out over 20 h at 17.2 °C. The applied magnetic field was 4 T. Measurements were conducted during the crystal growth at two different times. The thermal conductivity and diffusivity of the HEWL crystals were determined to be 0.410 W/(m.K) and 3.77×10-8 m2/s at 14 h after, and 0.438 W/(m.K) and 5.18×10-8 m2/s at 20 h after, respectively. We emphasize that this method is versatile and applicable for other protein crystals.

  1. Modern Cored Wire Injection 2PE-9 Method in the Production of Ductile Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Guzik

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies on the use of modern two cored wires injection method for production of nodular graphite cast iron with use of unique implementation of drum ladle as a treatment/ transport and casting ladle instead vertical treatment ladle was described. The injection of length of Ø 9mm wires, cored: in FeSi + Mg nodulariser mixture and inoculant master alloy is a treatment method which can be used to produce iron melted in coreless induction furnace. This paper describes the results of using this method for possibility production of ductile iron under specific industrial conditions. In this case was taken ductile iron with material designation: EN-GJS-450- 10 Grade according PN-EN 1563:2000. Microstructure of 28 trials was controlled on internally used sample which has been correlated with standard sample before. The paper presents typical metallic matrix and graphite characteristic. Additionally, mechanical properties were checked in one experiment. Because of further possibility treatment temperature reduction only the rough magnesium recovery and cost of this new method are given.

  2. Hot-Wire Calibration at Low Velocities: Revisiting the Vortex Shedding Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab S. Sattarzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessity to calibrate hot-wire probes against a known velocity causes problems at low velocities, due to the inherent inaccuracy of pressure transducers at low differential pressures. The vortex shedding calibration method is in this respect a recommended technique to obtain calibration data at low velocities, due to its simplicity and accuracy. However, it has mainly been applied in a low and narrow Reynolds number range known as the laminar vortex shedding regime. Here, on the other hand, we propose to utilize the irregular vortex shedding regime and show where the probe needs to be placed with respect to the cylinder in order to obtain unambiguous calibration data.

  3. Wear of dragline wire ropes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayawansa, D.; Kuruppu, M.; Mashiri, F.; Bartosiewicz, H. [Monash University (Caulfield Campus), Caulfield East, Vic. (Australia). Department of Mechanical Engineering,

    2005-07-01

    Wire ropes are one of the most heavily used components in a dragline. Hoist ropes are subjected to fatigue due to the cyclic nature of load handling as well as due to rope bending over the sheaves and the drum under load. This leads to wire breaks due to fatigue. Accumulation of a number of wire breaks close to each other can have a detrimental effect on the rope. Furthermore, to allow for the increasing demand for higher load capacity coupled with the inconvenience of having very large ropes, the factor of safety is often compromised, which increases the wear rate. Drag ropes are also subjected to heavy loads. More importantly, they are allowed to drag along the rough mine surface subjecting them to external physical abrasion. This makes the life of drag ropes one of the lowest among those used in a dragline. Suspension and IBS ropes are relatively uniformly loaded during their regular usage although they need to withstand dynamic load cycles as well as bending. Hence they tend to last for a number of years on average. The paper analyses the wear types and their severity of each of these rope applications, and suggests methods to determine rope wear rates and the resulting rope life. The paper further gives suggestions for good operating and maintenance practice that can extend the rope life and help reduce the large expenditure associated with every major rope change in a dragline. 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Method for reuse of wafers for growth of vertically-aligned wire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Joshua M; Plass, Katherine E; Lewis, Nathan S; Atwater, Harry A

    2013-06-04

    Reusing a Si wafer for the formation of wire arrays by transferring the wire arrays to a polymer matrix, reusing a patterned oxide for several array growths, and finally polishing and reoxidizing the wafer surface and reapplying the patterned oxide.

  5. Method for measuring the wire tensions in proportional and drift chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coupland, M. (University Coll., London (UK))

    1983-06-15

    A device to measure the resonant frequency of a proportional chamber wire is described. From this frequency the wire tension can be calculated. The device is self-tuning, and in some instances may be used without opening the chamber.

  6. Design the fuel loading pattern. Loading pattern optimization methods in commercial light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akio; Jagawa, Suetsugu; Sato, Daisuke; Sato, Hitoshi; Yamasaki, Masatoshi

    2006-01-01

    The theories of loading pattern optimization, the methods and the tools using by PWR and BWR are stated. Needs for core design and loading pattern optimization, operating of PWR/BWR, designs of loading pattern, optimization of the loading pattern and design variables, the basic theories of loading pattern optimization, the optimization tools of loading pattern in Japan are explained. The basic theories consist of the determinism methods, the probability methods and heuristic method. Four tools such as INSIGHT (PWR), Pearls th (PWR), FINELOAD (BWR) and ePrometheus (BWR) are described by outline, principles, characteristics, functions, and application examples. These tools are a great success of limiting the seek area and short-time calculation using the high speed simulation method of core functions. (S.Y.)

  7. Methods for Analyzing Electric Load Shape and its Variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Philip

    2010-05-12

    Current methods of summarizing and analyzing electric load shape are discussed briefly and compared. Simple rules of thumb for graphical display of load shapes are suggested. We propose a set of parameters that quantitatively describe the load shape in many buildings. Using the example of a linear regression model to predict load shape from time and temperature, we show how quantities such as the load?s sensitivity to outdoor temperature, and the effectiveness of demand response (DR), can be quantified. Examples are presented using real building data.

  8. A hot-wire method based thermal conductivity measurement apparatus for teaching purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, S.; Marín, E.; Juárez, A. G.; Calderón, A.; Ivanov, R.

    2012-07-01

    The implementation of an automated system based on the hot-wire technique is described for the measurement of the thermal conductivity of liquids using equipment easily available in modern physics laboratories at high schools and universities (basically a precision current source and a voltage meter, a data acquisition card, a personal computer and a high purity platinum wire). The wire, which is immersed in the investigated sample, is heated by passing a constant electrical current through it, and its temperature evolution, ΔT, is measured as a function of time, t, for several values of the current. A straightforward methodology is then used for data processing in order to obtain the liquid thermal conductivity. The start point is the well known linear relationship between ΔT and ln(t) predicted for long heating times by a model based on a solution of the heat conduction equation for an infinite lineal heat source embedded in an infinite medium into which heat is conducted without convective and radiative heat losses. A criterion is used to verify that the selected linear region is the one that matches the conditions imposed by the theoretical model. As a consequence the method involves least-squares fits in linear, semi-logarithmic (semi-log) and log-log graphs, so that it becomes attractive not only to teach about heat transfer and thermal properties measurement techniques, but also as a good exercise for students of undergraduate courses of physics and engineering learning about these kinds of mathematical functional relationships between variables. The functionality of the experiment was demonstrated by measuring the thermal conductivity in samples of liquids with well known thermal properties.

  9. A hot-wire method based thermal conductivity measurement apparatus for teaching purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, S; Marín, E; Juárez, A G; Calderón, A; Ivanov, R

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of an automated system based on the hot-wire technique is described for the measurement of the thermal conductivity of liquids using equipment easily available in modern physics laboratories at high schools and universities (basically a precision current source and a voltage meter, a data acquisition card, a personal computer and a high purity platinum wire). The wire, which is immersed in the investigated sample, is heated by passing a constant electrical current through it, and its temperature evolution, ΔT, is measured as a function of time, t, for several values of the current. A straightforward methodology is then used for data processing in order to obtain the liquid thermal conductivity. The start point is the well known linear relationship between ΔT and ln(t) predicted for long heating times by a model based on a solution of the heat conduction equation for an infinite lineal heat source embedded in an infinite medium into which heat is conducted without convective and radiative heat losses. A criterion is used to verify that the selected linear region is the one that matches the conditions imposed by the theoretical model. As a consequence the method involves least-squares fits in linear, semi-logarithmic (semi-log) and log-log graphs, so that it becomes attractive not only to teach about heat transfer and thermal properties measurement techniques, but also as a good exercise for students of undergraduate courses of physics and engineering learning about these kinds of mathematical functional relationships between variables. The functionality of the experiment was demonstrated by measuring the thermal conductivity in samples of liquids with well known thermal properties. (paper)

  10. A new method for designing floor slabs on grade due to the difficulty of applying simplified design methods, amongst them being the Portland Cement Association (PCA and Wire Reinforcement Institute (WRI methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Ernesto Camero Sanabrial

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a methodology for designing slabs on grade for industrial floors where there is an eccentricity between the slab centroid and the gravity centre loads of the loaded axle of forklift trucks travelling over the floor. An example was used for analysing how Portland Cement Association (PCA and the Wire Reinforcement Institute (WRI methods are inadequate for designing floors sublected to this condition. The new proposal for designing slabs on grade for industrial floors has been called the Camero method. An example of an industrial floor designed to be capable of sustaining an infinite number of load applications (or 50-year life was compared to the results of the Camero method and PCA and WRI’s simplified methods. Industrial floors should be capable of sustaining an infinite number of load applications (50-year life if designed with the Camero method; on the other hand, if designed using PCA and WRI methods they will only last one year (in this example the number of axle load applications in a 1-year period was equal to the number of allowable repetitions because they will not be able to sustain an infinite number of load applications. It was concluded that designing plain concrete slabs (without reinforcement on grade according to PCA and the WRI methods leads to slab fatigue, even though extreme fibre stress should not exceed 50 percent (50% of static modulus of concrete rupture and slabs should sustain an infinite number of load repetitions (infinite amount of forklift truck traffic were considered parameters in their design.

  11. Developing Light Collection Enhancements and Wire Tensioning Methods for LArTPC Neutrino Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spagliardi, Fabio [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-01

    Liquid argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs) are becoming widely used as neutrino detectors because of their image-like event reconstruction which enables precision neutrino measurements. They primarily use ionisation charge to reconstruct neutrino events. It has been shown, however, that the scintillation light emitted by liquid argon could be exploited to improve their performance. As the neutrino measurements planned in the near future require large-scale experiments, their construction presents challenges in terms of both charge and light collection. In this dissertation we present solutions developed to improve the performance in both aspects of these detectors. We present a new wire tensioning measurement method that allows a remote measurement of the tension of the large number wires that constitute the TPC anode. We also discuss the development and installation of WLS-compound covered foils for the SBND neutrino detector at Fermilab, which is a technique proposed t o augment light collection in LArTPCs. This included preparing a SBND-like mesh cathode and testing it in the Run III of LArIAT, a test beam detector also located at Fermilab. Finally, we present a study aimed at understanding late scintillation light emitted by recombining positive argon ions using LArIAT data, which could affect large scale surface detectors.

  12. Wire bonding in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Harman, George G

    2010-01-01

    Wire Bonding in Microelectronics, Third Edition, has been thoroughly revised to help you meet the challenges of today's small-scale and fine-pitch microelectronics. This authoritative guide covers every aspect of designing, manufacturing, and evaluating wire bonds engineered with cutting-edge techniques. In addition to gaining a full grasp of bonding technology, you'll learn how to create reliable bonds at exceedingly high yields, test wire bonds, solve common bonding problems, implement molecular cleaning methods, and much more. Coverage includes: Ultrasonic bonding systems and technologies, including high-frequency systems Bonding wire metallurgy and characteristics, including copper wire Wire bond testing Gold-aluminum intermetallic compounds and other interface reactions Gold and nickel-based bond pad plating materials and problems Cleaning to improve bondability and reliability Mechanical problems in wire bonding High-yield, fine-pitch, specialized-looping, soft-substrate, and extreme-temperature wire bo...

  13. System and method employing a minimum distance and a load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A

    2014-12-23

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types, each of the different electric load types including a first load feature vector having at least four different load features; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the different electric loads; determining a second load feature vector comprising at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the different electric loads; and identifying by a processor one of the different electric load types by determining a minimum distance of the second load feature vector to the first load feature vector of the different electric load types of the load feature database.

  14. Separation Test Method for Investigation of Current Density Effects on Bond Wires of SiC Power MOSFET Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Haoze; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a separation test method for eliminating the effects of different current densities on the bond wires is proposed. The separation test method makes it possible to study the effect of different current density on the fatigue damage of bond wires without changing the temperature swing...... and average temperature during the test. By analyzing the output characteristics of the linear region of MOSFET, the constraint relations among the gate voltage, on-state voltage drop and junction temperature are revealed in this paper. The one-to-one correspondence between gate voltage and conduction power...

  15. A method for measuring the wire tensions in proportional and drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coupland, M.

    1983-01-01

    A device to measure the resonant frequency of a proportional chamber wire is described. From this frequency the wire tension can be calculated. The device is self-tuning, and in some instances may be used without opening the chamber. (orig.)

  16. A comparative study in fixation methods of medial malleolus fractures between tension bands wiring and screw fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Ayyoub A; Abbas, Khalid Ahmed; Mawlood, Ammar Salah

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare two methods of internal fixations of fractured medial malleolus which are simple screw fixation and tension band wiring. Over 5 years we grouped 20 patients with fractured medial malleolus into two groups of operative treatments, group1 treated by malleolar screw fixation and group2 by tension band wiring. The patients were with same age group, gender, fracture type, and etiology. We use statistical analysis for make a comparative study between the two ways of surgical treatment. The mean time for radiologic bone union was 11.8 weeks in group1 patients and 9.4 weeks in group2 patients (P = 0.03). No patients had any sign of fixation failure or Kirschner wires migration. According to the modified ankle scoring system of Olerud and Molander, excellent and good results were achieved in 80 % in group1 patients and 90 % in group2 patients (P = 0.049). Tension-band wiring may be better treatment option for internal fixation of medial malleolar fractures than screw fixation. From these findings we recommend a further randomized clinical trial of larger number of cases and longer follow-up duration in order to regard tension-band wiring a better operative option for fixation of medial malleolar fractures.

  17. THE METHODS OF CALCULATIONS OF THE TEMPERATURE BREAKDOWN FIELD IN THE LINE OF THE MODEM HIGH-SPEED WIRE MILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Zhuchkov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The calculation methods of the temperature field of the breakdown, being rolled in lines of the modern high-speed wire mill, is developed on the basis of solving of problem of the contact exchange of hot metal with cold rollers.

  18. Fatigue life prediction method for contact wire using maximum local stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Seok; Haochuang, Li; Seok, Chang Sung; Koo, Jae Mean; Lee, Ki Won; Kwon, Sam Young; Cho, Yong Hyeon

    2015-01-01

    Railway contact wires supplying electricity to trains are exposed to repeated mechanical strain and stress caused by their own weight and discontinuous contact with a pantograph during train operation. Since the speed of railway transportation has increased continuously, railway industries have recently reported a number of contact wire failures caused by mechanical fatigue fractures instead of normal wear, which has been a more common failure mechanism. To secure the safety and durability of contact wires in environments with increased train speeds, a bending fatigue test on contact wire has been performed. The test equipment is too complicated to evaluate the fatigue characteristics of contact wire. Thus, the axial tension fatigue test was performed for a standard specimen, and the bending fatigue life for the contact wire structure was then predicted using the maximum local stress occurring at the top of the contact wire. Lastly, the tested bending fatigue life of the structure was compared with the fatigue life predicted by the axial tension fatigue test for verification.

  19. Fatigue life prediction method for contact wire using maximum local stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Seok; Haochuang, Li; Seok, Chang Sung; Koo, Jae Mean [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ki Won; Kwon, Sam Young; Cho, Yong Hyeon [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Railway contact wires supplying electricity to trains are exposed to repeated mechanical strain and stress caused by their own weight and discontinuous contact with a pantograph during train operation. Since the speed of railway transportation has increased continuously, railway industries have recently reported a number of contact wire failures caused by mechanical fatigue fractures instead of normal wear, which has been a more common failure mechanism. To secure the safety and durability of contact wires in environments with increased train speeds, a bending fatigue test on contact wire has been performed. The test equipment is too complicated to evaluate the fatigue characteristics of contact wire. Thus, the axial tension fatigue test was performed for a standard specimen, and the bending fatigue life for the contact wire structure was then predicted using the maximum local stress occurring at the top of the contact wire. Lastly, the tested bending fatigue life of the structure was compared with the fatigue life predicted by the axial tension fatigue test for verification.

  20. Method of Obtaining High Resolution Intrinsic Wire Boom Damping Parameters for Multi-Body Dynamics Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Alvin G.; Chai, Dean J.; Olney, David J.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of NASA's Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission is to understand magnetic reconnection with sensor measurements from four spinning satellites flown in a tight tetrahedron formation. Four of the six electric field sensors on each satellite are located at the end of 60- meter wire booms to increase measurement sensitivity in the spin plane and to minimize motion coupling from perturbations on the main body. A propulsion burn however, might induce boom oscillations that could impact science measurements if oscillations do not damp to values on the order of 0.1 degree in a timely fashion. Large damping time constants could also adversely affect flight dynamics and attitude control performance. In this paper, we will discuss the implementation of a high resolution method for calculating the boom's intrinsic damping, which was used in multi-body dynamics simulations. In summary, experimental data was obtained with a scaled-down boom, which was suspended as a pendulum in vacuum. Optical techniques were designed to accurately measure the natural decay of angular position and subsequently, data processing algorithms resulted in excellent spatial and temporal resolutions. This method was repeated in a parametric study for various lengths, root tensions and vacuum levels. For all data sets, regression models for damping were applied, including: nonlinear viscous, frequency-independent hysteretic, coulomb and some combination of them. Our data analysis and dynamics models have shown that the intrinsic damping for the baseline boom is insufficient, thereby forcing project management to explore mitigation strategies.

  1. Basic Wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

    This module is the first in a series of three wiring publications; it serves as the foundation for students enrolled in a wiring program. It is a prerequisite to either "Residential Wiring" or "Commercial and Industrial Wiring." The module contains 16 instructional units that cover the following topics: occupational…

  2. A novel finite element method for designing floor slabs on grade and pavements with loads at edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Ernesto Camero Sanabria

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper a methodology to design slabs on grade for industrial floors and pavements using bi-dimensional finite elements and integrating the subgrade in the design is presented. The suggested method to design slabs on grade for industrial floors and pavements has been called the Camero Finite Element Method.  An example of an industrial floor designed to be capable of sustaining an infinite number of load applications (or a 50 years lifespan period is here presented in order to be compared with the results of the Camero Finite Element Method, the PCA (Portland Cement Association, and the WRI’s (Wire Reinforcement Institute simplified methods. In this example, an industrial floor is designed to be capable of sustaining an infinite number of load applications comparing the results of the Camero Finite Element Method and the simplified methods of the PCA and WRI. The industrial floor or pavement will be able to resist an infinite number of load applications if it is designed with the Camero Finite Element Method. On the other hand, if it is designed using the PCA and the WRI methods, it will last a few years (in this example, in one year period, the number of axle load applications is equal to the number of allowable repetitions. To conclude, if an industrial floor o pavement is designed with the Camero Finite Element Method, it will be able to sustain an infinite number of load applications (up to 50 years lifespan period.

  3. System and method employing a self-organizing map load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Harley, Ronald G.; Du, Liang; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K.; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A.

    2014-06-17

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a self-organizing map load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types and a plurality of neurons, each of the load types corresponding to a number of the neurons; employing a weight vector for each of the neurons; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the loads; determining a load feature vector including at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the loads; and identifying by a processor one of the load types by relating the load feature vector to the neurons of the database by identifying the weight vector of one of the neurons corresponding to the one of the load types that is a minimal distance to the load feature vector.

  4. A METHOD OF LOADING UNIT FORMATION TAKING INTO ACCOUNT MASS, LOAD-BEARING STRENGTH AND SURFACES OF PACKING UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil POPIELA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of loading unit formation is computationally complex in nature. This article presents a heuristic algorithm of forming unit loads, which can be applied to unit load arrangement on unit load devices. This method accounts for dimensional, mass and load-bearing strength of loading units and loading devices. Moreover, the rotation of packages about a 90° vertical axis has been made possible. In this algorithm, the bearing surface of each packing unit is entirely supported. This guarantees the stability of additional unit load layers. A sample calculation of the arrangement of 30-unit loads is presented in this article.

  5. Cu-Nb3Sn superconducting wires prepared by ''Copper Liquid Phase Sintering method'' using the Nb-H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resende, A.T. de.

    1985-01-01

    Cu-30% Nb in weighting were prepared by the method of Copper sintering liquid phase the method was improved by substitution of Nb power by Nb-H powder, obtaining a high density material with good mechanical properties, which was reduced to fine. Wire, Without heat treatment. The Cu-Nb 3 Sn wires were obtained by external diffusion process depositing tin in the Cu-30%Nb wires, and by internal diffusion process using the Sn-8.5% Cu in weighting, which was reduced to rods of 3.5 mm. These Cu-30%Nb rods were enclosed in copper tubes and deformed mechanically by rotary swaging and drawing. During the drawing step some wires were fractured, that were analysed and correlated with the microstructure of the Sn-8.5 Wt% Cu alloy. External and internal diffusion samples; after a fast thermal treatment for Sn diffusion, were submited to the temperature of 700 0 C to provide the reaction between Sn and Nb, leading to the Nb 3 Sn phase. Samples with several reaction times, and its influence on T c and J c critical parameters and normal resistivity were prepared and analysed. (author) [pt

  6. Hydrogenated Nanocrystalline Silicon Thin Films Prepared by Hot-Wire Method with Varied Process Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Waman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon films were prepared by hot-wire method at low substrate temperature (200∘C without hydrogen dilution of silane (SiH4. A variety of techniques, including Raman spectroscopy, low angle X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and UV-visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy, were used to characterize these films for structural and optical properties. Films are grown at reasonably high deposition rates (>15 Å/s, which are very much appreciated for the fabrication of cost effective devices. Different crystalline fractions (from 2.5% to 63% and crystallite size (3.6–6.0 nm can be achieved by controlling the process pressure. It is observed that with increase in process pressure, the hydrogen bonding in the films shifts from Si–H to Si–H2 and (Si–H2n complexes. The band gaps of the films are found in the range 1.83–2.11 eV, whereas the hydrogen content remains <9 at.% over the entire range of process pressure studied. The ease of depositing films with tunable band gap is useful for fabrication of tandem solar cells. A correlation between structural and optical properties has been found and discussed in detail.

  7. Short term load forecasting of anomalous load using hybrid soft computing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasyid, S. A.; Abdullah, A. G.; Mulyadi, Y.

    2016-04-01

    Load forecast accuracy will have an impact on the generation cost is more economical. The use of electrical energy by consumers on holiday, show the tendency of the load patterns are not identical, it is different from the pattern of the load on a normal day. It is then defined as a anomalous load. In this paper, the method of hybrid ANN-Particle Swarm proposed to improve the accuracy of anomalous load forecasting that often occur on holidays. The proposed methodology has been used to forecast the half-hourly electricity demand for power systems in the Indonesia National Electricity Market in West Java region. Experiments were conducted by testing various of learning rate and learning data input. Performance of this methodology will be validated with real data from the national of electricity company. The result of observations show that the proposed formula is very effective to short-term load forecasting in the case of anomalous load. Hybrid ANN-Swarm Particle relatively simple and easy as a analysis tool by engineers.

  8. Significance of stainless steel wire reinforcement on the mechanical properties of GFRP composites

    OpenAIRE

    K. Pazhanivel; G.B. Bhaskar; A.Elayaperumal

    2014-01-01

    Investigations on flexural and tensile properties of GFRP laminates influenced by stainless steel wire reinforcement were carried out as a novel approach. Plain GFRP laminates and GFRP laminates reinforced with stainless steel wires at different depth with various pitch distances were fabricated by hand layup method. The composite specimens reinforced with steel wires were exposed to low frequency high amplitude cyclic load by using a cam arrangement. Three point bend test was carried out on ...

  9. An evaluation of methods for estimating decadal stream loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Casey; Hirsch, Robert M.; Schwarz, Gregory E.; Holtschlag, David J.; Preston, Stephen D.; Crawford, Charles G.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2016-01-01

    Effective management of water resources requires accurate information on the mass, or load of water-quality constituents transported from upstream watersheds to downstream receiving waters. Despite this need, no single method has been shown to consistently provide accurate load estimates among different water-quality constituents, sampling sites, and sampling regimes. We evaluate the accuracy of several load estimation methods across a broad range of sampling and environmental conditions. This analysis uses random sub-samples drawn from temporally-dense data sets of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, nitrate, and suspended-sediment concentration, and includes measurements of specific conductance which was used as a surrogate for dissolved solids concentration. Methods considered include linear interpolation and ratio estimators, regression-based methods historically employed by the U.S. Geological Survey, and newer flexible techniques including Weighted Regressions on Time, Season, and Discharge (WRTDS) and a generalized non-linear additive model. No single method is identified to have the greatest accuracy across all constituents, sites, and sampling scenarios. Most methods provide accurate estimates of specific conductance (used as a surrogate for total dissolved solids or specific major ions) and total nitrogen – lower accuracy is observed for the estimation of nitrate, total phosphorus and suspended sediment loads. Methods that allow for flexibility in the relation between concentration and flow conditions, specifically Beale’s ratio estimator and WRTDS, exhibit greater estimation accuracy and lower bias. Evaluation of methods across simulated sampling scenarios indicate that (1) high-flow sampling is necessary to produce accurate load estimates, (2) extrapolation of sample data through time or across more extreme flow conditions reduces load estimate accuracy, and (3) WRTDS and methods that use a Kalman filter or smoothing to correct for departures between

  10. 46 CFR 111.60-11 - Wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wire. 111.60-11 Section 111.60-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-11 Wire. (a) Wire must be in an enclosure. (b) Wire must be...

  11. Charged particle tracking through electrostatic wire meshes using the finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devlin, L. J.; Karamyshev, O.; Welsch, C. P., E-mail: carsten.welsch@cockcroft.ac.uk [The Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    Wire meshes are used across many disciplines to accelerate and focus charged particles, however, analytical solutions are non-exact and few codes exist which simulate the exact fields around a mesh with physical sizes. A tracking code based in Matlab-Simulink using field maps generated using finite element software has been developed which tracks electrons or ions through electrostatic wire meshes. The fields around such a geometry are presented as an analytical expression using several basic assumptions, however, it is apparent that computational calculations are required to obtain realistic values of electric potential and fields, particularly when multiple wire meshes are deployed. The tracking code is flexible in that any quantitatively describable particle distribution can be used for both electrons and ions as well as other benefits such as ease of export to other programs for analysis. The code is made freely available and physical examples are highlighted where this code could be beneficial for different applications.

  12. Using Cored Wires Injection 2PE-9 Method in the Production of Ferritic Si-Mo Ductile Iron Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzik E.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies on the use of modern two cored wires injection method for production of ferritic nodular cast iron (ductile iron with use of unique implementation of drum ladle as a treatment / transport and casting ladle instead vertical treatment ladle was described. The injection of length of Ø 9mm wires, cored: in FeSi + Mg nodulariser mixture and inoculant master alloy is a treatment method which can be used to produce iron melted in coreless induction furnace. This paper describes the results and analysis of using this method for optimal production of ductile iron under specific industrial conditions. It means, that length of nodulariser wire plus treatment and pouring temperatures were optimized. In this case, was taken ductile iron with material designation: EN-GJS-SiMo40-6 Grade according EN 16124:2010 E. Microstructure of great number of trials was controlled on internally used sample which has been correlated with standard sample before. The paper presents typical ferritic metallic matrix and nodular graphite. Additionally, mechanical properties were checked in some experiments. Mean values of magnesium recovery and cost of this new method from optimized process parameters were calculated as well.

  13. Using Cored Wires Injection 2PE-9 Method in the Production of Ferritic Si-Mo Ductile Iron Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Guzik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies on the use of modern two cored wires injection method for production of ferritic nodular cast iron (ductile iron with use of unique implementation of drum ladle as a treatment / transport and casting ladle instead vertical treatment ladle was described. The injection of length of Ø 9mm wires, cored: in FeSi + Mg nodulariser mixture and inoculant master alloy is a treatment method which can be used to produce iron melted in coreless induction furnace. This paper describes the results and analysis of using this method for optimal production of ductile iron under specific industrial conditions. It means, that length of nodulariser wire plus treatment and pouring temperatures were optimized. In this case, was taken ductile iron with material designation: EN-GJS-SiMo40-6 Grade according EN 16124:2010 E. Microstructure of great number of trials was controlled on internally used sample which has been correlated with standardsample before. The paper presents typical ferritic metallic matrix and nodular graphite. Additionally, mechanical properties were checked in some experiments. Mean values of magnesium recovery and cost of this new method from optimized process parameters werecalculated as well.

  14. A Comparison of pical Root Resorption in Incisors after Fixed Orthodontic Treatment with Standard Edgewise and Straight Wire (MBT) Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahed Zahedani, Sm; Oshagh, M; Momeni Danaei, Sh; Roeinpeikar, Smm

    2013-09-01

    One of the major outcomes of orthodontic treatment is the apical root resorption of teeth moved during the treatment. Identifying the possible risk factors, are necessary for every orthodontist. The aim of this study was to compare the rate of apical root resorption after fixed orthodontic treatment with standard edgewise and straight wire (MBT) method, and also to evaluate other factors effecting the rate of root resorption in orthodontic treatments. In this study, parallel periapical radiographs of 127 patients imaging a total of 737 individual teeth, were collected. A total of 76 patients were treated by standard edgewise and 51 patients by straight wire method. The periapical radiographs were scanned and then the percentage of root resorption was calculated by Photoshop software. The data were analyzed by Paired-Samples t-test and the Generalized Linear Model adopting the SPSS 15.0. In patients treated with straight wire method (MBT), mean root resorption was 18.26% compared to 14.82% in patients treated with standard edgewise technique (ptechnique can be attributed to more root movement in pre-adjusted MBT technique due to the brackets employed in this method.

  15. Adhesion strength study of IBAD-MOCVD-based 2G HTS wire using a peel test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Hazelton, D.W.; Knoll, A.R.; Duval, J.M.; Brownsey, P.; Repnoy, S.; Soloveichik, S.; Sundaram, A.; McClure, R.B.; Majkic, G.; Selvamanickam, V.

    2012-01-01

    A peel test was used to study the adhesion strength of a commercial grade 2G HTS wire which features a characteristic multilayer structure with the rare earth-based MOCVD superconducting film deposited on an IBAD-MgO template. The peel test could be carried out at various peeling angles (from 90° to 180°) and the peel strength of a wire was defined as the steady-state peeling load determined from a load-displacement curve. The test results had good reproducibility and accuracy, making the test a reliable and useful method for studying the adhesion strength of the wire. By characterizing the peeled surfaces the weakest interface in a wire could be identified. The peel strength data of the wire was analyzed together with the performance of the experimental magnet coils fabricated using the wire. The effect of the silver contact layer annealing on the peel strength is discussed.

  16. Adhesion strength study of IBAD-MOCVD-based 2G HTS wire using a peel test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y., E-mail: yzhang@superpower-inc.com [SuperPower Inc., 450 Duane Avenue, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States); Hazelton, D.W.; Knoll, A.R.; Duval, J.M.; Brownsey, P.; Repnoy, S.; Soloveichik, S.; Sundaram, A.; McClure, R.B. [SuperPower Inc., 450 Duane Avenue, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States); Majkic, G.; Selvamanickam, V. [University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Road, Houston, TX 77204 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    A peel test was used to study the adhesion strength of a commercial grade 2G HTS wire which features a characteristic multilayer structure with the rare earth-based MOCVD superconducting film deposited on an IBAD-MgO template. The peel test could be carried out at various peeling angles (from 90 Degree-Sign to 180 Degree-Sign) and the peel strength of a wire was defined as the steady-state peeling load determined from a load-displacement curve. The test results had good reproducibility and accuracy, making the test a reliable and useful method for studying the adhesion strength of the wire. By characterizing the peeled surfaces the weakest interface in a wire could be identified. The peel strength data of the wire was analyzed together with the performance of the experimental magnet coils fabricated using the wire. The effect of the silver contact layer annealing on the peel strength is discussed.

  17. A Comparison of pical Root Resorption in Incisors after Fixed Orthodontic Treatment with Standard Edgewise and Straight Wire (MBT) Method

    OpenAIRE

    Zahed Zahedani, SM; Oshagh, M; Momeni Danaei, Sh; Roeinpeikar, SMM

    2013-01-01

    Statement of Problem: One of the major outcomes of orthodontic treatment is the apical root resorption of teeth moved during the treatment. Identifying the possible risk factors, are necessary for every orthodontist. Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the rate of apical root resorption after fixed orthodontic treatment with standard edgewise and straight wire (MBT) method, and also to evaluate other factors effecting the rate of root resorption in orthodontic treatments. Materials ...

  18. A Comparison of Apical Root Resorption in Incisors after Fixed Orthodontic Treatment with Standard Edgewise and Straight Wire (MBT) Method

    OpenAIRE

    Zahed Zahedani SM.; Oshagh M.; Momeni Danaei Sh.; Roeinpeikar SMM.

    2013-01-01

    Statement of Problem: One of the major outcomes of orthodontic treatment is the apical root resorption of teeth moved during the treatment. Identifying the possible risk factors, are necessary for every orthodontist. Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the rate of apical root resorption after fixed orthodontic treatment with standard edgewise and straight wire (MBT) method, and also to evaluate other factors effecting the rate of root resorption in orthodontic treatments.Materials a...

  19. The control of stainless steel tubes and wires of small diameter by the Eddy current method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stossel, A.; Gallet, G.

    1978-01-01

    Stainless steel tubes and wires with an outer diameter greater than 1 mm were studied by Eddy currents. The sensor characteristics and the detection of defects in function of frequency are presented together with the results obtained in the detection of dimensional and metallurgical defects [fr

  20. Survey of Processing Methods for High Strength High Conductivity Wires for High Field Magnet Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K.; Embury, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper will deal with the basic concepts of attaining combination of high strength and high conductivity in pure materials, in-situ composites and macrocomposites. It will survey current attainments, and outline where some future developments may lie in developing wire products that are close to the theoretical strength of future magnet applications

  1. A Hot-Wire Method Based Thermal Conductivity Measurement Apparatus for Teaching Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, S.; Marin, E.; Juarez, A. G.; Calderon, A.; Ivanov, R.

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of an automated system based on the hot-wire technique is described for the measurement of the thermal conductivity of liquids using equipment easily available in modern physics laboratories at high schools and universities (basically a precision current source and a voltage meter, a data acquisition card, a personal computer…

  2. Survey of Processing Methods for High Strength High Conductivity Wires for High Field Magnet Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, K.; Embury, J.D.

    1998-10-01

    This paper will deal with the basic concepts of attaining combination of high strength and high conductivity in pure materials, in-situ composites and macrocomposites. It will survey current attainments, and outline where some future developments may lie in developing wire products that are close to the theoretical strength of future magnet applications.

  3. Quasi-static characterisation of trained pseudoelastic shape memory alloy wire subjected to cyclic loading: transformation kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Søren; Santos, Ilmar

    2016-01-01

    -loop model are implemented in a state-of-the-art constitutive model based on the framework by Lagoudas and coworkers. The original and modified models are fitted to consistent experimental results from mechanical cyclic loading under isothermal conditions (0–800 MPa, 30–70 °C) of a trained pseudoelastic...

  4. Wire EDM for Refractory Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellars, G. R.; Harris, F. E.; Lowell, C. E.; Pollman, W. M.; Rys, V. J.; Wills, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce fabrication time and costs, Wire Electrical Discharge Machine (Wire EDM) method was investigated as tool for fabricating matched blade roots and disk slots. Eight high-strength nickel-base superalloys were used. Computer-controlled Wire EDM technique provided high quality surfaces with excellent dimensional tolerances. Wire EDM method offers potential for substantial reductions in fabrication costs for "hard to machine" alloys and electrically conductive materials in specific high-precision applications.

  5. Assessment of Load Extrapolation Methods for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Veldkamp, Dick

    2011-01-01

    threshold method with two different threshold values. The comparisons show that the goodness of fit for the local distribution has a significant influence on the results, but the peak over threshold method with a threshold value on the mean plus 1.4 standard deviations generally gives the best results......In the present paper, methods for statistical load extrapolation of wind-turbine response are studied using a stationary Gaussian process model, which has approximately the same spectral properties as the response for the out-of-plane bending moment of a wind-turbine blade. For a Gaussian process......, an approximate analytical solution for the distribution of the peaks is given by Rice. In the present paper, three different methods for statistical load extrapolation are compared with the analytical solution for one mean wind speed. The methods considered are global maxima, block maxima, and the peak over...

  6. Assessment of load extrapolation methods for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, H.S.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Veldkamp, D.

    2010-01-01

    threshold method with two different threshold values. The comparisons show that the goodness of fit for the local distribution has a significant influence on the results, but the peak over threshold method with a threshold value on the mean plus 1.4 standard deviations generally gives the best results......In the present paper methods for statistical load extrapolation of wind turbine response are studied using a stationary Gaussian process model which has approximately the same spectral properties as the response for the flap bending moment of a wind turbine blade. For a Gaussian process...... an approximate analytical solution for the distribution of the peaks is given by Rice. In the present paper three different methods for statistical load extrapolation are compared with the analytical solution for one mean wind speed. The methods considered are global maxima, block maxima and the peak over...

  7. Wire Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  8. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1967-01-01

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber.Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  9. Comparison of design methods for axially loaded buckets in sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2015-01-01

    A study of the present knowledge about the bucket resistance for axial loading was performed considering analytical and numerical design methods as well as physical models. A case study was performed with two bucket foundations of equal diameter, but different skirt lengths installed in dense san...

  10. Application of panel methods in external store load calculations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Den Broek, GJ

    1984-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of aircraft wind modelling on the external store loads is investigated by computing that effect for the external flow field generated by the wing. The application of the panelling /boundary condition method to the perturbation flow field...

  11. Remote Voltage Control Using the Holomorphic Embedding Load Flow Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chengxi; Qin, Nan; Sun, Kai

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a new remote voltage control approach based on the non-iterative holomorphic embedding load flow method (HELM). A participation factor matrix is applied together with the HELM to distribute reactive power injections among multiple remote reactive power resources...

  12. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Proportional multi-wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle. Proportional wire chambers allow a much quicker reading than the optical or magnetoscriptive readout wire chambers.

  13. An assumed mode method and finite element method investigation of the coupled vibration in a flexible-disk rotor system with lacing wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shui-Ting; Huang, Hong-Wu [Hunan University, Changsha (China); Chiu, Yi-Jui; Yu, Guo-Fei [Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen (China); Yang, Chia-Hao [Taipei Chengshih University of Science and Technology, Taipei (China); Jian, Sheng-Rui [I-Shou University, Kaohsiung (China)

    2017-02-15

    The Assumed mode method (AMM) and Finite element method (FEM) were used. Their results were compared to investigate the coupled shaft-torsion, disk-transverse, and blade-bending vibrations in a flexible-disk rotor system. The blades were grouped with a spring. The flexible-disk rotor system was divided into three modes of coupled vibrations: Shaft-disk-blade, disk-blade, and blade-blade. Two new modes of coupled vibrations were introduced, namely, lacing wires-blade and lacing wires-disk-blade. The patterns of change of the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the system were discussed. The results showed the following: first, mode shapes and natural frequencies varied, and the results of the AMM and FEM differed; second, numerical calculation results showed three influencing factors on natural frequencies, namely, the lacing wire constant, the lacing wire location, and the flexible disk; lastly, the flexible disk could affect the stability of the system as reflected in the effect of the rotational speed.

  14. A novel method for shape analysis: deformation of bubbles during wire drawing in doped tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmat, P.; Bartha, L.; Grosz, T.; Rosta, L.

    2001-01-01

    A novel technique has been developed for monitoring shape and size of microscopic pores, bubbles, second phase particles in deformed PM materials. The anisotropic small angle neutron scattering (ASANS) measurement provides direct visualization of the shape of second phase objects after rolling, swaging, wire drawing. Also in case of mixture of different objects e. g. uniformly elongated bubbles and spherical ones they can be separated and their morphological parameters like relative number density, diameter, aspect ratio can be obtained from the quantitative analysis of ASANS data. Rods and wires from K-AI-Si doped tungsten containing residual porosity and K filled bubbles were studied from 6 mm to 0.2 mm in diameter. The increase of the average aspect ratio (∼1/d) was found to be much slower than expected from the usual theory (∼1/d 3 ). Instead of 'constant volume' assumption, the 'constant length' seems to be reliable. The ASANS investigation revealed also the occurrence of a small amount of spherical bubbles after several steps of wire drawing. (author)

  15. Application of ZnO single-crystal wire grown by the thermal evaporation method as a chemical gas sensor for hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, N K; Lee, S Y; Lee, T J

    2011-01-01

    A zinc oxide single-crystal wire was synthesized for application as a gas-sensing material for hydrogen sulfide, and its gas-sensing properties were investigated in this study. The gas sensor consisted of a ZnO thin film as the buffer layer and a ZnO single-crystal wire. The ZnO thin film was deposited over a patterning silicon substrate with a gold electrode by the CFR method. The ZnO single-crystal wire was synthesized over the ZnO thin film using zinc and activated carbon as the precursor for the thermal evaporation method at 800 degrees C. The electrical properties of the gas sensors that were prepared for the growth of ZnO single-crystal wire varied with the amount of zinc contained in the precursor. The charged current on the gas sensors increased with the increasing amount of zinc in the precursor. It was concluded that the charged current on the gas sensors was related to ZnO single-crystal wire growth on the silicon substrate area between the two electrodes. The charged current on the gas sensor was enhanced when the ZnO single-crystal wire was exposed to a H2S stream. The experimental results obtained in this study confirmed that a ZnO single-crystal wire can be used as a gas sensor for H2S.

  16. Metering Wheel-Wire Track Wire Boom Deployment Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granoff, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA MMS Spin Plane Double Probe (SDP) Deployer utilizes a helical path, rotating Metering Wheel and a spring loaded Wire "Holding" Track to pay out a "fixed end" 57 meter x 1.5 mm diameter Wire Boom stored between concentric storage cylinders. Unlike rotating spool type storage devices, the storage cylinders remain stationary, and the boom wire is uncoiled along the length of the cylinder via the rotation of the Metering Wheel. This uncoiling action avoids the need for slip-ring contacts since the ends of the wire can remain stationary. Conventional fixed electrical connectors (Micro-D type) are used to terminate to operational electronics.

  17. Role of surface on the size-dependent mechanical properties of copper nano-wire under tensile load: A molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Ting; Hsiao, Chun-I.; Hsu, Wen-Dung

    2014-01-01

    In this study we have used atomistic simulations to investigate the role of surface on the size-dependent mechanical properties of nano-wires. In particular, we have performed computational investigation on single crystal face-centered cubic copper nano-wires with diameters ranging from 2 to 20 nm. The wire axis for all the nano-wires are considered along the [0 0 1] direction. Characterization of the initial optimized structures revealed clear differences in interatomic spacing, stress, and potential energy in all the nano-wires. The mechanical properties with respect to wire diameter are evaluated by applying tension along the [0 0 1] direction until yielding. We have discussed the stress-strain relationships, Young's modulus, and the variation in potential energy from surface to the center of the wire for all the cases. Our results indicate that the mechanical response (including yield strain, Young's modulus, and resilience) is directly related to the proportion of surface to bulk type atoms present in each nano-wire. Thus the size-dependent mechanical properties of single crystal copper nano-wire within elastic region are attributed to the surface to volume ratio (surface effect). Using the calculated response, we have formulated a mathematical relationship, which predicts the nonlinear correlation between the mechanical properties and the diameter of the wire.

  18. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction

  19. Developing feasible loading patterns using perturbation theory methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.R.; Avila, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    This work illustrates an approach to core reload design that combines the power of integer programming with the efficiency of generalized perturbation theory. The main use of the method is as a tool to help the design engineer identify feasible loading patterns with minimum time and effort. The technique is highly successful for the burnable poison (BP) loading problem, but the unpredictable behavior of the branch-and-bound algorithm degrades overall performance for large problems. Unfortunately, the combined fuel shuffling plus BP optimization problem falls into this latter classification. Overall, however, the method shows great promise for significantly reducing the manpower time required for the reload design process. And it may even give the further benefit of better designs and improved performance

  20. Simplified Analysis Methods for Primary Load Designs at Elevated Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Peter [Stress Engineering Services Inc.; Jetter, Robert I [Consultant; Sham, Sam [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The use of simplified (reference stress) analysis methods is discussed and illustrated for primary load high temperature design. Elastic methods are the basis of the ASME Section III, Subsection NH primary load design procedure. There are practical drawbacks with this approach, particularly for complex geometries and temperature gradients. The paper describes an approach which addresses these difficulties through the use of temperature-dependent elastic-perfectly plastic analysis. Correction factors are defined to address difficulties traditionally associated with discontinuity stresses, inelastic strain concentrations and multiaxiality. A procedure is identified to provide insight into how this approach could be implemented but clearly there is additional work to be done to define and clarify the procedural steps to bring it to the point where it could be adapted into code language.

  1. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Was used in ISR (Intersecting Storage Ring) split field magnet experiment. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  2. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  3. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  4. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1985-01-01

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  5. Damage detection methods on wind turbine blade testing with wired and wireless accelerometer sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollineaux, Mark; Balafas, Konstantinos; Branner, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Testing   was   performed   on   a   34   meter   blade   at   a   facility   in   DTU   Risø   Campus, featuring   both   wired   accelerometers   and   low­power   MEMs­based   wireless accelerometers. Testing was focused on an induced delamination area on the trailing edge of the blade, which ...

  6. A method for building low loss multi-layer wiring for superconducting microwave devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsworth, A.; Barends, R.; Chen, Yu; Chen, Zijun; Chiaro, B.; Fowler, A.; Foxen, B.; Jeffrey, E.; Kelly, J.; Klimov, P. V.; Lucero, E.; Mutus, J. Y.; Neeley, M.; Neill, C.; Quintana, C.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; White, T. C.; Neven, H.; Martinis, John M.; Megrant, A.

    2018-02-01

    Complex integrated circuits require multiple wiring layers. In complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor processing, these layers are robustly separated by amorphous dielectrics. These dielectrics would dominate energy loss in superconducting integrated circuits. Here, we describe a procedure that capitalizes on the structural benefits of inter-layer dielectrics during fabrication and mitigates the added loss. We use a deposited inter-layer dielectric throughout fabrication and then etch it away post-fabrication. This technique is compatible with foundry level processing and can be generalized to make many different forms of low-loss wiring. We use this technique to create freestanding aluminum vacuum gap crossovers (airbridges). We characterize the added capacitive loss of these airbridges by connecting ground planes over microwave frequency λ/4 coplanar waveguide resonators and measuring resonator loss. We measure a low power resonator loss of ˜3.9 × 10-8 per bridge, which is 100 times lower than that of dielectric supported bridges. We further characterize these airbridges as crossovers, control line jumpers, and as part of a coupling network in gmon and fluxmon qubits. We measure qubit characteristic lifetimes (T1s) in excess of 30 μs in gmon devices.

  7. Electrochemical properties of Sn-based nanopowders synthesized by a pulsed wire evaporation method and effect of binder coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jong-Keun [School of Materials Science and Engineering & RIGET, Gyeongsang National University, 501, Jinju-daero, Jinju-si, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ju-Seok; Cho, Gyu-Bong; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon [Dept. of Materials Engineering and Convergence Technology & RIGET, Gyeongsang National University, 501, Jinju-daero, Jinju-si, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Hyo-Jun, E-mail: ahj@gnu.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering & RIGET, Gyeongsang National University, 501, Jinju-daero, Jinju-si, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Dept. of Materials Engineering and Convergence Technology & RIGET, Gyeongsang National University, 501, Jinju-daero, Jinju-si, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kwon-Koo, E-mail: kkcho66@gnu.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering & RIGET, Gyeongsang National University, 501, Jinju-daero, Jinju-si, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Dept. of Materials Engineering and Convergence Technology & RIGET, Gyeongsang National University, 501, Jinju-daero, Jinju-si, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Sn-based nanoparticles are fabricated by using the pulsed wire evaporation method. • The electrodes are prepared by mixing the graphene and coating the surface. • Coating the surface of electrode is used with brushing of simple and facile method. • The electrochemical measurements are performed with galvanostatic experiments. • The coating electrode maintains capacity nearly of 501 mAh g{sup −1} up to 100 cycles. - Abstract: Sn-based nanoparticles are prepared with the O{sub 2} concentrations in chamber of Ar atmosphere (by v/v) by using the pulsed wire evaporation (PWE) method. The prepared electrodes are only Sn-based powder electrode, its binder coating electrode and Sn-based powder/graphene nanocomposite electrode. Morphology and structure of the synthesized powders and electrodes are investigated with a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and an X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The electrochemical measurements were performed with galvanostatic cycling experiments using a coin type cell of CR2032 (Ø20, T3.2 mm). The binder coating electrode is superior to others and maintains delithiation capacity nearly of 501 mAh g{sup −1} as 58.3% of first delithiation capacity at 0.2 C-rate up to 100 cycles.

  8. Comparison of analytical methods for calculation of wind loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minderman, Donald J.; Schultz, Larry L.

    1989-01-01

    The following analysis is a comparison of analytical methods for calculation of wind load pressures. The analytical methods specified in ASCE Paper No. 3269, ANSI A58.1-1982, the Standard Building Code, and the Uniform Building Code were analyzed using various hurricane speeds to determine the differences in the calculated results. The winds used for the analysis ranged from 100 mph to 125 mph and applied inland from the shoreline of a large open body of water (i.e., an enormous lake or the ocean) a distance of 1500 feet or ten times the height of the building or structure considered. For a building or structure less than or equal to 250 feet in height acted upon by a wind greater than or equal to 115 mph, it was determined that the method specified in ANSI A58.1-1982 calculates a larger wind load pressure than the other methods. For a building or structure between 250 feet and 500 feet tall acted upon by a wind rangind from 100 mph to 110 mph, there is no clear choice of which method to use; for these cases, factors that must be considered are the steady-state or peak wind velocity, the geographic location, the distance from a large open body of water, and the expected design life and its risk factor.

  9. Integrated Electrical Wire Insulation Repair System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Jolley, Scott; Gibson, Tracy; Parks, Steven

    2013-01-01

    An integrated system tool will allow a technician to easily and quickly repair damaged high-performance electrical wire insulation in the field. Low-melt polyimides have been developed that can be processed into thin films that work well in the repair of damaged polyimide or fluoropolymer insulated electrical wiring. Such thin films can be used in wire insulation repairs by affixing a film of this low-melt polyimide to the damaged wire, and heating the film to effect melting, flow, and cure of the film. The resulting repair is robust, lightweight, and small in volume. The heating of this repair film is accomplished with the use of a common electrical soldering tool that has been modified with a special head or tip that can accommodate the size of wire being repaired. This repair method can furthermore be simplified for the repair technician by providing replaceable or disposable soldering tool heads that have repair film already "loaded" and ready for use. The soldering tool heating device can also be equipped with a battery power supply that will allow its use in areas where plug-in current is not available

  10. A simple method for quantifying jump loads in volleyball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Paula C; Kenneally-Dabrowski, Claire; Sheppard, Jeremy; Spratford, Wayne

    2017-03-01

    Evaluate the validity of a commercially available wearable device, the Vert, for measuring vertical displacement and jump count in volleyball athletes. Propose a potential method of quantifying external load during training and match play within this population. Validation study. The ability of the Vert device to measure vertical displacement in male, junior elite volleyball athletes was assessed against reference standard laboratory motion analysis. The ability of the Vert device to count jumps during training and match-play was assessed via comparison with retrospective video analysis to determine precision and recall. A method of quantifying external load, known as the load index (LdIx) algorithm was proposed using the product of the jump count and average kinetic energy. Correlation between two separate Vert devices and three-dimensional trajectory data were good to excellent for all jump types performed (r=0.83-0.97), with a mean bias of between 3.57-4.28cm. When matched against jumps identified through video analysis, the Vert demonstrated excellent precision (0.995-1.000) evidenced by a low number of false positives. The number of false negatives identified with the Vert was higher resulting in lower recall values (0.814-0.930). The Vert is a commercially available tool that has potential for measuring vertical displacement and jump count in elite junior volleyball athletes without the need for time-consuming analysis and bespoke software. Subsequently, allowing the collected data to better quantify load using the proposed algorithm (LdIx). Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Magnetic field measurements of the CEBAF (NIST) wiggler using the pulsed wire method. Master's thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    The Free Electron Laser (FEL) has proven to be a versatile photon source for many applications in science, industry and defense. It is capable of providing wide tunability and high efficiency, but has yet to yield high average power required as a weapon system. The proposed infrared and ultraviolet FELs at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) have been projected to provide high average power. The first section of this thesis will study the necessity of a FEL for shipboard defense, and state the advantages over other defense systems. The remainder will focus on use of the pulsed wire method for measuring the magnetic field errors of the CEBAF/National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) wiggler. Data analysis indicates the wiggler will have a net electron beam deflection of x=5.2mm, which is much greater than the electron beam radius of re=0.4mm and the optical mode waist of wo=1mm... Free Electron Laser (FEL), Pulsed Wire Method, High Energy Laser (HEL), Shipboard High Energy Laser, Theater Ballistic Missile Defense (TBMD).

  12. Influence of different brazing and welding methods on tensile strength and microhardness of orthodontic stainless steel wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Jens Johannes; Fraenzel, Wolfgang; Bailly, Jacqueline; Gernhardt, Christian Ralf; Fuhrmann, Robert Andreas Werner

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical strength and microhardness of joints made by conventional brazing and tungsten inert gas (TIG) and laser welding. A standardized end-to-end joint configuration of the orthodontic wire material in spring hard quality was used. The joints were made using five different methods: brazing (soldering > 450 degrees C) with universal silver solder, two TIG, and two laser welders. Laser parameters and welding conditions were used according to the manufacturers' guidance. The tensile strengths were measured with a universal testing machine (Zwick 005). The microhardness measurements were carried out with a hardness tester (Zwick 3202). Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni's post hoc correction (P tensile strength (198 +/- 146 MPa). Significant differences (P tensile strength (369-520 MPa) compared with TIG welding. Significant differences (P < 0.001) were found between the original orthodontic wire and the mean microhardness at the centre of the welded area. The mean microhardness differed significantly between brazing (1.99 GPa), TIG (2.22-2.39 GPa) and laser welding (2.21-2.68 GPa). For orthodontic purposes, laser and TIG welding are solder-free alternatives to joining metal. TIG welding with a lower investment cost is comparable with laser welding. However, while expensive, the laser technique is a sophisticated and simple method.

  13. The double wire technique: an improved method for treating challenging ureteroileal anastomotic strictures and occlusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruchelvam, N; Harrison, M; Page, A C

    2007-02-01

    Up to 10% of patients who undergo ileal conduit urinary diversion may go on to develop ureteroileal anastomotic stenosis (UIAS); this can lead to recurrent urinary tract infections and deterioration in renal function. Classical management has been open revision of the anastomosis. We describe a novel technique that allows balloon dilatation and ureteral stent placement in a retrograde fashion. All patients in this study had undergone radical cystectomy and ileal conduit formation with Wallace type end-to-end refluxing uretero-intestinal anastomosis. After initial retrograde loopogram, a 6F MPA-1 catheter and an 0.035 inch extra stiff guide was passed to the distal ostium. Subsequently, a customised 8F bright tip MPA-1 guiding catheter was advanced over the guide wire which allowed effective splinting of the equipment to facilitate greater control of a second catheter and guide wire combination to access the stenotic or occluded anastomosis. Results show that a total of ten anastomoses were treated; nine anastomoses were successfully treated with a primary retrograde approach with no intra or post-procedural complications. After a mean follow-up of 19 months (5-33 months), as assessed by ascending loopograms, all anastomoses remained open. In conclusion, morbidity of open surgery has resulted in the popularization of endourological techniques in treating anastomotic stenoses. However, key to these endourological techniques is access to the anastomosis; typically, this has been via a percutaneously placed nephrostomy. The ideal route to the anastomosis is via a retrograde approach; we have illustrated a safe and successful novel technique that utilized two guidewires and a guiding catheter, allowing retrograde ureteral access.

  14. Experimental Method for Measuring Dust Load on Surfaces in Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lengweiler, Philip; Nielsen, Peter V.; Moser, Alfred

    , there is a need for better understanding of the mechanism of dust deposition and resuspension. With the presented experimental setup, the dust load on surfaces in a channel can be measured as a function of the environmental and surface conditions and the type of particles under controlled laboratory conditions.......A new experimental setup to investigate the physical process of dust deposition and resuspension on and from surfaces is introduced. Dust deposition can reduce the airborne dust concentration considerably. As a basis for developing methods to eliminate dust-related problems in rooms...

  15. Fragility assessment method of Concrete Wall Subjected to Impact Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, Daegi; Shin, Sang Shup; Choi, In-Kil

    2014-01-01

    These studies have been aimed to verify and ensure the safety of the targeted walls and structures especially in the viewpoint of the deterministic approach. However, recently, the regulation and the assessment of the safety of the nuclear power plants (NPPs) against to an aircraft impact are strongly encouraged to adopt a probabilistic approach, i.e., the probabilistic risk assessment of an aircraft impact. In Korea, research to develop aircraft impact risk quantification technology was initiated in 2012 by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). In this paper, for the one example of the probabilistic safety assessment approach, a method to estimate the failure probability and fragility of concrete wall subjected to impact loading caused by missiles or engine parts of aircrafts will be introduced. This method and the corresponding results will be used for the total technical roadmap and the procedure to assess the aircraft impact risk (Fig.1). A method and corresponding results of the estimation of the failure probability and fragility for a concrete wall subjected to impact loadings caused by missiles or engine parts of aircrafts was introduced. The detailed information of the target concrete wall in NPP, and the example aircraft engine model is considered safeguard information (SGI), and is not contained in this paper

  16. Resident Load Influence Analysis Method for Price Based on Non-intrusive Load Monitoring and Decomposition Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenqian; Zeng, Bo; Yang, Zhou; Li, Gang

    2018-01-01

    In the non-invasive load monitoring mode, the load decomposition can reflect the running state of each load, which will help the user reduce unnecessary energy costs. With the demand side management measures of time of using price, a resident load influence analysis method for time of using price (TOU) based on non-intrusive load monitoring data are proposed in the paper. Relying on the current signal of the resident load classification, the user equipment type, and different time series of self-elasticity and cross-elasticity of the situation could be obtained. Through the actual household load data test with the impact of TOU, part of the equipment will be transferred to the working hours, and users in the peak price of electricity has been reduced, and in the electricity at the time of the increase Electrical equipment, with a certain regularity.

  17. Tunisian gamma source load planning using multipole moment method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loussaief, Abdelkader; Mannai, Kais; Trabelsi, Adel

    2005-01-01

    Many methods, especially Monte Carlo simulation technique and Point Kernel method are idely used for radiation profile studies. However, these methods are either time consuming or fairly accurate when dealing with extended gamma sources particularly for optimization studies. Furthermore, while the buildup factor and the attenuation effects were well investigated in the literature, little work was done about the systematic influence of the source extension. In this work we focus on the effect of the source geometry using the generalized Laplace's expansion. We express the bare gamma photon flux rate in terms of the standard Cartesian multipole moments. Using the properties of these moments we establish a close relationship between the radiation profile and the geometrical features of the source. As applications we propose to use the multipole expansion method to investigate the radiation profile isotropy of the source. A detailed study of the arrangement of the unit pencil sources of the tunisian irradiation facility is performed. Using this method, millions of possible configurations for various load plans investigated, in few minutes and even multisteps scenarios were considered. As a result, the current configuration of the source was found to be not optimized. Furthermore, using these analytical method it was possible to optimize the activity of each new unit source

  18. Reusable Hot-Wire Cable Cutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauken, Michael T.; Steinkraus, Joel M.

    2010-01-01

    During the early development stage of balloon deployment systems for missions, nichrome wire cable cutters were often used in place of pyro-actuated cutters. Typically, a nichrome wire is wrapped around a bundle of polymer cables with a low melting point and connected to a relay-actuated electric circuit. The heat from the nichrome reduces the strength of the cable bundle, which quickly breaks under a mechanical load and can thus be used as a release mechanism for a deployment system. However, the use of hand-made heated nichrome wire for cutters is not very reliable. Often, the wrapped nichrome wire does not cut through the cable because it either pulls away from its power source or does not stay in contact with the cable being cut. Because nichrome is not readily soldered to copper wire, unreliable mechanical crimps are often made to connect the nichrome to an electric circuit. A self-contained device that is reusable and reliable was developed to sever cables for device release or deployment. The nichrome wire in this new device is housed within an enclosure to prevent it from being damaged by handling. The electric power leads are internally connected within the unit to the nichrome wire using a screw terminal connection. A bayonet plug, a quick and secure method of connecting the cutter to the power source, is used to connect the cutter to the power leads similar to those used in pyro-cutter devices. A small ceramic tube [0.25-in. wide 0.5-in. long (.6.4-mm wide 13-mm long)] houses a spiraled nichrome wire that is heated when a cable release action is required. The wire is formed into a spiral coil by wrapping it around a mandrel. It is then laid inside the ceramic tube so that it fits closely to the inner surface of the tube. The ceramic tube provides some thermal and electrical insulation so that most of the heat generated by the wire is directed toward the cable bundle in the center of the spiral. The ceramic tube is cemented into an aluminum block, which

  19. O método de fio quente: técnica em paralelo e técnica de superfície The hot wire method: the hot wire parallel technique and the hot wire surface technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. N. dos Santos

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A condutividade térmica é uma das propriedades físicas mais importantes de um material. A sua determinação experimental apresenta algumas dificuldades e requer alta precisão na determinação dos fatores necessários para o seu cálculo. O método de medida de condutividade térmica para materiais refratários mais usado hoje em todo o mundo, tanto nos centros de pesquisa, quanto nos laboratórios industriais, é o Método do Fio Quente, onde a condutividade térmica é calculada a partir do transiente de temperatura gerado por uma fonte de calor ideal, infinitamente longa e fina num meio material infinito. Neste trabalho são comparados os resultados obtidos utilizando-se duas técnicas diferentes para a detecção do transiente térmico: numa delas, a temperatura é medida na superfície do fio quente, (técnica de fio quente de superfície, e na outra, a temperatura é medida a uma certa distância do fio quente (técnica de fio quente paralelo. Os resultados experimentais mostram uma grande vantagem da técnica de fio quente de superfície em relação a técnica de fio quente paralelo para materiais com condutividade térmica superior a 10 W/mK. O intervalo de tempo considerado no cálculo é bem maior que aquele que seria utilizado na técnica de fio quente paralelo, obtendo-se assim resultados mais precisos e confiáveis.Thermal conductivity is one of the most important physical properties of a material. However, its experimental evaluation may presents some specific troubles, and high precision in the determination of the factors involved in its calculation is required. Specifically for refractory materials, the experimental technique employed worldwide for thermal conductivity calculations is the hot wire technique, in which the thermal conductivity is calculated starting from the temperature transient generated by an ideal, infinitely thin and long heat source embedded in an infinite surrounding material. In this work comparisons

  20. A novel TMR-based MFL sensor for steel wire rope inspection using the orthogonal test method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, B.; Wang, Y. J.; Liu, X. C.; He, C. F.

    2015-07-01

    Magnetic flux leakage (MFL) sensors, with their compact configuration and high sensitivity to small defects, have attracted much attention in recent years for the non-destructive testing of ferromagnetic structures. Tunnel magneto-resistive (TMR) devices have superior performances in sensitivity and linear operation range over conventional magneto-resistive devices. In this paper, a commercial TMR device is employed for developing an electromagnet-based MFL sensor. The electromagnet magnetizer includes Helmholtz-like coils together with a custom-made magnetic shield. The orthogonal test method is applied to aid the structural parameter optimization to the magnetizer based on the finite element analysis results of magnetic field distribution. In this study a prototype of a TMR-based MFL sensor is developed, and its performances on detecting various types of defects are tested on a scanning apparatus. The experimental results show that the MFL signal induced by a blind hole with dimensions of 0.3 mm in both depth and diameter is detectable. In addition, two adjacent notches located more than 2.0 mm from each other can be clearly distinguished from the received MFL signal. The detectable angular detection range for a single TMR device is estimated as 52° in the tested linear shaft rod. The consistency between the simulated and received MFL signal induced by a row of notches inspires confidence in the proposed sensor design method, which in the future can be transplanted for TMR-based sensor array design. Finally, the TMR-based MFL sensor is used for detecting a flaw of a single broken wire with a diameter of 0.5 mm, and the induced MFL signal can be clearly recognized from the oscillation signal that is generated by the twisted rope surface. Therefore, the presented TMR-based MFL sensor has great potential for steel wire rope inspection with enhanced sensitivity to small defects, and it is capable of being integrated into production lines due to its compact

  1. High hydrogen loading of thin palladium wires through alkaline earth carbonates' precipitation on the cathodic surface - evidence of a new phase in the Pd-H system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celani, F.; Spallone, A.; Di Gioacchino, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy); Marini, P.; Di Stefano, V.; Nakamura, M. [EURESYS, Rome (Italy); Pace, S. [Salerno Univ., Salerno (Italy). Dept. of Physics, Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia; Mancini, A. [ORIM S.r.l., Piediripa, MC (Italy); Tripodi, P. [Stanford Research Institut International, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    A new protocol for the electrolytic loading of hydrogen (H) in thin palladium (Pd) wires has been developed. In order to increase the cathodic overvoltage, which is known to be the main parameter capable to enhance the electrolytic H loading of Pd, the catalytic action of the Pd surface versus H-H recombination has been strongly reduced by precipitation of a thin layer of alkaline-earth carbonates on the cathode. A set of electrolytes has been employed, containing small amounts of hydrochloric or sulfuric acid and strontium or calcium ions. The H loading has been continuously evaluated through ac measurements of the Pd wire resistance. Uncommonly low resistivity values, leading to an estimate of exceptionally high H loading, have been observed. Evidence of the existence of a new phase in the very high H content region of the Pd-H system has been inferred on the basis of the determination of the temperature coefficient of the electrical resistivity. Mainly for this purpose a thin layer of Hg was galvanically deposed on the cathodic surface, in order to prevent any H deloading during the measurements. The results have been fully reproduced in other 2 well equipped and experienced Laboratories (Italy, USA).

  2. Wire Rupture Optimization in Wire Electrical Discharge Machining using Taguchi Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Ibrahem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM is one of the most important nontraditional machining process that is well-known for cutting difficult to machine materials. The wire electrode along with machining parameters control the WEDM process. This research work focuses on optimizing WEDM parameters using Taguchi technique to minimize wire rupture. Experiments have been done using the L18 orthogonal array. Each experiment is repeated three times to ensure accurate readings of the wire rupture. The statistical methods of signal to noise ratio (S/N ratio is applied to study effects of peak current, pulse width, charging time, wire speed, and wire tension on wire rupture. As a results, the peak current, pulse width, and wire tension have the most significant effect on wire rupture followed by charging time and wire speed. The developed analysis can be used in the metal cutting field to identify the optimum machining parameters for less wire rupture.

  3. Minimization and Mitigation of Wire EDM Cutting Errors in the Application of the Contour Method of Residual Stress Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Bilal; Fitzpatrick, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    The contour method of residual stress measurement relies on the careful application of wire electro-discharge machining (WEDM) for the cutting stage. Changes in material removal rates during the cut lead to errors in the final calculated values of residual stress. In this study, WEDM cutting parameters have been explored to identify the optimum conditions for contour method residual stress measurements. The influence of machine parameters on the surface roughness and cutting artifacts in the contour cut is discussed. It has been identified that the critical parameter in improving the surface finish is the spark pulse duration. A typical cutting artifact and its impact on measured stress values have been identified and demonstrated for a contour cut in a welded marine steel. A procedure is presented to correct contour displacement data from the influence of WEDM cutting artifacts, and is demonstrated on the correction of a measured weld residual stress. The corrected contour method improved the residual stress magnitude up to 150 MPa. The corrected contour method results were validated by X-ray diffraction, incremental center hole drilling, and neutron diffraction.

  4. Mechanical properties of orthodontic wires on ceramic brackets associated with low friction ligatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando KOIKE

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Few studies investigated the mechanical properties of orthodontic wires on ceramic brackets associated the ligatures. Objective This study aimed to compare the load-deflection of orthodontic wires with round section of 0.016” made of stainless steel (SS, nickel-titanium (NiTi and glass fiber-reinforced polymer composite (GFRPC. Material and method Sixty specimens obtained from 10 sectioned pre-contoured arches (TP Orthodontics, were divided into 3 groups of 20 according to each type of material (1 esthetic-type wire and 2 not esthetic and length of 50 mm. The methodology consisted of a 3-point bending test using esthetic ceramic brackets (INVU, TP Orthodontics, Edgewise, 0.022”x 0.025” as points of support. The tensile tests were performed on a mechanical test machine, at a speed of 10 mm/min, deflection of 1 mm, 2 mm and 3 mm. Friedman’s Non Parametric Multiple comparisons test was used (P<0.05. Result The nickel-titanium wire presented smaller load/ deflection compared with stainless steel. GFRPC wires had lower strength values among all groups evaluated (P<.05. The steel wire showed permanent deformation after 3 mm deflection, NiTi wire demonstrated memory effect and the esthetic type had fractures with loss of strength. Conclusion It can be concluded that steel wires have high strength values, requiring the incorporation of loops and folds to reduce the load / deflection. NiTi and GFRPC wires produced low levels of force, however the esthetic wire was shown to fracture and break.

  5. Enhancing wire-composite bond strength of bonded retainers with wire surface treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterle, L J; Shellhart, W C; Henderson, S

    2001-06-01

    Bonded orthodontic retainers with wires embedded in composite resin are commonly used for orthodontic retention. The purpose of this study was to test, in vitro, various wire surface treatments to determine the optimal method of enhancing the wire-composite bond strength. Coaxial wires and stainless steel wires with different surface treatments were bonded to bovine enamel and then pulled along their long axes with an Instron universal testing machine. Wire surface treatments included placing a right-angle bend in the wire, microetching the wire, and treating the wire with adhesion promoters; combinations of treatments were also examined. The results demonstrated a 24-fold increase in the wire-composite bond strength of wire that was microetched (sandblasted), compared with that of untreated straight wire. The difference between the amount of force required to break the bond produced by microetching alone (246.1 +/- 46.0 MPa) and that required for the bonds produced by the retentive bend (87.8 +/- 16.3 MPa), the adhesion promoters (silane, 11.0 +/- 3.1 MPa; Metal Primer, 28.5 +/- 15.8 MPa), or for any combination of surface treatments, was statistically significant. Microetching a stainless steel wire produced a higher wire-composite bond strength than that obtained from a coaxial wire (113.5 +/- 27.5 MPa). The results of this study indicate that microetching or sandblasting a stainless steel wire significantly increases the strength of the wire-composite bond.

  6. A program for calculating load coefficient matrices utilizing the force summation method, L218 (LOADS). Volume 1: Engineering and usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. D.; Anderson, L. R.

    1979-01-01

    The LOADS program L218, a digital computer program that calculates dynamic load coefficient matrices utilizing the force summation method, is described. The load equations are derived for a flight vehicle in straight and level flight and excited by gusts and/or control motions. In addition, sensor equations are calculated for use with an active control system. The load coefficient matrices are calculated for the following types of loads: translational and rotational accelerations, velocities, and displacements; panel aerodynamic forces; net panel forces; shears and moments. Program usage and a brief description of the analysis used are presented. A description of the design and structure of the program to aid those who will maintain and/or modify the program in the future is included.

  7. Effect of the Ignition Method on the Extinction Limit for a Flame Spreading over Electric Wire Insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitsui, Fumiya; Nagachi, Masashi; Citerne, Jean-Marie

    Flame spread experiments with wire insulation were conducted in microgravity (parabolic flights) and in normal gravity to understand the effect of the ignition condition on the Limiting Oxygen Concentration (LOC) for an opposed air flow condition of 100 mm/s (typical flow velocity on ISS). Both...... values for electric wire combustion, especially in microgravity. In Cu core wire cases, the LOC monotonically decreases as the heating time increases because of preheating by the igniter. This preheating helps to sustain spreading during microgravity period. Future study is required to find the proper...

  8. A controller design method for 3 phase 4 wire grid connected VSI ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The design method for LCL filter with passive damping by split capacitor configuration has been followed from (Channegowda & John 2010). In the absence of a damping resistor active damping method can also be employed to damp LCL filter resonance (Gabe et al. 2009). The parameters of the power converter and LCL ...

  9. Learning Residential Electrical Wiring through Computer Simulation: The Impact of Computer-Based Learning Environments on Student Achievement and Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han-Chin; Su, I-Hsien

    2011-01-01

    Multimedia learning environments such as computer simulations are widely accepted as tools for supporting science learning. Although the design of multimedia learning environments can be domain specific, few studies have focused on the use of computer simulations for learning residential electrical wiring. This study aimed to determine whether…

  10. Load reduction test method of similarity theory and BP neural networks of large cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruigang; Duan, Zhibin; Lu, Yi; Wang, Lei; Xu, Gening

    2016-01-01

    Static load tests are an important means of supervising and detecting a crane's lift capacity. Due to space restrictions, however, there are difficulties and potential danger when testing large bridge cranes. To solve the loading problems of large-tonnage cranes during testing, an equivalency test is proposed based on the similarity theory and BP neural networks. The maximum stress and displacement of a large bridge crane is tested in small loads, combined with the training neural network of a similar structure crane through stress and displacement data which is collected by a physics simulation progressively loaded to a static load test load within the material scope of work. The maximum stress and displacement of a crane under a static load test load can be predicted through the relationship of stress, displacement, and load. By measuring the stress and displacement of small tonnage weights, the stress and displacement of large loads can be predicted, such as the maximum load capacity, which is 1.25 times the rated capacity. Experimental study shows that the load reduction test method can reflect the lift capacity of large bridge cranes. The load shedding predictive analysis for Sanxia 1200 t bridge crane test data indicates that when the load is 1.25 times the rated lifting capacity, the predicted displacement and actual displacement error is zero. The method solves the problem that lifting capacities are difficult to obtain and testing accidents are easily possible when 1.25 times related weight loads are tested for large tonnage cranes.

  11. Design and Development of Embedded System for the Measurement of Thermal Conductivity of Liquids by Transient Hot Wire Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagamani GOSALA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal conductivity of polymers is an important property for both polymer applications and processing industry. The successful application of thermal insulating fluids in the last several years has demonstrated that such fluids can effectively control the heat loss. Understanding and controlling the thermal environment for oilfield operations has been a concern and research topic. As a consequence of this trend, there is huge demand for new methods of instrumentation to evaluate the performance of material properties and characterization. The main aim of the present study is the development of hardware and software for measuring the thermal conductivity of liquids using transient hot wire method. Because of the relatively short experimental times and large amounts of parametric data involved in the measurement process, embedded control of the measurement is essential. The experimental implementation requires a suitable temperature sensing, automatic control, data acquisition, and data analysis systems accomplished using an embedded system that has been built around the ARM LPC 2103 mixed signal controller.

  12. Fabrication and application of mesoporous TiO{sub 2} film coated on Al wire by sol-gel method with EISA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Linkang; Lu, Jianjun, E-mail: lujianjunktz@tyut.edu.cn

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Successfully fabricated mesoporous TiO{sub 2} thin film on Al wire by sol-gel method with EISA. • Ni supported on this film and exhibits good methanation performance. • Investigate the decomposition temperature of template agent F127 in TiO{sub 2} precursor system. - Abstract: Mesoporous TiO{sub 2} film on Al wire was fabricated by sol-gel method with evaporation induced self assembly (EISA) process using F127 as templating agent in the mixed solution of ethanol and Tetra-n-butyl Titanate. The Ni/TiO{sub 2} film catalyst supported on Al wire was prepared by impregnation and the catalytic performance on methanation was carried out in a titanium alloy micro-reactor tube. It was shown that anatase mesoporous TiO{sub 2} film was prepared in this conditions (1 g F127,calcined at 400 °C and aged for 24 h), which has specific surface area of 127 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} and narrow pore size distribution of 5.3 nm. Low calcined temperature (300 °C) cannot transfer film to anatase and decompose F127 completely. Ni/TiO{sub 2} film on Al wire catalyst was proved to be active in CO methanation reaction. And the CO conversion reaches 99% and CH{sub 4} selectivity close is to 80% when the reaction temperature is higher 360 °C.

  13. Use of quality planning methods in optimizing welding wire quality characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vykydal

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The quality of a product is given by the extent, to which the product meets customer requirements. It is generally accepted that the extent, to which the product meets such customer requirements, and, consequently, the resulting quality of the product itself, substantially depend on the early stages of the product lifecycle, i.e. on the design and development stages. Appropriate means for effective product quality planning can be found among quality management methods and tools. These methods are typically employed in engineering production and automotive industry. This paper focuses on exploring the potential of Quality Function Deployment (QFD and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA methods for use in metallurgical production, an industrial branch where they have not been commonly employed as yet.

  14. D5.3 - Load management methods and prototypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Printz; Andersen, Palle

    The target for the ENCOURAGE energy management system is to design and test strategies for supply and demand side energy management of a microgrid. This will be done by designing a supervisory controller to manage energy flows so that generated power in the microgrid is mainly consumed by local......%) (ODYSSEE-MURE project, 2012). When all building loads are considered as critical there would be no opportunity to optimize both the electricity sawing and consumption cost. Optimization of building loads based on electricity price signal includes shedding, shifting or rescheduling the power consumption...... target is not to enhance the flexibility but to lower the energy consumption. This deliverable reports description of load types, a strategy for energy management at building level, designated supervisory controller for the buildings load management and results of simulation studies....

  15. Improvements in or relating to methods of and apparatus for coating wire, rod or strip material by sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wareing, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for coating wire, rod or strip material comprising first subjecting the material to electron bombardment in a glow discharge to heat and activate the surface and then subjecting it to sputtering by use of a soft cathode discharge. The apparatus comprises a low pressure gas chamber through which the material is passed, and containing a glow discharge electron gun having a tubular cathode shaped so that the material can be passed axially through it, and an anode surrounding the cathode. The cathode is formed in two parts, the first part at one end, being made of material of low sputtering yield, and the second part being formed at least partially of the required coating material. The first part of the cathode may be of stainless steel or Al. The two parts of the cathode are electrically isolated with means provided for applying a lower negative potential, with respect to the anode, to the second part compared with the first part. The voltage applied to the second part may be controlled so as to control the sputtering rate. The gas pressure in the chamber is also controllable. The coating material may be arranged as inserts in the fixed cathode structure or as segments around the surface to be coated, and may be composed of Pb, Zn or Cu. (U.K.)

  16. Electric wiring domestic

    CERN Document Server

    Coker, A J

    1992-01-01

    Electric Wiring: Domestic, Tenth Edition, is a clear and reliable guide to the practical aspects of domestic electric wiring. Intended for electrical contractors, installation engineers, wiremen and students, its aim is to provide essential up to date information on modern methods and materials in a simple, clear, and concise manner. The main changes in this edition are those necessary to bring the work into line with the 16th Edition of the Regulations for Electrical Installations issued by the Institution of Electrical Engineers. The book begins by introducing the basic features of domestic

  17. Calculation of the Crack Length for a Pipe Specimen using the Modified Load Ratio Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung Hun; Koo, Jae Mean; Seok, Chang Sung [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Yong; Park, Jae Sil [Samsung Electronics Co., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    The objective of this paper is to apply the load ratio method to the measurement of the crack length of the real scale pipe specimen. The load ratio method was modified and finite element analyses were performed to derive the relationship between the normalized compliance and the normalized crack length for the pipe specimen. In order to measure the crack length, the direct current potential drop method and the modified load ratio method were applied to the pipe test. The applicability of the modified load ratio method was confirmed by comparing the calculated crack length with the measured crack length from the pipe experiment.

  18. Calculation of the Crack Length for a Pipe Specimen using the Modified Load Ratio Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jung Hun; Koo, Jae Mean; Seok, Chang Sung; Huh, Yong; Park, Jae Sil

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to apply the load ratio method to the measurement of the crack length of the real scale pipe specimen. The load ratio method was modified and finite element analyses were performed to derive the relationship between the normalized compliance and the normalized crack length for the pipe specimen. In order to measure the crack length, the direct current potential drop method and the modified load ratio method were applied to the pipe test. The applicability of the modified load ratio method was confirmed by comparing the calculated crack length with the measured crack length from the pipe experiment

  19. Carbohydrate-Loading: A Safe and Effective Method of Improving Endurance Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeker, Richard T.; Israel, Richard G.

    Carbohydrate-loading prior to distance events is a common practice among endurance athletes. The purposes of this paper are to review previous research and to clarify misconceptions which may exist concerning carbohydrate-loading. The most effective method of carbohydrate-loading involves a training run of sufficient intensity and duration to…

  20. Wire chamber conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartl, W.; Neuhofer, G.; Regler, M.

    1986-02-01

    This booklet contains program and the abstracts of the papers presented at the conference, most of them dealing with performance testing of various types of wire chambers. The publication of proceedings is planned as a special issue of 'Nuclear instruments and methods' later on. All abstracts are in English. An author index for the book of abstracts is given. (A.N.)

  1. On the preparation of superconducting wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topare, R.J.; Chinchure, A.D.; Shah, S.S.; Hadole, G.B.

    1993-01-01

    The different methods of preparation of superconducting wires have been discussed. The powder-in-tube technique is followed for the preparation of YBCO and BISCCO superconducting wires. The results are discussed. The present status of the industries in preparing the superconducting wires having the maximum J c values is discussed. (author). 30 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Application of SVM methods for mid-term load forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božić Miloš

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach for the medium-term load forecasting using Support Vector Machines (SVMs. The proposed SVM model was employed to predict the maximum daily load demand for the period of a month. Analyses of available data were performed and the most important features for the construction of SVM model are selected. It was shown that the size and the structure of the training set may significantly affect the accuracy of predictions. The presented model was tested by applying it on real-life load data obtained from distribution company 'ED Jugoistok' for the territory of city Niš and its surroundings. Experimental results show that the proposed approach gives acceptable results for the entire period of prediction, which are in range with other solutions in this area.

  3. Clinical bending of nickel titanium wires

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Chain; Priyank Seth; Namrata Rastogi; Kenneth Tan; Mayank Gupta; Richa Singh

    2015-01-01

    Since the evolution and the involvement of Nickel Titanium wires in the field of Orthodontics. The treatment plan has evolved with the use of low force Nickel Titanium wires. Because of their high springback, low stiffness, they are the key initial wires in leveling and alignment but have poor formability. Since poor formability limits its ability to create variable arch forms thus; limits the form of treatment. We have devised a method to bend the Nickel Titanium wires to help in our invento...

  4. Objective and subjective methods for quantifying training load in wheelchair basketball small-sided games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturricastillo, Aitor; Granados, Cristina; Los Arcos, Asier; Yanci, Javier

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the training load in wheelchair basketball small-sided games and determine the relationship between heart rate (HR)-based training load and perceived exertion (RPE)-based training load methods among small-sided games bouts. HR-based measurements of training load included Edwards' training load and Stagno's training impulses (TRIMP MOD ) while RPE-based training load measurements included cardiopulmonary (session RPEres) and muscular (session RPEmus) values. Data were collected from 12 wheelchair basketball players during five consecutive weeks. The total load for the small-sided games sessions was 67.5 ± 6.7 and 55.3 ± 12.5 AU in HR-based training load (Edwards' training load and TRIMP MOD ), while the RPE-based training loads were 99.3 ± 26.9 (session RPEres) and 100.8 ± 31.2 AU (session RPEmus). Bout-to-bout analysis identified greater session RPEmus in the third [P training loads. It is suggested that HR-based and RPE-based training loads provide different information, but these two methods could be complementary because one method could help us to understand the limitations of the other.

  5. A hybrid method for optimal load shedding and improving voltage stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tamilselvan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a hybrid method is proposed for reducing the amount of load shedding and voltage collapse. The hybrid method is the combination of Genetic Algorithm (GA and Neural Network (NN. The GA is used by two stages, one is to frame the optimization model and other stage is to generate data set for developing the NN based intelligent load shedding model. The appropriate buses for load shedding are selected based on the sensitivity of minimum eigenvalue of load flow Jacobian with respect to the load shed. The proposed method is implemented in MATLAB working platform and the performance is tested with 6 bus and IEEE 14 bus bench mark system. The result of the proposed hybrid method is compared with the GA based optimization algorithm. The comparison shows that, the proposed method ensures voltage stability with minimum loading shedding.

  6. 46 CFR 111.60-7 - Demand loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Demand loads. 111.60-7 Section 111.60-7 Shipping COAST... REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-7 Demand loads. Generator, feeder, and bus-tie cables must be selected on the basis of a computed load of not less than the demand load given in Table 111.60-7...

  7. Development of a method to estimate coal pillar loading

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roberts, DP

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this project was to determine the accuracy and validity of the Tributary Area Theory (TAT) and to provide better estimates of pillar load using numerical modelling and other tools. Literature review highlighted that previous work...

  8. Optimisation models and solution methods for load management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, Stig-Inge; Roennqvist, Mikael; Claesson, Marcus

    2001-02-01

    The electricity market in Sweden has changed during recent years. Electricity for industrial use can nowadays be purchased from a number of competing electricity suppliers. Hence, the price for each kilowatt-hour is significantly lower than just two years ago and the interest for electricity conservation measures has declined. Part of the electricity tariff is, however, almost the same as before, i.e. the demand cost expressed in Swedish Kronor, SEK, for each kilowatt. This has put focus on load management measures in order to decrease this specific cost. Saving one kWh might lead to monetary savings between 0.22 to 914 SEK and this paper shows how to save only those kWh which really save money. A load management system has been installed in a small carpentry factory and the device can turn off equipment due to a certain priority and for a number of minutes each hour. The question is now, what level on the electricity load is optimal in a strict mathematical sense, i.e. how many kW should be set in the load management computer in order to get the best profitability? In this paper we develop a mathematical model which can be used both as a tool to find a best profitable subscription level and as a tool to control the turn of choices. Numerical results from a case study are presented

  9. Occupational low back load assessment using a video analysis method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, P.; Kingma, I.; Boot, C.R.L.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Bonger, P.M.; Dieën, J.H. van

    2011-01-01

    Much research has been performed on associations of physical exposures (e.g. lifting, trunk flexion or body vibrations) with low back pain (LBP). However, information on the effect of doses (e.g. spinal force or low back moments) on LBP is lacking. Cumulative low back load is significantly

  10. Load calculation methods for offshore wind turbine foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Passon, Patrik; Branner, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Calculation of design loads for offshore wind turbine (OWT) foundations is typically performed in a joint effort between wind turbine manufactures and foundation designers (FDs). Ideally, both parties would apply the same fully integrated design tool and model for that purpose. However, such solu...

  11. Different mechanical properties in Seldinger guide wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Schummer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Most central venous catheters are placed using Seldinger guide wires. EN ISO 11070 is the guideline for testing guide wire flexing performance and tensile strength, and we can safely assume that guide wires in use meet these requirements. Unfortunately, EN ISO 11070 guidelines do not reflect the clinical requirements and we continue to see mechanical failures and their associated complications. Material and Methods: This in vitro study was performed in an accredited laboratory. With regard to flexing, we: (1 Established the minimum flexing performance needed to meet clinical requirements, (2 developed flexing performance tests which mimic clinical requirement, and (3 evaluated the mechanical properties of various guide wires relative to these requirements. With regard to tensile strength, we used the testing method prescribed in ISO 11070, but did not end the test at 5 Newton (N. We continued until the guide wire was damaged, or we reached maximum tractive force. We then did a wire-to-wire comparison. We examined two basic wire constructions, monofil and core and coil. Results: Tensile strength: All wires tested, except one, met EN ISO 11070 requirements for 5 N tensile strength. The mean of the wire types tested ranged from 15.06 N to 257.76 N. Flexing performance: None of the wires kinked. The monofil had no evidence of bending. Two core/coil wires displayed minor bending (angle 1.5°. All other wires displayed bending angles between 22.5° and 43.0°. Conclusion: We recommend that: (1 Clinicians use guide wires with high-end mechanical properties, (2 EN ISO 11070 incorporate our flexing test into their testing method, raise the flexing requirement to kink-proof, (3 and raise the tensile strength requirement to a minimum of 30 N, and (3 all manufacturers and suppliers be required to display mechanical properties of all guide wire, and guide wire kits sold.

  12. Wire communication engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Byeong Tae

    1997-02-01

    This book describes wire telecommunication engineering/ It is divided into eleven chapter, which deal with Introduction with development of telecommunication, voice and sound wave and communication network, Telegraphy with summary of telegraphy, code of telegraphy, communication speed, morse and telex, Telephone on structure, circuit and image telephone, Traffic on telecommunication traffic, transmission of line about theory, cable line and loaded cable, carrier communication with carrier telegraphy and carrier telephone, optical communication with types, structure, specialty, laser and equipment, DATA, Mobile telecommunication on summary, mobile telephone, radio paging and digital mobile telecommunication, ISDN with channel of ISDN, and service of ISDN, and design of telecommunication.

  13. Identification of moving sinusoidal wave loads for sensor structural configuration by finite element inverse method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Yu, S.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a beam structure of composite materials with elastic foundation supports is established as the sensor model, which propagates moving sinusoidal wave loads. The inverse Finite Element Method (iFEM) is applied for reconstructing moving wave loads which are compared with true wave loads. The conclusion shows that iFEM is accurate and robust in the determination of wave propagation. This helps to seek a suitable new wave sensor method.

  14. [Prophylactics of pyo-inflammatory complications in the wire area during treatment by the method of transosseous compressive-distractive osteosynthesis with probiotic "Sporobacterin liquid"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimov, D V; Solnyshkova, T G; Safronov, A A

    2008-01-01

    Prophylactics of surgical infections is one of the principal problems in using any surgical method, the method of transosseous osteosynthesis included. Preventive treatment is considered to be one of possible ways to decrease the number of pyo-inflammatory complications. However, unjustified antibiotic therapy gives a negative effect and is often followed by side reactions and complications. This experimental investigation presents grounds for using the method of prophylactics of pyo-inflammatory complications in the area of wires in treatment by the method of extrafocal compressive-distractive osteosynthesis with a new generation probiotic "Sporobacterin liquid".

  15. Methods and apparatus for rotor load control in wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw

    2006-08-22

    A wind turbine having a rotor, at least one rotor blade, and a plurality of generators, of which a first generator is configured to provide power to an electric grid and a second generator is configured to provide power to the wind turbine during times of grid loss. The wind turbine is configured to utilize power provided by the second generator to reduce loads on the wind turbine during times of grid loss.

  16. Systems and methods for providing power to a load based upon a control strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perisic, Milun; Kajouke, Lateef A; Ransom, Ray M

    2013-12-24

    Systems and methods are provided for an electrical system. The electrical system includes a load, an interface configured to receive a voltage from a voltage source, and a controller configured to receive the voltage from the voltage source through the interface and to provide a voltage and current to the load. Wherein, when the controller is in a constant voltage mode, the controller provides a constant voltage to the load, when the controller is in a constant current mode, the controller provides a constant current to the load, and when the controller is in a constant power mode, the controller provides a constant power to the load.

  17. Wiring assembly and method of forming a channel in a wiring assembly for receiving conductor and providing separate regions of conductor contact with the channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelzer, Gerald; Meinke, Rainer; Senti, Mark

    2018-03-06

    A conductor assembly and method for constructing an assembly of the type which, when conducting current, generates a magnetic field or which, in the presence of a changing magnetic field, induces a voltage. In one embodiment the method provides a first insulative layer tubular in shape and including a surface along which a conductor segment may be positioned. A channel formed in the surface of the insulative layer defines a first conductor path and includes a surface of first contour in cross section along a first plane transverse to the conductor path. A segment of conductor having a surface of second contour in cross section is positioned at least partly in the channel and extends along the conductor path. Along the first plane, contact between the conductor surface of second contour and the channel surface of first contour includes at least two separate regions of contact.

  18. Method for Load Sharing and Power Management in a Hybrid PV/Battery Source Islanded Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimi, Yaser; Oraee, Hashem; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a decentralized load sharing and power management method for an islanded microgrid composed of PV units, battery units and hybrid PV/battery units. The proposed method performs all the necessary tasks such as load sharing among the units, battery charging and discharging and PV...

  19. Ga N nano wires and nano tubes growth by chemical vapor deposition method at different NH{sub 3} flow rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, P.; Liu, Y.; Meng, X. [Wuhan University, School of Physics and Technology, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro and Nanostructures of Ministry of Education, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Ga N nano wires and nano tubes have been successfully synthesized via the simple chemical vapor deposition method. NH{sub 3} flow rate was found to be a crucial factor in the synthesis of different type of Ga N which affects the shape and the diameter of generated Ga N nano structures. X-ray diffraction confirms that Ga N nano wires grown on Si(111) substrate under 900 degrees Celsius and with NH{sub 3} flow rate of 50 sc cm presents the preferred orientation growth in the (002) direction. It is beneficial to the growth of nano structure through catalyst annealing. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to measure the size and structures of the samples. (Author)

  20. Modified Laursen Method for Estimating Bed-Material Sediment Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Mr. 1Tnomas. At the time of publication of this report, Director of WES was Dr. Robert W. Whalin. Commander was COL Bruce K. Howard, EN . iv Conversion...GOrade near Bernalillo, New Mexico Middle Loop River at Dunning. Nebraska Niobrara River near Cody, Nebraska Arkansas River at Dardandle and Morrilton...comparable to results of other sediment load computation procedures. CWp 5 Appkaik of Modaed Laurmn FundconA RWtonsNp 13 IGO- 060OMM UM.TO.AM F~gur S

  1. WIRED — World Wide Web interactive remote event display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballaminut, A.; Colonello, C.; Dönszelmann, M.; van Herwijnen, E.; Köper, D.; Korhonen, J.; Litmaath, M.; Perl, J.; Theodorou, A.; Whiteson, D.; Wolff, E.

    2001-10-01

    WIRED ( http://wired.cern.ch/) is a framework, written in Java, to build High Energy Physics event displays that can be used across the network. To guarantee portability across all platforms, WIRED is implemented in the Java language and uses the Swing user interface component set. It can be used as a stand-alone application or as an applet inside a WWW browser. The graphical user interface allows for multiple views and for multiple controls acting on those views. A detector tree control is available to toggle the visibility of parts of the events and detector geometry. XML (Extensible Markup Language), RMI (Remote Method Invocation) and CORBA loaders can be used to load event data as well as geometry data, and to connect to FORTRAN, C, C++ and Java reconstruction programs. Non-linear and non-Cartesian projections (e.g., fisheye, ρ- φ, ρ- Z, φ- Z) provide special views to get a better understanding of events. A special Java interpreter allows physicists to write small scripts to interact with their data and its display. WIRED has grown to be a framework in use and under development in several HEP experiments (ATLAS, CHORUS, DELPHI, LHCb, BaBar, D0 and ZEUS). WIRED event displays have also proven to be useful to explain High Energy Physics to the general public. Both CERN, in its traveling exhibition and MicroCosm, and RAL, during its open days, have displays set up.

  2. Clinical bending of nickel titanium wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Chain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the evolution and the involvement of Nickel Titanium wires in the field of Orthodontics. The treatment plan has evolved with the use of low force Nickel Titanium wires. Because of their high springback, low stiffness, they are the key initial wires in leveling and alignment but have poor formability. Since poor formability limits its ability to create variable arch forms thus; limits the form of treatment. We have devised a method to bend the Nickel Titanium wires to help in our inventory but also customized the wire according to the treatment.

  3. U.S. Navy Wire-Rope Handbook. Volume 1. Design and Engineering of Wire-Rope Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    percent nickel and are designated "Type 304 " and "Type 302" by the American Iron and Steel Institute ( AISI ). Type 304 stainless steel rope may be...from AISI Specifica- tion XYZ14 on Alloy Steel Wire) .... ............ ... 3-2 3-2. Typical Load-Elongation Behavior of Wire Rope .... ...... 3-9 3...Cosecants .......... ................... ... 10-S 10-11. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Wire ............ . .. 10-10 10-12. Wire Gauges

  4. Noncontextual Wirings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Barbara; Cabello, Adán; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Aolita, Leandro

    2018-03-01

    Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory necessary for certain models of quantum computation and communication. Serious steps have therefore been taken towards a formal framework for contextuality as an operational resource. However, the main ingredient of a resource theory—a concrete, explicit form of free operations of contextuality—was still missing. Here we provide such a component by introducing noncontextual wirings: a class of contextuality-free operations with a clear operational interpretation and a friendly parametrization. We characterize them completely for general black-box measurement devices with arbitrarily many inputs and outputs. As applications, we show that the relative entropy of contextuality is a contextuality monotone and that maximally contextual boxes that serve as contextuality bits exist for a broad class of scenarios. Our results complete a unified resource-theoretic framework for contextuality and Bell nonlocality.

  5. Damage Detection of Axially Loaded Beam: A Frequency-Based Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Rezaifar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study utilizes an analytical method to formulate the three lowest modal frequencies of axially-loaded notched beam through both crack location and load level in a specific format that can be used in existing frequency-based crack-identification methods. The proposed formula provides a basis to shift into two states, one with axial loading and the other without any loading whatsoever. When any two natural frequencies in simply-supported beam with an open crack, subjected to axial load, are measured, crack position and extent can be determined, using a characteristic equation, which is a function of crack location, sectional flexibility, and eigenvalue (natural frequency. Theoretical results show high accuracy for service axial loads. In this range, errors for crack location and extent are less than 12% and 10%, respectively.

  6. Using CSLD Method to Calculate COD Pollution Load of Wei River Watershed above Huaxian Section, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Song, JinXi; Liu, WanQing

    2017-12-01

    Huaxian Section is the last hydrological and water quality monitoring section of Weihe River Watershed. Weihe River Watershed above Huaxian Section is taken as the research objective in this paper and COD is chosen as the water quality parameter. According to the discharge characteristics of point source pollutions and non-point source pollutions, a new method to estimate pollution loads—characteristic section load(CSLD) method is suggested and point source pollution and non-point source pollution loads of Weihe River Watershed above Huaxian Section are calculated in the rainy, normal and dry season in the year 2007. The results show that the monthly point source pollution loads of Weihe River Watershed above Huaxian Section discharge stably and the monthly non-point source pollution loads of Weihe River Watershed above Huaxian Section change greatly and the non-point source pollution load proportions of total pollution load of COD decrease in the normal, rainy and wet period in turn.

  7. Calculating NH3-N pollution load of wei river watershed above Huaxian section using CSLD method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Song, JinXi; Liu, WanQing

    2018-02-01

    Huaxian Section is the last hydrological and water quality monitoring section of Weihe River Watershed. So it is taken as the research objective in this paper and NH3-N is chosen as the water quality parameter. According to the discharge characteristics of point source pollutions and non-point source pollutions, a new method to estimate pollution loads—characteristic section load (CSLD)method is suggested and point source pollution and non-point source pollution loads of Weihe River Watershed above Huaxian Section are calculated in the rainy, normal and dry season in the year 2007. The results show that the monthly point source pollution loads of Weihe River Watershed above Huaxian Section discharge stably and the monthly non-point source pollution loads of Weihe River Watershed above Huaxian Section change greatly. The non-point source pollution load proportions of total pollution load of NH3-N decrease in the normal, rainy and wet period in turn.

  8. Design of active controls for the NASA F-8 digital fly-by-wire airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gera, J.

    1976-01-01

    The design of a set of control laws for the NASA F-8 digital fly by wire research airplane is described. These control laws implement several active controls functions: maneuver load control, ride smoothing and departure boundary limiting. The criteria and methods which were used in the design of the control laws are also included. Results of linear analyses and nonlinear simulation are summarized.

  9. Direct measurement of elastic modulus of Nb 3Sn using extracted filaments from superconducting composite wire and resin impregnation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojo, M.; Matsuoka, T.; Hashimoto, M.; Tanaka, M.; Sugano, M.; Ochiai, S.; Miyashita, K.

    2006-10-01

    Young's modulus of Nb3Sn filaments in Nb3Sn/Cu superconducting composite wire was investigated in detail. Nb3Sn filaments were first extracted from composite wire. Nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid were used to remove copper stabilizer, Nb3Sn/Nb barrier and bronze. Then, Nb3Sn filaments were impregnated with epoxy resin to form simple filament bundle composite rods. A large difference in Young's moduli of filaments and epoxy resin enhance the accuracy of the measurement of Nb3Sn filament modulus. The ratio of Nb3Sn to Nb in filaments and the number of filaments in the fiber bundle composite rods were used in the final calculation of the Young's modulus of Nb3Sn. The obtained modulus of 127 GPa was the lower bound of the already reported values.

  10. Direct measurement of elastic modulus of Nb3Sn using extracted filaments from superconducting composite wire and resin impregnation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojo, M.; Matsuoka, T.; Hashimoto, M.; Tanaka, M.; Sugano, M.; Ochiai, S.; Miyashita, K.

    2006-01-01

    Young's modulus of Nb 3 Sn filaments in Nb 3 Sn/Cu superconducting composite wire was investigated in detail. Nb 3 Sn filaments were first extracted from composite wire. Nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid were used to remove copper stabilizer, Nb 3 Sn/Nb barrier and bronze. Then, Nb 3 Sn filaments were impregnated with epoxy resin to form simple filament bundle composite rods. A large difference in Young's moduli of filaments and epoxy resin enhance the accuracy of the measurement of Nb 3 Sn filament modulus. The ratio of Nb 3 Sn to Nb in filaments and the number of filaments in the fiber bundle composite rods were used in the final calculation of the Young's modulus of Nb 3 Sn. The obtained modulus of 127 GPa was the lower bound of the already reported values

  11. Intra-wire resistance and AC loss in multi-filamentary MgB2 wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Chao; Offringa, Wietse; Bergen, Anne-Henriette; Wessel, Wilhelm A.J.; Krooshoop, Hendrikus J.G.; Dhalle, Marc M.J.; Sumption, M.D.; Collings, E.W.; Rindfleisch, M.; Tomsic, M.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Nijhuis, Arend

    2013-01-01

    Intra-wire resistance and AC loss of various multi-filamentary MgB2 wires with filaments surrounded by Nb barriers have been measured and analyzed. The intra-wire resistance is measured with a direct four-probe voltage–current method at various temperatures. The AC loss is acquired by both vibrating

  12. A method to find the 50-year extreme load during production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R.; Veldkamp, D.

    2016-01-01

    An important yet difficult task in the design of wind turbines is to assess the extreme load behaviour, most notably finding the 50-year load. Where existing methods often focus on ways to extrapolate from small sample sizes, this paper proposes a different approach. It combines generating

  13. An efficient method to reduce ill-posedness for structural dynamic load identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Meng, Xianghua; Zhang, Dequan; Jiang, Chao; Han, Xu

    2017-10-01

    For the inverse problem of structural dynamic load identification, high system ill-posedness is a main cause leading to instability and low accuracy. In this study, an efficient interpolation-based method is proposed to reduce ill-posedness availably and identify dynamic load stably. The load history is discretized into a series of time elements, and the load profile in each time element is approximated through interpolation functions. Then, in the whole time domain, the dynamic responses under interpolation function loads are calculated through a few finite element analysis and then assembled together to form a global kernel function matrix for load identification. Using singular value decomposition (SVD), the ill-posed degree of the global kernel function matrix can be analyzed. Compared with the conventional Green kernel function method (GKFM), the ill-posedness of global kernel function matrix in the proposed method is significantly reduced. Especially, when the length of time element is selected appropriately, the global kernel function matrix is entirely well-posed and the corresponding dynamic load can be stably identified without any regularization operation. Numerical examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method and the correctness of identified load.

  14. Methods and apparatus for reduction of asymmetric rotor loads in wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, Emilian Mieczyslaw; Pierce, Kirk Gee

    2006-10-10

    A method for reducing load and providing yaw alignment in a wind turbine includes measuring displacements or moments resulting from asymmetric loads on the wind turbine. These measured displacements or moments are used to determine a pitch for each rotor blade to reduce or counter asymmetric rotor loading and a favorable yaw orientation to reduce pitch activity. Yaw alignment of the wind turbine is adjusted in accordance with the favorable yaw orientation and the pitch of each rotor blade is adjusted in accordance with the determined pitch to reduce or counter asymmetric rotor loading.

  15. Durability evaluation method for contact component interconnections in printed circuit boards under thermal loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azin, Anton; Zhukov, Andrey A.; Ponomarev, Sergey A.; Ponomarev, Sergey V.

    2017-11-01

    In designing sophisticated printed circuit boards, required evaluation of the product life cycle is relevant in terms of presumably applied load conditions during operation. The paper describes the durability evaluation method of printed circuit board components with contact output such as ball grid array (BGA) and pitch grid array (PGA) under thermal loads. Experiment data and numerical simulation results of soldered connections have been obtained. This method is demonstrated by a practical application example-evaluating of printed circuit board durability under cyclic thermal loads. The application of proposed method for printed circuit boards would make it possible to predict the service life of these designed products.

  16. Direct Blue 71 staining as a destaining-free alternative loading control method for Western blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Li; Guo, Jing; Xu, Hong-Bo; Huang, Rongzhong; Shao, Weihua; Yang, Liu; Wang, Mingju; Chen, Jianjun; Xie, Peng

    2013-08-01

    In Western blotting, a suitable loading control is indispensable for correcting errors in the total amount of loaded protein. Immunodetection of housekeeping proteins and total protein staining have traditionally been used as loading control methods. Direct Blue 71 (DB71) staining-a novel, sensitive, dye-binding staining method compatible with immunodetection-may offer advantages over these traditional loading control methods. Three common neuroscientific samples (human plasma, human oligodendrocytes, and rat brain) were employed to assess DB71 staining as a loading control method for Western blotting. DB71, CBB, one traditional housekeeping protein, and one protein of interest were comparatively assessed for reliability and repeatability and linear dynamic range over 2.5-40 μg of protein loaded. DB71's effect on the reliability and repeatability and linear dynamic range of immunoreaction were also assessed. Across all three sample types, DB71 was either equivalent or superior to CBB and housekeeping protein-based methods in terms of reliability and repeatability and linear dynamic range. Across all three sample types, DB71 staining did not impair the reliability and repeatability or linear dynamic range of immunoreaction. Our results demonstrate that the DB71 staining can be used as a destaining-free alternative loading control method for Western blotting. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Load assumption for fatigue design of structures and components counting methods, safety aspects, practical application

    CERN Document Server

    Köhler, Michael; Pötter, Kurt; Zenner, Harald

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the fatigue behaviour of structural components under variable load amplitude is an essential prerequisite for safe and reliable light-weight design. For designing and dimensioning, the expected stress (load) is compared with the capacity to withstand loads (fatigue strength). In this process, the safety necessary for each particular application must be ensured. A prerequisite for ensuring the required fatigue strength is a reliable load assumption. The authors describe the transformation of the stress- and load-time functions which have been measured under operational conditions to spectra or matrices with the application of counting methods. The aspects which must be considered for ensuring a reliable load assumption for designing and dimensioning are discussed in detail. Furthermore, the theoretical background for estimating the fatigue life of structural components is explained, and the procedures are discussed for numerous applications in practice. One of the prime intentions of the authors ...

  18. Propagation of Ultrasonic Guided Waves in Composite Multi-Wire Ropes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaldas Raisutis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Multi-wire ropes are widely used as load-carrying constructional elements in bridges, cranes, elevators, etc. Structural integrity of such ropes can be inspected by using non-destructive ultrasonic techniques. The objective of this work was to investigate propagation of ultrasonic guided waves (UGW along composite multi-wire ropes in the cases of various types of acoustic contacts between neighboring wires and the plastic core. The modes of UGW propagating along the multi-wire ropes were identified using modelling, the dispersion curves were calculated using analytical and semi-analytical finite element (SAFE techniques. In order to investigate the effects of UGW propagation, the two types of the acoustic contact between neighboring wires were simulated using the 3D finite element method (FE as well. The key question of investigation was estimation of the actual boundary conditions between neighboring wires (solid or slip and the real depth of penetration of UGW into the overall cross-section of the rope. Therefore, in order to verify the results of FE modelling, the guided wave penetration into strands of multi-wire rope was investigated experimentally. The performed modelling and experimental investigation enabled us to select optimal parameters of UGW to be used for non-destructive testing.

  19. STRENGTHENING OF A REINFORCED CONCRETE BRIDGE WITH PRESTRESSED STEEL WIRE ROPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kexin Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes prestressed steel wire ropes as a way to strengthen a 20-year-old RC T-beam bridge. High strength, low relaxation steel wire ropes with minor radius, high tensile strain and good corrosion resistance were used in this reinforcement. The construction process for strengthening with prestressed steel wire ropes—including wire rope measuring, extruding anchor heads making, anchorage installing, tensioning steel wire ropes and pouring mortar was described. Ultimate bearing capacity of the bridge after strengthening was discussed based on the concrete structure theory. The flexural strength of RC T-beam bridges strengthened with prestressed steel wire ropes was governed by the failure of concrete crushing. To investigate effectiveness of the strengthening method, fielding-load tests were carried out before and after strengthening. The results of concrete strain and deflection show that the flexural strength and stiffness of the strengthened beam are improved. The crack width measurement also indicates that this technique could increase the durability of the bridge. Thus, this strengthened way with prestressed steel wire rope is feasible and effective.

  20. Vibrating wire for beam profile scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Arutunian

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A method that measures the transverse profile (emittance of the bunch by detecting radiation arising at the scattering of the bunch on scanning wire is widely used. In this work information about bunch scattering is obtained by measuring the oscillation frequency of the tightened scanning wire. In such a way, the system of radiation (or secondary particles extraction and measurement can be removed. The entire unit consists of a compact fork with tightened wire and a scanning system. Normal oscillation frequency of a wire depends on wire tension, its geometric parameters, and, in a second approximation, its elastic characteristics. Normal oscillations are generated by interaction of an alternating current through the wire with magnetic field of a permanent magnet. In this case, it is suggested that the magnetic field of the accelerator (field of dipole magnets or quadrupole magnets be used for excitation of oscillations. The dependence of oscillation frequency on beam scattering is determined by several factors, including changes of wire tension caused by transverse force of the beam and influence of beam self-field. Preliminary calculations show that the influence of wire heating will dominate. We have studied strain gauges on the basis of vibrating wire from various materials (tungsten, beryl bronze, and niobium zirconium alloys. A scheme of normal oscillation generation by alternating current in autogeneration circuit with automatic frequency adjustment was selected. A special method of wire fixation and elimination of transverse degrees of freedom allows us to achieve relative stability better than 10^{-5} during several days at a relative resolution of 10^{-6}. Experimental results and estimates of wire heating of existing scanners show that the wire heats up to a few hundred grades, which is enough for measurements. The usage of wire of micrometer thickness diminishes the problem of wire thermalization speed during the scanning of the bunch.

  1. Dental Arch Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Straightening teeth is an arduous process requiring months, often years, of applying corrective pressure by means of arch wires-better known as brace-which may have to be changed several times in the course of treatment. A new method has been developed by Dr. George Andreasen, orthodontist and dental scientist at the University of Iowa. The key is a new type of arch wire material, called Nitinol, with exceptional elasticity which helps reduce the required number of brace changes. An alloy of nickel and titanium, Nitinol was originally developed for aerospace applications by the Naval Ordnance Laboratory, now the Naval Surface Weapons Laboratory, White Oaks, Maryland. NASA subsequently conducted additional research on the properties of Nitinol and on procedures for processing the metal.

  2. A computationally simple method for cost-efficient generation rescheduling and load shedding for congestion management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talukdar, B.K.; Sinha, A.K.; Mukhopadhyay, S. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Kharagpur (India); Bose, A. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2005-07-01

    This paper describes a method of congestion management by generation rescheduling and load shedding. The sensitivities of the overloaded lines to bus injections and the costs of generation and load shedding are considered for ranking the generation and load buses. The new generation and load shedding schedule for these buses are then computed based on a simple method considering cost and sensitivity to line currents. The algorithm will help the system operator to generate the contingency plan quickly for secure operation of the system. Test results for three systems are presented. The results show that cost effective generation rescheduling and load shedding plans can be obtained to alleviate overloading of the transmission lines in a computationally efficient manner. (Author)

  3. Stress and deflection analyses of floating roofs based on a load-modifying method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiushan; Liu Yinghua; Wang Jianbin; Cen Zhangzhi

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a load-modifying method for the stress and deflection analyses of floating roofs used in cylindrical oil storage tanks. The formulations of loads and deformations are derived according to the equilibrium analysis of floating roofs. Based on these formulations, the load-modifying method is developed to conduct a geometrically nonlinear analysis of floating roofs with the finite element (FE) simulation. In the procedure with the load-modifying method, the analysis is carried out through a series of iterative computations until a convergence is achieved within the error tolerance. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the validity and reliability of the proposed method, which provides an effective and practical numerical solution to the design and analysis of floating roofs

  4. Comparison of three methods of calculating strain in the mouse ulna in exogenous loading studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Stephanie C; Wagner, David W; Beaupre, Gary S; Castillo, Alesha B

    2015-01-02

    Axial compression of mouse limbs is commonly used to induce bone formation in a controlled, non-invasive manner. Determination of peak strains caused by loading is central to interpreting results. Load-strain calibration is typically performed using uniaxial strain gauges attached to the diaphyseal, periosteal surface of a small number of sacrificed animals. Strain is measured as the limb is loaded to a range of physiological loads known to be anabolic to bone. The load-strain relationship determined by this subgroup is then extrapolated to a larger group of experimental mice. This method of strain calculation requires the challenging process of strain gauging very small bones which is subject to variability in placement of the strain gauge. We previously developed a method to estimate animal-specific periosteal strain during axial ulnar loading using an image-based computational approach that does not require strain gauges. The purpose of this study was to compare the relationship between load-induced bone formation rates and periosteal strain at ulnar midshaft using three different methods to estimate strain: (A) Nominal strain values based solely on load-strain calibration; (B) Strains calculated from load-strain calibration, but scaled for differences in mid-shaft cross-sectional geometry among animals; and (C) An alternative image-based computational method for calculating strains based on beam theory and animal-specific bone geometry. Our results show that the alternative method (C) provides comparable correlation between strain and bone formation rates in the mouse ulna relative to the strain gauge-dependent methods (A and B), while avoiding the need to use strain gauges. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The heterogeneous electrochemical characteristics of mild steel in the presence of local glucose oxidase-A study by the wire beam electrode method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Lu Yonghong; Zou Yan; Zhang Xia; Wang Jia

    2010-01-01

    The influence of glucose oxidase (GOD) activity on the heterogeneous electrochemistry at artificial biofilm/mild steel interface was first characterized by the wire beam electrode (WBE) method. Potential/current distribution maps show that a cathodic zone can be formed at the GOD capsule site. The cathodic zone is gradually weakened due to the gluconic acid production in seawater. When GOD capsule is confined on rusted WBE surfaces, the formerly formed anodic zone is gradually changed into cathodic zone, in the presence of glucose. The novel device developed in our laboratory demonstrates powerful applications in heterogeneous electrochemistry measurements at the biofilm/mild steel interfaces.

  6. Stretched Wire Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowden, Gordon; /SLAC

    2005-09-06

    Stretched wires are beginning to play an important role in the alignment of accelerators and synchrotron light sources. Stretched wires are proposed for the alignment of the 130 meter long LCLS undulator. Wire position technology has reached sub-micron resolution yet analyses of perturbations to wire straightness are hard to find. This paper considers possible deviations of stretched wire from the simple 2-dimensional catenary form.

  7. Load forecast method of electric vehicle charging station using SVR based on GA-PSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kuan; Sun, Wenxue; Ma, Changhui; Yang, Shenquan; Zhu, Zijian; Zhao, Pengfei; Zhao, Xin; Xu, Nan

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a Support Vector Regression (SVR) method for electric vehicle (EV) charging station load forecast based on genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) clustering is used to establish similar day samples. GA is used for global parameter searching and PSO is used for a more accurately local searching. Load forecast is then regressed using SVR. The practical load data of an EV charging station were taken to illustrate the proposed method. The result indicates an obvious improvement in the forecasting accuracy compared with SVRs based on PSO and GA exclusively.

  8. The Installation for Fatigue and Destruction Tests of Thin Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Prosvirin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatigue strength of high-strength materials such as wire is, essentially, dependent on the surface state, stress concentrators, non-metal inclusions, etc. Multifactorial process of damage accumulation and fracture under cyclic loading makes it difficult to predict the durability of structural materials. So fatigue tests, taking into account the operating conditions of stress exposure as much as possible, are of special importance.A feature of the wire fatigue tests is that it is complicated to secure the samples and create the alternate stresses. Currently, there is no equipment to study the fatigue strength of the wire in accordance with GOST 1579-93. Partly the problem of the wire fatigue tests was solved owing to using the installation developed in IMET RAS and considered as the base case. However, the installation has significant disadvantages, namely: a complicated for implementing in practice method to control stresses in the sample; an imperfect system to count cycles; an incapability to change the engine speed of the motor and thus, the frequency of loading.In developing the new design all the basic blocks of installation were upgraded such as drive unit; unit to control stress in the sample; unit for determining the number of cycles to failure.To change the stresses in the sample the paper offers to use the platform from polymethylmethacrylate with slotted curved channels of different radii. The stresses in the sample are dependent on the channel radius R, the wire diameter d and the modulus of elasticity E of the material and may vary in the range of 200 - 1200 MPa. The use of CNC machines in cutting the channels allows stress adjustment within ± 0,1 MPa.The developed design is used to drive the rotation of the wire and makes it possible to change the frequency of loading in the range of 0 - 100 Hz. It is shown that the use of the closing relay in drive design and the transition to an electronic system of determining the number of

  9. Mixed price and load forecasting of electricity markets by a new iterative prediction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjady, Nima; Daraeepour, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Load and price forecasting are the two key issues for the participants of current electricity markets. However, load and price of electricity markets have complex characteristics such as nonlinearity, non-stationarity and multiple seasonality, to name a few (usually, more volatility is seen in the behavior of electricity price signal). For these reasons, much research has been devoted to load and price forecast, especially in the recent years. However, previous research works in the area separately predict load and price signals. In this paper, a mixed model for load and price forecasting is presented, which can consider interactions of these two forecast processes. The mixed model is based on an iterative neural network based prediction technique. It is shown that the proposed model can present lower forecast errors for both load and price compared with the previous separate frameworks. Another advantage of the mixed model is that all required forecast features (from load or price) are predicted within the model without assuming known values for these features. So, the proposed model can better be adapted to real conditions of an electricity market. The forecast accuracy of the proposed mixed method is evaluated by means of real data from the New York and Spanish electricity markets. The method is also compared with some of the most recent load and price forecast techniques. (author)

  10. A finite element method for flow problems in blast loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forestier, A.; Lepareux, M.

    1984-06-01

    This paper presents a numerical method which describes fast dynamic problems in flow transient situations as in nuclear plants. A finite element formulation has been chosen; it is described by a preprocessor in CASTEM system: GIBI code. For these typical flow problems, an A.L.E. formulation for physical equations is used. So, some applications are presented: the well known problem of shock tube, the same one in 2D case and a last application to hydrogen detonation

  11. A method for rapid sampling and characterization of smokeless powder using sorbent-coated wire mesh and direct analysis in real time - mass spectrometry (DART-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Frederick; Tice, Joseph; Musselman, Brian D; Hall, Adam B

    2016-09-01

    Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are often used by terrorists and criminals to create public panic and destruction, necessitating rapid investigative information. However, backlogs in many forensic laboratories resulting in part from time-consuming GC-MS and LC-MS techniques prevent prompt analytical information. Direct analysis in real time - mass spectrometry (DART-MS) is a promising analytical technique that can address this challenge in the forensic science community by permitting rapid trace analysis of energetic materials. Therefore, we have designed a qualitative analytical approach that utilizes novel sorbent-coated wire mesh and dynamic headspace concentration to permit the generation of information rich chemical attribute signatures (CAS) for trace energetic materials in smokeless powder with DART-MS. Sorbent-coated wire mesh improves the overall efficiency of capturing trace energetic materials in comparison to swabbing or vacuuming. Hodgdon Lil' Gun smokeless powder was used to optimize the dynamic headspace parameters. This method was compared to traditional GC-MS methods and validated using the NIST RM 8107 smokeless powder reference standard. Additives and energetic materials, notably nitroglycerin, were rapidly and efficiently captured by the Carbopack X wire mesh, followed by detection and identification using DART-MS. This approach has demonstrated the capability of generating comparable results with significantly reduced analysis time in comparison to GC-MS. All targeted components that can be detected by GC-MS were detected by DART-MS in less than a minute. Furthermore, DART-MS offers the advantage of detecting targeted analytes that are not amenable to GC-MS. The speed and efficiency associated with both the sample collection technique and DART-MS demonstrate an attractive and viable potential alternative to conventional techniques. Copyright © 2016 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  12. [Effect analysis on the two total load control methods for poisonous heavy metals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guo-Wei

    2012-12-01

    Firstly it should be made clear that implementation of source total load control for the first type of pollutants is necessary for environmental pollution control legislation and economic structure regulation. This kind of surveillance method has been more practical to be implemented since the Manual of the Industry Discharge Coefficient of First National Pollution Sources Investigation was published. The source total load control and water environment total load control are independent of each other and none of them is redundant, on the other side they can be complementary to each other. In the present, some local planning managers are blurring and confusing the contents and styles of the two surveillance methods. They just use the water total load control to manage all the pollutants, and source total load control is discarded, which results in the loss of control for the first type of pollutants especially for the drinking water source surveillance. There is a big difference between the water quality standards and the water environmental background concentration values for the first type of pollutants in the Environmental quality standard for surface water (GB 3838-88), which means that there are problems such as "relaxing the pollutant discharge permit" and "risk induced by valence state change". Taking an enterprise with 10t electrolytic lead production capacity as an example, there is a big difference between the allowable lead discharged loads by the two total load surveillance methods. In summary, it will bring a lot of harmful effects if the water total load control is implemented for the two types of pollutants, so the source total load control and water environmental total load control should be implemented strictly at the same time.

  13. A method for improving predictions of bed-load discharges to reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, V.L.; Osterkamp, W.R.; Bravo-Espinosa, M.

    2007-01-01

    Effective management options for mitigating the loss of reservoir water storage capacity to sedimentation depend on improved predictions of bed-load discharges into the reservoirs. Most predictions of bed-load discharges, however, are based on the assumption that the rates of bed-load sediment availability equal the transport capacity of the flow, ignoring the spatio-temporal variability of the sediment supply. This paper develops a semiquantitative method to characterize bed-load sediment transport in alluvial channels, assuming a channel reach is non-supply limited when the bed-load discharge of a given sediment particle-size class is functionally related to the energy that is available to transport that fraction of the total bed-load. The method was applied to 22 alluvial stream channels in the USA to determine whether a channel reach had a supply-limited or non-supply-limited bed-load transport regime. The non-supply-limited transport regime was further subdivided into two groups on the basis of statistical tests. The results indicated the pattern of bed-load sediment transport in alluvial channels depends on the complete spectrum of sediment particle sizes available for transport rather than individual particle-size fractions represented by one characteristic particle size. The application of the method developed in this paper should assist reservoir managers in selecting bed-load sediment transport equations to improve predictions of bed-load discharge in alluvial streams, thereby significantly increasing the efficiency of management options for maintaining the storage capacity of waterbodies. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Simplified Transient Hot-Wire Method for Effective Thermal Conductivity Measurement in Geo Materials: Microstructure and Saturation Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Merckx

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal conductivity measurement by a simplified transient hot-wire technique is applied to geomaterials in order to show the relationships which can exist between effective thermal conductivity, texture, and moisture of the materials. After a validation of the used “one hot-wire” technique in water, toluene, and glass-bead assemblages, the investigations were performed (1 in glass-bead assemblages of different diameters in dried, water, and acetone-saturated states in order to observe the role of grain sizes and saturation on the effective thermal conductivity, (2 in a compacted earth brick at different moisture states, and (3 in a lime-hemp concrete during 110 days following its manufacture. The lime-hemp concrete allows the measurements during the setting, desiccation and carbonation steps. The recorded Δ/ln( diagrams allow the calculation of one effective thermal conductivity in the continuous and homogeneous fluids and two effective thermal conductivities in the heterogeneous solids. The first one measured in the short time acquisitions (<1 s mainly depends on the contact between the wire and grains and thus microtexture and hydrated state of the material. The second one, measured for longer time acquisitions, characterizes the mean effective thermal conductivity of the material.

  15. A new method for insertion of long intestinal tube for small bowel obstruction: Nonendoscopic over-the-wire method via short nasogastric tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiba, Kazuma; Ohmae, Tomoya; Odawara, Nariaki; Moriyama, Makoto; Kanai, Sachiko; Tsuboi, Mayo; Saito, Tomotaka; Uchino, Koji; Akamatsu, Masatoshi; Okamoto, Makoto

    2016-11-01

    It is often difficult to insert a long intestinal tube (LT) in patients with small bowel obstruction (SBO). We developed a novel technique for inserting an LT without endoscopy called nonendoscopic over-the-wire method via short nasogastric tube (NEWSt). We evaluated the efficacy and safety of NEWSt.We performed a retrospective study of patients who underwent LT insertion for SBO without any indications of strangulation with either NEWSt (n = 16) or endoscopy (n = 17) between November 2011 and February 2015 at our hospital. Univariate analysis was used to assess the success rate of LT placement beyond the duodenojejunal flexure, time required for the procedure, clinical outcomes, and adverse events.The success rate was 100% in both groups. Procedure time was numerically, but not statistically, shorter in the NEWSt group compared with the endoscopy group (24 ± 13 vs 30 ± 13 min; P = 0.174). There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups in terms of surgery rate (31% vs 12%; P = 0.225), fasting period (11.3 ± 6.3 vs 9.9 ± 4.5 days; P = 0.482), hospital stay (26.4 ± 22.1 vs 18.7 ± 7.0 days; P = 0.194), and recurrence rate (19% vs 24%; P = 1.0). No serious adverse event was observed in the NEWSt group, whereas serious aspiration pneumonia was observed in 2 patients after LT insertion in the endoscopy group.Without endoscopy, NEWSt enabled the high success rate and the short procedure time for the LT insertion. Prospective, randomized controlled trials are needed.

  16. Convergent validity of a novel method for quantifying rowing training loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Jacqueline; Rice, Anthony J; Main, Luana C; Gastin, Paul B

    2015-01-01

    Elite rowers complete rowing-specific and non-specific training, incorporating continuous and interval-like efforts spanning the intensity spectrum. However, established training load measures are unsuitable for use in some modes and intensities. Consequently, a new measure known as the T2minute method was created. The method quantifies load as the time spent in a range of training zones (time-in-zone), multiplied by intensity- and mode-specific weighting factors that scale the relative stress of different intensities and modes to the demands of on-water rowing. The purpose of this study was to examine the convergent validity of the T2minute method with Banister's training impulse (TRIMP), Lucia's TRIMP and Session-RPE when quantifying elite rowing training. Fourteen elite rowers (12 males, 2 females) were monitored during four weeks of routine training. Unadjusted T2minute loads (using coaches' estimates of time-in-zone) demonstrated moderate-to-strong correlations with Banister's TRIMP, Lucia's TRIMP and Session-RPE (rho: 0.58, 0.55 and 0.42, respectively). Adjusting T2minute loads by using actual time-in-zone data resulted in stronger correlations between the T2minute method and Banister's TRIMP and Lucia's TRIMP (rho: 0.85 and 0.81, respectively). The T2minute method is an appropriate in-field measure of elite rowing training loads, particularly when actual time-in-zone values are used to quantify load.

  17. Method and apparatus for calibrating multi-axis load cells in a dexterous robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor); Platt, Jr., Robert J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A robotic system includes a dexterous robot having robotic joints, angle sensors adapted for measuring joint angles at a corresponding one of the joints, load cells for measuring a set of strain values imparted to a corresponding one of the load cells during a predetermined pose of the robot, and a host machine. The host machine is electrically connected to the load cells and angle sensors, and receives the joint angle values and strain values during the predetermined pose. The robot presses together mating pairs of load cells to form the poses. The host machine executes an algorithm to process the joint angles and strain values, and from the set of all calibration matrices that minimize error in force balance equations, selects the set of calibration matrices that is closest in a value to a pre-specified value. A method for calibrating the load cells via the algorithm is also provided.

  18. Numerical study of AE and DRA methods in sandstone and granite in orthogonal loading directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-hua Ren

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The directional dependency of the acoustic emission (AE and deformation rate analysis (DRA methods was analyzed, based on the contact bond model in the two-dimensional particle flow code (PFC2D in two types of rocks, the coarse-grained sandstone and Aue granite. Each type of rocks had two shapes, the Brazilian disk and a square shape. The mechanical behaviors of the numerical model had already been verified to be in agreement with those of the physical specimens in previous research. Three loading protocols with different loading cycles in two orthogonal directions were specially designed in the numerical tests. The results show that no memory effect is observed in the second loading in the orthogonal direction. However, both the cumulative crack number of the second loading and the differential strain value at the inflection point are influenced by the first loading in the orthogonal direction.

  19. A comparison of methods for the assessment of postural load and duration of computer use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrich, J.; Blatter, B.M.; Bongers, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To compare two different methods for assessment of postural load and duration of computer use in office workers. Methods: The study population existed of 87 computer workers. Questionnaire data about exposure were compared with exposures measured by a standardised or objective method. Measuring

  20. Study on inelastic analysis method for structural design (1). Estimation method of loading history effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yoshihiko; Kasahara, Naoto

    2003-05-01

    The advanced loop-type reactor system, one of the promising concepts in the Feasibility study of the FBR Cycle, adopts many innovative ideas to meet the challenging requirements for safety and economy. As a results, it seems that the structures of the reactor system would be subjected to severer loads than the predecessors. One of the countermeasures to them is the design by inelastic analysis. In the past, many studies showed that structural design by inelastic analysis is much more reasonable than one by conservative elastic analysis. However, inelastic analysis has hardly been adopted in nuclear design so far. One of the reasons is that inelastic analysis has loading history effect, that is, the analysis result would differ depending on the order of loads. It seems to be difficult to find the general solution for the loading history effect. Consequently, inelastic analysis output from the four deferent thermal load histories which consists of the thermal load cycle including the severest cold shock ('C') and the one including the severest hot shock ('H') were compared with each other. From this comparison, it was revealed that the thermal load history with evenly distributed 'H's among 'C's tend to give the most conservative damage estimation derived from inelastic analysis output. Therefore, such thermal load history pattern is proposed for the structural design by inelastic analysis. (author)

  1. Methods for computing water-quality loads at sites in the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Casey J.; Murphy, Jennifer C.; Crawford, Charles G.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.

    2017-10-24

    The U.S. Geological Survey publishes information on concentrations and loads of water-quality constituents at 111 sites across the United States as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Network (NWQN). This report details historical and updated methods for computing water-quality loads at NWQN sites. The primary updates to historical load estimation methods include (1) an adaptation to methods for computing loads to the Gulf of Mexico; (2) the inclusion of loads computed using the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS) method; and (3) the inclusion of loads computed using continuous water-quality data. Loads computed using WRTDS and continuous water-quality data are provided along with those computed using historical methods. Various aspects of method updates are evaluated in this report to help users of water-quality loading data determine which estimation methods best suit their particular application.

  2. Applying graph partitioning methods in measurement-based dynamic load balancing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatele, Abhinav [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fourestier, Sebastien [Univ. of Bordeaux (France). Bordeaux Lab. for Research in Computer Science; Menon, Harshitha [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Kale, Laxmikant V. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Pellegrini, Francois [Univ. of Bordeaux (France). Bordeaux Lab. for Research in Computer Science

    2011-09-26

    Load imbalance leads to an increasing waste of resources as an application is scaled to more and more processors. Achieving the best parallel efficiency for a program requires optimal load balancing which is a NP-hard problem. However, finding near-optimal solutions to this problem for complex computational science and engineering applications is becoming increasingly important. Charm++, a migratable objects based programming model, provides a measurement-based dynamic load balancing framework. This framework instruments and then migrates over-decomposed objects to balance computational load and communication at runtime. This paper explores the use of graph partitioning algorithms, traditionally used for partitioning physical domains/meshes, for measurement-based dynamic load balancing of parallel applications. In particular, we present repartitioning methods developed in a graph partitioning toolbox called SCOTCH that consider the previous mapping to minimize migration costs. We also discuss a new imbalance reduction algorithm for graphs with irregular load distributions. We compare several load balancing algorithms using microbenchmarks on Intrepid and Ranger and evaluate the effect of communication, number of cores and number of objects on the benefit achieved from load balancing. New algorithms developed in SCOTCH lead to better performance compared to the METIS partitioners for several cases, both in terms of the application execution time and fewer number of objects migrated.

  3. SIMULATION OF FRICTIONAL DISSIPATION UNDER BIAXIAL TANGENTIAL LOADING WITH THE METHOD OF DIMENSIONALITY REDUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Dimaki

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with the contact between the elastic bodies subjected to a constant normal load and a varying tangential loading in two directions of the contact plane. For uni-axial in-plane loading, the Cattaneo-Mindlin superposition principle can be applied even if the normal load is not constant but varies as well. However, this is generally not the case if the contact is periodically loaded in two perpendicular in-plane directions. The applicability of the Cattaneo-Mindlin superposition principle guarantees the applicability of the method of dimensionality reduction (MDR which in the case of a uni-axial in-plane loading has the same accuracy as the Cattaneo-Mindlin theory. In the present paper we investigate whether it is possible to generalize the procedure used in the MDR for bi-axial in-plane loading. By comparison of the MDR-results with a complete three-dimensional numeric solution, we arrive at the conclusion that the exact mapping is not possible. However, the inaccuracy of the MDR solution is on the same order of magnitude as the inaccuracy of the Cattaneo-Mindlin theory itself. This means that the MDR can be also used as a good approximation for bi-axial in-plane loading.

  4. Double Fillet Welding of Carbon Steel T-Joint by Double Channel Shielding Gas Metal Arc Welding Method Using Metal Cored Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mert T.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Low carbon steel material and T-joints are frequently used in ship building and steel constructions. Advantages such as high deposition rates, high quality and smooth weld metals and easy automation make cored wires preferable in these industries. In this study, low carbon steel materials with web and flange thicknesses of 6 mm, 8 mm and 10 mm were welded with conventional GMAW and double channel shielding gas metal arc welding (DMAG method to form double fillet T-joints using metal cored wire. The difference between these two methods were characterized by measurements of mean welding parameters, Vickers hardness profiles, weld bead and HAZ geometry of the joints and thermal camera temperature measurements. When weld bead and HAZ geometries are focused, it was seen filler metal molten area increased and base metal molten area decreased in DMAG of low carbon steel. When compared with traditional GMAW, finer and acicular structures in weld metal and more homogenous and smaller grains in HAZ are obtained with double channel shielding gas metal arc welding.

  5. Monitoring of Pre-Load on Rock Bolt Using Piezoceramic-Transducer Enabled Time Reversal Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Linsheng; Wang, Bo; Chen, Dongdong; Song, Gangbing

    2017-10-27

    Rock bolts ensure structural stability for tunnels and many other underground structures. The pre-load on a rock bolt plays an important role in the structural reinforcement and it is vital to monitor the pre-load status of rock bolts. In this paper, a rock bolt pre-load monitoring method based on the piezoceramic enabled time reversal method is proposed. A lead zirconate titanate (PZT) patch transducer, which works as an actuator to generate stress waves, is bonded onto the anchor plate of the rock bolt. A smart washer, which is fabricated by sandwiching a PZT patch between two metal rings, is installed between the hex nut and the anchor plate along the rock bolt. The smart washer functions as a sensor to detect the stress wave. With the increase of the pre-load values on the rock bolt, the effective contact surface area between the smart washer and the anchor plate, benefiting the stress wave propagation crossing the contact surface. With the help of time reversal technique, experimental results reveal that the magnitude of focused signal clearly increases with the increase of the pre-load on a rock bolt before the saturation which happens beyond a relatively high value of the pre-load. The proposed method provides an innovative and real time means to monitor the pre-load level of a rock bolt. By employing this method, the pre-load degradation process on a rock bolt can be clearly monitored. Please note that, currently, the proposed method applies to only new rock bolts, on which it is possible to install the PZT smart washer.

  6. Monitoring of Pre-Load on Rock Bolt Using Piezoceramic-Transducer Enabled Time Reversal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linsheng Huo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rock bolts ensure structural stability for tunnels and many other underground structures. The pre-load on a rock bolt plays an important role in the structural reinforcement and it is vital to monitor the pre-load status of rock bolts. In this paper, a rock bolt pre-load monitoring method based on the piezoceramic enabled time reversal method is proposed. A lead zirconate titanate (PZT patch transducer, which works as an actuator to generate stress waves, is bonded onto the anchor plate of the rock bolt. A smart washer, which is fabricated by sandwiching a PZT patch between two metal rings, is installed between the hex nut and the anchor plate along the rock bolt. The smart washer functions as a sensor to detect the stress wave. With the increase of the pre-load values on the rock bolt, the effective contact surface area between the smart washer and the anchor plate, benefiting the stress wave propagation crossing the contact surface. With the help of time reversal technique, experimental results reveal that the magnitude of focused signal clearly increases with the increase of the pre-load on a rock bolt before the saturation which happens beyond a relatively high value of the pre-load. The proposed method provides an innovative and real time means to monitor the pre-load level of a rock bolt. By employing this method, the pre-load degradation process on a rock bolt can be clearly monitored. Please note that, currently, the proposed method applies to only new rock bolts, on which it is possible to install the PZT smart washer.

  7. Test method research on weakening interface strength of steel - concrete under cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-wei; Zhang, Fang-hua; Su, Guang-quan

    2018-02-01

    The mechanical properties of steel - concrete interface under cyclic loading are the key factors affecting the rule of horizontal load transfer, the calculation of bearing capacity and cumulative horizontal deformation. Cyclic shear test is an effective method to study the strength reduction of steel - concrete interface. A test system composed of large repeated direct shear test instrument, hydraulic servo system, data acquisition system, test control software system and so on is independently designed, and a set of test method, including the specimen preparation, the instrument preparation, the loading method and so on, is put forward. By listing a set of test results, the validity of the test method is verified. The test system and the test method based on it provide a reference for the experimental study on mechanical properties of steel - concrete interface.

  8. Contemporary esthetic nickel-titanium wires: do they deliver the same forces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Bradford; Evans, Carla A; Viana, Grace; Bedran-Russo, Ana; Megremis, Spiro

    2015-01-01

    To test for differences in loading and unloading forces delivered by six coated nickel-titanium wires and their noncoated equivalents. From six commercial companies, 0.016-inch diameter round and 0.016 × 0.022-inch rectangular cross-section nickel-titanium wires were procured "as is": Rocky Mountain Orthodontics (Denver, Colo), TP Orthodontics (La Porte, Ind), American Orthodontics (AO; Sheboygan, Wis), G&H (Franklin, Ind), Opal Orthodontics (South Jordan, Utah), and Forestadent USA (St Louis, Mo) (round only). The wires were evaluated using a three-point bending test based on the method in ISO Standard 15841. No statistically significant differences (P > .05) in force values were found between coated and noncoated wires, listed by deflection in three-point bending, for these specific groups: 1 mm, TP round; 2 mm, TP round and G&H rectangular; 3 mm, G&H round and G&H rectangular; 2.5 mm,TP round and G&H rectangular; 1.5 mm, TP round, G&H round, G&H rectangular, and AO rectangular; and 0.5 mm, AO rectangular and G&H round. Some manufacturers market esthetic wires delivering forces similar to the equivalent noncoated wires, when tested according to a standard three-point bend method.

  9. A damage cumulation method for crack initiation prediction under non proportional loading and overloading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheri, S.

    1992-04-01

    For a sequence of constant amplitude cyclic loading containing overloads, we propose a method for damage cumulation in non proportional loading. This method uses as data cyclic stabilized states at non proportional loading and initiation or fatigue curve in uniaxial case. For that, we take into account the dependence of Cyclic Strain Stress Curves (C.S.S.C.) and mean cell size on prehardening and we define a stabilized uniaxial state cyclically equivalent to a non proportional stabilized state through a family of C.S.S.C. Although simple assumptions like linear damage function and linear cumulation is used we obtain a sequence effect for difficult cross slip materials as 316 stainless steel, but the Miner rule for easy cross-slip materials. We show then differences between a load-controlled test and a strain controlled test: for a 316 stainless steel in a load controlled test, the non proportional loading at each cycle is less damaging than the uniaxial one for the same equivalent stress, while the result is opposite in a strain controlled test. We show also that an overloading retards initiation in a load controlled test while it accelerates initiation in a strain controlled test. (author). 26 refs., 8 figs

  10. Contribution of ion beam analysis methods to the development of 2nd generation high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usov, Igor O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arendt, Paul N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stan, Liliana [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Holesinger, Terry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Foltyn, Steven R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Depaula, Raymond F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    One of the crucial steps in the second generation high temperature superconducting wire program was development of the buffer layer architecture. The architecture designed at the Superconductivity Technology Center at Los Alamos National Laboratory consists of several oxide layers wherein each layer plays a specific role, namely: nucleation layer, diffusion barrier, biaxially textured template, and an intermediate layer with a good match to the lattice parameter of superconducting Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO) compound. This report demonstrates how a wide range of ion beam analysis techniques (SIMS, RBS, channeling, PIXE, PIGE, NRA, ERD) was employed for analysis of each buffer layer and the YBCO films. These results assisted in understanding of a variety of physical processes occurring during the buffet layer fabrication and helped to optimize the buffer layer architecture as a whole.

  11. Vulnerabilidad sísmica y capacidad de carga de un puente atirantado basados en confiabilidad estructural Seismic vulnerability and loading capacity of a wire strained bridge based on structural reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Muñoz

    2010-08-01

    tests, trials tests on material mechanical properties, environmental vibrations, measurements on the effects of traffic load, wireless instrumentation, loading tests, wire strainers tensile strength, etc. Additionally, the study explains structural models on finite elements, which were developed for the bridge, as well as its calibration process based on the loading test, and dynamical properties determined on experimental basis. Furthermore, the study indicates the way stress records collection of all structural elements was conducted, during the construction process, in accordance with the job site log-book. As for reliability, a seismic threat analysis was made as well as dynamic responses on the bridge site, where nine spectrums were obtained at different return periods. By studying strength probability curves and seismic loads of pylons, it was found they have reliability indexes in accordance with recommendations by the international regulations. However, one of the superstructure's elements, which were introduced to evaluate its capacity on traffic effects, has a reliability index far higher than the ranges recommended by international regulations. Finally, some wire strainers have higher level tensions than specifications admitted during its design and international recommendations for these kinds of bridges.

  12. THE REALIZATION OF CONTINUATION AFTER PARAMETER METHOD FOR VIBROIMPACT SYSTEMS AT LOADING CURVES CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazhenov V.А.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The realization order and the numerical research results for two-mass vibroimpact systems with two degrees of freedom are examined in this article. These systems are under periodic external loading. The numerical researches are fulfilled by continuation after parameter method. The solutions of movement equations are obtained depending of external loading amplitude, the loading curves and the contact force graphes are constructed. The impact is simulated by the nonlinear contact interaction force describing by Hertz law. Reliability of the received results is controlled.

  13. Computational method for the real-time calculation of the full-body muscle load distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shippen, James

    2016-01-01

    A method is described for minimising a quadratic function subject to equality and inequality constraints. This approach is applicable to solving the full-body muscle load distribution problem and calculating joint contact loads. It has been found that this approach can provide the solution on modest computing facilities and in significantly less time than using active set and interior point quadratic programming techniques. Hence the approach is suitable for providing real-time feedback to subjects undergoing biomechanical analysis of muscle, skeletal and joint loadings.

  14. A method for calculation of finite fatigue life under multiaxial loading in high-cycle domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malnati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A method for fatigue life assessment in high-cycle domain under multiaxial loading is presented in this paper. This approach allows fatigue assessment under any kind of load history, without limitations. The methodology lies on the construction - at a macroscopic level - of an “indicator” in the form of a set of cycles, representing plasticity that can arise at mesoscopic level throughout fatigue process. During the advancement of the loading history new cycles are created and a continuous evaluation of the damage is made.

  15. Powder embossing method for selective loading of polymeric microcontainers with drug formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abid, Zarmeena; Gundlach, Carsten; Durucan, Onur

    2017-01-01

    The present study introduces powder embossing as a novel method to enhance loading of polymeric microcontainers with drug. With current loading approaches, it is not possible to handle pure powder drug in a scalable, homogenous and reproducible manner. In this work, we demonstrate simultaneous lo...... of the method. The current work is thus contributing to the loading of powder formulations into microscale drug delivery systems such as microcontainers in a facile and reproducible manner.......The present study introduces powder embossing as a novel method to enhance loading of polymeric microcontainers with drug. With current loading approaches, it is not possible to handle pure powder drug in a scalable, homogenous and reproducible manner. In this work, we demonstrate simultaneous...... loading of 625 microcontainers with powder formulation. This is achieved in a single step by aligning a shadow mask prepared by micro-milling to an array of microcontainers in order to limit drug deposition to the container cavities with diameters of 220 μm. A pressure of 8.9 MPa is applied by a bonding...

  16. A new cascade NN based method to short-term load forecast in deregulated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouhi, Sajjad; Keynia, Farshid

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We are proposed a new hybrid cascaded NN based method and WT to short-term load forecast in deregulated electricity market. • An efficient preprocessor consist of normalization and shuffling of signals is presented. • In order to select the best inputs, a two-stage feature selection is presented. • A new cascaded structure consist of three cascaded NNs is used as forecaster. - Abstract: Short-term load forecasting (STLF) is a major discussion in efficient operation of power systems. The electricity load is a nonlinear signal with time dependent behavior. The area of electricity load forecasting has still essential need for more accurate and stable load forecast algorithm. To improve the accuracy of prediction, a new hybrid forecast strategy based on cascaded neural network is proposed for STLF. This method is consists of wavelet transform, an intelligent two-stage feature selection, and cascaded neural network. The feature selection is used to remove the irrelevant and redundant inputs. The forecast engine is composed of three cascaded neural network (CNN) structure. This cascaded structure can be efficiently extract input/output mapping function of the nonlinear electricity load data. Adjustable parameters of the intelligent feature selection and CNN is fine-tuned by a kind of cross-validation technique. The proposed STLF is tested on PJM and New York electricity markets. It is concluded from the result, the proposed algorithm is a robust forecast method

  17. Phosphorus in antique iron music wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodway, M

    1987-05-22

    Harpsichords and other wire-strung musical instruments were made with longer strings about the beginning of the 17th century. This change required stronger music wire. Although these changes coincided with the introduction of the first mass-produced steel (iron alloyed with carbon), carbon was not found in samples of antique iron harpsichord wire. The wire contained an amount of phosphorus sufficient to have impeded its conversion to steel, and may have been drawn from iron rejected for this purpose. The method used to select pig iron for wire drawing ensured the highest possible phosphorus content at a time when its presence in iron was unsuspected. Phosphorus as an alloying element has had the reputation for making steel brittle when worked cold. Nevertheless, in replicating the antique wire, it was found that lowcarbon iron that contained 0.16 percent phosphorus was easily drawn to appropriate gauges and strengths for restringing antique harpsichords.

  18. Discrimination methods between neutron and gamma rays for boron loaded plastic scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Normand, S; Haan, S; Louvel, M

    2002-01-01

    Boron loaded plastic scintillators exhibit interesting properties for neutron detection in nuclear waste management and especially in investigating the amount of fissile materials when enclosed in waste containers. Combining a high thermal neutron efficiency and a low mean neutron lifetime, they are suitable in neutron multiplicity counting. However, due to their high sensitivity to gamma rays, pulse shape discrimination methods need to be developed in order to optimize the passive neutron assay measurement. From the knowledge of their physical properties, it is possible to separate the three kinds of particles that have interacted in the boron loaded plastic scintillator (gamma, fast neutron and thermal neutron). For this purpose, we have developed and compared the two well known discrimination methods (zero crossing and charge comparison) applied for the first time to boron loaded plastic scintillator. The setup for the zero crossing discrimination method and the charge comparison methods is thoroughly expl...

  19. Epitaxial semiconductor quantum wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J; Chen, Y H; Wang, Z G

    2008-07-01

    The investigation on the direct epitaxial quantum wires (QWR) using MBE or MOCVD has been persuited for more than two decades, more lengthy in history as compared with its quantum dot counterpart. Up to now, QWRs with various structural configurations have been produced with different growth methods. This is a reviewing article consisting mainly of two parts. The first part discusses QWRs of various configurations, together with laser devices based on them, in terms of the two growth mechanisms, self-ordering and self-assembling. The second part gives a brief review of the electrical and optical properties of QWRs.

  20. Advanced aircraft service life monitoring method via flight-by-flight load spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hongchul

    This research is an effort to understand current method and to propose an advanced method for Damage Tolerance Analysis (DTA) for the purpose of monitoring the aircraft service life. As one of tasks in the DTA, the current indirect Individual Aircraft Tracking (IAT) method for the F-16C/D Block 32 does not properly represent changes in flight usage severity affecting structural fatigue life. Therefore, an advanced aircraft service life monitoring method based on flight-by-flight load spectra is proposed and recommended for IAT program to track consumed fatigue life as an alternative to the current method which is based on the crack severity index (CSI) value. Damage Tolerance is one of aircraft design philosophies to ensure that aging aircrafts satisfy structural reliability in terms of fatigue failures throughout their service periods. IAT program, one of the most important tasks of DTA, is able to track potential structural crack growth at critical areas in the major airframe structural components of individual aircraft. The F-16C/D aircraft is equipped with a flight data recorder to monitor flight usage and provide the data to support structural load analysis. However, limited memory of flight data recorder allows user to monitor individual aircraft fatigue usage in terms of only the vertical inertia (NzW) data for calculating Crack Severity Index (CSI) value which defines the relative maneuver severity. Current IAT method for the F-16C/D Block 32 based on CSI value calculated from NzW is shown to be not accurate enough to monitor individual aircraft fatigue usage due to several problems. The proposed advanced aircraft service life monitoring method based on flight-by-flight load spectra is recommended as an improved method for the F-16C/D Block 32 aircraft. Flight-by-flight load spectra was generated from downloaded Crash Survival Flight Data Recorder (CSFDR) data by calculating loads for each time hack in selected flight data utilizing loads equations. From

  1. Comparison of Design Methods for Axially Loaded Driven Piles in Cohesionless Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2012-01-01

    For offshore wind turbines on deeper waters, a jacket sub-structure supported by axially loaded piles is thought to be the most suitable solution. The design method recommended by API and two CPT-based design methods are compared for two uniform sand profiles. The analysis show great difference...

  2. Low cycle fatigue life improvement of AISI 304 by initial and intermittent wire brush hammering

    OpenAIRE

    MAKHLOUF, Kamel; SIDHOM, Naziha; KHLIFI, Ammar; SIDHOM, Habib; BRAHAM, Chedly

    2013-01-01

    The effects of hammering by wire brush as a method of improving low cycle fatigue life of highly ductile austenitic stainless steel AISI 304 have been investigated through an experimental study combining imposed strain fatigue tests and assessment of surface characteristic changes under cyclic loading by SEM examinations and XRD analysis. It has been shown that the fatigue life of wire brush hammered surface was increased by 307% at an imposed strain rate of 0.2% and only 17% at an imposed st...

  3. Material Tracking with Dynamic Torque Adaptation for Tension Control in Wire Rod Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Borovsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Material tracking is an important part of the automation control system which has a major impact on the product quality. This paper addresses a stand load identification in wire rod mill as a new algorithm added to existing control system. Tension control approaches are described and a modification of existing tracking system is proposed in order to eliminate tracking faults. Proposed method is based on dynamic torque calculation and its performance was experimentally verified on the industrial wire rod mill. Experimental results show significant reduction of the errors.

  4. Optimal design method to minimize users' thinking mapping load in human-machine interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanqun; Li, Xu; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The discrepancy between human cognition and machine requirements/behaviors usually results in serious mental thinking mapping loads or even disasters in product operating. It is important to help people avoid human-machine interaction confusions and difficulties in today's mental work mastered society. Improving the usability of a product and minimizing user's thinking mapping and interpreting load in human-machine interactions. An optimal human-machine interface design method is introduced, which is based on the purpose of minimizing the mental load in thinking mapping process between users' intentions and affordance of product interface states. By analyzing the users' thinking mapping problem, an operating action model is constructed. According to human natural instincts and acquired knowledge, an expected ideal design with minimized thinking loads is uniquely determined at first. Then, creative alternatives, in terms of the way human obtains operational information, are provided as digital interface states datasets. In the last, using the cluster analysis method, an optimum solution is picked out from alternatives, by calculating the distances between two datasets. Considering multiple factors to minimize users' thinking mapping loads, a solution nearest to the ideal value is found in the human-car interaction design case. The clustering results show its effectiveness in finding an optimum solution to the mental load minimizing problems in human-machine interaction design.

  5. Bonding of a niobium wire to a niobium thin film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaszczuk, W.; Jaszczuk, W.; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.; Flokstra, Jakob; Veldhuis, Dick; Stammis, R.; Rogalla, Horst

    1991-01-01

    A method for bonding a niobium wire to a niobium thin film is described. The bonds are to be used as superconducting connections between wire-wound gradiometers and thin-film coupling coils on DC SQUIDS. The method is characterized by two steps. Firstly, the hardness of the niobium wire is reduced

  6. A Vibrating Wire System For Quadrupole Fiducialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-13

    A vibrating wire system is being developed to fiducialize the quadrupoles between undulator segments in the LCLS. This note provides a detailed analysis of the system. The LCLS will have quadrupoles between the undulator segments to keep the electron beam focused. If the quadrupoles are not centered on the beam axis, the beam will receive transverse kicks, causing it to deviate from the undulator axis. Beam based alignment will be used to move the quadrupoles onto a straight line, but an initial, conventional alignment must place the quadrupole centers on a straight line to 100 {micro}m. In the fiducialization step of the initial alignment, the position of the center of the quadrupole is measured relative to tooling balls on the outside of the quadrupole. The alignment crews then use the tooling balls to place the magnet in the tunnel. The required error on the location of the quadrupole center relative to the tooling balls must be less than 25 {micro}m. In this note, we analyze a system under construction for the quadrupole fiducialization. The system uses the vibrating wire technique to position a wire onto the quadrupole magnetic axis. The wire position is then related to tooling balls using wire position detectors. The tooling balls on the wire position detectors are finally related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to perform the fiducialization. The total 25 {micro}m fiducialization error must be divided between these three steps. The wire must be positioned onto the quadrupole magnetic axis to within 10 {micro}m, the wire position must be measured relative to tooling balls on the wire position detectors to within 15 {micro}m, and tooling balls on the wire position detectors must be related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to within 10 {micro}m. The techniques used in these three steps will be discussed. The note begins by discussing various quadrupole fiducialization techniques used in the past and discusses why the vibrating wire technique is our method

  7. High-precision solution to the moving load problem using an improved spectral element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shu-Rui; Wu, Zhi-Jing; Lu, Nian-Li

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the spectral element method (SEM) is improved to solve the moving load problem. In this method, a structure with uniform geometry and material properties is considered as a spectral element, which means that the element number and the degree of freedom can be reduced significantly. Based on the variational method and the Laplace transform theory, the spectral stiffness matrix and the equivalent nodal force of the beam-column element are established. The static Green function is employed to deduce the improved function. The proposed method is applied to two typical engineering practices—the one-span bridge and the horizontal jib of the tower crane. The results have revealed the following. First, the new method can yield extremely high-precision results of the dynamic deflection, the bending moment and the shear force in the moving load problem. In most cases, the relative errors are smaller than 1%. Second, by comparing with the finite element method, one can obtain the highly accurate results using the improved SEM with smaller element numbers. Moreover, the method can be widely used for statically determinate as well as statically indeterminate structures. Third, the dynamic deflection of the twin-lift jib decreases with the increase in the moving load speed, whereas the curvature of the deflection increases. Finally, the dynamic deflection, the bending moment and the shear force of the jib will all increase as the magnitude of the moving load increases.

  8. High-precision solution to the moving load problem using an improved spectral element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shu-Rui; Wu, Zhi-Jing; Lu, Nian-Li

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, the spectral element method (SEM) is improved to solve the moving load problem. In this method, a structure with uniform geometry and material properties is considered as a spectral element, which means that the element number and the degree of freedom can be reduced significantly. Based on the variational method and the Laplace transform theory, the spectral stiffness matrix and the equivalent nodal force of the beam-column element are established. The static Green function is employed to deduce the improved function. The proposed method is applied to two typical engineering practices—the one-span bridge and the horizontal jib of the tower crane. The results have revealed the following. First, the new method can yield extremely high-precision results of the dynamic deflection, the bending moment and the shear force in the moving load problem. In most cases, the relative errors are smaller than 1%. Second, by comparing with the finite element method, one can obtain the highly accurate results using the improved SEM with smaller element numbers. Moreover, the method can be widely used for statically determinate as well as statically indeterminate structures. Third, the dynamic deflection of the twin-lift jib decreases with the increase in the moving load speed, whereas the curvature of the deflection increases. Finally, the dynamic deflection, the bending moment and the shear force of the jib will all increase as the magnitude of the moving load increases.

  9. Water Desalination with Wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porada, S.; Sales, B.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    We show the significant potential of water desalination using a novel capacitive wire-based technology in which anode/cathode wire pairs are constructed from coating a thin porous carbon electrode layer on top of electrically conducting rods (or wires). By alternately dipping an array of electrode

  10. A GPS-Based Control Method for Load Sharing and Power Quality Improvement in Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golsorkhi, Mohammad; Lu, Dylan; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel control method for accurate sharing of load current among the Distributed Energy Resources (DER) and high power quality operating in islanded ac microgrids. This control scheme is based on hierarchical structure comprising of decentralized primary controllers and a cen....... The secondary controller produces compensation signals at fundamental and dominant harmonics to improve the voltage quality at a sensitive load bus. Experimental results are presented to validate the efficacy of the proposed method.......This paper proposes a novel control method for accurate sharing of load current among the Distributed Energy Resources (DER) and high power quality operating in islanded ac microgrids. This control scheme is based on hierarchical structure comprising of decentralized primary controllers...

  11. Fracture toughness of irradiated Zr-2.5Nb CANDU pressure tube using load-ratio method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, S. J.; Kim, I. S. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Tehnology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y. S.; Ahn, S. B. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The fracture toughness of irradiated Zr-2.5Nb CANDU pressure tube material in Wolsung CANDU site has been evaluated by means of Load-ratio method and Direct Current Potential Drop (DCPD) method. In case of irradiated pressure tube, measurement of crack extension is very difficult because it is not easy to install conventional measuring instruments. In load ratio method, however, initial crack length, final crack length and load-load line displacement curve are needed to measure crack extension in load ratio method. In this study, Load-ratio method was applied to evaluate fracture toughness and compared with DCPD method. Curved Compact Tension (CCT) specimen was manufactured with axially notch in outlet and inlet of pressure tube. Fracture test performed at temperatures between room temperature and 300 .deg. C At low temperature, the load-load line displacement in the fracture test showed the discontinuous abrupt decreases caused by crack jumping. In crack resistance curve, unstable crack growth stage was showed due to irradiation damage and hydride. The fracture characteristic value (JIC, dJ/da) in the irradiated are lower than those of the unirradiated. The result of Load ratio method was compared with DCPD method. J{sub IC} by Load-ratio method was larger than that of DCPD method and dJ/da was smaller than DCPD method. The reason is that crack initiation is determined at larger load line displacement in load ratio method. To reduce difference between two methods, load-ratio method is modified by means of relationship between crack length and load line displacement.

  12. Research regarding wires elastic deformations influence on joints positioning of a wire-driven robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofu, C.; Stan, G.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present the influence of driving wires deformation on positioning precision of joints from an elephant's trunk robotic arm. Robotic arms driven by wires have the joint accuracy largely depending on wires rigidity. The joint moment of resistance causes elastic deformation of wires and it is determined by: manipulated object load, weight loads previous to the analyzed joint and inherent resistance moment of joint. Static load analysis emphasizes the particular wires elastic deformation of each driven joint from an elephant's trunk robotic arm with five degrees of freedom. We consider the case of a constant manipulated load. Errors from each driving system of joints are not part of the closed loop system. Thus, precision positioning depends on wires elastic deformation which is about microns and causes angle deviation of joints about tens of minutes of sexagesimal degrees. The closer the joints to base arm the smaller positioning precision of joint. The obtained results are necessary for further compensation made by electronic corrections in the programming algorithm of the elephant's trunk robotic arm to improve accuracy.

  13. Measurements of Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Diffusivity of Hen Egg-White Lysozyme Crystals and Its Solution Using the Transient Short Hot Wire Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Seiji; Maki, Syou; Maekawa, Ryunosuke; Tanaka, Seiichi; Hagiwara, Masayuki

    2017-08-01

    Protein crystals are an essentially important biological sample to advance the analysis of X-ray structure, but their thermophysical properties, especially thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity, have not been studied sufficiently. This current situation can be attributed to various kinds of technical problems; e.g., the fragility of protein crystals and the difficulty of nucleation control. Ideally speaking, protein crystallization should be carried out under a " containerless condition" to eliminate any mechanical distortion of the crystals from the walls. To realize the condition, we have developed an original crystallization method by means of the magneto-Archimedes effect. In this paper, a transient short hot wire method was combined with the technique of magneto-Archimedes effect to realize simultaneous measurement of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) crystals. As the results, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of HEWL crystals were found to be 0.410-0.438 \\hbox {W}\\cdot \\hbox {m}^{-1}\\cdot \\hbox {K}^{-1} and 3.77-5.18× 10^{-8} \\hbox {m}2\\cdot \\hbox {s}^{-1}, respectively. We clarified by the crystallizing process of HEWL that the crystals were magnetically levitated at the air-liquid interface and the short hot wire was completely buried into them as the crystals grew. We also measured the HEWL solution by the same methods. The thermal conductivity of the solution had almost the same value as that of water and had little dependency on the concentration of HEWL, but the thermal diffusivity was unclear.

  14. Hot-wire anemometer for spirography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakk, P; Liik, P; Kingisepp, P H

    1998-01-01

    The use of a constant temperature hot-wire anemometer flow sensor for spirography is reported. The construction, operating principles and calibration procedure of the apparatus are described, and temperature compensation method is discussed. Frequency response is studied. It is shown that this hot-wire flow transducer satisfies common demands with respect to accuracy, response time and temperature variations.

  15. A New Method for Optimal Regularization Parameter Determination in the Inverse Problem of Load Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the regularization method in the inverse problem of load identification, a new method for determining the optimal regularization parameter is proposed. Firstly, quotient function (QF is defined by utilizing the regularization parameter as a variable based on the least squares solution of the minimization problem. Secondly, the quotient function method (QFM is proposed to select the optimal regularization parameter based on the quadratic programming theory. For employing the QFM, the characteristics of the values of QF with respect to the different regularization parameters are taken into consideration. Finally, numerical and experimental examples are utilized to validate the performance of the QFM. Furthermore, the Generalized Cross-Validation (GCV method and the L-curve method are taken as the comparison methods. The results indicate that the proposed QFM is adaptive to different measuring points, noise levels, and types of dynamic load.

  16. Statistical Evaluation and Improvement of Methods for Combining Random and Harmonic Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A. M.; McGhee, D. S.

    2003-01-01

    Structures in many environments experience both random and harmonic excitation. A variety of closed-form techniques has been used in the aerospace industry to combine the loads resulting from the two sources. The resulting combined loads are then used to design for both yield/ultimate strength and high- cycle fatigue capability. This Technical Publication examines the cumulative distribution percentiles obtained using each method by integrating the joint probability density function of the sine and random components. A new Microsoft Excel spreadsheet macro that links with the software program Mathematica to calculate the combined value corresponding to any desired percentile is then presented along with a curve tit to this value. Another Excel macro that calculates the combination using Monte Carlo simulation is shown. Unlike the traditional techniques. these methods quantify the calculated load value with a consistent percentile. Using either of the presented methods can be extremely valuable in probabilistic design, which requires a statistical characterization of the loading. Additionally, since the CDF at high probability levels is very flat, the design value is extremely sensitive to the predetermined percentile; therefore, applying the new techniques can substantially lower the design loading without losing any of the identified structural reliability.

  17. Statistical Comparison and Improvement of Methods for Combining Random and Harmonic Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew M.; McGhee, David S.

    2004-01-01

    Structures in many environments experience both random and harmonic excitation. A variety of closed-form techniques has been used in the aerospace industry to combine the loads resulting from the two sources. The resulting combined loads are then used to design for both yield ultimate strength and high cycle fatigue capability. This paper examines the cumulative distribution function (CDF) percentiles obtained using each method by integrating the joint probability density function of the sine and random components. A new Microsoft Excel spreadsheet macro that links with the software program Mathematics is then used to calculate the combined value corresponding to any desired percentile along with a curve fit to this value. Another Excel macro is used to calculate the combination using a Monte Carlo simulation. Unlike the traditional techniques, these methods quantify the calculated load value with a Consistent percentile. Using either of the presented methods can be extremely valuable in probabilistic design, which requires a statistical characterization of the loading. Also, since the CDF at high probability levels is very flat, the design value is extremely sensitive to the predetermined percentile; therefore, applying the new techniques can lower the design loading substantially without losing any of the identified structural reliability.

  18. The effect of loading methods and parameters on defect detection in digital shearography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fu; Ye, Xingchen; Qiu, Zisheng; Zhang, Borui; Zhong, Ping; Liang, ZhiYong; Sun, Zeyu; Zhu, Shu

    Digital Shearography Speckle Pattern Interferometry (DSSPI) is a non-destructive testing technique, which has a wide range of applications in industrial field due to the merits of non-contact, fast response, full-field measurement and high sensitivity. However, in the real application, the loading methods and parameters usually depend on the experience of the operator, which affect the effectiveness and accuracy of the test. Based on this background and the principle of DSSPI, a model using finite element analysis software and Matlab is established to simulate the defects detections of aluminum plate and composite laminates under different loading conditions. The simulation covers loading methods, shearing direction, shearing amount, loading intensity, defect size, defect depth and defect position. In order to quantify the testing effect, a parameter named the deviation D is first defined. And through the parameter D, the simulation system can evaluate the system detection ability. The work in this paper can provide systematic guidance for the choice of loading methods and parameters in the real DSSPI experiment system.

  19. The effect of loading methods and parameters on defect detection in digital shearography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Yang

    Full Text Available Digital Shearography Speckle Pattern Interferometry (DSSPI is a non-destructive testing technique, which has a wide range of applications in industrial field due to the merits of non-contact, fast response, full-field measurement and high sensitivity. However, in the real application, the loading methods and parameters usually depend on the experience of the operator, which affect the effectiveness and accuracy of the test. Based on this background and the principle of DSSPI, a model using finite element analysis software and Matlab is established to simulate the defects detections of aluminum plate and composite laminates under different loading conditions. The simulation covers loading methods, shearing direction, shearing amount, loading intensity, defect size, defect depth and defect position. In order to quantify the testing effect, a parameter named the deviation D is first defined. And through the parameter D, the simulation system can evaluate the system detection ability. The work in this paper can provide systematic guidance for the choice of loading methods and parameters in the real DSSPI experiment system. Keywords: DSSPI, Finite element analysis, Speckle, Temporal phase-shift

  20. The application of backpropagation neural network method to estimate the sediment loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Gunawan Taufik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nearly all formulations of conventional sediment load estimation method were developed based on a review of laboratory data or data field. This approach is generally limited by local so it is only suitable for a particular river typology. From previous studies, the amount of sediment load tends to be non-linear with respect to the hydraulic parameters and parameter that accompanies sediment. The dominant parameter is turbulence, whereas turbulence flow velocity vector direction of x, y and z. They were affected by water bodies in 3D morphology of the cross section of the vertical and horizontal. This study is conducted to address the non-linear nature of the hydraulic parameter data and sediment parameter against sediment load data by applying the artificial neural network (ANN method. The method used is the backpropagation neural network (BPNN schema. This scheme used for projecting the sediment load from the hydraulic parameter data and sediment parameters that used in the conventional estimation of sediment load. The results showed that the BPNN model performs reasonably well on the conventional calculation, indicated by the stability of correlation coefficient (R and the mean square error (MSE.

  1. PS wire chamber

    CERN Document Server

    1970-01-01

    A wire chamber used at CERN's Proton Synchrotron accelerator in the 1970s. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  2. Coupling characteristics of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: a simple method of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Triranjita; Kumar, Arun

    2009-11-01

    A simple method to obtain the coupling characteristics of a directional coupler consisting of two dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides is reported. The method is found to give accurate results in comparison with the widely used effective index method. Theoretical results are also found to match excellently with recently reported measurements on coupling lengths in such waveguides [Opt. Lett.34, 310 (2009)OPLEDP0146-959210.1364/OL.34.000310].

  3. Assessment of Postural Load Index Using LUBA Method and the Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders in Dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Baroonyzade

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : High prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in dentistry represents the importance of investigation of working conditions in this profession to reduce musculoskeletal disorders.The purpose of this study was to determine the postural load on the upper limb postural using macro LUBA technique and the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders. Methods: This study was conducted on 30 post graduate dental students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences . LUBA technique was used to evaluate the postural load. The Nordic questionnaire was used to assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders . The results were analyzed using SPSS version 16 . Results: The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders was as follows neck( 63.3%, back ( 43.3%, back ( 30%, knee ( 20%, shoulder( 13%, wrist ( 10%, legs (10 %, elbows( 6.7% and thigh( 0%. The maximum postural load index was 23 for women and 21for men. In total, 50 % of dentists were in group 3 , 33 % of dentists in group 4 and 16.7 % in group 2 of the corrective measures . There was no significant association b etween demographic variables and presence of musculoskeletal disorders . Besides, there was no significant association between the presence of pain in upper limbs and the postural load index (Pvalue > 0.05. Conclusions: This study showed high levels of p ostural load index and musculoskeletal disorders among dental students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. High levels of p ostural load index indicate a high level of risk, which requires immediate corrective action and intervention.

  4. A Study on Assessment Method of Traffic Load Effect of Bridge in Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pan; Dajian, Han

    2010-05-01

    Because of overloading usually occur in highway in China today, it is found that the traffic load and the load effects given by Specification for Inspection and Evaluation of Load-bearing Capacity of Highway Bridge[1] cannot be adequately estimated. Especially, the extreme values in a service period can not be predicted. In this paper, a model is first developed for a better estimation of the actual traffic flow, as well as the service load effect level of a bridge. Based on a five-day collection data of the vehicle samples passing through the exit of Guangyuan to Shahe of the North-Ring Highway in Guangzhou, The Qiaole Bridge of the highway is taken as an example to illustrate the assessment model. Then, a threshold model is applied to estimate the tail distribution of the maximum load effect of a fleet. And threshold point process is used to infer the maximum value distribution for prediction of the load effect level of the bridge in a future time period. Finally, a 0.95 quantile is obtained to compare with the result given by specification[1]. The results show that the assessment method proposed in this paper is valid and feasible.

  5. Molecular Simulations of Cyclic Loading Behavior of Carbon Nanotubes Using the Atomistic Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Wang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential applications of carbon nanotubes (CNT in many engineered bionanomaterials and electromechanical devices have imposed an urgent need on the understanding of the fatigue behavior and mechanism of CNT under cyclic loading conditions. To date, however, very little work has been done in this field. This paper presents the results of a theoretical study on the behavior of CNT subject to cyclic tensile and compressive loads using quasi-static molecular simulations. The Atomistic Finite Element Method (AFEM has been applied in the study. It is shown that CNT exhibited extreme cyclic loading resistance with yielding strain and strength becoming constant within limited number of loading cycles. Viscoelastic behavior including nonlinear elasticity, hysteresis, preconditioning (stress softening, and large strain have been observed. Chiral symmetry was found to have appreciable effects on the cyclic loading behavior of CNT. Mechanisms of the observed behavior have been revealed by close examination of the intrinsic geometric and mechanical features of tube structure. It was shown that the accumulated residual defect-free morphological deformation was the primary mechanism responsible for the cyclic failure of CNT, while the bond rotating and stretching experienced during loading/unloading played a dominant role on the strength, strain and modulus behavior of CNT.

  6. J evaluation by simplified method for cracked pipes under mechanical loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacire, M.H.; Michel, B.; Gilles, P.

    2001-01-01

    The integrity of structures behaviour is an important subject for the nuclear reactor safety. Most of assessment methods of cracked components are based on the evaluation of the parameter J. However to avoid complex elastic-plastic finite element calculations of J, a simplified method has been jointly developed by CEA, EDF and Framatome. This method, called Js, is based on the reference stress approach and a new KI handbook. To validate this method, a complete set of 2D and 3D elastic-plastic finite element calculations of J have been performed on pipes (more than 300 calculations are available) for different types of part through wall crack (circumferential or longitudinal); mechanical loading (pressure, bending moment, axial load, torsion moment, and combination of these loading); different kind of materials (austenitic or ferritic steel). This paper presents a comparison between the simplified assessment of J and finite element results on these configurations for mechanical loading. Then, validity of the method is discussed and an applicability domain is proposed. (author)

  7. Validation of analysis methods for assessing flawed piping subjected to dynamic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, R.J.; Wolterman, R.L.; Wilkowski, G.M. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Kot, C.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Argonne National Laboratory and Battelle have jointly conducted a research program for the USNRC to evaluate the ability of current engineering analysis methods and one state-of-the-art analysis method to predict the behavior of circumferentially surface-cracked pipe system water-hammer experiment. The experimental data used in the evaluation were from the HDR Test Group E31 series conducted by the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) in Germany. The incentive for this evaluation was that simplified engineering methods, as well as newer ``state-of-the-art`` fracture analysis methods, have been typically validated only with static experimental data. Hence, these dynamic experiments were of high interest. High-rate dynamic loading can be classified as either repeating, e.g., seismic, or nonrepeating, e.g., water hammer. Development of experimental data and validation of cracked pipe analyses under seismic loading (repeating dynamic loads) are being pursued separately within the NRC`s International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) program. This report describes developmental and validation efforts to predict crack stability under water hammer loading, as well as comparisons using currently used analysis procedures. Current fracture analysis methods use the elastic stress analysis loads decoupled from the fracture mechanics analysis, while state-of-the-art methods employ nonlinear cracked-pipe time-history finite element analyses. The results showed that the current decoupled methods were conservative in their predictions, whereas the cracked pipe finite element analyses were more accurate, yet slightly conservative. The nonlinear time-history cracked-pipe finite element analyses conducted in this program were also attractive in that they were done on a small Apollo DN5500 workstation, whereas other cracked-pipe dynamic analyses conducted in Europe on the same experiments required the use of a CRAY2 supercomputer, and were less accurate.

  8. In-Situ Neutron Diffraction Under Tensile Loading of Powder-in-Tube Cu/Nb3Sn Composite Wires Effect of Reaction Heat Treatment on Texture, Internal Stress State and Load Transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C; Thilly, L

    2007-01-01

    The strain induced degradation of Nb3Sn superconductors can hamper the performance of high field magnets. We report elastic strain measurements in the different phases of entire non-heat treated and fully reacted Nb3Sn composite strands as a function of uniaxial stress during in-situ deformation under neutron beam. After the reaction heat treatment the Cu matrix loses entirely its load carrying capability and the applied stress is transferred to the remaining Nb-Ta alloy and to the brittle (Nb-Ta)3Sn phase, which exhibits a preferential grain orientation parallel to the strand axis.

  9. A comparison of a 'J' wire and a straight wire in successful antegrade cannulation of the superficial femoral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, D.A.T.; Edwards, A.J.; Puckett, M.A.; Roobottom, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the success of two different types of wire in common use in their ability to successfully cannulate the superficial femoral artery (SFA) using antegrade puncture. METHODS: 50 consecutive patients in whom antegrade infra-inguinal intervention was planned, underwent common femoral arterial puncture and then cannulation with either a standard 3 mm 'J' wire or a floppy tipped straight wire (William Cook--Europe). The frequency with which each type of wire entered the SFA or profunda femoris artery without image guidance was recorded. Further analysis was also made of the success of manipulation of the wire into the SFA following profunda cannulation and the use of alternative guide wires. RESULTS: In 19 out of 25 (76%) patients the 'J' wire correctly entered the SFA without image guidance. Only 5 out of 25 (25%) of straight wires entered the SFA with the initial pass (p<0.0001). Following further manipulation with the same wire all except 1 'J' wire was successfully negotiated into the SFA. The same was true for only 9 of the remaining straight wires with 11 patients requiring an alternative guide wire. CONCLUSIONS: When performing antegrade cannulation of the SFA a 'J' wire is more likely to be successful than a straight guide wire

  10. Simplified static method for determining seismic loads on equipment in moderate and high hazard facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.A.; Holmes, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    A simplified static analysis methodology is presented for qualifying equipment in moderate and high-hazard facility-use category structures, where the facility use is defined in Design and Evaluation Guidelines for Department of Energy Facilities Subjected to Natural Phenomena Hazards, UCRL-15910. Currently there are no equivalent simplified static methods for determining seismic loads on equipment in these facility use categories without completing dynamic analysis of the facility to obtain local floor accelerations or spectra. The requirements of UCRL-15910 specify the use of open-quotes dynamicclose quotes analysis methods, consistent with Seismic Design Guidelines for Essential Buildings, Chapter 6, open-quotes Nonstructural Elements,close quotes TM5-809-10-1, be used for determining seismic loads on mechanical equipment and components. Chapter 6 assumes that the dynamic analysis of the facility has generated either floor response spectra or model floor accelerations. These in turn are utilized with the dynamic modification factor and the actual demand and capacity ratios to determine equipment loading. This complex methodology may be necessary to determine more exacting loads for hard to qualify equipment but does not provide a simple conservative loading methodology for equipment with ample structural capacity

  11. An enhanced chemoenzymatic method for loading substrates onto carrier protein domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittilä, Tiia; Cryle, Max J

    2017-11-24

    Non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) machineries produce many medically relevant peptides that cannot be easily accessed by chemical synthesis. Thus, understanding NRPS mechanism is of crucial importance to allow efficient redesign of these machineries to produce new compounds. During NRPS-mediated synthesis, substrates are covalently attached to peptidyl carrier proteins (PCPs), and studies of NRPSs are impeded by difficulties in producing PCPs loaded with substrates. Different approaches to load substrates onto PCP domains have been described, but all suffer from difficulties in either the complexity of chemical synthesis or low enzymatic efficiency. Here, we describe an enhanced chemoenzymatic loading method that combines 2 approaches into a single, highly efficient one-pot loading reaction. First, d-pantetheine and ATP are converted into dephospho-coenzyme A via the actions of 2 enzymes from coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis. Next, phosphoadenylates are dephosphorylated using alkaline phosphatase to allow linker attachment to PCP domain by Sfp mutant R4-4, which is inhibited by phosphoadenylates. This route does not depend on activity of the commonly problematic dephospho-CoA kinase and, therefore, offers an improved method for substrate loading onto PCP domains.

  12. Impact of collection method on assessment of semen HIV RNA viral load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan J W Osborne

    Full Text Available The blood HIV RNA viral load is the best-defined predictor of HIV transmission, in part due to ease of measurement and the correlation of blood and genital tract (semen or cervico-vaginal viral load, although recent studies found semen HIV RNA concentration to be a stronger predictor of HIV transmission. There is currently no standardized method for semen collection when measuring HIV RNA concentration. Therefore, we compared two collection techniques in order to study of the impact of antiretroviral therapy on the semen viral load.Semen was collected by masturbation from HIV-infected, therapy-naïve men who have sex with men (MSM either undiluted (Visit 1 or directly into transport medium (Visit 2. Seminal plasma was then isolated, and the HIV RNA concentration obtained with each collection technique was measured and corrected for dilution if necessary. Collection of semen directly into transport medium resulted in a median HIV RNA viral load that was 0.4 log10 higher than undiluted samples.The method of semen collection is an important consideration when quantifying the HIV RNA viral load in this compartment.

  13. Spinal Tissue Loading Created by Different Methods of Spinal Manipulative Therapy Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funabashi, Martha; Nougarou, François; Descarreaux, Martin; Prasad, Narasimha; Kawchuk, Gregory N

    2017-05-01

    Comparative study using robotic replication of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) vertebral kinematics together with serial dissection. The aim of this study was to quantify loads created in cadaveric spinal tissues arising from three different forms of SMT application. There exist many distinct methods by which to apply SMT. It is not known presently whether different forms of SMT application have different effects on spinal tissues. Should the method of SMT application modulate spinal tissue loading, quantifying this relation may help explain the varied outcomes of SMT in terms of effect and safety. SMT was applied to the third lumbar vertebra in 12 porcine cadavers using three SMT techniques: a clinical device that applies forces through a hand-held instrument (INST), a manual technique of applying SMT clinically (MAN) and a research device that applies parameters of manual SMT through a servo-controlled linear actuator motor (SERVO). The resulting kinematics from each SMT application were tracked optically via indwelling bone pins. The L3/L4 segment was then removed, mounted in a parallel robot and the resulting kinematics from SMT replayed for each SMT application technique. Serial dissection of spinal structures was conducted to quantify loading characteristics of discrete spinal tissues. In terms of load magnitude, SMT application with MAN and SERVO created greater forces than INST in all conditions (P application create unique vertebral loading characteristics, which may help explain the varied outcomes of SMT in terms of effect and safety. N/A.

  14. Cooling load calculation by the radiant time series method - effect of solar radiation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Alexandre M.S. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)], E-mail: amscosta@uem.br

    2010-07-01

    In this work was analyzed numerically the effect of three different models for solar radiation on the cooling load calculated by the radiant time series' method. The solar radiation models implemented were clear sky, isotropic sky and anisotropic sky. The radiant time series' method (RTS) was proposed by ASHRAE (2001) for replacing the classical methods of cooling load calculation, such as TETD/TA. The method is based on computing the effect of space thermal energy storage on the instantaneous cooling load. The computing is carried out by splitting the heat gain components in convective and radiant parts. Following the radiant part is transformed using time series, which coefficients are a function of the construction type and heat gain (solar or non-solar). The transformed result is added to the convective part, giving the instantaneous cooling load. The method was applied for investigate the influence for an example room. The location used was - 23 degree S and 51 degree W and the day was 21 of January, a typical summer day in the southern hemisphere. The room was composed of two vertical walls with windows exposed to outdoors with azimuth angles equals to west and east directions. The output of the different models of solar radiation for the two walls in terms of direct and diffuse components as well heat gains were investigated. It was verified that the clear sky exhibited the less conservative (higher values) for the direct component of solar radiation, with the opposite trend for the diffuse component. For the heat gain, the clear sky gives the higher values, three times higher for the peek hours than the other models. Both isotropic and anisotropic models predicted similar magnitude for the heat gain. The same behavior was also verified for the cooling load. The effect of room thermal inertia was decreasing the cooling load during the peak hours. On the other hand the higher thermal inertia values are the greater for the non peak hours. The effect

  15. A Method to Exchange Air Nitrogen Emission Reductions for Watershed Nitrogen Load Reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentation of the method developed for the Chesapeake Bay Program to estimate changes in nitrogen loading to Chesapeake due to changes in Bay State state-level nitrogen oxide emissions to support air-water trading by the Bay States. Type for SticsUnder AMAD Application QAPP, QA...

  16. Methods to improve efficiency of four stroke, spark ignition engines at part load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutlar, Osman Akin; Arslan, Hikmet; Calik, Alper Tolga

    2005-01-01

    The four stroke, spark ignition (SI) engine pressure-volume diagram (p-V) contains two main parts. They are the compression-combustion-expansion (high pressure loop) and the exhaust-intake (low pressure or gas exchange loop) parts. The main reason for efficiency decrease at part load conditions for these types of engines is the flow restriction at the cross sectional area of the intake system by partially closing the throttle valve, which leads to increased pumping losses and to increased low pressure loop area on the p-V diagram. Meanwhile, the poorer combustion quality, i.e. lower combustion speed and cycle to cycle variations, additionally influence these pressure loop areas. In this study, methods for increasing efficiency at part load conditions and their potential for practical use are investigated. The study also includes a review of the vast literature on the solution of this problem. This investigation shows that the potential for increasing the efficiency of SI engines at part load conditions is not yet exhausted. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages. Among these, the most promising methods to decrease the fuel consumption at part load conditions are stratified charge and variable displacement engines. When used in combination, the other listed methods are more effective than their usage alone

  17. Controlling internal phosphorus loading in lakes by physical methods to reduce cyanobacterial blooms: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bormans, M.; Maršálek, Blahoslav; Jančula, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2016), s. 407-422 ISSN 1386-2588 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : internal P loading * cyanobacterial control * physical in-lake restoration methods * adverse impacts on biota Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 1.500, year: 2016

  18. Standard test methods for bend testing of metallic flat materials for spring applications involving static loading

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This standard describes three test methods for determining the modulus of elasticity in bending and the bending strength of metallic strips or sheets intended for the use in flat springs: 1.1.1 Test Method A—a cantilever beam, 1.1.2 Test Method B—a three-point loaded beam (that is, a beam resting on two supports and centrally loaded), and 1.1.3 Test Method C—a four-point loaded beam (that is, a beam resting on two supports and loaded at two points equally spaced from each support). 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 6.1 This test me...

  19. The Effects of Presentation Method and Information Density on Visual Search Ability and Working Memory Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ting-Wen; Kinshuk; Chen, Nian-Shing; Yu, Pao-Ta

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of successive and simultaneous information presentation methods on learner's visual search ability and working memory load for different information densities. Since the processing of information in the brain depends on the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM), the limited information processing capacity…

  20. Development of a new simplified load testing method of a pile. Kui no shinsaika shikenho no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, H.; Maruyama, O. (Japan Railway Construction Public Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Fujioka, T. (Chiyoda Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Kato, H. (Daido Concrete Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-10-15

    It is preferable to use a vertically loading test to verify bearing power of a pile. However, the conventional standard loading test could not be used easily because of much expense required for reactive piles and a loading device. Accordingly, a new load testing method was developed. The method places a load on a jack mounted initially near a pile tip, and measures the load on the jack, its vertical displacement and the strain and displacement in the pile including the pile head at each depth. Thus, the relationship between circumferential friction force at each part of the pile and the displacement, and the relationship between the jack load and the downward displacement are derived, which are converted to the relationship between the load on the pile head against the pile head loading and the amount of subsidence, using a load transmission analysis. The method features no necessity of reactive piles or loading girders, capability of measuring separately the circumferential friction force and the tip bearing power, safety, short construction time, and inexpensiveness. The jacks include types that are recovered after a test and not recovered. This new load testing method has been used on 18 different kinds of piles, in addition to verification test at sandy alluvial fan areas between Takasaki and Karuizawa in the planned Hokuriku Shinkansen line. 11 figs.

  1. Experimental Investigations on the Dynamic Behaviour of O-Type Wire-Cable Vibration Isolators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Xia Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of periodic loading experiments were carried out on the O-type wire-cable vibration isolators. The isolators were loaded under shear, roll, and tension-compression loadings. When subjected to shear and roll loads, the restoring force-deformation curves generated by the isolators formed symmetric hysteresis loops. However, when the isolators were loaded with tension-compression loads, the isolator produced asymmetric hysteresis loops. It is found through the experiment that the dynamic characteristics of the isolator are determined by the loading amplitude as well as the geometric parameters of the isolator while they are almost independent of loading frequency within the testing frequency range. Based on the experimental data, the dynamic response of the isolator was modeled by a modified normalized Bouc-Wen model. The parameters of this model were identified through an identification procedure that does not involve any nonlinear iterative algorithms. Comparison between the identification results and the experimental data suggests that the identification method is effective. With the model and the identified parameters, the frequency response of an O-type wire-cable vibration isolator-mass system was evaluated. Typical nonlinear response behaviors were found when the isolator was used in tension-compression mode while the response appears to be similar to that of a linear system when the isolator was used in shear and roll mode.

  2. Apparatuses and methods of determining if a person operating equipment is experiencing an elevated cognitive load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Michael L.; Keller, Paul Edwin; Amaya, Ivan A.

    2015-06-16

    A method of, and apparatus for, determining if a person operating equipment is experiencing an elevated cognitive load, wherein the person's use of a device at a first time is monitored so as to set a baseline signature. Then, at a later time, the person's use of the device is monitored to determine the person's performance at the second time, as represented by a performance signature. This performance signature can then be compared against the baseline signature to predict whether the person is experiencing an elevated cognitive load.

  3. Apparatuses and methods of determining if a person operating equipment is experiencing an elevated cognitive load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Michael L.; Keller, Paul Edwin; Amaya, Ivan A.

    2015-06-16

    A method of, and apparatus for, determining if a person operating equipment is experiencing an elevated cognitive load, wherein the person's use of a device at a first time is monitored so as to set a baseline signature. Then, at a later time, the person's use of the device is monitored to determine the person's performance at the second time, as represented by a performance signature. This performance signature can then be compared against the baseline signature to predict whether the person is experiencing an elevated cognitive load.

  4. Signals analysis of fluxgate array for wire rope defaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Wei; Chu Jianxin

    2005-01-01

    In order to detecting the magnetic leakage fields of the wire rope defaults, a transducer made up of the fluxgate array is designed, and a series of the characteristic values of wire rope defaults signals are defined. By processing the characteristic signals, the LF or LMA of wire rope are distinguished, and the default extent is estimated. The experiment results of the new method for detecting the wire rope faults are introduced

  5. A Dynamic Calibration Method for Experimental and Analytical Hub Load Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This complex connectivity between the drive components was found to be very difficult to model using traditional finite- element methods...components of the ARES could be accurately modeled using finite- elements , modeling the connectivity between the components was found to be significantly...ARL-RP-0592 ● Mar 2017 US Army Research Laboratory A Dynamic Calibration Method for Experimental and Analytical Hub Load Comparison by Robert P

  6. Novel method to dynamically load cells in 3D-hydrogels culture for blast injury studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sory, David R.; Areias, Anabela C.; Overby, Darryl R.; Proud, William G.

    2017-01-01

    For at least a century explosive devices have been one of the most important causes of injuries in military conflicts as well as in terrorist attacks. Although significant experimental and modelling efforts have been focussed on blast injuries at the organ or tissue level, few studies have investigated the mechanisms of blast injuries at the cellular level. This paper introduces an in vitro method compatible with living cells to examine the effects of high stress and short-duration pulses relevant to blast loadings and blunt trauma. The experimental phase involves high strain-rate axial compression of cylindrical specimens within an hermetically sealed chamber made of biocompatible polymer. Numerical simulations were performed in order to verify the experimental loading conditions and to characterize the loading path within the sample. A proof of concept is presented so as to establish a new window to address fundamental questions regarding blast injury at the cellular level.

  7. Method of bringing nuclear power plant to fractional electrical load conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iljunin, V.G.; Kuznetsoy, I.A.; Murogov, V.M.; Shmelev, A.N.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described of bringing a nuclear power plant to fractional electric load conditions, which power plant comprises at least two nuclear reactors, at least one nuclear reactor being a breeder and both reactors transferring heat to the turbine working substance, consisting in that the consumption of the turbine working substance is reduced in accordance with a predetermined fractional load. At the same time, the amount of heat being transferred from the nuclear reactors to the turbine working substance is reduced, for which purpose the reactors are included in autonomous cooling circuits to successively transfer heat to the turbine working substance. The breeding reactor is included in the cooling circuit with a lower coolant temperature, the temperature of the coolant at the inlet and outlet of the breeder being reduced to a level ensuring the operation of the nuclear power plant in predetermined fractional load conditions, due to which the power of the breeder is increased, and afterheat is removed

  8. Waveform control method for mitigating harmonics of inverter systems with nonlinear load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haoran; Zhu, Guorong; Fu, Xiaobin

    2015-01-01

    DC power systems connecting to single-phase DC/AC inverters with nonlinear loads will have their DC sources being injected with AC ripple currents containing a low-frequency component at twice the output voltage frequency of the inverter and also other current harmonics. Such a current may create...... ability of the waveform control method on other coexisting harmonics, while the DC source delivers AC power to a nonlinear load. With the application of the waveform control, the average DC output power is supplied by the DC source, while the other harmonics pulsation power can be confined to the AC side...... (between the capacitors and the AC load). Theoretical analyses and experiment results are provided to explain the operation and the inhibiting ability, and to showcase the performance of the approach in tackling the harmonics. Results validate that the proposed solution can achieve significant mitigation...

  9. Assessment of Masonry Buildings Subjected to Landslide-Induced Settlements: From Load Path Method to Evolutionary Optimization Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Fabrizio; Elia, Angelo

    2017-10-01

    One of the main difficulties, when dealing with landslide structural vulnerability, is the diagnosis of the causes of crack patterns. This is also due to the excessive complexity of models based on classical structural mechanics that makes them inappropriate especially when there is the necessity to perform a rapid vulnerability assessment at the territorial scale. This is why, a new approach, based on a ‘simple model’ (i.e. the Load Path Method, LPM), has been proposed by Palmisano and Elia for the interpretation of the behaviour of masonry buildings subjected to landslide-induced settlements. However, the LPM is very useful for rapidly finding the 'most plausible solution' instead of the exact solution. To find the solution, optimization algorithms are necessary. In this scenario, this article aims to show how the Bidirectional Evolutionary Structural Optimization method by Huang and Xie, can be very useful to optimize the strut-and-tie models obtained by using the Load Path Method.

  10. Validation of the Nuclear Design Method for MOX Fuel Loaded LWR Cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saji, E.; Inoue, Y.; Mori, M.; Ushio, T.

    2001-01-01

    The actual batch loading of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in light water reactors (LWRs) is now ready to start in Japan. One of the efforts that have been devoted to realizing this batch loading has been validation of the nuclear design methods calculating the MOX-fuel-loaded LWR core characteristics. This paper summarizes the validation work for the applicability of the CASMO-4/SIMULATE-3 in-core fuel management code system to MOX-fuel-loaded LWR cores. This code system is widely used by a number of electric power companies for the core management of their commercial LWRs. The validation work was performed for both boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) applications. Each validation consists of two parts: analyses of critical experiments and core tracking calculations of operating plants. For the critical experiments, we have chosen a series of experiments known as the VENUS International Program (VIP), which was performed at the SCK/CEN MOL laboratory in Belgium. VIP consists of both BWR and PWR fuel assembly configurations. As for the core tracking calculations, the operating data of MOX-fuel-loaded BWR and PWR cores in Europe have been utilized

  11. Comparison of Two Parametric Methods to Estimate Pesticide Mass Loads in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, D.K.; Lorenz, D.L.; Domagalski, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    Mass loadings were calculated for four pesticides in two watersheds with different land uses in the Central Valley, California, by using two parametric models: (1) the Seasonal Wave model (SeaWave), in which a pulse signal is used to describe the annual cycle of pesticide occurrence in a stream, and (2) the Sine Wave model, in which first-order Fourier series sine and cosine terms are used to simulate seasonal mass loading patterns. The models were applied to data collected during water years 1997 through 2005. The pesticides modeled were carbaryl, diazinon, metolachlor, and molinate. Results from the two models show that the ability to capture seasonal variations in pesticide concentrations was affected by pesticide use patterns and the methods by which pesticides are transported to streams. Estimated seasonal loads compared well with results from previous studies for both models. Loads estimated by the two models did not differ significantly from each other, with the exceptions of carbaryl and molinate during the precipitation season, where loads were affected by application patterns and rainfall. However, in watersheds with variable and intermittent pesticide applications, the SeaWave model is more suitable for use on the basis of its robust capability of describing seasonal variation of pesticide concentrations. ?? 2010 American Water Resources Association. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Aesthetic nickel titanium wires--how much do they deliver?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphoor, Anil Abdul; Sundareswaran, Shobha

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the force levels of aesthetic Ni-Ti wires to regular Ni-Ti wires of the same dimension and evaluate their mechanical properties. Aesthetic and regular maxillary superelastic Ni-Ti wires (0.016 × 0.022) from four different manufacturers (G&H Wire Company, TP Orthodontics, GAC International, and Ortho Organizers) were selected and grouped I-IV. The loading and unloading values were compared using a three-point bending test. The unloading end values were also recorded to evaluate the recovery of archwires after each deflection. The unloading values were recorded at 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 mm after loading deflections of 1, 2, and 3 mm, respectively. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy was used to assess the coating thickness of aesthetic wires. The results, statistically analysed, showed a significant decrease in force values for the aesthetic wires in groups I, III, and IV (P wires of the same dimension from the same manufacturer. There was no significant difference in force values for group II wires. A statistically significant decrease in force values of epoxy-coated wires was observed in groups I, III, and IV only. This is of obvious clinical significance during wire selection. The group II coated wires, however, exhibited forces comparable to their regular Ni-ti wires with a difference that was statistically insignificant. The end values of aesthetic wires showed almost complete recovery for groups I, II, and III after 2 and 3 mm deflections.

  13. A comparison of wire- and Kevlar-reinforced provisional restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, D B; Nicholls, J I; Yuodelis, R A; Strygler, H

    1994-01-01

    Stainless steel wire 0.036 inch in diameter was compared with Kevlar 49 polyaramid fiber as a means of reinforcing a four-unit posterior provisional fixed restoration with 2 pontics. Three reinforcement patterns for wire and two for Kevlar 49 were evaluated and compared with the control, which was an unreinforced provisional restoration. A central tensile load was placed on the cemented provisional restoration and the variables were measured: (1) the initial stiffness; (2) the load at initial fracture; and (3) the unit toughness, or the energy stored in the beam at a point where the load had undergone a 1.0-mm deflection. Statistical analysis showed (1) the bent wire configuration had a significantly higher initial stiffness (P < or = .05), (2) there was no difference between designs for load at initial fracture, and (3) the bent wire had a significantly higher unit toughness value (P < or = .05).

  14. The Use of Spectral Method for Fatigue Life Assessment for Non-Gaussian Random Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niesłony Adam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The well-known problem with the fatigue lifetime assessment of non-Gaussian loading signals with the use of spectral method has been presented in the paper. A correction factors that transform the non-Gaussian signal into an equivalent Gaussian signal proposed by Bracessi et al. (2009 has been used for the purpose of lifetime calculations together with Palmgren-Miner Hypothesis. The calculations have been performed for the 10HNAP steel under random non-Gaussian load with four dominating frequencies. The signal has been generated on the test stand SHM250 for random tension-compression tests. The results with zero and non-zero mean stresses have been used to calculate the fatigue life with the frequency domain method based on Dirlik’s model and with a time domain method with the use of the rainflow cycle counting algorithm. The obtained calculation results have been compared with experimental results.

  15. Vibration characteristics of Ni-Ti pseudo-elastic wire inter-weaved fabric composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Wang, Rui; Yang, Qiuhong; Dong, Li

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a study on the vibration characteristics of Ni-Ti wire inter-weaved glass fabric/epoxy composites. The Ni-Ti pseudo-elastic wires were used as warp yarns and embedded in the fabric preforms with various weaving methods. Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA) and vibration test technique were used to reveal the dynamical behaviors of specimens in different frequencies of vibration. The storage modulus E', the loss tanδ, the natural frequency f and damping ratio η were examined. The energy dissipation behaviors of the Ni-Ti pseudo-elastic wire, the geometry of textile fabric was also studied. The effect of weaving method on the vibration behavior in Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) based textile composites was considered. The results showed that: (I) the energy dissipation capacity of the wire could be significantly improved by increasing the tensile strain and speed, but slightly affected by loading frequency; (II) the woven of few Ni-Ti warps caused the increase of the storage modulus and the change of the loss tanδ. In the buckling vibration, the damping effects of Ni-Ti pseudo-elastic wires vary with the woven structures. The compact woven structure with proper Ni-Ti warp architectures would receive a small amplitude and good damping.

  16. Preparation and characterization of carvacrol loaded polyhydroxybutyrate nanoparticles by nanoprecipitation and dialysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Fatemeh; Shakeri, Shahryar; Hojjatoleslami, Mohammad

    2014-04-01

    In this investigation, preparation of carvacrol loaded polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) nanoparticles was performed by nanoprecipitation and dialysis methods. PHB particles were obtained by nanoprecipitation method without and with low concentration of Tween 80 or pluronic as surfactant. Nano- and micro-sized particles were formed with trimodal distribution and large aggregates. Size and distribution of nanoparticles were decreased when concentration of Tween 80 was increased to 1% (v/v) in water as polar phase. PHB nanoparticles had narrow size (157 nm) with monomodal distribution. Nanoparticles, which were prepared by dialysis method had 140 nm in diameter with monomodal distribution. Carvacrol was used as a lipophilic drug and entrapped in optimized nanoparticles formulation by nanoprecipitation and dialysis methods. Entrapment efficacy was 21% and 11%, respectively. Morphology of PHB nanoparticles was spherical. The results of kinetic release study showed that carvacrol was released for at least 3 days. Release kinetic parameters showed a simple Fickian diffusion behavior for both formulations. Carvacrol loaded PHB nanoparticles had good dispersion into the agar medium and antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli. This study describes the 1st work on loading of carvacrol into the PHB nanoparticles by nanoprecipitation and dialysis methods. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Quantification of Training and Competition Loads in Endurance Sports: Methods and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujika, Iñigo

    2017-04-01

    Training quantification is basic to evaluate an endurance athlete's responses to training loads, ensure adequate stress/recovery balance, and determine the relationship between training and performance. Quantifying both external and internal workload is important, because external workload does not measure the biological stress imposed by the exercise sessions. Generally used quantification methods include retrospective questionnaires, diaries, direct observation, and physiological monitoring, often based on the measurement of oxygen uptake, heart rate, and blood lactate concentration. Other methods in use in endurance sports include speed measurement and the measurement of power output, made possible by recent technological advances such as power meters in cycling and triathlon. Among subjective methods of quantification, rating of perceived exertion stands out because of its wide use. Concurrent assessments of the various quantification methods allow researchers and practitioners to evaluate stress/recovery balance, adjust individual training programs, and determine the relationships between external load, internal load, and athletes' performance. This brief review summarizes the most relevant external- and internal-workload-quantification methods in endurance sports and provides practical examples of their implementation to adjust the training programs of elite athletes in accordance with their individualized stress/recovery balance.

  18. Spectroscopic properties of colloidal indium phosphide quantum wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lin-Wang; Wang, Fudong; Yu, Heng; Li, Jingbo; Hang, Qingling; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Gibbons, Patrick C.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Janes, David B.; Buhro, William E.

    2008-07-11

    Colloidal InP quantum wires are grown by the solution-liquid-solid (SLS) method, and passivated with the traditional quantum dots surfactants 1-hexadecylamine and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide. The size dependence of the band gaps in the wires are determined from the absorption spectra, and compared to other experimental results for InP quantum dots and wires, and to the predictions of theory. The photoluminescence behavior of the wires is also investigated. Efforts to enhance photoluminescence efficiencies through photochemical etching in the presence of HF result only in photochemical thinning or photo-oxidation, without a significant influence on quantum-wire photoluminescence. However, photo-oxidation produces residual dot and rod domains within the wires, which are luminescent. The results establish that the quantum-wire band gaps are weakly influenced by the nature of the surface passivation, and that colloidal quantum wires have intrinsically low photoluminescence efficiencies.

  19. H-M bearing capacity of a modified suction caisson determined by using load-/displacement-controlled methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-kun; Gao, Yu-feng; Li, Da-yong; Mahfouz, Ali H.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a series of monotonically combined lateral loading tests to investigate the bearing capacity of the MSCs (modified suction caissons) in the saturated marine fine sand. The lateral loads were applied under load- and displacement-controlled methods at the loading eccentricity ratios of 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5. Results show that, in the displacement-controlled test, the deflection-softening behavior of load-deflection curves for MSCs was observed, and the softening degree of the load-deflection response increased with the increasing external skirt length or the decreasing loading eccentricity. It was also found that the rotation center of the MSC at failure determined by the load-controlled method is slightly lower than that by the displacement-controlled method. The calculated MSC capacity based on the rotation center position in serviceability limit state is relatively conservative, compared with the calculated capacity based on the rotation center position in the ultimate limit state. In the limit state, the passive earth pressures opposite the loading direction under load- and displacement-controlled methods decrease by 46% and 74% corresponding to peak values, respectively; however, the passive earth pressures in the loading direction at failure only decrease by approximately 3% and 7%, compared with their peak values.

  20. Towards plant wires

    OpenAIRE

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self...

  1. Kirschner Wire Breakage during Removal Requiring Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yuen Wong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kirschner wires (K-wires are widely used for fixation of fractures and dislocations in the hand as they are readily available, reliable, and cost-effective. Complication rates of up to 18% have been reported. However, K-wire breakage during removal is rare. We present one such case illustrating a simple technique for retrieval. A 35-year-old male presented with a distal phalanx fracture of his right middle finger. This open fracture was treated with K-wire fixation. Postoperatively, he developed a pin site infection with associated finger swelling. The K-wire broke during removal with the proximal piece completely retained in his middle phalanx. To minimise risk of osteomyelitis, the K-wire was removed with a novel surgical technique. He had full return of hand function. Intraoperative K-wire breakage has a reported rate of 0.1%. In our case, there was no obvious cause of breakage and the patient denied postoperative trauma. On the other hand, pin site infections are much more common with reported rates of up to 7% in the hand or wrist. K-wire fixation is a simple method for bony stabilisation but can be a demanding procedure with complications often overlooked. It is important to be aware of the potential sequelae.

  2. Minimum quench energy measurement for superconducting wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, K.; Morita, M.; Nakamura, S.; Yamada, T.; Jizo, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have developed a new method of measuring minimum quench energy (MQE) of superconducting wire. There have been conventional methods using heating wires, whose diameters are ∼0.1mm and are glued by epoxy resin. When they induce a pulse heat to superconducting wires, a duration of the pulse must be several hundreds micro seconds to demonstrate actual disturbances (for instance wire motion) in a superconducting magnet. In spite of this fact, thermal diffusion time constants of the conventional heaters are larger than the duration of the actual disturbance, because of these electrical insulator of the heating wire and the epoxy bind. Therefore, this kind of heater is not able to demonstrate the actual disturbance. To solve this problem, they have proposed a new constitution of a heater. In the method, heat generation is introduced in high resistive layer on a surface of a superconducting wire. The high resistive layer is consist of carbon paste. The thickness of the carbon paste layer is ∼20microm, thus a time constant of this heater is expected to be small enough to demonstrate the actual disturbance. Adopting the new method to the MQE measurement, they successfully evaluate MQE of superconducting wires with high precision. Several results are introduced in this paper

  3. Transparency in nanophotonic quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mahi R

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the quantum optics of a photonic quantum nanowire doped with an ensemble of three-level nanoparticles. The wire is made from two photonic crystals A and B. Crystal A is embedded within crystal B and acts as a photonic nanowire. It is considered that the conduction band of crystal A lies below that of crystal B. As a result, photons are confined in crystal A and are reflected from crystal B. The bound states of the confined photons are calculated using the transfer matrix method. It is found that the number of bound states in the wire depends on the size of the wire and the energy difference between the conduction band extrema of crystals A and B. The absorption coefficient of the system has also been calculated using the Schroedinger equation method. It is considered that the nanoparticles interact with the photonic bound states. Numerical simulations show that when one of the resonance energies lies near the bound state, the system becomes transparent. However, when the resonance energy lies away from the bound state the crystal reverts to an absorbing state. Similarly, when the radius of the dielectric spheres is changed the location of the transparency peak is shifted. This means that the present system can be switched between two states by changing the size of the wire and the transition energy. These findings can be used to make new types of optical devices.

  4. An Analytical Method for Determining the Load Distribution of Single-Column Multibolt Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirut Konkong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of geometric variables on the bolt load distributions of a cold-formed steel bolt connection. The study was conducted using an experimental test, finite element analysis, and an analytical method. The experimental study was performed using single-lap shear testing of a concentrically loaded bolt connection fabricated from G550 cold-formed steel. Finite element analysis with shell elements was used to model the cold-formed steel plate while solid elements were used to model the bolt fastener for the purpose of studying the structural behavior of the bolt connections. Material nonlinearities, contact problems, and a geometric nonlinearity procedure were used to predict the failure behavior of the bolt connections. The analytical method was generated using the spring model. The bolt-plate interaction stiffness was newly proposed which was verified by the experiment and finite element model. It was applied to examine the effect of geometric variables on the single-column multibolt connection. The effects were studied of varying bolt diameter, plate thickness, and the plate thickness ratio (t2/t1 on the bolt load distribution. The results of the parametric study showed that the t2/t1 ratio controlled the efficiency of the bolt load distribution more than the other parameters studied.

  5. The Effect of Wire Dimension, Type and Thickness of Coating Layer on Friction of Coated Stainless-Steel Arch Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdulhussain Abbas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: Esthetic coated arch wires are the desired types to match esthetic brackets in the clinical orthodontics, but the presence of coating layer is greatly affect friction during sliding mechanics. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of total wire dimension with the type and thickness of coating layer on friction of coated stainless-steel wires. Methods: The sample of this study consisted of 140 segments of coated stainless-steel arch wires involving two wire dimensions (0.016 × 0.022 inch and 0.019 × 0.025 inch. The samples were supplied from seven companies (DB, RMO, TP, DANY, G&H, Highland and Hubit and the uncoated control samples were supplied from IOS company. Wire dimensions and thickness of coating layer were measured by the metallurgical light incident microscope and the static frictional force was measured using pulling the wire through set of ceramic brackets by the universal testing machine. The data were then statistically analyzed using ANOVA tests. Results: Generally measured wire dimensions do not match the stated dimensions by the manufacturer. The frictional forces of coated wires differ from uncoated control being higher in the labially coated wires and lesser in the fully Teflon coated wires owing to differences in the wire dimension, thickness of coating layer, and physical properties of coating materials. Conclusion: when tested in vitro, Teflon fully coated wires produce the least amount of friction.

  6. Short term load forecasting technique based on the seasonal exponential adjustment method and the regression model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jie; Wang, Jianzhou; Lu, Haiyan; Dong, Yao; Lu, Xiaoxiao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The seasonal and trend items of the data series are forecasted separately. ► Seasonal item in the data series is verified by the Kendall τ correlation testing. ► Different regression models are applied to the trend item forecasting. ► We examine the superiority of the combined models by the quartile value comparison. ► Paired-sample T test is utilized to confirm the superiority of the combined models. - Abstract: For an energy-limited economy system, it is crucial to forecast load demand accurately. This paper devotes to 1-week-ahead daily load forecasting approach in which load demand series are predicted by employing the information of days before being similar to that of the forecast day. As well as in many nonlinear systems, seasonal item and trend item are coexisting in load demand datasets. In this paper, the existing of the seasonal item in the load demand data series is firstly verified according to the Kendall τ correlation testing method. Then in the belief of the separate forecasting to the seasonal item and the trend item would improve the forecasting accuracy, hybrid models by combining seasonal exponential adjustment method (SEAM) with the regression methods are proposed in this paper, where SEAM and the regression models are employed to seasonal and trend items forecasting respectively. Comparisons of the quartile values as well as the mean absolute percentage error values demonstrate this forecasting technique can significantly improve the accuracy though models applied to the trend item forecasting are eleven different ones. This superior performance of this separate forecasting technique is further confirmed by the paired-sample T tests

  7. Elastocaloric effect of Ni-Ti wire for application in a cooling device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tusek, Jaka; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    2015-01-01

    We report on the elastocaloric effect of a superelastic Ni-Ti wire to be used in a cooling device. Initially, each evaluated wire was subjected to 400 loading/unloading training cycles in order to stabilize its superelastic behavior. The wires were trained at different temperatures, which lead...

  8. The influence of local glucose oxidase activity on the potential/current distribution on stainless steel: A study by the wire beam electrode method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Zhang Xia; Wang Jia

    2009-01-01

    The wire beam electrode (WBE) method was first used to study the activity of local glucose oxidase (GOD) on stainless steel surface in seawater. Glucose oxidase was immobilized in calcium alginate gel capsules, which were embedded in a layer of artificial biofilm (calcium alginate gel) on the WBE surface. The potential/current distributions on the WBE surface were mapped using a newly developed device for the WBE method in our lab. The results demonstrated that the catalysis of H 2 O 2 formation by GOD can produce local noble potential peaks and cathodic current zones on the stainless steel surface. An interesting fluctuant current distribution around cathodic zones was observed the first time. The potential and current maps showed that the enzyme heterogeneity of the artificial biofilm caused a corresponding electrochemical heterogeneity at the biofilm/metal interface. The application of the WBE method to ennoblement study enables us to observe the heterogeneous electrochemistry at biofilm/stainless steel interface directly, providing us with a powerful tool to investigate other biofilm-related processes such as microbially influenced corrosion (MIC).

  9. Photovoltaic Wire, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate a new architecture for photovoltaic devices based on nanotechnology: photovoltaic wire. The...

  10. Photovoltaic Wire Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate a new architecture for photovoltaic devices based on nanotechnology: photovoltaic wire. The...

  11. Charpak hemispherical wire chamber

    CERN Document Server

    1970-01-01

    pieces. Mesures are of the largest one. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  12. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development

  13. Gradual variation of distance between electrodes as a novel method in design of single wire, position sensitive proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasseri, M. M.; Tavassoli, A.; Zonobi, F.

    2009-01-01

    Position sensitive detectors are instruments that determine the position of the incident radiations. One type of these detectors is the gas flow proportional counter. Generally, position sensitive detector works in two different methods, so called charge division and rise time methods. In this paper, we explain our new method that is based on the gradual variation of the electrodes distance. Our results in this research show that the introduced method can be a good choice for determining the position of low energy radiations. In this counter, spatial resolution considered to be varying from 0.1 to 1mm along 15 centimeter of the active length.

  14. Enhanced method of fast re-routing with load balancing in software-defined networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemeshko, Oleksandr; Yeremenko, Oleksandra

    2017-11-01

    A two-level method of fast re-routing with load balancing in a software-defined network (SDN) is proposed. The novelty of the method consists, firstly, in the introduction of a two-level hierarchy of calculating the routing variables responsible for the formation of the primary and backup paths, and secondly, in ensuring a balanced load of the communication links of the network, which meets the requirements of the traffic engineering concept. The method provides implementation of link, node, path, and bandwidth protection schemes for fast re-routing in SDN. The separation in accordance with the interaction prediction principle along two hierarchical levels of the calculation functions of the primary (lower level) and backup (upper level) routes allowed to abandon the initial sufficiently large and nonlinear optimization problem by transiting to the iterative solution of linear optimization problems of half the dimension. The analysis of the proposed method confirmed its efficiency and effectiveness in terms of obtaining optimal solutions for ensuring balanced load of communication links and implementing the required network element protection schemes for fast re-routing in SDN.

  15. Steady-state analysis of a faulted three-phase four-wire system supplying induction motors with neutrals connected and other single-phase line-to-neutral loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Four wire Wye connected ac power systems exhibit peculiar steady state fault characteristics when the fourth wire of three phase induction motors is connected. The loss of one phase of power source due to a series or shunt fault results in currents higher than anticipated on the remaining two phases. A theoretical approach to compute the fault currents and voltages is developed. A FORTRAN program is included in the appendix.

  16. A critical pressure based panel method for prediction of unsteady loading of marine propellers under cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, P.; Bose, N.; Colbourne, B.

    2002-01-01

    A simple numerical procedure is established and implemented into a time domain panel method to predict hydrodynamic performance of marine propellers with sheet cavitation. This paper describes the numerical formulations and procedures to construct this integration. Predicted hydrodynamic loads were compared with both a previous numerical model and experimental measurements for a propeller in steady flow. The current method gives a substantial improvement in thrust and torque coefficient prediction over a previous numerical method at low cavitation numbers of less than 2.0, where severe cavitation occurs. Predicted pressure coefficient distributions are also presented. (author)

  17. Elevated Temperature Primary Load Design Method Using Pseudo Elastic-Perfectly Plastic Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Peter [Stress Engineering Services Inc.; Sham, Sam [ORNL; Jetter, Robert I [Consultant

    2012-01-01

    A new primary load design method for elevated temperature service has been developed. Codification of the procedure in an ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III Code Case is being pursued. The proposed primary load design method is intended to provide the same margins on creep rupture, yielding and creep deformation for a component or structure that are implicit in the allowable stress data. It provides a methodology that does not require stress classification and is also applicable to a full range of temperature above and below the creep regime. Use of elastic-perfectly plastic analysis based on allowable stress with corrections for constraint, steady state stress and creep ductility is described. This approach is intended to ensure that traditional primary stresses are the basis for design, taking into account ductility limits to stress re-distribution and multiaxial rupture criteria.

  18. Simplified Probabilistic Analysis of Settlement of Cyclically Loaded Soil Stratum by Point Estimate Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przewłócki, Jarosław; Górski, Jarosław; Świdziński, Waldemar

    2016-12-01

    The paper deals with the probabilistic analysis of the settlement of a non-cohesive soil layer subjected to cyclic loading. Originally, the settlement assessment is based on a deterministic compaction model, which requires integration of a set of differential equations. However, with the use of the Bessel functions, the settlement of a soil stratum can be calculated by a simplified algorithm. The compaction model parameters were determined for soil samples taken from subsoil near the Izmit Bay, Turkey. The computations were performed for various sets of random variables. The point estimate method was applied, and the results were verified by the Monte Carlo method. The outcome leads to a conclusion that can be useful in the prediction of soil settlement under seismic loading.

  19. Determination of Rock Mass Modulus Using the Plate Loading Method at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, R.E.; George, J.T.; Riggins, M.

    1999-08-02

    A suite of plate loading tests has recently been conducted by Sandia National Laboratories at the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Fielding of these in situ tests as well as other approaches undertaken for the determination of rock mass modulus are described. The various methodologies are evaluated and their data compared. Calculation by existing empirical methods and numerical modeling are compared to each other as well as to field data.

  20. Method of nuclear reactor control using a variable temperature load dependent set point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.J.; Rambo, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    A method and apparatus for controlling a nuclear reactor in response to a variable average reactor coolant temperature set point is disclosed. The set point is dependent upon percent of full power load demand. A manually-actuated ''droop mode'' of control is provided whereby the reactor coolant temperature is allowed to drop below the set point temperature a predetermined amount wherein the control is switched from reactor control rods exclusively to feedwater flow

  1. Measuring footprints of wind turbine fatigue loads using monitoring methods. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeker Holger [ed.; Oestman, Anders; Thor, Sven-Erik [Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    In the described research project the fatigue monitoring technique is applied on three 500kW wind turbines of the same type operating under different external conditions i.e. stand alone, wind farm and complex terrain conditions. Respective sites have been selected in Germany (stand alone and wind farm) and in Greece (complex terrain). During the measurement campaigns three new data bases have been created holding on-line monitoring data sets and time series data of the wind turbines' key loads. As a fourth data source time series measurements from the wind farm at Alsvik, Sweden, have been used for the project work. The central aspect of the work has been to establish 'footprints' of the measured load quantities for varying external conditions and to develop and accumulate skills and experience in reading the load information stored in such fatigue load 'footprints'. The term 'footprint' refers to the rainflow cycle frequency spectra of the observed load quantity recorded during a representative time interval together with a set of parameters describing the external and operational conditions during that time interval. In fatigue monitoring the rainflow counting data reduction technique is applied to the measured load samples on-line, reducing hardware memory and off-line evaluation demands. It has been attempted to introduce a framework of few statistic parameters that describe the fatigue load footprint and also relate to external physical conditions (s.a. average wind speed, turbulence etc.). In addition to the traditional formulations of statistic parameters in terms of time series statistics, special parameters adapted to on-line rainflow counted data sets have been examined. On-line fatigue footprint monitoring has so far been applied as a diagnostic tool. In the project the development of a scheme has been started that shall enable to normalise the footprinting results and furthermore to extrapolate them to external

  2. Evaluation of the interfacial shear strength between pseudoplastic NiTi shape memory alloy wires and epoxy by the pull-out method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spārniņš, E.; Andersons, J.; Michaud, V.; Leterrier, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The interfacial shear strength (IFSS) between nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy wires, characterized by a nonlinear stress-strain behavior, and epoxy matrix was determined by pull-out tests. Tests were carried out at several temperatures and levels of pre-strain in the wires, to evaluate the effects of embedded wire length and of crystalline state of the alloy. The IFSS between the twinned NiTi and epoxy was estimated at 24 MPa, and found to increase to 47 MPa for completely detwinned and preloaded martensitic NiTi. This increase in IFSS values was attributed to microcracking of the superficial TiO2 layer and the resulting roughening of the NiTi wire surface.

  3. Evaluation of a method of assessing faecal loading on plain abdominal radiographs in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leech, S.C.; Sullivan, P.B.; McHugh, K.

    1999-01-01

    Background. Childhood constipation is common and assessment is often difficult. Plain abdominal radiography is simple and commonly used to assess constipation. The role of radiography with the use of a simple scoring system has not been fully evaluated. Objective. To assess the reliability of scoring faecal loading on plain abdominal radiographs in children with intractable constipation. Materials and methods. Plain abdominal radiographs from 33 constipated and 67 control children were independently assessed by three observers on two separate occasions. A scoring system was devised with scores from 0 (no stool) to 5 (gross faecal loading with bowel dilatation) in three areas of the colon, giving a total score of 0-15. Results. There were significant differences between the scores of the constipated and control radiographs for each observer (P = 0.05). There was no intra-observer variation (P = 0.12-0.69), but significant inter-observer variation was demonstrated (P = 0.00). Conclusions. We have found this scoring system to be a clinically useful and a reproducible tool in assessing childhood constipation. Assessment of faecal loading is subjective and varies between observers, although one observer will consistently score faecal loading on the same radiograph on successive occasions. To limit exposure to ionising radiation, we recommend that radiography be reserved for the investigation of intractable constipation, and its accuracy is improved if all radiographs are scored by the same observer. (orig.)

  4. Evaluation of a method of assessing faecal loading on plain abdominal radiographs in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leech, S.C.; Sullivan, P.B. [Dept. of Paediatrics, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom); McHugh, K. [Department of Radiology, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1999-04-01

    Background. Childhood constipation is common and assessment is often difficult. Plain abdominal radiography is simple and commonly used to assess constipation. The role of radiography with the use of a simple scoring system has not been fully evaluated. Objective. To assess the reliability of scoring faecal loading on plain abdominal radiographs in children with intractable constipation. Materials and methods. Plain abdominal radiographs from 33 constipated and 67 control children were independently assessed by three observers on two separate occasions. A scoring system was devised with scores from 0 (no stool) to 5 (gross faecal loading with bowel dilatation) in three areas of the colon, giving a total score of 0-15. Results. There were significant differences between the scores of the constipated and control radiographs for each observer (P = 0.05). There was no intra-observer variation (P = 0.12-0.69), but significant inter-observer variation was demonstrated (P = 0.00). Conclusions. We have found this scoring system to be a clinically useful and a reproducible tool in assessing childhood constipation. Assessment of faecal loading is subjective and varies between observers, although one observer will consistently score faecal loading on the same radiograph on successive occasions. To limit exposure to ionising radiation, we recommend that radiography be reserved for the investigation of intractable constipation, and its accuracy is improved if all radiographs are scored by the same observer. (orig.) With 2 figs., 1 tab., 14 refs.

  5. Effective Method for Determining Environmental Loads on Supporting Structures for Offshore Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dymarski Paweł

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a description of an effective method for determining loads due to waves and current acting on the supporting structures of the offshore wind turbines. This method is dedicated to the structures consisting of the cylindrical or conical elements as well as (truncates pyramids of polygon with a large number of sides (8 or more. The presented computational method is based on the Morison equation, which was originally developed only for cylindrically shaped structures. The new algorithm shown here uses the coefficients of inertia and drag forces that were calculated for non-cylindrical shapes. The analysed structure consists of segments which are truncated pyramids on the basis of a hex decagon. The inertia coefficients, CM, and drag coefficients, CD, were determined using RANSE-CFD calculations. The CFD simulations were performed for a specific range of variation of the period, and for a certain range of amplitudes of the velocity. In addition, the analysis of influence of the surface roughness on the inertia and drag coefficients was performed. In the next step, the computations of sea wave, current and wind load on supporting structure for the fifty-year storm were carried out. The simulations were performed in the time domain and as a result the function of forces distribution along the construction elements was obtained. The most unfavourable distribution of forces will be used, to analyse the strength of the structure, as the design load.

  6. Limit load estimation method for pipe with an arbitrary shaped circumferential surface flaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yinsheng; Hasegawa, Kunio; Onizawa, Kunio; Sugino, Hideharu

    2009-01-01

    When a flaw is detected in a stainless steel pipe during in-service inspection, the limit load criterion given in the codes such as JSME Rules on Fitness-for-Service for Nuclear Power Plants or ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section XI can be applied to evaluate the integrity of the pipe. However, in the present codes, the limit load criterion is only provided for the case of a flaw with the uniform depth, although many flaws with complicated shape such as stress corrosion cracking have been actually detected in a pipe. In this paper, a limit load estimation method is proposed considering a circumferential flaw with arbitrary shape, in order to make it possible to evaluate the integrity of the pipe for general case. The plastic collapse moment and stress are obtained by dividing the surface flaw into several segmented sub-flaws. Using this method, good agreement is observed between the numerical solution and reported experimental results. Several numerical examples are also given to show the validity of this method. Finally, it can be seen that the number of the segmented sub-flaws for the semi-elliptical surface flaw is sufficient to be three from engineering judgment. (author)

  7. Differences in the force system delivered by different beta-titanium wires in elaborate designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Parsekian Martins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Evaluation of the force system produced by four brands of b-Ti wires bent into an elaborate design. Methods: A total of 40 T-loop springs (TLS hand-bent from 0.017 x 0.025-in b-Ti were randomly divided into four groups according to wire brand: TMATM(G1, BETA FLEXYTM (G2, BETA III WIRETM (G3 and BETA CNATM (G4. Forces and moments were recorded by a moment transducer, coupled to a digital extensometer indicator adapted to a testing machine, every 0.5 mm of deactivation from 5 mm of the initial activation. The moment-to-force (MF ratio, the overlapping of the vertical extensions of the TLSs and the load-deflection (LD ratio were also calculated. To complement the results, the Young's module (YM of each wire was determined by the slope of the load-deflection graph of a tensile test. The surface chemical composition was also evaluated by an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Results: All groups, except for G2, produced similar force levels initially. G3 produced the highest LD rates and G1 and G4 had similar amounts of overlap of the vertical extensions of the TLSs in "neutral position". G1 and G3 delivered the highest levels of moments, and G2 and G3 produced the highest MF ratios. b-Ti wires from G3 produced the highest YM and all groups showed similar composition, except for G2. Conclusion: The four beta-titanium wires analyzed produced different force systems when used in a more elaborate design due to the fact that each wire responds differently to bends.

  8. Automating wiring formboard design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, T.

    2013-01-01

    Increase in aircraft wiring complexity call for manufacturing design improvements to reduce cost and lead-time. To achieve such improvements, a joint research project was performed by the Flight Performance and Propulsion (FPP) group and Fokker Elmo BV, the second largest aircraft wiring harness

  9. Safe and consistent method of spot-welding platinum thermocouple wires and foils for high temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, G.; Roth, M.

    2012-08-01

    A low-voltage (mV) electronically triggered spot welding system for fabricating fine thermocouples and thin sheets used in high-temperature characterization of materials' properties is suggested. The system is based on the capacitance discharge method with a timed trigger for obtaining reliable and consistent welds. In contrast to existing techniques based on employing high voltage DC supplies for charging the capacitor or supplies with positive and negative rails, this method uses a simple, standard dual power supply available at most of the physical laboratories or can be acquired at a low cost. In addition, an efficient and simple method of fabricating non-sticking electrodes that do not contaminate the weld area is suggested and implemented.

  10. WIRED World Wide Web Interactive Remote Event Display

    CERN Document Server

    Ballaminut, A; Dönszelmann, M; Van Herwijnen, Eric; Köper, D; Korhonen, J; Litmaath, M; Perl, J; Theodorou, A; Whiteson, D; Wolff, E

    2000-01-01

    WIRED is a framework, written in Java, to build High Energy Physics event displays that can be used across the network. To guarantee portability across all platforms, WIRED is implemented in the Java language and uses the Swing user interface component set. It can be used as a stand-alone application or as an applet inside a WWW browser. The graphical user interface allows for multiple views and for multiple controls acting on those views. A detector tree control is available to toggle the visibility of parts of the events and detector geometry. XML (Extensible Markup Language), RMI (Remote Method Invocation) and CORBA loaders can be used to load event data as well as geometry data, and to connect to FORTRAN, C, C++ and Java reconstruction programs. Non-linear and non-Cartesian projections (e.g. fish-eye, rho-phi, rho-Z, phi-Z) provide special views to get a better understanding of events. WIRED has grown to be a framework in use and under development in several HEP experiments (ATLAS, CHORUS, DELPHI, LHCb, B...

  11. A new method to investigate how mechanical loading of osteocytes controls osteoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol eVazquez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical loading, a potent stimulator of bone formation, is governed by osteocyte regulation of osteoblasts. We developed a 3D in vitro co-culture system to investigate the effect of loading on osteocyte-osteoblast interactions. MLO-Y4 cells were embedded in type I collagen gels and MC3T3-E1(14 or MG63 cells layered on top. Ethidium homodimer staining of 3D co-cultures showed 100 % osteoblasts and 86 % osteocytes were viable after 7 days. Microscopy revealed osteoblasts and osteocytes maintain their respective ovoid/pyriform and dendritic morphologies in 3D co-cultures. Reverse-transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA extracted separately from osteoblasts and osteocytes, showed that Podoplanin (E11, osteocalcin (OCN and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2 mRNAs were expressed in both cell types. Type I collagen (Col1a1 mRNA expression was higher in osteoblasts (P<0.001, whereas alkaline phosphatase (ALP mRNA was higher in osteocytes (P=0.001. Immunohistochemistry revealed osteoblasts and osteocytes express E11, type I pro-collagen and connexin 43 (CX43 proteins. In preliminary experiments to assess osteogenic responses, co-cultures were treated with human recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2 or mechanical loading using a custom built loading device. BMP-2 treatment significantly increased osteoblast Col1a1 mRNA synthesis (P=0.031 in MLO-Y4/MG63 co-cultures after 5 days treatment. A 16-well silicone plate, loaded (5 min, 10 Hz, 2.5 N to induce 4000-4500 με cyclic tension within gels increased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 release 0.5 hr post-load in MLO-Y4 cells pre-cultured in 3D collagen gels for 48 hr, 72 hr, or 7 days. Mechanical loading of 3D co-cultures increased type I pro-collagen release 1 and 5 days later. These methods reveal a new osteocyte-osteoblast co-culture model that may be useful for investigating mechanically-induced osteocyte control of osteoblast bone

  12. Effects of gain-scheduling methods in a classical wind turbine controller on wind turbine aeroservoelastic modes and loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaldi, Carlo; Henriksen, Lars Christian; Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2014-01-01

    The eects of dierent gain-scheduling methods for a classical wind turbine controller, operating in full load region, on the wind turbine aeroservoelastic modes and loads are investigated in this work. The dierent techniques are derived looking at the physical problem to take into account the chan......The eects of dierent gain-scheduling methods for a classical wind turbine controller, operating in full load region, on the wind turbine aeroservoelastic modes and loads are investigated in this work. The dierent techniques are derived looking at the physical problem to take into account...

  13. Assessment of the hardness of different orthodontic wires and brackets produced by metal injection molding and conventional methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Alavi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: MIM orthodontic brackets exhibited hardness values much lower than those of SS orthodontic archwires and were more compatible with NiTi and beta-titanium archwires. A wide range of microhardness values has been reported for conventional orthodontic brackets and it should be considered that the manufacturing method might be only one of the factors affecting the mechanical properties of orthodontic brackets including hardness.

  14. Numerical-analytical method of calculating insulated double-glazed units deflection under climatic (internal load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plotnikov Aleksandr Aleksandrovich

    Full Text Available Glass unit consists of glasses hermetically-united together. The cavity of an insulating glass unit contains a fixed volume of air (gas. In the process of production regular air with atmospheric pressure and temperature is sealed inside a glass unit. During operation the atmospheric pressure is constantly changing, but the pressure inside remains constant (at a constant temperature. A change of temperature or of the external air pressure results in a pressure difference and therefore in a load on the glass panes. The action may exceed the usual load considerably. This pressure effects the glasses of the unit, deforms them, lowers the thermotechnical properties of glass units and can lead to their destruction. The action of the inside pressure can be seen all around as convex and concaved glasses, which destroys the architectural look of buildings. It is obvious that it is incorrect to calculate thin glass plates on such a load only by classical methods of strength of materials theory. In this case we need a special calculation method. The effects of a change in temperature, altitude or meteorological pressure are easily covered by the definition of an isochore pressure. This is necessary, to determine the change of pressure due to the temperature induced gas expansion in the cavity of the insulating glass according to the ideal gas law. After the integration of the analytical plate solution and the ideal gas law, the final pressure states can easily be calculated by coupling the change of volume and the change of pressure.

  15. Studies on interaction between castor oil and dissolved water by hot wire method; Saisen kanetsuho niyoru himashiyu to yozonsui tono sogo sayo no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaoka, K.; Kobayashi, K.; Takahashi, M.; Sone, M. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-10-10

    The effect of added water on structural change in castor oil was studied by a hot wire method. The change in kinematic-viscosity coefficients for anhydrous and hydrous castor oil were measured to evaluate the interaction between water and castor oil molecules. The kinematic-viscosity coefficient gradually increases with increasing the water content and reaches the maximum value at 4075 ppm of water. However, with the further increase in water, the kinematic-viscosity coefficient sharply decreases due to the destruction in the liquid structure of castor oil. Eventually, the maximum value is attained at the solubility limit of water in oil. The ratio of the number of hydroxy groups of glycerol triricinoleate in the castor oil to the amount of water molecule is 5/mol H{sub 2}O at the maximum kinematic-viscosity coefficient, where the liquid structure is developed due to the intermolecular crosslinking of water. However, the crosslinking of water disappears at the solubility limit of water and a water cluster is formed. In this case, water acts as a kind of a plasticizer decreases the kinematic-viscosity coefficient. The liquid structure is gradually destroyed at each water content with the rise in temperature from 10 to 50 degree C and it almost disappears at 60 degree C. (author)

  16. Synthesis and characterization of magnetic of Ni/ABS nanocomposites by electrical explosion of wire in liquid and solution blending methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuyet-Nguyen, Minh; Hai-Nguyen, Hong; Kim, Won Joo; Kim, Ho Yoon; Kim, Jin-Chun

    2017-03-01

    Nanomaterials have attracted great attention from chemists, physicists and materials scientists because of their application benefits and special properties. Thermoplastics have been used in many applications such as molding of non-electrical components, conducting, magnetic field and 3D printing. Nanocomposites are known as a material which blends the best properties of components, a high performance material exhibits unusual property combinations and unique design possibilities. In this research, we focused to investigate and report primary results in the synthesis of magnetic nanocomposites based on acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), which are useful and important thermoplastics. Nickel nanopowder was prepared by electrical explosion of wire in a liquid were used as magnetic component. The composites were prepared by following steps, first the obtained Ni nanopowders were incorporated into the ABS matrix via a solution blending method (drop-casting), and then the solvent was evaporated. The characterizations of obtaining composites were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction analysis and vibrating sample magnetometer.

  17. Robust Topology Optimization Based on Stochastic Collocation Methods under Loading Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghai Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A robust topology optimization (RTO approach with consideration of loading uncertainties is developed in this paper. The stochastic collocation method combined with full tensor product grid and Smolyak sparse grid transforms the robust formulation into a weighted multiple loading deterministic problem at the collocation points. The proposed approach is amenable to implementation in existing commercial topology optimization software package and thus feasible to practical engineering problems. Numerical examples of two- and three-dimensional topology optimization problems are provided to demonstrate the proposed RTO approach and its applications. The optimal topologies obtained from deterministic and robust topology optimization designs under tensor product grid and sparse grid with different levels are compared with one another to investigate the pros and cons of optimization algorithm on final topologies, and an extensive Monte Carlo simulation is also performed to verify the proposed approach.

  18. Note: Loading method of molecular fluorine using x-ray induced chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pravica, Michael; Sneed, Daniel; White, Melanie; Wang, Yonggang

    2014-01-01

    We have successfully loaded molecular fluorine into a diamond anvil cell at high pressure using the synchrotron x-ray induced decomposition of perfluorohexane (C 6 F 14 ). “White” x-ray radiation from the Advanced Photon Source was used to initiate the chemical decomposition of C 6 F 14 , which resulted in the in situ production of F 2 as verified via Raman spectroscopy. Due to the toxic nature of fluorine, this method will offer significant advantages in the ability to easily load a relatively nontoxic and inert substance into a chamber (such as a diamond anvil cell) that, when sealed with other reactants and irradiate with hard x-rays (>7 keV), releases highly reactive and toxic fluorine into the sample/reaction chamber to enable novel chemical synthesis under isolated and/or extreme conditions

  19. Side loading vault system and method for the disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meess, D.C.; Jones, B.J.; Mello, R.M.; Weiss, T.G. Jr.; Wright, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a method for the disposal of hazardous radioactive waste. It comprises: constructing a floor slab in the earth; constructing an elongated wall assembly over the floor slab having sidewalls and a front wall and a back wall at either end the side walls being longer than the front and back walls; providing an accessway in the front wall; constructing a ceiling slab over the wall assembly that is supported at least in part by the wall assembly to form a vault cell; inspecting the vault cell for structural defects, introducing hazardous radioactive waste through the accessway in the front wall and loading the cell with the waste from the back wall to the front wall in rows, each of which is substantially parallel to the back wall to minimize radiation exposure to workers loading the cell, and closing the accessway of the vault cell by constructing a removable wall structure within the accessway

  20. Estimate the Sediment Load Entering the Left Side of Mosul Dam Lake Using Four Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Qusay Mahmood Alkattan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mosul Dam is one of the important dams in Iraq, it suffers like other dams from the problem of sediment accumulation in the lake. The daily surface runoff was estimated from seven main valleys in the left bank of the lake during the period (1/1/1988-31/8/2016 by applying SWAT model. The model performance was assessed using the statistical criteria R2, IOA, NSE and T-Test, the results were good. The averages annual surface runoff from the main valleys to the lake ranged between 3.3*106 m3 to 42.1*106 m3. The daily sediment load was estimated by four methods, Bagnold method was used in SWAT sediments transport simulation, while Yang, Toffaletti methods and Excess Shear Theory were programed by MATLAB, The performance of sediments transport simulation using Bagnlod, Yang and Excess Shear Theory methods was assessed using the same four statistical criteria and the results were good, The averages annual sediment load from the main valleys to the lake were (5.78*103 - 68.62*103, (1.49*104 - 42.13*104, (8.46*103 - 160.77*103 and (4.26*104 - 78.6*104 tons for Bagnold, Yang, Excess Shear Theory and Toffaletti methods, respectively. The valley Jardiam is the main supplier of sediments to the left side of the dam lake with 56%.

  1. Development of Human Posture Simulation Method for Assessing Posture Angles and Spinal Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming-Lun; Waters, Thomas; Werren, Dwight

    2015-01-01

    Video-based posture analysis employing a biomechanical model is gaining a growing popularity for ergonomic assessments. A human posture simulation method of estimating multiple body postural angles and spinal loads from a video record was developed to expedite ergonomic assessments. The method was evaluated by a repeated measures study design with three trunk flexion levels, two lift asymmetry levels, three viewing angles and three trial repetitions as experimental factors. The study comprised two phases evaluating the accuracy of simulating self and other people’s lifting posture via a proxy of a computer-generated humanoid. The mean values of the accuracy of simulating self and humanoid postures were 12° and 15°, respectively. The repeatability of the method for the same lifting condition was excellent (~2°). The least simulation error was associated with side viewing angle. The estimated back compressive force and moment, calculated by a three dimensional biomechanical model, exhibited a range of 5% underestimation. The posture simulation method enables researchers to simultaneously quantify body posture angles and spinal loading variables with accuracy and precision comparable to on-screen posture matching methods. PMID:26361435

  2. Force control compensation method with variable load stiffness and damping of the hydraulic drive unit force control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangdong; Ba, Kaixian; Yu, Bin; Cao, Yuan; Zhu, Qixin; Zhao, Hualong

    2016-05-01

    Each joint of hydraulic drive quadruped robot is driven by the hydraulic drive unit (HDU), and the contacting between the robot foot end and the ground is complex and variable, which increases the difficulty of force control inevitably. In the recent years, although many scholars researched some control methods such as disturbance rejection control, parameter self-adaptive control, impedance control and so on, to improve the force control performance of HDU, the robustness of the force control still needs improving. Therefore, how to simulate the complex and variable load characteristics of the environment structure and how to ensure HDU having excellent force control performance with the complex and variable load characteristics are key issues to be solved in this paper. The force control system mathematic model of HDU is established by the mechanism modeling method, and the theoretical models of a novel force control compensation method and a load characteristics simulation method under different environment structures are derived, considering the dynamic characteristics of the load stiffness and the load damping under different environment structures. Then, simulation effects of the variable load stiffness and load damping under the step and sinusoidal load force are analyzed experimentally on the HDU force control performance test platform, which provides the foundation for the force control compensation experiment research. In addition, the optimized PID control parameters are designed to make the HDU have better force control performance with suitable load stiffness and load damping, under which the force control compensation method is introduced, and the robustness of the force control system with several constant load characteristics and the variable load characteristics respectively are comparatively analyzed by experiment. The research results indicate that if the load characteristics are known, the force control compensation method presented in this

  3. High-step-coverage Cu-lateral interconnections over 100 µm thick chips on a polymer substrate—an alternative method to wire bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murugesan, M; Fukushima, T; Kiyoyama, K; Bea, J C; Tanaka, T; Koyanagi, M

    2012-01-01

    We propose a novel chip in the polymer board interconnect method for packaging different kinds of chips on a wafer level, where conventional wire bonding may not be possible due to either space or mechanical constraints. High-step-coverage copper (Cu)-lateral interconnects formed over 100 µm thick Si chips by the electroplating method have been investigated for their microstructure and electrical characteristics, using the field emission scanning electron microscope and semiconductor parameter analyzer (Agilent, 4156C). The obtained coverage ratios (i.e. the layer thickness on the chip surface to the sidewall of the chip) for each formed layer, i.e. the tantalum barrier layer, Cu seed layer, SiO 2 dielectric layer and electroplated Cu layer, were 3:1, 3:1, 1.5:1 and 1:1, respectively. The measured mean electrical resistances for 36 µm × 2000 µm and 58 µm × 2000 µm interconnect lines were respectively 31.1 and 24 mΩ, and the difference between measured and calculated resistance values was less than 5%. The good quality of as-fabricated Cu-lateral interconnects was evidenced from the observed low resistance values for isolated interconnects and the linear change in daisy chain resistance with the number of interconnects. More importantly, even at a high operating temperature of 150 °C, the resistance value of the Cu-lateral interconnect over the integrated chip was very close to that of the resistance value of interconnect on the plain wafer. The suitability of this technique in integrating various chips heterogeneously was validated from the no observed change in transistor behavior due to this technique. Since this is a CMOS compatible interconnection method between the polymer substrate and chip, it can readily be scaled up to the wafer level. (paper)

  4. FiberWire is superior in strength to stainless steel wire for tension band fixation of transverse patellar fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, P B; Kosmopoulos, V; Coté, R E; Tayag, T J; Nana, A D

    2009-11-01

    The metal implants used to achieve fixation of displaced transverse patellar fractures are associated with implant failure, postoperative pain and a significant re-operation rate. Recent studies have examined braided suture as a possible alternative to stainless steel wire to increase patient satisfaction and decrease re-operation rates, but suture has not demonstrated clearly superior fixation strength. FiberWire is a reinforced braided polyblend suture that has demonstrated superior characteristics to the previous sutures studied and has not to our knowledge been examined as a material for tension band fixation of transverse patellar fractures. Materials testing was performed on repeated samples of No. 5 FiberWire suture and 18-gauge stainless steel wire. The strength and stiffness of each material was measured. The two materials were then used for tension band fixation on a novel transverse patellar fracture model and tested to failure by three-point bending. The constructs included a single stainless steel wire, a single-strand FiberWire tied with a sliding knot, double-strand FiberWire tied with sliding knots and double-strand FiberWire tied with a Wagoner's Hitch. The fixation strength and stiffness of the constructs were measured. Unlike stainless steel, FiberWire maintained its initial stiffness until failure. Furthermore, during three-point-bend testing, double-strand FiberWire was found to have a significantly higher failure load than stainless steel wire when the suture was tied and locked under the tension produced by a modified Wagoner's Hitch. FiberWire is a potentially superior alternative to stainless steel wire in tension band fixation of transverse patellar fractures.

  5. Measurement of circumsolar ratio in high dust loading regions using a photographic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ansary, Hany; Shafiq, Talha; Rizvi, Arslan; El-Leathy, Abdelrahman

    2017-06-01

    Performance of concentrating solar power (CSP) plants is highly affected by direct normal irradiance (DNI). However, it is also important to consider circumsolar radiation in any simulation of a CSP plant, especially in desert regions where dust loading in the atmosphere is expected. There are a number of methods to measure circumsolar radiation. However, most of them require expensive instrumentation. This work introduces a simple method to estimate circumsolar radiation. It involves taking high-resolution photographs of the sun and processing them using a computer code that identifies the sun's disk. The code then uses pixel intensities to obtain the solar intensity distribution across the sun's disk and in the aureole region. The solar intensity distribution is then used to obtain the circumsolar ratio (CSR) which represents the shape of the sun. To test this method, numerous photos of the sun were taken during the month of April and September 2016 at King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Riyadh is a region that is well known for high dust-loading, especially during the summer. Two days of different atmospheric conditions were selected in September for comparative analysis. Results show that this method produces repeatable results, and that the CSR can increase significantly due to high dust loading and passing clouds. The CSR is found to be a strong function of DNI, ranging from about 4.5% at DNI values above 800 W/m2 and increasing to as much as 8.5% when DNI drops to about 400 W/m2, due to passing clouds. Furthermore, the results show that circumsolar ratio tends to be high in the early morning and late afternoon due to the high air mass, while its values tend to be lowest around solar noon when the air mass is lowest.

  6. Thermosonic wire bonding of IC devices using palladium wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shze, J.H.; Poh, M.T.; Tan, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    The feasibility of replacing gold wire by palladium wire in thermosonic wire bonding of CMOS and bipolar devices are studied in terms of the manufacturability, physical, electrical and assembly performance. The results that palladium wire is a viable option for bonding the bipolar devices but not the CMOS devices

  7. A NOVEL METHOD FOR ANALYZING ELECTRIC FIELD DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRO CAPACITIVE CANCER TREATMENT (ECCT USING WIRE MESH ELECTRODES: A CASE STUDY OF BRAIN CANCER THERAPY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linahtadiya Andiani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Electric field distribution analysis generated by ECCT in a human head model with or without brain cancer using wire mesh electrode has been conductedsuccessfully. The analysis of electric field distribution was done using simulation in a human head model with ECCT Apparel Helmet system type A which is three dimensional model. The electric field distribution was measured with and without a wire mesh electrode which was either passive or active using COMSOL Multiphysics 5.2 software and was then processed using MATLAB R2010a. The aim of the research was to assess the performance of wire mesh electrode in detecting electric field distribution. ECCT which is utilized in brain cancer therapy with input 10 V is able to produce an electric field with an average of 178.8 V/m. The input voltage influences electric field distribution whereas the signal frequency does not affect the electric field distribution. Wire mesh electrode which is either active or passive can measure the electric field distribution generated by ECCT that neither the active nor the passive wire mesh electrode changed the pattern of the electric field distribution and the change in the measured electric field value is not significant.

  8. Towards plant wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self-growing wetware circuits and devices, and integration of plant-based electronic components into future and emergent bio-hybrid systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Graphene wire medium: Homogenization and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution we analyze numerically the optical properties of the graphene wire medium, which unit cell consists of a stripe of graphene embedded into dielectric. We propose a simple method for retrieval of the isofrequency contour and effective permittivity tensor. As an example...... of the graphene wire medium application we demonstrate a reconfigurable hyperlens for the terahertz subwavelength imaging capable of resolving two sources with separation λ0/5 in the far-field....

  10. Laboratory-scale method for enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass at high-solids loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibble Clare J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening new lignocellulosic biomass pretreatments and advanced enzyme systems at process relevant conditions is a key factor in the development of economically viable lignocellulosic ethanol. Shake flasks, the reaction vessel commonly used for screening enzymatic saccharifications of cellulosic biomass, do not provide adequate mixing at high-solids concentrations when shaking is not supplemented with hand mixing. Results We identified roller bottle reactors (RBRs as laboratory-scale reaction vessels that can provide adequate mixing for enzymatic saccharifications at high-solids biomass loadings without any additional hand mixing. Using the RBRs, we developed a method for screening both pretreated biomass and enzyme systems at process-relevant conditions. RBRs were shown to be scalable between 125 mL and 2 L. Results from enzymatic saccharifications of five biomass pretreatments of different severities and two enzyme preparations suggest that this system will work well for a variety of biomass substrates and enzyme systems. A study of intermittent mixing regimes suggests that mass transfer limitations of enzymatic saccharifications at high-solids loadings are significant but can be mitigated with a relatively low amount of mixing input. Conclusion Effective initial mixing to promote good enzyme distribution and continued, but not necessarily continuous, mixing is necessary in order to facilitate high biomass conversion rates. The simplicity and robustness of the bench-scale RBR system, combined with its ability to accommodate numerous reaction vessels, will be useful in screening new biomass pretreatments and advanced enzyme systems at high-solids loadings.

  11. Novel method to load multiple genes onto a mammalian artificial chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Anna; Fodor, Katalin; Praznovszky, Tünde; Tubak, Vilmos; Udvardy, Andor; Hadlaczky, Gyula; Katona, Robert L

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian artificial chromosomes are natural chromosome-based vectors that may carry a vast amount of genetic material in terms of both size and number. They are reasonably stable and segregate well in both mitosis and meiosis. A platform artificial chromosome expression system (ACEs) was earlier described with multiple loading sites for a modified lambda-integrase enzyme. It has been shown that this ACEs is suitable for high-level industrial protein production and the treatment of a mouse model for a devastating human disorder, Krabbe's disease. ACEs-treated mutant mice carrying a therapeutic gene lived more than four times longer than untreated counterparts. This novel gene therapy method is called combined mammalian artificial chromosome-stem cell therapy. At present, this method suffers from the limitation that a new selection marker gene should be present for each therapeutic gene loaded onto the ACEs. Complex diseases require the cooperative action of several genes for treatment, but only a limited number of selection marker genes are available and there is also a risk of serious side-effects caused by the unwanted expression of these marker genes in mammalian cells, organs and organisms. We describe here a novel method to load multiple genes onto the ACEs by using only two selectable marker genes. These markers may be removed from the ACEs before therapeutic application. This novel technology could revolutionize gene therapeutic applications targeting the treatment of complex disorders and cancers. It could also speed up cell therapy by allowing researchers to engineer a chromosome with a predetermined set of genetic factors to differentiate adult stem cells, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells into cell types of therapeutic value. It is also a suitable tool for the investigation of complex biochemical pathways in basic science by producing an ACEs with several genes from a signal transduction pathway of interest.

  12. Novel method to load multiple genes onto a mammalian artificial chromosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Tóth

    Full Text Available Mammalian artificial chromosomes are natural chromosome-based vectors that may carry a vast amount of genetic material in terms of both size and number. They are reasonably stable and segregate well in both mitosis and meiosis. A platform artificial chromosome expression system (ACEs was earlier described with multiple loading sites for a modified lambda-integrase enzyme. It has been shown that this ACEs is suitable for high-level industrial protein production and the treatment of a mouse model for a devastating human disorder, Krabbe's disease. ACEs-treated mutant mice carrying a therapeutic gene lived more than four times longer than untreated counterparts. This novel gene therapy method is called combined mammalian artificial chromosome-stem cell therapy. At present, this method suffers from the limitation that a new selection marker gene should be present for each therapeutic gene loaded onto the ACEs. Complex diseases require the cooperative action of several genes for treatment, but only a limited number of selection marker genes are available and there is also a risk of serious side-effects caused by the unwanted expression of these marker genes in mammalian cells, organs and organisms. We describe here a novel method to load multiple genes onto the ACEs by using only two selectable marker genes. These markers may be removed from the ACEs before therapeutic application. This novel technology could revolutionize gene therapeutic applications targeting the treatment of complex disorders and cancers. It could also speed up cell therapy by allowing researchers to engineer a chromosome with a predetermined set of genetic factors to differentiate adult stem cells, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells into cell types of therapeutic value. It is also a suitable tool for the investigation of complex biochemical pathways in basic science by producing an ACEs with several genes from a signal transduction pathway of interest.

  13. Effects of autoclaving versus cold chemical (glutaraldehyde) sterilization on load-deflection characteristics of aesthetic coated archwires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyed Mohammad; Hormozi, Elham; Moradi, Mina; Shamohammadi, Milad; Rakhshan, Vahid

    2018-04-07

    The effect of any sterilization methods (cold [chemical] or hot) on load-deflection characteristics of aesthetic coated archwires has not yet been investigated. Thus, we assessed it. In this experimental in vitro study, 90-coated archwires from 3 brands were purchased. Ten wires from each brand (n=30) underwent cold and 10 underwent hot sterilization, while 10 left unsterilized as negative controls. Load-deflection curves were established for each wire (as five 0.2mm intervals between 1.0 and 1.8mm displacements), using a three-bracket test. After determining the plateau phase that was present in all wires, the averages of plateau phase pertaining to loading and unloading curves and their discrepancies (hysteresis) were calculated for each subgroup (n=10). Average plateau values were compared using two-way ANOVA, Tukey, and independent-samples t-test (α=0.05). Average loading and unloading values were 906.6±129.7 and 295.9±84.5g respectively (t-test P0.05). Comparing hysteresis plateaus, ANOVA indicated difference among wire brands (P<0.0053) but not among sterilization types (P=0.9166). Cold sterilization might reduce unloading plateau of orthodontic wires, but sterilization in general might not affect loading or hysteresis plateaus. Different brands had different plateaus of loading, unloading and hysteresis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Direct methods of soil-structure interaction analysis for earthquake loadings (IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, J. B.; Kim, D. S.; Choi, J. S.; Kwon, K. C.; Kim, Y. J.; Lee, H. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, D. K. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-15

    Methodologies of SSI analysis for earthquake loadings have been reviewed. Based on the finite element method incorporating infinite element technique for the unbounded exterior region, a computer program for the nonlinear seismic analysis named as 'KIESSI-QK' has been developed. The computer program has been verified using a free-field site-response problem. The Hualien FVT stochastic finite element analysis after backfill and the blind prediction of earthquake responses have been carried out utilizing the developed computer program. The earthquake response analysis for the LSST structure has also been performed and compared with the measured data.

  15. Direct methods of soil-structure interaction analysis for earthquake loadings (V)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, J. B.; Choi, J. S.; Lee, J. J.; Park, D. U. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-15

    Methodologies of SSI analysis for earthquake loadings have been reviewed. Based on the finite method incorporating infinite element technique for the unbounded exterior region, a computer program for the nonlinear seismic analysis named as 'KIESSI' has been developed. The computer program has been verified using a free-field site-response problem. Post-correlation analysis for the Hualien FVT after backfill and the blind prediction of earthquake responses have been carried out utilizing the developed computer program. The earthquake response analyses for three LSST structures (Hualien, Lotung and Tepsco structure) have also been performed and compared with the measured data.

  16. Using resistivity to measure H/Pd and D/Pd loading. Method and significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mckubre, M.C.H.; Tanzella, F.L.

    2006-01-01

    The resistance ratio method is the most frequent technique used to determine the extent of interstitial loading of hydrogen or deuterium atoms into palladium electrodes, or extended structures used in electrolytic or gas phase cold fusion experiments. Specifically, advantage is taken of an empirical relationship between the measured resistance, R, normalized to that of the same body at the same temperature in the absence of hydrogen isotope, R 0 , hence R/R 0 , and the atomic fraction occupancy of octahedral interstitials, x=H/Pd or D/Pd. This method was first suggested and employed in cold fusion studies by the present authors, and received immediate and widespread acceptance because of the ease with which this experimental technique could be used to make in situ, real-time measurements of a parameter, D/Pd, anticipated or hypothesized at that time to relate to cold fusion heat excess or nuclear production. We take up this topic again 15 years later in an attempt to clear up some errors and misunderstandings regarding the resistance ratio method and its application in cold fusion studies. The relationship between R/R 0 and x is empirical. That is, calibrations are only as good as the experiments that support the shape of the curve and cannot be used outside the range (P, T, x) in which data are taken. The original calibration (unaccountably and erroneously immortalized as the 'famous Baranowski curve') involved an extrapolation of known data into the region of cold fusion interest in the D-Pd system, at x > 0.6. Present theory and results focus new attention on the very high loading region as x approaches or even exceeds unity, where double occupation of octahedral sites, tetrahedral site occupancy, new phase formation or new electrical states, may be relevant to the underlying physical process of excess heat and nuclear production. Rather than simply using the resistance ratio as a qualitative tool to determine whether an electrode is better or lesser loaded, it

  17. Alternative wind power modeling methods using chronological and load duration curve production cost models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M R

    1996-04-01

    As an intermittent resource, capturing the temporal variation in windpower is an important issue in the context of utility production cost modeling. Many of the production cost models use a method that creates a cumulative probability distribution that is outside the time domain. The purpose of this report is to examine two production cost models that represent the two major model types: chronological and load duration cure models. This report is part of the ongoing research undertaken by the Wind Technology Division of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in utility modeling and wind system integration.

  18. Design of a new urban wind turbine airfoil using a pressure-load inverse method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques, J.C.C.; Gato, L.M.C. [IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Marques da Silva, F. [LNEC - Laboratorio Nacional de Engenharia Civil, Av. Brasil, 101, 1700-066 Lisboa (Portugal); Estanqueiro, A.I. [INETI - Instituto Nacional de Engenharia, Tecnologia e Inovacao Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2009-12-15

    This paper presents the design methodology of a new wind turbine airfoil that achieves high performance in urban environment by increasing the maximum lift. For this purpose, an inverse method was applied to obtain a new wind turbine blade section with constant pressure-load along the chord, at the design inlet angle. In comparison with conventional blade section designs, the new airfoil has increased maximum lift, reduced leading edge suction peak and controlled soft-stall behaviour, due to a reduction of the adverse pressure gradient on the suction side. Wind tunnel experimental results confirmed the computational results. (author)

  19. Ranking Method for Peak-Load Shifting Considering Different Types of Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Peng; Wen, Fushuan; Pinson, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Management measures for peak-load shifting are employed to alleviate power shortages during the peak hours in some countries with power-supply shortages, such as China. One of the most popular measures is to rank the electricity users with respect to their relative importance in the society....... In ranking the sequence, the decision maker may encounter difficulties because the types of data employed for this purpose are not consistent. Thus, a ranking method capable of handling different types of data is necessary and presented in this paper. To prioritize electricity users in a reasonable manner...... obtained. The proposed approach is demonstrated by actual data of Guangzhou city in China....

  20. Inter-rater reliability of a video-analysis method measuring low-back load in a field situation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, P.; Kingma, I.; Boot, C.R.L.; Bongers, P.M.; Dieën, J.H. van

    2013-01-01

    Valid and reliable low-back load assessment tools that can be used in field situations are needed for epidemiologic studies and for ergonomic practice. The aim of this study was to assess the inter-rater reliability of a low-back load video-analysis method in a field setting.Five raters analyzed 50

  1. A Method of Selecting the Block Size of BMM for Estimating Extreme Loads in Engineering Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixin Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme loads have a significant effect on the fatigue damage of components. The block maximum method (BMM is widely used to estimate extreme values in various fields. Selecting a reasonable block size for BMM is crucial to ensure that proper extreme values are extracted to get extreme sample to estimate extreme values. Aiming at this issue, this study proposed a comprehensive evaluation approach based on multiple-criteria decision making (MCDM method to select a proper block size. A wheel loader with six sections in one operating cycle was illustrated as an example. First, spading sections of each operating cycle were extracted and connected as extreme loads often occur at that section. Then extreme sample was obtained by BMM for fitting the generalized extreme value (GEV distribution. Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S test, Pearson’s Chi-Square (χ2 test, and average deviation in Probability Distribution Function (PDF are selected as the fitting test. The comprehensive weights are calculated by the maximum entropy principle. Finally, the optimal block size corresponding to the minimum comprehensive evaluation indicator is obtained and the result exhibited a good fitting effect. The proposed method can also be flexibly used in various situations to select a block size.

  2. A Scrutiny of the Equivalent Static Lateral Load Method of Design for Multistory Masonry Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touqan, A. R.; Helou, S. H.

    2008-01-01

    Building structures with a soft storey are gaining widespread popularity in urban areas due to the scarcity of land and due to the pressing need for wide open spaces at the entrance level. In earthquake prone zones dynamic analysis based on the Equivalent Static Lateral Load method is attractive to the novice and the design codes leave the choice of the analysis procedure up to the discretion of the designer. The following is a comparison of the said method with the more elaborate Response Spectrum Method of analysis as they apply to a repertoire of different structural models. The results clearly show that the former provides similar results of response in structures with gradual change in storey stiffness; while it is over conservative for a bare frame structure. It is however less conservative for structures with a soft storey

  3. Cryogenic Pressure Seal for Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciana, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    High-pressure-seal formed by forcing polyurethane into space surrounding wire or cable in special fitting. Wire or cable routed through fitting then through a tightly fitting cap. Wire insulation left intact. Cap filled with sealant and forced onto the fitting: this pushes sealant into fitting so it seals wire or cable in fitting as well as in cap.

  4. Session-RPE Method for Training Load Monitoring: Validity, Ecological Usefulness, and Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monoem Haddad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this review is to (1 retrieve all data validating the Session-rating of perceived exertion (RPE-method using various criteria, (2 highlight the rationale of this method and its ecological usefulness, and (3 describe factors that can alter RPE and users of this method should take into consideration.Method: Search engines such as SPORTDiscus, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases in the English language between 2001 and 2016 were consulted for the validity and usefulness of the session-RPE method. Studies were considered for further analysis when they used the session-RPE method proposed by Foster et al. in 2001. Participants were athletes of any gender, age, or level of competition. Studies using languages other than English were excluded in the analysis of the validity and reliability of the session-RPE method. Other studies were examined to explain the rationale of the session-RPE method and the origin of RPE.Results: A total of 950 studies cited the Foster et al. study that proposed the session RPE-method. 36 studies have examined the validity and reliability of this proposed method using the modified CR-10.Conclusion: These studies confirmed the validity and good reliability and internal consistency of session-RPE method in several sports and physical activities with men and women of different age categories (children, adolescents, and adults among various expertise levels. This method could be used as “standing alone” method for training load (TL monitoring purposes though some recommend to combine it with other physiological parameters as heart rate.

  5. Development of halogen-free, heat-resistant, low-voltage wire for automotive use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Keiji; Suzuki, Sizuo; Takahagi, Masatoshi; Uda, Ikujiro

    1995-01-01

    The environmental load of our motorized society is of major concern, and includes considerations of recycling of automotive parts as the industrial wastes. The total average length of AV, AVX (electrical wire insulated with PVC, cross-linked PVC), and AEX (electrical wire insulated with cross-linked polyolefin) wires required for the harnesses in modern automobiles is approximately 2,000-3,000 meters per unit. However these electrical wires contain a large amount of halogen, which can generate the smoke and corrosive gas. In response to this problem the authors have developed the electron beam irradiated halogen-free, heat-resistant, low-voltage electrical wire which does not contain any halogen based polymer or flame retardants. The developed wire features the reliability equivalent to AEX wire with minimum environmental load. (Author)

  6. Copper wire bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Preeti S; Zhong, ZhaoWei; Pecht, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    This critical volume provides an in-depth presentation of copper wire bonding technologies, processes and equipment, along with the economic benefits and risks.  Due to the increasing cost of materials used to make electronic components, the electronics industry has been rapidly moving from high cost gold to significantly lower cost copper as a wire bonding material.  However, copper wire bonding has several process and reliability concerns due to its material properties.  Copper Wire Bonding book lays out the challenges involved in replacing gold with copper as a wire bond material, and includes the bonding process changes—bond force, electric flame off, current and ultrasonic energy optimization, and bonding tools and equipment changes for first and second bond formation.  In addition, the bond–pad metallurgies and the use of bare and palladium-coated copper wires on aluminum are presented, and gold, nickel and palladium surface finishes are discussed.  The book also discusses best practices and re...

  7. SELF-DIAGNOSIS METHOD FOR CHECKING THE WAYSIDE SYSTEMS FOR WHEEL-RAIL VERTICAL LOAD MEASUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele CORTIS

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, wayside measurement systems of wheel-rail contact forces have acquired great relevance for the monitoring of rolling stock, especially for freight trains. Thanks to these solutions, infrastructure managers can check and monitor the status of rolling stock and, when necessary, impose corrective actions for the railway companies. On the other hand, the evaluation of contact forces is part of the rolling stock authorisation process [1] and a mainstone for the study of the running stability. The data provided by these measurements could give useful information to correlate the wear of the track with the frequency of applied loads, helping in the development of a better maintenance strategy of railway networks [2]. In this paper, the monitoring of vertical forces is based on the SMCV (Vertical Loads Monitoring System method, where shear strains of the rail web are measured with a simple combination of four electrical strain gauges, placed on both sides of the rail web along each span. The research has identified self-diagnosis methods for the SMCV system to ensure the reliability and the quality of the measurements and to extend the knowledge of the system. The recorded signals have been processed and converted into easily interpretable physical quantities by means of MATLAB® algorithm.

  8. Reduction method for residual stress of welded joint using harmonic vibrational load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigeru; Nishimura, Tadashi; Hiroi, Tetsumaro; Hirai, Seiji

    2007-01-01

    Welding is widely used for construction of many structures. Since welding is a process using locally given heat, residual stress is generated near the bead. Tensile residual stress degrades fatigue strength. Some reduction methods of residual stress have been presented and, for example, heat treatment and shot peening are practically used. However, those methods need special tools and are time consuming. In this paper, a new method for reduction of residual stress using harmonic vibrational load during welding is proposed. The proposed method is examined experimentally for some conditions. Two thin plates are supported on the supporting device and butt-welded using an automatic CO 2 gas shielded arc welding machine. Residual stress in the direction of the bead is measured by using a paralleled beam X-ray diffractometer with scintillation counter after removing quenched scale chemically. First, the welding of rolled steel for general structure for some excitation frequencies is examined. Specimens are welded along the groove on both sides. For all frequencies, tensile residual stress near the bead is significantly reduced. Second, welding of the specimen made of high tensile strength steel is examined. In this case, tensile residual stress near the bead is also reduced. Finally, the proposed method is examined by an analytical method. An analytical model which consists of mass and preloaded springs with elasto-plastic characteristic is used. Reduction of residual stress is demonstrated using this model

  9. A New Method for Carbon Isotopic Analysis of Nanogram Quantities of Carbon from Dissolved Chitin Using A Spooling-wire Microcombustion Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Nelson, D. M.; Clegg, B. F.; Berry, J.; Hu, F.

    2016-12-01

    δ13C analysis of specific taxa or compounds is commonly used for investigating past environmental change, including methane dynamics in lakes. However, most analytical methods require large sample sizes, prohibiting routine analysis of fossils of individual taxa found in sediment deposits. For example, 10-100 individual head capsules of fossil midges are required for δ13C analysis using an elemental analyzer (EA) interfaced with an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS). Here we present a new method that uses a spooling-wire microcombustion (SWiM) device interfaced with an IRMS for measuring δ13C values of carbon dissolved from individual head capsules of chitinous aquatic zooplankton. We extracted chitin (a major biochemical component of insect exoskeleton) from modern midge material obtained from four commercial suppliers. We first assessed the effects of sample treatments on carbon yields and δ13C values of dissolved chitin by varying the concentration of HCl used for dissolution, the duration of reaction in HCl, and the temperature of dissolution. We then investigated potential fractionation of carbon isotopes associated with chitin dissolution, by comparing δ13C values of dissolved chitin obtained via SWiM-IRMS with those from untreated head capsules obtained via a EA-IRMS. The average δ13C values of untreated head capsules varied between -25.1 and -30.1‰. Higher acid concentrations and temperatures, as well as longer reaction times, increased dissolution of carbon from the head capsules and the precision of δ13C values. For example, carbon yields from reaction of head capsules with 6N HCl at 25°C increased from 1 to 3 Vs as reaction times increased from 1 to 24 hours. Acid concentration and reaction time had the greatest influence on carbon yields and isotopic precision. The δ13C values of dissolved chitin mirrored the δ13C values of untreated head capsules with minimal offset of absolute values, which suggests no systematic fractionation

  10. High Efficiency Variable-Frequency Full-Bridge Converter with a Load Adaptive Control Method Based on the Loss Model

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Zhao; Haoyu Li; Yuan Liu; Zhenwei Li

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a load adaptive control method to improve the efficiency and dynamic performance of the Phase-Shifted Full-Bridge (PSFB) converter which works under a wide range of load conditions is presented. The proposed control method can be used as a battery charger since this application demands a wide range of load conditions. The composition of the PSFB converter’s losses and the loss analysis model are both discussed. According to this model, the optimum switching frequency which resu...

  11. Analysis Method for Laterally Loaded Pile Groups Using an Advanced Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Stacul

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A Boundary Element Method (BEM approach was developed for the analysis of pile groups. The proposed method includes: the non-linear behavior of the soil by a hyperbolic modulus reduction curve; the non-linear response of reinforced concrete pile sections, also taking into account the influence of tension stiffening; the influence of suction by increasing the stiffness of shallow portions of soil and modeled using the Modified Kovacs model; pile group shadowing effect, modeled using an approach similar to that proposed in the Strain Wedge Model for pile groups analyses. The proposed BEM method saves computational effort compared to more sophisticated codes such as VERSAT-P3D, PLAXIS 3D and FLAC-3D, and provides reliable results using input data from a standard site investigation. The reliability of this method was verified by comparing results from data from full scale and centrifuge tests on single piles and pile groups. A comparison is presented between measured and computed data on a laterally loaded fixed-head pile group composed by reinforced concrete bored piles. The results of the proposed method are shown to be in good agreement with those obtained in situ.

  12. Assessment of Methods to Consolidate Iodine-Loaded Silver-Functionalized Silica Aerogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyas, Josef; Engler, Robert K.

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is currently investigating alternative sorbents for the removal and immobilization of radioiodine from the gas streams in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. One of these new sorbents, Ag0-functionalized silica aerogels, shows great promise as a potential replacement for Ag-bearing mordenites because of its high selectivity and sorption capacity for iodine. Moreover, a feasible consolidation of iodine-loaded Ag0-functionalized silica aerogels to a durable SiO2-based waste form makes this aerogel an attractive choice for sequestering radioiodine. This report provides a preliminary assessment of the methods that can be used to consolidate iodine-loaded Ag0-functionalized silica aerogels into a final waste form. In particular, it focuses on experimental investigation of densification of as prepared Ag0-functionalized silica aerogels powders, with or without organic moiety and with or without sintering additive (colloidal silica), with three commercially available techniques: 1) hot uniaxial pressing (HUP), 2) hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and 3) spark plasma sintering (SPS). The densified products were evaluated with helium gas pycnometer for apparent density, with the Archimedes method for apparent density and open porosity, and with high-resolution scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) for the extent of densification and distribution of individual elements. The preliminary investigation of HUP, HIP, and SPS showed that these sintering methods can effectively consolidate powders of Ag0-functionalized silica aerogel into products of near-theoretical density. Also, removal of organic moiety and adding 5.6 mass% of colloidal silica to Ag0-functionalized silica aerogel powders before processing provided denser products. Furthermore, the ram travel data for SPS indicated that rapid consolidation of powders can be performed at temperatures below 950°C.

  13. Force Curves to Demonstrate Methods to Increase Musculoskeletal Loading with the ARED

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current resistance exercises on ISS do not meet the requirements set by expert panels in that the eccentric loads are less than concentric loads, forces are variable...

  14. Diclofenac sodium-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles prepared by emulsion/solvent evaporation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Dongfei; Jiang Sunmin [Nanjing Medical University, School of Pharmacy (China); Shen Hong [Nanjing Brain Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Neuro-Psychiatric Institute (China); Qin Shan; Liu Juanjuan; Zhang Qing; Li Rui, E-mail: chongloutougao@gmail.com; Xu Qunwei, E-mail: qunweixu@163.com [Nanjing Medical University, School of Pharmacy (China)

    2011-06-15

    The preparation of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) suffers from the drawback of poor incorporation of water-soluble drugs. The aim of this study was therefore to assess various formulation and process parameters to enhance the incorporation of a water-soluble drug (diclofenac sodium, DS) into SLNs prepared by the emulsion/solvent evaporation method. Results showed that the entrapment efficiency (EE) of DS was increased to approximately 100% by lowering the pH of dispersed phase. The EE of DS-loaded SLNs (DS-SLNs) had been improved by the existence of cosurfactants and increment of PVA concentration. Stabilizers and their combination with PEG 400 in the dispersed phase also resulted in higher EE and drug loading (DL). EE increased and DL decreased as the phospholipid/DS ratio became greater, while the amount of DS had an opposite effect. Ethanol turned out to be the ideal solvent making DS-SLNs. EE and DL of DS-SLNs were not affected by either the stirring speed or the viscosity of aqueous and dispersed phase. According to the investigations, drug solubility in dispersion medium played the most important role in improving EE.

  15. Compressive loading unloading behavior of nuclear graphite grades of different forming method and raw cokes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Sehwan; Hong, Seongdeok; Kim, Yongwan

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear graphite is used for core structural components and neutron moderators in high temperature gas-cooled reactors. As graphite is a brittle material fail at relatively low strains (e.g., ∼0.5% in tension and ∼2% in compression), cracking of these components can occur throughout the life of the reactor under the influence of thermal and mechanical stresses. While a lot of studies have been performed on the fracture of graphite, most studies have been concerned on crack initiation and propagation, with little concerns on the damage processes that lead to the very first stage of crack initiation. In this study, the graphite damage processes before the main crack formation were investigated based on the microstructure change during load relaxation. For this, 4-1/3 notched flexure strength test specimens made of nuclear graphite grades IG-110, NBG-18 and PCEA of different forming methods (isotropic molding, vibrational molding and extrusion, respectively) and ingredients (coke, binder) were subjected to 10 cyclic compressive loading-unloading, and the changes in the microstructure of notch-tip areas were examined by X-ray tomography

  16. Automatic crack detection method for loaded coal in vibration failure process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengwu Li

    Full Text Available In the coal mining process, the destabilization of loaded coal mass is a prerequisite for coal and rock dynamic disaster, and surface cracks of the coal and rock mass are important indicators, reflecting the current state of the coal body. The detection of surface cracks in the coal body plays an important role in coal mine safety monitoring. In this paper, a method for detecting the surface cracks of loaded coal by a vibration failure process is proposed based on the characteristics of the surface cracks of coal and support vector machine (SVM. A large number of cracked images are obtained by establishing a vibration-induced failure test system and industrial camera. Histogram equalization and a hysteresis threshold algorithm were used to reduce the noise and emphasize the crack; then, 600 images and regions, including cracks and non-cracks, were manually labelled. In the crack feature extraction stage, eight features of the cracks are extracted to distinguish cracks from other objects. Finally, a crack identification model with an accuracy over 95% was trained by inputting the labelled sample images into the SVM classifier. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has a higher accuracy than the conventional algorithm and can effectively identify cracks on the surface of the coal and rock mass automatically.

  17. Fuel loading method to exchangeable reactor core of BWR type reactor and its core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koguchi, Kazushige.

    1995-01-01

    In a fuel loading method for an exchangeable reactor core of a BWR type reactor, at least two kinds of fresh fuel assemblies having different reactivities between axial upper and lower portions are preliminarily prepared, and upon taking out fuel assemblies of advanced combustion and loading the fresh fuel assemblies dispersingly, they are disposed so as to attain a predetermined axial power distribution in the reactor. At least two kinds of fresh fuel assemblies have a content of burnable poisons different between the axial upper portion and lower portions. In addition, reactivity characteristics are made different at a region higher than the central boundary and a region lower than the central boundary which is set within a range of about 6/24 to 16/24 from the lower portion of the fuel effective length. There can be attained axial power distribution as desired such as easy optimization of the axial power distribution, high flexibility, and flexible flattening of the power distribution, and it requires no special change in view of the design and has a good economical property. (N.H.)

  18. Numerical Investigation of Corrugated Wire Mesh Laminate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongho Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop a numerical model of Corrugated Wire Mesh Laminate (CWML capturing all its complexities such as nonlinear material properties, nonlinear geometry and large deformation behaviour, and frictional behaviour. Development of such a model will facilitate numerical simulation of the mechanical behaviour of the wire mesh structure under various types of loading as well as the variation of the CWML configuration parameters to tailor its mechanical properties to suit the intended application. Starting with a single strand truss model consisting of four waves with a bilinear stress-strain model to represent the plastic behaviour of stainless steel, the finite element model is gradually built up to study single-layer structures with 18 strands of corrugated wire meshes consistency and double- and quadruple-layered laminates with alternating crossply orientations. The compressive behaviour of the CWML model is simulated using contact elements to model friction and is compared to the load-deflection behaviour determined experimentally in uniaxial compression tests. The numerical model of the CWML is then employed to conduct the aim of establishing the upper and lower bounds of stiffness and load capacity achievable by such structures.

  19. High Efficiency Variable-Frequency Full-Bridge Converter with a Load Adaptive Control Method Based on the Loss Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a load adaptive control method to improve the efficiency and dynamic performance of the Phase-Shifted Full-Bridge (PSFB converter which works under a wide range of load conditions is presented. The proposed control method can be used as a battery charger since this application demands a wide range of load conditions. The composition of the PSFB converter’s losses and the loss analysis model are both discussed. According to this model, the optimum switching frequency which results in minimum power loss is adopted to improve the efficiency. The relationship between switching frequency and power loss is formulated over a wide load range. Indicated by this kind of relationship, the proposed controller adjusts the switching frequency at different load currents. Moreover, an adaptive gain adjustment controller is applied to replace the traditional controller, with the aim to improve the dynamic performance which is influenced by the changes of the switching frequency and load current. In addition, the experimental results show that the maximum improvement of efficiency is up to 20%. These results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed load adaptive control method.

  20. Accelerated in vitro release testing method for naltrexone loaded PLGA microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andhariya, Janki V; Choi, Stephanie; Wang, Yan; Zou, Yuan; Burgess, Diane J; Shen, Jie

    2017-03-30

    The objective of the present study was to develop a discriminatory and reproducible accelerated release testing method for naltrexone loaded parenteral polymeric microspheres. The commercially available naltrexone microsphere product (Vivitrol ® ) was used as the testing formulation in the in vitro release method development, and both sample-and-separate and USP apparatus 4 methods were investigated. Following an in vitro drug stability study, frequent media replacement and addition of anti-oxidant in the release medium were used to prevent degradation of naltrexone during release testing at "real-time" (37°C) and "accelerated" (45°C), respectively. The USP apparatus 4 method was more reproducible than the sample-and-separate method. In addition, the accelerated release profile obtained using USP apparatus 4 had a shortened release duration (within seven days), and good correlation with the "real-time" release profile. Lastly, the discriminatory ability of the developed accelerated release method was assessed using compositionally equivalent naltrexone microspheres with different release characteristics. The developed accelerated USP apparatus 4 release method was able to detect differences in the release characteristics of the prepared naltrexone microspheres. Moreover, a linear correlation was observed between the "real-time" and accelerated release profiles of all the formulations investigated, suggesting that the release mechanism(s) may be similar under both conditions. These results indicate that the developed accelerated USP apparatus 4 method has the potential to be an appropriate fast quality control tool for long-acting naltrexone PLGA microspheres. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimization of the Single Staggered Wire and Tube Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsana I Made

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wire and tube heat exchanger consists of a coiled tube, and wire is welded on the two sides of it in normal direction of the tube. Generally,wire and tube heat exchanger uses inline wire arrangement between the two sides, whereas in this study, it used staggered wire arrangement that reduces the restriction of convection heat transfer. This study performed the optimization of single staggered wire and tube heat exchanger to increase the capacity and reduce the mass of the heat exchanger. Optimization was conducted with the Hooke-Jeeves method, which aims to optimize the geometry of the heat exchanger, especially on the diameter (dw and the distance between wires (pw. The model developed to present heat transfer correlations on single staggered wire and tube heat exchanger was valid. The maximum optimization factor obtained when the diameter wire was 0.9 mm and the distance between wires (pw was 11 mm with the fref value = 1.5837. It means that the optimized design only using mass of 59,10 % and could transfer heat about 98,5 % from the basis design.

  2. A comparison of methods used for quantifying internal training load in women soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiou, Helen; Coutts, Aaron J

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the session-RPE method for quantifying internal training load (TL) with various HR-based TL quantification methods in a variety of training modes with women soccer players. Fifteen elite women soccer players took part in the study (age: 19.3 +/- 2.0 y and VO2max: 50.8 +/- 2.7 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)). Session-RPE, heart rate, and duration were recorded for 735 individual training sessions and matches over a period of 16 wk. Correlation analysis was used to compare session-RPE TLs with three commonly used HR-based methods for assessing TL. The mean correlation for session-RPE TL with Banister's TRIMP, LTzone TL and Edwards's TL were (r = 0.84, 0.83, and 0.85, all P soccer. Higher correlations were found with less intermittent, aerobic-based training sessions and suggest that HR-based TLs relate better to session-RPE TLs in less intermittent training activities. These results support previous findings showing that the session-RPE TL compares favorably with HR-based methods for quantifying internal TL in a variety of soccer training activities.

  3. Validation of the analytical methods in the LWR code BOXER for gadolinium-loaded fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paratte, J.M.; Arkuszewski, J.J.; Kamboj, B.K.; Kallfelz, J.M.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1990-01-01

    Due to the very high absorption occurring in gadolinium-loaded fuel pins, calculations of lattices with such pins present are a demanding test of the analysis methods in light water reactor (LWR) cell and assembly codes. Considerable effort has, therefore, been devoted to the validation of code methods for gadolinia fuel. The goal of the work reported in this paper is to check the analysis methods in the LWR cell/assembly code BOXER and its associated cross-section processing code ETOBOX, by comparison of BOXER results with those from a very accurate Monte Carlo calculation for a gadolinium benchmark problem. Initial results of such a comparison have been previously reported. However, the Monte Carlo calculations, done with the MCNP code, were performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory using ENDF/B-V data, while the BOXER calculations were performed at the Paul Scherrer Institute using JEF-1 nuclear data. This difference in the basic nuclear data used for the two calculations, caused by the restricted nature of these evaluated data files, led to associated uncertainties in a comparison of the results for methods validation. In the joint investigations at the Georgia Institute of Technology and PSI, such uncertainty in this comparison was eliminated by using ENDF/B-V data for BOXER calculations at Georgia Tech

  4. The Different Methods of Displacement Monitoring at Loading Tests of Bridges or Different Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačič Boštjan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By measuring the displacements and deformations at different structures we deal in the Faculty of Civil Engineering, transportation Engineering and Architecture in University of Maribor for about 20 years. At that time we measured over 600 structures. Most loading tests of bridges and Viaducts were made. The measurements of movements needed to be as precise and accurate as possible. To do that laboratory test of instruments were made to see which instrument gives us reliable results. Displacements can be determined by geodetic and physical methods, depends of the construction. The use of geodetic methods are still preferable. In the paper the measurements with the total station, the level and rotation level, photogrammetry and solutions on the field by physical methods with inductive transducers are presented. We need to measure displacements as quick as possible but efficiently because we can not repeat the measurements under the same conditions. Also the surveying on the bridge and in the lab with the comparison of methods is presented under the different hard terrain conditions - water beneath the construction, big height of the structure, unapproachability, large span structures.

  5. Determination a static limiting load curves for slewing bearing with application of the finite element methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Krynke

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In slewing bearings, a great number of contact pairs are present on the contact surfaces between the rolling elements and raceways of the bearing. Computations to determine the load of the individual rolling elements, taking into account the flexibility of the bearing ring, are most often carried out using the finite element method. Construction of a FEM full model of the bearing, taking into account the shape of the rolling elements and the determination of the contact problem for every rolling element, leads to a singularity of stiffness matrix, which in turn makes the problem impossible to solve. In FEM models the rolling elements are replaced by one-dimensional finite elements (linear elements to simplify the computation procedure and to obtain an optimal time for computations. replaced by truss elements with a material non-linear characteristic located between the raceway centres of the curvatures in their axial section, are presented in the paper

  6. Mechanical Behaviour of Stainless Steels under Dynamic Loading: An Investigation with Thermal Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa De Finis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stainless steels are the most exploited materials due to their high mechanical strength and versatility in producing different alloys. Although there is great interest in these materials, mechanical characterisation, in particular fatigue characterisation, requires the application of several standardised procedures involving expensive and time-consuming experimental campaigns. As a matter of fact, the use of Standard Test Methods does not rely on a physical approach, since they are based on a statistical evaluation of the fatigue limit with a fixed probabilistic confidence. In this regard, Infra-Red thermography, the well-known, non-destructive technique, allows for the development of an approach based on evaluation of dissipative sources. In this work, an approach based on a simple analysis of a single thermographic sequence has been presented, which is capable of providing two indices of the damage processes occurring in material: the phase shift of thermoelastic signal φ and the amplitude of thermal signal at twice the loading frequency, S2. These thermal indices can provide synergetic information about the mechanical (fatigue and fracture behaviour of austenitic AISI 316L and martensitic X4 Cr Ni Mo 16-5-1; since they are related to different thermal effects that produce damage phenomena. In particular, the use of φ and S2 allows for estimation of the fatigue limit of stainless steels at loading ratio R = 0.5 in agreement with the applied Standard methods. Within Fracture Mechanics tests, both indices demonstrate the capacity to localize the plastic zone and determine the position of the crack tip. Finally, it will be shown that the value of the thermoelastic phase signal can be correlated with the mechanical behaviour of the specific material (austenitic or martensitic.

  7. Decentralized Method for Load Sharing and Power Management in a PV/Battery Hybrid Source Islanded Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimi, Yaser; Oraee, Hashem; Golsorkhi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new decentralized power management and load sharing method for a photovoltaic based islanded microgrid consisting of various PV units, battery units and hybrid PV/battery units. Unlike the previous methods in the literature, there is no need to communication among the units...... and the proposed method is not limited to the systems with separate PV and battery units or systems with only one hybrid unit. The proposed method takes into account the available PV power and battery conditions of the units to share the load among them. To cover all possible conditions of the microgrid......, the operation of each unit is divided into five states and modified active power-frequency droop functions are used according to operating states. The frequency level is used as trigger for switching between the states. Efficacy of the proposed method in different load, PV generation and battery conditions...

  8. Energized overhead ground wires - OHGWs the pioneer Brazilian application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Ajuz, Ary; Martinez, Manuel L.B.; Araujo, Ana Maria R.; Takai, Mario Noboru; Sganzerla, Flavio [ELETRONORTE, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); O. Junior, Helio P.; Fonseca, Claudio S. [Marte Engenharia (Brazil); Guimaraes, R.P.; Mendes, Eloisa R.

    1994-12-31

    This paper introduces an economical solution for close HV lines small villages and farms load supply. The needed modifications to adapt a planned transmission system to supply loads located along the lines routes are presented. The paper describes the two overhead ground wires scheme planned for implementation in the 230 kV transmission line under construction by ELETRONORTE in Mato Grosso and Rondonia supplying loads each one totaling roughly 8 MW. (author) 4 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Method of the steel aluminum wires protection of air transmission lines from fast vibration damage at the output from the support clamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabitov, L. S.; Kashapov, N. F.; Strelkov, Yu M.; Kuznetsov, I. L.

    2017-09-01

    Conducted theoretical research of the stress-strain state of flexible mechanical connections, the varieties of which are wires of overhead transmission lines, cable cable mounting structures, strings frequency sensors of force and small displacements at the nodes of a rigid fixing. Chosen form of nodules, a flexible mechanical connection at the nodes of the rigid fixing of the conditions of increasing resource durability, and also reduce the maximum total stresses from stretching and bending at the nodes of a rigid fixing.

  10. Wired to freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Kim Sune Karrasch; Bertilsson, Margareta

    2017-01-01

    dimension of life science through a notion of public politics adopted from the political theory of John Dewey. We show how cochlear implantation engages different social imaginaries on the collective and individual levels and we suggest that users share an imaginary of being “wired to freedom” that involves...... new access to social life, continuous communicative challenges, common practices, and experiences. In looking at their lives as “wired to freedom,” we hope to promote a wider spectrum of civic participation in the benefit of future life science developments within and beyond the field of Cochlear...

  11. Wiring and lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Wiring and Lighting provides a comprehensive guide to DIY wiring around the home. It sets out the regulations and legal requirements surrounding electrical installation work, giving clear guidelines that will enable the reader to understand what electrical work they are able to carry out, and what the testing and certification requirements are once the work is completed. Topics covered include: Different types of circuits; Types of cables and cable installation under floors and through joists; Isolating, earthing and bonding; Accessory boxes and fixings; Voltage bands; Detailed advice on safe

  12. Modern wiring practice

    CERN Document Server

    Steward, W E

    2012-01-01

    Continuously in print since 1952, Modern Wiring Practice has now been fully revised to provide an up-to-date source of reference to building services design and installation in the 21st century. This compact and practical guide addresses wiring systems design and electrical installation together in one volume, creating a comprehensive overview of the whole process for contractors and architects, as well as electricians and other installation engineers. Best practice is incorporated throughout, combining theory and practice with clear and accessible explanation, all

  13. The research on spatial load forecasting model and method of electricity energy alternative based on cloud theory in distribution network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Honglian; Li, Juan; Hu, Zhiyun; Li, Qingbo; Liu, Zifa; Wang, Wei

    2017-11-01

    The research on electrical energy alternative mainly focus on alternative energy potential, expanding strategy and benefit analysis due to lack of historical data. This paper presents the total spatial load forecasting model in distribution network based on the proposed electrical energy alternative development coefficient which is generated by electricity energy objective issued by governments. To deal with fuzzy and uncertain in load forecasting for electric boiler and heater, the cloud theory and the regularity in the process of electrical energy alternative popularization are used. The component of electrical alternative spatial load forecasting is presented in sequence. The proposed method is verified in a typical case.

  14. Impact of two different commercial DNA extraction methods on BK virus viral load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Bergallo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: BK virus, a member of human polyomavirus family, is a worldwide distributed virus characterized by a seroprevalence rate of 70-90% in adult population. Monitoring of viral replication is made by evaluation of BK DNA by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Many different methods can be applied for extraction of nucleic acid from several specimens. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of two different DNA extraction procedure on BK viral load. Materials and methods: DNA extraction procedure including the Nuclisens easyMAG platform (bioMerieux, Marcy l’Etoile, France and manual QIAGEN extraction (QIAGEN Hilden, Germany. BK DNA quantification was performed by Real Time TaqMan PCR using a commercial kit. Result and discussion: The samples capacity, cost and time spent were compared for both systems. In conclusion our results demonstrate that automated nucleic acid extraction method using Nuclisense easyMAG was superior to manual protocol (QIAGEN Blood Mini kit, for the extraction of BK virus from serum and urine specimens.

  15. New Irradiation Method with Indocyanine Green-Loaded Nanospheres for Inactivating Periodontal Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Hayashi, Jun-Ichiro; Fujimura, Takeki; Iwamura, Yuki; Yamamoto, Genta; Nishida, Eisaku; Ohno, Tasuku; Okada, Kosuke; Yamamoto, Hiromitsu; Kikuchi, Takeshi; Mitani, Akio; Fukuda, Mitsuo

    2017-01-13

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been proposed as an adjunctive strategy for periodontitis treatments. However, use of aPDT for periodontal treatment is complicated by the difficulty in accessing morphologically complex lesions such as furcation involvement, which the irradiation beam (which is targeted parallel to the tooth axis into the periodontal pocket) cannot access directly. The aim of this study was to validate a modified aPDT method that photosensitizes indocyanine green-loaded nanospheres through the gingivae from outside the pocket using a diode laser. To establish this trans-gingival irradiation method, we built an in vitro aPDT model using a substitution for gingivae. Irradiation conditions and the cooling method were optimized before the bactericidal effects on Porphyromonas gingivalis were investigated. The permeable energy through the gingival model at irradiation conditions of 2 W output power in a 50% duty cycle was comparable with the transmitted energy of conventional irradiation. Intermittent irradiation with air cooling limited the temperature increase in the gingival model to 2.75 °C. The aPDT group showed significant bactericidal effects, with reductions in colony-forming units of 99.99% after 5 min of irradiation. This effect of aPDT against a periodontal pathogen demonstrates the validity of trans-gingival irradiation for periodontal treatment.

  16. New Irradiation Method with Indocyanine Green-Loaded Nanospheres for Inactivating Periodontal Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Sasaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT has been proposed as an adjunctive strategy for periodontitis treatments. However, use of aPDT for periodontal treatment is complicated by the difficulty in accessing morphologically complex lesions such as furcation involvement, which the irradiation beam (which is targeted parallel to the tooth axis into the periodontal pocket cannot access directly. The aim of this study was to validate a modified aPDT method that photosensitizes indocyanine green-loaded nanospheres through the gingivae from outside the pocket using a diode laser. To establish this trans-gingival irradiation method, we built an in vitro aPDT model using a substitution for gingivae. Irradiation conditions and the cooling method were optimized before the bactericidal effects on Porphyromonas gingivalis were investigated. The permeable energy through the gingival model at irradiation conditions of 2 W output power in a 50% duty cycle was comparable with the transmitted energy of conventional irradiation. Intermittent irradiation with air cooling limited the temperature increase in the gingival model to 2.75 °C. The aPDT group showed significant bactericidal effects, with reductions in colony-forming units of 99.99% after 5 min of irradiation. This effect of aPDT against a periodontal pathogen demonstrates the validity of trans-gingival irradiation for periodontal treatment.

  17. Surface cleaning of metal wire by atmospheric pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T.; Buttapeng, C.; Furuya, S.; Harada, N.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the possible application of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma for the annealing of metallic wire is examined and presented. The main purpose of the current study is to examine the surface cleaning effect for a cylindrical object by atmospheric pressure plasma. The experimental setup consists of a gas tank, plasma reactor, and power supply with control panel. The gas assists in the generation of plasma. Copper wire was used as an experimental cylindrical object. This copper wire was irradiated with the plasma, and the cleaning effect was confirmed. The result showed that it is possible to remove the tarnish which exists on the copper wire surface. The experiment reveals that atmospheric pressure plasma is usable for the surface cleaning of metal wire. However, it is necessary to examine the method for preventing oxidization of the copper wire.

  18. Evaluation of Load Analysis Methods for NASAs GIII Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Josue; Miller, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC), and FlexSys Inc. (Ann Arbor, Michigan) have collaborated to flight test the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge (ACTE) flaps. These flaps were installed on a Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation (GAC) GIII aircraft and tested at AFRC at various deflection angles over a range of flight conditions. External aerodynamic and inertial load analyses were conducted with the intention to ensure that the change in wing loads due to the deployed ACTE flap did not overload the existing baseline GIII wing box structure. The objective of this paper was to substantiate the analysis tools used for predicting wing loads at AFRC. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models and distributed mass inertial models were developed for predicting the loads on the wing. The analysis tools included TRANAIR (full potential) and CMARC (panel) models. Aerodynamic pressure data from the analysis codes were validated against static pressure port data collected in-flight. Combined results from the CFD predictions and the inertial load analysis were used to predict the normal force, bending moment, and torque loads on the wing. Wing loads obtained from calibrated strain gages installed on the wing were used for substantiation of the load prediction tools. The load predictions exhibited good agreement compared to the flight load results obtained from calibrated strain gage measurements.

  19. Comparison of subtransverse process wiring and sublaminar wiring in the treatment of idiopathic thoracic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmeşe, Ramazan; Kemal Us, Ali

    2013-04-01

    A retrospective study. The objectives of this study were to show the advantages of an alternative segmental spinal instrumentation technique, termed subtransverse process wiring, and compare it with a sublaminar wiring technique in the treatment of idiopathic thoracic scoliosis. High rates of neurological complications and the need for high experience limit the use of the sublaminar wiring technique, although it is an effective segmental spinal instrumentation technique in the treatment of scoliosis. This is the first study to correlate sublaminar wiring and subtransverse process wiring techniques clinically. In a retrospective study, 64 patients with idiopathic thoracic scoliosis were chosen randomly. Nineteen patients were treated with subtransverse process wires (group A), and 45 patients were treated with sublaminar wires (group B). The mean follow-up period was 50.9 months (25 to 90 mo) in group A and 57.9 months (26 to 108 mo) in group B. The average deformity correction was 26.5 degrees (52.9%) in group A and 28.9 degrees (54.1%) in group B. The average correction loss was 2.9 degrees (17.2%) in group A and 6.4 degrees (27%) in group B. None of the patients developed neurological complications in group A. In group B, 5 (11.1%) intraoperative dural tears, 4 (8.9%) neurological deficits, and 8 (14.4%) transient dysesthesia syndromes were seen. The average operation time was 3.6 hours (3 to 4 h) in group A and 4.9 hours (3.75 to 8 h) in group B. The average replacement of blood (erythrocyte suspension) was 2.9 U (2 to 5 U) in group A and 3.1 U (2 to 6 U) in group B. Sublaminar wiring is a time-consuming technique with high risks of neurological complications, whereas subtransverse process wiring is an easy and neurologically safe method, which maintains effective deformity correction and stability of the correction.

  20. Multifilament Cable Wire versus Conventional Wire for Sternal Closure in Patients Undergoing Major Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Na Oh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stainless steel wiring remains the most popular technique for primary sternal closure. Recently, a multifilament cable wiring system (Pioneer Surgical Technology Inc., Marquette, MI, USA was introduced for sternal closure and has gained wide acceptance due to its superior resistance to tension. We aimed to compare conventional steel wiring to multifilament cable fixation for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively on 1,354 patients who underwent sternal closure after major cardiac surgery, using either the multifilament cable wiring system or conventional steel wires between January 2009 and October 2010. The surgical outcomes of these two groups of patients were compared using propensity score matching based on 18 baseline patient characteristics. Results: Propensity score matching yielded 392 pairs of patients in the two groups whose baseline profiles showed no significant differences. No significant differences between the two groups were observed in the rates of early mortality (2.0% vs. 1.3%, p=0.578, major wound complications requiring reconstruction (1.3% vs. 1.3%, p>0.99, minor wound complications (3.6% vs. 2.0%, p=0.279, or mediastinitis (0.8% vs. 1.0%, p=1.00. Patients in the multifilament cable group had fewer sternal bleeding events than those in the conventional wire group, but this tendency was not statistically significant (4.3% vs. 7.4%, p=0.068. Conclusion: The surgical outcomes of sternal closure using multifilament cable wires were comparable to those observed when conventional steel wires were used. Therefore, the multifilament cable wiring system may be considered a viable option for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery.

  1. A Novel Load-Balancing Method and Device by Intelligent Grouping Compound Switches-Based Capacitor Banks Shunt Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuye Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel compensator topology is proposed for three-phase unbalanced loads in the distribution networks. The negative and zero sequence compensation networks are proposed using delta-connected and star-connected capacitor banks. The compensation networks are paralleled with the unbalanced load to achieve a perfect balancing of active power and a complete compensation of reactive power of the unbalanced load. Intelligent grouping compound switches are implemented to control the capacitors, where, therefore, each capacitor can be switched between phases or phase and ground. Wireless sensors are also applied to acquire the load quantities. The compensation method proposed is based on symmetrical component theory. In addition, the load compensation based on instantaneous symmetrical component theory with positive sequence online extraction is proposed under unbalanced and distorted source voltages. The proposed load-balancing method and device are applied to Liaoning, Neimenggu, and Jilin provinces. The application results are provided to validate the performance of the proposed compensator topology and compensation method.

  2. Selective deposition by hot wire ALD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovalgin, Alexey Y.; Yang, Mengdi; Aarnink, Antonius A.I.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.

    2018-01-01

    A method for selectively depositing a metal nlm onto a substrate is disclosed. In particular, the method comprising nowing a metal precursor onto the substrate and nowing a non-metal precursor onto the substrate,while contacting the non-metal precursor with a hot wire. Specincally, a reaction

  3. Experimental study and finite element analysis based on equivalent load method for laser ultrasonic measurement of elastic constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yu; Liu, Changsheng; Zhang, Fengpeng; Qiu, Zhaoguo

    2016-07-01

    The laser ultrasonic generation of Rayleigh surface wave and longitudinal wave in an elastic plate is studied by experiment and finite element method. In order to eliminate the measurement error and the time delay of the experimental system, the linear fitting method of experimental data is applied. The finite element analysis software ABAQUS is used to simulate the propagation of Rayleigh surface wave and longitudinal wave caused by laser excitation on a sheet metal sample surface. The equivalent load method is proposed and applied. The pulsed laser is equivalent to the surface load in time and space domain to meet the Gaussian profile. The relationship between the physical parameters of the laser and the load is established by the correction factor. The numerical solution is in good agreement with the experimental result. The simple and effective numerical and experimental methods for laser ultrasonic measurement of the elastic constants are demonstrated. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Fracture Failure of Reinforced Concrete Slabs Subjected to Blast Loading Using the Combined Finite-Discrete Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. M. Jaini

    Full Text Available Abstract Numerical modeling of fracture failure is challenging due to various issues in the constitutive law and the transition of continuum to discrete bodies. Therefore, this study presents the application of the combined finite-discrete element method to investigate the fracture failure of reinforced concrete slabs subjected to blast loading. In numerical modeling, the interaction of non-uniform blast loading on the concrete slab was modeled using the incorporation of the finite element method with a crack rotating approach and the discrete element method to model crack, fracture onset and its post-failures. A time varying pressure-time history based on the mapping method was adopted to define blast loading. The Mohr-Coulomb with Rankine cut-off and von-Mises criteria were applied for concrete and steel reinforcement respectively. The results of scabbing, spalling and fracture show a reliable prediction of damage and fracture.

  5. Practical wiring in SI units

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Henry A

    2013-01-01

    Practical Wiring, Volume 1 is a 13-chapter book that first describes some of the common hand tools used in connection with sheathed wiring. Subsequent chapters discuss the safety in wiring, cables, conductor terminations, insulating sheathed wiring, conductor sizes, and consumer's control equipments. Other chapters center on socket outlets, plugs, lighting subcircuits, lighting accessories, bells, and primary and secondary cells. This book will be very valuable to students involved in this field of interest.

  6. Wire chambers: Trends and alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regler, Meinhard

    1992-01-01

    The subtitle of this year's Vienna Wire Chamber Conference - 'Recent Trends and Alternative Techniques' - signalled that it covered a wide range of science and technology. While an opening Vienna talk by wire chamber pioneer Georges Charpak many years ago began 'Les funerailles des chambres a fils (the burial of wire chambers)', the contrary feeling this year was that wire chambers are very much alive!

  7. Command Wire Sensor Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    CFAR Constant False Alarm Rate CWIE Command Wire-Improvised Explosive Device EMI Electromagnetic Induction GPR Ground Penetrating Radar...this, some type of constant false alarm rate ( CFAR ) receiver is required. CFAR automatically raises the threshold level to keep clutter echoes and

  8. Transport in quantum wires

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transport in quantum wires. SIDDHARTHA LAL, SUMATHI RAO£ and DIPTIMAN SEN. Centre for Theoretical Studies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. £ Harish-chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211 019, India. Abstract. With a brief introduction to one-dimensional channels ...

  9. Numerical computation of motions and structural loads for large containership using 3D Rankine panel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Yonghwan

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we present the results of our numerical seakeeping analyses of a 6750-TEU containership, which were subjected to the benchmark test of the 2nd ITTC-ISSC Joint Workshop held in 2014. We performed the seakeeping analyses using three different methods based on a 3D Rankine panel method, including 1) a rigid-body solver, 2) a flexible-body solver using a beam model, and 3) a flexible-body solver using the eigenvectors of a 3D Finite Element Model (FEM). The flexible-body solvers adopt a fully coupled approach between the fluid and structure. We consider the nonlinear Froude-Krylov and restoring forces using a weakly nonlinear approach. In addition, we calculate the slamming loads on the bow flare and stern using a 2D generalized Wagner model. We compare the numerical and experimental results in terms of the linear response, the time series of the nonlinear response, and the longitudinal distribution of the sagging and hogging moments. The flexible-body solvers show good agreement with the experimental model with respect to both the linear and nonlinear results, including the high-frequency oscillations due to springing and whipping vibrations. The rigid-body solver gives similar results except for the springing and whipping.

  10. Measurement of nonlinear fracture parameter T integral under impact loading using laser caustic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishioka, T.; Sakai, K.; Murakami, T.; Matsuo, S.; Sakakura, K.

    1991-01-01

    In order to establish a sound design methodology assuring the integrity of nuclear structures against nonlinear static and dynamic fractures, a unified crack tip parameter is essential due to the existence of various aspects of material behavior in such structures. However, so-called J integral loses its theoretical validity when a crack grows dynamically or elastoplastically, or when a material is subjected to dynamic loading or elastic-plastic unloading. Dynamic J integral has been derived, which has the same features as those of static J integral. Later, a more general path-independent integral which is valid for any material-constitutive model under quasi-static and dynamic conditions was derived. This integral has the great potential as a unified crack tip parameter. Nonlinear dynamic fracture parameter T integral, the hybrid numerical-experimental method for T measurement, and the measurement of the T integral in dynamic tear test are described. The high speed photographs of the caustic pattern in dynamic tear test specimens were taken by a laser caustic method. (K.I.)

  11. A new optimization method based on cellular automata for VVER-1000 nuclear reactor loading pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadaei, Amir Hosein; Setayeshi, Saeed

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new and innovative optimization technique, which uses cellular automata for solving multi-objective optimization problems. Due to its ability in simulating the local information while taking neighboring effects into account, the cellular automata technique is a powerful tool for optimization. The fuel-loading pattern in nuclear reactor cores is a major optimization problem. Due to the immensity of the search space in fuel management optimization problems, finding the optimum solution requires a huge amount of calculations in the classical method. The cellular automata models, based on local information, can reduce the computations significantly. In this study, reducing the power peaking factor, while increasing the initial excess reactivity inside the reactor core of VVER-1000, which are two apparently contradictory objectives, are considered as the objective functions. The result is an optimum configuration, which is in agreement with the pattern proposed by the designer. In order to gain confidence in the reliability of this method, the aforementioned problem was also solved using neural network and simulated annealing, and the results and procedures were compared.

  12. Calculation of load-bearing capacity of prestressed reinforced concrete trusses by the finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapov, Vladimir; Golovanov, Roman; Aidemirov, Kurban

    2017-10-01

    The technique of calculation of prestressed reinforced concrete trusses with taking into account geometrical and physical nonlinearity is considered. As a tool for solving the problem, the finite element method has been chosen. Basic design equations and methods for their solution are given. It is assumed that there are both a prestressed and nonprestressed reinforcement in the bars of the trusses. The prestress is modeled by setting the temperature effect on the reinforcement. The ways of taking into account the physical and geometrical nonlinearity for bars of reinforced concrete trusses are considered. An example of the analysis of a flat truss is given and the behavior of the truss on various stages of its loading up to destruction is analyzed. A program for the analysis of flat and spatial concrete trusses taking into account the nonlinear deformation is developed. The program is adapted to the computational complex PRINS. As a part of this complex it is available to a wide range of engineering, scientific and technical workers

  13. Silicon Nano wires with MoSx and Pt as Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, S.H.; Ho, S.T.; Chen, W.J.

    2016-01-01

    A convenient method was used for synthesizing Pt-nanoparticle//silicon nano wires nano composites. Obtained Pt-/silicon nano wires electrocatalysts were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The hydrogen evolution reaction efficiency of the Pt-/silicon nano wire nano composite catalysts was assessed by examining polarization and electrolysis measurements under solar light irradiations. The electrochemical characterizations demonstrate that Pt-/silicon nano wire electrodes exhibited an excellent catalytic activity for hydrogen evolution reaction in an acidic electrolyte. The hydrogen production capability of Pt-/silicon nano wires is also comparable to /silicon nano wires and Pt/silicon nano wires. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy experiments suggest that the enhanced performance of Pt-/silicon nano wires can be attributed to the fast electron transfer between Pt-/silicon nano wire electrodes and electrolyte interfaces.

  14. Characteristics of PAHs in street dust of Beijing and the annual wash-off load using an improved load calculation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingxia; Song, Ningning; Yu, Yang; Yang, Zhifeng; Shen, Zhenyao

    2017-03-01

    A significant amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) adsorbed in street dust ends up in runoff. Accordingly, evaluating the content, possible wash-off load and constituent risks associated with street dust is critical for urban runoff usage. Based on the PAH concentrations examined in this study, different risk assessment methods were applied and the differences among results were analyzed. An improved PAH wash-off calculation method was established and the annual PAH wash-off load was obtained. In addition, emission sources were diagnosed based on isomer ratios and PMF methods. The overall mean ΣPAHs (sum of 16 individual PAHs) concentration in the street dust was 3.70μg/g, with the highest mean concentrations found for main roads (5.18μg/g). Adjacent anthropogenic activities had a greater effect on pollution characteristics of street dust than land use types. The toxic risk order was park (0.64μg/g)>main road (0.57μg/g)>residence (0.32μg/g)>street (0.29μg/g)>commerce (0.23μg/g), while that of the ecological risk index was main road (1278)>street (920)>residence (904)>commerce (713)>park (195). Although the park sites had a high level of toxic risk, they showed low ecological risk because they had less dust mass per unit area, indicating a great difference in the risk evaluation results and the difference methods. Using different values for different magnitudes of the antecedent dry days, rainfall event amounts, and dust mass fraction of different size ranges, the average wash-off load of ΣPAHs from street dust was calculated to be 23kg per year in Beijing from 2000 to 2014 with an improved wash-off load calculation method. The main sources of PAHs in the street dust of Beijing's center were identified as gasoline emissions, diesel emissions, coal combustion and unburned petroleum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Wire rope improvement program. Final report. [For draglines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alzheimer, J.M.; Anderson, W.E.; Beeman, G.H.; Dudder, G.B.; Erickson, R.; Glaeser, W.A.; Jentgen, R.L.; Rice, R.R.; Strope, L.A.

    1981-09-01

    Activities in five major areas were undertaken during the WRIP: experiments using PNL-developed bend-over-sheave fatigue test machines to generate data on which to base a model for predicting large-diameter rope performance from that of small-diameter ropes; bend-over-sheave fatigue testing to determine differences in rope failure rates at varying rope loads; analyses to determine how wire ropes actually fail; development of a load sensor to record and quantity operational loads on drag and hoist ropes; and technology transfer activities to disseminate useful program findings to coal mine operators. Data obtained during the 6-year program support are included. High loads on wire ropes are damaging. As an adjunct, however, potentially useful countermeasures to high loads were identified. Large-diameter rope bend-over-sheave performance can be predicted from small-diameter rope test behavior, over some ranges.

  16. New Structure Design and Simulation of Brake by Wire System Based on Giant-magnetostrictive Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changbao CHU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Existing electronic mechanical brake by wire system has several disadvantages. For instance, system actuators are complex, response speed slower, larger vibration noise, etc. This paper discusses a new type brake by wire system based on giant-magnetostrictive material. The new type brake by wire system model was set up under Matlab/Simulink software environment. PID control method was used to control the brake by wire system. Simulation results shows that the new type brake by wire system achieves better braking performance compared with hydraulic braking system. This work provides a new idea for researching automobile brake by wire system.

  17. Synthesis of pulping processes with fiber loading methods for lightweight papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    John H. Klungness; Roland Gleisner; Masood Akhtar; Eric G. Horn; Mike Lentz

    2003-01-01

    Pulping technologies can be synthesized with fiber loading with simultaneous alkaline peroxide bleaching to produce lightweight high-opacity printing papers. We compared the results of recent experiments on combining oxalic acid pretreated wood chips used for thermomechanical pulp (TMP) with fiber loading and previous experiments on combining similar pulps treated with...

  18. A Dimensional Analysis Method for Improved Load-Unload Response Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Yin, Xiang-chu

    2018-02-01

    The load-unload response ratio (LURR) method is proposed to measure the damage extent of source media and the criticality of earthquake. Before the occurrence of a large earthquake, anomalous increase in the time series of LURR within the certain temporal and spatial windows has often been observed. In this paper, a dimensional analysis technique is devised to evaluate quantitatively the magnitude and time of the ensuing large earthquake within the anomalous areas derived from the LURR method. Based on the π-theorem, two dimensionless quantities associated with the earthquake time and magnitude are derived from five parameters (i.e. the seismic energy ( E S), the average seismic energy ( E W), the maximum value of LURR's seismogenic integral ( I PP), the thickness of seismogenic zone ( h), the time interval from I PP to earthquake ( T 2), and the shear strain rate (\\dot{γ })). The statistical relationships between the earthquakes and the two dimensionless quantities are derived by testing the seismic data of the 50 events of M4.5 8.1 occurred in China since 1976. In earthquake prediction, the LURR method is used to detect the areas with anomalous high LURR values, and then our dimensional analysis technique is applied to assess the optimal critical region, magnitude, and time of the ensuing event, when its seismogenic integral is peaked ( I PP). As study examples, we applied this approach to study four large events, namely the 2012 M S5.3 Hami, 2015 M S5.8 Alashan, 2015 M S8.1 Nepal earthquakes, and the 2013 Songyuan earthquake swam. Results show that the predicted location, time, and magnitude correlate well with the actual events. This provides evidence that the dimensional analysis technique may be a useful tool to augment current predictive power of the traditional LURR approach.

  19. Minimally invasive tension band wiring technique for olecranon fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Naoya; Kato, Kenji; Fukuta, Makoto; Wada, Ikuo; Otsuka, Takanobu

    2013-12-01

    Some types of implants, such as plates, screws, wires, and nails, have been used for open reduction and internal fixation of olecranon fractures. A ≥ 10 cm longitudinal incision is used for open reduction and internal fixation of olecranon fractures. According to previous studies, tension band wiring is a popular method that gives good results. However, back out of the wires after the surgery is one of the main postoperative complications. Moreover, if the Kirschner wires are inserted through the anterior ulnar cortex, they may impinge on the radial neck, supinator muscle, or biceps tendon. Herein, we describe the minimally invasive tension band wiring technique using Ring-Pin. This technique can be performed through a 2 cm incision. Small skin incisions are advantageous from an esthetic viewpoint. Ring-Pin was fixed by using a dedicated cable wire that does not back out unless the cable wire breaks or slips out of the dedicated metallic clamp. As the pins are placed in intramedullary canal, this technique does not lead to postoperative complications that may occur after transcortical fixation by conventional tension band wiring. Minimally invasive tension band wiring is one of the useful options for the treatment of olecranon fractures with some advantages.

  20. Research on quantum efficiency of GaN wire photocathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Sihao; Liu, Lei; Diao, Yu; Kong, Yike

    2017-02-01

    On the basis of three-dimensional continuity equation in semiconductors and finite difference method, the carrier concentration and the quantum efficiency of GaN wire photocathode as a function of incident photon energy are achieved. Results show that the quantum efficiency of the wire photocathode is largely enhanced compared with the conventional planar photocathode. The superiority of the wire photocathode is reflected in its structure with surrounding surfaces. The quantum efficiency of the wire photocathode largely depends on the wire width, surface reflectivity, surface escape probability and incident angle of light. The back interface recombination rate, however, has little influences on the quantum efficiency of the wire photocathode. The simulation results suggest that the optimal width for photoemission is 150-200 nm. Besides, the quantum efficiency increases and decreases linearly with increasing surface escape probability and surface reflectivity, respectively. With increasing ratio of wire spacing to wire height, the optimal incident angle of light is reduced. These simulations are expected to guide the preparation of a better performing GaN wire photocathode.

  1. Comparison of three different orthodontic wires for bonded lingual retainer fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Tancan; Gul, Nisa; Alan, Melike Busra; Ramoglu, Sabri Ilhan

    2012-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the detachment force, amount of deformation, fracture mode, and pull-out force of 3 different wires used for bonded lingual retainer fabrication. Methods We tested 0.0215-inch five-stranded wire (PentaOne, Masel; group I), 0.016 × 0.022-inch dead-soft eight-braided wire (Bond-A-Braid, Reliance; group II), and 0.0195-inch dead-soft coaxial wire (Respond, Ormco; group III). To test detachment force, deformation, and fracture mode, we embedded 94 lower incisor teeth in acrylic blocks in pairs. Retainer wires were bonded to the teeth and vertically directed force was applied to the wire. To test pull-out force, wires were embedded in composite that was placed in a hole at the center of an acrylic block. Tensile force was applied along the long axis of the wire. Results Detachment force and mode of fracture were not different between groups. Deformation was significantly higher in groups II and III than in group I (p wires, but greater deformations were seen in dead-soft wires. Wire pull-out force was significantly higher for five-stranded coaxial wire than for the other wires tested. Five-stranded coaxial wires are suggested for use in bonded lingual retainers. PMID:23112930

  2. Biomechanical cadaver testing of a fixed-angle plate in comparison to tension wiring and screw fixation in transverse patella fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Simon; Schneppendahl, Johannes; Jopen, Eva; Eichler, Christian; Koebke, Jürgen; Schönau, Eckhard; Hakimi, Mohssen; Windolf, Joachim; Wild, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Operative treatment of patella fractures is frequently associated with implant failure and secondary dislocation which can be attributed to the employed hardware. Therefore, a 2.7 mm fixed-angle plate designed for the treatment of patella fractures was tested biomechanically against the currently preferred methods of fixation. It was hypothesized that under simulated cyclic loading fixed-angle plating would be superior to modified anterior tension wiring or cannulated lag screws with anterior tension wiring. Eighteen human cadaver knees, matched by bone mineral density and age, were divided into three groups of six. After setting a transverse patella fracture each group received one of the osteosyntheses mentioned above. Repetitive testing over 100 cycles was performed at non-destructive loads by simulating knee motion from 90° flexion to full extension. Anterior tension wiring as well as lag screws with tension wiring showed significant fracture displacement after the initial cycle already. Both constructs, lag screws plus wiring (3.7 ± 2.7 mm) as well as tension wiring alone (7.1 ± 2.2 mm) displayed fracture displacement of >2 mm which is clinically regarded as failure. Those patellae stabilized with fixed-angle plates showed no significant fracture gap widening after completion of 100 cycles (0.7 ± 0.5 mm). The differences between the fixed-angle plate group and the other two groups were statistically significant (pwiring and cannulated lag screws with anterior tension wiring the bilateral fixed-angle plate was the only fixation device to stabilize transverse patella fractures securely and sustainably. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Imperfection analysis of flexible pipe armor wires in compression and bending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Niels Højen; Lyckegaard, Anders; Andreasen, Jens H.

    2012-01-01

    The work presented in this paper is motivated by a specific failure mode known as lateral wire buckling occurring in the tensile armor layers of flexible pipes. The tensile armor is usually constituted by two layers of initially helically wound steel wires with opposite lay directions. During pipe...... laying in ultra deep waters, a flexible pipe experiences repeated bending cycles and longitudinal compression. These loading conditions are known to impose a danger to the structural integrity of the armoring layers, if the compressive load on the pipe exceeds the total maximum compressive load carrying...... ability of the wires. This may cause the wires to buckle in the circumferential pipe direction, when these are restrained against radial deformations by adjacent layers. In the present paper, a single armoring wire modeled as a long and slender curved beam embedded in a frictionless cylinder bent...

  4. A Failure Estimation Method of Steel Pipe Elbows under In-plane Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bub-Gyu Jeon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The relative displacement of a piping system installed between isolated and nonisolated structures in a severe earthquake might be larger when without a seismic isolation system. As a result of the relative displacement, the seismic risks of some components in the building could increase. The possibility of an increase in seismic risks is especially high in the crossover piping system in the buildings. Previous studies found that an elbow which could be ruptured by low-cycle ratcheting fatigue is one of the weakest elements. Fatigue curves for elbows were suggested based on component tests. However, it is hard to find a quantitative evaluation of the ultimate state of piping elbows. Generally, the energy dissipation of a solid structure can be calculated from the relation between displacement and force. Therefore, in this study, the ultimate state of the pipe elbow, normally considered as failure of the pipe elbow, is defined as leakage under in-plane cyclic loading tests, and a failure estimation method is proposed using a damage index based on energy dissipation.

  5. A failure estimation method of steel pipe elbows under in-plane cyclic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Bub Gyu; Kim, Sung Wan; Choi, Hyoung Suk; Park, Dong Uk [Seismic Simulation Tester Center, Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nam Sik [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    The relative displacement of a piping system installed between isolated and nonisolated structures in a severe earthquake might be larger when without a seismic isolation system. As a result of the relative displacement, the seismic risks of some components in the building could increase. The possibility of an increase in seismic risks is especially high in the crossover piping system in the buildings. Previous studies found that an elbow which could be ruptured by low-cycle ratcheting fatigue is one of the weakest elements. Fatigue curves for elbows were suggested based on component tests. However, it is hard to find a quantitative evaluation of the ultimate state of piping elbows. Generally, the energy dissipation of a solid structure can be calculated from the relation between displacement and force. Therefore, in this study, the ultimate state of the pipe elbow, normally considered as failure of the pipe elbow, is defined as leakage under in-plane cyclic loading tests, and a failure estimation method is proposed using a damage index based on energy dissipation.

  6. Optimized design of thermo-mechanically loaded non-uniform bars by using a variational method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, P.; Saha, K. N.

    2016-08-01

    The present paper evaluates the axial strain and stress of a thermo-mechanically loaded non-uniform bar by using a numerical method based on a variational principle. The solutions are obtained up to the elastic limit of the material based on the assumptions that material properties are independent of temperature variation and plane cross-sections remain plane maintaining axisymmetry. This approximation is carried out by Galerkin's principle, using a linear combination of sets of orthogonal co-ordinate functions which satisfy prescribed boundary conditions. The solution algorithm is implemented with the help of MATLAB® computational simulation software. Some numerical results of thermoelastic field are presented and discussed for different bar materials such as mild steel, copper, aluminium alloy 6061 (Al alloy 6061), aluminium alloy 7075 (Al alloy 7075) and diamond. The effect of geometry parameters like aspect ratio, slenderness ratio and the type of taperness is investigated and the relevant results are obtained in dimensional form. The term bar used in this paper is in generic sense and hence the formulation is applicable for all one dimensional elements, e.g., rods, pipes, truss members, etc.

  7. Validation of high performance liquid chromatography method for determination of meloxicam loaded PEGylated nanocapsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Rodrigues Ianiski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available abstract A method to ensure that an analytical method will produce reliable and interpretable information about the sample must first be validated, making sure that the results can be trusted and traced. In this study, we propose to validate an analytical high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method for the quantitation of meloxicam loaded PEGylated nanocapsules(M-PEGNC. We performed a validation study, evaluated parameters including specificity, linearity, quantification limit, detection limit, accuracy, precision and robustness. PEGylated nanocapsules were prepared by interfacial deposition of preformed polymer, and the particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, pH value and encapsulation efficiency were characterized. The proposed HPLC method provides selective, linear results in the range of 1.0-40.0 μg/mL; quantification and detection limits were 1.78 μg/mL and 0.59 μg/mL, respectively; relative standard deviation for repeatability was 1.35% and intermediate precision was 0.41% and 0.61% for analyst 1 and analyst 2, respectively; accuracy between 99.23 and 101.79%; robustness between 97.13 and 98.45% for the quantification of M-PEGNC. Mean particle diameters were 261 ± 13 nm and 249 ± 20 nm, polydispersity index was 0.15 ± 0.07 and 0.17 ± 0.06, pH values were 5.0 ± 0.2 and 5.2 ± 0.1, and zeta-potential values were -37.9 ± 3.2 mV e -31.8 ± 2.8 mV for M-PEGNC and placebo(B-PEGNC, respectively. In conclusion, the proposed analytical method is suitable for the quality control of M-PEGNC. Moreover, suspensions showed monomodal size distributions and low polydispersity index indicating high homogeneity of formulations with narrow size distributions, and appropriate pH and zeta potential. The extraction process was efficient for release of meloxicam from nanostructured systems.

  8. Equivalent glycemic load (EGL: a method for quantifying the glycemic responses elicited by low carbohydrate foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spolar Matt

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycemic load (GL is used to quantify the glycemic impact of high-carbohydrate (CHO foods, but cannot be used for low-CHO foods. Therefore, we evaluated the accuracy of equivalent-glycemic-load (EGL, a measure of the glycemic impact of low-CHO foods defined as the amount of CHO from white-bread (WB with the same glycemic impact as one serving of food. Methods Several randomized, cross-over trials were performed by a contract research organization using overnight-fasted healthy subjects drawn from a pool of 63 recruited from the general population by newspaper advertisement. Incremental blood-glucose response area-under-the-curve (AUC elicited by 0, 5, 10, 20, 35 and 50 g CHO portions of WB (WB-CHO and 3, 5, 10 and 20 g glucose were measured. EGL values of the different doses of glucose and WB and 4 low-CHO foods were determined as: EGL = (F-B/M, where F is AUC after food and B is y-intercept and M slope of the regression of AUC on grams WB-CHO. The dose-response curves of WB and glucose were used to derive an equation to estimate GL from EGL, and the resulting values compared to GL calculated from the glucose dose-response curve. The accuracy of EGL was assessed by comparing the GL (estimated from EGL values of the 4 doses of oral-glucose with the amounts actually consumed. Results Over 0–50 g WB-CHO (n = 10, the dose-response curve was non-linear, but over the range 0–20 g the curve was indistinguishable from linear, with AUC after 0, 5, 10 and 20 g WB-CHO, 10 ± 1, 28 ± 2, 58 ± 5 and 100 ± 6 mmol × min/L, differing significantly from each other (n = 48. The difference between GL values estimated from EGL and those calculated from the dose-response curve was 0 g (95% confidence-interval, ± 0.5 g. The difference between the GL values of the 4 doses of glucose estimated from EGL, and the amounts of glucose actually consumed was 0.2 g (95% confidence-interval, ± 1 g. Conclusion EGL, a measure of the glycemic impact of

  9. Homogenization of structured metasurfaces and uniaxial wire medium metamaterials for microwave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaipa, Chandra S. R.

    In recent years, the study of electromagnetic wave interaction with artificial media has been the subject of intense research interest due to their extraordinary properties such as negative refraction, partial focusing, enhanced transmission, and spatial filtering, among others. Artificial media are crystals of various periodic metallic inclusions with dimensions of the order of λ/10 - λ/4. When compared to natural materials, the inclusions are, thus, not as small in terms of the wavelength, even in the optical band. Therefore, one should expect the electrodynamics of these media to be inherently non-local, characterized by strong spatial dispersion effects. The dissertation includes two parts and focuses on the electromagnetic wave propagation in metamaterials formed by stacked metasurfaces and structured wire media. In the first part, we propose physical systems that mimic the observed behavior of stacked metal-dielectric layers at optical frequencies, but in the microwave region of the spectrum using stacked metascreens, and at low-THz using graphene-dielectric stack. The analysis is carried out using simple analytical circuit model or transfer matrix method with the homogenized impedance for the metasurfaces. The physical mechanisms of the observed behavior is clearly explained in terms of the open/coupled Fabry-Pérot resonators. The methodology can be useful in the design of wideband planar filters based on these metasurfaces with a specific response. The second part focuses on the development of homogenization models for wire medium loaded with arbitrary impedance insertions and metallic patches, to characterize negative refraction, partial focusing, and subwavelength imaging. We propose a new concept of suppressing the spatial dispersion effects in the wire media by employing lumped inductive loads. Based on the proposed concept, we demonstrate an ultra-thin structure which exhibits indefinite dielectric response, all-angle negative refraction and high

  10. Wire chamber gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.

    1992-04-01

    In this paper, we describe new developments in gas mixtures which have occurred during the last 3--4 years. In particular, we discuss new results on the measurement and modeling of electron drift parameters, the modeling of drift chamber resolution, measurements of primary ionization and the choice of gas for applications such as tracking, single electron detection, X-ray detection and visual imaging. In addition, new results are presented on photon feedback, breakdown and wire aging

  11. Vienna Wire Chamber Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    After those of 1978 and 1980, a third Wire Chamber Conference was held from 15-18 February in the Technical University of Vienna. Eight invited speakers covered the field from sophisticated applications in biology and medicine, via software, to the state of the art of gaseous detectors. In some forty other talks the speakers tackled in more detail the topics of gaseous detectors, calorimetry and associated electronics and software

  12. Mechanical properties and surface characterization of beta titanium and stainless steel orthodontic wire following topical fluoride treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mary P; Ries, David; Kula, Katherine; Ellis, Micheal; Fricke, Brian

    2007-03-01

    To study the effect of fluoride prophylactic agents on the loading and unloading mechanical properties and surface quality of beta titanium and stainless steel orthodontic wires. Rectangular beta titanium and stainless steel wires were immersed in either an acidulated fluoride agent, a neutral fluoride agent, or distilled water (control) for 1.5 hours at 37 degrees C. After immersion, the loading and unloading elastic modulus and yield strength of the wires were measured using a 3-point bend test in a water bath at 37 degrees C. A one-way analysis of variance and Dunnett's post hoc, alpha = .05, were used to analyze the mechanical testing data. Scanning electron microscopy was also used to qualitatively evaluate the wire topography as a function of the fluoride treatments. Unloading mechanical properties of beta titanium and stainless steel wires were significantly decreased (P steel wire could decrease the functional unloading mechanical properties of the wires and potentially contribute to prolonged orthodontic treatment.

  13. Analysis on Factors Affecting the Self-Repair Capability of SMA Wire Concrete Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Crack expansion of concrete is the initial damage stage of structures, which may cause greater damage to structures subject to long-term loads or under extreme conditions. In recent years, the application of intelligent materials to crack self-repair has become a hotspot among researchers. In order to study the influence of factors on the self-repair capability of shape memory alloy (SMA wire concrete beam, both theoretical and experimental methods were employed for analysis. For the convenience of experiment, composite materials (epoxy cement mortar and silicone polymer clay instead of concrete were used. The SMA wires were externally installed on and internally embedded in epoxy resin cement mortar beams and silicone polymer clay beams. Comparison of crack repair situation between two installation methods turns out that both methods possess their own advantages and disadvantages and should be employed according to the actual situation. The influence of unbonded length on the self-repair capability of embedded type SMA wire beams and the necessary minimum unbonded length to achieve self-repair function were studied. The results state clearly that the longer the unbonded length is, the better the crack repair situation is.

  14. Reliability Analysis of Offshore Jacket Structures with Wave Load on Deck using the Model Correction Factor Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Friis-Hansen, P.; Nielsen, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    failure/collapse of jacket type platforms with wave in deck loads using the so-called Model Correction Factor Method (MCFM). A simple representative model for the RSR measure is developed and used in the MCFM technique. A realistic example is evaluated and it is seen that it is possible to perform...

  15. Load Concentration Factor Based Analytical Method for Optimal Placement of Multiple Distribution Generators for Loss Minimization and Voltage Profile Improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahzad, Mohsin; Ahmad, Ishtiaq; Gawlik, Wolfgang; Palensky, P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents novel separate methods for finding optimal locations, sizes of multiple distributed generators (DGs) simultaneously and operational power factor in order to minimize power loss and improve the voltage profile in the distribution system. A load concentration factor (LCF) is

  16. 24 CFR 3280.812 - Wiring of expandable units and dual units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wiring of expandable units and dual... § 3280.812 Wiring of expandable units and dual units. (a) Expandable or multiple unit manufactured homes shall use fixed-type wiring methods and materials for connecting such units to each other. (b...

  17. Analysis of electrical explosion of wire systems for the production of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With the intention of developing better exploding wire system for the produc- ... the emphasise has been given to explain the process involved to produce nano phase material by EEW method experimentally. 2. Theory. For a wire of length 'l' and ... One exploder is a cage type open system (set-up I) where wires are mounted ...

  18. A study on the development of high-Tc superconducting wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Dong Yeon; Chang, In Soon; Lee, Jong Min; Um, Tae Yoon; Hong, Kyae Won; Lee, Ho Jin; Lee, Hee Kwun; Kim, Chan Joong; Park, Soon Dong; Kim, Woo Gon; Kim, Ki Baek; Kwon, Sun Chil

    1992-10-01

    On this study Y-Ba-Cu-O was prepared by partial melt process and superconducting wire was fabricated by powder-in-tube method. First, mechancial properties, electrical properties, microstructure and oxygen diffusion behavior were observed. Second, through fabricated superconducting wire, conceptual design, composition and plasticity of filament superconducting wire were investigated. (Author)

  19. Thermite welding of Cu-Nb microcomposite wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visniakov, Nikolaj; Mikalauskas, Gediminas; Lukauskaite, Raimonda; Cernasejus, Olegas; Rudzinskas, Vitalijus [Vilnius Gediminas Technical Univ. (Lithuania). Faculty of Mechanics; Skamat, Jelena; Boris, Renata [Vilnius Gediminas Technical Univ. (Lithuania). Inst. of Thermal Insulation

    2017-10-15

    Thermite welding of Cu-Nb microcomposite wires was investigated. Suitable compositions of thermite material and slag were determined from the equation of the exothermic combustion synthesis reaction. The phase compositions of the thermite mixture and slag determined by X-ray diffraction analysis correspond to those assessed from the equation. According to non-destructive radiographic testing, the joint structure does not have welding defects. Microstructural examination of the joint cross-section with scanning electron microscopy showed that the Cu-Nb wire retained its shape and microstructure and only a thin surface layer of wire was melted during welding. The difference in electrical resistances of the conductor and welded joint was below 20 %. The thermite joint can withstand a maximum load equal to 62.5 % of the load-bearing capacity of microcomposite conductor.

  20. A Kind of Optimization Method of Loading Documents in OpenOffice.org

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yuqing; Li, Li; Zhou, Wenbin

    As a giant in open source community, OpenOffice.org has become the most popular office suite within Linux community. But OpenOffice.org is relatively slow while loading documents. Research shows that the most time consuming part is importing one page of whole document. If there are many pages in a document, the accumulation of time consumed can be astonishing. Therefore, this paper proposes a solution, which has improved the speed of loading documents through asynchronous importing mechanism: a document is not imported as a whole, but only part of the document is imported at first for display, then mechanism in the background is started to asynchronously import the remaining parts, and insert it into the drawing queue of OpenOffice.org for display. In this way, the problem can be solved and users don't have to wait for a long time. Application start-up time testing tool has been used to test the time consumed in loading different pages of documents before and after optimization of OpenOffice.org, then, we adopt the regression theory to analyse the correlation between the page number of documents and the loading time. In addition, visual modeling of the experimental data are acquired with the aid of matlab. An obvious increase in loading speed can be seen after a comparison of the time consumed to load a document before and after the solution is adopted. And then, using Microsoft Office compared with the optimized OpenOffice.org, their loading speeds are almost same. The results of the experiments show the effectiveness of this solution.

  1. Preparation of vitamin E loaded nanocapsules by the nanoprecipitation method: from laboratory scale to large scale using a membrane contactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayata, N; Abdelwahed, W; Chehna, M F; Charcosset, C; Fessi, H

    2012-02-28

    Vitamin E or α-tocopherol is widely used as a strong antioxidant in many medical and cosmetic applications, but is rapidly degraded, because of its light, heat and oxygen sensitivity. In this study, we applied the nanoprecipitation method to prepare vitamin E-loaded nanocapsules, at laboratory-scale and pilot-scale. We scaled-up the preparation of nanocapsule with the membrane contactor technique. The effect of several formulation variables on the vitamin E-loaded nanocapsules properties (mean diameter, zeta potential, and drug entrapment efficiency) was investigated. The optimized formulation at laboratory-scale and pilot-scale lead to the preparation of vitamin E-loaded nanocapsules with mean diameter of 165 and 172 nm, respectively, and a high encapsulation efficiency (98% and 97%, respectively). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of standard and modified Eh-Star test method for induction motor stray load losses and efficiency measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koprivica Branko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the application of one simple and accurate method for the measurement of stray load losses (additional load losses in induction machines. That is the Eh-Star method given in the IEC 60034-2-1 standard. In this paper the theoretical background of the method and the measurement procedure have been explained. All measurements have been performed using modern measurement systems based on a personal computer, data acquisition cards and LabVIEW software. According to the measured results for the stray load losses, the efficiency of the induction motor has been calculated. The efficiency obtained has been compared with the IEC standard efficiency classes, in order to determine the efficiency class of the tested motor. Additionally, measurements have been performed using the modified Eh-Star method. The results obtained have been compared with those obtained using the Eh-Star method. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods have been analyzed in this paper.

  3. Characterisation of Fracture Behaviour of Starch Gels Using Conventional Fracture Mechanics and Wire Cutting Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamonpilas, C.; Charalambides, M. N.; Williams, J. G.; Dooling, P. J.; Gibbon, S. R.

    2008-07-01

    The fracture behaviour of starch gels is investigated through experimental tests and finite element simulations. Both conventional fracture and wire cutting experiments were performed. The results from these two tests were consistent with the fracture toughness increasing with loading rate. In the FE analysis, a non-linear elastic constitutive relationship was used to model the starch gels and frictionless condition was assumed between the wire-starch gel contact interface. A failure criterion based on critical fracture strain was assumed. Predictions of the steady-state cutting force at various wire diameters were found to be in good agreement with the wire cutting data.

  4. A novel preparation method for 5-aminosalicylic acid loaded Eudragit S100 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Daode; Liu, Liang; Chen, Wenjuan; Li, Sining; Zhao, Yaping

    2012-01-01

    In this study, solution enhanced dispersion by supercritical fluids (SEDS) technique was applied for the preparation of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) loaded Eudragit S100 (EU S100) nanoparticles. The effects of various process variables including pressure, temperature, 5-ASA concentration and solution flow rate on morphology, particle size, 5-ASA loading and entrapment efficiency of nanoparticles were investigated. Under the appropriate conditions, drug-loaded nanoparticles exhibited a spherical shape and small particle size with narrow particle size distribution. In addition, the nanoparticles prepared were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. The results showed that 5-ASA was imbedded into EU S100 in an amorphous state after SEDS processing and the SEDS process did not induce degradation of 5-ASA.

  5. A Novel Preparation Method for 5-Aminosalicylic Acid Loaded Eudragit S100 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sining Li

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, solution enhanced dispersion by supercritical fluids (SEDS technique was applied for the preparation of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA loaded Eudragit S100 (EU S100 nanoparticles. The effects of various process variables including pressure, temperature, 5-ASA concentration and solution flow rate on morphology, particle size, 5-ASA loading and entrapment efficiency of nanoparticles were investigated. Under the appropriate conditions, drug-loaded nanoparticles exhibited a spherical shape and small particle size with narrow particle size distribution. In addition, the nanoparticles prepared were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. The results showed that 5-ASA was imbedded into EU S100 in an amorphous state after SEDS processing and the SEDS process did not induce degradation of 5-ASA.

  6. Development of reliability-based load and resistance factor design methods for piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyub, Bilal M.; Hill, Ralph S. III; Balkey, Kenneth R.

    2003-01-01

    Current American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) nuclear codes and standards rely primarily on deterministic and mechanistic approaches to design. The American Institute of Steel Construction and the American Concrete Institute, among other organizations, have incorporated probabilistic methodologies into their design codes. ASME nuclear codes and standards could benefit from developing a probabilistic, reliability-based, design methodology. This paper provides a plan to develop the technical basis for reliability-based, load and resistance factor design of ASME Section III, Class 2/3 piping for primary loading, i.e., pressure, deadweight and seismic. The plan provides a proof of concept in that LRFD can be used in the design of piping, and could achieve consistent reliability levels. Also, the results from future projects in this area could form the basis for code cases, and additional research for piping secondary loads. (author)

  7. Development of environmental-friendly wire and cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Keiji

    1996-01-01

    The electron beam technology has been used in many industrial fields as a method of conventional polymer modification or optimum processability. The main industrial fields of radiation crosslinking are wire and cable, heat shrinkable tubings, plastic foams, precuring of tires, floppy disk curing, foods packaging films, and so on. The radiation crosslinking of wire and cable was started in 1961 in Japan and 15 wire and cable companies are now using electron beam accelerators for production or R and D. The dominant characteristics of crosslinking of insulation materials are application at high temperature, good oil and chemical resistibility and high mechanical properties. These radiation crosslinking wire and cable are applied widely in electronics equipments and automobiles. Recently, electronics manufacturers have indicated deep concern over the effects on the environment. Wire and cable also are required to be applicable for environmental preservation. (J.P.N.)

  8. Comparison of frictional forces between aesthetic orthodontic coated wires and self-ligation brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yunmi; Cha, Jung-Yul; Hwang, Chung-Ju; Tahk, Seon Gun

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of polymer- and rhodium-coated wires compared to uncoated wires by measuring the frictional forces using self-ligation brackets. Methods 0.016-inch nickel titanium (NiTi) wires and 0.017 × 0.025-inch stainless steel (SS) wires were used, and the angulations between the brackets and wires were set to 0°, 5°, and 10°. Upper maxillary premolar brackets (Clippy-C®) with a 0.022-inch slot were selected for the study and a tensile test was performed with a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. The maximum static frictional forces and kinetic frictional forces were recorded and compared. Results The maximum static frictional forces and the kinetic frictional forces of coated wires were equal to or higher than those of the uncoated wires (p wires were significantly higher than those of polymer-coated wires when the angulations between the brackets and wires were set to (i) 5° in the 0.016-inch NiTi wires and (ii) all angulations in the 0.017 × 0.025-inch SS wires (p wires were higher than those of polymer-coated wires, except when the angulations were set to 0° in the 0.016-inch NiTi wires (p wires with regards to aesthetics were equal to or greater than those of the uncoated wires, a study under similar conditions regarding the oral cavity is needed in order to establish the clinical implications. PMID:25133130

  9. RPI and RPL clasp masticatory load distribution in lower free end denture case with photoelastic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahlia Sutanto

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The extent and direction of movement of removable partial dentures during function are influenced by the nature of supporting structures and the design of the prosthesis since forces are transmitted to abutment teeth by rest, guide planes, and direct retainers during functional movements. Because of the lack of tooth support distally, the denture base will have tissueward underfunction proportionate to the quality (displaceability of the supporting soft tissue, the accuracy of the denture base, and the total occlusal load applied. The movement of the base under function determines the occlusal efficiency of the partial denture and the degree to which the abutment teeth are subjected to torque and tipping stresses.The purpose of this study is to know the functional load exerts with RPI and RPL direct retainer in bilateral distal extension. This study is a laboratory experiment employing samples of 5 frames using RPI and 5 frames using RPL direct retainer design. Testing was conducted by Vishay Teaching Polariscope type 080. The result was noted and analyzed statistically using ANOVA.The result of this study indicates that F calculation value for frame with RPI and RPL direct retainer design is 5,35 and 6,11 Mpa; F calculation for the occlusal load distribution on first premolar and edentulous area is 276,90 Mpa and 171,53 Mpa; F calculation for occlusal load distribution on first premolar and edentulous area employing RPI and RPL direct retainer design is 9,17 and 11,96 Mpa. This statistical calculation shows that there is a significant difference between RPI and RPL direct retainer design, the occlusal load concentrated at edentulous area either RPI or RPL direct retainer, and the occlusal load distribution between the first premolar and edentulous area are more uniform on RPI direct retainer design.

  10. Evaluation of Bearing Capacity of Strip Foundation Subjected to Eccentric Inclined Loads Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Majeed Ali

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In real conditions of structures, foundations like retaining walls, industrial machines and platforms in offshore areas are commonly subjected to eccentrically inclined loads. This type of loading significantly affects the overall stability of shallow foundations due to exposing the foundation into two components of loads (horizontal and vertical and consequently reduces the bearing capacity Based on a numerical analysis performed using finite element software (Plaxis 3D Foundation, the behavior of model strip foundation rested on dry sand under the effect of eccentric inclined loads with different embedment ratios (D/B ranging from (0-1 has been explored. The results display that, the bearing capacity of strip foundation is noticeably decreased with the increase of inclination angle (α and eccentricity ratio (e/B. As well as, a reduction factor (RF expression was appointed to measure the degree of decreasing in the bearing capacity when the model footing is subjected to eccentric inclined load. It was observed that, the (RF decreases as the embedment ratio increases. Moreover, the test results also exhibit that, the model footing bearing capacity is reduced by about (69% when the load inclination is varied from (0° to 20° and the model footing is on the surface. While, the rate of decreasing in the bearing capacity was found to be (58%, for both cases of footing when they are at embedment ratios of (0.5 and 1.0. Also, a comparative study was carried out between the present results and previous experimental test results under the same conditions (soil properties and boundary condition. A good agreement was obtained between the predicted bearing capacities for the two related studies.

  11. The influence of cognitive load on transfer with error prevention training methods: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Shaun D; Wickens, Christopher D; Carolan, Thomas F; Cumming, John M

    2013-08-01

    The objective was to conduct research synthesis for the U.S.Army on the effectiveness of two error prevention training strategies (training wheels and scaffolding) on the transfer of training. Motivated as part of an ongoing program of research on training effectiveness, the current work presents some of the program's research into the effects on transfer of error prevention strategies during training from a cognitive load perspective. Based on cognitive load theory, two training strategies were hypothesized to reduce intrinsic load by supporting learners early in acquisition during schema development. A transfer ratio and Hedges' g were used in the two meta-analyses conducted on transfer studies employing the two training strategies. Moderators relevant to cognitive load theory and specific to the implemented strategies were examined.The transfer ratio was the ratio of treatment transfer performance to control transfer. Hedges' g was used in comparing treatment and control group standardized mean differences. Both effect sizes were analyzed with versions of sample weighted fixed effect models. Analysis of the training wheels strategy suggests a transfer benefit. The observed benefit was strongest when the training wheels were a worked example coupled with a principle-based prompt. Analysis of the scaffolding data also suggests a transfer benefit for the strategy. Both training wheels and scaffolding demonstrated positive transfer as training strategies.As error prevention techniques, both support the intrinsic load--reducing implications of cognitive load theory. The findings are applicable to the development of instructional design guidelines in professional skill-based organizations such as the military.

  12. Psychophysiological methods and criteria for the selection of individual metered loads in athletes of taekwondo section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Ohromiy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: scientific rationale approaches Express-diagnostics for athletes of taekwondo section by psychophysiological parameters. Material: Total surveyed 84 people, including 68 boys and 16 girls. Were defined backup capabilities, exercise tolerance and selection of adequate individual dose of loads in preparation for the international competition, participants - taekwondo athletes. Was attended by representatives of Ukraine, Russia and Lithuania. Age groups of participants: 6 - 16 years. Athletes have different levels and different schools of training. Results: evaluation of exercise tolerance and definition of an adequate level of motor mode in taekwondo athletes in terms of the difference of lability (DL before and after training, revealed: high and very high nervous system (NS lability. These figures correspond to high and very high tolerance to physical loads. The respondents who had difference of liability (DL <0, were well-trained athletes and their high points of strength of nervous system testified about good backup capabilities (withstand great and continuous loads. In 78 % of the tested load was chosen adequately. Less than 20% of the respondents noted the average backup capabilities. They need individual correction dose loads to increase adaptive capacity. Insignificant 10%, the share of respondents had low exercise tolerance at the average values NS strength, which indicates a good backup capabilities. The direct dependence: respondents with high levels on state of health, activity and mood - low levels of anxiety, frustration, aggression and rigidity. Conclusions The proposed optimized approach Express-diagnostics according to psychophysiological parameters allow you to determine the level of physical endurance, speed adaptation athletes in the sections taekwondo and adequate response to the loads.

  13. Recent development of drastically innovative BSCCO wire (DI-BISCCO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, M.; Kato, T.; Ohkura, K.; Ayai, N.; Fujikami, J.; Fujino, K.; Kobayashi, S.; Ueno, E.; Yamazaki, K.; Yamade, S.; Hayashi, K.; Sato, K.; Nagai, T.; Matsui, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Up to this day, Ag-sheathed Bi2223 superconducting wires have been widely investigated and the long wires about 1000 m have been produced by using powder-in-tube (PIT) method on a commercial basis in the various facilities or companies. Although the wires are used for some applications such as HTS cables, magnets, motor and so on, the Bi2223 wires not only require much more improvements of the superconducting properties such as critical current, mechanical properties, but also longer and more uniform wires. Recently, the performances of Bi2223 wires have been drastically improved by using Controlled Over Pressure (CT-OP) sintering process. CT-OP process increased critical current (I c ) by more than 60% at 77 K and self field and improved the mechanical strength by more than 70%. The maximum I c was increased up to 166 A. These drastic improvements were caused by the higher density of Bi2223 filament up to almost 100% and better connectivity of the Bi2223 grains. The dense structure of the Bi2223 filaments prevents the ballooning phenomenon which is caused by the gasification of the trapped liquid nitrogen during temperature rise. Additionally, higher uniformity and higher production yield of long length wire were also achieved by exterminating defects during sintering. These high performance levels in CT-OP wires have contributed commercial level applications. We call as Drastically Innovative BSCCO (DI-BSCCO)

  14. Efficient production of hot plasmas through multiple-wire implosion in transmission line generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomberg, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    Model equations for the implosion of multiple-wire arrays mounted across the electrodes of a transmission line generator are used to obtain an expression for the energy-coupling efficiency. For a useful class of imploding loads, the efficiency is shown to depend on a single dimensionless parameter. Furthermore, the efficiency curve has a maximum, and this permits an explicit optimization of the wire load parameters in terms of the machine parameters

  15. Wiring regulations in brief

    CERN Document Server

    Tricker, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Tired of trawling through the Wiring Regs?Perplexed by Part P?Confused by cables, conductors and circuits?Then look no further! This handy guide provides an on-the-job reference source for Electricians, Designers, Service Engineers, Inspectors, Builders, Students, DIY enthusiastsTopic-based chapters link areas of working practice - such as cables, installations, testing and inspection, special locations - with the specifics of the Regulations themselves. This allows quick and easy identification of the official requirements relating to the situati

  16. The Micro Wire Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeva, B.; Gomez, F.; Pazos, A.; Pfau, R.; Plo, M. E-mail: maximo.plo@cern.ch; Rodriguez, J.M.; Vazquez, P.; Labbe, J.C

    1999-10-11

    We present the performance of a new proportional gas detector. Its geometry consists of a cathode plane with 70x70 {mu}m{sup 2} apertures, crossed by 25 {mu}m anode strips to which it is attached by 50 {mu}m kapton spacers. In the region where the avalanche takes place, the anode strips are suspended in the gas mixture as in a standard wire chamber. This detector exhibits high rate capability and large gains, introducing very little material. (author)

  17. Autoclaving and clinical recycling: effects on mechanical properties of orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshagh, M; Hematiyan, M R; Mohandes, Y; Oshagh, M R; Pishbin, L

    2012-01-01

    About half of the orthodontists recycle and reuse orthodontic wires because of their costs. So when talking about reuse and sterilization of wires, their effects on mechanical properties of wires should be clarified. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of sterilization and clinical use on mechanical properties of stainless steel wires. Thirty stainless steel orthodontic wires were divided into three equal groups of control, autoclave (sterilized by autoclave), and recycle group (wires were used for orthodontic patients up to 4 weeks, cleaned by isopropyl alcohol and sterilized by autoclave). The mechanical properties (tensile test, three-point loading test for load-deflection curve) were determined. Fracture force, yield strength, stiffness and modulus of elasticity in recycle groups were significantly lower than the other groups (P < 0.05). Although recycle wires were softer than those of control group, relatively small differences and also various properties of available wires have obscured the clinical predictability of their application. There is seemingly no problem in terms of mechanical properties to recycle orthodontic wires.

  18. A Simplified Short Term Load Forecasting Method Based on Sequential Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouzelis, Konstantinos; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar

    2014-01-01

    the installation of smart meters in many utilities. Thus, historical residential consumption data are now present which were not available until recently. Moreover, the gradual incorporation of new loads, such as Heat Pumps and Electric Vehicles, will necessitate congestion prognosis at various distribution...

  19. APPLICATION OF THE METHOD OF DIMENSIONALITY REDUCTION TO CONTACTS UNDER NORMAL AND TORSIONAL LOADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Willert

    2015-08-01

    In view of all this, the torsional contact problems have been disregarded until now, although it is known that torsion is a major reason of wear and possible failure of system components. Therefore, in the present paper, we extend the MDR to contacts of axisymmetric profiles under superimposed normal and torsional loading.

  20. Methods and models for the residential load management in distribution networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Garcia, Angel

    The main purpose of this thesis is the development of new tools to obtain and assess residential load control strategies. In this way, elemental load models to simulate electrical and thermal behaviors have been implemented and validated; an appropriate aggregation technique, based on kernel estimators, has been selected; and a load control strategy algorithm has been developed and applied on the air conditioning-heat pump individual loads, analyzing the control action effects from two viewpoints: customer (demand pattern changes, services...) and utility (resource optimization, profile demand modifications...). As a consequence, this integrated tool allows to know the flexibility degree of a specific residential demand profile, according to a target demand profile previously defined, by means of an optimum combination of forced connections and disconnections, taking into account the discomfort level maximum accepted by the customers. Electrical thermal storage appliances have also been studied. In this case, the day-valley periods are proposed as possible partial storage periods. This would involve to divide the actual storage periods into two partial periods, decreasing the thermal capacity necessities as well as the discharge period forecasts. A thermal study about this proposal has been developed, comparing the indoor temperatures in both cases. Finally, and taking into account the modifications suffered by the electrical market during these last years, the developed tools can be applied by utility and customer side, within an electrical sector (residential) which supposes around 25 per cent the total electrical demand.