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Sample records for wiring configuration effect

  1. Method for wiring allocation and switch configuration in a multiprocessor environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aridor, Yariv [Zichron Ya'akov, IL; Domany, Tamar [Kiryat Tivon, IL; Frachtenberg, Eitan [Jerusalem, IL; Gal, Yoav [Haifa, IL; Shmueli, Edi [Haifa, IL; Stockmeyer, legal representative, Robert E.; Stockmeyer, Larry Joseph [San Jose, CA

    2008-07-15

    A method for wiring allocation and switch configuration in a multiprocessor computer, the method including employing depth-first tree traversal to determine a plurality of paths among a plurality of processing elements allocated to a job along a plurality of switches and wires in a plurality of D-lines, and selecting one of the paths in accordance with at least one selection criterion.

  2. Effects of duct configuration on flow and temperature structure in sodium-cooled 19-rod simulated LMFBR fuel bundles with helical wire-wrap spacers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wantland, J.L.; Fontana, M.H.; Gnadt, P.A.; Hanus, N.; MacPherson, R.E.; Smith, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    Thermal-hydrodynamic testing of sodium-cooled 19-rod simulated LMFBR fuel bundles is being conducted at the O ak Ridge National Laboratory in the Fuel Failure Mockup (FFM), an engineering-scale high-temperature sodium facility which provides prototypic flows, temperatures and power densities. Electrically heated bundles have been tested with two scalloped and two hexagonal duct configurations. Peripheral helical flows, attributed to the spacers, have been observed with strengths dependent upon the evenness and relative sizes of the peripheral flow areas. Diametral sodium temperature profiles are more uniform with smaller peripheral flow areas

  3. Disorder and Interaction Effects in Quantum Wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L W; Ritchie, D A; Farrer, I; Griffiths, J P; Jones, G A C; Thomas, K J; Pepper, M

    2012-01-01

    We present conductance measurements of quasi-one-dimensional quantum wires affected by random disorder in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. In addition to quantised conductance plateaux, we observe structure superimposed on the conductance characteristics when the channel is wide and the density is low. Magnetic field and temperature are varied to characterize the conductance features which depend on the lateral position of the 1D channel formed in a split-gate device. Our results suggest that there is enhanced backscattering in the wide channel limit, which gives rise to quantum interference effects. When the wires are free of disorder and wide, the confinement is weak so that the mutual repulsion of the electrons forces a single row to split into two. The relationship of this topological change to the disorder in the system will be discussed.

  4. Humidity effects on wire insulation breakdown strength.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelhans, Leah

    2013-08-01

    Methods for the testing of the dielectric breakdown strength of insulation on metal wires under variable humidity conditions were developed. Two methods, an ASTM method and the twisted pair method, were compared to determine if the twisted pair method could be used for determination of breakdown strength under variable humidity conditions. It was concluded that, although there were small differences in outcomes between the two testing methods, the non-standard method (twisted pair) would be appropriate to use for further testing of the effects of humidity on breakdown performance. The dielectric breakdown strength of 34G copper wire insulated with double layer Poly-Thermaleze/Polyamide-imide insulation was measured using the twisted pair method under a variety of relative humidity (RH) conditions and exposure times. Humidity at 50% RH and below was not found to affect the dielectric breakdown strength. At 80% RH the dielectric breakdown strength was significantly diminished. No effect for exposure time up to 140 hours was observed at 50 or 80%RH.

  5. A semi-analytical study of positive corona discharge in wire-plane electrode configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanallah, K.; Pontiga, F.; Chen, J. H.

    2013-08-01

    Wire-to-plane positive corona discharge in air has been studied using an analytical model of two species (electrons and positive ions). The spatial distributions of electric field and charged species are obtained by integrating Gauss's law and the continuity equations of species along the Laplacian field lines. The experimental values of corona current intensity and applied voltage, together with Warburg's law, have been used to formulate the boundary condition for the electron density on the corona wire. To test the accuracy of the model, the approximate electric field distribution has been compared with the exact numerical solution obtained from a finite element analysis. A parametrical study of wire-to-plane corona discharge has then been undertaken using the approximate semi-analytical solutions. Thus, the spatial distributions of electric field and charged particles have been computed for different values of the gas pressure, wire radius and electrode separation. Also, the two dimensional distribution of ozone density has been obtained using a simplified plasma chemistry model. The approximate semi-analytical solutions can be evaluated in a negligible computational time, yet provide precise estimates of corona discharge variables.

  6. An uniform DBD plasma excited by bipolar nanosecond pulse using wire-cylinder electrode configuration in atmospheric air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng-Chao; Wang, Wen-Chun; Zhang, Shuai; Jia, Li; Yang, De-Zheng; Tang, Kai; Liu, Zhi-Jie

    2014-03-25

    In this study, a bipolar nanosecond pulsed power supply with 15 ns rising time is employed to generate an uniform dielectric barrier discharge using the wire-cylinder electrode configuration in atmospheric air. The images, waveforms of pulse voltage and discharge current, and the optical emission spectra of the discharges are recorded. The rotational and vibrational temperatures of plasma are determined by comparing the simulated spectra with the experimental spectra. The effects of pulse peak voltage, pulse repetition rate and quartz tube diameter on the emission intensities of N2 (C(3)Πu→B(3)Πg, 0-0) and N2(+)B(2)Σu(+)→X(2)Σg(+),0-0 and the rotational and vibrational temperatures have been investigated. It is found that the uniform plasma with low gas temperature can be obtained, and the emission intensities of N2 (C(3)Πu→B(3)Πg, 0-0) and N2(+)B(2)Σu(+)→X(2)Σg(+),0-0 rise with increasing the pulse peak voltage and pulse repetition rate, while decrease as the increase of quartz tube diameter. In addition, under the condition of 28 kV pulse peak voltage, 150 Hz pulse repetition rate and 7 mm quartz tube diameter, the plasma gas temperature is determined to be 330 K. The results also indicate that the plasma gas temperature keep almost constant when increasing the pulse peak voltage and pulse repetition rate but increase with the increase of the quartz tube diameter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Effect of Wire Dimension, Type and Thickness of Coating Layer on Friction of Coated Stainless-Steel Arch Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdulhussain Abbas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: Esthetic coated arch wires are the desired types to match esthetic brackets in the clinical orthodontics, but the presence of coating layer is greatly affect friction during sliding mechanics. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of total wire dimension with the type and thickness of coating layer on friction of coated stainless-steel wires. Methods: The sample of this study consisted of 140 segments of coated stainless-steel arch wires involving two wire dimensions (0.016 × 0.022 inch and 0.019 × 0.025 inch. The samples were supplied from seven companies (DB, RMO, TP, DANY, G&H, Highland and Hubit and the uncoated control samples were supplied from IOS company. Wire dimensions and thickness of coating layer were measured by the metallurgical light incident microscope and the static frictional force was measured using pulling the wire through set of ceramic brackets by the universal testing machine. The data were then statistically analyzed using ANOVA tests. Results: Generally measured wire dimensions do not match the stated dimensions by the manufacturer. The frictional forces of coated wires differ from uncoated control being higher in the labially coated wires and lesser in the fully Teflon coated wires owing to differences in the wire dimension, thickness of coating layer, and physical properties of coating materials. Conclusion: when tested in vitro, Teflon fully coated wires produce the least amount of friction.

  8. Effect of AC electric fields on flame spread over electrical wire

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Minkuk

    2011-01-01

    The effect of electric fields on the characteristics of flame spread over insulated electrical wire has been investigated experimentally by varying AC voltage and frequency applied to the wire in the normal gravity condition. The polyethylene (PE) insulated electrical wire was placed horizontally on electrically non-conducting posts and one end of the wire was connected to the high voltage terminal. Thus, the electrical system is the single electrode configuration. The wire was ignited at one end and the flame spread rate along the wire has been measured from the images using a video camera. Two distinct regimes existed depending on the applied AC frequency. In the low frequency regime, the flame spread rate decreased with the frequency and voltage. While in the high frequency regime, it decreased initially with voltage and then increased. At high frequency, the spread rate was even over that without applying electric fields. This result implies that fire safety codes developed without considering the effect of electric fields may require modifications. © 2010 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of The Combustion Institute. All rights reserved.

  9. Local flow blockage analysis with checkerboard configuration in a wire wrapped fuel subassembly using the ASFRE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Masahiro; Fukano, Yoshitaka

    2014-01-01

    Local fault (LF) has been historically considered as one of the possible causes of severe accidents in sodium-cooled fast reactors because fuel pins are generally densely arranged in the fuel subassemblies (FSAs) in this type of reactors. Local flow blockage (LB) has been one of the dominant initiators of LFs. Therefore evaluations were performed on LBs in the past safety licensing assuming a planar and impermeable blockage of 66% of the total flow area at an FSA for the Japanese prototype fast breeder reactor. A conservative evaluation revealed that fuel pin damage propagation would be limited within a restricted area of the reactor core, even assuming such a hypothetical initiating event. In the newly formulated regulatory requirements, however, after the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, best estimate (BE) safety analyses on the basis of state-of-the-art knowledge are being required for beyond design basis accidents. A deterministic and BE evaluation therefore based on the most-recent knowledge was newly performed in this study for revalidation of the above-mentioned historical background using the ASFRE code, whereas the LF accidents would not be identified as a representative accident sequence from a viewpoint of both its frequencies and consequences. Nominal power and flow rate without safety margins were assumed for the analyses in order to make the accidental conditions to be realistic. A most likely and realistic blockage configuration was newly proposed and employed based on the existing experimental data in accordance with the BE concept mentioned above. The aforementioned blockage configuration was excessively conservative on a state-of-the-art knowledge basis. The most-recent experimental studies clarified that LBs due to foreign substances would be formed by accumulating the steel fragments of certain sizes trapped along the wrapping wires. This leads to an LB in a checkerboard configuration for an FSA of wire spacer type, which

  10. Atomic Configuration and Conductance of Tantalum Single-Atom Contacts and Single-Atom Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizuka, Tokushi; Murata, Satoshi

    2017-09-01

    The tensile deformation and successive fracture process of tantalum (Ta) nanocontacts (NCs) while applying various bias voltages was observed in situ by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy using a picometer-precision dual-goniometer nanotip manipulation technique. Simultaneously, the variation in the conductance of the contacts was measured. The NCs were thinned atom by atom during mechanical elongation, resulting in the formation of two types of single-atom cross-sectional contacts: single-atom contacts (SACs) and single-atom wires (SAWs), in which two electrodes, typically nanotips, are connected by a single shared atom or a one-line array of single atoms, respectively. When the bias voltage was 11 mV, Ta SACs were formed during tensile deformation; however, elongation of the single-atom cross-sectional part did not occur. In contrast, when the bias voltage was increased to 200 mV, Ta SACs were first formed during the tensile deformation, followed by elongation of the single-atom cross section up to a length of three atoms, i.e., the formation of SAWs. Thus, the present observation shows that Ta SAWs are stable even at such a high bias voltage. The conductance of the SACs was approximately 0.10G0 (G0 = 2e2/h, where e is the electron charge and h is Planck’s constant), whereas the conductance of the three-atom-long SAWs ranged from 0.01G0 to 0.22G0. Lower conductances were observed for linear SAWs, whereas higher conductances resulted from kinked SAWs.

  11. Faraday and Kerr Effects Diagnostics for Underwater Exploding Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisov, G. S.; Fedotov-Gefen, A. V.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2012-10-01

    Two-channel laser polarimeter was used to measure magnetic and electric fields in vicinity of underwater exploding wire. Nd:YAG Q-switch laser with 532nm wavelength, 100mJ energy and 5ns pulse width was used for probing. Single wire, parallel wires and X and V- shaped wires was used in experiments. Electric and magnetic field induced birefringes in the water results in changing of polarization stage of probing beam after propagation through this anisotropic medium. Magnetic field results in circular anisotropy of the water, while electric field creates linear anisotropy. Magnetic field results in rotation of polarization plan of linear-polarized probing beam. Electric field effect is more complicated- polarization plan of the laser beam subjected to pulsation and changing of ellipticity. Effect of electric field depends on initial probing geometry- angle between electrical field vector E and polarization plane of probing wave. In our exploding wire experiments we found influence of both Faraday and Kerr effects. It was demonstrated existence of Kerr effect inside bubbles at high voltage electrode. Effect of magnetic fields interaction for multi-wire loads was observed.

  12. Anisotropic intrinsic spin Hall effect in quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, A W; Akis, R; Ferry, D K

    2011-01-01

    We use numerical simulations to investigate the spin Hall effect in quantum wires in the presence of both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. We find that the intrinsic spin Hall effect is highly anisotropic with respect to the orientation of the wire, and that the nature of this anisotropy depends strongly on the electron density and the relative strengths of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings. In particular, at low densities, when only one subband of the quantum wire is occupied, the spin Hall effect is strongest for electron momentum along the [1-bar 10] axis, which is the opposite of what is expected for the purely 2D case. In addition, when more than one subband is occupied, the strength and anisotropy of the spin Hall effect can vary greatly over relatively small changes in electron density, which makes it difficult to predict which wire orientation will maximize the strength of the spin Hall effect. These results help to illuminate the role of quantum confinement in spin-orbit-coupled systems, and can serve as a guide for future experimental work on the use of quantum wires for spin-Hall-based spintronic applications. (paper)

  13. Control of flow past a circular cylinder via a spanwise surface wire: effect of the wire scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekmekci, Alis [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, Toronto, ON (Canada); Rockwell, Donald [Lehigh University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Flow phenomena induced by a single spanwise wire on the surface of a circular cylinder are investigated via a cinema technique of particle image velocimetry (PIV). The primary aim of this investigation is to assess the effect of the wire scale. To this end, consideration is given to wires with different diameters that are 0.5, 1.2, and 2.9% of the cylinder diameter. The Reynolds number has a subcritical value of 10,000. Compared to the thickness of the unperturbed boundary layer developing around the cylinder between 5 and 75 from the forward stagnation point, the former two wires have smaller scales and the latter has a larger scale. Two angular locations of the wire, defined with respect to the forward stagnation point of the cylinder, are found to be critical. When the wire is located at these critical angles, either the most significant extension or the contraction of the time-mean separation bubble occurs in the near wake. These critical angles depend on the wire scale: the smaller the wire, the larger the critical angle. The small-scale and large-scale wires that have diameters of 1.2 and 2.9% of the cylinder diameter induce bistable shear-layer oscillations between different separation modes when placed at their respective critical angles corresponding to maximum extension of the near-wake bubble. These oscillations have irregular time intervals that are much longer than the time scale associated with the classical Karman instability. Moreover, the large-scale wire can either significantly attenuate or intensify the Karman mode of vortex shedding at the critical states; in contrast, the small-scale wires do not notably alter the strength of the Karman instability. (orig.)

  14. Evaluation of Effects of Sterilization on Mechanical Properties of Orthodontic Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Kannan

    2012-01-01

    Results: Dry heat sterilization, autoclave, 2% glutaraldehyde solution had no effect on ultimate tensile strength, 0.1% yield strength, modulus of elasticity and percentage elongation of stainless steel and elgiloy wires. Tensile strength and yield strength of Nitinol and b-titanium wires together with percentage elongation of b-titanium wires significantly increased following dry heat sterilization and autoclave. No detrimental effects on properties of wires were observed. These sterilization procedures could be safely recommended for sterilization of orthodontic wires.

  15. Effect of Platinum Group Metal Doping in Magnesium Diboride Wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Alexiou, Aikaterini; Namazkar, Shahla

    2016-01-01

    The effect of some platinum group metals(PGM = Rh, Pd, and Pt) on the microstructure and critical current density of Cu/Nb-sheathed MgB2 wires has been studied using Mg1-x PGMxB2 powders with low doping levels. It was found that Pt and Pd do not enter the MgB2 lattice and have only limited influe...

  16. Elastocaloric effect of Ni-Ti wire for application in a cooling device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tusek, Jaka; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    2015-01-01

    We report on the elastocaloric effect of a superelastic Ni-Ti wire to be used in a cooling device. Initially, each evaluated wire was subjected to 400 loading/unloading training cycles in order to stabilize its superelastic behavior. The wires were trained at different temperatures, which lead...

  17. Edge-on gating effect in molecular wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Wai-Yip; Bi, Wuguo; Li, Lianwei; Jung, In Hwan; Yu, Luping

    2015-02-11

    This work demonstrates edge-on chemical gating effect in molecular wires utilizing the pyridinoparacyclophane (PC) moiety as the gate. Different substituents with varied electronic demands are attached to the gate to simulate the effect of varying gating voltages similar to that in field-effect transistor (FET). It was observed that the orbital energy level and charge carrier's tunneling barriers can be tuned by changing the gating group from strong electron acceptors to strong electron donors. The single molecule conductance and current-voltage characteristics of this molecular system are truly similar to those expected for an actual single molecular transistor.

  18. The effect of clamping a tensioned wire: implications for the Ilizarov external fixation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, M A; Mathias, K J; Maffulli, N; Hukins, D W L

    2003-01-01

    This study demonstrates that clamping a tensioned wire can cause a reduction in wire tension. Tension (about 1275 N) was applied to a wire that was subsequently clamped, using cannulated bolts, to the steel half-ring of an Ilizarov external fixator. The tension in the wire was monitored before, during and after clamping. The apparatus was disassembled and the deformations in the wire caused by the clamps were measured. This experiment was repeated 15 times. When the wire was clamped to the frame, the wire tension was reduced by 22 +/- 7 per cent (mean +/- standard deviation, SD). The drop in wire tension was linearly correlated (r = 0.96; p toothpaste from a tube) and so reduce its tension during fixator assembly. To assess the magnitude of this effect in the clinical situation, the FE model analysis was repeated to replicate clamping a 1.8-mm-diameter wire to a 180-mm-diameter steel Ilizarov ring component. The analysis showed that for these conditions the tension reduced by 8-29 per cent. The results of this study highlight a general engineering problem: how can a tensioned wire be secured to a structure without an appreciable loss of tension? If the performance of the structure depends on the wire tension, this performance will change when the wire is secured.

  19. Strength of stainless steel surgical wire in various fixation modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, R S; Boger, J W; Dunn, H K

    1985-09-01

    Although wire is a commonly used fixation device in orthopedics, little is known about the effects of fastening methods and configurations on the strength of wiring systems. Three sizes of stainless steel surgical wire were tested in noncyclic tensile loading. Load failure levels increased with enlarging wire diameter. Fastening twists were stronger than knots or the ASIF bend technique. The failure mode for twists was untwisting. More than two twists gave no additional strength to the system. Two commercial wire tightening devices gave stronger and more reproducible twists than did ordinary pliers. The addition of a tension equalizing loop opposite the fastening loop weakened the wire system by 10%-15%. The combination of two single wire loops was stronger than a continuous double loop of wire. The results from this study are intended to help the orthopedic surgeon optimize the use of wire.

  20. Effect of electrical spot welding on load deflection rate of orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Shiva; Abrishami, Arezoo

    2015-01-01

    One of the methods used for joining metals together is welding, which can be carried out using different techniques such as electric spot welding. This study evaluated the effect of electric spot welding on the load deflection rate of stainless steel and chromium-cobalt orthodontic wires. In this experimental-laboratory study, load deflection rate of 0.016 × 0.022 inch stainless steel and chromium cobalt wires were evaluated in five groups (n =18): group one: Stainless steel wires, group two: chromium-cobalt wires, group three: stainless steel wires welded to stainless steel wires, group four: Stainless steel wires welded to chromium-cobalt wires, group five: chromium-cobalt wire welded to chromium-cobalt wires. Afterward, the forces induced by the samples in 0.5 mm, 1 mm, 1.5 mm deflection were measured using a universal testing machine. Then mean force measured for each group was compared with other groups. The data were analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA), one-way ANOVA, and paired t-test by the SPSS software. The significance level was set as 0.05. The Tukey test showed that there were significant differences between the load deflection rates of welded groups compared to control ones (P wires increased their load deflection rates.

  1. EMC effect, antishadowing, and pointlike configurations in nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strikman, M.I.; Frankfurt, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    Antishadowing of valence-quark distributions in a nucleus is estimated for small x. It is shown that the probability of pointlike configurations is suppressed in a bound nucleon. The possible relation of these phenomena to the EMC effect is discussed. Experiments are proposed to search for pointlike configurations in hadrons. Indications are obtained of the existence of an effect analogous to the EMC effect for x>0.3 in near-threshold eD scattering studied at SLAC

  2. Electro-mechanics of drift tube wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milburn, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The position and stability of the sense wires in very long drift tubes are affected by both gravitational and electrostatic forces, as well as by the wire tension. For a tube to be used as an element of a high-resolution detector all these forces and their effects must be understood in appropriately precise detail. In addition, the quality control procedures applied during manufacture and detector installation must be adequate to ensure that the internal wire positions remain within tolerances. It may be instructive to practitioners to review the simple theory of a taut wire in the presence of anisotropic gravitational and electrostatic fields to illustrate the conditions for stability, the equilibrium wire displacement from straightness, and the effect of the fields on the mechanical vibration frequencies. These last may be used to monitor the wire configuration externally. A number of practical formulae result and these are applied to illustrative examples. (orig.)

  3. Deflection and Flexural Strength Effects on the Roughness of Aesthetic-Coated Orthodontic Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Cibele Gonçalves de; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Venezian, Giovana Cherubini; Santamaria, Milton; Tubel, Carlos Alberto; Vedovello, Silvia Amélia Scudeler

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the flexural strength and the effects of deflection on the surface roughness of esthetic orthodontic wires. The sample consisted of 70 archwire 0.014-inch: polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE)-coated Nickel-Titanium (Niti) archwires (Titanol Cosmetic-TC, Flexy Super Elastic Esthetic-FSE, esthetic Nickel Titanium Wire-ANT); epoxy resin-coated Niti archwires (Spectra-S, Niticosmetic-TEC); gold and rhodium coated Niti (Sentalloy-STC) and a control group (superelastic Niti (Nitinol-NS). The initial roughness was evaluated with a rugosimeter. After that, the wires were submitted to flexural test in an universal testing machine. Each wire was deflected up to 2 mm at a speed of 1 mm/min. After flexural test, the roughness of the wires was evaluted on the same surface as that used for the initial evaluation. The data of roughness and flexural strength were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (a=0.05). Student t-test compared roughness before and after deflection (a =0.05). The roughness of S and ANT (epoxy resin and PTFE-coated wires, respectively), before and after deflection, was significantly higher than the other groups (pWire deflection significantly increased the roughness of the wires S and STC (porthodontic wires does not depend on the type of the esthetic coating, but it is influenced by the method of application of this coating. The deflection can increase the roughness of the esthetic orthodontic wires.

  4. Configuration-mixed effective SU(3) symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Hess, P O; Hunyadi, M; Kvi, A G; Cseh, J

    2002-01-01

    The procedure of Jarrio et al. (Nucl. Phys. A 528, 409 (1991)) for the determination of the effective SU(3) symmetry of nuclear states is extended to small deformations and to oblate nuclei. Self-consistency checks are carried out both for light and for heavy nuclei. (orig.)

  5. Electrostatic effects on hyaluronic acid configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezney, John; Saleh, Omar

    2015-03-01

    In systems of polyelectrolytes, such as solutions of charged biopolymers, the electrostatic repulsion between charged monomers plays a dominant role in determining the molecular conformation. Altering the ionic strength of the solvent thus affects the structure of such a polymer. Capturing this electrostatically-driven structural dependence is important for understanding many biological systems. Here, we use single molecule manipulation experiments to collect force-extension behavior on hyaluronic acid (HA), a polyanion which is a major component of the extracellular matrix in all vertebrates. By measuring HA elasticity in a variety of salt conditions, we are able to directly assess the contribution of electrostatics to the chain's self-avoidance and local stiffness. Similar to recent results from our group on single-stranded nucleic acids, our data indicate that HA behaves as a swollen chain of electrostatic blobs, with blob size proportional to the solution Debye length. Our data indicate that the chain structure within the blob is not worm-like, likely due to long-range electrostatic interactions. We discuss potential models of this effect.

  6. Autoclaving and clinical recycling: effects on mechanical properties of orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshagh, M; Hematiyan, M R; Mohandes, Y; Oshagh, M R; Pishbin, L

    2012-01-01

    About half of the orthodontists recycle and reuse orthodontic wires because of their costs. So when talking about reuse and sterilization of wires, their effects on mechanical properties of wires should be clarified. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of sterilization and clinical use on mechanical properties of stainless steel wires. Thirty stainless steel orthodontic wires were divided into three equal groups of control, autoclave (sterilized by autoclave), and recycle group (wires were used for orthodontic patients up to 4 weeks, cleaned by isopropyl alcohol and sterilized by autoclave). The mechanical properties (tensile test, three-point loading test for load-deflection curve) were determined. Fracture force, yield strength, stiffness and modulus of elasticity in recycle groups were significantly lower than the other groups (P < 0.05). Although recycle wires were softer than those of control group, relatively small differences and also various properties of available wires have obscured the clinical predictability of their application. There is seemingly no problem in terms of mechanical properties to recycle orthodontic wires.

  7. Influence of working gas properties on MWPC anode wire modulation effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Hu; Chen, Xiao-Qiang

    2015-10-01

    For MWPCs used for X-ray position detection, simulation studies of the anode wire modulation effect of the detector were carried out using the Garfield program. Different gas mixtures were used as the working gas in the simulation, so as to obtain the influence of the X-ray cross section and electron diffusion coefficient of the working gases on the anode wire modulation effect of an MWPC with anode wire spacing of 2 mm. Results show that, though a working gas with higher X-ray cross section implies a larger average drift distance for the ionized electrons, such gas mixtures are of little use in improving the anode wire modulation effect of MWPCs. It is found that the transverse electron diffusion coefficient is the determining factor for the extent of the anode wire modulation effect in the detector. Supported by Scientific Research Fund of Sichuan Provincial Education Department (11ZA140)

  8. Systematic effects in CALOR simulation code to model experimental configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Job, P.K.; Proudfoot, J.; Handler, T.

    1991-01-01

    CALOR89 code system is being used to simulate test beam results and the design parameters of several calorimeter configurations. It has been bench-marked against the ZEUS, Dθ and HELIOS data. This study identifies the systematic effects in CALOR simulation to model the experimental configurations. Five major systematic effects are identified. These are the choice of high energy nuclear collision model, material composition, scintillator saturation, shower integration time, and the shower containment. Quantitative estimates of these systematic effects are presented. 23 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  9. Simultaneous EEG-fMRI: evaluating the effect of the cabling configuration on the gradient artefact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, M. E. H.; Mullinger, Karen J.; Bowtell, Richard

    2015-06-01

    EEG recordings made in combined EEG-fMRI studies are corrupted by gradient artefacts (GAs) resulting from the interaction of the EEG system with the time-varying magnetic field gradients used in MRI. The dominant contribution to the GA arises from interaction with the leads of the EEG cap and the human head, but artefacts are also produced in the cables used to connect the EEG cap to the amplifier. The aim of this study is to measure the effects of the connecting cable configuration on the characteristics of the GA. We measured the GA produced on two different cable configurations (a ribbon cable and a cable consisting of wires that are twisted together to form a cylindrical bundle) by gradient pulses applied on three orthogonal axes and also characterized the effect of each cable configuration on the GA generated by a multi-slice echo planar imaging sequence, as employed in typical EEG-fMRI studies. The results demonstrate that the cabling that connects the EEG cap to the amplifier can make a significant contribution to the GA recorded during EEG-fMRI studies. In particular, we demonstrate that the GA generated by a ribbon cable is larger than that produced using a twisted cable arrangement and that changes in the GA resulting from variation in the cable position are also greater for the ribbon cable.

  10. Simultaneous EEG–fMRI: evaluating the effect of the cabling configuration on the gradient artefact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, M E H; Mullinger, Karen J; Bowtell, Richard

    2015-01-01

    EEG recordings made in combined EEG–fMRI studies are corrupted by gradient artefacts (GAs) resulting from the interaction of the EEG system with the time-varying magnetic field gradients used in MRI. The dominant contribution to the GA arises from interaction with the leads of the EEG cap and the human head, but artefacts are also produced in the cables used to connect the EEG cap to the amplifier. The aim of this study is to measure the effects of the connecting cable configuration on the characteristics of the GA. We measured the GA produced on two different cable configurations (a ribbon cable and a cable consisting of wires that are twisted together to form a cylindrical bundle) by gradient pulses applied on three orthogonal axes and also characterized the effect of each cable configuration on the GA generated by a multi-slice echo planar imaging sequence, as employed in typical EEG–fMRI studies. The results demonstrate that the cabling that connects the EEG cap to the amplifier can make a significant contribution to the GA recorded during EEG–fMRI studies. In particular, we demonstrate that the GA generated by a ribbon cable is larger than that produced using a twisted cable arrangement and that changes in the GA resulting from variation in the cable position are also greater for the ribbon cable. (note)

  11. Effect of a dielectric coating on terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on metal wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Valk, N.C.J.; Planken, P.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    The authors present measurements and calculations on the effect of thin dielectric coatings on the propagation of terahertz pulses along the surface of metal wires. Our measurements show that propagation over only a few centimeters of wire having a thin dielectric coating, strongly distorts the

  12. Stress-strain effects on powder-in-tube MgB2 tapes and wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, Kazumune; Takaya, Ryuya; Kasaba, Koichi; Tachikawa, Kyoji; Yamada, Yutaka; Shimura, Satoshi; Koshizuka, Naoki; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2005-01-01

    The effects of stress-strain on the critical current, I c , of ex situ powder-in-tube (PIT)-processed Ni-sheathed MgB 2 tapes and round wires as well as in situ PIT-processed Cu-sheathed wires at 4.2 K in a magnetic field up to 5 T have been studied. The effect of In powder addition on the Ni-sheathed MgB 2 wire was not so clear compared with that in the tape, in which the irreversible strain, ε irr , for the I c degradation onset increases significantly by the addition. This is attributed to the difference in the microstructure of the core associated with cold workings. A peak and gradual degradation behaviour of I c with strain beyond ε irr was found in the wire, whereas no evident peak and a steep degradation behaviour was found in the tape. As a possible reason, the difference in the triaxial residual stress state at 4.2 K due to the difference in geometry of the cross-section is suspected. The transverse compression tests revealed that I c of the wire did not degrade up to 270 MPa. Again, the effect of In addition was minimal. The Young's modulus of MgB 2 , 31-41 GPa, at room temperature was estimated by a tensile test of Cu sheath wire using a high-accuracy extensometer and the law of mixtures. The tensile strain dependence of I c in the Cu sheath wire was similar to that in the Ni-sheathed wire, ε irr being 0.4%. However, the stress corresponding to ε irr , 50 MPa, was about 1/10 of that for the Ni-sheath wire and the irreversible transverse compressive stress, 150 MPa, was also lower. The effect of bending strain on the I c in Cu-sheathed wire was compared with that of the tensile strain

  13. The effect of electrostatic and gravity force on offset wire inside tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, S. H.; Hazineh, D.; Wang, C.

    2018-04-01

    In a straw-tube detector, a wire that is offset with respect to the tube axis experiences a Coulomb force when high voltage is applied between the anode wire and the tube. This force results in a shifting of the wire and straw, in addition to the gravitational sag, and is a function of the tube and wire radius, initial offset, high voltage, tension and length. The presence of such effects is well known, but the precise magnitude of the shift for the anode wires under conditions of detector operation have not been previously documented with measurable confidence. In this work, we provide the first systematic measurements for the wire shift in straw-tube detectors due to gravity and the electrostatic force using an x-ray scanner developed for the Mu2e experiment. The data are compared to the solutions of the differential equations governing the system, and we find a good match between the two. The solutions can predict the final wire and straw positions from the initial positions measured without the high voltage, and the final wire and straw positions can then be used as an input to the track reconstruction software to improve the track position resolution.

  14. Simulating the Wire Compensation of LHC Long-Range Beam-beam Effects.

    CERN Document Server

    Rijoff, T

    2012-01-01

    The performance of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and its minimum crossing angle are limited by long-range beam-beam collisions. Wire compensators can mitigate part of the long-range effects. We perform simulations to explore the efficiency of the compensation at possible wire locations by examining the tune footprint and the dynamic aperture. Starting from the weak-strong simulation code BBTrack we developed a new Lyapunov calculation tool, which seems to better diagnose regular or chaotic particle behavior. We also developed faster ways to execute the simulation and the post-processing. These modifications have allowed us to study different wire positions (longitudinal and transverse), varying wire currents, several wire shapes, and a range of beam-beam crossing angles, in view of a prototype wire installation in the LHC foreseen for 2014/15. Our simulations demonstrate that the wire can provide a good compensation, including for reduced crossing angle. Among the benefits of an LHC wire compensator are a b...

  15. Dual wire welding torch and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Fernando Martinez; Stump, Kevin S.; Ludewig, Howard W.; Kilty, Alan L.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Egland, Keith M.

    2009-04-28

    A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

  16. Single Particle Transport Through Carbon Nanotube Wires: Effect of Defects and Polyhedral Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantram, M. P.; Govidan, T. R.

    1999-01-01

    The ability to manipulate carbon nanotubes with increasing precision has enabled a large number of successful electron transport experiments. These studies have primarily focussed on characterizing transport through both metallic and semiconducting wires. Tans et al. demonstrated ballistic transport in single-wall nanotubes for the first time, although the experimental configuration incurred large contact resistance. Subsequently, methods of producing low contact resistances have been developed and two terminal conductances smaller than 50 k-ohms have been repeatably demonstrated in single-wall and multi-wall nanotubes. In multi-wall nanotubes, Frank et al. demonstrated a resistance of approximately h/2e(exp 2) in a configuration where the outermost layer made contact to a liquid metal. This was followed by the work of de Pablo et al. where a resistance of h(bar)/27e(exp 2) (approximately 478 ohms) was measured in a configuration where electrical contact was made to many layers of a multi-wall nanotube. Frank et al. and Pablo et al. note that each conducting layer contributes a conductance of only 2e(exp 2)/h, instead of the 4e(exp 2)/h that a single particle mode counting picture yields. These small resistances have been obtained in microns long nanotubes, making them the best conducting molecular wires to date. The large conductance of nanotube wires stems from the fact that the crossing bands of nanotubes are robust to defect scattering.

  17. Comparison of the cheese-wiring effects among three sutures used in rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrechts, Mark; Nazari, Behrooz; Dini, Arash; O'Brien, Michael J; Heard, Wendell M R; Savoie, Felix H; You, Zongbing

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the cheese-wiring effects of three sutures with different coefficients of friction. Sixteen human cadaveric shoulders were dissected to expose the distal supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscle tendons. Three sutures were stitched through the tendons: #2 Orthocord(™) suture (reference #223114, DePuy Mitek, Inc., Raynham, MA), #2 ETHIBOND* EXCEL Suture, and #2 FiberWire(®) suture (FiberWire(®), Arthrex, Naples, FL). The sutures were pulled by cyclic axial forces from 10 to 70 N at 1 Hz for 1000 cycles through a MTS machine. The cut-through distance on the tendon was measured with a digital caliper. The cut-through distance in the supraspinatus tendons (mean ± standard deviation, n = 12) were 2.9 ± 0.6 mm for #2 Orthocord(™) suture, 3.2 ± 1.2 mm for #2 ETHIBOND* suture, and 4.2 ± 1.7 mm for #2 FiberWire(®) suture. The differences were statistically significant analyzing with analysis of variance (P = 0.047) and two-tailed Student's t-test, which showed significance between Orthocord(™) and FiberWire(®) sutures (P = 0.026), but not significant between Orthocord(™) and ETHIBOND* sutures (P = 0.607) or between ETHIBOND* and FiberWire(®) sutures (P = 0.103). The cheese-wiring effect is less in the Orthocord(™) suture than in the FiberWire(®) suture in human cadaveric supraspinatus tendons. Identification of sutures that cause high levels of tendon cheese-wiring after rotator cuff repair can lead to better suture selection.

  18. Effect of Sodium Fluoride Mouthwash on the Frictional Resistance of Orthodontic Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahyar Geramy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The friction between the brackets and orthodontic wire during sliding mechanics inflicts difficulties such as decreasing the applied force and tooth movement and also the loss of anchorage. Therefore, many studies have focused on the factors that affect the friction. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of 0.05% sodium fluoride mouthwash on the friction between orthodontic brackets and wire.Materials and Methods: Four types of orthodontic wires including rectangular standard stainless steel (SS, titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA, nickel-titanium (NiTi and copper-nickel-titanium (Cu-NiTi were selected. In each group, half of the samples were immersed in 0.05% sodium fluoride mouthwash and the others were immersed in artificial saliva for 10 hours. An elastomeric ligature was used for ligating the wires to brackets. The frictional test was performed in a universal testing machine at the speed of 10 mm/minute. Two-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis of the friction rate.Results: The friction rate was significantly higher after immersion in 0.05% sodium fluoride mouthwash in comparison with artificial saliva (P=0.00. Cu-NiTi wire showed the highest friction value followed by TMA, NiTi and SS wires.  Conclusions: According to the results of the current study, 0.05% sodium fluoride mouthwash increased the frictional characteristics of all the evaluated orthodontic wires.

  19. Effect of Sodium Fluoride Mouthwash on the Frictional Resistance of Orthodontic Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geramy, Allahyar; Hooshmand, Tabassom; Etezadi, Tahura

    2017-09-01

    The friction between the brackets and orthodontic wire during sliding mechanics inflicts difficulties such as decreasing the applied force and tooth movement and also the loss of anchorage. Therefore, many studies have focused on the factors that affect the friction. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of 0.05% sodium fluoride mouthwash on the friction between orthodontic brackets and wire. Four types of orthodontic wires including rectangular standard stainless steel (SS), titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA), nickel-titanium (NiTi) and copper-nickel-titanium (Cu-NiTi) were selected. In each group, half of the samples were immersed in 0.05% sodium fluoride mouthwash and the others were immersed in artificial saliva for 10 hours. An elastomeric ligature was used for ligating the wires to brackets. The frictional test was performed in a universal testing machine at the speed of 10 mm/minute. Two-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis of the friction rate. The friction rate was significantly higher after immersion in 0.05% sodium fluoride mouthwash in comparison with artificial saliva (P=0.00). Cu-NiTi wire showed the highest friction value followed by TMA, NiTi and SS wires. According to the results of the current study, 0.05% sodium fluoride mouthwash increased the frictional characteristics of all the evaluated orthodontic wires.

  20. Wire-number effects on high-power annular z-pinches and some characteristics at high wire number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SANFORD,THOMAS W. L.

    2000-05-23

    Characteristics of annular wire-array z-pinches as a function of wire number and at high wire number are reviewed. The data, taken primarily using aluminum wires on Saturn are comprehensive. The experiments have provided important insights into the features of wire-array dynamics critical for high x-ray power generation, and have initiated a renaissance in z-pinches when high numbers of wires are used. In this regime, for example, radiation environments characteristic of those encountered during the early pulses required for indirect-drive ICF ignition on the NIF have been produced in hohlraums driven by x-rays from a z-pinch, and are commented on here.

  1. Effect Of Low External Flow On Flame Spreading Over ETFE Insulated Wire Under Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Katsuhiro; Fujita, Osamu; Ito, Kenichi; Kikuchi, Masao; Olson, Sandra L.; Kashiwagi, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Fire safety is one of the most important issues for manned space missions. A likely cause of fires in spacecraft is wire insulation combustion in electrical system. Regarding the wire insulation combustion it important to know the effect of low external flow on the combustion because of the presence of ventilation flow in spacecraft. Although, there are many researches on flame spreading over solid material at low external flows under microgravity, research dealing with wire insulation is very limited. An example of wire insulation combustion in microgravity is the Space Shuttle experiments carried out by Greenberg et al. However, the number of experiments was very limited. Therefore, the effect of low flow velocity is still not clear. The authors have reported results on flame spreading over ETFE (ethylene - tetrafluoroetylene) insulated wire in a quiescent atmosphere in microgravity by 10 seconds drop tower. The authors also performed experiments of polyethylene insulated nichrom wire combustion in low flow velocity under microgravity. The results suggested that flame spread rate had maximum value in low flow velocity condition. Another interesting issue is the effect of dilution gas, especially CO2, which is used for fire extinguisher in ISS. There are some researches working on dilution gas effect on flame spreading over solid material in quiescent atmosphere in microgravity. However the research with low external flow is limited and, of course, the research discussing a relation of the appearance of maximum wire flammability in low flow velocity region with different dilution gas cannot be found yet. The present paper, therefore, investigates the effect of opposed flow with different dilution gas on flame spreading over ETFE insulated wire and change in the presence of the maximum flammability depending on the dilution gas type is discussed within the limit of microgravity time given by ground-based facility.

  2. The effect of different annealing treatments on magneto-impedance in Finemet wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernando, B.; Olivera, J.; Alvarez, P.; Santos, J.D.; Sanchez, M.L.; Perez, M.J.; Sanchez, T.; Gorria, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the behaviour of Fe-rich wires that have been submitted to a current annealing, with and without an applied torsional stress. The structural relaxation and induced anisotropies achieved in the samples produce different effects in the magneto-impedance and torsion impedance response, in comparison with the as-quenched wire, due to the different domain structure and magnetization processes involved

  3. Heat Transfer Analysis in Wire Bundles for Aerospace Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, S. L.; Iamello, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Design of wiring for aerospace vehicles relies on an understanding of "ampacity" which refers to the current carrying capacity of wires, either, individually or in wire bundles. Designers rely on standards to derate allowable current flow to prevent exceedance of wire temperature limits due to resistive heat dissipation within the wires or wire bundles. These standards often add considerable margin and are based on empirical data. Commercial providers are taking an aggressive approach to wire sizing which challenges the conventional wisdom of the established standards. Thermal modelling of wire bundles may offer significant mass reduction in a system if the technique can be generalized to produce reliable temperature predictions for arbitrary bundle configurations. Thermal analysis has been applied to the problem of wire bundles wherein any or all of the wires within the bundle may carry current. Wire bundles present analytical challenges because the heat transfer path from conductors internal to the bundle is tortuous, relying on internal radiation and thermal interface conductance to move the heat from within the bundle to the external jacket where it can be carried away by convective and radiative heat transfer. The problem is further complicated by the dependence of wire electrical resistivity on temperature. Reduced heat transfer out of the bundle leads to higher conductor temperatures and, hence, increased resistive heat dissipation. Development of a generalized wire bundle thermal model is presented and compared with test data. The steady state heat balance for a single wire is derived and extended to the bundle configuration. The generalized model includes the effects of temperature varying resistance, internal radiation and thermal interface conductance, external radiation and temperature varying convective relief from the free surface. The sensitivity of the response to uncertainties in key model parameters is explored using Monte Carlo analysis.

  4. Density effects on electronic configurations in dense plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faussurier, Gérald; Blancard, Christophe

    2018-02-01

    We present a quantum mechanical model to describe the density effects on electronic configurations inside a plasma environment. Two different approaches are given by starting from a quantum average-atom model. Illustrations are shown for an aluminum plasma in local thermodynamic equilibrium at solid density and at a temperature of 100 eV and in the thermodynamic conditions of a recent experiment designed to characterize the effects of the ionization potential depression treatment. Our approach compares well with experiment and is consistent in that case with the approach of Stewart and Pyatt to describe the ionization potential depression rather than with the method of Ecker and Kröll.

  5. Experimental Configuration Effects on ICE Tumble Flow Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Bryan; Puzinauskas, Paulius

    2014-11-01

    The generation of ICE (Internal Combustion Engine) in-cylinder charge motions, such as swirl and tumble, have shown positive effects on reducing fuel consumption and exhaust emission levels at partial engine loads. Tumble flow is commonly measured utilizing a steady-flow rig and two-dimensional PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) systems, among others. In order to optimize the tumble flow, it is important to retrieve accurate measurements. The tumble flow values could be affected by variations in the geometry and/or design of the steady-flow rig utilized during flow tests. In this research, a four-valve per cylinder head was tested on a steady flow bench, varying several aspects of the configuration to evaluate how they influence bulk momentum as well as PIV measurements. The configuration variations included symmetrical, asymmetrical and runner-fed configurations throughout testing. Volumetric flow rate and tumble strength flow measurements were retrieved at the selected L/D ratios. Additionally, several PIV seeding particles were characterized for size and shape. Corresponding PIV flow measurements using each type of seeding were made to evaluate how the particles influence the results. NSF ECE Grant #1358991 supported Bryan Santana Rivera as an REU student.

  6. Effect of Size on Tensile Strength of Fine Polycrystalline Nickel Wires

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rubenstein, Lester

    1966-01-01

    .... The tensile strength of recrystallized wires was diameter independent. The proportional limit stress of recrystallized wires was inversely related to power functions of wire diameter and grain size...

  7. Dimensionality effects on the conductance of semiconductor quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dacal, Luis C.O.; Damiao, Alvaro Jose; Andrada e Silva, E.A. de

    2004-01-01

    Full text: 'Spintronics' is a new kind of electronics based on the spin instead of charge of electrons [1]. It opens the possibility for faster devices and reduction of power consuming. This new field of research has received great attention from scientists in recent years [2]. Within the Kane model, spin-orbit interaction couples the three spatial coordinates dynamics for electrons in semiconductor heterostructures [3]. As a consequence, the control of spin transport in semiconductor nanostructures requires a three-dimensional description of the system. Strictly two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) descriptions are known in literature [4], but no attention has been devoted to the transition between them. In this work, we address this question calculating the conductance of a quantum wire with infinite contacts in a strictly 2D, quasi-2D and strictly 3D models. This study allows to better understand the mechanisms that contribute to the conductance in absence of spin-orbit interaction. We consider ballistic quantum regime, the same material for contacts and wire and we employ Landauer-Buttiker formula, 'mode matching' technique [4] and envelope function formalism. Our results reproduce the typical conductance oscillations and the well known mode degeneracy for 3D systems [4]. We prove that the critical parameters controlling the amplitude of these oscillations are the ratios between the wire and contacts transversal lengths, while the wire longitudinal length determines the position and shape of the peaks. This work is supported by FAPESP and CNPq. [1] Min Ouyang and David D. Awschalom, Science 301, 1074 (2003); Shuichi Murakami, Naoto Nagaosa, and Shou-Cheng Zhang, Science 301, 1348 (2003) [2] Proceedings of the 2002 PASPS, Wuerzburg, Germany, Journal of Superconductivity, Special Issue, April 2003[3] E. A. de Andrada e Silva, G. C. La Rocca and F. Bassani, Phys. Rev. B 50, 8523 (1994) [4] George Kirczenow, Phys. Rev. B 39, 10452 (1989); Karl

  8. Copper Refinement from Anode to Cathode and then to Wire Rod: Effects of Impurities on Recrystallization Kinetics and Wire Ductility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbert, Anne-Laure; Moya, Alice; Jil, Tomas; Andrieux, Michel; Ignat, Michel; Brisset, François; Baudin, Thierry

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the traceability of copper from the anode to the cathode and then the wire rod has been studied in terms of impurity content, microstructure, texture, recrystallization kinetics, and ductility. These characterizations were obtained based on secondary ion mass spectrometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction, HV hardness, and electron backscattered diffraction. It is shown that the recrystallization was delayed by the total amount of impurities. From tensile tests performed on cold drawn and subsequently annealed wires for a given time, a simplified model has been developed to link tensile elongation to the chemical composition. This model allowed quantification of the contribution of some additional elements, present in small quantity, on the recrystallization kinetics. The proposed model adjusted for the cold-drawn wires was also validated on both the cathode and wire rod used for the study of traceability.

  9. Effect of tensile overloads on fatigue crack growth of high strength steel wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, J.; Reguly, A.; Strohaecker, T.R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A proof load process may be an option to increase the fatigue life of flexible pipelines. • There is possibility to produce plastic deformation at crack tip of tensile armor wires. • Controlled overloads provide effective crack growth retardation. • Crack growth retardation is also evident at higher stress ratios. - Abstract: Fatigue of the tensile armor wires is the main failure mode of flexible risers. Techniques to increase the life of these components are required to improve the processes safety on oil exploration. This work evaluates the crack growth retardation of high strength steel wires used in flexible pipelines. Fracture toughness tests were performed to establish the level of stress intensity factor wherein the wires present significant plastic deformation at the crack tip. The effect of tensile overload on fatigue behavior was assessed by fatigue crack growth testing under constant ΔK control and different overload ratios with two different load ratios. The outcomes show that the application of controlled overloads provides crack retardation and increases the fatigue life of the wires more than 31%. This behavior is also evident at stress ratio of 0.5, in spite of the crack closure effect being minimized by increasing the applied mean stress

  10. The effects of Ca and Pd dopants on gold bonding wire and gold rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraswati, T.S.; Sritharan, T.; Pang, C.I.; Chew, Y.H.; Breach, C.D.; Wulff, F.; Mhaisalkar, S.G.; Wong, C.C.

    2004-01-01

    There is currently little information regarding the physiochemical effects of common bonding wire dopants such as Ca and Pd despite the use of gold bonding wire as an electrical interconnection in over 80% of semiconductor devices. This paper presents experimental results on the residual microstrains in 4 N gold bonding wires with different concentrations of Ca-Pd, measured using peak broadening in X-ray diffraction. The effect of Ca was found to be more prominent. In order to understand more about the physiochemical action of Ca and its effects on the microstructure, TEM and depth sensing nano-indentation (DSI) were used to study 2 mm Ca-doped hard-drawn rods

  11. Effect of heat treatment temperature on nitinol wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, S.; Schaffer, J. E. [Fort Wayne Metals Research Products Corporation, 9609 Ardmore Ave., Fort Wayne, Indiana 46809 (United States); Daymond, M. R. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen' s University, Nicol Hall, 60 Union Street, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Yu, C. [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, 102249 Beijing (China); Ren, Y. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, 433/D008, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2014-08-18

    In-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction has been used to study the influence of the heat treatment temperature on the subsequent micromechanical behavior of nitinol wire. It was found that increase in the heat treatment temperature rotated the austenite texture from the (332){sub B2} fiber towards the (111){sub B2} fiber, and the texture of the Stress-Induced Martensite phase changed from the (1{sup ¯}40){sub B19'} to the (1{sup ¯}20){sub B19'} fiber accordingly. Heat treatment at a low temperature reduces the internal residual strains in the austenite during super-elastic deformation and therefore improves the materials fatigue performance. The development of internal residual strains in austenite is controlled by transformation induced plasticity and the reversal martensite to austenite transformation.

  12. Steady-State Numerical Modeling of Size Effects in Wire Drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Kristian Jørgensen; Nielsen, Kim Lau; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2016-01-01

    Wire drawing processes at micron scale receive increased interest as micro wires are increasingly required in micro electrical components. At the micron scale, size effects become important and have to be taken into consideration. The goal is to optimize the semi-cone angle of the tool in terms...... of drawing force. The present study employs a steady-state modelling technique that omits the transient regime, thus creating a basis for comprehensive parameter studies. The steady-state procedure is based on the streamline integration method presented by Dean and Hutchinson [1]. This approach allows...

  13. Long-term effectiveness of canine-to-canine bonded flexible spiral wire lingual retainers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, A.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Katsaros, C.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The flexible spiral wire (FSW) canine-to-canine lingual retainer bonded to all 6 anterior teeth is a frequently used type of mandibular fixed retainer. This study aimed to assess the long-term effectiveness of FSW canine-to-canine lingual retainers in maintaining the alignment of the

  14. Long-term effectiveness of canine-to-canine bonded flexible spiral wire lingual retainers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, Anne-Marie; Renkema, Alianne; Bronkhorst, Ewald; Katsaros, Christos

    Introduction: The flexible spiral wire (FSW) canine-to-canine lingual retainer bonded to all 6 anterior teeth is a frequently used type of mandibular fixed retainer. This study aimed to assess the long-term effectiveness of FSW canine-to-canine lingual retainers in maintaining the alignment of the

  15. Effect of cumulative strain on texture characteristics during wire drawing of eutectoid steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, F.; Ma, C.; Jiang, J.Q.; Feng, H.P.; Zhai, S.Y.

    2008-01-01

    The texture characteristics associated with plastic deformation of Fe-C steels near-eutectoid composition during a continuous cold drawing process were thoroughly investigated by orientation distribution function analysis based on X-ray diffraction. The effect of cumulative drawing strains on the fiber texture in drawn hypereutectoid and hypoeutectoid steel wires was discussed

  16. A simple derivation for the skin effect in a round wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Glenn S.

    2014-03-01

    The skin effect in a round wire is an important electromagnetic phenomenon with practical consequences; however, it is usually not presented in any detail at the undergraduate level but reserved for graduate study. The purpose of this paper is to remedy this situation by providing a simple derivation for the skin effect in a round wire that only requires background usually familiar to these students: Maxwell’s equations in integral form, integral calculus (specifically integration of a power) and some elementary properties of series. Graphical results are used to clearly show the current concentrating near the surface as the frequency increases and the accompanying increase in the resistance and decrease in the inductance of the wire. A brief review of the history of the subject shows that several of the scientists familiar to students made contributions to our understanding of the skin effect in a round wire; they include J C Maxwell, Lord Rayleigh, Lord Kelvin, O Heaviside and J J Thomson. The validity of the theory is demonstrated by comparing results from the theory with resistances and inductances measured by some of the early pioneers of wireless communication.

  17. A simple derivation for the skin effect in a round wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Glenn S

    2014-01-01

    The skin effect in a round wire is an important electromagnetic phenomenon with practical consequences; however, it is usually not presented in any detail at the undergraduate level but reserved for graduate study. The purpose of this paper is to remedy this situation by providing a simple derivation for the skin effect in a round wire that only requires background usually familiar to these students: Maxwell’s equations in integral form, integral calculus (specifically integration of a power) and some elementary properties of series. Graphical results are used to clearly show the current concentrating near the surface as the frequency increases and the accompanying increase in the resistance and decrease in the inductance of the wire. A brief review of the history of the subject shows that several of the scientists familiar to students made contributions to our understanding of the skin effect in a round wire; they include J C Maxwell, Lord Rayleigh, Lord Kelvin, O Heaviside and J J Thomson. The validity of the theory is demonstrated by comparing results from the theory with resistances and inductances measured by some of the early pioneers of wireless communication. (paper)

  18. Influence of Thermal Boundary Effects on the Process of Creating Recovery Stresses in a SMA Wire Activated by Joule Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debska, Aleksandra; Balandraud, Xavier; Destrebecq, Jean-François; Gwozdziewicz, Piotr; Seruga, Andrzej

    2017-07-01

    The study deals with the influence of thermal boundary effects on the process of creating recovery stresses in a SMA wire activated by Joule heating, during a thermal cycle (up to the return to ambient temperature). First, a thermal characterization is performed using infrared thermography for temperature profile measurements along the wire in a steady-state regime. Second, recovery stress tests are performed using a uniaxial testing machine. Finally, tests are analyzed using a thermomechanical model, taking the inhomogeneous temperature distribution along the wire into account. The influence of the initial distribution of martensite (before thermal activation of the memory effect) is discussed, as well as the influence of the wire length. It is shown that the thermal boundary effects at the contact with the grips of the testing machine significantly influence the response of the wire. For instance, during the heating of the wire, an austenite-to-martensite transformation may occur in the zones near the wire ends (where the temperature remains close to ambient) due to the increased stress. A length of influence of the thermal boundary effects on the overall wire response is defined, and a condition to neglect this influence is proposed. The study highlights the importance of taking thermal boundary effects into account for practical applications of SMAs based on Joule heating.

  19. Effects of nanostructured, diamondlike, carbon coating and nitrocarburizing on the frictional properties and biocompatibility of orthodontic stainless steel wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Guo, Shuyu; Wang, Dongyue; Zhou, Tingting; Wang, Lin; Ma, Junqing

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate and compare the effects of nanostructured, diamondlike, carbon (DLC) coating and nitrocarburizing on the frictional properties and biocompatibility of orthodontic stainless steel archwires. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technology was applied to coat DLC films onto the surface of austenitic stainless steel wires, and salt-bath nitrocarburizing technology was employed to achieve surface hardening of other wires. Surface and cross-sectional characteristics, microhardness, modulus of elasticity, friction resistance, corrosion resistance, and cell toxicity of the modified and control wires were analyzed. The surfaces of the DLC-coated and nitrocarburized wires were both smooth and even. Compared with the control, the DLC-coated wires were increased in surface hardness 1.46 times, decreased in elastic modulus, reduced in kinetic friction coefficient by 40.71%, and decreased in corrosion current density by two orders of magnitude. The nitrocarburized wire was increased in surface hardness 2.39 times, exhibited an unchanged elastic modulus, demonstrated a decrease in maximum static friction force of 22.2%, and rose in corrosion current density two orders of magnitude. Cytotoxicity tests revealed no significant toxicity associated with the modified wires. DLC coating and nitrocarburizing significantly improved the surface hardness of the wires, reduced friction, and exhibited good biocompatibility. The nanostructured DLC coating provided excellent corrosion resistance and good elasticity, and while the nitrocarburizing technique substantially improved frictional properties, it reduced the corrosion resistance of the stainless steel wires to a lesser extent.

  20. Nuclear Quantum Effects in H(+) and OH(-) Diffusion along Confined Water Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Mariana; Ceriotti, Michele; Manolopoulos, David E

    2016-08-04

    The diffusion of protons and hydroxide ions along water wires provides an efficient mechanism for charge transport that is exploited by biological membrane channels and shows promise for technological applications such as fuel cells. However, what is lacking for a better control and design of these systems is a thorough theoretical understanding of the diffusion process at the atomic scale. Here we focus on two aspects of this process that are often disregarded because of their high computational cost: the use of first-principles potential energy surfaces and the treatment of the nuclei as quantum particles. We consider proton and hydroxide ions in finite water wires using density functional theory augmented with an apolar cylindrical confining potential. We employ machine learning techniques to identify the charged species, thus obtaining an agnostic definition that takes explicitly into account the delocalization of the charge in the Grotthus-like mechanism. We include nuclear quantum effects (NQEs) through the thermostated ring polymer molecular dynamics method and model finite system size effects by considering Langevin dynamics on the potential of mean force of the charged species, allowing us to extract the same "universal" diffusion coefficient from simulations with different wire sizes. In the classical case, diffusion coefficients depend significantly on the potential energy surface, in particular on how dispersion forces modulate water-water distances. NQEs, however, make the diffusion less sensitive to the underlying potential and geometry of the wire.

  1. Thermal effects in a mechanical model for pseudoelastic behavior of NiTi wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Soul

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A mechanical model for pseudoelastic behavior of NiTi wires is proposed with the aim to predict the behavior of Shape Memory Alloys(SMA damping wire elements in model structures. We have considered at first a simple linearwise stress-strain relationship to describe the basic isothermal behavior of the SMA members. Then, this basic model is modified in order to include the effect of the strain rate. The model is based on detailed experimental characterization performed on a Ni rich NiTi superelastic wire which included the study of the localized character of the deformation and the local heat generation associated with the stress induced martensitic transformation occurring in these alloys. Heat conduction along the wire and heat interaction with the surroundings was also considered. In that way, the resulting local temperature field around the transformation front is assessed and its effect on the progression of the transformation is evaluated. It is shown how the simple mechanical model reproduces the global mechanical behavior, including the existence of a maximum in the damping capacity with the transformation rate.

  2. Retention of coded wire tags, and their effect on maturation and survival of yellow mealworms (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffler, James J.; Isely, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    This study demonstrates that coded wire tags can be used to mark certain insect larvae without adverse effects on maturation, and that tags are retained through the adult phase in high enough proportion for practical application. Coded wire tags also offer the benefit that marked organisms can be identified to the batch or individual level.

  3. Effect of stimulus configuration on crowding in strabismic amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgett, Yvonne; Siderov, John

    2017-11-01

    Foveal vision in strabismic amblyopia can show increased levels of crowding, akin to typical peripheral vision. Target-flanker similarity and visual-acuity test configuration may cause the magnitude of crowding to vary in strabismic amblyopia. We used custom-designed visual acuity tests to investigate crowding in observers with strabismic amblyopia. LogMAR was measured monocularly in both eyes of 11 adults with strabismic or mixed strabismic/anisometropic amblyopia using custom-designed letter tests. The tests used single-letter and linear formats with either bar or letter flankers to introduce crowding. Tests were presented monocularly on a high-resolution display at a test distance of 4 m, using standardized instructions. For each condition, five letters of each size were shown; testing continued until three letters of a given size were named incorrectly. Uncrowded logMAR was subtracted from logMAR in each of the crowded tests to highlight the crowding effect. Repeated-measures ANOVA showed that letter flankers and linear presentation individually resulted in poorer performance in the amblyopic eyes (respectively, mean normalized logMAR = 0.29, SE = 0.07, mean normalized logMAR = 0.27, SE = 0.07; p 0.05). Both linear presentation and letter rather than bar flankers increase crowding in the amblyopic eyes of people with strabismic amblyopia. These results suggest the influence of more than one mechanism contributing to crowding in linear visual-acuity charts with letter flankers.

  4. Smart management in effective schools : effective management configurations in general and vocational education in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, W.H.A.; Hofman, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this study the authors focus on different (configurations of) leadership or management styles in schools for general and vocational education. Findings: Using multilevel (students and schools) analyses, strong differences in effective management styles between schools with different

  5. Combined effects of different heat treatments and Cu element on transformation behavior of NiTi orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyyed Aghamiri, S M; Ahmadabadi, M Nili; Raygan, Sh

    2011-04-01

    The shape memory nickel-titanium alloy has been applied in many fields due to its unique thermal and mechanical performance. One of the successful applications of NiTi wires is in orthodontics because of its good characteristics such as low stiffness, high spring back, high stored energy, biocompatibility, superelasticity and shape memory effect. The mechanical properties of wires are paid special attention which results in achieving continuous optimal forces and eventually causing rapid tooth movement without any damage. The behavior of the alloy can be controlled by chemical composition and thermo-mechanical treatment during the manufacturing process. In this study two kinds of commercial superelastic NiTi archwires of 0.41 mm diameter were investigated: Copper NiTi and Highland Metal. The chemical analysis of both wires was estimated by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). It was showed that Copper NiTi wire contained copper and chromium. The two types of wires were exposed to different heat treatment conditions at 400 and 500 °C for 10 and 60 min to compare the behavior of the wires at aged and as-received conditions. Phase transformation temperatures clarified by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed B2 R B19 transformation in Highland Metal wire and B2 B19(') transformation in Copper NiTi wire. Three point bending (TPB) tests in the certain designed fixture were performed at 37 °C to evaluate the mechanical behavior of the wires. The experimental results revealed the superelastic behavior of the Highland Metal wire after 60 min ageing at 400 and 500 °C and the plastic deformation of the Copper NiTi wire after annealing due to the effect of copper in the alloy composition. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Cold Drawing and Heat Treatment on the Microstructure of Invar36 Alloy Wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seung Youb; Jang, Seon Ah; Eun, Hee-Chul; Choi, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Ki Rak; Park, Hwan Seo; Ahn, Do-Hee; Kim, Soo Young; Kim, Jea Youl; Shin, Sang Yong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effect of cold drawing and heat treatment on the microstructure of Invar36 alloy wire was investigated. Invar36 alloy wire is used as a transmission line core material, and is required to have high strength. The diameter of the Invar36 alloy wire specimens were reduced from 16 mm to 4.3 mm after three cold drawing and two heat treatment processes, thereby increasing tensile strength. Specimens were taken after each of the cold drawing and heat treatment processes, and their microstructure and tensile properties were analyzed. The Invar36 alloy wire had a γ-(Fe, Ni) phase matrix before the cold drawing and heat treatment processes. After the cold drawing processes, {220} and {200} textures were mainly achieved. After the heat treatment processes, a {200} recrystallization γ-(Fe, Ni) phase was formed with fine carbides. The recrystallization γ-(Fe, Ni) phase grains had low dislocation density, so they probably accommodated a large amount of deformation during the cold drawing processes.

  7. Basic Wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

    This module is the first in a series of three wiring publications; it serves as the foundation for students enrolled in a wiring program. It is a prerequisite to either "Residential Wiring" or "Commercial and Industrial Wiring." The module contains 16 instructional units that cover the following topics: occupational…

  8. Measuring Effects on the Clinical Practice from a Configured EHR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, John; Simonsen, Jesper; K. Iversen, Rikke

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the project was to measure the clinical usability of an EHR configured by use of participatory design with clinicians from a neurological stroke unit in order to get input to the County’s future strategy for incremental implementation of EHR. The content of the EHR was defined...... the project has been comparatively analysed by means of the TLX scores. The results show several significant results, for example, during ward rounds the physicians experienced a significant improvement of TLX. The experiment has proven it possible to configure the content of an EHR that significantly...

  9. Electronic transport in Si:P δ-doped wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, J. S.; Drumm, D. W.; Budi, Akin

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of Si:P δ-doped wires for modern nanoelectronics, there are currently no computational models of electron transport in these devices. In this paper we present a nonequilibrium Green’s function model for electronic transport in a δ-doped wire, which is described by a tight......-binding Hamiltonian matrix within a single-band effective-mass approximation. We use this transport model to calculate the current-voltage characteristics of a number of δ-doped wires, achieving good agreement with experiment. To motivate our transport model we have performed density-functional calculations...... for a variety of δ-doped wires, each with different donor configurations. These calculations also allow us to accurately define the electronic extent of a δ-doped wire, which we find to be at least 4.6 nm....

  10. Shape memory alloy wire-based smart natural rubber bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedayati Dezfuli, F; Shahria Alam, M

    2013-01-01

    In this study, two types of smart elastomeric bearings are presented using shape memory alloy (SMA) wires. Due to the unique characteristics of SMAs, such as the superelastic effect and the recentering capability, the residual deformation in SMA-based natural rubber bearings (SMA-NRBs) is significantly reduced whereas the energy dissipation capacity is increased. Two different configurations of SMA wires incorporated in elastomeric bearings are considered. The effect of several parameters, including the shear strain amplitude, the type of SMA, the aspect ratio of the base isolator, the thickness of SMA wire, and the amount of pre-strain in the wires on the performance of SMA-NRBs is investigated. Rubber bearings are composed of natural rubber layers bonded to steel shims as reinforcement. Results show that ferrous SMA wire, FeNiCuAlTaB, with 13.5% superelastic strain and a very low austenite finish temperature (−62 °C), is the best candidate to be used in SMA-NRBs subjected to high shear strain amplitudes. In terms of the lateral flexibility and wire strain level, the smart rubber bearing with a cross configuration of SMA wires is more efficient. Moreover, the cross configuration can be implemented in high-aspect-ratio elastomeric bearings since the strain induced in the wire does not exceed the superelastic range. When cross SMA wires with 2% pre-strain are used in a smart NRB, the dissipated energy is increased by 74% and the residual deformation is decreased by 15%. (paper)

  11. Spin-Filtering Effects in Wurtzite and Graphite-Like AlN Nano wires with Mn Impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemnes, G.A.

    2013-01-01

    Spin transport properties of magnetic nano wire systems —atomic-sized AlN nano wires with additional Mn impurities—are investigated employing ab initio constrained spin density functional theory calculations and nonequilibrium Green’s functions formalism. The analyzed nano wire structures exhibit a stress-induced phase transition, between wurtzite and graphite-like configurations. In these quasi-one dimensional systems, the surface states ensure the basic prerequisite in establishing spin and charge transfer, by reducing the relatively large bandgap of the group III nitride semiconductor. The results show in how far this phase transition affects the surface states, focusing on the consequences which appear in the spin-filtering processes.

  12. The effects of temperature and use of vibrating wire strain gauges for braced excavations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boone, S. J. [Golder Associates, Irvine, CA (United States); Crawford, A. M. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2000-09-01

    Strut loads in bracer excavations are routinely monitored with strain gauges which range in complexity from simple mechanical measurements to vibrating wire transducers. While in soft soils the effect of temperature changes in strut loads may not be significant, these effects may be very signifciant for stiff and dense soils and rock thermal loading, where inadequate appreciation of the role played by thermal laods may lead to misinterpretations and faulty design that is not representative of potential field loading. This paper interprets the theoretical and practical implications of temperature change on strut loads and discusses the relative merits of using a vibrating wire strain gauge to measure and evaluate the effects of temperature and earth loads. It is shown that by comparing the incremental changes of strut load and temperature from vibrating wire strain gauge data, the temperature-dependent loads, the relative fixity of the strut end, and the earth loads, and mobilized ground stiffness can be deduced. The approach proposed provides a transparent and strut-specific means of evaluating the effects of temperature on struts with braced excavations and is supported by both empirical data and practical application of elastic theory. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Lightning effects on the NASA F-8 digital fly-by-wire airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumer, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate the possible electromagnetic effects of lightning on a fly-by-wire flight control system which had been developed for an F8 aircraft. A brief description is presented of the flight control system. The test and measurement technique used in the investigation is discussed. The results of the investigation are considered, taking into account the vulnerability of individual system components to lightning induced voltages.

  14. The effect of ZnO nanoparticle coating on the frictional resistance between orthodontic wires and ceramic brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Any decrease in friction between orthodontic wire and bracket can accelerate tooth movement in the sliding technique and result in better control of anchorage. This study was carried out to evaluate frictional forces by coating orthodontic wires and porcelain brackets with zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO. Methods. In this in vitro study, we evaluated a combination of 120 samples of 0.019×0.025 stainless steel (SS orthodontic wires and 22 mil system edgewise porcelain brackets with and without spherical zinc oxide nanoparticles. Spherical ZnO nanoparticles were deposited on wires and brackets by immersing them in ethanol solution and SEM (scanning electron microscope evaluation confirmed the presence of the ZnO coating. The frictional forces were calculated between the wires and brackets in four groups: group ZZ (coated wire and bracket, group OO (uncoated wire and bracket, group ZO (coated wire and uncoated bracket and group OZ (uncoated wire and coated bracket. Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for data analysis. Results. The frictional force in ZZ (3.07±0.4 N was the highest (P <0.05, and OZ (2.18±0.5 N had the lowest amount of friction (P <0.05 among the groups. There was no significant difference in frictional forces between the ZO and OO groups (2.65±0.2 and 2.70±0.2 N, respectively. Conclusion. Coating of porcelain bracket surfaces with ZnO nanoparticles can decrease friction in the sliding technique, and wire coating combined with bracket coating is not recommended due to its effect on friction.

  15. The effect of autopilot configuration on missile response.

    OpenAIRE

    Cockerham, Kenneth E.

    1989-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center and School (USA DACS), Evaluation Division (SMCAC-DEV), has been tasked by the U.S. Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC), Rock Island, IL, to test unitization procedures for shipping GEMSS mine containers in a configuration of 3-wide by 2-high. The methods and results of MIL-STD-1660 testing of the unitization procedures developed by the Storage and Outloading Divisi...

  16. Effective Spend Management Through Electronic Reverse Auction Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojmír Prídavok

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to analyz wide range of possible auction strategies and configurations of eRA, with respect to the ever changing market conditions. Electronic reverse auction (eRA represents an electronic sourcing method of competitive bidding among a number of qualified suppliers. Theory assumes that eRA represents pure market environment with information perfectly distributed between both buyers and suppliers. Although initial eRA cost savings in B2B could be as high as 40%, without deeper knowledge of different auctions strategies and configurations, additional cost reductions are not possible. To identify crucial determinant, the statistical (correlation analysis on the data set of more than 18.000 auction items with different configuration parameters was conducted. Findings suggest that the more bidders are invited to the eRA, the better results could be expected. Additionally, the complexity of the eRA parameterization does not seem to influent the success of the eRA. These results can influence usage and SW development of eRA application in real environment. This research extends already realized studies in the field of electronic auctions for the B2B processes

  17. Lightning effects on the NASA F-8 digital-fly-by-wire airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumer, J. A.; Fisher, F. A.; Walko, L. C.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of lightning on a Digital Fly-By-Wire (DFBW)aircraft control system were investigated. The aircraft was a NASA operated F-8 fitted with a modified Apollo guidance computer. Current pulses similar in waveshape to natural lightning, but lower in amplitude, were injected into the aircraft. Measurements were made of the voltages induced on the DFBW circuits, the total current induced on the bundles of wires, the magnetic field intensity inside the aircraft, and the current density on the skin of the aircraft. Voltage measurements were made in both the line-to-ground and line-to-line modes. Voltages measured at the non-destructive test level were then scaled upward to determine how much would be produced by actual lightning. A 200,000 ampere severe lightning flash would produce between 40 and 2000 volts in DFBW circuits. Some system components are expected to be vulnerable to these voltages.

  18. Effect of grain size on superelasticity in Fe-Mn-Al-Ni shape memory alloy wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Omori

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of grain size on superelastic properties in Fe-34Mn-15Al-7.5Ni alloy wires with a ⟨110⟩ fiber-texture were investigated by cyclic tensile tests. It was confirmed that the critical stress for induced martensitic transformation and the superelastic strain are functions of relative grain size d/D (d: mean grain diameter, D: wire diameter, and that the critical stress is proportional to (1–d/D2 as well as in Cu-based shape memory alloys. A large superelastic strain of about 5% was obtained in the specimen with a large relative grain size over d/D = 1.

  19. Numerical modelling of ozone production in a wire-cylinder corona discharge and comparison with a wire-plate corona discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Pengxiang; Chen Junhong

    2009-01-01

    The effect of electrode configuration on ozone production in the direct-current corona discharge of dry and humid air is studied by a numerical model that combines the electron distribution in the corona plasma, plasma chemistry and transport phenomena. Two electrode configurations are considered: wire-cylinder discharge with air flowing along the wire axis and wire-plate discharge with air flowing transverse to the wire. The ozone distributions in both types of discharges are compared. For both electrode configurations, the ozone production rate is higher in the negative corona than in the positive corona and it decreases with an increase in relative humidity. More importantly, the detailed ozone distribution in the neighbourhood of the discharge wire, together with the ozone kinetics, reveals the possible difference in the ozone production from the two discharges. With the same operating conditions and sufficiently short flow residence time, the ozone production rate is nearly the same for both electrode configurations. When the flow residence time is longer than the characteristic time for homogeneous ozone destruction, the net ozone production is higher in the wire-cylinder discharge than in the wire-plate discharge due to relatively less ozone destruction.

  20. Numerical modelling of ozone production in a wire-cylinder corona discharge and comparison with a wire-plate corona discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengxiang; Chen, Junhong

    2009-02-01

    The effect of electrode configuration on ozone production in the direct-current corona discharge of dry and humid air is studied by a numerical model that combines the electron distribution in the corona plasma, plasma chemistry and transport phenomena. Two electrode configurations are considered: wire-cylinder discharge with air flowing along the wire axis and wire-plate discharge with air flowing transverse to the wire. The ozone distributions in both types of discharges are compared. For both electrode configurations, the ozone production rate is higher in the negative corona than in the positive corona and it decreases with an increase in relative humidity. More importantly, the detailed ozone distribution in the neighbourhood of the discharge wire, together with the ozone kinetics, reveals the possible difference in the ozone production from the two discharges. With the same operating conditions and sufficiently short flow residence time, the ozone production rate is nearly the same for both electrode configurations. When the flow residence time is longer than the characteristic time for homogeneous ozone destruction, the net ozone production is higher in the wire-cylinder discharge than in the wire-plate discharge due to relatively less ozone destruction.

  1. Velocity derivative skewness in isotropic turbulence and its measurement with hot wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burattini, Paolo [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Physique Statistique et des Plasmas, Brussels (Belgium); University of Newcastle, Discipline of Mechanical Engineering, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Lavoie, Philippe [Imperial College London, Department of Aeronautics, London (United Kingdom); Antonia, Robert A. [University of Newcastle, Discipline of Mechanical Engineering, Newcastle, NSW (Australia)

    2008-09-15

    We investigate the effect of the hot wire resolution on the measurement of the velocity derivative skewness in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. Single- and cross-wire configurations (with different lengths and separations of the wires, and temporal sampling resolution) are considered. Predictions of the attenuation on the basis of a model for the energy spectrum are compared to experimental and numerical data in grid and box turbulence, respectively. It is shown that the model-based correction is accurate for the single wire but not for the cross-wire. In the latter case, the effect of the separation between the wires is opposite to that found in the experiments and simulations. Moreover, the attenuation predicted by the numerical data is in good agreement with that observed in the experiment. For both probe configurations, the sampling resolution has a sizeable attenuation effect, but, for the X-probe, the impact of the separation between the wires is more important. In both cases, the length of the wires has only a minor effect, in the non-dimensional range of wire length investigated. Finally, the present experimental data support the conclusion that the skewness is constant with the Reynolds number, in agreement with Kolmogorov's 41 theory. (orig.)

  2. Interaction effects in a microscopic quantum wire model with strong spin-orbit interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, G. W.; Ganahl, M.; Schuricht, D.; Evertz, H. G.; Andergassen, S.

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the effect of strong interactions on the spectral properties of quantum wires with strong Rashba spin-orbit (SO) interaction in a magnetic field, using a combination of matrix product state and bosonization techniques. Quantum wires with strong Rashba SO interaction and magnetic field exhibit a partial gap in one-half of the conducting modes. Such systems have attracted wide-spread experimental and theoretical attention due to their unusual physical properties, among which are spin-dependent transport, or a topological superconducting phase when under the proximity effect of an s-wave superconductor. As a microscopic model for the quantum wire we study an extended Hubbard model with SO interaction and Zeeman field. We obtain spin resolved spectral densities from the real-time evolution of excitations, and calculate the phase diagram. We find that interactions increase the pseudo gap at k = 0 and thus also enhance the Majorana-supporting phase and stabilize the helical spin order. Furthermore, we calculate the optical conductivity and compare it with the low energy spiral Luttinger liquid result, obtained from field theoretical calculations. With interactions, the optical conductivity is dominated by an excotic excitation of a bound soliton-antisoliton pair known as a breather state. We visualize the oscillating motion of the breather state, which could provide the route to their experimental detection in e.g. cold atom experiments.

  3. Effect of applied DC electric fields in flame spread over polyethylene-coated electrical wire

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Young Kyu

    2011-03-01

    We experimentally investigated the effect of applied DC electric fields on the flame spread over polyethylene-coated electrical wire. The flame-spread rates over electrical wire with negative and positive DC electric fields from 0 to ±7 kV were measured and analyzed. We compared the results for DC electric fields with previous results for AC electric fields. We explored whether or not various flame shapes could be obtained with DC electric fields and the main reason for the flame-spread acceleration, particularly at the end of the electrical wire, for AC electric fields. We found that DC electric fields do not significantly affect the flame-spread rates. However, the flame shape is mildly altered by the ionic wind effect even for DC electric fields. The flame-spread rate is relevant to the flame shape and the slanted direction in spite of the mild impact. A possible explanation for the flame spread is given by a thermal-balance mechanism and fuel-vapor jet. © 2011 The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers.

  4. Effect of the Ignition Method on the Extinction Limit for a Flame Spreading over Electric Wire Insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitsui, Fumiya; Nagachi, Masashi; Citerne, Jean-Marie

    Flame spread experiments with wire insulation were conducted in microgravity (parabolic flights) and in normal gravity to understand the effect of the ignition condition on the Limiting Oxygen Concentration (LOC) for an opposed air flow condition of 100 mm/s (typical flow velocity on ISS). Both...... values for electric wire combustion, especially in microgravity. In Cu core wire cases, the LOC monotonically decreases as the heating time increases because of preheating by the igniter. This preheating helps to sustain spreading during microgravity period. Future study is required to find the proper...

  5. Multi-anode wire straw tube tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, S.H.; Ebenstein, W.L.; Wang, C.W.

    2011-01-01

    We report on a test of a straw tube detector design having several anode (sense) wires inside a straw tube. The anode wires form a circle inside the tube and are read out independently. This design could solve several shortcomings of the traditional single wire straw tube design such as double hit capability and stereo configuration.

  6. Effect of TMAH Etching Duration on the Formation of Silicon Nano wire Transistor Patterned by AFM Nano lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutagalung, S.D.; Lew, K.C.

    2012-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) lithography was applied to produce nano scale pattern for silicon nano wire transistor fabrication. This technique takes advantage of imaging facility of AFM and the ability of probe movement controlling over the sample surface to create nano patterns. A conductive AFM tip was used to grow the silicon oxide nano patterns on silicon on insulator (SOI) wafer. The applied tip-sample voltage and writing speed were well controlled in order to form pre-designed silicon oxide nano wire transistor structures. The effect of tetra methyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) etching duration on the oxide covered silicon nano wire transistor structure has been investigated. A completed silicon nano wire transistor was obtained by removing the oxide layer via hydrofluoric acid etching process. The fabricated silicon nano wire transistor consists of a silicon nano wire that acts as a channel with source and drain pads. A lateral gate pad with a nano wire head was fabricated very close to the channel in the formation of transistor structures. (author)

  7. Individual differences and the effect of face configuration information in the McGurk effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujiie, Yuta; Asai, Tomohisa; Wakabayashi, Akio

    2018-01-30

    The McGurk effect, which denotes the influence of visual information on audiovisual speech perception, is less frequently observed in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to those without it; the reason for this remains unclear. Several studies have suggested that facial configuration context might play a role in this difference. More specifically, people with ASD show a local processing bias for faces-that is, they process global face information to a lesser extent. This study examined the role of facial configuration context in the McGurk effect in 46 healthy students. Adopting an analogue approach using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), we sought to determine whether this facial configuration context is crucial to previously observed reductions in the McGurk effect in people with ASD. Lip-reading and audiovisual syllable identification tasks were assessed via presentation of upright normal, inverted normal, upright Thatcher-type, and inverted Thatcher-type faces. When the Thatcher-type face was presented, perceivers were found to be sensitive to the misoriented facial characteristics, causing them to perceive a weaker McGurk effect than when the normal face was presented (this is known as the McThatcher effect). Additionally, the McGurk effect was weaker in individuals with high AQ scores than in those with low AQ scores in the incongruent audiovisual condition, regardless of their ability to read lips or process facial configuration contexts. Our findings, therefore, do not support the assumption that individuals with ASD show a weaker McGurk effect due to a difficulty in processing facial configuration context.

  8. Wire Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  9. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1967-01-01

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber.Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  10. Effect of machining fluid on the process performance of wire electrical discharge machining of nanocomposite ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chengmao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wire electric discharge machining (WEDM promise to be effective and economical techniques for the production of tools and parts from conducting ceramic blanks. However, the manufacturing of nanocomposite ceramics blanks with these processes is a long and costly process. This paper presents a new process of machining nanocomposite ceramics using WEDM. WEDM uses water based emulsion, polyvinyl alcohol and distilled water as the machining fluid. Machining fluid is a primary factor that affects the material removal rate and surface quality of WEDM. The effects of emulsion concentration, polyvinyl alcohol concentration and distilled water of the machining fluid on the process performance have been investigated.

  11. Giant magneto-impedance and skin effect in CuBe/CoNiP composite wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.P.; Zhao, Z.J.; Zhang, J.C.; Wu, Z.M.; Ruan, J.Z.; Wang, Q.J.; Yang, X.L.

    2006-01-01

    The giant magneto-impedance and skin effect in electroless deposited CuBe/CoNiP composite wires with different diameter of CuBe core are presented, and involves a theoretical approach of the current density distributions in layers. Results show that the strong eddy current in the magnetic CoNiP coating will be induced due to the electromagnetic interactions with the CuBe core. It makes the skin effect strong in the magnetic coating even at very low frequency, and at this, large MI changes can also be observed

  12. Smart Management in Effective Schools: Effective Management Configurations in General and Vocational Education in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, W. H. Adriaan; Hofman, Roelande H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this study the authors focus on different (configurations of) leadership or management styles in schools for general and vocational education. Findings: Using multilevel (students and schools) analyses, strong differences in effective management styles between schools with different student populations were observed. Conclusions: The…

  13. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Proportional multi-wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle. Proportional wire chambers allow a much quicker reading than the optical or magnetoscriptive readout wire chambers.

  14. Autoclaving and clinical recycling: Effects on mechanical properties of orthodontic wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Oshagh

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Although recycle wires were softer than those of control group, relatively small differences and also various properties of available wires have obscured the clinical predictability of their application. There is seemingly no problem in terms of mechanical properties to recycle orthodontic wires.

  15. Effect of container walls on vibrating wire in {sup 3}He-{sup 4}He mixtures in the ballistic limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virtanen, Timo H; Thuneberg, Erkki V [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Oulu (Finland)], E-mail: timo.virtanen@oulu.fi

    2009-02-01

    We study linearized kinetic equations describing mixtures of {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He at such low temperatures, that all of {sup 4}He is superfluid. The {sup 3}He part is described by Landau's Fermi liquid theory, in the form derived by Khalatnikov in the case of mixtures. Here we apply the theory to the case of vibrating wire. The linearized Landau-Boltzmann kinetic equation with relaxation time approximation needs to be solved numerically at finite temperatures. In the ballistic limit, the collision term in the equation vanishes, enabling an analytic approach. There are many features affecting the system, including the coupling of {sup 3}He to the superfluid {sup 4}He, the effect of Fermi liquid interactions, and the dependence on the frequency {omega} of the vibrating wire. Also, the type of scattering of the quasiparticles from the surface of the wire can be either specular or diffusive. In this paper, we consider the effects of chamber walls near the wire. It has been speculated that the nearness of the container walls has affected the experimental results of Martikainen et al.. We find that the presence of container walls near a slowly moving wire increases the dissipation experienced by the wire.

  16. Effect of bed configuration on pebble flow uniformity and stagnation in the pebble bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gui, Nan; Yang, Xingtuan [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University, Key Laboratory of Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Tu, Jiyuan [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University, Key Laboratory of Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3083 (Australia); Jiang, Shengyao, E-mail: jiangshy@tsinghua.edu.cn [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University, Key Laboratory of Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Pebble flow uniformity and stagnation characteristics are very important for HTR-PM. • Arc- and brachistochrone-shaped configuration effects are studied by DEM simulation. • Best bed configurations with uniform flow and no stagnated pebbles are suggested. • Detailed quantified characteristics of bed configuration effects are shown for explanation. - Abstract: Pebble flow uniformity and stagnation characteristics are very important for the design of pebble bed high temperature gas-cooled reactor. Pebble flows inside some specifically designed contraction configurations of pebble bed are studied by discrete element method. The results show the characteristics of stagnation rates, recycling rates, radial distribution of pebble velocity and residence time. It is demonstrated clearly that the bed with a brachistochrone-shaped configuration achieves optimum levels of flow uniformity and recycling rate concentration, and almost no pebbles are stagnated in the bed. Moreover, the optimum choice among the arc-shaped bed configurations is demonstrated too. Detailed information shows the quantified characteristics of bed configuration effects on flow uniformity. In addition, a good design of the pebble bed configuration is suggested.

  17. Effect of combined tensile, bending and torsion deformation on medium carbon steel wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyakova Marina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Such schemes of plastic deformation as bending, torsion, tension, compression etc. are considered to be the basic schemes for metal processing methods. Each of these types of deformation has specific influence on microstructure and mechanical properties of the processed metal. For the optimal result of plastic deformation impact on metal structure and properties the mechanism of plastic processing should follow the definite requirements. The effect of different kinds of deformation on medium carbon steel wire was studied using several methods: scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, dynamic hardness testing. The obtained results can be used in the design of combined methods of deformation processing of carbon steel.

  18. Effects of a diamond-like carbon coating on the frictional properties of orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muguruma, Takeshi; Iijima, Masahiro; Brantley, William A; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2011-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that a diamond-like carbon coating does not affect the frictional properties of orthodontic wires. Two types of wires (nickel-titanium and stainless steel) were used, and diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited on the wires. Three types of brackets, a conventional stainless steel bracket and two self-ligating brackets, were used for measuring static friction. DLC layers were observed by three-dimensional scanning electron microscopy (3D-SEM), and the surface roughness was measured. Hardness and elastic modulus were obtained by nanoindentation testing. Frictional forces and surface roughness were compared by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. The hardness and elastic modulus of the wires were compared using Student's t-test. When angulation was increased, the DLC-coated wires showed significantly less frictional force than the as-received wires, except for some wire/bracket combinations. Thin DLC layers were observed on the wire surfaces by SEM. As-received and DLC-coated wires had similar surface morphologies, and the DLC-coating process did not affect the surface roughness. The hardness of the surface layer of the DLC-coated wires was much higher than for the as-received wires. The elastic modulus of the surface layer of the DLC-coated stainless steel wire was less than that of the as-received stainless steel wire, whereas similar values were found for the nickel-titanium wires. The hypothesis is rejected. A DLC-coating process does reduce the frictional force.

  19. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Was used in ISR (Intersecting Storage Ring) split field magnet experiment. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  20. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  1. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  2. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1985-01-01

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  3. Effect of microalloying on the strength of high carbon wire steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stephanie L.

    Microalloying additions of V, Nb, and N were investigated as means of increasing strength of eutectoid steels for wire applications. In order to examine the effects of microalloying additions during several stages of wire processing, continuous cooling experiments with and without deformation as well as patenting simulations were conducted using a Gleeble® 3500 thermomechanical simulator. Continuous cooling was performed from industrial austenitizing (1093 °C) and laying head (950 °C and 880 °C) temperatures, at rates ranging from 1 50 °C/s. Deformation was induced via hot torsion testing, which was followed by continuous cooling from 950 °C at rates of 5, 10, and 25 °C/s. Industrial wire patenting was simulated by austenitizing at 1093 °C or 950 °C for 30 sec, then rapid cooling to isothermal transformation temperatures of 575, 600, 625, and 650 °C for 15 sec before cooling to room temperature. Metallography, Vickers hardness, pearlite colony size and pearlite interlamellar spacing (ILS) measurements were used to examine the effects of these treatments. Continuous cooling transformation (CCT) curves were constructed for four steels: 1080, V, V+N, and V+Nb. In the V-microalloyed steel, additional N accelerated pearlite transformation and Nb delayed pearlite transformation. Observed N effects are in agreement with the theory of VN nucleating grain boundary ferrite and accelerating pearlite transformation, proposed by Han et al. [1995], and also consistent with observations by Brownrigg and Prior [2002]. Delay of transformation temperatures has been observed due to Nb effects [De Ardo, 2009]. A larger delay observed with higher austenitizing temperatures suggests that Nb precipitates may not be as effective at delaying transformation. V strengthening effects were observed in all microalloyed steels using a model that predicted hardness of eutectoid steels by incorporating colony size and ILS measurements, with maximum strengthening observed for the V

  4. Effects of inlet/outlet configurations on the electrostatic capture of airborne nanoparticles and viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jaesung; Akin, Demir; Bashir, Rashid

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by capture and detection of airborne biological agents in real time with a cantilever biosensor without introducing the agents into liquids, we present the effects of inlet/outlet configurations of a homemade particle collector on the electrostatic capture of airborne 100 nm diameter nanoparticles under swirling gas flows. This particle collector has three different inlet/outlet configurations: forward inlet/outlet (FO), backward inlet/outlet (BO) and straight inlet/outlet (SO) configurations. We also present the electrostatic capture of Vaccinia viruses using the same particle collector and compare these virus measurements with the nanoparticle cases. The most particles were collected in the FO configuration. The numbers of particles captured in the BO and SO configurations were close within their standard deviations. For all the three configurations tested, the number of particles captured in the center electrode C was much smaller than those captured in the other electrodes at a flow rate of 1.1 l min −1 and an applied potential of 2 kV. Using a commercial CFD code FLUENT, we also simulated the effects of the three inlet/outlet configurations on the particle capture in terms of particle trajectories, velocities and travel times. This simulation was in a good agreement with measurements that the FO configuration is the most favorable to particle capture among the tested configurations at a flow rate of 1.1 l min −1 . The effects of particle diameters on the capture will also be discussed. This collector can be used for real-time monitoring of bioaerosols along with cantilever biosensors

  5. The Effect of Subcutaneous Fat on Electrical Impedance Myography: Electrode Configuration and Multi-Frequency Analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Li

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of the subcutaneous fat layer (SFL thickness on localized electrical impedance myography (EIM, as well as the effects of different current electrodes, varying in distance and direction, on EIM output. Twenty-three healthy subjects underwent localized multi-frequency EIM on their biceps brachii muscles with a hand-held electrode array. The EIM measurements were recorded under three different configurations: wide (or outer longitudinal configuration 6.8 cm, narrow (or inner longitudinal configuration 4.5 cm, and narrow transverse configuration 4.5 cm. Ultrasound was applied to measure the SFL thickness. Coefficients of determination (R2 of three EIM variables (resistance, reactance, and phase and SFL thickness were calculated. For the longitudinal configuration, the wide distance could reduce the effects of the subcutaneous fat when compared with the narrow distance, but a significant correlation still remained for all three EIM parameters. However, there was no significant correlation between SFL thickness and reactance in the transverse configuration (R2 = 0.0294, p = 0.434. Utilizing a ratio of 50kHz/100kHz phase was found to be able to help reduce the correlation with SFL thickness for all the three configurations. The findings indicate that the appropriate selection of the current electrode distance, direction and the multi-frequency phase ratio can reduce the impact of subcutaneous fat on EIM. These settings should be evaluated for future clinical studies using hand-held localized arrays to perform EIM.

  6. Evaluation of the Effects of Fluoride Prophylactic Agents on Mechanical Properties of Nickel Titanium Wires using Scanning Electron Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ajay K; Shukla, Gita; Sharma, Poonam; Gupta, Amit K; Kumar, Amit; Gupta, Deepika

    2018-03-01

    Orthodontic treatment these days is increasing in demand, and therefore, it is relatively imperative for the orthodontist to prescribe the use of fluoride-containing products, such as mouthwashes and gels, to help prevent dental caries and maintain healthy oral health. The aim of the study was to assess and evaluate the effects of fluoride prophylactic agents on mechanical properties of nickel titanium (NiTi) wires during orthodontic treatment using scanning electron microscope (SEM). We used the commercially available round preformed NiTi orthodontic archwire (3M company) and three different mouthwash solutions, i.e., Phos-Flur gel (1.1% sodium acidulated phosphate fluoride, APF, 0.5% w/v fluoride, pH = 5.1; Colgate Oral Pharmaceuticals) and Prevident 5000 (1.1% sodium fluoride neutral agent, 0.5% w/v fluoride, pH = 7; Colgate Oral Pharmaceuticals). All the specimens were subjected to a three-point bending test on a universal testing machine. To observe the surface morphological changes, one wire from each group was randomly selected and observed under a SEM. It was observed that there was not much difference in the values of both modulus of elasticity and yield strength obtained after loading of stress on the wires in all the three experimental conditions. A significant difference in both modulus of elasticity and yield strength was observed during unloading of stress. Further, when the surface characteristics were observed for all the specimens using SEM images, it was observed that NiTi wires treated with Phos-Flur showed large surface defects which appeared as round, pitted areas depicting corrosion, numerous white inclusions, and overall damaged surface structure of the wire as compared with the control. Thus, fluoridated mouthwashes are essential to maintain good oral hygiene and decrease instance of caries in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. The prophylactic usage of topical fluoride agents on NiTi wire seems to diminish the mechanical properties

  7. Investigation of magnetoimpedance effect on electrodeposited NiFe/Cu wire using inductance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Amaresh Chandra; Sahoo, Trilochan; Srinivas, V.; Thakur, Awalendra K.

    2011-01-01

    In this report, inductance spectroscopy (IS) has been used as a tool to investigate the thickness dependence of magnetoimpedance (MI) on electrodeposited NiFe thin films. An MI value as high as 140% has been observed under an applied magnetic field of 76 Oe at 300 kHz frequency for a film thickness of 6.8 μm. This result is in sharp contrast to earlier reports in literature showing monotonous increase in MI as a function of thickness. Maximum of MI was found at an optimum film thickness whose position varies with frequency. These reports exhibiting strong frequency dependence of MI prompted us to investigate the underlying physics using IS. The origin of MI lies in the combined effect of domain wall motion and spin rotation, which contributes to permeability. A parallel inductance and resistance (LR) circuit in series with series LR circuit model has been proposed as an equivalent electrical model to describe the property of these coated wires. The circuit elements have been linked with the phenomenon of domain wall motion and spin rotation. The experimental results obtained appear to be consistent with the proposed equivalent circuit model. -- Research Highlights: →GMI study on electrodeposited NiFe/Cu wire has been done to resolve the existing controversies. →Inductance spectroscopy has been used to evaluate the magnetic character. →The sample has been modeled as an equivalent electrical circuit. →A correlation between circuit parameters and GMI has been achieved.

  8. Effects of sealing treatment on corrosion resistance and degradation behavior of micro-arc oxidized magnesium alloy wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C. L.; Han, X.; Xue, F.; Bai, J.; Chu, P. K.

    2013-04-01

    The effects of three different sealing treatments on micro-arc oxidized (MAO) medical magnesium alloy wires using boiling water, zirconia sol-gel, and organic gelatin-hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on the surface morphology, corrosion resistance, and degradation behavior in simulated body fluid (SBF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) are investigated. The treatments involving boiling water or gelatin-HA coating can effectively seal the discharge channels making the surface pores less and smaller. The treatments also improve the corrosion resistance of the MAO magnesium alloy wires, especially the samples with the gelatin-HA coatings which also exhibit reduced degradation in both simulated physiological environments.

  9. Separation Test Method for Investigation of Current Density Effects on Bond Wires of SiC Power MOSFET Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Haoze; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a separation test method for eliminating the effects of different current densities on the bond wires is proposed. The separation test method makes it possible to study the effect of different current density on the fatigue damage of bond wires without changing the temperature swing...... and average temperature during the test. By analyzing the output characteristics of the linear region of MOSFET, the constraint relations among the gate voltage, on-state voltage drop and junction temperature are revealed in this paper. The one-to-one correspondence between gate voltage and conduction power...

  10. Epitaxial semiconductor quantum wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J; Chen, Y H; Wang, Z G

    2008-07-01

    The investigation on the direct epitaxial quantum wires (QWR) using MBE or MOCVD has been persuited for more than two decades, more lengthy in history as compared with its quantum dot counterpart. Up to now, QWRs with various structural configurations have been produced with different growth methods. This is a reviewing article consisting mainly of two parts. The first part discusses QWRs of various configurations, together with laser devices based on them, in terms of the two growth mechanisms, self-ordering and self-assembling. The second part gives a brief review of the electrical and optical properties of QWRs.

  11. Configurational effects on low collision plasma confinement in CHS Heliotron/Torsatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyn, M.F.; Kernbichler, W. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Graz, Graz (Austria); Kasilov, S.V.; Nemov, V.V.; Pavlichenko, O.S. [Institute of Plasma Physics, NSC KIPT, Kharkov (Ukraine); Matsuoka, K.; Okamura, S. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2001-01-01

    Multihelicity effects on low collisionality ({approx}1/v) regime of neoclassical transport has been analyzed for full range of magnetic field configurations of CHS Heliotron/Torsatron. Transport coefficients for this regime has been calculated according to an approach developed in the previous paper. It was shown that the drift-orbit-optimized configuration of CHS device investigated in the previous report has the best confinement properties for low collision plasma confinement. (author)

  12. High carrier mobility of CoPc wires based field-effect transistors using bi-layer gate dielectric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali Gedda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and anodized Al2O3 layers were used as bi-layer gate for the fabrication of cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc wire base field-effect transistors (OFETs. CoPc wires were grown on SiO2 surfaces by organic vapor phase deposition method. These devices exhibit a field-effect carrier mobility (μEF value of 1.11 cm2/Vs. The high carrier mobility for CoPc molecules is attributed to the better capacitive coupling between the channel of CoPc wires and the gate through organic-inorganic dielectric layer. Our measurements also demonstrated the way to determine the thicknesses of the dielectric layers for a better process condition of OFETs.

  13. High carrier mobility of CoPc wires based field-effect transistors using bi-layer gate dielectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gedda, Murali; Obaidulla, Sk. Md. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati-781039 (India); Subbarao, Nimmakayala V. V. [Centre for Nano Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati-781039 (India); Goswami, Dipak K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati-781039 (India); Centre for Nano Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati-781039 (India)

    2013-11-15

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and anodized Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers were used as bi-layer gate for the fabrication of cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) wire base field-effect transistors (OFETs). CoPc wires were grown on SiO{sub 2} surfaces by organic vapor phase deposition method. These devices exhibit a field-effect carrier mobility (μ{sub EF}) value of 1.11 cm{sup 2}/Vs. The high carrier mobility for CoPc molecules is attributed to the better capacitive coupling between the channel of CoPc wires and the gate through organic-inorganic dielectric layer. Our measurements also demonstrated the way to determine the thicknesses of the dielectric layers for a better process condition of OFETs.

  14. Effect of surface oxidation on thermomechanical behavior of NiTi shape memory alloy wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ching Wei; Mahmud, Abdus Samad

    2017-12-01

    Nickel titanium (NiTi) alloy is a unique alloy that exhibits special behavior that recovers fully its shape after being deformed to beyond elastic region. However, this alloy is sensitive to any changes of its composition and introduction of inclusion in its matrix. Heat treatment of NiTi shape memory alloy to above 600 °C leads to the formation of the titanium oxide (TiO2) layer. Titanium oxide is a ceramic material that does not exhibit shape memory behaviors and possess different mechanical properties than that of NiTi alloy, thus disturbs the shape memory behavior of the alloy. In this work, the effect of formation of TiO2 surface oxide layer towards the thermal phase transformation and stress-induced deformation behaviors of the NiTi alloy were studied. The NiTi wire with composition of Ti-50.6 at% Ni was subjected to thermal oxidation at 600 °C to 900 °C for 30 and 60 minutes. The formation of the surface oxide layers was characterized by using the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The effect of surface oxide layers with different thickness towards the thermal phase transformation behavior was studied by using the Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The effect of surface oxidation towards the stress-induced deformation behavior was studied through the tensile deformation test. The stress-induced deformation behavior and the shape memory recovery of the NiTi wire under tensile deformation were found to be affected marginally by the formation of thick TiO2 layer.

  15. Magnetic Configuration Effects Under Neutral Beam Injection at TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.; Liniers, M.

    1998-01-01

    The theoretical analysis of NBI absorption and losses, done for the Reference configuration of TJ-II, has been extended to other magnetic configurations of the flexibility diagram. The main results obtained are the following: Fast ion losses. mainly direct ones, are the determinant factor the absorption behaviour. In the absence of radial electric field, the contribution of the delayed fast ion losses in minimal, as well with CX as without, and corresponds, almost exclusively, to low energy trapped ions (1 to t KeV). There is a strong difference between the direct los behaviour corresponding to both injection directions CO and COUNTER. The first one gives always higher losses in TJ-II. For the extreme configurations the direct losses are very high and are originated by resonant effects, that can be observed even for null electric field, and are due to the 0 and-2 resonances. The intermediate configurations are equally separated from both resonances, in consequence the loss level is lower, producing absorption ratios very, acceptable, higher than 60% of the power entering torus at high density and 40 keV. This corresponds to about 1.2 MW absorbed in plasma under balanced injection. In conclusion, the possible presence of resonant effects on the direct losses is the key element to explain the absorption behaviour for the different magnetic configurations. In addition all the configurations placed inside a wide region around the Reference case in the flexibility diagram seem equally convenient for NBI in TJ-II. (Author) 18 refs

  16. A cost-effective WDM-PON architecture simultaneously supporting wired, wireless and optical VPN services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanzhi; Ye, Tong; Zhang, Liang; Hu, Xiaofeng; Li, Xinwan; Su, Yikai

    2011-03-01

    It is believed that next-generation passive optical networks (PONs) are required to provide flexible and various services to users in a cost-effective way. To address this issue, for the first time, this paper proposes and demonstrates a novel wavelength-division-multiplexed PON (WDM-PON) architecture to simultaneously support three types of services: 1) wireless access traffic, 2) optical virtual passive network (VPN) communications, and 3) conventional wired services. In the optical line terminal (OLT), we use two cascaded Mach-Zehnder modulators (MZMs) on each wavelength channel to generate an optical carrier, and produce the wireless and the downstream traffic using the orthogonal modulation technique. In each optical network unit (ONU), the obtained optical carrier is modulated by a single MZM to provide the VPN and upstream communications. Consequently, the light sources in the ONUs are saved and the system cost is reduced. The feasibility of our proposal is experimentally and numerically verified.

  17. Elastic and piezoelectric fields around a quantum wire of zincblende heterostructures with interface elasticity effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wei; Liu, Yifei

    2018-04-01

    This work formulates the solutions to the elastic and piezoelectric fields around a quantum wire (QWR) with interface elasticity effect. Closed-form solutions to the piezoelectric potential field of zincblende QWR/matrix heterostructures grown along [111] crystallographic orientation are found and numerical results of InAs/InP heterostructures are provided as an example. The piezoelectric potential in the matrix depends on the interface elasticity, the radius and stiffness of the QWR. Our results indicate that interface elasticity can significantly alter the elastic and piezoelectric fields near the interface. Additionally, when the elastic property of the QWR is considered to be anisotropic in contrary to the common isotropic assumption, piezoelectric potentials are found to be distinct near the interface, but the deviations are negligible at positions far away from the interface.

  18. Magnetic properties and magneto-impedance effect of CoNiFe/Cu composite wires by electroplating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, J B; Li, X P; Ding, J; Koh, C M; Thongmee, S; Seet, H L

    2007-01-01

    In this study, CoNiFe/Cu composite wires were deposited using electroplating. The deposited material composition was controlled by adjusting the concentration of Co ions. The results showed that the surface morphology and particle size did not change much with different compositions. However, the coercivity of the composite wires varied significantly for different compositions. A magnetic layer, with the composition of Co 30 Ni 50 Fe 20 , was found to possess a low coercivity value of 0.65 Oe. This is due to the low magneto-strictive factor for the alloy with this composition. In addition, the results showed that the concentration of Fe ions played an important role in achieving low coercivity and high magneto-impedance (MI) effect in the CoNiFe/Cu wires

  19. Experimental study on the effects of AC electric fields on flame spreading over polyethylene-insulated electric-wire

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Young Kyu

    2010-11-01

    In this present study, we experimentally investigated the effects of electric fields on the characteristics of flames spreading over electric-wires with AC fields. The dependence of the rate at which a flame spreads over polyethylene-insulated wires on the frequency and amplitude of the applied AC electric field was examined. The spreading of the flame can be categorized into linear spreading and non-linearly accelerated spreading of flame. This categorization is based on the axial distribution of the field strength of the applied electric field. The rate at which the flame spreads is highly dependent on the inclined direction of the wire fire. It could be possible to explain the spreading of the flame on the basis of thermal balance. © 2010 The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers.

  20. Effect of ammonia on Ta filaments in the hot wire CVD process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlaan, V.; van der Werf, C.H.M.; Oliphant, C.J.; Bakker, R.; Houweling, Z.S.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2009-01-01

    The exposure of Ta filaments to a pure NH3 ambient in a hot wire chemical vapour deposition (HWCVD) reactor affects the resistance of the wires. For filament temperatures below 1950 °C the resistance increases over time, which is probably caused by in-diffusion of N atoms. Using the filaments in a

  1. Effect of Flow Direction on the Extinction Limit for Flame Spread over Wire Insulation in Microgravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagachi, Masashi; Mitsui, Fumiya; Citerne, Jean-Marie

    and polyethylene insulated Nickel-Chrome (NiCr) wires with inner core diameter of 0.50 mm and insulation thickness of 0.30 mm were examined with external flow velocities ranging from 50mm/s to 200mm/s. The results for the Copper wires show that with increasing external flow velocity, the LOC monotonically...

  2. Effect of heat treatment on the tensile strength of 'Elgiloy' orthodontic wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, S M; Darvell, B W

    2016-08-01

    Elgiloy is the trade name of a cobalt-chromium-nickel superalloy that is offered for orthodontic use as wire. Despite some years of use, there is very little information in the dental literature on its mechanical properties, and especially on the effect of the hardening heat treatment (HT), that may be used after forming, on the tensile strength (TS) in relation to the four 'tempers' that are available. Straight lengths of round wire of the four available tempers, Blue, Yellow, Green and Red, were tested in direct tension at 5mm/min in air at 23°C to fracture, both as-supplied (AS) and with HT at 500°C for 5h, in air. HT was done in a high-uniformity, three-zone tube furnace in an alumina boat. The wires were then allowed to cool to room temperature in the boat, outside the furnace. The nominal (original cross-sectional area) peak stress was calculated. TS varied from 1.4 to 2.1GPa, AS, and 1.6 to 2.8GPa HT, according to temper, but with appreciable variation within tempers. Even so, the TS plot of HT vs. AS was very straight and of narrow distribution (intercept: -0.638±0.064GPa, slope: 1.575±0.036, r(2): 0.994918, n=12, F=1957.7, p∼8×10(-13)). The strengthening due to HT was highly regular and TS can be reliably predicted on the basis of the AS value, but this of course cannot be known without specific batch testing. However, the unexpectedly large variation in the AS values within tempers renders such a prediction of lower reliability and usefulness in practice. Indeed, the distinction between tempers can be negligible, making selection according to application demands problematic, and differential property expectation less than certain. No such product data are provided commercially. Quality control is not as tight as might be expected. The implications for treatment need to be explored. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Does K-wire position in tension band wiring of olecranon fractures affect its complications and removal of metal rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K W; Donnelly, K J

    2015-06-01

    Despite the recognised complications of migration of wires and soft tissue irritation, tension band wiring (TBW) remains the gold standard for fixation of displaced, minimally comminuted olecranon fractures. There is much variation in placement of the K-wires with current AO guidance stating that each wire should be drilled through the anterior cortex and then backed up by 1 cm. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of K-wire position (intramedullary vs. transcortical) on stability of the construct and significant local complications. All patients who underwent TBW for an isolated olecranon fracture in our trauma unit between 1/1/2009 and 31/12/2011 were included in this retrospective study. Mean follow-up was 14 months (range 5-29 months). Data was gathered from medical records and radiographs. The outcome measured was removal of metal due to complications such as wound problems or proximal migration of wires as standard practice within out trauma unit. Sixty-three patients met the inclusion criteria. Forty-seven had an intramedullary compared with 16 with transcortical configuration (ratio 3:1). Nine patients (19%) with intramedullary K-wires required removal of metalwork - seven due to prominent metalwork and two with wound infection. Four patients (25%) with transcortical K-wires required removal of metalwork - three due to prominent metalwork and one with failure of metalwork. There was no significant statistical difference between transcortical and intramedullary K-wire placement with regards to complication rates following tension band wiring of an isolated olecranon fracture requiring removal of metal (Chi squared test with Yates' correction p = 0.89). We concluded that we found no difference in complications or metalwork removal rate in the placement of K-wire in tension band wiring for isolated olecranon fracture. We recognise our study was limited by small numbers and is based on the experience of one trauma unit.

  4. The Strengthening Effect of Phase Boundaries in a Severely Plastically Deformed Ti-Al Composite Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Marr

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An accumulative swaging and bundling technique is used to prepare composite wires made of Ti and an Al alloy. These wires show reasonable higher yield stresses than expected from the pure material flow curves. The additional strengthening in the composite is analyzed using nanoindentation measurements, tensile testings and investigations of the microstructure. In addition, these properties are analyzed in relation to the fracture surface of the mechanically tested wires. Additional strengthening due to the presence of phase boundaries could be verified. Indications for residual stresses are found that cause a global hardness gradient from the center to the wire rim. Finally, the yield stress of the wires are calculated based on local hardness measurements.

  5. Equations for effective nuclear fields taking account of 2p2h configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamerdzhiev, S.P.

    1977-01-01

    Equations taking into account 1p1h and 2p2h configurations were obta+ned by means of effective fields in the nucleus. The consideration is restricted by the even-even Fermi system only with particle-hole interaction and by the first order with respect to an external field, which corresponds to the case of an even-even nucleus without pairing in a weak external field. The principal results of the investigation are as follows: a set of equations for effective fields V 2 and V 4 is obtained by the Green function method; the solutxon of the set makes it possible to consider 1p1h and 2p2h configurations consecutively and dispense with the Hartree-Fock self-consistence. The equations for V 2 and V 4 can be used to obtain quantum equations taking into account 2p2h configurations and their effect on 1p1h states. Allowance for integration regions far removed from the Fermi surface results in the appearance of the V 4 0 seed portion in the V 4 effective field. Taking into account 2p2h configurations at V 4 0 not equal to 0 changes the form of the seed multipole operator of a nucleus; a new term appears in the expression for transition probability. As a rule, the V 4 0 value was neglected in investigations dealing with the 2p2h configuration

  6. Effects of work zone configurations and traffic density on performance variables and subjective workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakouri, Mahmoud; Ikuma, Laura H; Aghazadeh, Fereydoun; Punniaraj, Karthy; Ishak, Sherif

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigates the effect of changing work zone configurations and traffic density on performance variables and subjective workload. Data regarding travel time, average speed, maximum percent braking force and location of lane changes were collected by using a full size driving simulator. The NASA-TLX was used to measure self-reported workload ratings during the driving task. Conventional lane merge (CLM) and joint lane merge (JLM) were modeled in a driving simulator, and thirty participants (seven female and 23 male), navigated through the two configurations with two levels of traffic density. The mean maximum braking forces was 34% lower in the JLM configuration, and drivers going through the JLM configuration remained in the closed lane longer. However, no significant differences in speed were found between the two merge configurations. The analysis of self-reported workload ratings show that participants reported 15.3% lower total workload when driving through the JLM. In conclusion, the implemented changes in the JLM make it a more favorable merge configuration in both high and low traffic densities in terms of optimizing traffic flow by increasing the time and distance cars use both lanes, and in terms of improving safety due to lower braking forces and lower reported workload. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Simplified Transient Hot-Wire Method for Effective Thermal Conductivity Measurement in Geo Materials: Microstructure and Saturation Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Merckx

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal conductivity measurement by a simplified transient hot-wire technique is applied to geomaterials in order to show the relationships which can exist between effective thermal conductivity, texture, and moisture of the materials. After a validation of the used “one hot-wire” technique in water, toluene, and glass-bead assemblages, the investigations were performed (1 in glass-bead assemblages of different diameters in dried, water, and acetone-saturated states in order to observe the role of grain sizes and saturation on the effective thermal conductivity, (2 in a compacted earth brick at different moisture states, and (3 in a lime-hemp concrete during 110 days following its manufacture. The lime-hemp concrete allows the measurements during the setting, desiccation and carbonation steps. The recorded Δ/ln( diagrams allow the calculation of one effective thermal conductivity in the continuous and homogeneous fluids and two effective thermal conductivities in the heterogeneous solids. The first one measured in the short time acquisitions (<1 s mainly depends on the contact between the wire and grains and thus microtexture and hydrated state of the material. The second one, measured for longer time acquisitions, characterizes the mean effective thermal conductivity of the material.

  8. Effectiveness of pollutants removal in hybrid constructed wetlands – different configurations case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajewska Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, an increase in interest in hybrid constructed wetland systems (HCWs has been observed. The aim of the paper is to compare different HCW configurations in terms of mass removal rates and efficiency of pollutants removal. Analysed data have been collected at multistage constructed wetlands in Poland, which are composed by at least two beds: horizontal subsurface flow (SSHF and vertical subsurface flow (SSVF. The evaluation was focused on hybrid constructed wetlands performance with HF+VF vs. VF+HF configuration, where influent wastewater of the same composition was treated. In analysed HCWs, the effective removal of organic matter from 75.2 to 91.6% COD was confirmed. Efficiency of total nitrogen removal varied from 47.3 to 91.7%. The most effective removal of TN (8.3 g m−2 d−1 occurred in the system with VF+VF+HF configuration.

  9. Effect of Stress Ratio and Loading Frequency on the Corrosion Fatigue Behavior of Smooth Steel Wire in Different Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songquan Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effects of loading condition and corrosion solution on the corrosion fatigue behavior of smooth steel wire were discussed. The results of polarization curves and weight loss curves showed that the corrosion of steel wire in acid solution was more severe than that in neutral and alkaline solutions. With the extension of immersion time in acid solution, the cathodic reaction of steel wire gradually changed from the reduction of hydrogen ion to the reduction of oxygen, but was always the reduction of hydrogen ion in neutral and alkaline solutions. The corrosion kinetic parameters and equivalent circuits of steel wires were also obtained by simulating the Nyquist diagrams. In corrosion fatigue test, the effect of stress ratio and loading frequency on the crack initiation mechanism was emphasized. The strong corrosivity of acid solution could accelerate the nucleation of crack tip. The initiation mechanism of crack under different conditions was summarized according to the side and fracture surface morphologies. For the crack initiation mechanism of anodic dissolution, the stronger the corrosivity of solution was, the more easily the fatigue crack source formed, while, for the crack initiation mechanism of deformation activation, the lower stress ratio and higher frequency would accelerate the generation of corrosion fatigue crack source.

  10. Wire Rupture Optimization in Wire Electrical Discharge Machining using Taguchi Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Ibrahem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM is one of the most important nontraditional machining process that is well-known for cutting difficult to machine materials. The wire electrode along with machining parameters control the WEDM process. This research work focuses on optimizing WEDM parameters using Taguchi technique to minimize wire rupture. Experiments have been done using the L18 orthogonal array. Each experiment is repeated three times to ensure accurate readings of the wire rupture. The statistical methods of signal to noise ratio (S/N ratio is applied to study effects of peak current, pulse width, charging time, wire speed, and wire tension on wire rupture. As a results, the peak current, pulse width, and wire tension have the most significant effect on wire rupture followed by charging time and wire speed. The developed analysis can be used in the metal cutting field to identify the optimum machining parameters for less wire rupture.

  11. An Effective Methodology with Automated Product Configuration for Software Product Line Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Uk-Jin Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide adaptation of product line engineering in software industry has enabled cost effective development of high quality software for diverse market segments. In software product line (SPL, a family of software is specified with a set of core assets representing reusable features with their variability, dependencies, and constraints. From such core assets, valid software products are configured after thoroughly analysing the represented features and their properties. However, current implementations of SPL lack effective means to configure a valid product as core assets specified in SPL, being high-dimensional data, are often too complex to analyse. This paper presents a time and cost effective methodology with associated tool supports to design a SPL model, analyse features, and configure a valid product. The proposed approach uses eXtensible Markup Language (XML to model SPL, where an adequate schema is defined to precisely specify core assets. Furthermore, it enables automated product configuration by (i extracting all the properties of required features from a given SPL model and calculating them with Alloy Analyzer; (ii generating a decision model with appropriate eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformation (XSLT instructions embedded in each resolution effect; and (iii processing XSLT instructions of all the selected resolution effects.

  12. EFFECT OF GEOMETRIC CONFIGURATIONS ON HYDRODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF A MARINE PROPELLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir. E. Belhenniche

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the effect of the geometric characteristics on the propeller hydrodynamic performances. Several propeller configurations are created by changing number of blades, expanded area and pitch ratios. The Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations are solved using the commercial code FLUENT 6.3.26. The standard

  13. Studies on different configurations of cobalt phthalocyanine based flexible organic field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Jha, P.; Samanta, S.; Singh, A.; Debnath, A. K.; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    Organic Field Effect Transistors (OFETs) are being investigated for a number of low-cost, large area applications; particularly those that are compatible with flexible plastic substrates. Development of low temperature processes can make way for OFETs to be integrated on flexible plastic substrates. Here we have made systematic studies on OFETs in different configurations wherein we have chosen Cobalt Phthalocyanine (CoPc) as active material. We have found the best mobility (1.86 × 10-5 cm2/V-s) in Bottom Gate Top Contact configuration. However, threshold voltage (-5V) and On off ratio (62)were found to be better in Top Gate Bottom Contact configuration The electromechanical properties of the Bottom Gate Top Contact transistors were studied by measuring the transfer characteristics of the devices in bend condition and thereby calculating mobility under different radii of bending. No significant change in the mobility of the device was observed under bent conditions.

  14. Effective search for stable segregation configurations at grain boundaries with data-mining techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyohara, Shin; Mizoguchi, Teruyasu

    2018-03-01

    Grain boundary segregation of dopants plays a crucial role in materials properties. To investigate the dopant segregation behavior at the grain boundary, an enormous number of combinations have to be considered in the segregation of multiple dopants at the complex grain boundary structures. Here, two data mining techniques, the random-forests regression and the genetic algorithm, were applied to determine stable segregation sites at grain boundaries efficiently. Using the random-forests method, a predictive model was constructed from 2% of the segregation configurations and it has been shown that this model could determine the stable segregation configurations. Furthermore, the genetic algorithm also successfully determined the most stable segregation configuration with great efficiency. We demonstrate that these approaches are quite effective to investigate the dopant segregation behaviors at grain boundaries.

  15. Effect of Overhead Ground Wire Installing under Distribution Lines on Surge Arrester Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Hitoshi

    Distribution surge arresters are often damaged by lightning strokes, in particular, winter lightning. An overhead ground wire (OGW) is one of effective measures against surge arrester failures. However, adding the conventional OGW to existing overhead power distribution lines needs the power interruption for construction as well as high costs because of installing them above phase conductors. Experimental results show that a covered conductor for distribution lines is more difficult to attract lightning than a bare conductor. Moreover, lightning strokes to distribution pole heads occupied over 90% of all lightning strokes in the observation result of lightning strokes to actual distribution lines without the conventional OGW, and lightning strokes to power lines were hardly observed. These results indicate that the pole heads shield the power lines from direct lightning strokes. Therefore the author studies the application of an OGW under the distribution lines (UGW) for reducing surge arrester failures. The lightning performance of the UGW is estimated by the Electro-Magnetic Transients Program (EMTP) and its effectiveness is demonstrated. The measure is expected to cut costs of construction and maintenance for lightning protection.

  16. Effects of coded-wire-tagging on stream-dwelling Sea Lamprey larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas; Swink, William D.; Dawson, Heather A.; Jones, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of coded wire tagging Sea Lamprey Petromyzon marinus larvae from a known-aged stream-dwelling population were assessed. Tagged larvae were significantly shorter on average than untagged larvae from 3 to 18 months after tagging. However, 30 months after tagging, the length distribution of tagged and untagged larvae did not differ and tagged Sea Lampreys were in better condition (i.e., higher condition factor) and more likely to have undergone metamorphosis than the untagged population. The reason why tagged larvae were more likely to metamorphose is not clear, but the increased likelihood of metamorphosis could have been a compensatory response to the period of slower growth after tagging. Slower growth after tagging was consistent across larval size-classes, so handling and displacement from quality habitat during the early part of the growing season was likely the cause rather than the tag burden. The tag effects observed in this study, if caused by displacement and handling, may be minimized in future studies if tagging is conducted during autumn after growth has concluded for the year.

  17. Communication constraints, indexical countermeasures, and crew configuration effects in simulated space-dwelling groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hienz, Robert D.; Brady, Joseph V.; Hursh, Steven R.; Banner, Michele J.; Gasior, Eric D.; Spence, Kevin R.

    2007-02-01

    Previous research with groups of individually isolated crews communicating and problem-solving in a distributed interactive simulation environment has shown that the functional interchangeability of available communication channels can serve as an effective countermeasure to communication constraints. The present report extends these findings by investigating crew performance effects and psychosocial adaptation following: (1) the loss of all communication channels, and (2) changes in crew configuration. Three-person crews participated in a simulated planetary exploration mission that required identification, collection, and analysis of geologic samples. Results showed that crews developed and employed discrete navigation system operations that served as functionally effective communication signals (i.e., “indexical” or “deictic” cues) in generating appropriate crewmember responses and maintaining performance effectiveness in the absence of normal communication channels. Additionally, changes in crew configuration impacted both performance effectiveness and psychosocial adaptation.

  18. The Effect of Fluoridated and Non Fluoridated Mouth Washes on Color Stability of Different Aesthetic Arch Wires At Different Time Intervals (An in Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna Maky Hussein

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:The color stability of aesthetic arch wires is an important factor in the success of an aesthetic orthodontic treatment, but the color of these arch wires tends to change with time.This study was performed to assess the effect of two types of mouth washes on the color  stability of different types of aesthetic arch wires at different time intervals. Materials and methods:Four brands of nickel titanium coated aesthetic arch wires were used: epoxy coated (Orthotechnology and G&H and Teflon coated (Dany and Hubit.Thirty six samples were prepared, each sample contains ten halves of the aesthetic arch wires. They were divided into three groups according to the immersion media (distilled water as a control media, Listerine with fluoride and Listerine without fluoride and immersed for 30 seconds twice daily according to manufacturer's instructions to measure color change after 1 week, 3 weeks and 6 weeks by using spectrophotometer VITA Easyshade Compact according to Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage L*a*b* color space system. Results:It was found that there were highly significant differences in color change values of aesthetic arch wires among all immersion media at different time intervals and color change value increases as the time of immersion increases.Additionally, Listerine with fluoride mouth wash caused higher color change values of aesthetic arch wires than Listerine without fluoride and Hubit aesthetic arch wires were the least color stable while Orthotechnology aesthetic arch wires were the most color stable. Conclusions: We can conclude that the daily use of Listerine mouth washes could affect on the color stability of aesthetic arch wires. Although all tested aesthetic arch wires revealed color changes at variable degrees but some of these changes were not  visible and the others were clinically acceptable while the remaining were clinically unacceptable.

  19. Effects of landscape composition and configuration on pollination in a native herb: a field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekroos, Johan; Jakobsson, Anna; Wideen, Joel; Herbertsson, Lina; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G

    2015-10-01

    Bumble bee abundance in agricultural landscapes is known to decrease with increasing distance from seminatural grasslands, but whether the pollination of bumble-bee-pollinated wild plants shows a similar pattern is less well known. In addition, the relative effects of landscape composition (landscape heterogeneity) and landscape configuration (distance from seminatural grassland) on wild plant pollination, and the interaction between these landscape effects, have not been studied using landscape-level replication. We performed a field experiment to disentangle these landscape effects on the pollination of a native herb, the sticky catchfly (Lychnis viscaria), while accounting for the proportion of oilseed rape across landscapes and the local abundance of bee forage flowers. We measured pollen limitation (the degree to which seed set is pollen-limited), seed set, and seed set stability using potted plants placed in landscapes that differed in heterogeneity (composition) and distance from seminatural grassland (configuration). Pollen limitation and seed set in individual plants did not respond to landscape composition, landscape configuration, or proportion of oilseed rape. Instead, seed set increased with increasing local bee forage flower cover. However, we found within-plant variability in pollen limitation and seed set to increase with increasing distance from seminatural pasture. Our results suggest that average within-plant levels of pollen limitation and seed set respond less swiftly than the within-plant variability in pollen limitation and seed set to changes in landscape configuration. Although landscape effects on pollination were less important than predicted, we conclude that landscape configuration and local habitat characteristics play larger roles than landscape composition in the pollination of L. viscaria.

  20. Effects of finite hot-wire spatial resolution on turbulence statistics and velocity spectra in a round turbulent free jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Hamed; Lavoie, Philippe; Pollard, Andrew

    2018-03-01

    The effect of finite hot-wire spatial resolution on turbulence statistics and velocity spectra in a round turbulent free jet is investigated. To quantify spatial resolution effects, measurements were taken using a nano-scale thermal anemometry probe (NSTAP) and compared to results from conventional hot-wires with sensing lengths of l=0.5 and 1 mm. The NSTAP has a sensing length significantly smaller than the Kolmogorov length scale η for the present experimental conditions, whereas the sensing lengths for the conventional probes are larger than η. The spatial resolution is found to have a significant impact on the dissipation both on and off the jet centreline with the NSTAP results exceeding those obtained from the conventional probes. The resolution effects along the jet centreline are adequately predicted using a Wyngaard-type spectral technique (Wyngaard in J Sci Instr 1(2):1105-1108,1968), but additional attenuation on the measured turbulence quantities are observed off the centreline. The magnitude of this attenuation is a function of both the ratio of wire length to Kolmogorov length scale and the magnitude of the shear. The effect of spatial resolution is noted to have an impact on the power-law decay parameters for the turbulent kinetic energy that is computed. The effect of spatial filtering on the streamwise dissipation energy spectra is also considered. Empirical functions are proposed to estimate the effect of finite resolution, which take into account the mean shear.

  1. Clinical effectiveness of 2 orthodontic retainer wires on mandibular arch retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunay, Firdevs; Oz, Abdullah Alper

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the clinical success of 2 lingual retainer wires. The 120 patients included in the study were divided into 2 groups randomly. In group 1, 0.0175-in 6-strand stainless steel wire (Ortho Technology, Lutz, Fla) was used, the lingual retainers were fabricated on plaster models, and a silicon transfer key was used. In group 2, 0.0195-in dead-soft coaxial wire (Respond; Ormco, Orange, Calif) was used, and the lingual retainers were fabricated directly in the patient's mandibular arch without a study model. Pretreatment, posttreatment, and posttreatment 3-month, 6-month, 9-month, and 12-month 3-dimensional orthodontic models were evaluated. Failure rates, mandibular arch irregularity values, intercanine distances, and arch lengths were compared. The clinical bond failure rates were 13.2% for the 0.0175-in 6-strand stainless steel wire and 18.9% for the 0.0195-in dead-soft wire. The difference in bond failures between the 2 groups was not statistically significant. There was a statistically significant increase in mandibular arch irregularity in both groups during the 12-month follow-up. However, the increase was significantly higher in the second group than in the first one. Furthermore, the intercanine distance decreased over time in the second group. Our findings regarding mandibular arch measurements indicate that fabrication of lingual retainers can be more safely accomplished with 0.0175-in 6-strand stainless steel wire than with 0.0195-in dead-soft coaxial wire. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Improved Functional Properties and Efficiencies of Nitinol Wires Under High-Performance Shape Memory Effect (HP-SME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casati, R.; Saghafi, F.; Biffi, C. A.; Vedani, M.; Tuissi, A.

    2017-10-01

    Martensitic Ti-rich NiTi intermetallics are broadly used in various cyclic applications as actuators, which exploit the shape memory effect (SME). Recently, a new approach for exploiting austenitic Ni-rich NiTi shape memory alloys as actuators was proposed and named high-performance shape memory effect (HP-SME). HP-SME is based on thermal recovery of de-twinned martensite produced by mechanical loading of the parent phase. The aim of the manuscript consists in evaluating and comparing the fatigue and actuation properties of austenitic HP-SME wires and conventional martensitic SME wires. The effect of the thermomechanical cycling on the actuation response and the changes in the electrical resistivity of both shape memory materials were studied by performing the actuation tests at different stages of the fatigue life. Finally, the changes in the transition temperatures before and after cycling were also investigated by differential calorimetric tests.

  3. A functional near-infrared spectroscopy study of the effects of configural properties on sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Joux, Neil R; Wilson, Kyle M; Russell, Paul N; Finkbeiner, Kristin M; Helton, William S

    2017-01-08

    Forty-five participants performed a vigilance task during which they were required to respond to a critical signal at a local feature level, while the global display was altered between groups (either a circle, a circle broken apart and reversed, or a reconnected figure). The shape in two of the groups formed a configurative whole (the circle and reconnected conditions), while the remaining shape had no complete global element (broken circle). Performance matched the results found in the previous experiments using this stimulus set, where a configural superiority effect was found to influence accuracy over time. Physiological data, measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy, revealed elevated activation in the right pre-frontal cortex compared to the left pre-frontal cortex during the task. Additionally, bilateral activation was found in the conditions that formed configurative wholes, while hemispheric differences over time were found in the condition that did not. These findings suggest that configural aspects of stimuli may explain why non-typical laterality effects have been found in similar research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Effect of Operational Cutting Parameters on Nitinol-60 in Wire Electrodischarge Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar LotfiNeyestanak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Shape memory alloys are a kind of active materials, which have significant characteristics in comparison with other alloys. Since these materials are applicable in different fields such as aerospace, automobile industry, medicine, and dentistry, the effects of wire electrodischarge machining on the properties of these alloys have been studied. In this paper, changes in the shape recovery ability and microhardness of the machined surface of Nitonol-60 shape memory alloy have been studied considering recasting and formation of resolidificated layer on the shape memory alloy surface. XRD and EDXA analyses of the surface layer of the sample besides a microscopic study of the shape memory alloy layer by SEM and a study of the changes in mechanical properties of the surface layer were done by performing microhardness and tension tests on the work piece surface. Considering the surface layer, reversible strain has been studied according to the shape recovery percentage of Nitinol-60 shape memory alloy. Results show that the surface layer formed on the surface of the samples has caused changes in both physical and mechanical properties of the cut surface because of the penetration of the separated materials in comparison with deeper layers of the piece.

  5. RF Wire Compensator of Long-Range Beam-Beam Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Dorda, U; Kroyer, T; Zimmermann, F

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic aperture of the proton beam circulating in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is expected to be limited by up to 120 long-range beam-beam encounters. In order to perfectly compensate the LHC long-range beambeam effect for nominal as well as for so-called "PACMAN" bunches, i.e. bunches at the start or end of a bunch train, the strength of a wire compensator should be adjusted for each bunch individually. Here an RF-based compensator is proposed as a practical solution for the PACMAN compensation. We show that this approach also allows relaxing the power and precision requirements compared with those of a pulsed DC device, to a level within the state-of-the-art of RF technology. Furthermore it permits the use of a passive circulator in the tunnel close to the beam and thus a significant reduction of the transmission line length and of the associated multiple reflections. Simulations of dynamic aperture and emittance growth, issues related to RF phase noise, and first experimental results from laborator...

  6. Effects of Wire EDM on the Microstructure of P/M Titanium Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viskić, Joško; Schauperl, Zdravko; Ćatić, Amir; Balog, Martin; Krizik, Peter; Gržeta, Biserka; Popović, Jasminka; Ortolan, Slađana Milardović; Mehulić, Ketij

    2014-12-01

    Commercially pure titanium (CP Ti) has been recognized in dentistry for its biocompatibility, good mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Conventional manufacturing processes can affect surface quality and result in poor bonding of dental ceramics to CP Ti. This is why powder metallurgy (P/M) and wire electro-discharge machining (WEDM) are being introduced in the manufacturing process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of WEDM on the surface composition and microstructure of P/M CP Ti samples produced for bond strength testing according to ISO 9693. Eight samples of P/M CP Ti, dimensions according to ISO 9693, were made using WEDM and divided in two groups (untreated and grinded). Microanalyses of chemical composition and microstructure of both groups were made using SEM, EDS and XDR. SEM and EDS analysis of untreated samples showed a thin layer on surfaces with fractures in it. Grinded samples showed homogenous structure with no layer and no fractures. XDR analysis showed high level of oxides on the surface of untreated samples, while after grinding only pure α-phase was found. WEDM is a suitable method of sample production for ISO 9693 if accompanied by grinding with silicon carbide papers P320-P4000.

  7. Effect of Variable Amplitude Blocks' Ordering on the Functional Fatigue of Superelastic NiTi Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soul, Hugo; Yawny, Alejandro

    2017-12-01

    Accumulation of superelastic cycles in NiTi uniaxial element generates changes on the stress-strain response. Basically, there is an uneven drop of martensitic transformation stress plateaus and an increase of residual strain. This evolution associated with deterioration of superelastic characteristics is referred to as "functional fatigue" and occurs due to irreversible microstructural changes taking place each time a material domain transforms. Unlike complete cycles, for which straining is continued up to elastic loading of martensite, partial cycles result in a differentiated evolution of those material portions affected by the transformation. It is then expected that the global stress-strain response would reflect the previous cycling history of the specimen. In the present work, the consequences of cycling of NiTi wires using blocks of different strain amplitudes interspersed in different sequences are analyzed. The effect of successive increasing, successive decreasing, and interleaved strain amplitudes on the evolution of the superelastic response is characterized. The feasibility of postulating a functional fatigue criterion similar to the Miner's cumulative damage law used in structural fatigue analysis is discussed. The relation of the observed stress-strain response with the transformational history of the specimen can be rationalized by considering that the stress-induced transformation proceeds via localized propagating fronts.

  8. Effects of filament size on critical current density in overpressure processed Bi-2212 round wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jianyi; Francis, Ashleigh; Alicea, Ryan; Matras, Maxime; Kametani, Fumitake; Trociewitz, Ulf P; Hellstrom, Eric E; Larbalestier, David C

    2017-06-01

    Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O x (Bi-2212) conductor is the only high temperature superconductor manufactured as a round wire and is a very promising conductor for very high field applications. One of the key design parameters of Bi-2212 wire is its filament size, which has been previously reported to affect the critical current density ( J c ) and ac losses. Work with 1 bar heat treatment showed that the optimal filament diameter was about 15 μm but it was not well understood at that time that gas bubbles were the main current limiting mechanism. Here we investigated a recent Bi-2212 wire with a 121×18 filament architecture with varying wire diameter (1.0 to 1.5 mm) using 50 bar overpressure processing. This wire is part of a 1.2 km piece length of 1.0 mm diameter made by Oxford Superconducting Technology. We found that J c is independent of the filament size in the range from 9 to 14 μm, although the n value increased with increasing filament size. A new record J c (4.2 K, 15 T) of 4200 A/mm 2 and J E (4.2 K, 15 T) of 830 A/mm 2 were achieved.

  9. Effect of microalloying on pearlite transformation of high carbon wire steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stephanie L.

    Microalloying has been shown to improve strength in eutectoid steels for wire applications, and previous work on vanadium-microalloyed eutectoid steels showed delayed pearlite transformation with additions of niobium and accelerated pearlite transformation with additional nitrogen. This study investigates the origin of the CCT shifts with microalloying additions and whether trends in hardness and microstructural feature sizes observed in continuous cooling tests persist through industrial hot rolling simulations. An industrially hot rolled 1080 wire rod with vanadium additions and three laboratory-prepared alloys were studied. The base alloy, denoted the V steel, had a composition of 0.80C-0.50Mn-0.24Si-0.20Cr-0.079V-0.0059N (wt pct). The V+N steel contained 0.0088 wt pct N, and the V+Nb steel contained an additional 0.010 wt pct Nb. All alloys were subjected to a GleebleRTM 3500 torsion hot rolling simulation based on industrial wire rod hot rolling parameters. Microstructural constituents, Vickers hardness, pearlite colony size, and pearlite interlamellar spacing (ILS) were characterized for each alloy. All alloys exhibited pearlitic microstructures with some proeutectoid ferrite at prior austenite grain boundaries, with no evidence of shear transformation products. The V steel has the lowest overall hardness, while both nitrogen and niobium additions increase hardness by approximately 15 HV, correlating to a 43 MPa increase in yield strength. Niobium additions refined ILS, with an average ILS of 92 +/- 3 nm for the V+Nb steel compared to 113 +/- 5 nm for the V steel and 113 +/- 3 nm for the V+N alloy. Vanadium additions produced precipitation strengthening for all alloys and heat treatments, and additional precipitation strengthening with nitrogen and niobium additions was not apparent based on a Taleff regression analysis. Atom probe tomography of an industrially processed wire rod with vanadium additions revealed vanadium enrichment of cementite, and vanadium

  10. Effect of the configuration of the corner in a narrow rectangular channel on flow and heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jianjun; Chen Bingde; Wang Xiaojun

    2009-01-01

    In order to further understand the effect of the configuration of the corner in a narrow rectangular channel on flow and heat transfer, flow field and temperature field in a narrow rectangular channel were numerical simulated by using CFD code CFX10.0. The results show under the condition of equal quantity of heat of solid which is obtained by decreasing the solid of the corner, the distributions of inside wall temperature for the orthogonal and circular type configurations of the corner are almost the same as that of the archetypal configuration, and those can simulate heat transfer of the archetypal con- figuration. Under the condition of equal Re, secondary flow and friction pressure of the orthogonal type configuration are almost the same as those of the circular type configuration, which shows that the circular type configuration of the corner in a narrow channel can substituted for the archetypal configuration to simulate flow and heat transfer in a narrow rectangular channel. (authors)

  11. Configurational entropy of polar glass formers and the effect of electric field on glass transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyushov, Dmitry V

    2016-07-21

    A model of low-temperature polar liquids is constructed that accounts for the configurational heat capacity, entropy, and the effect of a strong electric field on the glass transition. The model is based on the Padé-truncated perturbation expansions of the liquid state theory. Depending on parameters, it accommodates an ideal glass transition of vanishing configurational entropy and its avoidance, with a square-root divergent enumeration function at the point of its termination. A composite density-temperature parameter ρ(γ)/T, often used to represent combined pressure and temperature data, follows from the model. The theory is in good agreement with the experimental data for excess (over the crystal state) thermodynamics of molecular glass formers. We suggest that the Kauzmann entropy crisis might be a signature of vanishing configurational entropy of a subset of degrees of freedom, multipolar rotations in our model. This scenario has observable consequences: (i) a dynamical crossover of the relaxation time and (ii) the fragility index defined by the ratio of the excess heat capacity and excess entropy at the glass transition. The Kauzmann temperature of vanishing configurational entropy and the corresponding glass transition temperature shift upward when the electric field is applied. The temperature shift scales quadratically with the field strength.

  12. Effects of the weight configuration of hand load on trunk musculature during static weight holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madinei, Saman; Ning, Xiaopeng

    2018-06-01

    The performance of manual material handling tasks is one major cause of lower back injuries. In the current study, we investigated the influence of the weight configuration of hand loads on trunk muscle activities and the associated spinal stability. Thirteen volunteers each performed static weight-holding tasks using two different 9 kg weight bars (with medial and lateral weight configurations) at two levels of height (low and high) and one fixed horizontal distance (which resulted in constant spinal joint moment across conditions). Results of the current study demonstrated that holding the laterally distributed load significantly reduced activation levels of lumbar and abdominal muscles by 9-13% as compared with holding the medially distributed load. We believe such an effect is due to an elevated rotational moment of inertia when the weight of the load is laterally distributed. These findings suggest that during the design and assessment of manual material handling tasks, such as lifting and carrying, the weight configuration of the hand load should be considered. Practitioner summary: Elevated trunk muscle activities were found when holding a medially distributed load vs. a laterally distributed load (with an equivalent external moment to the spine), indicating a reduced spinal stability due to the reduced rotational moment of inertia. The configuration of the hand load should be considered when evaluating manual material handling tasks.

  13. Changes in inertia and effect on turning effort across different wheelchair configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspall, Jayme J; Seligsohn, Erin; Dao, Phuc V; Sprigle, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    When executing turning maneuvers, manual wheelchair users must overcome the rotational inertia of the wheelchair system. Differences in wheelchair rotational inertia can result in increases in torque required to maneuver, resulting in greater propulsion effort and stress on the shoulder joints. The inertias of various configurations of an ultralightweight wheelchair were measured using a rotational inertia-measuring device. Adjustments in axle position, changes in wheel and tire type, and the addition of several accessories had various effects on rotational inertias. The configuration with the highest rotational inertia (solid tires, mag wheels with rearward axle) exceeded the configuration with the lowest (pneumatic tires, spoke wheels with forward axle) by 28%. The greater inertia requires increased torque to accelerate the wheelchair during turning. At a representative maximum acceleration, the reactive torque spanned the range of 11.7 to 15.0 N-m across the wheelchair configurations. At higher accelerations, these torques exceeded that required to overcome caster scrub during turning. These results indicate that a wheelchair's rotational inertia can significantly influence the torque required during turning and that this influence will affect active users who turn at higher speeds. Categorizing wheelchairs using both mass and rotational inertia would better represent differences in effort during wheelchair maneuvers.

  14. Effect of iodine on the corrosion of Au-Al wire bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdingovas, Vadimas; Müller, Lutz; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2015-01-01

    , and electrochemical testing were used to characterize the samples. Failures of Au-Al wire bonds were found to be primarily attributed to the corrosion of Al via formation of Al iodides and consequent formation of Al oxides and/or hydroxides. Most susceptible to corrosion are Al metallization and Al rich intermetallic......Corrosion study was performed on Au-Al wire bonds, thin layers of sputter deposited Au and Al, and Au-Al intermetallic nuggets. The test environment was iodine-vapour in air (1. mg/L) at 85 °C with varying relative humidity, and 500 mg/L of KI in water. GDOES, XRD, SEM EDS, wire bond shear...

  15. Detailed design consideration on wire-spaced LMFBR fuel subassemblies under the effects of uncertainties and non-nominal geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hishida, H.

    1979-01-01

    This paper explains some analytical methods for evaluating the effects of deviation in subchannel coolant flow rate from the nominal value due to fuel pin bundle deflection and manufacturing tolerances and of inter-sub-channel coolant mixing and local temperature rise due to a wire-spacer on the hot spot temperature. Numerical results are given in each chapter with respect to a prototype LMFBR core. (author)

  16. Giant magnetoimpedance effect of Co68.15 Fe4.35 Si12.5 B15 amorphous wire in the presence of magnetite ferrofluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirabadizadeh, A.; Lotfollahi, Z.; Zelati, A.

    2016-10-01

    Giant magnetoimpedance effect (GMI) in Co68.15 Fe4.35 Si12.5 B15 amorphous wire was studied in the presence of magnetite ferrofluid and without it. Magnetite nanoparticles for ferrofluid were prepared by the traditional wet chemistry co-precipitation method. GMI was measured in the frequency range of 2 to 6 MHz. The maximum value of GMI value of the ferrofluid covered amorphous wire was increased in all frequency intervals in comparison with GMI response of the wire non-covered by ferrofluid. These results open a new way of increasing magnetoimpedance effect value useful for sensor applications.

  17. Effect of Ag in structural, electrical and magnetic properties of Ag-sheated Bi-2223 wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Sohrabi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available  In this study, the superconducting properties of Bi-2223/Ag wires, made by the PIT method have been studied. Powder samples were prepared using conventional solid state reaction method. After calcination, samples with different Ag percent (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 prepared and sintered at 830 °C. It was shown that Ag addition has not only affected the formation of the desired Bi-2223 phase and the microstructure of these wires, but also influenced on the critical current density (JC and critical temperature.

  18. Effect of low transverse magnetic field on the confinement strength in a quasi-1D wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Thomas, K. J.; Smith, L. W.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Jones, G. A. C.; Griffiths, J.; Pepper, M.

    2013-01-01

    Transport measurements in a quasi-one dimensional (1D) quantum wire are reported in the presence of low transverse magnetic field. Differential conductance shows weak quantised plateaus when the 2D electrons are squeezed electrostatically. Application of a small transverse magnetic field (0.2T) enhances the overall degree of quantisation due to the formation of magneto-electric subbands. The results show the role of magnetic field to fine tune the confinement strength in low density wires when interaction gives rise to double row formation

  19. Seebeck Changes Due to Residual Cold-Work and Reversible Effects in Type K Bare-Wire Thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, E. S.

    2017-09-01

    Type K thermocouples are the most commonly used thermocouple for industrial measurements because of their low cost, wide temperature range, and durability. As with all base-metal thermocouples, Type K is made to match a mathematical temperature-to-emf relationship and not a prescribed alloy formulation. Because different manufacturers use varying alloy formulations and manufacturing techniques, different Type K thermocouples exhibit a range of drift and hysteresis characteristics, largely due to ordering effects in the positive (K+) thermoelement. In this study, these effects are assessed in detail for temperatures below 700°C in the Type K wires from nine manufacturers. A linear gradient furnace and a high-resolution homogeneity scanner combined with the judicious use of annealing processes allow measurements that separately identify the effects of cold-work, ordering, and oxidation to be made. The results show most K+ alloys develop significant errors, but the magnitudes of the contributions of each process vary substantially between the different K+ wires. In practical applications, the measurement uncertainties achievable with Type K therefore depend not only on the wire formulation but also on the temperature, period of exposure, and, most importantly, the thermal treatments prior to use.

  20. Effect of an upstream bulge configuration on film cooling with and without mist injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Li, Qianqian; Sundén, Bengt; Ma, Ting; Cui, Pei

    2017-12-01

    To meet the economic requirements of power output, the increased inlet temperature of modern gas turbines is above the melting point of the material. Therefore, high-efficient cooling technology is needed to protect the blades from the hot mainstream. In this study, film cooling was investigated in a simplified channel. A bulge located upstream of the film hole was numerically investigated by analysis of the film cooling effectiveness distribution downstream of the wall. The flow distribution in the plate channel is first presented. Comparing with a case without bulge, different cases with bulge heights of 0.1d, 0.3d and 0.5d were examined with blowing ratios of 0.5 and 1.0. Cases with 1% mist injection were also included in order to obtain better cooling performance. Results show that the bulge configuration located upstream the film hole makes the cooling film more uniform, and enhanceslateral cooling effectiveness. Unlike other cases, the configuration with a 0.3d-height bulge shows a good balance in improving the downstream and lateral cooling effectiveness. Compared with the case without mist at M = 0.5, the 0.3d-height bulge with 1% mist injection increases lateral average effectiveness by 559% at x/d = 55. In addition, a reduction of the thermal stress concentration can be obtained by increasing the height of the bulge configuration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Based on Single Beam Splitting and Geometric Configuration for Effective Signal Enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Guang; Lin, Qingyu; Ding, Yu; Tian, Di; Duan, Yixiang

    2015-01-01

    A new laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) based on single-beam-splitting (SBS) and proper optical geometric configuration has been initially explored in this work for effective signal enhancement. In order to improve the interaction efficiency of laser energy with the ablated material, a laser beam operated in pulse mode was divided into two streams to ablate/excite the target sample in different directions instead of the conventional one beam excitation in single pulse LIBS (SP-LIBS)...

  2. Spectral statistics of rare-earth nuclei: Investigation of shell model configuration effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabri, H., E-mail: h-sabri@tabrizu.ac.ir

    2015-09-15

    The spectral statistics of even–even rare-earth nuclei are investigated by using all the available empirical data for Ba, Ce, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Yb and Hf isotopes. The Berry–Robnik distribution and Maximum Likelihood estimation technique are used for analyses. An obvious deviation from GOE is observed for considered nuclei and there are some suggestions about the effect due to mass, deformation parameter and shell model configurations.

  3. Spectral statistics of rare-earth nuclei: Investigation of shell model configuration effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabri, H.

    2015-01-01

    The spectral statistics of even–even rare-earth nuclei are investigated by using all the available empirical data for Ba, Ce, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Yb and Hf isotopes. The Berry–Robnik distribution and Maximum Likelihood estimation technique are used for analyses. An obvious deviation from GOE is observed for considered nuclei and there are some suggestions about the effect due to mass, deformation parameter and shell model configurations

  4. Effect of environment on fatigue failure of controlled memory wire nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ya; Qian, Wei; Abtin, Houman; Gao, Yuan; Haapasalo, Markus

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the fatigue behavior of 2 types of nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments made from a novel controlled memory NiTi wire (CM wire) under various environment conditions. Three conventional superelastic NiTi instruments of ProFile (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), Typhoon (Clinician's Choice Dental Products, New Milford, CT), and DS-SS0250425NEYY (Clinician's Choice Dental Products) and 2 new CM wire instruments of Typhoon CM and DS-SS0250425NEYY CM were subjected to rotational bending at the curvature of 35° in air, deionized water, 17% EDTA, or deionized water after immersion in 6% sodium hypochlorite for 25 minutes, and the number of revolutions of fracture (N(f)) was recorded. The fracture surface of all fragments was examined by a scanning electron microscope. The crack-initiation sites and the percentage of dimple area to the whole fracture cross-section were noted. Two new CM Wire instruments yielded an improvement of >4 to 9 times in N(f) than conventional NiTi files with the same design under various environments (P liquid media than in air (P metal alloy (CM files vs conventional superelastic NiTi files) influences the cyclic fatigue resistance under various environments. The fatigue life of CM instruments is longer in liquid media than in air. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Study of microwave magnetoimpedance effect in amorphous FeSiB wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britel, M.R. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad del Pais Vasco, 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain) and Departement des Telecoms et Electronique, Ecole Nationale des Sciences Appliquees de Tanger, BP 1818 Tanger Principale (Morocco)]. E-mail: britel@ensat.ac.ma; Garcia, C. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad del Pais Vasco, 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain)]. E-mail: wubgagac@sc.ehu.es; Ciureanu, P. [Departement genie Physique, Groupe de Recherche en Technologie des couche minces, Ecole Polytechnique, C.P. 6079, succ. Centre-ville, Montreal, Que., H3C 3A7 (Canada); Gauthier, J. [Departement genie electrique, Ecole Polytechnique, C.P. 6079, succ. Centre-ville, Montreal, Que., H3C 3A7 (Canada); Akyel, C. [Departement genie electrique, Ecole Polytechnique, C.P. 6079, succ. Centre-ville, Montreal, Que., H3C 3A7 (Canada); Gonzalez, J. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad del Pais Vasco, 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Yelon, A. [Departement genie Physique, Groupe de Recherche en Technologie des couche minces, Ecole Polytechnique, C.P. 6079, succ. Centre-ville, Montreal, Que., H3C 3A7 (Canada)

    2007-09-15

    Measurements of microwave magnetoimpedance of melt-extracted Fe-rich amorphous wires are presented. These wires were simultaneously submitted to a microwave electromagnetic wave propagating at the wire surface, Joule heating and circumferential static magnetic field. This field is generated by a DC electric current flowing through the wire with maximum strength of 90 mA in order not to reach the recrystallization temperature of the amorphous alloy. The impedance was measured up to 6 GHz using a technique based on the s-parameters measurement of a custom-designed coaxial line by means of a vectorial network analyzer. The real part of the impedance spectra we obtained show peaks, which characterize the magnetic losses occurring in the amorphous material. These peaks shift toward lower frequency for stronger DC currents. Theoretically, these results can be accounted for by the fact that the peaks frequency represents the ferromagnetic resonance occurring in the magnetic material. Its magnitude depends on the saturation magnetization. Since this magnetization decreases with temperature following the Curie law, the resonance frequency also decreases and the impedance peaks shift towards lower frequency.

  6. Size effects in electrical and magnetic properties of quasi-one-dimensional tin wires in asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyaev, A. V.; Shamshur, D. V.; Fokin, A. V.; Kalmykov, A. E.; Kumzerov, Yu. A.; Sorokin, L. M.; Parfen'ev, R. V.; Lashkul, A.

    2016-03-01

    Bulk composites have been prepared based on one-dimensional fibers of natural chrisothil-asbestos with various internal diameters ( d = 6-2.5 nm) filled with tin. The electrical and magnetic properties of quasi-one-dimensional Sn wires have been studied at low temperatures. The electrical properties have been measured at T = 300 K at a pressure P = 10 kbar. It has been found that the superconducting (SC) characteristics of the nanocomposites (critical temperature T c and critical magnetic field H c) increase as the Sn filament diameter decreases. The temperature spreading of the resistive SC transition also increases as the Sn filament diameter decreases, which is explained by the SC order parameter fluctuations. The size effects (the increase in critical temperature T c and transition width Δ T c) in Sn nanofilaments are well described by the independent Aslamazov-Larkin and Langer-Ambegaokara fluctuation theories, which makes it possible to find the dependence of T c of the diffuse SC transition on the nanowire diameter. Using the temperature and magnetic-field dependences of the magnetic moment M( T, H), it has been found that the superconductor-normal metal phase diagram of the Sn-asbestos nanocomposite has a wider region of the SC state in T and H as compared to the data for bulk Sn. The magnetic properties of chrisotil-asbestos fibers unfilled with Sn have been studied. It has been found that the Curie law is fulfilled and that the superparamagnetism is absent in such samples. The obtained results indicate the absence of magnetically ordered impurities (magnetite) in the chrisotil-asbestos matrix, which allowed one to not consider the problem of the interaction of the magnetic subsystem of the asbestos matrix and the superconducting subsystem of Sn nanowires.

  7. Impaired configural body processing in anorexia nervosa: evidence from the body inversion effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgesi, Cosimo; Fornasari, Livia; Canalaz, Francesca; Perini, Laura; Cremaschi, Silvana; Faleschini, Laura; Thyrion, Erica Zappoli; Zuliani, Martina; Balestrieri, Matteo; Fabbro, Franco; Brambilla, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) suffer from severe disturbances of body perception. It is unclear, however, whether such disturbances are linked to specific alterations in the processing of body configurations with respect to the local processing of body part details. Here, we compared a consecutive sample of 12 AN patients with a group of 12 age-, gender- and education-matched controls using an inversion effect paradigm requiring the visual discrimination of upright and inverted pictures of whole bodies, faces and objects. The AN patients presented selective deficits in the discrimination of upright body stimuli, which requires configural processing. Conversely, patients and controls showed comparable abilities in the discrimination of inverted bodies, which involves only detail-based processing, and in the discrimination of both upright and inverted faces and objects. Importantly, the body inversion effect negatively correlated with the persistence scores at the Temperament and Character Inventory, which evaluates increased tendency to convert a signal of punishment into a signal of reinforcement. These results suggest that the deficits of configural processing in AN patients may be associated with their obsessive worries about body appearance and to the excessive attention to details that characterizes their general perceptual style. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Effects of Cavity Configurations on Flameholding and Performances of Kerosene Fueled Scramjet Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Deyong; Song, Wenyan; Wang, Yuhang; Wang, Yanhua

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the effects of cavity flameholder configurations on flameholding and performances of kerosene fueled scramjet combustor were studied experimentally and numerically. For experiments, a directly connected ground facility was used and clean high enthalpy air, with a total temperature of 800 K and a total pressure of 800 Kpa, was provided by an electricity resistance heater. To investigate the effects of cavity configurations on flameholding capacity and reacting-flow characteristics, three different flameholders, one single cavity flameholder and two tandem cavity flameholders, were used in experiments. For the two combustors with tandem cavity flameholders, the location and configurations of its up-stream cavity were same with the single cavity flameholder, and the length-to-depth ratios for down-stream cavities were 9 and 11 respectively. The experimental results showed that stabilize kerosene combustion were achieved for combustor with tandem cavity flameholders mounted, and none for that with single cavity flameholder. The none-reacting and reacting flows of combustor models with tandem cavity flameholders were compared and studied with numerical and experimental results. The results showed that higher combustion efficiencies and pressure recovery ratios were achieved for the combustor with down-stream cavity length-to-depth ratio of 9.

  9. Internal forces during static prehension: effects of age and grasp configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solnik, Stanislaw; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M; Latash, Mark L

    2014-01-01

    The authors studied effects of healthy aging on 3 components of the internal force vector during static prehensile tasks. Young and older subjects held an instrumented handle using a 5-digit prismatic grasp under different digit configurations and external torques. Across digit configurations, older subjects showed larger internal normal (grip) and tangential (load-resisting) digit force components and larger internal moment of force. In contrast to earlier reports, safety margin values were not higher in the older subjects. The results show that the increased grip force in older persons is a specific example of a more general age-related problem reflected in the generation of large internal force vectors in prehensile tasks. It is possible that the higher internal forces increase the apparent stiffness of the hand+handle system and, hence, contribute to its stability. This strategy, however, may be maladaptive, energetically wasteful, and inefficient in ensuring safety of hand-held objects.

  10. CFD Study of Industrial FCC Risers: The Effect of Outlet Configurations on Hydrodynamics and Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela C. Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC riser reactors have complex hydrodynamics, which depend not only on operating conditions, feedstock quality, and catalyst particles characteristics, but also on the geometric configurations of the reactor. This paper presents a numerical study of the influence of different riser outlet designs on the dynamic of the flow and reactor efficiency. A three-dimensional, three-phase flow model and a four-lump kinetic scheme were used to predict the performance of the reactor. The phenomenon of vaporization of the liquid oil droplets was also analyzed. Results showed that small changes in the outlet configuration had a significant effect on the flow patterns and consequently, on the reaction yields.

  11. Evaluation of alloying effect on the formation of Ni-Fe nanosized powders by pulsed wire discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Gyu-Hyeon; Lee, Gwang-Yeob; Kim, Hyeon-Ah; Lee, A-Young; Oh, Hye-Ryeong; Kim, Song-Yi; Kim, Do-Hyang; Lee, Min-Ha

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesizing Ni-Fe alloy nano-powder employing Ni-plating layer of Fe wire by PWD process. • The mean particle size is decreased with increasing the charging voltage affecting to the super heating factor (K). • The mean particle size of PWD Ni-Fe nanosized powder is accordance with applied voltage. • Uniformity of mean particel size can be controlled by adjusting charging voltage and super heating factor (K). - Abstract: This study investigates the effects of varying the explosion time and charging voltage of pulsed wire discharge (PWD) on the mean particle size, dispersibility and alloying reliability of powders produced from pure Ni and Ni-plated Fe wires. It was found that with increasing charging voltage, the mean particle size of Ni powders is reduced from 40.11 ± 0.23 to 25.63 ± 0.07 nm, which is attributed to a change in the extent of super heating with particle size. Nanosized powders of Ni-Fe alloy with a mean particle size between 25.91 ± 0.24 and 26.30 ± 0.26 nm were also successfully fabricated and found to consist of particles with a γ-(Ni/Fe) core and FeO shell. The reliability for the optimization of processing parameters to control particle sizes is also evaluated.

  12. Effects of Hydrogen Charging on the Phase Transformation of Martensitic NiTi Shape Memory Alloy Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snir, Yoav; Carl, Matthew; Ley, Nathan A.; Young, Marcus L.

    2017-12-01

    Ti-rich martensitic NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) wires of 0.5 mm diameter were tested under hydrogen-charging conditions to reveal the effects on phase transformation. Hydrogen charging was performed by immersion testing for several durations. The SMA wires were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy, and synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD) for the the as-received, polished, and hydrogen-charged conditions. The DSC revealed the phase-transformation behavior of the NiTi SMA wires. Single and triple heating/cooling cycles in the DSC show the relationship between hydrogen and temperature on the material. Five distinct peaks (peaks I-V) are observed during heating/cooling in the DSC. Peak I corresponds to the martensite-to-austenite (M → A) transformation. Peaks II, III, and IV are related to hydrogen charging. Peak II appears at about 210-230 °C, while peaks III and IV appear at about 350 and 440 °C, respectively. These higher temperature peaks, peaks II-IV, were observed for the first time for a martensitic NiTi SMA due to the large temperature range covered using the DSC. Only one peak (peak V) appears during cooling and corresponds to the austenite-to-martensite transformation peak. Ex situ and in situ SR-XRD revealed the phases and the crystallographic relationship to peaks I-V in the DSC.

  13. The role of the head in configural body processing: Behavioural and electrophysiological evidence from the inversion and scrambling effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria Bauser, Denise; Suchan, Boris

    2018-01-16

    The present study aimed to further explore the role of the head for configural body processing by comparing complete bodies with headless bodies and faceless heads (Experiment 1). A second aim was to further explore the role of the eye region in configural face processing (Experiment 2). Due to that, we conducted a second experiment with complete faces, eyeless faces, and eyes. In addition, we used two effects to manipulate configural processing: the effect of stimulus inversion and scrambling. The current data clearly show an inversion effect for intact bodies presented with head and faces including the eye region. Thus, the head and the eye region seem to be central for configural processes that are manipulated by the effect of stimulus inversion. Furthermore, the behavioural and electrophysiological body inversion effect depends on the intact configuration of bodies and is associated with the N170 as the face inversion effect depends on the intact face configuration. Hence, configural body processing depends not only on the presence of the head but rather on a complete representation of human bodies that includes the body and the head. Furthermore, configural face processing relies on intact and complete face representations that include faces and eyes. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Effects of different eLISA-like configurations on massive black hole parameter estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Edward K.

    2015-09-01

    As the theme for the future L3 Cosmic Vision mission, ESA has recently chosen the "Gravitational Wave Universe." Within this program, a mission concept called eLISA has been proposed. This observatory has a current initial configuration consisting of four laser links between the three satellites, which are separated by a distance of one million kilometers, constructing a single-channel Michelson interferometer. However, the final configuration for the observatory will not be fixed until the end of this decade. With this in mind, we investigate the effect of different eLISA-like configurations on massive black hole detections. This work compares the results of a Bayesian inference study of 120 massive black hole binaries out to a redshift of z ˜13 for a 106 km arm length eLISA with four and six links, as well as a 2 ×106 km arm length observatory with four links. We demonstrate that the original eLISA configuration should allow us to recover the luminosity distance of the source with an error of less than 10% out to a redshift of z ˜4 , and a sky error box of Δ Ω ≤102 deg2 out to z ˜0.1 . In contrast, both alternative configurations suggest that we should be able to conduct the same parameter recovery with errors of less than 10% in luminosity distance out to z ˜12 and Δ Ω ≤102 deg2 out to z ˜0.4 . Using the information from these studies, we also infer that if we were able to construct a 2 Gm, six-link detector, the above values would shift to z ˜20 for luminosity distance and z ˜0.9 for sky error. While the final configuration will also be dependent on both technological and financial considerations, our study suggests that increasing the size of a two-arm detector is a viable alternative to the inclusion of a third arm in a smaller detector. More importantly, this work further suggests no clear scientific loss between either choice.

  15. Device Performance Improvement of Double-Pass Wire Mesh Packed Solar Air Heaters under Recycling Operation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chii-Dong Ho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of device performance of a recycling solar air heater featuring a wire mesh packing was investigated experimentally and theoretically. The application of the wire mesh packing and recycle-effect concept to the present study were proposed aiming to strengthen the convective heat-transfer coefficient due to increased turbulence. Comparisons were made among different designs, including the single-pass, flat-plate double-pass and recycling double-pass wire mesh packed operations. The collector efficiency of the recycling double-pass wire mesh packed solar air heater was much higher than that of the other configurations for various recycle ratios and mass flow rates scenarios. The power consumption increment due to implementing wire mesh in solar air heaters was also discussed considering the economic feasibility. A fairly good agreement between theoretical predictions and experimental measurements was achieved with an analyzed error of 1.07%–9.32%.

  16. Influence of sliding friction on leveling force of superelastic NiTi arch wire: A computational analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, M. F.; Mahmud, A. S.; Mokhtar, N.; Abdullah, J.

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the influence of sliding friction toward the effective force of superelastic NiTi arch wire applied in orthodontic bracing for tooth leveling. A three-dimensional finite-element model integrated with superelastic subroutine and contact interaction was used to predict the contribution of friction on force-deflection curve of NiTi wire in three brackets bending configuration. It was found that the friction between the wire and the bracket increased proportionally as a function of wire deflection, thus transforming the constant force characteristic of NiTi material into a slope. The highest magnitude of sliding friction was measured to be 3.1 N and 2.2 N with respect to the activation and deactivation of the arch wire.

  17. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy based on single beam splitting and geometric configuration for effective signal enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Lin, Qingyu; Ding, Yu; Tian, Di; Duan, Yixiang

    2015-01-05

    A new laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) based on single-beam-splitting (SBS) and proper optical geometric configuration has been initially explored in this work for effective signal enhancement. In order to improve the interaction efficiency of laser energy with the ablated material, a laser beam operated in pulse mode was divided into two streams to ablate/excite the target sample in different directions instead of the conventional one beam excitation in single pulse LIBS (SP-LIBS). In spatial configuration, the laser beam geometry plays an important role in the emission signal enhancement. Thus, an adjustable geometric configuration with variable incident angle between the two splitted laser beams was constructed for achieving maximum signal enhancement. With the optimized angles of 60° and 70° for Al and Cu atomic emission lines at 396.15 nm and 324.75 nm respectively, about 5.6- and 4.8-folds signal enhancements were achieved for aluminum alloy and copper alloy samples compared to SP-LIBS. Furthermore, the temporal analysis, in which the intensity of atomic lines in SP-LIBS decayed at least ten times faster than the SBS-LIBS, proved that the energy coupling efficiency of SBS-LIBS was significantly higher than that of SP-LIBS.

  18. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Based on Single Beam Splitting and Geometric Configuration for Effective Signal Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Lin, Qingyu; Ding, Yu; Tian, Di; Duan, Yixiang

    2015-01-01

    A new laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) based on single-beam-splitting (SBS) and proper optical geometric configuration has been initially explored in this work for effective signal enhancement. In order to improve the interaction efficiency of laser energy with the ablated material, a laser beam operated in pulse mode was divided into two streams to ablate/excite the target sample in different directions instead of the conventional one beam excitation in single pulse LIBS (SP-LIBS). In spatial configuration, the laser beam geometry plays an important role in the emission signal enhancement. Thus, an adjustable geometric configuration with variable incident angle between the two splitted laser beams was constructed for achieving maximum signal enhancement. With the optimized angles of 60° and 70° for Al and Cu atomic emission lines at 396.15 nm and 324.75 nm respectively, about 5.6- and 4.8-folds signal enhancements were achieved for aluminum alloy and copper alloy samples compared to SP-LIBS. Furthermore, the temporal analysis, in which the intensity of atomic lines in SP-LIBS decayed at least ten times faster than the SBS-LIBS, proved that the energy coupling efficiency of SBS-LIBS was significantly higher than that of SP-LIBS. PMID:25557721

  19. Effect of Variation in Voltage on the Synthesis of Ag Nanopowder by Pulsed Wire Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon-Woo Song

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanosized Ag particles were obtained in liquid medium, which is composed of deionized water and sodium hexametaphosphate, using pulsed wire evaporation within hundreds of microseconds from pure initial Ag wire (99.98%, with varying voltage. Changes in powder morphology and microstructure due to change in supply voltage was observed by FE-SEM and HR-TEM, and phase structure of powders was analyzed by XRD. The results revealed that average particle size slightly increased with increasing supply voltage without any impurity and oxide phase, which was explained in terms of addition of stabilizer into the coolant liquid. The experimental results also suggest that addition of sodium hexametaphosphate into the coolant liquid is good for enhancing the dispersibility property of silver nanopowders.

  20. Investigation of baffle configuration effect on the performance of exhaust mufflers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Elsayed

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Using baffles in exhaust mufflers is known to improve their transmission loss. The baffle cut ratio should affect the muffler performance analogous to a shell-and-tube heat exchanger. To the authors’ knowledge, there is no previous assessment reported in literature of the effects that the baffle cut ratio configuration has on acoustic response and back pressure. This investigation presents a parametric study on the effect of baffle configuration on transmission loss and pressure drop predicted. The effect of (i the baffle cut ratio and baffle spacing, (ii the number of baffle holes, and (iii the hole distribution for their effect on transmission loss was investigated. Results show that decreasing the baffle cut ratio tends to increase the transmission loss at intermediate frequencies by up to 45%. Decreasing the spacing between muffler plates was shown to enhance the muffler transmission loss by 40%. To assess the baffle effect on flow, the OpenFoam CFD libraries were utilized using the thermal baffle approach model. Baffles were found to cause sudden drop in fluid temperature in axial flow direction. The outlet exhaust gases temperature was found to decrease by 15% as the baffle cut ratio changed from 75% to 25%.

  1. Effect of Punica granatum L. Flower Water Extract on Five Common Oral Bacteria and Bacterial Biofilm Formation on Orthodontic Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAHID DASTJERDI, Elahe; ABDOLAZIMI, Zahra; GHAZANFARIAN, Marzieh; AMDJADI, Parisa; KAMALINEJAD, Mohammad; MAHBOUBI, Arash

    2014-01-01

    Background: Use of herbal extracts and essences as natural antibacterial compounds has become increasingly popular for the control of oral infectious diseases. Therefore, finding natural antimicrobial products with the lowest side effects seems necessary. The present study sought to assess the effect of Punica granatum L. water extract on five oral bacteria and bacterial biofilm formation on orthodontic wire. Methods: Antibacterial property of P. granatum L. water extract was primarily evaluated in brain heart infusion agar medium using well-plate method. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were determined by macro-dilution method. The inhibitory effect on orthodontic wire bacterial biofilm formation was evaluated using viable cell count in biofilm medium. At the final phase, samples were fixed and analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Results: The growth inhibition zone diameter was proportional to the extract concentration. The water extract demonstrated the maximum antibacterial effect on Streptococcus sanguinis ATCC 10556 with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 6.25 mg/ml and maximum bactericidal effect on S. sanguinis ATCC 10556 and S. sobrinus ATCC 27607 with minimum bactericidal concentration of 25 mg/ml. The water extract decreased bacterial biofilm formation by S. sanguinis, S. sobrinus, S. salivarius, S. mutans ATCC 35608 and E. faecalis CIP 55142 by 93.7–100%, 40.6–99.9%, 85.2–86.5%, 66.4–84.4% and 35.5–56.3% respectively. Conclusion: Punica granatum L. water extract had significant antibacterial properties against 5 oral bacteria and prevented orthodontic wire bacterial biofilm formation. However, further investigations are required to generalize these results to the clinical setting. PMID:26171362

  2. Effect of Punica granatum L. Flower Water Extract on Five Common Oral Bacteria and Bacterial Biofilm Formation on Orthodontic Wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahid Dastjerdi, Elahe; Abdolazimi, Zahra; Ghazanfarian, Marzieh; Amdjadi, Parisa; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Mahboubi, Arash

    2014-12-01

    Use of herbal extracts and essences as natural antibacterial compounds has become increasingly popular for the control of oral infectious diseases. Therefore, finding natural antimicrobial products with the lowest side effects seems necessary. The present study sought to assess the effect of Punica granatum L. water extract on five oral bacteria and bacterial biofilm formation on orthodontic wire. Antibacterial property of P. granatum L. water extract was primarily evaluated in brain heart infusion agar medium using well-plate method. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were determined by macro-dilution method. The inhibitory effect on orthodontic wire bacterial biofilm formation was evaluated using viable cell count in biofilm medium. At the final phase, samples were fixed and analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. The growth inhibition zone diameter was proportional to the extract concentration. The water extract demonstrated the maximum antibacterial effect on Streptococcus sanguinis ATCC 10556 with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 6.25 mg/ml and maximum bactericidal effect on S. sanguinis ATCC 10556 and S. sobrinus ATCC 27607 with minimum bactericidal concentration of 25 mg/ml. The water extract decreased bacterial biofilm formation by S. sanguinis, S. sobrinus, S. salivarius, S. mutans ATCC 35608 and E. faecalis CIP 55142 by 93.7-100%, 40.6-99.9%, 85.2-86.5%, 66.4-84.4% and 35.5-56.3% respectively. Punica granatum L. water extract had significant antibacterial properties against 5 oral bacteria and prevented orthodontic wire bacterial biofilm formation. However, further investigations are required to generalize these results to the clinical setting.

  3. Effect of residual stress on cavitation instabilities in constrained metal wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2004-01-01

    is on a single void growing very large in the metal wire, in the crack plane, perhaps involving a cavitation instability. Therefore, full finite strain elastic-plastic theory is used for the analyses, and remeshing procedures are applied to avoid unacceptable mesh distortion. Residual stresses induced by thermal...... contraction mismatch during cooling from the processing temperature can have a noticeable influence on the results, and this is quantified by the analyses....

  4. Effects of reprocessing on chemical and morphological properties of guide wires used in angioplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Valentim Gelamo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of the reprocessing technique of enzymatic bath with ultrasonic cleaning and ethylene oxide sterilization on the chemical properties and morphological structure of polymeric coatings of guide wire for regular guiding catheter. METHODS: These techniques simulated the routine of guide wire reprocessing in many hemodynamic services in Brazil and other countries. Samples from three different manufacturers were verified by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. RESULTS: A single or double sterilization of the catheters with ethylene oxide was not associated with morphological or chemical changes. However, scanning electron microscopy images showed that the washing method was associated with rough morphological changes, including superficial holes and bubbles, in addition to chemical changes of external atomic layers of polymeric coating surfaces, as detected by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy method, which is compatible with extended chemical changes on catheter surfaces. CONCLUSION: The reprocessing of the catheters with ethylene oxide was not associated with morphological or chemical changes, and it seemed appropriate to maintain guide wire coating integrity. However, the method combining chemical cleaning with mechanical vibration resulted in rough anatomical and chemical surface deterioration, suggesting that this reprocessing method should be discouraged.

  5. Effect of Fluoride Prophylactic Agents on the Mechanical Properties of Nickel-Titanium Wires: An in vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S R Harish Koushik

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion : The results suggest that using topical fluoride agents with NiTi wire could decrease the functional unloading mechanical properties of the wire and contribute to prolonged orthodontic treatment.

  6. The Effect of Geometric Configurations on the Elastic Behavior of an Edge-Cracked Bonded Strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Lan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Interface cracks often initiate around the bonding free-edge corner due to the high-stress concentration. In this research, the elastic behavior of an edge-cracked dissimilar bonded strip subjected to remote tensile load is investigated using the proportional crack tip opening displacement method based on FE analysis for arbitrary material combinations. The stress intensity factor, energy release rate, and mode mixity are computed and compared systematically with varying geometrical configurations and material combinations. Then, the combined effects of the relative height of the bonded component and material combination are discussed for the typical engineering materials.

  7. Need for Space: The Key Distance Effect Depends on Spatial Stimulus Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Julia; Franz, Volker H.

    2014-01-01

    In numerous psychological experiments, participants classify stimuli by pressing response keys. According to Lakens, Schneider, Jostmann, and Schubert (2011), classification performance is affected by physical distance between response keys – indicating a cognitive tendency to represent categories in spatial code. However, previous evidence for a key distance effect (KDE) from a color-naming Stroop task is inconclusive as to whether: (a) key separation automatically leads to an internal spatial representation of non-spatial stimulus characteristics in participants, or if the KDE rather depends on physical spatial characteristics of the stimulus configuration; (b) the KDE attenuates the Stroop interference effect. We therefore first adopted the original Stroop task in Experiment 1, confirming that wider key distance facilitated responses, but did not modulate the Stroop effect as was previously found. In Experiments 2 and 3 we controlled potential mediator variables in the original design. When we did not display instructions about stimulus-response mappings, thereby removing the unintended spatial context from the Stroop stimuli, no KDE emerged. Presenting the instructions at a central position in Experiment 4 confirmed that key separation alone is not sufficient for a KDE, but correspondence between spatial configurations of stimuli and responses is also necessary. Evidence indicates that the KDE on Stroop performance is due to known mechanisms of stimulus-response compatibility and response discriminability. The KDE does, however, not demonstrate a general disposition to represent any stimulus in spatial code. PMID:24642888

  8. In vitro friction of stainless steel arch wire-bracket combinations in air and different aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, S; Berradja, A; Celis, J-P; Willems, G

    2005-05-01

    To investigate the in vitro coefficient of friction of stainless steel arch wire-bracket combinations under fretting contact test conditions performed in air and in different aqueous solutions, like Ringer solution, Ringer with addition of a buffer, Ringer with addition of glucose, and Coca Cola. The fretting test set-up used allowed to control on-line the contact configuration and the positioning of the contacting parts. A specific positioning method was used to achieve a parallel alignment of arch wire and bracket slot. The effect of arch wire size, roughness, and test environment were investigated. It was found that the aqueous solutions act as a lubricant compared to air. Friction was affected by the arch wire width while the roughness was found to have a limited effect. Stainless steel 0.018'' x 0.025'' arch wires exhibited higher frictional forces than stainless steel 0.017'' x 0.025'' arch wires on sliding against stainless steel 0.018'' x 0.025'' brackets in the selected test environments when tested under identical fretting test conditions. The wear damage on the arch wire after these in-vitro fretting tests was investigated. It revealed that these in-vitro tests are governed by a competition between oxidational wear and abrasive wear taking place at contact areas between brackets and arch wires. For all aqueous solutions a lower coefficient of friction was found compared to tests performed in ambient air.

  9. Effect of inclusions on microstructure and toughness of deposited metals of self-shielded flux cored wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Tianli; Li, Zhuoxin; Kou, Sindo; Jing, Hongyang; Li, Guodong; Li, Hong; Jin Kim, Hee

    2015-01-01

    The effect of inclusions on the microstructure and toughness of the deposited metals of self-shielded flux cored wires was investigated by optical microscopy, electron microscopy and mechanical testing. The deposited metals of three different wires showed different levels of low temperature impact toughness at −40 °C mainly because of differences in the properties of inclusions. The inclusions formed in the deposited metals as a result of deoxidation caused by the addition of extra Al–Mg alloy and ferromanganese to the flux. The inclusions, spherical in shape, were mixtures of Al 2 O 3 and MgO. Inclusions predominantly Al 2 O 3 and 0.3–0.8 μm in diameter were effective for nucleation of acicular ferrite. However, inclusions predominantly MgO were promoted by increasing Mg in the flux and were more effective than Al 2 O 3 inclusions of the same size. These findings suggest that the control of inclusions can be an effective way to improve the impact toughness of the deposited metal

  10. Tilt mode stability scaling in field-reversed configurations with finite Larmor radius effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasawa, Naotaka; Ishida, Akio; Steinhauer, Loren C.

    2000-01-01

    The marginal stability of a static plasma with finite-Larmor-radius (FLR) effects depends on a combination of the FLR effect and the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) potential energy. For the tilt mode in a field-reversed configuration (FRC) previous computations of these two factors led to a prediction of stability for S * ≤(3-5)E where S * is the macroscale parameter (separatrix radius/ion skin depth) and E is the elongation (separatrix half length/separatrix radius). This prediction explained the observed stability of most experiments. However, recent computations of actual MHD eigenfunctions indicate that the MHD growth rate has a much weaker scaling with elongation than previously believed. As a consequence, most of the long-lived, stable FRC experiments lie in the region predicted to be unstable. It appears then that the stability of FRC experiments is not explained by FLR effects in a static equilibrium. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  11. Multi-state effective Hamiltonian and size-consistency corrections in stochastic configuration interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten-no, Seiichiro L.

    2017-12-01

    Model space quantum Monte Carlo (MSQMC) is an extension of full configuration interaction QMC that allows us to calculate quasi-degenerate and excited electronic states by sampling the effective Hamiltonian in the model space. We introduce a novel algorithm based on the state-selective partitioning for the effective Hamiltonian using left eigenvectors to calculate several electronic states simultaneously at much less computational cost than the original MSQMC with the energy-dependent partitioning. The sampling of walkers in MSQMC is analyzed in the single reference limit using a stochastic algorithm for higher-order perturbation energies by the analogy of the deterministic case utilizing a full configuration interaction program. We further develop size-consistency corrections of the initiator adaptation (i-MSQMC) in three different ways, i.e., the coupled electron pair approximation, a posteriori, and second-order perturbative corrections. It is clearly demonstrated that most of the initiator error is originating from the deficiency of proper scaling of correlation energy due to its truncated CI nature of the initiator approximation and that the greater part of the error can be recovered by the size-consistency corrections developed in this work.

  12. Developing An Effective Strategy to Configure Assembly Systems Using Lean Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Eswaramoorthi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing industry has been pushed to adopt more effective production strategies to meet the challenges of shorter life cycle, higher quality, lower cost and wider variety of customer demands. This increased emphasis on achieving highly adaptive manufacturing with reduction in manufacturing costs and better utilization of manufacturing resources force to implementing new and efficient management techniques in their manufacturing operations. Some of the established tools in this context are lean practices. In manufacturing, assembly is one of the major activities that combine the machined components into final product. Decision on appropriate facility layout and viable assembly sequence (line balancing adaptable to takt time requirement with cost benefit is a challenging task. This paper proposes an integrated cost model for a typical assembly process to determine cost per part more precisely by considering seven types of "contributing factors". This procedure is performed under different takt time conditions to configure the assembly system in terms of cost per piece and to decide the adaptable layout. A prototype assembly system is established in this research to demonstrate the effectiveness of the cost model. The results show that there are significant variations in cost per piece with respect to changes in layout configurations and takt time.

  13. Does the Vilkovisky-De Witt effective action in quantum gravity depend on the configuration space metric?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odintsov, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    The dependence on the configuration space metric of the Vilkovisky-De Witt effective action in quantum gravity is discussed. As an example d-dimensional Einstein gravity on the flat background R d or R k x T d-k is considered, where the one-loop Vilkovisky-De Witt effective action with the one-parameter dependent configuration space metric is calculated. The dependence on the configuration space metric of the Vilkovisky-De Witt EA in gravity on the space R 4 x S 1 , has been investigated for the first time by Huggins, Kunstatter, Leivo and Toms. (orig.)

  14. Noncontextual Wirings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Barbara; Cabello, Adán; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Aolita, Leandro

    2018-03-01

    Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory necessary for certain models of quantum computation and communication. Serious steps have therefore been taken towards a formal framework for contextuality as an operational resource. However, the main ingredient of a resource theory—a concrete, explicit form of free operations of contextuality—was still missing. Here we provide such a component by introducing noncontextual wirings: a class of contextuality-free operations with a clear operational interpretation and a friendly parametrization. We characterize them completely for general black-box measurement devices with arbitrarily many inputs and outputs. As applications, we show that the relative entropy of contextuality is a contextuality monotone and that maximally contextual boxes that serve as contextuality bits exist for a broad class of scenarios. Our results complete a unified resource-theoretic framework for contextuality and Bell nonlocality.

  15. Effect of a strain on the magnetotransport properties of Bi wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condrea, E.; Gilewski, A.; Muntyanu, F.

    2017-08-01

    Measurements of the longitudinal resistance and Seebeck coefficient of Bi wires in a high magnetic field have revealed some anomalies in a magnetic field far above the quantum limit of the electrons; the most prominent feature is a sharp peak of magnetoresistance at 33 T. The observed correlation between a simultaneous shift of the position of the anomaly and the quantum limit of light electrons in a magnetic field during modification of the electronic structure under strain suggests that the unidentified peak can be attributed to the complex structure of the lowest Landau level of light electrons occurring in high magnetic fields.

  16. The effect of electric spot-welding on the mechanical properties of different orthodontic wire alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard Euler Andrade Gomes Nascimento; Rogério Lacerda dos Santos; Matheus Melo Pithon; Mônica Tirre de Souza Araújo; Matilde Gonçalves Nojima; Lincoln Issamu Nojima

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that there is a direct relationship between surface structure and tensile strength of orthodontic alloys submitted to different levels of welding current. Three types of alloys were assessed. One hundred and eight cross-sectional test specimens ("X") were made, 18 for each wire combination, and divided into 6 groups: SS (steel-steel); SN (steel-NiTi); SB (steel-Beta-Ti); NN (NiTi-NiTi); NB (NiTi-Beta-Ti) and BB (Beta-Ti-Beta-Ti), submitted to 6...

  17. Steady-state numerical modeling of size effects in micron scale wire drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Kristian Jørgensen; Nielsen, Kim Lau; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2017-01-01

    convergence without dealing with the transient regime, but still fully accounts for the history dependence as-well as the elastic unloading. Thus, it forms the basis for a comprehensive parameter study. During the deformation process in wire drawing, large plastic strain gradients evolve in the contact region....... This creates a need for a higher order plasticity theory to accurately predict the material behaviour across the multiple scales involved. The present study reveals that the contribution from an energetic (recoverable) length parameter is limited, while the corresponding dissipative contribution dominates...

  18. Evaluation of video detection systems, volume 1 : effects of configuration changes in the performance of video detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    The effects of modifying the configuration of three video detection (VD) systems (Iteris, Autoscope, and Peek) : are evaluated in daytime and nighttime conditions. Four types of errors were used: false, missed, stuck-on, and : dropped calls. The thre...

  19. Effects of cooling rate on vermicular graphite percentage in a brake drum produced by one-step cored wire injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-shuang Feng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research, a vermicular graphite cast iron brake drum was produced by cored wire injection in a one-step method. Silica sand and low-density alumina-silicate ceramic were used as molding materials in order to investigate the effect of cooling rate on percentage of vermicular graphite and mechanical properties of the brake drum casting. Several thermocouples were inserted into the casting in the desired positions to measure the temperature change. By means of one-step cored wire injection, the two residual concentrations of Mg and RE were effectively controlled in the ranges of 0.013%-0.017% and 0.019%-0.025%, respectively, which are crucial for the production of vermicular graphite cast iron and the formation of vermicular graphite. In addition, the cooling rate had a significant effect on the vermicular graphite percentage. In the case of the silica mold brake drum casting, there was an obvious difference in the cooling rate with the wall change, leading to a change in vermicular graphite percentage from 70.8% to 90%. In the low-density alumina-silicate ceramic mold casting, no obvious change in temperature was detected by the thermocouples and the percentage of the vermicular graphite was stable at 85%. Therefore, the vermicular graphite cast iron brake drum with a better combination of mechanical properties could be obtained.

  20. Note: Improved wire-wound heater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Ricardo G; Vitoux, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    The authors have measured, at cryogenic temperature, the upper limit of the heat transfer in different configurations of a wire-wound heater. We found that the heat transferred has an upper limit of about 15 W/cm(2) and is dependent on the diameter of the wire. In this paper, we present three ways of increasing the heat transferred by this type of heater and its application in different continuous flow cryostats.

  1. Carbon nanotube field-effect devices with asymmetric electrode configuration by contact geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotprayoonsak, P.; Talukdar, D.; Ahlskog, M.

    2014-06-01

    We have studied experimentally the conductive properties of single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) based field-effect type devices, with different contact geometries at the connecting electrode. The device designs are asymmetric with one end of the SWNT having the metal electrode deposited on top and immersing it, while at the other end, the SWNT is on top of the electrode. The devices were made with either gold or palladium as electrode materials, of which the latter resulted in different behavior of the different contact types. This is argued to be caused by the existence of a thin insulating layer of surface adsorbents on the palladium, possibly Pd5O4, the effect of which is enhanced by the 1D nature of the contact area in the configuration with SWNT on top of electrode.

  2. Effects of electrode material and configuration on the characteristics of planar resistive switching devices

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, H.Y.

    2013-11-13

    We report that electrode engineering, particularly tailoring the metal work function, measurement configuration and geometric shape, has significant effects on the bipolar resistive switching (RS) in lateral memory devices based on self-doped SrTiO3 (STO) single crystals. Metals with different work functions (Ti and Pt) and their combinations are used to control the junction transport (either ohmic or Schottky-like). We find that the electric bias is effective in manipulating the concentration of oxygen vacancies at the metal/STO interface, influencing the RS characteristics. Furthermore, we show that the geometric shapes of electrodes (e.g., rectangular, circular, or triangular) affect the electric field distribution at the metal/oxide interface, thus plays an important role in RS. These systematic results suggest that electrode engineering should be deemed as a powerful approach toward controlling and improving the characteristics of RS memories. 2013 Author(s).

  3. The effect of electric spot-welding on the mechanical properties of different orthodontic wire alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Euler Andrade Gomes Nascimento

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that there is a direct relationship between surface structure and tensile strength of orthodontic alloys submitted to different levels of welding current. Three types of alloys were assessed. One hundred and eight cross-sectional test specimens ("X" were made, 18 for each wire combination, and divided into 6 groups: SS (steel-steel; SN (steel-NiTi; SB (steel-Beta-Ti; NN (NiTi-NiTi; NB (NiTi-Beta-Ti and BB (Beta-Ti-Beta-Ti, submitted to 6 spot-welding procedures at different levels of current (Super Micro Ponto 3000. Student-Newman-Keuls, Wilcoxon signed-rank, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used (p < .05. Statistical difference was found between SN group and all the other alloy combinations (p < .05. Initial roughness of alloys ranged from .04 to .55 Ra, with statistical difference between groups (p < .001. The hypothesis was rejected and the tensile strength of Ti-alloys combinations Steel × Beta-Ti was significantly affected by the current level at P50, which changed the properties and structure of the wires.

  4. Modeling and Measuring the Effects of Mutual Impedance on Multi-Cell CMUT Configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K K; Kupnik, M; Lee, H J; Khuri-Yakub, B T; Wygant, I O

    2010-10-11

    This paper presents a numerical method for calculating the frequency response of a CMUT with a large number of cells. In a multi-cell configuration, commonly found in CMUTs, each cell is affected by the acoustic loading from neighboring cells. Thus, for an accurate model of a multi-cell CMUT element it is better to consider the mutual acoustic impedance instead of the acoustic impedance of a single cell only. We calculate the velocity of every cell (plate movement) simultaneously, with the mutual impedance effects taken into account. The model predicts that the cells exhibit different frequency responses, based on their locations in the element. We used a laser interferometer to validate the model by measuring the displacement response of a CMUT immersed in vegetable oil. The device has 169 circular cells (single crystal silicon plates, 500 nm thick, 21 μm radii) placed in a hexagonal cell arrangement. The measurement results agree well with the numerical results. The computation time of our method is significantly shorter than finite element based calculations. Our model can be used for finding optimized cell configurations for CMUTs utilized in various applications such as medical imaging and therapeutic treatment.

  5. Measured neutron beam line shielding effectiveness of several iron/polyethylene configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legate, G.L.; Howe, M.L.; Mundis, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Neutron and gamma-ray leakage measurements were taken at various stages of shield construction of neutron flight path 5 (the Lash-up flight path) at LANSCE, to compare the relative effectiveness of several configurations. Dose equivalent rates were determined for three categories: ''low-energy neutrons'', below 20 MeV; ''high- energy neutrons'', above 20 MeV; and gamma rays, as measured by hand-held survey instruments. The low energy neutrons were measured by activation of an indium foil in a paraffin-filled cadmium canister, sized to be generally insensitive above 20 MeV. High-energy neutrons were measured by (n,2n) production of Carbon 11 in a plastic scintillator with a 20-MeV threshold. Thermal neutrons were not measured at the shield-leakage test points. Room-scattered neutrons were observed by Albatross IV detector readings, which were taken beside the shield as a measure of variation of room background as the shield configuration changed. 1 fig., 1 tab

  6. Effects of different set configurations on barbell velocity and displacement during a clean pull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haff, G Gregory; Whitley, Adrian; McCoy, Lora B; O'Bryant, Harold S; Kilgore, J Lon; Haff, Erin E; Pierce, Kyle; Stone, Michael H

    2003-02-01

    The effects of 3 types of set configurations (cluster, traditional, and undulating) on barbell kinematics were investigated in the present study. Thirteen men (track and field = 8; Olympic weightlifters = 5) (mean +/- SEM age, 23.4 +/- 1.1 years; height, 181.3 +/- 2.1 cm; body mass, 89.8 +/- 4.2 kg) performed 1 set of 5 repetitions in a cluster, traditional, and undulating fashion at 90 and 120% of their 1 repetition maximum (1RM) power clean (119.0 +/- 4.3 kg). All data were collected at 50 Hz and analyzed with a V-Scope Weightlifting Analysis System. Peak velocity (PV) and peak displacement (PD) were analyzed for each repetition and averaged for each set type. Results indicated that a significantly (p < 0.016) higher PV occurred during the cluster set when compared with the traditional sets at both intensities. PD was significantly higher than traditional sets at the 120% intensity. The present study suggests set configuration can affect PV and PD during clean pulls.

  7. Irradiation and annealing effects of deuteron irradiated NbTi and V3Ga multifilamentary composite wires at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seibt, E.

    1975-01-01

    To study the effects of low-temperature irradiation on technological type II-superconductors, NbTi and V 3 Ga multifilamentary composite wires, the critical current I/sub c/ and transition temperature T/sub c/ were measured before and after irradiation with 50-MeV deuterons at 10 and 15 0 K, respectively. While the irradiation effects on I/sub c/ and T/sub c/ of NbTi are substantially unaffected, the V 3 Ga wires undergo a reduction in I/sub c/ of about 50 percent and T/sub c/ decreases from 14.7 +- 0.1 0 K to 12.3 +- 0.1 0 K at a total deuteron flux of 2.6 x 10 17 cm -2 . Annealing experiments at room temperature and 100 0 C show only a small recovery of the superconducting properties up to 15 percent. The field dependence of the volume pinning force densities P/sub V/ was determined and the results are shown to be consistent with a qualitative dynamic pinning model

  8. Effect of Slow External Flow on Flame Spreading over Solid Material: Opposed Spreading over Polyethylene Wire Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, O.; Nishizawa, K.; Ito, K.; Olson, S. L.; Kashigawa, T.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of slow external flow on solid combustion is very important from the view of fire safety in space because the solid material in spacecraft is generally exposed to the low air flow for ventilation. Further, the effect of low external flow on fuel combustion is generally fundamental information for industrial combustion system, such as gas turbine, boiler incinerator and so on. However, it is difficult to study the effect of low external flow on solid combustion in normal gravity, because the buoyancy-induced flow strongly disturbs the flow field, especially for low flow velocity. In this research therefore, the effect of slow external flow on opposed flame spreading over polyethylene (PE) wire insulation have been investigated in microgravity. The microgravity environment was provided by Japan Microgravity Center (JAMIC) in Japan and KC-135 at NASA GRC. The tested flow velocity range is 0-30cm/s with different oxygen concentration and inert gas component.

  9. Effect of canard position on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a close-coupled canard-wing-body configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Eugene L.

    1992-01-01

    The thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically to investigate the effects of canard vertical position on a close-coupled canard-wing-body configuration at a transonic Mach number of 0.90 and angles of attack ranging from -2 to 12 degrees. Canard-wing interactions are investigated for high-, mid- and low-canard positions. The computational results show favorable canard-wing interactions for the high- and mid-canard configurations. The unfavorable lift and drag characteristics for the low-canard configuration are examined by analyses of the low-canard flowfield structure.

  10. Accuracy of third-order bends of nickel-titanium wires and the effect of high and low pressure during memorizing heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Thomas; Hohoff, Ariane; Wiechmann, Dirk; Sütfeld, Jan; Helm, Dirk

    2004-10-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy of third-order bends of nickel-titanium wires and determined the effect of high and low pressure for maintaining the wire shape during memorizing heat treatment. A computer-aided bending machine was used to incorporate 200 randomly determined torsional angles between 0 degrees and 60 degrees into 30 linear 0.016 x 0.022-in NeoSentalloy F80 (GAC International, Central Islip, NY) wires. The torsional bendings were randomized into 2 groups. Bends assigned to group 1 (n = 100) received heat treatment of 1.6 MPa (16 bar) pressure, and bends assigned to group 2 (n = 100) received heat treatment of 50 MPa (500 bar) pressure. Cross-sectional cuts from the bent wires were prepared by using standard metallurgical techniques, and the torsional angles were analyzed under computer control. The results of our study show that third-order bends 30 degrees but 40 degrees , the bending error with both methods is clinically unacceptable. In addition to the variability in the dimension and composition of nickel-titanium wires, the scale of the incorporated plastic deformations makes a substantial contribution to the bending error. As far as permitted by the clinical situation, then, the bend should be distributed over the maximum possible wire length. Third-order bends in the first rectangular pseudoelastic nickel-titanium wires represent an efficient means of effecting torque at an early stage. This individualization allows the full therapeutic potential of these archwires to be exploited right from the initial phase of treatment.

  11. Effect of Different Types of Toothpaste on the Frictional Resistance Between Orthodontic Stainless Steel Brackets and Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh Nik, Tahereh; Hooshmand, Tabassom

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different types of toothpaste on the frictional resistance between stainless steel brackets and archwires. Materials and Methods: Ninety stainless steel orthodontic brackets with stainless steel wires were bonded to bovine teeth and were divided into 6 groups for application of the following toothpastes: Colgate® Total® Advanced Whitening, Colgate® Total® Pro Gum Health, Colgate® Anticavity, Ortho.Kin®, and Sunstar GUM® Ortho toothpastes. No toothpaste was applied in the control group. Each group was brushed by a brushing machine with the use of the designated solution for 4.5 minutes. The frictional force was measured in a universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 10 mm/minute over a 5-mm archwire. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) at the 0.05 significance level. Results: The frictional resistance values of Ortho.Kin® and GUM® Ortho toothpastes and the control group were not significantly different (P>0.05). However, there were significant differences between the frictional resistance values of Colgate® Total® Pro Gum Health and Colgate® Anticavity toothpastes with that of the control group (Porthodontic toothpastes did not increase the frictional resistance between the orthodontic stainless steel brackets and wires. PMID:29296113

  12. Thermal cure effects on electromechanical properties of conductive wires by direct ink write for 4D printing and soft machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Quanyi; Dunn, Conner K.; Wang, Lei; Dunn, Martin L.; Qi, H. Jerry; Wang, Tiejun

    2017-04-01

    Recent developments in soft materials and 3D printing are promoting the rapid development of novel technologies and concepts, such as 4D printing and soft machines, that in turn require new methods for fabricating conductive materials. Despite the ubiquity of silver nanoparticles (NPs) in the conducting electrodes of printed electronic devices, their potential use in stretchable conductors has not been fully explored in 4D printing and soft machines. This paper studies the effect of thermal cure conditions on conductivity and electro-mechanical behaviors of silver ink by the direct ink write (DIW) printing approach. We found that the electro-mechanical properties of silver wires can be tailored by controlling cure time and cure temperature to achieve conductivity as well as stretchability. For the silver NP ink we used in the experiments, silver wires cured at 80 °C for 10-30 min have conductivity >1% bulk silver, Young’s modulus printed silver ink patterns on the surface of 3D printed polymer parts, with the future goal of constructing fully 3D printed arbitrarily formed soft and stretchable devices and of applying them to 4D printing. We demonstrated a fully printed functional soft-matter sensor and a circuit element that can be stretched by as much as 45%.

  13. The effect of mandrel configuration on the warpage in pultrusion of rectangular hollow profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Akkerman, Remko

    2014-01-01

    Thermo-mechanical process simulation of an industrially pultruded rectangular hollow pro- file is presented. Glass/polyester is used for the continuous filament mat (CFM) and the uni-directional (UD) layers. The process induced residual distortions together with the temperature and degree of cure...... pultrusion company. In addition, the predicted warpage behaviour is further analysed by adjusting the mandrel length as well as including the mandrel heating. Using the proposed process model, the effect of the mandrel configurations on the quality of the pultrusion is investigated in terms of temperature......, degree of cure and distortions.These unwanted residual distortions may lead to not meeting the desired geometrical tolerances e.g. warpage of pultruded window frames and hollow profiles as well as spring-in of L-shaped profiles, etc....

  14. Joint  effects of habitat configuration and temporal stochasticity on population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer M. Fraterrigo; Scott M. Pearson; Monica G. Turner

    2009-01-01

    Habitat configuration and temporal stochasticity in the environment are recognized as important drivers of population structure, yet few studies have examined the combined influence of these factors....

  15. Stretched Wire Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowden, Gordon; /SLAC

    2005-09-06

    Stretched wires are beginning to play an important role in the alignment of accelerators and synchrotron light sources. Stretched wires are proposed for the alignment of the 130 meter long LCLS undulator. Wire position technology has reached sub-micron resolution yet analyses of perturbations to wire straightness are hard to find. This paper considers possible deviations of stretched wire from the simple 2-dimensional catenary form.

  16. EFFECT OF SITTING POSTURE ON THORACIC CONFIGURATION AND CHANGES IN VOLUME OF HEMITHORACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shōbo A

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poor posture is detrimental to breathing. Our purpose was to investigate the effect of upright and hunchbacked sitting on thoracic configuration and changes in the volume of the thorax during quiet and volitional deep breathing. Methods: The participants were 11 healthy men with a mean age of 21.6 years, mean body mass of 59.8 kg, mean height of 169.7 cm and a body mass index of 20.7 kg/m2. Eighty-four reflective markers were placed on the trunk. Three-dimensional motion analysis measured the volume within the hemithoraces. To calculate upper and lower thoracic volumes, six imaginary hexahedra were visualized using four reflective markers for each on both aspects of the thorax. Each hexahedron was divided into three imaginary triangular pyramids to calculate positional vectors. Finally, the volume for the hexahedra and triangular pyramids was calculated. Upper thoracic volume encompassed a space from the sternal notch to a midpoint on the ventral aspect of the third rib and the lower thoracic volume from the xiphoid process to the midpoint on tenth rib’s dorsal aspect. Results: In hunchbacked sitting during quiet breathing the left lower hemithorax yielded a significantly larger volume (p=0.003, and both breathing patterns during inspiration and expiration yielded a significantly greater change in thoracic configuration (p=0.01, p=0.016. Conclusion: Findings suggested that, in a hunchbacked sitting, there was decreased thoracic asymmetry with re-establishment of thoracic vertebral alignment, consequently stabilizing the sitting position, but breathing was suppressed and tidal volume decreased. Physiotherapy should aim at ensuring correction of hunchbacked posture and maintenance of thoracic symmetry.

  17. Experimental investigation of edge sheared flow development and configuration effects in the TJ-II stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrosa, M.A.; Hidalgo, C.; Alonso, A.; Calderon, E.; Orozco, O.; Pablos, J.L. de

    2005-01-01

    Experimental results have shown that the generation of spontaneous perpendicular sheared flow (i.e. the naturally occurring shear layer) requires a minimum plasma density or gradient in the TJ-II stellarator. This finding has been observed by means of multiple plasma diagnostics, including probes, fast cameras, reflectometry and HIBP. The obtained shearing rate of the naturally occurring shear layer results in general comparable to the one observed during biasing-improved confinement regimes. It has been found that there is a coupling between the onset of sheared flow development and an increase in the level of plasma edge fluctuations pointing to turbulence as the main ingredient of the radial electric field drive; once the shear flow develops the level of turbulence tends to decrease. The link between the development of sheared flows and plasma density in TJ-II has been observed in different magnetic configurations and plasma regimes. Preliminary results show that the threshold density value depends on the iota value and on the magnetic ripple (plasma volume). Recent experiments carried out in the LHD stellarator have shown that edge sheared flows are also affected by the magnitude of edge magnetic ripple: the threshold density to trigger edge sheared flows increases with magnetic ripple . Those results have been interpreted as an evidence of the importance of neoclassical effect in the physics of ExB sheared flows. For some TJ-II magnetic configurations with higher edge iota (ι/2π≥ 1.8) there is a sharp increase in the edge density gradient simultaneous to a strong reduction of fluctuations and transport and a slight increase of the shearing rate and perpendicular rotation (≥2 km/s) as density increases above the threshold. The role of the edge ripple, the presence of edge rational surfaces and properties of turbulent transport are considered as possible ingredients to explain the spontaneous development of edge sheared flows in TJ-II. (author)

  18. Thermally-induced structural dynamic response of flexural configurations influenced by linear/non-linear thermal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namburu, Raju R.; Tamma, Kumar K.

    1991-01-01

    The thermally-induced strucural dynamic response of flexural configurations influenced by linear/nonlinear thermal effects is presented in conjunction with 'unified' transient approaches for effectively tackling this class of interdisciplinary problems. For illustrative purposes, the flexural structural models are assumed to be of the Euler-Bernoulli type. The purpose of the present paper is to not only provide an understanding of the influence of general linear/nonlinear thermal effects on flexural configurations, but also to provide to the analyst effective computational tools which help preserve a unified technology for the interdisciplinary areas encompassing structural mechanics/dynamics and thermal sciences. Several numerical test models illustrate the representative thermally-induced structural dynamic response of flexural configurations subjected to general linear/nonlinear temperature effects.

  19. Configuration Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcos, A.; Taylor, H. S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper will briefly discuss the reason for and content of configuration management both for new plants and, when adapted, for older plants. It will then address three types of activities a utility may undertake as part of a nuclear CAM program and with which Sargent and Leyden has been actively involved. The first activity is a methodology for preparing design-basis documentation. The second is the identification of essential data required to be kept by the utility in support of the operation of a nuclear plant. The third activity is a computerized classification system of plant components, allowing ready identification of plant functional and physical characteristics. Plant configuration documentation describes plant components, the ways they arranged to interact, and the ways they are enabled to interact. Configuration management, on the other hand, is more than the control of such documentation. It is a dynamic process for ensuring that a plant configuration meets all relevant requirements for safety and economy, even while the configuration changes and even while the requirements change. Configuration management for a nuclear plant is so complex that it must be implemented in phases and modules. It takes advantage of and integrates existing programs. Managing complexity and streamlining the change process become important additional objectives of configuration management. The example activities fulfill essential goals of an overall CAM program: definition of design baseline, definition of essential plant data, and classification of plant components

  20. Progress in Effect of Nano-modified Coatings and Welding Process Parameters on Wear of Contact Tube for Non-copper Coated Solid Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Zhuo-xin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Environment-friendly non-copper coated solid wire is the main developing trend for gas shielded solid wires, whereas wear of contact tube limits their wide application. The effect of nano-modified coatings and welding process parameters on wear of contact tube for non-copper coated solid wires was reviewed. It was found that the wear of contact tube can be reduced due to the formation of tribo-films on the rubbing surfaces of welding wires against contact tube; it is feasible to decrease contact tube wear when non-copper coated solid wires are coated with nano-modified lubricants, thereby displaying excellent lubricating and thermal or electrical conduction characteristics. The wear of contact tube increases with the increase of welding current. The wear of contact tube is worse in direct-current electrode positive (DCEP than in direct-current electrode negative (DCEN. Arc ablation and electrical erosion are the dominant wear mechanisms of contact tube.

  1. Effect of sheath material and reaction overpressure on Ag protrusions into the TiO2 insulation coating of Bi-2212 round wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, I.; Jiang, J.; Matras, M.; Trociewitz, U. P.; Lu, J.; Kametani, F.; Larbalestier, D.; Hellstrom, E.

    2017-12-01

    In order to develop a high current density in coils, Bi-2212 wires must be electrically discrete in tight winding packs. It is vital to use an insulating layer that is thin, fulfils the dielectric requirements, and can survive the heat treatment whose maximum temperature reaches 890 °C in oxygen. A thin (20-30 µm) ceramic coating could be better as the insulating layer compared to alumino-silicate braided fiber insulation, which is about 150 μm thick and reacts with the Ag sheathed Bi-2212 wire during heat treatment. At present, TiO2 seems to be the most viable ceramic material for such a thin insulation because it is chemically compatible with Ag and Bi-2212 and its sintering temperature is lower than the maximum temperature used for the Bi-2212 heat treatment. However, recent tests of a large Bi-2212 coil insulated only with TiO2 showed severe electrical shorting between the wires after over pressure heat treatment (OPHT). The origin of the shorting was frequent silver protrusions into the porous TiO2 layer that electrically connected adjacent Bi-2212 wires. To understand the mechanism of this unexpected behaviour, we investigated the effect of sheath material and hydrostatic pressure on Ag protrusions. We found that Ag protrusions occur only when TiO2-insulated Ag-0.2%Mg sheathed wire (Ag(Mg) wire) undergoes OPHT at 50 bar. No Ag protrusions were observed when the TiO2-insulated Ag(Mg) wire was processed at 1 bar. The TiO2-insulated wires sheathed with pure Ag that underwent 50 bar OPHT were also free from Ag protrusions. A key finding is that the Ag protrusions from the Ag(Mg) sheath actually contain no MgO, suggesting that local depletion of MgO facilitates local, heterogeneous deformation of the sheath under hydrostatic overpressure. Our study also suggests that predensifying the Ag(Mg) wire before insulating it with TiO2 and doing the final OPHT can potentially limit Ag protrusions.

  2. The effect of mechano-chemical treatment on structural properties of the drawn TiNi-based alloy wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikeev, Sergey; Hodorenko, Valentina; Gunther, Victor; Chekalkin, Timofey; Kang, Ji-hoon; Kang, Seung-baik

    2018-01-01

    The rapid development of biomedical materials with the advanced functional characteristics is a challenging task because of the growing demands for better material properties in-clinically employed. Modern medical devices that can be implanted into humans have evolved steadily by replacing TiNi-based alloys for titanium and stainless steel. In this study, the effect of the mechano-chemical treatment on structural properties of the matrix and surface layer of the drawn TiNi-based alloy wire was assessed. A range of samples have been prepared using different drawing and etching procedures. It is clear from the results obtained that the fabricated samples show a composite structure comprising the complex matrix and textured oxycarbonitride spitted surface layer. The suggested method of surface treatment is a concept to increase the surface roughness for the enhanced bio-performance and better in vivo integration.

  3. Effect of ageing on mechanical and impact properties of non-quenched and tempered steel wire strengthened by cold forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, X. Y.; Zhao, X. M.; Wang, Z. Z.; Cai, L.; Bai, Y. Q.

    2014-03-01

    The effect of ageing on the mechanical and impact properties of non-quenched and tempered steel wire strengthened by cold forming to an area reduction of 25.5% was investigated by tensile testing, charpy impact tests and scanning electronic microscopy. It was found that when the specimen was aged at 300 °C for 2 h, its tensile strength, yield strength, elongation and impact absorption energy increased by 10.8, 18.1, 44.8 and 19.6%, respectively. In addition the ductile-brittle transition temperature decreased by 5 °C. These improved properties are attributed to the decreasing dislocation density, the formation of sub-grains in a stable condition and the uniform dispersion of a fine precipitation phase during the ageing treatment.

  4. HAM on MHD Convective Flow of a Third grade Fluid through Porous Medium during Wire Coating Analysis with Hall effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, B. Siva Kumar; Surya Narayana Rao, K. V.; Bhuvana Vijaya, R.

    2017-08-01

    In this study, wire coating is performed using MHD convective flow of third grade fluid through porous medium taking Hall current into account. The governing equations are first modelled and then solved analytically by utilizing the Homotopy analysis method (HAM). The convergence of the series solution is established. The effect of pertinent parameters on the velocity field and temperature profile is shown with the help of graphs. It is observed that the velocity profiles increase as the value of visco-elastic third grade fluid parameter β increase and decrease as the Hartmann number M and permeability parameter K increase. It is also observed that the temperature profiles increases as the Brinkman number Br, permeability parameter K, magnetic parameter M and third grade fluid parameter β increase.

  5. A KBE Application for Automatic Aircraft Wire Harness Routing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Z.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.; La Rocca, G.

    2012-01-01

    Wire harness design is an increasingly complex task. Knowledge Based Engineering (KBE) and optimization techniques can be used to support designers in handling this complexity. The wire harness design process can be divided in three main parts, namely electrical design, configuration design and

  6. Numerical simulation of effect of catalyst wire-mesh pressure drop characteristics on flow distribution in catalytic parallel plate steam reformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Haftor Örn; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2012-01-01

    Steam reforming of hydrocarbons using a catalytic plate-type-heat-exchanger (CPHE) reformer is an attractive method of producing hydrogen for a fuel cell-based micro combined-heat-and-power system. In this study the flow distribution in a CPHE reformer, which uses a coated wire-mesh catalyst......, is considered to investigate the effect of catalyst wire-mesh pressure drop characteristics on flow distribution in the CPHE reformer. Flow distribution in a CPHE reformer is rarely uniform due to inlet and exhaust manifold design. Poorly-designed manifolds may lead to severe flow maldistribution, flow reversal...... in some of the CPHE reformer channels and increased overall pressure drop. Excessive flow maldistribution can significantly reduce the CPHE reformer performance. Detailed three-dimensional models are used to investigate the flow distribution at three different catalyst wire-mesh pressure drop coefficients...

  7. The nature of switch cost: task set configuration or carry-over effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Shulan; Liu, Lin-Chao

    2005-02-01

    The primary goal of the present study was to differentiate variants of each class of hypothetical models of task switching. Two event-related potentials, the lateralized readiness potential (LRP) and P300 were analyzed to infer the roles of advance reconfiguration and carry-over effect upon task switching. Participants performed two tasks in a random order, so that on each trial, they either repeated the task from the previous trial or switched to another task. Pre-cues that preceded each stimulus were either informative (task-cueing conditions), specifying which of the two tasks to perform, or uninformative (no task-cueing conditions). The results showed that the mean reaction time (RT) and the interval between stimulus onset and LRP onset were longer for switch than for repeat trials. This suggested that task switching affected processes before LRP onset (including stimulus identification and response selection). A further analysis of P300 confined task switching to the process after the stimulus identification stage. Task cueing, meanwhile, influenced both the latency and peak amplitude of P300, suggesting that the cueing effect occurred prior to the response selection stage. The model of configuration-execution with moderate modifications is a candidate to explain the present results.

  8. Numerical study on the effect of configuration of a simple box solar cooker for boiling water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarita, H.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, a numerical study is carried out to investigate the effect of configuration of a simple box solar cooker. In order to validate the numerical results, a simple a simple solar box cooker with absorber area of 0.835 m × 0.835 m is designed and fabricated. The solar box cooker is employed to boil water by exposing to the solar radiation in Medan city of Indonesia. In the numerical method, a set of transient governing equations are developed. The governing equations are solved using forward time step marching technique. The main objective is to explore the effect of double glasses cover, dimensions of the cooking vessel, and depth of the box cooker to the performance of the solar box cooker. The results show that the experimental and numerical results show good agreement. The performance of the solar box cooker strongly affected by the distance of the double glass cover, the solar cooker depth, and the solar collector length.

  9. Configuration of gun-generated spheromak in effectively closed metal flux conserver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Yushi; Nishikawa, Masahiro; Honda, Yoshihide; Satomi, Norio; Watanabe, Kenji

    1988-01-01

    In the CTCC-II spheromak experiment, the gun-generated plasma is confined in a spheroidal aluminum flux conserver (FC) with a choking coil. This coil produces the additional magnetic field to close perfectly all magnetic surfaces into the FC, i.e. the entrance hole for plasma injection is enable to be closed by magnetic field. Hence the plasma is confined in the effectively closed metal FC. In this experiment the average life time is 1.2 msec, and electron density and temperature are n e = 2 x 10 13 /cc, T e = 30 eV, respectively. The configuration with a flux hole region in which the toroidal magnetic field vanishes around the geometrical axis has been observed in the FC. The radius of the flux hole depends on the condition how the external choking field is applied. The flux hole enhances the magnetic shear near the plasma surfaces and, therefore, has a stabilizing effect even without inserting the central conducting pole. (author)

  10. Effects of background neutral particles on a field-reversed configuration plasma in the translation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzawa, Yoshiki; Asai, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Toshiki

    2008-01-01

    A field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma was translated into a weakly ionized plasma and the effects of heating and particle buildup of the FRC plasma due to the background neutral particles and plasma injection in the translation process were investigated. Improvement of the particle and poloidal flux confinements and delay of onset of n=2 rotational instability were observed in the translation process. It was found that the internal structure of the plasma pressure (plasma temperature and density) at the separatrix and field null was deformed by the particle injection. FRC plasma translation through the background particles was equivalent to an end-on particle beam injection to the FRC plasma. Particles and energy were supplied during the translation. The results obtained for the phenomena of particle supply and plasma heating were also supported by the results of two-dimensional particle simulation. The effects of background particle injection appear to be a promising process for the regeneration of translation kinetic energy to plasma internal energy

  11. Effects of Urban Configuration on Human Thermal Conditions in a Typical Tropical African Coastal City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Lubango Ndetto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A long-term simulation of urban climate was done using the easily available long-term meteorological data from a nearby synoptic station in a tropical coastal city of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The study aimed at determining the effects of buildings’ height and street orientations on human thermal conditions at pedestrian level. The urban configuration was represented by a typical urban street and a small urban park near the seaside. The simulations were conducted in the microscale applied climate model of RayMan, and results were interpreted in terms of the thermal comfort parameters of mean radiant (Tmrt and physiologically equivalent (PET temperatures. PET values, high as 34°C, are observed to prevail during the afternoons especially in the east-west oriented streets, and buildings’ height of 5 m has less effect on the thermal comfort. The optimal reduction of Tmrt and PET values for pedestrians was observed on the nearly north-south reoriented streets and with increased buildings’ height especially close to 100 m. Likewise, buildings close to the park enhance comfort conditions in the park through additional shadow. The study provides design implications and management of open spaces like urban parks in cities for the sake of improving thermal comfort conditions for pedestrians.

  12. Effect of screw configuration, moisture content and particle size of corn grits on properties of extrudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Planinić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extrusion is a modern procedure for processing different types of raw materials and production of wide range of food products, where the corn grits are often used as main raw materials. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the effect of screw configuration (4:1 and 1:1, moisture content (15% and 20% and particle size of corn grits (>500 µm and <500 µm on properties of extrudates. Samples were extruded in the laboratory single screw extruder Brabender 19/20 DN, at temperature profile 135/170/170 °C, using die with 4 mm diameter. Physical and rheological properties, digestibility and starch damage of the obtained extrudates were determined, and results were compared with control samples of non-extruded corn grits. Lower moisture content and usage of screw with compression ratio 4:1 increased expansion ratio and fracturability, but decreased bulk density and hardness of extrudates, regardless of granularity. After extrusion process water absorption index increased, but peak, hot and cold viscosity of all samples decreased, with more pronounced effect in grits extruded with lower moisture content and with screw 4:1. Extrusion caused a reduction of the resistant starch content and increase starch damage of all samples.

  13. Effects of Oxygen, Nitrogen and Fluorine on the Crystallinity of Tungsten by Hot-Wire Assisted ALD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Mengdi; Aarnink, Antonius A.I.; Wolters, Rob A. M.; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Kovalgin, Alexey Y.

    2017-01-01

    A heated tungsten filament (wire) is well known to generate atomic hydrogen (at-H) by catalytically cracking molecular hydrogen (H2) upon contact. This mechanism is employed in our work on hot-wire (HW) assisted atomic layer deposition (HWALD), a novel energy-enhancement technique. HWALD has been

  14. Evaluation of the effect of three mouthwashes on the mechanical properties and surface morphology of several orthodontic wires: Anin vitrostudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghili, Hossein; Yassaei, Sogra; Eslami, Farzaneh

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the changes in the mechanical properties and surface morphology of different orthodontic wires after immersion in three mouthwash solutions. In this in vitro study, five specimens of each of 0.016 inch nickel titanium (NiTi), coated NiTi, and stainless steel orthodontic wires were selected. The specimens were immersed in 0.05% sodium fluoride (NaF), 0.2% chlorhexidine, Zataria multiflora extract, and distilled water (control) for 1.5 h at 37°C. After immersion, loading and unloading forces at 0.5 mm intervals and the elastic modulus (E) of the wires were measured using a three-point bending test. Surface changes were observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Two-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni tests were used to compare the properties of the wires. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Statistically significant changes in loading and unloading forces and E of the orthodontic wires were observed after immersion in different mouthwash solutions ( P wires ( P > 0.05). SEM images showed surface changes in some types ofthe orthodontic wires. The mouthwashes used in this study seemed to change the mechanical properties and surface quality of the orthodontic wires.

  15. Effect of dry heat and steam sterilization on load-deflection characteristics of β-titanium wires: An in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Shiva; Sinaee, Neda

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sterilization techniques could affect the characteristics of orthodontic wires. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of steam and dry heat sterilization techniques on load-deflection behavior of five types of β-titanium alloy wires. Materials and Methods: The samples consisted of 30 straight lengths of five types of β-titanium alloy wires: Titanium Molybdenum Alloy (TMA) Low Friction (TMAL), TMA Low Friction Colored (HONE), Resolve (RES), BetaForce (BETA), and BETA CNA (CNA). Thirty wire segments were divided into three groups of 10. Group 1 was the control group and the group 2 samples were sterilized by dry heat in an oven (60 minutes at 160°C) and group 3 by steam in an autoclave (15 minutes at 121°C). Then all the wire samples underwent a three-point bending test in a testing machine to evaluate load-deflection properties. Data was analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA and Scheffé's test (α = 0.05). Results: The results showed that dry heat sterilization significantly increased force levels during both loading and unloading of CNA, BETA and RES and during loading of HONE (P 0.05). Conclusion: It appears dry heat sterilization increases stiffness of RES, BETA, CNA and HONE but autoclave sterilization did not have any effect on load-deflection characteristics of most of the β-titanium wires tested, indicating that clinicians who want to provide maximum safety for their patients can autoclave TMAL, RES and CNA before applying them. PMID:23559917

  16. Computational study for the effects of coil configuration on blood flow characteristics in coil-embolized cerebral aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Tomohiro; Ii, Satoshi; Shigematsu, Tomoyoshi; Fujinaka, Toshiyuki; Hirata, Masayuki; Ozaki, Tomohiko; Wada, Shigeo

    2017-05-01

    Coil embolization of cerebral aneurysms with inhomogeneous coil distribution leads to an incomplete occlusion of the aneurysm. However, the effects of this factor on the blood flow characteristics are still not fully understood. This study investigates the effects of coil configuration on the blood flow characteristics in a coil-embolized aneurysm using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The blood flow analysis in the aneurysm with coil embolization was performed using a coil deployment (CD) model, in which the coil configuration was constructed using a physics-based simulation of the CD. In the CFD results, total flow momentum and kinetic energy in the aneurysm gradually decayed with increasing coil packing density (PD), regardless of the coil configuration attributed to deployment conditions. However, the total shear rate in the aneurysm was relatively high and the strength of the local shear flow varied based on the differences in coil configuration, even at adequate PDs used in clinical practice (20-25 %). Because the sufficient shear rate reduction is a well-known factor in the blood clot formation occluding the aneurysm inside, the present study gives useful insight into the effects of coil configuration on the treatment efficiency of coil embolization.

  17. The Near-Race and Other-Race Effect in Taiwanese Adults: Exploring the Featural versus Configural Face Discrimination Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Fong Wang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Other-race-effect (ORE refers to the observation that we can recognize own-race faces better than other-race faces (Meissner & Brigham, 2001. Yet, whether featural or configural face processing might contribute to other-race effect is still unclear. In the present study, we tested Taiwanese adults with faces of four ethnic groups (Taiwanese, Philippine, Caucasian, African and each with four levels of discriminability: Easy (change configuration and component: change identity, Medium (change component: change eyes, Hard-I (change configuration: widen eye spacing, and Hard-II (change configuration: mouth moved up. We adopted the visual paired-comparison task with two-alternative-forced-choice (2AFC procedure. The overall results showed that accuracy decreased and response time increased as the stimulus difficulty increased for each race. The accuracy was highest and the response time was lowest for the Taiwanese easy condition, which suggests an own-race advantage. In addition, the pattern of response time for Philippine faces was similar to that of Taiwanese faces and was shorter than Caucasian faces in the medium and Hard-I conditions. In conclusion, our study had two main findings. First, Philippine faces were seen as more like own-race faces rather than other-race faces. Second, both featural and configural face processing contribute to the other-race-effect.

  18. The effect of test configuration on the true operating conditions of PEM fuel cells. Paper no. IGEC-1-124

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, T.; Li, X.

    2005-01-01

    The operating conditions of a single PEM fuel cell can be significantly affected by the configuration in which the fuel cell test is setup. This study investigates the effect on the gas dewpoint temperature of not insulating the inlet fittings to a PEM fuel cell and the effect of non-optimal stack control thermocouple placement on fuel cell stack operating temperature. Both of these setup configurations can significantly affect fuel cell membrane humidification conditions, especially in a single fuel cell as demonstrated through the sample test conditions presented in this paper. (author)

  19. Configuration optimization of series flow double-effect water-lithium bromide absorption refrigeration systems by cost minimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussati, Sergio F.; Cignitti, Stefano; Mansouri, Seyed Soheil

    2018-01-01

    An optimal process configuration for double-effect water-lithium bromide absorption refrigeration systems with series flow – where the solution is first passed through the high-temperature generator – is obtained by minimization of the total annual cost for a required cooling capacity. To this end......W) and the temperature of the cooling water (15–35 °C). The results of this work motivate to apply the simultaneous optimization approach to seek for new multi-effect absorption refrigeration system configurations with parallel and reverse flow as well as other series flow arrangements that minimize the total annual...

  20. Effect of Different Types of Toothpaste on the Frictional Resistance between Orthodontic Stainless Steel Brackets and Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Hosseinzadeh Nik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different types of toothpaste on the frictional resistance between stainless steel brackets and archwires.Materials and Methods: Ninety stainless steel orthodontic brackets with stainless steel wires were bonded to bovine teeth and were divided into 6 groups for application of the following toothpastes: Colgate® Total® Advanced Whitening, Colgate® Total® Pro Gum Health, Colgate® Anticavity, Ortho.Kin®, and Sunstar GUM® Ortho toothpastes. No toothpaste was applied in the control group. Each group was brushed by a brushing machine with the use of the designated solution for 4.5 minutes. The frictional force was measured in a universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 10 mm/minute over a 5-mm archwire. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA at the 0.05 significance level.Results: The frictional resistance values of Ortho.Kin® and GUM® Ortho toothpastes and the control group were not significantly different (P>0.05. However, there were significant differences between the frictional resistance values of Colgate® Total® Pro Gum Health and Colgate® Anticavity toothpastes with that of the control group (P<0.05. The highest and lowest frictional resistance values were related to Colgate® Total® Pro Gum Health toothpaste and the control group, respectively.Conclusions: Among the evaluated toothpastes, the orthodontic toothpastes did not increase the frictional resistance between the orthodontic stainless steel brackets and wires.

  1. Modified tension band wiring technique for olecranon fractures: where and how should the K-wires be inserted to avoid articular penetration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özsoy, Mehmet Hakan; Kızılay, Onur; Günenç, Ceren; Özsoy, Arzu; Demiryürek, Deniz; Hayran, Mutlu; Erçakmak, Burcu; Sakaoğulları, Abdurrahman

    2015-01-01

    Articular penetration of K-wires is a possible complication of the modified tension band wiring technique. However, there is no clear information or evidence regarding the entry point or introduction angle for K-wires to avoid this complication. The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the effect of varying K-wire insertion points and angles on the risk for articular penetration during modified tension band wiring for olecranon fractures. All anatomical measurements were made on 50 cadaveric ulnas, and all other measurements were performed on exact foam replications of the 50 cadaveric ulnas. Morphometric measurements, including olecranon height and heights of the central, radial and ulnar facets of the semilunar notch, were taken. In the sagittal plane, articular angle and tubercle angle were measured. Two 1.6-mm parallel K-wires were inserted from 0, 5 and 8 mm anterior to the dorsal cortex of the olecranon process at angles of 20° and 30°. K-wire articular penetration was evaluated both visually and radiographically. The mean central, radial and ulnar heights of the semilunar notch were 17.3 mm (14.7-20.0), 16.2 mm (12.0-21.0) and 15.8 mm (13.30-20.5), respectively. We observed no articular penetration at the 0-mm level at 20° and 30° (0 mm 20° and 0 mm 30°, respectively) or at 5 mm 20°. At 8 mm 30° wire introduction, more than 64% articular penetration was observed on either facet. The sequence from least to most likely to cause articular penetration was: 0 mm = 5 mm 20° > 5 mm 30° = 8 mm 20° > 8 mm 30°. The radial height of the semilunar notch was negatively correlated to the risk of articular penetration, when the wire was introduced at 8 mm 30°, 8 mm 20° and 5 mm 30° (all pwiring technique to prevent articular penetration, K-wires should be inserted in the first 5 mm from dorsal cortex of the olecranon process at a maximum angle of 20°. Moreover, if the wires are required to be inserted more anteriorly because of the anatomical

  2. Biological sulfate removal from construction and demolition debris leachate: effect of bioreactor configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijjanapanich, Pimluck; Do, Anh Tien; Annachhatre, Ajit P; Esposito, Giovanni; Yeh, Daniel H; Lens, Piet N L

    2014-03-30

    Due to the contamination of construction and demolition debris (CDD) by gypsum drywall, especially, its sand fraction (CDD sand, CDDS), the sulfate content in CDDS exceeds the posed limit of the maximum amount of sulfate present in building sand (1.73 g sulfate per kg of sand for the Netherlands). Therefore, the CDDS cannot be reused for construction. The CDDS has to be washed in order to remove most of the impurities and to obtain the right sulfate content, thus generating a leachate, containing high sulfate and calcium concentrations. This study aimed at developing a biological sulfate reduction system for CDDS leachate treatment and compared three different reactor configurations for the sulfate reduction step: the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, inverse fluidized bed (IFB) reactor and gas lift anaerobic membrane bioreactor (GL-AnMBR). This investigation demonstrated that all three systems can be applied for the treatment of CDDS leachate. The highest sulfate removal efficiency of 75-85% was achieved at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15.5h. A high calcium concentration up to 1,000 mg L(-1) did not give any adverse effect on the sulfate removal efficiency of the IFB and GL-AnMBR systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of interconversion between reactant configurational states on enzyme kinetics controlled by rototranslational diffusion motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, Marcello; Grassi, Antonio; Raudino, Antonio

    1990-10-01

    In this paper we extend a previous model [M. Baldo, A. Grassi, and A. Raudino, J. Chem. Phys. 91, 4658 (1989)] describing the orientational effects in diffusion-controlled enzyme (or membrane surface) reactions. The present generalization takes into account the reactants internal motions involving the interconversion between configurational states, one of them being much more reactive than the others. The problem leads to a system of rotational-translational diffusion equations (RT-DEs) coupled through the interconversion reactions between the conformers. For sake of simplicity, we have restricted the analysis to the case of only two conformational states. The steady-state RT-DE with the proper boundary conditions has been solved by an exact analytical procedure, leading to a set of linear algebraic equations which have been numerically solved. The model allows one to calculate the kinetic constants of the enzyme reactions as a function of available experimental parameters, such as the rotational and translational diffusion coefficients, the reactant's orientational constraints and the rates of interconversion between its different conformations. The numerical results show a monotonous but very nonlinear increasing of the enzyme kinetic constant on raising either the rotational diffusion constant or the interconversion rate between the P+ and P- reactant's conformations. Well-defined regions where the influence of the above parameters on the enzyme kinetics reaches a maximum have been identified.

  4. Effect of the cavity configuration factor on the marginal microleakage of esthetic restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Eduardo Batista; Gonzaga Lopes, Lawrence; Lia Mondelli, Rafael Francisco; da Silva e Souza, Mário Honorato; Pereira Lauris, José Roberto

    2003-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of the cavity configuration factor (CF) on the marginal microleakage of cervical restorations with four aesthetic restorative materials. Conventional cavities, 2.9 mm in diameter and 1.5 mm deep, with CF=2.7 and "saucer"-shaped ones with CF=2 were created in 60 extracted premolars. The following groups were established: G1: Z100/Single Bond, G2: Freedom/Stae, G3: Vitremer/Primer and G4: Durafill/Durafill Bond, following each manufacturer's directions. Thermocycling of the specimens was performed in an aqueous solution of 2% buffered methylene blue, with the temperature varying between 5 to 55 degrees C, for a total of cycles of 60 minutes per day, for 7 days. The specimens were then sectioned and evaluated by two observers using photographs acquired from a stereomicroscope. The values were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis analysis and the Dunn and Wilcoxon test. The averages of the microleakage scores observed in the conventional and "saucer"-shaped cavities were respectively: G1: 0.66/0.46; G2: 0.92/0.69; G3: 1.8/1.86; G4: 3.54/2.3.

  5. Aging effects in wire chambers operated at low pressure with TMAE and its effect on the use of BaF2-TMAE calorimetry at the SSC [Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woody, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    This note summarizes the result of a study carried out on the aging effects in low pressure wire multiwire proportional chambers operated with gas mixtures containing TMAE. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of radiation damage in low pressure wire chambers used as a part of a BaF 2 -TMAE calorimeter operated at high rates for an extended period of time. 8 refs., 6 figs

  6. Effect of cycle coupling-configuration on energy cascade utilization for a new power and cooling cogeneration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, Xuye; Zheng, Danxing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new power and cooling cogeneration cycle was proposed. • The thermophysical properties and the performance of the new cycle were calculated. • Different cycle coupling-configurations were analyzed. • The energy efficiency boosting mechanism of the new cycle was elucidated. - Abstract: To recover mid-low grade heat, a new power/cooling cogeneration cycle was proposed by combining the Kalina cycle and the double-effect ammonia–water absorption refrigeration (DAAR) cycle together, and the equivalent heat-to-power and exergy efficiencies of the cogeneration cycle reached 41.18% and 58.00%, respectively. To determine the effect of cycle coupling-configuration on energy cascade utilization for the new cycle, the cycle coupling-configuration of the Kalina and DAAR cycles were first analyzed, after which the cycle coupling-configuration of the new cycle was analyzed. Analysis results showed that the cycle coupling-configuration of the new cycle enhanced the energy cascade utilization. Furthermore, the energy efficiency boosting mechanism of the new cycle was elucidated

  7. A configural effect in visual short-term memory for features from different parts of an object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvenne, Jean-François; Bruyer, Raymond

    2006-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that change detection performance is improved when the visual display holds features (e.g., a colour and an orientation) that are grouped into different parts of the same object compared to when they are all spatially separated (Xu, 2002a, 2002b). These findings indicate that visual short-term memory (VSTM) encoding can be "object based". Recently, however, it has been demonstrated that changing the orientation of an item could affect the spatial configuration of the display (Jiang, Chun, & Olson, 2004), which may have an important influence on change detection. The perceptual grouping of features into an object obviously reduces the amount of distinct spatial relations in a display and hence the complexity of the spatial configuration. In the present study, we ask whether the object-based encoding benefit observed in previous studies may reflect the use of configural coding rather than the outcome of a true object-based effect. The results show that when configural cues are removed, the object-based encoding benefit remains for features (i.e., colour and orientation) from different parts of an object, but is significantly reduced. These findings support the view that memory for features from different parts of an object can benefit from object-based encoding, but the use of configural coding significantly helps enlarge this effect.

  8. The effect of earthquake on architecture geometry with non-parallel system irregularity configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teddy, Livian; Hardiman, Gagoek; Nuroji; Tudjono, Sri

    2017-12-01

    Indonesia is an area prone to earthquake that may cause casualties and damage to buildings. The fatalities or the injured are not largely caused by the earthquake, but by building collapse. The collapse of the building is resulted from the building behaviour against the earthquake, and it depends on many factors, such as architectural design, geometry configuration of structural elements in horizontal and vertical plans, earthquake zone, geographical location (distance to earthquake center), soil type, material quality, and construction quality. One of the geometry configurations that may lead to the collapse of the building is irregular configuration of non-parallel system. In accordance with FEMA-451B, irregular configuration in non-parallel system is defined to have existed if the vertical lateral force-retaining elements are neither parallel nor symmetric with main orthogonal axes of the earthquake-retaining axis system. Such configuration may lead to torque, diagonal translation and local damage to buildings. It does not mean that non-parallel irregular configuration should not be formed on architectural design; however the designer must know the consequence of earthquake behaviour against buildings with irregular configuration of non-parallel system. The present research has the objective to identify earthquake behaviour in architectural geometry with irregular configuration of non-parallel system. The present research was quantitative with simulation experimental method. It consisted of 5 models, where architectural data and model structure data were inputted and analyzed using the software SAP2000 in order to find out its performance, and ETAB2015 to determine the eccentricity occurred. The output of the software analysis was tabulated, graphed, compared and analyzed with relevant theories. For areas of strong earthquake zones, avoid designing buildings which wholly form irregular configuration of non-parallel system. If it is inevitable to design a

  9. Wire bonding in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Harman, George G

    2010-01-01

    Wire Bonding in Microelectronics, Third Edition, has been thoroughly revised to help you meet the challenges of today's small-scale and fine-pitch microelectronics. This authoritative guide covers every aspect of designing, manufacturing, and evaluating wire bonds engineered with cutting-edge techniques. In addition to gaining a full grasp of bonding technology, you'll learn how to create reliable bonds at exceedingly high yields, test wire bonds, solve common bonding problems, implement molecular cleaning methods, and much more. Coverage includes: Ultrasonic bonding systems and technologies, including high-frequency systems Bonding wire metallurgy and characteristics, including copper wire Wire bond testing Gold-aluminum intermetallic compounds and other interface reactions Gold and nickel-based bond pad plating materials and problems Cleaning to improve bondability and reliability Mechanical problems in wire bonding High-yield, fine-pitch, specialized-looping, soft-substrate, and extreme-temperature wire bo...

  10. Dorgan's lateral cross-wiring of supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children: A retrospective review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Queally, Joseph M

    2010-06-01

    The currently accepted treatment for displaced supracondylar humeral fractures in children is closed reduction and fixation with percutaneous Kirschner wires. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively review a novel cross-wiring technique where the cross-wire configuration is achieved solely from the lateral side, thereby reducing the risk of ulnar nerve injury.

  11. The effects of superset configuration on kinetic, kinematic, and perceived exertion in the barbell bench press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weakley, Jonathon Js; Till, Kevin; Read, Dale B; Phibbs, Padraic J; Roe, Gregory; Darrall-Jones, Joshua; Jones, Ben L

    2017-08-04

    Training that is efficient and effective is of great importance to an athlete. One method of improving efficiency is by incorporating supersets into resistance training routines. However, the structuring of supersets is still unexplored. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effects of agonist-antagonist (A-A), alternate peripheral (A-P), and similar biomechanical (SB) superset configurations on rate of perceived exertion (RPE), kinetic and kinematic changes during the bench press. 10 subjects performed resistance training protocols in a randomized-crossover design, with magnitude-based inferences assessing changes/differences within and between protocols. Changes in RPE were very likely and almost certainly greater in the A-P and SB protocols when compared with the A-A, while all superset protocols had very likely to almost certain reductions in mean velocity and power from baseline. Reductions in mean velocity and power were almost certainly greater in the SB protocol, with differences between the A-A and A-P protocols being unclear. Decreases in peak force were likely and almost certain in the A-A and SB protocols respectively, with changes in A-P being unclear. Differences between these protocols showed likely greater decreases in SB peak forces when compared to A-A, with all other superset comparisons being unclear. This study demonstrates the importance of exercise selection when incorporating supersets into a training routine. It is suggested that the practitioner uses A-A supersets when aiming to improve training efficiency and minimize reductions in kinetic and kinematic output of the agonist musculature while completing the barbell bench press.

  12. Water Desalination with Wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porada, S.; Sales, B.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    We show the significant potential of water desalination using a novel capacitive wire-based technology in which anode/cathode wire pairs are constructed from coating a thin porous carbon electrode layer on top of electrically conducting rods (or wires). By alternately dipping an array of electrode

  13. Peak effect and superconducting properties of SmFeAsO{sub 0.8}F{sub 0.2} wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y L; Cui, Y J; Yang, Y; Zhang, Y; Wang, L; Zhao, Y [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains, Ministry of Education of China, and Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Cheng, C H; Sorrell, C [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)], E-mail: yzhao@swjtu.edu.cn

    2008-11-15

    Ta-sheathed SmFeAsO{sub 0.8}F{sub 0.2} superconducting wires with T{sub c} = 52.5 K have been fabricated using the powder-in-tube (PIT) method and the superconducting properties of the wires have been investigated. The wires exhibit a very large intragrain critical current density at a temperature below 30 K. A peak effect with maximal J{sub c} = 0.6 MA cm{sup -2} at 10 K under 6 T field was observed. The peak field H{sub pear} is strongly temperature-dependent. A severe weak-link effect depresses the development of global supercurrent owing to a very short coherence length. The wires also show a power law temperature dependence for the irreversibility line with H{sub irr}{approx_equal}(1-T/T{sub c}){sup 1.5}. The H-T phase diagram was found to be similar to that of other superconducting cuprates.

  14. [Comparative study on effect and safty of treating on calcaneus fractures with manipulative reduction with percutaneous K-wire fixation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yue-Feng; Zheng, Yi-Bing; Wang, Peng; Li, Ye; Chen, Wen-xue; Dong, Yan-Xu; Jin, Li-Kun; Wang, Chen-Xi; Li, Xu

    2013-04-01

    To explore the clinical effects and safty of manipulative reduction with percutaneous poking K-wire fixation for the treatment of the calcaneus fractures and analyze the indication of the minimal invasion. From December 2008 to December 2011,135 closed calcaneal fractures cases were divided randomly into poking group and plate group, treated respectively by percutaneous poking reduction and operative reduction. In poking group, there were 69 cases (82 feet) including 60 males and 9 females, with an average age of (43.29+/-10.46) years ranging from 18 to 64 years; 30 cases of left, 26 cases of right and 13 cases of double; 54 feet of Essex-Lopresti classification tongue form, 28 feet of joint compression; 33 feet of Sanders type II ,49 of type III. In plate group, there were 66 cases (75 feet) including 58 males and 8 females,with an average age of (46.00+/-2.42) years ranging from 21 to 63 years; 31 cases of left, 26 cases of right and 9 cases of double; 48 feet of Essex-Lopresti classification tongue form, 27 feet of joint compression; 28 feet of Sanders type II, 47 of type III. According to Kerr scoring standard,clinical effects and complications were evaluated combining with Sanders and Essex-Lopresti classification. All 135 cases were followed up after 24 weeks. Fractures were recoveried in 8 to 12 weeks (means 10.2 weeks). In poking group, there were 2 cases of infection, 5 cases of wire movement; in plate group,18 cases of wound local skin necrosis, 5 cases of calf intestines nerve injured; there were statistical significant (Pcalcaneus fractures with percutaneous poking and operative redution (P>0.05). In the caes of Sanders type III, there were no significant differences on effects of tongue form fractures with percutaneous poking and operative reduction (P>0.05). There were significant differences on effects and complications of compressing form fractures (Pfractures of Sanders II , III with poking reduction were better than compression fractures. In

  15. Ene-yne tetrahydrofurans from the sponge Xestospongia muta. exploiting a weak CD effect for assignment of configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinaka, Brandon I; Skepper, Colin K; Molinski, Tadeusz F

    2007-05-10

    Seven new brominated ene-yne tetrahydrofurans (THFs), mutafurans A-G, were isolated from the Bahamian sponge Xestospongia muta. The absolute configuration of the natural products was assigned as (5R,8S) by interpretation of the Cotton effect arising from weak perturbation of an ene-yne chromophore by a propargylic THF ring.

  16. Biological sulfate removal from construction and demolition debris leachate: Effect of bioreactor configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kijjanapanich, Pimluck, E-mail: som_cheng00@hotmail.com [Pollution Prevention and Resource Recovery Chair Group, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft (Netherlands); Do, Anh Tien [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Annachhatre, Ajit P. [Environmental Engineering and Management, Asian Institute of Technology, PO Box 4, Klongluang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Esposito, Giovanni [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Via Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino (Italy); Yeh, Daniel H. [Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Lens, Piet N.L. [Pollution Prevention and Resource Recovery Chair Group, UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Novel biological technique for gypsum removal from CDD. • CDDS leachate treatment performed using different sulfate reducing bioreactors. • Gypsum in CDD can be used as a source of sulfate for sulfate reducing bacteria. • High calcium concentration (1000 mg L{sup −1}) did not affect the bioreactor performance. - Abstract: Due to the contamination of construction and demolition debris (CDD) by gypsum drywall, especially, its sand fraction (CDD sand, CDDS), the sulfate content in CDDS exceeds the posed limit of the maximum amount of sulfate present in building sand (1.73 g sulfate per kg of sand for the Netherlands). Therefore, the CDDS cannot be reused for construction. The CDDS has to be washed in order to remove most of the impurities and to obtain the right sulfate content, thus generating a leachate, containing high sulfate and calcium concentrations. This study aimed at developing a biological sulfate reduction system for CDDS leachate treatment and compared three different reactor configurations for the sulfate reduction step: the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, inverse fluidized bed (IFB) reactor and gas lift anaerobic membrane bioreactor (GL-AnMBR). This investigation demonstrated that all three systems can be applied for the treatment of CDDS leachate. The highest sulfate removal efficiency of 75–85% was achieved at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15.5 h. A high calcium concentration up to 1000 mg L{sup −1} did not give any adverse effect on the sulfate removal efficiency of the IFB and GL-AnMBR systems.

  17. Biological sulfate removal from construction and demolition debris leachate: Effect of bioreactor configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kijjanapanich, Pimluck; Do, Anh Tien; Annachhatre, Ajit P.; Esposito, Giovanni; Yeh, Daniel H.; Lens, Piet N.L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel biological technique for gypsum removal from CDD. • CDDS leachate treatment performed using different sulfate reducing bioreactors. • Gypsum in CDD can be used as a source of sulfate for sulfate reducing bacteria. • High calcium concentration (1000 mg L −1 ) did not affect the bioreactor performance. - Abstract: Due to the contamination of construction and demolition debris (CDD) by gypsum drywall, especially, its sand fraction (CDD sand, CDDS), the sulfate content in CDDS exceeds the posed limit of the maximum amount of sulfate present in building sand (1.73 g sulfate per kg of sand for the Netherlands). Therefore, the CDDS cannot be reused for construction. The CDDS has to be washed in order to remove most of the impurities and to obtain the right sulfate content, thus generating a leachate, containing high sulfate and calcium concentrations. This study aimed at developing a biological sulfate reduction system for CDDS leachate treatment and compared three different reactor configurations for the sulfate reduction step: the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, inverse fluidized bed (IFB) reactor and gas lift anaerobic membrane bioreactor (GL-AnMBR). This investigation demonstrated that all three systems can be applied for the treatment of CDDS leachate. The highest sulfate removal efficiency of 75–85% was achieved at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15.5 h. A high calcium concentration up to 1000 mg L −1 did not give any adverse effect on the sulfate removal efficiency of the IFB and GL-AnMBR systems

  18. Hypertext Configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnemann, Niels Ole

    2017-01-01

    , links, interactive processes, and time scalings, and that the hypertext configuration is a major but not sole source of the messiness of big data. The notion of hypertext will be revalidated, placed at the center of the interpretation of networked digital media, and used in the analysis of the fast...

  19. Majorana modes and Kondo effect in a quantum dot attached to a topological superconducting wire (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernek, Edson; Ruiz-Tijerina, David; da Silva, Luis D.; Egues, José Carlos

    2015-09-01

    Quantum dot attached to topological wires has become an interesting setup to study Majorana bound state in condensed matter[1]. One of the major advantage of using a quantum dot for this purpose is that it provides a suitable manner to study the interplay between Majorana bound states and the Kondo effect. Recently we have shown that a non-interacting quantum dot side-connected to a 1D topological superconductor and to metallic normal leads can sustain a Majorana mode even when the dot is empty. This is due to the Majorana bound state of the wire leaking into the quantum dot. Now we investigate the system for the case in which the quantum dot is interacting[3]. We explore the signatures of a Majorana zero-mode leaking into the quantum dot, using a recursive Green's function approach. We then study the Kondo regime using numerical renormalization group calculations. In this regime, we show that a "0.5" contribution to the conductance appears in system due to the presence of the Majorana mode, and that it persists for a wide range of the dot parameters. In the particle-hole symmetric point, in which the Kondo effect is more robust, the total conductance reaches 3e^2/2h, clearly indicating the coexistence of a Majorana mode and the Kondo resonance in the dot. However, the Kondo effect is suppressed by a gate voltage that detunes the dot from its particle-hole symmetric point as well as by a Zeeman field. The Majorana mode, on the other hand, is almost insensitive to both of them. We show that the zero-bias conductance as a function of the magnetic field follows a well-known universal curve. This can be observed experimentally, and we propose that this universality followed by a persistent conductance of 0.5,e^2/h are evidence for the presence of Majorana-Kondo physics. This work is supported by the Brazilians agencies FAPESP, CNPq and FAPEMIG. [1] A. Y. Kitaev, Ann.Phys. {bf 303}, 2 (2003). [2] E. Vernek, P.H. Penteado, A. C. Seridonio, J. C. Egues, Phys. Rev. B {bf

  20. Stress-strain effects in alumina-Cu reinforced Nb3Sn wires fabricated by the tube process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murase, Satoru; Nakayama, Shigeo; Masegi, Tamaki; Koyanagi, Kei; Nomura, Shunji; Shiga, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Norio; Watanabe, Kazuo.

    1997-01-01

    In order to fabricate a large-bore, high-field magnet which achieves a low coil weight and volume, a high strength compound superconducting wire is required. For those demands we have developed the reinforced Nb 3 Sn wire using alumina dispersion strengthened copper (alumina-Cu) as a reinforcement material and the tube process of the Nb 3 Sn wire fabrication. The ductility study of the composites which consisted of the reinforcement, Nb tube, Cu, and Cu clad Sn brought a 1 km long alumina-Cu reinforced Nb 3 Sn wire successfully. Using fabricated wires measurements and evaluations of critical current density as parameters of magnetic field, tensile stress, tensile strain, and transverse compressive stress, and those of stress-strain curves at 4.2 K were performed. They showed superior performance such as high 0.3% proof stress (240 MPa at 0.3% strain) and high maximum tolerance stress (320 MPa) which were two times as large as those of conventional Cu matrix Nb 3 Sn wire. The strain sensitivity parameters were obtained for the reinforced Nb 3 Sn wire and the Cu matrix one using the scaling law. Residual stress of the component materials caused by cooling down to 4.2 K from heat-treatment temperature was calculated using equivalent Young's modulus, equivalent yield strength, thermal expansion coefficient and other mechanical parameters. Calculated stress-strain curves at 4.2 K for the reinforced Nb 3 Sn wire and the Cu matrix one based on calculation of residual stress, had good agreement with the experimental values. (author)

  1. PS wire chamber

    CERN Document Server

    1970-01-01

    A wire chamber used at CERN's Proton Synchrotron accelerator in the 1970s. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  2. Effects of the use of a flat wire electrode in gas metal arc welding and fuzzy logic model for the prediction of weldment shape profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karuthapandi, Sripriyan; Thyla, P. R. [PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore (India); Ramu, Murugan [Amrita University, Ettimadai (India)

    2017-05-15

    This paper describes the relationships between the macrostructural characteristics of weld beads and the welding parameters in Gas metal arc welding (GMAW) using a flat wire electrode. Bead-on-plate welds were produced with a flat wire electrode and different combinations of input parameters (i.e., welding current, welding speed, and flat wire electrode orientation). The macrostructural characteristics of the weld beads, namely, deposition, bead width, total bead width, reinforcement height, penetration depth, and depth of HAZ were investigated. A mapping technique was employed to measure these characteristics in various segments of the weldment zones. Results show that the use of a flat wire electrode improves the depth-to-width (D/W) ratio by 16.5 % on average compared with the D/W ratio when a regular electrode is used in GMAW. Furthermore, a fuzzy logic model was established to predict the effects of the use of a flat electrode on the weldment shape profile with varying input parameters. The predictions of the model were compared with the experimental results.

  3. Effect of aging on the configurational change of the aortic arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuhiro Kojima

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We explored the relationship between aging and the configuration of the aortic arch using computed tomography angiography (CTA. We retrospectively reviewed CTA obtained in 140 cases. The configuration of the aortic arch was categorized into three types based on the criteria mentioned by Madhwal et al., and the relationships between each configuration and patient characteristics were analyzed. Anomalies of the aortic arch were also explored. Twenty patients had a type-1 aortic arch (mean age, 56.1 years, 30 patients had a type-2 aortic arch (mean age, 66.3 years, and 89 patients had a type-3 aortic arch (mean age, 71.7 years. The mean age of patients with a type-3 aortic arch was significantly higher than that of patients with a type-1 aortic arch. No significant correlations between the type of aortic arch and other factors, such as smoking habit, were seen. The configuration of the aortic arch in our study appears to be significantly affected by the age of the patients.

  4. Handrim configuration: effects on physical strain and technique in unimpaired subjects?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L.H.V.; Formanoy, M.A.G.; de Groot, S.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Hand rim wheelchair propulsion is inefficient and physically straining. To evaluate the possibly advantageous role in this respect of three different prototype hand rim configurations (a rubber foam-coated cylindrical (II) hand rim and two profiled rubber foam-coated hand rims (wide and

  5. Effects of Land Configuration and Wood-shavings Mulch on Pore ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In general, the soil water retention curves of FBM, ORM and TRM are always higher than the retention curves for the bare treatments across the range of measured pressure potentials. Key words: Land configuration, wood-shavings, water retention, pore size, conservation, residue. Nigerian Journal of Soil Research Vol.5 ...

  6. AC-loss properties of Bi-2223 multifilamentary taped wires with a central insulation layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funaki, K., E-mail: funaki@sc.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Kyushu University, 744 Moto-oka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Nogami, K.; Kawasaki, M.; Iwakuma, M. [Kyushu University, 744 Moto-oka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Ayai, N.; Kobayashi, S.; Kikuchi, M.; Hayashi, K. [Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd., 1-1-3, Shimaya, Konohana-ku, Osaka 554-0024 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    We develop twisted Bi-2223 multifilamentary taped wires with a central insulator layer. We measure the AC losses in a perpendicular magnetic field configuration. The coupling loss will be decreased by effects of twisting and the central insulator layer. The hysteresis loss in filaments will be also decreased by effects of twisting. Further efforts will be expected for increase in the current capacity. We have been developing twisted Bi-2223 multifilamentary taped wires to suppress the AC losses in perpendicular-field configuration for industrial-production process. It is confirmed that the hysteretic losses in the filamentary region can be reduced by twisting in a same manner as in situ Nb{sub 3}Sn multifilamentary ones, while the coupling loss remains in unsatisfactory situation for commercial frequency uses. As one of practical methods for further reduction of the coupling loss, we propose an advanced multifilamentary structure of the taped wires in which an insulation layer is arranged in the central region of the tape to effectively restrict the main part of the coupling current in the perpendicular-field configuration instead of an insulation barrier around each filament that may be not usually suitable to the practical production process. We have designed and fabricated prototype wires with the proposed structure, and measured the AC loss properties in the perpendicular-field configuration. The experimental results suggest that the central insulation barrier has a function to suppress the coupling loss remarkably. We also discuss improvement in the structural design for the further reduction of the AC losses.

  7. A comparative study of frictional resistance and surface roughness between orthodontic bracket and arch wire

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuro, SATOH; Masaru, ISHIGAME; Yukiko, NAKAMURA; Kazushi, OGASAWARA; Shigeru, TANAKA; Hiroyuki, MIURA; Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Iwate Medical University; Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Iwate Medical University; Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Iwate Medical University; Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Iwate Medical University; Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Iwate Medical University; Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Iwate Medical University

    2003-01-01

    The frictional resistance between an orthodontic bracket and arch wire is closely related to the efficiency of tooth movement in sliding mechanics. Frictional resistance may arise from the materials, geometrical configuration between the orthodontic bracket and arch wire, ligation system and its force, wire stiffness, direction and degree of orthodontic force, and surface roughness of bracket and wire. This study examined the relationship between the frictional resistance and surface roughnes...

  8. Efficient Melt Stirring Induced by the Coupled Effects of Alternating Magnetic Field and Configuration of Cold Crucible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yaohua; Chen, Ruirun; Guo, Jingjie; Su, Yanqing; Ding, Hongsheng; Fu, Hengzhi

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, the fluid flow in cold crucible and its effects on solute transport were numerically and experimentally investigated. It was found that the coupled effects of alternating magnetic fields and the configuration of cold crucible induce a vigorous three-dimensional melt flow. Further, solute transport results indicate that the three-dimensional flow contributes to more efficient melt stirring, and the stirring efficiency for obtaining uniform melt is improved by 77.5 pct compared with only meridional flow.

  9. Novel corrosion experiments using the wire beam electrode: (II) Monitoring the effects of ions transportation on electrochemical corrosion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aung, Naing Naing; Tan, Yong-Jun; Liu, Tie

    2006-01-01

    An electrochemically integrated multi-electrode system namely the wire beam electrode (WBE) has been applied for the first time to study the effects of the transportation of electrochemically active species on the process, rate and pattern of electrochemical corrosion. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the applicability of the WBE method for investigating ion transportation related corrosion processes. A series of experiments have been carried out using WBEs made from mild steel and stainless steel wires. The WBE working surfaces were exposed to simulated diffusion-controlled corrosion environments where there were diffusion induced ions concentration gradients (termed diffusion-corrosion environment). Corrosion potential and current distribution maps (CPCD maps) were measured from WBE surfaces in continuous bases. Typical patterns have been identified from CPCD maps and the characteristics of these patterns have been found to depend heavily upon the type of electrode material and the type of corrosive ion. For mild steel WBE surface exposed to a diffusion-corrosion environment containing NiSO 4 or FeCl 3 , the characteristic pattern in CPCD maps was found to emulate NiSO 4 or FeCl 3 concentration gradients, suggesting an ion-concentration controlled corrosion behaviour. However, when the mild steel WBE surface was exposed to a diffusion-corrosion environment containing NaCl, the characteristic pattern was found to show higher cathodic currents along the WBE edges with the magnitude decreasing in a contour-like manner towards the centre of the WBE surface, suggesting an oxygen concentration-controlled corrosion behaviour. When a stainless steel (SS316L) WBE surface was exposed to a diffusion-corrosion environment containing NiSO 4 or NaCl, the corrosion pattern appeared to be mainly determined by the random distribution of weak sites in passive film. When the SS316L WBE was exposed to a diffusion-corrosion environment containing FeCl 3 , the CPCD map

  10. Effects of GPR antenna configuration on subpavement drain detection based on the frequency-shift phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hao; Sinfield, Joseph V.

    2017-11-01

    The water and clay content of subsurface soil can significantly influence the detection results obtained from ground penetrating radar (GPR). Due to the variation of the material properties underground, the center frequency of transmitted GPR signals shifts to a lower range as wave attenuation increases. Examination of wave propagation in the subsurface employing an attenuation filter based on a linear system model shows that received GPR signals will be shifted to lower frequencies than those originally transmitted. The amount of the shift is controlled by a wave attenuation factor, which is determined by the dielectric constant, electric conductivity, and magnetic susceptibility of the transmitted medium. This paper introduces a receiver-transmitter-receiver dual-frequency configuration for GPR that employs two operational frequencies for a given test - one higher and one slightly lower - to take advantage of this phenomenon to improve subpavement drain detection results. In this configuration, the original signal is transmitted from the higher frequency transmitter. After traveling through underground materials, the signal is received by two receivers with different frequencies. One of the receivers has the same higher center frequency as the transmitter, and the other receiver has a lower center frequency. This configuration can be expressed as Rx(low-frequency)-Tx(high-frequency)-Rx(high-frequency) and was applied in both laboratory experiments and field tests. Results are analyzed in the frequency domain to evaluate and compare the properties of the signal obtained by both receivers. The laboratory experiment used the configuration of Rx(400MHz)-Tx(900MHz)-Rx(900MHz). The field tests, in addition to the configuration used in the lab tests, employed another configuration of Rx(270MHz)-Tx(400MHz)-Rx(400MHz) to obtain more information about this phenomenon. Both lab and field test results illustrate the frequency-shift phenomenon described by theoretical

  11. Scale-dependent effects of landscape composition and configuration on natural enemy diversity, crop herbivory, and yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Emily A; Seo, Bumsuk; Park, Chan-Ryul; Reineking, Björn; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2016-03-01

    (1) Land-use intensification in agricultural landscapes has led to changes in the way habitats and resources are distributed in space. Pests and their natural enemies are influenced by these changes, and by the farming intensity of crop fields. However, it is unknown whether the composition of landscapes (amount and diversity of land cover types) or their configuration (spatial arrangement of cover types) are more important for natural enemy diversity, and how they impact crop damage and yields. In addition, effects of interactions between local farming practices (organic vs. conventional) and landscape variables are unclear. (2) Here, we make use of a data set where landscape composition and configuration were uncorrelated across multiple spatial scales. Natural enemies, crop damage, and yields were sampled in 35 organic and conventional crop fields. Out of seven broad natural enemy taxa, five were positively affected by a complex landscape configuration. In contrast, only carabids were positively affected by the amount of seminatural habitat around fields. Increasing diversity of land cover types had positive effects on some, but negative effects on other taxa. Effect sizes varied among taxa but increased with increasing spatial scale, defined by circular areas of increasing radius around fields. (3) The diversity of aerial, but not of ground-dwelling enemies was higher in fields under organic than conventional management. Interactions of local and landscape variables were important for birds, but not other enemies. Bird richness was higher in organic fields in simple landscapes, but not in landscapes with complex configuration or high land cover diversity. (4) Crop damage decreased with landscape diversity, but increased in conventional fields with complex configuration. Yields increased with both parameters in conventional fields only, and were higher on average in organic compared to conventional fields. Enemy diversity was positively related to crop damage

  12. Assessing the effects of manual dexterity and playing computer games on catheter-wire manipulation for inexperienced operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsafi, Z; Hameed, Y; Amin, P; Shamsad, S; Raja, U; Alsafi, A; Hamady, M S

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the effect of playing computer games and manual dexterity on catheter-wire manipulation in a mechanical aortic model. Medical student volunteers filled in a preprocedure questionnaire assessing their exposure to computer games. Their manual dexterity was measured using a smartphone game. They were then shown a video clip demonstrating renal artery cannulation and were asked to reproduce this. All attempts were timed. Two-tailed Student's t-test was used to compare continuous data, while Fisher's exact test was used for categorical data. Fifty students aged 18-22 years took part in the study. Forty-six completed the task at an average of 168 seconds (range 103-301 seconds). There was no significant difference in the dexterity score or time to cannulate the renal artery between male and female students. Students who played computer games for >10 hours per week had better dexterity scores than those who did not play computer games: 9.1 versus 10.2 seconds (p=0.0237). Four of 19 students who did not play computer games failed to complete the task, while all of those who played computer games regularly completed the task (p=0.0168). Playing computer games is associated with better manual dexterity and ability to complete a basic interventional radiology task for novices. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of water inlet configuration in a service reservoir applying CFD modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Montoya Pachongo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the state of a service reservoir of a drinking water distribution network. Numerical simulation was applied to establish its flow pattern, mixing conditions, and free residual chlorine decay. The influence of the change in the water inlet configuration on these characteristics was evaluated. Four scenarios were established with different water level and flow rate as the differences between the first three scenarios. The fourth scenario was evaluated to assess the influence of the inlet configuration, momentum flow and water level on hydrodynamic conditions within the service reservoir. The distribution of four nozzles of 152.4mm diameter was identified as a viable measure to preserve the water quality in this type of hydraulic structures.

  14. Changes in inertia and effect on turning effort across different wheelchair configurations

    OpenAIRE

    Jayme J. Caspall, MS; Erin Seligsohn; Phuc V. Dao, MS; Stephen Sprigle, PhD, PT

    2014-01-01

    When executing turning maneuvers, manual wheelchair users must overcome the rotational inertia of the wheelchair system. Differences in wheelchair rotational inertia can result in increases in torque required to maneuver, resulting in greater propulsion effort and stress on the shoulder joints. The inertias of various configurations of an ultralightweight wheelchair were measured using a rotational inertia-measuring device. Adjustments in axle position, changes in wheel and tire type, and the...

  15. Configuration perception and face memory, and face context effects in developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huis in 't Veld, Elisabeth; Van den Stock, Jan; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses two central and controversial issues in developmental prosopagnosia (DP), configuration- versus feature-based face processing and the influence of affective information from either facial or bodily expressions on face recognition. A sample of 10 DPs and 10 controls were tested with a previously developed face and object recognition and memory battery (Facial Expressive Action Stimulus Test, FEAST), a task measuring the influence of emotional faces and bodies on face identity matching (Face-Body Compound task), and an emotionally expressive face memory task (Emotional Face Memory task, FaMe-E). We show that DPs were impaired in upright, but not inverted, face matching but they performed at the level of controls on part-to-whole matching. Second, DPs showed impaired memory for both neutral and emotional faces and scored within the normal range on the Face-Body Compound task. Third, configural perception but not feature-based processing was significantly associated with memory performance. Taken together the results indicate that DPs have a deficit in configural processing at the perception stage that may underlie the memory impairment.

  16. Effects of coupling configuration on resonance excitation in a slotted photonic crystal nanobeam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Francis; Weiss, Sharon M.

    2017-08-01

    High Q/V (quality factor/mode volume) platforms enable simultaneous localization of light in space and time and have enabled enhanced performance metrics in applications such as optical signal processing, photovoltaics, optical sensing and optical trapping. Slotted photonic crystal nanobeams (SPCNs) are one type of high Q/V structure that support mechanical modes in addition to high Q optical modes, opening the door to favorable optomechanical properties. In this work, in-plane excitation of fundamental resonance modes in SPCNs with high optical quality factor and high values of optomechanical coupling strength is investigated towards the realization of a monolithic configuration that is compatible with photonic integrated chips. In-line and side- coupled excitation configurations are studied. Simulations suggest that the number of optical modes supported in the SPCNs and the transmission intensity of light in these modes depend strongly on coupling configuration. For high Q SPCNs, in-line coupling suppresses the fundamental optical mode. Side-coupling supports excitation of the fundamental optical mode, but suppresses even order modes in the cavity.

  17. The effect of texture on face identification and configural information processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzschaschel Eva Alica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shape and texture are an integral part of face identity. In the present study, the importance of face texture for face identification and detection of configural manipulation (i.e., spatial relation among facial features was examined by comparing grayscale face photographs (i.e., real faces and line drawings of the same faces. Whereas real faces provide information about texture and shape of faces, line drawings are lacking texture cues. A change-detection task and a forced-choice identification task were used with both stimuli categories. Within the change detection task, participants had to decide whether the size of the eyes of two sequentially presented faces had changed or not. After having made this decision, three faces were shown to the subjects and they had to identify the previously shown face among them. Furthermore, context (full vs. cropped faces and orientation (upright vs. inverted were manipulated. The results obtained in the change detection task suggest that configural information was used in processing real faces, while part-based and featural information was used in processing line-drawings. Additionally, real faces were identified more accurately than line drawings, and identification was less context but more orientation sensitive than identification of line drawings. Taken together, the results of the present study provide new evidence stressing the importance of face texture for identity encoding and configural face processing.

  18. Effect of time and pH on physical-chemical properties of orthodontic brackets and wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Aretha Aliny Ramos; Pithon, Matheus Melo; Carlo, Fabíola Galbiatti Carvalho; Carlo, Hugo Lemes; de Lima, Bruno Alessandro Silva Guedes; Dos Passos, Tibério Andrade; Lacerda-Santos, Rogério

    2015-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that treatment time, debris/biofilm, and oral pH have an influence on the physical-chemical properties of orthodontic brackets and arch wires. One hundred twenty metal brackets were evaluated. They were divided into four groups (n  =  30) according to treatment time: group C (control) and groups T12, T24, and T36 (brackets recovered after 12, 24, and 36 months of treatment, respectively). Rectangular stainless-steel arch wires that remained in the oral cavity for 12 to 24 months were also analyzed. Dimensional stability, surface morphology, composition of brackets, resistance to sliding of the bracket-wire set, surface roughness of wires, and oral pH were analyzed. One-way analysis of variance, followed by a Tukey multiple comparisons test, was used for statistical analysis (P wires as a function of time of clinical use after 36 months. Oral pH showed a significant difference between group T36 and its control (P  =  .014). The hypothesis was partially accepted: treatment time and biofilm and debris accumulation in bracket slots were shown to have more influence on the degradation process and frictional force of these devices than did oral pH.

  19. Magnetic anisotropy and anisotropic ballistic conductance of thin magnetic wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabirianov, R.

    2006-01-01

    The magnetocrystalline anisotropy of thin magnetic wires of iron and cobalt is quite different from the bulk phases. The spin moment of monatomic Fe wire may be as high as 3.4 μ B , while the orbital moment as high as 0.5 μ B . The magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) was calculated for wires up to 0.6 nm in diameter starting from monatomic wire and adding consecutive shells for thicker wires. I observe that Fe wires exhibit the change sign with the stress applied along the wire. It means that easy axis may change from the direction along the wire to perpendicular to the wire. We find that ballistic conductance of the wire depends on the direction of the applied magnetic field, i.e. shows anisotropic ballistic magnetoresistance. This effect occurs due to the symmetry dependence of the splitting of degenerate bands in the applied field which changes the number of bands crossing the Fermi level. We find that the ballistic conductance changes with applied stress. Even for thicker wires the ballistic conductance changes by factor 2 on moderate tensile stain in our 5x4 model wire. Thus, the ballistic conductance of magnetic wires changes in the applied field due to the magnetostriction. This effect can be observed as large anisotropic BMR in the experiment

  20. Sliding bubbles on a hot horizontal wire in a subcooled bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Alexis; Dubois, Charles; Caps, Hervé

    2015-11-01

    When a wire is heated up to the boiling point in a liquid bath some bubbles will nucleate on the wire surface. Traditional nucleate boiling theory predicts that bubbles generate from active nucleate site, grow up and depart from the heating surface due to buoyancy and inertia. However, an alternative scenario is presented in the literature for a subcooled bath: bubbles slide along the horizontal wire before departing. New experiments were performed by using a constantan wire and different liquids, varying the injected power. Silicone oil, water and even liquid nitrogen were tested in order to vary wetting conditions, liquid viscosities and surface tensions. We explored the influence of the wire diameter and of the subcooled bath temperature. We observed, of course, sliding motion, but also a wide range of behaviors from bubbles clustering to film boiling. We noticed that bubbles could change moving sense, especially when encountering with another bubble. The bubble speed is carefully measured and can reach more than 100 mm/s for a millimetric bubble. We investigated the dependence of the speed on the different parameters and found that this speed is, for a given configuration, quite independent of the injected power. We understand these phenomena in terms of Marangoni effects. This project has been financially supported by ARC SuperCool contract of the University of Liège.

  1. Effects of hydrogen irradiation on the optical and electronic properties of site-controlled InGaAsN V-groove quantum wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felici, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma, Italy and Laboratory of Physics of Nanostructures, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Pettinari, G. [High Field Magnet Laboratory, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 7, 6525 ED Nijmegen, The Netherlands and School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Polimeni, A.; Lavenuta, G.; Tartaglini, E.; De Luca, M.; Capizzi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Carron, R.; Gallo, P.; Dwir, B.; Rudra, A.; Kapon, E. [Laboratory of Physics of Nanostructures, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Notargiacomo, A. [CNR - Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, Via Cineto Romano 42, 00156 Roma (Italy); Fekete, D. [Laboratory of Physics of Nanostructures, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland and Department of Physics, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Christianen, P. C. M.; Maan, J. C. [High Field Magnet Laboratory, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 7, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2013-12-04

    The properties of InGaAsN V-groove quantum wires (QWRs) –both untreated and irradiated with atomic hydrogen– are probed via micro-magneto-photoluminescence (PL) and polarization-dependent PL. As generally observed in dilute-nitride materials, H irradiation is found to fully passivate nitrogen, thus allowing us to accurately assess –and to precisely control– the effects of N incorporation in the QWRs.

  2. Physiological Responses to Simulated Approach March in Desert and Tropic Conditions: Effects of Three Microclimate Cooling Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    TROPIC CONDITIONS: EFFECTS OF THREE MICROCLIMATE COOLING CONFIGURATIONS Bruce S. Cadarette Catherine O’Brien Thermal and Mountain...Cooling HR – Heart Rate INT – Intermittent Cooling LO – Low Cooling MCCS – Microclimate Cooling System NC – No Cooling NSRDEC – Natick...develop lightweight microclimate cooling systems (MCCS) for use by dismounted Soldiers by evaluating the cooling potentials of two prototype MCCS

  3. Calibration of magnetic force microscopy tips by using nanoscale current-carrying parallel wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kebe, Th.; Carl, A.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental results on the characterization of commercially available magnetic force microscopy (MFM) thin film tips as a function of an external magnetic field are presented. Magnetic stray fields with a definitive z-component (perpendicular to the substrate) and a magnetic field strength of up to H z =±45 Oe are produced with current carrying parallel nanowires with a thickness of t=60 nm, which are fabricated by electron-beam lithography. The magnetic fields are generated by electrical dc-currents of up to ±6 mA which are directed antiparallel through the nanowires. The geometry and the dimensions of the nanowires are systematically varied by choosing different wire widths w as well as separations b between the parallel wires for two different sets of samples. On the one hand, the wire width w is varied within 380 nm< w<2460 nm while the separation b≅450 nm between the wires is kept constant. On the other hand the separation b between the parallel wires is varied within 120 nm< b<5100 nm, while the wire width w=960 nm is kept constant. For all the geometrical configurations of parallel wires the resulting magnetic contrast is imaged by MFM at various tip lift-heights. By treating the MFM tip as a point probe, the analysis of the image contrast as a function of both the magnetic field strength and the tip lift height allows one to quantitatively determine the effective magnetic dipole and monopole moments of the tip as well as their imaginary locations within the real physical tip. Our systematic study quantitatively relates the above point-probe parameters to (i) the dimensions of the parallel wires and (ii) to the characteristic decay length of the z-component of the magnetic field of parallel wires. From this the effective tip-volume of the real thin film tip is determined which is relevant in MFM-imaging. Our results confirm the reliability of earlier tip calibration schemes for which nanofabricated current carrying rings were used instead of parallel

  4. Towards plant wires

    OpenAIRE

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self...

  5. Neutron irradiation effects on in situ Nb3Sn superconducting wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Y.; Fukumoto, M.; Kodaka, H.; Nishijima, S.; Okada, T.; Yoshida, H.

    1985-01-01

    Three types of ''in situ'' Nb 3 Sn conductors have been studied to determine the detrimental effects of neutron irradiation on critical temperature, critical current and AC losses. It was found that at fluences of 10 18 n/cm 2 , the critical temperature is degraded by approximately 10%. Degradation of AC loss is discussed in comparison with that of critical current density

  6. Effect of Metal Bond-Pad Configurations on the Solder Microstructure Development of Flip-Chip Solder Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y. J.; Hsu, Y. C.; Huang, T. S.; Lu, C. T.; Wu, Albert T.; Liu, C. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Various microstructural zones were observed in the solidified solder of flip-chip solder joints with three metal bond-pad configurations (Cu/Sn/Cu, Ni/Sn/Cu, and Cu/Sn/Ni). The developed microstructures of the solidified flip-chip solder joints were strongly related to the associated metal bond pad. A hypoeutectic microstructure always developed near the Ni bond pad, and a eutectic or hypereutectic microstructure formed near the Cu pad. The effect of the metal bond pads on the solder microstructure alters the Cu solubility in the molten solder. The Cu content (solubility) in the molten Sn(Cu) solder eventually leads to the development of particular microstructures. In addition to the effect of the associated metal bond pads, the developed microstructure of the flip-chip solder joint depends on the configuration of the metal bond pads. A hypereutectic microstructure formed near the bottom Cu pad, and a eutectic microstructure formed near the top Cu pad. Directional cooling in the flip-chip solder joint during the solidification process causes the effects of the metal bond-pad configuration. Directional cooling causes the Cu content to vary in the liquid Sn(Cu) phase, resulting in the formation of distinct microstructural zones in the developed microstructure of the flip-chip solder joint.

  7. Numerical study of the effects of lamp configuration and reactor wall roughness in an open channel water disinfection UV reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Tipu

    2016-07-01

    This article describes the assessment of a numerical procedure used to determine the UV lamp configuration and surface roughness effects on an open channel water disinfection UV reactor. The performance of the open channel water disinfection UV reactor was numerically analyzed on the basis of the performance indictor reduction equivalent dose (RED). The RED values were calculated as a function of the Reynolds number to monitor the performance. The flow through the open channel UV reactor was modelled using a k-ε model with scalable wall function, a discrete ordinate (DO) model for fluence rate calculation, a volume of fluid (VOF) model to locate the unknown free surface, a discrete phase model (DPM) to track the pathogen transport, and a modified law of the wall to incorporate the reactor wall roughness effects. The performance analysis was carried out using commercial CFD software (ANSYS Fluent 15.0). Four case studies were analyzed based on open channel UV reactor type (horizontal and vertical) and lamp configuration (parallel and staggered). The results show that lamp configuration can play an important role in the performance of an open channel water disinfection UV reactor. The effects of the reactor wall roughness were Reynolds number dependent. The proposed methodology is useful for performance optimization of an open channel water disinfection UV reactor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bandwidth improvement for germanium photodetector using wire bonding technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanyu; Yu, Yu; Deng, Shupeng; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xinliang

    2015-10-05

    We demonstrate an ultrahigh speed germanium photodetector by introducing gold wires into the discrete ground electrodes with standard wire bonding technology. To engineer the parasitic parameter, the physical dimension of the gold wire used for wire bonding is specially designed with an inductance of about 450 pH. Simulation and experimental results show that the bandwidth of the photodetector can be effectively extended from less than 30 GHz to over 60 GHz.

  9. 76 FR 29266 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ...)] Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... reason of imports from China and Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheading 7217.20.30... subsidized imports of galvanized steel wire from China and Mexico. Accordingly, effective March 31, 2011, the...

  10. The effect of magnetic field configuration on particle pinch velocity in compact helical system (CHS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, H.; Ida, K.; Yamada, H.

    1994-01-01

    Radial particle transport has been experimentally studied in the low-aspect-ratio heliotron/torsatron device CHS. A non-diffusive outward particle flow (inverse pinch) is observed in the magnetic configuration with the magnetic axis shifted outward, while an inward pinch, like in tokamaks, is observed with the magnetic axis shifted inward. This change in the direction of anomalous particle flow is not due to the reversal of temperature gradient nor the radial electric field. The observation suggests that the particle pinch velocity is sensitive to the magnetic field structure. (author)

  11. Photovoltaic Wire, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate a new architecture for photovoltaic devices based on nanotechnology: photovoltaic wire. The...

  12. Photovoltaic Wire Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate a new architecture for photovoltaic devices based on nanotechnology: photovoltaic wire. The...

  13. Charpak hemispherical wire chamber

    CERN Document Server

    1970-01-01

    pieces. Mesures are of the largest one. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  14. Stark effect in finite-barrier quantum wells, wires, and dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Thomas Garm

    2017-01-01

    The properties of confined carriers in low-dimensional nanostructures can be controlled by external electric fields and an important manifestation is the Stark shift of quantized energy levels. Here, a unifying analytic theory for the Stark effect in arbitrary dimensional nanostructures is presented. The crucial role of finite potential barriers is stressed, in particular, for three-dimensional confinement. Applying the theory to CdSe quantum dots, finite barriers are shown to improve significantly the agreement with experiments. (paper)

  15. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development

  16. Measurements of the effects of a wire-wrap spacer on the thermalhydraulics of heated annular upward flow of supercritical R134a in steady and transient conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinink, S.; Copping, A.; Kedare, S.; Hovell, K.; Yaras, M.I. [Carleton University, Ottawa (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Experiments were conducted at supercritical pressures and temperatures on a vertically-oriented annular heating rod with a wire-wrap spacer using upward-flowing R134a to determine the effect of a wire-wrap spacer on heat transfer in proximity of the pseudocritical point. Measurements were taken at quasi-steady-state and pressure-transient conditions. During each instance of deteriorated heat transfer, the Nusselt number is greater than values predicted by the Dittus-Boelter correlation. Heat transfer during the pressure transients is observed to be insensitive to the time rate of change of the fluid pressure, which implies that the transience does not affect the instantaneous state of the heat-transfer process. (author)

  17. Effect of Molten Pool Size on Microstructure and Tensile Properties of Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qianru; Lu, Jiping; Liu, Changmeng; Fan, Hongli; Shi, Xuezhi; Fu, Jie; Ma, Shuyuan

    2017-07-04

    Wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) technique is a cost-competitive and efficient technology to produce large structure components in industry domains. Mechanical properties are mainly dominated by the microstructure of the components, which is deeply affected by the molten pool size. In this work, to investigate the effect of the molten pool size on microstructure and mechanical properties of the components, a series of Ti-6Al-4V alloy blocks with different width of molten pool (WMP) ranging from 7 mm to 22 mm were deposited by adjusting the wire feed speed (WFS) from 100 cm/min to 500 cm/min. It is interesting to find that the macrostructure changes from columnar grains to equiaxial grains, and then returns to large columnar grains with the increase of WMP, which is mainly caused by the different cooling rates and thermal gradients. Nonetheless, the tensile properties of the components have a tendency to decline with the increase of WMP.

  18. Effects of configuration parameters on lateral dynamics of tractor–two trailer combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongguo Xu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The optimum configuration parameters of tractor–trailer combinations for lateral stability performance are proposed by adjusting the length of dolly and the second trailer’s center of gravity. A linear yaw plane model of vehicle combinations is adopted for dynamic analysis, and the model is calibrated by TruckSim. According to the yaw rate rearward amplification ratio of lateral response index, and combining the simulation results of MATLAB/Simulink, dolly and the second trailer are the dominate factors for lateral stability of vehicle combinations. Simulation results show that the distance between articulation joints of dolly is 1.6 m; simultaneously, the rate of distance between front hitch and center of gravity of the second trailer to its front and rear wheelbase is 0.41 and may gain the best lateral performance. Compared with configuration parameters of the original vehicle combinations, the results also illustrate that the one derived from adjustment approach reduces high-speed rearward amplification ratio by 11.4%. The proposed approach might be used for identifying desired design variables of the tractor–two trailer combinations and provided theoretical basis for stability tests.

  19. Effect of reactor coolant radioactivity upon configuration feasibility for a nuclear electric propulsion vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer, L.; Wright, G. N.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary shielding analysis was carried out for a conceptual nuclear electric propulsion vehicle designed to transport payloads from low earth orbit to synchronous orbit. The vehicle employed a thermionic nuclear reactor operating at 1575 kilowatts and generated 120 kilowatts of electricity for a round-trip mission time of 2000 hours. Propulsion was via axially directed ion engines employing 3300 pounds of mercury as a propellant. The vehicle configuration permitted a reactor shadow shield geometry using LiH and the mercury propellant for shielding. However, much of the radioactive NaK reactor coolant was unshielded and in close proximity to the power conditioning electronics. An estimate of the radioactivity of the NaK coolant was made and its unshielded dose rate to the power conditioning equipment calculated. It was found that the activated NaK contributed about three-fourths of the gamma dose constraint. The NaK dose was considered a sufficiently high fraction of the allowable gamma dose to necessitate modifications in configuration.

  20. Energy efficient piston configuration for effective air motion – A CFD study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnana Sagaya Raj, Antony Raj; Mallikarjuna, Jawali Maharudrappa; Ganesan, Venkitachalam

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► All piston crown show similar flow pattern for experimental and simulated studies. ► Piston position plays a predominant role in the air pattern inside the cylinder. ► The flat bowl piston shows higher TKE compared to all other piston crown shape. ► The turbulence intensity and length scale are higher for flat bowl piston. ► The quantitative error between the CFD and PIV analysis is about 5%. -- Abstract: Air motion inside the cylinder is very important from the point of view of energy efficiency. In this direction, piston configuration plays a very crucial role. This study is concerned with the CFD analysis of in-cylinder air motion coupled with the comparison of predicted results with the experimental results available in the literature. Four configurations viz., flat, inclined, centre bowl and inclined offset bowl pistons have been studied. For numerical analysis STAR-CD CFD software has been used. Experimental results available in the literature for comparison are obtained by PIV measurements. From this study, it is concluded that a centre bowl on flat piston is found to be the best from the point of view of tumble ratio, turbulent kinetic energy, turbulent intensity and turbulent length scale which play very important role in imparting proper air motion, there by increasing the energy efficiency of the engine.

  1. Kirschner Wire Breakage during Removal Requiring Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yuen Wong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kirschner wires (K-wires are widely used for fixation of fractures and dislocations in the hand as they are readily available, reliable, and cost-effective. Complication rates of up to 18% have been reported. However, K-wire breakage during removal is rare. We present one such case illustrating a simple technique for retrieval. A 35-year-old male presented with a distal phalanx fracture of his right middle finger. This open fracture was treated with K-wire fixation. Postoperatively, he developed a pin site infection with associated finger swelling. The K-wire broke during removal with the proximal piece completely retained in his middle phalanx. To minimise risk of osteomyelitis, the K-wire was removed with a novel surgical technique. He had full return of hand function. Intraoperative K-wire breakage has a reported rate of 0.1%. In our case, there was no obvious cause of breakage and the patient denied postoperative trauma. On the other hand, pin site infections are much more common with reported rates of up to 7% in the hand or wrist. K-wire fixation is a simple method for bony stabilisation but can be a demanding procedure with complications often overlooked. It is important to be aware of the potential sequelae.

  2. Effects of filler wire on residual stress in electron beam welded QCr0.8 copper alloy to 304 stainless steel joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bing-Gang; Zhao, Jian; Li, Xiao-Peng; Chen, Guo-Qing

    2015-01-01

    The electron beam welding (EBW) of 304 stainless steel to QCr0.8 copper alloy with or without copper filler wire was studied in detail. The temperature fields and magnitude and distribution of stress fields in the joints during the welding process were numerically simulated using finite element method. The temperature cycles and residual stresses were also experimentally measured by thermometric and hole-drilling methods, respectively. The accuracy of the modeling procedure was verified by the good agreement between the calculated results and experimental data. The temperature distribution in the joint was found to be asymmetric along the center of weld. In particular, the temperature in the copper alloy plate is much higher than that in the 304 SS plate owing to the great difference in thermal conductivity between the two materials. The peak three-dimensional residual stresses all appeared at the interface between the copper and steel in the two different joints. Furthermore, the weld was subjected to tensile stress. The longitudinal residual stress, generally the most harmful to the integrity of the structure among the stress components in EBW with filler wire (EBFW), was 53 MPa lower than that of autogenous EBW (AEBW), and the through-thickness residual stress was 12 MPa lower. The transverse residual stress of EBFW was 44 MPa higher than that of AEBW. However, analysis of the von Mises stress showed that the EBFW process effectively reduced the extent of the high residual stress region in the weld location and the magnitude of the residual stresses in the copper side compared with those of the AEBW joint. - Highlights: • Copper and steel was welded by electron beam welding with copper filler wire. • The copper wire fed into gap can reduce the peak value of residual stress. • The peak value of longitudinal stress can be reduced 53 MPa by the filler wire. • The range of nov Mises stress in the weld could be reduced by the wire

  3. Effect of annealing high-dose heavy-ion irradiated high-temperature superconductor wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, N. M.; Wimbush, S. C.; Kluth, P.; Mota-Santiago, P.; Ridgway, M. C.; Kennedy, J. V.; Long, N. J.

    2017-10-01

    Heavy-ion irradiation of high-temperature superconducting thin films has long been known to generate damage tracks of amorphized material that are of close-to-ideal dimension to effectively contribute to pinning of magnetic flux lines and thereby enhance the in-field critical current. At the same time, though, the presence of these tracks reduces the superconducting volume fraction available to transport current while the irradiation process itself generates oxygen depletion and disorder in the remaining superconducting material. We have irradiated commercially available superconducting coated conductors consisting of a thick film of (Y,Dy)Ba2Cu3O7 deposited on a buffered metal tape substrate in a continuous reel-to-reel process. Irradiation was by 185 MeV 197Au ions. A high fluence of 3 × 1011 ions/cm2 was chosen to emphasize the detrimental effects. The critical current was reduced following this irradiation, but annealing at relatively low temperatures of 200 °C and 400 °C substantially restore the critical current of the irradiated material. At high fields and high temperatures there is a net benefit of critical current compared to the untreated material.

  4. Effect of electrode configuration on the uniformity of atmospheric pressure surface dielectric barrier air micro-discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yang; Bi, Zhenhua; Qi, Zhihua; Ji, Longfei; Zhao, Yao; Chang, Xuewei; Wang, Wenchun; Liu, Dongping

    2018-02-01

    The electrode configuration of atmospheric pressure air discharge is one of the key elements that have significant effects on the discharge properties. In this study, double-sided printed circuit boards with square-shaped lattice structure are used to generate surface dielectric barrier air micro-discharge (SDBAMD) at atmospheric pressure. The effects of the lattice width on the discharge properties are reported. The uniformity of the SDBAMD is evaluated by adopting the digital image processing method. Our measurements show that the power and ignition voltage of the SDBAMD significantly depended on the configuration of the grounded electrode. The digital image processing results show that the uniformity of the SDBAMD is severely affected by the lattice width, and the most uniform discharge is achieved at the lattice width of 2.0 mm. The numerical model based on COMSOL demonstrated that increasing the lattice width can lead to an increase in the electric field in the vicinity of the grounded electrode and a decrease in the lattice center. Furthermore, our analysis suggests that the different electrode configurations can change the interaction between the space charges during the discharge, which ultimately affects the uniformity of the SDBAMD.

  5. Aluminum/vacuum multilayer configuration for spatial high-energy electron shielding via electron return effects induced by magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tuo; Tang, Xiaobin; Chen, Feida; Ni, Minxuan; Huang, Hai; Zhang, Yun; Chen, Da

    2017-06-26

    Radiation shielding of high-energy electrons is critical for successful space missions. However, conventional passive shielding systems exhibit several limitations, such as heavy configuration, poor shielding ability, and strong secondary bremsstrahlung radiation. In this work, an aluminum/vacuum multilayer structure was proposed based on the electron return effects induced by magnetic field. The shielding property of several configurations was evaluated by using the Monte Carlo method. Results showed that multilayer systems presented improved shielding ability to electrons, and less secondary x-ray transmissions than those of conventional systems. Moreover, the influences of magnetic flux density and number of layers on the shielding property of multilayer systems were investigated using a female Chinese hybrid reference phantom based on cumulative dose. In the case of two aluminum layers, the cumulative dose in a phantom gradually decreased with increasing magnetic flux density. The maximum decline rate was found within 0.4-1 Tesla. With increasing layers of configuration, the cumulative dose decreased and the shielding ability improved. This research provides effective shielding measures for future space radiation protection in high-energy electron environments.

  6. Impact of the strong electromagnetic field on the QCD effective potential for homogeneous Abelian gluon field configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galilo, Bogdan V.; Nedelko, Sergei N.

    2011-01-01

    The one-loop quark contribution to the QCD effective potential for the homogeneous Abelian gluon field in the presence of an external strong electromagnetic field is evaluated. The structure of extrema of the potential as a function of the angles between chromoelectric, chromomagnetic, and electromagnetic fields is analyzed. In this setup, the electromagnetic field is considered as an external one while the gluon field represents domain structured nonperturbative gluon configurations related to the QCD vacuum in the confinement phase. Two particularly interesting gluon configurations, (anti-)self-dual and crossed orthogonal chromomagnetic and chromoelectric fields, are discussed specifically. Within this simplified framework it is shown that the strong electromagnetic fields can play a catalyzing role for a deconfinement transition. At the qualitative level, the present consideration can be seen as a highly simplified study of an impact of the electromagnetic fields generated in relativistic heavy ion collisions on the strongly interacting hadronic matter.

  7. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction

  8. First-Year Effects of Plastic Tube Shelters, Wire Cages, and Fertilization on Planted Nuttall Oak Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy S. Taylor; Michael S. Golden

    2002-01-01

    A Study was implemented in western Alabama to compare the growth and survival of Nuttall oak (Quercus nuttallii) seedlings using plastic tube shelters, wire browse protection, fertilization, and control. A total of 324 Nuttall oaks were planted at a bottomland site in Greene County, Alabama. One-third of the seedlings were enclosed in 46inch...

  9. Nuclear Quantum Effects in H+ and OH- Diffusion Along Confined Water Wires from Ab Initio Path Integral Molecular Dyanmics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Mariana; Ceriotti, Michele; Manolopoulos, David

    Diffusion of H+ and OH- along water wires provides an efficient mechanism for charge transport that is exploited by biological systems and shows promise in technological applications. However, what is lacking for a better control and design of these systems is a thorough theoretical understanding of the diffusion process at the atomic scale. Here we consider H+ and OH- in finite water wires using density functional theory. We employ machine learning techniques to identify the charged species, thus obtaining an agnostic definition of the charge. We employ thermostated ring polymer molecular dynamics and extract a ``universal'' diffusion coefficient from simulations with different wire sizes by considering Langevin dynamics on the potential of mean force of the charged species. In the classical case, diffusion coefficients depend significantly on the potential energy surface, in particular on how dispersion forces modulate O-O distances. NQEs, however, make the diffusion less sensitive to the underlying potential and geometry of the wire, presumably making them more robust to environment fluctuations.

  10. Effects of object shape and visual feedback on hand configuration during grasping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino, Luis F; Adamovich, Sergei V; Poizner, Howard

    2003-07-01

    Normal subjects gradually preshape their hands during a grasping movement in order to conform the hand to the shape of a target object. The evolution of hand preshaping may depend on visual feedback about arm and hand position as well as on target shape and location at specific times during the movement. The present study manipulated object shape in order to produce differentiable patterns of finger placement along two orthogonal "dimensions" (flexion/extension and abduction/adduction), and manipulated the amount of available visual information during a grasp. Normal subjects were asked to reach to and grasp a set of objects presented in a randomized fashion at a fixed spatial location in three visual feedback conditions: Full Vision (both hand and target visible), Object Vision (only the object was visible but not the hand) and No Vision (vision of neither the hand nor the object during the movement). Flexion/extension angles of the metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints of the index, ring, middle and pinkie fingers as well as the abduction/adduction angles between the index-middle and middle-ring fingers were recorded. Kinematic analysis revealed that as visual feedback was reduced, movement duration increased and time to peak aperture of the hand decreased, in accord with previously reported studies. Analysis of the patterns of joint flexion/extension and abduction/adduction per object shape revealed that preshaping based on the abduction/adduction dimension occurred early during the reach for all visual feedback conditions (approximately 45% of normalized movement time). This early preshaping across visual feedback conditions suggests the existence of mechanisms involved in the selection of basic hand configurations. Furthermore, while configuration changes in the flexion/extension dimension resulting in well-defined hand configurations occurred earlier during the movement in the Object Vision and No Vision conditions (45%), those in the Full

  11. Type 1a endoleak following Zone 1 and Zone 2 thoracic endovascular aortic repair: effect of bird-beak configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Tomoaki; Kuratani, Toru; Shimamura, Kazuo; Sakamoto, Tomohiko; Kin, Keiwa; Masada, Kenta; Shijo, Takayuki; Torikai, Kei; Maeda, Koichi; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2017-10-01

    Type 1a endoleak is one of the most severe complications after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR), because it carries the risk of aortic rupture. The association between bird-beak configuration and Type 1a endoleak remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to analyse the predictors of Type 1a endoleak following Zone 1 and Zone 2 TEVAR, with a particular focus on the effect of bird-beak configuration. From April 2008 to July 2015, 105 patients (mean age 68.6 years) who underwent Zone 1 and 2 landing TEVAR were enrolled, with a mean follow-up period of 4.3 years. The patients were categorized into 2 groups, according to the presence (Group B, n = 32) or the absence (Group N, n = 73) of bird-beak configuration on the first postoperative multidetector computed tomography. The Kaplan-Meier event-free rate curve showed that Type 1a endoleak and bird-beak progression occurred less frequently in Group N than in Group B. Five-year freedom from Type 1a endoleak rates were 79.7% and 100% for Groups B and N, respectively (P = 0.007). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that dissecting aortic aneurysm (odds ratio 3.72, 95% confidence interval 1.30-11.0; P = 0.014) and shorter radius of inner curvature (odds ratio 1.09, 95% confidence interval 0.85-0.99; P = 0.025) were significant risk factors for bird-beak configuration. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression showed that Z-type stent graft (hazard ratio 2.69, 95% confidence interval 1.11-6.51; P = 0.030) was a significant risk factor for bird-beak progression. Appropriate stent grafts need to be chosen carefully to prevent Type 1a endoleak and bird-beak configuration after landing Zone 1 and 2 TEVAR. Patients with bird-beak configuration on early postoperative multidetector computed tomography require closer follow-up to screen for Type 1a endoleak. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio

  12. The effect of residence time on the tensile properties of superelastic and thermal activated Ni-Ti orthodontic wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathia Maria Fosenca de Britto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, different devices based on superelastic alloys have been developed to fulfill orthodontic applications. Particularly in the last decades several researches have been carried out to evaluate the mechanical behavior of Ni-Ti alloys, including their tensile, torsion and fatigue properties. However, studies regarding the dependence of elastic properties on residence time of Ni-Ti wires in the oral cavity are scarce. Such approach is essential since metallic alloys are submitted to mechanical stresses during orthodontic treatment as well as pH and temperature fluctuations. The goal of the present contribution is to provide elastic stress-strain results to guide the orthodontic choice between martensitic thermal activated and austenitic superelastic Ni-Ti alloys. From the point of view of an orthodontist, the selection of appropriate materials and the correct maintenance of the orthodontic apparatus are essential needs during clinical treatment. The present work evaluated the elastic behavior of Ni-Ti alloy wires with diameters varying from 0.014 to 0.020 inches, submitted to hysteresis tensile tests with 8% strain. Tensile tests were performed after periods of use of 1, 2 and 3 months in the oral cavity of patients submitted to orthodontic treatment. The results from the hysteresis tests allowed to exam the strain range covered by isostress lines upon loading and unloading, as well as the residual strain after unloading for both superelastic and thermal activated Ni-Ti wires. Superelastic Ni-Ti wires exhibited higher load isostress values compared to thermal activated wires. It was found that such differences in the load isostress values can increase with increasing residence time.

  13. Automating wiring formboard design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, T.

    2013-01-01

    Increase in aircraft wiring complexity call for manufacturing design improvements to reduce cost and lead-time. To achieve such improvements, a joint research project was performed by the Flight Performance and Propulsion (FPP) group and Fokker Elmo BV, the second largest aircraft wiring harness

  14. Numerical investigation to study effect of radiation on thermal performance of radiator for onan cooling configuration of transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandak, V.; Paramane, S. B.; Veken, W. V. d.; Codde, J.

    2015-09-01

    In the present work, flow and temperature distribution in the radiator fins of a power transformer is studied numerically with conjugate heat transfer using commercial CFD software to study the effect of radiation on heat dissipation. The approach considered here is a complete 3D geometry of the radiator fins with average height of the flute geometry of the fins for meshing and computational time reduction. Simulations are performed for ONAN (Oil Natural Air Natural) case for one radiator configuration. The simulations also study the effect of radiation and its impact on the overall heat dissipation. These results would give a holistic picture of heat transfer phenomenon to the designers.

  15. Resonant tunneling of electrons in quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krive, I.V.; Shekhter, R.I.; Jonson, M.; Krive, I.V.

    2010-01-01

    We considered resonant electron tunneling in various nanostructures including single wall carbon nanotubes, molecular transistors and quantum wires formed in two-dimensional electron gas. The review starts with a textbook description of resonant tunneling of noninteracting electrons through a double-barrier structure. The effects of electron-electron interaction in sequential and resonant electron tunneling are studied by using Luttinger liquid model of electron transport in quantum wires. The experimental aspects of the problem (fabrication of quantum wires and transport measurements) are also considered. The influence of vibrational and electromechanical effects on resonant electron tunneling in molecular transistors is discussed.

  16. Investigation of wire motion in superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogitsu, T.; Tsuchiya, K.; Devred, A.

    1990-09-01

    The large Lorentz forces occuring during the excitation of superconducting magnets can provoke sudden motions of wire, which eventually release enough energy to trigger a quench. These wire motions are accompanied by two electromagnetic effects: an induced emf along the moved wire, and a local change in flux caused by the minute dislocation of current. Both effects cause spikes in the coil voltage. Voltage data recorded during the excitation of a superconducting quadrupole magnet which early exhibit such events are here reported. Interpretations of the voltage spikes in terms of energy release are also presented, leading to insights on the spectrum of the disturbances which occur in real magnets. 15 refs

  17. Bubble Formation within Filaments of Melt-Processed Bi2212 wires and its strongly negative effect on the Critical Current Density

    CERN Document Server

    Kametani, F; Jiang, J; Scheuerlein, C; Malagoli, A; Di Michiel, M; Huang, Y; Miao, H; Parrell, J A; Hellstrom, E E; Larbalestier, D C

    2011-01-01

    Most studies of Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox (Bi2212) show that the critical current density Jc is limited by the connectivity of the filaments, but what determines the connectivity is still elusive. Here we report on the role played by filament porosity in limiting Jc. By a microstructural investigation of wires quenched from the melt state, we find that porosity in the unreacted wire agglomerates into bubbles that segment the Bi2212 melt within the filaments into discrete sections. These bubbles do not disappear during subsequent processing because they are only partially filled by Bi2212 grains as the Bi2212 forms on cooling. Correlating the microstructure of quenched wires to their final, fully processed Jc values shows an inverse relation between Jc and bubble density. Bubbles are variable between conductors and perhaps from sample to sample, but they occur frequently and almost completely fill the filament diameter, so they exert a strongly variable but always negative effect on Jc. Bubbles reduce the continuous Bi221...

  18. Effect of pH, fluoride and hydrofluoric acid concentration on ion release from NiTi wires with various coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katic, Visnja; Curkovic, Lidija; Bosnjak, Magdalena Ujevic; Peros, Kristina; Mandic, Davor; Spalj, Stjepan

    2017-03-31

    Aim was to determine effect of pH, fluoride (F - ) and hydrofluoric acid concentration (HF) on dynamic of nickel (Ni 2+ ) and titanium (Ti 4+ ) ions release. Nickel-titanium wires with untreated surface (NiTi), rhodium (RhNiTi) and nitride (NNiTi) coating were immersed once a week for five min in remineralizing agents, followed by immersion to artificial saliva. Ion release was recorded after 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Pearson correlations and linear regression were used for statistical analysis. Release of Ni 2+ from NiTi and NNiTi wires correlated highly linearly positively with HF (r=0.948 and 0.940, respectively); for RhNiTi the correlation was lower and negative (r=-0.605; pNiTi (r=0.797) and NNiTi (r=0.788; pNiTi wires better than the pH and F - of the prophylactic agents.

  19. On the effects of landscape configuration on summer diurnal temperatures in urban residential areas: application in Phoenix, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarianakis, Yiannis; Li, Xiaoxiao; Turner, B. L., II; Brazel, Anthony J.

    2017-12-01

    The impacts of land-cover composition on urban temperatures, including temperature extremes, are well documented. Much less attention has been devoted to the consequences of land-cover configuration, most of which addresses land surface temperatures. This study explores the role of both composition and configuration—or land system architecture—of residential neighborhoods in the Phoenix metropolitan area, on near-surface air temperature. It addresses two-dimensional, spatial attributes of buildings, impervious surfaces, bare soil/rock, vegetation and the "urbanscape" at large, from 50 m to 550 m at 100 m increments, for a representative 30-day high sun period. Linear mixed-effects models evaluate the significance of land system architecture metrics at different spatial aggregation levels. The results indicate that, controlling for land-cover composition and geographical variables, land-cover configuration, specifically the fractal dimension of buildings, is significantly associated with near-surface temperatures. In addition, statistically significant predictors related to composition and configuration appear to depend on the adopted level of spatial aggregation.

  20. Effects of spatial configuration of imperviousness and green infrastructure networks on hydrologic response in a residential sewershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Theodore C.; Welty, Claire

    2017-09-01

    Green infrastructure (GI) is an approach to stormwater management that promotes natural processes of infiltration and evapotranspiration, reducing surface runoff to conventional stormwater drainage infrastructure. As more urban areas incorporate GI into their stormwater management plans, greater understanding is needed on the effects of spatial configuration of GI networks on hydrological performance, especially in the context of potential subsurface and lateral interactions between distributed facilities. In this research, we apply a three-dimensional, coupled surface-subsurface, land-atmosphere model, ParFlow.CLM, to a residential urban sewershed in Washington DC that was retrofitted with a network of GI installations between 2009 and 2015. The model was used to test nine additional GI and imperviousness spatial network configurations for the site and was compared with monitored pipe-flow data. Results from the simulations show that GI located in higher flow-accumulation areas of the site intercepted more surface runoff, even during wetter and multiday events. However, a comparison of the differences between scenarios and levels of variation and noise in monitored data suggests that the differences would only be detectable between the most and least optimal GI/imperviousness configurations.

  1. STRS SpaceWire FPGA Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, James P.; Taylor, Gregory H.; Lang, Minh; Stern, Ryan A.

    2011-01-01

    An FPGA module leverages the previous work from Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) relating to NASA s Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) project. The STRS SpaceWire FPGA Module is written in the Verilog Register Transfer Level (RTL) language, and it encapsulates an unmodified GSFC core (which is written in VHDL). The module has the necessary inputs/outputs (I/Os) and parameters to integrate seamlessly with the SPARC I/O FPGA Interface module (also developed for the STRS operating environment, OE). Software running on the SPARC processor can access the configuration and status registers within the SpaceWire module. This allows software to control and monitor the SpaceWire functions, but it is also used to give software direct access to what is transmitted and received through the link. SpaceWire data characters can be sent/received through the software interface, as well as through the dedicated interface on the GSFC core. Similarly, SpaceWire time codes can be sent/received through the software interface or through a dedicated interface on the core. This innovation is designed for plug-and-play integration in the STRS OE. The SpaceWire module simplifies the interfaces to the GSFC core, and synchronizes all I/O to a single clock. An interrupt output (with optional masking) identifies time-sensitive events within the module. Test modes were added to allow internal loopback of the SpaceWire link and internal loopback of the client-side data interface.

  2. Inverter design for four-wire microgrids

    OpenAIRE

    Heredero Peris, Daniel; Pagès Giménez, Marc; Montesinos Miracle, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a PQ four quadrant four-wire three-phase inverter for microgrids integration. The inverter is based in two full-bridge IGBT modules connected in a three-phase configuration plus a threephase parallelized neutral branch. This topology is galvanically isolated through a single-phase transformer bank. The converter operates as a non-ideal voltage-controlled voltage source inverter under AC droop strategy with hot-swap capability based on a dynamic virtual impedance.

  3. Transonic pressure measurements and comparison of theory to experiment for an arrow-wing configuration. Volume 1: Experimental data report, base configuration and effects of wing twist and leading-edge configuration. [wind tunnel tests, aircraft models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manro, M. E.; Manning, K. J. R.; Hallstaff, T. H.; Rogers, J. T.

    1975-01-01

    A wind tunnel test of an arrow-wing-body configuration consisting of flat and twisted wings, as well as a variety of leading- and trailing-edge control surface deflections, was conducted at Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.1 to provide an experimental pressure data base for comparison with theoretical methods. Theory-to-experiment comparisons of detailed pressure distributions were made using current state-of-the-art attached and separated flow methods. The purpose of these comparisons was to delineate conditions under which these theories are valid for both flat and twisted wings and to explore the use of empirical methods to correct the theoretical methods where theory is deficient.

  4. Effects of Intraoral Ageing on Ultimate Tensile Strength and Surface Topography of Superelastic NiTi Wires from Two Different Manufacturers: A Comparative in vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Pravin Devaprasad

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Super elastic NiTi wires from 3M Unitek were found to be superior to the wires from American orthodontics in as received condition, after 3 months of clinical use and 6 months of clinical use. The surface topography of 3M Unitek wires was found to have less pitting and indentations than American orthodontic wires of comparable use. Wires from both manufactures were found to undergo degradation after clinical use. During the study, it was found that 3M Unitek NiTi superelastic wires had better ultimate tensile strength and surface topography than superelastic NiTi from American orthodontics.

  5. Lunar Module Wiring Design Considerations and Failure Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the considerations for the design of wiring for the Lunar Module. Included are a review of the choice of conductors and insulations, the wire splicing (i.e., crimping, and soldering), the wire connectors, and the fabrication of the wire harnesses. The problems in fabrication include the wires being the wrong length, the damage due to the sharp edges, the requried use of temproary protective covers and inadequate training. The problems in the wire harness installation include damge from sharp eges, work on adjacent harnesses, connector damage, and breaking wires. Engineering suggestions from the Apollo-era in reference to the conductors that are reviewed include: the use of plated conductors, and the use of alloys for stronger wiring. In refernce to insulation, the suggestions from Apollo era include the use of polymer tape-wrap wire insulation due to the light weight, however, other types of modern insulation might be more cost-effective. In reference to wire splices and terminal boards the suggestions from the Apollo Era include the use of crimp splices as superior to solder splices, joining multiple wire to a common point using modular plug-ins might be more reliable, but are heavier than crimp splicing. For connectors, the lessons from the Apollo era indicate that a rear environmental seal that does not require additional potting is preferred, and pins should be crimped or welded to the incoming wires and be removable from the rear of the connector.

  6. Hot wire anemometer measurements in the unheated air flow tests of the SRB nozzle-to-case joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, N.

    1988-01-01

    Hot-Wire Anemometer measurements made in the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) nozzle-to-case joint are discussed. The study was undertaken to glean additional information on the circumferential flow induced in the SRB nozzle joint and the effect of this flow on the insulation bonding flaws. The tests were conducted on a full-scale, 2-D representation of a 65-in long segment of the SRB nozzle joint, with unheated air as the working fluid. Both the flight Mach number and Reynolds number were matched simultaneously and different pressure gradients imposed along the joint face were investigated. Hot-wire anemometers were used to obtain velocity data for different joint gaps and debond configurations. The procedure adopted for hot-wire calibration and use is outlined and the results from the tests summarized.

  7. A Stochastic Analysis of the Transient Current Induced along the Thin Wire Scatterer Buried in a Lossy Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestar Šesnić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the stochastic collocation analysis of a time domain response of a straight thin wire scatterer buried in a lossy half-space. The wire is excited either by a plane wave transmitted through the air-ground interface or by an equivalent current source representing direct lightning strike pulse. Transient current induced at the center of the wire, governed by corresponding Pocklington integrodifferential equation, is determined analytically. This antenna configuration suffers from uncertainties in various parameters, such as ground properties, wire dimensions, and position. The statistical processing of the results yields additional information, thus enabling more accurate and efficient analysis of buried wire configurations.

  8. Wired/wireless access integrated RoF-PON with scalable generation of multi-frequency MMWs enabled by polarization multiplexed FWM in SOA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yu; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Chongfu; Qiu, Kun

    2013-01-14

    In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a novel integrated radio-over-fiber passive optical network (RoF-PON) system for both wired and wireless access. By utilizing the polarization multiplexed four-wave mixing (FWM) effect in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA), scalable generation of multi-frequency millimeter-waves (MMWs) can be provided so as to assist the configuration of multi-frequency wireless access for the wire/wireless access integrated ROF-PON system. In order to obtain a better performance, the polarization multiplexed FWM effect is investigated in detail. Simulation results successfully verify the feasibility of our proposed scheme.

  9. Investigation of the effects of inlet system configuration on the airflow characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaimi, Shafiq; Mamat, Rizalman; Rosli Abdullah, Nik

    2013-12-01

    The effort towards the development of an engine that is efficient and green has become one of the biggest efforts of the major part of the automotive industry. The contribution of air quality to the engine plays an important role to increase power while minimizing the exhaust emission. The main purpose of this article is to investigate the characteristic of the air intake system of a naturally aspirated engine on a steady flow bench. The experiment was conducted using an industrial flow bench apparatus where the pressure different test pressures can be set and, at every test pressure, the valve is lifted at an increment of 1mm until the maximum possible valve lift where the flow rate is obtained in terms of cubic foot per minute or CFM. The experiment process was then repeated at different configuration. The experimental result shows that the flow rate increases with each valve lift in a linear pattern until at a certain point where the value becomes constant. The result also indicated that the flow rate increases as the different pressure increases.

  10. Identifying a minimal rheological configuration: a tool for effective and efficient constitutive modeling of soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Petr; Kerdok, Amy E; Howe, Robert D; Socrate, Simona

    2011-04-01

    We describe a modeling methodology intended as a preliminary step in the identification of appropriate constitutive frameworks for the time-dependent response of biological tissues. The modeling approach comprises a customizable rheological network of viscous and elastic elements governed by user-defined 1D constitutive relationships. The model parameters are identified by iterative nonlinear optimization, minimizing the error between experimental and model-predicted structural (load-displacement) tissue response under a specific mode of deformation. We demonstrate the use of this methodology by determining the minimal rheological arrangement, constitutive relationships, and model parameters for the structural response of various soft tissues, including ex vivo perfused porcine liver in indentation, ex vivo porcine brain cortical tissue in indentation, and ex vivo human cervical tissue in unconfined compression. Our results indicate that the identified rheological configurations provide good agreement with experimental data, including multiple constant strain rate load/unload tests and stress relaxation tests. Our experience suggests that the described modeling framework is an efficient tool for exploring a wide array of constitutive relationships and rheological arrangements, which can subsequently serve as a basis for 3D constitutive model development and finite-element implementations. The proposed approach can also be employed as a self-contained tool to obtain simplified 1D phenomenological models of the structural response of biological tissue to single-axis manipulations for applications in haptic technologies.

  11. Effects of interface edge configuration on residual stress in the bonded structures for a divertor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, K.; Nagata, K.; Shibui, M.; Tachikawa, N.; Araki, M.

    1998-01-01

    Residual stresses in the interface region, that developed at the cool down during the brazing, were evaluated for several bonded structures to assess the mechanical strength of the bonded interface, using thermoelasto-plastic stress analysis. Normal stress components of the residual stresses around the interface edge of graphite-copper (C-Cu) bonded structures were compared for three types of bonded features such as flat-type, monoblock-type and saddle-type. The saddle-type structure was found to be favorable for its relatively low residual stress, easy fabrication accuracy on bonded interface and armor replacement. Residual stresses around the interface edge in three armor materials/copper bonded structures for a divertor plate were also examined for the C-Cu, tungsten-copper (W-Cu) and molybdenum alloy-copper (TZM-Cu), varying the interface wedge angle from 45 to 135 . An optimal bonded configuration for the least value of residual stress was found to have a wedge angle of 45 for the C-Cu, and 135 for both the W-Cu and TZM-Cu bonded ones. (orig.)

  12. The effect of the configuration and the interior design of a virtual weightless space station on human spatial orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hirofumi; Ohno, Ryuzo; Yamaguchi, Takao

    2005-05-01

    In a virtual weightless environment, subjects' orientation skills were studied to examine what kind of cognitive errors people make when they moved through the interior space of virtual space stations and what kind of visual information effectively decreases those errors. Subjects wearing a head-mounted display moved from one end to the other end in space station-like routes constructed of rectangular and cubical modules, and did Pointing and Modeling tasks. In Experiment 1, configurations of the routes were changed with such variables as the number of bends, the number of embedding planes, and the number of planes with respect to the body posture. The results indicated that spatial orientation ability was relevant to the variables and that orientational errors were explained by two causes. One of these was that the place, the direction, and the sequence of turns were incorrect. The other was that subjects did not recognize the rotation of the frame of reference, especially when they turned in pitch direction rather than in yaw. In Experiment 2, the effect of the interior design was examined by testing three design settings. Wall colors that showed the allocentric frame of reference and the different interior design of vertical and horizontal modules were effective; however, there was a limit to the effectiveness in complicated configurations.

  13. The effect of the configuration and the interior design of a virtual weightless space station on human spatial orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hirofumi; Ohno, Ryuzo; Yamaguchi, Takao

    2005-01-01

    In a virtual weightless environment, subjects' orientation skills were studied to examine what kind of cognitive errors people make when they moved through the interior space of virtual space stations and what kind of visual information effectively decreases those errors. Subjects wearing a head-mounted display moved from one end to the other end in space station-like routes constructed of rectangular and cubical modules, and did Pointing and Modeling tasks. In Experiment 1, configurations of the routes were changed with such variables as the number of bends, the number of embedding planes, and the number of planes with respect to the body posture. The results indicated that spatial orientation ability was relevant to the variables and that orientational errors were explained by two causes. One of these was that the place, the direction, and the sequence of turns were incorrect. The other was that subjects did not recognize the rotation of the frame of reference, especially when they turned in pitch direction rather than in yaw. In Experiment 2, the effect of the interior design was examined by testing three design settings. Wall colors that showed the allocentric frame of reference and the different interior design of vertical and horizontal modules were effective; however, there was a limit to the effectiveness in complicated configurations. c2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Analysis of Effects of Cutting Parameters of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining on Material Removal Rate and Surface Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonday, H. R.; Tigga, A. M.

    2016-02-01

    As wire electrical discharge machining is pioneered as a vigorous, efficient and precise and complex nontraditional machining technique, research is needed in this area for efficient machining. In this paper, the influence of various input factors of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) on output variable has been analyzed by using Taguchi technique and analysis of variance. The design of experiments has been done and by applying L8 orthogonal arrays method and experiments have been conducted and collected required data. The objectives of the research are to maximize the material removal rate and to minimize the surface roughness value (Ra). Surface morphology of machined workpiece has been obtained and examined by employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique.

  15. Analysis of Effects of Cutting Parameters of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining on Material Removal Rate and Surface Integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonday, H. R.; Tigga, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    As wire electrical discharge machining is pioneered as a vigorous, efficient and precise and complex nontraditional machining technique, research is needed in this area for efficient machining. In this paper, the influence of various input factors of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) on output variable has been analyzed by using Taguchi technique and analysis of variance. The design of experiments has been done and by applying L8 orthogonal arrays method and experiments have been conducted and collected required data. The objectives of the research are to maximize the material removal rate and to minimize the surface roughness value (Ra). Surface morphology of machined workpiece has been obtained and examined by employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. (paper)

  16. Energy dispersion of the electrosubbands in parabolic confining quantum wires: interplay of Rashba, Dresselhaus, lateral spin-orbit interaction and the Zeeman effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tongyi; Zhao Wei; Liu Xueming

    2009-01-01

    We have made a thorough theoretical investigation of the interplay of spin-orbit interactions (SOIs) resulting from Rashba, Dresselhaus and the lateral parabolic confining potential on the energy dispersion relation of the spin subbands in a parabolic quantum wire. The influence of an applied external magnetic field is also discussed. We show the interplay of different types of SOI, as well as the Zeeman effect, leads to rather complex and intriguing electrosubbands for different spin branches. The effect of different coupling strengths and different magnetic field strengths is also investigated.

  17. [Clinical study of treatment effects on deep overbite: a comparison between Multiloop edgewise arch wire and manufactured artificial NiTi reverse-curve arch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-jun

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of multiloop edgewise arch wire(MEAW) and NiTi reverse-curve arch in correcting deep overbite. Twenty cases(12-27 year of age)with deep overbite were treated with MEAW or NiTi reverse-curve arch. Pre-and post-treatment cephalogram were taken and analyzed. SPSS13.0 software package was used for paired t test. Two methods could intrude incisors and extrude molars.Maxilla and mandibular had no apparent changes, but less time was spent in the MEAW group. Two methods could correct deep overbite by the same mechanism, but the MEAW has more effective results.

  18. Reduction of dc-link capacitance for three-phase three-wire shunt active power filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Chi; Tang, Yi; Wang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Three-phase three-wire shunt active power filters (APFs) usually employ very large electrolytic capacitors in the dc-link to mitigate utility side harmonics. These capacitors are however known to be bulky and of short operating lifetime, particularly for systems where high ripple currents exist...... instead. Moreover, DLC itself is constructed with small passive components and features very simple circuit configuration. Experimental results are provided to show its effectiveness....

  19. Effects of Bonding Wires and Epoxy Molding Compound on Gold and Copper Ball Bonds Intermetallic Growth Kinetics in Electronic Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, C. L.; Classe, F. C.; Chan, B. L.; Hashim, U.

    2014-04-01

    This paper discusses the influence of bonding wires and epoxy mold compounds (EMC) on intermetallic compound (IMC) diffusion kinetics and apparent activation energies ( E aa) of CuAl and AuAl IMCs in a fineline ball grid array package. The objective of this study is to study the CuAl and AuAl IMC growth rates with different epoxy mold compounds and to determine the apparent activation energies of different combination of package bills of materials. IMC thickness measurement has been carried out to estimate the coefficient of diffusion ( D o) and E aa various aging conditions of different EMCs and bonding wires. Apparent activation energies ( E aa) of both wire types were investigated after high temperature storage life tests (HTSL) for both molding compounds. Au bonds were identified to have faster IMC formation, compared to slower IMC growth of Cu. The E aa obtained for CuAl IMC diffusion kinetics are 1.08 and 1.04 eV with EMC A and EMC B, respectively. For AuAl IMC diffusion kinetics, the E aa obtained are 1.04 and 0.98 eV, respectively, on EMC A and EMC B. These values are close to previous HTSL studies conducted on Au and Cu ball bonds and are in agreement to the theory of HTSL performance of Au and Cu bonding wires.Overall, EMC B shows slightly lower apparent activation energy ( E aa) valueas in CuAl and AuAl IMCs. This proves that the different types of epoxy mold compounds have some influence on IMC growth rates.

  20. Analysis of stainless steel clasp wire tensile strength and its effect after immersion on denture cleanser solution (A research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Prawesthi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Clasp wire is one of the important components in partial denture acrylic which serves as  a  retention. After the use of denture everyday, patient is advised to always clean it. Cleaning of denture by immersing in a solution of denture cleanser which containing organic acids in long term may be  cause corrosion. While corrosion can resulted changes in mechanical properties, among others, a reduction in tensile strength of stainless steel. The purpose of this research is to investigate the influence of immersion clasp wire of  stainless steel  on denture cleanser solution to its tensile strength and to know how far the influence of  quality of  clasp wire of stainless steel  on the market  for its tensile strength. Method is laboratory experimental  (double-blind, the study is 3 brands of stainless steel wire with a diameter of 0.6 mm on the market (good quality, medium and low, the specimen was 30, then each group was divided into 2 groups again based on  type of treatment, which is immersed in a solution without a denture cleanser and   for 7 days at room temperature (28ºC and  same volume. Measurement of  tensile strength was performed with a Universal Testing Machine. The ANOVA test (p<0.05 obtained tensile strength significantly different group of good quality with moderate and low groups, while the test results the T-test (p<0.05 tensile strength values obtained no significant difference between the immersed without denture cleanser  and with denture cleanser.

  1. Problems associated with iridium-192 wire implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, S.J.; Law, J.; Ash, D.; Flynn, A.; Paine, C.H.; Durrant, K.R.; Barber, C.D.; Dixon-Brown, A.

    1985-01-01

    Three incidents are reported, from different radiotherapy centres, in which an implanted iridium-192 wire remained in the tissues of a patient after withdrawal of the plastic tubing in which it was contained. In each case the instrument used to cut the wire had probably formed a hook on the end of the wire which caused it to catch in the tissues. Detailed recommendations are made for avoiding such incidents in the future, the most important of which is that the patient should be effectively monitored after the supposed removal of all radioactive sources. (author)

  2. Effect of wire EDM conditions on generation of residual stresses in machining of aluminum 2014 T6 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujari Srinivasa Rao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Wire electrical discharge machining (EDM possesses many advantages over the conventional manufacturing process. Hence, this process was used for machining of all conductive materials; especially, nowadays this is the most common process for machining of aerospace aluminum alloys. This process produces complex shapes in aluminum alloys with extremely tight tolerances in a single setup. But, for good surface integrity and longer service life, the residual stresses generated on the components should be as low as possible and it depends on the setting of process parameters and the material to be machined. In wire EDM, much of the work was concentrated on Titanium alloys, Inconel alloys and various types of steels and partly on aluminum alloys. The present investigation was a parametric analysis of wire EDM parameters on residual stresses in the machining of aluminum alloy using Taguchi method. The results obtained had shown a wide range of residual stresses from 8.2 to 405.6 MPa. It also influenced the formation of various intermetallics such as AlCu and AlCu3. Microscopic examination revealed absence of surface cracks on aluminum surface at all the machining conditions. Here, an attempt was made to compare the results of aluminum alloy with the available machined data for other metals.

  3. Effect of starting materials and processing variables for the production of discontinuous filament Nb3Sn wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, P.L.; Dew-Hughes, D.

    1986-01-01

    Discontinuous multifilamentary wires of Nb 3 Sn have been prepared from compacted mixtures of 30 wt. %Nb in Cu, extruded, drawn, annealed, tin plated and reacted. Processing variables include starting materials, extrusion ratio and extrusion temperature. Continuous lengths of wire could be satisfactorily produced from compacts of either ultra-pure Nb (VPN about 95 kg mm -2 ) and Cu powder or from centrifugal arc-cast Nb spheroids (VPN about 120 kg mm -2 ) and tough pitch Cu powder. After a total area reduction of 10 4 : 1, the latter materials resulted in long, unbroken, highly regular filaments of Nb about 6μm in diameter. The high degree of perfection of these filaments is due in part to the uniformity of the initial spheroids, compared to the highly irregular hydride-dehydride Nb powder. However their greater hardness requires that the spheroids be coprocessed in a less-pure Cu matrix. Critical currents were measured on helical specimens involving more than 1m length of wire, in fields up to 15T at 4.2 K, after reaction for various times at different temperatures. Overall current densities of 3 X 10 8 Am -2 were obtained at 12T in the best samples. Further reductions are expected to produce material with improved current densities

  4. MR-compatible and conventional localization wires in breast diagnosis: experimental studies on the dislocation and artefact size in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langen, H.J.; Walter, C.; Ernst, S.; Kugel, H.; Lackner, K.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Localization of non-palpable suspicious breast lesions with tumor localization wires is commonly used before surgical excision. Dislocation of the wire is possible. The possibility of dislocation for different types of tumor localization wires was examined experimentally. Results: The localization wires with an X-configuration and long hook could not be dislocated by a force up to the maximum of 12 Newton. The retractable localization wires were easily dislocated at traction forces of 1 Newton. Other wires with only one hook could withstand a traction from 2 up to 7 Newton. The wires with a Z-configuration and wires with short hooks showed a highly variable rate of resistance. The artifact size of localization systems was between 10.1 and 11.0 mm for gradient-echo sequences and between 6.7 and 7.1 mm for spin-echo sequences. (orig.) [de

  5. Thermosonic wire bonding of IC devices using palladium wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shze, J.H.; Poh, M.T.; Tan, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    The feasibility of replacing gold wire by palladium wire in thermosonic wire bonding of CMOS and bipolar devices are studied in terms of the manufacturability, physical, electrical and assembly performance. The results that palladium wire is a viable option for bonding the bipolar devices but not the CMOS devices

  6. Dynamic ground-effect measurements on the F-15 STOL and Maneuver Technology Demonstrator (S/MTD) configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmerly, Guy T.

    1990-01-01

    A moving-model ground-effect testing method was used to study the influence of rate-of-descent on the aerodynamic characteristics for the F-15 STOL and Maneuver Technology Demonstrator (S/MTD) configuration for both the approach and roll-out phases of landing. The approach phase was modeled for three rates of descent, and the results were compared to the predictions from the F-15 S/MTD simulation data base (prediction based on data obtained in a wind tunnel with zero rate of descent). This comparison showed significant differences due both to the rate of descent in the moving-model test and to the presence of the ground boundary layer in the wind tunnel test. Relative to the simulation data base predictions, the moving-model test showed substantially less lift increase in ground effect, less nose-down pitching moment, and less increase in drag. These differences became more prominent at the larger thrust vector angles. Over the small range of rates of descent tested using the moving-model technique, the effect of rate of descent on longitudinal aerodynamics was relatively constant. The results of this investigation indicate no safety-of-flight problems with the lower jets vectored up to 80 deg on approach. The results also indicate that this configuration could employ a nozzle concept using lower reverser vector angles up to 110 deg on approach if a no-flare approach procedure were adopted and if inlet reingestion does not pose a problem.

  7. Effect of reactor configuration on performance during anaerobic treatment of low strength wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suprotim; Chaudhari, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of the up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor is quite low for the treatment of low strength wastewaters (LSWs) due to less biogas production leading to poor mixing. LSW may be treated efficiently by providing adequate mixing in the UASB reactor when gas production is low, and sufficient mixing can be achieved by modifying reactor geometry. Hence, modifying UASB reactor geometry for enhanced mixing and evaluating its performance for the treatment of LSWs would be a worthwhile effort. In the present study, UASB reactor configuration was modified by providing a vertical baffle along the height to promote mixing of reactor contents, and is termed as modified UASB (MUASB). The performance of an on-site pilot-scale MUASB reactor was evaluated for 375 days under ambient condition for the treatment of municipal sewage as LSW and compared with that of the conventional UASB and hybrid UASB (HUASB) reactors. The MUASB reactor showed better performance in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency as compared with UASB and HUASB reactors during this study. At 4 h hydraulic retention time, the total COD removal efficiency of UASB and HUASB reactors was 53.7% and 61%, respectively, which were much lower than the total COD removal efficiency of the MUASB reactor (72.7%). The better performance observed in the MUASB reactor is possibly due to improved mixing. Depth-wise analysis of reactor liquid showed that better mixing in the MUASB reactor enhances the contact of wastewater with biomass, which contributes to the improved treatment efficiency. It seems that MUASB holds promise for LSW treatment.

  8. Spatial summation and spatial discrimination of cold pain: effect of spatial configuration and skin type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrin, Ruth; Sheraizin, Anat; Malichi, Liron; Shachen, Orit

    2011-12-01

    Spatial summation (SS) and spatial discrimination (SD) are essential for pain perception. In the cold-pain sensation, these processes have hardly been studied. Our aim was to study the SS and SD of cold pain, as well as the SS of cold-pain threshold (CPT) in hairy and glabrous skin. Two discrete stimuli (9 cm(2) each) were applied to the forearm with separation distances of 0-40 cm and in addition, a single stimulus on each forearm. For each configuration, the CPT, suprathreshold cold-pain ratings, and the reported number of activated stimuli (SD) were obtained. In another experiment, SS of CPT was tested in the hairy and glabrous skin of the hand using small (2.25 cm(2)) and large (9 cm(2)) probe sizes. The SS of CPT and of cold pain existed over separation distances of up to 30-40 cm, at which point SD became better than chance. When the 2 forearms were stimulated, SS was abolished and cold pain was inhibited. CPT was significantly higher in hairy than glabrous skin, but the amount of SS of CPT was similar in the 2 skin types. Noxious cold-evoked thermal qualities were more common in the glabrous than the hairy skin. (1) SS and SD of cold pain are reciprocal; (2) whereas cold pain can summate over large distances, the SD of cold pain is poor; (3) SS of cold pain does not exist between contralateral body sides, however, inhibition occurs; (4) SS is independent of skin type and sensitivity to cold pain; (5) differences in pain quality between hairy and glabrous skin may reflect innervation differences. Copyright © 2011 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of intense electromagnetic fields with complex configuration on nuclear betadecay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionov, V.N.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses how an electromagnetic field consisting of a superposition of a constant magnetic field and a field of laser type can affect nuclear beta decay. In general it is not assumed that the intensities of the two types of fields are small compared to the characteristic field H cr *=β 1 H cr , where H cr =m 2 c 3 /e(ℎ/2π) and the quantity β 1 depends on the energy liberated in the decay and the configuration of the electromagnetic field. For nonrelativistic decays the quantity β 1 is found to be of the same order as the maximum kinetic energy of an electron referenced to its rest energy β 1 ∼I 2 ≤I. The behavior of the probability for the process is studied over a wide range of the fundamental parameters that characterize the fields. Corresponding asymptotic expressions are derived in the 'weak'- and 'strong'-field regimes. Also discussed are so-called interference corrections to the unperturbed decay probability, which cannot in principle be studied by the methods of perturbation theory. It is shown that the times and distances that are important in generating these contributions exceed the parameters of the unperturbed processes, just as in the case of a plane-wave field previously investigated in detail by Nikishov and Ritus. However, in contrast to the case of a pure wave field, when a system is simultaneously subjected to a constant magnetic field and a wave field, the degree to which these characteristic regions are enlarged can depend not only on the intensities of the electromagnetic fields but also on their rates of change, even in the limit in which the wave field is slowly varying

  10. Effects of Climate Change on Habitat Availability and Configuration for an Endemic Coastal Alpine Bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M Jackson

    Full Text Available North America's coastal mountains are particularly vulnerable to climate change, yet harbour a number of endemic species. With little room "at the top" to track shifting climate envelopes, alpine species may be especially negatively affected by climate-induced habitat fragmentation. We ask how climate change will affect the total amount, mean patch size, and number of patches of suitable habitat for Vancouver Island White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura saxatilis; VIWTP, a threatened, endemic alpine bird. Using a Random Forest model and a unique dataset consisting of citizen science observations combined with field surveys, we predict the distribution and configuration of potential suitable summer habitat for VIWTP under baseline and future (2020s, 2050s, and 2080s climates using three general circulation models and two greenhouse gas scenarios. VIWTP summer habitat is predicted to decline by an average of 25%, 44%, and 56% by the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s, respectively, under the low greenhouse gas scenario and 27%, 59%, and 74% under the high scenario. Habitat patches are predicted to become fragmented, with a 52-79% reduction in mean patch size. The average elevation of suitable habitat patches is expected to increase, reflecting a loss of patches at lower elevations. Thus ptarmigan are in danger of being "squeezed off the mountain", as their remaining suitable habitat will be increasingly confined to mountaintops in the center of the island. The extent to which ptarmigan will be able to persist in increasingly fragmented habitat is unclear. Much will depend on their ability to move throughout a more heterogeneous landscape, utilize smaller breeding areas, and survive increasingly variable climate extremes. Our results emphasize the importance of continued monitoring and protection for high elevation specialist species, and suggest that White-tailed Ptarmigan should be considered an indicator species for alpine ecosystems in the face of

  11. Towards plant wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self-growing wetware circuits and devices, and integration of plant-based electronic components into future and emergent bio-hybrid systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Sintering Time and Diameter on Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O Superconducting Wire Formation with TiO2 Dopant by Silver (Ag Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Al Kindi

    2018-01-01

    superconducting wire has a critical temperature at Tc onset = 99 K and Tc zero = 70 K. The time that very important on the formation of superconducting phase is sintering for 9 h and the diameter of the wire having a critical temperature is 6 mm. The sintering time during 30 h can change the phase of BPSCCO become conductor and semiconductor. The diameter of 2,6 mm has not become the correct size on the fabrication of superconducting wire.  Keyword : Cryogenic, Critical Temperature, Superconducting wire, Sintering Time, TiO2 REFERENSI Grivel, J-C, A Jeremie and R Fliikiger, 1995, The Influence Of Ti02 Additions On The Formation And The Superconducting Properties Of The (Bi, Pb2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10-Y Phase. IOP Science Jabur, Akram R. 2012. B2223 High Temperature Superconductor Wires In Silver Sheath, Filament Diameter Effect On Critical Temperature And Current Density. Energy Procedia 18 ( 254 – 264 Liu, Hua Kun., Mihail lonescu., Yuan  Chang Guo,2001. Handbook of Advanced Electronic and Photonic Materials and Devices, Volume 3: High Tc Superconductors and Organic Cond High Tc Superconductors and Organic Conductors, Academic Press. 71-90 Widodo, Henry, 2010, Nanokristalisasi Superkonduktor Bi2SrCa2Cu3O10+x dan Bi1.6Pb0.4Sr2Ca2Cu3O10+6 dengan Metode Kopresipitasi dan Pencampuran Basah, Jurnal Ilmu Pengetahuan dan Teknologi TELAAH : LIPI Bandung

  13. Cryogenic Pressure Seal for Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciana, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    High-pressure-seal formed by forcing polyurethane into space surrounding wire or cable in special fitting. Wire or cable routed through fitting then through a tightly fitting cap. Wire insulation left intact. Cap filled with sealant and forced onto the fitting: this pushes sealant into fitting so it seals wire or cable in fitting as well as in cap.

  14. Landing Gear Components Noise Study - PIV and Hot-Wire Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Burley, Casey L.; Stead, Daniel J.; Becker, Lawrence E.; Price, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    PIV and hot-wire measurements of the wake flow from rods and bars are presented. The test models include rods of different diameters and cross sections and a rod juxtaposed to a plate. The latter is representative of the latch door that is attached to an aircraft landing gear when the gear is deployed, while the single and multiple rod configurations tested are representative of some of the various struts and cables configuration present on an aircraft landing gear. The test set up is described and the flow measurements are presented. The effect of model surface treatment and freestream turbulence on the spanwise coherence of the vortex shedding is studied for several rod and bar configurations.

  15. Effects of the nitrogen doping configuration and site on the thermal conductivity of defective armchair graphene nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturk, Ahmet Emin; Oktem, Ahmet Sinan; Konukman, Alp Er S

    2017-08-01

    The influence of the nitrogen (N) doping configuration on the thermal conductivity (TC) of armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) of size 15.7 nm × 7.26 nm was investigated using classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with the optimized Tersoff potential at room temperature. The effect of changing the N-doping site in defects on the TC of AGNRs was also investigated in detail. The variations with N concentration of the TCs of AGNRs presenting graphitic N (quarternary N), pyridinic N, and pyrrolic N doping configurations were studied. Results of MD simulations showed that, among these three doping configurations, pyridinic N was associated with the highest TC, and pyrrolic N with the lowest TC. The highest TC values were obtained when the N dopant atoms were located at the edges and at defects in the AGNR. The presence of both pyrrolic N and Stone-Wales type 1 (SW-1) defects led to a higher TC than the presence of both pyrrolic N and SW-2 defects. Phonon-defect scattering was found to be influenced by changes in C-C bond orientation. SW-1 defects were found to exert a greater influence on the TC than graphitic N doping. Furthermore, the influence on the TC of the N-doping site location in SW-1 defects was examined. Doping the central sites of SW-1 defects was found to yield higher TC values than doping the edge sites of defects. Graphitic-N doping of the more central sites in a SW-1 defect led to a higher TC than the random graphitic-N doping of sites in a SW-1 defect.

  16. Effects of transit bus interior configuration on performance of wheeled mobility users during simulated boarding and disembarking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Clive; Paquet, Victor; Lenker, James A; Steinfeld, Edward

    2017-07-01

    The emergence of low-floor bus designs and related regulatory standards in the U.S. have resulted in substantial improvements in public transit accessibility. However, passengers using wheeled mobility devices still experience safety concerns and inefficiencies in boarding, disembarking, and interior circulation on low-floor buses. This study investigates effects of low-floor bus interior configuration and passenger crowding on boarding and disembarking efficiency and safety. Users of manual wheelchairs (n = 18), powered wheelchairs (n = 21) and electric scooters (n = 9) simulated boarding and disembarking in three interior layout configurations at low and high passenger crowding conditions on a full-scale laboratory mock-up of a low-floor bus. Dependent measures comprised task times and critical incidents during access ramp use, fare payment, and movement to and from the doorway and wheeled mobility securement area. Individual times for unassisted boarding ranged from 15.2 to 245.3 s and for disembarking ranged from 9.1 to 164.6 s across layout and passenger crowding conditions. Nonparametric analysis of variance showed significant differences and interactions across vehicle design conditions, passenger load and mobility device type on user performance. The configuration having electronic on-board fare payment, rear-bus entrance doorways and adjacent device securement areas demonstrated greatest efficiency and safety. High passenger load adversely impacted efficiency and frequency of critical incidents during on-board circulation across all three layouts. Findings have broader implications for improving transit system efficiency and quality of service across the spectrum of transit users. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Trust, Mistrust, and Organizational Design: Understanding the Effects of Social Configurations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moonier III, James E; Baker, Spencer L; Greene, Mark L

    2008-01-01

    .... The formation of effective partnerships is influenced greatly by trust. Trust sets the stage for necessary factors for collaboration such as social interaction, communication, negotiation, and cooperation...

  18. Giant magnetoimpedance effect of Co{sub 68.15} Fe{sub 4.35} Si{sub 12.5} B{sub 15} amorphous wire in the presence of magnetite ferrofluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirabadizadeh, A. [Department of Physics, University of Birjand, P. O. Box 97175-615, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lotfollahi, Z., E-mail: lotfollahi@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Birjand, P. O. Box 97175-615, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zelati, A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Technical Faculty of Ferdows, University of Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-01

    Giant magnetoimpedance effect (GMI) in Co{sub 68.15} Fe{sub 4.35} Si{sub 12.5} B{sub 15} amorphous wire was studied in the presence of magnetite ferrofluid and without it. Magnetite nanoparticles for ferrofluid were prepared by the traditional wet chemistry co-precipitation method. GMI was measured in the frequency range of 2 to 6 MHz. The maximum value of GMI value of the ferrofluid covered amorphous wire was increased in all frequency intervals in comparison with GMI response of the wire non-covered by ferrofluid. These results open a new way of increasing magnetoimpedance effect value useful for sensor applications. - Highlights: • Amorphous Co-based wires display GMI effect and this feature is of potential interest for developing small magnetic field sensors and biosensors. • This manuscript is dealing with the improvement of the GMI response of an amorphous Co-based wire/magnetite ferrofluid. • The effect of ferrofluid presence in the sensing element is also analyzed. • The results show that GMI maximum increases in a 100% at 4.5 MHz and the sensitivity also does about a 150%. • Amorphous Co-based wires display giant magneto impedance effect (GMI) and this intrinsic feature is of potential interest for developing small magnetic field sensors and biosensors. • This manuscript is dealing with the improvement of the GMI response of an amorphous Co{sub 68.15}Fe{sub 4.35}Si{sub 12.5}B{sub 15} wire/magnetite ferrofluid. • The effect of ferrofluid presence in the sensing element is also analyzed. • The results show that GMI maximum increases in a 100% at 4.5 MHz and the sensitivity also does about a 150%.

  19. Graphene wire medium: Homogenization and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution we analyze numerically the optical properties of the graphene wire medium, which unit cell consists of a stripe of graphene embedded into dielectric. We propose a simple method for retrieval of the isofrequency contour and effective permittivity tensor. As an example...... of the graphene wire medium application we demonstrate a reconfigurable hyperlens for the terahertz subwavelength imaging capable of resolving two sources with separation λ0/5 in the far-field....

  20. Copper wire bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Preeti S; Zhong, ZhaoWei; Pecht, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    This critical volume provides an in-depth presentation of copper wire bonding technologies, processes and equipment, along with the economic benefits and risks.  Due to the increasing cost of materials used to make electronic components, the electronics industry has been rapidly moving from high cost gold to significantly lower cost copper as a wire bonding material.  However, copper wire bonding has several process and reliability concerns due to its material properties.  Copper Wire Bonding book lays out the challenges involved in replacing gold with copper as a wire bond material, and includes the bonding process changes—bond force, electric flame off, current and ultrasonic energy optimization, and bonding tools and equipment changes for first and second bond formation.  In addition, the bond–pad metallurgies and the use of bare and palladium-coated copper wires on aluminum are presented, and gold, nickel and palladium surface finishes are discussed.  The book also discusses best practices and re...

  1. Effect of ion-implantation on surface characteristics of nickel titanium and titanium molybdenum alloy arch wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the changes in surface roughness and frictional features of ′ion-implanted nickel titanium (NiTi and titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA arch wires′ from its conventional types in an in-vitro laboratory set up. Materials and Methods: ′Ion-implanted NiTi and low friction TMA arch wires′ were assessed for surface roughness with scanning electron microscopy (SEM and 3 dimensional (3D optical profilometry. Frictional forces were studied in a universal testing machine. Surface roughness of arch wires were determined as Root Mean Square (RMS values in nanometers and Frictional Forces (FF in grams. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean values of RMS and FF were compared by Student′s ′t′ test and one way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: SEM images showed a smooth topography for ion-implanted versions. 3D optical profilometry demonstrated reduction of RMS values by 58.43% for ion-implanted NiTi (795.95 to 330.87 nm and 48.90% for TMA groups (463.28 to 236.35 nm from controls. Nonetheless, the corresponding decrease in FF was only 29.18% for NiTi and 22.04% for TMA, suggesting partial correction of surface roughness and disproportionate reduction in frictional forces with ion-implantation. Though the reductions were highly significant at P < 0.001, relations between surface roughness and frictional forces remained non conclusive even after ion-implantation. Conclusion: The study proved that ion-implantation can significantly reduce the surface roughness of NiTi and TMA wires but could not make a similar reduction in frictional forces. This can be attributed to the inherent differences in stiffness and surface reactivity of NiTi and TMA wires when used in combination with stainless steel brackets, which needs further investigations.

  2. COLLISION STRENGTHS AND EFFECTIVE COLLISION STRENGTHS FOR TRANSITIONS WITHIN THE GROUND-STATE CONFIGURATION OF S III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, C. E.; Ramsbottom, C. A.; Scott, M. P., E-mail: c.hudson@qub.ac.uk, E-mail: c.ramsbottom@qub.ac.uk, E-mail: p.scott@qub.ac.uk [Department of Applied Maths and Theoretical Physics, The Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-01

    We have carried out a 29-state R-matrix calculation in order to calculate collision strengths and effective collision strengths for the electron impact excitation of S III. The recently developed parallel RMATRX II suite of codes have been used, which perform the calculation in intermediate coupling. Collision strengths have been generated over an electron energy range of 0-12 Ryd, and effective collision strength data have been calculated from these at electron temperatures in the range 1000-100,000 K. Results are here presented for the fine-structure transitions between the ground-state configurations of 3s {sup 2}3p {sup 23} P{sub 0,1,2}, {sup 1}D{sub 2}, and {sup 1} S{sub 0}, and the values given resolve a discrepancy between two previous R-matrix calculations.

  3. Design Optimization of Long-Span Cold-Formed Steel Portal Frames Accounting for Effect of Knee Brace Joint Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Duoc Phan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of cold-formed steel channel sections for portal frames becomes more popular for industrial and residential purposes. Experimental tests showed that such structures with long-span up to 20 m can be achieved when knee brace joints are included. In this paper, the influence of knee brace configuration on the optimum design of long-span cold-formed steel portal frames is investigated. The cold-formed steel portal frames are designed using Eurocode 3 under ultimate limit states. A novel method in handling design constraints integrated with genetic algorithm is proposed for searching the optimum design of cold-formed steel portal frames. The result showed that the proposed routine for design optimization effectively searched the near global optimum solution with the computational time is approximate 50% faster than methods being popularly used in literature. The optimum configuration for knee brace joint can reduce the section size of rafter and so the lighter frame could be obtained especially for long-span portal frame. The minimum weight of main frame obtained from optimization process is approximate 19.72% lighter than a Benchmark Frame used in the full-scale experimental test.

  4. Laboratory-scale milling of whole-durum flour quality: effect of mill configuration and seed conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lingzhu; Manthey, Frank A

    2017-08-01

    Research was conducted to develop a laboratory milling procedure to make whole-durum flour. An ultracentrifugal mill was evaluated by determining the effect of mill configuration and seed conditioning on particle size distribution and quality of whole-wheat flour. Particle size of whole-wheat flour decreased as screen aperture decreased from 1000 to 250 µm; as rotor speed increased from 6000 to 18 000 rpm; and as seed conditioning moisture content decreased from 150 to 90 g kg -1 . Feed rate during milling did not affect particle size distribution. Starch damage decreased as screen aperture increased; as rotor speed increased from 6000 to12 000 rpm; and as seed conditioning moisture content decreased from 150 to 90 g kg -1 . Flour temperature varied with milling parameters but did not exceed 34 °C. An ultracentrifugal mill configured with a rotor speed of 12 000 rpm, screen aperture of 250 µm, and seed conditioning moisture of 90 g kg -1 resulted in a fine whole-wheat flour where 82% of particles were flour temperature was below 35 °C. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Zeeman effects on the tunneling spectra of a ferromagnetic d-wave superconductor in contact with a quantum wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamipour, Hamidreza; Mehrabzad, Narges

    2016-07-01

    We study tunneling conductance in a quantum wire-insulator-ferromagnetic d-wave superconductor junction. The results show that exchange field of superconductor has a strong impact on tunneling spectra depending on the junction parameters. We have found a gap like structure in the tunneling limit when we have an interface normal to the (100) axis of superconductor. In the case of (110) axis of superconductor, there is not any zero- bias conductance peaks in tunneling spectra. For a metallic junction the dips disappear.

  6. Effect of scattering on zero-bias anomaly and conductance reduction in quasi-one-dimensional quantum wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K. M.; Umansky, V.; Hsu, S. Y.

    2010-06-01

    We present a systematic study on the zero-bias conductance peak and its dependences on the carrier density and structural geometry in quasi-one-dimensional quantum wires (QWs). This zero-bias anomaly (ZBA) is suppressed by either decreasing the carrier density or increasing the QW length. The differential conductance at zero bias decreases with increasing temperature in accordance with a thermal-activation model up to a well-defined cut-off temperature. We demonstrate that the activation energy, cut-off temperature, and width of the ZBA are correlated, and suggest that these features are controlled by electron scattering in QWs.

  7. Analysis of stainless steel clasp wire tensile strength and its effect after immersion on denture cleanser solution (A research)

    OpenAIRE

    Endang Prawesthi; Handoko Tirta

    2016-01-01

    Clasp wire is one of the important components in partial denture acrylic which serves as  a  retention. After the use of denture everyday, patient is advised to always clean it. Cleaning of denture by immersing in a solution of denture cleanser which containing organic acids in long term may be  cause corrosion. While corrosion can resulted changes in mechanical properties, among others, a reduction in tensile strength of stainless steel. The purpose of this research is to investigate the inf...

  8. Effect of temperature and bias voltage on the conductance distribution of 1D-disordered wires with dirty contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foieri, Federico [Departamento de Fisica, Pabellon I, Ciudad Universitaria (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: ffoieri@df.uba.ar; Jose Sanchez, Maria [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro (8400) Bariloche (Argentina); Arrachea, Liliana [Instituto de Biocomputacion y Fisica de Sistemas Complejos, Universidad de Zaragoza, Corona de Aragon 42 (50009) Zaragoza (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12 (50009) Zaragoza (Spain); Gopar, Victor [Instituto de Biocomputacion y Fisica de Sistemas Complejos, Universidad de Zaragoza, Corona de Aragon 42 (50009) Zaragoza (Spain)

    2007-09-01

    We compute the distribution of the conductance P(G(T,V)) of a one-dimensional (1D) disordered wire non-perfectly coupled to leads (dirty contacts) at finite temperature T and bias voltage V. At regimes of temperatures and/or bias voltages larger than the mean level spacing, we show that the conductance distribution can be accurately represented by a finite number of convolutions of the distribution p(g{sub c}) of the conductance g{sub c} at zero temperature and zero bias voltage.

  9. Effect of temperature and bias voltage on the conductance distribution of 1D-disordered wires with dirty contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foieri, Federico; José Sánchez, María; Arrachea, Liliana; Gopar, Victor

    2007-09-01

    We compute the distribution of the conductance P(G(T,V)) of a one-dimensional (1D) disordered wire non-perfectly coupled to leads (dirty contacts) at finite temperature T and bias voltage V. At regimes of temperatures and/or bias voltages larger than the mean level spacing, we show that the conductance distribution can be accurately represented by a finite number of convolutions of the distribution p(gc) of the conductance gc at zero temperature and zero bias voltage.

  10. Effects of an Anchoring Configuration on the Static Response of Geotextile and Geogrid Fabrics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simmons, Lebron

    2000-01-01

    An investigation is made of a potential retrofit system for in-fill masonry walls subjected to blast effects that consist of geotextile or geogrid materials anchored to the roof, floor slabs and beams...

  11. Thinning and riparian buffer configuration effects on down wood abundance in headwater streams in coniferous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian Ares; Deanna H. Olson; Klaus J. Puettmann

    2013-01-01

    Down wood is associated with the function, structure, and diversity of riparian systems. Considerable knowledge has been generated regarding down wood stocks and dynamics in temperate forests, but there are few studies on effects of silvicultural practices and riparian buffer design on down wood, particularly in headwater streams. We analyzed interactive eff ects of...

  12. Effects of landscape composition and configuration on migrating songbirds: inference from and individual-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily Cohen; Scott Pearson; Frank Moore

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of long-distance migrants during stopover is constrained by the need to quickly and safely replenish energetic reserves. Replenishing fuel stores at stopover sites requires adjusting to unfamiliar landscapes with little to no information about the distribution of resources. Despite their critical importance to the success of songbird migration, the effects...

  13. Analysis of the Effects of Compositional and Configurational Assumptions on Product Costs for the Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Mixed Alcohols -- FY 2007 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

    2008-12-05

    The purpose of this study was to examine alternative biomass-to-ethanol conversion process assumptions and configuration options to determine their relative effects on overall process economics. A process-flow-sheet computer model was used to determine the heat and material balance for each configuration that was studied. The heat and material balance was then fed to a costing spreadsheet to determine the impact on the ethanol selling price. By examining a number of operational and configuration alternatives and comparing the results to the base flow sheet, alternatives having the greatest impact the performance and cost of the overall system were identified and used to make decisions on research priorities.

  14. Electrochemical properties of Sn-based nanopowders synthesized by a pulsed wire evaporation method and effect of binder coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jong-Keun [School of Materials Science and Engineering & RIGET, Gyeongsang National University, 501, Jinju-daero, Jinju-si, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ju-Seok; Cho, Gyu-Bong; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon [Dept. of Materials Engineering and Convergence Technology & RIGET, Gyeongsang National University, 501, Jinju-daero, Jinju-si, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Hyo-Jun, E-mail: ahj@gnu.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering & RIGET, Gyeongsang National University, 501, Jinju-daero, Jinju-si, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Dept. of Materials Engineering and Convergence Technology & RIGET, Gyeongsang National University, 501, Jinju-daero, Jinju-si, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kwon-Koo, E-mail: kkcho66@gnu.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering & RIGET, Gyeongsang National University, 501, Jinju-daero, Jinju-si, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Dept. of Materials Engineering and Convergence Technology & RIGET, Gyeongsang National University, 501, Jinju-daero, Jinju-si, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Sn-based nanoparticles are fabricated by using the pulsed wire evaporation method. • The electrodes are prepared by mixing the graphene and coating the surface. • Coating the surface of electrode is used with brushing of simple and facile method. • The electrochemical measurements are performed with galvanostatic experiments. • The coating electrode maintains capacity nearly of 501 mAh g{sup −1} up to 100 cycles. - Abstract: Sn-based nanoparticles are prepared with the O{sub 2} concentrations in chamber of Ar atmosphere (by v/v) by using the pulsed wire evaporation (PWE) method. The prepared electrodes are only Sn-based powder electrode, its binder coating electrode and Sn-based powder/graphene nanocomposite electrode. Morphology and structure of the synthesized powders and electrodes are investigated with a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and an X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The electrochemical measurements were performed with galvanostatic cycling experiments using a coin type cell of CR2032 (Ø20, T3.2 mm). The binder coating electrode is superior to others and maintains delithiation capacity nearly of 501 mAh g{sup −1} as 58.3% of first delithiation capacity at 0.2 C-rate up to 100 cycles.

  15. Effectiveness of Dual-Maneuver Using K-Wire and Dingman Elevator for the Reduction of Unstable Zygomatic Arch Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyungwoo; Kim, Jiye; Chung, Seum; Chung, Yoon-Kyu

    2014-08-01

    The zygoma is the most prominent portion of the face. Almost all simple zygomatic arch fractures are treated in a closed fashion with a Dingman elevator. However, the open approach should be considered for unstable zygomatic arch fractures. The coronal approach for a zygomatic arch fracture has complications. In this study, we introduce our method to reduce a special type of unstable zygomatic fracture. We retrospectively reviewed zygomatic arch view and facial bone computed tomography scans of 424 patients who visited the Wonju Severance Christian Hospital from 2007 to 2010 with zygomaticomaxillary fractures, among whom 15 patients met the inclusion criteria. We used a Dingman elevator and K-wire simultaneously to manage this type of zygomatic arch fracture. Simple medial rotation force usually collapses the posterior fractured segment, and the fracture becomes unstable. Thus, the posterior fracture segment must be concurrently elevated with a Dingman elevator through Keen's approach with rotation force applied through the K-wire. All fractures were reduced without any instability using this method. We were able to reduce unstable and difficult zygomatic arch fractures without an open incision or any external fixation device.

  16. Subchannel Analysis of Wire Wrapped SCWR Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiang Shan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of wire wrap spacers in SCWR can reduce pressure drop and obtain better mixing capability. As a consequence, the required coolant pumping power is decreased and the coolant temperature profile inside the fuel bundle is flattened which will obviously decrease the peak cladding temperature. The distributed resistance model for wire wrap was developed and implemented in ATHAS subchannel analysis code. The HPLWR wire wrapped assembly was analyzed. The results show that: (1 the assembly with wire wrap can obtain a more uniform coolant temperature profile than the grid spaced assembly, which will result in a lower peak cladding temperature; (2 the pressure drop in a wire wrapped assembly is less than that in a grid spaced assembly, which can reduce the operating power of pump effectively; (3 the wire wrap pitch has significant effect on the flow in the assembly. Smaller Hwire/Drod will result in stronger cross flow a more uniform coolant temperature profile, and also a higher pressure drop.

  17. Contact conductance between graphene and quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Haidong; Zheng Yisong

    2009-01-01

    The contact conductance between graphene and two quantum wires which serve as the leads to connect graphene and electron reservoirs is theoretically studied. Our investigation indicates that the contact conductance depends sensitively on the graphene-lead coupling configuration. When each quantum wire couples solely to one carbon atom, the contact conductance vanishes at the Dirac point if the two carbon atoms coupling to the two leads belong to the same sublattice of graphene. We find that such a feature arises from the chirality of the Dirac electron in graphene. Such a chirality associated with conductance zero disappears when a quantum wire couples to multiple carbon atoms. The general result irrelevant to the coupling configuration is that the contact conductance decays rapidly with the increase of the distance between the two leads. In addition, in the weak graphene-lead coupling limit, when the distance between the two leads is much larger than the size of the graphene-lead contact areas and the incident electron energy is close to the Dirac point, the contact conductance is proportional to the square of the product of the two graphene-lead contact areas, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two leads

  18. Effects of tacrolimus on action potential configuration and transmembrane ion currents in canine ventricular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, László; Szentandrássy, Norbert; Kistamás, Kornél; Hegyi, Bence; Ruzsnavszky, Ferenc; Váczi, Krisztina; Horváth, Balázs; Magyar, János; Bányász, Tamás; Pál, Balázs; Nánási, Péter P

    2013-03-01

    Tacrolimus is a commonly used immunosuppressive agent which causes cardiovascular complications, e.g., hypertension and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. In spite of it, there is little information on the cellular cardiac effects of the immunosuppressive agent tacrolimus in larger mammals. In the present study, therefore, the concentration-dependent effects of tacrolimus on action potential morphology and the underlying ion currents were studied in canine ventricular cardiomyocytes. Standard microelectrode, conventional whole cell patch clamp, and action potential voltage clamp techniques were applied in myocytes enzymatically dispersed from canine ventricular myocardium. Tacrolimus (3-30 μM) caused a concentration-dependent reduction of maximum velocity of depolarization and repolarization, action potential amplitude, phase-1 repolarization, action potential duration, and plateau potential, while no significant change in the resting membrane potential was observed. Conventional voltage clamp experiments revealed that tacrolimus concentrations ≥3 μM blocked a variety of ion currents, including I(Ca), I(to), I(K1), I(Kr), and I(Ks). Similar results were obtained under action potential voltage clamp conditions. These effects of tacrolimus developed rapidly and were fully reversible upon washout. The blockade of inward currents with the concomitant shortening of action potential duration in canine myocytes is the opposite of those observed previously with tacrolimus in small rodents. It is concluded that although tacrolimus blocks several ion channels at higher concentrations, there is no risk of direct interaction with cardiac ion channels when applying tacrolimus in therapeutic concentrations.

  19. Low speed wind tunnel test of ground proximity and deck edge effects on a lift cruise fan V/STOL configuration, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, V. R.

    1979-01-01

    The characteristics were determined of a lift cruise fan V/STOL multi-mission configuration in the near proximity to the edge of a small flat surface representation of a ship deck. Tests were conducted at both static and forward speed test conditions. The model (0.12 scale) tested was a four fan configuration with modifications to represent a three fan configuration. Analysis of data showed that the deck edge effects were in general less critical in terms of differences from free air than a full deck (in ground effect) configuration. The one exception to this was when the aft edge of the deck was located under the center of gravity. This condition, representative of an approach from the rear, showed a significant lift loss. Induced moments were generally small compared to the single axis control power requirements, but will likely add to the pilot work load.

  20. Wear of dragline wire ropes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayawansa, D.; Kuruppu, M.; Mashiri, F.; Bartosiewicz, H. [Monash University (Caulfield Campus), Caulfield East, Vic. (Australia). Department of Mechanical Engineering,

    2005-07-01

    Wire ropes are one of the most heavily used components in a dragline. Hoist ropes are subjected to fatigue due to the cyclic nature of load handling as well as due to rope bending over the sheaves and the drum under load. This leads to wire breaks due to fatigue. Accumulation of a number of wire breaks close to each other can have a detrimental effect on the rope. Furthermore, to allow for the increasing demand for higher load capacity coupled with the inconvenience of having very large ropes, the factor of safety is often compromised, which increases the wear rate. Drag ropes are also subjected to heavy loads. More importantly, they are allowed to drag along the rough mine surface subjecting them to external physical abrasion. This makes the life of drag ropes one of the lowest among those used in a dragline. Suspension and IBS ropes are relatively uniformly loaded during their regular usage although they need to withstand dynamic load cycles as well as bending. Hence they tend to last for a number of years on average. The paper analyses the wear types and their severity of each of these rope applications, and suggests methods to determine rope wear rates and the resulting rope life. The paper further gives suggestions for good operating and maintenance practice that can extend the rope life and help reduce the large expenditure associated with every major rope change in a dragline. 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  1. The effect of tracking network configuration on GPS baseline estimates for the CASA Uno experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, S. Kornreich; Dixon, T. H.; Freymueller, J. T.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of the tracking network on long (greater than 100 km) GPS baseline estimates was estimated using various subsets of the global tracking network initiated by the first Central and South America (CASA Uno) experiment. It was found that best results could be obtained with a global tacking network consisting of three U.S. stations, two sites in the southwestern Pacific, and two sites in Europe. In comparison with smaller subsets, this global network improved the baseline repeatability, the resolution of carrier phase cycle ambiguities, and formal errors of the orbit estimates.

  2. The effect of hexapole and vertical fields on α-particle confinement in heliotron configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaev, M.Yu.; Watanabe, K.Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Yamazaki, K.

    2003-03-01

    Collisionless mono-energetic α-particle confinement in three-dimensional magnetic fields obtained from the magnetic coils of the Large Helical Device (LHD) is calculated. It is found that the inward shift of magnetic axis due to the vertical field improves the α-particle confinement. In contrast to the vertical field, both large positive and negative hexapole fields do not improve the confinement. The study of the β effect and Mercier criterion calculations for different hexapole fields are also presented. (author)

  3. The effect of configuration on strength, durability, and handle of Kevlar fabric-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, L. L.; Munson, J. B.

    1977-01-01

    Five Kevlar based laminates and three Kevlar based coated materials were designed, hand made, and tested against comparative conventional Dacron based materials for strength, peel, tear, puncture, creases, and handle. Emphasis was placed on evaluating geometric orientation of constituents, use of elastomeric film in place of high modulus films, and the use of flying thread loom bias reinforcement of Kevlar yarns. Whereas, the performance of the Kevlar laminates was severely degraded by crease effects, significant gains in overall performance factors were shown for the coated Kevlar materials.

  4. The effect of hexapole and vertical fields on {alpha}-particle confinement in heliotron configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaev, M.Yu. [RRC ' Kurchatov Institute' , Nuclear Fusion Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Watanabe, K.Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Yamazaki, K. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    Collisionless mono-energetic {alpha}-particle confinement in three-dimensional magnetic fields obtained from the magnetic coils of the Large Helical Device (LHD) is calculated. It is found that the inward shift of magnetic axis due to the vertical field improves the {alpha}-particle confinement. In contrast to the vertical field, both large positive and negative hexapole fields do not improve the confinement. The study of the {beta} effect and Mercier criterion calculations for different hexapole fields are also presented. (author)

  5. Seismic Behavior of Short Concrete Columns with Prestressing Steel Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Zong-Cai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The seismic behavior of short circular reinforced concrete columns was studied by testing seven columns retrofitted with prestressing steel wire (PSW, subjected to combined constant axial compression and lateral cyclic load. The main test parameters were configuration index of PSW, prestressing level of PSW, and axial compression ratio. An analysis and discussion of the test results including failure mode, hysteresis curves, skeleton curves, ductility, and degradation of stiffness was done. The results show that the seismic performance of the retrofitted specimens could be effectively enhanced even if the axial compression ratio of columns reached 0.81. The ductility index and the energy absorption capacity of the retrofitted specimens increase with the prestressing level of PSW. The formulas for calculating shear capacity of RC short columns strengthened with PSW were proposed which may be useful for future engineering designs and researches.

  6. Effect of laser pulse energies in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy in double-pulse configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedetti, P.A.; Cristoforetti, G.; Legnaioli, S.; Palleschi, V.; Pardini, L.; Salvetti, A.; Tognoni, E.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of laser pulse energy on double-pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal is studied. In particular, the energy of the first pulse has been changed, while the second pulse energy is held fixed. A systematic study of the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal dependence on the interpulse delay is performed, and the results are compared with the ones obtained with a single laser pulse of energy corresponding to the sum of the two pulses. At the same time, the crater formed at the target surface is studied by video-confocal microscopy, and the variation in crater dimensions is correlated to the enhancement of the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal. The results obtained are consistent with the interpretation of the double-pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal enhancement in terms of the changes in ambient gas pressure produced by the shock wave induced by the first laser pulse

  7. Rapid Prototyping Using a Configurable Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Misaka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an approach for speeding up the development of web applications using a configurable platform. The core idea of the approach is that developers can implement customer requirements by configuring platform components, instead of writing large amounts of “glue code” to wire the components together. This approach reduces the amount of glue code that still needs to be written and maintained, it shortens the time it takes developers to create a prototype, and it makes it easier for glue code to be reused in the future. It also allows developers to experiment with different configurations of platform components in order to find the configuration that best meets the customer's requirements. Developers are also able to manage a larger variation in customer requirements.

  8. Effect of junction configurations on microdroplet formation in a T-junction microchannel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lih, F. L.; Miao, J. M.

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates the dynamic formation process of water microdroplets in a silicon oil flow in a T-junction microchannel. Segmented water microdroplets are formed at the junction when the water flow is perpendicularly injected into the silicon oil flow in a straight rectangular microchannel. This study further presents the effects of the water flow inlet geometry on hydrodynamic characteristics of water microdroplet formation. A numerical multiphase volume of fluid (VOF) scheme is coupled to solve the unsteady three-dimensional laminar Navier-Stokes equations to depict the droplet formation phenomena at the junction. Predicted results on the length and generated frequency of the microdroplets agree well with experimental results in a T-junction microchannel with straight and flat inlets (the base model) for both fluid flows. Empirical correlations are reported between the volumetric flow ratio and the dimensionless microdroplet length or dimensionless frequency of droplet generation at a fixed capillary number of 4.7 · 10-3. The results of this study indicate a reduction in the droplet length of approximately 21% if the straight inlet for the water flow is modified to a downstream sudden contraction inlet for the water flow.

  9. The effect of the configuration of a single electrode corona discharge on its acoustic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinlei; Zhang, Liancheng; Huang, Yifan; Wang, Jin; Liu, Zhen; Yan, Keping

    2017-07-01

    A new sparker system based on pulsed spark discharge with a single electrode has already been utilized for oceanic seismic exploration. However, the electro-acoustic energy efficiency of this system is lower than that of arc discharge based systems. A simple electrode structure was investigated in order to improve the electro-acoustic energy efficiency of the spark discharge. Experiments were carried out on an experimental setup with discharge in water driven by a pulsed power source. The voltage-current waveform, acoustic signal and bubble oscillation were recorded when the relative position of the electrode varied. The electro-acoustic energy efficiency was also calculated. The load voltage had a saltation for the invaginated electrode tip, namely an obvious voltage remnant. The more the electrode tip was invaginated, the larger the pressure peaks and first period became. The results show that electrode recessing into the insulating layer is a simple and effective way to improve the electro-acoustic energy efficiency from 2% to about 4%.

  10. Mass accretion and nested array dynamics from Ni-Clad Ti-Al wire array Z pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Brent Manley; Jennings, Christopher A.; Coverdale, Christine Anne; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Maron, Yitzhak; LePell, Paul David; Deeney, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of 50 mm diameter wire arrays at the Z Accelerator has shown experimentally the accretion of mass in a stagnating z pinch and provided insight into details of the radiating plasma species and plasma conditions. This analysis focused on nested wire arrays with a 2:1 (outeninner) mass, radius, and wire number ratio where Al wires were fielded on the outer array and Ni-clad Ti wires were fielded on the inner array.In this presentation, we will present analysis of data from other mixed Al/Ni-clad Ti configurations to further evaluate nested wire array dynamics and mass accretion. These additional configurations include the opposite configuration to that described above (Ni-clad Ti wires on the outer array, with Al wires on the inner array) as well as higher wire number Al configurations fielded to vary the interaction of the two arrays. These same variations were also assessed for a smaller diameter nested array configuration (40 mm). Variations in the emitted radiation and plasma conditions will be presented, along with a discussion of what the results indicate about the nested array dynamics. Additional evidence for mass accretion will also be presented.

  11. Surface cleaning of metal wire by atmospheric pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T.; Buttapeng, C.; Furuya, S.; Harada, N.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the possible application of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma for the annealing of metallic wire is examined and presented. The main purpose of the current study is to examine the surface cleaning effect for a cylindrical object by atmospheric pressure plasma. The experimental setup consists of a gas tank, plasma reactor, and power supply with control panel. The gas assists in the generation of plasma. Copper wire was used as an experimental cylindrical object. This copper wire was irradiated with the plasma, and the cleaning effect was confirmed. The result showed that it is possible to remove the tarnish which exists on the copper wire surface. The experiment reveals that atmospheric pressure plasma is usable for the surface cleaning of metal wire. However, it is necessary to examine the method for preventing oxidization of the copper wire.

  12. The transverse stress effect on the critical current of jelly-roll multifilamentary Nb3Al wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeritis, D.

    1990-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the transverse stress sensitivity of the critical current of jelly-roll multifilamentary Nb 3 Al wires, primarily at 12T but also at other magnetic fields. For comparison, similar experiments were conducted on bronze-process Ti-alloyed multifilamenary Nb 3 Sn wires. In total four samples were experimented upon, twojelly-roll Nb 3 Al samples of 0.8 mm and 1.03mm diameter, respectively, one bronze-process Nb 3 Sn sample of 1.0 mm diameter, and one internally-stabilized bronze-process Nb 3 Sn sample of 1.09 mm diameter. As was expected, the Nb 3 Al samples proved vastly superior to the Nb 3 Sn samples with regard to transverse compressive stress, exhibiting significant I c -degradation for transverse stresses above 100MPa. At 12T and at 150MPa of transverse compression - conditions expected in fusion magnets - the 0.8 mm-diameter sample exhibited an I c -degradation of ∼20 %, whereas the 1.03 mm-diameter sample of ∼28 %. Under the same conditions, the 1.0 mm-diameter Nb 3 Sn sample exhibited an I c -degradation of ∼65 %, whereas at 12T and 120MPa the 1.09 mm-diameter Nb 3 Sn sample exhibited an I c -degradation also of ∼65 %. However, the measured non-copper critical current densities at high magnetic fields of the Nb 3 Al samples were lower than those of the Nb 3 Sn samples. Further development is needed to improve this aspect of their performance, nevertheless there is optimism that Nb 3 Al will eventually become a useful superconductor for large-scale, high-field applications. (author)

  13. Coupled-core fluxgate magnetometer: Novel configuration scheme and the effects of a noise-contaminated external signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, Antonio [San Diego State University, Nonlinear Dynamical Systems Group, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, San Diego, CA 92182-7720 (United States)]. E-mail: palacios@euler.sdsu.edu; Aven, John [San Diego State University, Nonlinear Dynamical Systems Group, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, San Diego, CA 92182-7720 (United States); In, Visarath [Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center San Diego, Code 2363, 53560 Hull St, San Diego, CA 92152-5001 (United States)]. E-mail: visarath@spawar.navy.mil; Longhini, Patrick [Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center San Diego, Code 2363, 53560 Hull St, San Diego, CA 92152-5001 (United States); Kho, Andy [Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center San Diego, Code 2363, 53560 Hull St, San Diego, CA 92152-5001 (United States); Neff, Joseph D. [Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center San Diego, Code 2363, 53560 Hull St, San Diego, CA 92152-5001 (United States); Bulsara, Adi [Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center San Diego, Code 2363, 53560 Hull St, San Diego, CA 92152-5001 (United States)]. E-mail: bulsara@spawar.navy.mil

    2007-07-16

    Recent theoretical and experimental work has shown that unidirectional coupling can induce oscillations in overdamped and undriven nonlinear dynamical systems that are non-oscillatory when uncoupled; in turn, this has been shown to lead to new mechanisms for weak (compared to the energy barrier height) signal detection and amplification. The potential applications include fluxgate magnetometers, electric field sensors, and arrays of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) rings. In the particular case of the fluxgate magnetometer, we have developed a ''coupled-core fluxgate magnetometer'' (CCFM); this device has been realized in the laboratory and its dynamics used to quantify many properties that are generic to this class of systems and coupling. The CCFM operation is underpinned by the emergent oscillatory behavior in a unidirectionally coupled ring of wound ferromagnetic cores, each of which can be treated as an overdamped bistable dynamic system when uncoupled. In particular, one can determine the regimes of existence and stability of the (coupling-induced) oscillations, and the scaling behavior of the oscillation frequency. More recently, we studied the effects of a (Gaussian) magnetic noise floor on a CCFM system realized with N=3 coupled ferromagnetic cores. In this Letter, we first introduce a variation on the basic CCFM configuration that affords a path to enhanced device sensitivity, particularly for N>=3 coupled elements. We then analyze the response of the basic CCFM configuration as well as the new setup to a dc target signal that has a small noisy component (or ''contamination'')

  14. A comparison of wire- and Kevlar-reinforced provisional restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, D B; Nicholls, J I; Yuodelis, R A; Strygler, H

    1994-01-01

    Stainless steel wire 0.036 inch in diameter was compared with Kevlar 49 polyaramid fiber as a means of reinforcing a four-unit posterior provisional fixed restoration with 2 pontics. Three reinforcement patterns for wire and two for Kevlar 49 were evaluated and compared with the control, which was an unreinforced provisional restoration. A central tensile load was placed on the cemented provisional restoration and the variables were measured: (1) the initial stiffness; (2) the load at initial fracture; and (3) the unit toughness, or the energy stored in the beam at a point where the load had undergone a 1.0-mm deflection. Statistical analysis showed (1) the bent wire configuration had a significantly higher initial stiffness (P < or = .05), (2) there was no difference between designs for load at initial fracture, and (3) the bent wire had a significantly higher unit toughness value (P < or = .05).

  15. Wired to freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Kim Sune Karrasch; Bertilsson, Margareta

    2017-01-01

    dimension of life science through a notion of public politics adopted from the political theory of John Dewey. We show how cochlear implantation engages different social imaginaries on the collective and individual levels and we suggest that users share an imaginary of being “wired to freedom” that involves...... new access to social life, continuous communicative challenges, common practices, and experiences. In looking at their lives as “wired to freedom,” we hope to promote a wider spectrum of civic participation in the benefit of future life science developments within and beyond the field of Cochlear...

  16. Wiring and lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Wiring and Lighting provides a comprehensive guide to DIY wiring around the home. It sets out the regulations and legal requirements surrounding electrical installation work, giving clear guidelines that will enable the reader to understand what electrical work they are able to carry out, and what the testing and certification requirements are once the work is completed. Topics covered include: Different types of circuits; Types of cables and cable installation under floors and through joists; Isolating, earthing and bonding; Accessory boxes and fixings; Voltage bands; Detailed advice on safe

  17. Electric wiring domestic

    CERN Document Server

    Coker, A J

    1992-01-01

    Electric Wiring: Domestic, Tenth Edition, is a clear and reliable guide to the practical aspects of domestic electric wiring. Intended for electrical contractors, installation engineers, wiremen and students, its aim is to provide essential up to date information on modern methods and materials in a simple, clear, and concise manner. The main changes in this edition are those necessary to bring the work into line with the 16th Edition of the Regulations for Electrical Installations issued by the Institution of Electrical Engineers. The book begins by introducing the basic features of domestic

  18. Modern wiring practice

    CERN Document Server

    Steward, W E

    2012-01-01

    Continuously in print since 1952, Modern Wiring Practice has now been fully revised to provide an up-to-date source of reference to building services design and installation in the 21st century. This compact and practical guide addresses wiring systems design and electrical installation together in one volume, creating a comprehensive overview of the whole process for contractors and architects, as well as electricians and other installation engineers. Best practice is incorporated throughout, combining theory and practice with clear and accessible explanation, all

  19. Annihilation of Domain Walls in a Ferromagnetic Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Anirban; Huang, Kevin; Tchernyshyov, Oleg

    We study the annihilation of topological solitons in one of the simplest systems that support them: a one-dimensional ferromagnetic wire with an easy axis along its length. In the presence of energy dissipation due to viscous losses, two solitons (domain walls) on the wire, when released from afar, approach each other and eventually annihilate to create a uniformly magnetized state. Starting from a class of exact solutions for stationary two-domain-wall configurations in the absence of dissipation, we develop an effective theory that describes this annihilation in terms of four collective coordinates: a) the two zero modes corresponding to the location of the center and the average azimuthal angle of the full structure and b) their two conjugate momenta which describe the relative twist and the relative separation of the two domain walls respectively. Comparison with micromagnetic simulation on OOOMF confirms that this theory captures well the essential physics of the process. We believe this work will be a good starting point for studying the annihilation of more complicated topological solitons like vortices and skyrmions in ferromagnetic thin films. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award DE-FG02-08ER46544.

  20. Comparison of subtransverse process wiring and sublaminar wiring in the treatment of idiopathic thoracic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmeşe, Ramazan; Kemal Us, Ali

    2013-04-01

    A retrospective study. The objectives of this study were to show the advantages of an alternative segmental spinal instrumentation technique, termed subtransverse process wiring, and compare it with a sublaminar wiring technique in the treatment of idiopathic thoracic scoliosis. High rates of neurological complications and the need for high experience limit the use of the sublaminar wiring technique, although it is an effective segmental spinal instrumentation technique in the treatment of scoliosis. This is the first study to correlate sublaminar wiring and subtransverse process wiring techniques clinically. In a retrospective study, 64 patients with idiopathic thoracic scoliosis were chosen randomly. Nineteen patients were treated with subtransverse process wires (group A), and 45 patients were treated with sublaminar wires (group B). The mean follow-up period was 50.9 months (25 to 90 mo) in group A and 57.9 months (26 to 108 mo) in group B. The average deformity correction was 26.5 degrees (52.9%) in group A and 28.9 degrees (54.1%) in group B. The average correction loss was 2.9 degrees (17.2%) in group A and 6.4 degrees (27%) in group B. None of the patients developed neurological complications in group A. In group B, 5 (11.1%) intraoperative dural tears, 4 (8.9%) neurological deficits, and 8 (14.4%) transient dysesthesia syndromes were seen. The average operation time was 3.6 hours (3 to 4 h) in group A and 4.9 hours (3.75 to 8 h) in group B. The average replacement of blood (erythrocyte suspension) was 2.9 U (2 to 5 U) in group A and 3.1 U (2 to 6 U) in group B. Sublaminar wiring is a time-consuming technique with high risks of neurological complications, whereas subtransverse process wiring is an easy and neurologically safe method, which maintains effective deformity correction and stability of the correction.

  1. Use of Kirschner wires with eyelets for tension band wiring of olecranon fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Young Ho; Gong, Hyun Sik; Lee, Sang Lim; Lee, Sang Ki; Baek, Goo Hyun

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of tension band wiring of displaced olecranon fractures treated using Kirschner wires with eyelets to assess their clinical performance with respect to complications such as backing out of the K-wires, restriction of forearm rotation, and neurovascular injury. The authors retrospectively reviewed 44 patients treated for an isolated, displaced olecranon fracture and checked range of motion, postoperative pain, complications, and incidence of hardware removal. The mean follow-up period was 41 months (range, 26-73 mo). All fractures united, and anatomical reduction was achieved in all cases at final follow-up. Mean elbow flexion was 135° (range, 115° to 140°), and mean elbow extension was 4° (range, 0° to 15°). No pin migration, restriction of forearm rotation, or neurovascular injury occurred. Hardware removal was performed in 8 cases (18%). Compared to previous results with conventional Kirschner wires, no meaningful improvement in postoperative pain level or in the rate of hardware removal was observed. Tension band wiring using the pin studied produced excellent clinical and radiologic outcomes for the treatment of isolated, displaced Mayo type IIA and some type IIB olecranon fractures. The pin was effective in preventing the backing out of Kirschner wires and avoiding the complications associated with anterior cortical engagement of Kirschner wires, such as neurovascular injury or restriction of forearm rotation. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fluoride influences nickel-titanium orthodontic wires' surface texture and friction resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbassy, Mona Aly

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects exerted by the acidulated fluoride gel on stainless steel and nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) orthodontic wires. Sixty stainless steel and Ni-Ti orthodontic archwires were distributed into forty archwires used for in vitro study and twenty for in situ study. Fluoride was applied for 1 h in the in vitro experiment while it was applied for 5 min in the in situ experiment. The friction resistance of all wires with ceramic brackets before/after topical fluoride application was measured using a universal testing machine at 1 min intervals of moving wire. Moreover, surface properties of the tested wires before/after fluoride application and before/after friction test were examined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Dunnett's t -test was used to compare frictional resistance of as-received stainless steel wires and Ni-Ti wires to the wires treated by fluoride in vitro and in situ ( P wire on friction resistance in vitro and in situ ( P wires recorded significantly high friction resistance after fluoride application when compared to stainless steel wires in vitro , P wires in situ , P wires after fluoride application in vitro and in situ . The in vitro fluoride application caused an increase in friction resistance of Ni-Ti wires when compared to stainless steel wires. In vitro and in situ fluoride application caused deterioration in surface properties of Ni-Ti wires.

  3. Practical wiring in SI units

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Henry A

    2013-01-01

    Practical Wiring, Volume 1 is a 13-chapter book that first describes some of the common hand tools used in connection with sheathed wiring. Subsequent chapters discuss the safety in wiring, cables, conductor terminations, insulating sheathed wiring, conductor sizes, and consumer's control equipments. Other chapters center on socket outlets, plugs, lighting subcircuits, lighting accessories, bells, and primary and secondary cells. This book will be very valuable to students involved in this field of interest.

  4. Wire EDM for Refractory Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellars, G. R.; Harris, F. E.; Lowell, C. E.; Pollman, W. M.; Rys, V. J.; Wills, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce fabrication time and costs, Wire Electrical Discharge Machine (Wire EDM) method was investigated as tool for fabricating matched blade roots and disk slots. Eight high-strength nickel-base superalloys were used. Computer-controlled Wire EDM technique provided high quality surfaces with excellent dimensional tolerances. Wire EDM method offers potential for substantial reductions in fabrication costs for "hard to machine" alloys and electrically conductive materials in specific high-precision applications.

  5. Wire chambers: Trends and alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regler, Meinhard

    1992-01-01

    The subtitle of this year's Vienna Wire Chamber Conference - 'Recent Trends and Alternative Techniques' - signalled that it covered a wide range of science and technology. While an opening Vienna talk by wire chamber pioneer Georges Charpak many years ago began 'Les funerailles des chambres a fils (the burial of wire chambers)', the contrary feeling this year was that wire chambers are very much alive!

  6. Command Wire Sensor Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    CFAR Constant False Alarm Rate CWIE Command Wire-Improvised Explosive Device EMI Electromagnetic Induction GPR Ground Penetrating Radar...this, some type of constant false alarm rate ( CFAR ) receiver is required. CFAR automatically raises the threshold level to keep clutter echoes and

  7. Transport in quantum wires

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transport in quantum wires. SIDDHARTHA LAL, SUMATHI RAO£ and DIPTIMAN SEN. Centre for Theoretical Studies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. £ Harish-chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211 019, India. Abstract. With a brief introduction to one-dimensional channels ...

  8. Wire chamber conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartl, W.; Neuhofer, G.; Regler, M.

    1986-02-01

    This booklet contains program and the abstracts of the papers presented at the conference, most of them dealing with performance testing of various types of wire chambers. The publication of proceedings is planned as a special issue of 'Nuclear instruments and methods' later on. All abstracts are in English. An author index for the book of abstracts is given. (A.N.)

  9. Not All Differentiation is the Same: Examining the Moderating Effects of Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jungmin Jamie; Nahrgang, Jennifer D; Carter, Min Z; Hom, Peter W

    2017-12-14

    Leaders often influence whether an employee stays or quits and yet research in collective turnover, or turnover at the work-unit level, has neglected leadership as a key antecedent. In the current study we examine how the quality of leader-member relationships within a group (i.e., leader-member exchange, LMX) influences building a shared mindset of collective organizational commitment and ultimately influences collective turnover. We build on a key tenet of LMX theory that leaders form differentiated relationships with followers and propose that not all LMX differentiation is the same and therefore, researchers must take into account the configuration, or mix of high and low LMX relationships, within a group. We expect LMX configurations will moderate the influence of LMX differentiation on collective turnover through the mechanism of collective organizational commitment. We find 5 configurations of LMX relationships, including a bimodal, solo-status low LMX, solo-status high LMX, and 2 fragmented configurations. As hypothesized, LMX differentiation positively relates to collective organizational commitment and negatively relates to collective turnover in a solo-status low LMX configuration and a fragmented LMX configuration, and negatively relates to collective organizational commitment and positively relates to collective turnover in a bimodal configuration. Theoretical implications and future research directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Implementation of Order-wire Functionality in IRITEL NG-SDH devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Katanić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation of order-wire functionality in NG-SDH devices ODS2G5 and OTS622 IRITEL. The paper also describes the operation of order-wire in networks with arbitrary topologies, as well as the configuration of order-wire functionality by using network management software SUNCE. The presented solution for order-wire functionality is compared with VoIP solutions. The paper shows that the presented solution provides fast reaction to network failures, while keeping the implementation simple.

  11. Impurity-related optical properties in rectangular-transverse section GaAs-Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As quantum well wires: Hydrostatic pressure and electric field effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, J.W.; Duque, C.A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellin (Colombia); Lopez, S.Y. [Facultad de Educacion, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellin (Colombia); Rodriguez, A.H. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Apdo. Postal 20-364, San Angel 01000, Mexico DF (Mexico); Porras-Montenegro, N. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, AA 25360, Cali (Colombia)

    2007-01-15

    Using a variational procedure within the effective mass approximation, we have calculated the influence of an applied electric field and hydrostatic pressure on the shallow-impurity-related optical properties in a rectangular-transverse section GaAs-Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As quantum well wire. The electric field is applied in the plane of the transverse section of the wire and different angular directions have been considered. The results presented are for the impurity binding energy, its corresponding density of impurity states, and impurity-related transition energy and polarizability. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Software configuration management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arribas Peces, E.; Martin Faraldo, P.

    1993-01-01

    Software Configuration Management is directed towards identifying system configuration at specific points of its life cycle, so as to control changes to the configuration and to maintain the integrity and traceability of the configuration throughout its life. SCM functions and tasks are presented in the paper

  13. Effects of internal structure on equilibrium of field-reversed configuration plasma sustained by rotating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yambe, Kiyoyuki; Inomoto, Michiaki; Okada, Shigefumi; Kobayashi, Yuka; Asai, Tomohiko

    2008-01-01

    The effects of an internal structure on the equilibrium of a field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma sustained by rotating magnetic field is investigated by using detailed electrostatic probe measurements in the FRC Injection Experiment apparatus [S. Okada, et al., Nucl. Fusion. 45, 1094 (2005)]. An internal structure installed axially on the geometrical axis, which simulates Ohmic transformer or external toroidal field coils on the FRC device, brings about substantial changes in plasma density profile. The internal structure generates steep density-gradients not only on the inner side but on the outer side of the torus. The radial electric field is observed to sustain the ion thermal pressure-gradient in the FRC without the internal structure; however, the radial electric field is not sufficient to sustain the increased ion thermal pressure-gradient in the FRC with the internal structure. Spontaneously driven azimuthal ion flow will be accountable for the imbalance of the radial pressure which is modified by the internal structure.

  14. Effect of magnetic configuration on frequency of NBI-driven Alfvén modes in TJ-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, A. V.; Ochando, M.; Ascasibar, E.; Castejon, F.; Cappa, A.; Eliseev, L. G.; Hidalgo, C.; Krupnik, L. I.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.; Liniers, M.; Lysenko, S. E.; de Pablos, J. L.; Perfilov, S. V.; Sharapov, S. E.; Spong, D. A.; Jimenez, J. A.; Ufimtsev, M. V.; Breizman, B. N.; HIBP Group; the TJ-II Team

    2014-12-01

    Excitation of modes in the Alfvénic frequency range, 30 kHz values, 1.51advantage of the unique TJ-II capabilities, a dynamic magnetic configuration experiment with \\unicode{7548} (ρ , t) variation during discharges has shown strong effects on the mode frequency via both vacuum \\unicode{7548} changes and induced net plasma current. A drastic frequency increase from ˜50 to ˜250 kHz was observed for some modes when plasma current as low as ±2 kA was induced by small (10%) changes in the vertical field. A comprehensive set of diagnostics including a heavy ion beam probe, magnetic probes and a multi-chord bolometer made it possible to identify the spatial spread of the modes and deduce the internal amplitudes of their plasma density and magnetic field perturbations. A simple analytical model for fAE, based on the local Alfvén eigenmode (AE) dispersion relation, was proposed to characterize the observation. It was shown that all the observations, including vacuum iota and plasma current variations, may be fitted by the model, so the linear mode frequency dependence on \\unicode{7548} (plasma current) and one over square root density dependence present the major features of the NBI-induced AEs in TJ-II, and provide the framework for further experiment-to-theory comparison.

  15. TiN thin film deposition by cathodic cage discharge: effect of cage configuration and active species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Freitas Daudt, N; Cavalcante Braz, D; Alves Junior, C; Pereira Barbosa, J C; Barbalho Pereira, M

    2012-01-01

    Plasma cathodic cage technique was developed recently in order to eliminate phenomena such as edge effects and overheating, which occur during conventional nitriding processes. In this work, the effect of plasma active species and cage configurations during thin film deposition of TiN were studied. This compound was chosen because its properties are very sensitive to slight variations in chemical composition and film thickness, becoming a good monitoring tool in fabrication process control. In order to verify the effect of cage geometry on the discharge and characteristics of the grown film, a cage made of titanium was used with different numbers and distribution of holes. Furthermore, different amounts of hydrogen were added to the Ar + N2 plasma atmosphere. Flow rates of Ar and N2 gas were fixed at 4 and 3 sccm, respectively and flow rates of H 2 gas was 0, 1 and 2 sccm. Plasma species, electrical discharge and physical characteristics of the grown film were analyzed by Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), X-Ray Diffraction. It was observed by OES that the luminous intensity associated to Hα species is not proportional to flow rate of H 2 gas. Electrical efficiency of the system, crystal structure and topography of the TiN film are strongly influenced by this behavior. For constant flow rate of H 2 gas, it was found that with more holes at the top of the cage, deposition rate, crystallinity and roughness are higher, if compared to cages with a small number of holes at the top of cage. On the other hand, the opposite behavior was observed when more holes were located at the sidewall of cage.

  16. Belene NPP project configuration management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveev, A.

    2009-01-01

    The configuration management includes: change identification; change assessment; change coordination; change approval or rejection; Change introduction. One of the main tasks while implementing the above processes is the analysis of the effect of one change upon all the related elements

  17. Degradation of orthodontic wires under simulated cariogenic and erosive conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cavalcante Lima JABER

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of cariogenic and erosive challenges (CCs and ECs, respectively on the degradation of copper-nickel-titanium (CuNiTi orthodontic wires. Sixty wire segments were divided into four treatment groups and exposed to CCs, ECs, artificial saliva, or dry storage (no-treatment control. CC and EC were simulated using a demineralizing solution (pH 4.3 and a citric acid solution (pH 2.3, respectively. Following treatment, the average surface roughness (Ra of the wires was assessed, and friction between the wires and a passive self-ligating bracket was measured. CuNiTi wires subjected to ECs exhibited significantly higher Ra values than did those that were stored in artificial saliva. In contrast, surface roughness was not affected by CCs. Finally, friction between the treated wires and brackets was not affected by ECs or CCs. Our results indicate that CuNiTi orthodontic wires may suffer degradation within the oral cavity, as ECs increased the surface roughness of these wires. However, rougher surfaces did not increase friction between the wire and the passive self-ligating bracket.

  18. Degradation of orthodontic wires under simulated cariogenic and erosive conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Laura Cavalcante Lima; Rodrigues, José Augusto; Amaral, Flávia Lucisano Botelho; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes; Basting, Roberta Tarkany; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of cariogenic and erosive challenges (CCs and ECs, respectively) on the degradation of copper-nickel-titanium (CuNiTi) orthodontic wires. Sixty wire segments were divided into four treatment groups and exposed to CCs, ECs, artificial saliva, or dry storage (no-treatment control). CC and EC were simulated using a demineralizing solution (pH 4.3) and a citric acid solution (pH 2.3), respectively. Following treatment, the average surface roughness (Ra) of the wires was assessed, and friction between the wires and a passive self-ligating bracket was measured. CuNiTi wires subjected to ECs exhibited significantly higher Ra values than did those that were stored in artificial saliva. In contrast, surface roughness was not affected by CCs. Finally, friction between the treated wires and brackets was not affected by ECs or CCs. Our results indicate that CuNiTi orthodontic wires may suffer degradation within the oral cavity, as ECs increased the surface roughness of these wires. However, rougher surfaces did not increase friction between the wire and the passive self-ligating bracket.

  19. A new orthodontic force system for moment control utilizing the flexibility of common wires: Evaluation of the effect of contractile force and hook length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wei-Jen; Midorikawa, Yoshiyuki; Kanno, Zuisei; Takemura, Hiroshi; Suga, Kazuhiro; Soga, Kohei; Ono, Takashi; Uo, Motohiro

    2018-01-01

    The application of an appropriate force system is indispensable for successful orthodontic treatments. Second-order moment control is especially important in many clinical situations, so we developed a new force system composed of a straight orthodontic wire and two crimpable hooks of different lengths to produce the second-order moment. The objective of this study was to evaluate this new force system and determine an optimum condition that could be used in clinics. We built a premolar extraction model with two teeth according to the concept of a modified orthodontic simulator. This system was activated by applying contractile force from two hooks that generated second-order moment and force. The experimental device incorporated two sensors, and forces and moments were measured along six axes. We changed the contractile force and hook length to elucidate their effects. Three types of commercial wires were tested. The second-order moment was greater on the longer hook side of the model. Vertical force balanced the difference in moments between the two teeth. Greater contractile force generated a greater second-order moment, which reached a limit of 150 g. Excessive contractile force induced more undesired reactions in the other direction. Longer hooks induced greater moment generation, reaching their limit at 10 mm in length. The system acted similar to an off-center V-bend and can be applied in clinical practice as an unconventional loop design. We suggest that this force system has the potential for second-order moment control in clinical applications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Safeguarding Ecosystem Services: A Methodological Framework to Buffer the Joint Effect of Habitat Configuration and Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Tereza C; Tambosi, Leandro R; Acosta, André L; Jaffé, Rodolfo; Saraiva, Antonio M; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera L; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2015-01-01

    , our proposed methodological framework could help design novel conservational and agricultural practices that can be crucial to conserve ecosystem services by buffering the joint effect of habitat configuration and climate change.

  1. Dental Arch Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Straightening teeth is an arduous process requiring months, often years, of applying corrective pressure by means of arch wires-better known as brace-which may have to be changed several times in the course of treatment. A new method has been developed by Dr. George Andreasen, orthodontist and dental scientist at the University of Iowa. The key is a new type of arch wire material, called Nitinol, with exceptional elasticity which helps reduce the required number of brace changes. An alloy of nickel and titanium, Nitinol was originally developed for aerospace applications by the Naval Ordnance Laboratory, now the Naval Surface Weapons Laboratory, White Oaks, Maryland. NASA subsequently conducted additional research on the properties of Nitinol and on procedures for processing the metal.

  2. Integrated Electrical Wire Insulation Repair System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Jolley, Scott; Gibson, Tracy; Parks, Steven

    2013-01-01

    An integrated system tool will allow a technician to easily and quickly repair damaged high-performance electrical wire insulation in the field. Low-melt polyimides have been developed that can be processed into thin films that work well in the repair of damaged polyimide or fluoropolymer insulated electrical wiring. Such thin films can be used in wire insulation repairs by affixing a film of this low-melt polyimide to the damaged wire, and heating the film to effect melting, flow, and cure of the film. The resulting repair is robust, lightweight, and small in volume. The heating of this repair film is accomplished with the use of a common electrical soldering tool that has been modified with a special head or tip that can accommodate the size of wire being repaired. This repair method can furthermore be simplified for the repair technician by providing replaceable or disposable soldering tool heads that have repair film already "loaded" and ready for use. The soldering tool heating device can also be equipped with a battery power supply that will allow its use in areas where plug-in current is not available

  3. EVALUATION OF INDUCTANCE WITH ELECTRICAL WIRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kudry

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper proved the possibility of developing passive electronic inductive elements based replace metal wire that is wound inductor, the wire is made of electret. The relative permeability of the electret S  10 000, several orders of magnitude greater than the permeability of conventional insulation materials, i < 10, resulting current in the wire acquires properties bias current. The essence of innovation is to replace the source of of magnetic induction flow that pervades the core of the coil. According to the theory of electrodynamics, current bias, in contrast to conduction current, generated no movement of charge along the wire, but the change of the charge in the local volume.Equivalence bias current and conduction current is manifested in the possibility of forming a magnetic field. The flow through magnetic induction coil core regardless of the current it generates, creates voltage at its ends.The paper also shows the numeric characteristics that determine the effective frequency range, specified the reason why electric a wire with і < 10 can not generate magnetic flux through the core and serve as a passive reactive component.

  4. Numerical Investigation of Corrugated Wire Mesh Laminate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongho Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop a numerical model of Corrugated Wire Mesh Laminate (CWML capturing all its complexities such as nonlinear material properties, nonlinear geometry and large deformation behaviour, and frictional behaviour. Development of such a model will facilitate numerical simulation of the mechanical behaviour of the wire mesh structure under various types of loading as well as the variation of the CWML configuration parameters to tailor its mechanical properties to suit the intended application. Starting with a single strand truss model consisting of four waves with a bilinear stress-strain model to represent the plastic behaviour of stainless steel, the finite element model is gradually built up to study single-layer structures with 18 strands of corrugated wire meshes consistency and double- and quadruple-layered laminates with alternating crossply orientations. The compressive behaviour of the CWML model is simulated using contact elements to model friction and is compared to the load-deflection behaviour determined experimentally in uniaxial compression tests. The numerical model of the CWML is then employed to conduct the aim of establishing the upper and lower bounds of stiffness and load capacity achievable by such structures.

  5. Wire chamber gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.

    1992-04-01

    In this paper, we describe new developments in gas mixtures which have occurred during the last 3--4 years. In particular, we discuss new results on the measurement and modeling of electron drift parameters, the modeling of drift chamber resolution, measurements of primary ionization and the choice of gas for applications such as tracking, single electron detection, X-ray detection and visual imaging. In addition, new results are presented on photon feedback, breakdown and wire aging

  6. Vienna Wire Chamber Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    After those of 1978 and 1980, a third Wire Chamber Conference was held from 15-18 February in the Technical University of Vienna. Eight invited speakers covered the field from sophisticated applications in biology and medicine, via software, to the state of the art of gaseous detectors. In some forty other talks the speakers tackled in more detail the topics of gaseous detectors, calorimetry and associated electronics and software

  7. Variables process effect in the pure ferritic metal contribution deposited with an tubular metal-cored E111T5-K3 wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, Hernan G; Ramini de Rissone, N.M; Surian, E; De Vedia, L

    2004-01-01

    The welding deposit performed with an ANSI-AWS E111T5-K3 type from the system C-Mn-Ni-Mo metal coring tubular welding, with a low slag generation was studied. Different operatives configurations with two thermal contribution levels (1 kJ and 1.5 kJ) and two types of protector gases (CO 2 and Ar-20%CO 2 ) at two welding position (under hand and ascendant vertical) were analyzed. The resulting pure contributor metal from the different process configurations was chemical, mechanically and structural characterized and the effect of the different process conditions was evaluated. The microstructure is fundamentally composed by FS(NA) and AF. For similar values of hardness and strength, good values of tenacity were observed and they show little variation with the process variables studied (AG)

  8. Cockpit canopy shattering using exploding wire techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novac, B M; Smith, I R; Downs, P R; Marston, P; Fahey, D

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the principal experimental results provided by a preliminary investigation into the possibility of using exploding wire (EW) techniques to shatter the plastic cockpit canopy of a modern jet aircraft. The data provided forms the basis for a qualitative understanding of the physics of interaction between the plasma produced by an EW and the surrounding elasto-plastic material in which the wire is embedded. To optimize the shock-wave 'clean cutting' effect, the significance of the material, the dimensions of the exploding wire and the amplitude of the current and voltage pulses are all considered. This leads to important conclusions concerning both the characteristics of the EW and the optimum arrangement of the electrical circuit, with the single most important optimization factor being the peak electrical power input to the EW, rather than the dissipated Joule energy. A full-scale system relevant to an actual cockpit canopy shattering is outlined and relevant results are presented and discussed

  9. Computation of radiation from wire antennas on conducting bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, N. Christian; Hansen, Jesper; Jensen, Niels E.

    1974-01-01

    A theoretical formulation, in terms of combined magnetic and electric field integral equations, is presented for the class of electromagnetic problems in which one or more wire antennas are connected to a conducting body of arbitrary shape. The formulation is suitable for numerical computation...... provided that the overall dimensions of the structure are not large compared to the wavelength. A computer program is described, and test runs on various configurations involving a cylindrical body with one or more straight wires are presented. The results obtained agree well with experimental data....

  10. The isotope effect on divertor conditions and neutral pumping in horizontal divertor configurations in JET-ILW Ohmic plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Uljanovs

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the impact of isotope mass and divertor configuration on the divertor conditions and neutral pressures is critical for predicting the performance of the ITER divertor in DT operation. To address this need, ohmically heated hydrogen and deuterium plasma experiments were conducted in JET with the ITER-like wall in varying divertor configurations. In this study, these plasmas are simulated with EDGE2D-EIRENE outfitted with a sub-divertor model, to predict the neutral pressures in the plenum with similar fashion to the experiments. EDGE2D-EIRENE predictions show that the increased isotope mass results in up to a 25% increase in peak electron densities and 15% increase in peak ion saturation current at the outer target in deuterium when compared to hydrogen for all horizontal divertor configurations. Indicating that a change from hydrogen to deuterium as main fuel decreases the neutral mean free path, leading to higher neutral density in the divertor. Consequently, this mechanism also leads to higher neutral pressures in the sub-divertor. The experimental data provided by the hydrogen and deuterium ohmic discharges shows that closer proximity of the outer strike point to the pumping plenum results in a higher neutral pressure in the sub-divertor. The diaphragm capacitance gauge pressure measurements show that a two to three-fold increase in sub-divertor pressure was achieved in the corner and nearby horizontal configurations compared to the far-horizontal configurations, likely due to ballistic transport (with respect to the plasma facing components of the neutrals into the sub-divertor. The corner divertor configuration also indicates that a neutral expansion occurs during detachment, resulting in a sub-divertor neutral density plateau as a function of upstream density at the outer-mid plane.

  11. Effects of implant angulations and attachment configurations on the retentive forces of locator attachment-retained overdentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uludag, Bulent; Polat, Serdar; Sahin, Volkan; Çomut, Ali Alper

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different implant angulations and attachment configurations on the retentive forces of locator attachment-retained overdentures over a simulated time period of 6 months. Two acrylic resin models (models 1 and 2) were fabricated to represent an edentulous mandible. In model 1, the midline implant (in the central region) was vertical and the other two implants (in the canine regions) were 20 degrees divergent from the midline, reaching a total divergence of 40 degrees. In model 2, all three implants were vertically oriented, perpendicular to the occlusal plane and parallel to each other. Three-point vertical pull-out forces were employed in a universal testing machine at a constant crosshead speed of 50 mm/min after overdenture construction and a simulation of 6 months of repeated insertions/removals of the overdenture. Locator attachments with different male combinations and bar and clip attachments were tested in model 1. Clear locator attachments and bar and clip attachments were tested in model 2 and served as controls. The initial retentive forces of all attachments in both models ranged from 26.58 to 62.05 N, whereas the initial retentive forces of the attachments for only model 1 ranged from 49.58 to 62.05 N. The highest retention value was recorded for clear green locator attachments and the lowest for hader bar yellow clip attachments. Locator attachments showed higher retention values than hader bar yellow clip attachments. All attachment systems demonstrated a decrease in retention over time. Locator attachments provided better retention than hader bar yellow clip attachments. The highest retention values were obtained when green male locators were used in combination with male attachments.

  12. Effects of Intraoral Ageing on Ultimate Tensile Strength and Surface Topography of Superelastic NiTi Wires from Two Different Manufacturers: A Comparative in vivo Study

    OpenAIRE

    A Pravin Devaprasad; T R Chandrasekaran

    2012-01-01

    Aim : The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the ultimate tensile strength/fracture resistance of superelastic NiTi wires from two manufacturers 3M Unitek and American orthodontics in as received condition, after 3 months and 6 months of intraoral use. The wires would also be evaluated for surface characteristics under a scanning electron microscope. Materials and methods: Superelastic NiTi wires of 0.016" from 3M Unitek were categorized as group I and from American orthodon...

  13. Effects of entrance configuration on pressure loss and heat transfer of transitional gas flow in a circular tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Masuro; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    1986-01-01

    Pressure loss and heat transfer of a transitional gas flow are affected significantly by the entrance configuration. The friction factor and the heat transfer coefficient were measured using a circular tube with four different kinds of entrance configurations. The Reynolds number at the transition from laminar to intermittent flow was varied from about 1,940 to 9,120. The intermittency factor was measured for heated and unheated flows ; and the relation between the intermittency and the friction factor or heat transfer coefficient was examined. Several existing correlations were tested and found to correlate with the experimental results fairly well. (author)

  14. CJ2 Icing Effects Simulator. Delivery Order 0019: Development of an Icing Effects Simulation for a Typical Business Jet Configuration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barnhart, Billy

    2007-01-01

    In this effort, Cessna Aircraft Company and Bihrle Applied Research teamed to develop and validate flight simulation models of a typical business jet incorporating the effects of various forms of ice...

  15. Radiation and scattering by thin-wire structures in the complex frequency domain. [electromagnetic theory for thin-wire antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    Piecewise-sinusoidal expansion functions and Galerkin's method are employed to formulate a solution for an arbitrary thin-wire configuration in a homogeneous conducting medium. The analysis is performed in the real or complex frequency domain. In antenna problems, the solution determines the current distribution, impedance, radiation efficiency, gain and far-field patterns. In scattering problems, the solution determines the absorption cross section, scattering cross section and the polarization scattering matrix. The electromagnetic theory is presented for thin wires and the forward-scattering theorem is developed for an arbitrary target in a homogeneous conducting medium.

  16. Metering Wheel-Wire Track Wire Boom Deployment Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granoff, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA MMS Spin Plane Double Probe (SDP) Deployer utilizes a helical path, rotating Metering Wheel and a spring loaded Wire "Holding" Track to pay out a "fixed end" 57 meter x 1.5 mm diameter Wire Boom stored between concentric storage cylinders. Unlike rotating spool type storage devices, the storage cylinders remain stationary, and the boom wire is uncoiled along the length of the cylinder via the rotation of the Metering Wheel. This uncoiling action avoids the need for slip-ring contacts since the ends of the wire can remain stationary. Conventional fixed electrical connectors (Micro-D type) are used to terminate to operational electronics.

  17. Single Wire Detector Performance Over One Year of Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Hervas Aguilar, David Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Abstract When ionizing radiation passes through gas chambers in single wire detectors gas molecules separate into ions and electrons. By applying a strong localized electric field near the single wire an avalanche of electrons is created and it can be collected. The current produced in the wire is then proportional to the energy of the particle detected. Nevertheless, many factors can contribute to detector aging effects which are visible in a loss of gain caused by deposition of contaminants on the collecting wire. This study consists on novel data analysis techniques used to process large amounts of data produced by two simultaneously running single wire detectors. Aging effects are analyzed while environmental fluctuations are corrected for. A series of scripts carry out data filtering, data matching, corrections, and finally trend plotting by using ROOT’s extensive libraries developed at CERN.

  18. A unix configuration engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, M.

    1994-06-01

    A high level description language is presented for the purpose of automatically configuring large heterogeneous networked unix environments, based on class-oriented abstractions. The configuration engine is portable and easily extensible

  19. The effects of plant traits on species' responses to present and historical patch configurations and patch age

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hemrová, Lucie; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 124, č. 4 (2015), s. 437-445 ISSN 0030-1299 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0048 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : dry grasslands * species dynamics * habitat configuration Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.586, year: 2015

  20. Electricity: Residential Wiring. Secondary Schools. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Dept. of Education, Saipan.

    This curriculum guide on residential wiring for secondary students is one of six developed for inservice teachers at Marianas High School in Saipan. The guide provides the rationale, description, goals, and objectives of the program; the program of studies and performance objectives by levels; samples of lesson plans for effective delivery of…

  1. The influence of bracket design on frictional losses in the bracket/arch wire system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, H A; Bourauel, C; Drescher, D

    1999-01-01

    In arch guided tooth movement, the essential role played by bracket configuration with respect to sliding friction has been recognized by the manufacturers, a fact which has had an increasing impact on the design and marketing of new bracket models in recent years. The aim of the present in-vitro study was to investigate the influence of different bracket designs on sliding mechanics. Five differently shaped stainless steel brackets (Discovery: Dentaurum, Damon SL: A-Company, Synergy: Rocky Mountain Orthodontics, Viazis bracket and Omni Arch appliance: GAC) were compared in the 0.022"-slot system. The Orthodontic Measurement and Simulation System (OMSS) was used to quantify the difference between applied force (NiTi coil spring, 1.0 N) and orthodontically effective force and to determine leveling losses occurring during the sliding process in arch guided tooth movement. Simulated canine retraction was performed using continuous arch wires with the dimensions 0.019" x 0.025" (Standard Steel, Unitek) and 0.020" x 0.020" (Ideal Gold, GAC). Comparison of the brackets revealed friction-induced losses ranging from 20 to 70%, with clear-cut advantages resulting from the newly developed bracket types. However, an increased tendency towards leveling losses in terms of distal rotation (maximum 15 degrees) or buccal root torque (maximum 20 degrees) was recorded, especially with those brackets giving the arch wire increased mobility due to their shaping or lack of ligature wire.

  2. Notched K-wire for low thermal damage bone drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Belmont, Barry; Wang, Yiwen; Tai, Bruce; Holmes, James; Shih, Albert

    2017-07-01

    The Kirschner wire (K-wire) is a common bone drilling tool in orthopedic surgery to affix fractured bone. Significant heat is produced due to both the cutting and the friction between the K-wire and the bone debris during drilling. Such heat can result in high temperatures, leading to osteonecrosis and other secondary injuries. To reduce thermal injury and other high-temperature associated complications, a new K-wire design with three notches along the three-plane trocar tip fabricated using a thin micro-saw tool is studied. These notches evacuate bone debris and reduce the clogging and heat generation during bone drilling. A set of four K-wires, one without notches and three notched, with depths of 0.5, 0.75, and 1mm, are evaluated. Bone drilling experiments conducted on bovine cortical bone show that notched K-wires could effectively decrease the temperature, thrust force, and torque during bone drilling. K-wires with notches 1mm deep reduced the thrust force and torque by approximately 30%, reduced peak temperatures by 43%, and eliminated blackened burn marks in bone. This study demonstrates that a simple modification of the tip of K-wires can effectively reduce bone temperatures during drilling. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Canard Planform and Wing-Leading-Edge Modification on Low-Speed Longitudinal Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Canard Airplane Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Bernard, Jr.

    1961-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted at low subsonic speeds to study the effects of canard planform and wing-leading-edge modification on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a general research canard airplane configuration. The basic wing of the model had a trapezoidal planform, an aspect ratio of 3.0, a taper ratio of 0.143, and an unswept 80-percent-chord line. Modifications to the wing included addition of full-span and partial-span leading-edge chord-extensions. Two canard planforms were employed in the study; one was a 60 deg sweptback delta planform and the other was a trapezoidal planform similar to that of the basic wing. Modifications to these canards included addition of a full-span leading-edge chord-extension to the trapezoidal planform and a fence to the delta planform. For the basic-wing-trapezoidal-canard configuration, rather abrupt increases in stability occurred at about 12 deg angle of attack. A slight pitch-up tendency occurred for the delta-canard configuration at approximately 8 deg angle of attack. A comparison of the longitudinal control effectiveness for the basic-wing-trapezoidal-canard combination and for the basic-wing-delta-canard combination indicates higher values of control effectiveness at law angles of attack for the trapezoidal canard. The control effectiveness for the delta-canard configuration, however, is seen to hold up for higher canard deflections and to higher angles of attack. Use of a full-span chord-extension deflected approximately 30 deg on the trapezoidal canard greatly improved the control characteristics of this configuration and enabled a sizeable increase in trim lift to be realized.

  4. Societal costs in displaced transverse olecranon fractures: using decision analysis tools to find the most cost-effective strategy between tension band wiring and locked plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Tittu; Washington, Travis; Srivastava, Karan; Moutzouros, Vasilios; Makhni, Eric C; Hakeos, William

    2017-11-01

    Tension band wiring (TBW) and locked plating are common treatment options for Mayo IIA olecranon fractures. Clinical trials have shown excellent functional outcomes with both techniques. Although TBW implants are significantly less expensive than a locked olecranon plate, TBW often requires an additional operation for implant removal. To choose the most cost-effective treatment strategy, surgeons must understand how implant costs and return to the operating room influence the most cost-effective strategy. This cost-effective analysis study explored the optimal treatment strategies by using decision analysis tools. An expected-value decision tree was constructed to estimate costs based on the 2 implant choices. Values for critical variables, such as implant removal rate, were obtained from the literature. A Monte Carlo simulation consisting of 100,000 trials was used to incorporate variability in medical costs and implant removal rates. Sensitivity analysis and strategy tables were used to show how different variables influence the most cost-effective strategy. TBW was the most cost-effective strategy, with a cost savings of approximately $1300. TBW was also the dominant strategy by being the most cost-effective solution in 63% of the Monte Carlo trials. Sensitivity analysis identified implant costs for plate fixation and surgical costs for implant removal as the most sensitive parameters influencing the cost-effective strategy. Strategy tables showed the most cost-effective solution as 2 parameters vary simultaneously. TBW is the most cost-effective strategy in treating Mayo IIA olecranon fractures despite a higher rate of return to the operating room. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Negative effects of crystalline-SiC doping on the critical current density in Ti-sheathed MgB2(SiC)y superconducting wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, G; Fang, H; Luo, Z P; Hoyt, C; Yen, F; Guchhait, S; Lv, B; Markert, J T

    2007-01-01

    Ti-sheathed MgB 2 wires doped with nanosize crystalline-SiC up to a concentration of 15 wt% SiC have been fabricated, and the effects of the SiC doping on the critical current density (J c ) and other superconducting properties studied. In contrast with the previously reported results that nano-SiC doping with a doping range below 16 wt% usually enhances J c , particularly at higher fields, our measurements show that SiC doping decreases J c over almost the whole field range from 0 to 7.3 T at all temperatures. Furthermore, it is found that the degradation of J c becomes stronger at higher SiC doping levels, which is also in sharp contrast with the reported results that J c is usually optimized at doping levels near 10 wt% SiC. Our results indicate that these negative effects on J c could be attributed to the absence of significant effective pinning centres (mainly Mg 2 Si) due to the high chemical stability of the crystalline-SiC particles

  6. Effects of magnetostatic interaction on the magnetization processes in Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 nanocrystalline wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.F.; Vazquez, M.; Chen, D.X.; Hernando, A.

    2002-01-01

    Fe 73.5 Cu 1 Nb 3 Si 13.5 B 9 amorphous wire was annealed at different temperatures (T a =400-700 deg. C, for 30 min) that result in partial devitrification and subsequently, the quasi-saturated hysteresis loop was measured. It is found that the loops are not symmetric, exhibiting two coercive fields, H c1 and H c2 , on descending and ascending branches, respectively. Moreover, the asymmetry degree is modified when the sample is previously magnetized under a field of 60 kA m -1 . The dependence on both maximum measured field, H m , and temperature, T, of the displaced loop has been determined. With increasing H m , the shift H sh =(H c2 +H c1 )/2 decreases and the coercivity H c =(H c2 -H c1 )/2 increases, but H sh -H c H c1 remains constant. Both H sh and the magnetic polarization, μ 0 M m , at maximum field decreases with elevating T. The loop of this sample also shows a remarkable time-effect. The H m - and T-dependent H sh is discussed considering the existence of an effective bias-field generated from the magnetostatic interaction between the nanocrystalline particles and residual soft matrix, and the time-effect could be ascribed to the dipolar interaction among the particles. (author)

  7. Experimental friction coefficients for bovine cartilage measured with a pin-on-disk tribometer: testing configuration and lubricant effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Liu; Sikavitsas, Vassilios I; Striolo, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The friction coefficient between wet articular cartilage surfaces was measured using a pin-on-disk tribometer adopting different testing configurations: cartilage-on-pin vs. alumina-on-disk (CA); cartilage-on-pin vs. cartilage-on-disk (CC); and alumina-on-pin vs. cartilage-on-disk (AC). Several substances were dissolved in the phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution to act as lubricants: 10,000 molecular weight (MW) polyethylene glycol (PEG), 100,000 MW PEG, and chondroitin sulfate (CS), all at 100 mg/mL concentration. Scanning electron microscopy photographs of the cartilage specimens revealed limited wear due to the experiment. Conducting the experiments in PBS solutions we provide evidence according to which a commercial pin-on-disk tribometer allows us to assess different lubrication mechanisms active in cartilage. Specifically, we find that the measured friction coefficient strongly depends on the testing configuration. Our results show that the friction coefficient measured under CC and AC testing configurations remains very low as the sliding distance increases, probably because during the pin displacement the pores present in the cartilage replenish with PBS solution. Under such conditions the fluid phase supports a large load fraction for long times. By systematically altering the composition of the PBS solution we demonstrate the importance of solution viscosity in determining the measured friction coefficient. Although the friction coefficient remains low under the AC testing configuration in PBS, 100 mg/mL solutions of both CS and 100,000 MW PEG in PBS further reduce the friction coefficient by ~40%. Relating the measured friction coefficient to the Hersey number, our results are consistent with a Stribeck curve, confirming that the friction coefficient of cartilage under the AC testing configuration depends on a combination of hydrodynamic, boundary, and weep bearing lubrication mechanisms.

  8. Sliding mechanics of coated composite wires and the development of an engineering model for binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zufall, S W; Kusy, R P

    2000-02-01

    A tribological (friction and wear) study, which was designed to simulate clinical sliding mechanics, was conducted as part of an effort to determine the suitability of poly(chloro-p-xylylene) coatings for composite orthodontic archwires. Prototype composite wires, having stiffnesses similar to those of current initial and intermediate alignment wires, were tested against stainless steel and ceramic brackets in the passive and active configurations (with and without angulation). Kinetic coefficient of friction values, which were determined to quantify sliding resistances as functions of the normal forces of ligation, had a mean that was 72% greater than uncoated wire couples at 0.43. To improve analysis of the active configuration, a mathematical model was developed that related bracket angulation, bracket width, interbracket distance, wire geometry, and wire elastic modulus to sliding resistance. From this model, kinetic coefficients of binding were determined to quantify sliding resistances as functions of the normal forces of binding. The mean binding coefficient was the same as that of uncoated wire couples at 0.42. Although penetrations through the coating were observed on many specimens, the glass-fiber reinforcement within the composite wires was undamaged for all conditions tested. This finding implies that the risk of glass fiber release during clinical use would be eliminated by the coating. In addition, the frictional and binding coefficients were still within the limits outlined by conventional orthodontic wire-bracket couples. Consequently, the coatings were regarded as an improvement to the clinical acceptability of composite orthodontic archwires.

  9. Wire communication engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Byeong Tae

    1997-02-01

    This book describes wire telecommunication engineering/ It is divided into eleven chapter, which deal with Introduction with development of telecommunication, voice and sound wave and communication network, Telegraphy with summary of telegraphy, code of telegraphy, communication speed, morse and telex, Telephone on structure, circuit and image telephone, Traffic on telecommunication traffic, transmission of line about theory, cable line and loaded cable, carrier communication with carrier telegraphy and carrier telephone, optical communication with types, structure, specialty, laser and equipment, DATA, Mobile telecommunication on summary, mobile telephone, radio paging and digital mobile telecommunication, ISDN with channel of ISDN, and service of ISDN, and design of telecommunication.

  10. Wiring regulations in brief

    CERN Document Server

    Tricker, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Tired of trawling through the Wiring Regs?Perplexed by Part P?Confused by cables, conductors and circuits?Then look no further! This handy guide provides an on-the-job reference source for Electricians, Designers, Service Engineers, Inspectors, Builders, Students, DIY enthusiastsTopic-based chapters link areas of working practice - such as cables, installations, testing and inspection, special locations - with the specifics of the Regulations themselves. This allows quick and easy identification of the official requirements relating to the situati

  11. The Micro Wire Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeva, B.; Gomez, F.; Pazos, A.; Pfau, R.; Plo, M. E-mail: maximo.plo@cern.ch; Rodriguez, J.M.; Vazquez, P.; Labbe, J.C

    1999-10-11

    We present the performance of a new proportional gas detector. Its geometry consists of a cathode plane with 70x70 {mu}m{sup 2} apertures, crossed by 25 {mu}m anode strips to which it is attached by 50 {mu}m kapton spacers. In the region where the avalanche takes place, the anode strips are suspended in the gas mixture as in a standard wire chamber. This detector exhibits high rate capability and large gains, introducing very little material. (author)

  12. Magnetic domain propagation in Pt/Co/Pt micro wires with engineered coercivity gradients along and across the wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarosz, A., E-mail: arctgh@ifmpan.poznan.pl [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. M. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Gaul, A. [Department of Physics and Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology (CINSaT), University of Kassel, Heinrich-Plett-Str. 40, D-34132 Kassel (Germany); Urbaniak, M. [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. M. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Ehresmann, A. [Department of Physics and Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology (CINSaT), University of Kassel, Heinrich-Plett-Str. 40, D-34132 Kassel (Germany); Stobiecki, F. [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. M. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Electron lithography and ion bombardment were used to modify the Co/Pt micro-wires. • Two-dimensional perpendicular magnetic anisotropy gradient was engineered. • Engineered anisotropy gradient allowed to control domain wall positions in the wires. • Simulations confirm the influence of defects on a remanent state of the wires. - Abstract: Pt(15 nm)/[Co(0.6 nm)/Pt(1.5 nm)]{sub 4} multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy were patterned into several-micrometer wide wires by electron-beam lithography. Bombarding the wires with He{sup +} ions with a fluence gradient along the wire results in a spatial gradient of switching fields that allows a controllable positioning of domain walls. The influence of the reduced anisotropy near the wire edges causes a remanent state in which the reversal close to the long edges precedes that in the middle of the wires. Experiments using Kerr microscopy prove this effect and micromagnetic simulations corroborate that a decrease of the anisotropy at the edges is responsible for the effect.

  13. 46 CFR 111.60-11 - Wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wire. 111.60-11 Section 111.60-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-11 Wire. (a) Wire must be in an enclosure. (b) Wire must be...

  14. Numerical simulation of bubble induced shear in membrane bioreactors: effects of mixed liquor rheology and membrane configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuefei; Wang, Yuan; Waite, T David; Leslie, Greg

    2015-05-15

    A CFD model, incorporating an empirically determined rheology model and a porous media model, was developed to simulate bubble induced surface shear in membrane bioreactors configured with hollow fibre membranes with outer diameters ranging from 1.3 to 2.4 mm, arranged in vertically orientated modules with packing density from 200 to 560 m(2)/m(3). The rheology model was developed for mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentrations of 3 to 16 gL(-1) in the presence and absence of coagulant (generated by addition of a ferrous salt) for shear rates ranging from 0 to 500 s(-1). Experimentally determined particle relaxation times for the biological flocs in the mixed liquor, both in the absence and presence of iron, were negligible, consistent with an environment where positive buoyancy forces were greater than negative settling forces thereby allowing the sludge mixture to be modelled as a single continuous phase. The non-Newtonian behaviour of the mixed liquor was incorporated into the CFD simulations using an Ostwald-de Waele rheology model. Interactions between mixed liquor and hollow fibre membranes of different fibre size and packing density were described using a porous media model that was calibrated by empirical measurement of inertial loss coefficients over a range of viscosities (0.8 × 10(-3) to 2.1 × 10(-3) Pa.s) and velocities (0 to 0.35 m/s) typically encountered in full scale MBRs. Experimental results indicated that addition of iron salts resulted in an increase in MLSS and sludge viscosity. Shear stress is affected by both velocity and viscosity. The increase in sludge viscosity resulted in an increase in resistance to flow through the hollow fibre membrane bundles and, as a result, decreased the liquid flow velocities. CFD simulations provided insight on the effects of point of coagulant addition and MLSS concentration on bubble-induced shear over a range of industrially relevant conditions. A 12% increase in shear stress was observed when

  15. The High Performance Shape Memory Effect (HP-SME in Ni Rich NiTi Wires: In Situ X-Ray Diffraction on Thermal Cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coduri Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach for using Shape Memory Alloys (SMA was recently proposed and named highperformance shape memory effect (HP-SME. The HP-SME exploits the thermal cycling of stress-induced martensite for producing extremely high mechanical work with a very stable functional fatigue behaviour in Ni rich NiTi alloy. The latter was found to differ significantly from the functional fatigue behaviour observed for conventional SMA. This study was undertaken in order to elucidate the microstructural modifications at the basis of this particular feature. To this purpose, the functional fatigue was coupled to in situ Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray Diffraction, by recording patterns on wires thermally cycled by Joule effect under a constant applied stress (800 MPa. The accurate analysis the line profile XRD data suggests the accumulation of defects upon functional cycling, while the fibre texture was not observed to change. The functional fatigue exhibits a very similar behaviour as the line broadening of XRD peaks, thus suggesting the accumulation of dislocations as the origin of the mechanism of the permanent deformation.

  16. Development of environmental-friendly wire and cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Keiji

    1996-01-01

    The electron beam technology has been used in many industrial fields as a method of conventional polymer modification or optimum processability. The main industrial fields of radiation crosslinking are wire and cable, heat shrinkable tubings, plastic foams, precuring of tires, floppy disk curing, foods packaging films, and so on. The radiation crosslinking of wire and cable was started in 1961 in Japan and 15 wire and cable companies are now using electron beam accelerators for production or R and D. The dominant characteristics of crosslinking of insulation materials are application at high temperature, good oil and chemical resistibility and high mechanical properties. These radiation crosslinking wire and cable are applied widely in electronics equipments and automobiles. Recently, electronics manufacturers have indicated deep concern over the effects on the environment. Wire and cable also are required to be applicable for environmental preservation. (J.P.N.)

  17. Corrosion of Wires on Wooden Wire-Bound Packaging Crates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Stan Lebow

    2015-01-01

    Wire-bound packaging crates are used by the US Army to transport materials. Because these crates may be exposed to harsh environments, they are dip-treated with a wood preservative (biocide treatment). For many years, zinc-naphthenate was the most commonly used preservative for these packaging crates and few corrosion problems with the wires were observed. Recently,...

  18. HLT configuration management system

    CERN Document Server

    Daponte, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    The CMS High Level Trigger (HLT) is implemented running a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on thousands of CPUs. The CMS software is written mostly in C++, using Python as its configuration language through an embedded CPython interpreter. The configuration of each process is made up of hundreds of modules, organized in sequences and paths. As an example, the HLT configurations used for 2011 data taking comprised over 2200 different modules, organized in more than 400 independent trigger paths. The complexity of the HLT configurations and the large number of configuration produced require the design of a suitable data management system. The present work describes the designed solution to manage the considerable number of configurations developed and to assist the editing of new configurations. The system is required to be remotely accessible and OS-independent as well as easly maintainable easy to use. To meet these requirements a three-layers architecture has been choose...

  19. Conceptualizing Embedded Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddsson, Gudmundur Valur; Hvam, Lars; Lysgaard, Ole

    2006-01-01

    Installing and servicing complex electromechanical systems is more tedious than is necessary. By putting the product knowledge into the product itself, which then would allow automation in constructing the product from modules, could solve that. It would support personnel in aftersales installation...... and services. The general idea can be named embedded configuration. In this article we intend to conceptualize embedded configuration, what it is and is not. The difference between embedded configuration, sales configuration and embedded software is explained. We will look at what is needed to make embedded...... configuration systems. That will include requirements to product modelling techniques. An example with consumer electronics will illuminate the elements of embedded configuration in settings that most can relate to. The question of where embedded configuration would be relevant is discussed, and the current...

  20. Ames Optimized TCA Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Susan E.; Reuther, James J.; Hicks, Raymond M.

    1999-01-01

    Configuration design at Ames was carried out with the SYN87-SB (single block) Euler code using a 193 x 49 x 65 C-H grid. The Euler solver is coupled to the constrained (NPSOL) and the unconstrained (QNMDIF) optimization packages. Since the single block grid is able to model only wing-body configurations, the nacelle/diverter effects were included in the optimization process by SYN87's option to superimpose the nacelle/diverter interference pressures on the wing. These interference pressures were calculated using the AIRPLANE code. AIRPLANE is an Euler solver that uses a unstructured tetrahedral mesh and is capable of computations about arbitrary complete configurations. In addition, the buoyancy effects of the nacelle/diverters were also included in the design process by imposing the pressure field obtained during the design process onto the triangulated surfaces of the nacelle/diverter mesh generated by AIRPLANE. The interference pressures and nacelle buoyancy effects are added to the final forces after each flow field calculation. Full details of the (recently enhanced) ghost nacelle capability are given in a related talk. The pseudo nacelle corrections were greatly improved during this design cycle. During the Ref H and Cycle 1 design activities, the nacelles were only translated and pitched. In the cycle 2 design effort the nacelles can translate vertically, and pitch to accommodate the changes in the lower surface geometry. The diverter heights (between their leading and trailing edges) were modified during design as the shape of the lower wing changed, with the drag of the diverter changing accordingly. Both adjoint and finite difference gradients were used during optimization. The adjoint-based gradients were found to give good direction in the design space for configurations near the starting point, but as the design approached a minimum, the finite difference gradients were found to be more accurate. Use of finite difference gradients was limited by the

  1. Improved superconducting magnet wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1983-08-16

    This invention is directed to a superconducting tape or wire composed of alternating layers of copper and a niobium-containing superconductor such as niobium of NbTi, Nb/sub 3/Sn or Nb/sub 3/Ge. In general, each layer of the niobium-containing superconductor has a thickness in the range of about 0.05 to 1.5 times its coherence length (which for Nb/sub 3/Si is 41 A) with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170 to 600 A. With the use of very thin layers of the niobium composition having a thickness within the desired range, the critical field (H/sub c/) may be increased by factors of 2 to 4. Also, the thin layers of the superconductor permit the resulting tape or wire to exhibit suitable ductility for winding on a magnet core. These compositions are also characterized by relatively high values of critical temperature and therefore will exhibit a combination of useful properties as superconductors.

  2. Successful percutaneous coronary intervention for complex bifurcated lesions with combination of "Reverse wire technique" and "Reverse bent wiring with the crusade catheter" novel wire manipulation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Tetsuya; Higuchi, Yusuke; Kato, Taku

    2016-04-01

    We encountered a case of percutaneous coronary intervention for complex bifurcated lesions in the mid portion of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery. The diagonal artery branched from the LAD artery with a markedly angulated pattern and there was severe stenosis from just proximal to this diagonal artery. The "reverse wire technique facilitated with the Crusade catheter" enabled us to cross a guidewire through to the markedly angulated diagonal side branch (SB). Next, we adopted a mini-crushing stent strategy for this true bifurcated lesion. Thereafter, we adopted "reverse bent wiring with the Crusade catheter" for wire re-crossing to the incarcerated side branch, and successfully completed all procedures. This technique for successful wire re-crossing is simple but can be very effective in specific situations in practical percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Many PCI operators may empirically adopt this kind of wire manipulation technique. However, this case is the first report in the world describing the application of a "reverse bent wiring with the Crusade catheter" for wire re-crossing through a double-folded stent strut to a SB at the optimal point of the bifurcation. In this case, we made the most of the Crusade catheter. This catheter is a very useful device for multifactorial use in practical PCI. It can help us to perform complex PCI procedures successfully. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Tension Band Wiring Is As Effective As A Compression Screw In A Neglected, Medial Maleolus Non-Union: A Case-Based Discussion & Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Rakesh; Dhillon, Mandeep Singh; Khurana, Ankit; Aggarwal, Sameer; Kumar, Prasoon

    2017-01-01

    Isolated, neglected medial malleolus nonunion cases are a rare entity in orthopedic literature. All studies (except one) have described the use of compression screws (with or without plates) for medial malleolar nonunion management. In acute fractures, tension band wiring (TBW) has shown excellent results both in biomechanical and in clinical studies. On the contrary, it has seldom been used in nonunion or in neglected cases. We describe a 6-month-old neglected medial malleolus gap nonunion case who presented with progressive pain and limp. TBW with a monoblock, inlay, tricortical, and iliac crest bone graft for the defect was performed. The fracture united within 12 weeks and patient went back to his normal work routine; on the latest follow-up at 3 years, the patient was asymptomatic with no clinicoradiologic signs of secondary osteoarthritis of the ankle joint. TBW may be better than screw fixation in the management of medial malleolus nonunion as it is technically straightforward and cost-effective, can provide equal or more compression than a screw; it does not damage the sandwiched inlay bone graft, and the amount of compression is surgeon-controlled. It is also more suitable for fractures with small distal fragments and/or osteoporosis.

  4. Wire and Packing Tape Sandwiches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Sandy

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how students can combine craft wire with clear packing tape to create a two-dimensional design that can be bent and twisted to create a three-dimensional form. Students sandwich wire designs between two layers of tape. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  5. Wire-grid electromagnetic modelling of metallic cylindrical objects with arbitrary section, for Ground Penetrating Radar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adabi, Saba; Pajewski, Lara

    2014-05-01

    Authors demonstrated that the well-known same-area criterion yields affordable results but is quite far from being the optimum: better results can be obtained with a wire radius shorter than what is suggested by the rule. In utility detection, quality controls of reinforced concrete, and other civil-engineering applications, many sought targets are long and thin: in these cases, two-dimensional scattering methods can be employed for the electromagnetic modelling of scenarios. In the present work, the freeware tool GPRMAX2D [6], implementing the Finite-Difference Time-Domain method, is used to implement the wire-grid modelling of buried two-dimensional objects. The source is a line of current, with Ricker waveform. Results obtained in [5] are confirmed in the time domain and for different geometries. The highest accuracy is obtained by shortening the radius of about 10%. It seems that fewer (and larger) wires need minor shortening; however, more detailed investigations are required. We suggest to use at least 8 - 10 wires per wavelength if the field scattered by the structure has to be evaluated. The internal field is much more sensitive to the modelling configuration than the external one, and more wires should be employed when shielding effects are concerned. We plan to conduct a more comprehensive analysis, in order to extract guidelines for wire sizing, to be validated on different shapes. We also look forward to verifying the possibility of using the wire-grid modelling method for the simulation of slotted objects. This work is a contribution to COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar". The Authors thanks COST for funding COST Action TU1208. References [1] J.H. Richmond, A wire grid model for scattering by conducting bodies, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation AP-14 (1966), pp. 782-786. [2] S.M. Rao, D.R. Wilton, A.W. Glisson, Electromagnetic scattering by surfaces of arbitrary shape, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation AP-30 (1982

  6. Wire metamaterials: physics and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simovski, Constantin R; Belov, Pavel A; Atrashchenko, Alexander V; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2012-08-16

    The physics and applications of a broad class of artificial electromagnetic materials composed of lattices of aligned metal rods embedded in a dielectric matrix are reviewed. Such structures are here termed wire metamaterials. They appear in various settings and can operate from microwaves to THz and optical frequencies. An important group of these metamaterials is a wire medium possessing extreme optical anisotropy. The study of wire metamaterials has a long history, however, most of their important and useful properties have been revealed and understood only recently, especially in the THz and optical frequency ranges where the wire media correspond to the lattices of microwires and nanowires, respectively. Another group of wire metamaterials are arrays and lattices of nanorods of noble metals whose unusual properties are driven by plasmonic resonances. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. The role of temperature in copper wire drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noseda, Corrado

    Wire is produced by drawing, which consists of pulling a rod of the material to be processed through a series of funnel-shaped holes, or dies, of decreasing size. Drawing involves plastic deformation and friction within the contact zone between the wire and the die. These occurrences contribute to the generation of heat in the wire, which may affect its final properties. High drawing speeds and the use of several dies in one production line---to improve productivity---may accentuate heating to a point where recrystallization of the wire material sets in and its properties are affected. Also, excessive temperatures may lead to an accelerated deterioration of the lubricants used, to the point that the optimum lubrication mechanism is no longer prevailing, with consequent negative effects on the surface quality of the processed wire. A number of analytical models estimating the temperature increase in drawn wires, due to the dissipation of plastic deformation energy and to the friction between wire and die, were reviewed. While all models agree on the contribution of plastic deformation to heating, some discrepancies exist as to the effect of friction. The original treatment, developed in Germany in 1943, provided slightly higher peak temperature values than other models for the parameters used in the calculations, which are simulative of commercial practice on copper wire. A finite element study conducted in the framework of this research showed that the axial heat flow within the wire, which was assumed to be negligible in the reviewed analytical theories, could, in fact, not be disregarded. It also showed that a purely isothermal process cannot be obtained in practice, whatever adjustment of the process parameters is undertaken. In order to unequivocally correlate the effects of heating on the properties of wire and the temperature it experiences during commercial drawing, electrolytic tough pitch copper wire was drawn under independently controlled, quasi

  8. Investigation of exploding wire in different experimental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisov, Gennady; Struve, Kenneth; Rosenthal, Stephen; Sasorov, Pavel

    2001-10-01

    The initial stage of electrical explosion of thin metal wires in different experimental conditions has been investigated. A pulser (3kA, 120kV) with fast (150A/ns) and slow (20A/ns) operational modes has been used. Current, voltage, laser-streaked images on 905nm, visible light emission have been monitored during the experiment. Two-wavelengths laser shadowgraphy and interferometry with 150ps pulse duration have been used to get information about shape and electron density. Different substances, diameters, lengths, target configurations, vacuum or air environment, surface conditions, cold or hot start and influence of pulser polarity have been investigated. Energy deposition is dramatically dependent from current rate and voltage polarity. Increasing of the current rate allows more energy deposition before surface breakdown. Changing polarity of the pulser from positive to negative in vacuum results in decrease of energy deposition into the wire and change of its structure. Direction of radial electric field becomes important for initial stage of wire explosion. These results can be understood in terms of influence of electronic emissions on triggering the plasma shell around the wire. The structure of radial electric field surrounding the wire has been simulated using 2D electrostatic code. Results of experiments have been compared with 2D MHD simulations.

  9. Software configuration management

    CERN Document Server

    Keyes, Jessica

    2004-01-01

    Software Configuration Management discusses the framework from a standards viewpoint, using the original DoD MIL-STD-973 and EIA-649 standards to describe the elements of configuration management within a software engineering perspective. Divided into two parts, the first section is composed of 14 chapters that explain every facet of configuration management related to software engineering. The second section consists of 25 appendices that contain many valuable real world CM templates.

  10. Thermosonic wire bonding of gold wire onto copper pad using the saturated interfacial phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Yeau-Ren; Aoh, Jong-Hing; Wang, Chang-Ming

    2001-12-01

    Copper has been used to replace conventional aluminium interconnection to improve the performance of deep submicron integrated circuits. This study used the saturated interfacial phenomena found in thermosonic ball bonding of gold wire onto aluminium pad to investigate thermosonic ball bonding of gold wire onto copper pad. The effects of preheat temperatures and ultrasonic powers on the bonding force were investigated by using a thermosonic bonding machine and a shear tester. This work shows that under proper preheat temperatures, the bonding force of thermosonic wire bonding can be explained based on interfacial microcontact phenomena such as energy intensity, interfacial temperature and real contact area. It is clearly shown that as the energy intensity is increased, the shear force increases, reaches a maximum, and then decreases. After saturation, i.e. the establishment of maximum atomic bonding, any type of additional energy input will damage the bonding, decreasing the shear force. If the preheat temperature is not within the proper range, the interfacial saturation phenomenon does not exist. For a preload of 0.5 N and a welding time of 15 ms in thermosonic wire bonding of gold wire onto copper pads, a maximum shear force of about 0.33 N is found where the interfacial energy intensity equals 1.8×106 J m-2 for preheat temperatures of 150°C and 170°C. Moreover, the corresponding optimal ultrasonic power is about 110 units.

  11. 3D Wire 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordi, Moréton; F, Escribano; J. L., Farias

    , therefore, we’ve drawn conclusions and recommendations for future editions of the event, also generalizable to other experiences of gamification especially in events. This report details the methodology and working elements from the design phase, human resources and organization of production......This document is a general report on the implementation of gamification in 3D Wire 2015 event. As the second gamification experience in this event, we have delved deeply in the previous objectives (attracting public areas less frequented exhibition in previous years and enhance networking) and have...... proposed new ones (viralization of the event on social networks and improvement of the integration of international attendees). On the other hand we defined a set of research objectives related to the study of gamification in an eminently social place like an event. Most of the goals have been met and...

  12. CONFIGURATION GENERATOR MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Alsaed

    2004-11-18

    ''The Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' prescribes an approach to the methodology for performing postclosure criticality analyses within the monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. An essential component of the methodology is the ''Configuration Generator Model for In-Package Criticality'' that provides a tool to evaluate the probabilities of degraded configurations achieving a critical state. The configuration generator model is a risk-informed, performance-based process for evaluating the criticality potential of degraded configurations in the monitored geologic repository. The method uses event tree methods to define configuration classes derived from criticality scenarios and to identify configuration class characteristics (parameters, ranges, etc.). The probabilities of achieving the various configuration classes are derived in part from probability density functions for degradation parameters. The NRC has issued ''Safety Evaluation Report for Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report, Revision 0''. That report contained 28 open items that required resolution through additional documentation. Of the 28 open items, numbers 5, 6, 9, 10, 18, and 19 were concerned with a previously proposed software approach to the configuration generator methodology and, in particular, the k{sub eff} regression analysis associated with the methodology. However, the use of a k{sub eff} regression analysis is not part of the current configuration generator methodology and, thus, the referenced open items are no longer considered applicable and will not be further addressed.

  13. Configuration management at NEK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podhraski, M.

    1999-01-01

    Configuration Management (CM) objectives at NEK are to ensure consistency between Design Requirements, Physical Plant Configuration and Configuration Information. Software applications, supporting Design Change, Work Control and Document Control Processes, are integrated in one module-oriented Management Information System (MIS). Master Equipment Component List (MECL) database is central MIS module. Through a combination of centralized database and process migrated activities it is ensured that the CM principles and requirements (accurate, current design data matching plant's physical configuration while complying to applicable requirements), are followed and fulfilled.(author)

  14. Investigation of Constant Temperature Hot-wire System Response using Laser Pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffa, Nicholas; Morris, Scott; Cameron, Joshua

    2016-11-01

    Constant temperature hot-wire systems use a Wheatstone bridge and feedback amplifier circuit to maintain a constant average temperature across the wire yielding frequency responses of order 100 kHz. This high frequency response allows hot-wires to be used extensively for aerodynamic measurements in high speed flows and uncertainty at these high frequencies can be difficult to diagnose. The standard frequency response check for constant temperature hot-wires uses an electronic pulse across the circuit to check the electronic feedback circuit response time, but does not account for the impact of the heat transfer along the wire. In order to investigate the frequency response of the entire constant temperature hot-wire system, including the heat transfer along the wire, a novel method was developed using a pulsed PIV laser focused to illuminate only the hot-wire. The laser pulse duration was effectively an instantaneous change in wire surface temperature through radiation. A hot-wire was placed in a uniform open calibration jet for a range of flow conditions. The response of the entire hot-wire system was observed across a range of conditions including changes in flow, wire temperature, and thermal boundary conditions and compared with the electronic pulse test.

  15. Deposition of composite materials using a wire-bar coater for achieving processability and air-stability in Organic Field-Effect Transistors (OFETs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pozo, Freddy G.; Galindo, Sergi; Pfattner, Raphael; Rovira, Concepció; Mas-Torrent, Marta

    2015-08-01

    Organic thin films based on composite materials of semiconducting dibenzo-tetrathiafulvalene (DB-TTF) and insulating styrenic matrices (Polystyrene (PS10k) and Poly-alpha methylstyrene (PAMS10k) ) have been fabricated by the wire-bar coating technique in ambient conditions (air, light, humidity) and contrasted with the ones prepared by thermally evaporating the organic semiconductor. The transistors fabricated with DB-TTF:PS10k composites show a clear fieldeffect behavior with p-type characteristics, exhibiting charge carriers mobilities in the range of 0.01 cm2/Vs, fully comparable with the films obtained by thermal evaporation. However, while the thermally evaporated films show poor stability in air, the wire-bar coated composites films and devices are highly reproducible and exhibit lower threshold voltage values. Thus, we demonstrate the suitability of the wire-bar technique for manufacturing large area devices.

  16. [Separate vertical wiring combined with tension band and Kirschner-wire plus cerclage wire in the treatment of displaced inferior pole fractures of the patella].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Jiang, X Y; Huang, X W

    2016-06-18

    To investigate the clinical efficacy and outcomes of two separate vertical wiring combined with tension band and Kirschner-wire plus cerclage wire in the treatment of displaced inferior pole fractures of the patella. From January 2013 to January 2015, 15 consecutive patients (mean age 54.5 years) with inferior pole fractures of the patella were retrospectively included in this study. All the patients underwent open reduction and internal fixation by separate vertical wiring combined with tension band and Kirschner-wire plus cerclage wire through longitudinal incision, 4.5 d (range: 3.1-5.9 d) after initial injury. A safety check for early knee range of motion was performed before wound closure. The complications including infection, nonunion, loss of fixation and any wire breakage or irritation from implant were recorded. Anteroposterior and lateral views of the knee joint obtained during the follow-up were used to assess bony union based on the time when the fracture line disappeared. At the time of the final outpatient follow up, functional evaluation of the knee joint was conducted by Bostman system. The follow-up time was 13.1 months (range: 12-19 months) after surgery on average, immediate motion without immobilization in all the cases was allowed and there was no case of reduction loss of the fracture and wire breakage. There was no case of irritation from the implant. At the final follow-up, the average range of motion (ROM) arc was 126.7° (range: 115°-140°), the average ROM lag versus contralateral healthy leg was 10.3° (range: 0°-35°). The mean Bostman score at the last follow-up was 28.9 (range: 27-30), and graded excellent in most cases. Two separate vertical wiring is an easy and effective method to reduce the displaced inferior pole fracture of patella. Augmentation of separate vertical wiring with tension band and Kirschner-wire plus cerclage wire in these patients provides enough strength to protected the early exercise of the knee joint and

  17. Synthesis of chemical vapor deposition graphene on tantalum wire for supercapacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mingji, E-mail: limingji@163.com [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communicate Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Guo, Wenlong [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communicate Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Li, Hongji, E-mail: hongjili@yeah.net [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Organic Solar Cells and Photochemical Conversion, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Xu, Sheng [School of Precision Instrument and Optoelectronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Qu, Changqing; Yang, Baohe [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communicate Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • The capacitance of graphene/tantalum (Ta) wire electrodes is firstly reported. • Graphene was grown on the Ta surface by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition. • Graphene/Ta wire structure is favorable for fast ion and electron transfer. • The graphene/Ta wire electrode shows high capacitive properties. - Abstract: This paper studies the synthesis and electrochemical characterization of graphene/tantalum (Ta) wires as high-performance electrode material for supercapacitors. Graphene on Ta wires is prepared by the thermal decomposition of methane under various conditions. The graphene nanosheets on the Ta wire surface have an average thickness of 1.3–3.4 nm and consist typically of a few graphene monolayers, and TaC buffer layers form between the graphene and Ta wire. A capacitor structure is fabricated using graphene/Ta wire with a length of 10 mm and a diameter of 0.6 mm as the anode and Pt wire of the same size as the cathode. The electrochemical behavior of the graphene/Ta wires as supercapacitor electrodes is characterized by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous electrolyte. The as-prepared graphene/Ta electrode has highest capacitance of 345.5 F g{sup −1} at current density of 0.5 A g{sup −1}. The capacitance remains at about 84% after 1000 cycles at 10 A g{sup −1}. The good electrochemical performance of the graphene/Ta wire electrode is attributed to the unique nanostructural configuration, high electrical conductivity, and large specific surface area of the graphene layer. This suggests that graphene/Ta wire electrode materials have potential applications in high-performance energy storage devices.

  18. Strain sensing systems tailored for tensile measurement of fragile wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyilas, Arman

    2005-12-01

    Fundamental stress versus strain measurements were completed on superconducting Nb3Sn wires within the framework of IEC/TC90 and VAMAS/TWA16. A key task was the assessment of sensing systems regarding resolution, accuracy, and precision when measuring Young's modulus. Prior to actual Nb3Sn wire measurements metallic wires, consisting of copper and stainless steel having diameters similar to the Nb3Sn wire, were extensively investigated with respect to their elastic line properties using different types of extensometers. After these calibration tests Nb3Sn wire measurements of different companies resulted in several important facts with respect to total size and weight of the used extensometers. The size could be correlated to the initial stage of stress versus strain behaviour. In fact, the effect of wire curls resulting from the production line had a profound effect on Young's modulus measurements. Within this context, the possibility of determining Young's modulus from unloading compliance lines in the plastic regime of the stress-strain curve was considered. The data obtained using this test methodology were discussed under consideration of the composite nature of Nb3Sn wire. In addition, a non-contacting sensing system based on a double-beam laser extensometer was used to investigate the potential of this new sensing system.

  19. Strain sensing systems tailored for tensile measurement of fragile wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyilas, Arman

    2005-01-01

    Fundamental stress versus strain measurements were completed on superconducting Nb 3 Sn wires within the framework of IEC/TC90 and VAMAS/TWA16. A key task was the assessment of sensing systems regarding resolution, accuracy, and precision when measuring Young's modulus. Prior to actual Nb 3 Sn wire measurements metallic wires, consisting of copper and stainless steel having diameters similar to the Nb 3 Sn wire, were extensively investigated with respect to their elastic line properties using different types of extensometers. After these calibration tests Nb 3 Sn wire measurements of different companies resulted in several important facts with respect to total size and weight of the used extensometers. The size could be correlated to the initial stage of stress versus strain behaviour. In fact, the effect of wire curls resulting from the production line had a profound effect on Young's modulus measurements. Within this context, the possibility of determining Young's modulus from unloading compliance lines in the plastic regime of the stress-strain curve was considered. The data obtained using this test methodology were discussed under consideration of the composite nature of Nb 3 Sn wire. In addition, a non-contacting sensing system based on a double-beam laser extensometer was used to investigate the potential of this new sensing system

  20. Strain sensors optimal placement for vibration-based structural health monitoring. The effect of damage on the initially optimal configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutas, T. H.; Bourikas, A.

    2017-12-01

    We revisit the optimal sensor placement of engineering structures problem with an emphasis on in-plane dynamic strain measurements and to the direction of modal identification as well as vibration-based damage detection for structural health monitoring purposes. The approach utilized is based on the maximization of a norm of the Fisher Information Matrix built with numerically obtained mode shapes of the structure and at the same time prohibit the sensorization of neighbor degrees of freedom as well as those carrying similar information, in order to obtain a satisfactory coverage. A new convergence criterion of the Fisher Information Matrix (FIM) norm is proposed in order to deal with the issue of choosing an appropriate sensor redundancy threshold, a concept recently introduced but not further investigated concerning its choice. The sensor configurations obtained via a forward sequential placement algorithm are sub-optimal in terms of FIM norm values but the selected sensors are not allowed to be placed in neighbor degrees of freedom providing thus a better coverage of the structure and a subsequent better identification of the experimental mode shapes. The issue of how service induced damage affects the initially nominated as optimal sensor configuration is also investigated and reported. The numerical model of a composite sandwich panel serves as a representative aerospace structure upon which our investigations are based.

  1. Effects of configurational changes on electrical resistivity during glass-liquid transition of two bulk metal-alloy glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aji, D. P. B.; Johari, G. P.

    2014-12-01

    Consequences of increase in structural fluctuations on heating Pd40Ni10Cu30P20 and Zr46.75Ti8.25Cu7.5Ni10Be27.5 through their glass to liquid transition range were investigated by measuring the electrical resistivity, ρ, an electron scattering property. The temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR = (1/ρ) dρ/dT) of the liquid and glassy states is negative. The plots of their ρ against T in the Tg (glass to liquid transition) range show a gradual change in the slope similar to the change observed generally for the plots of the density, elastic modulus, and refractive index. As fluctuations in the melt structure involve fewer configurations on cooling, ρ increases. In the energy landscape description, the melt's structure explores fewer minima with decrease in T, vibrational frequencies increase, and electron scattering and ρ increase. Plots of (-dρ/dT) against T resemble the plot of the specific heat of other glasses and show a sub-Tg feature and a rapid rise at T near Tg. Analysis shows that the magnitude of negative TCR is dominated by change in the phonon characteristics, and configurational fluctuations make it more negative. The TCR of the liquid and glassy states seems qualitatively consistent with the variation in the structure factor in Ziman's model for pure liquid metals as extended by Nagel to metal alloys and used to explain the negative TCR of a two-component metal glass.

  2. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, J.

    1990-05-01

    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an 55 Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed

  3. PIV Logon Configuration Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Glen Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-04

    This document details the configurations and enhancements implemented to support the usage of federal Personal Identity Verification (PIV) Card for logon on unclassified networks. The guidance is a reference implementation of the configurations and enhancements deployed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) by Network and Infrastructure Engineering – Core Services (NIE-CS).

  4. Global Value Chain Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Virginia; Pedersen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on global value chain configuration, providing an overview of this topic. Specifically, we review the literature focusing on the concept of the global value chain and its activities, the decisions involved in its configuration, such as location, the governance mo...

  5. Simulator configuration maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Requirements and recommendations of this section defines NPP personnel activity aimed to the provision of the simulator configuration compliance with the current configuration of the power-generating unit-prototype, standard and technical requirements and describe a monitoring procedure for a set of simulator software and hardware, training, organizational and technical documents

  6. Risk-based configuration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szikszai, T.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the following issues: The Configuration Control; The Risk-based Configuration Control (during power operation mode, and during shutdown mode). PSA requirements. Use of Risk-based Configuration Control System. Configuration Management (basic elements, benefits, information requirements)

  7. Characterization and study of the behavior of wire Ti-Ni with shape memory effect enables manufacture of actuators; Estudo da caracterizacao e do comportamento de fios de Ti-Ni com efeito memoria de forma viabilizando fabricacao de atuadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pina, E.A.C.; Araujo Filho, O.O. de; Urtiga Filho, S.L.; Gonzalez, C.H., E-mail: kikipina@hotmail.co [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEM/CTG/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Geociencias. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2010-07-01

    This work aims to characterize the wire commercial Ti-Ni of 1.27 mm in diameter with shape memory effect for the development of helical springs with the function of sensor / actuator. After heat treatment, the transformation temperatures, the presence of precipitates, the degree of damping, maximum stress of rupture, modulus of elasticity, the presence of phase R, the behavior of the alloy under tension, will be analyzed and compared in each situation. For characterization we used several methods including: heat treatment, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), tensile, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), X-ray diffraction, thermomechanical cycling. The wires were cut into pieces and heat-treated at 400 deg C with variation of time in muffle furnaces and quenching in water at 25 deg C. (author)

  8. Business Model Process Configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taran, Yariv; Nielsen, Christian; Thomsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    strategic preference, as part of their business model innovation activity planned. Practical implications – This paper aimed at strengthening researchers and, particularly, practitioner’s perspectives into the field of business model process configurations. By insuring an [abstracted] alignment between......Purpose – The paper aims: 1) To develop systematically a structural list of various business model process configuration and to group (deductively) these selected configurations in a structured typological categorization list. 2) To facilitate companies in the process of BM innovation......, by developing (inductively) an ontological classification framework, in view of the BM process configurations typology developed. Design/methodology/approach – Given the inconsistencies found in the business model studies (e.g. definitions, configurations, classifications) we adopted the analytical induction...

  9. Thermal performance in circular tube fitted with coiled square wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Promvonge, Pongjet

    2008-01-01

    The effects of wires with square cross section forming a coil used as a turbulator on the heat transfer and turbulent flow friction characteristics in a uniform heat flux, circular tube are experimentally investigated in the present work. The experiments are performed for flows with Reynolds numbers ranging from 5000 to 25,000. Two different spring coiled wire pitches are introduced. The results are also compared with those obtained from using a typical coiled circular wire, apart from the smooth tube. The experimental results reveal that the use of coiled square wire turbulators leads to a considerable increase in heat transfer and friction loss over those of a smooth wall tube. The Nusselt number increases with the rise of Reynolds number and the reduction of pitch for both circular and square wire coils. The coiled square wire provides higher heat transfer than the circular one under the same conditions. Also, performance evaluation criteria to assess the real benefits in using both coil wires of the enhanced tube are determined

  10. Analysis of the Effects of Compositional and Configurational Assumptions on Product Costs for the Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Mixed Alcohols – FY 2007 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine alternative biomass-to-ethanol conversion process assumptions and configuration options to determine their relative effects on overall process economics. A process-flow-sheet computer model was used to determine the heat and material balance for each configuration that was studied. The heat and material balance was then fed to a costing spreadsheet to determine the impact on the ethanol selling price. By examining a number of operational and configuration alternatives and comparing the results to the base flow sheet, alternatives having the greatest impact the performance and cost of the overall system were identified and used to make decisions on research priorities. This report, which was originally published in December 2008, has been revised primarily to correct information presented in Appendix B -- Base Case Flow Sheets and Model Results. The corrections to Appendix B include replacement of several pages in Table B.1 that duplicated previous pages of the table. Other changes were made in Appendix B to correct inconsistencies between stream labels presented in the tables and the stream labels in the figures.

  11. Cryotops versus open-pulled straws (OPS) as carriers for the cryopreservation of bovine oocytes: effects on spindle and chromosome configuration and embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morató, Roser; Izquierdo, Dolors; Paramio, Maria Teresa; Mogas, Teresa

    2008-10-01

    Two experiments were designed to assess the effectiveness of cryopreserving bovine MII oocytes using cryotops as the carrier system for vitrification. In the first experiment, we examined the developmental competence of oocytes after: (i) vitrification in open-pulled straws (OPS method); or (ii) vitrification in plastic handle (Cryotop method). In the second experiment, warmed oocytes that had been vitrified in OPS or cryotops were fixed to analyze spindle and chromosome configuration. In all experiments both cow and calf oocytes were used. Significantly different fertilization rates were observed between the vitrification groups: 31.5% and 20.2% for the cow and calf oocytes vitrified in OPS, respectively, versus 46.1% and 46.4% for the oocytes vitrified using cryotops. After in vitro fertilization, 3.8% of the calf oocytes and 5.3% of the cow oocytes developed to the blastocyst stage. All blastocysts from vitrified oocytes resulted from the Cryotop method. A significantly lower percentage of the OPS-vitrified calf oocytes showed a normal spindle configuration (37.8%) compared to control fresh oocytes (69.9%), while normal spindle and chromosome configurations were observed in a significantly higher proportion of the cryotop-vitrified calf oocytes (60.2%). For the cow oocytes, 60.6% in the OPS group and 60.3% in the Cryotop group exhibited a normal morphology after warming. These findings suggest the cryotop system is a more efficient carrier for vitrification than OPS for the cryopreservation of bovine oocytes.

  12. Analysis of the effect of cone-beam geometry and test object configuration on the measurement accuracy of a computed tomography scanner used for dimensional measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Jagadeesha; Attridge, Alex; Williams, Mark A; Wood, P K C

    2011-01-01

    Industrial x-ray computed tomography (CT) scanners are used for non-contact dimensional measurement of small, fragile components and difficult-to-access internal features of castings and mouldings. However, the accuracy and repeatability of measurements are influenced by factors such as cone-beam system geometry, test object configuration, x-ray power, material and size of test object, detector characteristics and data analysis methods. An attempt is made in this work to understand the measurement errors of a CT scanner over the complete scan volume, taking into account only the errors in system geometry and the object configuration within the scanner. A cone-beam simulation model is developed with the radiographic image projection and reconstruction steps. A known amount of errors in geometrical parameters were introduced in the model to understand the effect of geometry of the cone-beam CT system on measurement accuracy for different positions, orientations and sizes of the test object. Simulation analysis shows that the geometrical parameters have a significant influence on the dimensional measurement at specific configurations of the test object. Finally, the importance of system alignment and estimation of correct parameters for accurate CT measurements is outlined based on the analysis

  13. 49 CFR 393.28 - Wiring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wiring systems. 393.28 Section 393.28... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.28 Wiring systems. Electrical wiring shall be installed and maintained to conform to SAE J1292—Automobile, Truck, Truck-Tractor...

  14. Wire chambers with their magnetostrictive readout

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    This set of wire chamber planes shaped as a cylinder sector was installed inside the magnet of a polarized spin target modified to allow as well momentum analysis of the produced particles. The experiment (S126) was set up by the CERN-Trieste Collaboration in the PS beam m9 to measure spin effects in the associated production of of a positive kaon and a positive Sigma by interaction of a positive pion with polarized protons.

  15. Modeling birds on wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydoğdu, A; Frasca, P; D'Apice, C; Manzo, R; Thornton, J M; Gachomo, B; Wilson, T; Cheung, B; Tariq, U; Saidel, W; Piccoli, B

    2017-02-21

    In this paper we introduce a mathematical model to study the group dynamics of birds resting on wires. The model is agent-based and postulates attraction-repulsion forces between the interacting birds: the interactions are "topological", in the sense that they involve a given number of neighbors irrespective of their distance. The model is first mathematically analyzed and then simulated to study its main properties: we observe that the model predicts birds to be more widely spaced near the borders of each group. We compare the results from the model with experimental data, derived from the analysis of pictures of pigeons and starlings taken in New Jersey: two different image elaboration protocols allow us to establish a good agreement with the model and to quantify its main parameters. We also discuss the potential handedness of the birds, by analyzing the group organization features and the group dynamics at the arrival of new birds. Finally, we propose a more refined mathematical model that describes landing and departing birds by suitable stochastic processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Inductor Design Comparison of Three-wire and Four-wire Three-phase Voltage Source Converters in Power Factor Correction Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouchaki, Alireza; Nymand, Morten

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the inductor design for three-wire and four-wire power factor correction converter (PFC). Designing the efficient inductor for this converter (regardless of connecting the midpoint to the ground) requires a comprehensive knowledge of the inductor current and voltage behavior....... This paper investigates how changing three-wire PFC to four-wire counterpart influences the inductor design in terms of size, losses, and overall efficiency of the converter. Therefore, the inductor current and voltage waveforms are analyzed and generalized in both cases for one switching cycle to build...... a foundation for comparison. Accordingly, the analyses are able to interpret the differences between both configurations and explain the core losses and the copper losses of inductors, especially those caused by the high frequency ac current ripple. Finally, two inductors are designed for a 5 kW PFC...

  17. Assessing the MR compatibility of dental retainer wires at 7 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wezel, Joep; Kooij, Bert Jan; Webb, Andrew G

    2014-10-01

    To determine the MR compatibility of common dental retainer wires at 7 Tesla in terms of potential RF heating and magnetic susceptibility effects. Electromagnetic simulations and experimental results were compared for dental retainer wires placed in tissue-mimicking phantoms. Simulations were then performed for a human model with wire in place. Finally, image quality was assessed for different scanning protocols and wires. Simulations and experimental data in phantoms agreed well, with the length of the wire correlating to maximum heating in phantoms being approximately 47 mm. Even in this case, no substantial heating occurs when scanning within the specific absorption rate (SAR) guidelines for the head. Image distortions from the most ferromagnetic dental wire were not significant for any brain region. Dental retainer wires appear to be MR compatible at 7 Tesla. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Configuration by Modularisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riitahuhta, Asko; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1998-01-01

    Globally operating companies have realized that locally customized products and services are today the prerequisite for the success. The capability or the paradigm to act locally in global markets is called Mass Customization [Victor 1997]. The prerequisite for Mass Customization is Configuration...... Management and i Configuration Management the most important means is Modularisation.The goal of this paper is to show Configuration Management as a contribution to the Mass Customisation and Modularisation as a contribution to the industrialisation of the design area [Andreasen 1997]. A basic model...

  19. Global Value Chain Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Virginia; Pedersen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on global value chain configuration, providing an overview of this topic. Specifically, we review the literature focusing on the concept of the global value chain and its activities, the decisions involved in its configuration, such as location, the governance...... modes chosen and the different ways of coordinating them. We also examine the outcomes of a global value chain configuration in terms of performance and upgrading. Our aim is to review the state of the art of these issues, identify research gaps and suggest new lines for future research that would...

  20. Topology Optimized Photonic Wire Splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Borel, Peter Ingo; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm.......Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm....